WorldWideScience

Sample records for calves

  1. Yak Calving Interval and Calving Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏强

    2005-01-01

    The results of 439 times of calving interval(CI) from 161 yak cows showed that the average CI is 459(se=131)d. The CI with 3 to 6 calving numbers is 25~48 d shorter than that of 1 to 2 and above 7 calving numbers. Although slaughtering a great number of calves during the late September and early October do bring about relatively higher calving rate that is mos yak cowst can give 3,4,5 and 6calves during 4,5,6 and 7 years old respectively. This makes major calving months shift from April or May to June.

  2. Cynoglossum officinale toxicity in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D C; Pfister, J A; Molyneux, R J; Kechele, P

    1991-05-01

    Six calves were given dried, ground Cynoglossum officinale daily in a dose which provided 15 (two calves) or 60 (four calves) mg per kg per day of total pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Those calves given 60 mg per kg of total pyrrolizidine alkaloids per day died following a single dose of plant material. These calves had a marked elevation of serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities and serum bile acid and total bilirubin (TBili) concentrations. These four calves all had massive hepatocellular necrosis and haemorrhage of the liver. Of the two calves that were given 15 mg per kg of total pyrrolizidine alkaloids per day, one died on day 34 and the other survived until day 35 when it was painlessly killed. There were significant elevations in serum AST and GGT activities in these calves. The histological lesions of the calf surviving until 35 days were compatible with pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity, that is megalocytosis, karyomegaly and necrosis of hepatocytes with karyomegaly of biliary epithelium. The pyrrolizidine base present in Cynoglossum officinale (heliotridine) and its esters have a similar type of toxicity to the highly toxic and more familiar macrocyclic diester pyrrolizidine alkaloids of the pyrrolizidine base (retronecine), present in Senecio or Crotolaria species.

  3. Less pressure at Calve (food industry); Calve onder lagere druk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roggen, M. (ed.)

    2002-04-01

    Since 1 January 2002, the Dutch food industry Calve applies a sophisticated compressed air system for the production of peanut butter, mayonnaise and sauces in the Delft factory. Parent company Unilever hopes the new system will reduce energy consumption by nearly 400,000 kWh. In a business where product quality is crucial, and where compressed air is critical for quality, pressure reduction is a daring move. [Dutch] De productie van pindakaas, mayonaise en sauzen van Calve in Delft verloopt sinds 1 januari met een uitgekiendere persluchtregeling. Zo hoopt moederbedrijf Unilever jaarlijks bijna 400.000 kWh op de energienota te besparen. In een bedrijf waar de kwaliteit van het product zeer kritisch is en sterk afhankelijk is van perslucht, is drukverlaging een gedurfde onderneming.

  4. Rumen development in veal (preruminant) calves

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez, B.J.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, veal calves were fed until slaughter weight with only milk replacer and, in absence of solid feed the physiological development of the forestomachs was limited. In 1997, a new EU legislation stipulated that a minimum amount of solid feed (fiber) has to be provided for the welfare of the calves (solid feed supply reduce abnormal oral behaviors in veal calves; Van Putten, 1982; Veissier et al., 1998); however, no specifications were made about the type and source of feed.Rumen dev...

  5. [Protozoan infection causes diarrhea in calves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, T; Claerebout, E; Vercruysse, J

    2005-12-01

    The role of protozoan parasites in the etiology of diarrhea in calves is highlighted with emphasis on correct diagnosis. In neonatal calves, Cryptosporidium parvum is isolated in more than 44% of the faeces of diarrhetic calves. In calves older than one month, both Eimeria bovis and E. zuernii, and Giardia duodenalis are associated with diarrhea and poor growth. Clinical diagnosis has to be confirmed by examination of host faecal material. Both for C. parvum and G. duodenalis immunological assays are available. Control measures must aim to reduce or prevent oocyst or cyst transmission, by combining management measures, desinfection and chemotherapeutic treatment.

  6. Behaviour of calves in the first weeks of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech NEJA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavioural observations were conducted on 20 calves (10 bull calves and 10 heifer calves. The first series of observations was made in the first 4 days of life, and the second after a month (within 30 to 33 days of calving. Time from birth to first unassisted standing (standing on all extended legs ranged from 16 minutes (heifers to 158 minutes (bulls for normal calving. Calves born from normal parturitions stood up after an average of 81 minutes and those born from difficult parturitions after 302 minutes. Calves that required assistance at calving showed shorter standing and longer lying time. In the first 4 days of life and after a month, both male and female calves were more often in left lateral recumbency when resting. Heifer calves more often visited the feeder while bull calves more often consumed concentrates, water and hay.

  7. Energy metabolism of young, unadapted calves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Calves reared for veal or other meat production are usually purchased before 2 weeks of age. The first weeks at the rearing unit represent a critical phase regarding their health. During this period calves are fed at a very low level. In this thesis, the energy metabolism of young, newly purchased c

  8. Beef Heifer Development Within Three Calving Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 3-yr study was conducted to evaluate impacts of calving system, weaning age, and post-weaning management on growth and reproduction in beef heifers. Heifer calves (n=676) born in late winter (LW; avg birth date = Feb 7 ± 9 d) or early spring (ES; avg birth date Apr 3 ± 10 d) were weaned at 190- or...

  9. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie R. Valgaeren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin.

  10. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgaeren, Bonnie R; Pardon, Bart; Goossens, Evy; Verherstraeten, Stefanie; Roelandt, Sophie; Timbermont, Leen; Van Der Vekens, Nicky; Stuyvaert, Sabrina; Gille, Linde; Van Driessche, Laura; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip; Deprez, Piet

    2015-07-01

    Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin. PMID:26184311

  11. Behaviour around the time of calving in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate behavioural changes before and after calving in dairy cows in order to describe behavioural signs of imminent calving and of cows’ recovery after calving. Thirty-two multiparous Danish Holstein Frisian cows with an unassisted calving were studied from 96 h...

  12. Haematological Studies of Gaolao Calves

    OpenAIRE

    P. M. Kapale; D. G. Jagtap; D. M. Badukale and S.K.Sahatpure

    2008-01-01

    The hematological study in fifteen healthy Gaolao calves ranging from birth to 12 months of age indicate the mean ± S.E. value of TEC (11.00± 0.20 million/cu.mm), Hb (14.27±0.43 gm%), PCV (35.00±0.79%), MCV (31.70±0.92 cu.μ), MCH (13.04±0.84 μ. μgm), MCHC (41.16±1.76%), TLC (07.49±0.39 thousand/cu.mm), Lymphocytes (71.87 ±1.45%), Neutrophil (23.27±1.27%), Monocyte (1.3 ...

  13. USING SAFFRON CAKE IN FEEDING CALVES

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaev S. I.; Kucherova I. A.; Chehranova S. V.

    2014-01-01

    The article proves a positive effect of feeding with saffron cake and premix based this substance on growth and development, nutrient utilization ration, morphological and biochemical parameters of blood of calves of black-motley breed

  14. Calving intervals in beef cows at 2, 3, and 4 years of age when breeding is not restricted after calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, L A; Azzam, S M; Kinder, J E

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate calving intervals and repeatability of calving intervals of young beef cows when breeding seasons were initiated immediately after calving. Average calving date at 2, 3, and 4 yr of age was recorded, and duration of calving interval between the first and second and second and third parities was compared in 178 crossbred beef cows calving between 1981 and 1988. Cows were placed in paddocks with intact bulls immediately after calving so they had the opportunity to conceive at the estrus associated with the initial estrous cycles after calving. Average Gregorian date of calving for cows was progressively earlier with older age (March 9, March 5, and February 14 at 2, 3, and 4) yr of age, respectively). Repeatability of calving intervals within individual cows was also evaluated. There was an interaction between year and parity on calving interval between 2 and 3 (P < .001) and 3 and 4 (P < .004) yr of age. Repeatability of calving interval was low and negative during 5 of the 6 yr. In young beef cows, year and parity interact to influence calving interval, and this average interval is less than 365 d when initiation of the breeding season is not restricted after calving. PMID:8707715

  15. Pharmacokinetics of ricobendazole in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formentini, E A; Mestorino, O N; Mariño, E L; Errecalde, J O

    2001-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of ricobendazole (RBZ) and its major metabolite albendazole sulphone (ABZSO2) were studied in six calves, after administration of RBZ (7.5 mg/kg), using a 10% experimental solution by the intravenous (i.v.) route, a 10% commercial solution by the subcutaneous (s.c.) route, and a 10% experimental suspension by the intraruminal (i.r.) route. Blood samples were drawn during a 60-h period. Plasma drug and metabolite concentrations were determined by HPLC. The pharmacokinetic evaluation in each case was prepared by weighted least-squares nonlinear regression analysis. Ricobendazole i.v. data were best fitted by a two-compartment model. The best pharmacokinetic exponents and coefficients were estimated, and the pharmacokinetic variables for RBZ and ABZSO2 were calculated from them. Similar patterns of plasma disposition were found for RBZ after i.r. and s.c. administration, suggesting delayed release from the s.c. site resembling the slow release of the drug from the rumen. PMID:11442798

  16. CALVING ANALYSIS IN COWS OF CHAROLAIS BREED AT SELECTED FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KLÁRA VAVRIŠÍNOVÁ

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available At our work we have analysed the organisation of calving in Charolais breed during the years from 1998 to 2001 at selected farm. Our monitoring of calving during winter season (from January to February shows the percentage of calving was in particular years ranged from 43.2 to 71.1. The most calves were born in February. We found out (total all years diffi cult calving (value 3 in 2 cases in April (1998 and 1999 and 1 case in February (1998 and 1 in March (1999. Calving marked with value 2 (total of all years we found out in January (2 cases, February (3 cases, March (4 cases and from September to December past one case. From 18 cases of diffi cult calving what we found out, 11 calves (61.11 % come from CHV 529 bull. In calves born by normal calving was found out average weight 34.75 kg, in ones born by calving with level 2 of diffi culty 36.36 kg, and in calves born by calving with diffi culty 3 was recorded average weight 41.5 kg. Recorded weight at 210 days of age in mostly cases was similar like in published breed standard.

  17. Short communication: Flooring preferences of dairy cows at calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the flooring preference during the 30 h before parturition in Holstein dairy cows housed individually in a maternity pen. Seventeen multiparous cows were moved, on average, 2 d before expected calving date into an individual maternity pen with 3 different flooring surfaces: 10 cm of sand, pebble-top rubber mats, or concrete flooring, each covered with 15 cm of straw. Calving location, lying time, and total time and number of lying bouts on each of the floor types were recorded during 2 periods: precalving (24 to 29 h before calving) and at calving (0 to 5h before calving). Ten cows calved on sand, 6 on concrete, and 1 on the rubber mat. Lying bouts increased during the hours closest to calving, regardless of flooring. The number of lying bouts did not differ between flooring types precalving but cows had more lying bouts on sand and concrete compared with rubber at calving. Cows spent more time lying down on sand and concrete compared with rubber precalving, but lying times did not differ between treatments at calving. Cows that calved on sand spent more time lying on sand at calving compared with the other 2 flooring types. Cows that calved on concrete did not show a flooring preference at calving. These results indicate that rubber mats are the least preferred by dairy cows in the maternity pens, even when covered with a deep layer of straw.

  18. Crevassing and calving of glacial ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneally, James Patrick

    Calving of ice is a relatively new area of research in the still young field of glaciology. In the short time that calving has been studied, it has been mainly treated as an afterthought, with the predominant mode of thinking being that it will happen so to concern oneself with why is not important. Many studies dealt with observations of calving front positions over time vs. ice velocity in an attempt to quantify the calving rate as the difference between the two, while others have attempted to deduce some empirical relationship between calving rate and variables such as water depth or temperature. This study instead addresses the question of why, where, and when ice will first become crevassed, which is an obviously necessary condition for a later calving event to occur. Previous work examining the causes of calving used ideas put forth from a variety of fields, including civil engineering, materials science, and results from basic physics and mechanics. These theories are re-examined here and presented as part of a larger whole. Important results from the field of fracture mechanics are utilized frequently, and these results can be used as a predictor of ice behavior and intrinsic properties of ice, as well as properties like back stresses induced by local pinning points and resistive shears along glacial ice boundaries. A theory of fracture for a material experiencing creep is also presented with applications to ice shelves and crevasse penetration. Finally, a speculative theory regarding large scale iceberg formation is presented. It is meant mainly as an impetus to further discussion on the topic, with the hope that a model relating crevasse geometries to flow parameters can result in crevasse spacings that could produce the tabular icebergs which are so newsworthy. The primary focus of this thesis is to move away from the "after the fact" studies that are so common in calving research, and instead devote energy to determining what creates the conditions that

  19. Clinical pathology of milking calves digestion disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatur Bogo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The period from calving until normal dry food feeding is very sensitive for preruminat animals. Normal weaning can be successful at 6 to 8 weeks post partum. Young milking calves are very susceptible to bacterial or viral infection if immunity is not reached through colostrum on time. On the other hand indigestions are very frequent and account for one-third of the most frequent disorders in young calves. Parturition losses (dystocia and respiratory diseases are more frequent. The final result of negative environmental and management influences can be the onset of acute or chronic diarrhea associated with long, expensive and often unsuccessful treatment. Acute dehydration and death are not so rare. Etiological reasons are known, it is possible define them: inadequate feeding of pregnant cows and heifers in late stages of pregnancy; hygiene problems and bad management of neonate calves. Contaminated milk, starters and milk substitutes are the main source of scours. These problems are evident on farms where owners or workers do not have the elementary knowledge about physiology, anatomic differences and management principles for preruminant animals. At weaning time calves can develop serious problems when dry feeding does not begin on time. For does that reason normal micro flora and fauna are not able to accept normal function for ruminal digestion.

  20. Does temperament affect learning in calves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Laura E.; van Reenen, Cornelis G.; Jensen, Margit Bak;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how temperament affects learning ability in calves. Nine two-month-old Holstein-Friesian bull calves were subjected to four challenge tests: novel object (NOT), novel environment (NET), social isolation (SIT), and social isolation with a novel environmental...... cue (SI/E). During these tests, hypothesised temperament variables were recorded. Hypothesised learning variables were recorded during training on an operant task. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted on temperament variables and learning variables separately. Principal components (PCs...... variables, and these were proposed to reflect fearfulness, activity, exploration, and attention towards the environment. These hypothesised underlying temperamental traits were consistent with findings of previous studies using larger numbers of calves. Two learning PCs were extracted from the PCA on...

  1. Spring migration, calving and post-calving distribution and initial productivity of the Porcupine Caribou Herd, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The continued collection of information regarding calving and post-calving distribution, and initial productivity of the Porcupine Caribou Herd is important for...

  2. Treatment of hypernatremia in neonatal calves with diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Abutarbush, Sameeh M.; Petrie, Lyall

    2007-01-01

    Five hypernatremic, diarrheic, neonatal calves were treated mainly by the intravenous administration of 5% dextrose alone or with isotonic sodium bicarbonate. All calves recovered without complications. The average reduction rate of serum sodium concentration was about 4 times that recommended and has not been tried successfully before in hypernatremic scouring calves.

  3. Stress, immunity, and the management of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, Lindsey E; Moisá, Sonia J

    2016-04-01

    Despite many advances in management and housing of dairy calves, 1 in 10 US dairy heifers die before weaning. A better understanding of the internal and external stimuli that contribute to the physiological and behavioral responses of calves to stressors is needed to reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality. Feeding calves their first meal is crucial, as successful passive transfer reduces the risk of mortality and morbidity. Sexually dimorphic immune and stress responses appear to be present in young cattle, but more research is needed to determine if this is caused by human bias for female calves. After that first feeding, 1 in 10 heifers and most bull calves in the United States are transported to specialized calf-raising facilities, yet information is lacking on the newborn calf stress response during transit. Whether calves are raised on site or at a calf ranch, individual housing systems are commonly used in the United States to reduce the risk of pathogen exposure and provide individual feeding and healthcare. However, health, growth, and social implications may be present for calves in alternative systems with greater space allowance than conventional systems or group housing. Disbudding and castration are typically performed at an early age for dairy calves during the pre-wean stage. These stressors often take place when the calf has decreased passive transfer of Ig and immunity is developing. Availability of pain mitigation through anesthetics and analgesics is limited, but evidence indicates that analgesics attenuate suppressed leukocyte function during these procedures. Solid-feed intake is a primary measure for determining weaning readiness, but some milk replacer formulas may influence the calf's oral behaviors before weaning; therefore, alternate weaning methods may need to coincide with alternate milk replacer formulas. The calf's behavioral and stress response at weaning may influence its immunity during the transition from individual to group

  4. Eating quality of Holstein bull calves fed only grass or purely herbs matches that of concentrate-fed veal calves

    OpenAIRE

    Therkildsen, M.; Jensen, S. K.; Vestergaard, M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic meat production from Holstein calves born in dairy herds require that the bull calves are raised outdoor at least 6 months a year, and on large quantities of roughage in the diet. This study aimed at elucidating if Holstein bull calves fed either purely grass or purely herbs prior to slaughter would differ in meat quality traits, fatty acid composition and sensory profile and if they differed in quality aspects from concentrate-fed veal calves.

  5. Veal calves produce less antibodies against C. perfringens alpha toxin compared to beef calves

    OpenAIRE

    Valgaeren, Bonnie R.; Bart Pardon; Evy Goossens; Stefanie Verherstraeten; Sophie Roelandt; Leen Timbermont; Nicky Van Der Vekens; Sabrina Stuyvaert; Linde Gille; Laura Van Driessche; Freddy Haesebrouck; Richard Ducatelle; Filip Van Immerseel; Piet Deprez

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, wher...

  6. Rumen development in veal (preruminant) calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suárez, B.J.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, veal calves were fed until slaughter weight with only milk replacer and, in absence of solid feed the physiological development of the forestomachs was limited. In 1997, a new EU legislation stipulated that a minimum amount of solid feed (fiber) has to be provided for the welfare of th

  7. Factors affecting the relationship between calving interval of cows and weaning weights of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doren, P E; Long, C R; Cartwright, T C

    1986-05-01

    Characters related to production and reproduction were observed on 744 straightbred and F2 calves and their dams produced in a five-breed diallel with Angus, Brahman, Hereford, Holstein and Jersey breeds. These data were analyzed to estimate the effects of these characters on the relationship between weaning weight and calving interval. The model used for analysis of postpartum conception and calving interval included breedtype, season of conception, parity and management of the dam as main effects; condition of dam nested within parity; and age, weight and weight change of dam and weaning weight of previous calf as covariates. All effects and covariates were significant sources of variation in conception and calving interval. Brahman cows exhibited the longest conception and calving intervals, whereas Hereford X Jersey F1 cows had the shortest intervals. Heterotic effects for these intervals were low and nonsignificant. Weaning weight of the previous calf was positively correlated with postpartum conception and calving interval, but to determine the magnitude of the relationship the need to adjust for differences in breedtype, condition, parity, early management, age, weight and weight change of the dam was apparent. PMID:3722011

  8. Pre-Calving and Calving Management Practices in Dairy Herds with a History of High or Low Bovine Perinatal Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Doherty

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bovine perinatal mortality is an increasing problem in dairy industries internationally. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with high and low herd-level calf mortality. Thirty herds with a history of either high (case or low (control calf mortality were recruited. A herd-level questionnaire was used to gather information on management practices likely to impact bovine perinatal mortality. The questionnaire was divided into four subsections dealing with pre-calving (breeding, diet and body condition score, endemic infectious diseases and calving factors. Most of the significant differences between case and control herds were found in calving management. For example, in case herds, pregnant cattle were less likely to be moved to the calving unit two or more days and more likely to be moved less than 12 hours pre-calving, they were also less likely to calve in group-calving facilities and their calves were more likely to receive intranasal or hypothermal resuscitation. These management procedures may cause social isolation and periparturient psychogenic uterine atony leading to dystocia, more weak calves requiring resuscitation and high perinatal calf mortality. The key finding is that calving, not pre-calving, management appears to be the most important area of concern in herds with high perinatal mortality.

  9. Milk Yield of Primiparous Beef Cows From Three Calving Systems and Varied Weaning Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a 2-yr study, primiparous beef cows produced in 3 calving systems were used to study milk yield throughout a 190-d lactation (2002, n = 20; 2003, n = 24 per calving system). Calving occurred in late winter (average calving date = February 4 ± 2 d), early spring (average calving date = March 30 ± ...

  10. Effect of calving process on the outcomes of delivery and postpartum health of dairy cows with unassisted and assisted calvings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, L; Kézér, F L; Szenci, O

    2016-09-01

    Welfare aspects of obstetrical assistance were studied in multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (n=176) with (1) unassisted calving in an individual pen (UCIP; n=42), (2) unassisted calving in a group pen (UCG; n=48), (3) assisted calving with appropriately timed obstetrical assistance (ACAP; n=50), and (4) assisted calving with inappropriately timed (premature) obstetrical assistance (ACIN; n=36). Duration of the stages of calving, the prevalence and the degree of dystocia, stillbirth ratio, newborn calf vitality, and the occurrence of postpartum health problems (i.e., retained placenta and vulvovaginal laceration) were recorded. The time from amniotic sac and hooves appearance to birth and the total duration of calving (from the onset of calving restlessness to delivery) were shorter for UCG cows than for any other groups. The overall incidence of dystocia was 31.3% in the calvings studied. The prevalence of dystocia was below 10% in cases of unassisted calvings. The proportion of severe dystocia was higher in ACIN cows than in ACAP cows (47.2 vs. 12.0%, respectively). The prevalence of stillbirths was the highest in ACIN calvings (22.2%), followed by ACAP, UCI, and UCG cows (8.0, 4.8, and 0.0%, respectively). The ACIN calves had lower vitality scores than calves born from ACAP, UCG, and UCIP dams immediately after delivery and 24h after birth. Although ACAP calves had lower vitality scores than UCG and UCIP calves at birth, a delayed recovery of vitality was mirrored by satisfactory vitality scores 24h after birth. Retained placenta and vulvovaginal laceration occurred more often with assisted dams (i.e., ACAP and ACIN animals) compared with UCIP cows with the highest prevalence in ACIN cows. In UCG cows, no injuries occurred in the vulva or vagina, and we noted only 4 cases of retained placenta (8.3%), proportions lower than in cows with unassisted calving in the maternity pen. Our results suggest that calving in a group might have benefits over calving in an

  11. Effect of calving process on the outcomes of delivery and postpartum health of dairy cows with unassisted and assisted calvings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, L; Kézér, F L; Szenci, O

    2016-09-01

    Welfare aspects of obstetrical assistance were studied in multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (n=176) with (1) unassisted calving in an individual pen (UCIP; n=42), (2) unassisted calving in a group pen (UCG; n=48), (3) assisted calving with appropriately timed obstetrical assistance (ACAP; n=50), and (4) assisted calving with inappropriately timed (premature) obstetrical assistance (ACIN; n=36). Duration of the stages of calving, the prevalence and the degree of dystocia, stillbirth ratio, newborn calf vitality, and the occurrence of postpartum health problems (i.e., retained placenta and vulvovaginal laceration) were recorded. The time from amniotic sac and hooves appearance to birth and the total duration of calving (from the onset of calving restlessness to delivery) were shorter for UCG cows than for any other groups. The overall incidence of dystocia was 31.3% in the calvings studied. The prevalence of dystocia was below 10% in cases of unassisted calvings. The proportion of severe dystocia was higher in ACIN cows than in ACAP cows (47.2 vs. 12.0%, respectively). The prevalence of stillbirths was the highest in ACIN calvings (22.2%), followed by ACAP, UCI, and UCG cows (8.0, 4.8, and 0.0%, respectively). The ACIN calves had lower vitality scores than calves born from ACAP, UCG, and UCIP dams immediately after delivery and 24h after birth. Although ACAP calves had lower vitality scores than UCG and UCIP calves at birth, a delayed recovery of vitality was mirrored by satisfactory vitality scores 24h after birth. Retained placenta and vulvovaginal laceration occurred more often with assisted dams (i.e., ACAP and ACIN animals) compared with UCIP cows with the highest prevalence in ACIN cows. In UCG cows, no injuries occurred in the vulva or vagina, and we noted only 4 cases of retained placenta (8.3%), proportions lower than in cows with unassisted calving in the maternity pen. Our results suggest that calving in a group might have benefits over calving in an

  12. POPONA FOR COMFORT AND HEALTH OF CALVES

    OpenAIRE

    Eremenko O. N.; Kulikova N. I.

    2015-01-01

    Milk productivity of cows is largely dependent on the efficiency of their own genetic potential. For the successful solution of this question it this essential the creation of proper technological conditions for high live stock process of ontogeny beginning from the neonatal period. One of the significant factors that influence the growth, development and safety of young grows in early of young grows in early postembryonic period are zoo-hygienic conditions of calves. Currently the "cold" met...

  13. POPONA FOR COMFORT AND HEALTH OF CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremenko O. N.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Milk productivity of cows is largely dependent on the efficiency of their own genetic potential. For the successful solution of this question it this essential the creation of proper technological conditions for high live stock process of ontogeny beginning from the neonatal period. One of the significant factors that influence the growth, development and safety of young grows in early of young grows in early postembryonic period are zoo-hygienic conditions of calves. Currently the "cold" method of keeping calves in individual houses is developed and widely used. It promotes the increase in the intensity of growth by 8,1%, prevention of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract improving hygienic conditions and rising of profitability of their growing by 4,2%. It is now that calves kept individual houses in the face of increasing wind and decreasing temperatures as well as high humidity of air environment in winter, feel discomfort, move less, stay lying on the litter in the house. For the purpose of warming the animals in cold frosty days keeping outside in the houses, increasing their viability, growth intensity and the guarantee of prevention gastrointestinal tract and pulmonary system diseases development the staff of the Department of private zoo techniques (animal genetics and pig-keeping from Kuban State Agrarian University have developed Popona - blanket-clothes for calves, which will allow to redirect received from feed energy to a calf growth. It will happen by reducing energy consumption for heating the body and prevent the development of colds due to the formation and preservation of the heat in the body in the absence of wet wool on with the external precipitation

  14. Halley Research Station, Antarctica: calving risks and monitoring strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Anderson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The British Antarctic Survey's Halley Research Station is located on the Brunt Ice Shelf, Antarctica, where it is potentially vulnerable to calving events. Existing historical records show that the Brunt Ice Shelf is currently extended further into the Weddell Sea than it was before its last large calving event, so a new calving event may be overdue. We describe three different possible future scenarios for a large-scale calving event on Brunt Ice Shelf, and conclude that the currently most threatening scenario for the Halley Research Station is a calving event on the neighbouring Stancomb–Wills Glacier Tongue, with subsequent detrimental consequences for the stability of the Brunt Ice Shelf. Based on available data, we suggest an increasing likelihood of this scenario occurring after 2020. We furthermore describe ongoing monitoring efforts aimed at giving advanced warning of an imminent calving event.

  15. Descriptive study of 32 cases of doxycycline-overdosed calves.

    OpenAIRE

    Brihoum, Mounir; Amory, Hélène; Desmecht, Daniel; Cassart, Dominique; Deleuze, Stefan; Rollin, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reports of doxycycline-induced toxicity are limited despite common use of this antibiotic to treat infectious respiratory disorders in calves. OBJECTIVE: To describe previously unreported kidney lesions and diagnostic test results in doxycycline-overdosed calves and to compare these results with other findings reported previously. ANIMALS: Thirty-two calves that presented with adverse effects after receiving high doses of doxycycline as a treatment for mild respiratory disor...

  16. Characterization of transfer of passive immunity in dairy heifer calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Elizondo-Salazar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the transfer of passive immunity in dairy heifer calves in Costa Rica. The data presented correspond to total serum protein (TSP measurements obtained in the period between 2010 and 2013, between August and November in 50 dairy farms. A total of 2500 heifer calves were sampled. Dams breed were classified into Holstein, Jersey, Holstein.Jersey crosses and others. For the purpose of this study, failure of passive immunity was considered when TSP concentration was less than 5.5 g/dl. TSP concentration ranged from 2.0 to 10.0, with an overall mean of 5.9 g/dl. Of all the calves evaluated, 38.8% presented failure of passive transfer of immunity. Calves born to Jersey and Holstein×Jersey crosses had significantly higher TSP concentrations than calves born to Holstein and other breeds. When considering calving of the dam, there were no significant differences on TSP concentration; however, offsprings born to first lactation heifers showed the lowest percentage of animals with failure of passive transfer of immunity. There were significant differences on TSP concentrations (P<0,05 between calves that were allowed to suckle their dams and calves that were given colostrum by bottle. Failure of passive transfer of immunity was higher when calves stayed with their dams (44% vs. 33%.

  17. Sugar Supplementation Stimulates Growth Performance in Calves with Growth Retardation

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Tomohiro; HIDAKA, Yuichi; KAMIMURA, Shunichi

    2010-01-01

    The growth effect of sugar supplementation was determined in 49 retarded growth calves. Calves were supplemented with sugar at 1 g/kg BW 2 times weekly for 8 weeks. Glucose tolerance tests prior to the experiment showed no difference between the retarded growth calves and normal growth controls. After sugar supplementation, the calves were classified into 4 groups characterized by high (H) or low (L) periodic changes in daily weight gain (DG) with a breakpoint of 0.8 kg/d in three periods, bi...

  18. Effect of ferrous sulphate on haematological, biochemical and immunological parameters in neonatal calves

    OpenAIRE

    Lobna S. Elgebaly; Adel M.A. Eisa

    2010-01-01

    The effect of oral administration of iron on haematological, biochemical and immunological parameters in neonatal calves was studied. Ten calves from a private farm in Gharbia Governorate were used. Calves were separated from their dams immediately after birth and received colostrum during the first hours after calving and twice daily for 48 h. Thereafter, they received whole milk. Calves were divided into two equal groups. The first group was kept as controls. Calves of the second group were...

  19. Feeding & Management of Dairy Calves & Heifers. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjoraker, Walt

    This guide is designed to assist postsecondary and secondary teachers of agriculture in their use of the University of Wisconsin bulletin "Raising Dairy Replacements" in their dairy science instructional program. Eight lessons are provided in this unit: breeding decisions, management of cows from breeding to calving, care at calving time, the…

  20. Plane of nutrition affects plasma ghrelin concentrations in neonatal calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigating different planes of nutrition on appetite-related hormones could provide knowledge into the role of these hormones on growth performance in neonatal calves. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of feeding rates on ghrelin in plasma from preruminant calves....

  1. Technical note: Ruminal cannulation technique in young Holstein calves:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Engbæk, Marie; Vestergaard, Mogens;

    2010-01-01

    grass silage and sodium hydroxide-treated wheat. Ruminal fluid was collected from cannulated calves once weekly for 3 consecutive weeks. All calves were euthanized at 43 ± 3 d of age. No apparent adverse effects of cannulation were observed. Feed intake, BW gain, and gross anatomy...

  2. Selection for beef traits and calving performance in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.

    2006-01-01

    Beef cattle selection programmes are usually focused on the improvement of production traits. However, also functional traits play an important role for the efficiency of animal production. Among these traits calving performance, affecting stillbirth of calves, fertility of cows, animal welfare and

  3. Phosphorus requirement of finishing feedlot calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Milton, C T; Brink, D; Orth, M W; Whittet, K M

    2002-06-01

    Dietary P supplied to feedlot cattle is important because an inadequate supply will compromise performance, whereas excess P may harm the environment. However, P requirements of feedlot cattle are not well documented. Therefore, 45 steer calves (265.2+/-16.6 kg) were individually fed to determine the P required for gain and bone integrity over a 204-d finishing period. The basal diet consisted of 33.5% high-moisture corn, 30% brewers grits, 20% corn bran, 7.5% cottonseed hulls, 3% tallow, and 6% supplement. Treatments consisted of 0.16 (no supplemental inorganic P), 0.22, 0.28, 0.34, and 0.40% P (DM basis). Supplemental P was provided by monosodium phosphate top-dressed to the daily feed allotment. Blood was sampled every 56 d to assess P status. At slaughter, phalanx and metacarpal bones were collected from the front leg to determine bone ash and assess P resorption from bone. Dry matter intake and ADG did not change linearly (P > 0.86) or quadratically (P > 0.28) due to P treatment. Feed efficiency was not influenced (P > 0.30) by P treatment and averaged 0.169. Plasma inorganic P averaged across d 56 to 204 responded quadratically, with calves fed 0.16% P having the lowest concentration of plasma inorganic P. However, plasma inorganic P concentration (5.7 mg/dL) for steers fed 0.16% P is generally considered adequate. Total bone ash weight was not influenced by dietary P for phalanx (P = 0.19) or metacarpal bones (P = 0.37). Total P intake ranged from 14.2 to 35.5 g/d. The NRC (1996) recommendation for these calves was 18.7 g/d, assuming 68% absorption. Based on performance results, P requirements for finishing calves is < 0.16% of diet DM or 14.2 g/d. Based on these observations, we suggest that typical grain-based feedlot cattle diets do not require supplementation of inorganic mineral P to meet P requirements.

  4. Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Calving Traits in Danish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, J R; Guldbrandtsen, B; Sørensen, P;

    2008-01-01

    QTL affecting stillbirth and calving difficulties but not calf size that could be used in selection to improve calving performance. Progeny-tested sons (2,297) were genotyped for 356 microsatellites in 34 grandsire families on all 29 autosomes. A total of 27 significant QTL on 17 chromosomes were...... detected using a between-families linear regression model. For the direct calving traits, 4 QTL significantly affected calving difficulty, 5 QTL affected stillbirth, and 7 QTL affected calf size subjectively assessed by the farmer as a categorical trait. When the maternal components of the same traits were...... tested, there were significant effects of 3 QTL on calving difficulty, 6 QTL on stillbirth, and 2 QTL on calf size. The variance component mapping approach was used to estimate the relative posterior probability of linkage and pleiotropic models. The most probable model indicated a pleiotropic QTL...

  5. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil; Munksgaard, Lene; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2015-01-01

    or into freestall housing 4 wk before the expected calving date. Individual straw-bedded maternity pens were placed adjacent to the straw-bedded group pens, and cows were moved to the maternity pens before calving. Cows that spent more than 12 h in the maternity pen before calving and calved unassisted were...

  6. Estimation of Risk Factors - Useful Tools in Assessing Calves Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Andronie

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The study has been aimed at identify risk factors that may be used in welfare assessment of calves reared in intensive farming systems. These factors may be useful to the farmers in planning breeder measures in order to increase the animal welfare levels in relation to the legislative requirements. The estimation considered the housing conditions of calves aged 0-6 months grouped in two lots A (n: 50 and B (n: 60, depending on their accommodation system. We have monitored the calves decubitus on the housing surface, body hygiene as well as that of the resting area and the thermal comfort. The assessment was made by direct observation and numerical estimation, based on the Welfare Quality ® 2009 protocol (Assessment protocol for cattle as well as by means of a calves safety and welfare evaluation chart according to the European and national legislation on minimum calves safety and protection standards. Data collected and processed have shown the fact that not all housing conditions completely answer calves physiological requirements. Thus the appropriate housing criterion in the present study was met at B lot of 85 % and to a much smaller degree by the A lot (76 %. The assessment carried out by means of the safety chart have indicated that only the minimum criteria for calves rearing were met, which does not translate into a high level of their welfare.

  7. Productive effects of whole milk and milk replacement formula in calves feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Klarić; Drago Bagarić; Zvonko Antunović; Marcela Šperanda; Pero Mijić; Matija Domaćinović

    2009-01-01

    Determination of correct feeding regimes for calves is very important as it directly influences calves’ productive and reproductive traits, as well as duration of adult animal exploitation period. As the liquid feed is the most expensive component, its importance also has an economic aspect in calves rearing. The experiment was carried out on 30 Holstein calves with the aim to determine productive, economic and health effects of feeding calves with whole milk in different periods. Calves were...

  8. [Spinal muscular atrophy in Braunvieh calves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, H; Ossent, P; Heckmann, R; Oertle, C

    1992-01-01

    Clinical, neurophysiological and histopathological findings of sixteen cases of spinal muscular atrophy in calves are described. The first clinical signs usually were noticed at 2-6 weeks of age. The animals showed weakness in the hindquarters, trembling and ultimate recumbency. There was a marked muscular atrophy in all four extremities. In addition, secondary bronchopneumonia was evident in 11 cases. Histopathological lesions consisted of degenerative changes in the neurons of the ventral horns and the axons of the spinal cord as well as degeneration of nerve axons in the extremities. Neurophysiological measurements revealed spontaneous activity in the muscles of the limbs. The conditions is autosomal recessive. So far 11 bulls have been identified and excluded from breeding.

  9. Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divi, Srikanth N; Bielski, Robert J

    2016-04-01

    Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD) is the insidious onset of idiopathic avascular necrosis of the hip in the pediatric population. The disease encompasses a wide spectrum of pathology, from mild with no long-term sequelae to severe with permanent degenerative change of the hip joint. A pediatric patient with hip pathology may initially only present with knee or thigh pain, thus obligating the clinician to maintain awareness about the hip during examination. Common physical examination findings include deficits in hip abduction and internal rotation, along with Trendelenburg gait in late stages. Plain radiographs demonstrate changes in the anterolateral aspect of the femoral head, sometimes only seen on the frog lateral X-ray in early stages. Treatment options aim to restore range of motion and maintain adequate coverage of the femoral head. When appropriate, surgery is used to reorient the femoral head or pelvis to maintain coverage. PMID:27064472

  10. Involuntary reduction in vigour of calves born from sexed semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djedović, Radica; Bogdanović, Vladan; Stanojević, Dragan; Nemes, Zsolt; Gáspárdy, András; Cseh, Sándor

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the reproductive traits of heifers and the development characteristics of their calves following artificial insemination (AI) with sexed and non-sexed semen. The analysed characteristics included conception rate, gestation length, calf birth weight, calf vigour, stillbirth rate, and twinning rate. Data of 530 calves produced with sexed and 1,163 calves produced with non-sexed semen were analysed. The General Linear Model (GLM) was applied to assess the influence of semen type, farm, season of insemination, the calf's sex and the inseminating sire on gestation length and calf birth weight. With the exception of gestation length (P > 0.05), all other traits studied were significantly (P 0.05); however, artificial insemination with X-sorted sexed semen significantly altered the sex ratio of calves (85.1:14.9%, P artificial insemination with sexed or conventional semen. PMID:27342094

  11. A Two-Station Seismic Method to Localize Glacier Calving

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, M. Jeffrey; Holland, David M.; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar; Zheng, Tiantian

    2016-01-01

    A method of determining glacier calving location using seismic wave arrival times from paired local seismic stations is presented. The difference in surface wave arrival times for each pair is used to define a locus (hyperbola) of possible origin. With multiple pairs, this can be used to triangulate for the origin of the seismic wave, which is interpreted as the calving location. This method is motivated by difficulties with traditional seismic location methods that fail due to the emergent n...

  12. Serum protein concentrations in calves with experimentally induced pneumonic pasteurellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagliari J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten healthy 2 to 4-week-old Holstein calves were randomly allotted into control and infected groups. Control calves (n=5 were inoculated intrabronchially with 5ml of Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline solution (DPBSS. Infected calves (n=5 were inoculated intrabronchially with 5x10(9 log-phase Mannheimia haemolytica organisms suspended in 5ml of DPBSS. Blood samples were obtained 15 minutes before and one, two, four and six hours after inoculation. Serum protein concentrations were determined by means of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Serum concentrations of proteins with molecular weights of 125,000 D (ceruloplasmin, 60,000 D (a 1-antitrypsin, 45,000 D (haptoglobin, and 40,000 D (acid glycoprotein were significantly increased in calves with pneumonic pasteurellosis, compared with concentrations in control calves. Results indicate that acute phase proteins increase more rapidly after the onset of inflammation than previously thought. Measurement of serum protein concentrations may be useful in monitoring the progression of the induced pneumonic pasteurellosis in calves.

  13. Anthelmintic activity of albendazole against gastrointestinal nematodes in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, G W; Ernst, J V

    1977-09-01

    Anthelmintic activities of albendazole were evaluated in a controlled experiment. Forty calves experimentally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were allotted to 4 groups. Calves in group 1 were used as nonmedicated controls; calves in groups 2, 3, and 4 were given (by oral route) a suspension containing albendazole at dose concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mg/kg of body weight on the 35th day after administration of infective nematode larvae. In groups 2, 3, and 4 calves, average overall reductions (based on geometric means) were 77.1, 93.6, and 98.1%, respectively. These reductions were highly significant (P less than 0.01) in calves given doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg, and were significant (P less than 0.05) in calves given the 2.5-mg/kg dose. Ostertagia ostertagi, Trichostrongylus axei, Cooperia onchophora, Cooperia punctata, and Oesophagostomum radiatum removals at the 5.0- and 7.5-mg/kg dose levels were all highly significant (P less than 0.01); whereas, removals of Haemonchus contortus were not significant, even at the 7.5-mg/kg dose level. PMID:921039

  14. Calving seismicity from iceberg-sea surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaus, T.C.; Larsen, C.F.; O'Neel, S.; West, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Iceberg calving is known to release substantial seismic energy, but little is known about the specific mechanisms that produce calving icequakes. At Yahtse Glacier, a tidewater glacier on the Gulf of Alaska, we draw upon a local network of seismometers and focus on 80 hours of concurrent, direct observation of the terminus to show that calving is the dominant source of seismicity. To elucidate seismogenic mechanisms, we synchronized video and seismograms to reveal that the majority of seismic energy is produced during iceberg interactions with the sea surface. Icequake peak amplitudes coincide with the emergence of high velocity jets of water and ice from the fjord after the complete submergence of falling icebergs below sea level. These icequakes have dominant frequencies between 1 and 3 Hz. Detachment of an iceberg from the terminus produces comparatively weak seismic waves at frequencies between 5 and 20 Hz. Our observations allow us to suggest that the most powerful sources of calving icequakes at Yahtse Glacier include iceberg-sea surface impact, deceleration under the influence of drag and buoyancy, and cavitation. Numerical simulations of seismogenesis during iceberg-sea surface interactions support our observational evidence. Our new understanding of iceberg-sea surface interactions allows us to reattribute the sources of calving seismicity identified in earlier studies and offer guidance for the future use of seismology in monitoring iceberg calving.

  15. Some Environmental Factors Affecting Birth Weight, Weaning Weight and Daily Live Weight Gain of Holstein Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Yaylak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine some environmental factors affecting birth weight, weaning weight and daily live weight gain of Holstein calves of a livestock facility in Izmir, Turkey. The data on 2091 calves born between the years 2005-2010 were used to assess the relevant parameters. Effects of calving year, calving month, calf gender and the interaction between calving year and calving month on calves’ birth weights were highly significant. The overall mean of birth weights was 39.6±0.15 kg. In addition, effects of calving year, calving month, gender, birth weight, weaning age, calving year x calving month, calving year x gender and calving year x calving month x gender interactions on weaning weight (WW and daily live weight gain (DLWG were highly significant. The overall means of WW and DLWG were respectively found to be 79.7±0.20 kg and 525±2.5 g. A one kilogram increase in birth weight resulted in an increase of 0.89 kg in weaning weight and a decrease of 1.26 g in daily live weight gain. Prenatal temperature-humidity index (THI affected birth weight of calves (R2=0.67. Increasing THI from 50 to 80 resulted in 3.8 kg decrease in birth weight.

  16. MEAT PRODUCTIVITY OF CROSSBRED SHEEP CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degtyar A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the control slaughter of purebred and crossbred lambs. It was found that the index of compactness and the main killer performance superiority had two or three breed lambs obtained from crosses involving sheep southern meat breed. The experimental animals were taken measurements of carcasses, which give a fairly complete and objective view of the differences in the length of the torso, hips, mascara and hip girth. There are specific differences in the yield of the most valuable cuts of the first grade the rams depending on the origin. The superiority of crossbred calves over the control for this indicator amounted to 16.4 and 33.4%. The chemical composition of the meat fine-wool lambs contained more moisture and less fat and less calories than meat crossbred animals. Increasing the hybrids values of the protein quality index indicates an increase in meat share of muscle proteins and the reduction of connective tissue, and consequently, improving the quality of the raw meat. Animals obtained by crossing, have wide and deep body, well-developed muscles of the thighs, the best quality characteristics of meat productivity

  17. Strategic control of acute diarrhea of newborn calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Chotiah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic performance of beef cattle operations can be severely hampered by acute calfhood diarrhea. Accordingly, a study was conducted at Bbalitvet to identify the causal agents, reduce clinical incidence, and increase body weight gain of newborn calves. One potential control is application of suitable vaccines to pregnant cows. The study was begun by identifying cases of diarrhea followed by isolation and identification of the causal agents in 12 beef cattle farms in West Java. A field trial was then designed for controlling calf diarrhea in such farms. Inactive vaccines Ecoli-Closvak polivalen were administered to pregnant cows to increase specific resistance of the newborn calves. At 2 months prepartum, 12 pregnant cows were assigned either to a vaccination or a placebo group, with a booster vaccination 3 weeks prior to parturition. Strict hygenic management was provided to both groups, and all calves were provided adequately with colostrum. Subjects were observed for 5 months, starting from the time of initial vaccination until the calves were 3 months of age. In the initial farm surveys, entero-pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli serotype K99 and Clostridium perfringens type A and C were isolated and identified in fecal samples from 4 beef cattle farms in 3 districts (Garut, Tasikmalaya, Ciamis and 2 beef cattle farms in 2 districts (Tasikmalaya and Ciamis of West Java. In the vaccination trial, good immune responses to E. coli and C. perfringens alpha toxin measured by ELISA were observed. Application of effective control of calf diarrhea including vaccination and good livestock management showed good results. No death or signs of diarrhea were found in the new born calves up to 3 months of age. The rate of body weight gain was significantly higher in calves of vaccinated dams than in calves of non-vaccinated dams.

  18. RESEARCH ON THE INFLLUENCE OF THE CALVING INTERVAL ON MILK YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper goal was to study the influence of the calving interval on milk yield for the Romanian Brown breed, using 950 lactations, of which: 573 lactations (60.31 % belonged to the over 400 days calving interval and 377 lactations (39.69% belonged to the 351-400 days calving interval. The calving interval varied between 446.41±18.94 days, the highest length for the 51 dairy cows which had parturition in September and 373.49 ±14.28 days, the shortest length for 53 cows which calved in October. The average calving interval for the cows with a calving interval longer than 400 days accounted for 425.58±14.10 days, while the average calving interval for the cows with this reproductionindicator between 351 and 400 days was 358.65±10.07 days. For the cows whose calving interval was longer than 400 days, milk yield accounted for 4,682.5±124.92 while for the cows whose calving interval varied between 351 and 400 days registered 4,240.0±215.10 kg. The calculations revealed a gross product of Lei 6,087 per lactation in case of cows whose calving interval was longer than 400 days and Lei 5,512 in case of the cows whose calving interval varied between 351-400 days. For an average difference of 66.93 days calving interval between the two calving interval size groups taken into consideration, the milk yield difference accounted for 442.50 kg in the benefit of the cows with the calving interval longer than 400 days. Also, a difference of Lei 575 was recorded in the favor of the cows with calving intervals longer than 400 days because they registered higher a milk yield. This means Lei 8.59 additional income per cow and calving interval day longer than 400 days.

  19. Production of transgenic calves by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Guochun; WAN Rong; HUANG Yinghua; LI Ning; DAI Yunping; FAN Baoliang; ZHU Huabing; WANG Lili; WANG Haiping; TANG Bo; LIU Ying; LI Rong

    2004-01-01

    Bovine fetal oviduct epithelial cells were transfected with constructed double marker selective vector (pCE-EGFP-IRES-Neo-dNdB) containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and neomycin-resistant (Neor) genes by electroporation, and a transgenic cell line was obtained. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) was carried out using the transgenic cells as nuclei donor. A total of 424 SCNT embryos were reconstructed and 208 (49.1%) of them developed to blastocyst stage. 17 blastocysts on D 7 after reconstruction were transferred to 17 surrogate calves, and 5 (29.4%) recipients were found to be pregnant. Three of them maintained to term and delivered three cloned calves. PCR and Southern blot analysis confirmed the integration of transgene in all of the three cloned calves. In addition, expression of EGFP was detected in biopsy isolated from the transgenic cloned calves and fibroblasts derived from the biopsy. Our results suggest that transgenic calves could be efficiently produced by SCNT using transgenic cells as nuclei donor. Furthermore, all cloned animals could be ensured to be transgenic by efficiently pre-screening transgenic cells and SCNT embryos using the constructed double marker selective vector.

  20. Calving on tidewater glaciers amplified by submarine frontal melting

    CERN Document Server

    O'Leary, Martin

    2012-01-01

    While it has been shown repeatedly that ocean conditions exhibit an important control on the behaviour of grounded tidewater glaciers, modelling studies have focused largely on the effects of basal and surface melting. Here, a finite-element model of stresses near the front of a tidewater glacier is used to investigate the effects of frontal melting on calving, independently of the calving criterion used. Applications of the stress model to idealized scenarios reveal that undercutting of the ice front due to frontal melting can drive calving at up to ten times the mean melt rate. Factors which cause increased frontal melt-driven calving include a strong thermal gradient in the ice, and a concentration of frontal melt at the base of the glacier. These properties are typical of both Arctic and Antarctic tidewater glaciers. The finding that frontal melt near the base is a strong driver of calving leads to the conclusion that water temperatures near the bed of the glacier are critically important to the glacier f...

  1. Passive immunity transfer and serum constituents of crossbred calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís G. Rocha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Passive immunity transfer (PIT evaluation is an essential tool for the maintenance of healthy calves during the first months of life. Since lactation number and breed have been proven to influence immunoglobulin levels in colostrum, the aim of this study was to evaluate PIT from primiparous and multiparous Canchim cows to their calves. Blood samples were collected from the calves before colostrum intake and 1, 2, 7, 15 and 30 days thereafter, while colostrum samples from the cows were taken immediately after parturition. Activities of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and concentrations of total protein, albumin, globulins, immunoglobulin A (IgA, immunoglobulin G (IgG, total and ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and potassium were evaluated in calves' serum and activities of GGT and ALP and concentrations of total protein, IgA and IgG were assessed in cow's colostrum whey. Immunoglobulins concentrations were evaluated by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels. Serum biochemistry evaluations revealed an increase in gamma-glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase activities and in total protein, globulins, immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G levels in calves' serum after colostrum intake. Only total protein and light chain immunoglobulin G levels in colostrum whey were affected by the cows' lactation number. Phosphorus and magnesium levels in blood serum increased after colostrum intake, while sodium and potassium levels oscillated in the experimental period. PIT was influenced by the cows' lactation number but was efficient in both groups.

  2. The level of social contact affects social behaviour in pre-weaned dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duve, Linda Rosager; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2011-01-01

    between bars; L-calves), in pairs (with full social contact; F-calves), or individually for 3 weeks and in pairs for the next 3 weeks (LF-calves). At 5 weeks of age the bonding between calves in a pair was evaluated by measuring their response to separation and the subsequent reunion in the home...... environment. The following day the social preference was evaluated in a triangular test arena where the calves could choose between the companion and an unfamiliar calf. Finally, at 6 weeks of age the response of the calves to a novel arena, alone and with the companion, was measured. During separation in the......The present study investigated the effects of the level of social contact in the home environment on the social preference, bonding and social behaviour of pre-weaned dairy calves. Twenty-seven pairs of calves were reared from birth until 6 weeks either individually (with limited social contact...

  3. The utility of ketoprofen for alleviating pain following dehorning in young dairy calves

    OpenAIRE

    Milligan, Barry N.; Duffield, Todd; Lissemore, Kerry

    2004-01-01

    To determine if ketoprofen, in addition to local anaesthesia, reduces pain following dehorning, we experimentally dehorned dairy calves, less than 2 weeks of age, with (20 calves) or without (20 calves) intramuscular injections of ketoprofen. All calves received a local anesthetic (lidocaine) prior to dehorning and were dehorned with heat cauterization. Cortisol concentration was measured via jugular blood samples taken immediately before dehorning and at 3 and 6 hours following dehorning. Ca...

  4. ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS, LIPID PROFILE AND PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES IN HEALTHY AND BRONCHOPNEUMONIC WATER BUFFALO CALVES

    OpenAIRE

    El-Bahr, Sabry M.; Wael M. EL-Deeb

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Acute Phase Proteins (APP), lipid profiles and proinflammatory cytokines in healthy and bronchopneumonic water buffalo calves. Therefore, sixty water buffalo calves (9±1 month old, 175±15 kg) were divided into two equal groups, the first group represented healthy, control, calves whereas calves of the second group were affected with bronchopneumonia. Total leukocytic and differential counts were determined. Serum total pr...

  5. Investigating the use of behavioural, accelerometer and heart rate measurements to predict calving in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Miedema, Johanna Mary

    2010-01-01

    Calving is an essential event in dairy production, as lactation only begins after calving and cows must give birth at regular intervals in order to maintain milk production. Careful management is important during the weeks around calving as this is when dairy cows most frequently experience health problems. Experienced stockmen use judgements based on physical and behavioural changes in order to recognise when cows may be about to calve, and subsequently be available to offer ...

  6. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in a dairy herd with high prevalence of persistently infected calves

    OpenAIRE

    Helal, Mahmoud Atef Youssef; Okamatsu, Hiroyuki; Tajima, Motoshi

    2012-01-01

    A dairy herd including approximately 50 milking cows and 40 heifers and calves was investigated. This herd was detected with high prevalence of calves persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Nine PI animals including a milking cow and 8 newborn calves were detected in the herd within 4 months. Prevalence of PI animals in this herd was estimated 7.0% which was very high compared to that estimated in previous reports. All newborn PI calves were strongly suspected to ...

  7. Effect of feeding system on performance and carcass characteristics of yearling steers, steer calves and heifer calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, M L; Fox, D G; Black, J R

    1980-03-01

    Three types of cattle (Angus x Hereford yearling steers, Charolais x British breed steer calves and Hereford heifer calves) were evaluated for their response to different feeding systems utilizing high moisture corn, corn silage and soybean meal as major feed ingredients. Feeding ing systems for steers included: A = 85% concentrate; B = 40% concentrate; C = two phase, with switch from all corn silage to 85% concentrate in the middle of the feeding period; D = same as C except switch occurred late in the feeding period; E = all corn silage continuously. Heifer diets consisted of the following ratios of corn silage to concentrate: low energy = 89:11; medium energy = 67:33; and high energy = 100 fed at a moderate (10.9% for low energy and medium energy, and 11.7% for high energy) and high (13.8%) crude protein level. Treatments within each experiment were terminated at approximately the same final weight. Increasing percentage corn added to the total diet increased ADG in most comparisons. Adjusted to a constant carcass weight, increasing dietary energy increased fat thickness and reduced percentage retail product with no effect on quality grade in yearling steers and heifer calves. In Charolais cross-steer calves, increasing energy level increased quality grade with no effect on yield grade or percentage retail product. Energetic efficiency slightly favored system C in yearling steers while steer calves maximized efficiency on A. Hereford heifers were the most energetically efficient on medium energy diets. PMID:7364676

  8. Gastrointestinal development of dairy calves fed low- or high-starch concentrate at two milk allowances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiorowska, Anna Katarzyna; Puggaard, Liselotte; Hedemann, Mette Skou;

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to study the effect of type of concentrate with varying starch and fibre content on growth and gastrointestinal development in preweaned dairy calves. Thirty-two newborn Danish Holstein male calves were allocated to four treatment groups in eight blocks of four calves. An experi...

  9. The susceptibility differences of buffalo and Ongole calves against trickle infection with Fasciola gigantica

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    A pen trial was carried out in order to determine the susceptibility differences of a trickle infection with Fasciola gigantica in buffalo and Ongole calves. Treated animals were infected orally with 15 metacercariae of F. gigantica twice weekly for 32 weeks and were slaughtered at 36 weeks. The results showed that buffalo calves had significantly lower fluke burdens than Ongole calves (P

  10. 9 CFR 311.28 - Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. 311.28 Section 311.28 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PARTS § 311.28 Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. Carcasses of young calves,...

  11. RESEARCHES ON GROOMING BEHAVIOR OF THE DAMCALF COUPLE DURING THE FIRST WEEK AFTER CALVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. TRIPON

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dealing with the maternal behavior during the first week after calving. Researches were carried out during the winter season on Romanian Black and White breed dam-calf couples. The behavior of calves and their mothers was nonstop video recorded during the first, second and seventh day after calving. For a better interpretation the recorded material was divided in three periods for every 24 hours of surveillance: 07:00 to 15:00, 15:00 to 23:00, and 23:00 to 07:00. Calves received attention from their mothers in 18 to 33 grooming periods during the first day after calving. The number of grooming periods decreased to 6 – 15 periods per day in the seventh day after calving. The total length of grooming periods also decreased from the first day to the seventh day after calving from 26.5 minutes to 7.4 minutes on each 8-hour time frame. There were also contacts between mother cows and their calves that were not followed by grooming (sniffing. The number of contacts without grooming was higher during the first two days after calving and decreased on the seventh day after calving. During the first week of life calves received, 55.6 minutes per day of care from their mothers, and there were, on average, 8.1 contacts without grooming between mothers and calves.

  12. Pharmacokinetics and tissue elimination of flunixin in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissell, Lindsey W; Brinson, Patrick D; Gehring, Ronette; Tell, Lisa A; Wetzlich, Scott E; Baynes, Ronald E; Riviere, Jim E; Smith, Geof W

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe plasma pharmacokinetic parameters and tissue elimination of flunixin in veal calves. ANIMALS 20 unweaned Holstein calves between 3 and 6 weeks old. PROCEDURES Each calf received flunixin (2.2 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h) for 3 days. Blood samples were collected from all calves before the first dose and at predetermined times after the first and last doses. Beginning 24 hours after injection of the last dose, 4 calves were euthanized each day for 5 days. Plasma and tissue samples were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by compartmental and noncompartmental methods. RESULTS Mean ± SD plasma flunixin elimination half-life, residence time, and clearance were 1.32 ± 0.94 hours, 12.54 ± 10.96 hours, and 64.6 ± 40.7 mL/h/kg, respectively. Mean hepatic and muscle flunixin concentrations decreased to below FDA-established tolerance limits (0.125 and 0.025 μg/mL, respectively) for adult cattle by 3 and 2 days, respectively, after injection of the last dose of flunixin. Detectable flunixin concentrations were present in both the liver and muscle for at least 5 days after injection of the last dose. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The labeled slaughter withdrawal interval for flunixin in adult cattle is 4 days. Because administration of flunixin to veal calves represents extralabel drug use, any detectable flunixin concentrations in edible tissues are considered a violation. Results indicated that a slaughter withdrawal interval of several weeks may be necessary to ensure that violative tissue residues of flunixin are not detected in veal calves treated with that drug.

  13. Pharmacokinetics and tissue elimination of flunixin in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissell, Lindsey W; Brinson, Patrick D; Gehring, Ronette; Tell, Lisa A; Wetzlich, Scott E; Baynes, Ronald E; Riviere, Jim E; Smith, Geof W

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe plasma pharmacokinetic parameters and tissue elimination of flunixin in veal calves. ANIMALS 20 unweaned Holstein calves between 3 and 6 weeks old. PROCEDURES Each calf received flunixin (2.2 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h) for 3 days. Blood samples were collected from all calves before the first dose and at predetermined times after the first and last doses. Beginning 24 hours after injection of the last dose, 4 calves were euthanized each day for 5 days. Plasma and tissue samples were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by compartmental and noncompartmental methods. RESULTS Mean ± SD plasma flunixin elimination half-life, residence time, and clearance were 1.32 ± 0.94 hours, 12.54 ± 10.96 hours, and 64.6 ± 40.7 mL/h/kg, respectively. Mean hepatic and muscle flunixin concentrations decreased to below FDA-established tolerance limits (0.125 and 0.025 μg/mL, respectively) for adult cattle by 3 and 2 days, respectively, after injection of the last dose of flunixin. Detectable flunixin concentrations were present in both the liver and muscle for at least 5 days after injection of the last dose. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The labeled slaughter withdrawal interval for flunixin in adult cattle is 4 days. Because administration of flunixin to veal calves represents extralabel drug use, any detectable flunixin concentrations in edible tissues are considered a violation. Results indicated that a slaughter withdrawal interval of several weeks may be necessary to ensure that violative tissue residues of flunixin are not detected in veal calves treated with that drug. PMID:27227502

  14. Surgical Management of Orthopedic and Musculoskeletal Diseases of Feedlot Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David E; Miesner, Matt D

    2015-11-01

    Injuries, infections, and disorders of the musculoskeletal system are common in feedlot calves. These conditions often are amenable to surgical treatment with return of the calf to productivity. Weight gain and carcass quality are expected to be significantly adversely affected by pain and debilitation. The goal of surgical management of disorders of the joints, muscles, and feet should be resolution of the inciting cause, mitigation of pain, and restoration of form and function. If these are achieved, calves should return to acceptable, if not normal, feed intake, rate of gain, and carcass quality. PMID:26210767

  15. Marrow fat deposition and skeletal growth in caribou calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, L.

    2003-01-01

    I evaluated rates of marrow fat deposition and skeletal growth of caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) calves through 20 days of age at Denali National Park, Alaska, USA. Both were negatively correlated with late winter snowfall, indicating the prolonged effects of maternal undernutrition following severe winters. Using regression analyses, I found that the rates of marrow fat deposition and hindfoot growth during the 20 days following birth declined 46% and 68%, respectively, over the range of winter severity during this study. These measures of development may indicate a broader array of effects of maternal undernutrition, influencing the vulnerability of caribou calves to predation.

  16. Giardiasis in dairy calves: effects of fenbendazole treatment on intestinal structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Handley, R M; Buret, A G; McAllister, T A; Jelinski, M; Olson, M E

    2001-01-01

    Twelve Giardia duodenalis-infected Holstein dairy calves were allocated into a treatment (n=6) and placebo group (n=6) according to pre-study faecal cyst counts. Calves in the treatment group received an oral dose of 5 mg/kg fenbendazole once daily for 3 days, while placebo calves received a sterile saline solution. Calves were euthanised 7 days following the initiation of treatment and intestinal were collected and prepared for trophozoite quantitation, histology, electron microscopy, and disaccharidase assays. In all calves treated with fenbendazole, intestinal trophozoites were below detection limits, while in saline-treated calves, trophozoites were observed in all intestinal segments. Histologically, no significant difference was observed between treatment groups with respect to intestinal villus height or crypt depth. However, a significant decline in the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) was observed in fenbendazole-treated calves when compared with placebo-treated calves in the duodenum (13.9+/-1.2 vs. 17.0+/-1.1 IEL/100 enterocytes) and jejunum (21.6+/-0.8 vs. 30.7+/-1.0 IEL/100 enterocytes). In addition, measurements from TEM micrographs demonstrated a significant increase in microvillus surface area in the jejunum of fenbendazole-treated calves compared with saline-treated calves (31.2+/-10.2 vs. 22.8+/-7.6 microm(2)). This increase in microvillus surface area was also associated with an increase in jejunal maltase activity in fenbendazole-treated calves compared with calves treated with saline. These results demonstrate that fenbendazole is an effective treatment for giardiasis in calves. fenbendazole treatment eliminated Giardia trophozoites from the small intestine of calves resulting in increased microvillus surface area and greater intestinal enzyme activity. This study also demonstrates that the pathogenesis of giardiasis in calves is similar to that observed in humans and laboratory animals, and provides further evidence that Giardia is

  17. Source mechanics for monochromatic icequakes produced during iceberg calving at Columbia Glacier, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neel, Shad; Pfeffer, W.T.

    2007-01-01

    Seismograms recorded during iceberg calving contain information pertaining to source processes during calving events. However, locally variable material properties may cause signal distortions, known as site and path effects, which must be eliminated prior to commenting on source mechanics. We applied the technique of horizontal/vertical spectral ratios to passive seismic data collected at Columbia Glacier, AK, and found no dominant site or path effects. Rather, monochromatic waveforms generated by calving appear to result from source processes. We hypothesize that a fluid-filled crack source model offers a potential mechanism for observed seismograms produced by calving, and fracture-processes preceding calving.

  18. Questionnaire identifying management practices surrounding calving on spring-calving dairy farms and their associations with herd size and herd expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, C; Berry, D P; Sayers, R; Lorenz, I; Kennedy, E

    2016-05-01

    Healthy calves are fundamental to any profitable dairy enterprise. Research to-date, has focused on year-round calving systems which experience many different challenges compared to spring-calving systems. The objective of the present study was to determine the on-farm dry cow, calving, and colostrum management practices of spring-calving dairy production systems, and quantify their associations with herd size and herd expansion status (i.e. expanding or not expanding). Information on these management practices was available from a survey of 262 Irish spring-calving dairy farmers, representative of the Irish national population. Herd expansion in the 2 years before, and the year that the survey was conducted was not associated with any of the management practices investigated. Fifty-three percent of respondents had an average calving season length of 10 to14 weeks with 35% of herds having a longer calving season. Previous research in cattle has documented that both colostrum source and feeding management are associated with the transmission of infectious disease from cow to calf. In the present study 60% of respondents fed calves colostrum from their own dam; however, 66% of those respondents allowed the calf to suckle the dam, 23% of survey respondents fed calves pooled colostrum. Larger herds were more likely (Pmanagement because this study has highlighted a number of areas which are below international standards, and may have repercussions for calf health. Furthermore, management practices on larger farms could be improved and, as these represent the future of dairy farming, a focus needs to be placed on them. Expanding herds are not a particular concern as herd expansion, independent of herd size, does not seem to be associated with calving and colostrum management practices on Irish spring-calving dairy herds.

  19. Sites of replication of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in naturally infected calves as determined by in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viuff, B.; Uttenthal, Åse; Tegtmeier, C.;

    1996-01-01

    Replication of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) was studied in three naturally infected calves by in situ hybridization using strand-specific RNA probes. One of the calves was a 5-month-old Friesian, the other two calves were a 3-month-old and a 2-week-old Jersey. Two Jersey calves, 3 mo...

  20. Growth Performances of Female and Male Holstein Calves Fed Milk and Milk Replacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir BAYRIL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare growth performances of male and female Holstein calves fed milk and milk replacers. A total of 60 Holstein calves were used in the study. Calves were divided into three equal groups. In each group, there were 10 female and 10 male calves. Calves were offered colostrum for 3 days after birth and were weighed at fourth day for the trial. Initial body weights of calves in dietary treatments were statistically similar. The first, second and third groups were fed milk, milk replacer-I (CP 21% and CF 16.5% and milk replacer-II (CP 24% and CF 18%, respectively. In addition to milk and milk replacers, calves were supplemented with ad libitum concentrate feed and alfalfa. Dietary treatment was significantly effective (P<0.05 on body weight of calves at 60 days of age. In conclusion, growth performances of calves increased with increasing protein content of milk replacer had better than those of calves fed milk replacer containing low-protein. Therefore, during the suckling period, in feeding of Holstein calves, milk or milk replacer containing high-protein should be preferred primarily.

  1. Some alternatives to calving date and interval as measures of fertility in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Torre, G; Brinks, J S

    1990-09-01

    Records of 594 calving dates and 493 calving intervals collected from a herd of Retinta beef cows in southwest Spain were studied. Their efficacy as reproductive measures were compared when a long breeding season was utilized. Variables used were date of present calving (DOC), date of subsequent calving (DOSC), time from start of breeding season to calving (TBSC), interval to next calving (CI), two adjustments of calving interval by subtracting the time that bulls were not available to the cow from actual CI (ACI1 and ACI2), and three scores. Period score (SCOR) measured the 20-d increment of the 220-d calving season in which the cow calved. Pair score (PAIR) was computed by subtracting the deviation of calving interval from 365 d from the average SCOR of the two calvings involved. Adjusted pair score (APAIR) was calculated in the same way as PAIR, but using ACI1 instead of CI. Heritability estimates for DOC, SCOR, and DOSC and CI were .16, .14, .13 and 0, respectively. Heritabilities of all other measures ranged from .01 to .06. Repeatability estimates for DOC, SCOR, DOSC and CI were .29, .28, .34 and .14, respectively. Repeatability values were .28, .18, .18, .23 and .32 for TBSC, ACI1, ACI2, PAIR and APAIR, respectively. Genetic and phenotypic correlations among CI and its alternative measures were very high and favorable.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. A cross-sectional study of factors associated with birth weights of Norwegian beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Sindre T; Martin, Adam D; Holmøy, Ingrid H; Karlberg, Knut; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2016-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate factors which influence birth weights of beef suckler calves in Norway. Data were from a national beef cattle registry, and lifetime production data of cows slaughtered between January 2010 and January 2013 were included in the study population. The study population consisted of 20,541 cows and 53,819 calves. The analysis was performed on the subset of singleton calvings from which birth weights were recorded. The study sample consisted of 9903 cows with birth weights available for 29,294 calves. The mean birth weight was 43.47kg (95% CI 43.40; 43.53). Two multilevel linear regression models were built; the first was for all calves and included parity of dam as one of the explanatory variables (with herd and cow as random effects), the second model was for calves born to primiparous dams only where age of first calving was included as an explanatory variable (with a random herd effect). The multilevel regression models estimated that female calves were 2.3kg lighter than males (95% CI 2.2-2.4, Pheifer models, respectively), and both the herd and cow random effects were highly significant. In conclusion, birth weights of beef calves in the Norwegian Beef Cattle Recording System were influenced by sex of the calf, breed of the dam, parity, age at first calving, calving season, cow, herd and region. PMID:26803716

  3. Measurements at calving for straightbred and crossbred cows of diverse types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, R E; Baker, J F; Cartwright, T C; Long, C R; Sanders, J O

    1990-10-01

    Reproductive and calving records of 611 cows from F1 and F2 generations from a diallel mating system with Angus, Brahman, Hereford, Holstein and Jersey were examined. The inter se matings were by artificial insemination, and each cow had three or four parturitions. Dependent variables included weight, hip weight at first calving, age at first calving, gestation length and calving interval. Brahmans were the heaviest, tallest and oldest purebred at first calving. Crossbred Brahman females tended to be older than other crosses at first calving. Purebred Brahmans and one-half Brahman crosses also had the longest gestation lengths and calving intervals. First-gestation (F1) crossbred cows were 18 kg heavier (P less than .05), 2.0 cm taller (P less than .01) and 35 d younger (P less than .05) at first calving than contemporary straightbreds. Average maternal heterosis for height at calving was significant (1.4 cm; P less than .05); however, estimates of specific and average maternal heterosis for measurements taken at first calving were generally nonsignificant. Estimates of specific and average individual and maternal heterosis were generally small and nonsignificant for gestation length and calving interval. PMID:2254189

  4. Electrocardiographic Studies on Neonatal Period of Holstein Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar CHALMEH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Several physiological alterations may occur in cardiovascular system during fetal life to the neonatal period. Electrocardiographic studies in neonatal period may assist veterinarians to evaluate cardiovascular system in this period. Five multiparous high producing Holstein dairy cows were monitored at close-up dry period to calving. Electrocardiograms were recorded from their calves immediately and 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 days after birth and all electrocardiographic parameters were evaluated. Durations of P, R and T waves were increased significantly from birth to the end of neonatal period (P<0.05. R and T amplitudes were significantly elevated but P amplitude declined significantly. There were significant increasing patterns in PR, RR, QT and ST intervals during neonatal period (P<0.05. Based on these findings, it may be suggested that physiological alterations of the electrocardiographic parameters occur during the neonatal period of the Holstein dairy calves at neonatal period. These data could provide a better understanding of interpretation of the electrocardiographic alterations among neonatal calves.

  5. Biological evaluation of mechanical circulatory support systems in calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakhorst, G; VanDerMeer, J; Kik, C; Mihaylov, D; Havlik, P; Trinkl, J; Monties, [No Value

    1996-01-01

    Data from animal experiments with mechanical circulatory support systems (MCSS) performed in Groningen and Marseille over the past years were used to obtain normal values of hematological, coagulation, rheological and blood chemistry parameters in calves. These parameters were divided between two gr

  6. On the role of buoyant flexure in glacier calving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Till J. W.; James, Timothy D.; Murray, Tavi; Vella, Dominic

    2016-04-01

    Interactions between glaciers and the ocean are key for understanding the dynamics of the cryosphere in the climate system. Here we investigate the role of hydrostatic forces in glacier calving. We develop a mathematical model to account for the elastic deformation of glaciers in response to three effects: (i) marine and lake-terminating glaciers tend to enter water with a nonzero slope, resulting in upward flexure around the grounding line; (ii) horizontal pressure imbalances at the terminus are known to cause hydrostatic in-plane stresses and downward acting torque; (iii) submerged ice protrusions at the glacier front may induce additional buoyancy forces that can cause calving. Our model provides theoretical estimates of the importance of each effect and suggests geometric and material conditions under which a given glacier will calve from hydrostatic flexure.We find good agreement with observations. This work sheds light on the intricate processes involved in glacier calving and can be hoped to improve our ability to model and predict future changes in the ice-climate system.

  7. Genetic resistance to experimental Cooperia oncophora infections in calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, G.A.A.

    1981-01-01

    The variation in resistance of cattle to gastro-intestinal nematode infection was investigated in three experiments. Bull calves, aged three months and reared under uniform conditions, were artificially infected with infective larvae of Cooperia oncophora, a moderately pathogenic but very abundant p

  8. The digestion of yeast cell wall polysaccharides in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaillard, B.D.E.; Weerden, van E.J.

    1976-01-01

    1. The digestibility of the cell wall polysaccharides of an alkane-grown yeast in different parts of the digestive tract of two veal calves fitted with re-entrant cannulas at the end of the ileum was studied by replacing part of the skim-milk powder of their ‘normal’, milk-substitute (all-milk-prote

  9. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil; Munksgaard, Lene; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding...... or into freestall housing 4 wk before the expected calving date. Individual straw-bedded maternity pens were placed adjacent to the straw-bedded group pens, and cows were moved to the maternity pens before calving. Cows that spent more than 12 h in the maternity pen before calving and calved unassisted were...... included in this study (39 multiparous cows and 15 primiparous cows). Dams were observed from 6 h before calving until 6 h after calving. The time from the onset of rhythmical abdominal contractions (defined as the onset of stage II labor), the time from a visible amniotic sac, and the time from visible...

  10. Genetic Parameters for Milk ,Fat Yield and Age at First Calving of Chinese Holsteins in Heilongjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Genetic parameters for milk,fat yield and age at first calving of Chinese Holsteins in Heilongjiang were evaluated using multiple-trait restricted maximum likelihood procedures with an animal model. Data consisted of records of 2496 Chinese Holsteins first lactation cows collected from 1989 to 2000. The model included 21herd effects, four calving season effects, nine age at first calving effects, 6697 animal effects. (Co)variance components of milk yield ,fat yield and age at first calving were estimated with the software package for variance component estimation(VCE) by an animal model. The heritabilities were 0. 14.0. 21,0. 38 for milk yield ,fat yield and age at first calving ,respectively. ihe estimates of genetic correlation between milk yield and fat yield,age at first calving were 0. 96,-0.29.respectively. The estimate of genetic correlation between fat yield and age at first calving was-0.28.

  11. Pharmacokinetics, metabolism and renal clearance of flumequine in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevius, D J; Breukink, H J; Guelen, P J; Jansen, T; De Grève, B

    1990-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of flumequine was studied in 1-, 5- and 18-week-old veal calves. A two-compartment model was used to fit the plasma concentration-time curve of flumequine after the intravenous injection of 10 mg/kg of a 10% solution. The elimination half-life (t1/2 beta) of the drug ranged from 6 to 7 h. The Vd beta and ClB of 1-week-old calves (1.07 l/kg, 1.78 ml/min/kg) were significantly lower than those of 5-week-old (1.89 l/kg, 3.23 ml/min/kg) and 18-week-old calves (1.57 l/kg, 3.10 ml/min/kg). After the oral administration of 10 mg/kg of a 2% flumequine formulation mixed with milk replacer, the Cmax was highest in 1-week-old (9.27 micrograms/ml) and lowest in 18-week-old calves (4.47 micrograms/ml). The absorption was rapid (Tmax of approximately 3 h) and complete. When flumequine itself and a formulation containing 2% flumequine and 20 X 10(6) iu of colistin sulphate were mixed with milk replacer and administered at the same dose rate, absorption was incomplete and Cmax was lower. The main urinary metabolite of flumequine was the glucuronide conjugate (approximately 40% recovery within 48 h of intravenous injection) and the second most important metabolite was 7-hydroxy-flumequine (approximately 3% recovery within 12 h of intravenous injection). Only 3.2-6.5% was excreted in the urine unchanged. After oral administration a 'first-pass' effect was observed, with a significant increase in the excretion of conjugated drug. For 1-week-old calves it is recommended that the 2% formulation should be administered at a dose rate of 8 mg/kg every 24 h or 4 mg/kg every 12 h; for calves over 6 weeks old, the dose should be increased to 15 mg/kg every 24 h or 7.5 mg/kg every 12 h. The formulation containing colistin sulphate should be administered to 1-week-old calves at a flumequine dose of 12 mg/kg every 24 h or 6 mg/kg every 12 h. PMID:2384907

  12. Salvage of Theileria infected calves with clinical manifestation of exophthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shanker K; Sudan, Vikrant; Sachan, Pratibha; Srivastava, Ashish

    2015-09-01

    Two crossbred female calves aged between 30 and 35 days were presented with bilateral exophthalmia, inappetence, pyrexia and cachexia since last 15 days. Clinical examination revealed mainly bilateral exophthalmia with dry and pulpy cornea, generalized enlargement of superficial lymph nodes, pallor mucous, petechiae, high rectal temperature and sternal recumbency. The calves were severely infested with Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks and thin layer blood smears revealed presence of piroplasm in the RBCs, while lymph nodes aspirate smear examination revealed presence schizonts in the mononuclear cells. The calves were treated with buparvaquone; meloxicam, nandrolone decanoate and vitamins A, D3, E and H. From day second post-therapy a remarkable improvement in the clinical condition was noticed and substantial reduction in the both protruded eyeballs was noticed by 7 days post-therapy in the both calves. Further at day 47 post-therapy the one calf was free from the parasite on blood smear examination and right eye was retracted in its orbits with full of sight. Moreover the left eye was also retracted in its orbit but there was loss of sight and opacity developed in this eye. While, the other calf also revealed remarkable improvement in the clinical condition and both eye balls retracted completely into the orbit at day 30 post-therapy. But, at day 86 the calf developed microphthalmia and complete loss of sight in both eyes. It can be concluded that adjunction of antioxidants and hematopoietic agents may salvage the calves suffering from fatal theileriosis. PMID:26345050

  13. Improving growth performance in calves under hot weather conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effect of some supplement such as dried live yeast DLY (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), DLY + vitamin E and / or dried whey milk (DWM) on blood constituents and thyroid activity in relation to some immune indices and growth performance of calves under hot weather conditions. The ambient temperature and relative humidity averaged 36.9±4 degree C and 43-58 % during day and 29±4 degree C and 60-68 % during night, respectively, which were equivalent to temperature humidity index of 86-89 during day and 78-80 during night . The present study included three experiments as follows. Experiment 1 : Six female bovine Baladi calves of 8-10 months old and 100 kg initial body weight (IBW) were used during two periods. In the first period, the calves were offered the basal diet for one month and considered as a control period. In the second period, the same calves were fed the same basal diet which supplemented with 15 g / calf/ day DLY for one month and considered as treated period. The obtained results indicated that supplementation of DLY reduced significantly the respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT) as well as serum lipids profile including total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL- cholesterol) very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-cholesterol) triglycerides and phospholipids.The second and third experiments were carried out for improving growth performance of heat-stressed bovine baladi calves by adding DLY and vitamine E (alpha-tocopherol) to their diet in experiment 2 and dried whey milk (DWM) in experiment 3.

  14. Genetic parameters for calving and conformation traits in Charolais x Montbéliard and Charolais x Holstein crossbred calves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallee, A.A.A.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2013-01-01

    Charolais sires can be mated to Montbéliard or Holstein dairy cows to produce crossbred calves sold for meat production. Heritabilities and correlations between traits can differ when they are calculated within Charolais × Montbéliard or within Charolais × Holstein population. Moreover, the genetic

  15. Ingestion of colostrum from specific cows induces Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP) in some calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Since 2006, cases of haemorrhagic diathesis in young calves have been observed with a much higher incidence than previously known. The syndrome, now uniformly called Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP), is characterized by multiple (external and internal) haemorrhages, thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, and bone marrow depletion. Although various infectious and toxicological causes of bleeding disorders in calves have been ruled out, the aetiology of BNP remains unknown. However, field observations have led to the hypothesis that the aetiological principle may be transmitted to calves via colostrum. The objective of the present study was to verify whether ingestion of colostrum from dams of known BNP calves can elicit signs of BNP and typical haematological findings in conveniently selected neonatal calves. Six such calves received one feeding of colostrum (or a mixture of colostrum batches) from dams of known BNP calves. As controls, another six conveniently selected calves from herds which had never had a BNP case received one feeding of colostrum from their own dams. Haematological and clinical parameters were monitored. Results One of the six experimental calves never showed any haematological, clinical or pathological evidence of BNP. In the other five calves, thrombocyte and leukocyte counts dropped within a few hours following ingestion of colostrum. Of those, three calves developed clinical signs of BNP, their post-mortem examination revealed bone marrow depletion. Of the remaining two calves, a pair of mixed twins, marked thrombocytopenia and recurrent leukocytopenia was evident in one, in which only slight changes in the bone marrow were detected, while in the other thrombocyte counts dropped, but rebounded later, and no bone marrow changes were noted. Thrombocyte counts of the experimental calves were statistically significantly lower than those of the control calves at 2 hours post ingestion of colostrum and at every sampling point between 9

  16. Ingestion of colostrum from specific cows induces Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP in some calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlin Annette

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2006, cases of haemorrhagic diathesis in young calves have been observed with a much higher incidence than previously known. The syndrome, now uniformly called Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP, is characterized by multiple (external and internal haemorrhages, thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, and bone marrow depletion. Although various infectious and toxicological causes of bleeding disorders in calves have been ruled out, the aetiology of BNP remains unknown. However, field observations have led to the hypothesis that the aetiological principle may be transmitted to calves via colostrum. The objective of the present study was to verify whether ingestion of colostrum from dams of known BNP calves can elicit signs of BNP and typical haematological findings in conveniently selected neonatal calves. Six such calves received one feeding of colostrum (or a mixture of colostrum batches from dams of known BNP calves. As controls, another six conveniently selected calves from herds which had never had a BNP case received one feeding of colostrum from their own dams. Haematological and clinical parameters were monitored. Results One of the six experimental calves never showed any haematological, clinical or pathological evidence of BNP. In the other five calves, thrombocyte and leukocyte counts dropped within a few hours following ingestion of colostrum. Of those, three calves developed clinical signs of BNP, their post-mortem examination revealed bone marrow depletion. Of the remaining two calves, a pair of mixed twins, marked thrombocytopenia and recurrent leukocytopenia was evident in one, in which only slight changes in the bone marrow were detected, while in the other thrombocyte counts dropped, but rebounded later, and no bone marrow changes were noted. Thrombocyte counts of the experimental calves were statistically significantly lower than those of the control calves at 2 hours post ingestion of colostrum and at every

  17. Calving Performance in the Endangered Murboden Cattle Breed: Genetic Parameters and Inbreeding Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie A.e. Eaglen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Calving is a key event on any cattle farm, with both economic and animal welfare consequences when complications arise. Although mostly reported in highly selected breeds, problematic calving performance is also a worry to the unselected dualpurpose Murboden breed, local to Austria. This study presents genetic parameter estimates for calving ease and stillbirth in Murboden cattle. Furthermore, a potential effect of inbreeding on the breeds’ calving performance is evaluated. Results show a moderate direct and maternal heritability (0.18±0.04; 0.11±0.02 and a significant negative direct-maternal genetic correlation for calving ease (-0.41±0.10. Heritabilities of stillbirth are low yet significant (0.048±0.01; 0.018±0.007. A significant effect of inbreeding was detected on maternal calving ease i.e. the ease with which a dam calves. By categorizing the inbreeding coefficients of the dam in six ascending classes it was shown that calving ease worsens as inbreeding coefficients become larger. Results of this study reveal significant genetic variation in calving performance of the Murboden breed which opens doors for genetic selection. An additional important aspect of this study is that its result on inbreeding depression gives counterweight to the general intuitive notion in literature that high selection for production traits is the major contributor to calving difficulty in dairy and beef cattle breeds worldwide.

  18. Housing system may affect behavior and growth performance of Jersey heifer calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pempek, J A; Eastridge, M L; Swartzwelder, S S; Daniels, K M; Yohe, T T

    2016-01-01

    Social pressure is increasing to adopt alternative housing and management practices that allow farm animals more opportunity to exercise and demonstrate social behavior. The present study investigated the effect of pair housing on the behavior and growth performance of Jersey heifer calves. Forty female Jersey calves were allocated to individual or pair housing at birth and monitored for 9 wk. Calves were provided with a single hutch, and those allocated to the pair housing treatment were provided a pen enclosure twice the size of individually housed calves and only one hutch was provided per pair. All calves were fed milk replacer via bucket twice per day (1.89 L/feeding first 7 d; 2.27 L/feeding until weaned) and had ad libitum access to grain and water. Gradual weaning commenced on d 49 by reducing the calves' milk allowance to one feeding per day, and weaning occurred on d 56. Grain consumption was monitored daily and calves were weighed weekly. Direct behavioral observations were conducted twice per week. Calves housed in pairs tended to have greater average daily gain compared with calves housed individually (0.63 vs. 0.59 ± 0.02 kg/d, respectively). Pair housing also increased final body weight compared with individual housing (64.9 vs. 61.7 ± 0.59 kg, respectively). During observation periods, calves housed individually spent more time engaging in nonnutritive sucking than calves housed in pairs (21.5 vs. 8.15 ± 0.03% of total observations). Calves housed in pairs were observed cross sucking 13.5% of the time during observational periods. Although housing Jersey calves in pairs may increase measures of growth performance, future research should aim to reduce cross-sucking behavior within the Jersey breed through alternative feeding systems or environmental enrichment. PMID:26585485

  19. Productive effects of whole milk and milk replacement formula in calves feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Klarić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Determination of correct feeding regimes for calves is very important as it directly influences calves’ productive and reproductive traits, as well as duration of adult animal exploitation period. As the liquid feed is the most expensive component, its importance also has an economic aspect in calves rearing. The experiment was carried out on 30 Holstein calves with the aim to determine productive, economic and health effects of feeding calves with whole milk in different periods. Calves were divided into three equal groups (10 calves in each group. Experiment was carried out in the period from calving up to the 60th day of calf ’s age. All groups were given whole milk, however, duration of whole milk feeding differed among groups. Group 1 consumed whole milk from birth up to the 30th day of age, group 2 from birth up to the 20th day of age and group 3 from birth up to the 10th day of age. Afterwards, all groups were fed with milk replacement formula up to the 60th day of age. Suggested technological solutions in calves feeding within this experiment were analyzed through evaluation of basic fattening characteristics, monitoring of diarrhea occurrences and calculating costs per kg of weight gain per each group. Statistical analysis referring to calves body weight, daily gain and liquid feed conversion during the 1st month of experiment proved the best values for group 1, which were statistically highly significant (P<0.01 if compared to other groups. Examination of health status of calves determined that diarrhea occurred less frequently in group 1, which led to conclusion that feeding whole milk to calves should be given priority with respect to its nutritive and health benefits. By analyzing economic aspect of feeding whole milk to calves in their 1st month of age, the lowest costs were obtained for group 1, which supports the fact that feeding calves with whole milk is cost effective.

  20. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding or into freestall housing 4 wk before the expected calving date. Individual straw-bedded maternity pens were placed adjacent to the straw-bedded group pens, and cows were moved to the maternity pens before calving. Cows that spent more than 12 h in the maternity pen before calving and calved unassisted were included in this study (39 multiparous cows and 15 primiparous cows). Dams were observed from 6 h before calving until 6 h after calving. The time from the onset of rhythmical abdominal contractions (defined as the onset of stage II labor), the time from a visible amniotic sac, and the time from visible calf feet until the birth of the calf were recorded. Furthermore, the cows' latency to stand up after birth was recorded. Calves were observed during the first 6 h after birth and the latency to first standing attempt, to first successful standing, to first suckle attempt, and to first successful suckling were recorded. Cows previously housed in straw pens expelled the calf faster once the calves' feet were visible compared with cows previously housed in freestalls. Multiparous cows stood sooner and licked their calf sooner after birth compared with primiparous cows. Jersey calves of cows previously housed in straw pens also stood up and suckled their dams sooner compared with Jersey calves of cows previously housed in freestalls. Holstein cows previously housed in straw pens tended to stand up sooner compared with Holstein cows previously housed in freestalls. These results suggest that a longer period of housing on deep-bedded straw compared with freestalls with mattresses before calving may facilitate the calving process, whereas the effect on calf vitality needs further

  1. Genotype by environment interaction for the interval from calving to first insemination with regard to calving month and geographic location in Holstein cows in Denmark and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismael, Ahmed; Strandberg, Erling; Berglund, Britt; Kargo, Morten; Fogh, Anders; Løvendahl, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate genotype by environment interaction effects, with environments defined as calving month and geographic location, on the interval from calving to first insemination (CFI) of Holstein cows in Denmark and Sweden. The data set included 811,285 records on CFI for first-parity cows from January 2010 to January 2014 housed in 7,458 herds. The longest mean CFI was 84.7 d for cows calving in April and the shortest was 76.3 d for cows calving in September. The longest mean CFI of 87.1 d was recorded at the northernmost location (LOC-8), whereas the shortest mean CFI of 73.5 d was recorded at the southernmost location (LOC-1). The multiple trait approach, in which CFI values in different calving months and different geographic locations were treated as different traits, was used to estimate the variance components and genetic correlations for CFI by using the average information (AI)-REML procedure in a bivariate sire model. Estimates of genetic variance and heritability were highest for January calvings and 3 times smaller for June calvings. Location 2 had the highest heritability and LOC-8 the lowest, with heritability estimates decreasing from LOC-2 to LOC-8. Genetic correlations of CFI between calving months were weakest between cold months (December and January) and warm months (June, August, and September); the lowest estimate was found between January and September calvings. Genetic correlations of CFI between the different geographic locations were generally strong, and the weakest correlation was between LOC-3 and LOC-8. These results indicate a genotype by environment interaction for CFI primarily regarding seasons described by calving months. The effect of geographic location was less important, mostly producing a scaling effect of CFI in different locations. We concluded that CFI is more sensitive to seasonal effects than geographic locations in Denmark and Sweden. PMID:27085411

  2. Influence of calving season and stocking rate on birth weight and weaning weight of Simmental-sired calves from Brahman-Hereford F1 dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, S J; Rouquette, F M; Long, C R; Turner, J W

    1992-08-01

    Braham-Hereford F1 dams have been used to evaluate the influence of grazing pressure on forage attributes and animal performance at the Texas A&M University Agricultural Research Center at Overton. Data for this study were compiled from 1,909 records of Simmental-sired calves born to Braham-Hereford F1 cows from 1975 to 1990. Birth weight and weaning weight were analyzed independently to estimate the influence of year, season of birth, dam age, weaning age, and sex of calf. The effect of stocking rate as represented by levels of forage availability on weaning weights and subsequent birth weights was measured. Within the fall and winter calving seasons, lactating dams grazing at a high stocking rate produced calves with the lowest subsequent birth weights. Lactating dams assigned to creep-fed treatments had calves with the heaviest subsequent birth weights. Although dams that were less than 3.5 yr of age had calves with the lightest birth weights, there was no apparent decline in birth weight of calves from dams 12 to 17 yr old. Year, sex of calf, age of dam, stocking rate, season of birth, age at weaning, and birth weight were significant factors affecting weaning weight (P less than .01). Fall-born calves grazing cool-season annual pastures were heavier at weaning (267.6 kg) than either winter- (252.0 kg) or spring-born calves (240.9 kg). A stocking rate x season-of-birth interaction was observed for birth weight and weaning weight (P less than .05). Differences in weaning weight from low- vs high-stocked pastures were greater for fall-born calves (61.6 kg) than for winter-born calves (48.7).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1506293

  3. Influence of calving season and stocking rate on birth weight and weaning weight of Simmental-sired calves from Brahman-Hereford F1 dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, S J; Rouquette, F M; Long, C R; Turner, J W

    1992-08-01

    Braham-Hereford F1 dams have been used to evaluate the influence of grazing pressure on forage attributes and animal performance at the Texas A&M University Agricultural Research Center at Overton. Data for this study were compiled from 1,909 records of Simmental-sired calves born to Braham-Hereford F1 cows from 1975 to 1990. Birth weight and weaning weight were analyzed independently to estimate the influence of year, season of birth, dam age, weaning age, and sex of calf. The effect of stocking rate as represented by levels of forage availability on weaning weights and subsequent birth weights was measured. Within the fall and winter calving seasons, lactating dams grazing at a high stocking rate produced calves with the lowest subsequent birth weights. Lactating dams assigned to creep-fed treatments had calves with the heaviest subsequent birth weights. Although dams that were less than 3.5 yr of age had calves with the lightest birth weights, there was no apparent decline in birth weight of calves from dams 12 to 17 yr old. Year, sex of calf, age of dam, stocking rate, season of birth, age at weaning, and birth weight were significant factors affecting weaning weight (P less than .01). Fall-born calves grazing cool-season annual pastures were heavier at weaning (267.6 kg) than either winter- (252.0 kg) or spring-born calves (240.9 kg). A stocking rate x season-of-birth interaction was observed for birth weight and weaning weight (P less than .05). Differences in weaning weight from low- vs high-stocked pastures were greater for fall-born calves (61.6 kg) than for winter-born calves (48.7).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. The use of crossbreeding with beef bulls in dairy herds: effects on calving difficulty and gestation length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouz, R; Gandoy, F; Sanjuán, M L; Yus, E; Diéguez, F J

    2013-02-01

    This study was designed to analyse the evolution in the use of beef bull semen for dairy cattle insemination and, mainly, to assess calving difficulty, gestation length and proportion of stillbirths after breeding pure Holsteins or crossbreeding. Data were collected during 2004 to 2011 for 552 571 Holstein calvings (457 070 Holstein × Holstein, 43 384 Holstein × Limousine, 32 174 Holstein × Belgian Blue and 19 943 Holstein × Galician Blonde). The highest calving difficulty, compared with pure Holsteins was for crosses with Belgian Blue followed by Limousine and Galician Blonde. The Holstein × Limousine and Holstein × Galician Blonde crossbred calves had significantly longer gestation lengths than Holstein × Holstein and Holstein × Belgian Blue calves. Between the latter two, pure Holstein had the shortest gestation length. Calving difficulty and gestation length decreased as the age of the dam advanced. The most difficult calvings were observed in twin calvings, followed by the calvings of male calves and female calves. The gestations leading to the birth of male calves were longer than those leading to female calves and twin calves. Stillbirths were not related to the breed used for mating. Through examining these parameters, sire breed should be considered when selecting a beef breed for the insemination of milk-producing dams.

  5. Physiological effects of experimental verminous bronchitis in Friesian calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekeux, P; Hajer, R; Boon, J H; Verstegen, M W; Breukink, H J

    1985-01-01

    Pulmonary function values were measured in five Friesian calves of five months of age during the patent phase of an experimental moderate lungworm infection and were compared with the pulmonary function values recorded in four control animals. All the nine calves were free of any previous challenge with Dictyocaulus viviparus and were submitted to the same standardized conditions of body conformation, housing, feeding and procedures for pulmonary function testing. A significant increase of respiratory rate, minute ventilation, total pulmonary resistance and power of breathing and a significant decrease of tidal volume, dynamic lung compliance and PaO2 were observed in the infested animals. The absolute intrapleural pressure values were also significantly more negative. The conclusions of the statistical analysis were almost identical when predicted instead of measured pulmonary function values were used in the control group. The clinical, functional and pathological findings in the infested animals were all consistent with the picture of a lower airway obstructive disease. PMID:3160451

  6. ESCHERICHIA COLI O157 IN WITHE VEAL CALVES CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D’Orio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available During 2006 one hundred and three white veal calves slaughtered at an abattoir in Isernia (Italy were examined for E. coli O157 intestinal carriage and carcass contamination, using Immuno-Magnetic Separation (IMS and multiplex PCR. Faecal material before slaughtering and carcass samples, using sponge-bag, were collected. E. coli O157 isolates were found in 10 (9,71% faecal and 9 (8,7% carcass samples. PCR analysis showed that all the strains from faecal and from carcass samples carried eaeA, hlyA and stx2 genes, while five strains stx1 gene. The results confirm that the slaughter practices can largely influence the rate of E. coli O157 carcasses contamination and suggest that white veal calves meat could be an important risk for human health.

  7. Context for the Recent Massive Petermann Glacier Calving Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkner, Kelly K.; Melling, Humfrey; Münchow, Andreas M.;

    2011-01-01

    On 4 August 2010, about one fifth of the floating ice tongue of Petermann Glacier (also known as “Petermann Gletscher”) in northwestern Greenland calved (Figure 1). The resulting “ice island” had an area approximately 4 times that of Manhattan Island (about 253±17 square kilometers). The ice isla...... as part of the glacier's natural variability? Understanding the known historical context of this event allows scientists and the public to judge its significance....

  8. Effect of tetracycline administration on serum amylase activity in calves

    OpenAIRE

    Zendehbad, Bamdad; Alipour, Adeleh; Zendehbad, Hussein

    2013-01-01

    Tetracycline and related compounds are used extensively as broad spectrum antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial infections in ruminants. Tetracycline may cause acute pancreatitis which may result in increased serum amylase activity. However, it has been shown that administration of oxytetracycline in human results in decrease serum amylase activity. In this study changes in serum amylase activity were measured in 20 clinically healthy calves following intravenous injection of oxytetracycl...

  9. Experimental pneumonia in gnotobiotic calves produced by respiratory syncytial virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, L. H.; Slott, E. J.; Collins, A. P.; Jebbett, J.

    1984-01-01

    A bovine isolate of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), when inoculated intranasally into eight gnotobiotic calves produced significant macroscopic lesions of the lung (2-25% consolidation) but failed to produce any clinical signs of disease. The microscopic lesions comprised proliferative and exudative bronchiolitis with accompanying alveolar collapse and infiltration by mononuclear cells of the peribronchiolar tissue and alveolar walls. Virus was recovered from the nasopharynx between days 2...

  10. Oral absorption and bioavailability of flumequine in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevius, D J; Breukink, H J; Jansen, T; Guelen, P J; de Grève, B

    1989-10-01

    The oral absorption and bioavailability of flumequine was studied in 1-, 5- and 18-week-old calves following intravenous and oral administration of different formulations of flumequine (Flumix, Flumix C and pure flumequine). Increasing age had a negative influence on the Cmax after the administration of Flumix, based on a larger VD in the older calves. The Cmax decreased from 5.02 +/- 1.46 micrograms/ml in the first week to 3.28 +/- 0.42 micrograms/ml in the 18th week. Adding colistin sulfate to the flumequine formulation and administring pure flumequine mixed with milk replacer had a negative effect on the Cmax of flumequine after oral administration of 5 and 10 mg/kg body weight. The bioavailability of the orally administered flumequine formulations was 100% in all cases except after the administration of Flumix C, for which it was 75.9 +/- 18.2%. The urinary recovery of flumequine after intravenous injection of a 10% solution varied from 35.2 +/- 2.3% for Group B, to 41.2 +/- 6.3% for Group C. The dosage of 5 mg/kg body weight Flumix twice daily in 1-week-old veal calves is sufficient to reach therapeutic plasma concentrations, based on a MIC value of 0.8 micrograms/ml of the target bacteria. In older calves it is advisable to increase the dosage 7.5 or 10 mg/kg body weight every 12 hours. In combination with colistin sulfate it is also advisable to increase the dosage slightly because of the negative effect of the colistin sulfate on the Cmax of flumequine. PMID:2603356

  11. Sugar supplementation stimulates growth performance in calves with growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomohiro; Hidaka, Yuichi; Kamimura, Shunichi

    2010-01-01

    The growth effect of sugar supplementation was determined in 49 retarded growth calves. Calves were supplemented with sugar at 1 g/kg BW 2 times weekly for 8 weeks. Glucose tolerance tests prior to the experiment showed no difference between the retarded growth calves and normal growth controls. After sugar supplementation, the calves were classified into 4 groups characterized by high (H) or low (L) periodic changes in daily weight gain (DG) with a breakpoint of 0.8 kg/d in three periods, birth to sugar supplementation (Birth-Pre), the 8 weeks during supplementation (Pre-Post) and after feeding to delivery to market (Post-Market). The periodic DG showed a marked increase after supplementation in Pre-Post and Post-Market compared with before supplementation during Birth-Pre in 2 groups (0.93 and 1.11 vs. 0.51 kg/day for L-H-H [n=19], 0.66 and 1.19 vs. 0.42 kg/day for L-L-H [n=24]), but no difference was observed in L-H-L (n=3) and L-L-L (n=3). Peripheral blood was collected on the day before supplementation (Pre), 8 weeks after supplementation (Post) and eight weeks after cease of supplementation. The blood concentrations of both insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose showed significant increases in L-H-H and L-L-H, but decreases in non-esterified fatty acid were observed in L-H-H and L-L-L on day Post compared with day Pre, respectively (pcalves had body weights similar to the market average. The growth effect of sugar supplementation could be stimulated through rumen papillae development induce by sucrose, the main component of table sugar.

  12. Pathological evidence of ehrlichiosis among calves inoculated with Ehrlichia chaffeensis

    OpenAIRE

    delos Santos, Jose R. C.; Oglesbee, Michael; Rikihisa, Yasuko; Stich, R W

    2008-01-01

    An immunocompetent animal disease model based on infection with Ehrlichia chaffeensis would facilitate research toward understanding mechanisms responsible for the broad range of clinical signs associated with human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME). Adaptability to experimental feeding of various tick species and stages and to testing therapies comparable to those for human diseases are additional advantages of large animal models. Herein we summarize pathology reports for calves that developed f...

  13. Use of natural feed supplements that help to improve health status of calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš ZÁBRANSKÝ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The basis for each cattle farming are healthy and strong individuals. The aim of this study was to determine which of the given feed supplements have the greatest effect on liveweight gain of calves in the early period after weaning from mother to infant milk substitutes. The research was conducted from July 2014 to December 2014. After the birth calves were weaned into individual boxes in the barn, where during the first 21 days of life their feeding ration was enriched with feed supplements. On the basis of the added supplement calves were divided into three experimental groups and one control group. First weighing of calves was done after birth and the second after 30 days. From the results of observations it can be concluded that feed supplements are accepted positively by calves in the first days of life and have a positive beneficial effect on weight gain and general health of calves.

  14. Effects of hunger level and tube diameter on thefeeding behavior of teat-fed dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Mette S; Skjøth, Flemming; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral changes caused by variation in hunger have a great potential in health monitoring in dairy cattle. The present experiment used 48 Danish Holstein bull calves with a median age of 33 d. We examined the effect of different levels of hunger (reduced, in which calves were fed 1.5 L of milk...... a 40-min period after morning milk feeding on d 7, 9, and 11 of testing is reported. No significant interactions between tube diameter and hunger level on behavior were found. Reduced tube diameter led to increased latency to empty the teat bucket, increased duration of nutritive sucking, and decreased...... duration of nonnutritive sucking for calves fed via 1.5-mm tubes compared with calves in the 2 other treatments. The duration of nonnutritive sucking increased with increasing level of hunger. Furthermore, calves with reduced hunger showed a lower frequency of butting than calves at the 2 other hunger...

  15. Pimply gut condition in mithun (Bos frontalis) calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamuah, J K; Pegu, S R; Raina, O K; Siju, S J; Sakhrie, A; Deka, Anil; Rajkhowa, C

    2016-06-01

    The present observation was recorded at National Research Centre on Mithun, Jharnapani from May 2010 to September 2012. A total of 15 mithun calves, which died in and around Jharnapani, were attended and detailed post-mortem examination was carried out. Out of these, five calves (33.33 %) aging between 1 and 1.5 years exhibiting the condition of chronic wasting and diarrhoea were found positive for pimply gut condition based on gross and microscopic examination. Post-mortem examination revealed extensive nodule formation on the wall of the rectum; however, the entire lumen did not reveal any of adult parasites. In all the cases, there were congestion in the mucous layer and thickening of the intestinal wall. Histopathological examination revealed chronic enteritis with mononuclear cell infiltration comprising mostly of macrophages, lymphocytes and eosinophils. In the muscularis mucosae, encysted larvae were found along with fibrous tissue proliferation. These lesions gave the intestine a nodular appearance as they thickened the wall and projected from the serosal surface. These extensive numbers of nodules in the intestine might have interfered with peristalsis and intestinal absorption which led to chronic wasting and diarrhoea in the calves. PMID:27413288

  16. [Spinal muscle atrophy in Brown Swiss x Braunvieh cross calves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirksen, G; Doll, K; Hafner, A; Hermanns, W; Dahme, E

    1992-05-01

    The report describes seven SMA-cases in descendents of crossbreeds of American Brown Swiss x Deutsches Braunvieh. Symptoms and course: After initially normal development of the calves for one to six weeks the disease set in suddenly followed by a rapid lethal course of one to one and a half weeks duration due to asphyxia and/or secondary diseases. Only one case was reported having been sick since birth (?). Characteristic signs were rapidly progressing muscular atrophy, paresis and paralysis of the limbs, the trunk and the diaphragm, usually accompanied by progressive dyspnoea. Signs of congenital neuromyodysplasia (arthrogryposis) of different degree were present in four of the seven calves. Six calves had contracted a secondary pneumonia. Blood gas analysis (6/7) revealed a compensated (1x) or decompensated (4x) respiratory acidosis. Neurohistological findings: Degeneration and loss of motor neurons in the ventral horns of the spinal cord and neurogenic muscular atrophy. Immunohistochemistry revealed a pronounced accumulation of type 200 kD-neurofilaments in perikarya and dendrites of ventral horn motoneurons indicating disturbed mechanisms of the axonal transport. The disease seems to be inherited as a recessive trait.

  17. Meat quality of calves obtained from organic and conventional farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Schiavon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare meat quality of organically and conventionally raised Simmental calves. Fifteen organic and fourteen conventional carcasses were considered, 8th rib and M. Longissimus thoracis were sampled on each carcass. Different tissues percentage of 8th rib were evaluated and meat colour, chemical and fatty acids composition of M. Longissimus thoracis were analysed. Fat percentage of 8th rib of organic calves was lower (P<0.01 than conventional ones. Cooking weight losses were lower (P<0.001 in organic meat compared to the conventional ones and red index was higher in organic calves due to the high content of heminic iron (P<0.001. Ether extract (P<0.001 and cholesterol content (P<0.05 was lower in organic meat with respect to conventional one. Positive value, from a nutritional point of view, were found in organic veal about n-3 fatty acids, n-6/n-3 ratio and CLA content.

  18. Effect of Cobalt Supplementation on Performance of growing Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Nagabhushana

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to study the effect of critical supplementation of wheat straw with cobalt on fibre utilization and nutrient utilization in growing cross-bred male calves. Twenty-one crossbred (HF X Local male growing calves of 3-4 months age were fed with wheat straw based diet consisting without (Co0 and with 1 (Co1 and 6 (Co6 ppm cobalt as cobaltous chloride. There was no significant difference in intake of wheat straw, concentrate and DMI between the three groups and the ratio between concentrate and wheat straw was maintained at 40:60 irrespective of dietary level of cobalt. Similarly, average cumulative body weight, net gain in body weight or feed efficiency did not differ significantly between treatments. No significant effect was observed on the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract and fibre constituents like NDF, ADF, hemicellulose or cellulose by supplementation of 1 and 6 ppm Co to the diet of growing calves. Balance of nutrients such as Nitrogen, Calcium and Phosphorus was similar and positive in all the treatment groups. TDN and DCP values of the experimental diets remained almost similar irrespective of dietary level of cobalt. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(10.000: 299-302

  19. Septicaemic listeriosis in reindeer calves – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomo Nyyssönen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from 4 reindeer calves as a nearly pure growth from several internal organs, pointing to a septicaemic form of listeriosis. The calves were born in a calving corral. Silage feeding was considered the most probable source of the infection.Abstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmä:Listeria monocytogenes -bakteerin aiheuttama verenmyrkytys poronvasoilla – tapausselostus Toukokuussa 2005 Suomen poronhoitoalueen kaakkoisosassa sijaitsevassa vasotustarhassa kuoli neljä poronvasaa pian syntymän jälkeen 5-11 päivän ikäisinä. Kaikkien vasojen kuolinsyyksi todettiin Listeria monocytogenes -bakteerin aiheuttama verenmyrkytys. Tartunnan todennäköisin lähde oli vaatimien lisäruokinnassa käytetty säilörehu. Kyseessä on ensimmäinen poronvasoilla todettu Listeria monocytogenes -bakteerin aiheuttama verenmyrkytys Suomessa. Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Tilfelle av sjukdomsfremkallende Listeriabakterie i reinkalver Listeria monocytogenes ble isolert fra 4 reinkalver som en nesten ren vekst fra flere indre organer, noe som antyder en sykdomsfremkallende form av listeriose. Kalvene nedkom i en kalveinnhegning, og man antok at dårlig silofôr var smittekilden.

  20. Numerical modelling of iceberg calving force responsible for glacial earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Amandine; Yastrebov, Vladislav; Castelnau, Olivier; Mangeney, Anne; Stutzmann, Eleonore; Montagner, Jean-Paul

    2016-04-01

    Glacial earthquakes is a class of seismic events of magnitude up to 5, occurring primarily in Greenland, in the margins of large marine-terminated glaciers with near-grounded termini. They are caused by calving of cubic-kilometer scale unstable icebergs which penetrate the full-glacier thickness and, driven by the buoyancy forces, capsize against the calving front. These phenomena produce seismic energy including surface waves with dominant energy between 10-150 s of period whose seismogenic source is compatible with the contact force exerted on the terminus by the iceberg while it capsizes. A reverse motion and posterior rebound of the terminus have also been measured and associated with the fluctuation of this contact force. Using a finite element model of iceberg and glacier terminus coupled with simplified fluid-structure interaction model, we simulate calving and capsize of icebergs. Contact and frictional forces are measured on the terminus and compared with laboratory experiments. We also study the influence of geometric factors on the force history, amplitude and duration at the laboratory and field scales. We show first insights into the force and the generated seismic waves exploring different scenarios for iceberg capsizing.

  1. Clinical evaluation of cardiac effects of experimental doxycycline overdosing in healthy calves

    OpenAIRE

    Amory Hélène; Detilleux Johann; Desmecht Daniel; Rollin Frédéric; Brihoum Mounir

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Cardiac morphologic and functional changes consistent with cardiomyopathy have been reported in field cases of calves with accidental doxycycline overdosing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinically the cardiac effects of an experimentally-induced doxycycline overdosing in healthy calves. Twelve 2 months-old healthy Belgian Blue calves were studied. Six of them (group 1) received the normal dose (5 mg/kg, BID) and the six others (group 2) received five times th...

  2. Prevalence and molecular characterisation of Giardia duodenalis in calves with diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S H; VanBik, D; Kim, H Y; Cho, A; Kim, J W; Byun, J W; Oem, J K; Oh, S I; Kwak, D

    2016-06-18

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in diarrhoeal faeces from calves that were reared in Korea using PCR and ELISA. Diarrhoeal faecal samples were collected from 590 calves (giardiasis in calves with haemorrhagic diarrhoea found in this study differed from previous studies. Therefore, researchers and veterinarians should be aware of the possible involvement of giardiasis in haemorrhagic diarrhoea. PMID:27162285

  3. Comparison of abomasal emptying in neonatal calves with a nuclear scintigraphic procedure.

    OpenAIRE

    Nappert, G; Lattimer, J C

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate that nuclear medicine technology allows observation of the effect that milk clotting has on abomasal emptying in the living neonatal calf. Scintigraphic evaluation of abomasal emptying was carried out in 6 healthy male Holstein calves. The calves were fed 10% of their body weight daily as whole cow's milk that was divided equally and consumed as 2 feedings via a nipple bottle. One day before the nuclear scintigraphic procedure, the calves we...

  4. The effect of unrestricted milk feeding on the growth and health of Jersey calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, J L; Lourens, D C; Thompson, P N

    2011-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding high milk volumes on the growth rate, health and cross-sucking behaviour in group-fed Jersey calves. Three-day-old heifers (n = 120) in a seasonal calving dairy herd were randomly assigned to one of 6 treatment groups. Three groups received high milk volumes (HMV), consisting of ad libitum milk or milk replacer feeding twice a day, while 3 groups received restricted milk volumes (RMV), consisting of 2 l twice daily, during the pre-weaning period. After a pre-weaning period during which feeding was reduced to once daily, all calves were weaned at 42 days and monitored until 60 days of age. Adjusting for birth mass, birth date, dam parity and sire, average daily mass gain (ADG), both pre-weaning (days 0-42) and overall (days 0-60), was higher in HMV than in RMV calves (P calves maintained a 6.74 kg advantage in mean body mass (P feed was higher in RMV than in HMV calves. Overall feed conversion rate of HMV calves was 9.6 % better than RMV calves. However, the variable cost per kg mass gain was 12 % higher for HMV calves. In the RMV groups 75 % of calves showed cross-sucking behaviour pre-weaning and 18 % post-weaning, whereas in HMV calves the proportions were 2 % and 7 %, respectively. There was no significant effect of milk volume on the incidence of diarrhoea. We conclude that the feeding of high volumes of milk to Jersey calves has a positive effect on growth rate, without compromising health or reducing solid feed intake after weaning. However, the higher cost of such a feeding system may limit its implementation.

  5. Early weaning alters the acute-phase reaction to an endotoxin challenge in beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J A; Arthington, J D; Chase, C C

    2009-12-01

    Previous research indicates that early weaning before shipment can reduce transportation-induced increases in acute-phase proteins (APP) and can increase feedlot performance in beef calves. These data suggest that the combination of weaning and transport stress may compromise the immune system of calves, thus hindering subsequent performance and health. Therefore, our objective was to determine if the innate immune response of early weaned calves (EW; 80 d of age) differed from normal-weaned calves (NW; 250 d of age) in response to an endotoxin challenge. Eighteen Brahman x Angus calves (8 and 10 EW and NW, respectively; 233 +/- 5 kg of BW) were used. Calves were maintained on pasture with supplement and then moved into individual pens for 1 wk of acclimation before the start of the study. Calves were fitted with an indwelling jugular catheter 1 d before LPS challenge (0 h; 1.0 microg/kg of BW, intravenously). Blood samples were collected at 30-min intervals from -2 to 8 h. Serum samples were stored at -80 degrees C until analyzed for cortisol, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), IL-1 beta, IL-6, interferon-gamma (IFN), ceruloplasmin, and haptoglobin. Whereas LPS increased serum cortisol (P or= 0.15) was observed. A weaning age x time interaction (P x time interaction (P calves. Based upon these data, the innate immune system of EW calves appears to be more competent in responding to immune challenge compared with that of NW calves. Additionally, the differential IFN response indicates that the immune system of EW calves may be more effective at recognizing and eliminating endotoxin. These data suggest that an altered innate immune system may be one of the factors responsible for the improved feedlot performance previously reported in EW calves. PMID:19717781

  6. Age of First Calving and Subsequent Fertility and Survival in Holstein Friesian Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    constantin Gavan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between age at first calving (AFC and subsequent fertility and survival up to third calving in Holstein Friesian heifers. Study comprised 116 consecutively born female calves from the same herd. The animals were divided in four AFC groups for analysis: <24 months, 25-27 months, 28-30 months, > 30 months. Fertility before first calving was recorded as age at first breeding (AFB, services per conception (S/C, age at conception, first service conception rate (FSCR and actual AFC. After first calving, fertility was recorded as days to first service (DFC, days to conception (DTC, S/C and FSCR. Survival rate up to third calving also was recorded. The proportion of heifers conceiving to first service, before calving, was highest (100% for the youngest AFC group (<24 mounth and worst (33,33% for the oldest AFC gropu (>30 mounth. Fertility in the first lactation was best in primiparous cows calving at 25-27 months. Survival rate up to third calving was 42,85% for <24 months group, 75,55% for 25-27 months group, 68,42% for 28-30 months group and 44,44% for >30 mounth group. In conclusion, performance in Holstein Friesian cows was achieved with an AFC of 25-27 months. These animals performed well in terms of fertility and survival.

  7. Environmental factors and dam characteristics associated with insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in newborn Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, M M; Van Eetvelde, M; Bogaert, H; Hostens, M; Vandaele, L; Shamsuddin, M; Opsomer, G

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the present retrospective cohort study was to evaluate potential associations between environmental factors and dam characteristics, including level of milk production during gestation, and insulin traits in newborn Holstein calves. Birth weight and gestational age of the calves at delivery were determined. On the next day, heart girth, wither height and diagonal length of both the calves and their dams were measured. Parity, body condition score and age at calving were recorded for all dams. For the cows, days open before last gestation, lactation length (LL), length of dry period (DP) and calving interval were also calculated. The magnitude and shape of the lactation curve both quantified using the MilkBot model based on monthly milk weights, were used to calculate the amount of milk produced during gestation. Using the same procedure, cumulative milk production from conception to drying off (MGEST) was calculated. A blood sample was collected from all calves (n=481; 169 born to heifers and 312 born to cows) at least 5 h after a milk meal on day 3 of life to measure basal glucose and insulin levels. In addition, an intravenous glucose-stimulated insulin secretion test was performed in a subset of the calves (n=316). After descriptive analysis, generalized linear mixed models were used to identify factors that were significantly associated with the major insulin traits (Insb, basal insulin level; QUICKI, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index; AIR, acute insulin response; DI, disposition index) of the newborn calves. The overall average birth weight of the calves was 42.7 ± 5.92 kg. The insulin traits were significantly associated with gender and season of birth when data of all calves were analyzed. In addition, the insulin traits in calves born to cows were significantly associated with MGEST, DP and LL. The Insb was estimated to be higher in calves born to the cows having passed a higher MGEST (P=0.076) and longer DP (P=0.034). The

  8. Effect of dietary administration of bananas on immunocytes in F1 hybrid calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Keiichi; Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Ichijho, Toshihiro; Kawamura, Seiichi

    2006-01-01

    The effect of dietary administration of bananas on immunocytes in calves was investigated. Twenty Fl hybrid calves were used in this study (treated group n=10, control group n=10). Banana (2 g/kg BW) was administered to the calves for 5 days. Leukocyte subsets were examined on days 0, 5, 10, and 15. The numbers CD3+, (CD3+)CD45R-, and (CD3+)TcR+ cells significantly increased between day 0 and day 5 in the treated group (Pbanana to calves increased T-lymphocytes, suggesting it might be possible to enhance protective functions against infections.

  9. Protection of newborn calves against fatal multisystemic infectious bovine rhinotracheitis by feeding colostrum from vaccinated cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechor, G D; Rousseaux, C G; Radostits, O M; Babiuk, L A; Petrie, L

    1987-01-01

    To determine whether consumption of colostrum with high levels of serum neutralizing antibody to bovine herpesvirus 1 would protect neonatal calves from the frequently fatal multisystemic form of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, Holstein calves were fed for 48 h after birth with either pooled colostrum from seropositive vaccinated cows or colostrum from seronegative unvaccinated cows. The serum neutralizing antibody achieved in the former calves was between 64 and 256 and the titer in the latter calves was below 8. At 48 h of age the calves were challenged by aerosolization with bovine herpesvirus 1. All five seronegative calves died or were euthanized in a moribund state between days 5 and 7 of the trial, whereas all five seropositive animals remained healthy throughout the study. Twice daily clinical examination revealed significantly lower scores in the seronegative group from 60 h postinfection. Relative lung weights were greater in the seronegative group, associated with a severe acute necrotizing bronchiolitis with fibrin exudation. The seronegative group of calves also demonstrated an acute necrotizing rumenitis, pharyngitis, glossitis, esophagitis, laryngitis and tracheitis. The seropositive animals had only small areas of subacute necrotizing fibrinopurulent rhinitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1 virus was isolated from all nasal passages of all calves but isolation of virus in the seronegative calves was made from the trachea (5/5), lung (4/5), bronchial lymph nodes (4/5), spleen (4/5), thymus (3/5), liver (2/5), rumen (2/5) and brain (1/5).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2839276

  10. Heterosis retention for birth and weaning characters of calves in the third generation of a five-breed diallel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, R E; Baker, J F; Cartwright, T C; Long, C R; Sanders, J O

    1991-12-01

    Data were 876 birth records and 727 weaning records of straightbred and F3 crossbred calves produced in the third generation of a five-breed diallel. Among straightbreds at birth, Holstein calves were heaviest and widest at the shoulders and hips. Jersey calves were lightest and narrowest at the hips, and Brahman calves were narrowest at the shoulders. Holstein crosses tended to be larger at birth than crosses among other breeds. Among straightbreds at weaning, Holstein calves were heaviest and tallest, and Hereford calves were lightest and shortest. Angus calves had the highest survival to weaning rate, and Holstein calves had the lowest survival rate. Among crossbred calves, Holstein crosses tended to be larger at weaning. Estimates of average heterosis retained for birth characters were not significant. Significant breed mean heterosis retention was observed for birth weight, shoulder width, and hip width of Hereford calves and for shoulder width and hip width of Holstein calves. Estimates of average heterosis retained for weaning weight and height were 6.1 kg (P less than .01) and 1.02 cm (P less than .05), respectively. In general, estimates of specific and average heterosis retained for survival to weaning were nonsignificant. Significant breed mean heterosis was observed for weaning weight and height of Brahman, Hereford, and Holstein calves and for survival to weaning of Hereford, Holstein, and Jersey calves. PMID:1808172

  11. Fator V de Leiden na doença de Legg-Calvé-Perthes Leiden's V-factor in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Lira Olivier Sanders

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Trobofilias hereditárias têm sido implicadas na patogênese da doenca de Legg-Calvé-Perthes. Uma investigação do fator de risco hereditário mais comum para hipercoagulabilidade - a mutação no gene do fator V (fator V de Leiden - foi conduzida em 20 pacientes com Legg-Calvé-Perthes e 214 controles sadios. A prevalência do fator V de Leiden foi maior nos pacientes com Legg-Calvé-Perthes que no grupo controle (30 vs. 1,87%. A razão de chances (odds ratio para o desenvolvimento de Legg-Calvé-Perthes foi de 22,5 (pInherited tendency to hypercoagulability has been suggested as a cause of vascular thrombosis resulting in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. An investigation of the most common inherited risk factor for hypercoagulability - the mutation in the V-factor gene (Leiden's V-factor - was carried out among 20 Patients diagnosed with Legg- Calvé-Perthes disease. Patients were compared with 214 healthy controls. The prevalence of the Leiden's V-factor was higher in patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease than in controls (30% vs. 1,87%. The odds ratio for the development of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease in the presence of the Leiden's V-factor mutation was 22,5 (p<0,05; confidence interval: 5,68-89.07. These data suggest the Leiden's V-factor as an inherited risk factor for hypercoagulability associated with the development of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease.

  12. Causes of Stillbirth and Time of Death in Swedish Holstein Calves Examined Post Mortem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvander M

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was initiated due to the observation of increasing and rather high levels of stillbirths, especially in first-calving Swedish Holstein cows (10.3%, 2002. Seventy-six Swedish Holstein calves born to heifers at 41 different farms were post mortem examined in order to investigate possible reasons for stillbirth and at what time in relation to full-term gestation they had occurred. The definition of a stillborn calf was dead at birth or within 24 h after birth after at least 260 days of gestation. Eight calves were considered as having died already in uterus. Slightly less than half of the examined calves (46.1% were classified as having died due to a difficult calving. Four calves (5.3% had different kinds of malformations (heart defects, enlarged thymus, urine bladder defect. Approximately one third of the calves (31.6% were clinically normal at full-term with no signs of malformation and born with no indication of difficulties at parturition or any other reason that could explain the stillbirth. The numbers of male and female calves were rather equally distributed within the groups. A wide variation in post mortem weights was seen in all groups, although a number of the calves in the group of clinically normal calves with unexplained reason of death were rather small and, compared with e.g. those calves categorised as having died due to a difficult calving, their average birth weight was 6 kg lower (39.9 ± 1.7 kg vs. 45.9 ± 1.5 kg, p ≤ 0.01. It was concluded that the cause of stillbirth with a non-infectious aetiology is likely to be multifactorial and difficult calving may explain only about half of the stillbirths. As much as one third of the calves seemed clinically normal with no obvious reason for death. This is a target group of calves that warrants a more thorough investigation in further studies.

  13. PREVALENCE OF PARASITIC INFECTION IN BUFFALO CALVES IN JKHADAGZAI, DISTRICT DIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M, Azam. M. M, Siddiqui and G. Habib

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of ecto and endo-parasites of buffalo calves was investigated in 50 buffalo farms in Khadagzai area of district Dir. N.W.F.P. Province. Faecal examination of calves (n = 118: age ≤ 1 year revealed that 64.41% of the calves were positive for internal parasites. The worm load significantly varied (P<0.05 among the farms and was the highest (1600-3600 EPG in 2%, moderate (800-1600 EPG in 22%, low (200-800 EPG in 34% and negligible (less than 200 EPG in 42% farms. Among the calves examined 50.84% had the worm load of 200-800 EPG and 13.56% calves showed the worm load of 800-1600 EPG. , The highest worm load (1600-3600 EPG was observed only in 0.85% of the calves. Six species of nematodes and one specie of trematodes were identified. No cestode infection was encountered during the study. The incidence of Trichostrongylus species was 21.19% followed by Trichuris (9.32%. Haemonchus (8.47%, Strongyloides papillosus (5.93%, Ostertagia (5.08%. Toxocara vitulurum (1 .70%. Fasciola (5.93% and mixed infections (6.78%. Intestinal protozoan infection was recorded in 72% of the calves. Majority of the calves (85% had mixed infection of Coccidia and Amoeba and the remaining 15% calves were found infected with Coccidia only. A total of 5.93% of the calves studied were found positive for ecto-parasites. The prevalence of ticks, lice, mites and mixed infection was 5.08, 34.75, 11.86 and 4.24% respectively in the surveyed calves.

  14. The effects of social contact and milk allowance on responses to handling, play, and social behavior in young dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duve, Linda Rosager; Weary, D.M.; Halekoh, Ulrich;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of social contact and milk allowance on social behavior, play behavior, and responses to handling in dairy calves. Forty test calves and 16 companion calves were allocated to 1 of 5 treatments from birth to 4 wk of age: (1) housed singly and fed...... with the dam, and pair-housed calves struggled at an intermediate level. Play behavior was recorded for 20 min/wk after the provision of fresh straw; calves housed singly and fed a low milk allowance spent less time playing than did calves in all other treatments. Three days after grouping, calves were...... subjected to a feed competition test; calves receiving the high milk allowance and housed in pairs spent more time feeding than did those receiving the high milk allowance and housed singly, with all other treatments showing intermediate responses. These results indicate that social contact decreased...

  15. Performance of young calves fed soybean protein replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyele, I O; Harshbarger, K E

    1983-04-01

    In two 12-wk trials we evaluated soybean protein in calf milk replacers. In trial 1, twelve 5-day-old Holstein calves were allotted randomly to three milk replacers. The diets contained 26% crude protein. In trial 2, 18 calves were used and the diet contained 30% crude protein. In trial 1 period 1 (10 to 15 days), mean coefficients of apparent digestibility (%) for milk protein, soy protein concentrate, and full fat soy flour replacers were dry matter 92.0, 70.0, 71.0; protein 90.1, 56.6, 61.3; fat 88.9, 55.0, 53.2;; and ash 85.8, 62.5, 61.2. Average daily nitrogen retentions were 10.8, -1.24, and -.7 g. Results in period 2 (30 to 35 days) for digestibilities and nitrogen retention showed considerable improvement over those in period 1. In trial 2 period 1, mean coefficients of apparent digestibility (%) for milk protein, soy protein concentrate, and defatted soy flour replacers were dry matter 87.5, 66.6, 47.9; protein 80.5, 57.2, 28.5; fat 81.5, 55.9, 33.5; and ash 83.8, 58.9, 48.4. Average daily nitrogen retentions were 10.8, 2.9, and -3.6 g. Results in period 2 for digestibilities and nitrogen retention also showed considerable improvement. Calves are able to use soy based replacers more effectively with age. PMID:6682865

  16. The optimal number of heifer calves to be reared as dairy replacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohd Nor, N.; Steeneveld, W.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy farmers often keep almost all their newborn heifer calves despite the high cost of rearing. By rearing all heifer calves, farmers have more security and retain flexibility to cope with the uncertainty in the availability of replacement heifers in time. This uncertainty is due to mortality or i

  17. Social behavior of young dairy calves housed with limited or full social contact with a peer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duve, Linda Rosager; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the effect of individual and pair housing and age at pair housing on the social behavior of young dairy calves. Twenty-seven pairs of calves were reared from birth until 6 wk either individually (limited social contact between bars; L calves), in pairs (full social contact; F...... calves), or individually for 3wk and in pairs for the next 3wk (LF calves). From 6 to 7wk of age, the calves were housed in a group of 6 calves (each group consisted of 3 pair of calves, 1 pair from each treatment). Video recordings of undisturbed behavior were obtained from each pair on d 2, 12, 22......, and 34 (age of the youngest calf in a pair) and from the group pens on d 44 and 49 (age of the youngest calf in the group). Behavioral recordings were performed using instantaneous recording at 5-min intervals on d 2, 22, and 34 over 16h to investigate overall activity and social activity of the pairs...

  18. Effect of protein provision via milk replacer or solid feed on protein metabolism in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, H.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Røjen, B.A.; Hendriks, W.H.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of protein provision to calves fed a combination of solid feed (SF) and milk replacer (MR) at equal total N intake on urea recycling and N retention. Nitrogen balance traits and [15N2]urea kinetics were measured in 30 calves (23 wk of age, 180 ± 3.7 kg of body

  19. Development of colonic microflora as assessed by pyrosequencing in dairy calves fed waste milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of pasteurization of waste milk used to feed dairy calves on the bacterial diversity of their lower gut. Using 16S rDNA bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP), fecal samples from dairy calves aging from 1 week to 6 mon...

  20. Social isolation may influence responsiveness to infection with bovine herpesvirus 1 in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reenen, van C.G.; Mars, M.H.; Leushuis, I.E.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    An experiment was performed to develop a model to study the impact of stress on responsiveness to infection with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) in veal calves. Social isolation after previous group-housing was used as a putatively stressful treatment. Group-housed specific pathogen-free veal calves (n=

  1. Blood bactericidal assay (Pasteurella haemolytica) comparison of morbidity in marketed feeder calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, C W; Richards, A B; Foster, G S

    1989-02-01

    An in vitro bactericidal assay that used bovine heparinized blood was investigated for its usefulness in detecting differences in the bactericidal immunity of calves against Pasteurella haemolytica serotype 1 (Ph1). Greater than 90% of killing occurred within 30 minutes. The substitution of fetal calf serum for autologous calf plasma caused loss of bactericidal activity of the blood. Decomplemented calf serum also was low in bactericidal activity. The blood bactericidal assay appears to be opsonin antibody-dependent and complement-dependent. The coefficient of variation (CV) that can be expected with this assay was established by use of a group of 8 calves; within-day CV maximum was 0.9, and between-day CV maximum was 2.1. The blood bactericidal assay was used to evaluate 30 calves under typical market stress from 4 farms in eastern Tennessee. All calves had decreased bactericidal activity, as they moved into a feedyard in Texas. The bactericidal activity was reduced among sick calves, based on the severity of clinical signs. Morbidity was highest during the first 14 days in the feedlot. During this period, healthy calves had a decreased bactericidal index (BI) of 4 points, and calves with clinical signs of bovine respiratory tract disease for 3 days had a decreased BI of 8 points. The average reduction in the BI of calves with clinical signs of bovine respiratory tract disease for 6 or more days was 14 points. PMID:2719384

  2. Macromolecule absorption and cortisol secretion in newborn calves derived from in vitro produced embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, H; Sangild, P T; Schmidt, M;

    2002-01-01

    an altered macromolecule absorption (immunoglobulin G (IgG) and porcine serum albumin (PSA)) compared with AI calves and whether the macromolecule absorption could be related to the degree of acidosis or to the cortisol secretion around birth. Hence, IgG and PSA absorption in control AI calves (n=7...

  3. Behavioural reactivity of heifer calves in potentially alarming test situations: a multivariate and correlational analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reenen, van C.G.; Engel, B.; Heutinck, L.F.M.; Werf, van der J.T.N.; Buist, W.G.; Jones, R.B.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the degree of consistency of individual differences in behavioural responses of heifer calves over time and across different situations. Twenty-five Holstein Friesian heifer calves were individually subjected to the same set of four behavioural tests at

  4. The variability of tidewater-glacier calving: origin of event-size and interval distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Chapuis, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Calving activity at the front of tidewater glaciers is characterized by a large variability in iceberg sizes and inter-event intervals. We present calving-event data obtained from continuous observations of the fronts of two tidewater glaciers on Svalbard, and show that the distributions of event sizes and inter-event intervals can be reproduced by a simple calving model focusing on the mutual interplay between calving and the destabilization of the glacier front. The event-size distributions of both the field and the model data extend over several orders of magnitude and resemble power laws. The distributions of inter-event intervals are broad, but have a less pronounced tail. In the model, the width of the size distribution increases with the calving susceptibility of the glacier front, a parameter measuring the effect of calving on the stress in the local neighborhood of the calving region. Inter-event interval distributions, in contrast, are insensitive to the calving susceptibility. Above a critical susc...

  5. Buschke-Ollendorff syndrom i to generationer imiterende Legg Calvé Perthes sygdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Nebras; Fast, Sanne; Poulsen, Mette Ramsdal;

    2015-01-01

    diagnosed earlier with Calvé-Legg-Perthes disease, which on revision most likely represented Buschke-Ollendorff syndrome. Buschke-Ollendorff syndrome may imitate Calvé-Legg-Perthes disease. Skin signs may be the clue to diagnosis. Main differentials are sclerotic bone metastases and osteoma....

  6. The benzodiazepine brotizolam reduces fear in calves exposed to a novel object test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reenen, van C.G.; Hopster, H.; Werf, van der J.T.N.; Engel, B.; Buist, W.G.; Jones, R.B.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Korte, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of the intravenous administration of the anxiolytic drug brotizolam on the behavioral and physiological responsiveness of calves to novelty in a dose response fashion. Holstein Friesian heifer calves (39¿41 weeks of age; body weight 200¿300 kg) received an intr

  7. Breed x sex effects on birth weight in Brahman-Simmental embryo transfer calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahman cross calves exhibit unusual inheritance of birth weight: Brahman-sired crossbreds out of Bos taurus females are heavier with greater difference between sexes than calves of the reciprocal cross. The objective of this work was to compare birth weight in various crosses of Brahman, Simmenta...

  8. Ultrasonographic imaging of abomasal milk clotting and abomasal diameter in healthy and diarrheic calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Daniela; Schwedhelm, Lea; Wenge, Julia; Steinhöfel, Ilka; Heinrich, Christian; Coenen, Manfred; Bachmann, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    In case of diarrhea calves are treated with oral rehydration solutions (ORS), which are known to increase abomasal pH and inhibit milk clotting in vitro. Nevertheless, recent studies have shown that ORS with HCO3(-) ≤ 62 mmol/L do not interfere with abomasal milk clotting in healthy calves. However, in diarrheic calves, feeding ORS and milk simultaneously may disturb abomasal curd formation and exacerbate diarrhea due to faster abomasal passage of ingesta. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to ultrasonographically examine abomasal milk clotting and diameter after feeding milk and milk replacer (MR) with and without ORS to healthy and diarrheic calves. Abomasal curd formation and diameter in healthy and diarrheic calves were ultrasonographically imaged before and after feeding milk, MR and ORS prepared in milk or MR. Feeding mixtures of milk or MR with ORS did not cause any remarkable differences in the ultrasonographic images of abomasal content. Moreover, abomasal milk clotting was not disturbed due to diarrhea. Statistically significant differences of abomasal diameter after feeding between healthy and diarrheic calves indicated that abomasal emptying is delayed in diarrheic calves. Hence, further studies are needed to determine reasons for decelerated abomasal passage in calves suffering from diarrhea.

  9. PCR as a diagnostic test method for deduction of H. somni on trans-tracheal aspirated bronchoalveolar fluid from clinically normal calves and calves with pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, J. M. D.; Angen, Øystein; Thomsen, J.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present field study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of a species specific PCR test against Histophilus somni (earlier Haemophilus somnus). Trans-tracheal aspirated bronchoalveolar fluid (BAL) from 56 clinically normal healthy calves and 36 calves that developed pneumonia were...... disease. Among diseased calves, 97% contained bacteria in the lower respiratory tract, all of them classified as pure culture or many pathogenic bacteria in mixed culture. BRSV was detected in 53% of the diseased calves. A comparison of H. somni specific PCR test to cultivation showed PCR to be most...... sensitive test. No significant relation between pneumonia and detection of H. somni by PCR could be demonstrated, whereas a clear significant correlation between pneumonia and detection of H. somni by cultivation was found....

  10. Feeding of reindeer calves for slaughtering in the autumn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endre Jacobsen

    1981-05-01

    Full Text Available Experiments have been carried out for testing the profit of feeding reindeer calves to slaughter maturity in the autumn. The calves were fed a special reindeer calf feed KF-71 (see Table 1 & 2. 16 male calves were fed from September 9th to November 7th. The feed consumption per kg gain in dressed weight was 14,2 kg (estimated to 12,8 fattening feed units. The gain in dressed weight in the period was 5,8 kg per animal. Using the today price of reindeer feed and reindeer meat the feeding in this trial has not been profitable. Some other circumstances which are of importance in estimating the economy by feeding of reindeer calves for slaughter are discussed.Teurastettavien poronvasojen ruokinta syksylla.Abstract in Finnish / Ybteenveto: Poronvasojen ruokinnan kannattavuutta teurastusta silmallapitaen om selvitetty kokeellisesti erityisella tahan tarkoitukseen valmistetulla vakirehulla (taulukot 1 ja 2. Kokeissa ruokittiin 16 vasaa syyskuun 9. ja marraskuun 7. paivan valisena aikana. Rehun kulutus teuraspainon lisayksena saavutettua kiloa kohti oli 14,2 kg. Ruokintajakson aikana teuraspaino lisaantyi elainta kohti 5,8 kg. Kun huomioidaan ruokinnassa kaytetyn rehun hinta ja toisaalta vasanlihan hinta ei ruokinta ollut kannattavaa. Kirjoituksessa pohditaan myos muita suhteita, joilla on merkitysta arvioitaessa teurastettavien poronvasojen ruokinnan taloudellisuutta.Oppforing av reinkalver for slakting om høsten.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Det er gjort forsøk for å belyse lønnsomheten ved oppforing av reinkalver til slakt om høsten med et kraftfor laget til dette formål (se Tabell 1og 2. 16 oksekalver ble foret i tidsrommet 9/9 til 7/11. Forforbruket pr. kg tilvekst i slaktevekt var 14,2 kg(beregnet til 12,8 f.f.e.. Tilveksten i slaktevekt i perioden er beregnet til 5,8 kg pr. dyr. Med de priser vi idag har på reinkalvfor og på kalvekjøtt har denne foringen ikke vært regningssvarende. Det er diskutert andre forhold som har betydning

  11. Pathological and microbiological studies on pneumonic lungs from Danish calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, Conny; Uttenthal, Åse; Friis, N.F.;

    1999-01-01

    During 1 year, the association between microbiological and pathological findings in 72 lungs from calves submitted to the Danish Veterinary Laboratory for diagnostic purposes was studied. All cases mere evaluated pathologically and bacteriologically, whereas only 68 cases were examined for the pr...... bovirhinis and Ureaplasma diversum were present, often concomitantly in the majority of cases. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from one case....... for the presence of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), parainfluenza-3 virus (PI-3 virus) and bovine coronavirus, 62 cases for bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVD), 45 cases for bovine adenovirus and 51 cases for mycoplasmas. Based on histopathological examination, the cases were diagnosed as fibrinous and...

  12. ESCHERICHIA COLI O157 IN WITHE VEAL CALVES CARCASSES

    OpenAIRE

    V. D’Orio; M. Conter; G. Colavita; M. Paoletti

    2013-01-01

    During 2006 one hundred and three white veal calves slaughtered at an abattoir in Isernia (Italy) were examined for E. coli O157 intestinal carriage and carcass contamination, using Immuno-Magnetic Separation (IMS) and multiplex PCR. Faecal material before slaughtering and carcass samples, using sponge-bag, were collected. E. coli O157 isolates were found in 10 (9,71%) faecal and 9 (8,7%) carcass samples. PCR analysis showed that all the strains from faecal and from carcass samples carried ea...

  13. Instrumental objective measurement of veal calves carcass colour at slaughterhouse

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Vandoni; Carlo Angelo Sgoifo Rossi

    2010-01-01

    A total of 6700 veal calves were used to compare the ability of chromameter CR300 in measuring the veal meat colour on-line at slaughterhouse and to develop a prediction equation of colour score based on relationship between instrumental and visual assessments. A total of 5000 carcasses were used to develop equation of prediction while 1700 were used to test it. The meat colour was assessed subjectively in 3 different slaughterhouses by the slaughterhouse’s judges 10h post mortem and ob...

  14. Legg-Perthes-Calve disease: staging by MRI using gadolinium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducou le Pointe, H. (Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, 75 - Paris (France)); Haddad, S. (Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, 75 - Paris (France)); Silberman, B. (Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, 75 - Paris (France)); Filipe, G. (Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, 75 - Paris (France)); Monroc, M. (Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, 75 - Paris (France)); Montagne, J.P. (Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, 75 - Paris (France))

    1994-04-01

    Twenty-one patients (26 hips) with typical signs of Legg-Perthes-Calve (LPC) disease on plain radiographs were explored by MRI. Patients were imaged with a 0.5 T MR unit. Gadolinium-enhanced spinecho MR images were obtained after nonenhanced T1-weighted (spin-echo) and T2[sup *]-weighted (gradient-echo) images. Four different areas were identified in the femoral epiphysis (necrosis, regenerative, cartilaginous and normal fatty bone tissue). The histological evolution of LPC is well described by Catterall and others. Comparing their descriptions with out MR findings, we suggest classification ofLPC into five phases: necrosis: regeneration, reconstruction, reossification and sequelae. (orig.)

  15. Acute chondrolysis complicating Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, R.; Kook Sang Oh; Young, L.W.; Goodman, M.

    1987-07-01

    Of 270 children with Legg-Calve-Perthes (LCP) disease, roentgenographic evidence of chondrolysis was noted in 12 (4.5%) within one year after diagnosis and appropriate management. Only in six hips of these 12 patients did the retrospective clinical, histological, and orthopedic findings fulfill the diagnostic requirements for chondrolysis. Sequential roentgenographic findings included initial periarticular osteoporosis and subchondral cortical irregularities, subsequent narrowing of the joint space, premature fusion of the growth plate, and eventual development of degenerative arthritis. The early roentgenographic recognition of chondrolysis is emphasized because it has an untoward effect on the prognosis of LCP and should therefore prompt a different orthopedic approach.

  16. Cardiovascular effects of intravenous administration of propylene glycol and of oxytetracycline in propylene glycol in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, D R; Kitzman, J V; Adams, H R

    1979-06-01

    Comparisons were made of the acute cardiovascular effects of oxytetracycline, oxytetracycline in propylene glycol, and propylene glycol alone given to conscious dairy calves. The calves were chronically instrumented with intravascular catheters and electromagnetic flowmeter transducers in and on the pulmonary and renal arteries. Injection (IV) of aqueous preparations of oxytetracycline produced no statistically significant (P greater than 0.05) cardiocirculatory changes in these calves. Oxytetracycline in propylene glycol and propylene glycol alone both produced transient (1 to 4 minute) periods of cardiovascular depression characterized by cardiac asystole, systemic hypotension, and decreased pulmonary and renal arterial blood flow. The two preparations, in equivalent doses and volumes, produced statistically similar hemodynamic changes in the calves. The data from this study support the conclusion that the monitored cardiovascular effects of the commercially available oxytetracycline in propylene glycol in the intact, awake calves were due to the solvent propylene glycol. This conclusion is consistent with reports of other injectable products containing the same solvent. PMID:475130

  17. Effect of Calving Interval on Milk Yield and Quality Lactation in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Baul

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Researches were made on 125 lactations from Romanian Black Spotted cows, aimed at studying the evolution of the interval between calving on milk quantity and quality. Data were recorded and statistically analyzed by means of ANOVA / MANOVA determining the average values and dispersion indices. Based on averages parameters of lactation curves were calculated using the mathematical model proposed by Wood, called the incomplete gamma function. The interval between calving significantly influenced (p < 0.05 lactation curve aspect for the percentage of dry defatted from milk for the daily growth rate (parameter c between calving interval 351 to 450 days and of over 450 days (0.00008. Also we’ve met significant differences (p < 0.05 for the initial concentration of the percentage of total solids in milk for parameter a from the interval between calving up to 350 days and calving interval 351-450 days (0.80101.

  18. Clinical and therapeutic study of gastrointestinal parasites in fedlot calves in Goggeli region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Abdulhameed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on 10 herds included 811 local fedlot calves (1 to 2 years old in Goggeli region, 86 calves wereaffected with gastrointestinal parasites. Total infestation rate was (60.99%. The study showed that Calves were infested withvarious species of nematodes and cestodes representing,The highest ratio of infestation was with Ostertagia spp (61.62%, andthe lowest with Monezia expansa (2.32%. Affected calves exhibited weakness, pale mucous membranes, loss of appetite,diarrhea, easily detached and lusterless hair. Results revealed that single infestation was (17.5%, whereas mixed infestationwas (82.5%. Results of blood picture indicated significant increase in total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration,packed cell volume, and significant decrease in total leukocyte count, at days 7, 14, 21 post treatment calves with Albendazoleand (levamisole hydrochloride 3% and oxyclozanide 6% compared with control group. Levamisole hydrochloride 3% andoxyclozanide 6% was more efficient against gastrointestinal parasites when compared with albendazole.

  19. Duration of active and colostrum-derived passive antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria, M F; McClurkin, A W

    1978-01-01

    Duration of active and colostrum-derived passive antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus was studied in 14 calves. Five calves born with actively induced antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus retained high titers during the year of observation. Colostrum-derived antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus in nine calves declined at an expected rate for the first four to six months of age. However, titers of six of these calves increased at five to eight months of age and either remained constant or increased through one year of age. Bovine viral diarrhea virus antibody titers of the other three calves declined at a constant rate to less than 1:4 by nine to 12 months of age. PMID:208738

  20. A genetic Study of Mortality in Danish Jersey Heifer Calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norberg, Elise; Pryce, Jennie; Pedersen, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    was very small and not significant. The mortality rate was highest in the first month after birth (7.8%). Total mortality in the first 180d was 12.5%. Direct heritabilities of mortality were quite low, ranging from 0.002 to 0.03 on the observable scale and 0.025 to 0.076 on the underlying scale. Maternal......The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for mortality of Jersey heifer calves during the first 6mo after birth, calculate the genetic trend of the trait, and estimate breeding values of widely used Jersey sires. More than 260,000 heifer calves were included in the study....... The mortality traits included in the analysis were defined as mortality in 8 different periods from 24h after birth to age 180d (d 1–14, d 15–30, d 31–60, d 61–90, d 91–120, d 121–150, and d 151–180) and mortality over the entire period. A linear model was used for estimation of genetic parameters, breeding...

  1. Renal cortex copper concentration in acute copper poisoning in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Fazzio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the diagnostic value of renal cortex copper (Cu concentration in clinical cases of acute copper poisoning (ACP. A total of 97 calves that died due to subcutaneous copper administration were compiled in eleven farms. At least, one necropsy was conducted on each farm and samples for complementary analysis were taken. The degree of autolysis in each necropsy was evaluated. The cases appeared on extensive grazing calf breeding and intensive feedlot farms, in calves of 60 to 200 kg body weight. Mortality varied from 0.86 to 6.96 %, on the farms studied. The first succumbed calf was found on the farms between 6 and 72 hours after the susbcutaneous Cu administration. As discrepancies regarding the reference value arose, the local value (19.9 parts per million was used, confirming the diagnosis of acute copper poisoning in 93% of the analyzed kidney samples. These results confirm the value of analysis of the cortical kidney Cu concentration for the diagnosis of acute copper poisoning.

  2. Cervico-pectoral ectopia cordis in two Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, T; Abe, M; Iwasa, K; Takehana, K; Tanigaki, A

    1993-11-01

    Two Holstein calves affected with cervico-pectoral ectopia cordis, a male (No. 1) delivered stillborn and a female (No. 2) died 1 hour after birth, were examined macroscopically and radiographically to assess the severity and elucidate the teratogenesis of the anomaly. The heart of one calf was covered by the intact pericardium and skin and displaced to the caudalmost portion of the ventrocervical region, just cranial to an enlarged thoracic inlet. The cranial vena cava and the vena azygos were duplicated. The sternum was bilaterally divided into two parts fused only at the xyphoid process and was semicircular. The heart of the other calf, covered solely by the pericardium, was exposed ventrally from an oval opening in the body wall just cranial to a defective Y-shaped sternum. In both calves, the arterial branching pattern from the aortic arch was intermediate between the patterns of the dog and pig, and in each case a single pulmonary vein emptied into the left atrium. Pronounced or slight torticollis, cleft palate, and abnormalities in the urogenital system were also found. From an embryological perspective, cervical and pectoral ectopia cordis have a common pathogenesis; the cervical type occurs at a slightly earlier fetal stage than the pectoral type. PMID:8116146

  3. Pre- and post-calving forage systems and reproductive performance of primiparous cows Sistemas forrageiros pré e pós-parto e desempenho reprodutivo de vacas primíparas

    OpenAIRE

    José Fernando Piva Lobato; André Luís Menegaz; Antonio Carlos Gonçalves Pereira

    2010-01-01

    During pre and post calving periods, it was evaluated the influence of the following forage systems on reproductive performance of primiparous cows: natural pasture during pre and post-calving periods; natural pastures during pre-calving period and improved pastures during post-calving period; improved pastures during pre-calving and natural pasture during post-calving; improved pasture during pre- and post-calving periods. The lowest body weights and body condition scores were observed on co...

  4. The effect of group composition and age on social behaviour and competition in groups of weaned dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færevik, G.; Jensen, Margit Bak; Bøe, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate how group composition affects behavior and weight gain of newly weaned dairy calves and how age within heterogeneous groups affects behavior and competition. Seventy-two calves were introduced into 6 groups of 12 calves, of which 3 groups were...... homogeneous and 3 groups were heterogeneous (including 6 young and 6 old calves). The 9.8 m × 9.5 m large experimental pen had 4 separate lying areas as well as a feeding area. Behavior and subgrouping were recorded on d 1, 7, and 14 after grouping, and calves were weighed before and after the experimental...... period of 14 d. Analysis of the effect of group composition on behavior and weight gain included young calves in heterogeneous groups and calves in homogeneous groups within the same age range at grouping (30 to 42 d). Irrespective of group composition, time spent feeding and lying increased, whereas...

  5. Effect of Topically Applied Anaesthetic Formulation on the Sensitivity of Scoop Dehorning Wounds in Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Dominique; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Harris, Charissa; Lomax, Sabrina; White, Peter John

    2016-01-01

    The post-operative effects of three formulations of topical anaesthetic and a cornual nerve block on the sensitivity of scoop dehorning wounds in calves were compared in two trials. In Trial 1, 21 female Holstein dairy calves aged 8 to 24 weeks were randomly allocated to two groups: (1) scoop dehorning with a post-operative application of a novel topical anaesthetic powder (DTAP, n = 10); and (2) scoop dehorning with a post-operative application of a novel topical anaesthetic ethanol liquid (DTAE, n = 11). In Trial 2, 18 castrated male and 18 female Hereford beef calves aged 16 to 20 weeks were randomly allocated to four groups: (1) scoop dehorning with a pre-operative cornual nerve block of lignocaine (DCB, n = 9); (2) scoop dehorning with a post-operative application of the novel topical anaesthetic ethanol liquid from Trial 1 (DTAE, n = 9); (3) scoop dehorning with a post-operative application of a topical anaesthetic gel (DTAG, n = 9); and (4) sham dehorning (CON, n = 9). Sensitivity was assessed by scoring the behavioural response of calves to stimulation of the wound or skin at time points before and after treatment. In Trial 1, DTAP calves had a greater probability of displaying more severe responses than DTAE calves at 90 and 180 min (P wound following scoop dehorning in calves and may provide a practical option for pain relief on-farm. PMID:27648948

  6. Genetic analysis on accumulated productivity and calving intervals in Nelore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Daniela do Amaral; Berton, Mariana Piatto; Buzanskas, Marcos Eli; Chud, Tatiane Cristina Seleguim; Grupioni, Natália Vinhal; de Paz, Claudia Cristina Paro; Lôbo, Raysildo Barbosa; Munari, Danísio Prado

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for accumulated productivity (ACP), first calving interval (CI1), second calving interval (CI2), and mean calving interval (MCI) in Nelore beef cattle. The ACP trait is a reproduction index and comprises the total number of calves born per dam, weight of weaned calves, and age of the dam at calving. Genetic parameters were estimated by the average information restricted maximum likelihood method in two-trait analyses. The average heritability estimate for ACP was 0.17 (0.03). For CI1, CI2, and MCI, the heritability estimates were 0.02, 0.02, and 0.06, respectively. Genetic correlations between ACP with CI1, CI2, and MCI were -0.16 ± 0.47, -0.29 ± 0.53, and -0.40 ± 0.27, respectively. Despite of the low heritability estimates obtained in our study, reproduction traits should be further studied and their inclusion in the selection criteria must be evaluated in order to improve the performance of females because these traits are of great economic importance in beef cattle. Accumulated productivity could contribute to decrease the mean calving interval in Nelore cattle.

  7. Effect of pre- and postweaning management system on the performance on Brahman crossbred feeder calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W A; Holloway, J W; Coleman, S W

    1991-08-01

    During a 3-yr period (1986 through 1988), 117 calves (57 steers and 60 heifers) from the same genetic base and reared under four distinct preweaning management systems were weaned in the fall and transported from Uvalde, TX to El Reno, OK (800 km). Weaning weight and transportation shrink varied more from year to year than among preweaning treatments. Postweaning performance was not affected by preweaning treatment. After a 28- to 32-d receiving period the calves were blocked by sex and previous preweaning treatment, then randomly assigned within block to graze winter wheat forage (WHEAT) or dormant tall-grass native range (GRASS). The WHEAT group gained more (P less than .01) weight than the GRASS group during the winter (November to March), but when both groups were allowed to graze spring wheat pasture (March to June) the GRASS group gained more (P less than .01) weight than the WHEAT calves. During the subsequent finishing phase the GRASS calves were more (P less than .01) efficient than the WHEAT calves in converting DM to gain. Because cattle were slaughtered at the same degree of finish, no differences were noted in carcass characteristics among the pre- or postweaning treatments. Feeder calves exposed to a restrictive period of growth during the postweaning period gained weight more rapidly in a subsequent forage-based stockering system and were more efficient in a grain-based finishing system than nonrestricted calves.

  8. Effect of pre- and postweaning management system on the performance on Brahman crossbred feeder calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W A; Holloway, J W; Coleman, S W

    1991-08-01

    During a 3-yr period (1986 through 1988), 117 calves (57 steers and 60 heifers) from the same genetic base and reared under four distinct preweaning management systems were weaned in the fall and transported from Uvalde, TX to El Reno, OK (800 km). Weaning weight and transportation shrink varied more from year to year than among preweaning treatments. Postweaning performance was not affected by preweaning treatment. After a 28- to 32-d receiving period the calves were blocked by sex and previous preweaning treatment, then randomly assigned within block to graze winter wheat forage (WHEAT) or dormant tall-grass native range (GRASS). The WHEAT group gained more (P less than .01) weight than the GRASS group during the winter (November to March), but when both groups were allowed to graze spring wheat pasture (March to June) the GRASS group gained more (P less than .01) weight than the WHEAT calves. During the subsequent finishing phase the GRASS calves were more (P less than .01) efficient than the WHEAT calves in converting DM to gain. Because cattle were slaughtered at the same degree of finish, no differences were noted in carcass characteristics among the pre- or postweaning treatments. Feeder calves exposed to a restrictive period of growth during the postweaning period gained weight more rapidly in a subsequent forage-based stockering system and were more efficient in a grain-based finishing system than nonrestricted calves. PMID:1894546

  9. Identification of a short region on chromosome 6 affecting direct calving ease in Piedmontese cattle breed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bongiorni

    Full Text Available Calving in cattle is affected by calf morphology and by dam characteristics. It is described by two different traits: maternal calving ease, which is the ability to generate dams with good physiological predisposition to calving, and direct calving ease, which is the ability to generate calves that are easily born. The aim of this study was to identify regions of cattle genome harboring genes possibly affecting direct calving ease in the Piedmontese cattle breed. A population of 323 bulls scored for direct calving ease (EBV was analyzed by a medium-density SNP marker panel (54,001 SNPs to perform a genome-wide scan. The strongest signal was detected on chromosome 6 between 37.8 and 38.7 Mb where 13 SNPs associated to direct calving ease were found. Three genes are located in this region: LAP3, encoding for a leucine aminopeptidase involved in the oxytocin hydrolysis; NCAPG, encoding for a non-SMC condensin I complex, which has been associated in cattle with fetal growth and carcass size; and LCORL, which has been associated to height in humans and cattle. To further confirm the results of the genome-wide scan we genotyped additional SNPs within these genes and analyzed their association with direct calving ease. The results of this additional analysis fully confirmed the findings of the GWAS and particularly indicated LAP3 as the most probable gene involved. Linkage Disequilibrium (LD analysis showed high correlation between SNPs located within LAP3 and LCORL indicating a possible selection signature due either to increased fitness or breeders' selection for the trait.

  10. Prevalence and effect of oxytetracycline on congenital fetlock knuckling in neonatal dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujeeb R. Fazili

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal system deformities were observed in 24 (34.3% of 70 neonatal dairy calves that presented with different congenital abnormalities. Among them, 19 calves (27.1%, the majority of which were crossbred Jersey calves of either gender with mean (± s.e. body weight 22.00 kg ± 1.17 kg and aged 7.11 ± 1.16 days, were presented for treatment of congenital knuckling. Five of the knuckling calves had additional concurrent congenital conditions and were excluded from the present study. All of the remaining 14 calves showing moderate, bilateral fetlock knuckling had a wooden or polyvinyl chloride (PVC splint applied to the palmar or plantar aspect of the affected limbs. All of the animals received a dose of the analgesic tolfenamic acid intramuscularly, and were randomly allocated to two equal groups. Calves of Group I additionally received oxytetracycline (20 mg/kg intravenous daily for 3 days. The condition resolved satisfactorily in 83.3% and 80.0% calves from the two groups, respectively. The left and right fetlock angle (mean ± SE reduced significantly (p ≤ 0.01 from 50.57° ± 4.20° to 4.00° ± 2.27° and 48.71° ± 2.37° to 5.33° ± 3.03°, respectively in animals of Group I. In Group II calves, the angles showed reduction from 50.86° ± 2.94° to 4.20° ± 2.75° and from 48.71° ± 3.14° to 6.80° ± 3.34°, respectively. From the present study, it was concluded that bilateral moderate fetlock knuckling in the neonatal dairy calves can be managed satisfactorily with early application of splints. Supplementary use of oxytetracycline at repeated doses of low toxicity had only a marginally beneficial effect.

  11. Effect of Moringa oleifera on hematological parameters of calves reared in industrial fluorotic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruti Debnath Mandal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ameliorative potential of dried Moringa oleifera fruit powder in fluorosis affected calves reared around the vicinity of aluminium smelter plant. Materials and Methods: Total 107 calves were screened on the basis of clinical signs and higher plasma fluoride (more than 0.2 ppm level for evidence of fluorosis. Out of that, 90 samples found positive and from them 18 calves of 6-12 months age group were selected and divided equally into three groups named as Group II, III, and IV. Group II remained as disease control group whereas Group III calves were supplemented with dried M. oleifera fruit powder of 25 g/calve for 60 days. Group IV calves were supplemented with calcium carbonate at 100 mg/kg body weight and boric acid at 10 mg/kg for the same experimental period. Group I consisted of six numbers of healthy calves taken from the non-fluorotic zone, i.e. Bhubaneswar. Plasma fluoride level, hemoglobin (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, total leukocyte count (TLC, differential count (DC, total erythrocyte count, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH, and MCH concentration (MCHC were estimated on day 0, 30, and 60 of the experiment. Results: Supplementation of dried M. oleifera fruit powder to fluorosis affected calves resulted in significant reduction in plasma fluoride level and increase in Hb%, PCV, TLC and altered DC. Similar results were also recorded in calcium+boron group, except PCV and Hb. No significant changes were observed in MCV, MCH, and MCHC values. Conclusion: The present study concluded that supplementation of dried M. oleifera fruit powder daily for 60 days has shown protection against chronic fluoride toxicity in calves.

  12. Effects of mixing on drinking and competitive behavior of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, K; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2006-01-01

    Group housing provides increased access to space and social interactions for calves while reducing labor costs for producers. However, group housing necessarily requires that calves be mixed and no research to date has addressed the effects of mixing on behavior of milk-fed dairy calves. The objective of this study was to monitor the feeding and competitive behavior of individual dairy calves (n = 8) after introduction into an established group of older calves fed ad libitum by a computer-controlled milk feeder. Milk feeding was monitored for 2 d before introduction into the new group and both milk feeding and competitive behaviors were monitored for 4 d after mixing. Mean (+/- SE) milk consumption before mixing was 9.7 +/- 0.7 kg/d, dropped slightly on the day of mixing to 8.6 +/- 0.6 kg/d, but increased on d 1 to 3 after mixing to 11.1 +/- 0.3 kg/d. Calves visited the feeder less frequently on the day of mixing (6.0 +/- 1.8 visits/d) than on either the days before mixing (20.3 +/- 2.5 visits/d) or the days after mixing (25.3 +/- 6.9 visits/ d). The mean duration of feeder visits and mean milk consumption per visit increased from 4 min 15 s +/- 21 s and 0.53 +/- 0.06 kg per visit before mixing to 8 min 17 s +/- 1 min 28 s and 1.87 +/- 0.51 kg per visit on the day of mixing. Competitive displacements from the milk-feeding stall were rare. In summary, feeding behavior of young calves is altered on the day of mixing, but calves are able to maintain milk intake when using a milk feeder fitted with a stall that prevents calves from displacing one another.

  13. Effect of supplemental chromium on antibody responses of newly arrived feeder calves to vaccines and ovalbumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, G X; Mallard, B A; Mowat, D N; Gallo, G F

    1996-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to investigate the effects of supplemental chromium (Cr) from organic sources (Cr chelate and high Cr yeast) on antibody responses of newly arrived feeder calves following vaccination with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), para-influenza-3 (PI3), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and Pasteurella haemolytica and ovalbumin (OVA). Using cross bred steer calves purchased at sales in Ontario, vaccines and OVA were given on d 0 and 21 after arrival in the feedlot. Immune responses of calves were measured as serum specific antibody titres against all antigens on d 0 and 28 or d 35. The anti-OVA antibody responses (trial 2) were further investigated by measuring antibody concentrations of calves weekly until d 55 after arrival in the feedlot. Supplemental Cr (0.14 ppm) from an amino acid-chelated source had no effect on antibody responses to IBR, P13 and BRSV, but enhanced (P < 0.05) antibody titres of calves in response to the BVD vaccine on d 28 or d 35. Supplemental Cr from Cr yeast had no effect on antibody titres of calves to any vaccines. Chromium from both sources (trial 1 and 2) had no effect on antibody responses of calves following vaccination with P. haemolytica. However, supplemental Cr (0.75 ppm) from Cr yeast enhanced (P < 0.05) serum antibody responses of calves to OVA during the primary response (d 14) and secondary response (d 35) following immunization. These data confirmed our previous finding that supplemental Cr can enhance humoral immune response of market-transit stressed calves, but its enhancement on vaccine efficacy was antigen-dependent and variable. PMID:8785720

  14. Fumonisin B(1) is hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic in milk-fed calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, S; Constable, P D; Eppley, R M; Waggoner, A L; Tumbleson, M E; Haschek, W M

    2001-04-01

    Fumonisins are a group of mycotoxins that alter sphingolipid biosynthesis and induce leukoencephalomalacia in horses and pulmonary edema in pigs. Experimental administration of fumonisin induces hepatotoxicity in all species, including cattle, as well as nephrotoxicity in rats, rabbits, and sheep. We investigated the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of fumonisin B(1) to calves. Ten milk-fed male Holstein calves aged 7 to 14 days were instrumented to obtain blood and urine. Treated calves (n = 5) were administered fumonisin B(1) at 1 mg/kg, iv, daily and controls (n = 5) 10 ml 0.9% NaCl, iv, daily until euthanized on day 7. Fumonisin B(1)-treated calves were lethargic and had decreased appetite from day 4 onward, serum biochemical evidence of severe liver and bile duct injury, and impaired hepatic function. Treated calves also had biochemical evidence of renal injury that functionally involved the proximal convoluted tubules. Sphinganine and sphingosine concentrations in liver, kidney, lung, heart, and skeletal muscle were increased in treated calves. Sphinganine, but not sphingosine, concentration was increased in brains of treated calves. In fumonisin B(1)-treated calves, hepatic lesions were characterized by disorganized hepatic cords, varying severity of hepatocyte apoptosis, hepatocyte proliferation, and proliferation of bile ductular cells. Renal lesions in treated calves consisted of vacuolar change, apoptosis, karyomegaly, and proliferation of proximal renal tubular cells, as well as dilation of proximal renal tubules, which contained cellular debris and protein. This is the first report of fumonisin B(1)-induced renal injury and organ sphingolipid alterations in cattle.

  15. Investing the role of buoyancy in iceberg calving dynamics from tidewater glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevers, Matt; Payne, Tony; Cornford, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) currently makes a major and accelerating contribution to sea level rise (SLR), with its contribution split roughly evenly between surface mass balance changes due to increased melting and dynamic ice loss through calving. In recent decades, many of Greenland's major outlet glaciers have retreated dramatically due to increased iceberg calving, associated with an increase in velocity and inland thinning. The potential contribution to SLR of a complete collapse of the GIS is ~7m. Iceberg calving is an important process not only as a major source of mass loss from the GIS, but also for the controlling influence it has on the dynamics of the grounding line and over the ice sheet as a whole. Despite plenty of scientific attention and a diverse body of literature, the processes involved in calving, their controlling factors and how it feeds back into glacier and ice sheet dynamics are still not fully understood. This presents a major uncertainty into projections of SLR over the coming decades and centuries. Using Elmer/Ice, a state-of-the-art full-Stokes finite-element model, we are able to resolve the stress distributions in high resolution at the calving front. Buoyancy forces have been proposed as a major influencing factor in inducing calving. By investigating the stress distributions induced in a buoyant calving front, we hope to gain an understanding of how environmental influences such as surface thinning and waterline notch-cutting influence the calving rate, and compare this to observations from calving glaciers in Greenland.

  16. ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS, LIPID PROFILE AND PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES IN HEALTHY AND BRONCHOPNEUMONIC WATER BUFFALO CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry M. El-Bahr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Acute Phase Proteins (APP, lipid profiles and proinflammatory cytokines in healthy and bronchopneumonic water buffalo calves. Therefore, sixty water buffalo calves (9±1 month old, 175±15 kg were divided into two equal groups, the first group represented healthy, control, calves whereas calves of the second group were affected with bronchopneumonia. Total leukocytic and differential counts were determined. Serum total protein, albumin, Triacylglyceol (TAG, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c, High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c, Total cholesterol, Alanine Amino Transferase (ALT, Aspartate Amino Transferase (AST, Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP, Fibrinogen (Fb, Haptaglobin (Hp, Serum Amyloid A (SAA, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α, Interleukins (IL1β, IL-12 and Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ were also determined. In addition, Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL was collected and analyzed. The present findings indicated that, total leukocytic and neutrophils counts were significantly (p<0.05 higher in pneumonic water buffalo calves compare with control. The examined biochemical parameters were significantly (p<0.05 increased in pneumonic calves except for total protein, albumin, cholesterol and HDL-c which were significantly (p<0.05 lower compare with control. Serum concentrations of investigated APP and proinflammatory cytokines were significantly (p<0.05 higher in pneumonic water buffalo calves than those of control. The present study demonstrated that, APP, lipid profile and proinflammatory cytokines perhaps served as biomarkers of bronchopneumonia in water buffalo calves. However, future studies with higher baseline sampling are still needed to establish and validate reference values for APP and cytokines in water buffalo calves.

  17. Physiological responses of newborn Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus calves after exposure to cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, R W; Smith, S D; Guthrie, M J; Stanko, R L; Neuendorff, D A; Randel, R D

    1991-01-01

    Brahman (n = 9) and 1/2 Simmental x 1/4 Brahman x 1/4 Hereford (n = 11) calves were utilized to determine the influence of exposure to cold on the physiology of the neonate. All calves were removed from their dams within 20 min of birth and prior to suckling. Calves were assigned randomly within breed to either a warm (W; 31 degrees C) or cold (C; 4 degrees C) environmental treatment group. Jugular blood samples were collected via indwelling catheters at 20-min intervals for 180 min. At 100 to 120 min of sampling, all calves were given 1.2 liters of colostrum from their dams via stomach tube. At 120 min, C calves were placed in the W environment. Calf vigor score (CVS) and rectal temperature were determined at each time blood was collected. Serum or plasma was analyzed for glucose (GLU), lactate (LAC), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), hemoglobin (HEM), triglyceride (TRG), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), insulin (INS), cortisol (CORT) and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration. Rectal temperature was lower (P less than .01) in C Brahman than in W Brahman and C or W crossbred calves. Crossbred calves had higher (P less than .01) CVS than Brahman calves. Calves in W had lower (P less than .01) GLU than C calves. Brahman calves had higher GLU, LAC, BUN, TRG, T3, T4 and CORT (P less than .05) than crossbred calves. The C Brahman calves had the highest (P less than .05) TRG, CORT, T3 and T4 of all groups. Concentration of NEFA were higher (P less than .01) in C than in W calves.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2005021

  18. Physiological responses of newborn Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus calves after exposure to cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, R W; Smith, S D; Guthrie, M J; Stanko, R L; Neuendorff, D A; Randel, R D

    1991-01-01

    Brahman (n = 9) and 1/2 Simmental x 1/4 Brahman x 1/4 Hereford (n = 11) calves were utilized to determine the influence of exposure to cold on the physiology of the neonate. All calves were removed from their dams within 20 min of birth and prior to suckling. Calves were assigned randomly within breed to either a warm (W; 31 degrees C) or cold (C; 4 degrees C) environmental treatment group. Jugular blood samples were collected via indwelling catheters at 20-min intervals for 180 min. At 100 to 120 min of sampling, all calves were given 1.2 liters of colostrum from their dams via stomach tube. At 120 min, C calves were placed in the W environment. Calf vigor score (CVS) and rectal temperature were determined at each time blood was collected. Serum or plasma was analyzed for glucose (GLU), lactate (LAC), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), hemoglobin (HEM), triglyceride (TRG), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), insulin (INS), cortisol (CORT) and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration. Rectal temperature was lower (P less than .01) in C Brahman than in W Brahman and C or W crossbred calves. Crossbred calves had higher (P less than .01) CVS than Brahman calves. Calves in W had lower (P less than .01) GLU than C calves. Brahman calves had higher GLU, LAC, BUN, TRG, T3, T4 and CORT (P less than .05) than crossbred calves. The C Brahman calves had the highest (P less than .05) TRG, CORT, T3 and T4 of all groups. Concentration of NEFA were higher (P less than .01) in C than in W calves.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Construction and validation of a decision tree for treating metabolic acidosis in calves with neonatal diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trefz Florian M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present prospective study was to investigate whether a decision tree based on basic clinical signs could be used to determine the treatment of metabolic acidosis in calves successfully without expensive laboratory equipment. A total of 121 calves with a diagnosis of neonatal diarrhea admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital were included in the study. The dosages of sodium bicarbonate administered followed simple guidelines based on the results of a previous retrospective analysis. Calves that were neither dehydrated nor assumed to be acidemic received an oral electrolyte solution. In cases in which intravenous correction of acidosis and/or dehydration was deemed necessary, the provided amount of sodium bicarbonate ranged from 250 to 750 mmol (depending on alterations in posture and infusion volumes from 1 to 6.25 liters (depending on the degree of dehydration. Individual body weights of calves were disregarded. During the 24 hour study period the investigator was blinded to all laboratory findings. Results After being lifted, many calves were able to stand despite base excess levels below −20 mmol/l. Especially in those calves, metabolic acidosis was undercorrected with the provided amount of 500 mmol sodium bicarbonate, which was intended for calves standing insecurely. In 13 calves metabolic acidosis was not treated successfully as defined by an expected treatment failure or a measured base excess value below −5 mmol/l. By contrast, 24 hours after the initiation of therapy, a metabolic alkalosis was present in 55 calves (base excess levels above +5 mmol/l. However, the clinical status was not affected significantly by the metabolic alkalosis. Conclusions Assuming re-evaluation of the calf after 24 hours, the tested decision tree can be recommended for the use in field practice with minor modifications. Calves that stand insecurely and are not able to correct their position if pushed

  20. Effect of pre-calving zeolite, magnesium and phosphorus supplemention on periparturient serum mineral concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Anders; Pallesen, Flemming; Jørgensen, Rolf Jess;

    2008-01-01

    cows were each given the following daily supplements from 2 weeks before the expected date of calving until actual calving: group A: zeolite, monoammonium phosphate, standard dry cow mineral and vitamin mix, containing 61g magnesium phosphate; group B: zeolite, standard mineral and vitamin mix without...... the magnesium phosphate and group C: standard mineral and vitamin mix, monoammonium phosphate. All cows in group B had an apparently less variable serum calcium concentration around calving with no cases of milk fever and no subclinical hypocalcaemia or hypomagnesaemia recorded. In contrast, a parturient drop...

  1. Quantitative assessment of femoral head involvement in Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaMont, R.L.; Muz, J.; Heilbronner, D.; Bouwhuis, J.A.

    1981-06-01

    We have developed a method for determining the extent of avascularity of the capital femoral epiphysis in suspected Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. The avascularity is expressed quantitatively as a percentage of the normal uptake of a radionuclide in the vicinity of the involved hip. In twenty-seven patients who had radionuclide scintigraphy this method was reliable in establishing an early diagnosis of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease as well as in assessing the amount of involvement of the femoral head. In some patients the diagnosis can be established by radionuclide scintigraphy before the changes of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease are apparent on standard radiographs.

  2. Synchronized Legg-Calve Perthes disease and comorbid perforated appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alev Süzen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal pain is a very common complaint caused by a variety of conditions. Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdominal pain in children requiring surgical intervention. Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD is a childhood condition that affects the hip, where the thighbone (femur and pelvis meet in a ball-and-socket joint. The disease is initially asymptomatic or there is painless limp. The pain associated with LCPD is often localized in the inguinal region. The present study is aimed to present a patient with LCPD and comorbid perforated appendicitis and to highlight the importance of the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain as a delay in diagnosis can increase the risk of mortality. Analyzing the imaging technique, from the study it has been found out that clinicians should examine all the field about the diagnosis, not only the field around disease as a patient might have two separate acute problems at same time.

  3. Comparison of Cervical Spine Anatomy in Calves, Pigs and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Ren Sheng

    Full Text Available Animals are commonly used to model the human spine for in vitro and in vivo experiments. Many studies have investigated similarities and differences between animals and humans in the lumbar and thoracic vertebrae. However, a quantitative anatomic comparison of calf, pig, and human cervical spines has not been reported.To compare fundamental structural similarities and differences in vertebral bodies from the cervical spines of commonly used experimental animal models and humans.Anatomical morphometric analysis was performed on cervical vertebra specimens harvested from humans and two common large animals (i.e., calves and pigs.Multiple morphometric parameters were directly measured from cervical spine specimens of twelve pigs, twelve calves and twelve human adult cadavers. The following anatomical parameters were measured: vertebral body width (VBW, vertebral body depth (VBD, vertebral body height (VBH, spinal canal width (SCW, spinal canal depth (SCD, pedicle width (PW, pedicle depth (PD, pedicle inclination (PI, dens width (DW, dens depth (DD, total vertebral width (TVW, and total vertebral depth (TVD.The atlantoaxial (C1-2 joint in pigs is similar to that in humans and could serve as a human substitute. The pig cervical spine is highly similar to the human cervical spine, except for two large transverse processes in the anterior regions ofC4-C6. The width and depth of the calf odontoid process were larger than those in humans. VBW and VBD of calf cervical vertebrae were larger than those in humans, but the spinal canal was smaller. Calf C7 was relatively similar to human C7, thus, it may be a good substitute.Pig cervical vertebrae were more suitable human substitutions than calf cervical vertebrae, especially with respect to C1, C2, and C7. The biomechanical properties of nerve vascular anatomy and various segment functions in pig and calf cervical vertebrae must be considered when selecting an animal model for research on the spine.

  4. Femoroacetabular impingement related to Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Zorica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Femoroacetabular impingement is an undesirable contact between acetabular rim and femoral neck and presents abnormality of proximal femoral part and acetabulum, as well. Two forms may appear: cam impingement and pincer impingement. Femoroacetabular impingement related to Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease may be caused by various reasons, as the consequence of the disease itself, and as the consequence of its treatment. Coxa magna deformity (large femoral head and neck and coxa brevis deformity (shortened femoral neck may produce cam femoroacetabular impingement during hip flexion. After the disease, the flattened femoral head (coxa plana may persist. Chiari pelvic osteotomy is the only treatment option for such femoral head deformity. Acetabular labrum squeezed continuously between the femoral head and the non-articular part of the cut iliac bone lead to cam femoroacetabular impingement, as well. If Salter or triple pelvic osteotomy is used that may cause a very large iatrogenic acetabular retroversion, we can also refer to radial type pincer femoroacetabular impingement. Treatment of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease should be conducted according to the natural course of the disease and prognosis. Treatment should start on time, well before a crushed femoral head develops, because it is the easiest way to establish hip spherical congruency at the end of treatment. This is the best option to prevent secondary hip arthrosis caused by femoroacetabular impingement or by insufficient head coverage at the end of remodelling. In each case of delayed hip pain, followed by a limited range of movements, femoroacetabular impingement should be taken into consideration, confirmed, and treated by some of the available therapeutic methods.

  5. Consequences of selection for yield traits on calving ease performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Maturana, E; Ugarte, E; Komen, J; van Arendonk, J A M

    2007-05-01

    The impact of different breeding goals on the genetic response for calving ease (CE) and yield traits was studied in the Basque Holstein cattle population. The economic value for CE was estimated with a bioeconomic model, using Basque production and market circumstances and taking into account the categorical nature of CE. The economic value for CE was -18.03 euros/cow per calving interval per liability unit. This value was relatively insensitive to changes in the market price of animals but was more sensitive to changes in the incidence of dystocia. Records from parities between 1995 and 2002 were used for the estimation of genetic parameters for yield (actual milk, fat, and protein yield) and CE using a multivariate model. Linear sire models for yield traits and a threshold sire-maternal grandsire model for CE were used. A Holstein population was simulated to determine the consequences of including CE in the breeding goal. Three selection strategies were considered: 1) selection only on yield traits, 2) selection on yield and direct CE (DCE), and 3) selection on yield, DCE, and maternal CE (MCE). Selection on yield traits only resulted in a slight reduction of dystocia. Selection strategies in which DCE or DCE and MCE were included in the breeding goal did not improve the genetic response for DCE and MCE obtained with the first selection strategy. Genetic responses were also calculated using the 2.5th, 50th, and 97.5th percentiles of posterior densities of genetic correlations between DCE and MCE and yield traits. Because responses in CE were sensitive to deviations in estimates of genetic parameters, the inclusion of CE in the monitoring scheme is recommended. Genetic evaluation of bulls for CE is of considerable value because it provides farmers with the opportunity to use assortative matings of sires with favorable estimated breeding values for DCE to primiparous cows. PMID:17430954

  6. Effects of human visitation on calf growth and performance of calves fed different milk replacer feeding levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guindon, N E; Antaya, N T; Cabral, R G; Whitehouse, N L; Earleywine, T J; Erickson, P S

    2015-12-01

    Twenty-eight newborn Holstein heifer calves from the university herd and 8 newborn Holstein heifer calves from a commercial herd were blocked by birth and herd into 1 of 4 treatments: conventional [20% crude protein (CP), 20% fat] milk replacer (MR; treatment C) with (1) or without (0) human visitation, or a higher plane of MR nutrition (28% CP, 20% fat) regimen (treatment A) with (1) or (0) without human visitation. Calves on C MR treatments received 454g of MR from d 2 to 41. Calves on A MR received 916g of MR from d 2 to 8 and 1134g of MR from d 9 to 41. Visitation with calves occurred at 1030 and 1430h daily from d 1 to 56 and comprised verbal stimulation and stirring of starter grain. An opaque curtain divided the calf nursery, with calves in the front half assigned to visitation treatments and those in the rear half not assigned to visitation treatments. Calves were fed their MR treatment until d 43 (preweaning), after which all calves received half of their allotment of MR until d 49 (weaning). Calves were tracked for the next week until d 56 (postweaning). Starter grain and MR intakes were measured daily along with weekly body weight and skeletal measurements. One half of the calves on each treatment had blood samples taken via jugular venipuncture on d 41 (preweaning), 43, 45, 47, 49, and 51 (postweaning) to evaluate blood glucose, urea, nonesterified fatty acids, and cortisol concentrations. During the preweaning and weaning phases, calves on A0 and A1 treatments consumed more MR, less starter, and weighed more than the C0 and C1 calves. Calves on A0 and A1 had greater average daily gain (ADG), hip and withers gain, were taller at the hip, and had larger girths during the preweaning phase. Overall, body weight, withers and hip heights, and heart girths were greater in A0 andA1 calves during the weaning week. Efficiency of utilization of estimated metabolizable energy (ME) intake (ADG/ME) were similar. Glucose and nonesterified fatty acids concentrations

  7. Assessment of an application for touchscreen devices to record calving-related events in dairy herds and monitor personnel performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragan, A A; Workman, J D; Bas, S; Proudfoot, K L; Schuenemann, G M

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to assess (1) the effectiveness of a calving training workshop and an application (app) for touchscreen devices to capture calving-related events, and (2) personnel compliance with calving protocols (time from birth to feeding of first colostrum and time that cows spent in labor). Calving personnel (n=23) from 5 large dairy farms (range: 800-10,000 cows) participated in the study. Participants received training through an on-farm workshop regarding calving management practices and functioning of the app before recording calving-related events. Pre- and posttest evaluations were administered to each participant to measure their knowledge gain and satisfaction with the workshop. Calving personnel recorded calving-related events (n=323) using the app for 7 d following training. Furthermore, the records collected with the app were used to assess missing and incorrect data and calving personnel compliance with calving management protocols (recording time that cows spent in labor and timing of feeding first colostrum to calves). Calving personnel reported that the information provided during the training was relevant (agree=14.3% and strongly agree=85.7%) and of great immediate use (agree=33.3% and strongly agree=66.7%). The presented materials and hands-on demonstrations substantially increased the knowledge level of the attendees (by 23.7 percentage points from pre- to posttest scores). The follow-up assessment with participants revealed that the app was easy to use (91.3%) and that they would continue to use it (100%). Frequency of incorrect (r=0.77) or missing (r=0.76) data was positively correlated with calving:personnel ratio. Furthermore, calving personnel compliance with calving protocols was significantly different within and between herds. These results substantiated the great variation in compliance with calving management protocols within and between dairy farms. Furthermore, the app may serve as a tool to monitor

  8. Effects of repeat fenbendazole treatment in dairy calves with giardiosis on cyst excretion, clinical signs and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Handley, R M; Cockwill, C; Jelinski, M; McAllister, T A; Olson, M E

    2000-04-28

    In this 90-day study, 60 male Holstein dairy calves were experimentally infected with Giardia duodenalis. Calves were randomly blocked by weight into treatment (N=30) and placebo (N=30) groups. Beginning on study Day 0, calves in the treatment group were administered an oral dose of 5mg/kg of fenbendazole once daily for three consecutive days. Calves in the placebo group received a daily oral treatment of 5 ml of saline for 3 days. These treatments were repeated on Days 30 and 60 of the study. Fecal samples were collected from calves once per week and examined for the presence of Giardia cysts. Calves were monitored daily for clinical signs of intestinal disease and all episodes of diarrhea recorded. Calves were weighed once per week and total feed intake, on a dry matter basis, was calculated daily. Following each treatment, the number of calves shedding Giardia cysts in the fenbendazole group was reduced (pfenbendazole group had fewer cysts (pfenbendazole had fewer total days with diarrhea (pfenbendazole is an effective treatment for giardiosis, resulting in a clinical benefit and reducing the number of infective cysts shed by calves. However, this treatment regime had no impact on production parameters and reinfection occurred rapidly in these calves.

  9. PERFORMANCE OF PRE-WEANED FEMALE CALVES CONFINED IN HOUSING AND OPEN ENVIRONMENT HUTCHES IN KUWAIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. RAZZAQUE, S. ABBAS, T. AL-MUTAWA AND M. BEDAIR

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the present study was to compare the responses of Holstein Friesian pre-weaned female calves confined in elevated metallic crates in closed-type of housing and polyvinyl hutches in an open environment of Kuwait. A total of 176 newborn Holstein Friesian female calves were randomly distributed to conventional confinement in closed-type calf houses (control and individual calf hutch in open environment (treatment. These calves were monitored upto the weaning age of 90 days. The average daily live weight gain was significantly higher in calves housed in hutches than conventional housing system (413 versus 113 g/h/d; P≤0.0001. Mean risk rates (RR for mortality in hutch and conventional housing were 0.017 and 0.23, respectively. The results showed a significant positive impact of hutch housing with respect to growth, mortality and incidence of diseases in Kuwait’s intensive dairy farming system

  10. BIRTH OF TWIN CALVES THROUGH MULTIPLE OVULATION AND EMBRYO TRANSFER: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Sengupta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A surrogate Gir cow delevered twin calves after receiving embryo from a donor Sahiwal cow at Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer laboratory, Haringhata, West Bengal, India is reported.

  11. Study of Serum Drug Levels in Calves Following Intramuscular Administration of Three Tetracycline Drug Preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Black, W. D.; Claxton, J; G.A Robinson

    1982-01-01

    Three antibiotic formulations, oxytetracycline (A) in propylene glycol and oxytetracycline (B) in polyvinyl pyrrolidine and pyrrolidino-methyltetracycline in an oil suspension were given to calves by the intramuscular route. Only oxytetracycline (A) appeared to cause much pain after injection.

  12. Significance of Timing on Effect of Metaphylactic Toltrazuril Treatment against Eimeriosis in Calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi; Dahl, Jan; Enemark, Jörg Matthias Dehn

    2015-01-01

    In this multicentric, randomised, blinded and placebo-controlled field study, the effect of treatment with toltrazuril (Baycox® Bovis, Bayer) on oocyst excretion, diarrhoea score and weight gain was studied in Danish dairy herds with confirmed history of eimeriosis (coccidiosis) and prevalence...... was followed by weekly faecal sampling and weighing initially and at the end of a study period of 8 weeks. In Herd 2 and 3 toltrazuril treated calves gained on average 7.95 kg more than placebo treated calves (p = 0.007), and both oocyst excretion and prevalence of Eimeria spp. were significantly reduced...... the first weeks post treatment. In Herd 1, by contrast, the farmer made some unforeseen changes in the management which entailed relocation to large deep-litter pens 3 – 6 weeks post treatment. In addition, many calves were not treated metaphylactically while few calves excreted oocysts when the trial...

  13. Moose calving areas and use on the Kenai National Moose Range, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In this paper we describe the locations of several known moose calving areas on the Kenai National Moose Range, the features and vegetation in the Moose-Chickaloon...

  14. Moose Calving Areas and Use on the Kenai National Moose Range, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a study done on Kenai National Wildlife Refuge to determine which habitats moose prefer to calve in. The majority of observations of female...

  15. Regucalcin Expression as a Diagnostic Tool for the Illicit Use of Steroids in Veal Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starvaggi Cucuzza, Laura; Biolatti, Bartolomeo; Sereno, Alessandra; Cannizzo, Francesca T

    2015-06-17

    It has been previously demonstrated that sex steroid hormone treatment down-regulates regucalcin gene expression in the accessory sex glands and testis of prepubertal and adult male bovines. The aim of this study was to investigate whether low doses of sex steroid hormones combined with other drugs significantly affect regucalcin gene expression in the accessory sex glands and testis of veal calves. The regucalcin expression was down-regulated in the bulbo-urethral glands of estrogen-treated calves, whereas it was up-regulated in the prostate of estrogen-treated calves. Only the testis of androgen-treated calves showed a down-regulation of the regucalcin expression. Thus, the administration of sex steroid hormones, even in low doses and combined with other molecules, could affect regucalcin expression in target organs. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests regucalcin expression in this organ as a first molecular biomarker of illicit androgen administration in bovine husbandry. PMID:26016660

  16. Effect of hay on performance of Holstein calves at suckling and post-weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Kyoshi Ueno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of Holstein calves in suckling and post-weaning phases, intensively managed during suckling in the absence or presence of hay. Twenty-four male Holstein calves, at an average age of 15 days and initial weight of 43 kg were used in the experiment. The experimental design was completely randomized, consisting of two treatments and six replications. The treatments were as follows: 1 suckling with milk substitute + initial concentrate for calves, ad libitum + temperate grass hay (oat/ryegrass, ad libitum; 2 suckling with milk substitute + initial concentrate for calves, ad libitum. No significant difference was found between treatments for weight gain and feed conversion. However, the supply of hay caused an increase in daily dry matter intake (2.127 vs 1.894 kg. The intake of hay promoted greater stimulus to consumption of concentrate and greater weight at weaning.

  17. Comparison of production characteristics from birth through slaughter of calves sired by Angus, Charolais or Piedmontese bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J F; Lunt, D K

    1990-06-01

    Birth, weaning, growth and carcass records for calves sired by Angus, Charolais or Piedmontese bulls were used to evaluate the potential contribution of Piedmontese to beef production in the U.S. Bulls were mated by AI to Hereford and crossbred cows and heifers. Calves were born during fall 1985 or spring 1986. Statistical models used to analyze the importance of sire breed used sire nested within sire breed as a random effect. Effects of sex, birth season, contemporary group, dam breed and parity were considered fixed and tested with the residual error. Piedmontese-sired calves had the longest gestation length, followed by Charolais and Angus-sired calves (287.5, 285.0 and 282.8 d, respectively). Breed of sire was not significant for birth weight, but Piedmontese- and Charolais-sired calves had longer cannon bones than Angus-sired calves. Differences were found for weaning hip height, but weaning weights, weaning muscle scores and ADG during the preweaning period were similar for calves by the three sire breeds. When fed to a similar fat thickness, Angus-sired calves required fewer days on feed, produced lighter carcasses and gained less per day than Charolais- or Piedmontese-sired calves. Piedmontese-sired calves required more days on feed than Charolais-sired calves when slaughtered at a similar subcutaneous fat thickness. Piedmontese-sired calves produced carcasses with a larger average rib eye area, higher dressing percentage and lower (more desirable) yield grade than Charolais- or Angus-sired calves. No significant sire breed differences were detected for tissue cholesterol content. PMID:2384357

  18. Effect of a topical anaesthetic formulation on the cortisol response to surgical castration of unweaned beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, D; Lomax, S; Windsor, P A; White, P J

    2016-01-01

    Impracticality and cost of existing pain management strategies during surgical castration of beef cattle have limited their widespread implementation on-farm. A farmer-applied topical anaesthetic formulation, originally developed and used commercially to mitigate the pain of mulesing in lambs, was investigated for its potential use for managing pain in surgically castrated calves. This formulation contained lidocaine, bupivacaine, adrenalin and cetrimide. In this study, 24 Angus bull calves were randomly allocated to (1) surgical castration (C, n=8), (2) surgical castration with the post-operative application of topical anaesthetic (CTA, n=8) and (3) sham castration/control (CON, n=8). The experiment was conducted over 2 days, with treatment groups evenly represented across each day. Calves were habituated to handling before the experiment and blood samples were collected for plasma cortisol measurement at defined time periods before, at and post treatment, (at -0.5, 0 h, then +0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4 and 6 h). There was a significant effect of time on cortisol concentrations across all treatment groups (Pcortisol response at 0 h. The effect of treatment was not significant (P=0.077), however, there was a trend for CON calves to display lower cortisol concentrations than C and CTA calves and CTA calves to display lower cortisol concentrations than C calves. The mean area under the curve (AUC) of CON calves was significantly lower than those of C and CTA calves (P=0.04), however, there was no significant difference between the AUCs of CTA and C calves. Immediate application of topical anaesthetic after surgical castration did not significantly reduce plasma cortisol concentrations. However, the trend for CTA calves to display lower cortisol concentrations than C calves warrants further investigation into the use of TA for pain relief of surgically castrated beef calves.

  19. The effect of early weaning on feedlot performance and measures of stress in beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthington, J D; Spears, J W; Miller, D C

    2005-04-01

    Forty crossbred steers (Brahman x English) were categorized into two groups: 1) early weaned (EW; n = 20); and 2) normal weaned (NW; n = 20). Calves were 89 and 300 d of age at the time of EW and NW, respectively; SEM = 4.4. Early-weaned calves were kept on-site (University of Florida, Ona), provided supplement (1% of BW), and grazed on annual and perennial pastures until NW. At the time of normal weaning, all calves were loaded on a commercial livestock trailer and transported to the North Carolina State University Research Feedlot in Butner (approximately 1,200 km). Upon arrival, calves were stratified by BW and randomly allotted to four pens per weaning age treatment. Individual calf BW and blood samples were collected at the time of normal weaning, on arrival at the feedlot (d 1; 24 h following weaning), and on d 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of the receiving period. Individual BW was collected at the start and end of the growing and finishing periods, and feed intake by pen was measured daily. As an estimate of stress during the receiving period, plasma was collected and analyzed for the acute-phase proteins, haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin. Early-weaned calves were lighter (P = 0.03) at normal weaning than NW calves (221 vs. 269 kg; SEM = 10.6). By d 28, EW calves tended (P = 0.12) to be lighter than NW calves (242 vs. 282 kg, respectively). Gain:feed was improved for EW compared with NW calves during both the receiving (G:F = 0.157 vs. 0.081) and growing (0.159 vs. 0.136) periods. There tended (P yield grade, marbling score, and LM area, did not differ between treatments. These data imply that EW calves, which are maintained onsite before shipping, may be more tolerant to the stressors associated with transportation and feed yard entry. Early weaned calves, managed within the system described in this study, may have improved G:F.

  20. The effect of early weaning on feedlot performance and measures of stress in beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthington, J D; Spears, J W; Miller, D C

    2005-04-01

    Forty crossbred steers (Brahman x English) were categorized into two groups: 1) early weaned (EW; n = 20); and 2) normal weaned (NW; n = 20). Calves were 89 and 300 d of age at the time of EW and NW, respectively; SEM = 4.4. Early-weaned calves were kept on-site (University of Florida, Ona), provided supplement (1% of BW), and grazed on annual and perennial pastures until NW. At the time of normal weaning, all calves were loaded on a commercial livestock trailer and transported to the North Carolina State University Research Feedlot in Butner (approximately 1,200 km). Upon arrival, calves were stratified by BW and randomly allotted to four pens per weaning age treatment. Individual calf BW and blood samples were collected at the time of normal weaning, on arrival at the feedlot (d 1; 24 h following weaning), and on d 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of the receiving period. Individual BW was collected at the start and end of the growing and finishing periods, and feed intake by pen was measured daily. As an estimate of stress during the receiving period, plasma was collected and analyzed for the acute-phase proteins, haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin. Early-weaned calves were lighter (P = 0.03) at normal weaning than NW calves (221 vs. 269 kg; SEM = 10.6). By d 28, EW calves tended (P = 0.12) to be lighter than NW calves (242 vs. 282 kg, respectively). Gain:feed was improved for EW compared with NW calves during both the receiving (G:F = 0.157 vs. 0.081) and growing (0.159 vs. 0.136) periods. There tended (P Carcass measures, including backfat thickness, USDA yield grade, marbling score, and LM area, did not differ between treatments. These data imply that EW calves, which are maintained onsite before shipping, may be more tolerant to the stressors associated with transportation and feed yard entry. Early weaned calves, managed within the system described in this study, may have improved G:F.

  1. The effect of large milk meals on digestive physiology and behaviour in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, Kristian; Mejdell, Cecilie M; Ottesen, Nina; Larsen, Stig; Grøndahl, Ann Margaret

    2016-02-01

    It is commonly believed that young calves should not be fed more than about 2l of milk per meal. If calves are fed beyond this volume, it is said that the capacity of the abomasum may be exceeded and that milk could enter the rumen. This can disturb the microbial flora/fauna of the rumen and increase the risk of indigestion, diarrhoea and reduced growth. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of large milk meals on digestive physiology and behaviour in dairy calves. Six calves (19-23days of age at the beginning of the experiment) were fed 2l of warm whole milk by teat bottle three times per day, which was the recommended Norwegian feeding regime at the time. The calves were given free access to hay, concentrates and water. During three morning feeding sessions, each separated by 48h, all calves were offered larger meals. The offered amounts were calculated according to the within patient 3-level Response Surface Pathway (RSP) design. The milk given on the three test days contained a contrast medium (barium sulphate), and the animals were radiographed before, during and immediately after intake to reveal whether milk entered the rumen. Four out of the six calves drank more than 5l in one meal and the highest voluntary intake was 6.8l in one meal (13.2% of BW). Abdominal radiographs showed that the abomasum has a large ability for distension. Milk in the rumen was not observed in any of the calves, regardless of intake. The behaviour of the calves was observed for 2h after each test session. No behaviour indicating abdominal pain or discomfort was observed regardless of intake. The results indicate that when warm whole milk is administered from a teat bottle, farmers can increase the amount of milk they offer their calves beyond the traditionally recommended portion size without risk of milk entering the rumen. Hence, farmers who want to feed their calves more milk can do so by increasing meal sizes, and not necessarily by introducing an additional meal

  2. Comparative plasma pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur sodium and ceftiofur crystalline-free acid in neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, J S; Caldwell, M; Cox, S; Hines, M; Credille, B C

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the plasma pharmacokinetic profile of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) and ceftiofur sodium in neonatal calves between 4 and 6 days of age. In one group (n = 7), a single dose of CCFA was administered subcutaneously (SQ) at the base of the ear at a dose of 6.6 mg/kg of body weight. In a second group (n = 7), a single dose of ceftiofur sodium was administered SQ in the neck at a dose of 2.2 mg/kg of body weight. Concentrations of desfuroylceftiofur acetamide (DCA) in plasma were determined by HPLC. Median time to maximum DCA concentration was 12 h (range 12-48 h) for CCFA and 1 h (range 1-2 h) for ceftiofur sodium. Median maximum plasma DCA concentration was significantly higher for calves given ceftiofur sodium (5.62 μg/mL; range 4.10-6.91 μg/mL) than for calves given CCFA (3.23 μg/mL; range 2.15-4.13 μg/mL). AUC0-∞ and Vd/F were significantly greater for calves given CCFA than for calves given ceftiofur sodium. The median terminal half-life of DCA in plasma was significantly longer for calves given CCFA (60.6 h; range 43.5-83.4 h) than for calves given ceftiofur sodium (18.1 h; range 16.7-39.7 h). Cl/F was not significantly different between groups. The duration of time median plasma DCA concentrations remained above 2.0 μg/mL was significantly longer in calves that received CCFA (84.6 h; range 48-103 h) as compared to calves that received ceftiofur sodium (21.7 h; range 12.6-33.6 h). Based on the results of this study, CCFA administered SQ at a dose of 6.6 mg/kg in neonatal calves provided plasma concentrations above the therapeutic target of 2 μg/mL for at least 3 days following a single dose. It is important to note that the use of ceftiofur-containing products is restricted by the FDA and the use of CCFA in veal calves is strictly prohibited. PMID:26542633

  3. Digestive development in neonatal dairy calves with either whole or ground oats in the calf starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Mena, F X; Heinrichs, A J; Jones, C M; Hill, T M; Quigley, J D

    2015-05-01

    A series of 3 trials was conducted to determine effects of whole or ground oats in starter grain on reticulorumen fermentation and digestive system development of preweaned calves. Male Holstein calves (43.1±2.3kg at birth; n=8, 9, and 7 for trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively) were housed in individual pens in a heated facility; bedding was covered with landscape fabric to prevent consumption of bedding by the calves. In trials 1 and 2 only, calves were fitted with rumen cannulas by wk 2 of life. In all trials, a fixed amount of starter (containing 25% oats either ground and in the pellet or whole) was offered daily; orts were fed through the cannula in trials 1 and 2. Calves were randomly assigned to an all-pelleted starter or pellets plus whole oats. Rumen contents (trials 1 and 2) were sampled weekly at -8, -4, 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h after grain feeding for determination of pH and volatile fatty acids. Calves were killed 3 wk (trial 1) or 4 wk (trials 2 and 3) after grain was offered; organs were harvested, emptied, rinsed, and weighed to gauge digestive organ development. Starter intake was not different between treatments. Weekly measurements of rumen digesta pH did not change and only subtle changes were observed in molar proportions of individual volatile fatty acids. Molar proportion of butyrate and pH linearly decreased with age, whereas acetate proportion increased. Reticulorumen weight and papillae length tended to be greater for calves fed pelleted starter, whereas abomasum weight was greater for calves fed pellets plus whole oats. Fecal particle size and starch content were greater for calves fed pellets plus whole oats. Under the conditions of this study, physical form of oats in starter grain did not affect rumen fermentation measurements; greater rumen weight and papillae length in calves fed pelleted starter may be the result of greater nutrient availability of ground oats. Under the conditions of this study with young calves on treatments for oats

  4. Caribou distribution during calving in the northeast National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, June 1998 to 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn E. Noel

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti of the Teshekpuk Caribou Herd (TCH inhabit the western portion of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain within the National Petroleum Reserve—Alaska (NPR-A. Alaska's North Slope communities, management agencies, and private industry are interested in this herd because of its importance as a subsistence resource and location relative to potential petroleum development. From 1998 through 2000, we monitored caribou distribution during the calving period within the Northeast Planning Area of the NPR-A using systematic strip-transect aerial surveys, as well as VHF and satellite telemetry for cow caribou. Aerial survey and telemetry data indicated cows with calves were distributed around Teshekpuk Lake, with a concentration south of the lake in 1999 and 2000. Inconsistencies in weather conditions, survey timing (both strip-transect and VHF surveys, 100% coverage survey areas, and small sample sizes confound interpretations of our results. However, several patterns were apparent. Later transect survey timing (7—12 June versus 4—7 and 5—8 June resulted in more cow/calf pairs recorded. Our 18% coverage area, originally based on VHF telemetry data for the extent of TCH calving, covered a consistently high proportion (95% to 100% of the annual calving ranges (95% kernel utilization distributions, but accounted for only 24% to 46% of the adult cows in the TCH based on the current Alaska Department of Fish and Game population estimate (1999 and average 1998¬2000 herd composition. It appears that either our transect survey methodology significantly underestimated the true number of caribou cows in the study area, many cows calved outside the area or moved into the area and calved after our surveys, or we have over estimated the number of reproductive cows in the herd. Our 100% coverage transect areas covering oil and gas lease areas, contained 38% of the calving range with 23% of TCH cows in 1999; and 18% of

  5. Effect of infrared lamps to ameliorate cold stress in Vrindavani calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Showkat A. Bhat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to determine the effect of infrared lamps to ameliorate cold stress in Vrindavani (Holstein Friesian × Brown Swiss × Jersey × Hariana calves. Materials and Methods: For the present investigation, ten newborn Vrindavani calves were randomly divided into two groups (G1 and G2 of five each. The experiment was conducted from 2nd November to 8th February when the environmental temperature was at the lowest. The calves of G1 were provided with no additional protection while the calves of G2 were protected against the cold weather by providing heat using the infrared lamps. The body weight (kg of the calves was recorded at weekly interval. The blood samples collected within 6 h of birth and then at fortnightly interval were analyzed for packed cell volume (PCV, %, hemoglobin (Hb, g/dl. Besides, the serum biochemical parameters, viz., Total serum protein (TSP, g/l, albumin (g/l, globulin (g/l, albumin globulin ratio (A:G and important stress parameters, viz., triiodothyronine (T3, ng/ml, thyroxine (T4, ng/ml and cortisol (ng/ml were also estimated. Results: The calves of G2 showed higher body weight gain as compared to G1. The differences were found to be highly significant (p<0.01. The calves in G1 showed comparatively higher values of PCV and Hb and the differences were found to be significant (p<0.05 on 45th day for PCV and highly significant (p<0.01 on 60th day for PCV and on 45th day for Hb. The values of TSP and albumin were comparatively higher in calves of G1 as compared to G2 and the differences were highly significant (p<0.01 on 45th day for both TSP and albumin and significant (p<0.05 on 60th day for albumin. Significantly (p<0.01 higher values of cortisol and T4 were observed on 15 and 45th day in calves of G1 as compared to G2. The T3 levels were also found higher in calves of G1 than G2 and the differences were significant (p<0.05 on 15 and 30th day and highly significant (p<0.01 on 45th day of the study

  6. The effect of large milk meals on digestive physiology and behaviour in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, Kristian; Mejdell, Cecilie M; Ottesen, Nina; Larsen, Stig; Grøndahl, Ann Margaret

    2016-02-01

    It is commonly believed that young calves should not be fed more than about 2l of milk per meal. If calves are fed beyond this volume, it is said that the capacity of the abomasum may be exceeded and that milk could enter the rumen. This can disturb the microbial flora/fauna of the rumen and increase the risk of indigestion, diarrhoea and reduced growth. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of large milk meals on digestive physiology and behaviour in dairy calves. Six calves (19-23days of age at the beginning of the experiment) were fed 2l of warm whole milk by teat bottle three times per day, which was the recommended Norwegian feeding regime at the time. The calves were given free access to hay, concentrates and water. During three morning feeding sessions, each separated by 48h, all calves were offered larger meals. The offered amounts were calculated according to the within patient 3-level Response Surface Pathway (RSP) design. The milk given on the three test days contained a contrast medium (barium sulphate), and the animals were radiographed before, during and immediately after intake to reveal whether milk entered the rumen. Four out of the six calves drank more than 5l in one meal and the highest voluntary intake was 6.8l in one meal (13.2% of BW). Abdominal radiographs showed that the abomasum has a large ability for distension. Milk in the rumen was not observed in any of the calves, regardless of intake. The behaviour of the calves was observed for 2h after each test session. No behaviour indicating abdominal pain or discomfort was observed regardless of intake. The results indicate that when warm whole milk is administered from a teat bottle, farmers can increase the amount of milk they offer their calves beyond the traditionally recommended portion size without risk of milk entering the rumen. Hence, farmers who want to feed their calves more milk can do so by increasing meal sizes, and not necessarily by introducing an additional meal.

  7. Colostrum quality affects immune system establishment and intestinal development of neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M; Zou, Y; Wu, Z H; Li, S L; Cao, Z J

    2015-10-01

    The first meal of a neonatal calf after birth is crucial for survival and health. The present experiment was performed to assess the effects of colostrum quality on IgG passive transfer, immune and antioxidant status, and intestinal morphology and histology in neonatal calves. Twenty-eight Holstein neonatal male calves were used in the current study, 24 of which were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: those that received colostrum (GrC), transitional milk (GrT, which was obtained after the first milking on 2-3 d after calving), and bulk tank milk (GrB) only at birth. The 4 extra neonatal calves who were not fed any milk were assigned to the control group and were killed immediately after birth to be a negative control to small intestinal morphology and histology detection. Calves in GrC gained more body weight than in GrT, whereas GrB calves lost 0.4 kg compared with the birth weight. Serum total protein, IgG, and superoxide dismutase concentrations were highest in GrC, GrT was intermediate, whereas GrB was the lowest on d 2, 3, and 7. Apparent efficiency of absorption at 48 h, serum complement 3 (C3), and complement 4 (C4) on d 2, 3, and 7 in GrB was low compared with GrC and GrT. On the contrary, malondialdehyde on d 7 increased in GrB. Calves in GrC had better villus length and width, crypt depth, villus height/crypt depth (V/C) value, and mucosal thickness in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, whereas GrT calves had lower villus length and width, crypt depth, and mucosal thickness than those fed colostrum. Villi of calves in GrB were nonuniform, sparse, severely atrophied, and apically abscised, and Peyer's patches and hydroncus were detected. Overall, colostrum is the best source for calves in IgG absorption, antioxidant activities, and serum growth metabolites, and promoting intestinal development. The higher quality of colostrum calves ingested, the faster immune defense mechanism and the more healthy intestinal circumstances they established.

  8. Survey of management practices related to bovine respiratory disease in preweaned calves on California dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, W J; Lehenbauer, T W; Karle, B M; Hulbert, Lindsey E; Anderson, Randall J; Van Eenennaam, A L; Farver, T B; Aly, S S

    2016-02-01

    In the spring of 2013, a survey of California (CA) dairies was performed to characterize management practices related to bovine respiratory disease in preweaned calves, compare these practices across geographic regions of the state, and determine the principal components that explain the variability in management between herds. The questionnaire consisted of 53 questions divided into 6 sections to assess management practices affecting dairy calves from precalving to weaning. The questionnaire was mailed to 1,523 grade A licensed dairies in CA and 224 responses (14.7%) were collected. Survey response rates were similar over the 3 defined regions of CA: northern CA, northern San Joaquin Valley, and the greater southern CA region. The mean size of respondent herds was 1,423 milking cows. Most dairies reported raising preweaned calves on-site (59.7%). In 93.3% of dairies, preweaned calves were raised in some form of individual housing. Nonsaleable milk was the most frequent liquid diet fed to preweaned heifers (75.2%). Several important differences were identified between calf-raising practices in CA and practices reported in recent nationwide studies, including herd sizes, housing practices, and sources of milk fed to heifers. The differences between the CA and nationwide studies may be explained by differences in herd size. Regional differences within CA were also identified. Compared with the 2 other regions, northern CA dairies were found to have smaller herds, less Holstein cattle, calves remained with dams for longer periods of time after calving, were more likely to be certified organic dairies, and raised their own calves more often. Principal component analysis was performed and identified 11 components composed of 28 variables (questions) that explained 66.5% of the variability in the data. The identified components and questions will contribute to developing a risk assessment tool for bovine respiratory disease in preweaned dairy calves. PMID:26709177

  9. Immune complexes in blood serum of calves with clinical symptoms of bronchopneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fratrić Natalija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumonia in preruminant calves is a multifactorial disease. Infectious agents, the environment, management and the immune status of the calves are all important factors in determining the outcome of an infection. Until today, the level and composition of circulating immune complexes in preruminant calves with pneumonia have not been studied in detail. We performed this work with the aim to determine whether pneumonia in three-month-old calves is followed by changes in the immune complex level and changes in the γ-globulin level as their possible constituents. Immune complexes from the calves’ sera were isolated by polyethylene glycol (PEG precipitation methods. Optical density at 350 nm (OD350 of redissolved precipitates was measured to determine the circulating immune complexes level. The OD350 level of PEG precipitates of calves with pneumonia at the time of diagnosis was 0.577±0.206 and it was statistically significantly higher (p<0.001 than OD350 the level of PEG precipitates of healthy calves (0.286±0.080. Electrophoretic analysis of sera and PEG precipitates showed that both slow and fast γ-globulins are found among serum and immune-complexes' γ-globulins, but the concentration of fast γ-globulins was significantly lower in sera of diseased calves. The level of PEG precipitable immune complexes was not correlated with the concentration of serum and PEG precipitable g-globulins. The results of this study have shown that by relatively simple PEG precipitation assay it is possible to detect an increased level of circulating immune complexes in calves with pneumonia. This can be used as an additional diagnostic parameter for the detection and follow up of the disease.

  10. Dairy calving management: description and assessment of a training program for dairy personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuenemann, G M; Bas, S; Gordon, E; Workman, J D

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive calving management program designed to enhance the flow of applied, research-based, calving information to dairy personnel. Calving personnel (n=70), serving an estimated 18,100 cows from 18 Ohio dairies, attended the calving management program (∼1h of training and ∼2h of demonstration). Description of the birth canal, behavioral signs of normal parturition (stages I to III), dystocia (presentations, positions, and postures), hygiene practices during the assistance procedure, strategies for intervention (when and how to intervene), record-keeping, communication (when to call for help), and newborn care were discussed. Posttraining follow-ups (2/yr) were available for participating personnel. Educational materials were delivered through lectures followed by group discussions and hands-on demonstrations. Attendees were assessed using pre- and posttests of knowledge to determine the level of knowledge gained during the training program. Participants evaluated the program and provided feedback at the conclusion of the program. Dairy personnel reported that the overall program, presentations, and discussions were useful. The presented materials and demonstrations substantially increased the knowledge level of the attendees by 20.9 percentage points from pre- to posttest scores. Importance of open communication within the farm team, recognizing the landmarks for parturition, signs of calving progress, reference times for intervention, hygiene practices at calving, and strategies to correct abnormal presentation, position, or posture were listed as learned concepts with immediate field application. The follow-up assessment with participant personnel revealed that they were able to implement and apply their learned skills, communicate calving records with the farm team, and follow written calving protocols. Results indicated that the workshop was relevant and effective, offering information

  11. Composition of growth of Holstein calves fed milk replacer from birth to 105-kilogram body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, M C; Van Amburgh, M E; Smith, J M; Kelsey, J M; Hutten, E L

    2001-04-01

    Sixty calves were assigned to a comparative slaughter study to determine the changes in composition of milk replacer-fed Holstein bull calves from birth to 105-kg body weight (BW). Six calves were slaughtered on day of birth and served as a baseline for comparison of compositional changes. Fifty-four calves were assigned to one of three treatments (18 calves per treatment). Calves were fed milk replacer containing 30% crude protein (CP) and 20% fat. Target growth rates for treatments 1, 2, and 3 were 500, 950, and 1400 g/d, respectively. Six calves from each treatment were slaughtered and analyzed for energy, nitrogen, ether extract, and ash when they reached 65, 85 and 105 kg of BW. Actual daily gains from birth to slaughter were 560, 973, and 1100 g, and net deposition of CP and fat were 140 and 44, 204 and 154, and 247 and 161 g/d for treatments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Results were used to develop equations to predict retained energy [retained energy = (empty BW(0.223)) x (empty BW gain(1.32))], and retained protein, [retained protein = (184 x empty BW gain (kilograms/d)) + (17.2 x (retained energy)/empty BW gain] where retained energy is in Mcal/d, retained protein is in g/d, and empty BW and gain are in kilograms. The composition of gain observed was compared to predictions from the 1989 Dairy NRC and 1996 Beef NRC equations and demonstrated the equations do not represent the composition of gain in calves of this weight.

  12. Effect of supplemental chromium on antibody responses of newly arrived feeder calves to vaccines and ovalbumin.

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, G X; Mallard, B A; Mowat, D N; Gallo, G F

    1996-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to investigate the effects of supplemental chromium (Cr) from organic sources (Cr chelate and high Cr yeast) on antibody responses of newly arrived feeder calves following vaccination with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), para-influenza-3 (PI3), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and Pasteurella haemolytica and ovalbumin (OVA). Using cross bred steer calves purchased at sales in Ontario, vaccines and OVA were given on d 0 a...

  13. Orphan caribou, Rangifer tarandus, calves: A re-evaluation of overwinter survival data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Kyle

    2000-01-01

    Low sample size and high variation within populations reduce power of statistical tests. These aspects of statistical power appear to have affected an analysis comparing overwinter survival rates of non-orphan and orphan Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) calves by an earlier study for the Porcupine Caribou Herd. A re-evaluation of the data revealed that conclusions about a lack of significant difference in the overwinter survival rates between orphan and non-orphan calves were premature.

  14. Passive immunity to bovine rotavirus in newborn calves fed colostrum supplements from immunized or nonimmunized cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif, L J; Redman, D R; Smith, K L; Theil, K W

    1983-01-01

    Colostrum was collected and pooled from each of five cows in three experimental groups: group I cows received intramuscular and intramammary inoculations of adjuvanted modified live Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center rotavirus vaccine; group II cows were injected intramuscularly with a commercial modified-live rota-coronavirus vaccine; and group III cows were uninoculated controls. Pooled colostrum from group I cows had higher (P less than 0.05) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) immunoglobulin G (IgG1) and virus neutralization (VN) rotavirus antibody titers (ELISA IgG1 = 2,413,682; VN = 360,205) than did colostrum from group II (ELISA IgG1 = 8,192; VN = 4,395) or group III cows (ELISA IgG1 = 5,916; VN = 2,865). The antibody titers of these last two colostrum pools did not differ (P greater than 0.05). Samples of these colostrum pools were fed as daily supplements (percent [vol/vol] in cow's milk infant formula) to 28 newborn, unsuckled, antibody-seronegative, male Holstein calves. Eight calves received no supplemental colostrum. The calves were orally challenged with virulent bovine rotavirus and monitored daily for diarrhea and fecal rotavirus shedding. Diarrhea and rotavirus shedding occurred in the eight calves fed no supplemental colostrum and persisted longest in this group. The pooled colostrum from group I cows protected eight of eight calves from both rotavirus diarrhea and shedding when fed as a 1% supplement. The pooled colostrum from neither group II nor group III cows protected 12 other calves against rotavirus diarrhea or shedding when fed at the same concentration (1%). Six rotavirus-challenged calves fed 0.1% supplemental colostrum from group I cows and two calves fed 10 and 50% supplemental colostrum from control cows displayed partial passive immunity, exemplified by delayed onset and shortened duration of rotavirus-associated diarrhea and virus shedding. PMID:6309660

  15. Meat Quality of Loin and Top Round Muscles from the Hanwoo and Holstein Veal Calves

    OpenAIRE

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Chung, Eui-Gang; Chung, Ku-Young

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the meat qualities of loin (m. longissimus dorsi) and top round (m. semimembranosus) from Hanwoo and Holstein veal. Ten Hanwoo and Holstein calves were randomly selected from a local cattle farm and raised. They were slaughtered when they were 8 mon old and weighed. Weight and percentage in primal cuts and slaughter performance of Hanwoo and Holstein veal calves are obtained. Immediately after weighting, slices of loin and top round muscles were sampled. Af...

  16. Performance and Health of Group-Housed Calves Kept in Igloo Calf Hutches and Calf Barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Wójcik*, Renata Pilarczyk, Anna Bilska, Ottfried Weiher1 and Peter Sanftleben1

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Group-reared calves are usually housed in common buildings, such as calf barns of all sorts; however, there are concerns about this practice due to problems such as an increased incidence of diseases and poor performance of the calves. Group calf rearing using igloo hutches may be a solution combining the benefits of individual and group housing systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate group-reared calves housed in Igloo-type hutches compared with those housed in common calf barns. The experiment was carried out on a large private dairy farm located in Vorpommern, Germany. A total of 90 Deutsche-Holstein bull calves were assigned to 2 treatment groups: the calf-barn group, with calves grouped in pens in a building, and the Igloo-hutch group, with calves housed in outdoor enclosures with an access to group igloo-style hutches. Calves entering the 84-day experiment were at an average age of about three weeks, with the mean initial body weight of about 50 kg. The calves housed in the group Igloo hutches attained higher daily weight gains compared to those housed in the calf barn (973 vs 721 g/day, consumed more solid feeds (concentrate, corn grain and maize silage: (1.79 vs 1.59 kg/day, and less milk replacer (5.51 vs 6.19 kg/day, had also a lower incidence of respiratory diseases (1.24 vs 3.57% with a shorter persistence of the illness.

  17. Survey of management practices related to bovine respiratory disease in preweaned calves on California dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, W J; Lehenbauer, T W; Karle, B M; Hulbert, Lindsey E; Anderson, Randall J; Van Eenennaam, A L; Farver, T B; Aly, S S

    2016-02-01

    In the spring of 2013, a survey of California (CA) dairies was performed to characterize management practices related to bovine respiratory disease in preweaned calves, compare these practices across geographic regions of the state, and determine the principal components that explain the variability in management between herds. The questionnaire consisted of 53 questions divided into 6 sections to assess management practices affecting dairy calves from precalving to weaning. The questionnaire was mailed to 1,523 grade A licensed dairies in CA and 224 responses (14.7%) were collected. Survey response rates were similar over the 3 defined regions of CA: northern CA, northern San Joaquin Valley, and the greater southern CA region. The mean size of respondent herds was 1,423 milking cows. Most dairies reported raising preweaned calves on-site (59.7%). In 93.3% of dairies, preweaned calves were raised in some form of individual housing. Nonsaleable milk was the most frequent liquid diet fed to preweaned heifers (75.2%). Several important differences were identified between calf-raising practices in CA and practices reported in recent nationwide studies, including herd sizes, housing practices, and sources of milk fed to heifers. The differences between the CA and nationwide studies may be explained by differences in herd size. Regional differences within CA were also identified. Compared with the 2 other regions, northern CA dairies were found to have smaller herds, less Holstein cattle, calves remained with dams for longer periods of time after calving, were more likely to be certified organic dairies, and raised their own calves more often. Principal component analysis was performed and identified 11 components composed of 28 variables (questions) that explained 66.5% of the variability in the data. The identified components and questions will contribute to developing a risk assessment tool for bovine respiratory disease in preweaned dairy calves.

  18. Immunoglobulin transfer and weight gains in suckled beef calves force-fed stored colostrum.

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, J. A.; Niilo, L.

    1985-01-01

    Concentrations of immunoglobulins and total proteins in second-day post-partum serum samples of 62 beef calves from multiparous dams were measured by zinc sulphate turbidity, electrophoresis, radial immunodiffusion and refractometry. These results, together with health records and weight gains, were used to evaluate the practice of routinely force-feeding 1 L of stored colostrum to suckled beef calves immediately after birth. There was no apparent benefit from such force-feeding. It did not r...

  19. Ingestion of colostrum from specific cows induces Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP) in some calves

    OpenAIRE

    Carlin Annette; Müller Matthias; Weber Bianca K; Klee Wolfgang; Rademacher Günter; Büttner Mathias; Friedrich Annette; Assad Aryan; Hafner-Marx Angela; Sauter-Louis Carola M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Since 2006, cases of haemorrhagic diathesis in young calves have been observed with a much higher incidence than previously known. The syndrome, now uniformly called Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP), is characterized by multiple (external and internal) haemorrhages, thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, and bone marrow depletion. Although various infectious and toxicological causes of bleeding disorders in calves have been ruled out, the aetiology of BNP remains unknown. How...

  20. The effect of unrestricted milk feeding on the growth and health of Jersey calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Uys

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding high milk volumes on the growth rate, health and cross-sucking behaviour in group-fed Jersey calves. Three-day-old heifers (n = 120 in a seasonal calving dairy herd were randomly assigned to one of 6 treatment groups. Three groups received high milk volumes (HMV, consisting of ad libitum milk or milk replacer feeding twice a day, while 3 groups received restricted milk volumes (RMV, consisting of 2 twice daily, during the pre-weaning period. After a pre-weaning period during which feeding was reduced to once daily, all calves were weaned at 42 days and monitored until 60 days of age.Adjusting for birth mass, birth date,damparity and sire, average daily mass gain (ADG, both pre-weaning (days 0–42 and overall (days 0–60, was higher inHMVthan inRMVcalves (P<0.001.After weaning, growth rates showed no differences and at 60 days of age the HMV calves maintained a 6.74 kg advantage in mean body mass (P < 0.001. The mean intake of dry starter feed was higher in RMV than in HMVcalves. Overall feed conversion rate ofHMVcalves was 9.6%better thanRMVcalves. However, the variable cost per kg mass gain was 12 % higher for HMV calves. In the RMV groups 75 % of calves showed cross-sucking behaviour pre-weaning and 18 % post-weaning, whereas in HMV calves the proportions were 2 % and 7 %, respectively. There was no significant effect of milk volume on the incidence of diarrhoea.We conclude that the feeding of high volumes of milk to Jersey calves has a positive effect on growth rate, without compromising health or reducing solid feed intake after weaning. However, the higher cost of such a feeding system may limit its implementation.

  1. Behavioral and Physiological Responses of Calves to Marshalling and Roping in a Simulated Rodeo Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Sinclair

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rodeos are public events at which stockpeople face tests of their ability to manage cattle and horses, some of which relate directly to rangeland cattle husbandry. One of these is calf roping, in which a calf released from a chute is pursued by a horse and rider, who lassoes, lifts and drops the calf to the ground and finally ties it around the legs. Measurements were made of behavior and stress responses of ten rodeo-naïve calves marshalled by a horse and rider, and ten rodeo-experienced calves that were roped. Naïve calves marshalled by a horse and rider traversed the arena slowly, whereas rodeo-experienced calves ran rapidly until roped. Each activity was repeated once after two hours. Blood samples taken before and after each activity demonstrated increased cortisol, epinephrine and nor-epinephrine in both groups. However, there was no evidence of a continued increase in stress hormones in either group by the start of the repeated activity, suggesting that the elevated stress hormones were not a response to a prolonged effect of the initial blood sampling. It is concluded that both the marshalling of calves naïve to the roping chute by stockpeople and the roping and dropping of experienced calves are stressful in a simulated rodeo calf roping event.

  2. Housing, Feeding and Management of Calves and Replacement Heifers in Swedish Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberg P

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire was sent to 1500 randomly selected dairy herds in Sweden, asking for general information about the herds, including routines from birth to first calving and also routines at breeding, calving and during the grazing period. Fifty-eight percent of the questionnaires were returned. The preweaned calves were kept in individual calf pens in 68% and in group housing systems in 28% of the herds. Pens with slatted floors were the main housing system for replacement heifers from weaning to breeding, and tie stalls from breeding to first calving. Whole milk was used in 44% and milk replacements in 42% of the herds. The calves received, as a median, 2.5 litres of milk per meal and 2 meals per day. The median age at weaning was 8 weeks. Age was the single most common criteria used for deciding both weaning and breeding time. The median age when the heifers were first turned out to pasture was 6 months. Prophylactic anthelmintic treatment was used by 65% of the herds. The most common diet for replacement heifers before calving was a combination of grain, hay and silage.

  3. Iceberg calving at Rapidly Retreating Tidewater Glacier: Columbia Glacier, AK, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D. E.; O'Neel, S.; Marshall, H.; Pfeffer, T.

    2005-12-01

    An array of eleven seismometers including one broadband instrument was deployed around the lower Columbia Glacier margin during June 2004 for a period one year. This network recorded small local seismic events (icequakes) and four explosions detonated in boreholes on the glacier. Additionally, we documented changes in glacier geometry with a single time lapse camera. For 25 days we made detailed observations of iceberg calving, noting the time of calving events along with the location and size of the event. Ice motion was measured with GPS 7 km upstream from the terminus for 60 days and within 1 km of the terminus for 25 days using optical methods. Waveforms from the broadband sensor are used to characterize seismic signals originating from calving events. Calving events produce seismic signals which have a 1-3 Hz characteristic frequency, and non-impulsive onsets. Submarine events often contain an additional low frequency component that is not present during sub-aerial events. We use motion and photogrammetric measurements to explore the relationship between calving and ice motion and also between calving and near-terminus glacier geometry.

  4. Comparison between Two Cecostomy Techniques for Treatment of Atresia Coli in Cattle and Buffalo Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Abdelfattah Abdelrhman, Aiman Mahmoud Seddek*1 and Hossam Ahmad Bakr2

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at determination of the cecostomy technique that will preserve the long-term maximal diameter of the created fistula. The subjects of the study were 79 newly born cattle and buffalo calves suffered from atresia coli, recti and ani. The calves were grouped into four groups for evaluation of incisional and herniation cecostomy techniques either on the right or left flank. With each technique, 4 cm diameter permanent fistula was created and evaluated at the 1stweek, and 1st, 4th and 8th months post-surgery. Both of the short and long-term complications were recorded and managed conservatively. Follow up could be achieved for 45 calves only and all of them showed stunted growth. The results revealed wider stoma in the calves operated by herniation technique, and in those operated on the right flank, moreover the operated cattle calves had wider stoma than buffalo calves. It is concluded that the right flank herniation technique has a beneficial effect on long-term preserving of a wider diameter of the created fistula.

  5. Petermann Glacier, North Greenland: massive calving in 2010 and the past half century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Johannessen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Greenland's marine-terminating glaciers drain large amounts of solid ice through calving of icebergs, as well as melting of floating glacial ice. Petermann Glacier, North Greenland, has the Northern Hemisphere's long floating ice shelf. A massive (~270 km2 calving event was observed from satellite sensors in August 2010. In order to understand this in perspective, here we perform a comprehensive retrospective data analysis of Petermann Glacier calving-front variability spanning half a century. Here we establish that there have been at least four massive (100+ km2 calving events over the past 50 years: (1 1959–1961 (~153 km2, (2 1991 (~168 km2, (3 2001 (~71 km2 and (4 2010 (~270 km2, as well as ~31 km2 calved in 2008. The terminus position in 2010 has retreated ~15 km beyond the envelope of previous observations. Whether the massive calving in 2010 represents natural episodic variability or a response to global and/or ocean warming in the fjord remains speculative, although this event supports the contention that the ice shelf recently has become vulnerable due to extensive fracturing and channelized basal melting.

  6. Effect of ferrous sulphate on haematological, biochemical and immunological parameters in neonatal calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobna S. Elgebaly

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of oral administration of iron on haematological, biochemical and immunological parameters in neonatal calves was studied. Ten calves from a private farm in Gharbia Governorate were used. Calves were separated from their dams immediately after birth and received colostrum during the first hours after calving and twice daily for 48 h. Thereafter, they received whole milk. Calves were divided into two equal groups. The first group was kept as controls. Calves of the second group were given ferrous sulphate at a dose of 250 mg/calf daily, beginning at one day of age; this was continued for 28 days. Three blood samples were collected from each calf in all groups at 14, 21, 28 and 35 days of age. Iron administration produced a significant increase in red blood cell count, haemoglobin, packed cell volume and blood indices, in addition to non-significant changes in total and differential leukocyte counts. The administration of iron resulted in a significant increase in serum iron, total proteins, globulins, thyroid hormones, lymphocyte stimulation index, phagocytosis, body weight and body gain. The administration of iron is suggested as routine practice in calf-producing farms due to its advantageous effects on the parameters tested.

  7. Pair housing and enhanced milk allowance increase play behavior and improve performance in dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Duve, Linda Rosager; Weary, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    -housed calves could perform social play behavior (play fighting), and the duration of this was greater on d 15 and 29 than on d 43 [8.3, 10.7 and 3.5 (±1.3) corresponding to 69, 115 and 12 s/24 h for d 15, 29, and 43]. Among calves on enhanced milk, pair-housed animals had a greater concentrate intake than...... observed no effect of pair versus individual housing [810 and 840 (±40) g/d]. In conclusion, greater durations of play behavior in enhanced-fed calves suggest an animal welfare benefit of this feeding method. Enhanced-fed calves consumed less concentrate, but pair housing stimulated concentrate intake......To investigate the effects of social housing and milk feeding on play behavior and performance, 48 Holstein-Friesian male and female calves were either individually or pair housed in straw-bedded pens (3.0 m × 4.5 m). Half of the calves in each housing treatment were fed a standard milk allowance...

  8. Impact of nutritional programming on the growth, health, and sexual development of bull calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollwein, H; Janett, F; Kaske, M

    2016-07-01

    The growth, health, and reproductive performance of bull calves are important prerequisites for a successful cattle breeding program. Therefore, several attempts have been made to improve these parameters via nutritional programming. Although an increase in energy uptake during the postweaning period (7-8 mo of age) of the calves leads to a faster growing rate, it has no positive effects on sexual development. In contrast, a high-nutrition diet during the prepubertal period (8-20 wk of age) reduced the age at puberty of the bulls and increased the size and/or weight of the testis and the epididymal sperm reserves. This faster sexual development is associated with an increased transient LH peak, which seems to be mediated by an increase in serum IGF-I concentrations. However, the exact mechanisms responsible for the interaction between nutrition and the subsequent development of the calves are not clear. The sexual development of bull calves depends not only on the nutrition of the calves after birth but also on the feed intake of their mothers during pregnancy. In contrast to the effects of the feed intake of the bull calves, a high-nutrition diet fed to the mother during the first trimester has negative effects on the reproductive performance of their offspring. In conclusion, it has been clearly demonstrated that growth, health, and reproductive performance can be improved by nutritional programming, but further studies are necessary to obtain a better understanding about the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon.

  9. Growth, intake, and health of Holstein heifer calves fed an enhanced preweaning diet with or without postweaning exogenous estrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, A J; Parsons, C L M; James, R E; Akers, R M

    2016-05-01

    Research has shown that changes in nutrition both before and after weaning can affect mammary development. Additionally, estrogen is known to be a potent mammogenic stimulant. Our objectives were to determine effects of altered preweaning feeding and exogenous estradiol postweaning on growth, intake, and health. Thirty-six Holstein heifer calves were reared on (1) a restricted milk replacer (MR) diet fed at 0.44kg powder dry matter (DM)/day [R; 20.9% crude protein (CP), 19.8% fat, DM basis], or (2) an enhanced MR fed at 1.08kg powder DM/d (EH; 28.9% CP, 26.2% fat, DM basis). The MR feeding was reduced 50% during wk 8 to prepare for weaning. Starter was offered after wk 4 but balanced between treatments. Body weight and frame were measured weekly with intakes and health monitored daily. At weaning, a subset of calves were slaughtered (n=6/diet). Enhanced-fed calves had greater carcass, thymus, liver, spleen, and mammary gland (parenchyma and mammary fat pad) weights. The EH calves also had greater average daily gain (ADG) starting during wk 1 (0.36 vs. -0.06kg/d) and lasting through wk 7 (1.00 vs. 0.41kg/d). Remaining calves received estrogen implants or placebo and were slaughtered at the end of wk 10, creating 4 treatments: (1) R, (2) R + estrogen (R-E2), (3) EH, and (4) EH + estrogen (EH-E2). Postweaning ADG was similar between R, EH, and EH-E2 calves, but greater in R-E2 calves than E calves. The EH-E2 calves had the heaviest mammary glands, and R-E2 calves had heavier mammary glands than R calves. The EH calves consumed more MR DM, CP, and fat preweaning. The R-fed calves consumed more starter DM preweaning. Fecal score was greater for EH calves (1.74 vs. 1.50) preweaning, but days medicated did not differ. Fecal scores were lower for R-E2 calves postweaning. Improved preweaning feeding of calves increased body weights and frame measures. Differences in body weights remained postweaning. Enhanced-fed calves showed greater ADG during the preweaning period but

  10. Comparison of slaughter value for once-calved heifers and heifers of Polish Holstein-Friesian×Limousine crossbreds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogalski, Zenon; Sobczuk-Szul, Monika; Pogorzelska-Przybyłek, Paulina; Wielgosz-Groth, Zofia; Purwin, Cezary; Modzelewska-Kapituła, Monika

    2016-07-01

    The study compared the slaughter value and meat quality of heifers and once-calved heifers slaughtered at the age of 18 and 28months, respectively. The once-calved heifers at the age of 15months, were bred with semen of Limousine bulls and following the calving they fed their offspring and then they were slaughtered. There were no differences in the carcass conformation and fatness between the treatments. Once-calved heifers' carcasses had a higher proportion (Pheifers. Meat of once-calved heifers contained more (Pheifers' meat. In conclusion, due to the possibility for obtaining additional offspring and a heavier pre-slaughter weight without reducing the slaughter value of the carcass and meat quality, it is recommended to use heifers originating from commercial crossbreeding as the once-calved ones. PMID:26928230

  11. Heart rate and heart rate variability in multiparous dairy cows with unassisted calvings in the periparturient period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, L; Tőzsér, J; Kézér, F L; Ruff, F; Aubin-Wodala, M; Albert, E; Choukeir, A; Szelényi, Z; Szenci, O

    2015-02-01

    Behavioural changes before calving can be monitored on farms; however, predicting the onset of calving is sometimes difficult based only on clinical signs. Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) as non-invasive measures of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity were investigated in Holstein-Friesian cows (N=20) with unassisted calvings in the periparturient period to predict the onset of calving and assess the stress associated with calving. R-R-intervals were analysed in 5-min time windows during the following three main periods of measurement: 1) between 0 and 96 h before the onset of calving restlessness (prepartum period); 2) during four stages of calving: (I) early first stage; between the onset of calving restlessness and the first abdominal contractions; (II) late first stage (between the first abdominal contractions and the appearance of the amniotic sac); (III) early second stage (between the appearance of the amniotic sac and the appearance of the foetal hooves); (IV) late second stage (between the appearance of the foetal hooves and delivery of the calf), and 3) over 48 h following calving (postpartum period). Data collected between 72 and 96 h before calving restlessness was used as baseline. Besides HR, Poincaré measures [standard deviation 1 (SD1) and 2 (SD2) and SD2/SD1 ratio], the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) in R-R intervals, the high-frequency (HF) component of HRV and the ratio between the low-frequency (LF) and the HF components (LF/HF ratio) were calculated. Heart rate increased only following the onset of the behavioural signs, peaked before delivery of the calf, then decreased immediately after calving. Parasympathetic indices of HRV (RMSSD, HFnorm and SD1) decreased, whereas sympathovagal indices (LF/HF ratio and SD2/SD1 ratio) increased significantly from baseline between 12 and 24 before the onset of calving restlessness. The same pattern was observed between 0 and 1h before calving restlessness. Following

  12. Air quality in barns for milk-fed calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventy per cent of the veal produced in Canada comes from Quebec. This paper reported on the air quality in barns used for milk-fed calves. It is known that air quality inside livestock buildings has an impact on both workers and animals, particularly in winter when air circulation is reduced. In this study, air quality inside barns was studied during the winter, spring and summer. Three types of barns with 3 different types of ventilation typically found in Quebec were evaluated. These included those with preheated corridors, lateral air entries, and central chimneys. Gases were measured in order to determine concentrations and emissions of: ammonia (NH3) which is toxic, colourless and flammable; hydrogen sulfide (H2S) which is very toxic, flammable; carbon dioxide (CO2) which is colourless and odourless; nitrous oxide (N2O) which is colourless and flammable, but harmless to health in the short-term; carbon monoxide (CO) which is colourless, odourless and flammable; and methane (CH4) which is the principal constituent released by animals, and is also colourless, odourless and extremely flammable. When exposed to air, both methane and carbon monoxide can produce an explosive mix especially in an enclosed area. Bacteria, mold, endotoxins, and dust are also present in barns. Samples of gases were analyzed with the help of different portable apparatuses. Results revealed that there are no significant problems with air quality in barns used for milk-fed calves in Quebec. It was determined that the inside temperature was appropriate even during summer periods, and although the relative humidity was higher than the recommended values for the care and handling of farm animals, it was still acceptable. In winter, ammonia was the only gas present in concentrations that reached values of weighted average exposure. Also, concentrations of bacteria were higher during winter. It was suggested that better air ventilation during the winter period would lower ammonia and bacteria

  13. Endocrine Measurements and Calving Performance of Swedish Red and White and Swedish Holstein Dairy Cattle with Special Respect to Stillbirth

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson H; Kindahl H; Franzén G; Kornmatitsuk B

    2003-01-01

    During 3 consecutive calving seasons, calving performance, placental characteristics and endocrine profiles of total 98 pregnancies of late pregnant Swedish Red and White (SRB) and Swedish Holstein (SLB) dairy heifers and cows, were investigated. Ninety-four singleton pregnancies and 4 sets of twins were recorded. In animals with singleton pregnancy, 8 stillbirths, 7 weak calves, 3 premature parturitions and 1 abortion were registered. In the SLB heifers, 19% of stillbirth (5/26) were observ...

  14. Investigations of presence of antibodies against bovine herpesvirus-1 in blood serum of calves prior to colostrum diet

    OpenAIRE

    Lazić Sava; Rogan Dragan; Petrović Tamaš; Bugarski Dejan; Lupulović Diana; Lazarević Miodrag

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the results of investigations of the presence of the bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) in samples of blood serum from 106 cows and 107 of their calves (one cow had twins). Blood was sampled from the cows immediately after parturition, and from the calves before feeding on colostrum. The examined cows and their calves originated from 5 herds in which previous investigations had shown infection with the bovine herpesvirus-1. The determination of antibodies against BHV-1 was perfor...

  15. Genotype x environment interactions for postweaning performance in crossbred calves grazing winter wheat pasture or dormant native prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W A; Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Coleman, S W

    2001-06-01

    Data from 403 calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows sired by Polled Hereford bulls were used to evaluate the impact of postweaning backgrounding forages on postweaning BW, gains, and carcass traits. Calves were born (spring of 1991 through 1994) and reared on either endophyte-infected tall fescue or common bermudagrass pastures. After weaning, calves were transported 360 km to the Grazinglands Research Laboratory, west of El Reno, OK, and, within breed and preweaning forage, were assigned to one of the following winter stocker treatments: 1) winter wheat pasture or 2) dormant native prairie plus supplemental CP. In March, winter stocker treatments were ended and calves were grazed as a single group on cool-season grasses until early July (1992, 1993, and 1994) or late May (1995), when the feedlot phase began. In the feedlot, calves were fed a high concentrate diet for an average of 120 d until a backfat thickness of > 10 mm was reached. Calves were shipped in truck load lots to Amarillo, TX (350 km), for processing and collection of carcass data. Averaged over calf breed group, calves wintered on wheat pasture gained faster (P carcass weights (337 vs 315 kg); larger (P carcass traits. Calves wintered on native prairie were restricted in growth and expressed compensatory gain during the feedlot phase but not during the spring stocker phase. Dormant native grasses can be used to winter stocker calves excess to the winter wheat pasture needs, but ownership of these calves would have to be retained through the feedlot phase to realize any advantage of built-in compensatory gain. Finally, these data suggest that expression of maternal heterosis for weight gain is more likely in calves backgrounded on native prairie than in calves grazed on winter wheat.

  16. The Effect of Age, Stocking Density and Flooring during Transport on Welfare of Young Dairy Calves in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Jongman, Ellen C.; Butler, Kym L.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Young calves are vulnerable to the stressful conditions associated with transport. This study examined the effect of age, stocking density and flooring during transport on lying behaviour and some physiological measurements of metabolic state, dehydration and muscle damage in young calves. While physiology and behaviour changed with age, there were no clear effects of transport. More space and straw bedding however was of benefit to calves of all ages, with some indication that...

  17. The influence of different fibrous supplements in the diet on ruminal histology and histometry in veal calves

    OpenAIRE

    A. Di Giancamillo; G. Bosi; Arrighi, S.; Savoini, G.; C. Domeneghini

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the administration of four different solid feeds would influence selected morphological and morphofunctional aspects of the rumen mucosa in veal calves. The fibrous supplementation of the liquid diet of veal calves has been provided by recent EU formulation (EC Council Directive 91/629/1991; EC Council Directive 97/2/1997). Twenty-five Holstein calves were assigned to either exclusively liquid diet (milk replac...

  18. Genetic and environmental factors associated with incidence of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis in preweaned beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowder, G D; Van Vleck, L D; Cundiff, L V; Bennett, G L

    2005-03-01

    Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) is one of the most economically important diseases in preweaned calves. This study examined the health records of 45,497 calves over a 20-yr period to determine environmental and genetic factors influencing the incidence of IBK. Three data sets were analyzed with an animal model. The first data set (n = 41,986) evaluated environmental factors and genetic differences among nine purebred (Angus, Braunvieh, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Pinzgauer, Red Poll, and Simmental) and three composite breeds (MARC I, MARC II, and MARC III). Weaning weights of calves diagnosed with IBK were 8.9 kg lighter (P < 0.05) than weights of healthy calves. Incidence of IBK was related to age of the calf and the seasonal life cycle of the face fly (Musca autumnalis). Incidence of IBK increased in the spring (June), peaked during the summer months (July to September), and then decreased in the fall. Herefords were the most susceptible breed (P < 0.05) compared with all other purebreds and composites. Estimates of direct heritability for the incidence of IBK were generally low and ranged from 0.00 to 0.28 by breed. The maternal permanent environmental and genetic effects of the dam on the incidence of IBK were not significant for most breeds. The second data set (n = 9,606) was used to estimate heterosis for the incidence of IBK from a Hereford and Angus diallel design. The heterosis effect for the incidence of IBK in reciprocal Hereford/Angus crossbred calves was slightly negative (P = 0.12) but not large. The higher incidence of IBK in Angus x Hereford calves compared with Hereford x Angus calves (13.3 vs. 8.9%) suggests a maternal effect related to the incidence of IBK. Incidence of IBK in crossbred calves sired by tropically adapted breeds (Brahma, Boran, Tuli) compared with purebred and crossbred Bos taurus types was investigated in the third data set (n = 2,622). Crossbred calves sired by tropically adapted breeds had a lower

  19. Effect of pre-weaning feeding regimens on post-weaning growth performance of Sahiwal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, S A; Ali, A; Nawaz, H; McGill, D; Sarwar, M; Afzal, M; Khan, M S; Ehsanullah; Amer, M A; Bush, R; Wynn, P C; Warriach, H M

    2012-08-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the post-weaning growth response of Sahiwal calves reared on four different pre-weaning dietary regimens. The four diets were: (a) whole cow's milk, starter ration (SR; CP = 20%, total digestible nutrients (TDN) = 72%) and Berseem hay (H; Egyptian clover; CP = 21%, TDN = 63%); (b) whole cow's milk + H; (c) milk replacer (MR; reconstituted to supplier specification; Sprayfo®) + SR + H; and (d) MR + H. The protein and fat percentages of reconstituted MR were 2.22 and 1.84, respectively. Milk or MR were fed at the rate of 10% of the calves' body weight (BW) until 56 days of age, and then withdrawn gradually until weaned completely by 84 days of age. The average initial BW of calves in groups A, B, C and D were 56.3 ± 1.0, 47.5 ± 1.0, 40.4 ± 1.0 and 30.3 ± 1.0 kg, respectively. Initially, there were 12 calves in each group with six of each sex; however, one male calf died from each of groups B and C and were not replaced. During the post-weaning period, 13 to 24 weeks, the calves were fed a single total mixed ration ad libitum based on maize, canola meal, wheat straw and molasses containing 16% CP and 70% TDN. Daily feed intake and weekly BW gains were recorded. The data were analyzed by MIXED model analysis procedures using the statistical program SAS. The intake of calves as percent of their BW, feed conversion ratio and cost per kg of BW gain were not different (P > 0.05) across treatments. The daily gain at 24 weeks of age for the pre-weaning treatments A, B, C and D were 746 ± 33, 660 ± 33, 654 ± 33 and 527 ± 33 g/day and the final liveweights of calves were 119 ± 4.2, 102 ± 4.2, 95 ± 4.2 and 75 ± 4.2 kg, respectively. Gains were influenced significantly (P calves fed MR and H only during the pre-weaning period were unable to catch up post weaning with calves on other dietary treatments. The calves fed whole milk from birth at the rate of 10% of liveweight together with concentrates had higher weaning weight

  20. Host adapted intramammary infections in pregnant heifers which were co-housed and reared on fresh milk as calves

    OpenAIRE

    Petzer, Inge-Marié; Karzis, Joanne; Lesosky, Maia; Watermeyer, Johanna C; Badenhorst, Renette

    2013-01-01

    Background Heifers can calve down with intramammary infections (IMI) and udder damage. This will have a negative impact on their longevity, future milk yield and financial return. Co-housed pre-weaned calves that are fed fresh milk have the opportunity to suckle each other’s teats and may infect udders of fellow heifer calves with pathogens present in milk. The prevalence of IMI in pregnant heifers in South Africa (SA) which were co-housed and reared on fresh milk as calves, is not known. Qua...

  1. Effects of feeding whey protein on growth rate and mucosal IgA induction in Japanese Black calves

    OpenAIRE

    Yasumatsuya, Keiko; Kasai, Koji; Yamanaka, Kengo; SAKASE, Mitsuhiro; Nishino, Osamu; Akaike, Masaru; Mandokoro, Koki; Nagase, Tatsuo; Kume, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    Data from 63 Japanese Black calves were collected to clarify the effects of feeding whey protein on the growth rate and mucosal IgA induction in calves. Dietary treatments in milk replacers were 1) 26% CP as in skim milk (control), 2) 26% CP as whey and skim milk and 3) 26% CP as whey. Diets were offered from 3 to 63 days of age in calves. Feeding whey protein had no effects on growth rate, fecal consistency and fecal water in calves. Compared with 2 days of age, fecal IgA concentration in ca...

  2. Effects of Degree and Timing of Social Housing on Reversal Learning and Response to Novel Objects in Dairy Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Rebecca K.; Daros, Rolnei R.; Costa, João H. C.; von Keyserlingk, Marina A. G.; Hötzel, Maria J.; Weary, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Rodents and primates deprived of early social contact exhibit deficits in learning and behavioural flexibility. They often also exhibit apparent signs of elevated anxiety, although the relationship between these effects has not been studied. To investigate whether dairy calves are similarly affected, we first compared calves housed in standard individual pens (n = 7) to those housed in a dynamic group with access to their mothers (n = 8). All calves learned to approach the correct stimulus in a visual discrimination task. Only one individually housed calf was able to re-learn the task when the stimuli were reversed, compared to all but one calf from the group. A second experiment investigated whether this effect might be explained by anxiety in individually housed animals interfering with their learning, and tested varying degrees of social contact in addition to the complex group: pair housing beginning early (approximately 6 days old) and late (6 weeks old). Again, fewer individually reared calves learned the reversal task (2 of 10 or 20%) compared to early paired and grouped calves (16 of 21 or 76% of calves). Late paired calves had intermediate success. Individually housed calves were slower to touch novel objects, but the magnitude of the fear response did not correlate with reversal performance. We conclude that individually housed calves have learning deficits, but these deficits were not likely associated with increased anxiety. PMID:26274583

  3. Reproductive performance of cows mated to and preweaning performance of calves sired by Brahman vs alternative subtropically adapted breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrift, F A

    1997-10-01

    Comparisons involving Brahman and Brahman-derivative (Brangus, Santa Gertrudis, Beef-master, Simbrah, Braford) sires indicate the following: 1) cows mated to Brangus and Santa Gertrudis bulls had a shorter gestation length than cows mated to Brahman bulls, 2) calves sired by Brangus and Beefmaster bulls were lighter at birth and weaning than calves sired by Brahman bulls, and 3) birth and weaning weights were similar for calves sired by Santa Gertrudis and Brahman bulls and for calves sired by Simbrah and Brahman bulls. Comparisons involving Brahman and other Zebu (Sahiwal, Nellore, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Boran, Romana Red) sires indicate that gestation length was slightly longer for cows mated to Sahiwal and Nellore bulls and that, relative to the Brahman, birth and weaning weights were similar to or lighter for calves sired by bulls of the other Zebu breeds. The only exception to this pattern was birth weight of Indu-Brazil-sired calves, which were heavier than calves sired by Brahman bulls. Comparisons involving Brahman and non-Zebu subtropically adapted (Tuli, Senepol) sires indicate that cows mated to Tuli bulls had a slightly shorter gestation length than cows mated to Brahman bulls and that birth and weaning weights of calves sired by Tuli and Senepol bulls were lighter than those of calves sired by Brahman bulls. PMID:9331860

  4. Reproductive performance of cows mated to and preweaning performance of calves sired by Brahman vs alternative subtropically adapted breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrift, F A

    1997-10-01

    Comparisons involving Brahman and Brahman-derivative (Brangus, Santa Gertrudis, Beef-master, Simbrah, Braford) sires indicate the following: 1) cows mated to Brangus and Santa Gertrudis bulls had a shorter gestation length than cows mated to Brahman bulls, 2) calves sired by Brangus and Beefmaster bulls were lighter at birth and weaning than calves sired by Brahman bulls, and 3) birth and weaning weights were similar for calves sired by Santa Gertrudis and Brahman bulls and for calves sired by Simbrah and Brahman bulls. Comparisons involving Brahman and other Zebu (Sahiwal, Nellore, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Boran, Romana Red) sires indicate that gestation length was slightly longer for cows mated to Sahiwal and Nellore bulls and that, relative to the Brahman, birth and weaning weights were similar to or lighter for calves sired by bulls of the other Zebu breeds. The only exception to this pattern was birth weight of Indu-Brazil-sired calves, which were heavier than calves sired by Brahman bulls. Comparisons involving Brahman and non-Zebu subtropically adapted (Tuli, Senepol) sires indicate that cows mated to Tuli bulls had a slightly shorter gestation length than cows mated to Brahman bulls and that birth and weaning weights of calves sired by Tuli and Senepol bulls were lighter than those of calves sired by Brahman bulls.

  5. Pathogenetic differences after experimental infection of calves with Korean non-cytopathic BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Giyong; Oem, Jae-Ku; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2013-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare clinical and virological differences between non-cytopathic (ncp) bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-1 and ncp BVDV-2 isolated from Korean field cases. Each five naïve calves were experimentally infected with Korean ncp BVDV-1 or BVDV-2 isolates. Two additional age-matched animals were used as uninfected controls. Leukocyte, lymphocyte, and platelet counts declined in all infected calves, but were significantly lower and remained decreased longer in calves infected with ncp BVDV-2 isolate. The number of monocytes was greater in calves infected with ncp BVDV-2. Flow cytometric assay showed that lymphocyte apoptosis occurred with an increase of annexin-V positive cells in all infected calves by day 6. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) concentration in all infected calves was lower than in control calves. In ncp BVDV-1 infected calves, interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels in the serum were increased by day 6 compared to calves infected with ncp BVDV-2. These results demonstrated that the Korean ncp BVDV-2 isolate shows a reduced IFN-γ production, indicating prevention of the antiviral activity, and therefore promotes the development of pathological effects.

  6. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease: Diagnostics and contemporary treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Zoran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease represents avascular necrosis of the femoral head in a growing child. It commonly affects children aged 2-14 years, mostly boys, and has familiar pattern. The etiology of this disease is unknown. It is based on avascular necrosis due to variations of the femoral head vascular supply, trauma, coagulation of endocrine disturbances. The disease presents with limping and pain localized in the hip with projection to thigh and knee, frequently accompanied by the limitation of abduction and internal rotation, as well as slight limitation in flexion of about 20 degrees. Plain radiography is most informative additional diagnostic procedure, enabling assessment of the stage of disease, containment of the femoral head within the acetabulum, acetabular coverage and the extent of disease. Main treatment goal is obtaining the spherical congruity of the hip joint. This can be achieved by abduction bracing, varization femoral osteotomies and various innominate osteotomies (sometimes combined with femoral osteotomies. Children younger than four years of age, with minimal femoral head involvement, do not need any treatment. These children with a larger involvement, older than four years of age, with possible containment in hip abducion, should be treated by one of the following procedures: Salter innominate osteotomy, Salter innominate osteotomy with femoral shortening, or triple pelvic osteotomy. The patients with containment of the hip is not possible in abduction (related to subluxation and femoral head crush, should be treated by Chiari pelvic osteotomy.

  7. Serum calcium and magnesium level in dairy cows at calving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Pulimeno

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk fever and hypocalcaemia are post-partum metabolic diseases affecting about 6% of dairy cows and are due to a fail of the homeostatic metabolism regulating the calcium blood level around 9 and 10mg/100mL. The calcium drainage to the mammary gland along with the reduced capacity of the animal to mobilize calcium from bone reserve lead to a drop of the calcium blood level under 5-6mg/100mL with paresis like clinical symptoms known as milk fever. The incidence of the clinical milk fever is low, however the occurrence of mild hypocalcaemia (subclinical could be as high as 15- 20% within few days after calving, particularly in multiparous cows. The hypocalcaemia status as for the reduced bone calcium mobilization and intestinal absorption leads to reduced feed intake and make it a good start for ketosis, retained placenta, displaced abomasums and mastitis problems (Beede, 1991. The acid-base balance of the cow in the late pregnancy is determinant for hypocalcaemia............

  8. Congenital myopathy in Braunvieh x Brown Swiss calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, A; Dahme, E; Obermaier, G; Schmidt, P; Doll, K; Schmahl, W

    1996-07-01

    A hitherto unknown skeletal muscle disorder is described in six Braunvieh x Brown Swiss calves. The animals showed rapidly progressing muscular weakness and became recumbent within 2 weeks of birth. Histological examination of skeletal muscle revealed a marked variation in muscle fibre size, internally placed nuclei, segmental loss of cross-striation with disorganization of myofibrils, and accumulation of nemaline rods. The most distinctive histological finding was intracytoplasmic, homogeneous, mostly crescent-shaped areas at the periphery of numerous muscle fibres. Electron microscopically, accumulations of tightly packed, parallel filamentous structures, about 20 nm in diameter, were detected in these areas. Enzyme histochemistry showed that all muscle fibre types were affected. Vimentin and dystrophin immunohistochemistry revealed normal antigen distribution within connective tissue components and at the periphery of each muscle fibre, respectively. The lesions could be readily distinguished from other neurological and neuromuscular disorders previously described in Braunvieh x Brown Swiss or American Brown Swiss Cattle. The disease appears to be a novel congenital myopathy in this breed, and a hereditary aetiology is suspected.

  9. Instrumental objective measurement of veal calves carcass colour at slaughterhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Vandoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 6700 veal calves were used to compare the ability of chromameter CR300 in measuring the veal meat colour on-line at slaughterhouse and to develop a prediction equation of colour score based on relationship between instrumental and visual assessments. A total of 5000 carcasses were used to develop equation of prediction while 1700 were used to test it. The meat colour was assessed subjectively in 3 different slaughterhouses by the slaughterhouse’s judges 10h post mortem and objectively by chromameter CR300 45 post mortem on the Rectus abdominis. The prediction equation classified correctly 79% of carcasses and was characterized by an R2 of 78%. Furthermore it has to be underlined that the chroma contributes to the total R2 with a 0.21 partial R2. This data confirmed that chromameter CR300 can be used on-line to measure objectively veal meat colour at the end of the slaughter line.

  10. MR manifestation of Legg-Calve'-Perthes disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kook, Shin Ho; Kang, Heung Sik; Kim, In One; Yeon, Kyung Mo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-03-15

    To evaluate the role of MR in the examination of Legg-Calve'-Perthes(LCP) disease, we retrospective analysed the signal intensity of the osseous lesion, thickness of the articular cartilage, change of surrounding soft tissue, joint effusion and femoral head containment in 32 cases of LCP diseases in 27 patients. The bony lesion was limited within the epiphysis in 19 case(59%) and extended to the physis and myopathies in 13 cases(41%). The epiphyseal lesion showed homogeneous(26/32) or heterogeneous(6/32) low signal intensity(SI) on T1-weighted images (T1WI), and homogeneous(16/28) or heterogeneous(12/28) low SI on T2-weighted images(T2WI). The metaphyseal lesion showed low SI(13/13) on T1WI, and low(9/11) or iso(3/11) SI on T2WI. Associated metaphseal cyst showed low SI on T1WI and high SI on T2 WI. An althought physeal involvement(13/32) was indistinct, the lesion showed increased SI on both T1 and T2WI. Thickening of articular cartilage(32/32), swelling of the ligamentum teres(7/32), synovial hypertrophy(7/32) and joint effusion(27/32) were demonstrated. Lateral subluxation of the femoral head on coronal image indicated incongruity of the femoral head in 25 case(78%). We conclude that MR is an useful tool for the diagnosis as well as treatment planning in LCP disease.

  11. Reproductive rates, birth weight, calving ease and 24-h calf survival in a four-breed diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, J W; Bertrand, J K; Benyshek, L L; Johnson, M H

    1987-01-01

    Calving and weaning rates, birth weight, calving ease, and 24-h calf survival were evaluated in a four-breed diallel of Simmental (S), Limousin (L), Polled Hereford (H) and Brahman (B) beef cattle in five calf crops. Limousin dams tended to have the highest calving and weaning rates because they were able to have heavier calves with less calving difficulty and higher survival rates. Brahman-sired calves were the heaviest at birth (P less than .05) and B dams produced the lightest calves (P less than .001). Lower birth weights tended to be the limiting factor on survival of these calves. A linear comparison among means to evaluate purebred, additive, maternal and specific combining ability effects showed most of the reduction in birth weight from B dams was due to maternal effects. Breed of dam accounted for a higher proportion of variation in calving ease than did sire breed. Simmental sires had significantly heavier calves at birth and S and H dams tended to have more calving difficulty and lower survival rates. Heterosis for these traits was generally not significant. Correlations were generally positive and significant for birth weight and calving ease, but were more variable for birth weight and survival. Linear regressions of calving ease on birth weight both within years and within dam-breed-year subclasses were very similar in that the association of these two traits was reduced as dam age increased. PMID:3818492

  12. Comparative pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in healthy and Mannheimia haemolytica infected calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M; El-Kattan, Y A

    2007-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin were investigated in healthy (n=8) and Mannheimia haemolytica naturally infected (n=8) Simmental ruminant calves following intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) administration of 2 mg kg(-1) body weight. The concentration of marbofloxacin in plasma was measured using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Following i.v. administration of the drug, the elimination half-life (t(1/2 beta)) and mean residence time (MRT) were significantly longer in diseased calves (8.2h; 11.13 h) than in healthy ones (4.6 h; 6.1 h), respectively. The value of total body clearance (CL(B)) was larger in healthy calves (3 ml min(-1) kg(-1)) than in diseased ones (1.3 ml min(-1) kg(-1)). After single intramuscular (i.m.) administration of the drug, the elimination half-life, mean residence time (MRT) and maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) were higher in diseased calves (8.0, 12 h, 2.32 microg ml(-1)) than in healthy ones (4.7, 7.4 h, 1.4 microg ml(-1)), respectively. The plasma concentrations and AUC following administration of the drug by both routes were significantly higher in diseased calves than in healthy ones. Protein binding of Marbofloxacin was not significantly different in healthy and diseased calves. The mean value for MIC of marbofloxacin for M. haemolytica was 0.1+/-0.06 microg ml(-1). The C(max)/MIC and AUC(24)/MIC ratios were significantly higher in diseased calves (13.0-64.4 and 125-618 h) than in healthy calves (8-38.33 and 66.34-328 h). The obtained results for surrogate markers of antimicrobial activity (C(max)/MIC, AUC/MIC and T > or = MIC) indicate the excellent pharmacodynamic characteristics of the drug in diseased calves with M. haemolytica, which can be expected to optimize the clinical efficacy and minimize the development of resistance.

  13. Lying behaviour and IgG-levels of newborn calves after feeding colostrum via tube and nipple bottle feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonk, Stephanie; Nadalin, Audrey; Heuwieser, Wolfgang; Veira, Douglas

    2016-08-01

    Oesophageal tube feeding colostrum is used to ensure sufficient colostrum intake in newborn calves but the impact of tube feeding on animal behaviour is unclear. Therefore the objective of this study was to compare lying behaviour of tube-fed or bottle-fed dairy calves. Calves (n = 37) in 3 groups were offered 3·5 l colostrum 2 h after birth. Calves of the bottle group were fed with a nipple bottle. Calves of the placebo tubing group were tubed for 4 min but no colostrum was given and they were then fed with a nipple bottle. Calves of the tubing group received 3·5 l colostrum via tube feeding. Consumed amount of bottle and placebo tubing calves was recorded. If they refused some of the offered 3·5 l the rest was offered in a second feeding 2 h later. Lying behaviour was measured by data loggers fitted to right hind leg for 3 d. Blood samples were taken 24 h after birth for determination of IgG concentration. The voluntary colostrum intake differed significantly between bottle-fed and placebo tubed calves at first feeding. Considering both colostrum feedings, bottle-fed calves consumed 3·44 ± 0·14 l and placebo tubed calves consumed 3·20 ± 0·38 l colostrum. ImmunoglobulinG intake (255·6 ± 77·5 g IgG), serum IgG concentration 24 h after birth (22·8 ± 6·7 g/l) and total serum protein concentration (6·1 ± 0·6 g/dl) did not differ between groups. None of the calves had a failure of passive transfer. There was no effect of tubing on lying behaviour. PMID:27600963

  14. Rearing of Meat Breed Calves in the System Without Commercial Milk Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Java Voříšková

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article the results of rearing purebred meat breeds of cattle in the system without commercial milk production on a private farm situated at the foot of the mountains in South Bohemia are shown. The herd of dams consisted of 149 pcs. of the breed Charolaise (CH, Meat Simmental (MS, Blonde d´Aquitaine (BA, Limousine (LI and Belgian Blue (BM. The average age at first calving was the lowest in the breed MS (941 days and the highest in the breed CH (1087 days. The average length of the Between-calving interval of the herd was 442.6 days. The highest birth weight was achieved by the calves of the breed BA (51.2 kg and the lowest by the breed MS (42.4 kg at P≤0.001. At the age of 120 and 210 days the highest live weight was proved in the breed CH (193.8 kg resp. 316.5 kg. The calves of the breed ET showed a significantly higher live weight only in the age of 120 days (difference of 12.8 kg at P≤0.01. The influence of bulls on the growth parameters of calves was proved within the breed CH in live weight at the age of 210 days.

  15. Sheep persistently infected with Border disease readily transmit virus to calves seronegative to BVD virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, U; Reichle, S F; Reichert, C; Hässig, M; Stalder, H P; Bachofen, C; Peterhans, E

    2014-01-10

    Bovine viral diarrhea- and Border disease viruses of sheep belong to the highly diverse genus pestivirus of the Flaviviridae. Ruminant pestiviruses may infect a wide range of domestic and wild cloven-hooved mammals (artiodactyla). Due to its economic importance, programs to eradicate bovine viral diarrhea are a high priority in the cattle industry. By contrast, Border disease is not a target of eradication, although the Border disease virus is known to be capable of also infecting cattle. In this work, we compared single dose experimental inoculation of calves with Border disease virus with co-mingling of calves with sheep persistently infected with this virus. As indicated by seroconversion, infection was achieved only in one out of seven calves with a dose of Border disease virus that was previously shown to be successful in calves inoculated with BVD virus. By contrast, all calves kept together with persistently infected sheep readily became infected with Border disease virus. The ease of viral transmission from sheep to cattle and the antigenic similarity of bovine and ovine pestiviruses may become a problem for demonstrating freedom of BVD by serology in the cattle population. PMID:24315041

  16. An experimental vaccine composed of two adjuvants gives protection against Mycoplasma bovis in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Katarzyna; Bednarek, Dariusz; Ayling, Roger D; Kycko, Anna; Szacawa, Ewelina; Karpińska, Teresa A

    2016-06-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a major pathogen affecting cattle causing bronchopneumonia, mastitis, and other disorders. Only autogenous vaccines made specifically for individual farms are available in parts of Europe and the United States. A novel experimental vaccine composed of a field M. bovis isolate combined with saponin and Emulsigen(®) adjuvants was evaluated. Eighteen 3-4 week old calves were placed in three equal groups: vaccinated (Vac), positive control (PC) and negative control (NC). The Vac calves were subcutaneously injected with 8ml of the vaccine; the PC and NC calves received phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Three weeks later the Vac and PC calves were challenged with a virulent M. bovis strain, the NC group received PBS. Throughout the study clinical observations, microbiology and immunological tests were carried out. Three weeks post challenge two calves from each group were euthanased for necropsy and histopathological examination. The vaccine effectively stimulated the humoral immune response, with high titres of anti-M. bovis specific antibodies and total Ig concentration. This vaccine also intensified the IgA response. A clinically protective effect of the vaccine was demonstrated as it also reduced the gross pathological lung lesions and nasal shedding of M. bovis. PMID:27156637

  17. Growth performances of F1 Angus Plus calves grazing on pasture in Hawaii's tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Ferreira, R; Duponte, M W; Fukumoto, G K; Zhao, B

    2009-04-01

    Angus Plus cattle offer advantages for heat tolerance and forage utilization by introduction of Brangus and Brahman to Angus. To evaluate its adaptability in Hawaii Islands, we reported the growth performances of 213 F1 Angus Plus calve grazing on pasture. Least-square means of pre-weaning ADG ranged from 1,087 to 1,167 g in bull calves and from 1,030 to 1,048 g in heifer calves. The 205 d-adjusted weaning weight were 226 to 285 kg in bulls and 214 to 252 kg in heifers. The birth weight and hip height at birth were significantly correlated with weaning weight, 205 d-adjusted weaning weight, hip height at weaning and pre-weaning ADG (P < 0.01). Sire group significantly influenced pre-weaning growth performances through interaction with sex of calf. Bull calves from sire group of high growth were 1.0-3.8 kg heavier in birth weight than the bull calves from other sires (P < 0.001). Sire group x sex interaction was significant (P < 0.05) for calf birth weight, 205-d adjusted weaning weight and pre-weaning ADG. Sire group also played a significant role in hip height at birth (P < 0.05). Selections of the sires preferable for growth significantly improved calf pre-weaning growth performances. PMID:18759132

  18. Breed effects and genetic parameter estimates for calving difficulty and birth weight in a multibreed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, C M; Kuehn, L A; Thallman, R M; Kachman, S D; Snelling, W M; Spangler, M L

    2016-05-01

    Birth weight (BWT) and calving difficulty (CD) were recorded on 4,579 first-parity females from the Germplasm Evaluation Program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC). Both traits were analyzed using a bivariate animal model with direct and maternal effects. Calving difficulty was transformed from the USMARC scores to corresponding -scores from the standard normal distribution based on the incidence rate of the USMARC scores. Breed fraction covariates were included to estimate breed differences. Heritability estimates (SE) for BWT direct, CD direct, BWT maternal, and CD maternal were 0.34 (0.10), 0.29 (0.10), 0.15 (0.08), and 0.13 (0.08), respectively. Calving difficulty direct breed effects deviated from Angus ranged from -0.13 to 0.77 and maternal breed effects deviated from Angus ranged from -0.27 to 0.36. Hereford-, Angus-, Gelbvieh-, and Brangus-sired calves would be the least likely to require assistance at birth, whereas Chiangus-, Charolais-, and Limousin-sired calves would be the most likely to require assistance at birth. Maternal breed effects for CD were least for Simmental and Charolais and greatest for Red Angus and Chiangus. Results showed that the diverse biological types of cattle have different effects on both BWT and CD. Furthermore, results provide a mechanism whereby beef cattle producers can compare EBV for CD direct and maternal arising from disjoined and breed-specific genetic evaluations. PMID:27285683

  19. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae isolated from gull-inflicted wounds in southern right whale calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorito, Carla D; Bentancor, Adriana; Lombardo, Daniel; Bertellotti, Marcelo

    2016-08-31

    Southern right whales Eubalaena australis from Peninsula Valdés, Argentina, show wounds produced by kelp gulls Larus dominicanus that feed on the whales' dorsal skin and blubber. During the 2013 whale season, several calves were reported showing kelp gull injuries with a swollen area surrounded by rhomboid-shaped raised edges. Samples from 9 calves were taken in order to establish the etiology of these rhomboid-shaped wounds; 2 calves (one living, one dead) showed gull-inflicted injuries with rhomboid-shaped edges. Samples from the dead calf were histologically characterized by the presence of dermal congestion, suppurative dermatitis and panniculitis, necrotizing vasculitis and vascular thrombosis. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae was detected by culture and PCR in samples from both calves. In this study we report, for the first time to our knowledge, the isolation of E. rhusiopathiae from wounds produced by gull attacks on southern right whale calves, supplying evidence that these wounds may act as an entry route for pathogens. This work provides new information about the consequences of gull-inflicted injuries for whale health. PMID:27596861

  20. Performance of crossbred calves raised on different dietary treatments under smallholder dairy farm conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyimo, H L N; Laswai, G H; Mtenga, L A;

    2010-01-01

    and was formulated using locally available feed resources. Twenty-seven (27) male calves, with birth weight 32 ± 1.5 kg were randomly allocated to three treatments, whereby Treatment 1 (DC) calves were fed the developed concentrate, Treatment 2 (FC) calves were fed a common home made dairy cow concentrate (CP 130 g...... weeks. Feed intake and growth performance were recorded for 28 weeks. Total dry matter intake was not different (P>0.05) between DC and FC. Mean growth rates (g/d) of calves under DC were higher (Ppost (460) weaning than those on FC (350) and FP (320 and 270), respectively...... and ME 13 MJ per kg DM) used by farmers in the study area. Treatment 3 (FP) was a control, where farmers followed their normal calf rearing practice with no interference. Restricted suckling, ad libitum feeding of forages and up to 1 kg concentrate were used for the calves on DC and FC. Weaning was at 12...

  1. Tracking the Development of Muscular Myoglobin Stores in Mysticete Calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Cartwright

    Full Text Available For marine mammals, the ability to tolerate apnea and make extended dives is a defining adaptive trait, facilitating the exploitation of marine food resources. Elevated levels of myoglobin within the muscles are a consistent hallmark of this trait, allowing oxygen collected at the surface to be stored in the muscles and subsequently used to support extended dives. In mysticetes, the largest of marine predators, details on muscular myoglobin levels are limited. The developmental trajectory of muscular myoglobin stores has yet to be documented and any physiological links between early behavior and the development of muscular myoglobin stores remain unknown. In this study, we used muscle tissue samples from stranded mysticetes to investigate these issues. Samples from three different age cohorts and three species of mysticetes were included (total sample size = 18. Results indicate that in mysticete calves, muscle myoglobin stores comprise only a small percentage (17-23% of conspecific adult myoglobin complements. Development of elevated myoglobin levels is protracted over the course of extended maturation in mysticetes. Additionally, comparisons of myoglobin levels between and within muscles, along with details of interspecific differences in rates of accumulation of myoglobin in very young mysticetes, suggest that levels of exercise may influence the rate of development of myoglobin stores in young mysticetes. This new information infers a close interplay between the physiology, ontogeny and early life history of young mysticetes and provides new insight into the pressures that may shape adaptive strategies in migratory mysticetes. Furthermore, the study highlights the vulnerability of specific age cohorts to impending changes in the availability of foraging habitat and marine resources.

  2. Cloned calves produced by nuclear transfer from cultured cumulus cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN; Xiaorong(安晓荣); GOU; Kemian(苟克勉); ZHU; Shien(朱士恩); GUAN; Hong(关宏); HOU; Jian(侯健); LIN; Aixing(林爱星); ZENG; Shenming(曾申明); TIAN; Jianhui(田见辉); CHEN; Yongfu(陈永福)

    2002-01-01

    Short-term cultured cumulus cell lines (1-5BCC) derived from 5 individual cows were used in nuclear transfer (NT) and 1188 enucleated bovine oocytes matured in vitro were used as nuclear recipients. A total of 931 (78.4%) cloned embryos were reconstructed, of which 763 (82%) cleaved, 627 (67.3%) developed to 8-cell stage, and 275 (29.5%) reached blastocyst stage. The average cell number of blastocysts was 124±24.5 (n=20). In this study, the effects of donor cell sources, serum starvation of donor cells, time interval from fusion to activation (IFA) were also tested on cloning efficiency. These results showed that blastocyst rates of embryos reconstructed from 5 different individuals cells were significantly different among them (14.1%, 45.2%, 27.3%, 34.3%, vs 1.5%, P0.05); and that blastocyst rate (20.3%) of the group with fusion/activation interval of 2-3 h, was significantly lower than that of the 3-6 h groups (31.0%), while not significantly different among 3-4 h (P < 0.05), 4-5 h, and 5-6 h groups (P ≥ 0.05). Sixty-three thawed NT blastocysts were transferred to 31 recipient cows, of which 4 pregnancies were established and two cloned calves were given birth. These results indicate that serum starvation of cumulus cells is not a key factor for successful bovine cloning, while IFA treatment and sources of donor cells have effects on cloning efficiency.

  3. The legg-calve-perthes disease; Morbus Perthes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, J.; Scheurecker, A. [Institut fuer CT- und MRT-Diagnostik, Linz (Austria); Hofmann, S. [Allgemeines und Orthopaedisches LKH, Stolzalpe (Austria); Tschauner, C.

    2002-06-01

    The Legg-Calve-Perthes disease is an idiopathic avascular necrosis of the hip during early childhood. It is characterized by different stages with the main risk of persisting hip deformation, dysfunction of the joint movement, and the potential for early osteoarthritis. For the evaluation of prognosis and therapy planning patients age and extent of the necrotic area of the epiphysis are important factors. For an early diagnosis and sufficient therapy all radiological efforts have to be performed. MR imaging is an ideal method for the assessment of osteonecrotic changes of the Morbus Perthes. Compared to plain radiography by MR imaging pathologic alterations can be detected earlier and with higher specificity. However, conventional radiograms have to be still used as basic imaging modality. Nowadays x-rays and MR imaging should be the main methods for the evaluation of children suffering from Perthes disease. (orig.) [German] Beim Morbus Perthes handelt es sich um eine idiopathische Osteonekrose des Hueftgelenks im fruehkindlichen Alter (3.-12. Lebensjahr). Das Hauptrisiko dieser selbstlimitierenden Erkrankung mit suffizienter Reparatur und charakteristischem stadienhaftem Verlauf ist eine Defektheilung mit deformiertem Hueftkopf (Coxa magna) und sekundaer dysplastischer Pfanne. Diese praearthrotische Deformitaet fuehrt zur Einschraenkung der Hueftfunktion und einer fruehzeitigen Koxarthrose. Zur Abschaetzung der Prognose und Therapieplanung spielen Alter des Patienten bei Krankheitsbeginn sowie Groesse und Lokalisation des Nekroseareals eine entscheidende Rolle. Es ist somit augenscheinlich, dass alle radiologischen Register gezogen werden muessen, um eine moeglichst fruehe Diagnose und eine suffiziente Stadieneinteilung als Voraussetzung fuer eine risikoadaptierte Therapie zu gewaehrleisten. Die MRT eignet sich in idealer Weise zur Beurteilung ischaemischer Knochenmarkveraenderungen im Rahmen des Morbus Perthes. Verglichen mit dem konventionellen Roentgen ist die

  4. Characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus isolates resistant to a novel antiviral compound obtained from persistently infected calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to characterize isolates resistant to a novel antiviral compound (DB772) isolated from persistently infected (PI) calves treated with the compound. Viral isolates were obtained from four Angus-cross beef calves (A,B,C,D) persistently infected with BVDV type 1 or 2 ...

  5. Bronchoalveolar lavage of cranial and caudal lung regions in selected normal calves: cellular, microbiological, immunoglobulin, serological and histological variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, J K; Viel, L; Shewen, P E; Willoughby, R A; Martin, S W; Valli, V E

    1988-01-01

    Of a group of 30 clinically normal male Holstein calves two to eight weeks of age, six two week old and six four week old calves met various radiographical and clinicopathological criteria for normality. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy on cranial and caudal lung regions in all 30 calves and samples analyzed for free cells, microorganisms, and immunoglobulins. Lateral chest radiographs and lung biopsies were also conducted on each calf. Calves were euthanized and necropsied ten days after bronchoalveolar lavage was conducted. Reported in this paper are results from the 12 normal calves. Microorganisms were present in small numbers in the lower respiratory tract of some normal calves. There were no differences in the above parameters between cranial and caudal lobes. There were statistically significant changes in bronchoalveolar lavage cell proportions with age although there were no detectable differences in clinical signs. Four week old calves had a lower percentage of macrophages and a higher percentage of epithelial cells than two week old animals (p less than 0.05). There was also a trend toward an increased percentage of neutrophils in older calves but this was not significant (p greater than 0.05). Total bronchoalveolar lavage protein also appeared to increase with age (p less than 0.05). In both groups a higher proportion of IgG2 in bronchoalveolar lavage compared to serum was found, suggesting the presence of a local selective transfer mechanism into respiratory secretions. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:3370559

  6. Effects of supplementation level and particle size of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirzaei, M.; Khorvash, M.; Ghorbani, G.R.; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M.; Riasi, A.; Nabipour, A.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of particle size (PS) of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves at two levels of alfalfa supplementation. Fifty newborn dairy calves (42.7 ± 2.2 kg BW) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors sup

  7. The effects of dexamethasone administration and E. bovis challenge on fecal oocyst count and immune function in weaned beef calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stressful events are believed to predispose beef calves to clinical coccidiosis. Previous studies aimed at reproducing stress-induced coccidiosis have been unsuccessful. No study has simultaneously subjected calves to stress and Eimeria challenge. Our initial goal was to develop a model of stress...

  8. Experimental selection for calving ease and postnatal growth in seven cattle populations. I. Changes in estimated breeding values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experimental selection was used to create beef cattle lines with similar yearling weight direct and weaning weight maternal EBV and either lower 2-yr-old heifer calving difficulty score EBV or proportionally average birth weight EBV. Select (low heifer calving difficulty score EBV) and control line...

  9. The effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on pregnancy rates in reindeer calves (Rangifer tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Ropstad

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available In September 1990, a total of 69 calves with a minimum body weight of 46 kg were allocated into two groups, one treated with a single injection of 75 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (N = 35, the other serving as control (N=34. Blood samples were collected for progesterone analysis in December 1990 and 1991. Udder palpation was performed in July and September 1990. Treated animals had significantly lower plasma progesterone levels in December 1990. The pregnancy rate as determined by udder palpation was 16.7% for treated animals and 48.3% for controls (P<0.01. All animals which were found to be pregnant had high progesterone levels (>5 ng/ml the following winter. The mean body weight increase was 5.1 kg lower in females which kept their calves until September than in barren females (P<0.05. More than 50% of the pregnant females lost their calves during the summer.

  10. Immunoglobulin transfer and weight gains in suckled beef calves force-fed stored colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, J A; Niilo, L

    1985-04-01

    Concentrations of immunoglobulins and total proteins in second-day post-partum serum samples of 62 beef calves from multiparous dams were measured by zinc sulphate turbidity, electrophoresis, radial immunodiffusion and refractometry. These results, together with health records and weight gains, were used to evaluate the practice of routinely force-feeding 1 L of stored colostrum to suckled beef calves immediately after birth. There was no apparent benefit from such force-feeding. It did not result in greater 48-hour serum immunoglobulin levels, nor did it improve weight gains at 42 days. None of the calves required treatment for neonatal disease, but one force-fed calf died from inhalation of regurgitated colostrum.

  11. Comparison of serum, ear notches, and nasal and saliva swabs for Bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen detection in colostrum-fed persistently infected (PI) calves and non-PI calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyon, Sasha R; Sims, Sarah K; Cockcroft, Peter D; Reichel, Michael P

    2014-11-01

    The diagnosis of neonatal and young calves persistently infected (PI) with Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) by antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACE) may be complicated by interference from colostrum-derived specific antibodies. Ten calves, with 3 calves identified as PI and 7 as non-PI were used in the current study. All non-PI calves were shown to be seropositive for BVDV-specific antibodies by antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ab-ELISA) on serum. Serum samples, ear notch samples, and nasal and saliva swabs were collected from each calf from birth until 12 weeks of age and tested by ELISA for BVDV-specific antigen and antibodies. Following colostrum ingestion, Ab-ELISA sample-to-positive (S/P) ratios rose by a mean of 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.64-1.25) and 1.72 (95% CI = 1.55-1.89) in seropositive, non-PI calves and in PI calves, respectively. The mean S/P ratios then declined to approximately 1.1 in non-PI calves and 0.5 in PI calves at between 60 and 80 days of age. In PI calves, testing for antigen in serum and nasal and saliva swabs was subject to interference by colostrum-derived antibodies in calves up to 3 weeks of age. Nasal swabs were less affected than serum and saliva swabs. Ear notches maintained positive ACE corrected optical densities at all sample times, despite a drop in the signal following the ingestion of colostrum. PMID:25227419

  12. Genotype x environment interactions for postweaning performance in crossbred calves grazing winter wheat pasture or dormant native prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W A; Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Coleman, S W

    2001-06-01

    Data from 403 calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows sired by Polled Hereford bulls were used to evaluate the impact of postweaning backgrounding forages on postweaning BW, gains, and carcass traits. Calves were born (spring of 1991 through 1994) and reared on either endophyte-infected tall fescue or common bermudagrass pastures. After weaning, calves were transported 360 km to the Grazinglands Research Laboratory, west of El Reno, OK, and, within breed and preweaning forage, were assigned to one of the following winter stocker treatments: 1) winter wheat pasture or 2) dormant native prairie plus supplemental CP. In March, winter stocker treatments were ended and calves were grazed as a single group on cool-season grasses until early July (1992, 1993, and 1994) or late May (1995), when the feedlot phase began. In the feedlot, calves were fed a high concentrate diet for an average of 120 d until a backfat thickness of > 10 mm was reached. Calves were shipped in truck load lots to Amarillo, TX (350 km), for processing and collection of carcass data. Averaged over calf breed group, calves wintered on wheat pasture gained faster (P < 0.01) during the stocker phase (0.71 vs 0.43 kg); had heavier (P < 0.01) final feedlot weights (535 vs 512 kg); lower feedlot (P < 0.01) ADG (1.37 vs 1.53 kg); heavier (P < 0.01) carcass weights (337 vs 315 kg); larger (P < 0.01) longissimus muscle (84.9 vs 81.8 cm2); higher percentage (P < 0.01) of kidney, heart, and pelvic fat (2.32 vs 2.26); and higher (P < 0.01) dressing percentage (62.2 vs 61.3) than calves backgrounded on native prairie. Maternal heterosis for stocker ADG was evident in calves backgrounded on native prairie but not on winter wheat (P < 0.10), but the two environments were similar in maternal heterosis for feedlot ADG and carcass traits. Calves wintered on native prairie were restricted in growth and expressed compensatory gain during the feedlot phase but not during the spring stocker phase. Dormant

  13. Limited efficacy of Fever Tag® temperature sensing ear tags in calves with naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease or induced bovine viral diarrhea virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    McCorkell, Robert; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Windeyer, Claire; Schaefer, Al

    2014-01-01

    Temperature sensing ear tags were tested in 1) auction-derived calves with 50% incidence of bovine respiratory disease, and 2) specific pathogen-free calves infected with bovine virus diarrhea virus. There were no false positives, but tag placement, probe displacement, and a high threshold for activation all contributed to failure to reliably detect sick calves.

  14. Simultaneous observations of ice motion, calving and seismicity on the Yahtse Glacier, Alaska. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, C. F.; Bartholomaus, T. C.; O'Neel, S.; West, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    We observe ice motion, calving and seismicity simultaneously and with high-resolution on an advancing tidewater glacier in Icy Bay, Alaska. Icy Bay’s tidewater glaciers dominate regional glacier-generated seismicity in Alaska. Yahtse emanates from the St. Elias Range near the Bering-Bagley-Seward-Malaspina Icefield system, the most extensive glacier cover outside the polar regions. Rapid rates of change and fast flow (>16 m/d near the terminus) at Yahtse Glacier provide a direct analog to the disintegrating outlet systems in Greenland. Our field experiment co-locates GPS and seismometers on the surface of the glacier, with a greater network of bedrock seismometers surrounding the glacier. Time-lapse photogrammetry, fjord wave height sensors, and optical survey methods monitor iceberg calving and ice velocity near the terminus. This suite of geophysical instrumentation enables us to characterize glacier motion and geometry changes while concurrently listening for seismic energy release. We are performing a close examination of calving as a seismic source, and the associated mechanisms of energy transfer to seismic waves. Detailed observations of ice motion (GPS and optical surveying), glacier geometry and iceberg calving (direct observations and timelapse photogrammetry) have been made in concert with a passive seismic network. Combined, the observations form the basis of a rigorous analysis exploring the relationship between glacier-generated seismic events and motion, glacier-fiord interactions, calving and hydraulics. Our work is designed to demonstrate the applicability and utility of seismology to study the impact of climate forcing on calving glaciers.

  15. POSSIBILITIES OF USING UNCONVENTIONAL METHODS AND DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS TO AFFECT WEIGHT GAINS OF CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubo Zbransk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Healthy and strong individuals are fundamental in every cattle breeding. The aim of this study was to find out which of these given supplement had the best influence on calf weight gain in the early period after weaning to milk nutrition. This research was carried out in cooperation with the farm in Haklovy Dvory. Calves were studied from March 2012 to February 2013. They were weaned into outdoor individual box after birth. There were added supplements into their ration in the first two weeks of life. Calves were partitioned according to the added supplement into three experimental groups and one control group. The first weight control of calves was after birth and the second weight control was at the age of thirty days. The average weight gain was calculated from the differences in these values. The best demonstrable effect was in the experimental Homeopathy and Prebiotics (Biopolym groups with the average increment of 26.9 kilograms, then in the experimental Probiotics (Lactovita group with the average increment of 26.1 kilograms. The last group was the Control one, there was not any change in the calves ration and their average increment was 23.5 kilograms. The results of the statistical evaluation was p = 0.0572 in the Biopolym group, p = 0.2570 in the Lactovita group and p = 0.2124 in the Homeopathy group versus the Control group. It can be concluded from the results of this study that calves had a positive reaction on the supplements added in the first days of life and these had a favourable effect on diarrhoea prevention. Prebiotics, homeopathic drugs and probiotics beneficially stimulate calvesdigestive system and, in general, they have a positive effect on the calves physiological condition.

  16. Cryptosporidium parvum infection and associated risk factors in dairy calves in western France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delafosse, A; Chartier, C; Dupuy, M C; Dumoulin, M; Pors, I; Paraud, C

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for Cryptosporidium infection in calf neonates on dairy farms in Normandy. Fecal samples were randomly collected between July 2010 and September 2011 from 968 calves (7-21 days old) on 97 farms. Up to 10 calves were selected and sampled per farm, and feces examined for oocysts by microscopy. C. parvum oocyst shedding was scored semi-quantitatively (0-5). A questionnaire about calf-level care and management was completed, and mortality rates were obtained from the French national registration database (BDNI). Bivariable and multivariable analyses of potential risk factors for C. parvum oocyst shedding were conducted using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models (family=Binomial).Overall, 402 out of 968 calves (41.5%) were positive for oocysts, and 25.1% of animals had a shedding score >2. Seven of the 97 farms (7%) were negative for oocysts in all fecal samples. At the time of collection, 375 calves (39%) had diarrhea, and its prevalence strongly correlated with the score for C. parvum oocyst shedding (pparvum were the Normande breed (odds ratio=1.49; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93-2.37), dispensing of colostrum using a bucket (odds ratio=1.37; 95% CI: 1.00-1.89), treatment with halofuginone (odds ratio=0.46; 95% CI: 0.19-1.15) and feeding with fermented milk (odds ratio=0.32; 95% CI: 0.17-0.63). C. parvum is widespread among calves under 21 days old in dairy herds of western France. Shedding of C. parvum is associated with a high incidence of diarrhea and increased risk of mortality in young calves. This study identified some associated calf-level factors, although further investigations are necessary to determine appropriate measures that farmers and veterinary practitioners should take to reduce the prevalence of C. parvum. PMID:25623968

  17. Impact of nutritional programming on the growth, health, and sexual development of bull calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollwein, H; Janett, F; Kaske, M

    2016-07-01

    The growth, health, and reproductive performance of bull calves are important prerequisites for a successful cattle breeding program. Therefore, several attempts have been made to improve these parameters via nutritional programming. Although an increase in energy uptake during the postweaning period (7-8 mo of age) of the calves leads to a faster growing rate, it has no positive effects on sexual development. In contrast, a high-nutrition diet during the prepubertal period (8-20 wk of age) reduced the age at puberty of the bulls and increased the size and/or weight of the testis and the epididymal sperm reserves. This faster sexual development is associated with an increased transient LH peak, which seems to be mediated by an increase in serum IGF-I concentrations. However, the exact mechanisms responsible for the interaction between nutrition and the subsequent development of the calves are not clear. The sexual development of bull calves depends not only on the nutrition of the calves after birth but also on the feed intake of their mothers during pregnancy. In contrast to the effects of the feed intake of the bull calves, a high-nutrition diet fed to the mother during the first trimester has negative effects on the reproductive performance of their offspring. In conclusion, it has been clearly demonstrated that growth, health, and reproductive performance can be improved by nutritional programming, but further studies are necessary to obtain a better understanding about the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon. PMID:27345315

  18. Prevalence of Locomotory System Disorders in Veal Calves and Risk Factors for Occurrence of Bursitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Brščić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to assess the prevalence of locomotory system disorders within a wide cross-sectional study in 174 veal calves farms and to investigate risk factors associated to disorders with a relevant prevalence (>1%. A representative sample of the European veal production systems was considered in the three major producing countries (100 in NL, 50 in FR, 24 in IT. One batch/farm was observed in three stages of the fattening. At each visit calves with evidence of bursitis, hoof lesions, joint lesions, and lameness were recorded. A set of production system descriptors gathered by an interview to the farmer were considered as potential risks. Results showed an average prevalence ≤1% of calves for hoof and joint lesions, and lameness at any stage. Bursitis was observed on 0.2%, 4.1% and 11.2% of calves at 3, 13 wks and at the end of fattening, respectively. Risk factors for bursitis were linked to concrete and wooden slatted floors, to space allowance ≤1.8 m2/calf, and floors aged <8 years while type of housing system (small vs. large groups was not relevant. There was a significant interaction between stage of fattening and type of floor on bursitis. At the early stage, slatted and bedded floor were similar while at the end of the fattening the highest least mean was observed for calves on concrete floors. Bedding materials had a preventive effect. Rubber or straw should be largely adopted for veal calves as alternative solutions to hard floors in order to improve animals’ comfort, locomotory system health and welfare status.

  19. Prevalence of Locomotory System Disorders in Veal Calves and Risk Factors for Occurrence of Bursitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Brščić

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to assess the prevalence of locomotory system disorders within a wide cross-sectional study in 174 veal calves farms and to investigate risk factors associated to disorders with a relevant prevalence (>1%. A representative sample of the European veal production systems was considered in the three major producing countries (100 in NL, 50 in FR, 24 in IT. One batch/farm was observed in three stages of the fattening. At each visit calves with evidence of bursitis, hoof lesions, joint lesions, and lameness were recorded. A set of production system descriptors gathered by an interview to the farmer were considered as potential risks. Results showed an average prevalence ≤1% of calves for hoof and joint lesions, and lameness at any stage. Bursitis was observed on 0.2%, 4.1% and 11.2% of calves at 3, 13 wks and at the end of fattening, respectively. Risk factors for bursitis were linked to concrete and wooden slatted floors, to space allowance ≤1.8 m2/calf, and floors aged <8 years while type of housing system (small vs. large groups was not relevant. There was a significant interaction between stage of fattening and type of floor on bursitis. At the early stage, slatted and bedded floor were similar while at the end of the fattening the highest least mean was observed for calves on concrete floors. Bedding materials had a preventive effect. Rubber or straw should be largely adopted for veal calves as alternative solutions to hard floors in order to improve animals’ comfort, locomotory system health and welfare status.

  20. Molasses as a possible cause of an "endocrine disruptive syndrome" in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masgoret, M S; Botha, C J; Myburgh, J G; Naudé, T W; Prozesky, L; Naidoo, V; Van Wyk, J H; Pool, E J; Swan, G E

    2009-06-01

    During the mid 1990s a potentially serious, chronic syndrome was reported in well-managed beef and dairy herds from unrelated parts of South Africa. Farmers reported that it manifested as various combinations of decreased production, decreased weaning masses, apparent immune breakdown in previously immunocompetent animals, increased reproductive disorders, various mineral imbalances in non-deficient areas and goitre, noticeable as enlarged thyroid glands. The farmers associated this syndrome with certain batches of sugar cane molasses and molasses-based products. The syndrome was reminiscent of an "endocrine disruptive syndrome". The objective of this study was to evaluate the suspected endocrine disruptive effect of molasses included in cattle feed. Using existing in vitro assays, four batches of molasses syrup were screened for possible inclusion in a calf feeding trial. Two batches were selected for the trial. Thirty-two, 4- to 6-week-old, weaned Holstein bull calves were included in the single phase, three treatment, parallel design experiment. In two of the groups of calves, two different batches of molasses were included in their rations respectively. The control group was fed a ration to which no molasses was added, but which was balanced for energy and mineral content. The mass gain of the calves was recorded over the 6-month study period. The calves were clinically examined every week and clinical pathology parameters, immune responses and endocrine effects were regularly evaluated. Even though endocrine disrupting effects were detected with the in vitro screening assays, these could not be reproduced in the calves in the experiment. The two batches of molasses utilized in the calf feeding trial did not induce major differences in any of the parameters measured, with the exception of a lower mass gain in one of the molasses-fed groups (Group 1), which tended towards significance. The results of the study indicate that the two batches of molasses had no

  1. Molasses as a possible cause of an ''endocrine disruptive syndrome'' in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Masgoret

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available During the mid 1990s a potentially serious, chronic syndrome was reported in well-managed beef and dairy herds from unrelated parts of South Africa. Farmers reported that it manifested as various combinations of decreased production, decreased weaning masses, apparent immune breakdown in previously immunocompetent animals, increased reproductive disorders, various mineral imbalances in non-deficient areas and goitre, noticeable as enlarged thyroid glands. The farmers associated this syndrome with certain batches of sugar cane molasses and molasses-based products. The syndrome was reminiscent of an ''endocrine disruptive syndrome''. The objective of this study was to evaluate the suspected endocrine disruptive effect of molasses included in cattle feed. Using existing in vitro assays, four batches of molasses syrup were screened for possible inclusion in a calf feeding trial. Two batches were selected for the trial. Thirty-two, 4- to 6-week-old, weaned Holstein bull calves were included in the single phase, three treatment, parallel design experiment. In two of the groups of calves, two different batches of molasses were included in their rations respectively. The control group was fed a ration to which no molasses was added, but which was balanced for energy and mineral content. The mass gain of the calves was recorded over the 6-month study period. The calves were clinically examined every week and clinical pathology parameters, immune responses and endocrine effects were regularly evaluated. Even though endocrine disrupting effects were detected with the in vitro screening assays, these could not be reproduced in the calves in the experiment. The two batches of molasses utilized in the calf feeding trial did not induce major differences in any of the parameters measured, with the exception of a lower mass gain in one of the molasses-fed groups (Group 1, which tended towards significance. The results of the study indicate that the two batches

  2. Modelling the dynamic response of Jakobshavn Isbræ, West Greenland, to calving rate perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Bondzio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Calving is a major means of ice discharge of the Antarctic and Greenland Ice Sheets. The breaking off of icebergs changes the ice front configuration of marine terminating glaciers, which affects the stress regime of their upstream areas. Recent observations show the close correlation between the ice front position and the behaviour of many outlet glaciers. However, modelling of a glacier subject to calving poses various challenges. No universal calving rate parametrisation is known, and tracking of a moving ice front and the related boundary conditions in two or three spatial dimensions is non-trivial. Here, we present the theoretical and technical framework for a Level-Set Method, an implicit boundary tracking scheme, which we implemented into the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM. The scheme allows us to study the dynamic response of a drainage basin to user-defined front ablation rates. We apply the method in a suite of experiments to Jakobshavn Isbræ, a major marine terminating outlet glacier of the western Greenland Ice Sheet. The model robustly reproduces the high sensitivity of the glacier to frontal ablation in form of calving. We find that enhanced calving is able to trigger significant acceleration of the ice stream. Upstream acceleration is sustained through a combination of various feedback mechanisms. However, lateral stress and ice influx into the trough are able to stabilise the ice stream. This study contributes to the present discussion on causes and effects of the continued changes occurring at Jakobshavn Isbræ, and emphasises that the incorporation of seasonal calving and dynamic lateral effects is key for realistic model projections of future global sea level rise on centennial time scales.

  3. Milk yield and season of calving in buffaloes and cattle in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R. Bajwa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Seasonality of calving and its association with milk yield was analyzed in Nili-Ravi buffaloes and compared with Sahiwal cattle and Sahiwal (x Friesian or Jersey crossbreds. Records of 9,174 lactations of Nili-Ravi buffaloes from four institutional herds, 22,499 lactations from five Sahiwal herds and 656 lactations from a crossbred cattle herd were used for comparison. All the herds were located in Punjab province of Pakistan where environment is tropical. Month of calving was important source of variation in lactation milk yield of Nili- Ravi buffaloes and Sahiwal cattle but not in crossbred cattle (due to wide variation. Interactions of month of calving with parity as well as with herd were significant (P<0.01 both for buffaloes and Sahiwal cattle. First parity lactation milk yield averaged 1813±23.2, 1305±11.0 and 2459±81.8 litres while averages of later parity animals were 1926±19.0, 1527±7.6 and 2842±54.2 litres for Nili-Ravi buffaloes, Sahiwal and crossbred cattle, respectively. Milk yield pattern in crossbreds was more similar to buffaloes than to Sahiwals. Yet, crossbreds calving in June produced statistically similar but numerically higher lactation milk yield (2950±170 litres than other months but this was not true for buffaloes and Sahiwals. Buffaloes and Sahiwal cows calving in January-February produced better lactation yields than those calving in other months. Different pattern of milk yield in the three dairy species can be used advantageously for sustainable milk supply throughout the year.

  4. Genetic parameters of three methods of temperament evaluation of Brahman calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S E; Neuendorff, D A; Riley, D G; Vann, R C; Willard, S T; Welsh, T H; Randel, R D

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the heritability of 3 measures of temperament in Brahman and Brahman-influenced calves (n = 1,209). Individual animal pen scores (PS) were determined by a trained observer who evaluated groups of 5 or 4 calves at a time for willingness to be approached by a human. Exit velocity (EV) was the rate (m/s) at which each calf exited a squeeze chute. Temperament score (TS) was calculated individually as (PS + EV)/2. Temperament was evaluated at 5 different times of record (28 d preweaning, weaning, 28 d postweaning, 56 d postweaning, and yearling). Contemporary groups (n = 34) comprised calves of the same sex born in the same season of the same year. There were an average of 36 calves per contemporary group and group size ranged from 3 to 78 calves. Average weaning age (186 d) ranged from 105 to 304 d. Calves were born from 2002 through 2012. Random effects included additive genetic and the permanent environmental variance. The fixed effects analyzed were age of dam, sex of calf, contemporary group, fraction of Brahman (2 levels: 1 and 0.5), age of calf at record, and weaning age. At weaning, the mean PS was 2.68 ± 0.1, the mean EV was 2.41 ± 0.1, and the mean TS was 2.48 ± 0.1. The PS was affected by fraction of Brahman (P = 0.034) and tended to be affected by age of dam (P = 0.06). The EV was affected by contemporary group (P Brahman cattle. PMID:24821821

  5. The first year of behavioral development and maternal care of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) calves in human care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Heather M; Campbell, Carolyn; Dalton, Les; Osborn, Steven

    2013-01-01

    The current study provides additional information for the behavioral development and maternal care of belugas or white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in the care of humans. The behaviors and mother-calf interactions of two female beluga calves were recorded from birth to 12 months as part of a longitudinal study of beluga behavioral development. As expected, the primary calf activity for both calves involved swimming with their mothers. The calves initiated the majority of the separations from and reunions with their mothers and exhibited early bouts of independence. Both mothers bonded with their calves and displayed similar maternal care behaviors but exhibited different behavioral patterns. Despite differences in social groupings, housing, and physical health, the two female belugas followed the behavioral development of beluga calves observed previously. PMID:24038426

  6. Direct ELISA aided coprological diagnosis of Cryptosporidium parvum infection in diarrheic neonatal calves in Mosul city, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israa Al-Robaiee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for the detection of Cryptosporidium (C. parvum infection in neonatal calves. A total of 220 fecal samples (diarrheic 110 and nondiarrheic 110 of neonatal calves were collected from Mosul city, Iraq over a period of 16 months from November 2010 to March 2012. The age of the calves ranged from 1 to 30 days. All the fecal samples were analyzed by capture direct ELISA. The infection was found in 29.0% (n=32/110 of the diarrheic calves. The infection was mostly prevalent (p<0.001 in the calves of three weeks of age. No C. parvum infection could be detected in the nondiarrheic animals.

  7. Effect of restricting silage feeding prepartum on time of calving, dystocia and stillbirth in Holstein-Friesian cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleeson David E

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A study was carried out to investigate the effect of restricting silage feeding on time of calving and calving performance in Holstein-Friesian cows. In the treatment group (n = 1,248 cows, 12 herds silage feeding commenced in the evening (17:00 to 20:00 h, after a period of restricted access (2 to 10 h while in the control group ad-libitum access to silage was provided over the 24 h period (n = 1,193 cows, 12 herds. Daytime and nighttime calvings were defined as calvings occurring between the hours of 06:30 and 00:29 and between 00:30 and 06:29, respectively. Restricting access to silage resulted in less calvings at night compared to cows with ad-libitum access to silage (18 vs 22%, P

  8. Urea recycling contributes to nitrogen retention in calves fed milk replacer and low-protein solid feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berends, Harma; van den Borne, Joost J G C; Røjen, Betina A.;

    2014-01-01

    recycling to protein anabolism in calves during the transition from preruminants (milk-fed calves) to ruminants [solid feed (SF)-fed calves] is unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify urea recycling in milk-fed calves when provided with low-protein SF. Forty-eight calves [164 ± 1.6 kg body weight (BW......Urea recycling, with urea originating from catabolism of amino acids and hepatic detoxification of ammonia, is particularly relevant for ruminant animals, in which microbial protein contributes substantially to the metabolizable protein supply. However, the quantitative contribution of urea.......55 g (P < 0.01). Of this increase in nitrogen retention, 19% could be directly explained by urea recycling. Additionally, part of the observed increase in nitrogen retention could be explained by the extra protein provided by the SF and likely by a greater efficiency of postabsorptive use of nitrogen...

  9. Effects of late-gestation heat stress on immunity and performance of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, G E; Tao, S; Monteiro, A P A

    2016-04-01

    Lactating cows that experience heat stress will have reduced dry matter intake and milk yield and shift metabolism, which ultimately reduces the efficiency of milk production. Dry cows that are heat stressed similarly experience lower intake, reduced mammary growth, and compromised immune function that ultimately results in a poorer transition into lactation and lower milk yield in the next lactation. A recent focus in our laboratory is on the effects of late gestation, in utero heat stress on calf survival and performance. We have completed a series of studies to examine preweaning growth and health, and later reproductive and productive responses, in an attempt to quantify acute and persistent effects of in utero heat strain. Late gestation heat stress results in calves with lower body weight at birth, shorter stature at weaning, and failure to achieve the same weight or height at 12 mo of age observed in calves from dams that are cooled when dry. A portion of the reduced growth may result from the lower immune status observed in calves heat stressed in utero, which begins with poorer apparent efficiency of immunoglobulin absorption and extends to lower survival rates through puberty. Heat-stressed calves, however, have permanent shifts in metabolism that are consistent with greater peripheral accumulation of energy and less lean growth relative to those from cooled dams. Comparing reproductive performance in calves heat stressed versus those cooled in utero, we observe that the cooled heifers require fewer services to attain pregnancy and become pregnant at an earlier age. Tracking the milk production in calves that were heat stressed in utero versus those cooled in late gestation revealed a significant reduction of yield in the first lactation, approximately 5 kg/d through 35 wk of lactation, despite similar body weight and condition score at calving. These observations indicate that a relatively brief period of heat stress in late gestation dramatically alters

  10. Prevalence of Locomotory System Disorders in Veal Calves and Risk Factors for Occurrence of Bursitis

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Brščić; Flaviana Gottardo; Hélène Leruste; Joop Lensink; Kees C. G. Van Reenen; Giulio Cozzi

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to assess the prevalence of locomotory system disorders within a wide cross-sectional study in 174 veal calves farms and to investigate risk factors associated to disorders with a relevant prevalence (>1%). A representative sample of the European veal production systems was considered in the three major producing countries (100 in NL, 50 in FR, 24 in IT). One batch/farm was observed in three stages of the fattening. At each visit calves with evidence of bursitis, hoof lesions,...

  11. Performance of Holstein calves fed whole milk with or without kefir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladgar, S; Shahraki, A D Foroozandeh; Ghalamkari, G R; Khani, M; Ahmadi, F; Erickson, P S

    2016-10-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests health-promoting effects of kefir consumption on different nonruminant species, leading to the speculation that kefir may act as a probiotic and benefit calf performance and health. Our objectives were to determine effects of feeding kefir on performance and health of calves in the first 70d of life. Thirty 3-d-old female Holstein calves (body weight=38.2±3.1kg) were blocked by initial body weight and assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments (1 calf per pen; 10 pens per treatment). Kefir was added to whole milk (vol/vol) at 0:1 (control; KF0), 1:3 (KF1), or 1:1 (KF2) and fed twice per day (0800 and 1600h) from d3 through 45 and then once per day until weaning, which occurred on d50. Pre- and postweaning intake of starter, daily body weight gain, and gain-to-feed ratio exhibited no difference among treatments. Adding kefir to whole milk fed directly to calves had no effect on concentration of blood metabolites collected on d20, 40, and 70. Body length on d50 (weaning) and 70 was greater in kefir-fed calves. Kefir intake improved fecal scores and reduced days with diarrhea during the first 2wk of life. Apparent digestibility of organic matter, ether extract, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber remained unaffected by treatment. Overall, it appears that directly feeding kefir to calves during the preweaning period did not improve the performance of calves under the conditions of the current study; however, its consumption marginally improved body length and fecal consistency in the first weeks of life, which is an important concern in intensive calf-rearing systems. Feeding kefir to neonatal calves may be a viable approach to improve the health of calves in commercial calf-rearing operations, although to validate its health-promoting effects additional research is needed to investigate its effects under different calf-rearing conditions. PMID:27497895

  12. The use of the radioimmunoassay for detection of diethylstilbestrol in fecal samples of fattened calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay for diethylstilbestrol (DES) in fecal samples of fattened calves is described. The antibody used in this test showed no cross reactions with natural estrogens or other steroids. Blank values (fecal samples without DES) varied between 0 an 4,9 ng DES-equivalent/g sample. The distribution of blank values shows the significant proof of existence of DES in concentrations above 10 ng/g sample. The method has been applied for the control of living calves at the producer. Examples of illegal DES applications are given. The described radioimmunoassay is suitable for routine analysis as a control for illegal estrogen treatment. (orig.)

  13. A comparison of prophylactic efficacy of tilmicosin and a new formulation of oxytetracycline in feedlot calves

    OpenAIRE

    Schunicht, Oliver C.; Guichon, P. Timothy; Booker, Calvin W.; Jim, G. Kee; Wildman, Brian K.; Hill, Bruce W.; Ward, Tracy I.; Bauck, Stewart W.; Jacobsen, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Two replicated-pen field studies were performed under commercial feedlot conditions in western Canada to compare the administration of long-acting oxytetracycline at 30 mg/kg body weight (BW) versus tilmicosin at 10 mg/kg BW to feedlot calves upon arrival at the feedlot. Ten thousand nine hundred and eighty-nine, recently weaned, auction market derived, crossbred beef steer and bull calves were randomly allocated upon arrival at the feedlot to one of 2 experimental groups as follows: oxytetra...

  14. Genetic effects on birth weight in reciprocal Brahman-Simmental crossbred calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, J A; Riley, D G; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Thallman, R M

    2015-02-01

    Brahman-cross calves exhibit unusual inheritance of birth weight: Brahman-sired crossbreds out of females are heavier with greater difference between sexes than calves of the reciprocal cross. The objectives of this work were to confirm that unusual inheritance and to investigate non-Mendelian genetic effects that may influence differences in Brahman × Simmental crossbred calves. Crossbred calves were produced by embryo transfer ( = 2,862) and natural service or artificial insemination ( = 2,125) from 1983 to 1991 by a private seedstock producer. Brahman-sired F embryos out of Simmental donors weighed 9.4 ± 1.1 ( Simmental-sired F embryos out of Brahman donor cows when transferred to comparable recipients. This reciprocal difference was accompanied by sexual dimorphism: within Brahman-sired F calves, males were 5.0 ± 1.4 kg heavier than females, whereas within Simmental-sired F calves, females were 0.7 ± 0.5 kg heavier than males. Covariates were constructed from the pedigree to represent genetic effects: proportion Brahman in calves and dams (direct and maternal breed effects), direct and maternal breed heterozygosity, probability of Brahman mitochondrial origin, probability of Brahman Y chromosome, probability of Brahman X chromosome, genomic imprinting (the difference between the probabilities of Brahman in the genetic dam and in the sire), nonrandom X inactivation by breed of origin (the probability of breed heterozygosity of the X chromosomes of a female), and nonrandom X inactivation by parent of origin (the difference between probabilities of a female inheriting a paternal or maternal Brahman X chromosome). The maternal breed heterozygosity, genomic imprinting, probability of Brahman X chromosome, and genomic imprinting × sex effect covariates from the full model were significant with regression coefficients of 1.1 ± 0.5 ( < 0.05), ‒8.3 ± 2.3 ( < 0.01), ‒3.5 ± 1.3 ( < 0.01), and ‒5.3 ± 2.0 ( < 0.01), respectively. Results suggest that sex

  15. A register-based study of the antimicrobial usage in Danish veal calves and young bulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Mette Ely; Toft, Nils; Martin, Henrik Læssøe;

    2016-01-01

    High antimicrobial usage and multidrug resistance have been reported in veal calves in Europe. This may be attributed to a high risk of disease as veal calves are often purchased from numerous dairy herds, exposed to stress related to the transport and commingling of new animals, and fed a new...... ration. In this study, we used national register data to characterize the use of antimicrobials registered for large Danish veal calf and young bull producing herds in 2014. A total of 325 herds with veal calf and potentially young bull production were identified from the Danish Cattle database...

  16. Genetic effects on birth weight in reciprocal Brahman-Simmental crossbred calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, J A; Riley, D G; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Thallman, R M

    2015-02-01

    Brahman-cross calves exhibit unusual inheritance of birth weight: Brahman-sired crossbreds out of females are heavier with greater difference between sexes than calves of the reciprocal cross. The objectives of this work were to confirm that unusual inheritance and to investigate non-Mendelian genetic effects that may influence differences in Brahman × Simmental crossbred calves. Crossbred calves were produced by embryo transfer ( = 2,862) and natural service or artificial insemination ( = 2,125) from 1983 to 1991 by a private seedstock producer. Brahman-sired F embryos out of Simmental donors weighed 9.4 ± 1.1 ( Simmental-sired F embryos out of Brahman donor cows when transferred to comparable recipients. This reciprocal difference was accompanied by sexual dimorphism: within Brahman-sired F calves, males were 5.0 ± 1.4 kg heavier than females, whereas within Simmental-sired F calves, females were 0.7 ± 0.5 kg heavier than males. Covariates were constructed from the pedigree to represent genetic effects: proportion Brahman in calves and dams (direct and maternal breed effects), direct and maternal breed heterozygosity, probability of Brahman mitochondrial origin, probability of Brahman Y chromosome, probability of Brahman X chromosome, genomic imprinting (the difference between the probabilities of Brahman in the genetic dam and in the sire), nonrandom X inactivation by breed of origin (the probability of breed heterozygosity of the X chromosomes of a female), and nonrandom X inactivation by parent of origin (the difference between probabilities of a female inheriting a paternal or maternal Brahman X chromosome). The maternal breed heterozygosity, genomic imprinting, probability of Brahman X chromosome, and genomic imprinting × sex effect covariates from the full model were significant with regression coefficients of 1.1 ± 0.5 ( < 0.05), ‒8.3 ± 2.3 ( < 0.01), ‒3.5 ± 1.3 ( < 0.01), and ‒5.3 ± 2.0 ( < 0.01), respectively. Results suggest that sex

  17. Validation of indicators used to assess unconsciousness in veal calves at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, M T W; Gerritzen, M A; Hellebrekers, L J; Kemp, B

    2016-09-01

    European legislation states that after stunning regular checks should be performed to guarantee animals are unconscious between the end of the stunning process and death. When animals are killed without prior stunning these checks should be performed before the animal is released from restraint. The validity of certain indicators used to assess unconsciousness under different stunning and slaughter conditions is under debate. The aim of this study was to validate the absence of threat-, withdrawal-, corneal- and eyelid reflex as indicators to assess unconsciousness in calves subjected to different stunning and slaughter methods. Calves (201±22 kg) were randomly assigned to one of the following four treatments: (1) Captive bolt stunning followed by neck cut in an inverted position (n=25); (2) Non-stunned slaughter in an upright position (n=7); (3) Non-stunned slaughter in an inverted position (180° rotation) (n=25); (4) Non-stunned slaughter in an upright position followed by captive bolt stunning 40 s after the neck cut (n=25). Each calf was equipped with non-invasive electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes before the slaughter procedure. All reflexes were verified once before the slaughter procedure. At the beginning of the procedure (T=0 s) calves were stunned (treatment 1) or neck cut in an upright position (treatment 2, 4) or inverted position (treatment 3). Calves of treatment 4 were captive bolt stunned 34±8 s after the neck cut. Reflexes were assessed every 20 s from T=15 s for all treatments until all reflex tests resulted in a negative response three times in a row and a flat line EEG was observed. In addition, reflexes were assessed 5 s after captive bolt stunning in calves of treatments 1 and 4. Visual assessment of changes in the amplitude and frequency of EEG traces was used to determine loss of consciousness. Timing of loss of consciousness was related to timing of loss of reflexes. After captive bolt stunning, absence of threat-, withdrawal

  18. Comparison of feed additive technologies for preconditioning of weaned beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersom, M; Imler, A; Thrift, T; Yelich, J; Arthington, J

    2015-06-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the response of weaned calves to different supplemental feed additives in a supplement to affect calf performance and mitigate stress response observed during weaning and preconditioning. At weaning in each of 2 yr, 160 Angus and Brangus calves (203 and 227 ± 2.3 and 2.5 kg) were stratified by BW, sex, and breed and were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments ( = 40 calves/treatment): 1) supplement without feed additives (control, CON), 2) supplemented with chlortetracycline, 350 mg/d (CTC), 3) supplemented with monensin, 175 mg/d (RUM), and 4) supplemented with rumen modifier, 5 g/d (ACT). Calves were held by treatment in 1 of 4 drylot pens for 7 d after weaning and were offered ad libitum access to hay and 2.27 kg/d of supplement before placement in one of thirty-two 0.8-ha pastures (5 calves/pasture). On pasture calves were supplemented with 2.27 kg/d (yr 1) or supplemented at 1.0% BW (yr 2). Calf BW and blood samples were collected following weaning (d 0, 1, 4, 7, 11 in yr 1; d 0, 1, 3, 7, 14 in yr 2), at the conclusion of the preconditioning period (d 50, 51 in yr 2), and after transportation (d 52, 55, 59, 65 in yr 2) for analysis of acute phase protein (APP) concentrations. In yr 2, after 44 d on pasture, calves were loaded on 2 semitrucks and transported for 24 h. On return, calves were placed in 4 pastures with hay and fed their respective supplements for 14 d. For each year, data were analyzed with the MIXED procedure of SAS. The model included the main effect of treatment, and pasture was the experimental unit. All variables quantified by day were analyzed using repeated measures. In yr 1, ACT and CTC had greater (P 0.05) among treatments; however an effect of day after transport (P < 0.001) was observed. Feed cost of gain and income over production cost (P ≥ 0.15; mean = $0.51/kg and $73.51, respectively) were not different among treatments. Use of supplemental additives may improve calf performance during a

  19. Motor evoked potentials in standing and recumbent calves induced by magnetic stimulation at the foramen magnum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijckaert, J; Pardon, B; Verryken, K; Van Ham, L; van Loon, G; Deprez, P

    2016-10-01

    The aims of this study were to determine reference values for magnetic motor evoked potentials (mMEPs) in calves and the influence of position during examination (standing or lateral recumbency). Reference values were determined using 41 healthy Holstein Friesian bull calves aged 1-10 months; standing and lateral recumbency were examined in 11 calves. Maximal magnetic stimulation was performed at the level of the foramen magnum with a magnetic field of 4 T at the coil surface. In standing position, distinct, reproducible mMEPs were obtained in all calves. Onset latency (LAT) (mean ± standard deviation) was significantly shorter in the thoracic limbs (34.4 ± 3.1 ms) than in the pelvic limbs (44.6 ± 3.0 ms). Amplitude (AMPL) was significantly higher in the thoracic limbs (3.7 ± 1.7 mV) than in the pelvic limbs (3.3 ± 1.7 mV) and significantly increased with body length. Age, body weight, height at the withers and rectal temperature had no significant association with LAT or AMPL, and no differences between left and right were noted. In the lateral position, only 64% of the calves showed responses in the four limbs; in these calves, LAT (29.7 ± 4.7 ms) and AMPL (3.0 ± 1.8 mV) in the thoracic limbs were significantly different from AMPL (47.0 ± 7.4 ms) and LAT (2.1 ± 2.1 mV) in the pelvic limbs. In conclusion, mMEPs in limb muscles can be evoked in calves by stimulation at the level of the foramen magnum. mMEPs are more difficult to obtain in lateral recumbency than in standing calves. PMID:27687949

  20. The effect of unrestricted milk feeding on the growth and health of Jersey calves

    OpenAIRE

    J. L. Uys; D.C. Lourens; P.N. Thompson

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding high milk volumes on the growth rate, health and cross-sucking behaviour in group-fed Jersey calves. Three-day-old heifers (n = 120) in a seasonal calving dairy herd were randomly assigned to one of 6 treatment groups. Three groups received high milk volumes (HMV), consisting of ad libitum milk or milk replacer feeding twice a day, while 3 groups received restricted milk volumes (RMV), consisting of 2 twice daily, during the pre-wean...

  1. A colostrum substitute prevents bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP) in a herd with previously BNP-affected calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Paula; Lupp, Bettina; Ganter, Martin; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate that bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP) can be prevented when intake of maternal colostrum is prevented in a dairy farm with verified BNP cases. A group of 30 female calves was fed with a colostrum substitute instead of maternal colostrum (group A) whereas the control group of 30 female calves was fed with the colostrum of their own mothers (group B). The female calves were randomly assigned to groups A or B. All 60 calves were daily blood sampled in the first eleven days of life, afterwards up to the age of three weeks one blood sample was taken every other day. All blood samples were analyzed for thrombocyte and leucocyte counts. In addition, 113 calves of both sexes, which were born during the trial period, were blood sampled once at 6-10 days old. In group A, no BNP positive calf was verified. In group B, eight calves with a significant decrease of thrombocyte and leucocyte counts were observed. Only one of these eight calves had clinical signs consistent with BNP and the other seven calves were classified as subclinical BNP cases. Of the other 113 contemporary calves, eleven animals had clinical signs of BNP accompanied by a decrease of thrombocyte and leucocyte counts and four of these eleven calves died due to BNP. Our results revealed that replacement of maternal colostrum can prevent subclinical and clinical cases of BNP as well as losses due to BNP in a dairy herd with verified BNP-cases and in addition, that colostrum from these cows was the major risk factor for BNP in this dairy herd. PMID:23227765

  2. Experimental infection of calves, sheep, goats and pigs with HoBi-like viruses by direct inoculation or exposure to persistently infected calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermann, F V; Falkenberg, S M; Decaro, N; Flores, E F; Ridpath, J F

    2015-12-31

    HoBi-like viruses are an emerging species of pestiviruses associated with respiratory and reproductive disease in cattle and in water buffaloes. Although cattle appear to be the main natural hosts, little is know about the potential for HoBi-like viruses to be transmitted to other livestock. In this study, seronegative calves, goats and pigs, and sheep harboring pestivirus antibodies (probably due to previous exposure to BVDV) were exposed to HoBi-like viruses either by direct inoculation (GIn) or by contact with calves persistently infected with HoBi-like viruses (GEx). Both GIn and GEx groups were monitored for clinical signs, lymphocyte count, virus in buffy coats and nasal swabs up to day 18 post-inoculation (pi). Evidence of transmission of HoBi-like virus by PI calves was observed in all studied species. No difference in clinical presentation was observed between animals in the GIn or GEx groups. Evidence of infection, depending on the species included lymphocyte depletion, fever, viral RNA detection, and/or seroconversion. Depletion of lymphocytes was observed in calves and goats (35% and 50%, respectively) but not in pigs. Seroconversion was observed in at least one animal of each group and for all exposed species. The rate of seroconversion was higher in animals in the GIn experimental groups. In sheep, pre-existing moderate to high neutralizing titers against BVDV did not prevent viral replication and shed. The study demonstrated that naive cattle, goats and pigs, in addition to antibody positive sheep, can be infected by HoBi-like virus via persistently infected calf and potentially transmit the virus. PMID:26525738

  3. Generation of cloned calves from different types of somatic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Six types of bovine somatic cell lines,including a granulosa cell line of Chinese red-breed yellow cattle(YGR),a granulosa cell line of Holstein cow(HGR),two skin fibroblast cell lines of two adult Holstein cows respectively(AFB1 and AFB2),a skin fibroblast cell line(FFB)and an oviduct epithelial cell line(FOV)of a Holstein fetus,were established.Somatic cell nuclear transfer(SCNT)was carried out using these cells as nuclei donor,and a total of 12 healthy calves were cloned.The effects of different types of donor cells on developmental potential of bovine SCNT embryos were investigated.(i)There was no significant difference in development rates to the blastocyst stage for SCNT embryos from YGR and HGR(33.2% and 35.1%,respectively).Pregnancy rates of them were 33.3% and 30.2%,respectively; and birth rates were 16.7%and 11.6%,respectively.(ii)Development rates to the blastocyst stage for SCNT embryos from diffetent individuals(AFB1 and AFB2)differed significantly(27.9% and 39.4%,respectively,P <0.05).Pregnancy rates of them were 36.2% and 36.4%,respectively; and birth rates were 14.9% and 27.3%,respectively.(iii)There was significant difference in development rates to the blastocyst stage for SCNT embryos from FFB and FOV of the same fetus(37.9% and 41.5%,respectively,P < 0.05).Pregnancy rates of them were 45.7% and 24.1%,respectively; and birth rates were 22.9 % and 10.3%,respectively.Finally,developmental potential of bovine SCNT embryos from all four types of somatic cells from Holstein cows(HGR,AFB,FFB and FOV)were compared.For in vitro development stage,development rates to the blastocyst stage for SCNT embryos from HGR,AFB,FFB and FOV were 35.1%A,29.4%B,37.9%A and 41.5%C,respectively(pABC<0.05); for in vivo development stage,pregnancy rates of them were 30.2%,36.2%,45.7%and 24.1%,respectively; and birth rates of them were 11.6%,17.2%,22.9% and 10.3% respectively.

  4. Physiological responses of camel calves to weaning stress with absence of dams under group or individual rearing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was performed to investigate the effects of weaning stress, rearing system and probiotics supplementation on live body weight, LBW; total feed intake, TFI, water consumption, WC, average daily gain, ADG and growth rate, GR, plasma cortisol and thyroid hormones concentrations during weaning period. This study was carried out at Maryout Research Station of the Desert Research Center, 35 km southwest of Alexandria, Egypt. Ten Maghraby breed camel calves were separated from their dams at 280 days of age with initial LBW of 236.76±0.22 kg. The duration of the study was 35 days and divided into five weeks; first week served as pre-weaning period followed by four weeks served as post-weaning period. Camel calves were weaned using calf-dam contact off system (calves were completely separated from their dams at all times during weaning process) under two rearing systems (6 calves penned in two groups and 4 calves penned in complete isolation, each alone in 4 replicates). Half of calves in each type of rearing system were supplemented with probiotics while the others were not-supplemented with probiotics. The results showed that maternal and milk deprivation affect significantly LBW, TWG, ADG and GR during post-weaning period (28 days), where grouped and isolated calves were different significantly in LBW, TWG and ADG, during the first two weeks post-weaning, but not different significantly in GR (1.66%) at the end of weaning period (28 days). However, grouped calves were more endurance (less responsive) to weaning stress along weaning period. The beneficial effect of probiotics supplementation on TFI was more pronounced from d14 till d28 post-weaning for both grouped and isolated-housed calves. The results showed also that completely social isolation was more pronounced as a stressful condition, this was indicated by the physiological changes which were considered indicative for a higher state of stress, such as an acute release of cortisol hormone and

  5. DAILY GAIN IN PREPUBERTAL DAIRY HEIFERS AND ITS EFFECT ON BODY SIZE AT FIRST CALVING, METABOLIC PROFILE AND FIRST LACTATION MILK PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. GAVAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of moderate (660 g/d and high (880g/d before puberty on body size, metabolic profile and first lactation milkproduction of Holstein - Friesian heifers. There were 18 heifers raised on fourperiod feeding regimen. Half the heifers were artificially inseminated at 370 kg, andthe other half after 420 kg of body weight to obtain early age at first calving andlate age at first calving respectively. Age at first calving significantly influenced milkproduction. Late calving heifers had higher milk production and a lower fat milkprocentage than early calving heifers.

  6. Preweaning growth of Angus- (Bos taurus), Brahman- (Bos indicus), and Tuli- (Sanga) sired calves and reproductive performance of their Brahman dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, R; Leite-Browning, M L; Neuendorff, D A; Randel, R D

    1995-09-01

    Calves born to Angus (A), Brahman (B), or Tuli (T) bulls and B cows were evaluated to determine sire breed of calf effects on preweaning calf growth and reproductive performance of their dams. Records from 242 cow-calf pairs over 2 yr were used to assess birth weight, calf ADG, weaning weight, gestation length, and postpartum interval to estrus (PPI). The sire breed x sex of calf interaction was important (P Angus-sired F1 calves and similar to straightbred Brahman calves in preweaning growth. Crossbred calves had shorter gestations but longer postpartum intervals than purebred calves. PMID:8582844

  7. Effect of sodium butyrate supplementation in milk replacer and starter diet on rumen development in calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Pietrzak, P;

    2009-01-01

    Rumen development is an important factor determining early solid feed intake and performance in cattle. A popular trend towards early weaning of newborn dairy calves necessitated looking for ways of accelerating the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development. The present study aimed to determine the...

  8. Effects of roughage source, amount, and particle size on behavior and gastrointestinal health of veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, L.E.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Heutinck, L.F.M.; Engel, B.; Buist, W.G.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N.; Reenen, van C.G.

    2013-01-01

    The European Union 1997 Directive, stipulating that veal calves should be fed a minimum of 50 to 250 g of fibrous feed from 8 to 20 wk of age, is vague. A fibrous feed ration maximum of 250 g has been implicated in welfare issues, namely the occurrence of abnormal oral behaviors and poor gastrointes

  9. First-calving age and first-lactation milk production on Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohd Nor, N.; Steeneveld, W.; Werven, van T.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Farmers attempting to reduce first-calving age (FCA) need to understand which rearing management factors influence FCA and first-lactation milk production (FLP). Reduced FCA might be associated with lower FLP. This study describes the association between herd FCA, FLP, and several herd-level health

  10. Parasitism level by helminths and weight gain of calves kept in organic and conventional grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable production is a principle in which we must meet the needs of the present without compromising the capacity of future generations. Despite the successful development of pesticides against endo and ectoparasites found in domestic ruminants, these parasites are still the major problem of the herbivore production system. The purpose of this study was to know the population of gastrintestinal parasites and their influence on weight gain of calves kept in organic and conventional grazing. Thus, organic and conventional calves were randomly selected in 2008 and 2009. The fecal egg count (FEC indentified the following genders of helminths: Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomum, Cooperia, Strongyloides, Trichuris and oocysts of Eimeria. There was no significant difference (p>0.05 between FEC in organic and conventional animals. Calves younger than 6 months showed significant higher infection (p<0.05 than calves between 7 and 12 months of age. The weight gain observed during the study was of 327g/day and 280g/day for conventional and organic systems animals, respectively. Consequently, the combination of sustainable practices of grazing associated with the selective application of anthelmintics may be a feasible alternative for nematode control in a conventional system and in transition to an organic one.

  11. Effect of Calcium Supplementation on Growth, Nutrient Digestibility and Fecal Lactobacilli in Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yuangklang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Based on earlier studies in veal calves and rats, the hypothesis tested was that high calcium intakes by ruminating dairy calves reduce fat digestibility, but do not affect growth performance due to enhanced colonization of the intestine with lactobacilli. Approach: In dairy calves that were fed on a combination of milk replacer, concentrate on grass hay, the effects of supplemental calcium on growth, nutrient digestibility and fecal lactobacilli were studied. Four concentrates with different levels of calcium were used. Results: Final body weight and weight gain were raised by the calcium level in the concentrate in a dose-dependent, linear fashion. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and crude fat were not influenced by the level of calcium in the concentrate. The number of fecal lactobacilli was significantly increased by higher dietary calcium levels, the effect having a linear trend. Calcium intake did not change the number of fecal E. coli. The apparent absorptions of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium were lowered in a linear, dose-dependent fashion by the calcium level in the concentrate. Conclusion: Increased calcium intakes stimulate weight gain in dairy calves fed a combination of milk replacer, concentrate and grass hay. This calcium effect may be related to an enhanced colonization of the intestine with lactobacilli.

  12. Evaluation of the optimal driving mode during left ventricular assist with pulsatile catheter pump in calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihaylov, D; Verkerke, GJ; Blanksma, PK; Elstrodt, J; de Jong, ED; Rakhorst, G

    1999-01-01

    The pulsatile catheter (PUCA) pump, a left ventricular assist device, was tested during acute experiments in calves using asynchronous and EGG-synchronous assist modes. The aim of the study is to compare ECG-synchronous and asynchronous assist and to find the optimal driving mode for the PUCA pump w

  13. Grazing Stategy To Decrease Dietary Crude Protien Wastage In Stocker Calves Grazing Winter Wheat Pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual cool-season grasses, primarily winter wheat, provide high quality forage for stocker calves during the fall, winter and spring grazing seasons for stocker enterprises in the southern Great Plains. The crude protein (CP) content of winter wheat pasture exceeds the stocker calf’s daily CP requi...

  14. Candidate causative mutation on BTA18 associated with calving and conformation traits in Holstein bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complementing quantitative methods with sequence data analysis is a major goal of the post-genome era of biology. In this study, we analyzed Illumina HiSeq sequence data derived from 11 US Holstein bulls in order to identify putative causal mutations associated with calving and conformation traits. ...

  15. Sodium zeolite A supplementation and its impact on the skeleton of dairy calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty calves were placed on study at three days of age, and were placed according to birth order into one of two groups: SS, which received 0.05% BW sodium zeolite A (SZA) added to their milk replacer and CO, which received only milk replacer. Blood samples were taken on d 0, 30, and 60 for osteoca...

  16. Whole Genome Analysis of Response to BVDV2 Vaccinations in Angus Calves Using Bayesian Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to evaluate the impact of environmental factors and genetic controls on response to vaccination against bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV2) in Purebred American Angus beef cattle. This study utilized 245 Angus calves born in the spring (n = 139) and fall (n = 106) of 2...

  17. A titration approach to identify the capacity for starch digeston in milk-fed calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.S.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Berends, H.; Pantophlet, A.J.; Schols, H.A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Calf milk replacers (MR) commonly contain 40% to 50% lactose. For economic reasons, starch is of interest as a lactose replacer. Compared with lactose, starch digestion is generally low in calves. It is, however, unknown which enzyme limits the rate of starch digestion. The objectives were to determ

  18. A titration approach to identify the capacity for starch digestion in milk-fed calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M. S.; van den Borne, J. J. G. C.; Berends, H.; Pantophlet, A. J.; Schols, H. A.; Gerrits, W. J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Calf milk replacers (MR) commonly contain 40% to 50% lactose. For economic reasons, starch is of interest as a lactose replacer. Compared with lactose, starch digestion is generally low in calves. It is, however, unknown which enzyme limits the rate of starch digestion. The objectives were to determ

  19. Prenatal transportation and immune indices in neonatal and growing Brahman calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate effects of prenatal transportation on immune indices in neonatal calves. Ninety-six pregnant Brahman cows matched by age and parity were separated into a transported group (TRANS, n=48; transported for 2 hours on gestational day 60, 80, 100, 120, and 14...

  20. Prenatal Transportation Stress Alters Temperament and Serum Cortisol Concentrations in Suckling Brahman Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment examined the relationship between prenatal stress and subsequent calf temperament through weaning. The prenatal stressor utilized was repeated transportation of pregnant Brahman cows for 2 hours at 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 days of gestation. Prenatally stressed calves (n = 41) were ...

  1. Eimeriosis in Danish Dairy Calves – Correlation between Species, Oocyst Excretion and Diarrhoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Dahl, Jan; Enemark, Jörg M Dehn

    2013-01-01

    samples from dairy herds (n = 52) with > 50 cows and a history of diarrhoea in young stock. Individual faecal samples were collected 3–4 weeks following re-housing to common pens from calves (n = 453) aged 3 weeks to 6 months. Faecal consistency and total number of oocysts per gram of faeces (opg) were...

  2. Study on the pathophysiology of Haemonchus contortus (Rudolph, 1803) in calves with the use of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to investigate the pathophysiology of Haemonchus contortus infection in friesian calves. The animals were divided in two groups of four calves each. One group was infected, orally, with 500 Haemonchus contortus larvae per kg body weight and the other one as the worm-free control. Five weeks after infection they were all housed in metabolic crates and injected with 125I-bovine albumin, 51Cr-red cell and 59Fe-transferrin to study the albumin metabolism, the erythokinetic and ferrokinetic. The results showed that there was a significant reduction in the mean haematocrit values and an evidence of lower weight gains over the period of experiment in the infected calves compared with the controls. There was also a change in the distribution of albumin from the extravascular to the intravascular pool and a significant increase in the plasma and blood volumes of infected calves. The study of ferrokinetic showed an increase in the iron turnover and in the rate of iron utilization in the infected group. The blood and albumin loss by the gastrointestinal tract were similar in both groups. (author)

  3. Possible contamination with clenbuterol from treated veal calves to untreated pen mates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.; Lasaroms, J.J.P.; Bennekom, van E.O.; Hende, van J.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether clenbuterol-treated calves could contaminate untreated pen mates, three animal experiments were performed. (1) One calf of a pen of five was treated with clenbuterol by injection (Ventipulmin injection, REG NL 2532, 2.5 mL/100 kg) twice a day for 10 days. (2) In two pens, one

  4. Fermentation in the Small Intestine Contributes Substantially to Intestinal Starch Disappearance in Calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Myrthe S.; Pantophlet, Andre J.; Berends, Harma; Pluschke, Anton M.; van den Borne, Joost J. G. C.; Hendriks, Wouter H.; Schols, Henk A.; Gerrits, Walter J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The proportion of starch disappearing from the small intestinal lumen is generally lower in ruminants than in monogastric animals, and there are indications that the starch digestion capacity in ruminants is limited. Objectives: Milk-fed calves were used to study the rate-limiting enzyme

  5. Redistribution of calving caribou in response to oil field development on the Arctic slope of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerial surveys were conducted annually in June 1978-87 near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, to determine changes in the distribution of calving caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) that accompanied petroleum-related development. With construction of an oil field access road through a calving concentration area, mean caribou density (no./km2) decreased from 1.41 to 0.31 within 1 km and increased from 1.41 to 4.53, 5-6 km from the road. Concurrently, relative caribou use of the adjacent area declined apparently in response to increasing surface development. It is suggested that perturbed distribution associated with roads reduced the capacity of the nearby area to sustain parturient females and that insufficient spacing of roads may have depressed overall calving activity. Use of traditional calving grounds and of certain areas therein appears to favor calf survival, principally through lower predation risk and improved foraging conditions. Given the possible loss of those habitats through displacement and the crucial importance of the reproductive process, a cautious approach to petroleum development on the Arctic Slope is warranted. 37 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Genotype by environment interaction for livability of dairy calves from first parity cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouweltjes, W.; Windig, J.J.; Pelt, van M.L.; Calus, M.P.L.

    2015-01-01

    Death of calves around parturition is a matter of concern for dairy farmers. Relatively high stillbirth rates and unfavourable trends have been reported for Holstein heifers in the Netherlands and several other countries. In our study, we investigated herd differences, genetic parameters and genotyp

  7. Maternal-calf relationships and their influence on calves up to 120 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoela Souza-Conde AL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To research parental behavior and measure the weight of Nelore and Guzerat calves up to 120 days of age, collecting data from birth up to the first lactation. Materials and methods. Seven different corporal positions were considered to obtain specific data for each of the following categories: time to stand (TP, time to intend to feed after standing (TPTM, weight at birth (PN, weight at 120 days (P120, and time in contact with the calf (TCC. Additionally, independent variables were also evaluated, organized by class: weight at birth (CPN, number of calvings (CNP, order of calving in relation with the herd (CLPR, time of calving (CHP, and finally, hindering to feed (CTAT. Results. There was a significant result in favor of the Nelore race over the Guzerat race. The statistical averages for Nelore and Guzerat were: Time to stand averaged 71 and 153 minutes; time to intend to feed after standing, 39 minutes for Nelore and of 114 minutes for Guzerat. For variable weight at 120 days, Nelore reached an average of 122 kg, and Guzerat 109 kg. For the time in contact with the calf variable there was no significant variance between races. Conclusions. Results showed the superiority of the Nelore race, considering it better adapted to local environmental conditions.

  8. CEACAM18 as candidate for the Holstein calving QTL on BTA18

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Xiaowei; Kadri, Naveen Kumar; de Koning, DirkJan;

    A genome-wide association study of Nordic Holstein cattle SNP chip genotypes and imputed next generation sequencing (NGS) variants identified carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 18 (CEACAm 18) on BTa 18 as the gene most highly significantly associated with direct calving traits...

  9. Short communication: effect of pomegranate-residue supplement on Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst shedding in neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyl-Feinstein, S; Markovics, A; Eitam, H; Orlov, A; Yishay, M; Agmon, R; Miron, J; Izhaki, I; Shabtay, A

    2014-09-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is considered one of the most common enteropathogens, responsible for the high incidence of diarrhea and deleterious implications on immunity and health in neonatal calves. The pomegranate is well known for its health-promoting properties. Two experiments were designed to test the antiparasitical and antidiarrheal effects of concentrated pomegranate extract (CPE) supplement in milk in neonatal Holstein calves. Forty-one calves were randomly divided into control (n=20) and treatment (n=21) groups. For the first experiment, the treatment group was supplemented with 3.75% CPE in the daily milk ration, between 3 and 14 d of age, whereas the control group received only milk. Fecal samples were collected between d 5 and 13 to quantify Cryptosporidium oocysts, and the duration and intensity of diarrhea were evaluated. Reduced fecal oocyst count and diarrhea intensity and duration were revealed in the 3.75% CPE calves. No difference was noted in average daily gain between groups. In a second experiment, which was designed to test the effect of a lower CPE concentration (0.6% of daily milk allocation), no effects on fecal oocyst count and average daily gain were observed. However, compared with control, the lower CPE group was characterized by a shorter duration of diarrhea and higher weight gain among males at 14 d of age. These results suggest that the CPE supplement-to-calf milk ratio may potentially alleviate intestinal morbidity caused by Cryptosporidium. PMID:24952772

  10. No foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission between individually housed calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, A.; Dekker, A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in The Netherlands in 2001 most likely started on a mixed veal-calf/dairy-goat farm. The outbreak among the 74 calves on this farm appeared to be limited to four animals, and no clinical signs of FMD were reported. Also on a second veal-calf farm minor clinical si

  11. Behaviour and welfare of veal calves in relation to husbandry systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilt, de J.G.

    1985-01-01

    The traditional housing of veal calves in individual crates without roughage has received prolonged and serious criticism, since it denies the animals various social activities, freedom of movement and the possibility to consume roughage and to ruminate. In order to develop an economically acceptabl

  12. Growth performances and carcass characteristics of veal calves fed acidified whole milk and milk replacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tedprasit, S.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the growth performances and carcass characteristics of male veal calves fed at different levels of acidified whole milk and milk replacer. Twenty-four male Holstein- Friesian 75% crossbred calves with an initial average live weight of 35.44±1.73 kg were allotted into 4 groups under a completely randomized design (CRD for 90 days. Group 1 received 100% whole acidified milk (AM, group 2 received 75% AM and 25% milk replacer (MR, group 3 received 50% AM and 50% MR and group 4 received 100% MR. All groups received 10% body weight of liquid diet, 2% live weight of starter feed and ad libitum of rice straw. After 90 days, the calves in group 1 showed the best final live weight (98.33 kg followed by groups 2 (75.08 kg, 3 (70.00 kg and 4 (57.36 kg (P0.05 in the percentage of fore-quarter and hind-quarter between the treatments. Considering production costs, calves in group 1 showed the lowest cost per live weight gain (53.31 baht/kg gain, followed by group 2 (64.39 baht/kg gain, 3 (77.74 baht/kg gain and 4 (116.82 baht/kg gain, respectively.

  13. Effect of number of animals per pen on growth performance and meat quality of veal calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cozzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been carried out on the effect of the group housing system in comparison with the traditional individual crate on growth performance, carcass traits and behavior of veal calves (Andrighetto et al. 1999, Cozzi et al. 2000, Verga et al. 2000.

  14. Post-parturition habitat selection by elk calves and adult female elk in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, J.; Cain, James W.; Liley, Stewart; Gould, William R.; Quintana, Nichole T.; Ballard, Warren

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal survival and juvenile recruitment are crucial to maintaining viable elk (Cervus elaphus) populations. Neonate survival is known to be influenced by many factors, including bed-site selection. Although neonates select the actual bed-site location, they must do so within the larger calf-rearing area selected by the mother. As calves age, habitat selection should change to meet the changing needs of the growing calf. Our main objectives were to characterize habitat selection at 2 spatial scales and in areas with different predator assemblages in New Mexico. We evaluated bed-site selection by calves and calf-rearing area selection by adult females. We captured 108 elk calves by hand and fitted them with ear tag transmitters in two areas in New Mexico: the Valle Vidal and Blue Range Wolf Recovery Area. In both study areas, we found that concealing cover structure and distance to that cover influenced bed-site selection of young calves (i.e., models, but selection was also influenced by forage availability and indices of forage quality. Studies that seek to obtain insight into microhabitat selection of ungulate neonates should consider selection by the neonate and selection by the adult female, changes in selection as neonates age, and potential selection differences in areas of differing predation risk. By considering these influences together and at multiple scales, studies can achieve a broader understanding of neonatal ungulate habitat requirements. 

  15. Antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli in veal calves is associated with antimicrobial drug use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, A.B.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Stegeman, J.A.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Mevius, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between farm management factors, including antimicrobial drug usage, and resistance in commensal Escherichia coli isolates from the faeces of white veal calves. Ninety E. coli isolates from one pooled sample per farm (n = 48) were tested for the

  16. Paratuberculosis sero-status and milk production, SCC and calving interval in Irish dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendam, K.; Richardson, E.; Mee, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of paratuberculosis sero-status on milk yield, fat, protein, somatic cell count and calving interval in Irish dairy herds. Serum from all animals over 12 months of age (n=2,602) in 34 dairy herds was tested for antibodies to Mycobacterium avi

  17. Effect of number of animals per pen on growth performance and meat quality of veal calves

    OpenAIRE

    Cozzi, G.; Dorigo, M.; F. Gottardo

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have been carried out on the effect of the group housing system in comparison with the traditional individual crate on growth performance, carcass traits and behavior of veal calves (Andrighetto et al. 1999, Cozzi et al. 2000, Verga et al. 2000).

  18. Effect of slaughter age on meat qualitative traits of veal calves

    OpenAIRE

    D. Bergero; C. Russo; G. Preziuso; A. Schiavone; M.I. Tarantola

    2011-01-01

    Veal calves breeding holds an important of bovine meat production part over all our country, as for the appreciation by the consumers for its pale coloured flesh, believed to be more digestible, than for favourable use of Frisian males that are slaughtered because they exceed the restocking of beef (Balasini, 2000)...

  19. The effect of zeolite A supplementation in the dry period on blood mineral status around calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, R J; Enemark, J M;

    2003-01-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained in 6 separate studies concerned with the effect of zeolite A supplementation in the dry period on blood calcium, magnesium and phosphorus status around calving. The experiments were conducted on 5 different farms, and comprised a total of 117 cows. Two...

  20. Health and growth of veal calves fed milk replacers with or without probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, H.M.; Mulder, L.; Everts, H.; Espen, van D.C.; Wal, van der E.; Klaassen, G.; Rouwers, S.M.G.; Hartemink, R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Beynen, A.C.

    2005-01-01

    Four experiments with 1-wk-old veal calves were conducted to assess the influence of probiotics on growth and health indicators. In experiments 1 and 2, the liquid probiotic supplements were administered daily from experimental d 1 to 15. The treatment period in experiments 3 and 4 was extended to 5

  1. Calf health from birth to weaning. II. Management of diarrhoea in pre-weaned calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Ingrid

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calfhood diseases have a major impact on the economic viability of cattle operations. The second of this three part review series considers the management of diarrhoeic diseases in pre-weaned calves. In neonatal calf diarrhoea, oral rehydration therapy is the single most important therapeutic measure to be carried out by the farmer and is usually successful if instigated immediately after diarrhoea has developed. Continued feeding of milk or milk replacer to diarrhoeic calves is important, to prevent malnourishment and weight loss in affected calves. Indiscriminative antibiotic treatment of uncomplicated diarrhoea is discouraged, whereas systemically ill calves can benefit from systemic antibiotic treatment for the prevention of septicaemia or concurrent diseases. Ancillary treatments and specific preventive measures are discussed. Eimeriosis has a high economic impact on the farming industries due to direct cost of treatment and calf losses, but especially due to decreased performance of clinically as well as sub-clinically affected animals. Emphasis lies on prophylactic or metaphylactic treatment, since the degree of damage to the intestinal mucosa once diarrhoea has developed, makes therapeutic intervention unrewarding.

  2. Genetic relationships between calving performance and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.; Groen, A.F.; Carnier, P.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain estimates of genetic correlations between direct and maternal calving performance of heifers and cows and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle. Beef production traits were daily gain, live fleshiness, and bone thinness measured on 1,602 young bulls tested at

  3. Postweaning gains in calves sired by six sire breeds evaluated under two postweaning management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postweaning ADG of 462 calves from Brangus cows and sired by 6 breeds (Bonsmara, Brangus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Romosinuano) was measured over a 4-yr period to evaluate the impact of preweaning forage, postweaning management, sire breed, and gender on postweaning gain. Preweaning forages were impro...

  4. Food for rumination : developing novel feeding strategies to improve the welfare of veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, L.E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of thesis entitled: “Food for Rumination – Developing novel feeding strategies to improve the welfare of veal calves”, Laura Webb Veal calves are typically fed high levels of milk replacer supplemented with solid feed, which tends to contain a relatively small roughage comp

  5. DYNAMIC OF CHANGES OF BLOOD PLASMA ENERGY METABOLISM PARAMETERS IN SUCKLING COWS DURING CALVING INTERVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Pavlik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effect of environmental condition changes during gazing period on energy metabolism parameters was investigated. Totally 40 Aberdeen Angus cows were selected for observation. Calving all of cows was situated into March. The feeding ration for the animals was comprised by pasture during the grazing period and corn silage, hay and granulated distiller’s grains during the winter period. At average age 9 days before calving, and subsequently 10, 81, 151, 189 and 273 days after calving, blood was sampled and analysed for glucose and NEFA (non-esterified fatty acid concentrations on KONELAB T20xt automatic analyser (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Finland and currently available commercial kits (Biovendor-Laboratorni medicina, Czech Republic. A rapid increase (p < 0.05 of glucose concentration was detected in blood plasma of cows in period before calving to 81 days post partum. Average value of glucose concentration at 273 days postpartum was significant (p < 0.05 lower comparing to day 189. The highest concentrations of NEFA in blood plasma of cows were found at 10 day postpartum. After that, during the persisted higher temperature period the NEFA concentration decreased significantly (p < 0.01 till 189 days postpartum. At the end of monitored period concentration of NEFA in blood plasma significantly decreased (p < 0.05. Changes of hot and cold season during the grazing period probably according to forage quality and had significant effects on blood plasma NEFA and glucose concentrations.

  6. Dominant inherited distal spinal muscular atrophy with atrophic and hypertrophic calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, R J; Sie, O G; van Weerden, T W

    1993-01-01

    The clinical, electrophysiological, radiological and morphological data of 3 members of a family with autosomal dominant distal spinal muscular atrophy (DSMA) are reported. One patient has the clinical picture of peroneal muscular atrophy with atrophic calves. His father and sister suffer from cramp

  7. Body Fat Deposition Does Not Originate from Carbohydrates in Milk-Fed Calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Lobley, G.E.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Muylaert, J.M.; Alferink, S.J.J.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Milk-fed heavy calves utilize dietary protein with a low efficiency and often develop hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Distributing the daily nutrient intake over an increasing number of meals increases protein deposition and improves glucose homeostasis. Therefore, we examined effects of feedi

  8. Aberrant histone H4 acetylation in dead somatic cell-cloned calves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Zhang; Shaohua Wang; Qiang Li; Xiangdong Ding; Yunping Dai; Ning Li

    2008-01-01

    In somatic cell-cloned animals, inefficient epigenetic reprogramming can result in an inappropriate gene expression and histone H4 acetylation is one of the key epigenetic modifications regulating gene expression. In this study, we investigated the levels of histone H4 acetylation of 11 development-related genes and expression levels of 19 genes in lungs of three normal control calves and nine aber-rant somatic cell-cloned calves. The results showed that nine studied genes had decreased acetylation levels in aberrant clones (p 0.05). Whereas 13 genes had significantly decreased expression (p 0.05), and only one gene had higher expression level in clones (p < 0.05). Furthermore, FGFR, GHR, HGFR and IGF1 genes showed lowered levels of both histone H4 acetylation and expression in aberrant clones than in controls, and the level of histone H4 acetylation was even more lowered in aberrant clones than those in controls. It was suggested that the lower levels of histone H4 acetylation in aberrant clones caused by the previous memory of cell differentiation might not support enough chromatin reprogramming, thus affecting appropriate gene expressions, and growth and development of the cloned calves. To our knowledge, this is the first study on how histone H4 acetylation affects gene expression in organs of somatic cell-cloned calves.

  9. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every December, for 3 years, 87 beef cows, nursing cows, (594 ' 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November) were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender. They were divided randomly into 6 groups and assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual swards (0.45 hectares/cow...

  10. Effects of supplementary selenium source on the blood parameters in beef cows and their nursing calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over 2 years, 32 beef cows nursing calves were randomly selected from a herd of 120 that were managed in 6 groups and were assigned to six 5.1-ha bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.) pastures. Treatments were assigned to pastures (2 pastures/treatment) and cows had ad libitum access to 1 of 3...

  11. Prenatal transportation stress alters temperament and serum cortisol concentrations in suckling Brahman calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, B P; Price, D M; Banta, J P; Lewis, A W; Neuendorff, D A; Carroll, J A; Vann, R C; Welsh, T H; Randel, R D

    2016-02-01

    This experiment examined the relationship between prenatal stress and subsequent calf temperament through weaning. The prenatal stressor used was repeated transportation of pregnant Brahman cows for 2 h at 60 ± 5, 80 ± 5, 100 ± 5, 120 ± 5, and 140 ± 5 d of gestation. Prenatally stressed calves ( = 41) were compared with controls ( = 44; dams did not undergo transportation during pregnancy) from 2 wk of age until weaning (average age at weaning = 174.8 ± 1.3 d). Temperament was defined by pen score (PS; 1 = calm and 5 = excitable), exit velocity (EV; m/sec), and temperament score (TS; (PS + EV)/2) and was recorded for each calf on d -168, -140, -112, -84, -56, -28, and 0 relative to weaning (d 0 = weaning). Cortisol concentrations were determined in serum samples obtained on d -168, -140, -28, and 0 relative to weaning. Birth weight and weaning weight were not different between treatment groups ( > 0.1). Pen score was greater ( = 0.03) in prenatally stressed calves (2.84 ± 0.21) relative to controls (2.31 ± 0.21). Exit velocity was greater ( Brahman calves that were prenatally stressed were more temperamental and had greater circulating serum concentrations of cortisol than control calves. PMID:27065130

  12. Serial MR findings of metaphyseal cyst in Legg-Calve-Perthes disease: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Chang Min; Na, Jae Boem; Moon, Haeng Jin [Gyeongsang National Univ., College of Mdicine, Chinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-11-01

    Metaphyseal cysts are common findings in Lee-Calve-Perthes(LCP) disease, though usually disappear within 6-12 months several studies have described the MR imaging findings of these cysts, though serial MRI findings have not been documented. In this report, therefore, we report the serial MRI results of metaphyseal cyst in LCP patients.

  13. Pyrosequencing reveals diverse fecal microbiota in Simmental calves during early development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eKlein-Jöbstl

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available From birth to the time after weaning the gastrointestinal microbiota of calves must develop into a stable, autochthonous community accompanied by pivotal changes of anatomy and physiology of the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the fecal microbiota of six Simmental dairy calves to investigate time-dependent dynamics of the microbial community. Calves were followed up from birth until after weaning according to characteristic timepoints during physiological development of the gastrointestinal tract. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from 35 samples yielded 253,528 reads clustering into 5,410 operational taxonomic units based on 0.03 16S rRNA distance. Operational taxonomic units were assigned to 296 genera and 17 phyla with Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria being most abundant. An age-dependent increasing diversity and species richness was observed. Highest similarities between fecal microbial communities were found around weaning compared with timepoints from birth to the middle of the milk feeding period. Principal coordinate analysis revealed a high variance particularly in samples taken at the middle of the milk feeding period (at the age of approximately 40 days compared to earlier timepoints, confirming a unique individual development of the fecal microbiota of each calf. This study provides first deep insights into the composition of the fecal microbiota of Simmental dairy calves and might be a basis for future more detailed studies.

  14. Comparison of short-term health and performance effects related to prophylactic administration of tulathromycin versus tilmicosin in long-hauled, highly stressed beef stocker calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, J S; White, B J; Larson, R L; Blasi, D A; Renter, D G

    2008-01-01

    Health and feed performance parameters of 293 beef stocker calves at risk for bovine respiratory disease were compared after metaphylactic administration of one of two antimicrobials (tulathromycin or tilmicosin) with different durations of activity; the antimicrobial was administered 1 day after arrival. Calves that received metaphylactic tulathromycin displayed significant improvement in morbidity, mortality, and first-treatment success rates (P<.05) compared with tilmicosin-treated calves. Tulathromycin-treated calves also showed a significantly improved average daily gain and feed:gain ratio (P<.05) compared with tilmicosin-treated calves. Under conditions of this study, calves receiving tulathromycin were healthier through a 43-day growing phase compared with calves receiving tilmicosin. This health difference likely accounted for the differences in feed performance between the treatment groups.

  15. Danish holsteins favor bull offspring: biased milk production as a function of fetal sex, and calving difficulty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaare Græsbøll

    Full Text Available In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model and contrary to the findings in the US, we found that cows produced higher volumes of milk if they had a bull calf compared to a heifer calf. We found a significantly higher milk production of 0.28% in the first lactation period for cows giving birth to a bull calf, compared to a heifer calf. This difference was even higher when cows gave birth to another bull calf, so having two bull calves resulted in a difference of 0.52% in milk production compared to any other combination of sex of the offspring. Furthermore, we found that farmer assisted calvings were associated with a higher milk yield. Cows with no farmer assistance or with veterinary assistance during the most recent calving produced less milk. There were also indications that dams would favor a bull fetus by decreasing milk production during the second pregnancy if the calf born in the first parity was a heifer. We hypothesize that size of calves is a confounding factor for milk production. However, calving weight was not available in the present data set to test this hypothesis.

  16. Immunoglobulin concentration in blood serum of postcolostral calves: Ratio between immunoglobulin level and appearance of enzootic pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonić Branko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The timely supply of newborn calves with optimal quantities of colostrum has a key role in the process of immune protection in the early phase of their lives. Passively acquired antibodies can protect the digestive organs from infection caused by E.coli bacteria, and it seems also from the appearance of diseases of the respiratory tract. These examinations were performed on a cattle farm where bronchopneumonia was one of the most significant health problems, and a group of 39 calves were selected for the investigations. The calves were fed with their mothers’ colostrum after birth, and then with collective milk. Immunoglobulin concentration was determined in blood samples taken during the postcolostral period, with the method using zinc-sulphate. At the age of 40 days, the calves were administered a polyvalent inactivated vaccine, and revaccinated 20 days after that (Vibak, Veterinary Department Subotica. In 74.34% calves, the immunoglobulin G concentration ranged from 26 to 40 g/l. In 25.66% calves, the immunoglobulin concentration was lower, from 8 to 25 g/l. The calves found to have a lower concentration of immunoglobulin in blood contracted bronchopneumonia more frequently, and the outcome of the disease in some cases was mortality, even.

  17. Investigations of presence of antibodies against bovine herpesvirus-1 in blood serum of calves prior to colostrum diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Sava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigations of the presence of the bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1 in samples of blood serum from 106 cows and 107 of their calves (one cow had twins. Blood was sampled from the cows immediately after parturition, and from the calves before feeding on colostrum. The examined cows and their calves originated from 5 herds in which previous investigations had shown infection with the bovine herpesvirus-1. The determination of antibodies against BHV-1 was performed using the method of virus neutralization in culture of MDBK cells with 100 TCID/50 viruses (BHV-1, TN-41 Am. Bio Research, USA. Antibodies against BHV-1 were determined in all blood serum samples of cows and in 16 samples of precolostral blood serums of calves. The antibody titer values in cows ranged from 1:4 to 1:512, and in calves the determined values were from 1:2 to 1:16. The results indicate that cows that are seropositive to BHV-1 can deliver calves seropositive to BHV-1 in about 15% cases. This must be kept in mind in selecting cows for the production of breeding material, in particular bulls for reproduction centers, as well as in making a programme for the immunoprophylaxis of calves against BHV-1. .

  18. Control of Boophilus microplus ticks in cattle calves by immunization with a recombinant Bm86 glucoprotein antigen preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf-Allah, S S

    1999-06-01

    Forty Egyptian native cattle calves of 4-6 months old randomly allocated into two groups of twenty animals each were used to assess the effect of immunization of animals with a recombinant Bm86 antigen derived from Boophilus microplus ticks on induction of immunity that could protect calves during tick season. The immunization protocol involved two injections administered intramuscularly, the first was applied with complete Freund's adjuvant and the second was given with incomplete Freund's adjuvant two months later. Control calves were given saline plus adjuvant. Immunization reduced the number of adult ticks developing from a subsequent challenge infestation by 78% in immunized calves. Vaccination also, significantly reduced the weight of adult ticks in immunized calves (30.51%). The results of skin delayed hypersensitivity reaction revealed that the diameter of sites injected with the recombinant Bm86 antigen was significantly larger in immunized calves than those in controls. Analysis of the immune response indicated that there was a significant increase in the level of IgG and IgA antibodies in serum of immunized calves and protection from reinfestation was correlated with the levels of circulating antibodies. PMID:10422372

  19. Performance of Pre-Weaned Dairy Calves under Hot Arid Environment: Effects of Immunoglobulins and Age on Diseases and Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Razzaque

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A high mortality rate (crude mortality 43.6% of pre-weaned dairy calves resulted in unavailability of replacement heifers in Kuwait. Dairy producers resorted to import pregnant heifers for herd replacement. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of dam vaccination and age, serum Immunoglobulin (Ig on disease syndromes and mortality in pre-weaned calves. Approach: Late pregnant Holstein Friesian dairy cows and heifers of five commercial dairy operations were divided into two herds: Treatment (T vaccinated using Lactovac against Rotavirus, Coronavirus and Escherichia coli and Control (C unvaccinated herds. Total of 1,088 newborn calves of above herds were also divided as T and C for studies from their birth to weaning at 90 days. Calves weighed at birth, fed colostrum, serum proteins and Ig (IgG, IgM and IgA were determined; disease syndromes, morbidity and mortality rates were investigated. Results: Mean birth weight (34.25±SE 0.21 kg of calves did not differ significantly (pConclusion: Inadequate levels of passive immunity of young calves were commonly found in Kuwait's farms. This study demonstrated the importance of passive immunity of calves by ensuring adequate levels of serum Ig and protein levels.

  20. Feeding a higher plane of nutrition and providing exogenous estrogen increases mammary gland development in Holstein heifer calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, A J; Parsons, C L M; Akers, R M

    2016-09-01

    Feeding heifers a higher plane of nutrition postweaning but before puberty can negatively affect mammary gland development and future milk yield. However, enhanced nutrition preweaning may promote development and future production. Our objectives were to determine the effects of enhanced feeding preweaning and exogenous estrogen immediately postweaning on mammary gland development and the composition of the mammary parenchyma (PAR) and mammary fat pad (MFP). Thirty-six Holstein heifer calves (mammary gland mass than R calves. Providing estrogen to EH calves further increased mammary gland weight. Masses of PAR and MFP were markedly greater for EH calves than for R calves (e.g., 7.3-fold greater PAR tissue). Estrogen increased the mass of both PAR and MFP in EH calves. Feeding a higher plane of nutrition increased total protein, DNA, and fat in the MFP and total protein and DNA in the PAR. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry estimates of mammary fat mass were highly correlated with biochemical analyses of fat content. From histological study, we observed that the degree of expansion of epithelium into the adjacent stromal tissue and the complexity of ductal development were minimal in R, increased in EH, and increased by estrogen in both dietary treatments. Results provide compelling evidence that preweaning nutrition and estrogen administration immediately postweaning markedly increase mammary gland development in dairy calves. Cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for these differences are currently under study. PMID:27372586

  1. Is it Beneficial to Inseminate Cow Early after Calving in smallholder Dairy Herds?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insemination of cows after calving is often more prolonged than recommended by the extension service in the smallholder dairy herds. The rationale behind the practice is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate through simulation, the potential benefits of implementing early insemination of cows after calving as recommended by the extension. The simulation was based on a reference herd reflecting an average performing smallholder dairy herd in the Kiambu peri-urban area. Data inputs displaying collapsed lactation curve were obtained from the National Dairy Development Project reports. The study used a dynamic stochastic model designed for on-farm decision support in dairying which can be modified to farm specific situation. Simulations was performed till steady state was derived reflecting the reproductive and productivity which corresponds with the estimated input and output variable of the reference herd. This form the basic situation in which insemination is on 165 days after calving. This resulted in 465 days calving interval (CI), and on annual basis 2355 kg milk per cow, 2.7 calvings, 25.8% culling rates giving gross margins of Ksh. 14,933 per cow. Compare to the basic situation, inseminating cows on day 105 after calving (60 days earlier) improved the annual gross margins per cow by Ksh 1060. The improved gross margins resulted from Shortened CI by 41 days, increased annual calvings in the herd by 0.1, increased milk production by 74 kg per cow annually and reduce culling rate by 4.8% annually. The resultant effect of these did offset the increased costs of feeding which was Ksh 473 and 11 per cow annually for the concentrates and Napier, respectively. The results showed that early insemination has potential economic benefits to smallholders. Implementing early insemination decisions need consider the investment feeding. The study showed that it is difficult to get a replacement heifer at the present level of reproductive performance in

  2. Comparison of video and direct observation methods for measuring oral behaviour in veal calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Verga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring behaviour, especially oral behaviour, has always been a debated issue: therefore the aim of this paper is to closely examine the study of oral behaviour in calves and the approaching methodology. Behavioural observations were conducted by two media (direct observations by check sheets and indirect observations by videotapes recorded by cam- eras connected to a digital field switcher and a time-lapse video recorder in order to compare data and assess the reli- ability and validity of the two methods in identifying some oral behavioural patterns in calves. The study was carried out on 54 Polish Friesian calves housed in group pens and in individual crates. The behaviour of the calves was investigated during the fattening period on the 2nd, 7th, 13th, 18th and 23rd week, one hour before and one hour after each of the two meals. Two experienced observers checked the behaviour of the calves, including oral behaviours on structures and buckets and oral stereotypies, by direct observations using a scan sampling every 2 min- utes. The calves' behaviour was also video recorded on the same days in which the direct observations were carried out and analysed by the same two observers. Percentages of time spent on each type of behaviour were calculated and anal- ysed by Chi-square test. Regardless of the housing system, the comparison between direct and indirect observations revealed significant differences in almost every behavioural category. Licking, biting and nibbling structures, nibbling and sucking the bucket, playing with the bucket and the teat, chewing and oral stereotypies were significantly higher in direct observations compared to indirect (P < 0.001, while inactivity was higher in video recorded observations (P < 0.001. In conclusion, regardless of the type of housing, our results revealed an objective difficulty in analysing videotapes with very detailed behavioural categories, like oral behaviours. Although video recording can

  3. BMY牛提前产犊试验%Study on Early Calving of BMY Heifer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继才; 王喆; 和占星; 杨世平; 金显栋; 付美芬; 王安奎; 袁希平; 黄必志; 亐开兴

    2011-01-01

    【Objective】The trial was conducted to enlarge the cow's utility duration,shorten the breeding period of heifer,explore the suitable mating age or body weight of heifers and the effect of early pregnant and calving on mother and calves.【Method】Biological breeding techniques and applicable nursing on BMY weaning female calves were used to achieve the forwardness of puberty,pregnancy and calving.【Result】The result showed that the puberty period of BMY heifer was 270.8±20.8 d and the puberty weight was 254±10.6 kg.The estrous cycle was 20.5±2.0 d and the duration estrus was 19.7±2.4 h.The suitable mating age was about 290~300 d(suitable mating weight was about 250~280kg).The average gestation was 282d and the average birth-weight of calves was 33.52kg.The daily gain of calves was over 0.7 kg during lactation,and the development of cows was well after calving.【Conclusion】It demonstrated that the reproductive performance of one-years-old heifer was the same with the adult after applicable nursing on BMY weaning female calves,and more than 80% of BMY heifer could produce the first calf at the age of 20~24 months.Early calving had no harmful effects on female and calves;which could achieve good economic benefit and give full play to reproductive performance of female.%[目的]为提高母牛的利用年限、缩短后备母牛的培育时间、探索BMY青年牛的适配年龄(体重)和提前妊娠产犊对母畜和犊牛的影响。[方法]对断乳母犊进行适当培育,使其早进入初情期,运用繁殖生物技术妊娠产犊。[结果]经过培育后BMY青年牛的初情期平均为(270.8±20.8)d,此时的平均体重为(254±10.6)kg,发情周期为(20.5±2.0)d,发情持续时间为(19.7±2.4)h,适配年龄为(290~300)d(体重250~280kg),平均妊娠期为282d,犊牛的初生重平均为33.52kg、哺乳期日增重超过0.7kg,母畜产后发育良好。[结论]以上的研究结果说明

  4. Effect of restricting silage feeding prepartum on time of calving, dystocia and stillbirth in Holstein-Friesian cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A study was carried out to investigate the effect of restricting silage feeding on time of calving and calving performance in Holstein-Friesian cows. In the treatment group (n = 1,248 cows, 12 herds) silage feeding commenced in the evening (17:00 to 20:00 h), after a period of restricted access (2 to 10 h) while in the control group ad-libitum access to silage was provided over the 24 h period (n = 1,193 cows, 12 herds). Daytime and nighttime calvings were defined as calvings occurring between the hours of 06:30 and 00:29 and between 00:30 and 06:29, respectively. Restricting access to silage resulted in less calvings at night compared to cows with ad-libitum access to silage (18 vs 22%, P < 0.05). Cows with restricted access to silage had a higher percentage of difficult calvings (11 vs 7%, P < 0.001) and stillbirths (7 vs 5%, P < 0.05) compared to cows in the control group. The percentage of calvings at night was lower (13%) when access to silage was restricted for 10 h compared to 2, 4 or 6 h (22, 18, 25%, respectively) (P < 0.001). Calf sire breed, calf gender or cow parity did not influence time of calving. In conclusion, offering silage to pregnant Holstein-Friesian cows in the evening, after a period of restricted access, reduced the incidence of nighttime calvings, but increased the incidence of dystocia and stillbirth. PMID:21851689

  5. Production characters of straightbred, F1 and F2 cows: birth and weaning characters of terminal-cross calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, R E; Baker, J F; Cartwright, T C; Long, C R; Sanders, J O

    1989-08-01

    Records of 2,449 births and 2,120 weanings of terminal-cross calves were used to characterize maternal productivity of first- and second-generation cows from a diallel of Angus, Brahman, Hereford, Holstein and Jersey when mated to third-breed sires. Third- and later-parity cows were randomly assigned after each parturition to Charolais and Red Poll bulls in multiple-sire pastures. Calves were weaned at approximately 7 mo of age; males were not castrated. A mixed model was assumed for data analysis. Effects included in the model were breed-type of dam, cow within breed-type of dam (random), breed of sire of calf, season of record, year of record, age of dam group, sex of calf and age of calf (covariate). Age of dam groups were 4- and 5-yr-olds, 6- and 7-yr-olds, 8-, 9- and 10-yr-olds, and those greater than 10 yr of age. Dependent variables were calf weight, shoulder width and hip width at birth, weaning weight, weaning height and survival to weaning. Holstein and Holstein crosses tended to produce the largest calves at birth and weaning. Among straightbred dams, the smallest calves were born to Brahman, whereas Hereford weaned the smallest calves. Brahman-Jersey dams produced the smallest calves at birth among crossbreds; Angus-Hereford cows weaned the smallest calves. Average maternal heterosis estimates for birth weight were small and non-significant. Calves of F1 crossbred dams were 17.4 kg heavier (P less than .01) and 1.70 cm taller (P less than .01) at weaning than calves of first-generation straightbred dams.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2793620

  6. Nutrient digestibility of veal calves fed large amounts of different solid feeds during the first 80 days of fattening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Brscic

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at evaluating nutrients apparent digestibility in veal calves fed 3 feeding plans based on milk-replacer plus large amounts of solid feeds differing in their composition during the first 80 days of fattening. Twelve Polish Friesian male calves (70.6±1.9 kg were randomly assigned to one of the following feeding treatments: i milk-replacer plus corn grain (CG; ii milk-replacer plus 80:20 mixture (as fed basis of corn grain and wheat straw (CGS; and iii milk-replacer plus 72:20:8 mixture of corn grain, wheat straw and extruded soybean (CGSES. Calves received the same milk-replacer but the daily amount was restricted (96% for CGSES calves to balance dietary protein. Total dry matter intake from milk-replacer and solid feeds was similar among treatments, but CGSES calves showed better growth performance than CG ones. Calves were introduced into a metabolism stall (1/pen during week 9 of fattening for a 3- day adaptation period and a 4-day digestibility trial. Calves fed CG showed the greatest DM, NFC, and ash digestibility while CGSES calves showed the lowest CP digestibility. Haemoglobin concentrations measured at day 5, 31 and 80 were similar among feeding treatments and significantly decreased over time. In CGSES treatment, the combination of milkreplacer with solid feed closer to a complete diet for ruminants led to better calves’ growth performance. However, the reduced protein digestibility with CGSES indicates that protein quality becomes a key factor when formulating diets for veal calves using alternatives to dairy sources.

  7. Effect of feeding selenium-fertilized alfalfa hay on performance of weaned beef calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean A Hall

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient in cattle, and Se-deficiency can affect morbidity and mortality. Calves may have greater Se requirements during periods of stress, such as during the transitional period between weaning and movement to a feedlot. Previously, we showed that feeding Se-fertilized forage increases whole-blood (WB Se concentrations in mature beef cows. Our current objective was to test whether feeding Se-fertilized forage increases WB-Se concentrations and performance in weaned beef calves. Recently weaned beef calves (n = 60 were blocked by body weight, randomly assigned to 4 groups, and fed an alfalfa hay based diet for 7 wk, which was harvested from fields fertilized with sodium-selenate at a rate of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha. Blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for WB-Se concentrations. Body weight and health status of calves were monitored during the 7-wk feeding trial. Increasing application rates of Se fertilizer resulted in increased alfalfa hay Se content for that cutting of alfalfa (0.07, 0.95, 1.55, 3.26 mg Se/kg dry matter for Se application rates of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha, respectively. Feeding Se-fertilized alfalfa hay during the 7-wk preconditioning period increased WB-Se concentrations (P Linear<0.001 and body weights (P Linear = 0.002 depending upon the Se-application rate. Based upon our results we suggest that soil-Se fertilization is a potential management tool to improve Se-status and performance in weaned calves in areas with low soil-Se concentrations.

  8. Chopped or long roughage: what do calves prefer? Using cross point analysis of double demand functions.

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    Laura E Webb

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to quantify calves' (Bos taurus preference for long versus chopped hay and straw, and hay versus straw, using cross point analysis of double demand functions, in a context where energy intake was not a limiting factor. Nine calves, fed milk replacer and concentrate, were trained to work for roughage rewards from two simultaneously available panels. The cost (number of muzzle presses required on the panels varied in each session (left panel/right panel: 7/35, 14/28, 21/21, 28/14, 35/7. Demand functions were estimated from the proportion of rewards achieved on one panel relative to the total number of rewards achieved in one session. Cross points (cp were calculated as the cost at which an equal number of rewards was achieved from both panels. The deviation of the cp from the midpoint (here 21 indicates the strength of the preference. Calves showed a preference for long versus chopped hay (cp = 14.5; P = 0.004, and for hay versus straw (cp = 38.9; P = 0.004, both of which improve rumen function. Long hay may stimulate chewing more than chopped hay, and the preference for hay versus straw could be related to hedonic characteristics. No preference was found for chopped versus long straw (cp = 20.8; P = 0.910. These results could be used to improve the welfare of calves in production systems; for example, in systems where calves are fed hay along with high energy concentrate, providing long hay instead of chopped could promote roughage intake, rumen development, and rumination.

  9. Prevalence of calves coccidiosis in Jimma town dairy farms, South-Western Ethiopia

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    Tadele Kabeta Yadeessa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A cross- sectional study was conducted from October 2009 to March 2010 on Jimma town dairy farms to determine the prevalence of Calves coccidian and assess associated risk factors. Faecal samples were collected once from a total of 385 calves range from 5-365 days old and examined for the oocysts of Eimeria species by centrifugal faecal flotation technique using concentrated sucrose solution. Out result revealed that overall prevalence of 198(51.42% Eimeria species. Of the 53 dairies sampled, almost all of the farms had calves shedding Eimeria oocysts. The species of Eimeria circulating in the farms was presumed to be based on morphology of the oocysts and certain epidemiological features of the Eimeria, a total of 8 species were identified namely Eimeria bovis 94(24.4%, Eimeria zuernii 58(15.1%, Eimeria auburnensis 56(14.6%, Eimeria Canadensis 53(13.8%, Eimeria ellipsoidalis 28(7.3%, Eimeria subspherica 22(5.7%, Eimeria cylindrical 20(5.2% and Eimeria alabamensis 16(4.2% in descending order of their relative prevalence. Eimeria species were not found to be statistically associated with faecal consistency, breed and sex (P>0.05. Among the risk factors studied, hygiene status and age of the calves were the most important factors associated with the possibility of infection with diseases. The mean and maximum Eimeria oocysts per gram of faeces (OPG determined by using McMaster technique was 100 and 24,000, respectively. Coccidiosis is a common and important cause of morbidity and economical loss in calves in study areas. Hence appropriate disease prevention and control measure is paramount importance to reduce these impacts.

  10. Longitudinal study on morbidity and mortality in white veal calves in Belgium

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    Pardon Bart

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality and morbidity are hardly documented in the white veal industry, despite high levels of antimicrobial drug use and resistance. The objective of the present study was to determine the causes and epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in dairy, beef and crossbred white veal production. A total of 5853 calves, housed in 15 production cohorts, were followed during one production cycle. Causes of mortality were determined by necropsy. Morbidity was daily recorded by the producers. Results The total mortality risk was 5,3% and was significantly higher in beef veal production compared to dairy or crossbreds. The main causes of mortality were pneumonia (1.3% of the calves at risk, ruminal disorders (0.7%, idiopathic peritonitis (0.5%, enterotoxaemia (0.5% and enteritis (0.4%. Belgian Blue beef calves were more likely to die from pneumonia, enterotoxaemia and arthritis. Detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus at necropsy was associated with chronic pneumonia and pleuritis. Of the calves, 25.4% was treated individually and the morbidity rate was 1.66 cases per 1000 calf days at risk. The incidence rate of respiratory disease, diarrhea, arthritis and otitis was 0.95, 0.30, 0.11 and 0.07 cases per 1000 calf days at risk respectively. Morbidity peaked in the first three weeks after arrival and gradually declined towards the end of the production cycle. Conclusions The present study provided insights into the causes and epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in white veal calves in Belgium, housed in the most frequent housing system in Europe. The necropsy findings, identified risk periods and differences between production systems can guide both veterinarians and producers towards the most profitable and ethical preventive and therapeutic protocols.

  11. Grounding and calving cycle of Mertz Ice Tongue revealed by shallow Mertz Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianwei; Holland, David M.; Cheng, Xiao; Gong, Peng

    2016-09-01

    A recent study, using remote sensing, provided evidence that a seafloor shoal influenced the 2010 calving event of the Mertz Ice Tongue (MIT), by partially grounding the MIT several years earlier. In this paper, we start by proposing a method to calculate firn air content (FAC) around Mertz from seafloor-touching icebergs. Our calculations indicate the FAC around Mertz region as 4.87 ± 1.31 m. We then design an indirect method of using freeboard and sea surface height data extracted from ICESat/GLAS, FAC, and relatively accurate seafloor topography to detect grounding sections of the MIT between 2002 and 2008 and analyze the process of grounding prior to the calving event. By synthesizing remote sensing data, we point out that the grounding position was localized northeast of the Mertz ice front close to the Mertz Bank. The grounding outlines of the tongue caused by the Mertz Bank are extracted as well. From 2002 to 2008, the grounding area increased and the grounding became more pronounced. Additionally, the ice tongue could not effectively climb over the Mertz Bank in following the upstream ice flow direction and that is why MIT rotated clockwise after late 2002. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the area-increasing trend of the MIT changed little after calving (˜ 36 km2 a-1), thus allowing us to use remote sensing to estimate the elapsed time until the MIT can reground on and be bent by the shoal. This period is approximately 70 years. Our observations suggest that the calving of the MIT is a cyclical process controlled by the presence of the shallow Mertz Bank location and the flow rate of the tongue. This calving cycle also explains the cyclic variations in sea-surface conditions around the Mertz detected by earlier studies.

  12. The effects of firocoxib on cautery disbudding pain and stress responses in preweaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, M L; Millman, S T; Barth, L A; Van Engen, N K; Hsu, W H; Wang, C; Gehring, R; Parsons, R L; Coetzee, J F

    2015-09-01

    Perioperative analgesic effects of oral firocoxib following cautery disbudding were investigated in preweaned calves. Twenty Holstein calves approximately 4 to 6wk old received a single oral dose of firocoxib, a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory, at 0.5mg/kg (n=10) or placebo (n=10) in a randomized controlled clinical trial. Responses, including ocular temperature determined by infrared thermography, pressure algometry measuring mechanical nociception threshold, and heart rate, were evaluated at 2, 4, 7, 8, and 24h after cornual nerve block and cautery disbudding. Blood samples were collected over 96h and analyzed for plasma cortisol and substance P concentrations by RIA. Additionally, ex vivo prostaglandin E2 concentrations were determined over a 72-h study period using an enzyme immunoassay. Data were analyzed using a linear mixed effects model with repeated measures. An inhibition of ex vivo prostaglandin E2 synthesis was observed from 12 to 48h following disbudding in calves treated with firocoxib. Cautery disbudding was associated with an increased nociception for the duration of sampling (24h). During the initial 24-h period following disbudding, no difference in response between treatment groups was noted. Following 24h, mean cortisol concentrations diverged between the 2 study groups with placebo-treated calves having increased cortisol concentrations at approximately 48h after disbudding. Furthermore, the overall integrated cortisol response as calculated as area under the effect curve tended to be reduced in firocoxib-treated calves. The prolonged effects of cautery dehorning require further investigation. Moreover, the effect of firocoxib on cortisol reduction observed in this study requires additional exploration. PMID:26142860

  13. Estimation of genetic parameters for perinatal sucking behavior of Italian Brown Swiss calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltecca, C; Rossoni, A; Nicoletti, C; Santus, E; Weigel, K A; Bagnato, A

    2007-10-01

    Brown Swiss breeders sometimes experience difficulties in feeding calves because of the weak sucking ability of the calves in the early days of life. For the welfare of the calves, they should be suckled by their dams or should aggressively ingest colostrum immediately after birth. The composition of colostrum changes rapidly during the first few days of lactation, and the ability of calves to absorb the Ig decreases quickly as well. The aim of this study was to increase our knowledge of environmental and genetic components affecting the sucking response, to evaluate the possibility of selecting for this trait. Sucking ability was recorded in 3 categories (drank from the milk bucket nipple or bottle without help, drank with help, did not drink) at 5 post-natal meals (6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h from birth). Records were analyzed with 2 different models: a single-trait threshold sire model, in which all observations were analyzed as a single trait with 5 levels, and a multiple-trait threshold liability sire model, in which meal-by-meal observations were analyzed as 5 different binary traits. Management procedures, the interval between birth and meals, parity, and season of birth were environmental factors affecting the variability in sucking ability. The heritability estimate for the single-trait analysis was 0.14, whereas heritabilities for the multiple-trait analysis were 0.26, 0.22, 0.21 0.12, and 0.13 for the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth meal, respectively. Estimated genetic correlations among traits were high (0.82 to 0.99). This study suggests the possibility of selection based on sucking ability. Future collection of larger data sets on the sucking response of calves in the first 2 meals after birth would increase the accuracy of genetic parameter estimates.

  14. Interrelationships among growth, endocrine, immune, and temperament variables in neonatal Brahman calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, N C; Banta, J P; Neuendorff, D A; White, J C; Vann, R C; Laurenz, J C; Welsh, T H; Randel, R D

    2009-10-01

    Interrelationships among growth, endocrine, immune, and temperament variables were assessed in neonatal Brahman calves. The velocity upon exiting a working chute (exit velocity) of an animal was measured and used as an objective indicator of temperament to classify calves as calm, intermediate, or temperamental. Calves (n = 116) were weighed weekly between d 0 and 21 to 24, and blood samples were collected for plasma and serum on d 0, 1, 2, 7, 14, and 21 to 24 after birth to measure concentrations of immunoglobulins, cortisol, and epinephrine (EPI). Body weight increased from d 0 through d 21 to 24 (P temperament (P = 0.89) or sex (P = 0.97). Concentrations of EPI were affected by time, with an increase in EPI concentrations in temperamental bulls between 2 and 14 d of age (P temperament (P = 0.44) or sex (P = 0.68). Serum immunoglobulin concentrations peaked on d 1 before declining (P temperament (P = 0.40 to 0.68). Of the stress hormones measured (cortisol and EPI), only cortisol was associated with the early performance of the calf. Calf BW at d 21 to 24 and BW gain were positively associated with serum immunoglobulin concentrations, yet negatively associated with concentrations of cortisol. Serum immunoglobulin concentrations were negatively correlated with cortisol concentrations (r = -0.28; P = 0.003), yet positively associated with EPI concentrations (r = 0.51; P = 0.003). During the neonatal period in this study, there was no relationship of temperament with passive immunity or stress hormone concentrations; however, growth was positively associated with passive immunity and negatively associated with stress hormones. Measuring exit velocity as early in life as d 21 to 24 fails to accurately predict temperament at weaning in over 40% of Brahman calves. Our conclusion is that measurement of exit velocity should be done nearer to the time of weaning than to birth. These data can be beneficial in developing best management practices for young calves.

  15. Lipid profile of commercial beef cuts from grazing, suckling calves

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    Vargas, Karin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to determine the contents of fat, cholesterol and fatty acids of eight beef cuts from unsupplemented, suckling, 7-8 month old male and female calves reared on permanent pastures in the VIIth Region of Chile by small cattle producers. A total of 54 animals with a mean carcass weight of 150 ± 22 kg were slaughtered in a commercial abattoir on three different dates during the month of March, 2008. Five samples of each of eight cuts were collected at random as they exited the abattoir, cooled and packed following industry practices. Beef cuts were selected based on an earlier, unreplicated analysis of 21 common cuts, to represent a wide range of cuts currently available to consumers. Large and significant differences were observed in fat content with a mean of 2.12%, ranging between 4.23% for sirloin strip and 0.68% for butcher’s roast. The cholesterol content did not differ between cuts (mean 44.7 mg/100 mg meat and was unrelated to fat percentage. A stringent discriminant analysis of the fatty acid profiles detected highly significant differences between cuts and correctly classified 37 of the 40 samples. The n6:n3 ratio did not differ between cuts and ranged between 1.9 for sirloin strip and 2.6 for rib roast and silverside’s end. Significant differences between cuts were detected for most fatty acids, and for the atherogenicity index. Nevertheless, the latter only varied between 0.60 and 1.07 for topside and sirloin strip respectively. The results are compared with literature values. Notwithstanding differences between cuts, all beef samples were lean and had lipid profiles compatible with human health as part of a balanced diet.El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar el contenido de grasa, colesterol y perfil de ácidos grasos de ocho cortes provenientes de terneros lactantes, de 7-8 meses de edad y engordados en prados permanentes de la VII Region de Chile, por productores pequeños. Se

  16. Effects of the supplementation with yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae) on weight gain and development of water buffalo calves

    OpenAIRE

    García, N.; Medina, S.; J. F. Ramírez

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a commercial yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on weight gain and development of buffalo calves from water buffalo herd in north of Colombia. The buffalo calves (age: 71,12 +/- 22 days old) were randomly assigned to one of two treatments, during 45 days. One group (n=13) received 50 gr/day of commercial product of yeast and the other group (n = 13) don’t received yeast. The buffalo calves grazed in same pastures under sam...

  17. Evaluation of the effects of treating dairy cows with meloxicam at calving on retained fetal membranes risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Nathalie C.; Renaud, David; Tremblay, Robert; Duffield, Todd F.

    2014-01-01

    Some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increase the risk of retained fetal membranes. This is the first study to investigate the effects of meloxicam on the risk of retained fetal membranes. Administration of meloxicam to dairy cattle immediately following calving revealed no differences in the incidence of retained fetal membranes between meloxicam-treated and untreated animals. There was no difference between the 2 groups in the incidence of periparturient diseases following calving. Meloxicam can be used on the day of calving in lactating cows without increasing the risk of retained fetal membranes. PMID:25477550

  18. Ablation from calving and surface melt at lake-terminating Bridge Glacier, British Columbia, 1984-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernos, M.; Koppes, M.; Moore, R. D.

    2016-01-01

    Bridge Glacier is a lake-calving glacier in the Coast Mountains of British Columbia and has retreated over 3.55 km since 1972. The majority of this retreat has occurred since 1991. This retreat is substantially greater than what has been inferred from regional climate indices, suggesting that it has been driven primarily by calving as the glacier retreated across an overdeepened basin. In order to better understand the primary drivers of ablation, surface melt (below the equilibrium line altitude, ELA) and calving were quantified during the 2013 melt season using a distributed energy balance model (DEBM) and time-lapse imagery. Calving, estimated using areal change, velocity measurements, and assuming flotation were responsible for 23 % of the glacier's ablation below the ELA during the 2013 melt season and were limited by modest flow speeds and a small terminus cross-section. Calving and surface melt estimates from 1984 to 2013 suggest that calving was consistently a smaller contributor of ablation. Although calving was estimated to be responsible for up to 49 % of the glacier's ablation for individual seasons, averaged over multiple summers it accounted between 10 and 25 %. Calving was enhanced primarily by buoyancy and water depths, and fluxes were greatest between 2005 and 2010 as the glacier retreated over the deepest part of Bridge Lake. The recent rapid rate of calving is part of a transient stage in the glacier's retreat and is expected to diminish within 10 years as the terminus recedes into shallower water at the proximal end of the lake. These findings are in line with observations from other lake-calving glacier studies across the globe and suggest a common large-scale pattern in calving-induced retreat in lake-terminating alpine glaciers. Despite enhancing glacial retreat, calving remains a relatively small component of ablation and is expected to decrease in importance in the future. Hence, surface melt remains the primary driver of ablation at Bridge

  19. Effect of weaning stress, housing system and probiotics supplementation on cortisol, thyroid activity and productive performance of sucker camel calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The weaning process has been identified as associated with potential psychological, nutritional and physiological stressors on both dam and her young. These stressors are often stressful for the young. Ten sucker camel calves were weaned using calf-dam on and suckling off weaning system (calves were kept with their dams at all times during weaning process and prevented from suckling) under two housing systems, 6 calves in group housing system (G) and 4 calves in individually housing system (I). Half of calves in each housing system were supplemented with probiotics (treated, P), while the other was not-supplemented with probiotics (control, C). This study was carried out at Maryout Research Station of the Desert Research Center, 35 km to southwest of Alexandria, Egypt. Calves were weaned at 280 days of age with initial live body weight (LBW) of 236.76±0.224 kg. The duration of the study was 35 days and divided into five weeks; one week served as pre-weaning followed by four weeks served as post-weaning period (calves were in treatments). Calves and their dams were used to estimate the effects of weaning stress, housing systems (group, G vs. individually, I) and probiotics supplementation on the productive performance, cortisol (COR) and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) concentrations of camel calves (Camelus dromedaries). No measurements were done on the dams. The results indicated that, regardless the effect of housing system and Abdel-Fattah et al., J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 4(B) (2011) 1292 probiotics supplementation, weaning stress declined LBW -0.89% at d7 post weaning. Concerned housing system effect, group-housed calves and individually-housed calves lost -0.36 and -1.43% of their body weights, respectively on d7 post-weaning and they recovered their weaning weight (d0) on d14 post-weaning period (2.45 and 0.57%). Neither group housing system nor probiotics supplementation prevented the weight lost resulted by weaning stress during the first week

  20. The digestive system of 1-week-old Jersey calves is well suited to digest, absorb, and incorporate protein and energy into tissue growth even when calves are fed a high plane of milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; Carroll, Jeffery A; Ballou, Michael A

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of the current study were to determine the apparent digestibilities of nitrogen, organic matter, ash, and energy as well as investigate the nitrogen retention of calves fed different planes of milk replacer nutrition during the first week of life. Twelve Jersey calves were blocked by body weight at birth and randomly assigned to either a high plane of nutrition (HPN) or low plane of nutrition (LPN) treatment. The HPN calves were offered 19.2g of dry matter/kg of body weight of a 28% all-milk crude protein and 20% fat milk replacer. The LPN calves were fed 11.6g of dry matter/kg of body weight of a 20% all-milk crude protein and 20% fat milk replacer. All calves were given 3 L of pooled colostrum within 1h of birth after which they were assigned to treatments; no starter was offered during the study. Calves were given 1 d to adapt to their treatments and environment, so calves were 30 to 36 h old at the start of data collection. The study was divided into two 72-h periods. Total collection of feces occurred over each 72 h period, and total urine was collected for the last 24h of each period. Peripheral blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of each period and analyzed for plasma glucose and urea nitrogen concentrations. Data are reported as HPN vs. LPN, respectively. Fecal scores were greater for HPN calves during both periods; however, no difference was found in the dry matter percentage of feces (30.9 vs. 31.9 ± 0.06). No differences were found between treatments in either digestible or metabolizable energy efficiencies, which averaged 93.3 and 83.7%, respectively. A treatment × period interaction was found on the percentage of intake nitrogen retained, in which calves fed the HPN had a greater percentage of intake nitrogen retained during period 1 (87.9 vs. 78.4 ± 1.79%), but was not different from calves fed the LPN during period 2 (85.4 vs. 84.9 ± 1.79%). From these data therefore, we conclude that healthy neonatal calves have

  1. The influence of age and weaning on permeability of the gastrointestinal tract in Holstein bull calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, K M; Palmer, S I; Steele, M A; Metcalf, J A; Penner, G B

    2015-10-01

    Fourteen Holstein bull calves were used in a randomized complete block design to investigate the effect of calf age and weaning on permeability of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: (1) a weaning protocol that was initiated on d 35; WN; n=7), or (2) a control treatment where calves were not weaned (CON; n=7). Calves were bottle-fed milk replacer (150 g/L), in 3 equal portions/d targeting 15% of their body weight (BW) in liquid milk intake [approximately 21.1g/kg of BW/d, dry matter (DM) basis]. On d 35, the amount of milk replacer offered to WN calves was reduced to 7.5% of BW for 7 d before calves were weaned on d 42. On d 14, 28, and 42, calves were orally dosed with 500 mL of Cr-EDTA (179 mM Cr-EDTA solution) and housed in a metabolism crate to enable total urine collection and determination of total urinary Cr recovery as an indicator of total-tract permeability. On d 44, calves were killed and tissues from the rumen, omasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and proximal and distal colon were collected, rinsed, and transported in buffer solution (pH 7.4 at 38.5°C). Tissues were incubated in Ussing chambers under short-circuit conditions with buffer solutions designed to mimic the mucosal and serosal energy source that would be available in vivo (glucose for tissues from the small intestine and short-chain fatty acids for tissues that would be exposed to fermentation; rumen, omasum, and large intestinal tissues). The serosal to mucosal flux of (14)C-mannitol and (3)H-inulin was measured for each region. Although we detected treatment × period interactions for BW and starter intake, dietary treatments did not differ within a week. Overall, the time that ruminal pH was <5.5 was less before weaning than after weaning. We observed a differential response for the appearance of Cr in urine for WN and CON calves, where the appearance of Cr (mg/48 h) in urine decreased for both treatments from d 14 to 28, but

  2. Physiological data including evaluation of immuno-response in relation to anabolic effects on veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropp, J; Herlyn, D; Boehncke, E; Schulz, V; Sandersleben, J V; Hänichen, T; Geisel, O

    1976-01-01

    In a series of experiments with a total of 1480 veal calves, different aspects of treating calves with anabolic steroids were examined. The anabolics used were 17beta-estradiol (E), trenbolone acetate (T), progesterone (P), testosterone (Te), C+T, E+P, E+Te and zeranole (Z). The N-retention was estimated by examining the urea: creatinine ratio in single urine specimens during the course of two feeding trials. Increased gain due to the treatment with E (20 mg implanted/calf) + P (200 mg) and Te (200 mg), respectively, E + T (140 mg) or Z (36 mg) was during the whole experimental period. The extra gain, due to anabolics seems to contain even more protein. This conclusion may be supported by the crude protein content of meat samples. The antibody production of a total of 311 male and female calves was investigated after the application of the following steroids: E (20 mg), T (200 mg), T (200 mg), E + T, P (200 mg), Te (200 mg), E + P, E + Te, and Z. Eleven days after the implantation of the steroids the animals were immunized with alumprecipitated human serumalbumin. Antibody-titres were determined by the Antigen-Binding-Capacity Test on day 14 following immunization. In nearly all groups the antibody-titres of female calves exceeded those of male calves on the average by 75%. The immune response of all experimental groups did not differ significantly from that of the corresponding control groups. However, the results indicate that both E + T and its single components E and T exert an immunodepressive effect in male calves. While the humoral antibody formation in the calf appears not to be influenced by anabolic steroids, it cannot be decided presently whether these substances effect cell-mediated immune reactions and/or unspecific mechanisms of resistance. When estradiol (20, 200, and 500 mg) and trenbolone acetate (140, 1400, 3500 mg) alone and in combination were implanted in female calves, blood glucose, GOT, GPT, alkaline phosphatase, LDH, cholesterine and

  3. Effect of tropically adapted sire breeds on preweaning growth of F1 Angus calves and reproductive performance of their Angus dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, C C; Hammond, A C; Olson, T A

    2000-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of tropically adapted sire breeds on preweaning growth performance of F1 calves and on reproductive performance of their Angus dams. Angus (A) cows were bred in two consecutive years (1992 and 1993) by AI using semen from Brahman (B; Bos indicus; n = 10), Senepol (S; Bos taurus; n = 10), and Tuli (T; Sanga; n = 9) bulls. A total of 82 B x A, 85 S x A, and 91 T x A calves were born. The statistical model included the fixed effects of year, sire breed, calf sex, sire breed x calf sex, and cow parity and the random effect of sire within sire breed. Birth weight, weaning weight, 205-d adjusted weaning weight, ADG from birth to weaning, and hip height at weaning were greater (P .10) length of gestation, and sire breed did not affect the interval from calving to first observed estrus or pregnancy in Angus dams. These results demonstrate that preweaning growth performance of B x A calves was greater than that of either S x A or T x A calves. However, use of Brahman sires on Angus dams led to calving problems and tended to reduce the percentage of calves that survived until weaning. Thus, heavier weaning weights of B x A calves would be an advantage for cow-calf producers marketing calves, but heavier birth weights and calving difficulty attributed to Brahman sires would be a disadvantage. PMID:10834561

  4. Postweaning performance of calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue or common bermudagrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M A; Phillips, W A; Brown, A H; Coleman, S W; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1999-01-01

    Data from 403 Polled Hereford-sired calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows were used to evaluate the effects of preweaning forage environment on postweaning performance. Calves were spring-born in 1991 to 1994 and managed on either endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+) or common bermudagrass (BG) during the preweaning phase. After weaning, calves were shipped to the Grazinglands Research Laboratory, El Reno, OK and stratified to one of two winter stocker treatments by breed and preweaning forage; stocker treatments were winter wheat pasture (WW) or native range plus supplemental CP (NR). Each stocker treatment was terminated in March, calves grazed cool-season grasses, and calves were then moved to a feedlot phase in June. In the feedlot phase, calves were fed to approximately 10 mm fat over the 12th rib and averaged approximately 115 d on feed. When finished, calves were weighed and shipped to Amarillo, TX for slaughter. Averaged over calf breed group, calves from E+ gained faster during the stocker phase (Pcarcass weights (Pcarcass weight (P<.16). These data suggest that few carryover effects from tall fescue preweaning environments exist, other than lighter, but acceptable, weights through slaughter. These data further suggest that the tolerance to E+ in calves from reciprocal-cross cows, expressed in weaning weights, moderated postweaning weight differences between E+ and BG compared to similar comparisons in calves from purebred cows.

  5. Evaluation study of calves with total artificial heart (TAH) surviving for 218-293 days of pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasků, J; Vasků, J; Dostál, M; Guba, P; Gregor, Z; Vasků, A; Urbánek, P; Necas, J; Dolezel, S; Cídl, K

    1990-12-01

    Evaluation of five longest surviving calves among a total of 54 longterm survivors, at the Brno Research Centre was performed. These calves were treated by administration of antihypertensives and partially by electrical stimulation of the right atrium to reduce central venous pressure (CVP). Treatment for CVP was effective, as compared with two groups of 5 calves each not treated in this way, and it is assumed to be an important factor for prolongation of survival. Mineralization of driving diaphragms was present in all these calves. No preventive measures of this pathologic change were performed in this group. Another complication is hemolysis, which is partly caused by immune mechanisms initiated by administration of alpha-methyl dopa and partly by mechanical destruction due to a heavily mineralized driving diaphragm. The prevention of mineralization is another important problem for future research. Other problems, concerning the survival of TAH recipients are discussed.

  6. Step-wise changes in glacier flow speed coincide with calving and glacial earthquakes at Helheim Glacier, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nettles, M.; Larsen, T. B.; Elósegui, P.;

    2008-01-01

    Geodetic observations show several large, sudden increases in flow speed at Helheim Glacier, one of Greenland's largest outlet glaciers, during summer, 2007. These step-like accelerations, detected along the length of the glacier, coincide with teleseismically detected glacial earthquakes and major...... iceberg calving events. No coseismic offset in the position of the glacier surface is observed; instead, modest tsunamis associated with the glacial earthquakes implicate glacier calving in the seismogenic process. Our results link changes in glacier velocity directly to calving-front behavior...... at Greenland's largest outlet glaciers, on timescales as short as minutes to hours, and clarify the mechanism by which glacial earthquakes occur. Citation: Nettles, M., et al. (2008), Step-wise changes in glacier flow speed coincide with calving and glacial earthquakes at Helheim Glacier, Greenland....

  7. The effect of dystocia on physiological and behavioral characteristics related to vitality and passive transfer of immunoglobulins in newborn Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christine F; Veira, Doug M; Nadalin, Audrey L; Haines, Deborah M; Jackson, Marion L; Pearl, David L; Leslie, Ken E

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of calving difficulty or dystocia on the vitality of newborn calves and its association with blood pH, the apparent efficiency of immunoglobulin G (IgG) absorption (AEA), and weight gain. A total of 45 calving events (N = 48 calves) were monitored from the first sight of fetal membranes. All calves were assessed at the time of first attaining sternal recumbency (SR), at 2 and 24 h, and at 7 and 14 d of age. Measurements included time to SR, rectal temperature, respiration and heart rate, analysis of blood gases and other blood measures, suckling response, time to standing, passive transfer of IgG, and weight gain. Calves were separated from their dam 2 h after birth and fed a commercial colostrum replacer containing 180 g of IgG by esophageal tube feeder. Calves born following dystocia had lower venous blood pH and took longer to attain SR and attempt to stand than those born unassisted. Duration of calving interacted with the number of people required to extract the calf by pulling as a significant predictor of pH at SR. No association was found between pH at SR and AEA. However, reduced AEA was found in calves that were female and in calves that did not achieve SR within 15 min of birth. A longer calving duration, being born in July or August rather than June, and a shorter time spent standing in the first 2 d of life were significantly associated with reduced weight gain to 14 d. It was concluded that factors at calving impact the physiology, vitality, and subsequent weight gain of newborn calves.

  8. Genetic analysis of calving traits by the multi-trait individual animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, J I; Ezra, E

    2016-01-01

    Five alternative models were applied for analysis of dystocia and stillbirth in first and second parities. Models 1 and 2 were included only to estimate the parameters required for model 4, and models 3 and 5 are included only as comparisons to the model 4 estimates. Variance components were estimated by multi-trait REML, including cows with valid calving records for both parities. For the effects of sire of calf on first and second parities, variance components were estimated including only calvings with the same sire of calf for both parities. All heritabilities for the cow effect were quite low, but higher for dystocia than for stillbirth and higher in first parity. The sire-of-calf heritabilities were higher than the cow effect heritabilities, except for stillbirth in parity 2. Unlike the effect of cow correlations, all sire of calf correlations were >0.6, and the correlations for the same trait in parities 1 and 2 were >0.9. Thus, a multi-trait analysis should yield a significant gain in accuracy with respect to the sire of calf effects for bulls not mated to virgin heifers. A multi-trait individual animal model algorithm was developed for joint analysis of dystocia and stillbirth in first and second parities. Relationships matrices were included both for the effects of cow and sire of calf. In addition, random herd-year-season and fixed sex of calf effects were included in the model. Records were preadjusted for calving month and age. A total of 899,223 Israeli Holstein cows with first calvings since 1985 were included in the complete analysis. Approximate reliabilities were computed for both sire of cow and sire of calf effects. Correlations between these reliabilities and reliabilities obtained by direct inversion of the coefficient matrix for a sire of cow-sire of calf model were all close to 0.99. Phenotypic trends for cows born from 1983 through 2007 were economically unfavorable for dystocia and favorable for stillbirth in both parities. Genetic trends

  9. T cell responses in calves to a primary Eimeria bovis infection: phenotypical and functional changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, C; Bürger, H J; Zahner, H

    1999-07-01

    The study aimed to characterize T cell responses in calves to a primary E. bovis infection. For this purpose, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were isolated from six infected calves and three controls during prepatency (Day 12 post infection (p.i.), patency (Day 25 p.i.) and postpatency (Day 35 p.i.). In addition, lymphocytes were isolated from various lymphatic organs (lnn. cervicales superficiales, lnn. jejunales craniales, lnn. jejunales caudales, lnn. caecales, lnn. colici, Peyer's patches (PP) and spleen) at necropsy (Day 35 p.i.). FACS analyses determined the proportions of CD4+-, CD8+-, CD2+-, and gammadelta+-T cells. Proliferative responses of the cells after stimulation with Concanavalin A (Con A) and an E. bovis-merozoite I antigen (EbAg) were measured. Furthermore, in situ hybridization experiments were performed for the detection of IL-2 and IL-4 mRNA in histological sections of lymphatic organs. Proportions of CD4+-, CD8+- and CD2+-expressing PBL were significantly increased 12 days p.i. in infected calves. While the proportions of CD4+- and CD8+-PBL declined until day 25 p.i. and finally reached control values, proportions of activated PBL (CD2+-T cells) remained at a high level throughout the observation period. Those of gammadelta+-PBL, in contrast, remained unaffected. The proportions of CD4+-, gammadelta+- and CD2+-T cells in lymphatic organs were significantly increased in comparison to uninfected controls, when determined 35 days p.i. Concerning the proportions of CD8+-T cells of the organs, however, there were no differences between the groups. PBL and cells from lymphatic organs except those from the PP showed strong proliferative response to the mitogen Con A, without a significant difference between the groups. Reactions to EbAg in contrast differed significantly between controls and E. bovis infected calves. Proliferation responses of PBL of infected animals were highest 12 days p.i.; subsequently they decreased and 35 days p.i. they were

  10. A register-based study of the antimicrobial usage in Danish veal calves and young bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertner, Mette; Toft, Nils; Martin, Henrik Læssøe; Boklund, Anette

    2016-09-01

    High antimicrobial usage and multidrug resistance have been reported in veal calves in Europe. This may be attributed to a high risk of disease as veal calves are often purchased from numerous dairy herds, exposed to stress related to the transport and commingling of new animals, and fed a new ration. In this study, we used national register data to characterize the use of antimicrobials registered for large Danish veal calf and young bull producing herds in 2014. A total of 325 herds with veal calf and potentially young bull production were identified from the Danish Cattle database. According to the national Danish database on drugs for veterinary use (VetStat), a total of 537,399 Animal Daily Doses (ADD200) were registered for these 325 herds during 2014. The amount of antimicrobials registered in 2014 varied throughout the year, with the highest amounts registered in autumn and winter. Antimicrobials were registered for respiratory disorders (79%), joints/limbs/CNS disorders (17%), gastrointestinal disorders (3.7%) and other disorders (0.3%). Of the registered antimicrobials, 15% were for oral and 85% for parenteral administration. Long-acting formulations with a therapeutic effect of more than 48h covered 58% of the drugs for parenteral use. Standardized at the herd-level, as ADD200/100 calves/day, antimicrobial use distributed as median [CI95%] for starter herds (n=22): 2.14 [0.19;7.58], finisher herds (n=24): 0.48 [0.00;1.48], full-line herds (n=183): 0.78 [0.05;2.20] and herds with an inconsistent pattern of movements (n=96): 0.62 [0.00;2.24]. Full-line herds are herds, which purchase calves directly from a dairy herd and raise them to slaughter. Furthermore, we performed a risk factor analysis on the 183 herds with a full-line production. Here, we investigated, whether the number of suppliers, the number of calves purchased, the frequency of purchase, the average age at introduction, the average time in the herd and vaccination influenced the amount of

  11. Effect of protein provision via milk replacer or solid feed on protein metabolism in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, H; van den Borne, J J G C; Røjen, B A; Hendriks, W H; Gerrits, W J J

    2015-02-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of protein provision to calves fed a combination of solid feed (SF) and milk replacer (MR) at equal total N intake on urea recycling and N retention. Nitrogen balance traits and [(15)N2]urea kinetics were measured in 30 calves (23 wk of age, 180±3.7kg of body weight), after being exposed to the following experimental treatments for 11 wk: a low level of SF with a low N content (SF providing 12% of total N intake), a high level of SF with a low N content (SF providing 22% of total N intake), or a high level of SF with a high N content (SF providing 36% of total N intake). The SF mixture consisted of 50% concentrates, 25% corn silage, and 25% straw on a dry matter basis. Total N intake was equalized to 1.8g of N·kg of BW(-0.75)·d(-1) by adjusting N intake via MR. All calves were housed individually on metabolic cages to allow for quantification of a N balance of calves for 5 d, and for the assessment of urea recycling from [(15)N2]urea kinetics. Increasing low-N SF intake at equal total N intake resulted in a shift from urinary to fecal N excretion but did not affect protein retention (0.71g of N·kg of BW(-0.75)·d(-1)). Increasing low-N SF intake increased urea recycling but urea reused for anabolism remained unaffected. Total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility decreased (-9%) with increasing low-N SF intake, indicating reduced rumen fermentation. Increasing the N content of SF at equal total N intake resulted in decreased urea production, excretion, and return to ornithine cycle, and increased protein retention by 17%. This increase was likely related to an effect of energy availability on protein retention due to an increase in total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestion (>10%) and due to an increased energy supply via the MR. In conclusion, increasing low-N SF intake at the expense of N intake from MR, did not affect protein retention efficiency in calves. Increasing the N content of SF at equal total N

  12. Bursts of calving activity and controls on the terminus position of Yahtse Glacier, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaus, T. C.; Larsen, C. F.; West, M. E.; Oneel, S.

    2011-12-01

    The tidewater glacier terminus is the interface that links oceanic and glaciological processes. Tidewater glaciers contribute large amounts of cold, fresh water to their fjords. Ocean heat exerts a significant control on glacier mass balance. On the Gulf of Alaska, the terminus of tidewater Yahtse Glacier has advanced slowly since its 1990 post-Little Ice Age minimum. At Yahtse's terminus, ice flowing at 18 m/d encounters water with temperatures of up to 10.5°C (measured 1.5 km from the terminus). Profiles of temperature and salinity in Icy Bay, in which Yahtse Glacier terminates, have revealed a strongly stratified, single-cell circulation pattern. Fresh, glacier outflow exits the bay atop warm, saline Gulf of Alaska water. The Alaska Coastal Current, a major source of Icy Bay water, has warmed by 1°C over the last 40 years. These observations prompt the question of how a tidewater advance may be sustained in spite of warming ocean and atmosphere temperatures. Superimposed on Yahtse Glacier's longer-term advance have been smaller-scale summer retreats and winter-spring re-advances. These smaller fluctuations indicate that factors that change on short timescales, such as ocean conditions and weather, also have an important control on terminus position. Observed bursts in calving frequency are a further reflection of the unsteady conditions at the glacier terminus. In the present study, we use seismograms recorded on bedrock within 500 m of the glacier terminus as a calving counter. The epicenters of a significant majority of glacier-generated seismic events within the St. Elias Mountains have been located to within 15 km of the terminus of Yahtse Glacier. Previous study at Yahtse Glacier has revealed that at least 75% of these seismic events originate from calving processes, most notably through the interactions between iceberg and water. Calving frequency is characterized by a relatively steady rate of background events, punctuated by bursts of calving activity

  13. Prevalence and potential influencing factors of non-nutritive oral behaviors of veal calves on commercial farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leruste, H; Brscic, M; Cozzi, G; Kemp, B; Wolthuis-Fillerup, M; Lensink, B J; Bokkers, E A M; van Reenen, C G

    2014-11-01

    Veal calves raised under intensive conditions may express non-nutritive oral behaviors. When expressed in an abnormal way, these behaviors can be a sign of mental suffering and reduced welfare due to a mismatch between environmental or management features and the animal's needs. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of non-nutritive oral behaviors in a large sample of veal farms in Europe and to determine the potential influencing factors present at farm level. Data were collected on 157 commercial veal farms in the 3 main veal-producing countries in Europe (the Netherlands, France, and Italy). Observations of 3 non-nutritive oral behaviors (manipulating substrates, tongue rolling, and manipulating a penmate) were performed when calves were aged 14 wk, and the prevalence of these behaviors was calculated. Information on management practices and characteristics of the building and equipment were collected on all farms to assess potential influencing factors for each of the 3 behaviors. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to evaluate the effect of each individual factor within a generalized linear model. The mean percentage of calves per farm performing manipulating substrates was 11.0 ± 0.46%, performing tongue rolling 2.8 ± 0 .18%, and manipulating a penmate 2.7 ± 0.09%, with a high range between farms. Allowing more space for calves than the legal minimum requirement of 1.8 m(2)/ calf and housing them in groups of >10 calves/pen reduced the incidences of manipulating substrates and tongue rolling. Incidence of manipulating substrates was lower for calves fed maize silage compared with calves fed cereal grain, pellets, or muesli. A higher risk of tongue rolling was found when baby-boxes (i.e., single housing during the first 5 to 8 wk) were not used. Risk of calves manipulating a penmate was higher for calves of milk- or meat-type breeds compared with dual-purpose breeds and for calves fed with 280 to 380 kg compared with

  14. Lactose in milk replacer can partly be replaced by glucose, fructose, or glycerol without affecting insulin sensitivity in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantophlet, A J; Gilbert, M S; van den Borne, J J G C; Gerrits, W J J; Roelofsen, H; Priebe, M G; Vonk, R J

    2016-04-01

    Calf milk replacer (MR) contains 40 to 50% lactose. Lactose strongly fluctuates in price and alternatives are desired. Also, problems with glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity (i.e., high incidence of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia) have been described for heavy veal calves (body weight >100kg). Replacement of lactose by other dietary substrates can be economically attractive, and may also positively (or negatively) affect the risk of developing problems with glucose metabolism. An experiment was designed to study the effects of replacing one third of the dietary lactose by glucose, fructose, or glycerol on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in veal calves. Forty male Holstein-Friesian (body weight=114±2.4kg; age=97±1.4 d) calves were fed an MR containing 462g of lactose/kg (CON), or an MR in which 150g of lactose/kg of MR was replaced by glucose (GLU), fructose (FRU), or glycerol (GLY). During the first 10d of the trial, all calves received CON. The CON group remained on this diet and the other groups received their experimental diets for a period of 8 wk. Measurements were conducted during the first (baseline) and last week of the trial. A frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed to assess insulin sensitivity and 24 h of urine was collected to measure glucose excretion. During the last week of the trial, a bolus of 1.5g of [U-(13)C] substrates was added to their respective meals and plasma glucose, insulin, and (13)C-glucose responses were measured. Insulin sensitivity was low at the start of the trial and remained low [1.2±0.1 and 1.0±0.1 (mU/L)(-1) × min(-1)], and no treatment effect was noted. Glucose excretion was low at the start of the trial (3.4±1.0g/d), but increased in CON and GLU calves (26.9±3.9 and 43.0±10.6g/d) but not in FRU and GLY calves. Postprandial glucose was higher in GLU, lower in FRU, and similar in GLY compared with CON calves. Postprandial insulin was lower in FRU and GLY and similar

  15. Increased Wounding of Southern Right Whale (Eubalaena australis Calves by Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus at Peninsula Valdes, Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina F Marón

    Full Text Available At least 626 southern right whale (Eubalaena australis calves died at the Península Valdés calving ground, Argentina, between 2003 and 2014. Intense gull harassment may have contributed to these deaths. In the 1970s, Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus began feeding on skin and blubber pecked from the backs of living right whales at Valdés. The frequency of gull attacks has increased dramatically over the last three decades and mother-calf pairs are the primary targets. Pairs attacked by gulls spend less time nursing, resting and playing than pairs not under attack. In successive attacks, gulls open new lesions on the whales' backs or enlarge preexisting ones. Increased wounding could potentially lead to dehydration, impaired thermoregulation, and energy loss to wound healing. The presence, number and total area of gull-inflicted lesions were assessed using aerial survey photographs of living mother-calf pairs in 1974-2011 (n = 2680 and stranding photographs of dead calves (n = 192 in 2003-2011. The percentage of living mothers and calves with gull lesions increased from an average of 2% in the 1970s to 99% in the 2000s. In the 1980s and 1990s, mothers and calves had roughly equal numbers of lesions (one to five, but by the 2000s, calves had more lesions (nine or more covering a greater area of their backs compared to their mothers. Living mother-calf pairs and dead calves in Golfo Nuevo had more lesions than those in Golfo San José in the 2000s. The number and area of lesions increased with calf age during the calving season. Intensified Kelp Gull harassment at Península Valdés could be compromising calf health and thereby contributing to the high average rate of calf mortality observed in recent years, but it cannot explain the large year-to-year variance in calf deaths since 2000.

  16. Evaluation of the effects of treating dairy cows with meloxicam at calving on retained fetal membranes risk

    OpenAIRE

    Newby, Nathalie C.; Renaud, David; Tremblay, Robert; Duffield, Todd F.

    2014-01-01

    Some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increase the risk of retained fetal membranes. This is the first study to investigate the effects of meloxicam on the risk of retained fetal membranes. Administration of meloxicam to dairy cattle immediately following calving revealed no differences in the incidence of retained fetal membranes between meloxicam-treated and untreated animals. There was no difference between the 2 groups in the incidence of periparturient diseases following calving. Me...

  17. Effect of Suckling Systems on Serum Oxytocin and Cortisol Concentrations and Behavior to a Novel Object in Beef Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siyu; Tanaka, Shigefumi; Ogura, Shin-Ichiro; Roh, Sanggun; Sato, Shusuke

    2015-11-01

    We investigated differences between effects of natural- and bucket-suckling methods on basal serum oxytocin (OT) and cortisol concentrations, and the effect of OT concentration on affiliative and investigative behavior of calves to a novel object. Ten Japanese Black calves, balanced with birth order, were allocated evenly to natural-suckling (NS) and bucket suckling (BS) groups. Blood samples were collected at the ages of 1 and 2 months (1 week after weaning) calves, and serum OT and cortisol concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzymeimmunoassay tests, respectively. Each calf at the age of 2 months (2 weeks after weaning) was released into an open-field with a calf decoy, and its investigative and affiliative behaviors were recorded for 20 minutes. In 1-month-old calves, the basal serum OT concentration (25.5±4.9 [mean±standard deviation, pg/mL]) of NS was significantly higher than that of BS (16.9±6.7) (p<0.05), whereas the basal cortisol concentration (5.8±2.5 [mean±standard deviation, ng/mL]) of NS was significantly lower than that in BS (10.0±2.8) (p<0.05). Additionally, a negative correlation was noted between serum OT and cortisol concentrations in 1-month-old calves (p = 0.06). Further, the higher serum OT concentration the calves had at 1 month old, the more investigative the calves were at 2 months old but not affiliative in the open-field with a calf decoy. Thus, we concluded that the natural suckling method from a dam elevates the basal serum OT concentration in calves, and high serum OT concentrations induce investigative behavior and attenuate cortisol concentrations. PMID:26580289

  18. Extended lactation in dairy cows:effects of milking frequency, calving season and nutrition on lactation persistency and milk quality

    OpenAIRE

    Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D. Donald; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2008-01-01

    Twelve spring-calving and twelve winter-calving cows were managed for extended lactation cycles of 18-months duration, with the former group then completing a second extended lactation. Half of the cows were fed according to standard management practice for the herd; the other half received supplementary concentrate from week 9 of lactation onwards. Commencing at the same time, half of the udder of each cow was subjected to increased milking frequency (thrice daily rather than twice daily). L...

  19. Comparison of two formulations of oxytetracycline given prophylactically to reduce the incidence of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot calves

    OpenAIRE

    Guichon, P. Timothy; Booker, Calvin W.; Jim, G. Kee

    1993-01-01

    A trial involving 1,803 feedlot calves was conducted under commercial feedlot conditions in western Canada to compare the relative effectiveness of a new oxytetracycline formulation, administered either intramuscularly (BMI) or subcutaneously (BMS), to a currently available oxytetracycline formulation, administered intramuscularly (LAB), for the prevention of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in feedlot calves. All experimental treatments were administered upon arrival at the feedlot and again...

  20. Evaluation of F1 calves sired by Brahman, Boran, and Tuli bulls for birth, growth, size, and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Knutson, R E; Lunt, D K

    1996-05-01

    Birth (n = 308), weaning (n = 291), feedlot and carcass (n = 142), and yearling heifer traits (n = 139) were evaluated in F1 calves sired by Brahman (BR), Boran (BO), and Tuli (TU) bulls and born to multiparous Hereford and Angus cows. Calves sired by BR were heaviest (P Brahman crosses had larger (P Carcasses of BR crosses were heavier (P Brahman F1 heifers had larger (P carcass quality traits, but not for carcass yield traits, among these three breeds.

  1. Genetic parameters for calving rate and calf survival from linear, threshold, and logistic models in a multibreed beef cattle population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, J L L; Franke, D E; Blouin, D C

    2006-12-01

    Generalized mixed linear, threshold, and logistic sire models and Markov chain, Monte Carlo simulation procedures were used to estimate genetic parameters for calving rate and calf survival in a multibreed beef cattle population. Data were obtained from a 5-generation rotational crossbreeding study involving Angus, Brahman, Charolais, and Hereford (1969 to 1995). Gelbvieh and Simmental bulls sired terminal-cross calves from a sample of generation 5 cows. A total of 1,458 cows sired by 158 bulls had a mean calving rate of 78% based on 4,808 calving records. Ninety-one percent of 5,015 calves sired by 260 bulls survived to weaning. Mean heritability estimates and standard deviations for daughter calving rate from posterior distributions were 0.063 +/- 0.024, 0.150 +/- 0.049, and 0.130 +/- 0.047 for linear, threshold, and logistic models, respectively. For calf survival, mean heritability estimates and standard deviations from posterior distributions were 0.049 +/- 0.022, 0.160 +/- 0.058, and 0.190 +/- 0.078 from linear, threshold, and logistic models, respectively. When transformed to an underlying normal scale, linear sire, mixed model, heritability estimates were similar to threshold and logistic sire mixed model estimates. Posterior density distributions of estimated heritabilities from all models were normal. Spearman rank correlations between sire EPD across statistical models were greater than 0.97 for daughter calving rate and for calf survival. Sire EPD had similar ranges across statistical models for daughter calving rate and for calf survival. PMID:17093211

  2. Effect of Feeding Different Protein and Energy Supplements on Performance and Health of Beef Calves During the Backgrounding Period

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, Robert Jesse

    2001-01-01

    EFFECT OF FEEDING DIFFERENT PROTEIN AND ENERGY SUPPLEMENTS ON PERFORMANCE AND HEALTH OF BEEF CALVES DURING THE BACKGROUNDING PERIOD By R. Jesse Austin Committee Chair: Joseph P. Fontenot Animal and Poultry Sciences (ABSTRACT) Newly received or weaned calves are highly susceptible to the incidence of bovine respiratory disease. In addition to high levels of stress, decreased feed intake and exposure to foreign antigens result in increased morbidity and possib...

  3. Evaluation of F1 calves sired by Brahman, Boran, and Tuli bulls for birth, growth, size, and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Knutson, R E; Lunt, D K

    1996-05-01

    Birth (n = 308), weaning (n = 291), feedlot and carcass (n = 142), and yearling heifer traits (n = 139) were evaluated in F1 calves sired by Brahman (BR), Boran (BO), and Tuli (TU) bulls and born to multiparous Hereford and Angus cows. Calves sired by BR were heaviest (P Brahman crosses had larger (P Brahman F1 heifers had larger (P carcass quality traits, but not for carcass yield traits, among these three breeds.

  4. The incorporation of solubilized wheat proteins in milk replacers for veal calves: effects on growth performance and muscle oxidative capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Ortigues-Marty, Isabelle; Hocquette, Jean-François; Bertrand, Gérard; Martineau, Christophe; Vermorel, Michel; Toullec, René

    2003-01-01

    Replacement of skim milk proteins by solubilized wheat protein (SWP) in milk replacers for veal calves would contribute to the reduction in feeding costs. The occurrence of metabolic disorders has, however, been reported. Forty-two male calves received one of three treatments over 140 days: a control diet, a diet containing SWP without or with branched-chain amino acid supplementation. Liveweight gain, carcass yield, color and conformation did not show any significant differences. No metaboli...

  5. Antibody transferred from the blood to the gastrointestinal tract and its role in enteric immunity of neonatal calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besser, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    High passive blood immunoglobulin concentrations are associated with decreased infectious enteric disease mortality in neonatal calves. Passive immunoglobulin transferred from the blood to the gastrointestinal tract may explain this protection. To measure the rate at which immunoglobulin G/sub 1/ (IgG/sub 1/) is transferred to the gastrointestinal tract, /sup 125/I-labelled bovine IgG/sub 1/ anti-DNP antibody was administered to calves by intravenous injection. The clearance rate of /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ from the blood was measured and compared to the rate of /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ appearance in the gastrointestinal tract, as measured (1) by the rate of fecal /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ excretion, and (2) by the amount of /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ in the gastrointestinal tract of calves at necropsy. Rotavirus antibody titers in the gastrointestinal contents of 5- and 10-days-old calves correlated with the calves' serum passive rotavirus antibody titers, and were increased in proportion to the amount of colostral antibody fed on the first day of life. In contrast, when colostral rotavirus antibody was fed to 48-hour-old calves, when absorption of passive immunoglobulin does not occur, there was no measurable increase in antibody in the intestine 5 days later. Intestinal antibody in the 5- and 10-day-old calves therefore resulted from blood antibody transferred to the gastrointestinal tract. Rotavirus antibody administered to calves by parenteral injection protected them from infection and diarrhea after rotavirus challenge. These results indicate that passive blood IgG enters the calf gastrointestinal tract, where it contributes to intestinal immunity.

  6. Effect of Milk Allowance on Concentrate Intake, Ruminal Environment, and Ruminal Development in Milk-Fed Holstein Calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Sehested, Jakob; Jensen, Søren Krogh;

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to test the hypothesis that a barley-based concentrate would induce an acidic ruminal environment in young calves and that increased milk allowance would alleviate this condition.......The aim of the present experiment was to test the hypothesis that a barley-based concentrate would induce an acidic ruminal environment in young calves and that increased milk allowance would alleviate this condition....

  7. Effect of pre-partum supplementation of vitamin E to Murrah buffaloes on immune functions and viability of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A K; Pandita, S; Pampoori, Z A; Huozha, R; Ashutosh, M

    2013-04-01

    This study was undertaken in buffalo neonates born to vitamin E (dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate)-supplemented and non-supplemented Murrah buffaloes. Calves from vitamin E-supplemented buffaloes (n = 10; vitamin E -supplemented calves [VeC]) and non-supplemented buffaloes (n = 10; control calves [CC]) constituted the treatment and control groups respectively. Two colostrum samples were taken at the first post-partum milking and again after 12 h from dams for IgG estimation. Sampling of blood was performed on days 0 (before colostrum feeding), 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84, 98, 112 and 126 post-birth and analysed for apparent efficiency of absorption (%) of IgG and various immune parameters. Colostral IgG level was significantly higher (p calves in both groups were born hypogammaglobulinemic with IgG level feeding resulted in significantly elevated IgG levels (>10 g/l) in calves of both groups at 24 h, which remained high afterwards. Apparent efficiency of absorption (%) of IgG at 24 h was significantly higher (p calves of either group at birth, which declined significantly (p feeding to dams had no added effect on NO levels in experimental calves. Total leucocyte counts did not differ significantly between the two groups. However, lymphocyte and neutrophil counts changed significantly between groups (p calves were immunologically immature at birth. Ante-partum supplementation of vitamin E did not influence plasma NO or IgG but had a significant effect on colostral IgG (p < 0.05). It also improved the apparent efficiency of absorption (%) of IgG at 24 h in VeC as compared to CC.

  8. Effects of the supplementation with yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae on weight gain and development of water buffalo calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. García

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a commercial yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae on weight gain and development of buffalo calves from water buffalo herd in north of Colombia. The buffalo calves (age: 71,12 +/- 22 days old were randomly assigned to one of two treatments, during 45 days. One group (n=13 received 50 gr/day of commercial product of yeast and the other group (n = 13 don’t received yeast. The buffalo calves grazed in same pastures under same milking system. All animals were weighed and measured weekly. During the test the animals gain 11,38 +/- 5,2 Kgr y 13.92 +/- 5,0 Kgr by treated and non treated calves, respectively. The increase of the corporal measures during the test was (cm: Toraxic Circumference 7,0 +/- 5,58 Vs 9,23 +/- 4,02, Height 5,77 +/- 6,81 Vs 5,92 +/- 4,5 and Length 2,92 +/- 8,17 Vrs 0,54 +/- 4,86 by treated and no treated calves, respectively. No statistic difference was found between groups. In conclusion, the feeding with yeast culture didn’t increase significantly the weight gain and development in water buffalo calves.

  9. [The development of the body weight of calves with sarcoptic mange before and after treatment with Ivomec pour-on].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwenstein, M; Kutzer, E

    1996-01-01

    In 2 stages of a trial the bodyweight of 16 calves (6 Fleckvieh female, 6 Braunvieh female, 4 Braunvieh male), experimentally infected with Sarcoptes bovis, was controlled between birth and until 25 weeks after treatment with Ivomec pour-on (5 mg ivermectin/10 kg b.w.). On the day of treatment and before the turnout to the pasture the living Sarcoptes mites and mange lesions were determined. The two stages were characterized by different degrees of mange, which also became noticeable in the daily increase of bodyweight on an average of 200 g and 570 g respectively compared with the untreated calves. After treatment of the animals of the control group the daily increase in bodyweight within a few weeks was identical with the increase of the bodyweight of the earlier treated calves, whereby 16/19 weeks after the turnout to the pasture (female calves) and the possibility to take in grass ad libitum and 16 weeks after beginning of fattening (male calves) respectively the group of earlier treated calves still showed a higher mean bodyweight of about 27 kg and 24 kg.

  10. Birth of live calves by in vitro embryo production of slaughtered cows in a commercial herd in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Arlotto

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available In vitro fertilisation (IVF has become a useful breeding tool in most of the developed world. In this paper the success of bovine IVF and the birth of live calves under typical South African conditions is reported. Oocytes for IVF were collected from the ovaries of 6 slaughtered Bovelder beef cows. On average, 36.2 oocytes per donor were retrieved. From these oocytes, 43 blastocysts were produced from 5 of the donors by IVF with frozen Bovelder semen. The best 11 of these embryos were transferred into oestrous, synchronised Bovelder recipients in the same herd. As a result, 7 calves were born (a 64 %calving rate from 4 of the original donors. The calves had a normal birth mass, but the mean gestation length of the male calves was significantly longer than the herd average (291.6 versus 285.2 days respectively. No calving difficulties were encountered. In summary, it was shown that IVF for bovine embryo production and transfer is possible on a commercial basis in South Africa.

  11. Comparison of radiographic and necropsy findings of lung lesions in calves after challenge exposure with Pasteurella multocida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives-To test suitability of radiographic evaluation of lung lesions as a substitute for lung lesion scores derived by examination at necropsy in challenge-exposure models of bovine pneumonia. Animals-10 calves selected by body weight from 20 multiple-source male Holstein calves approximately 1 to 2 months old enrolled in a Pasteurella multocida challenge-exposure study. Procedure-Calves were paired on the basis of weight and randomly assigned within pairs to vaccine or control (saline solution) group. By use of deep tracheal cannulation, calves were challenge exposed with a culture of virulent P. multocida, observed for 10 days, euthanatized, and necropsied, and the lungs were scored for pneumonic lesions. Radiographic views of the lung fields of the calves were taken before challenge exposure and before necropsy and were evaluated for alveolar disease by a veterinary radiologist. Lung lesion scores were compared with radiographic evaluations. Results-There was a strong and significant correlation (R2 = 0.91, P < 0.001) between results of the evaluation of postchallenge-exposure radiographs and necropsy results. There also was also strong and significant correlation (R2 = 0.90, P < 0.001) between evaluation of the prechallenge-exposure radiographs-and necropsy results. Conclusions-Radiographic evaluation of lung lesions correlates well with lung lesions found at necropsy. The findings emphasize the need for caution in interpreting the results of challenge-exposure studies of bovine respiratory tract disease in which small numbers of calves are studied

  12. Effect of time of day and type of shading on the physiological responses of crossbred calves in tropical environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Oliveira Lima

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Many studies report adverse environmental conditions, damage yield, especially in dairy cows. However, studies on the effects of environment on young animals, especially calves of mixed race, are rare. Study effects of time, day and type of shading on the physiological responses of crossbred calves in tropical environment. Twenty-four ½ Holstein and SPRD (without defined breed calves were identified in two nursery facilities, one provided with natural shading and the other provided with artificial shading by means of cement tile. In both facilities, environmental data including air temperature, wind speed, and black globe temperature were recorded between7 a.m. to 4 p.m. to calculate the radiant thermal load. Physiological responses, rectal temperature and respiratory rates were measured in the morning and in the afternoon. The natural shading provided less thermal comfort because of higher radiant thermal load, especially in the afternoon. The crossbred calves showed higher rectal temperature and respiratory frequency as compared with SPRD calves in both periods and in both nursery facilities, with the highest values reported under natural shading. Calves of different genotypes respond differently in hot environments, should be to test in future research another types of trees to verify their thermal quality.

  13. Relationship between blood haemoglobin and serum iron concentrations and heart girth in pre-weaned dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Klinkon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to study the relation between blood haemoglobin (Hb and serum iron (Fe concentrations and changing of heart girth with age in calves. Blood samples of 66 dairy calves were taken at the age of 3, 5 and 16 weeks (wks. Blood samples were analysed for Hb and serum Fe concentration. At each bleeding, the heart girth was measured. The lowest mean concentration of Hb was measured at the age of five wks. The concentration of serum Fe and heart girth increased with age. Significant positive correlations were found between Fe concentration at 3 wks of age and heart girth of calves at 5wks (r=0.270; P=0.032 and between Fe concentration at 5 wks and heart girth of calves at 5 (r=0.283; P=0.021 and 16 wks (r=0.284; P=0.028. The lowest Hb concentration recorded at 5 wks, might suggest that this is the most critical period for developing anaemia in calves. The correlations established between heart girth and Fe concentration at different ages indicate that serum Fe concentration has some influence on changing of heart girth in calves.

  14. Effects of two-stage weaning with nose flap devices applied to calves on cow body condition, calf performance, and calf humoral immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippolis, K D; Ahola, J K; Mayo, C E; Fischer, M C; Callan, R J

    2016-02-01

    The effects of nose flap devices in calves before dam separation on cow BCS, pre- and postseparation calf performance, and humoral immune response were compared with traditional weaning. Primiparous and multiparous Angus and Hereford cows ( = 113) and their Angus, Hereford, and Angus × Hereford calves (179.4 ± 3.92 kg and 161 ± 22.7 d of age) were used. Cow-calf pairs were allocated to 1 of 2 treatments in a completely randomized design: 1) nose flap for 21 d before separation from the dam (NF) or 2) no nose flap for 21 d before separation from the dam (CON). Calves were separated from dams on d 0, and calves were placed in group feed-yard pens for 28 d. A subset ( = 75) of weaned calves were placed into 1 of 8 pens to evaluate DMI. Cow BCS was measured on d -21 and 56, and calves were given modified live vaccinations (d -21 and 1), challenged with ovalbumin (OVA; d 1), and weighed (d -21, 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28). In addition, blood samples were collected (d -21, 1, 14, and 28) to measure primary humoral immune response. Control calves tended to have greater BW on d 14 ( = 0.09) and 21 ( = 0.07) than NF calves, and CON calves had greater ( bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (BVDV-1) and bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) were used to measure humoral response to a viral vaccination. Serum antibody titers to BVDV-1 for CON calves tended ( = 0.08) to be greater on d 1 and were greater ( < 0.05) by d 28 vs. NF calves. By d 28, a greater percentage ( < 0.05) of CON calves seroconverted for BVDV-1 than NF calves (82.1 vs. 66.7%, respectively). Serum antibody titers for BHV-1 were greater ( < 0.05) on d 1 and 28 for CON vs. NF calves. Humoral immune response to OVA during the 28-d postseparation period from the dam was evaluated in a subset ( = 57) of calves. There was no difference ( = 0.92) in OVA-specific IgG between treatments on d 14 or 28 ( = 0.76); however, OVA-specific IgM was greater ( < 0.05) in CON vs. NF calves on d 28. Results indicate that nose flap devices

  15. Phylogeographic implications for release of critically endangered manatee calves rescued in Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Fábia O.; Bonde, Robert K.; Attademo, Fernanda L.N.; Saunders, Jonathan W.; Meigs-Friend, Gaia; Passavante, José Zanon O.; Hunter, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    1. The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus), a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, is a large-bodied marine mammal found in fresh, brackish, and marine habitats throughout the Caribbean Islands and Central and South America. Antillean manatees in Brazil are classified as critically endangered, with a census size of approximately 500 individuals. The population in the Northeast region of Brazil is suspected to have approximately 300 manatees and is threatened by habitat alteration and incidental entanglement in fishing gear. 2. A high incidence of dependent calf strandings have been identified near areas of altered critical manatee habitat. The majority of the calves are neonates, discovered alive, with no potential mothers nearby. These calves typically require human intervention to survive.

  16. Spotted hyaenas Crocuta crocuta prey on new-born elephant calves in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Salnicki

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta are known to be opportunists and to have a varied diet including mammals, reptiles and birds. Prey most often hunted are medium sized ungulates but spotted hyaenas will on occasion take larger species such as giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis and zebra Equus burchellii. They are also known to hunt whichever species are most abundant and will vary their prey seasonally. In this study spotted hyaenas were observed to take an unusual prey species in the form of elephant calves (Loxodonta africana. On a number of occasions hyaenas were observed feeding on or killing newborn and very young elephant calves. These observations were made whilst the authors were conducting research on spotted hyaena ecology in the woodlands of Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe and were made during the dry season between September and November 1999.

  17. Sudden increase in tidal response linked to calving and acceleration at a large Greenland outlet glacier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Juan, Julia; Elósegui, Pedro; Nettles, Meredith;

    2010-01-01

    Large calving events at Greenland's largest outlet glaciers are associated with glacial earthquakes and near-instantaneous increases in glacier flow speed. At some glaciers and ice streams, flow is also modulated in a regular way by ocean tidal forcing at the terminus. At Helheim Glacier, analysis...... strongly with the step-like increases in glacier speed and longitudinal strain rate associated with glacial earthquakes. The enhanced response to the ocean tides may be explained by a temporary disruption of the subglacial drainage system and a concomitant reduction of the friction at the ice...... of geodetic data shows decimeter-level periodic position variations in response to tidal forcing. However, we also observe transient increases of more than 100% in the glacier's responsiveness to such tidal forcing following glacial-earthquake calving events. The timing and amplitude of the changes correlate...

  18. In vivo effects of Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) on parasitic nematodes in calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Oliver; Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Hansen, T.V.A.;

    , but in vivo effects against gastro-intestinal parasites (GIN) of cattle still remains to be proven. Thus, the aim of the present investigation was to determine the in vivo effects of sainfoin against the most important trichostrongylids of cattle the brown stomach worm Ostertagia ostertagi...... , and the intestinal worm Cooperia oncophora. Jersey male calves (2-4 months) reared indoor and GIN naive, were stratified for live weight and randomly allocated into a test group (SF; n=9) which was fed 80% sainfoin (cv. Perly) pellets and hay, and a control group (CO; n=6) fed hay and compound feed. Daily intake...... excretion, calculated as number of eggs per g of faecal dry matter (FECDM) was recorded 3 times a week. The calves were slaughtered and adult worms recovered 6 weeks post infection. FECDM was analysed by ANOVA using repeated measurements, and worm counts by Kruskal Wallis test. The mean FECDM...

  19. A novel CDPK1 inhibitor--a potential treatment for cryptosporidiosis in calves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendner, Matthias; Böttcher, Denny; Delling, Cora; Ojo, Kayode K; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Daugschies, Arwid

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic agent that infects humans and animals occasionally causing severe, watery diarrhoea. In immunocompetent hosts, cryptosporidiosis is self-limiting but can have a fatal outcome in immunocompromised individuals. Cryptosporidium is one of the most common causes of waterborne diseases (recreational water and drinking water) in humans, a leading cause of moderate to severe childhood diarrhoea, and a major agent of diarrhoea in calves leading to high economic losses and up to 10% lethality. So far, available treatment options are insufficient for both veterinary and human clinical disease cases. Here, we report for the first time that the novel bumped kinase inhibitor (BKI) 1294 targeting the calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1) of Cryptosporidium is able to reduce the oocyst shedding of C. parvum by calves--its natural host--without obvious side effects. PMID:25398685

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for Salmonella in veal calves at Danish cattle abattoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L. R.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Aabo, Søren;

    2011-01-01

    The study's objectives were to determine herd- and animal-level prevalence and herd-level risk factors for Salmonella in dairy-bred veal calves at slaughter in Denmark. In total, 1296 faecal samples were collected at five cattle abattoirs in Denmark during 2007 2008. The animals came from 71...... randomly selected specialized veal-calf producers that delivered more than 100 animals to slaughter per year. Salmonella Dublin bacteria were isolated from 19 samples from 12 herds and Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from one sample. The apparent prevalence of herds delivering Salmonella......-shedding animals to slaughter was 18% (95% CI 9-27). The overall estimated true prevalence of shedding calves at slaughter was 1.3%. Veal-calf herds that purchased animals from herds not classified as low risk in the Danish Salmonella surveillance programme had significantly (P = 0.03) higher risk of delivering...

  1. Evaluation of methods for dehydration of bovine colostrum for total replacement of normal colostrum in calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelack, Brian J.; Morley, Paul S.; Haines, Deborah M.

    1993-01-01

    Different methods for the dry preservation of colostrum to be used as a total replacement for bovine colostrum were evaluated. Pooled colostrum from the first and second postpartum milkings from multiparous dairy cows containing immunoglobulin in excess of 40 g/L was freeze-dried, microwave vacuum evaporated, and spray-dried. Spray-drying produced a dried colostrum in which immunoglobulin quantity and function were preserved and was the most cost-effective. Other dehydration methods, although effectively conserving immunoglobulins, were too slow and costly to be used to produce a bovine colostrum replacer. Newborn, colostrum-deprived, dairy calves fed spray-dried colostrum containing 126 grams of immunoglobulin reconstituted in three liters of water as their sole source of immunoglobulin achieved normal mean serum immunoglobulin concentrations. Spray-dried colostrum with high concentrations of immunoglobulin may be produced economically and used as an effective and convenient colostrum replacer in newborn calves. PMID:17424250

  2. Meat Quality of Loin and Top Round Muscles from the Hanwoo and Holstein Veal Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Chung, Eui-Gang; Chung, Ku-Young

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the meat qualities of loin (m. longissimus dorsi) and top round (m. semimembranosus) from Hanwoo and Holstein veal. Ten Hanwoo and Holstein calves were randomly selected from a local cattle farm and raised. They were slaughtered when they were 8 mon old and weighed. Weight and percentage in primal cuts and slaughter performance of Hanwoo and Holstein veal calves are obtained. Immediately after weighting, slices of loin and top round muscles were sampled. After vacuum packaging, the samples were subjected to proximate composition, physicochemical and microbiological analyses. Dressing weight and percentage were heavier and greater (pveal, whereas fat content, pH, cooking loss, a* (redness), and b* (yellowness) were higher in the Hanwoo than in the Holstein veal (pveal during the first 10 d of storage (p<0.05). PMID:26877632

  3. PELVIC OSTEOTOMY IN THE COMPLEX TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WITH LEGG-CALVE-PERTHES DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дмитрий Борисович Барсуков

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available At the Scientific and Research Institute for Children’s Orthopedics n. a. G. I. Turner we analyzed survey data of 120 patients aged from 6 to 14 years old with Legg-Calve-Perthes disease with severe epiphysis deformation, in order to improve the outcomes. All patients underwent reconstructive (remodeling surgery - a corrective hip osteotomy, a pelvic osteotomy by Salter, a combination of these techniques and a triple pelvic osteotomy. Postoperative follow-up period averaged 10 years. It is shown that pelvic osteotomy is an operation of choice for Legg-Calve- Perthes disease along with corrective hip osteotomy, and remodeling of the femoral head is only possible when the degree of bone coverage is equal to one or more. We highlighted radioanatomical structure of the affected hip joint, allowing to precise indications for surgical remodeling type of femoral head.

  4. Effects of seasonal and climate variations on calves' thermal comfort and behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripon, Iulian; Cziszter, Ludovic Toma; Bura, Marian; Sossidou, Evangelia N.

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effect of season and climate variations on thermal comfort and behaviour of 6-month-old dairy calves housed in a semi-opened shelter to develop animal-based indicators for assessing animal thermal comfort. The ultimate purpose was to further exploit the use of those indicators to prevent thermal stress by providing appropriate care to the animals. Measurements were taken for winter and summer seasons. Results showed that season significantly influenced ( P ≤ 0.01) the lying down behaviour of calves by reducing the time spent lying, from 679.9 min in winter to 554.1 min in summer. Moreover, season had a significant influence ( P ≤ 0.01) on feeding behaviour. In detail, the total length of feeding periods was shorter in winter, 442.1 min in comparison to 543.5 min in summer. Time spent drinking increased significantly ( P ≤ 0.001), from 11.9 min in winter to 26.9 min in summer. Furthermore, season had a significant influence ( P ≤ 0.001) on self grooming behaviour which was 5.5 times longer in duration in winter than in summer (1,336 s vs 244 s). It was concluded that calves' thermal comfort is affected by seasonal and climate variations and that this can be assessed by measuring behaviour with animal-based indicators, such as lying down, resting, standing up, feeding, rumination, drinking and self grooming. The indicators developed may be a useful tool to prevent animal thermal stress by providing appropriate housing and handling to calves under seasonal and climate challenge.

  5. Food for rumination : developing novel feeding strategies to improve the welfare of veal calves

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, L.E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of thesis entitled: “Food for Rumination – Developing novel feeding strategies to improve the welfare of veal calves”, Laura Webb Veal calves are typically fed high levels of milk replacer supplemented with solid feed, which tends to contain a relatively small roughage component. Feeding strategies used in veal production have been associated with welfare issues, including the development of abnormal oral behaviours (AOB) and poor gastrointestinal health. AOB include...

  6. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Stacey A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In December of 3 years, 87 beef cows with nursing calves (594 ± 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November at side were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender and divided randomly into 6 groups assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual pastures (0.45 ha/cow that had been interseeded into a dormant common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers./bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge sod. Pastures contained 1 of the following 3 seeding mixtures (2 pastures/mixture: 1 wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., WRG, 2 wheat and ryegrass plus red clover (Trifolium pretense L., WRR, or 3 wheat and ryegrass plus white (Trifolium repens L. and crimson clovers (Trifolium incarnatum L., WRW. All groups had ad libitum access to grass hay (12% crude protein; 58% total digestible nutrients. The second week in December, cow estrous cycles were synchronized and artificially inseminated. In late December, a bull was placed with each group for 60-d. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance using a mixed model containing treatment as the fixed effect and year as the random effect. Body weight and condition scores did not differ (P ≥ 0.27 among cows between February and June. Calf birth weights or average daily gain did not differ (P ≥ 0.17 among treatments; however, calves grazing pastures with clovers did tend (P = 0.06 to weigh more than calves grazing grass only. Weaning weight per cow exposed to a bull was greater (P = 0.02 for WRR and WRW than WRG. Cows grazing winter-annual pastures containing clovers tended to wean more calf body weight per cow exposed to a bull than cows grazing the grass only pastures.

  7. Effects of different rations on growth and rumen development of calves

    OpenAIRE

    Noci, Bardhyl

    2010-01-01

    The switch of a calf from the monogastric status shortly after birth to the ruminant status should take place as uncomplicated as possible ensuring optimal growth. Nowadays calves receive hay, silage and concentrates additionally to milk very early in their lives in order to ensure early adaptation of the rumen to the components of the ration of the later dairy cow. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different feedstuffs (chopped hay H, pelleted starter KF, chopped ha...

  8. Pain and sickness behavior associated with corneal lesions in dairy calves [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon J. Woods

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK is a common corneal disease of calves that adversely affects animal welfare by causing pain and weight loss. Identifying behavioral indicators of pain and sickness in calves with IBK is necessary for designing studies that aim to identify effective means of pain mitigation. Consistent with principles of the 3Rs for animal use in research, data from a randomized blinded challenge study was used to identify and describe variation of behaviors that could serve as reliable indicators of pain and sickness in calves with corneal injuries. Behavioral observations were collected from 29 Holstein calves 8 to 12 weeks of age randomly allocated to one of three treatments: (1 corneal scarification only, (2 corneal scarification with inoculation with Moraxella bovoculi and (3 corneal scarification with inoculation with Moraxella bovis. Behavior was continuously observed between time 1230 - 1730 h on day -1 (baseline time period and day 0 (scarification time period. Corneal scarification and inoculation occurred between 0800 - 1000 h on day 0. Frequency of head-directed behaviors (head shaking, head rubbing, head scratching and durations of head rubbing, feeding, standing with head lifted, lying with head lifted and sleeping were compared between study days and groups. Following scarification, the frequency of head-directed behavior significantly increased (p = 0.0001, as did duration of head rubbing (p=0.02. There was no significant effect of trial, trial day, treatment or treatment-day interaction on other behaviors studied. Our study demonstrated that head-directed behavior, such as head shaking, rubbing and scratching, was associated with scarification of eyes using an IBK challenge model, but sickness behavior was not observed.

  9. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CALVES OF AMAZONIAN MANATEES IN PERU: A STUDY CASE

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Roldán Arévalo-Sandi; Delma Nataly Castelblanco-Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Trichechus inunguis is an endemic species of the Amazon, which inhabits mainly in lakes and calm rivers. The objective of this study case was to describe the social behaviour of two female-orphaned calves, of T. inunguis in captivity. They were kept in the same pool at the facilities of the Amazon Rescue Center (ARC, Iquitos, Peruvian Amazon). Between February and October 2011, the individuals were observed during day and night times, completing 352 hours of observation. Through ad libitum ob...

  10. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Stacey A; Whitworth, Whitney A; Montgomery, T Gregory; Beck, Paul A

    2012-07-24

    In December of 3 years, 87 beef cows with nursing calves (594 ± 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November) at side were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender and divided randomly into 6 groups assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual pastures (0.45 ha/cow) that had been interseeded into a dormant common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.)/bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge) sod. Pastures contained 1 of the following 3 seeding mixtures (2 pastures/mixture): 1) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., WRG), 2) wheat and ryegrass plus red clover (Trifolium pretense L., WRR), or 3) wheat and ryegrass plus white (Trifolium repens L.) and crimson clovers (Trifolium incarnatum L., WRW). All groups had ad libitum access to grass hay (12% crude protein; 58% total digestible nutrients). The second week in December, cow estrous cycles were synchronized and artificially inseminated. In late December, a bull was placed with each group for 60-d. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance using a mixed model containing treatment as the fixed effect and year as the random effect. Body weight and condition scores did not differ (P ≥ 0.27) among cows between February and June. Calf birth weights or average daily gain did not differ (P ≥ 0.17) among treatments; however, calves grazing pastures with clovers did tend (P = 0.06) to weigh more than calves grazing grass only. Weaning weight per cow exposed to a bull was greater (P = 0.02) for WRR and WRW than WRG. Cows grazing winter-annual pastures containing clovers tended to wean more calf body weight per cow exposed to a bull than cows grazing the grass only pastures.

  11. The aerobic bacterial flora of the nasal cavity in healthy Anatolian water buffalo calves

    OpenAIRE

    Şeker, Esra; Yardimci, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    Nasal swab samples from clinically healthy Anatolian water buffalo calves, breeding in Afyonkarahisar provinceof Turkey, were collected to determine the bacterial microflora of their nasal mucosa. A total of 160 samples were examined and 165bacterial isolates were identified by using standard microbiological and biochemical methods. Ninety-seven isolates were detected toGram positive bacteria (58.8%) and 68 isolates to Gram negative bacteria (41.2%). Ten bacterial genera including Staphylococ...

  12. Prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders recorded at postmortem inspection in white veal calves and associated risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    M. Brscic; Heutinck, L.F.M.; Wolthuis-Fillerup, M.; STOCKHOFE, N.; B. Engel; Visser, E.K.; F. Gottardo; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Lensink, B.J.; Cozzi, G.; Reenen, van, C.G.

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed at assessing the prevalence of poor rumen development, presence of rumen plaques, rumen papillae hyperkeratinization, and abomasal lesions in veal calves and to investigate risk factors for their occurrence at the farm level. Within a wide cross-sectional study, a sample of 170 veal farms representative of the European veal meat production systems was considered in the 3 major producing countries (99 in the Netherlands, 47 in France, and 24 in Italy). An average of 59 ± 10 (SD...

  13. Longitudinal study on morbidity and mortality in white veal calves in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Pardon Bart; De Bleecker Koen; Hostens Miel; Callens Jozefien; Dewulf Jeroen; Deprez Piet

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Mortality and morbidity are hardly documented in the white veal industry, despite high levels of antimicrobial drug use and resistance. The objective of the present study was to determine the causes and epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in dairy, beef and crossbred white veal production. A total of 5853 calves, housed in 15 production cohorts, were followed during one production cycle. Causes of mortality were determined by necropsy. Morbidity was daily recorded by t...

  14. Comparison of abomasal emptying in neonatal calves with a nuclear scintigraphic procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappert, G; Lattimer, J C

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate that nuclear medicine technology allows observation of the effect that milk clotting has on abomasal emptying in the living neonatal calf. Scintigraphic evaluation of abomasal emptying was carried out in 6 healthy male Holstein calves. The calves were fed 10% of their body weight daily as whole cow's milk that was divided equally and consumed as 2 feedings via a nipple bottle. One day before the nuclear scintigraphic procedure, the calves were randomly fed whole cow's milk, or an oral rehydration solution (ORS) containing bicarbonate and high levels of soluble fibre was fed for 3 consecutive feedings an hour before the portion of milk. For each calf, both feeding programs were repeated twice at a one-week interval. Immediately following administration of the 99mTC-sulfur-colloid-containing milk, the calves were imaged with the gamma camera positioned lateral and ventral to the abomasum. Additional right lateral and ventral views of the abomasum were collected at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, and 240 min after administration of the radionuclide. Blood glucose determination were performed at one-hour intervals for 7 h after feeding milk to evaluate milk digestibility in both feeding programs. No significant differences in the results of the glucose absorption test or in the radionuclide counts of the abomasum were found between both feeding programs. Scintigraphic evaluation of abomasal emptying was found to be a useful technique for visualization of milk clotting and to test the effect of an ORS on milk digestibility. PMID:11227195

  15. Rice gluten meal as an alternative by-product feed for growing dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohit; Thakur, Sudarshan Singh; Mahesh, M S

    2016-03-01

    This experiment aimed at studying the nutritional characteristics and feeding value of rice gluten meal (RGM, a wet-milling by-product of rice) in growing dairy calves. RGM contained 464 g/kg of crude protein with 821 and 196 g/kg nitrogen (N) of borate-phosphate insoluble N and acid detergent insoluble N, respectively, which were higher (P cake (GNC). In vitro gas production, organic matter digestibility and energy values were comparable between RGM and GNC. For in vivo trial, 18 Karan-Fries calves (6-12 months) were randomly assigned into three groups based on comparable body weight and age. The first group (GP-I) was fed concentrate mixture containing mainly GNC as protein source, whilst it was replaced by RGM up to 50 and 75 % on N basis, in second (GP-II) and third (GP-III) groups, respectively. Thus, RGM constituted 140 and 210 g/kg of concentrate mixture of GP-II and GP-III, respectively. In addition, all animals were offered chopped green maize and wheat straw for the whole experimental period of 90 days. Results revealed that there was no difference in intake and digestibility of nutrients, N balance, average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency among three groups. Nevertheless, RGM-based diets produced cost-effective ADG than GP-I. Furthermore, experimental calves did not differ in haematological variables like glucose, blood urea N, plasma proteins and non-esterified fatty acids. This study demonstrated that RGM could be incorporated successfully in the concentrate mixture, replacing 75 % of GNC without any discernable compromise in the performance of growing calves. PMID:26885987

  16. Immunofluorescence of bovine virus diarrhea viral antigen in white blood cells from experimentally infected immunocompetent calves.

    OpenAIRE

    Bezek, D M; Baker, J. C.; Kaneene, J B

    1988-01-01

    A study to evaluate the detection of bovine virus diarrhea viral antigen using immunofluorescence testing of white blood cells was conducted. Five colostrum-deprived calves were inoculated intravenously with a cytopathic strain of the virus. Lymphocyte and buffy coat smears were prepared daily for direct immunofluorescent staining for detection of antigen. Lymphocytes were separated from heparinized blood using a Ficoll density procedure. Buffy coat smears were prepared from centrifuged blood...

  17. T1-weighted MR images in radiographic stage of fragmentation of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumasaka, Yukiko; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Kishimoto, Harumasa; Higashihara, Tokuro (Kansai Rosai Hospital, Amagasaki, Hyogo (Japan)); Harada, Koshi; Kozuka, Takahiro

    1991-04-01

    Seven femoral heads of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD) in radiographic stage of fragmentation were examined in 6 boys by MRI. Characteristic appearances of capital epiphysis and the surrounding cartilaginous structures can be seen. These were proved by four indices for measurement of cartilaginous contour. Cartilaginous contour of epiphysis is enlarged with crescent like deformity resulting from deformity of growth plate. Characteristic layers or honeycomb pattern of extremely low and intermediate signal intensity can be seen. (author).

  18. Bio-discrimination of a-tocopherol stereoisomers in rearing and veal calves fed milk replacer supplemented with all-rac-a-tocopheryl acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dersjant-Li, Y.; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Bos, L.W.;

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the biological discrimination of different alpha-tocopherol stereoisomers (i. e. RRR-, RRS-, RSR-, RSS- and the four 2S-alpha-tocopherols) from all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation in milk replacer for rearing and veal calves respectively, in practical farming...... conditions. Two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, six rearing calves were fed milk replacer supplemented with 80 mg/kg all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate for a period of 9 weeks. The calves were supplied calf starter concentrate from 1 to 12 weeks. In experiment 2, six veal calves were fed milk...... replacer supplemented with 80 mg/kg all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate for a period of 24 weeks. Blood samples were taken at the start and every 4 weeks until 12 weeks for rearing calves in experiment 1, and until slaughter (24 weeks) for veal calves in experiment 2. Liver, adipose, muscle, and brain samples...

  19. Partitioning of Submarine Melt and Calving across the front of Store Glacier, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, A., II; Chauche, N.

    2015-12-01

    Processes unique to the marine-termini of fast-flowing tidewater outlet glaciers can potentially drive extreme rates of mass wastage thereby providing a rapid link between the terrestrial ice reservoir and the oceanic sink. Here we attempt to directly quantify the pattern and magnitude of calving and melt at the front of Store Glacier, a major outlet draining the western sector of the Greenland ice sheet. Integration of range-survey technologies on a robust, heavy displacement marine platform coupled with high-resolution photogrammetry allowed the production of accurate, ~m resolution 3d digital terrain models (DTMs) of the glacier front. A swath-interferometric sonar system calibrated via an inertial motion unit stabilized with RTK GPS and vector-compass data-streams was combined with photogrammetric processing of repeat UAV surveys. The results of three repeat surveys across the front of Store Glaciers in 2012 is presented during which significant ice flow, melt and calving events were imaged, complimented with AWS, on-ice GPS stations and time-lapse/video camera sequences. The residual of successive DTMs yield the 3d pattern of frontal change allowing the processes calving and melt to be quantified and constrained in unprecedented detail. The pattern of submarine melt is further validated against indirect estimates of submarine melt derived from oceanographic circulation measurements within the fjord.

  20. Molecular Microbial Analysis of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from the Gut of Calves for Potential Probiotic Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena P. Soto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota has an influence on the growth and health status of the hosts. This is of particular interest in animals reared using intensive farming practices. Hence, it is necessary to know more about complexity of the beneficial intestinal microbiota. The use of molecular methods has revolutionized microbial identification by improving its quality and effectiveness. The specific aim of the study was to analyze predominant species of Lactobacillus in intestinal microbial ecosystem of young calves. Forty-two lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from intestinal tract of young calves were characterized by: Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA, by using Hae III, Msp I, and Hinf I restriction enzymes, and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. ARDRA screening revealed nine unique patterns among 42 isolates, with the same pattern for 29 of the isolates. Gene fragments of 16S rDNA of 19 strains representing different patterns were sequenced to confirm the identification of these species. These results confirmed that ARDRA is a good tool for identification and discrimination of bacterial species isolated from complex ecosystem and between closely related groups. This paper provides information about the LAB species predominant in intestinal tract of young calves that could provide beneficial effects when administered as probiotic.

  1. Conditioning and aversion to toxic Solanum bonariense ("naranjillo" leaves in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ruiz-Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Solanum bonariense is a perennial poisonous shrub that induces cerebellar cortical degeneration when eaten by cattle. The aim of this research was to outline a protocol to induce a conditioned aversion to this plant. During the pre-conditioning period ten calves (126±12kg BW were maintained at half of their normal energy intake with lucerne hay and water ad libitum, to stimulate consumption of S. bonariense. Every two days they were offered 100g ofS. bonariense leaves for 5 minutes. Calves began eating the target plant on day 10 and consumed all the plant material on day 12. The conditioning period began after each calf consumed the entire amount of S. bonariense for three consecutive sessions. Five animals were randomly selected for conditioning, and after ingestion ofS. bonariense they were dosed by oral gavage with lithium chloride (LiCl at 200mg kg-1 BW (treated group, while the other five received a similar volume of water by oral gavage (control group. After 2 doses of LiCl the treated group ate no S. bonariense while the control group consumed the entire 100g. We confirmed that LiCl is a powerful tool to induce conditioned aversions against S. bonariense in calves, which persists for at least 3 months.

  2. Prevalence of Salmonella and E. coli in neonatal diarrheic calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.R. El-Seedy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal calf diarrhea remains one of the most important problems faced by livestock, causing great economic losses. This study investigated the prevalence of Salmonella and Escherichia coli, especially enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC, in diarrheic calves. Fecal samples were collected from 127 diarrheic calves up to 3 months of age at 12 farms from different governorates in Egypt. 119 bacterial isolates (93.7% were recovered and the prevalences of Salmonella and E. coli in diarrheic calves were 18.1% and 75.6%, respectively. Serotyping of Salmonella isolates revealed that S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium were the most prevalent serotypes, representing 60.9% and 30.4%, respectively, while S. Dublin was 8.7%. Serogrouping of E. coli isolates showed that 10 O-serogroups were obtained where O26 and O103 were the most prevalent (17.7% of each. Salmonella serotypes showed positive results with PCR test using oligonucleotide primer amplifying 521 bp fragment of invA gene of Salmonella while 70% of E. coli serogroups possessed ETEC virulent gene (K99. The in-vitro antibiotic sensitivity test indicated that Salmonella serotypes showed high sensitivity against enrofloxacin, spectinomycin and neomycin while E. coli isolates showed high sensitivities against marbofloxacin, spectinomycin and neomycin only.

  3. [Electron microscopic virus diagnosis in dogs, cats, calves, swine and foals in the year 1989].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, U; Schmitt, K; Krauss, H

    1991-04-01

    During 1989 fecal and gut samples of 598 dogs, 189 cats, 496 calves, 100 pigs and 66 foals with diarrhoea were investigated for virus by electron microscopy. In samples of dogs and cats Parvovirus was detected in 18.5% and 8.5% of the samples, respectively; Coronavirus was found in 14.9% and in 16.4% of the specimens. In samples of calves Coronavirus dominated with a detection rate of 37.5%, followed by Rotavirus with 10.7% and not clearly identifiable particles resembling Coronavirus (4.2%). In 7.1% of the specimens Rotavirus as well as Coronavirus was found. In 33% of specimens from piglets Coronavirus was detected. 10.6% of the faeces from foals contained Coronavirus-like particles. Between 1987 and 1989 the detection rate of Parvovirus in faeces from dogs and cats decreased from 24.2% to 18.6% and from 17.5% to 8.5%. Coronaviruses in calves, dogs and cats increased from 22.9% to 37.5%, from 5.6% to 14.9% and from 8.2% to 16.4% of the samples investigated. PMID:1905919

  4. Multi-method observation and analysis of an impulse wave and tsunami caused by glacier calving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüthi, M. P.; Vieli, A.

    2015-11-01

    Glacier calving can cause violent impulse waves which, upon landfall, can lead to destructive tsunami-like waves. Here we present data acquired during a calving event from Eqip Sermia, an ocean-terminating glacier in West Greenland. During an exceptionally well documented event, the collapse of 9 × 105 m3 ice from a 200 m high ice cliff caused an impulse wave of 50 m height, traveling at a speed of 25-30 m s-1. This wave was filmed from a tour boat in 800 m distance from the calving face, and simultaneously measured with a terrestrial radar interferometer and a tide gauge. Tsunami wave run-up height on the steep opposite shore in 4 km distance was 10-15 m, destroying infrastructure and eroding old vegetation. These observations indicate that such high tsunami waves are a recent phenomenon in the history of this glacier. Analysis of the data shows that only moderately bigger tsunami waves are to be expected in the future, even under rather extreme scenarios.

  5. Multi-method observation and analysis of a tsunami caused by glacier calving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüthi, Martin P.; Vieli, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Glacier calving can cause violent tsunami waves which, upon landfall, can cause severe destruction. Here we present data acquired during a calving event from Eqip Sermia, an ocean-terminating glacier in west Greenland. During an exceptionally well-documented event, the collapse of 9 × 105 m3 ice from a 200 m high ice cliff caused a tsunami wave of 50 m height, traveling at a speed of 25-33 m s-1. This wave was filmed from a tour boat at 800 m distance from the calving face, and simultaneously measured with a terrestrial radar interferometer and a tide gauge. Tsunami wave run-up height on the steep opposite shore at a distance of 4 km was 10-15 m, destroying infrastructure and eroding old vegetation. These observations indicate that such high tsunami waves are a recent phenomenon in the history of this glacier. Analysis of the data shows that only moderately bigger tsunami waves are to be expected in the future, even under rather extreme scenarios.

  6. Biosafety of parenteral Brucella abortus RB51 vaccine in bison calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffe, T.J.; Olsen, S.C.; Gidlewski, T.; Jensen, A.E.; Palmer, M.V.; Huber, R.

    1999-01-01

    Vaccination is considered among the primary management tools for reducing brucellosis prevalence in Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) ungulates. Before their use, however, vaccine safety and efficacy must be demonstrated. Twenty-seven female bison (Bison bison) calves (approx 5 months old) were vaccinated with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 (1.5 x 1010 colony forming units [CFU], subcutaneously) as part of routine management. We assessed the persistence, pathology, shedding, and transmission associated with RB51 by serial necropsy, bacteriology, histopathology, and serology of 20 of these 27 vaccinated calves, and RB51 serology of 10 nonvaccinated, commingling adult females. With the exception of 1 calf, RB51 dot-blot titers at necropsy were cows were negative at a 1:20 dilution at 26 weeks PV. Our results suggest that RB51 persists longer in bison calves than in domestic cattle and is systemically distributed within lymphatic tissues. However, bison apparently clear the RB51 vaccine strain without shedding, transmission, or significant adverse reactions.

  7. Multilocus Sequence Typing and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Dairy Calves in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Jöbstl, Daniela; Sofka, Dmitri; Iwersen, Michael; Drillich, Marc; Hilbert, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Human campylobacteriosis is primarily associated with poultry but also cattle. In this study, 55 Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from 382 dairy calves' feces were differentiated by multilocus sequence typing and tested for antimicrobial resistance. The most prevalent sequence type (ST) was ST883 (20.0%), followed by ST48 (14.5%), and ST50 (9.1%). In contrast to ST48 and ST50, ST883 has rarely been described in cattle previously. Furthermore, risk factor analysis was performed for the presence of the most prevalent STs in these calves. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the type of farm (organic vs. conventional) and calf housing (place, and individual vs. group) were identified as significantly (p acid (42.8%), and tetracycline (14.5%) was observed. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that dairy calves may serve as a potential reservoir for C. jejuni and pose a risk for transmission, including antimicrobial resistant isolates to the environment and to humans. PMID:26870027

  8. Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium parvum in dairy calves in Punjab (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joute, J R; Gill, J P S; Singh, B B

    2016-09-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is an important zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects the gastrointestinal tract of vertebrate animals and man. The current study was contemplated for molecular detection of Cryptosporidium species prevalent in dairy calves in Punjab, India. A total of 302 faecal samples were screened by modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Molecular characterisation was done using PCR followed by sequence analysis of the representative isolates. An overall prevalence of 26.15 % was obtained with the highest prevalence obtained in 0-30 day old calves in both diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic animals. PCR analysis revealed the expected bands at 1,325 and 835 bp from all the isolates for primary and secondary/nested PCR respectively. Ten representative samples were sequenced in both directions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of C. parvum in all the samples. The high rate of calves infected with C. parvum can act as a great source of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis which indicates a potential risk of zoonotic transmission from animal to human beings in Punjab (India). PMID:27605777

  9. Prevalence and Genetic Characterization of Cryptosporidium Species in Dairy Calves in Central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegayehu, Teklu; Karim, Robiul; Anberber, Manyazewal; Adamu, Haileeyesus; Erko, Berhanu; Zhang, Longxian; Tilahun, Getachew

    2016-01-01

    The burden of cryptosporidiosis due to Cryptosporidium parvum is well documented in HIV-positive patients in Ethiopia. However, the role of animals in zoonotic transmission of the disease is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium species in dairy calves; to assess the role of cattle in zoonotic transmission in central Ethiopia. A total of 449 fecal samples were collected and screened using modified Ziehl-Neelson staining method and PCR targeting the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 9.4% (42/449) and 15.8% (71/449) as detected by microscopy and nested PCR, respectively. The prevalence of infection varied significantly across the study areas with the higher prevalence being observed in Chancho 25.4% (30/118). Crossbred calves had significantly higher prevalence of Cryptosporidium than indigenous zebu. Genotyping results revealed the presence of C. andersoni (76.1%), C. bovis (19.7%) and C. ryanae (4.2%). The occurrence of these Cryptosporidium species appeared to be age-related. C. andersoni constituted 92.1% of the Cryptosporidium infection in calves older than 3 months. Sequence analysis also showed the existence of intra-species variation at SSU rRNA gene. Findings of the current study indicate that cattle may not be an important source of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis in central Ethiopia. Further molecular studies are needed to support this observation from other part of the country. PMID:27135243

  10. Effect of protein provision via milk replacer or solid feed on protein metabolism in veal calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berends, H.; van den Borne, J. J G C; Røjen, B. A.;

    2015-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of protein provision to calves fed a combination of solid feed (SF) and milk replacer (MR) at equal total N intake on urea recycling and N retention. Nitrogen balance traits and [15N2]urea kinetics were measured in 30 calves (23 wk of age, 180±3.7kg of body...... of calves for 5 d, and for the assessment of urea recycling from [15N2]urea kinetics. Increasing low-N SF intake at equal total N intake resulted in a shift from urinary to fecal N excretion but did not affect protein retention (0.71g of N·kg of BW-0.75·d-1). Increasing low-N SF intake increased urea......, and return to ornithine cycle, and increased protein retention by 17%. This increase was likely related to an effect of energy availability on protein retention due to an increase in total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestion (>10%) and due to an increased energy supply via the MR. In conclusion...

  11. Morbidity-mortality and performance evaluation of Brahman calves from in vitro embryo production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimenta-Oliveira Andreza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The use of bovine in vitro embryo production (IVP increases the reproductive potential of genetically superior cows, enabling a larger scale of embryo production when compared with other biotechnologies. However, deleterious effects such as abnormal fetal growth, longer gestation period, increased birth weight, abortion, preterm birth and higher rates of neonatal mortality have been attributed to IVP. The aim of this study was to compare the influence of in vitro embryo production and artificial insemination (AI on gestation length, complications with birth, birth weight, method of feeding colostrum, passive transfer of immunity, morbidity-mortality, and performance in Brahman calves. Results Whilst gestation length and birth weight were significantly increased in IVP-derived calves, no difference in weaning weight was observed between groups. The passive transfer of immunity (PT, was assessed in IVP (n = 80 and AI (n = 20 groups 24 hours after birth by determination of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT and gammaglobulin activity as well as by quantification of the concentration of total protein in serum. No differences in passive transfer or incidences of dystocia and diseases at weaning were observed between groups. Birth weight, method of feeding colostrum and dystocia were not correlated with PT in either group. Conclusions In this study, in vitro embryo production did not affect the health status, development, or passive transfer of immunity in Brahman calves.

  12. Performance, rumen development, and carcass traits of male calves fed starter concentrate with crude glycerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raylon Pereira Maciel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to assess the effects of including crude glycerin in the diet on intake, performance, rumen development, and carcass traits of dairy crossbred veal calves fed starter concentrate containing 0, 80, 160, and 240 g kg−1 crude glycerin. Twenty-eight calves with an average weight of 38.03±6.7 kg and five days of age were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments with seven replications. Calves were individually housed in covered stalls equipped with feeders and drinkers for 56 days. The calf response to inclusion of crude glycerin in the concentrate changed over the weeks and the inclusion level of 240 g kg−1 resulted in greater dry matter intake and average daily gain. There was no effect on the final weight and total weight gain of the animals, with mean values of 73.60 and 35.16 kg, respectively. The weight of the rumen-reticulum adjusted for body weight, empty body weight, and total stomach weight increased linearly with the inclusion of crude glycerin. Blood total protein, globulin, urea, cholesterol, gamma glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations did not differ among treatments. Carcass traits and meat color were not affected. Crude glycerin can be added to dairy calf starter concentrate up to 240 g kg−1 dry matter because it benefits concentrate intake, performance, and rumen development without affecting animal health.

  13. Mycobacterium avium Subsp. avium Infection in Four Veal Calves: Differentiation from Intestinal Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Goepfert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (Maa is an intracellular pathogen belonging to the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC. Reservoirs of MAC are the natural environment, wildlife and domestic animals. In adult bovine, MAC infections are typically caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map. Maa infections in bovine are rarely reported but may cause clinical disease and pathological lesions similar to those observed in paratuberculosis or those induced by members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC. Therefore, differentiation of MAC from MTBC infection should be attempted, especially if unusual mycobacterial lesions are encountered. Four veal calves from a fattening farm dying with clinical signs of otitis media, fever, and weight loss were submitted for necropsy. Samples from affected organs were taken for histologic investigation, bacteriologic culture, and bacterial specification using PCR. Macroscopic thickening of the intestinal mucosa was induced by granulomatous enteritis and colitis. Intracytoplasmic acid-fast bacteria were detected by Ziehl-Neelsen stains and PCR revealed positive results for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. Clinical and pathological changes of Maa infection in veal calves had features of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and the MTBC. Therefore, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection should be considered in cases of granulomatous enteritis in calves.

  14. Determination of trenbolone in urine and faeces of calves by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunological methods were established for the determination of residues of trenbolone acetate (TBA) in urine and faeces of calves treated with TBA. Both methods are easy to handle (about 60-80 samples within 2 days). Their reliability has been demonstrated by means of examining specificity, sensitivity, accuracy and reproducibility. The lower limit of sensitivity is around 0.024-0.032 ng TBOH/ml urine and 0.034-0.048 ng TBOH/g faeces. Both RIAs could be applied for routine control of illegal treatment of veal calves with TBA. For the first time the excretion of TBOH after implantation with TBA was measured radioimmunological in 2 veal calves. Residues of TBA are measurable in urine and in faeces during the whole fest period (up to 61 days after implantation). The major part of TBOH is excreted with the faeces. Until the substances needed for the RIA of TBOH are available commercially, thin-layer-chromatography (Vogt 1977) can alternatively be used for the determination of residues of TBA. (orig.)

  15. Multilocus sequence typing and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from dairy calves in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eKlein-Jöbstl

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Human campylobacteriosis is primarily associated with poultry but also cattle. In this study, 55 Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from 382 dairy calves’ feces were differentiated by multilocus sequence typing and tested for antimicrobial resistance. The most prevalent sequence type (ST was ST883 (20.0%, followed by ST48 (14.5%, and ST50 (9.1%. In contrast to ST48 and ST50, ST883 has rarely been described in cattle previously. Furthermore, risk factor analysis was performed for the presence of the most prevalent STs in these calves. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the type of farm (organic versus conventional and calf housing (place, and individual versus group were identified as significantly (p<0.05 associated with the presence of ST883 in calves, and ST50 was associated with calf diarrhea. Antimicrobial resistance was detected in 58.2% of the isolates. Most of the resistant isolates (81.3% were resistant to more than one antimicrobial. Most frequently, resistance to ciprofloxacin (49.1%, followed by nalidixic acid with (42.8%, and tetracycline (14.5% was observed. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that dairy calves may serve as a potential reservoir for Campylobacter jejuni and pose a risk for transmission, including antimicrobial resistant isolates to the environment and to humans.

  16. Growth and Blood Parameters of Weaned Crossbred Beef Calves Fed Forage Kale (Brassica oleracea spp. acephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chorfi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty lightweight calves (206.4±3.2 kg were randomly distributed to four treatments: (Control low nutritive value pasture and hay plus 1 kg d−1 of rolled barley; (Pasture management intensive pasture; (Haylage timothy haylage; and (Kale 50% timothy haylage −50% kale pasture. Blood samples were analysed for thyroid hormones, liver enzymes, glucose, cholesterol, total proteins (TP, albumin, globulins, and urea-N. At the end of the trial, the Pasture group was the heaviest with 323.6±4.2 kg BW and 1.54 kg ADG. Final BW and ADG were similar for the Kale and Haylage groups. Blood T3 was higher for Kale than for the other groups. The T3/T4 ratio was greater for Control at the end of the experiment. There were no treatment differences for T4, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH, cholesterol, and glucose. Blood urea-N was lower for Kale and higher for Pasture; however albumin concentrations were greater for Pasture and similar for other treatments. Except for the Control group, calves had a lower concentration of circulating globulins at the end than at the beginning of the experiment. This study showed that Kale could be fed to backgrounding calves without detrimental effects on performance.

  17. Effect of Enterococcus faecium SF68 on growth performance and in vivo digestibility in buffalo calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Proto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary supplementation with Enterococcus faecium strain SF68 on growth performance, faecal consistency and in vivo digestibility in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis calves was evaluated. Forty calves were randomly assigned at 10 d of age to one of four treatments: (A milk replacer with no additive, (B milk replacer supplemented with 0.17 g/l of viable (2 x l09 cfu/g E. faecium bacteria daily for 3 days with an interval of 7 days throughout 11 weeks, (C milk replacer supplemented with E. faecium daily for 4 weeks, (D milk replacer supplemented with E. faecium daily for 11 weeks. A total mixed ration was offered ad libitum from 5th week of the experimental period. Faecal score was significantly better in E. faecium-treated calves than control ones. The use of E. faecium had no effect on average daily gain at any stage, total body weight (BW gain, dry matter intake or total tract digestibility. Therefore, E. faecium supplementation may be able to act favourably on the health of the gastrointestinal tract.

  18. 99mTc-MDP bone imaging Legg-Calve'-Perthes disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Soon Yong [School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-03-15

    The pathology of Legg-Calve'-Perthes disease be can described as a vascular disturbance leading to necrosis and subsequent revascularization of the femoral epiphyseal ossification center. The regional distribution of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals in the skeleton can depend on a number of factors, but bone blood flow is a major physiological determinant of regional skeletal uptake of Tc-99m polyphosphate and bone imaging may thus be used for the detection of areas with both decreased and increased vascular supply. The authors analyzed the scintigraphic findings of 14 cases of Legg-Calve'-Perthes disease at Kyung Hee University Hospital from Mar. '81 to Oct. '82. The results were as follows: 1. Scintigraphy revealed area of absent radioactivity in 14 cases; lateral 2/3 portion of the femoral epiphyseal ossification center was involved in 9 cases among 14 cases, and also increased radioactivity in epiphyseal ossification center, epiphyseal plate, or proximal metaphysis of femur were associated in 7 cases. 2. Three cases had radiographically normal hip, whereas scintigraphy reviewed distinctly absent radioactivity in femoral epiphyseal ossification center. 3. Magnification of hip imaging using a pinhole collimator provided good definition of presence and extent of pathologic defect or uptake in epiphyseal ossification center, epiphyseal plate, and metaphysis. Bone imaging provided earlier and more accurate information concerning the extent of the necrotic and revascularization process of Legg-Calve'-Perthes disease than the radiographys alone.

  19. Platelet aggregation responses and virus isolation from platelets in calves experimentally infected with type I or type II bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, P H; Bell, T G; Grooms, D L; Kaiser, L; Maes, R K; Baker, J C

    2001-10-01

    Altered platelet function has been reported in calves experimentally infected with type II bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). The purpose of the present study was to further evaluate the ability of BVDV isolates to alter platelet function and to examine for the presence of a virus-platelet interaction during BVDV infection. Colostrum-deprived Holstein calves were obtained immediately after birth, housed in isolation, and assigned to 1 of 4 groups (1 control and 3 treatment groups). Control calves (n = 4) were sham inoculated, while calves in the infected groups (n = 4 for each group) were inoculated by intranasal instillation with 10(7) TCID50 of either BVDV 890 (type II), BVDV 7937 (type II), or BVDV TGAN (type I). Whole blood was collected prior to inoculation (day 0) and on days 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 after inoculation for platelet function testing by optical aggregometry by using adenosine diphosphate and platelet activating factor. The maximum percentage aggregation and the slope of the aggregation curve decreased over time in BVDV-infected calves; however, statistically significant differences (Freidman repeated measures ANOVA on ranks, P infected with the type II BVDV isolates. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was not isolated from control calves, but was isolated from all calves infected with both type II BVDV isolates from days 4 through 12 after inoculation. In calves infected with type I BVDV, virus was isolated from 1 of 4 calves on days 4 and 12 after inoculation and from all calves on days 6 and 8 after inoculation. Altered platelet function was observed in calves infected with both type II BVDV isolates, but was not observed in calves infected with type I BVDV. Altered platelet function may be important as a difference in virulence between type I and type II BVDV infection.

  20. Effects of Probiotic and Prebiotic on Average Daily Gain, Fecal Shedding of Escherichia Coli, and Immune System Status in Newborn Female Calves

    OpenAIRE

    Roodposhti, Pezhman Mohamadi; Dabiri, Najafgholi

    2012-01-01

    Thirty two Holstein female calves (initial body weight = 40±3.0 kg) were used to investigate the effects of probiotic and prebiotic on average daily gain (ADG), fecal E. coli count, white blood cell count, plasma IgG1 level and cell-mediated immune response to injection of phytohemagglutinin in suckling female calves. Calves were assigned randomly to one of the four treatments, including whole milk without additives (control), whole milk containing probiotic, whole milk containing prebiotic a...

  1. Time-lapse techniques for surface velocity, front position and calving rate measurement of a fast-flowing tidewater glacier in Svalbard

    OpenAIRE

    Smith-Johnsen, Silje

    2015-01-01

    Calving is the mechanical loss of icebergs from tidewater glaciers, responsible for 70% of the annual transfer of mass from the cryosphere to the ocean (van der Veen 1998a, 2002). To be able to correctly predict future global sea level changes it is important to understand calving processes and incorporate them into the models. The aim of this thesis is to investigate surface velocities, front positions and calving rates of a fast flowing tidewater glacier in Svalbard using an automatic o...

  2. Intratypic heterologous vaccination of calves can induce an antibody response in presence of maternal antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus

    OpenAIRE

    Dekker, A.; Eble, P.L.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N; Chenard, G.

    2014-01-01

    Background - Maternal antibodies can interfere with foot-and-mouth disease vaccination. In this study we determined whether intratypic heterologous vaccination could help to improve herd immunity. Results - In unvaccinated calves, a half-life of maternal antibodies of 21 days was determined. At two weeks of age, calves without maternal antibodies showed a good antibody response against both vaccines used in the trial, while in calves with maternal antibodies no antibody response to homologous...

  3. Comparative serological response in calves to eight commercial vaccines against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3, bovine respiratory syncytial, and bovine viral diarrhea viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; van den Hurk, Jan V.; McCartney, Duane; Harland, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    A field trial was conducted to compare the serological responses in calves to eight commercial vaccines against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and/or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Calves given IBRV, P13V, BRSV, and BVDV vaccines had significantly higher antibodies to these viruses than unvaccinated controls; however, serological responses to killed BVDV vaccines were low. Calves with preexisting an...

  4. Supplementation with difructose anhydride III promotes passive calcium absorption in the small intestine immediately after calving in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramura, M; Wynn, S; Reshalaitihan, M; Kyuno, W; Sato, T; Ohtani, M; Kawashima, C; Hanada, M

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of hypocalcemia increases in high-parity dairy cows because resorption of bone Ca is delayed in these animals, and they appear to have a reduced ability to absorb Ca from the intestine during the early postpartum period. Difructose anhydride (DFA) III has been shown to promote the absorption of intestinal Ca via a paracellular pathway. However, past studies have not reported this effect in peripartum dairy cows. Therefore, we investigated the effect of DFA III supplementation on Ca metabolism during the peripartum period to determine whether DFA III promotes intestinal Ca absorption via this route. Seventy-four multiparous Holstein cows were separated into DFA and control groups based on their parity and body weight. The feed of the DFA group was supplemented with 40g/d of DFA III from -14 to 6d relative to calving. The control group did not receive DFA III. At calving (0h relative to calving), serum Ca declined below 9mg/dL in both groups. However, serum Ca concentrations were greater in the DFA group than in the control group at 6, 12, 24, and 48h relative to calving, and the time required for serum Ca to recover to 9mg/dL during the postpartum period was shorter in the high-parity cows in the DFA group than in those in the control group. Parathyroid hormone concentrations increased immediately after calving in both groups and were greater in the control group than in the DFA group at 12 and 24h relative to calving. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations increased at 0 and 12h relative to calving in both groups and were higher in the control group than in the DFA group at 72h relative to calving. Serum concentrations of the bone-resorption marker cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) were not different between the groups during peripartum period, and serum NTX in all cows was lower at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72h relative to calving than at -21, 4, and 5d relative to calving. Thus, DFA treatment induced faster recovery of serum Ca

  5. The effect of replacing lactose by starch on protein and fat digestion in milk-fed veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluschke, A M; Gilbert, M S; Williams, B A; van den Borne, J J G C; Schols, H A; Gerrits, W J J

    2016-08-01

    Replacing dairy components from milk replacer (MR) with vegetable products has been previously associated with decreased protein and fat digestibility in milk-fed calves resulting in lower live weight gain. In this experiment, the major carbohydrate source in MR, lactose, was partly replaced with gelatinized corn starch (GCS) to determine the effect on protein and fat digestibility in milk-fed calves. In total, 16 male Holstein-Friesian calves received either MR with lactose as the carbohydrate source (control) or 18% GCS at the expense of lactose. In the adaptation period, calves were exposed to an increasing dose of GCS for 14 weeks. The indigestible marker cobalt ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was incorporated into the MR for calculating apparent nutrient digestibility, whereas a pulse dose of chromium (Cr) chloride was fed with the last MR meal 4 h before slaughter as an indicator of passage rates. The calves were anesthetized and exsanguinated at 30 weeks of age. The small intestine was divided in three; small intestine 1 and 2 (SI1 and SI2, respectively) and the terminal ileum (last ~100 cm of small intestine) and samples of digesta were collected. Small intestinal digesta was analysed for α-amylase, lipase and trypsin activity. Digestibility of protein was determined for SI1, SI2, ileum and total tract, whereas digestibility of fat was determined for SI1, SI2 and total tract. Apparent protein digestibility in the small intestine did not differ between treatments but was higher in control calves at total tract level. Apparent crude fat digestibility tended to be increased in SI1 and SI2 for GCS calves, but no difference was found at total tract level. Activity of α-amylase in SI2 and lipase in both SI1 and SI2 was higher in GCS calves. Activity of trypsin tended to be higher in control calves and was higher in SI1 compared with SI2. A lower recovery of Cr in SI2 and a higher recovery of Cr in the large intestine suggest an increased rate of passage for GCS

  6. Nutrient utilisation, growth performance and blood metabolites in Murrah buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vijay K; Kundu, Shivlal S; Prusty, Sonali; Datt, Chander; Kumar, Muneendra

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in efficiency of feed utilisation between buffalo calves with low and high residual feed intake (RFI) by comparing feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth traits and blood metabolites. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves (aged 4-6 months; 70 ± 1.0 kg body weight) were fed ad libitum with a total mixed ration for 120 d. Based on linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body size, calves were assigned into low and high RFI groups. The RFI varied from -0.33 to +0.28 kg DM/d with an average RFI of -0.14 and 0.14 kg DM/d in low and high RFI calves, respectively. Calves had a mean DMI of 1.9 and 2.4 kg/d and an ADG of 0.5 and 0.6 kg/d in low and high RFI groups, respectively. Low RFI calves ate 19.0% less DM each day and required significantly less metabolisable energy for maintenance compared with high RFI calves (12.5 vs. 16.7 MJ/d). Nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance did not differ among low and high RFI calves. In more efficient animals (low RFI calves) higher (p plasma level of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), triiodothyronine (T3) and lower concentration of thyroxin hormone were detected. No significant differences in levels of insulin, hydroxyproline, plasma and urine creatinine, total protein and albumin between high and low RFI groups were found. Blood metabolites showed significant (p < 0.05) differences at initial and final stages of study in both groups. At final stage of study, RFI showed negative correlations with growth hormone, IGF-1, T3, urine creatinine and albumin. Low RFI buffalo calves are more efficient in feed utilisation and the differences in blood metabolites are probably due to differences in feed intake and body metabolism. PMID:27666680

  7. Effect of Imidocarb dipropionate on the immune response to Foot and Mouth Disease vaccine in healthy and anaplasmosis-infected calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Afifi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This work was performed to investigate the effect of a potent anti-protozoan drug, Imidocarb on the cell mediated and humoral immune response to foot and mouth disease vaccine (FMDV, O1 strain in normal and Anaplasmosis-infected calves. Materials and Methods: A total of 55 male mixed bred calves were used and divided into two main groups of 25 calves each. The first group was healthy and the second was Anaplasma - infected calves. FMDV was administered in both groups. Calves of the first and second groups were subdivided into equal five subgroups of 5 calves each. The first subgroup was vaccinated control. The treated subgroups were each given 3 mg / kg body weight Imidocarb dipropionate in a single intramuscular dose at one week before vaccination, at time of vaccination, one week and two weeks post vaccination with FMDV (O1, respectively. The cellular immune response in the different groups was evaluated weekly, however antibody titers were measured by ELISA and serum neutralization test Results: Imidocarb increased rate of erythrocyte rosette forming lymphocytes when it was administered one week before vaccination, at time of vaccination and one week post vaccination. Imidocarb increased antibody titre of FMDV in both normal and anaplasmosis-infected calves. The protection rate due to challenge with virulent FMDV was high in treated calves as compared with the vaccinated control. Conclusion: The best immunopotentiating effect of Imidocarb is achieved by dosing one week before vaccinating calves with FMD vaccine.

  8. An experimental infection model for reproduction of calf pneumonia with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) based on one combined exposure of calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Uttenthal, Åse; Viuff, B.;

    2003-01-01

    experimental infection model for BRSV in 2-5-month-old, conventionally reared Jersey calves. Thirty-four colostrum-fed calves were inoculated once by aerosol and intratracheal injection with BRSV. Respiratory disease was recorded in 91% of the BRSV-inoculated calves, 72% had an accompanying rise in rectal...... temperature and 83% exhibited >5%, consolidation of the lung tissue. The disease closely resembled natural outbreaks of BRSV-related pneumonia, and detection of BRSV in nasal secretions and lung tissues confirmed the primary role of BRSV. Nine mock-inoculated control calves failed to develop respiratory...

  9. No Peri- and Postnatal Effects on Calves Born After Transfer of in Vitro Produced Embryos Vitrified by the Open Pulled Straw (OPS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callesen H

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this study was to perform follow-up studies including selected peri- and postnatal characteristics on calves born after transfer of in vitro produced (IVP embryos vitrified by the 'Open Pulled Straw' (OPS method. An overall pregnancy rate of 16% after transfer of the OPS-vitrified IVP embryos was achieved and resulted in birth of 9 calves, with 11 AI calves serving as controls. There were no immediate or long-term effects on these calves with respect to birth weight, gestation length, perinatal mortality, growth rate, disease susceptibility and reproductive performance.

  10. Competition during the milk-feeding stage influences the development of feeding behavior of pair-housed dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated how the feeding behavior of pair-housed calves develops in response to reduced teat and feed place availability. Twenty Holstein bull calves were pair housed and provided with milk replacer (MR) and grain concentrate ad libitum via either (1) 1 teat and feed bucket/pen, such that calves could not feed simultaneously [competitive feeding (CF)] or (2) 2 teats and feed buckets/pen [noncompetitive feeding (NCF)]. The calves were weaned during wk 7 of life by incrementally diluting the MR. Postweaning, all pens were managed identically and offered a complete pelleted diet ad libitum via 2 feed buckets/pen (NCF) in period 1 (wk 8 and 9) and period 3 (wk 12 and 13) and exposed to a competitive challenge with CF in period 2 (wk 10 and 11). Feeding times and competitive interactions were recorded from video for 3 d/wk in wk 2, 4, and 6 and 2 d/wk in wk 8 to 13. Meal criteria were used to calculate daily meal frequency, meal time, and synchronized meal time (the percentage of meal time when calves within the pen were engaged in simultaneous meals). Milk replacer intake was subject to a treatment × week interaction, with calves in CF pens having lower MR intake (wk 2: 8.3 vs. 10.0 L/calf per day for CF vs. NCF), but compensating by increasing intake to a greater extent over time (wk 4-5: 13.3 vs. 11.7 L/d for CF vs. NCF). Corresponding to MR intake, meal frequencies and feeding times evolved differently over this period, increasing in CF pens and decreasing in NCF pens (wk 2: 5.8 vs. 11.1 and wk 4-6: 6.2 vs. 5.1 meals/d for CF vs. NCF). Calves in CF pens also spent less time engaged in synchronized meals (28 vs. 51% of meal time; standard error=7.1) and displaced each other 5 times more frequently during synchronized eating. Postweaning, calves in previously CF pens maintained 5 times greater displacement frequencies and had fewer overlapping meals than calves in previously NCF pens (34.5 vs. 40.7% of meals, respectively). Postweaning, when calves

  11. Effect of maternal heat stress during the dry period on growth and metabolism of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, A P A; Guo, J-R; Weng, X-S; Ahmed, B M; Hayen, M J; Dahl, G E; Bernard, J K; Tao, S

    2016-05-01

    Preliminary studies suggest that maternal heat stress (HS) during late gestation exerts carryover effects on a calf's insulin response after weaning, but a comprehensive evaluation of how maternal HS affects calf intake, growth, and metabolic response from birth to weaning is lacking. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of maternal HS during the dry period on dry matter intake, growth, and metabolism from birth to weaning. After birth, 20 heifers born to either HS (n=10) or cooled (CL, n=10) dry cows were immediately separated from their dams and fed 3.8 L of colostrum from a common pool within 4h of birth. All heifers were managed identically and weaned at 49 d of age (DOA). Calf starter intake was recorded daily, and body weight was assessed at birth and every 2 wk from birth to 56 DOA. Blood samples were collected twice a week until 56 DOA to assess hematocrit and concentrations of insulin and metabolites. To evaluate metabolic responses to maternal HS, a glucose tolerance test, insulin, and epinephrine challenge were performed on 3 consecutive days for all heifers at 8, 29, and 57 DOA. Maternal HS during the dry period did not affect heifer birth weight. Compared with HS, CL calves consumed more starter (0.53 vs. 0.34kg/d) from birth to 56 DOA and were heavier (71.7 vs. 61.4kg) at 56 DOA. Relative to HS calves, CL calves tended to have higher hematocrit (27.4 vs. 24.7%). No differences were found between treatments in plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose, but HS calves had higher nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations after 32 DOA. Compared with CL, HS calves had a faster glucose clearance after a glucose tolerance test and a slower insulin clearance after an insulin challenge. In conclusion, maternal HS during late gestation reduces calf starter intake and growth, alters blood metabolite profile, and increases noninsulin-dependent glucose uptake. PMID:26947308

  12. Insulin-dependent glucose metabolism in dairy cows with variable fat mobilization around calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, C; Schäff, C T; Kautzsch, U; Börner, S; Erdmann, S; Görs, S; Röntgen, M; Sauerwein, H; Bruckmaier, R M; Metges, C C; Kuhla, B; Hammon, H M

    2016-08-01

    Dairy cows undergo significant metabolic and endocrine changes during the transition from pregnancy to lactation, and impaired insulin action influences nutrient partitioning toward the fetus and the mammary gland. Because impaired insulin action during transition is thought to be related to elevated body condition and body fat mobilization, we hypothesized that over-conditioned cows with excessive body fat mobilization around calving may have impaired insulin metabolism compared with cows with low fat mobilization. Nineteen dairy cows were grouped according to their average concentration of total liver fat (LFC) after calving in low [LLFC; LFC 24.4% total fat/DM; n=10) fat-mobilizing cows. Blood samples were taken from wk 7 antepartum (ap) to wk 5 postpartum (pp) to determine plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, and adiponectin. We applied euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (EGHIC) and hyperglycemic clamps (HGC) in wk 5 ap and wk 3 pp to measure insulin responsiveness in peripheral tissue and pancreatic insulin secretion during the transition period. Before and during the pp EGHIC, [(13)C6] glucose was infused to determine the rate of glucose appearance (GlucRa) and glucose oxidation (GOx). Body condition, back fat thickness, and energy-corrected milk were greater, but energy balance was lower in HLFC than in LLFC. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, and adiponectin decreased at calving, and this was followed by an immediate increase of glucagon and adiponectin after calving. Insulin concentrations ap were higher in HLFC than in LLFC cows, but the EGHIC indicated no differences in peripheral insulin responsiveness among cows ap and pp. However, GlucRa and GOx:GlucRa during the pp EGHIC were greater in HLFC than in LLFC cows. During HGC, pancreatic insulin secretion was lower, but the glucose infusion rate was higher pp than ap in both groups. Plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids decreased during HGC and EGHIC, but in both

  13. Effect of Different Protein Levels On Nutrient Digestion Metabolism and Serum Biochemical Parameters in Calves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; DIAO Qi-yu; ZHANG Nai-feng; TU Yan; WANG Ji-feng

    2008-01-01

    The current study has been performed to examine the effects of different dietary protein levels on the growth,nutrient digestion and absorption,as well as biochemical parameters in calves.Nine healthy newborn calves were selected,randomly divided into 3 groups and fed 3 milk replacers with different protein levels(18,22,and 26%),respectively.Five period-digestion-metabolism trials were taken between 12-20,22-30,32-40,42-50,and 52-60 days after birth.All 3 groups showed a similar growth curve during 11 to 61 experimental days,however,the growth rate of the 22%crude protein(CP) group was 8.89%higher than that of the 18%CP group and 19.48%higher than that of the 26%CP group.respectively. The apparent digestibility of dry material(DM)declined gradually with age,whereas,the apparent digestibility of N,extract ether(EE)rose slightly.Compared to the 22%CP and 26%CP group,calves fed with 18%CP apparently had a lower digestibility than DM,EE,and nitrogen(N).The average apparent digestibilities of N were 69.39,75.36,and 74.55%, respectively.Both the apparent digestibility and retention of calcium(Ca)and phosphorus(P)were steady throughout the experiment,but the average apparent digestibility of P in the 26%CP group was only 63.83%,which was markedly lower than that of the 18%CP group(70.40%)and 22%CP group(69.73%).In addition,the sernm concentrations of total protein(TP),albumin(ALB),and globulin(GLOB)of the 22%CP group were higher than those in the 18%CP and 26%CP groups.The urea N(BUN)content in the 18%CP group,on the other hand,was significantly lower than that of the other two groups.The highest glucose(GLU)concentration was found in the 22%CP group(5.38 mmol L-1),at the end of the trials.The protein levels in the milk replacer affected the digestion metabolism of nutrition and the serum biochemical parameters of calves at different physiological phases.Calves fed with 22%CP milk replacer had a better growth performance than the other groups.

  14. Reproduction traits, growth traits and age at first calving in Holstein heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Silva Marestone

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the reproductive efficiency expressed by traits, interval from first to second calving (IDP, number of services per conception to the first calving (NSC1, number of services per conception for the second calving (NSC2, service period from the first to the second calving (PS and gestation lenght (PG of Holstein heifers. Data from 377 heifers from two herds, one in Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo, São Paulo and another in Rolândia, Paraná were analysed. The statistical model to analyze IDP, NSC1, NSC2, PS and PG included the fixed effect of Contemporary Group (CG. To analyze PG, it was also considered the effect of calf sex. To evaluate the growth performance and age at first calving (AFC, data from 360 Holstein heifers belonging to property in Rolândia were analysed. The model included the fixed effects of contemporary groups (CG and average daily gain from birth to 15 months (ADG. A similar model was used to analyze weigth at 458 dias (W458 and ADG, therefore considering only CG. The overall means of IDP, NSC1, NSC2, PS and PG, were 14.96 ± 3.94 months; 1.35 ± 0.71 services, 2.86 ± 2.37 services, 178.83 ± 118.73 days; 276.67± 5.65 days, respectively. Correlations were observed between the traits IDP and NSC2 of 72% (P<0.0001, between IDP and PS of 98% (P<0.0001 and between NCS2 and PS of 72% (P<0.0001. The gestation length of males and females showed estimated average of 277.53 ± 0.46 days and 276.33 ± 0.40 days, respectively, and the calf sex was source of variation on PG (P<0.05. Average daily gain was a significant source of variation on AFC and CG affected all traits studied. The estimated average for AFC was 24.18 ± 1.59 months, for W458 was 362.33 ± 36.24 kg and ADG was 0.704 ± 0.08 kg.

  15. Ontogenic development of brown adipose tissue in Angus and Brahman fetal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, M D; Carstens, G E; McPhail, E G; Randel, R D; Green, K K; Slay, L; Smith, S B

    2002-03-01

    Brahman calves experience greater neonatal mortality than Angus calves if cold-stressed. To establish a developmental basis for this, three fetuses of each breed type were taken at 96, 48, 24, 14, and 6 d before expected parturition, and at parturition. Overall fetal BW tended (P = 0.08) to be greater for Angus than for Brahman fetuses. There was no difference between breed types in total brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass or grams of BAT/kg BW. Brown adipocyte density decreased 56%, whereas lipogenesis from acetate and glucose in vitro decreased 97% during the last 96 d of gestation in both breed types. Glycerolipid synthesis from palmitate declined by 85% during the last trimester but still contributed 98% to total lipid synthesis at birth. The fetal age x breed interaction was significant for lipogenesis from glucose (P = 0.05) and palmitate (P = 0.005); rates were higher at 96 d before birth in Brahman BAT but declined to similar rates by birth. Uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) mRNA tripled during gestation in both breed types (P = 0.002), whereas mitochondrial cross-sectional area did not change (P = 0.14) during gestation. Neither the breed nor the age x breed effect was significant (P > or = 0.24) for UCP1 mRNA concentration or mitochondrial cross-sectional area. In both breed types, a marked decrease in BAT UCP1 mRNA between 24 and 14 d prepartum was associated with a similar reduction in lipogenesis from palmitate and a noticeable change in BAT mitochondrial morphology, as the mitochondria became more elongated and the cristae became more elaborate. Uncoupling protein-1 mRNA initially was elevated in Angus tailhead s.c. adipose tissue, but was barely detectable by birth, and tended to be greater overall (P = 0.09) in Angus than in Brahman BAT. If uncoupling protein activity in s.c. adipose tissue persists after birth, then s.c. adipose tissue may contribute more to thermogenesis in Angus newborn calves than in Brahman calves. In contrast, we did not observe

  16. Effects of vegetable fats versus lard in milk replacers on feed intake, digestibility, and growth in Finnish Ayrshire bull calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huuskonen, A; Khalili, H; Kiljala, J; Joki-Tokola, E; Nousiainen, J

    2005-10-01

    The aim was to study whether vegetable fat mixtures could be used instead of lard [15.2% in dry matter (DM)] in milk replacers without impairing the performance of Finnish Ayrshire bull calves (n = 58). The growth performance of the calves was measured before and after weaning from 14 d to 6 mo of age. The following 3 fat sources in a milk replacer were studied: 1) a mixture of palm, coconut, and rapeseed oil, 2) palm and coconut oil, and 3) lard. The calves were bucket-fed 2 L of milk replacer 3 times per day. The milk replacer contained 116 g of DM/L, resulting in an average DM intake of 4.8 g of DM/kg of body weight0.75 (BW0.75) during the 8-wk trial, after which the calves were weaned. All the calves had free access to water, commercial starter, and grass silage before weaning. The weaned calves had free access to water and grass silage and were given 3 kg/d (air-dry basis) of a commercial concentrate mixture. The concentrate was replaced by barley when the bulls were 4.5 mo old. There were no significant differences between the diets in feed intake and apparent diet digestibility. The health and BW of the calves were similar during the study. The feed conversion rate (kg of DM intake/kg of gain) before weaning was significantly greater for the lard diet compared with the 2 vegetable fat mixtures. After weaning, the feed conversion rate was slightly lower for the diet that included the palm, coconut, and rapeseed oil mixture than for the diet that included palm and coconut oil mixture. The study showed that the 2 mixtures consisting solely of vegetable oils were effective dietary components, thus providing 2 alternative fat mixtures of milk replacers, for use instead of lard in formulating commercial calf milk replacers.

  17. An explorative study to assess the efficacy of Toltrazuril-sulfone (Ponazuril in calves experimentally infected with Neospora caninum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greif Gisela

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neospora caninum is an important cause of infectious abortion and stillbirth in cattle world-wide. Infection is common and may frequently be passed from mother to calf (vertical transmission with no signs of disease. Based on our previous observation that N. caninum-infection can be efficiently controlled with Toltrazuril-sulfone (Ponazuril in experimentally infected mice, we addressed the question if efficacy could also be obtained in experimentally infected calves. Material and Methods The study included 19 calves and represents an initial explorative approach to document a basic effectiveness at first. Fifteen animals received each 2 x 108N. caninum trophozoites, half of the dose being injected intravenously and the other half subcutaneously. Efficacy of treatment was assessed using molecular detection of parasite DNA with PCR and pathological alterations by immunohistochemistry in different organs of the animals. Assessment included also clinical, serological and pathophysiological parameters. Results In those calves medicated with ponazuril (one, or six consecutive days, respectively, starting one day after infection, a complete abrogation of the parasite detectability was obtained in the brain and other organs, while 50% of non-treated calves became PCR-positive in brain and muscles. Clinically, ponazuril chemotherapy of infected calves – in comparison to non-treated infected animals – reduced symptoms (fever, but no differences were observed between treated and non-treated animals with regard to serum enzymes and metabolites. Efficacy of a six-day treament was also reflected by significantly lower anti-Neospora antibody concentrations developed after infection, when compared to non-treated animals. Conclusion Based on our findings in this initially explorative approach that indicate a basic effectiveness of ponazuril against experimental N. caninum infection in calves, we plan to follow our chemotherapeutical

  18. ADDITION OF PROTEIN SOURCES FOR CALVES SUPPLEMENTED WITH HIGH MOISTURE SORGHUM GRAIN SILAGE GRAZING LOW-QUALITY PASTURES

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    P. ROVIRA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted to determine the effect of protein addition to high moisture sorghum grain silage (HMS daily supplemented to calves at a rate of 1% of body weight (BW grazing low-quality pastures. In exp. 1 addition of sunflower expeller or a protein ration to increase crude protein (CP of HMS from 7.1% to 12% increased average daily gain 56% compared with calves fed only HMS (0.39 and 0.25 kg/a/d, respectively. Calves supplemented with protein sources were more efficient than calves supplemented only with HMS as feed conversion numerically decreased from 6.0 (HMS to 4.5 (HMS + sunflower expeller and 4.1 (HMS + protein ration. In exp. 2 CP of HMS (9.1% was increased to 15.5% by adding sunflower expeller, urea or combination of both. Protein supplementation increased ADG and final BW (0.20 kg/a/d and 196 kg compared with only HMS (0.03 kg/a/d and 176 kg. Protein source had no effect on animal performance. In exp. 3 CP concentrations in the supplement had a significant effect on ADG when increased from 8.9 to 16.1% (0.32 and 0.50 kg/a/d. Performance of calves fed either 16.1% or 20.8% CP supplements did not differ possibly because energy was becoming the limiting factor at the highest CP concentration level. Rib eye area and fat thickness were not affected by treatment although supplemented calves registered 7% and 10% greater values in those variables, respectively, than un-supplemented animals at the end of the experiment. The addition of protein sources to HMS increased performance of calves grazing low-quality pastures.

  19. Does supplementation of beef calves by creep feeding systems influence milk production and body condition of the dams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Sidnei Antônio; Paulino, Mário Fonseca; Detmann, Edenio; Valente, Ériton Egídio Lisboa; de Barros, Lívia Vieira; Rennó, Luciana Navajas; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastião; Martins, Leandro Soares

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of beef calves' supplementation in creep feeding systems on milk yield, body weight (BW), and body condition score (BCS) of their dams on tropical pastures using a meta-analytical approach. The database was obtained from 11 experiments conducted between 2009 and 2014 in Brazil, totaling 485 observations (cows). The database consisted of 273 Nellore and 212 crossbred (7/8 Nellore × 1/8 Holstein) cows. All experiments were carried out in the suckling phase (from 3 to 8 months of age of calves) during the transition phase between rainy and dry seasons from February to June of different years. The data were analyzed by a meta-analytical approach using mixed models and taking into account random variation among experiments. Calves' supplementation (P ≥ 0.59) and the calves' sex (P ≥ 0.48) did not affect milk yield of cows. The average fat-corrected milk (FCM) yield was 6.71 and 6.83 kg/day for cows that had their calves supplemented and not supplemented, respectively. Differences were observed (P < 0.0001) for milk yield due to the genetic group where crossbred cows presented greater FCM yield (7.37 kg/day) compared with Nellore cows (6.17 kg/day). There was no effect of the calves' supplementation on BW change (P ≥ 0.11) and BCS change (P ≥ 0.23) of the cows. Therefore, it is concluded that supplementation of beef calves using creep feeding systems in tropical pastures does not affect milk yield, body weight, or body condition of their dams. PMID:27193314

  20. The association between mastitis and reproductive performance in seasonally-calved dairy cows managed on a pasture-based system

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    CI Gómez-Cifuentes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess association between clinical, subclinical mastitis, body condition score and the reproductive performance of cows under seasonally calving conditions in a pasture-based management system. Data from 182 cows calved during 2008 were analyzed. Chi-square and logistic regression were performed considering pregnancy at the end of breeding season and number of services as dependent variables, whereas clinical and subclinical mastitis and other variables related to the animal that could have an effect on the dependent variables (e.g. parity, BCS, concurrent diseases were considered as independent variables. Lactation number, calving difficulty, interval from calving to the beginning of breeding season and body condition score had a significant effect on pregnancy at the end of breeding season. Cows with one or two lactations (P = 0.031, those with no difficulty at calving (P = 0.003, those with more days from calving to the beginning of breeding season (P = 0.001, and those with body condition score > 2.5 (P = 0.007 were most likely to become pregnant. Subclinical mastitis affected reproductive performance increasing the number of services (P = 0.03. Also, breeding season influenced number of services, since summer-calving cows needed more services to become pregnant (P = 0.046. Clinical mastitis was not associated with pregnancy as a final measure of reproductive performance (P = 0.863. Although subclinical mastitis influenced reproductive performance, several parameters related to reproductive and nutritional management, significantly affected the outcome variables under experimental conditions of this study. This information can be valuable to improve reproductive performance in similar management systems.

  1. Performance and plasma metabolites of dairy calves fed starter containing sodium butyrate, calcium propionate or sodium monensin.

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    Ferreira, L S; Bittar, C M M

    2011-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine the influence of supplementation of sodium butyrate, sodium monensin or calcium propionate in a starter diet on the performance and selected plasma metabolites (plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate) of Holstein calves during pre- and post-weaning periods. Twenty-four newborn Holstein calves were housed in individual hutches until 10 weeks of life, receiving water free choice, and fed four liters of milk daily. Calves were blocked according to weight and date of birth, and allocated to one of the following treatments, according to the additive in the starter: (i) sodium butyrate (150 g/kg); (ii) sodium monensin (30 mg/kg); and (iii) calcium propionate (150 g/kg). During 10 weeks, calves received starter ad libitum, while coast cross hay (Cynodon dactylon (L.) pers.) was offered after weaning, which occurred at the 8th week of age. Weekly, calves were weighted and evaluated for body measurements. Blood samples were taken weekly after the fourth week of age, 2 hours after the morning feeding, for determination of plasma metabolites. No differences were observed among treatments for starter or hay intake, BW and daily gain of the animals. Mean concentrations of selected plasma metabolites were similar in calves fed a starter supplemented with sodium butyrate, sodium monensin and calcium propionate. There was significant reduction in the concentrations of plasma glucose as calves aged. The inclusion of sodium butyrate, calcium propionate or sodium monensin as additives in starter feeds resulted in equal animal performance, before and after weaning, suggesting that sodium monensin may be replaced by organic acid salts.

  2. Effects of replacing lactose from milk replacer by glucose, fructose, or glycerol on energy partitioning in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M S; Pantophlet, A J; van den Borne, J J G C; Hendriks, W H; Schols, H A; Gerrits, W J J

    2016-02-01

    Calf milk replacers contain 40 to 50% lactose. Fluctuating dairy prices are a major economic incentive to replace lactose from milk replacers by alternative energy sources. Our objective was, therefore, to determine the effects of replacement of lactose with glucose, fructose, or glycerol on energy and protein metabolism in veal calves. Forty male Holstein-Friesian calves (114±2.4 kg) were fed milk replacer containing 46% lactose (CON) or 31% lactose and 15% of glucose (GLUC), fructose (FRUC), or glycerol (GLYC). Solid feed was provided at 10 g of dry matter (DM)/kg of metabolic body weight (BW(0.75)) per day. After an adaptation of 48 d, individual calves were harnessed, placed in metabolic cages, and housed in pairs in respiration chambers. Apparent total-tract disappearance of DM, energy, and N and complete energy and N balances were measured. The GLUC, FRUC, and GLYC calves received a single dose of 1.5 g of [U-(13)C]glucose, [U-(13)C]fructose, or [U-(13)C]glycerol, respectively, with their milk replacer at 0630 h and exhaled (13)CO2 and (13)C excretion with feces was measured. Apparent total-tract disappearance was decreased by 2.2% for DM, 3.2% for energy, and 4.2% for N in FRUC compared with CON calves. Energy and N retention did not differ between treatments, and averaged 299±16 kJ/kg of BW(0.75) per day and 0.79±0.04 g/kg of BW(0.75) per day, respectively, although FRUC calves retained numerically less N (13%) than other calves. Recovery of (13)C isotopes as (13)CO2 did not differ between treatments and averaged 72±1.6%. The time at which the maximum rate of (13)CO2 production was reached was more than 3 h delayed for FRUC calves, which may be explained by a conversion of fructose into other substrates before being oxidized. Recovery of (13)C in feces was greater for FRUC calves (7.7±0.59%) than for GLUC (1.0±0.27%) and GLYC calves (0.5±0.04%), indicating incomplete absorption of fructose from the small intestine resulting in fructose excretion or

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF HEALTH STATUS IN CALVES WITH SUBSEQUENT GROWTH OF HEIFERS AND MILK PRODUCTION IN DAIRY COWS

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    Peter Strapak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the association between enteritis and pneumonia during first months of life and subsequent growth and milk production traits of these animals. A total of 1327 calves were followed in this study. Calves were divided to three groups: Group A healthy calves; Group B calves that suffered from enteritis one or more times from the birth to 6 mo of age; and Group C calves that suffered from birth to 6 mo of age from pneumonia. Subsequently all animals were observed at the following age stages: calves, heifers and cows. For all groups (age stages the weight and daily weight gain in calves (in the breeding period from birth to 6 mo of age, the weight and daily weight gain weight in heifers (in the breeding period from 7 to 25 mo of age and production parameters of cows in the first lactation (milk in kg, fat in kg and protein in kg were recorded. Calves in Groups B and C exhibited lower average daily gain (690.40 g, SD = 186.18, N.S. and 636.80 g, SD = 221.19, P < 0.05 respectively than healthy calves (Group A, 703.91 g, SD = 223.48. Heifers in Group B exhibited increased daily weight gain (830.01, SD = 73.57, N.S. compared to healthy animals (Group A, 828.31, SD = 89.16. The general hypothesis regarding the negative effect of enteritis (in breeding age animals that suffer from disease on growth in the Simmental breed has not been confirmed. Heifers that had suffered with pneumonia (Group C showed significantly lower average daily gain (784.64, SD = 102.96, P < 0.05 than heifers in group A and B. In the evaluation of milk production in the first lactation, average production of 5800 kg per lactation (SD = 3.96 was recorded in Group A cows. Cows in Group B in first lactation produced 5977 kg of milk per lactation on average (SD = 4.31. Cows from Group C in first lactation produced lowest amount of milk during the first lactation period (5674 kg, SD = 3.87, but difference among A, B and C group was not significant.

  4. The Effect of Age, Stocking Density and Flooring during Transport on Welfare of Young Dairy Calves in Australia.

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    Jongman, Ellen C; Butler, Kym L

    2014-01-01

    Transport of young ('bobby') calves for slaughter is a contentious welfare issue for some sectors of the Australian community. Factors of age, stocking density and flooring need further research to develop appropriate welfare standards for transport of bobby calves. The objective of this study was to identify the space allowance requirements for transport of bobby calves and to understand factors such as age and flooring that minimise risks to calf welfare during transport. Animals aged 3-, 5- and 10-day old were transported for 12 h in a custom-made cattle truck fitted with 9 pens, with movable mesh divisions. Each pen contained 4 calves, with space allowances of 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5 m² per calf and flooring of solid metal, mesh or straw bedding. A total of 432 male dairy calves were transported in 12 trips during the 2-year study. Behavioural measurements included lying during transport, and lying and drinking for 12 h after transport during recovery. Blood samples were taken prior to transport, immediately after transport and 12 h after transport. Blood samples were analysed for metabolic state (glucose, beta-hydroxy-butyrate (BOHB)), hydration (packed cell volume (PCV)) and exhaustion/bruising (creatine kinase (CK) activity). It was found that several measures were affected by age, which indicates that the physiology and in particular lying behaviour of 3-day old calves is fundamentally different from that of older calves. It is unclear how this affects their ability to cope with the stressors of transport. Space affected the posture changes and CK activity during and after transport and it is concluded that space allowance should be at least 0.3 m² per calf for calves of average size, while CK activity suggested that providing more space to 0.5 m² per calf may provide even greater benefits. Straw bedding is of clear benefit to calves during transport, to the extent that it may even reduce some of the negative effects of reduced space on lying behaviour. PMID

  5. The Effect of Age, Stocking Density and Flooring during Transport on Welfare of Young Dairy Calves in Australia

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    Ellen C. Jongman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Transport of young (‘bobby’ calves for slaughter is a contentious welfare issue for some sectors of the Australian community. Factors of age, stocking density and flooring need further research to develop appropriate welfare standards for transport of bobby calves. The objective of this study was to identify the space allowance requirements for transport of bobby calves and to understand factors such as age and flooring that minimise risks to calf welfare during transport. Animals aged 3-, 5- and 10-day old were transported for 12 h in a custom-made cattle truck fitted with 9 pens, with movable mesh divisions. Each pen contained 4 calves, with space allowances of 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5 m2 per calf and flooring of solid metal, mesh or straw bedding. A total of 432 male dairy calves were transported in 12 trips during the 2-year study. Behavioural measurements included lying during transport, and lying and drinking for 12 h after transport during recovery. Blood samples were taken prior to transport, immediately after transport and 12 h after transport. Blood samples were analysed for metabolic state (glucose, beta-hydroxy-butyrate (BOHB, hydration (packed cell volume (PCV and exhaustion/bruising (creatine kinase (CK activity. It was found that several measures were affected by age, which indicates that the physiology and in particular lying behaviour of 3-day old calves is fundamentally different from that of older calves. It is unclear how this affects their ability to cope with the stressors of transport. Space affected the posture changes and CK activity during and after transport and it is concluded that space allowance should be at least 0.3 m2 per calf for calves of average size, while CK activity suggested that providing more space to 0.5 m2 per calf may provide even greater benefits. Straw bedding is of clear benefit to calves during transport, to the extent that it may even reduce some of the negative effects of reduced space on lying

  6. Neonatal lipopolysaccharide exposure does not diminish the innate immune response to a subsequent lipopolysaccharide challenge in Holstein bull calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, A L; Korkmaz, F T; Elsasser, T H; Kerr, D E

    2016-07-01

    The innate immune response following experimental mastitis is quite variable between individual dairy cattle. An inflammatory response that minimizes collateral damage to the mammary gland while still effectively resolving the infection following pathogen exposure is beneficial to dairy producers. The ability of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure in early life to generate a low-responding phenotype and thus reduce the inflammatory response to a later-life LPS challenge was investigated in neonatal bull calves. Ten Holstein bull calves were randomly assigned to either an early life LPS (ELL) group (n=5) or an early life saline (ELS) group (n=5). At 7d of age, calves received either LPS or saline, and at 32d of age, all calves were challenged with an intravenous dose of LPS to determine the effect of the early life treatment (LPS or saline) on the immune response generated toward a subsequent LPS challenge. Dermal fibroblast and monocyte-derived macrophage cultures from each calf were established at age 20 and 27d, respectively, to model sustained effects from the early life LPS exposure on gene expression and protein production of components within the LPS response pathway. The ELL calves had greater levels of plasma IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α than the ELS calves following the early life LPS or saline treatments. However, levels of these 2 immune markers were similar between ELL and ELS calves when both groups were subsequently challenged with LPS. A comparison of the in vitro LPS responses of the ELL and ELS calves revealed similar patterns of protein production and gene expression following an LPS challenge of both dermal fibroblast and monocyte-derived macrophage cultures established from the treatment groups. Whereas an early life exposure to LPS did not result in a dampened inflammatory response toward a later LPS challenge in these neonatal bull calves, the potential that exposure to inflammation or stress in early life or in utero can create an

  7. Postweaning performance of calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue or common bermudagrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M A; Phillips, W A; Brown, A H; Coleman, S W; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1999-01-01

    Data from 403 Polled Hereford-sired calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows were used to evaluate the effects of preweaning forage environment on postweaning performance. Calves were spring-born in 1991 to 1994 and managed on either endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+) or common bermudagrass (BG) during the preweaning phase. After weaning, calves were shipped to the Grazinglands Research Laboratory, El Reno, OK and stratified to one of two winter stocker treatments by breed and preweaning forage; stocker treatments were winter wheat pasture (WW) or native range plus supplemental CP (NR). Each stocker treatment was terminated in March, calves grazed cool-season grasses, and calves were then moved to a feedlot phase in June. In the feedlot phase, calves were fed to approximately 10 mm fat over the 12th rib and averaged approximately 115 d on feed. When finished, calves were weighed and shipped to Amarillo, TX for slaughter. Averaged over calf breed group, calves from E+ gained faster during the stocker phase (Pyield grade, marbling score, and dressing percentage. Maternal heterosis was larger in calves from E+ for starting weight on feed (P<.01), finished weight (P<.10), and carcass weight (P<.16). These data suggest that few carryover effects from tall fescue preweaning environments exist, other than lighter, but acceptable, weights through slaughter. These data further suggest that the tolerance to E+ in calves from reciprocal-cross cows, expressed in weaning weights, moderated postweaning weight differences between E+ and BG compared to similar comparisons in calves from purebred cows.

  8. The long term effect of age and maternally derived antibodies against foot and mouth disease on the serological response following vaccination in young dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnekave, Ehud; Dekker, Aldo; Eble, Phaedra; van Hemert-Kluitenberg, Froukje; Gelman, Boris; Storm, Nick; Klement, Eyal

    2016-09-22

    In Israel, occurrence of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in dairy farms is rare. However, when FMD outbreaks occur, dairy calves are the most affected, despite routine vaccination. Contradictory findings exist regarding the effect of age and maternally derived antibodies (MDA) on the serological response following vaccinations against FMD in dairy calves. Furthermore, the long term effect of FMD vaccination regimen during early life was rarely assessed. This study was conducted in order to assess both the short and long term effects. In total 44 non-vaccinated calves were divided into four groups of different age. Calves were vaccinated up to four times and 484 serum samples were collected on 11 time points in a period of 70weeks. Virus neutralizing tests were performed in order to determine the neutralizing antibody titers (NAT) against the vaccine strains (homologous serotypes): O-4625, O-Manisa, ASIA-1-Shamir and the heterologous serotype A-Turkey-20/2006. A similar NAT pattern was observed to all serotypes and therefore statistical analysis was restricted to O-4625 serotype. The MDA titer was negatively associated with the age of the calves and the MDA half-life was 22days. We demonstrated that early vaccination of calves (younger than three months) resulted in low NAT, even after four repeated vaccinations, compared with vaccination of calves older than three months. The percentage of time in which these calves had a NAT above 2.0 (log10) between the age of six months and 1.5years was significantly lower compared to older calves (older than three months). Additionally, we found that by increasing the frequency of vaccination in calves older than three months, it is possible to reach high NAT by the age of one year. Adoption of such a vaccination regimen in Israel as well as other FMD endemic countries may allow better protection against FMD in dairy calves and reduction in FMD incidence. PMID:27521229

  9. EFFECTS OF SUPPLEMENTAL LYSINE ON PERFORMANCE, ANTIBODY TITER AND RECTAL TEMPERATURE IN RESPONSE TO A MODIFIED-LIVE VIRAL VACCINE IN NEONATAL CALVES

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    Kate Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR, caused by bovine herpesvirus-1, contributes significantly to economic losses in the dairy and beef cattle industry. Lysine has been shown reduce virulence of herpesviruses in felids and humans. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of supplemental lysine on serum IBR antibody titer and rectal temperature in response to a modified-live Intranasal (IN or Intramuscular (IM respiratory-virus vaccination. Sixty-four neonatal Holstein bull calves (7±2 d of age; BW = 37±4.2 kg were used in a completely randomized design. Calves were fed milk replacer supplemented with either 17 g/d L-lysine monohydrochloride (LYS; 28 calves or an equivalent amount of casein (CAS; 28 calves for 42 d. Calves were then vaccinated with either an IN IBR-Parainfluenza virus-3 (PI3 or an IM (IBR-PI3-bovine viral diarrhea type I and II, bovine respiratory syncytial virus modified-live vaccine on d 36. A control group (8 calves received no supplement or vaccination. All calves were housed in individual calf pens (1.2×2.1 m. Daily feed intakes were monitored and BW measured weekly. Calves were bled on d 0, 35, 36, 37 and 42. Temperature data loggers were attached to rectal probes and temperatures were recorded every 5 min from d 28 to d 42. No significant differences were determined for average performance, rectal temperature, or IBR antibody titers with either IN or IM vaccinations between LYS and CAS treated calves (p>0.10. However, serum urea nitrogen and the ratio of serum lysine: Arginine increased (p<0.05 for LYS compared to CAS calves. These results suggest that supplementing lysine impacts nitrogen metabolism but does not alter the response to IBR vaccination or animal performance in neonatal Holstein calves.

  10. Exigências nutricionais de bezerros nelores lactentes Nutritional requirements of nursing Nellore calves

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    Mozart Alves Fonseca

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar as exigências de proteína, energia e macrominerais de bezerros nelores do nascimento aos 180 dias. Foram utilizados 20 bezerros (10 machos e 10 fêmeas com peso corporal médio de 30±3 kg. Imediatamente após o nascimento, quatro bezerros, dois machos e duas fêmeas, foram abatidos para estimar a composição corporal inicial dos animais restantes no experimento. Aos 90 dias, foram abatidos oito bezerros (quatro machos e quatro fêmeas, o restante dos animais abatidos aos 180 dias. Além do leite, os bezerros foram alimentados com silagem de milho à vontade e concentrado comercial fixado em no máximo 0,5 kg/animal/dia. Foram conduzidos dois ensaios de digestibilidade, aos 30 e 90 dias para estimar os consumos de energia dos bezerros. Após o abate, todos os bezerros tiveram suas meias-carcaças direitas dissecadas. Os conteúdos corporais de proteína, energia e minerais foram estimados pela equação Y = a . PCVZb, sendo PCVZ o peso de corpo vazio. A relação PCVZ/PC dos bezerros foi de 0,9622 e a de ganho (G de PCVZ/GPC foi de 0,958. As exigências líquidas de proteína e energia aumentaram com o aumento do peso corporal, enquanto as de cálcio diminuíram. As exigências de proteína metabolizável para ganho de 1 kg de PC foram de 216,96 e 261,98 g para bezerros de 100 e 200 kg, respectivamente. Recomenda-se utilizar as seguintes equações para estimar os conteúdos corporais de bezerros Nelore lactentes: proteína (g/dia = 0,135 × PCVZ1,0351; energia (Mcal/dia = 1,1798 × PCVZ1,1805; cálcio (g/dia = 0,091 × PCVZ0,6019; fósforo (g/dia = 0,00894 × PCVZ0,9629; sódio (g/dia = 0,00126 × PCVZ0,9791; magnésio (g/dia = 0,000405 × PCVZ0,9827; potássio (g/dia = 0,00165 × PCVZ0,9364.This experiment was carried out to evaluate the nutritional requirements of protein, energy and macro minerals for Nellore calves from birth to 180 days. A total of 20 calves, 10 males (M and 10

  11. Genetic analyses of days to calving and their relationships with other traits in a Canchim cattle herd

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    Talita Buttarello Mucari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Heritabilities and genetic correlations in a Canchim beef cattle herd were estimated using data on the following traits: male scrotal circumference at twelve months (SC12; days to first calving (DFC for heifers; days to calving (DC for cows; male and female weight (W at twelve months (W12; heifer weight at the start of the first breeding season (WFBS and at first calving (WFC; and cow weight at the start of the breeding season (WBS and at calving (WC. Analyses of the DFC and DC traits were carried out excluding and including penalized (DFC P and DC P non-calving females. The restricted maximum likelihood method was used, applying one-trait models for the DFC and DC analyses and two-trait models for analyses of DFC and DC combined with the other traits studied. Statistical models included fixed and additive direct random effects for all traits, maternal permanent environmental random effect for SC12 and W12, and the animal permanent environmental random effect for DC P, WBS and WC. We found that DFC and DC values can be improved by selecting for an increase in the SC12. Genetic correlations between DFC and W12 and between DC and W12 indicated that selection for increased W12 may increase DFC but does not produce significantly correlated responses in DC. Associations of the other body weight traits with DC and DFC suggest that heavier females experience lower reproductive performance.

  12. The influence of supplemental chromium and vaccines on the acute phase response of newly arrived feeder calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A J; Mallard, B A; Mowat, D N

    1995-01-01

    The acute phase response as indicated by serum haptoglobin and total haemolytic complement activity (CH50) was measured in 72 cross-bred steer calves purchased at sales in Ontario. During the 28 day (d) trial, 18 steers were randomly assigned to each of the following groups: 1) control; 2) vaccinated (Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis, Parainfluenza-3, Bovine Viral Diarrhea, Bovine Respiratory Synctial Virus vaccine plus Pasteurella haemolytica vaccine); 3) supplemental chelated Cr (0.14 mg/kg); and 4) Cr plus vaccines. Haptoglobin concentrations were low at arrival, increased (P 0.05) by day 14. Supplemental Cr reduced (P 0.05) than in healthy calves. Complement activity was lowest on day 7 (P 0.10). Complement activity did not increase on day 14 (P > 0.05) with Cr supplementation as in other treatments. Morbid calves had lower (P < 0.05) CH50 activity than healthy calves on day 14. Following antibiotic treatment, the Cr-supplemented group had higher (P < 0.05) CH50 than during morbidity. In general, chromium supplementation reduced the acute phase response in newly arrived feeder calves. PMID:8548694

  13. Performance and metabolic responses of Holstein calves to supplemental chromium in colostrum and milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, A; Sadri, H; Alizadeh, A R; Bruckmaier, R M

    2012-10-01

    Twenty-two newborn Holstein female calves (BW = 39.7 ± 0.40 kg) were used to investigate the effects of chromium-l-methionine (Cr-Met) supplementation of colostrum for 3d after birth and mature milk up to wk 8 on feed intake, growth performance, health status, and metabolic and endocrine traits. Calves were randomly assigned to 2 groups, each consisting of 11 animals: 1) control and 2) 0.03 mg of supplemental Cr/kg of BW(0.75). Body weight, height at withers, and hearth girth were measured weekly. Dry matter intake, rectal temperature, fecal score, and respiratory score were recorded daily. Blood samples were collected at 12, 24, and 72 h after birth, and then every week up to 8 wk. Chromium did not affect mean body weight, dry matter intake, and withers height, but it increased hearth girth and average daily gain, tended to increase final BW, and decreased feed conversion ratio. Respiration rate increased and fecal score decreased with Cr, and rectal temperature tended to decrease with Cr. No Cr × time interactions were observed for performance and health status results except for fecal score. Blood glucose, insulin, insulin-to-glucose ratio, insulin-like growth factor-I, total protein, and triiodothyronine were not affected, whereas blood β-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterified fatty acids, cholesterol, cortisol, and thyroxin were affected by Cr supplementation. Supplemental Cr-Met decreased blood β-hydroxybutyrate at 72 h and in wk 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6 and decreased blood nonesterified fatty acids at 12h and in wk 3, 4, and 5 after birth. Blood cholesterol decreased in all sampling times, except for 12h and wk 7. Chromium decreased blood cortisol at 24h and in wk 2, 4, and 8. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate the beneficial effects of colostrum and milk supplementation with Cr to improve the performance and metabolic status of newborn calves. PMID:22863099

  14. Ricobendazole kinetics and availability following subcutaneous administration of a novel injectable formulation to calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanusse, C E; Virkel, G L; Sanchez, S F; Alvarez, L I; Lifschitz, A L; Imperiale, F; Monfrinotti, A

    1998-01-01

    The plasma and abomasal fluid disposition kinetics of ricobendazole (RBZ) after subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of a novel injectable formulation to calves, and the comparative plasma availability after s.c. injection of RBZ and that obtained after oral treatment with albendazole (ABZ), were characterised. Six parasite-free Holstein calves received RBZ (solution 150 mg ml(-1)) by s.c. injection at 3.75 mg kg(-1) (Experiment 1). Experiment 2 was conducted in two experimental phases; in phase I, five calves (Group A) received RBZ by s.c. injection and five animals (Group B) were orally treated with ABZ (suspension 100 mg ml(-1)), at 5 mg kg(-1). Drug treatments were reversed for each group in phase II and given at 7.5 mg kg(-1). Samples of abomasal fluid (via cannula) and jugular blood were collected over 72 hours post-treatment and analysed by HPLC. RBZ and its sulphone metabolite were detected in plasma following its s.c. administration. RBZ was rapidly absorbed, reaching the plasma Cmax at 4.5 hours post-dosing. The sulphone metabolite followed a similar kinetic pattern. Both molecules were rapidly and extensively distributed into the abomasum, being detected in abomasal fluid between 30 minutes and 36 hours post-administration. An extensive plasma/abomasum exchange process, with ionic-trapping in the abomasum, accounted for the higher AUC value (>200 per cent) obtained for RBZ in abomasum compared with plasma. The s.c. treatment with RBZ formulated as a solution resulted in a significantly greater plasma availability (measured as ABZ sulphoxide) than the oral treatment with ABZ (suspension) given at the same dose rates. PMID:9769065

  15. Effects of wheat protein in milk replacers on abomasal emptying rate in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittek, T; Ernstberger, M; Muckenhuber, M; Flöck, M

    2016-04-01

    Diarrhoea is a condition with tremendous impact on calf health. Infectious agents play a dominant role; however, non-infective factors may also contribute to pathogenesis of diarrhoea. One factor, the abomasal emptying rate, is mainly influenced by the composition of feed. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of different protein sources in milk replacers on abomasal emptying rate and clinical parameters. The effect of increasing age of the calves on abomasal emptying was also evaluated. The study compared abomasal emptying rates and clinical parameters in calves, which were fed either milk replacer containing only whey protein or one which partially contained wheat protein. Abomasal emptying rate was estimated by ultrasonography. Ten calves were used in the study over 18 days, and each calf was fed 3 periods of 3 days length using different milk replacers in an alternating crossover design. The abomasum was emptied significantly faster when the wheat protein containing milk replacer was fed (half-emptying time wheat protein 49.1 ± 4.1 min, half-emptying time milk protein 59.1 ± 7.4 min); however, clinical parameters and weight gain did not differ between the feeding regimes. Age did not significantly influence abomasal emptying rate. As milk replacers containing wheat proteins increased abomasal emptying rate, they may have a higher potential to initiate diarrhoea, especially if high volumes are fed. Thus, the feeding regimes are likely to be even more important when such milk replacers are used.

  16. Assessment of nonpenetrating captive bolt stunning followed by electrical induction of cardiac arrest in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, B; Collins, M; Stoddard, G; Appleton, A; Livingood, R; Sobcynski, H; Vogel, K D

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nonpenetrating captive bolt stunning followed by electrical induction of cardiac arrest on veal calf welfare, veal quality, and blood yield. Ninety calves from the same farm were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups in a balanced unpaired comparison design. The first treatment group (the "head-only" method-application of the pneumatic nonpenetrating stun to the frontal plate of the skull at the intersection of 2 imaginary lines extending from the lateral canthus to the opposite poll [CONTROL]) was stunned with a nonpenetrating captive bolt gun ( = 45). The second group ( = 45) was stunned with a nonpenetrating captive bolt gun followed by secondary electrical induction of cardiac arrest (the "head/heart" method-initial application of the pneumatic nonpenetrating captive bolt stun followed by 1 s application of an electrical stun to the ventral region of the ribcage directly caudal to the junction of the humerus and scapula while the stunned calf was in lateral recumbence [HEAD/HEART]). Stunning efficacy was the indicator of animal welfare used in this study. All calves were instantly rendered insensible by the initial stun and did not display common indicators of return to consciousness. For meat quality evaluation, all samples were collected from the 12th rib region of the longissimus thoracis. Meat samples were evaluated for color, drip loss, ultimate pH, cook loss, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. The L* values (measure of meat color lightness) were darker ( 0.05) observed in a* (redness) and b* (yellowness) values between treatments. No differences ( > 0.05) were observed in drip loss, ultimate pH, cook loss, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. The blood yield from the CONTROL group (7,217.9 ± 143.5 g) was greater ( veal calves. PMID:26440354

  17. Pharmacokinetics of firocoxib in preweaned calves after oral and intravenous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, M L; Gehring, R; Barth, L A; Wulf, L W; Coetzee, J F

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of intravenous and oral firocoxib in 10 healthy preweaned calves. Firocoxib (0.5 mg/kg) was initially administered i.v. to calves, and following a 14-day washout period, animals received firocoxib orally prior to cautery dehorning. Firocoxib concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Changes in hematology and plasma chemistry were determined using automated methods. Computer software was used to estimate pharmacokinetic parameters best described with a two-compartment model for i.v. administration and a one-compartment model for p.o. administration. Following i.v. dosing, the geometric mean (range) T1/2K10 and T1/2β were 6.7 (4.6-9.7) and 37.2 (23.5-160.4) h, respectively, Vss was 3.10 (2.10-7.22) L/kg, and CL was 121.7 (100.1-156.7) mL/h/kg. Following oral administration, geometric mean (range) Cmax was 127.9 (102.5-151.3) ng/mL, Tmax was 4.0 (2.6-5.6) h, and T1/2K10 was 18.8 (14.2-25.5) h. Bioavailability of oral firocoxib was calculated using the AUC derived from both study populations to be 98.4% (83.1-117.6%). No adverse clinical effects were evident following firocoxib administration. Pharmacokinetic analysis of i.v. and p.o. firocoxib indicates high bioavailability and a prolonged terminal half-life in preweaned calves. PMID:24708198

  18. THE FIRST DOMESTIC IMPLANTABLE AXIAL FLOW PUMP: RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES IN CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Itkin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of our experimental study was evaluation of the first domestic implantable axial pump as a left ventricle assist device in calves. Materials and methods. 18 calves 90–120 days of age, weighing 95 ± 5 kg were exposed to implantation of an axial pump under the scheme «left ventricular – aorta» in paracorporeal and implantable in chest cavity versions. Two models of the pump were tested. Model 1 is a pump with cylindrical bearings and elongated straightener, model 2 had ball bearings and modified design of impeller and straightener. Results. In the first series (n = 12 the pump model 1 was tested. The duration of experiments was 4,9 ± 5,3 days, maximal duration was 16 days. The experiments were finalized due to intraoperation cardiac fibrillation (n = 3, uncrop- ped acute bleeding (n = 3, lowering of blood flow through the pump of 60 ± 15% (n = 6 because of thrombo- sis of the pump (n = 5 and outlet line (n = 1, in 3 cases of 5, combined with mechanical wear of bearings. In the second series (n = 6 the pump model 2 was tested. In 4 experiments of 6 the duration was 74,5 ± 29 days. One experiment was finalized due to intraoperation cardiac fibrillation. Another one experiment was finalized on 8 day as planned. In 5 experiments there was absence of either thrombosis or mechanical wear of bearings. Morphological and histological examination of the kidneys, liver and lungs in the 5 experiments of second series did not reveal the presence of zones of ischemia or thromboembolia. Conclusion. The results of the second series can be treaded as preclinical testing of the first domestic implantable axial pump as a left ventricle assist device in calves

  19. Outcome prediction in Legg-Calve-Perthes disease using magnetic resonance image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Motoo [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to predict the prognosis of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease using the magnetic resonance image. The subjects were 30 patients (27 boys and 3 girls) with unilateral Legg-Calve-Perthes disease who underwent conservative treatment using non-weight-bearing abduction brace or A-cast. The mean age at onset was 7.5 years (5-11 years). The mean period between the onset and primary healing was 21.7 months (15-32 months). According to Catterall's classification, one patient was type II, 27 patients were type III, and two patients were type IV. The hips at the primary healing were radiographically evaluated using Mose's classification and the acetabular head index. Based on the evaluation results, the patients were divided into good, fair and poor groups. Hypertrophy of the medial and lateral cartilage and the physeal curvature of the femoral head were measured on the MR images taken averages 7.9 months (6-10 months) after onset, and scored. The total score of the 3 parameters was regarded as the MRI score. There were no significant differences in the hypertrophy of the medial cartilage among the 3 groups. The hypertrophy of the lateral cartilage was significantly higher in the poor group than in the good and fair groups. The physeal curvature of the femoral head was significantly larger in the fair and poor groups than in the good group. There were significant differences in the MRI score among the 3 groups. Fourteen of the 16 patients with an MRI score of 6 points or higher were in the fair or poor group, while 11 of the 14 patients with an MRI score of 5 points or lower were in the good group. The MRI score determined by quantifying the MR images was considered useful for predicting the prognosis of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. (author)

  20. Analysis of low-frequency seismic signals generated during a multiple-iceberg calving event at Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Fabian; Amundson, Jason M.; O'Neel, Shad; Truffer, Martin; Fahnestock, Mark; Fricker, Helen A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated seismic signals generated during a large-scale, multiple iceberg calving event that occurred at Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland, on 21 August 2009. The event was recorded by a high-rate time-lapse camera and five broadband seismic stations located within a few hundred kilometers of the terminus. During the event two full-glacier-thickness icebergs calved from the grounded (or nearly grounded) terminus and immediately capsized; the second iceberg to calve was two to three times smaller than the first. The individual calving and capsize events were well-correlated with the radiation of low-frequency seismic signals (forces acting at the glacier terminus. The signals therefore appear to be local manifestations of glacial earthquakes, although the magnitudes of the signals (twice-time integrated force histories) were considerably smaller than previously reported glacial earthquakes. We thus speculate that such earthquakes may be a common, if not pervasive, feature of all full-glacier-thickness calving events from grounded termini. Finally, a key result from our study is that waveform inversions performed on low-frequency, calving-generated seismic signals may have only limited ability to quantitatively estimate mass losses from calving. In particular, the choice of source time function has little impact on the inversion but dramatically changes the earthquake magnitude. Accordingly, in our analysis, it is unclear whether the smaller or larger of the two calving icebergs generated a larger seismic signal.