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Sample records for calves

  1. Fluid therapy in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geof W; Berchtold, Joachim

    2014-07-01

    Early and aggressive fluid therapy is critical in correcting the metabolic complications associated with calf diarrhea. Oral electrolyte therapy can be used with success in calves, but careful consideration should be given to the type of oral electrolyte used. Electrolyte solutions with high osmolalities can significantly slow abomasal emptying and can be a risk factor for abomasal bloat in calves. Milk should not be withheld from calves with diarrhea for more than 12 to 24 hours. Hypertonic saline and hypertonic sodium bicarbonate can be used effectively for intravenous fluid therapy on farms when intravenous catheterization is not possible. PMID:24980729

  2. Microbiome Development in Neonatal Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The initial colonization of eukaryotic hosts by microbial populations is poorly understood, yet this remains a critical time for growth and development. The goals of this study were to characterize the microbiome of neonatal calves. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis...

  3. Less pressure at Calve (food industry); Calve onder lagere druk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roggen, M. (ed.)

    2002-04-01

    Since 1 January 2002, the Dutch food industry Calve applies a sophisticated compressed air system for the production of peanut butter, mayonnaise and sauces in the Delft factory. Parent company Unilever hopes the new system will reduce energy consumption by nearly 400,000 kWh. In a business where product quality is crucial, and where compressed air is critical for quality, pressure reduction is a daring move. [Dutch] De productie van pindakaas, mayonaise en sauzen van Calve in Delft verloopt sinds 1 januari met een uitgekiendere persluchtregeling. Zo hoopt moederbedrijf Unilever jaarlijks bijna 400.000 kWh op de energienota te besparen. In een bedrijf waar de kwaliteit van het product zeer kritisch is en sterk afhankelijk is van perslucht, is drukverlaging een gedurfde onderneming.

  4. Rumen development in veal (preruminant) calves

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez, B.J.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, veal calves were fed until slaughter weight with only milk replacer and, in absence of solid feed the physiological development of the forestomachs was limited. In 1997, a new EU legislation stipulated that a minimum amount of solid feed (fiber) has to be provided for the welfare of the calves (solid feed supply reduce abnormal oral behaviors in veal calves; Van Putten, 1982; Veissier et al., 1998); however, no specifications were made about the type and source of feed.Rumen dev...

  5. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in calves in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Geurden, T

    2007-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis mainly occurs in calves younger than 1 month, and causes a mild to profuse diarrhea. In contrast, a Giardia infection is most frequently diagnosed in calves older than 1 month and clinical symptoms comprise a chronical and intermittent diarrhea, and ill thriving. Cattle are considered as a possible reservoir for zoonotic transmission. The objectives of the present thesis were to estimate the prevalence of both parasites in calves younger than 10 weeks, to evaluate common dia...

  6. Passive seismology reveals biannual calving periodicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaus, T. C.; Larsen, C. F.; West, M. E.; Oneel, S.

    2013-12-01

    Iceberg calving is a large and variable component of the total mass loss from marine-terminating glaciers worldwide. However, the processes that control the size and variability of calving fluxes are poorly understood. Even more basic descriptions of iceberg calving, such as its seasonality, are uncertain. Here, we present nearly two years of automatically-estimated calving fluxes at Yahtse Glacier, a tidewater glacier whose terminus flows at ~7 km/yr towards the Gulf of Alaska. At the terminus, ice losses to calving and submarine melt total approximately 1.5 km^3/yr. In order to identify temporal variability in this mean rate, we develop a statistical model of calving size based on characteristics of calving-generated icequakes. These characteristics include 4 amplitude-based variables and 5 variables related to the shape of the icequake envelope. We build our model by combining automatically-detected icequakes (O'Neel et al., 2007) located at the terminus of Yahtse Glacier (Jones et al., 2013) with a training set of 1400 icequakes produced by visually-observed calving events (Bartholomaus et al., 2012). In each of the models tested (regression trees, multinomial logistic regression and multiple linear regession), icequake duration emerges as the single best predictor of iceberg size, consistent with past studies (Qamar, 1988; O'Neel et al., 2007). Additional predictors, such as the mean icequake amplitude and the kurtosis of the icequake envelope improve the predictive capability of the model and reduce the mean squared error to well-within the error of the in-person classification. Once validated, we apply our model to ~ 400,000 icequakes produced by calving events at Yahtse Glacier between June 2009 and September 2011. These results reveal fluctuations in calving rate at a range of timescales, including twice per year. We suggest that the roughly 50%, biannual variation in calving rate is the result of the trade-off between two competing processes at the

  7. Trends in calving ages and calving intervals for dairy cattle breeds in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, E; Norman, H D; Wright, J R

    2006-01-01

    Trends since 1980 for calving age and calving interval, 2 factors that influence herd life, were examined by parity for 5 breeds of US dairy cattle. Calving data were from cows with records that passed edits for USDA genetic evaluations and were in herds that remained on Dairy Herd Improvement test. First-calf heifers calved at progressively younger ages over time, but the age decline was less for later parities because of longer calving intervals. Breed differences for calving age were evident for all parities; current mean age at first calving ranged from 24 mo for Jerseys to 28 mo for Ayrshires. Mean calving age across all parities declined over time for all breeds, primarily because of increased turnover rate, and ranged from 48 mo for Holsteins to 54 mo for Ayrshires. Across parity, annual increase in calving interval was reasonably consistent (0.90 to 1.07 d/yr) for all breeds except Jersey (0.49 d/yr). Within parity, regressions of calving interval on year were generally similar to overall breed trend. Breed means for first calving interval across time ranged from 390 d for Jerseys to 407 d for Brown Swiss. PMID:16357301

  8. Behaviour of calves in the first weeks of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech NEJA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavioural observations were conducted on 20 calves (10 bull calves and 10 heifer calves. The first series of observations was made in the first 4 days of life, and the second after a month (within 30 to 33 days of calving. Time from birth to first unassisted standing (standing on all extended legs ranged from 16 minutes (heifers to 158 minutes (bulls for normal calving. Calves born from normal parturitions stood up after an average of 81 minutes and those born from difficult parturitions after 302 minutes. Calves that required assistance at calving showed shorter standing and longer lying time. In the first 4 days of life and after a month, both male and female calves were more often in left lateral recumbency when resting. Heifer calves more often visited the feeder while bull calves more often consumed concentrates, water and hay.

  9. Abomasal ulceration and tympany of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Tessa S

    2009-03-01

    This article reviews the current knowledge on the pathophysiology of abomasal ulcer formation and abomasal tympany in calves. The development of ulcers and bloat has been attributed to many factors, including coarse feed, environmental stress, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, and bacterial infections. This article discusses various factors thought to play a role in the development of these abomasal conditions in calves. PMID:19174290

  10. Clostridial abomasal disease in Connecticut dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kruiningen, Herbert J; Nyaoke, Carol A; Sidor, Inga F; Fabis, Jaroslaw J; Hinckley, Lynn S; Lindell, Kevin A

    2009-08-01

    Over 2 years, 24 dairy calves died of emphysematous abomasitis and abomasal bloat. Anaerobic cultures of necrotic abomasal mucosa yielded Clostridium perfringens from 10 of 15 calves. Sarcina were observed in 17 of 22 examined histologically. A change in the antibiotic regimen for newborns and improved sanitizing of feeding utensils eliminated further losses. PMID:19881926

  11. Beef Heifer Development Within Three Calving Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 3-yr study was conducted to evaluate impacts of calving system, weaning age, and post-weaning management on growth and reproduction in beef heifers. Heifer calves (n=676) born in late winter (LW; avg birth date = Feb 7 ± 9 d) or early spring (ES; avg birth date Apr 3 ± 10 d) were weaned at 190- or...

  12. Ichthyosis in two Chianina calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testoni, S; Zappulli, V; Gentile, A

    2006-09-01

    The occurrence of ichthyosis in two Italian Chianina calves is described for the first time. Both animals, affected by ichthyosis fetalis and ichthyosis congenita, respectively, showed diffuse cutaneous thickening which had been present since birth. The first patient was a three-month-old female calf; inelastic leather cuirass-like skin associated with generalized hypotrichosis and local alopecia, delay of the physiologic change of coat colour, stiff movement and growth retardation were the most prominent clinical characteristics. The patient was kept under observation for almost one year. The second case occurred in a 18-day-old female calf which was referred to our clinic after it had already died; the presence of irregular hyperkeratotic plates separated by deep fissures over the entire cutaneous surface and the slight eversion of the mucocutaneous junction (eclabium and ectropion) were the most characteristic alterations. In both cases, the major histopathological feature was a diffuse lamellar orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis. An underlying genetic defect was strongly suspected on the basis of a common ancestor for the two sires of the affected calves and of the current scientific knowledge. PMID:17009813

  13. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgaeren, Bonnie R; Pardon, Bart; Goossens, Evy; Verherstraeten, Stefanie; Roelandt, Sophie; Timbermont, Leen; Van Der Vekens, Nicky; Stuyvaert, Sabrina; Gille, Linde; Van Driessche, Laura; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip; Deprez, Piet

    2015-07-01

    Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin. PMID:26184311

  14. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie R. Valgaeren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin.

  15. Behaviour around the time of calving in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate behavioural changes before and after calving in dairy cows in order to describe behavioural signs of imminent calving and of cows’ recovery after calving. Thirty-two multiparous Danish Holstein Frisian cows with an unassisted calving were studied from 96 h...

  16. Management of Calving in Norwegian Cubicle-Housed Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simensen E

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Sixty of the 65 dairy farms with cubicle houses in the Norwegian county of Oppland were included in a field study of the management of calving in 1990. The farmers recorded the location of the cow when giving birth, farmer presence and whether assistance was given during calving, occurrence of suckling, and time after birth when cow and calf were separated. Such data were recorded for a total of 1125 calvings. About 10% occurred on pasture, while 78% of the remaining calvings took place in the cubicle-equipped section. Thirteen percent calved in a calving pen, the remaining cows being tethered at the time of calving. Thirty-two percent of the calvings took place in houses lacking a calving pen altogether. Farmers were present during 41% of the calvings. Suckling most frequently occurred after pasture calvings, and was least frequent after calvings within the cubicle-equipped section of the cowhouse. Injuries to the calf caused by trampling or contact with fittings etc. were rare, and no more common in association with calving in the cubicle-equipped section than with calving taking place with the cow isolated from the rest of the herd. All calves were removed from their dams within 24 h after birth.

  17. Haematological Studies of Gaolao Calves

    OpenAIRE

    P. M. Kapale; D. G. Jagtap; D. M. Badukale and S.K.Sahatpure

    2008-01-01

    The hematological study in fifteen healthy Gaolao calves ranging from birth to 12 months of age indicate the mean ± S.E. value of TEC (11.00± 0.20 million/cu.mm), Hb (14.27±0.43 gm%), PCV (35.00±0.79%), MCV (31.70±0.92 cu.μ), MCH (13.04±0.84 μ. μgm), MCHC (41.16±1.76%), TLC (07.49±0.39 thousand/cu.mm), Lymphocytes (71.87 ±1.45%), Neutrophil (23.27±1.27%), Monocyte (1.3 ...

  18. Pre-Calving and Calving Management Practices in Dairy Herds with a History of High or Low Bovine Perinatal Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Doherty; Jim Grant; Cosme Sánchez-Miguel; Mee, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Mortality of full-term calves at calving is an increasing problem in dairy industries internationally. Multiple herd management factors contribute to such losses. This case-control study identified factors which differed between herds with high and low calf mortality. These included breeding, dietary, health and calving factors. It was concluded that calving, not pre-calving, management appears to be the most important area of concern in herds with high perinatal mortality. Thi...

  19. USING SAFFRON CAKE IN FEEDING CALVES

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaev S. I.; Kucherova I. A.; Chehranova S. V.

    2014-01-01

    The article proves a positive effect of feeding with saffron cake and premix based this substance on growth and development, nutrient utilization ration, morphological and biochemical parameters of blood of calves of black-motley breed

  20. Pharmacokinetics of ricobendazole in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formentini, E A; Mestorino, O N; Mariño, E L; Errecalde, J O

    2001-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of ricobendazole (RBZ) and its major metabolite albendazole sulphone (ABZSO2) were studied in six calves, after administration of RBZ (7.5 mg/kg), using a 10% experimental solution by the intravenous (i.v.) route, a 10% commercial solution by the subcutaneous (s.c.) route, and a 10% experimental suspension by the intraruminal (i.r.) route. Blood samples were drawn during a 60-h period. Plasma drug and metabolite concentrations were determined by HPLC. The pharmacokinetic evaluation in each case was prepared by weighted least-squares nonlinear regression analysis. Ricobendazole i.v. data were best fitted by a two-compartment model. The best pharmacokinetic exponents and coefficients were estimated, and the pharmacokinetic variables for RBZ and ABZSO2 were calculated from them. Similar patterns of plasma disposition were found for RBZ after i.r. and s.c. administration, suggesting delayed release from the s.c. site resembling the slow release of the drug from the rumen. PMID:11442798

  1. CALVING ANALYSIS IN COWS OF CHAROLAIS BREED AT SELECTED FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KLÁRA VAVRIŠÍNOVÁ

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available At our work we have analysed the organisation of calving in Charolais breed during the years from 1998 to 2001 at selected farm. Our monitoring of calving during winter season (from January to February shows the percentage of calving was in particular years ranged from 43.2 to 71.1. The most calves were born in February. We found out (total all years diffi cult calving (value 3 in 2 cases in April (1998 and 1999 and 1 case in February (1998 and 1 in March (1999. Calving marked with value 2 (total of all years we found out in January (2 cases, February (3 cases, March (4 cases and from September to December past one case. From 18 cases of diffi cult calving what we found out, 11 calves (61.11 % come from CHV 529 bull. In calves born by normal calving was found out average weight 34.75 kg, in ones born by calving with level 2 of diffi culty 36.36 kg, and in calves born by calving with diffi culty 3 was recorded average weight 41.5 kg. Recorded weight at 210 days of age in mostly cases was similar like in published breed standard.

  2. Crevassing and calving of glacial ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneally, James Patrick

    Calving of ice is a relatively new area of research in the still young field of glaciology. In the short time that calving has been studied, it has been mainly treated as an afterthought, with the predominant mode of thinking being that it will happen so to concern oneself with why is not important. Many studies dealt with observations of calving front positions over time vs. ice velocity in an attempt to quantify the calving rate as the difference between the two, while others have attempted to deduce some empirical relationship between calving rate and variables such as water depth or temperature. This study instead addresses the question of why, where, and when ice will first become crevassed, which is an obviously necessary condition for a later calving event to occur. Previous work examining the causes of calving used ideas put forth from a variety of fields, including civil engineering, materials science, and results from basic physics and mechanics. These theories are re-examined here and presented as part of a larger whole. Important results from the field of fracture mechanics are utilized frequently, and these results can be used as a predictor of ice behavior and intrinsic properties of ice, as well as properties like back stresses induced by local pinning points and resistive shears along glacial ice boundaries. A theory of fracture for a material experiencing creep is also presented with applications to ice shelves and crevasse penetration. Finally, a speculative theory regarding large scale iceberg formation is presented. It is meant mainly as an impetus to further discussion on the topic, with the hope that a model relating crevasse geometries to flow parameters can result in crevasse spacings that could produce the tabular icebergs which are so newsworthy. The primary focus of this thesis is to move away from the "after the fact" studies that are so common in calving research, and instead devote energy to determining what creates the conditions that

  3. Does temperament affect learning in calves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Laura E.; van Reenen, Cornelis G.; Jensen, Margit Bak;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how temperament affects learning ability in calves. Nine two-month-old Holstein-Friesian bull calves were subjected to four challenge tests: novel object (NOT), novel environment (NET), social isolation (SIT), and social isolation with a novel environmental...... cue (SI/E). During these tests, hypothesised temperament variables were recorded. Hypothesised learning variables were recorded during training on an operant task. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted on temperament variables and learning variables separately. Principal components (PCs...... variables, and these were proposed to reflect fearfulness, activity, exploration, and attention towards the environment. These hypothesised underlying temperamental traits were consistent with findings of previous studies using larger numbers of calves. Two learning PCs were extracted from the PCA on...

  4. Treatment of hypernatremia in neonatal calves with diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Abutarbush, Sameeh M.; Petrie, Lyall

    2007-01-01

    Five hypernatremic, diarrheic, neonatal calves were treated mainly by the intravenous administration of 5% dextrose alone or with isotonic sodium bicarbonate. All calves recovered without complications. The average reduction rate of serum sodium concentration was about 4 times that recommended and has not been tried successfully before in hypernatremic scouring calves.

  5. Eating quality of Holstein bull calves fed only grass or purely herbs matches that of concentrate-fed veal calves

    OpenAIRE

    Therkildsen, M.; Jensen, S. K.; Vestergaard, M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic meat production from Holstein calves born in dairy herds require that the bull calves are raised outdoor at least 6 months a year, and on large quantities of roughage in the diet. This study aimed at elucidating if Holstein bull calves fed either purely grass or purely herbs prior to slaughter would differ in meat quality traits, fatty acid composition and sensory profile and if they differed in quality aspects from concentrate-fed veal calves.

  6. Stress, immunity, and the management of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, Lindsey E; Moisá, Sonia J

    2016-04-01

    Despite many advances in management and housing of dairy calves, 1 in 10 US dairy heifers die before weaning. A better understanding of the internal and external stimuli that contribute to the physiological and behavioral responses of calves to stressors is needed to reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality. Feeding calves their first meal is crucial, as successful passive transfer reduces the risk of mortality and morbidity. Sexually dimorphic immune and stress responses appear to be present in young cattle, but more research is needed to determine if this is caused by human bias for female calves. After that first feeding, 1 in 10 heifers and most bull calves in the United States are transported to specialized calf-raising facilities, yet information is lacking on the newborn calf stress response during transit. Whether calves are raised on site or at a calf ranch, individual housing systems are commonly used in the United States to reduce the risk of pathogen exposure and provide individual feeding and healthcare. However, health, growth, and social implications may be present for calves in alternative systems with greater space allowance than conventional systems or group housing. Disbudding and castration are typically performed at an early age for dairy calves during the pre-wean stage. These stressors often take place when the calf has decreased passive transfer of Ig and immunity is developing. Availability of pain mitigation through anesthetics and analgesics is limited, but evidence indicates that analgesics attenuate suppressed leukocyte function during these procedures. Solid-feed intake is a primary measure for determining weaning readiness, but some milk replacer formulas may influence the calf's oral behaviors before weaning; therefore, alternate weaning methods may need to coincide with alternate milk replacer formulas. The calf's behavioral and stress response at weaning may influence its immunity during the transition from individual to group

  7. Veal calves produce less antibodies against C. perfringens alpha toxin compared to beef calves

    OpenAIRE

    Valgaeren, Bonnie R.; Bart Pardon; Evy Goossens; Stefanie Verherstraeten; Sophie Roelandt; Leen Timbermont; Nicky Van Der Vekens; Sabrina Stuyvaert; Linde Gille; Laura Van Driessche; Freddy Haesebrouck; Richard Ducatelle; Filip Van Immerseel; Piet Deprez

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, wher...

  8. Pneumonia outbreaks in calves and finishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-19

    Pneumonia in calves and finishersOvarian tumour in a calfAbortion associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 in a suckler herdParasitic gastroenteritis causing illthrift and death in sheepOutbreaks of acute fasciolosis in sheepThese are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for December 2015 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:26993450

  9. Rumen development in veal (preruminant) calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suárez, B.J.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, veal calves were fed until slaughter weight with only milk replacer and, in absence of solid feed the physiological development of the forestomachs was limited. In 1997, a new EU legislation stipulated that a minimum amount of solid feed (fiber) has to be provided for the welfare of th

  10. Coccidiosis in suckled calves at grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Prepatent burden in calves with low coccidial oocyst counts, Lead poisoning in cattle, Suspect Ureaplasma species infection in a day-old calf, Lamb dysentery in a five-week-old lamb, Oedema disease in pigs. These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for June from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:26429821

  11. Pre-Calving and Calving Management Practices in Dairy Herds with a History of High or Low Bovine Perinatal Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Doherty

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bovine perinatal mortality is an increasing problem in dairy industries internationally. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with high and low herd-level calf mortality. Thirty herds with a history of either high (case or low (control calf mortality were recruited. A herd-level questionnaire was used to gather information on management practices likely to impact bovine perinatal mortality. The questionnaire was divided into four subsections dealing with pre-calving (breeding, diet and body condition score, endemic infectious diseases and calving factors. Most of the significant differences between case and control herds were found in calving management. For example, in case herds, pregnant cattle were less likely to be moved to the calving unit two or more days and more likely to be moved less than 12 hours pre-calving, they were also less likely to calve in group-calving facilities and their calves were more likely to receive intranasal or hypothermal resuscitation. These management procedures may cause social isolation and periparturient psychogenic uterine atony leading to dystocia, more weak calves requiring resuscitation and high perinatal calf mortality. The key finding is that calving, not pre-calving, management appears to be the most important area of concern in herds with high perinatal mortality.

  12. Milk Yield of Primiparous Beef Cows From Three Calving Systems and Varied Weaning Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a 2-yr study, primiparous beef cows produced in 3 calving systems were used to study milk yield throughout a 190-d lactation (2002, n = 20; 2003, n = 24 per calving system). Calving occurred in late winter (average calving date = February 4 ± 2 d), early spring (average calving date = March 30 ± ...

  13. Effect of calving process on the outcomes of delivery and postpartum health of dairy cows with unassisted and assisted calvings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, L; Kézér, F L; Szenci, O

    2016-09-01

    Welfare aspects of obstetrical assistance were studied in multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (n=176) with (1) unassisted calving in an individual pen (UCIP; n=42), (2) unassisted calving in a group pen (UCG; n=48), (3) assisted calving with appropriately timed obstetrical assistance (ACAP; n=50), and (4) assisted calving with inappropriately timed (premature) obstetrical assistance (ACIN; n=36). Duration of the stages of calving, the prevalence and the degree of dystocia, stillbirth ratio, newborn calf vitality, and the occurrence of postpartum health problems (i.e., retained placenta and vulvovaginal laceration) were recorded. The time from amniotic sac and hooves appearance to birth and the total duration of calving (from the onset of calving restlessness to delivery) were shorter for UCG cows than for any other groups. The overall incidence of dystocia was 31.3% in the calvings studied. The prevalence of dystocia was below 10% in cases of unassisted calvings. The proportion of severe dystocia was higher in ACIN cows than in ACAP cows (47.2 vs. 12.0%, respectively). The prevalence of stillbirths was the highest in ACIN calvings (22.2%), followed by ACAP, UCI, and UCG cows (8.0, 4.8, and 0.0%, respectively). The ACIN calves had lower vitality scores than calves born from ACAP, UCG, and UCIP dams immediately after delivery and 24h after birth. Although ACAP calves had lower vitality scores than UCG and UCIP calves at birth, a delayed recovery of vitality was mirrored by satisfactory vitality scores 24h after birth. Retained placenta and vulvovaginal laceration occurred more often with assisted dams (i.e., ACAP and ACIN animals) compared with UCIP cows with the highest prevalence in ACIN cows. In UCG cows, no injuries occurred in the vulva or vagina, and we noted only 4 cases of retained placenta (8.3%), proportions lower than in cows with unassisted calving in the maternity pen. Our results suggest that calving in a group might have benefits over calving in an

  14. Systemic and enteric salmonellosis in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Morcatti Coura

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the clinical manifestation of different Salmonella serovars in dairy calves. S. typhimurium was identified in faecal samples of a calf with rectal prolapse and in faecal samples and mesenteric lymph nodes of a calf with necrosis at the tip of the tail. S. agona was identified in faecal samples of a calf with diarrhoea but no other clinical manifestation, and S. dublin was observed in faecal and organ samples from a calf with neurological symptoms. Assays to differentiate between the main enteric pathogens (Enteropathogenic E. coli, rotavirus and coronavirus were performed and were negative. Due to the negative impact of salmonellosis and occurrence of different serovars and clinical manifestations in calves, the correct diagnosis is important to identify control and prophylactic measures in a dairy herd.

  15. Technical note: Ruminal cannulation technique in young Holstein calves:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Engbæk, Marie; Vestergaard, Mogens;

    2010-01-01

    Ruminal cannulation techniques are frequently used to study fermentation in the ruminant forestomach. Unsatisfactory results with the traditionally applied procedure for cannulation of young calves stimulated the development of a simpler and more robust procedure; this procedure was tested for...... effects on performance traits and gross anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract compared with a control group not undergoing surgery. Five calves were ruminally cannulated at approximately 10 d of age and 5 matching calves were used as controls. All calves were fed milk replacer and a diet based on clover...... grass silage and sodium hydroxide-treated wheat. Ruminal fluid was collected from cannulated calves once weekly for 3 consecutive weeks. All calves were euthanized at 43 ± 3 d of age. No apparent adverse effects of cannulation were observed. Feed intake, BW gain, and gross anatomy of the...

  16. Epidemiological investigation of rotavirus infection in buffalo calves in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on rotavirus infection in buffalo calves in Bangladesh was carried out to detect its association with diarrhoea. An overall 28% incidence of diarrhoeal diseases was recorded in rural buffalo calves. Rotavirus was detected in faecal samples from both diarrhoeic (12%) and non-diarrhoeic (3%) calves by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. An association between diarrhoea and rotavirus infection was recorded in buffalo calves below 1 month of age in both diarrhoeic (27%) and non-diarrhoeic (7%) calves. Rotavirus infection in diarrhoeic buffalo calves was found to be highest in winter (16.7%), followed by summer (9.1%) and lowest in the rainy season (7.7%). Further studies on the epidemiological and prophylactic aspects of rotavirus infection should be conducted to control this infection in Bangladesh. (author). 21 refs, 2 tabs

  17. Housing and Environment for Dairy Calves

    OpenAIRE

    Turnbull, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    Many cases of poor health in calves have been traced to bad management and inadequate ventilation in the calf nursery. Important management principles for improved calf health include calf housing isolated from the adult herd and periodic depopulation and sanitizing of the calf nursery area. In good weather, low-cost calf rearing portables such as the “calf hutch” can provide alternative housing during the cleanup period.

  18. POPONA FOR COMFORT AND HEALTH OF CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremenko O. N.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Milk productivity of cows is largely dependent on the efficiency of their own genetic potential. For the successful solution of this question it this essential the creation of proper technological conditions for high live stock process of ontogeny beginning from the neonatal period. One of the significant factors that influence the growth, development and safety of young grows in early of young grows in early postembryonic period are zoo-hygienic conditions of calves. Currently the "cold" method of keeping calves in individual houses is developed and widely used. It promotes the increase in the intensity of growth by 8,1%, prevention of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract improving hygienic conditions and rising of profitability of their growing by 4,2%. It is now that calves kept individual houses in the face of increasing wind and decreasing temperatures as well as high humidity of air environment in winter, feel discomfort, move less, stay lying on the litter in the house. For the purpose of warming the animals in cold frosty days keeping outside in the houses, increasing their viability, growth intensity and the guarantee of prevention gastrointestinal tract and pulmonary system diseases development the staff of the Department of private zoo techniques (animal genetics and pig-keeping from Kuban State Agrarian University have developed Popona - blanket-clothes for calves, which will allow to redirect received from feed energy to a calf growth. It will happen by reducing energy consumption for heating the body and prevent the development of colds due to the formation and preservation of the heat in the body in the absence of wet wool on with the external precipitation

  19. Alopecia in calves associated with milk substitute feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, G C; Hill, M R; Slater, A J

    1983-04-30

    Outbreaks of alopecia with unusually high morbidity occurred among calves reared on milk substitutes on two unrelated farms in Suffolk. On one farm alopecia occurred for three consecutive years; during the winter of 1981-82 there were also clinical signs of muscular dystrophy among the same calves. On the second farm calves with alopecia also showed signs of muscular dystrophy. The apparent relationship between alopecia and milk substitute feeding is discussed together with the possible involvement of vitamin E. PMID:6868307

  20. Descriptive study of 32 cases of doxycycline-overdosed calves.

    OpenAIRE

    Brihoum, Mounir; Amory, Hélène; Desmecht, Daniel; Cassart, Dominique; Deleuze, Stefan; Rollin, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reports of doxycycline-induced toxicity are limited despite common use of this antibiotic to treat infectious respiratory disorders in calves. OBJECTIVE: To describe previously unreported kidney lesions and diagnostic test results in doxycycline-overdosed calves and to compare these results with other findings reported previously. ANIMALS: Thirty-two calves that presented with adverse effects after receiving high doses of doxycycline as a treatment for mild respiratory disor...

  1. Metabolic Acidosis Without Clinical Signs of Dehydration in Young Calves

    OpenAIRE

    Kasari, T R; Naylor, J M

    1984-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis without clinical signs of dehydration was diagnosed in four calves between nine and 21 days of age. In each calf either coma or depression with weakness and ataxia was observed. Two calves had slow deep respirations. Treatment with intravenous administration of solutions of sodium bicarbonate was accompanied by a rise in blood pH and a return to normal demeanor, ambulation and appetites, allowing these calves to return to their respective herds.

  2. Controls on Helheim Glacier calving rates from 2001-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, L. A.; Foga, S. C.; Hamilton, G. S.; Straneo, F.; Sutherland, D.; van der Veen, C. J.; Oltmanns, M.; Schild, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    Iceberg calving is an efficient mechanism for ice mass loss. While the physical controls on calving are not well understood, recent field and remote sensing observations from Helheim Glacier, southeast Greenland, suggest calving is dependent on both glacier and fjord conditions. This presentation investigates the sensitivity of calving rates to ice velocity, ocean temperature and mélange composition using a combination of in situ and satellite observations. Ocean properties in Sermilik Fjord for 2009-2014 are reconstructed using mooring data, and an object-based image analysis (OBIA) that inventories icebergs, sea-ice and small icebergs quantifies mélange composition several times a season. Ice velocity from InSAR and optical imagery is used to calculate calving rates and investigate the role of longitudinal gradients on calving. Ice velocity appears to be the dominant control on calving rates at Helheim Glacier. However, calving rates exhibit a complex pattern of seasonal and interannual variability, which does not simply mimic ice velocity patterns. We explore the relative roles of ocean properties, glacier geometry, and mélange composition on calving rates from 2001-2014 in order to improve physically-based glacier models.

  3. Effects of Dietary Chitosan on Hormone Level in Dairy Calves

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Li; Xiuming Mu; Jian Ge; Chunwang Yue; Maohong Sun; Qiang Hao

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of chitosan on serum GH, T3 and T4 in and to determine the appropriate supplemental dosage level of chitosan in dairy calves diet. A 30 days trial of dietary chitosan supplementation was reported. Twenty dairy calves were allotted at random to four groups at 10 days of age. Calves in the control group were fed the basal diet alone and calves in treatment groups I-III were fed the basal diet supplemented with 200, 400, 600 mg/day/h...

  4. Characterization of transfer of passive immunity in dairy heifer calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Elizondo-Salazar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the transfer of passive immunity in dairy heifer calves in Costa Rica. The data presented correspond to total serum protein (TSP measurements obtained in the period between 2010 and 2013, between August and November in 50 dairy farms. A total of 2500 heifer calves were sampled. Dams breed were classified into Holstein, Jersey, Holstein.Jersey crosses and others. For the purpose of this study, failure of passive immunity was considered when TSP concentration was less than 5.5 g/dl. TSP concentration ranged from 2.0 to 10.0, with an overall mean of 5.9 g/dl. Of all the calves evaluated, 38.8% presented failure of passive transfer of immunity. Calves born to Jersey and Holstein×Jersey crosses had significantly higher TSP concentrations than calves born to Holstein and other breeds. When considering calving of the dam, there were no significant differences on TSP concentration; however, offsprings born to first lactation heifers showed the lowest percentage of animals with failure of passive transfer of immunity. There were significant differences on TSP concentrations (P<0,05 between calves that were allowed to suckle their dams and calves that were given colostrum by bottle. Failure of passive transfer of immunity was higher when calves stayed with their dams (44% vs. 33%.

  5. Sugar Supplementation Stimulates Growth Performance in Calves with Growth Retardation

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Tomohiro; HIDAKA, Yuichi; KAMIMURA, Shunichi

    2010-01-01

    The growth effect of sugar supplementation was determined in 49 retarded growth calves. Calves were supplemented with sugar at 1 g/kg BW 2 times weekly for 8 weeks. Glucose tolerance tests prior to the experiment showed no difference between the retarded growth calves and normal growth controls. After sugar supplementation, the calves were classified into 4 groups characterized by high (H) or low (L) periodic changes in daily weight gain (DG) with a breakpoint of 0.8 kg/d in three periods, bi...

  6. Effect of ferrous sulphate on haematological, biochemical and immunological parameters in neonatal calves

    OpenAIRE

    Lobna S. Elgebaly; Adel M.A. Eisa

    2010-01-01

    The effect of oral administration of iron on haematological, biochemical and immunological parameters in neonatal calves was studied. Ten calves from a private farm in Gharbia Governorate were used. Calves were separated from their dams immediately after birth and received colostrum during the first hours after calving and twice daily for 48 h. Thereafter, they received whole milk. Calves were divided into two equal groups. The first group was kept as controls. Calves of the second group were...

  7. Dairy cows seek isolation at calving and when ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudfoot, K L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-05-01

    Dairy cows are typically gregarious, but isolate themselves in the hours before calving when kept on pasture. Self-isolation is also a common behavior of ill animals. The objectives of this study were to determine if dairy cows would (1) isolate to calve when housed indoors in an individual maternity pen and (2) continue to isolate when ill after calving. We selected individuals from a pool of 79 multiparous Holstein dairy cows based on inclusion criteria created to address each objective. Cows were moved from a group pen to 1 of 10 adjacent maternity pens. Half of these individual pens were partially covered with plywood, creating a secluded corner as well as a window that provided visual access to the group pen. The other individual pens were uncovered on all sides. For our first objective, we selected 39 cows that were moved into the maternity pens >8h before calving (partially covered: n=19; uncovered: n=20). For our second objective, we selected 18 cows housed in the partially covered pens: 9 cows with high rectal temperature after calving and signs of an infectious disease (mastitis, metritis, pneumonia, or some combination), and 9 healthy cows paired with ill cows based on the amount of time they spent in the maternity pen before calving. Ten-minute scan sampling was used to record the location and lying time from 6h before to 72 h after calving. Individual feed intake was measured after calving. Binomial tests were used to determine if cows in both pen types were more likely to calve in the corner or window side of the pen. Repeated-measures ANOVA were used to determine if cows used the corner more as calving approached and if ill cows spent more time lying or more time in the corner compared with healthy cows in the 72 h after calving. Cows in the uncovered pens were equally likely to calve on both sides of the pen (10 vs. 10), but 79% of cows in the partially covered pens calved on the corner side of the pen (15 vs. 4). Cows in the partially covered pens

  8. The effect of age at first calving and calving interval on productive life and lifetime profit in korean holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Changhee; Wasana, Nidarshani; Cho, Kwanghyun; Choi, Yunho; Choi, Taejeong; Park, Byungho; Lee, Donghee

    2013-11-01

    This study was performed to estimate the effect of age at first calving and first two calving intervals on productive life and life time profit in Korean Holsteins. Reproduction data of Korean Holsteins born from 1998 to 2004 and lactation data from 276,573 cows with birth and last dry date that calved between 2000 and 2010 were used for the analysis. Lifetime profit increased with the days of life span. Regression of Life Span on Lifetime profit indicated that there was an increase of 3,800 Won (approximately $3.45) of lifetime profit per day increase in life span. This is evidence that care of each cow is necessary to improve net return and important for farms maintaining profitable cows. The estimates of heritability of age at first calving, first two calving intervals, days in milk for lifetime, lifespan, milk income and lifetime profit were 0.111, 0.088, 0.142, 0.140, 0.143, 0.123, and 0.102, respectively. The low heritabilities indicated that the productive life and economical traits include reproductive and productive characteristics. Age at first calving and interval between first and second calving had negative genetic correlation with lifetime profit (-0.080 and -0.265, respectively). Reducing age at first calving and first calving interval had a positive effect on lifetime profit. Lifetime profit increased to approximately 2,600,000 (2,363.6) from 800,000 Won ($727.3) when age at first calving decreased to (22.3 month) from (32.8 month). Results suggested that reproductive traits such as age at first calving and calving interval might affect various economical traits and consequently influenced productive life and profitability of cows. In conclusion, regard of the age at first calving must be taken with the optimum age at first calving for maximum lifetime profit being 22.5 to 23.5 months. Moreover, considering the negative genetic correlation of first calving interval with lifetime profit, it should be reduced against the present trend of increase

  9. Clinical trial on type of calving pen and the risk of disease in Holstein calves during the first 90 d of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithua, Patrick; Wells, Scott J; Godden, Sandra M; Raizman, Eran A

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of single cow calving pens that are cleaned between calvings vs. multiple cow calving pens for the prevention of calf diarrhea (scours), respiratory disease (pneumonia) and morbidity attributable to any cause. Every other pregnant cow or heifer was moved to either the single cow calving pen (treatment) or the multiple cow calving pen (control) within 48-72 h prior to actual calving. The calves born in the single cow calving pens were assigned to the treatment group while the calves born in the multiple calving pens were assigned to the control group. Fecal materials, placental remains, and any other conspicuous dirt were removed from the single cow calving pens between each calving prior to the introduction of the next pregnant cow. The calves were then separated from their dams within 2h of birth. Multiple cow calving pens were managed as usual at the producers' discretion. Upon birth, the calf managers monitored each enrolled calf for signs of diarrhea, pneumonia plus other morbidity up to 90 d of age. The effects of single cow calving pens (vs. multiple cow calving pens) that are cleaned between calvings on the risk of neonatal calf diseases were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression models. Risk of diarrhea (OR=0.93, P=0.75), pneumonia (OR=1.23, P=0.64), and morbidity due to any cause (OR=0.93, P=0.74) were not significantly different between calves born in single cow vs. multiple cow calving pens. The current study found that, given the management situation evaluated, calves born in single cow calving pens were no different than calves born in multiple cow calving pens with respect to calf diseases risk. Long-term follow-up of the calves enrolled in the present study is ongoing to determine the efficacy of single cow calving pen use for the possible prevention of transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Holstein calves. PMID:19193464

  10. FULL SCIENTIFIC REPORTS - Complex vertebral malformation in Holstein calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Jørgen S.; Bendixen, Christian; Andersen, Ole;

    2001-01-01

    A recently observed lethal congenital defect of purebred Holstein calves is reported. Eighteen genetically related calves were necropsied. One calf had been aborted on gestation day 159, and the others were delivered between day 250 and day 285. Birth weights were reduced. The defect was characte...

  11. Feeding & Management of Dairy Calves & Heifers. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjoraker, Walt

    This guide is designed to assist postsecondary and secondary teachers of agriculture in their use of the University of Wisconsin bulletin "Raising Dairy Replacements" in their dairy science instructional program. Eight lessons are provided in this unit: breeding decisions, management of cows from breeding to calving, care at calving time, the…

  12. The effect of milk feeding method on calves' behavioural sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Hänninen, L.; Hepola, H.; Raussi, S.; Sariola, J.; Khalili, H; Saloniemi, H

    2006-01-01

    Our aim was to study how calves' sleep could be affected by the milk feeding and housing methods. We concluded that possibility to suck milk increased the amount of calves' behavioural quiet sleep and sleepiness after feeding, possibly due to suck-induced hormonal effects.

  13. Sufentanil citrate immobilization of Alaskan moose calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreeger, Terry J; Kellie, Kalin A

    2012-10-01

    Free-ranging Alaskan moose calves (Alces alces gigas) were immobilized with 0.12 mg/kg sufentanil (S; n=16), 0.12 mg/kg sufentanil plus 0.27 mg/kg xylazine (SX; n=11), or 0.007 mg/kg carfentanil plus 0.36 mg/kg xylazine (CX; n=13). Immobilants were antagonized with 1.2 mg/kg naltrexone (S) or 1.2 mg/kg naltrexone plus 2.4 mg/kg tolazoline (SX, CX). There were no differences in induction (P ≥ 0.29) or processing (P ≥ 0.44) times between groups. Moose given either S or SX had significantly shorter recovery times than moose given CX (P=0.001) and recovery times from S were shorter than from SX (P=0.02). Oxygen saturation values for all groups averaged 85 ± 8%, but were significantly higher (P=0.048) for CX (89 ± 7%) than for S (82 ± 8%). Based on these data, sufentanil at 0.1 mg/kg or sufentanil at 0.1 mg/kg plus xylazine at 0.25 mg/kg could provide effective remote immobilization for Alaskan moose calves and could be substituted for carfentanil or thiafentanil should the need arise. PMID:23060515

  14. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil; Munksgaard, Lene; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2015-01-01

    or into freestall housing 4 wk before the expected calving date. Individual straw-bedded maternity pens were placed adjacent to the straw-bedded group pens, and cows were moved to the maternity pens before calving. Cows that spent more than 12 h in the maternity pen before calving and calved unassisted were...

  15. Estimation of Risk Factors - Useful Tools in Assessing Calves Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Andronie

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The study has been aimed at identify risk factors that may be used in welfare assessment of calves reared in intensive farming systems. These factors may be useful to the farmers in planning breeder measures in order to increase the animal welfare levels in relation to the legislative requirements. The estimation considered the housing conditions of calves aged 0-6 months grouped in two lots A (n: 50 and B (n: 60, depending on their accommodation system. We have monitored the calves decubitus on the housing surface, body hygiene as well as that of the resting area and the thermal comfort. The assessment was made by direct observation and numerical estimation, based on the Welfare Quality ® 2009 protocol (Assessment protocol for cattle as well as by means of a calves safety and welfare evaluation chart according to the European and national legislation on minimum calves safety and protection standards. Data collected and processed have shown the fact that not all housing conditions completely answer calves physiological requirements. Thus the appropriate housing criterion in the present study was met at B lot of 85 % and to a much smaller degree by the A lot (76 %. The assessment carried out by means of the safety chart have indicated that only the minimum criteria for calves rearing were met, which does not translate into a high level of their welfare.

  16. Productive effects of whole milk and milk replacement formula in calves feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Klarić; Drago Bagarić; Zvonko Antunović; Marcela Šperanda; Pero Mijić; Matija Domaćinović

    2009-01-01

    Determination of correct feeding regimes for calves is very important as it directly influences calves’ productive and reproductive traits, as well as duration of adult animal exploitation period. As the liquid feed is the most expensive component, its importance also has an economic aspect in calves rearing. The experiment was carried out on 30 Holstein calves with the aim to determine productive, economic and health effects of feeding calves with whole milk in different periods. Calves were...

  17. Estimation of Risk Factors - Useful Tools in Assessing Calves Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana Andronie; Monica Parvu; Viorel Andronie

    2013-01-01

    The study has been aimed at identify risk factors that may be used in welfare assessment of calves reared in intensive farming systems. These factors may be useful to the farmers in planning breeder measures in order to increase the animal welfare levels in relation to the legislative requirements. The estimation considered the housing conditions of calves aged 0-6 months grouped in two lots A (n: 50) and B (n: 60), depending on their accommodation system. We have monitored the calves decubit...

  18. Hyaluronic acid in calves defects correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Rosset

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Since the advent of fillers, new techniques are continuously developed for different uses. In this study, we evaluated the use of hyaluronic acid for calf augmentation. Methods: A total of 42 patients were enrolled in this study. All of them underwent augmentation procedure in our centers under local anesthesia, the operations were completed within 1 h with a prompt correction of the defects. Results: Thirty-nine patients were satisfied with the treatment (93%, while three had complications, local infection, and lumps, that were resolved quickly (7%. Conclusion: Macrofillers can be injected into the calf to correct any defects. The advantages include short duration of treatment; the procedure performed under local anesthesia and limited side-effects that resolve promptly. This study suggests the use of biocompatible macrofillers for the augmentation of not only calves, but also for augmentation of breast and buttocks.

  19. The legg-calve-perthes disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Legg-Calve-Perthes disease is an idiopathic avascular necrosis of the hip during early childhood. It is characterized by different stages with the main risk of persisting hip deformation, dysfunction of the joint movement, and the potential for early osteoarthritis. For the evaluation of prognosis and therapy planning patients age and extent of the necrotic area of the epiphysis are important factors. For an early diagnosis and sufficient therapy all radiological efforts have to be performed. MR imaging is an ideal method for the assessment of osteonecrotic changes of the Morbus Perthes. Compared to plain radiography by MR imaging pathologic alterations can be detected earlier and with higher specificity. However, conventional radiograms have to be still used as basic imaging modality. Nowadays x-rays and MR imaging should be the main methods for the evaluation of children suffering from Perthes disease. (orig.)

  20. Severe renal oxalosis in five young Beefmaster calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyan, J C; Sartin, E A; Powers, R D; Wolfe, D F; Dowling, P M; Spano, J S

    1992-12-15

    Severe renal oxalosis was diagnosed in 4 male and 1 female purebred Beefmaster calves from herds in southeastern and northwestern United States. Clinical signs included weakness, anorexia, lethargy, alopecia, dehydration, and diarrhea. Results of serum biochemical analysis for 2 calves were consistent with end-stage renal disease. Calves died 2 days to 6 weeks after birth. At necropsy, renal calyces were dilated and contained pale yellow granular calculi. Histologically, there was renal interstitial fibrosis, and cortical and medullary tubules were distended with calcium oxalate crystals. Oxalate crystals were also in the tracheal glands of 1 calf. Severe renal oxalosis in young purebred calves, on widely varied diets, with no known exposure to exogenous oxalates is suggestive of an inherited metabolic defect resulting in primary hyperoxaluria. PMID:1483914

  1. Involuntary reduction in vigour of calves born from sexed semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djedović, Radica; Bogdanović, Vladan; Stanojević, Dragan; Nemes, Zsolt; Gáspárdy, András; Cseh, Sándor

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the reproductive traits of heifers and the development characteristics of their calves following artificial insemination (AI) with sexed and non-sexed semen. The analysed characteristics included conception rate, gestation length, calf birth weight, calf vigour, stillbirth rate, and twinning rate. Data of 530 calves produced with sexed and 1,163 calves produced with non-sexed semen were analysed. The General Linear Model (GLM) was applied to assess the influence of semen type, farm, season of insemination, the calf's sex and the inseminating sire on gestation length and calf birth weight. With the exception of gestation length (P > 0.05), all other traits studied were significantly (P 0.05); however, artificial insemination with X-sorted sexed semen significantly altered the sex ratio of calves (85.1:14.9%, P artificial insemination with sexed or conventional semen. PMID:27342094

  2. A Two-Station Seismic Method to Localize Glacier Calving

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, M. Jeffrey; Holland, David M.; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar; Zheng, Tiantian

    2016-01-01

    A method of determining glacier calving location using seismic wave arrival times from paired local seismic stations is presented. The difference in surface wave arrival times for each pair is used to define a locus (hyperbola) of possible origin. With multiple pairs, this can be used to triangulate for the origin of the seismic wave, which is interpreted as the calving location. This method is motivated by difficulties with traditional seismic location methods that fail due to the emergent n...

  3. Photosensitivity in feedlot calves apparently related to cocoa shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruham, I; Avidar, Y; Perl, S

    2003-10-01

    Primary photosensitization was observed in 11/78 cross-breed calves. The skin lesions were diffuse dermatitis with thickening and wrinkling with areas of alopecia. The severe photosensitivity dermatitis was associated with cocoa shell ingestion. The lesions resolved after removal of the cocoa shells from the feed ration and prevention of exposure to sunlight. Cocoa shells may contain photodynamic agents that cause photosensitization in calves. PMID:14513893

  4. Intravenous immunoglobulin transfusion in colostrum-deprived dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccardo, A; Belloli, A; Biffani, S; Locatelli, V; Dall'Ara, P; Filipe, J; Restelli, I; Proverbio, D; Pravettoni, D

    2016-03-01

    Immunoglobulin transfusion is employed in the management of the failure of passive transfer (FPT). The aim of this study was to investigate the dose of immunoglobulin G (IgG) needed to reach a protective concentration (>10 g/L) in colostrum-deprived dairy calves. Twenty-eight Holstein Friesian newborn male calves were randomly assigned to either a control group (CG) or a treatment group (PG). Calves in the CG received 4 L of high quality colostrum within 12 h of birth. Calves in the PG received 62.7 ± 3.1 g of IgG IV in 2.6 ± 0.3 L of plasma within 6 h after birth. Serum immunoglobulin G (sIgG) and serum total protein (sTP) concentrations were assayed before and after (24 h, 72 h and 1 week after birth) plasma transfusion or colostrum ingestion. Serum (s) IgG and sTP concentrations increased in both groups throughout the period of observation. Mean sIgG and sTP concentrations after colostrum ingestion or plasma transfusion were higher in the CG than in the PG (P calves developed diarrhoea during the study and four were humanely euthanased due to progressive clinical deterioration. None of the calves in the CG showed signs of disease or died during the study. The dose of IgG used in this trial effectively provided an adequate sIgG concentration in colostrum-deprived calves (>10 g/L). Calves in the CG had significantly lower morbidity and mortality rates compared to those in the PG, suggesting that plasma transfusion alone is ineffective in providing complete protection against neonatal disease. PMID:26831168

  5. Anaerobically fermented colostrum: an alternative for feeding calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Helena Saalfeld

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Milk or commercial milk replacer blends are the most expensive components in final costs of calves breeding. Colostrum is available and it is the appropriate sources for calves' nutrition, being an excellent option as milk substitute. Besides having both nutritional and immunological characteristics that are superior to milk, colostrum represents no costs to the producer. However, difficulties in preservation of colostrum generate controversy results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anaerobically fermented colostrum (colostrum silage as liquid diet for dairy calves. We evaluated the microbiological and physicochemical properties of silage, and performance of 31 animals up to 60 days age. From 21 days until 360 days of fermentation we isolated only bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus spp. The physicochemical evaluation of colostrum silage revealed a tendency to maintain the protein, dry matter and fat values during the evaluation period. The average weight gain of calves fed with milk was 0.6kg day-1 for female and 0.6g day-1 for males while those fed with colostrum silage was significantly higher (P<0.05 with a mean of 0.7kg day-1 for female and 0.7kg day-1 for males. The results of this study demonstrated that colostrum silage keeps the properties necessary for the development of the calves and is a suitable replacement for calves' milk.

  6. Serum protein concentrations in calves with experimentally induced pneumonic pasteurellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagliari J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten healthy 2 to 4-week-old Holstein calves were randomly allotted into control and infected groups. Control calves (n=5 were inoculated intrabronchially with 5ml of Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline solution (DPBSS. Infected calves (n=5 were inoculated intrabronchially with 5x10(9 log-phase Mannheimia haemolytica organisms suspended in 5ml of DPBSS. Blood samples were obtained 15 minutes before and one, two, four and six hours after inoculation. Serum protein concentrations were determined by means of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Serum concentrations of proteins with molecular weights of 125,000 D (ceruloplasmin, 60,000 D (a 1-antitrypsin, 45,000 D (haptoglobin, and 40,000 D (acid glycoprotein were significantly increased in calves with pneumonic pasteurellosis, compared with concentrations in control calves. Results indicate that acute phase proteins increase more rapidly after the onset of inflammation than previously thought. Measurement of serum protein concentrations may be useful in monitoring the progression of the induced pneumonic pasteurellosis in calves.

  7. Pedigree analysis of Czech Holstein calves with schistosoma reflexum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citek Jindrich

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosoma reflexum (SR is congenital syndrome briefly characterized by visceral eventration, severe dorsoflexion and ankylosis of the spine and arthrogryposis. A genetic etiology has been proposed, but conclusive evidence has not yet been provided. Methods Pedigree analysis was carried out in 29 cases of SR in Czech Holsteins and Holstein crosses. Genetic relationship was evaluated and inbreeding coefficients calculated. Pedigrees of 15 Czech Holsteins fathering non-SR affected calves were used for comparison. Results Twenty-one cases occurred in one pedigree founded by three sires while three SR calves occurred in another pedigree with a common grandfather. The sex ratio between affected males and females was 11:6. Affected calves shared common ancestors different from those shared by the unaffected calves. The inbreeding coefficient in the SR affected calves was not increased compared to unaffected calves. Conclusions The findings are consistent with SR being inherited autosomal recessively. Further studies are however needed to confirm this and therefore a breeding trial is recommended where a suspected heterozygous sire is mated to closely related females.

  8. Anthelmintic activity of albendazole against gastrointestinal nematodes in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, G W; Ernst, J V

    1977-09-01

    Anthelmintic activities of albendazole were evaluated in a controlled experiment. Forty calves experimentally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were allotted to 4 groups. Calves in group 1 were used as nonmedicated controls; calves in groups 2, 3, and 4 were given (by oral route) a suspension containing albendazole at dose concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mg/kg of body weight on the 35th day after administration of infective nematode larvae. In groups 2, 3, and 4 calves, average overall reductions (based on geometric means) were 77.1, 93.6, and 98.1%, respectively. These reductions were highly significant (P less than 0.01) in calves given doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg, and were significant (P less than 0.05) in calves given the 2.5-mg/kg dose. Ostertagia ostertagi, Trichostrongylus axei, Cooperia onchophora, Cooperia punctata, and Oesophagostomum radiatum removals at the 5.0- and 7.5-mg/kg dose levels were all highly significant (P less than 0.01); whereas, removals of Haemonchus contortus were not significant, even at the 7.5-mg/kg dose level. PMID:921039

  9. Calving seismicity from iceberg-sea surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaus, T.C.; Larsen, C.F.; O'Neel, S.; West, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Iceberg calving is known to release substantial seismic energy, but little is known about the specific mechanisms that produce calving icequakes. At Yahtse Glacier, a tidewater glacier on the Gulf of Alaska, we draw upon a local network of seismometers and focus on 80 hours of concurrent, direct observation of the terminus to show that calving is the dominant source of seismicity. To elucidate seismogenic mechanisms, we synchronized video and seismograms to reveal that the majority of seismic energy is produced during iceberg interactions with the sea surface. Icequake peak amplitudes coincide with the emergence of high velocity jets of water and ice from the fjord after the complete submergence of falling icebergs below sea level. These icequakes have dominant frequencies between 1 and 3 Hz. Detachment of an iceberg from the terminus produces comparatively weak seismic waves at frequencies between 5 and 20 Hz. Our observations allow us to suggest that the most powerful sources of calving icequakes at Yahtse Glacier include iceberg-sea surface impact, deceleration under the influence of drag and buoyancy, and cavitation. Numerical simulations of seismogenesis during iceberg-sea surface interactions support our observational evidence. Our new understanding of iceberg-sea surface interactions allows us to reattribute the sources of calving seismicity identified in earlier studies and offer guidance for the future use of seismology in monitoring iceberg calving.

  10. Some Environmental Factors Affecting Birth Weight, Weaning Weight and Daily Live Weight Gain of Holstein Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Yaylak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine some environmental factors affecting birth weight, weaning weight and daily live weight gain of Holstein calves of a livestock facility in Izmir, Turkey. The data on 2091 calves born between the years 2005-2010 were used to assess the relevant parameters. Effects of calving year, calving month, calf gender and the interaction between calving year and calving month on calves’ birth weights were highly significant. The overall mean of birth weights was 39.6±0.15 kg. In addition, effects of calving year, calving month, gender, birth weight, weaning age, calving year x calving month, calving year x gender and calving year x calving month x gender interactions on weaning weight (WW and daily live weight gain (DLWG were highly significant. The overall means of WW and DLWG were respectively found to be 79.7±0.20 kg and 525±2.5 g. A one kilogram increase in birth weight resulted in an increase of 0.89 kg in weaning weight and a decrease of 1.26 g in daily live weight gain. Prenatal temperature-humidity index (THI affected birth weight of calves (R2=0.67. Increasing THI from 50 to 80 resulted in 3.8 kg decrease in birth weight.

  11. Spring migration, calving and post-calving distribution and initial productivity of the Porcupine Caribou Herd, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The continued collection of information regarding calving and postcalving distribution, and initial productivity of the Porcupine Caribou Herd is important for...

  12. Radiographic and radionuclide lung perfusion imaging in healthy calves and calves naturally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine calves between three and 18 weeks old with serologically confirmed natural bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection were examined clinically, radiographically and by radionuclide lung perfusion imaging. The results were compared with those from seven healthy calves. The diseased calves were euthanased and examined pathologically, virologically and bacteriologically. The clinical signs indicated that the disease was in an acute stage. Radiography of the diseased animals revealed cysts, corresponding morphologically with bullous emphysema, and infiltrations roughly corresponding in distribution with atelectatic and, or, pneumonic areas. Radionuclide lung perfusion imaging revealed no perfusion shifts between the left and right lungs and a normal perfusion pattern in five of the nine diseased calves. The abnormalities in the perfusion patterns of three calves were probably caused by anatomical disorders such as cysts and pleural adhesions, but no cause of the abnormality could be found in one calf. These findings suggest that in calves infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus, the normal perfusion pattern is maintained until anatomical disorders occur. The pathological examination and radiography revealed that the cranioventral lung fields were particularly poorly ventilated. This finding and the normal perfusion pattern indicate that these parts of the lungs are probably the sites where shuntings and perfusion-ventilation mismatchings occur

  13. Adapting sampling plans to caribou distribution on calving grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Crête

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Between 1984 and 1988, the size of the two caribou herds in northern Québec was derived by combining estimates of female numbers on calving grounds in June and composition counts during rut in autumn. Sampling with aerial photos was conducted on calving grounds to determine the number of animals per km2, telemetry served to estimate the proportion of females in the census area at the time of photography in addition to summer survival rate, and helicopter or ground observations were used for composition counts. Observers were able to detect on black and white negatives over 95 percent of caribou counted from a helicopter flying at low altitude over the same area; photo scale varied between = 1:3 600 and 1:6 000. Sampling units covering less than 15-20 ha were the best for sampling caribou distribution on calving grounds, where density generally averaged » 10 individuals-km"2. Around 90 percent of caribou on calving grounds were females; others were mostly yearling males. During the 1-2 day photographic census, 64 to 77 percent of the females were present on the calving areas. Summer survival exceeded 95 percent in three summers. In autumn, females composed between 45 and 54 percent of each herd. The Rivière George herd was estimated at 682 000 individuals (± 36%; alpha = 0.10 in 1988. This estimate was imprecise due to insufficiens sample size for measuring animal density on the calving ground and for determining proportion of females on the calving ground at the time of the photo census. To improve precision and reduce cost, it is proposed to estimate herd size of tundra caribou in one step, using only aerial photos in early June without telemetry.

  14. MEAT PRODUCTIVITY OF CROSSBRED SHEEP CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degtyar A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the control slaughter of purebred and crossbred lambs. It was found that the index of compactness and the main killer performance superiority had two or three breed lambs obtained from crosses involving sheep southern meat breed. The experimental animals were taken measurements of carcasses, which give a fairly complete and objective view of the differences in the length of the torso, hips, mascara and hip girth. There are specific differences in the yield of the most valuable cuts of the first grade the rams depending on the origin. The superiority of crossbred calves over the control for this indicator amounted to 16.4 and 33.4%. The chemical composition of the meat fine-wool lambs contained more moisture and less fat and less calories than meat crossbred animals. Increasing the hybrids values of the protein quality index indicates an increase in meat share of muscle proteins and the reduction of connective tissue, and consequently, improving the quality of the raw meat. Animals obtained by crossing, have wide and deep body, well-developed muscles of the thighs, the best quality characteristics of meat productivity

  15. Heifer calving date positively influences calf weaning weights through six parturitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, R A; Kill, L K; Funston, R N; Mousel, E M; Perry, G A

    2013-09-01

    Longevity and lifetime productivity are important factors influencing profitability for the cow-calf producer. Heifers that conceive earlier in the breeding season will calve earlier in the calving season and have a longer interval to rebreeding. Calves born earlier in the calving season will also be older and heavier at weaning. Longevity data were collected on 2,195 heifers from producers in South Dakota Integrated Resource Management groups. Longevity and weaning weight data were collected on 16,549 individual heifers at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC). Data were limited to heifers that conceived during their first breeding season. Heifers were grouped into 21-d calving periods. Heifers were determined to have left the herd when they were diagnosed not pregnant at the end of the breeding season. Heifers that left the herd for reasons other than reproductive failure were censored from the data. Heifers that calved with their first calf during the first 21-d period of the calving season had increased (P heifers that calved in the second 21-d period, or later. Average longevity for South Dakota heifers that calved in the first or later period was 5.1 ± 0.1 and 3.9 ± 0.1 yr, respectively. Average longevity for USMARC heifers that calved in the first, second, or third period was 8.2 ± 0.3, 7.6 ± 0.5, and 7.2 ± 0.1 yr, respectively. Calving period as a heifer influenced (P heifers but did not differ between heifer calving periods in subsequent calving seasons. In summary, heifers that calved early in the calving season with their first calf had increased longevity and kilograms weaned, compared with heifers that calved later in the calving season. PMID:23825337

  16. RESEARCH ON THE INFLLUENCE OF THE CALVING INTERVAL ON MILK YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper goal was to study the influence of the calving interval on milk yield for the Romanian Brown breed, using 950 lactations, of which: 573 lactations (60.31 % belonged to the over 400 days calving interval and 377 lactations (39.69% belonged to the 351-400 days calving interval. The calving interval varied between 446.41±18.94 days, the highest length for the 51 dairy cows which had parturition in September and 373.49 ±14.28 days, the shortest length for 53 cows which calved in October. The average calving interval for the cows with a calving interval longer than 400 days accounted for 425.58±14.10 days, while the average calving interval for the cows with this reproductionindicator between 351 and 400 days was 358.65±10.07 days. For the cows whose calving interval was longer than 400 days, milk yield accounted for 4,682.5±124.92 while for the cows whose calving interval varied between 351 and 400 days registered 4,240.0±215.10 kg. The calculations revealed a gross product of Lei 6,087 per lactation in case of cows whose calving interval was longer than 400 days and Lei 5,512 in case of the cows whose calving interval varied between 351-400 days. For an average difference of 66.93 days calving interval between the two calving interval size groups taken into consideration, the milk yield difference accounted for 442.50 kg in the benefit of the cows with the calving interval longer than 400 days. Also, a difference of Lei 575 was recorded in the favor of the cows with calving intervals longer than 400 days because they registered higher a milk yield. This means Lei 8.59 additional income per cow and calving interval day longer than 400 days.

  17. Production of transgenic calves by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Guochun; WAN Rong; HUANG Yinghua; LI Ning; DAI Yunping; FAN Baoliang; ZHU Huabing; WANG Lili; WANG Haiping; TANG Bo; LIU Ying; LI Rong

    2004-01-01

    Bovine fetal oviduct epithelial cells were transfected with constructed double marker selective vector (pCE-EGFP-IRES-Neo-dNdB) containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and neomycin-resistant (Neor) genes by electroporation, and a transgenic cell line was obtained. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) was carried out using the transgenic cells as nuclei donor. A total of 424 SCNT embryos were reconstructed and 208 (49.1%) of them developed to blastocyst stage. 17 blastocysts on D 7 after reconstruction were transferred to 17 surrogate calves, and 5 (29.4%) recipients were found to be pregnant. Three of them maintained to term and delivered three cloned calves. PCR and Southern blot analysis confirmed the integration of transgene in all of the three cloned calves. In addition, expression of EGFP was detected in biopsy isolated from the transgenic cloned calves and fibroblasts derived from the biopsy. Our results suggest that transgenic calves could be efficiently produced by SCNT using transgenic cells as nuclei donor. Furthermore, all cloned animals could be ensured to be transgenic by efficiently pre-screening transgenic cells and SCNT embryos using the constructed double marker selective vector.

  18. Calving on tidewater glaciers amplified by submarine frontal melting

    CERN Document Server

    O'Leary, Martin

    2012-01-01

    While it has been shown repeatedly that ocean conditions exhibit an important control on the behaviour of grounded tidewater glaciers, modelling studies have focused largely on the effects of basal and surface melting. Here, a finite-element model of stresses near the front of a tidewater glacier is used to investigate the effects of frontal melting on calving, independently of the calving criterion used. Applications of the stress model to idealized scenarios reveal that undercutting of the ice front due to frontal melting can drive calving at up to ten times the mean melt rate. Factors which cause increased frontal melt-driven calving include a strong thermal gradient in the ice, and a concentration of frontal melt at the base of the glacier. These properties are typical of both Arctic and Antarctic tidewater glaciers. The finding that frontal melt near the base is a strong driver of calving leads to the conclusion that water temperatures near the bed of the glacier are critically important to the glacier f...

  19. Effects of Dietary Chitosan on Hormone Level in Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of chitosan on serum GH, T3 and T4 in and to determine the appropriate supplemental dosage level of chitosan in dairy calves diet. A 30 days trial of dietary chitosan supplementation was reported. Twenty dairy calves were allotted at random to four groups at 10 days of age. Calves in the control group were fed the basal diet alone and calves in treatment groups I-III were fed the basal diet supplemented with 200, 400, 600 mg/day/h Chitosan (CTS, respectively for 30 days. The trial demonstrated that dietary chitosan supplementation significantly increased serum T3 level (p<0.05, when comparing chitosan groups I, II with the control group. Dietary supplementation of chitosan at 400 mg/day/h significantly increased serum T3 (p<0.05. Treatments with various levels of chitosan supplementation showed a tendency of increase in serum T4 and GH levels. So, the appropriate supplemental dosage of chitosan in the diets of dairy calves was 400 mg/day/h Chitosan (CTS.

  20. Passive immunity transfer and serum constituents of crossbred calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís G. Rocha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Passive immunity transfer (PIT evaluation is an essential tool for the maintenance of healthy calves during the first months of life. Since lactation number and breed have been proven to influence immunoglobulin levels in colostrum, the aim of this study was to evaluate PIT from primiparous and multiparous Canchim cows to their calves. Blood samples were collected from the calves before colostrum intake and 1, 2, 7, 15 and 30 days thereafter, while colostrum samples from the cows were taken immediately after parturition. Activities of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and concentrations of total protein, albumin, globulins, immunoglobulin A (IgA, immunoglobulin G (IgG, total and ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and potassium were evaluated in calves' serum and activities of GGT and ALP and concentrations of total protein, IgA and IgG were assessed in cow's colostrum whey. Immunoglobulins concentrations were evaluated by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels. Serum biochemistry evaluations revealed an increase in gamma-glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase activities and in total protein, globulins, immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G levels in calves' serum after colostrum intake. Only total protein and light chain immunoglobulin G levels in colostrum whey were affected by the cows' lactation number. Phosphorus and magnesium levels in blood serum increased after colostrum intake, while sodium and potassium levels oscillated in the experimental period. PIT was influenced by the cows' lactation number but was efficient in both groups.

  1. The level of social contact affects social behaviour in pre-weaned dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duve, Linda Rosager; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2011-01-01

    between bars; L-calves), in pairs (with full social contact; F-calves), or individually for 3 weeks and in pairs for the next 3 weeks (LF-calves). At 5 weeks of age the bonding between calves in a pair was evaluated by measuring their response to separation and the subsequent reunion in the home...... environment. The following day the social preference was evaluated in a triangular test arena where the calves could choose between the companion and an unfamiliar calf. Finally, at 6 weeks of age the response of the calves to a novel arena, alone and with the companion, was measured. During separation in the......The present study investigated the effects of the level of social contact in the home environment on the social preference, bonding and social behaviour of pre-weaned dairy calves. Twenty-seven pairs of calves were reared from birth until 6 weeks either individually (with limited social contact...

  2. Efficiency of UV-irradiated autotransfusion in treatment of calves' diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of UV-irradiated autotransfusion on content of cation proteins and myeloperoxidase in blood granulocytes of different age calves is studied. High efficiency of irradiated blood autotransfusion in case of dyspepsia and bronchopneumonia of calves is demonstrated

  3. ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS, LIPID PROFILE AND PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES IN HEALTHY AND BRONCHOPNEUMONIC WATER BUFFALO CALVES

    OpenAIRE

    El-Bahr, Sabry M.; Wael M. EL-Deeb

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Acute Phase Proteins (APP), lipid profiles and proinflammatory cytokines in healthy and bronchopneumonic water buffalo calves. Therefore, sixty water buffalo calves (9±1 month old, 175±15 kg) were divided into two equal groups, the first group represented healthy, control, calves whereas calves of the second group were affected with bronchopneumonia. Total leukocytic and differential counts were determined. Serum total pr...

  4. The utility of ketoprofen for alleviating pain following dehorning in young dairy calves

    OpenAIRE

    Milligan, Barry N.; Duffield, Todd; Lissemore, Kerry

    2004-01-01

    To determine if ketoprofen, in addition to local anaesthesia, reduces pain following dehorning, we experimentally dehorned dairy calves, less than 2 weeks of age, with (20 calves) or without (20 calves) intramuscular injections of ketoprofen. All calves received a local anesthetic (lidocaine) prior to dehorning and were dehorned with heat cauterization. Cortisol concentration was measured via jugular blood samples taken immediately before dehorning and at 3 and 6 hours following dehorning. Ca...

  5. Effect of feeding system on performance and carcass characteristics of yearling steers, steer calves and heifer calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, M L; Fox, D G; Black, J R

    1980-03-01

    Three types of cattle (Angus x Hereford yearling steers, Charolais x British breed steer calves and Hereford heifer calves) were evaluated for their response to different feeding systems utilizing high moisture corn, corn silage and soybean meal as major feed ingredients. Feeding ing systems for steers included: A = 85% concentrate; B = 40% concentrate; C = two phase, with switch from all corn silage to 85% concentrate in the middle of the feeding period; D = same as C except switch occurred late in the feeding period; E = all corn silage continuously. Heifer diets consisted of the following ratios of corn silage to concentrate: low energy = 89:11; medium energy = 67:33; and high energy = 100 fed at a moderate (10.9% for low energy and medium energy, and 11.7% for high energy) and high (13.8%) crude protein level. Treatments within each experiment were terminated at approximately the same final weight. Increasing percentage corn added to the total diet increased ADG in most comparisons. Adjusted to a constant carcass weight, increasing dietary energy increased fat thickness and reduced percentage retail product with no effect on quality grade in yearling steers and heifer calves. In Charolais cross-steer calves, increasing energy level increased quality grade with no effect on yield grade or percentage retail product. Energetic efficiency slightly favored system C in yearling steers while steer calves maximized efficiency on A. Hereford heifers were the most energetically efficient on medium energy diets. PMID:7364676

  6. Congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia and dyskeratosis in Australian Poll Hereford calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessell, A E; Hanshaw, D M; Finnie, J W; Nosworthy, P

    2012-12-01

    Congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia (CDA) is a heterogeneous group of rare genetic disorders that in humans is characterised by ineffective haematopoiesis with morphological abnormalities in erythroid precursor cells and secondary iron overload. In the 1990s, a syndrome of CDA with dyskeratosis and progressive alopecia was reported in Poll Hereford calves in Canada and the USA. We report the clinical and pathological findings in two Poll Hereford calves with this syndrome from separate properties in South Australia. The animals had a variably severe anaemia, associated with abnormal nucleated red blood cells in peripheral blood, and large numbers of rubricytes and metarubricytes with a characteristic nuclear ultrastructure in the bone marrow. Both calves were born with a wiry hair coat and a progressively 'dirty-faced' appearance associated with hyperkeratosis and dyskeratosis (apoptosis). PMID:23186092

  7. 9 CFR 311.28 - Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. 311.28 Section 311.28 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PARTS § 311.28 Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. Carcasses of young calves,...

  8. Macromolecule absorption and cortisol secretion in newborn calves derived from in vitro produced embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, H; Sangild, P T; Schmidt, M;

    2002-01-01

    Earlier reports indicate that calves derived from in vitro produced (IVP) embryos are more susceptible to neonatal disease than calves produced after artificial insemination (AI) or natural mating. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether calves born after IVP embryos show...

  9. The susceptibility differences of buffalo and Ongole calves against trickle infection with Fasciola gigantica

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    A pen trial was carried out in order to determine the susceptibility differences of a trickle infection with Fasciola gigantica in buffalo and Ongole calves. Treated animals were infected orally with 15 metacercariae of F. gigantica twice weekly for 32 weeks and were slaughtered at 36 weeks. The results showed that buffalo calves had significantly lower fluke burdens than Ongole calves (P

  10. The effect of zeolite A supplementation in the dry period on blood mineral status around calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, R J; Enemark, J M;

    2003-01-01

    treated experimental cows according to expected date of calving and parity. The experimental cows were fed between 0.5 and 1.0 kg of zeolite A per day during the last 2 to 4 weeks of the dry period. Blood samples were drawn on the day of calving and day one and two after calving (all experiments), three...

  11. RESEARCHES ON GROOMING BEHAVIOR OF THE DAMCALF COUPLE DURING THE FIRST WEEK AFTER CALVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. TRIPON

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dealing with the maternal behavior during the first week after calving. Researches were carried out during the winter season on Romanian Black and White breed dam-calf couples. The behavior of calves and their mothers was nonstop video recorded during the first, second and seventh day after calving. For a better interpretation the recorded material was divided in three periods for every 24 hours of surveillance: 07:00 to 15:00, 15:00 to 23:00, and 23:00 to 07:00. Calves received attention from their mothers in 18 to 33 grooming periods during the first day after calving. The number of grooming periods decreased to 6 – 15 periods per day in the seventh day after calving. The total length of grooming periods also decreased from the first day to the seventh day after calving from 26.5 minutes to 7.4 minutes on each 8-hour time frame. There were also contacts between mother cows and their calves that were not followed by grooming (sniffing. The number of contacts without grooming was higher during the first two days after calving and decreased on the seventh day after calving. During the first week of life calves received, 55.6 minutes per day of care from their mothers, and there were, on average, 8.1 contacts without grooming between mothers and calves.

  12. Development of social behaviour and importance of social relations in calves

    OpenAIRE

    Niskanen, Suvi; Raussi, Satu; Veissier, Isabelle; Kaihilahti, Jutta; Hänninen, Laura; Hepola, Helena; Jauhiainen, Lauri

    2008-01-01

    We concluded that the preference for peers met at two weeks of age can be seen in proximity of the calves. However, calves can form stable relations at least until the age of 14 weeks. These relations reduce aggressive behaviour, activity and frequency of vocalization, and help calves to cope with new and potentially stressful situations.

  13. Pharmacokinetics and tissue elimination of flunixin in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissell, Lindsey W; Brinson, Patrick D; Gehring, Ronette; Tell, Lisa A; Wetzlich, Scott E; Baynes, Ronald E; Riviere, Jim E; Smith, Geof W

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe plasma pharmacokinetic parameters and tissue elimination of flunixin in veal calves. ANIMALS 20 unweaned Holstein calves between 3 and 6 weeks old. PROCEDURES Each calf received flunixin (2.2 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h) for 3 days. Blood samples were collected from all calves before the first dose and at predetermined times after the first and last doses. Beginning 24 hours after injection of the last dose, 4 calves were euthanized each day for 5 days. Plasma and tissue samples were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by compartmental and noncompartmental methods. RESULTS Mean ± SD plasma flunixin elimination half-life, residence time, and clearance were 1.32 ± 0.94 hours, 12.54 ± 10.96 hours, and 64.6 ± 40.7 mL/h/kg, respectively. Mean hepatic and muscle flunixin concentrations decreased to below FDA-established tolerance limits (0.125 and 0.025 μg/mL, respectively) for adult cattle by 3 and 2 days, respectively, after injection of the last dose of flunixin. Detectable flunixin concentrations were present in both the liver and muscle for at least 5 days after injection of the last dose. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The labeled slaughter withdrawal interval for flunixin in adult cattle is 4 days. Because administration of flunixin to veal calves represents extralabel drug use, any detectable flunixin concentrations in edible tissues are considered a violation. Results indicated that a slaughter withdrawal interval of several weeks may be necessary to ensure that violative tissue residues of flunixin are not detected in veal calves treated with that drug. PMID:27227502

  14. Surgical Management of Orthopedic and Musculoskeletal Diseases of Feedlot Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David E; Miesner, Matt D

    2015-11-01

    Injuries, infections, and disorders of the musculoskeletal system are common in feedlot calves. These conditions often are amenable to surgical treatment with return of the calf to productivity. Weight gain and carcass quality are expected to be significantly adversely affected by pain and debilitation. The goal of surgical management of disorders of the joints, muscles, and feet should be resolution of the inciting cause, mitigation of pain, and restoration of form and function. If these are achieved, calves should return to acceptable, if not normal, feed intake, rate of gain, and carcass quality. PMID:26210767

  15. Safety of Ketoprofen in Cow calves following repeated intravenous administration

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, R. D.; Sarita Devi; S. R.Gondaliya; S.K. Bhavsar and A.M. Thaker

    2009-01-01

    Ketoprofen is a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used for its anti-inflammatory,analgesic and antipyretic properties in Veterinary Medicine. The present study was planned to assess safety of ketoprofen (3 mg.kg-1) after repeated intravenous administration at 24 hours interval for five days in six crossbred cow calves (6-12 months age and weighing between 60-122 kg). Ketoprofen in calves was found safe based on evaluation of haematological (Hb, PCV, TLC and DLC), blood biochemical ...

  16. Woodland caribou calf recruitment in relation to calving/post-calving landscape composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara C. McCarthy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, Newfoundland’s woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou population has declined by an estimated 66%. Low calf recruitment has been associated to the decline, possibly triggered by increasing calf predation and/or decreasing resources. To investigate the role of landscape composition in this system, we studied the yearly (2005-2008 calving/post-calving range (CPCR of 104 satellite-collared females belonging to six herds. We mapped nine disturbance factors (e.g. roads, logging, etc, as well as vegetation cover types (e.g. coniferous, deciduous forests, etc, and determined the total area they occupied within CPCRs yearly for each herd. Using an information theoretic approach, we assessed the model that best explained variation in recruitment using these components. Based on corrected Akaike Information Criterion, the model that best explained variation in calf recruitment included total disturbance and deciduous forest area, both showing the expected negative relationship with calf recruitment. Other landscape variables among the models with ΔAICc < 2 were mixed forest, also with a suggested negative relationship, and barrens and wetlands with a significant positive trend. This study highlights the need to minimize total disturbance footprint and account for resulting changes in forest composition within CPCRs during land use planning. Expanding forestry operations and road infrastructure in critical woodland caribou habitat across Canada may additionally contribute to habitat loss via fragmentation. This in turn, may lead to range recession beyond the initial local avoidance footprint. We see the possibility of using calf recruitment models based on landscape parameters, among others, to predict the impact of new industrial developments on calf recruitment.

  17. Effect of housing type on health and performance of preweaned dairy calves during summer in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, G; Risco, C; Kunihiro, E; Thatcher, M-J; Pinedo, P J

    2016-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of housing type on health and performance of preweaned dairy calves. One hundred calves, Holsteins (HO) or Holstein-Jersey crosses (HJ), were randomly assigned to a Calf-Tel (L. T. Hampel Corp., Germantown, WI) polyethylene hutch exposed to direct sun light (n=25 for both HO and HJ) or a wire hutch with a plywood shade located under trees (n=24 and 26 for HO and HJ, respectively). Calf rectal temperature, respiratory rate, health scores, and weaning weight were compared by housing type. Rectal temperatures were higher in calves in Calf-Tel hutches compared with calves in wire hutches at 1500 h, at 40.1±0.28 and 39.1±0.22°C, respectively. Similarly, respiratory rates were higher in calves in Calf-Tel hutches compared with calves in wire hutches at 1500 h, at 90±15 and 65±10 breaths per minute, respectively. Frequencies of calves presenting abnormal ear scores did not differ between calves in Calf-Tel or wire hutches. Abnormal eye scores were less likely to occur for calves in the wire hutches. Frequencies of calves with signs of respiratory disease, such as nasal discharge and coughing, were higher in the wire hutches compared with the Calf-Tel hutches. No differences were noted in the incidence and time of first diarrhea event in calves between hutch types. Calves in wire hutches had 5.47 greater odds of receiving veterinary treatment compared with calves in the Calf-Tel hutches. Weaning weights were not different for calves in Calf-Tel or in wire hutches. The lower frequency of calves with abnormal health scores and receiving veterinary treatment in Calf-Tel hutches and the lack of difference in weight gain suggests that this housing system adapted well to the specific environmental conditions of this study. PMID:26686720

  18. Source mechanics for monochromatic icequakes produced during iceberg calving at Columbia Glacier, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neel, Shad; Pfeffer, W.T.

    2007-01-01

    Seismograms recorded during iceberg calving contain information pertaining to source processes during calving events. However, locally variable material properties may cause signal distortions, known as site and path effects, which must be eliminated prior to commenting on source mechanics. We applied the technique of horizontal/vertical spectral ratios to passive seismic data collected at Columbia Glacier, AK, and found no dominant site or path effects. Rather, monochromatic waveforms generated by calving appear to result from source processes. We hypothesize that a fluid-filled crack source model offers a potential mechanism for observed seismograms produced by calving, and fracture-processes preceding calving.

  19. Questionnaire identifying management practices surrounding calving on spring-calving dairy farms and their associations with herd size and herd expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, C; Berry, D P; Sayers, R; Lorenz, I; Kennedy, E

    2016-05-01

    Healthy calves are fundamental to any profitable dairy enterprise. Research to-date, has focused on year-round calving systems which experience many different challenges compared to spring-calving systems. The objective of the present study was to determine the on-farm dry cow, calving, and colostrum management practices of spring-calving dairy production systems, and quantify their associations with herd size and herd expansion status (i.e. expanding or not expanding). Information on these management practices was available from a survey of 262 Irish spring-calving dairy farmers, representative of the Irish national population. Herd expansion in the 2 years before, and the year that the survey was conducted was not associated with any of the management practices investigated. Fifty-three percent of respondents had an average calving season length of 10 to14 weeks with 35% of herds having a longer calving season. Previous research in cattle has documented that both colostrum source and feeding management are associated with the transmission of infectious disease from cow to calf. In the present study 60% of respondents fed calves colostrum from their own dam; however, 66% of those respondents allowed the calf to suckle the dam, 23% of survey respondents fed calves pooled colostrum. Larger herds were more likely (Pcalving and colostrum management because this study has highlighted a number of areas which are below international standards, and may have repercussions for calf health. Furthermore, management practices on larger farms could be improved and, as these represent the future of dairy farming, a focus needs to be placed on them. Expanding herds are not a particular concern as herd expansion, independent of herd size, does not seem to be associated with calving and colostrum management practices on Irish spring-calving dairy herds. PMID:26857400

  20. Sites of replication of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in naturally infected calves as determined by in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viuff, B.; Uttenthal, Åse; Tegtmeier, C.; Alexandersen, Søren

    1996-01-01

    Replication of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) was studied in three naturally infected calves by in situ hybridization using strand-specific RNA probes. One of the calves was a 5-month-old Friesian, the other two calves were a 3-month-old and a 2-week-old Jersey. Two Jersey calves, 3 mo...

  1. Growth Performances of Female and Male Holstein Calves Fed Milk and Milk Replacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir BAYRIL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare growth performances of male and female Holstein calves fed milk and milk replacers. A total of 60 Holstein calves were used in the study. Calves were divided into three equal groups. In each group, there were 10 female and 10 male calves. Calves were offered colostrum for 3 days after birth and were weighed at fourth day for the trial. Initial body weights of calves in dietary treatments were statistically similar. The first, second and third groups were fed milk, milk replacer-I (CP 21% and CF 16.5% and milk replacer-II (CP 24% and CF 18%, respectively. In addition to milk and milk replacers, calves were supplemented with ad libitum concentrate feed and alfalfa. Dietary treatment was significantly effective (P<0.05 on body weight of calves at 60 days of age. In conclusion, growth performances of calves increased with increasing protein content of milk replacer had better than those of calves fed milk replacer containing low-protein. Therefore, during the suckling period, in feeding of Holstein calves, milk or milk replacer containing high-protein should be preferred primarily.

  2. Genetic Parameters for Milk ,Fat Yield and Age at First Calving of Chinese Holsteins in Heilongjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Genetic parameters for milk,fat yield and age at first calving of Chinese Holsteins in Heilongjiang were evaluated using multiple-trait restricted maximum likelihood procedures with an animal model. Data consisted of records of 2496 Chinese Holsteins first lactation cows collected from 1989 to 2000. The model included 21herd effects, four calving season effects, nine age at first calving effects, 6697 animal effects. (Co)variance components of milk yield ,fat yield and age at first calving were estimated with the software package for variance component estimation(VCE) by an animal model. The heritabilities were 0. 14.0. 21,0. 38 for milk yield ,fat yield and age at first calving ,respectively. ihe estimates of genetic correlation between milk yield and fat yield,age at first calving were 0. 96,-0.29.respectively. The estimate of genetic correlation between fat yield and age at first calving was-0.28.

  3. On the role of buoyant flexure in glacier calving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Till J. W.; James, Timothy D.; Murray, Tavi; Vella, Dominic

    2016-04-01

    Interactions between glaciers and the ocean are key for understanding the dynamics of the cryosphere in the climate system. Here we investigate the role of hydrostatic forces in glacier calving. We develop a mathematical model to account for the elastic deformation of glaciers in response to three effects: (i) marine and lake-terminating glaciers tend to enter water with a nonzero slope, resulting in upward flexure around the grounding line; (ii) horizontal pressure imbalances at the terminus are known to cause hydrostatic in-plane stresses and downward acting torque; (iii) submerged ice protrusions at the glacier front may induce additional buoyancy forces that can cause calving. Our model provides theoretical estimates of the importance of each effect and suggests geometric and material conditions under which a given glacier will calve from hydrostatic flexure.We find good agreement with observations. This work sheds light on the intricate processes involved in glacier calving and can be hoped to improve our ability to model and predict future changes in the ice-climate system.

  4. [The aetiology of generalized alopecia in young calves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, I; Mayr, S; Rademacher, G; Klee, W

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to test for correlations between alopecia and ruminal drinking in young calves. 331 calves up to an age of 31 days were tested for evidence of generalized hair loss daily during their stay in the clinic. Incidence of diarrhoea and the results of ruminal fluid and blood analysis were compared between the groups with and without alopecia. Calves with alopecia showed a significantly higher incidence of diarrhoea and of ruminal acidosis persisting for at least 24 hours. Blood analysis revealed significant differences in degree of acidosis, in concentrations of D-lactate, urea, and creatinine in serum as well as in the activities of glutathione peroxidase, aspartate amino transferase, and creatine kinase. Alopecia in calves is correlated to longer periods of diseases, which are known to be accompanied by the production of D-lactate in the gastrointestinal tract, such as diarrhoea and ruminal drinking. The question, whether alopecia is due to formation of toxic substances or to deficiency of essential substances can not be answered. PMID:17642324

  5. On the role of buoyant flexure in glacier calving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Till J. W.; James, Timothy D.; Murray, Tavi; Vella, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between glaciers and the ocean are key for understanding the dynamics of the cryosphere in the climate system. Here we investigate the role of hydrostatic forces in glacier calving. We develop a mathematical model to account for the elastic deformation of glaciers in response to three effects: (i) marine and lake-terminating glaciers tend to enter water with a nonzero slope, resulting in upward flexure around the grounding line; (ii) horizontal pressure imbalances at the terminus are known to cause hydrostatic in-plane stresses and downward acting torque; (iii) submerged ice protrusions at the glacier front may induce additional buoyancy forces that can cause calving. Our model provides theoretical estimates of the importance of each effect and suggests geometric and material conditions under which a given glacier will calve from hydrostatic flexure. We find good agreement with observations. This work sheds light on the intricate processes involved in glacier calving and can be hoped to improve our ability to model and predict future changes in the ice-climate system.

  6. Aerosol challenge of calves with Haemophilus somnus and Mycoplasma dispar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, C.; Angen, Øystein; Grell, S.N.;

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the ability of Haemophilus somnus and Mycoplasma dispar to induce pneumonia in healthy calves under conditions closely resembling the supposed natural way of infection, viz, by inhalation of aerosol droplets containing the microorganisms. The infections were...

  7. Aerosol challenge of calves with Haemophilus somnus and Mycoplasma dispar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, C.; Angen, Øystein; Grell, S.N.; Riber, Ulla; Friis, N.F.

    The aim of the study was to examine the ability of Haemophilus somnus and Mycoplasma dispar to induce pneumonia in healthy calves under conditions closely resembling the supposed natural way of infection, viz, by inhalation of aerosol droplets containing the microorganisms. The infections were...

  8. Genetic resistance to experimental Cooperia oncophora infections in calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, G.A.A.

    1981-01-01

    The variation in resistance of cattle to gastro-intestinal nematode infection was investigated in three experiments. Bull calves, aged three months and reared under uniform conditions, were artificially infected with infective larvae of Cooperia oncophora, a moderately pathogenic but very abundant p

  9. Biological evaluation of mechanical circulatory support systems in calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakhorst, G; VanDerMeer, J; Kik, C; Mihaylov, D; Havlik, P; Trinkl, J; Monties, [No Value

    1996-01-01

    Data from animal experiments with mechanical circulatory support systems (MCSS) performed in Groningen and Marseille over the past years were used to obtain normal values of hematological, coagulation, rheological and blood chemistry parameters in calves. These parameters were divided between two gr

  10. Pathological and microbiological studies on pneumonic lungs from Danish calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, Conny; Uttenthal, Åse; Friis, N.F.;

    1999-01-01

    During 1 year, the association between microbiological and pathological findings in 72 lungs from calves submitted to the Danish Veterinary Laboratory for diagnostic purposes was studied. All cases mere evaluated pathologically and bacteriologically, whereas only 68 cases were examined for the...

  11. Characterization of bifidobacteria suitable for probiotic use in calves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bunešová, V.; Domig, K. J.; Killer, Jiří; Vlková, E.; Kopečný, Jan; Mrázek, Jakub; Ročková, Š.; Rada, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2012), 166-168. ISSN 1075-9964 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/08/1091; GA ČR GD525/08/H060 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Bifidobacteria * Identification * calves Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.022, year: 2012

  12. Pharmacokinetics, metabolism and renal clearance of flumequine in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevius, D J; Breukink, H J; Guelen, P J; Jansen, T; De Grève, B

    1990-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of flumequine was studied in 1-, 5- and 18-week-old veal calves. A two-compartment model was used to fit the plasma concentration-time curve of flumequine after the intravenous injection of 10 mg/kg of a 10% solution. The elimination half-life (t1/2 beta) of the drug ranged from 6 to 7 h. The Vd beta and ClB of 1-week-old calves (1.07 l/kg, 1.78 ml/min/kg) were significantly lower than those of 5-week-old (1.89 l/kg, 3.23 ml/min/kg) and 18-week-old calves (1.57 l/kg, 3.10 ml/min/kg). After the oral administration of 10 mg/kg of a 2% flumequine formulation mixed with milk replacer, the Cmax was highest in 1-week-old (9.27 micrograms/ml) and lowest in 18-week-old calves (4.47 micrograms/ml). The absorption was rapid (Tmax of approximately 3 h) and complete. When flumequine itself and a formulation containing 2% flumequine and 20 X 10(6) iu of colistin sulphate were mixed with milk replacer and administered at the same dose rate, absorption was incomplete and Cmax was lower. The main urinary metabolite of flumequine was the glucuronide conjugate (approximately 40% recovery within 48 h of intravenous injection) and the second most important metabolite was 7-hydroxy-flumequine (approximately 3% recovery within 12 h of intravenous injection). Only 3.2-6.5% was excreted in the urine unchanged. After oral administration a 'first-pass' effect was observed, with a significant increase in the excretion of conjugated drug. For 1-week-old calves it is recommended that the 2% formulation should be administered at a dose rate of 8 mg/kg every 24 h or 4 mg/kg every 12 h; for calves over 6 weeks old, the dose should be increased to 15 mg/kg every 24 h or 7.5 mg/kg every 12 h. The formulation containing colistin sulphate should be administered to 1-week-old calves at a flumequine dose of 12 mg/kg every 24 h or 6 mg/kg every 12 h. PMID:2384907

  13. Salvage of Theileria infected calves with clinical manifestation of exophthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shanker K; Sudan, Vikrant; Sachan, Pratibha; Srivastava, Ashish

    2015-09-01

    Two crossbred female calves aged between 30 and 35 days were presented with bilateral exophthalmia, inappetence, pyrexia and cachexia since last 15 days. Clinical examination revealed mainly bilateral exophthalmia with dry and pulpy cornea, generalized enlargement of superficial lymph nodes, pallor mucous, petechiae, high rectal temperature and sternal recumbency. The calves were severely infested with Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks and thin layer blood smears revealed presence of piroplasm in the RBCs, while lymph nodes aspirate smear examination revealed presence schizonts in the mononuclear cells. The calves were treated with buparvaquone; meloxicam, nandrolone decanoate and vitamins A, D3, E and H. From day second post-therapy a remarkable improvement in the clinical condition was noticed and substantial reduction in the both protruded eyeballs was noticed by 7 days post-therapy in the both calves. Further at day 47 post-therapy the one calf was free from the parasite on blood smear examination and right eye was retracted in its orbits with full of sight. Moreover the left eye was also retracted in its orbit but there was loss of sight and opacity developed in this eye. While, the other calf also revealed remarkable improvement in the clinical condition and both eye balls retracted completely into the orbit at day 30 post-therapy. But, at day 86 the calf developed microphthalmia and complete loss of sight in both eyes. It can be concluded that adjunction of antioxidants and hematopoietic agents may salvage the calves suffering from fatal theileriosis. PMID:26345050

  14. Improving growth performance in calves under hot weather conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effect of some supplement such as dried live yeast DLY (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), DLY + vitamin E and / or dried whey milk (DWM) on blood constituents and thyroid activity in relation to some immune indices and growth performance of calves under hot weather conditions. The ambient temperature and relative humidity averaged 36.9±4 degree C and 43-58 % during day and 29±4 degree C and 60-68 % during night, respectively, which were equivalent to temperature humidity index of 86-89 during day and 78-80 during night . The present study included three experiments as follows. Experiment 1 : Six female bovine Baladi calves of 8-10 months old and 100 kg initial body weight (IBW) were used during two periods. In the first period, the calves were offered the basal diet for one month and considered as a control period. In the second period, the same calves were fed the same basal diet which supplemented with 15 g / calf/ day DLY for one month and considered as treated period. The obtained results indicated that supplementation of DLY reduced significantly the respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT) as well as serum lipids profile including total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL- cholesterol) very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-cholesterol) triglycerides and phospholipids.The second and third experiments were carried out for improving growth performance of heat-stressed bovine baladi calves by adding DLY and vitamine E (alpha-tocopherol) to their diet in experiment 2 and dried whey milk (DWM) in experiment 3.

  15. Mortality and survival of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. calves in northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri Nieminen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available During the period 1999 to 2004 the reindeer calf survival and mortality were studied in two reindeer-herding cooperatives and in five herding-groups in northern Finland, where in total 1725 calves were fitted with mortality indicating radio-transmitters fixed on expandable neck collars. The calves were weighed and marked at the age of 2-5 days in calving corrals and also during earmarking in June/July, when the age of calves was 2-8 weeks. The rate, timing and causes of mortality of calves were investigated. In 1999-2001 in Ivalo reindeer-herding cooperative 4.6% of radiocollared calves and in 2002-04 in Käsivarsi reindeer cooperative 5.2% was found dead. The average mortality of the calves radio-collared during calving time in May, and monitored to the end of October, was 6.7% in Ivalo and 9.0% in Käsivarsi. From July on, the average mortality rates varied between 1.8-5.7% among reindeer herding-groups. On average 54 and 42% of all radio-collared calves found dead in Ivalo and Käsivarsi cooperatives were attributed to predation, and golden eagle was the most significant cause of death in both cooperatives killing 0-3.5% of radio-collared calves in different study areas and years. Golden eagle predation accounted for 33-43% of all radio-collared calves found dead, 55-59% of the cases with identified cause of death and 80% of all identified predation. Most of the calves killed by golden eagle were found during July and August mainly in the open areas, as in highlands, bogs and clear-cut forest areas. The mean body weight of the calves radio-collared in May (weights adjusted on June 1st and found dead during the summer was significantly (P<0.01 lighter than the mean weight of survivors both in Ivalo and Käsivarsi. Furthermore, the midsummer body weights of the calves (weights adjusted on July 1st killed by all predators and by golden eagles were significantly (P<0.001 lower than the mean weight of surviving calves in both cooperatives. However

  16. Differences in virulence between two noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, S R; Ridpath, J F

    1992-11-01

    A noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), BVDV-890, isolated from a yearling heifer that died with extensive internal hemorrhages, was compared for virulence in calves with noncytopathic BVDV-TGAN, isolated from an apparently healthy persistently infected calf. After challenge exposure with BVDV-890, nonimmune calves (n = 7) developed fever > 40 C, diarrhea, leukopenia, lymphopenia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia. Most calves (n = 6) died or were euthanatized by 19 days after challenge exposure. Challenge exposure with BVDV-890 did not induce disease in 2 calves that had congenital persistent infection with BVDV or in 3 calves that had neutralizing antibody titer > 4 against BVDV-890. After challenge exposure with BVDV-TGAN, nonimmune calves (n = 7) developed fever > 40 C and, rarely, diarrhea or lymphopenia. All of those calves survived challenge exposure. The average maximal titer of BVDV-890 isolated from serum was 1,000 times that of BVDV-TGAN. In calves infected with BVDV-890, the average maximal percentages of lymphocytes and platelets associated with virus were greater than those found in calves infected with BVDV-TGAN. Additional findings of epidemiologic significance were prolonged shedding of virus and delayed production of viral-neutralizing antibody in 1 calf challenge-exposed with BVDV-890. Also, after production of neutralizing antibody, mutant virus that was refractory to neutralization was isolated from calves challenge-exposed with BVDV-TGAN. PMID:1334641

  17. Calving Performance in the Endangered Murboden Cattle Breed: Genetic Parameters and Inbreeding Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie A.e. Eaglen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Calving is a key event on any cattle farm, with both economic and animal welfare consequences when complications arise. Although mostly reported in highly selected breeds, problematic calving performance is also a worry to the unselected dualpurpose Murboden breed, local to Austria. This study presents genetic parameter estimates for calving ease and stillbirth in Murboden cattle. Furthermore, a potential effect of inbreeding on the breeds’ calving performance is evaluated. Results show a moderate direct and maternal heritability (0.18±0.04; 0.11±0.02 and a significant negative direct-maternal genetic correlation for calving ease (-0.41±0.10. Heritabilities of stillbirth are low yet significant (0.048±0.01; 0.018±0.007. A significant effect of inbreeding was detected on maternal calving ease i.e. the ease with which a dam calves. By categorizing the inbreeding coefficients of the dam in six ascending classes it was shown that calving ease worsens as inbreeding coefficients become larger. Results of this study reveal significant genetic variation in calving performance of the Murboden breed which opens doors for genetic selection. An additional important aspect of this study is that its result on inbreeding depression gives counterweight to the general intuitive notion in literature that high selection for production traits is the major contributor to calving difficulty in dairy and beef cattle breeds worldwide.

  18. Productive effects of whole milk and milk replacement formula in calves feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Klarić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Determination of correct feeding regimes for calves is very important as it directly influences calves’ productive and reproductive traits, as well as duration of adult animal exploitation period. As the liquid feed is the most expensive component, its importance also has an economic aspect in calves rearing. The experiment was carried out on 30 Holstein calves with the aim to determine productive, economic and health effects of feeding calves with whole milk in different periods. Calves were divided into three equal groups (10 calves in each group. Experiment was carried out in the period from calving up to the 60th day of calf ’s age. All groups were given whole milk, however, duration of whole milk feeding differed among groups. Group 1 consumed whole milk from birth up to the 30th day of age, group 2 from birth up to the 20th day of age and group 3 from birth up to the 10th day of age. Afterwards, all groups were fed with milk replacement formula up to the 60th day of age. Suggested technological solutions in calves feeding within this experiment were analyzed through evaluation of basic fattening characteristics, monitoring of diarrhea occurrences and calculating costs per kg of weight gain per each group. Statistical analysis referring to calves body weight, daily gain and liquid feed conversion during the 1st month of experiment proved the best values for group 1, which were statistically highly significant (P<0.01 if compared to other groups. Examination of health status of calves determined that diarrhea occurred less frequently in group 1, which led to conclusion that feeding whole milk to calves should be given priority with respect to its nutritive and health benefits. By analyzing economic aspect of feeding whole milk to calves in their 1st month of age, the lowest costs were obtained for group 1, which supports the fact that feeding calves with whole milk is cost effective.

  19. PCR as a diagnostic test method for deduction of H. somni on trans-tracheal aspirated bronchoalveolar fluid from clinically normal calves and calves with pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, J. M. D.; Angen, Øystein; Thomsen, J.

    2004-01-01

    disease. Among diseased calves, 97% contained bacteria in the lower respiratory tract, all of them classified as pure culture or many pathogenic bacteria in mixed culture. BRSV was detected in 53% of the diseased calves. A comparison of H. somni specific PCR test to cultivation showed PCR to be most......The aim of the present field study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of a species specific PCR test against Histophilus somni (earlier Haemophilus somnus). Trans-tracheal aspirated bronchoalveolar fluid (BAL) from 56 clinically normal healthy calves and 36 calves that developed pneumonia were...... 63% of the clinically normal calves harboured pathogenic bacteria (mainly P. multocida, M. haemolytica and H. somni) in the lower respiratory tract, and in 60% of these cases bacteria were found either in pure culture or as the predominant flora, something that could be expected to cause clinical...

  20. Preweaning performance and body composition of calves from straightbred Nellore and Bos taurus x Nellore crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegare, L; Alencar, M M; Packer, I U; Leme, P R; Ferrell, C L; Lanna, D P D

    2009-05-01

    The objectives were to evaluate preweaning performance, body composition, and efficiency of calves representing straightbred Nellore (NL), F(1), and 3-breed-cross systems. Energy requirements, milk production, and efficiency of 39 cow-calf pairs were recorded from straightbred NL calves from NL cows (10), crossbred (Angus-sired) calves from NL cows (ANL: 9), and crossbred calves (CC; Canchim-sired: 5/8 Charolais, 3/8 Zebu) from ANL (10) and Simmental x NL (10) cows. Cows and their respective calves were individually fed from birth to weaning (17 to 190 d postpartum). At 38 d of age, corn silage (7.8% CP, 2.19 Mcal of ME/kg of DM) was available to calves ad libitum. Milk production at 42, 98, 126, and 180 d postpartum was recorded by weighing calves before and after suckling. The ratio between GE and ME of milk was considered 1:0.93. Calves were slaughtered at weaning and the 9th-, 10th-, and 11th-rib section was removed for body composition estimation. The ANL calves were lighter (P body energy - birth body energy) than the NL calves (388 +/- 23 for ANL, and 438 +/- 15 for CC vs. 312 +/- 22 Mcal for NL calves). Percentages of water (P = 0.74) and chemical fat (P = 0.51) were similar among groups (63.7 +/- 0.6 and 14.3 +/- 0.7% for ANL calves, 63.1 +/- 0.4 and 14.7 +/- 0.5% for CC calves, and 63.3 +/- 0.6 and 13.7 +/- 0.7% of empty BW for water and chemical fat, respectively, for NL calves). Energetic efficiency (kcal of retained energy/Mcal of ME intake) was similar (P = 0.52) among groups (358 +/- 22 for ANL calves, 355 +/- 14 for CC calves, and 327 +/- 22 for NL calves). The greater BW gains and the differences in empty body composition at weaning were not enough to compensate for the greater ME intake of crossbreds. In this study, the crossbreeding systems evaluated increased preweaning calf performance but did not affect gross or energetic calf efficiency. PMID:19122045

  1. Influence of calving season and stocking rate on birth weight and weaning weight of Simmental-sired calves from Brahman-Hereford F1 dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, S J; Rouquette, F M; Long, C R; Turner, J W

    1992-08-01

    Braham-Hereford F1 dams have been used to evaluate the influence of grazing pressure on forage attributes and animal performance at the Texas A&M University Agricultural Research Center at Overton. Data for this study were compiled from 1,909 records of Simmental-sired calves born to Braham-Hereford F1 cows from 1975 to 1990. Birth weight and weaning weight were analyzed independently to estimate the influence of year, season of birth, dam age, weaning age, and sex of calf. The effect of stocking rate as represented by levels of forage availability on weaning weights and subsequent birth weights was measured. Within the fall and winter calving seasons, lactating dams grazing at a high stocking rate produced calves with the lowest subsequent birth weights. Lactating dams assigned to creep-fed treatments had calves with the heaviest subsequent birth weights. Although dams that were less than 3.5 yr of age had calves with the lightest birth weights, there was no apparent decline in birth weight of calves from dams 12 to 17 yr old. Year, sex of calf, age of dam, stocking rate, season of birth, age at weaning, and birth weight were significant factors affecting weaning weight (P less than .01). Fall-born calves grazing cool-season annual pastures were heavier at weaning (267.6 kg) than either winter- (252.0 kg) or spring-born calves (240.9 kg). A stocking rate x season-of-birth interaction was observed for birth weight and weaning weight (P less than .05). Differences in weaning weight from low- vs high-stocked pastures were greater for fall-born calves (61.6 kg) than for winter-born calves (48.7).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1506293

  2. Genotype by environment interaction for the interval from calving to first insemination with regard to calving month and geographic location in Holstein cows in Denmark and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismael, Ahmed; Strandberg, Erling; Berglund, Britt; Kargo, Morten; Fogh, Anders; Løvendahl, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate genotype by environment interaction effects, with environments defined as calving month and geographic location, on the interval from calving to first insemination (CFI) of Holstein cows in Denmark and Sweden. The data set included 811,285 records on CFI for first-parity cows from January 2010 to January 2014 housed in 7,458 herds. The longest mean CFI was 84.7 d for cows calving in April and the shortest was 76.3 d for cows calving in September. The longest mean CFI of 87.1 d was recorded at the northernmost location (LOC-8), whereas the shortest mean CFI of 73.5 d was recorded at the southernmost location (LOC-1). The multiple trait approach, in which CFI values in different calving months and different geographic locations were treated as different traits, was used to estimate the variance components and genetic correlations for CFI by using the average information (AI)-REML procedure in a bivariate sire model. Estimates of genetic variance and heritability were highest for January calvings and 3 times smaller for June calvings. Location 2 had the highest heritability and LOC-8 the lowest, with heritability estimates decreasing from LOC-2 to LOC-8. Genetic correlations of CFI between calving months were weakest between cold months (December and January) and warm months (June, August, and September); the lowest estimate was found between January and September calvings. Genetic correlations of CFI between the different geographic locations were generally strong, and the weakest correlation was between LOC-3 and LOC-8. These results indicate a genotype by environment interaction for CFI primarily regarding seasons described by calving months. The effect of geographic location was less important, mostly producing a scaling effect of CFI in different locations. We concluded that CFI is more sensitive to seasonal effects than geographic locations in Denmark and Sweden. PMID:27085411

  3. ESCHERICHIA COLI O157 IN WITHE VEAL CALVES CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D’Orio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available During 2006 one hundred and three white veal calves slaughtered at an abattoir in Isernia (Italy were examined for E. coli O157 intestinal carriage and carcass contamination, using Immuno-Magnetic Separation (IMS and multiplex PCR. Faecal material before slaughtering and carcass samples, using sponge-bag, were collected. E. coli O157 isolates were found in 10 (9,71% faecal and 9 (8,7% carcass samples. PCR analysis showed that all the strains from faecal and from carcass samples carried eaeA, hlyA and stx2 genes, while five strains stx1 gene. The results confirm that the slaughter practices can largely influence the rate of E. coli O157 carcasses contamination and suggest that white veal calves meat could be an important risk for human health.

  4. MR imaging in staging of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR imaging has been shown to have advantages over radiography in identifying fat, hyaline cartilage, and fluid. The author discusses how on the basis of MR images (at 1.5 T, spin-echo technique) of 18 affected femoral heads, Legg-Calve-Perthes disease was classified into three stages, and the relationship between MR imaging and radiography was analyzed. In stage I disease, MR imaging showed the epiphysis of low signal intensity, which was compressed bone on radiography. In stage II disease, MR findings included the enlarged epiphysis of geographic or honeycomb pattern corresponding to fragmentation and rarefaction. In stage III disease, MR imaging showed high signal intensity of fatty marrow. MR imaging aided significantly in the assessment of necrosis and regeneration in Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

  5. A genetic Study of Mortality in Danish Jersey Heifer Calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norberg, Elise; Pryce, Jennie; Pedersen, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for mortality of Jersey heifer calves during the first 6mo after birth, calculate the genetic trend of the trait, and estimate breeding values of widely used Jersey sires. More than 260,000 heifer calves were included in the study. The...... values of sires, and genetic trend. Fixed effects included in the model were herd-year class, month of birth, parity of mother, and whether the calf was sold to another farm in the first 6mo. Both direct and maternal genetic effects were included in the model; however, the maternal genetic effect was....... The best and the worst sires differed by about 8% in their estimated breeding values of mortality in the first 180d. Based on the results obtained in this study, genetic selection for reducing calf mortality should be possible....

  6. Safety of Ketoprofen in Cow calves following repeated intravenous administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Singh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ketoprofen is a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID used for its anti-inflammatory,analgesic and antipyretic properties in Veterinary Medicine. The present study was planned to assess safety of ketoprofen (3 mg.kg-1 after repeated intravenous administration at 24 hours interval for five days in six crossbred cow calves (6-12 months age and weighing between 60-122 kg. Ketoprofen in calves was found safe based on evaluation of haematological (Hb, PCV, TLC and DLC, blood biochemical (AKP, ACP, AST, ALT, LDH, Total bilirubin, Serum Creatinine, BUN, Serum total protein, Serum albumin and Blood glucose parameters. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 105-107

  7. How milk-fed dairy calves perform in stable versus dynamic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rikke Engelbrecht; Sørensen, Jan Tind; Skjøth, F; Hindhede, Jens; Nielsen, Tine Rousing

    The objective of the present field trial was to compare calf performance among pre-weaned calves in two different group housing systems, stable groups ("all in-all out") and dynamic groups (continuous introduction). Performance data was collected from 484 calves randomly assigned to the two syste....../days). The prevalence of both diarrhoea and respiratory disease were more than twice as high among calves in dynamic groups compared to calves in stable groups.......The objective of the present field trial was to compare calf performance among pre-weaned calves in two different group housing systems, stable groups ("all in-all out") and dynamic groups (continuous introduction). Performance data was collected from 484 calves randomly assigned to the two systems...

  8. Use of natural feed supplements that help to improve health status of calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš ZÁBRANSKÝ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The basis for each cattle farming are healthy and strong individuals. The aim of this study was to determine which of the given feed supplements have the greatest effect on liveweight gain of calves in the early period after weaning from mother to infant milk substitutes. The research was conducted from July 2014 to December 2014. After the birth calves were weaned into individual boxes in the barn, where during the first 21 days of life their feeding ration was enriched with feed supplements. On the basis of the added supplement calves were divided into three experimental groups and one control group. First weighing of calves was done after birth and the second after 30 days. From the results of observations it can be concluded that feed supplements are accepted positively by calves in the first days of life and have a positive beneficial effect on weight gain and general health of calves.

  9. Cardiopulmonary effects of intramuscular xylazine-ketamine in calves.

    OpenAIRE

    Rings, D M; Muir, W W

    1982-01-01

    The cardiopulmonary effects of an intramuscular xylazine (0.088 mg/kg)-ketamine (4.4 mg/kg) drug combination were evaluated in calves. Heart rate, central venous and mean pulmonary artery blood pressures, and cardiac output did not change after drug administration. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased significantly (P less than 0.05) 15 minutes after drug administration. Respiratory frequency increased significantly (P less than 0.05) whereas arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) decre...

  10. Oral absorption and bioavailability of flumequine in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevius, D J; Breukink, H J; Jansen, T; Guelen, P J; de Grève, B

    1989-10-01

    The oral absorption and bioavailability of flumequine was studied in 1-, 5- and 18-week-old calves following intravenous and oral administration of different formulations of flumequine (Flumix, Flumix C and pure flumequine). Increasing age had a negative influence on the Cmax after the administration of Flumix, based on a larger VD in the older calves. The Cmax decreased from 5.02 +/- 1.46 micrograms/ml in the first week to 3.28 +/- 0.42 micrograms/ml in the 18th week. Adding colistin sulfate to the flumequine formulation and administring pure flumequine mixed with milk replacer had a negative effect on the Cmax of flumequine after oral administration of 5 and 10 mg/kg body weight. The bioavailability of the orally administered flumequine formulations was 100% in all cases except after the administration of Flumix C, for which it was 75.9 +/- 18.2%. The urinary recovery of flumequine after intravenous injection of a 10% solution varied from 35.2 +/- 2.3% for Group B, to 41.2 +/- 6.3% for Group C. The dosage of 5 mg/kg body weight Flumix twice daily in 1-week-old veal calves is sufficient to reach therapeutic plasma concentrations, based on a MIC value of 0.8 micrograms/ml of the target bacteria. In older calves it is advisable to increase the dosage 7.5 or 10 mg/kg body weight every 12 hours. In combination with colistin sulfate it is also advisable to increase the dosage slightly because of the negative effect of the colistin sulfate on the Cmax of flumequine. PMID:2603356

  11. Effect of tetracycline administration on serum amylase activity in calves

    OpenAIRE

    Zendehbad, Bamdad; Alipour, Adeleh; Zendehbad, Hussein

    2013-01-01

    Tetracycline and related compounds are used extensively as broad spectrum antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial infections in ruminants. Tetracycline may cause acute pancreatitis which may result in increased serum amylase activity. However, it has been shown that administration of oxytetracycline in human results in decrease serum amylase activity. In this study changes in serum amylase activity were measured in 20 clinically healthy calves following intravenous injection of oxytetracycl...

  12. Greenhouse gas and alcohol emissions from feedlot steers and calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, Kimberly R; Pan, Yuee; Zhao, Yongjing; Mitloehner, Frank M

    2011-01-01

    Livestock's contributions to climate change and smog-forming emissions are a growing public policy concern. This study quantifies greenhouse gas (GHG) and alcohol emissions from calves and feedlot steers. Carbon dioxide (CO) methane (CH), nitrous oxide (NO), ethanol (EtOH), and methanol (MeOH) were measured from a total of 45 Holstein and Angus steers and 9 Holstein calves representative of four different growth stages commonly present on calf ranches and commercial feedlots. Individuals from each animal type were randomly assigned to three equal replicate groups of nine animals per group. Steers were fed a high concentrate diet and calves a milk replacer and grain supplement. Cattle and calves were housed in groups of three animals in an environmental chamber for 24 h. The CO, NO, EtOH, and MeOH concentrations from the air inlet and outlet of the chamber were measured using an INNOVA 1412 monitor and CH using a TEI 55C methane analyzer. Emission rates (g head h) were calculated. The GHGs were mainly produced by enteric fermentation and respiration and differed across life stages of cattle. Compared with dairy cows, feedlot steers produce relatively less GHG. In general, ethanol and methanol, the most important volatile organic compound (VOC) group in the dairy sector, were below the lower limit of detection of the gas analyzer. The present data will be useful to verify models and to enhance GHG emission inventories for enteric fermentation, respiration, and fresh excreta for numerous cattle life stages across the beef industry. PMID:21546675

  13. Experimental pneumonia in gnotobiotic calves produced by respiratory syncytial virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, L. H.; Slott, E. J.; Collins, A. P.; Jebbett, J.

    1984-01-01

    A bovine isolate of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), when inoculated intranasally into eight gnotobiotic calves produced significant macroscopic lesions of the lung (2-25% consolidation) but failed to produce any clinical signs of disease. The microscopic lesions comprised proliferative and exudative bronchiolitis with accompanying alveolar collapse and infiltration by mononuclear cells of the peribronchiolar tissue and alveolar walls. Virus was recovered from the nasopharynx between days 2...

  14. Pathological evidence of ehrlichiosis among calves inoculated with Ehrlichia chaffeensis

    OpenAIRE

    delos Santos, Jose R. C.; Oglesbee, Michael; Rikihisa, Yasuko; Stich, R W

    2008-01-01

    An immunocompetent animal disease model based on infection with Ehrlichia chaffeensis would facilitate research toward understanding mechanisms responsible for the broad range of clinical signs associated with human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME). Adaptability to experimental feeding of various tick species and stages and to testing therapies comparable to those for human diseases are additional advantages of large animal models. Herein we summarize pathology reports for calves that developed f...

  15. Pimply gut condition in mithun (Bos frontalis) calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamuah, J K; Pegu, S R; Raina, O K; Siju, S J; Sakhrie, A; Deka, Anil; Rajkhowa, C

    2016-06-01

    The present observation was recorded at National Research Centre on Mithun, Jharnapani from May 2010 to September 2012. A total of 15 mithun calves, which died in and around Jharnapani, were attended and detailed post-mortem examination was carried out. Out of these, five calves (33.33 %) aging between 1 and 1.5 years exhibiting the condition of chronic wasting and diarrhoea were found positive for pimply gut condition based on gross and microscopic examination. Post-mortem examination revealed extensive nodule formation on the wall of the rectum; however, the entire lumen did not reveal any of adult parasites. In all the cases, there were congestion in the mucous layer and thickening of the intestinal wall. Histopathological examination revealed chronic enteritis with mononuclear cell infiltration comprising mostly of macrophages, lymphocytes and eosinophils. In the muscularis mucosae, encysted larvae were found along with fibrous tissue proliferation. These lesions gave the intestine a nodular appearance as they thickened the wall and projected from the serosal surface. These extensive numbers of nodules in the intestine might have interfered with peristalsis and intestinal absorption which led to chronic wasting and diarrhoea in the calves. PMID:27413288

  16. Meat quality of calves obtained from organic and conventional farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Schiavon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare meat quality of organically and conventionally raised Simmental calves. Fifteen organic and fourteen conventional carcasses were considered, 8th rib and M. Longissimus thoracis were sampled on each carcass. Different tissues percentage of 8th rib were evaluated and meat colour, chemical and fatty acids composition of M. Longissimus thoracis were analysed. Fat percentage of 8th rib of organic calves was lower (P<0.01 than conventional ones. Cooking weight losses were lower (P<0.001 in organic meat compared to the conventional ones and red index was higher in organic calves due to the high content of heminic iron (P<0.001. Ether extract (P<0.001 and cholesterol content (P<0.05 was lower in organic meat with respect to conventional one. Positive value, from a nutritional point of view, were found in organic veal about n-3 fatty acids, n-6/n-3 ratio and CLA content.

  17. Respiratory Support for Pharmacologically Induced Hypoxia in Neonatal Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, C. G.; Quinn, C. T.; Nielsen, S. G.; Raidal, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Practical methods to provide respiratory support to bovine neonates in a field setting are poorly characterised. This study evaluated the response of healthy neonatal calves with pharmacologically induced respiratory suppression to nasal oxygen insufflation and to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) delivered via an off-the-shelf device. Ten calves were randomised to receive either nasal oxygen insufflation (Group 1, n = 5) or CPAP (Group 2, n = 5) as a first treatment after induction of respiratory depression by intravenous administration of xylazine, fentanyl, and diazepam. Calves received the alternate treatment after 10 minutes of breathing ambient air. Arterial blood gas samples were obtained prior to sedation, following sedation, following the first and second treatment, and after breathing ambient air before and after the second treatment. Oxygen insufflation significantly increased arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) but was also associated with significant hypercapnia. When used as the first treatment, CPAP was associated with significantly decreased arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide but did not increase PaO2. These results suggest that the use of CPAP may represent a practical method for correction of hypercapnia associated with inadequate ventilation in a field setting, and further research is required to characterise the use of CPAP with increased inspired oxygen concentrations. PMID:26998379

  18. Numerical modelling of iceberg calving force responsible for glacial earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Amandine; Yastrebov, Vladislav; Castelnau, Olivier; Mangeney, Anne; Stutzmann, Eleonore; Montagner, Jean-Paul

    2016-04-01

    Glacial earthquakes is a class of seismic events of magnitude up to 5, occurring primarily in Greenland, in the margins of large marine-terminated glaciers with near-grounded termini. They are caused by calving of cubic-kilometer scale unstable icebergs which penetrate the full-glacier thickness and, driven by the buoyancy forces, capsize against the calving front. These phenomena produce seismic energy including surface waves with dominant energy between 10-150 s of period whose seismogenic source is compatible with the contact force exerted on the terminus by the iceberg while it capsizes. A reverse motion and posterior rebound of the terminus have also been measured and associated with the fluctuation of this contact force. Using a finite element model of iceberg and glacier terminus coupled with simplified fluid-structure interaction model, we simulate calving and capsize of icebergs. Contact and frictional forces are measured on the terminus and compared with laboratory experiments. We also study the influence of geometric factors on the force history, amplitude and duration at the laboratory and field scales. We show first insights into the force and the generated seismic waves exploring different scenarios for iceberg capsizing.

  19. Immunization of zebu calves against Fasciola gigantica, using irradiated metacercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younis, S.A.; Yagi, A.I.; Haroun, E.M.; Gameel, A.A.; Taylor, M.G.

    1986-06-01

    The pathogenesis of unirradiated, 3 krad-irradiated and 20 krad-irradiated metacercarial infections was compared in zebu calves studied over 10 weeks. Calves exposed to 1000 unirradiated metacercariae (MC) became hypoalbuminaemic, and showed elevated serum concentrations of liver enzymes, whereas neither of the other groups was significantly affected. At slaughter, a mean of 332 flukes was recovered from the 0 krad group, while only 23% and 12% of this number were recovered from the 3 krad and 20 krad groups, respectively. All the worms recovered from the 20 krad group were stunted, but a mean of 13% of the flukes recovered from the 3 krad group were large. Liver lesions typical of acute fascioliasis were present in the 0 krad group, but lesions in the other groups, were far less severe. A single vaccination of calves with 10003 krad-irradiated mc induced partial resistance to a challenge with 1000 normal mc eight weeks later, but the reduction in worm recovery was not statistically significant. There was less evidence of protection when two vaccinating doses of 3 krad mc were given within four weeks, with challenge at week 8, and a single vaccination was ineffective against a challenge four weeks later. However, when the irradiation dose was increased to 20 krad, a high level of resistance was induced by a single vaccination, given eight weeks before challenge, and liver pathology was strikingly reduced in the vaccinated animals.

  20. Septicaemic listeriosis in reindeer calves – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomo Nyyssönen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from 4 reindeer calves as a nearly pure growth from several internal organs, pointing to a septicaemic form of listeriosis. The calves were born in a calving corral. Silage feeding was considered the most probable source of the infection.Abstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmä:Listeria monocytogenes -bakteerin aiheuttama verenmyrkytys poronvasoilla – tapausselostus Toukokuussa 2005 Suomen poronhoitoalueen kaakkoisosassa sijaitsevassa vasotustarhassa kuoli neljä poronvasaa pian syntymän jälkeen 5-11 päivän ikäisinä. Kaikkien vasojen kuolinsyyksi todettiin Listeria monocytogenes -bakteerin aiheuttama verenmyrkytys. Tartunnan todennäköisin lähde oli vaatimien lisäruokinnassa käytetty säilörehu. Kyseessä on ensimmäinen poronvasoilla todettu Listeria monocytogenes -bakteerin aiheuttama verenmyrkytys Suomessa. Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Tilfelle av sjukdomsfremkallende Listeriabakterie i reinkalver Listeria monocytogenes ble isolert fra 4 reinkalver som en nesten ren vekst fra flere indre organer, noe som antyder en sykdomsfremkallende form av listeriose. Kalvene nedkom i en kalveinnhegning, og man antok at dårlig silofôr var smittekilden.

  1. The effect of unrestricted milk feeding on the growth and health of Jersey calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, J L; Lourens, D C; Thompson, P N

    2011-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding high milk volumes on the growth rate, health and cross-sucking behaviour in group-fed Jersey calves. Three-day-old heifers (n = 120) in a seasonal calving dairy herd were randomly assigned to one of 6 treatment groups. Three groups received high milk volumes (HMV), consisting of ad libitum milk or milk replacer feeding twice a day, while 3 groups received restricted milk volumes (RMV), consisting of 2 l twice daily, during the pre-weaning period. After a pre-weaning period during which feeding was reduced to once daily, all calves were weaned at 42 days and monitored until 60 days of age. Adjusting for birth mass, birth date, dam parity and sire, average daily mass gain (ADG), both pre-weaning (days 0-42) and overall (days 0-60), was higher in HMV than in RMV calves (P < 0.001). After weaning, growth rates showed no differences and at 60 days of age the HMV calves maintained a 6.74 kg advantage in mean body mass (P < 0.001). The mean intake of dry starter feed was higher in RMV than in HMV calves. Overall feed conversion rate of HMV calves was 9.6 % better than RMV calves. However, the variable cost per kg mass gain was 12 % higher for HMV calves. In the RMV groups 75 % of calves showed cross-sucking behaviour pre-weaning and 18 % post-weaning, whereas in HMV calves the proportions were 2 % and 7 %, respectively. There was no significant effect of milk volume on the incidence of diarrhoea. We conclude that the feeding of high volumes of milk to Jersey calves has a positive effect on growth rate, without compromising health or reducing solid feed intake after weaning. However, the higher cost of such a feeding system may limit its implementation. PMID:21826838

  2. Prevalence and molecular characterisation of Giardia duodenalis in calves with diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S H; VanBik, D; Kim, H Y; Cho, A; Kim, J W; Byun, J W; Oem, J K; Oh, S I; Kwak, D

    2016-06-18

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in diarrhoeal faeces from calves that were reared in Korea using PCR and ELISA. Diarrhoeal faecal samples were collected from 590 calves (giardiasis in calves with haemorrhagic diarrhoea found in this study differed from previous studies. Therefore, researchers and veterinarians should be aware of the possible involvement of giardiasis in haemorrhagic diarrhoea. PMID:27162285

  3. Comparison of abomasal emptying in neonatal calves with a nuclear scintigraphic procedure.

    OpenAIRE

    Nappert, G; Lattimer, J C

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate that nuclear medicine technology allows observation of the effect that milk clotting has on abomasal emptying in the living neonatal calf. Scintigraphic evaluation of abomasal emptying was carried out in 6 healthy male Holstein calves. The calves were fed 10% of their body weight daily as whole cow's milk that was divided equally and consumed as 2 feedings via a nipple bottle. One day before the nuclear scintigraphic procedure, the calves we...

  4. Clinical evaluation of cardiac effects of experimental doxycycline overdosing in healthy calves

    OpenAIRE

    Amory Hélène; Detilleux Johann; Desmecht Daniel; Rollin Frédéric; Brihoum Mounir

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Cardiac morphologic and functional changes consistent with cardiomyopathy have been reported in field cases of calves with accidental doxycycline overdosing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinically the cardiac effects of an experimentally-induced doxycycline overdosing in healthy calves. Twelve 2 months-old healthy Belgian Blue calves were studied. Six of them (group 1) received the normal dose (5 mg/kg, BID) and the six others (group 2) received five times th...

  5. Prevalence of Salmonella and E. coli in neonatal diarrheic calves

    OpenAIRE

    F.R. El-Seedy; A.H. Abed; H.A. Yanni; S.A.A. Abd El-Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal calf diarrhea remains one of the most important problems faced by livestock, causing great economic losses. This study investigated the prevalence of Salmonella and Escherichia coli, especially enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), in diarrheic calves. Fecal samples were collected from 127 diarrheic calves up to 3 months of age at 12 farms from different governorates in Egypt. 119 bacterial isolates (93.7%) were recovered and the prevalences of Salmonella and E. coli in diarrheic calves we...

  6. Serum protein concentrations, including acute phase proteins, in calves experimentally infected with Salmonella Dublin

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Gomes da Silva; Péricles Ricardo Lacerda e Silva; Paulo César da Silva; José Jurandir Fagliari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate serum protein concentrations in calves experimentally inoculated with Salmonella Dublin. Twelve healthy 10 to 15-day-old Holstein calves were randomly allotted into two groups, control and infected with 10(8) CFU of Salmonella Dublin orally. The calves were subjected to physical evaluation and blood samples were collected shortly before administration of the bacteria and also 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 168 hours post-infection. The concentration of serum pro...

  7. Early weaning alters the acute-phase reaction to an endotoxin challenge in beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J A; Arthington, J D; Chase, C C

    2009-12-01

    Previous research indicates that early weaning before shipment can reduce transportation-induced increases in acute-phase proteins (APP) and can increase feedlot performance in beef calves. These data suggest that the combination of weaning and transport stress may compromise the immune system of calves, thus hindering subsequent performance and health. Therefore, our objective was to determine if the innate immune response of early weaned calves (EW; 80 d of age) differed from normal-weaned calves (NW; 250 d of age) in response to an endotoxin challenge. Eighteen Brahman x Angus calves (8 and 10 EW and NW, respectively; 233 +/- 5 kg of BW) were used. Calves were maintained on pasture with supplement and then moved into individual pens for 1 wk of acclimation before the start of the study. Calves were fitted with an indwelling jugular catheter 1 d before LPS challenge (0 h; 1.0 microg/kg of BW, intravenously). Blood samples were collected at 30-min intervals from -2 to 8 h. Serum samples were stored at -80 degrees C until analyzed for cortisol, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), IL-1 beta, IL-6, interferon-gamma (IFN), ceruloplasmin, and haptoglobin. Whereas LPS increased serum cortisol (P or= 0.15) was observed. A weaning age x time interaction (P x time interaction (P calves. Based upon these data, the innate immune system of EW calves appears to be more competent in responding to immune challenge compared with that of NW calves. Additionally, the differential IFN response indicates that the immune system of EW calves may be more effective at recognizing and eliminating endotoxin. These data suggest that an altered innate immune system may be one of the factors responsible for the improved feedlot performance previously reported in EW calves. PMID:19717781

  8. Clinical, haematological and biochemical findings in milk-fed calves with chronic indigestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, H; Lutz, H; Rüsch, P

    1999-09-11

    The principal clinical signs in 59 milk-fed calves with chronic indigestion were general malaise and depression, poor appetite, poor body condition, dehydration, a dull and scaly hair coat, alopecia and clay-like faeces. All the calves had metabolic acidosis, which was associated with an inability to stand up in more than half of them. There were significant differences in the severity of acidosis between the calves that could stand and those that could not. Other signs in some of the calves were dehydration, leucocytosis, and increased activities of liver enzymes. PMID:10515617

  9. Age of First Calving and Subsequent Fertility and Survival in Holstein Friesian Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    constantin Gavan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between age at first calving (AFC and subsequent fertility and survival up to third calving in Holstein Friesian heifers. Study comprised 116 consecutively born female calves from the same herd. The animals were divided in four AFC groups for analysis: <24 months, 25-27 months, 28-30 months, > 30 months. Fertility before first calving was recorded as age at first breeding (AFB, services per conception (S/C, age at conception, first service conception rate (FSCR and actual AFC. After first calving, fertility was recorded as days to first service (DFC, days to conception (DTC, S/C and FSCR. Survival rate up to third calving also was recorded. The proportion of heifers conceiving to first service, before calving, was highest (100% for the youngest AFC group (<24 mounth and worst (33,33% for the oldest AFC gropu (>30 mounth. Fertility in the first lactation was best in primiparous cows calving at 25-27 months. Survival rate up to third calving was 42,85% for <24 months group, 75,55% for 25-27 months group, 68,42% for 28-30 months group and 44,44% for >30 mounth group. In conclusion, performance in Holstein Friesian cows was achieved with an AFC of 25-27 months. These animals performed well in terms of fertility and survival.

  10. Causes of Stillbirth and Time of Death in Swedish Holstein Calves Examined Post Mortem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvander M

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was initiated due to the observation of increasing and rather high levels of stillbirths, especially in first-calving Swedish Holstein cows (10.3%, 2002. Seventy-six Swedish Holstein calves born to heifers at 41 different farms were post mortem examined in order to investigate possible reasons for stillbirth and at what time in relation to full-term gestation they had occurred. The definition of a stillborn calf was dead at birth or within 24 h after birth after at least 260 days of gestation. Eight calves were considered as having died already in uterus. Slightly less than half of the examined calves (46.1% were classified as having died due to a difficult calving. Four calves (5.3% had different kinds of malformations (heart defects, enlarged thymus, urine bladder defect. Approximately one third of the calves (31.6% were clinically normal at full-term with no signs of malformation and born with no indication of difficulties at parturition or any other reason that could explain the stillbirth. The numbers of male and female calves were rather equally distributed within the groups. A wide variation in post mortem weights was seen in all groups, although a number of the calves in the group of clinically normal calves with unexplained reason of death were rather small and, compared with e.g. those calves categorised as having died due to a difficult calving, their average birth weight was 6 kg lower (39.9 ± 1.7 kg vs. 45.9 ± 1.5 kg, p ≤ 0.01. It was concluded that the cause of stillbirth with a non-infectious aetiology is likely to be multifactorial and difficult calving may explain only about half of the stillbirths. As much as one third of the calves seemed clinically normal with no obvious reason for death. This is a target group of calves that warrants a more thorough investigation in further studies.

  11. PREVALENCE OF PARASITIC INFECTION IN BUFFALO CALVES IN JKHADAGZAI, DISTRICT DIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M, Azam. M. M, Siddiqui and G. Habib

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of ecto and endo-parasites of buffalo calves was investigated in 50 buffalo farms in Khadagzai area of district Dir. N.W.F.P. Province. Faecal examination of calves (n = 118: age ≤ 1 year revealed that 64.41% of the calves were positive for internal parasites. The worm load significantly varied (P<0.05 among the farms and was the highest (1600-3600 EPG in 2%, moderate (800-1600 EPG in 22%, low (200-800 EPG in 34% and negligible (less than 200 EPG in 42% farms. Among the calves examined 50.84% had the worm load of 200-800 EPG and 13.56% calves showed the worm load of 800-1600 EPG. , The highest worm load (1600-3600 EPG was observed only in 0.85% of the calves. Six species of nematodes and one specie of trematodes were identified. No cestode infection was encountered during the study. The incidence of Trichostrongylus species was 21.19% followed by Trichuris (9.32%. Haemonchus (8.47%, Strongyloides papillosus (5.93%, Ostertagia (5.08%. Toxocara vitulurum (1 .70%. Fasciola (5.93% and mixed infections (6.78%. Intestinal protozoan infection was recorded in 72% of the calves. Majority of the calves (85% had mixed infection of Coccidia and Amoeba and the remaining 15% calves were found infected with Coccidia only. A total of 5.93% of the calves studied were found positive for ecto-parasites. The prevalence of ticks, lice, mites and mixed infection was 5.08, 34.75, 11.86 and 4.24% respectively in the surveyed calves.

  12. The variability of tidewater-glacier calving: origin of event-size and interval distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Chapuis, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Calving activity at the front of tidewater glaciers is characterized by a large variability in iceberg sizes and inter-event intervals. We present calving-event data obtained from continuous observations of the fronts of two tidewater glaciers on Svalbard, and show that the distributions of event sizes and inter-event intervals can be reproduced by a simple calving model focusing on the mutual interplay between calving and the destabilization of the glacier front. The event-size distributions of both the field and the model data extend over several orders of magnitude and resemble power laws. The distributions of inter-event intervals are broad, but have a less pronounced tail. In the model, the width of the size distribution increases with the calving susceptibility of the glacier front, a parameter measuring the effect of calving on the stress in the local neighborhood of the calving region. Inter-event interval distributions, in contrast, are insensitive to the calving susceptibility. Above a critical susc...

  13. Social isolation may influence responsiveness to infection with bovine herpesvirus 1 in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reenen, van C.G.; Mars, M.H.; Leushuis, I.E.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    An experiment was performed to develop a model to study the impact of stress on responsiveness to infection with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) in veal calves. Social isolation after previous group-housing was used as a putatively stressful treatment. Group-housed specific pathogen-free veal calves (n=

  14. Invited review: Effects of group housing of dairy calves on behavior, cognition, performance, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J H C; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2016-04-01

    Standard practice in the dairy industry is to separate the calf and dam immediately after birth and raise calves in individual pens during the milk-feeding period. In nature and in extensive beef systems, the young calf lives in a complex social environment. Social isolation during infancy has been associated with negative effects, including abnormal behavior and developmental problems, in a range of species. Here, we review empirical work on the social development of calves and the effects of social isolation in calves and other species; this evidence indicates that calves reared in isolation have deficient social skills, difficulties in coping with novel situations, as well as specific cognitive deficits. We also review the practices associated with group housing of dairy calves, and discuss problems and suggested solutions, especially related to cross-sucking, competition, aggression, and disease. The studies reviewed indicate that social housing improves solid feed intakes and calf weight gains before and after calves are weaned from milk to solid feed. Evidence regarding the effects of social housing on calf health is mixed, with some studies showing increased risk of disease and other studies showing no difference or even improved health outcomes for grouped calves. We conclude that there is strong and consistent evidence of behavioral and developmental harm associated with individual housing in dairy calves, that social housing improves intakes and weight gains, and that health risks associated with grouping can be mitigated with appropriate management. PMID:26874423

  15. Behavioural reactivity of heifer calves in potentially alarming test situations: a multivariate and correlational analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reenen, van C.G.; Engel, B.; Heutinck, L.F.M.; Werf, van der J.T.N.; Buist, W.G.; Jones, R.B.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the degree of consistency of individual differences in behavioural responses of heifer calves over time and across different situations. Twenty-five Holstein Friesian heifer calves were individually subjected to the same set of four behavioural tests at

  16. Development of colonic microflora as assessed by pyrosequencing in dairy calves fed waste milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of pasteurization of waste milk used to feed dairy calves on the bacterial diversity of their lower gut. Using 16S rDNA bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP), fecal samples from dairy calves aging from 1 week to 6 mon...

  17. Severity and Nature of Acidosis in Diarrheic Calves Over and Under One Week of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Naylor, Jonathan M.

    1987-01-01

    A prospective study of the severity of dehydration and acidosis was carried out in 42 calves under 35 days of age presented for treatment of neonatal diarrhea. Clinically the mean level of dehydration was 8 to 10%. The plasma volume was 65% of that in the hydrated calf but the calves only gained 6.5% in weight during therapy.

  18. THE EFFECTS OF ANALGESIA ON BEHAVIOR AND HEART RATE DURING DEHORNING IN CALVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to examine whether a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (Ketoprofen) reduces post-operative distress in hot-iron dehorned calves. Twenty Holstein calves, 4-8 weeks old, were assigned to either; dehorning with pre- and post-operative Ketoprofen (Trt 1) or, dehorning without Ketoprofen (...

  19. Social behavior of young dairy calves housed with limited or full social contact with a peer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duve, Linda Rosager; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the effect of individual and pair housing and age at pair housing on the social behavior of young dairy calves. Twenty-seven pairs of calves were reared from birth until 6 wk either individually (limited social contact between bars; L calves), in pairs (full social contact; F...... calves), or individually for 3wk and in pairs for the next 3wk (LF calves). From 6 to 7wk of age, the calves were housed in a group of 6 calves (each group consisted of 3 pair of calves, 1 pair from each treatment). Video recordings of undisturbed behavior were obtained from each pair on d 2, 12, 22, and...... 34 (age of the youngest calf in a pair) and from the group pens on d 44 and 49 (age of the youngest calf in the group). Behavioral recordings were performed using instantaneous recording at 5-min intervals on d 2, 22, and 34 over 16h to investigate overall activity and social activity of the pairs...

  20. Breed x sex effects on birth weight in Brahman-Simmental embryo transfer calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahman cross calves exhibit unusual inheritance of birth weight: Brahman-sired crossbreds out of Bos taurus females are heavier with greater difference between sexes than calves of the reciprocal cross. The objective of this work was to compare birth weight in various crosses of Brahman, Simmenta...

  1. Performance of young calves fed soybean protein replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyele, I O; Harshbarger, K E

    1983-04-01

    In two 12-wk trials we evaluated soybean protein in calf milk replacers. In trial 1, twelve 5-day-old Holstein calves were allotted randomly to three milk replacers. The diets contained 26% crude protein. In trial 2, 18 calves were used and the diet contained 30% crude protein. In trial 1 period 1 (10 to 15 days), mean coefficients of apparent digestibility (%) for milk protein, soy protein concentrate, and full fat soy flour replacers were dry matter 92.0, 70.0, 71.0; protein 90.1, 56.6, 61.3; fat 88.9, 55.0, 53.2;; and ash 85.8, 62.5, 61.2. Average daily nitrogen retentions were 10.8, -1.24, and -.7 g. Results in period 2 (30 to 35 days) for digestibilities and nitrogen retention showed considerable improvement over those in period 1. In trial 2 period 1, mean coefficients of apparent digestibility (%) for milk protein, soy protein concentrate, and defatted soy flour replacers were dry matter 87.5, 66.6, 47.9; protein 80.5, 57.2, 28.5; fat 81.5, 55.9, 33.5; and ash 83.8, 58.9, 48.4. Average daily nitrogen retentions were 10.8, 2.9, and -3.6 g. Results in period 2 for digestibilities and nitrogen retention also showed considerable improvement. Calves are able to use soy based replacers more effectively with age. PMID:6682865

  2. Distribution of Neomycin in Bull Calves After Intramuscular Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Black, W. D.; Claxton, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    Neomycin sulfate was injected intramuscularly in calves. Blood and tissue samples were taken at zero, one, two, four, six, eight and 24 hours after administration. The tissues with high levels (greater than 10 μg/g) of drug at the one hour period were kidney cortex and medulla, urine, blood serum and the injection site. By 24 hours after administration only the kidney cortex and urine had high levels of neomycin. The drug could not be detected in any brain tissues and very small amounts (less...

  3. ESCHERICHIA COLI O157 IN WITHE VEAL CALVES CARCASSES

    OpenAIRE

    V. D’Orio; M. Conter; G. Colavita; M. Paoletti

    2013-01-01

    During 2006 one hundred and three white veal calves slaughtered at an abattoir in Isernia (Italy) were examined for E. coli O157 intestinal carriage and carcass contamination, using Immuno-Magnetic Separation (IMS) and multiplex PCR. Faecal material before slaughtering and carcass samples, using sponge-bag, were collected. E. coli O157 isolates were found in 10 (9,71%) faecal and 9 (8,7%) carcass samples. PCR analysis showed that all the strains from faecal and from carcass samples carried ea...

  4. Instrumental objective measurement of veal calves carcass colour at slaughterhouse

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Vandoni; Carlo Angelo Sgoifo Rossi

    2010-01-01

    A total of 6700 veal calves were used to compare the ability of chromameter CR300 in measuring the veal meat colour on-line at slaughterhouse and to develop a prediction equation of colour score based on relationship between instrumental and visual assessments. A total of 5000 carcasses were used to develop equation of prediction while 1700 were used to test it. The meat colour was assessed subjectively in 3 different slaughterhouses by the slaughterhouse’s judges 10h post mortem and ob...

  5. Legg-Perthes-Calve disease: staging by MRI using gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-one patients (26 hips) with typical signs of Legg-Perthes-Calve (LPC) disease on plain radiographs were explored by MRI. Patients were imaged with a 0.5 T MR unit. Gadolinium-enhanced spinecho MR images were obtained after nonenhanced T1-weighted (spin-echo) and T2*-weighted (gradient-echo) images. Four different areas were identified in the femoral epiphysis (necrosis, regenerative, cartilaginous and normal fatty bone tissue). The histological evolution of LPC is well described by Catterall and others. Comparing their descriptions with out MR findings, we suggest classification ofLPC into five phases: necrosis: regeneration, reconstruction, reossification and sequelae. (orig.)

  6. Acute chondrolysis complicating Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of 270 children with Legg-Calve-Perthes (LCP) disease, roentgenographic evidence of chondrolysis was noted in 12 (4.5%) within one year after diagnosis and appropriate management. Only in six hips of these 12 patients did the retrospective clinical, histological, and orthopedic findings fulfill the diagnostic requirements for chondrolysis. Sequential roentgenographic findings included initial periarticular osteoporosis and subchondral cortical irregularities, subsequent narrowing of the joint space, premature fusion of the growth plate, and eventual development of degenerative arthritis. The early roentgenographic recognition of chondrolysis is emphasized because it has an untoward effect on the prognosis of LCP and should therefore prompt a different orthopedic approach. (orig.)

  7. Echocardiography for the Assessment of Congenital Heart Defects in Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Katharyn Jean; Schwarzwald, Colin Claudio

    2016-03-01

    Congenital heart disease should be considered when evaluating calves with chronic respiratory signs, failure to thrive, poor growth, or if a murmur is heard on physical examination. Echocardiography is currently the gold standard for diagnosing congenital heart defects. A wide variety of defects, either alone or in combination with a ventricular septal defect, are possible. A standardized approach using sequential segmental analysis is required to fully appreciate the nature and severity of more complex malformations. The prognosis for survival varies from guarded to poor and depends on the hemodynamic relevance of the defects and the degree of cardiac compensation. PMID:26922111

  8. Feeding of reindeer calves for slaughtering in the autumn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endre Jacobsen

    1981-05-01

    Full Text Available Experiments have been carried out for testing the profit of feeding reindeer calves to slaughter maturity in the autumn. The calves were fed a special reindeer calf feed KF-71 (see Table 1 & 2. 16 male calves were fed from September 9th to November 7th. The feed consumption per kg gain in dressed weight was 14,2 kg (estimated to 12,8 fattening feed units. The gain in dressed weight in the period was 5,8 kg per animal. Using the today price of reindeer feed and reindeer meat the feeding in this trial has not been profitable. Some other circumstances which are of importance in estimating the economy by feeding of reindeer calves for slaughter are discussed.Teurastettavien poronvasojen ruokinta syksylla.Abstract in Finnish / Ybteenveto: Poronvasojen ruokinnan kannattavuutta teurastusta silmallapitaen om selvitetty kokeellisesti erityisella tahan tarkoitukseen valmistetulla vakirehulla (taulukot 1 ja 2. Kokeissa ruokittiin 16 vasaa syyskuun 9. ja marraskuun 7. paivan valisena aikana. Rehun kulutus teuraspainon lisayksena saavutettua kiloa kohti oli 14,2 kg. Ruokintajakson aikana teuraspaino lisaantyi elainta kohti 5,8 kg. Kun huomioidaan ruokinnassa kaytetyn rehun hinta ja toisaalta vasanlihan hinta ei ruokinta ollut kannattavaa. Kirjoituksessa pohditaan myos muita suhteita, joilla on merkitysta arvioitaessa teurastettavien poronvasojen ruokinnan taloudellisuutta.Oppforing av reinkalver for slakting om høsten.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Det er gjort forsøk for å belyse lønnsomheten ved oppforing av reinkalver til slakt om høsten med et kraftfor laget til dette formål (se Tabell 1og 2. 16 oksekalver ble foret i tidsrommet 9/9 til 7/11. Forforbruket pr. kg tilvekst i slaktevekt var 14,2 kg(beregnet til 12,8 f.f.e.. Tilveksten i slaktevekt i perioden er beregnet til 5,8 kg pr. dyr. Med de priser vi idag har på reinkalvfor og på kalvekjøtt har denne foringen ikke vært regningssvarende. Det er diskutert andre forhold som har betydning

  9. Causes of variation in growth rate of reindeer calves

    OpenAIRE

    C.J. Petersson; DANELL, B.

    1993-01-01

    Weights of individual reindeer calves were registered on 3 or 4 occasions from the July roundup to the last slaughter roundup in January during each of four consecutive years (1986 to 1989). The observations were made in a tagged herd located in the southern part of the reindeer area in Sweden (63°N, 12°E). A total of 10 400 live-weight measurements were made, and the relationship between pre-slaughter weight and carcass weight was estimated using data from 109 individuals. Variation ...

  10. Clinical and therapeutic study of gastrointestinal parasites in fedlot calves in Goggeli region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Abdulhameed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on 10 herds included 811 local fedlot calves (1 to 2 years old in Goggeli region, 86 calves wereaffected with gastrointestinal parasites. Total infestation rate was (60.99%. The study showed that Calves were infested withvarious species of nematodes and cestodes representing,The highest ratio of infestation was with Ostertagia spp (61.62%, andthe lowest with Monezia expansa (2.32%. Affected calves exhibited weakness, pale mucous membranes, loss of appetite,diarrhea, easily detached and lusterless hair. Results revealed that single infestation was (17.5%, whereas mixed infestationwas (82.5%. Results of blood picture indicated significant increase in total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration,packed cell volume, and significant decrease in total leukocyte count, at days 7, 14, 21 post treatment calves with Albendazoleand (levamisole hydrochloride 3% and oxyclozanide 6% compared with control group. Levamisole hydrochloride 3% andoxyclozanide 6% was more efficient against gastrointestinal parasites when compared with albendazole.

  11. Significance of Timing on Effect of Metaphylactic Toltrazuril Treatment against Eimeriosis in Calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi; Dahl, Jan; Enemark, Jörg Matthias Dehn

    2015-01-01

    first weeks post treatment. In Herd 1, by contrast, the farmer made some unforeseen changes in the management which entailed relocation to large deep-litter pens 3 – 6 weeks post treatment. In addition, many calves were not treated metaphylactically while few calves excreted oocysts when the trial was...... Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii. Three commercial herds and a total of 71 calves, aged 48 – 135 days, were included. Treatment with a single oral dose of toltrazuril (15 mg/kg) was given after relocation to common pens and one week before expected outbreak of eimeriosis. The effect of treatment was...... followed by weekly faecal sampling and weighing initially and at the end of a study period of 8 weeks. In Herd 2 and 3 toltrazuril treated calves gained on average 7.95 kg more than placebo treated calves (p = 0.007), and both oocyst excretion and prevalence of Eimeria spp. were significantly reduced the...

  12. Cardiovascular effects of intravenous administration of propylene glycol and of oxytetracycline in propylene glycol in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, D R; Kitzman, J V; Adams, H R

    1979-06-01

    Comparisons were made of the acute cardiovascular effects of oxytetracycline, oxytetracycline in propylene glycol, and propylene glycol alone given to conscious dairy calves. The calves were chronically instrumented with intravascular catheters and electromagnetic flowmeter transducers in and on the pulmonary and renal arteries. Injection (IV) of aqueous preparations of oxytetracycline produced no statistically significant (P greater than 0.05) cardiocirculatory changes in these calves. Oxytetracycline in propylene glycol and propylene glycol alone both produced transient (1 to 4 minute) periods of cardiovascular depression characterized by cardiac asystole, systemic hypotension, and decreased pulmonary and renal arterial blood flow. The two preparations, in equivalent doses and volumes, produced statistically similar hemodynamic changes in the calves. The data from this study support the conclusion that the monitored cardiovascular effects of the commercially available oxytetracycline in propylene glycol in the intact, awake calves were due to the solvent propylene glycol. This conclusion is consistent with reports of other injectable products containing the same solvent. PMID:475130

  13. Effect of Calving Interval on Milk Yield and Quality Lactation in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Baul

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Researches were made on 125 lactations from Romanian Black Spotted cows, aimed at studying the evolution of the interval between calving on milk quantity and quality. Data were recorded and statistically analyzed by means of ANOVA / MANOVA determining the average values and dispersion indices. Based on averages parameters of lactation curves were calculated using the mathematical model proposed by Wood, called the incomplete gamma function. The interval between calving significantly influenced (p < 0.05 lactation curve aspect for the percentage of dry defatted from milk for the daily growth rate (parameter c between calving interval 351 to 450 days and of over 450 days (0.00008. Also we’ve met significant differences (p < 0.05 for the initial concentration of the percentage of total solids in milk for parameter a from the interval between calving up to 350 days and calving interval 351-450 days (0.80101.

  14. Targeting therapy to minimize antimicrobial use in preweaned calves: effects on health, growth, and treatment costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, A C B; Moore, D A; Besser, T E; Sischo, W M

    2009-09-01

    Prophylactic and therapeutic antimicrobial use in food animals is questioned because of the potential for development of resistant bacteria and future inability to use some antimicrobials for human or animal disease. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of raising preweaned dairy calves without antimicrobials in the milk and minimizing therapeutic antimicrobial treatment on morbidity, mortality, weight gain, and treatment costs. Newborn calves (n = 358) were allocated to 1 of 4 groups, housed outdoors in individual hutches, and monitored for 28 d. Calves in the conventional therapy (CT) group were treated as per dairy protocol with sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, spectinomycin, penicillin, and bismuth-pectin for diarrhea. The targeted therapy (TT) group included bismuth-pectin for diarrhea and antimicrobial treatment only in cases of fever or depressed attitude. Within CT and TT groups, calves were equally assigned to receive neomycin and tetracycline in their milk for the first 2 wk of life (AB-milk) or no antimicrobials (NoAB-milk). Daily health evaluations included fecal consistency, respiratory disease, attitude, and hydration status as well as milk and grain consumption. A negative binomial model evaluated the total number of days with diarrhea days in each group. General linear models were used to assess average daily weight gain and grain consumption. Conventionally treated calves had 70% more days with diarrhea than TT calves, and AB-milk calves had 31% more days with diarrhea compared with NoAB-milk calves. The TT calves tended to have a higher average daily gain by 28 d and consumed more grain compared with CT calves. If antimicrobials were used only for diarrhea cases with fever, inappetence, or depression and no in-milk antimicrobials were used, a $10 per calf savings could be realized. Targeting antimicrobial therapy of calf diarrhea cases is prudent not only to save the drugs for future use but also to prevent the potential for

  15. Epidermolysis bullosa in calves in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, A P; Skuse, A M; Higgins, R J; Barrett, D C; Philbey, A W; Thomson, J R; Thompson, H; Fraser, M A; Bowden, P E; Day, M J

    2010-05-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) was diagnosed in eight calves from four farms in the United Kingdom on the basis of clinical, histological and ultrastructural findings. In three affected herds, pedigree Simmental bulls had been mated with Simmental-cross cows. In a fourth herd two Holstein-Friesian calves were affected. Lesions included multifocal erosion and ulceration of the hard and soft palates, tongue, nares and gingiva, with onychomadesis (dysungulation). There was alopecia, erosion and crusting of the coronets, pasterns, fetlocks, carpi, hocks, flanks and axillae. Histopathological findings included segmental separation of full thickness epidermis from the dermis, with formation of large clefts containing eosinophilic fluid, extravasated red blood cells and small numbers of neutrophils. Follicular and interfollicular areas of skin were affected, with clefts extending around hair follicles and sometimes involving whole follicles. Ultrastructurally, there was evidence of vacuolar change within basal keratinocytes, corresponding to areas of histological clefting. Preliminary genetic screening of the candidate keratin genes (bKRT5 and bKRT14) has excluded mutations of these as the cause of this condition. PMID:19909967

  16. Cervico-pectoral ectopia cordis in two Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, T; Abe, M; Iwasa, K; Takehana, K; Tanigaki, A

    1993-11-01

    Two Holstein calves affected with cervico-pectoral ectopia cordis, a male (No. 1) delivered stillborn and a female (No. 2) died 1 hour after birth, were examined macroscopically and radiographically to assess the severity and elucidate the teratogenesis of the anomaly. The heart of one calf was covered by the intact pericardium and skin and displaced to the caudalmost portion of the ventrocervical region, just cranial to an enlarged thoracic inlet. The cranial vena cava and the vena azygos were duplicated. The sternum was bilaterally divided into two parts fused only at the xyphoid process and was semicircular. The heart of the other calf, covered solely by the pericardium, was exposed ventrally from an oval opening in the body wall just cranial to a defective Y-shaped sternum. In both calves, the arterial branching pattern from the aortic arch was intermediate between the patterns of the dog and pig, and in each case a single pulmonary vein emptied into the left atrium. Pronounced or slight torticollis, cleft palate, and abnormalities in the urogenital system were also found. From an embryological perspective, cervical and pectoral ectopia cordis have a common pathogenesis; the cervical type occurs at a slightly earlier fetal stage than the pectoral type. PMID:8116146

  17. Optimal age at first calving for improved milk yield and lengh of productive life in Tunisian Holstein cows

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Gara, Abderrahmen; Bouraoui, Rachid; Rekik, Boulbaba; Hammami, Hedi; Rouissi, Hamadi

    2009-01-01

    The effects of age at first calving on milk production and true herd life were studied in Tunisian Holstein cows. There were 33,407 first lactation records of cows born between 1987 and 2001 from 166 herds. Firstly, age at first calving was analyzed using an animal model that included herd, calving year, herd-calving year interaction, calving month, and age of dam as fixed effects and the random additive genetic effect. Secondly, differences in first lactation and productive life milk yields ...

  18. Pre- and post-calving forage systems and reproductive performance of primiparous cows Sistemas forrageiros pré e pós-parto e desempenho reprodutivo de vacas primíparas

    OpenAIRE

    José Fernando Piva Lobato; André Luís Menegaz; Antonio Carlos Gonçalves Pereira

    2010-01-01

    During pre and post calving periods, it was evaluated the influence of the following forage systems on reproductive performance of primiparous cows: natural pasture during pre and post-calving periods; natural pastures during pre-calving period and improved pastures during post-calving period; improved pastures during pre-calving and natural pasture during post-calving; improved pasture during pre- and post-calving periods. The lowest body weights and body condition scores were observed on co...

  19. OBSERVATIONS ON CLINICAL TREATMENT TRIALS OF INDUCED ESCHERICHIA COLI DIARRHOEA IN BUFFALO NEONATAL CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Javed, A. Khan, Abid Hussain and Babar Niaz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on 24 calves of one week-age, randomly divided into four groups, of six calves each. First three groups were experimentally infected with E. coli and given treatment in various combinations, while group four was taken as uninfected untreated control. Results obtained on different parameters were, green to yellow-white diarrhoea with variable consistency from watery to semisolid. Generally in all groups during first two days, calves passed faeces around 6-10 times a day and this frequency lowered in about 2-4 days. During first 3-4 days of treatment, all calves appeared weak, dull, depressed with cold skin and wetness of the muzzle, while oral mucosa was pale and eyes were sunken. Overall mean respiration rate of treatment groups was slower (P<0.05 than control group. However, pulse rate showed no difference between treatment and control group. Overall mean rectal temperature was lower (P<0.05 in calves treated with antibiotic alone and with antibiotic + electrolytes, while body weight was higher (P<0.05 in calves treated with antibiotic but was lower along with creatinine (P<0.05 in calves treated with antibiotic + electrolytes and those treated with electrolytes alone.

  20. Effect of pre- and postweaning management system on the performance on Brahman crossbred feeder calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W A; Holloway, J W; Coleman, S W

    1991-08-01

    During a 3-yr period (1986 through 1988), 117 calves (57 steers and 60 heifers) from the same genetic base and reared under four distinct preweaning management systems were weaned in the fall and transported from Uvalde, TX to El Reno, OK (800 km). Weaning weight and transportation shrink varied more from year to year than among preweaning treatments. Postweaning performance was not affected by preweaning treatment. After a 28- to 32-d receiving period the calves were blocked by sex and previous preweaning treatment, then randomly assigned within block to graze winter wheat forage (WHEAT) or dormant tall-grass native range (GRASS). The WHEAT group gained more (P less than .01) weight than the GRASS group during the winter (November to March), but when both groups were allowed to graze spring wheat pasture (March to June) the GRASS group gained more (P less than .01) weight than the WHEAT calves. During the subsequent finishing phase the GRASS calves were more (P less than .01) efficient than the WHEAT calves in converting DM to gain. Because cattle were slaughtered at the same degree of finish, no differences were noted in carcass characteristics among the pre- or postweaning treatments. Feeder calves exposed to a restrictive period of growth during the postweaning period gained weight more rapidly in a subsequent forage-based stockering system and were more efficient in a grain-based finishing system than nonrestricted calves. PMID:1894546

  1. Mimosine degradation in calves fed a sole diet of Leucaena leucocephala in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, J J; Atreja, P P; Chopra, R C; Chhabra, A

    1994-11-01

    Five Karan Swiss crossbred (Sahiwal x Brown Swiss) calves were abruptly switched over from a diet of concentrate and maize fodder to ad libitum air dried Leucaena leucocephala leaves plus twigs. After 17 days on the L. leucocephala diet, 3 of the calves were supplemented with copper sulphate (10 mg/kg DM L. leucocephala) for 12 days. Thereafter all the calves were taken off the L. leucocephala diet and returned to the pre-experimental concentrate and maize fodder diet. While on the L. leucocephala diet, the average DM intake/d of L. leucocephala declined to 497 g within 3 weeks and all calves lost weight. This weight loss was reversed in the 3 calves that received copper sulphate, and all calves gained weight when they resumed the concentrate and maize fodder diet. The toxic effects of L. leucocephala feeding for 24 days were characterised by poor growth, emaciation, alopecia, loss of hair from the tail switch, ear and eye lesions, ulceration of the mouth region, drooling viscid saliva and vomiting of thick green saliva in one of the calves. Mean levels of 3,4 dihydroxypyridone (DHP) (mg/100 ml) were 30.35 +/- 13.52 and 55.57 +/- 13.77 on days 2 and 4 respectively in rumen liquor and up to 136.01 +/- 80.18 in urine. The mean ratios of mimosine: DHP of 3.14, 0.12 and 0.04 in feed, faeces and urine respectively revealed extensive degradation of mimosine to DHP in the calves fed the L. leucocephala diet and it was concluded the calves were unable to tolerate a diet consisting solely of L. leucocephala. PMID:7900214

  2. Prevalence and effect of oxytetracycline on congenital fetlock knuckling in neonatal dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujeeb R. Fazili

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal system deformities were observed in 24 (34.3% of 70 neonatal dairy calves that presented with different congenital abnormalities. Among them, 19 calves (27.1%, the majority of which were crossbred Jersey calves of either gender with mean (± s.e. body weight 22.00 kg ± 1.17 kg and aged 7.11 ± 1.16 days, were presented for treatment of congenital knuckling. Five of the knuckling calves had additional concurrent congenital conditions and were excluded from the present study. All of the remaining 14 calves showing moderate, bilateral fetlock knuckling had a wooden or polyvinyl chloride (PVC splint applied to the palmar or plantar aspect of the affected limbs. All of the animals received a dose of the analgesic tolfenamic acid intramuscularly, and were randomly allocated to two equal groups. Calves of Group I additionally received oxytetracycline (20 mg/kg intravenous daily for 3 days. The condition resolved satisfactorily in 83.3% and 80.0% calves from the two groups, respectively. The left and right fetlock angle (mean ± SE reduced significantly (p ≤ 0.01 from 50.57° ± 4.20° to 4.00° ± 2.27° and 48.71° ± 2.37° to 5.33° ± 3.03°, respectively in animals of Group I. In Group II calves, the angles showed reduction from 50.86° ± 2.94° to 4.20° ± 2.75° and from 48.71° ± 3.14° to 6.80° ± 3.34°, respectively. From the present study, it was concluded that bilateral moderate fetlock knuckling in the neonatal dairy calves can be managed satisfactorily with early application of splints. Supplementary use of oxytetracycline at repeated doses of low toxicity had only a marginally beneficial effect.

  3. Effect of Moringa oleifera on hematological parameters of calves reared in industrial fluorotic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruti Debnath Mandal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ameliorative potential of dried Moringa oleifera fruit powder in fluorosis affected calves reared around the vicinity of aluminium smelter plant. Materials and Methods: Total 107 calves were screened on the basis of clinical signs and higher plasma fluoride (more than 0.2 ppm level for evidence of fluorosis. Out of that, 90 samples found positive and from them 18 calves of 6-12 months age group were selected and divided equally into three groups named as Group II, III, and IV. Group II remained as disease control group whereas Group III calves were supplemented with dried M. oleifera fruit powder of 25 g/calve for 60 days. Group IV calves were supplemented with calcium carbonate at 100 mg/kg body weight and boric acid at 10 mg/kg for the same experimental period. Group I consisted of six numbers of healthy calves taken from the non-fluorotic zone, i.e. Bhubaneswar. Plasma fluoride level, hemoglobin (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, total leukocyte count (TLC, differential count (DC, total erythrocyte count, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH, and MCH concentration (MCHC were estimated on day 0, 30, and 60 of the experiment. Results: Supplementation of dried M. oleifera fruit powder to fluorosis affected calves resulted in significant reduction in plasma fluoride level and increase in Hb%, PCV, TLC and altered DC. Similar results were also recorded in calcium+boron group, except PCV and Hb. No significant changes were observed in MCV, MCH, and MCHC values. Conclusion: The present study concluded that supplementation of dried M. oleifera fruit powder daily for 60 days has shown protection against chronic fluoride toxicity in calves.

  4. ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS, LIPID PROFILE AND PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES IN HEALTHY AND BRONCHOPNEUMONIC WATER BUFFALO CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry M. El-Bahr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Acute Phase Proteins (APP, lipid profiles and proinflammatory cytokines in healthy and bronchopneumonic water buffalo calves. Therefore, sixty water buffalo calves (9±1 month old, 175±15 kg were divided into two equal groups, the first group represented healthy, control, calves whereas calves of the second group were affected with bronchopneumonia. Total leukocytic and differential counts were determined. Serum total protein, albumin, Triacylglyceol (TAG, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c, High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c, Total cholesterol, Alanine Amino Transferase (ALT, Aspartate Amino Transferase (AST, Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP, Fibrinogen (Fb, Haptaglobin (Hp, Serum Amyloid A (SAA, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α, Interleukins (IL1β, IL-12 and Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ were also determined. In addition, Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL was collected and analyzed. The present findings indicated that, total leukocytic and neutrophils counts were significantly (p<0.05 higher in pneumonic water buffalo calves compare with control. The examined biochemical parameters were significantly (p<0.05 increased in pneumonic calves except for total protein, albumin, cholesterol and HDL-c which were significantly (p<0.05 lower compare with control. Serum concentrations of investigated APP and proinflammatory cytokines were significantly (p<0.05 higher in pneumonic water buffalo calves than those of control. The present study demonstrated that, APP, lipid profile and proinflammatory cytokines perhaps served as biomarkers of bronchopneumonia in water buffalo calves. However, future studies with higher baseline sampling are still needed to establish and validate reference values for APP and cytokines in water buffalo calves.

  5. Physiological responses of newborn Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus calves after exposure to cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, R W; Smith, S D; Guthrie, M J; Stanko, R L; Neuendorff, D A; Randel, R D

    1991-01-01

    Brahman (n = 9) and 1/2 Simmental x 1/4 Brahman x 1/4 Hereford (n = 11) calves were utilized to determine the influence of exposure to cold on the physiology of the neonate. All calves were removed from their dams within 20 min of birth and prior to suckling. Calves were assigned randomly within breed to either a warm (W; 31 degrees C) or cold (C; 4 degrees C) environmental treatment group. Jugular blood samples were collected via indwelling catheters at 20-min intervals for 180 min. At 100 to 120 min of sampling, all calves were given 1.2 liters of colostrum from their dams via stomach tube. At 120 min, C calves were placed in the W environment. Calf vigor score (CVS) and rectal temperature were determined at each time blood was collected. Serum or plasma was analyzed for glucose (GLU), lactate (LAC), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), hemoglobin (HEM), triglyceride (TRG), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), insulin (INS), cortisol (CORT) and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration. Rectal temperature was lower (P less than .01) in C Brahman than in W Brahman and C or W crossbred calves. Crossbred calves had higher (P less than .01) CVS than Brahman calves. Calves in W had lower (P less than .01) GLU than C calves. Brahman calves had higher GLU, LAC, BUN, TRG, T3, T4 and CORT (P less than .05) than crossbred calves. The C Brahman calves had the highest (P less than .05) TRG, CORT, T3 and T4 of all groups. Concentration of NEFA were higher (P less than .01) in C than in W calves.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2005021

  6. Significance of Timing on Effect of Metaphylactic Toltrazuril Treatment against Eimeriosis in Calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi; Dahl, Jan; Enemark, Jörg Matthias Dehn

    2015-01-01

    Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii. Three commercial herds and a total of 71 calves, aged 48 – 135 days, were included. Treatment with a single oral dose of toltrazuril (15 mg/kg) was given after relocation to common pens and one week before expected outbreak of eimeriosis. The effect of treatment was...... first weeks post treatment. In Herd 1, by contrast, the farmer made some unforeseen changes in the management which entailed relocation to large deep-litter pens 3 – 6 weeks post treatment. In addition, many calves were not treated metaphylactically while few calves excreted oocysts when the trial was...

  7. Construction and validation of a decision tree for treating metabolic acidosis in calves with neonatal diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trefz Florian M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present prospective study was to investigate whether a decision tree based on basic clinical signs could be used to determine the treatment of metabolic acidosis in calves successfully without expensive laboratory equipment. A total of 121 calves with a diagnosis of neonatal diarrhea admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital were included in the study. The dosages of sodium bicarbonate administered followed simple guidelines based on the results of a previous retrospective analysis. Calves that were neither dehydrated nor assumed to be acidemic received an oral electrolyte solution. In cases in which intravenous correction of acidosis and/or dehydration was deemed necessary, the provided amount of sodium bicarbonate ranged from 250 to 750 mmol (depending on alterations in posture and infusion volumes from 1 to 6.25 liters (depending on the degree of dehydration. Individual body weights of calves were disregarded. During the 24 hour study period the investigator was blinded to all laboratory findings. Results After being lifted, many calves were able to stand despite base excess levels below −20 mmol/l. Especially in those calves, metabolic acidosis was undercorrected with the provided amount of 500 mmol sodium bicarbonate, which was intended for calves standing insecurely. In 13 calves metabolic acidosis was not treated successfully as defined by an expected treatment failure or a measured base excess value below −5 mmol/l. By contrast, 24 hours after the initiation of therapy, a metabolic alkalosis was present in 55 calves (base excess levels above +5 mmol/l. However, the clinical status was not affected significantly by the metabolic alkalosis. Conclusions Assuming re-evaluation of the calf after 24 hours, the tested decision tree can be recommended for the use in field practice with minor modifications. Calves that stand insecurely and are not able to correct their position if pushed

  8. Salmonella dublin infection of calves: use of small doses to simulate natural infection on the farm.

    OpenAIRE

    Wray, C.; Sojka, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    Small numbers of Salmonella dublin were used to infect calves in an attempt to simulate natural infection on the farm. Twenty calves were exposed to S. dublin by one or more of the following methods: Sucking cows which were excreting S. dublin in their faeces (less than 10(2)-10(5) organisms/g). Housing on S. dublin contaminated bedding. Drinking S. dublin contaminated water (10(2)-10(4) organisms/ml). During this experiment some calves were given therapeutic does of oxytetracycline. After ex...

  9. Context for the Recent Massive Petermann Glacier Calving Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkner, Kelly K.; Melling, Humfrey; Münchow, Andreas M.;

    2011-01-01

    On 4 August 2010, about one fifth of the floating ice tongue of Petermann Glacier (also known as “Petermann Gletscher”) in northwestern Greenland calved (Figure 1). The resulting “ice island” had an area approximately 4 times that of Manhattan Island (about 253±17 square kilometers). The ice island...... garnered much attention from the media, politicians, and the public, who raised concerns about downstream implications for shipping, offshore oil and gas operations, and possible connections to Arctic and global warming. Does this event signal a change in the glacier's dynamics? Or can it be characterized...... as part of the glacier's natural variability? Understanding the known historical context of this event allows scientists and the public to judge its significance....

  10. Changes of cartilaginous contour of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T1-weighted MR images of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD) were classified into three groups on the basis of radiographic stage, and morphological differentiation for staging was attempted. In the stage of fragmentation, both enlargement and flattening of the cartilaginous contour surrounding the epiphysis could be recognized on MRI, and the growth plate showed more curvature than normal. This produced flattening of the epiphysis in the shape of a crescent. We confirmed these findings using four indices for the measurement of cartilaginous outline, and the stage of avascular necrosis and fragmentation could be clearly differentiated. Cartilaginous deformities on MRI are very useful for differentiating between the stage of avascular necrosis and fragmentation. (author)

  11. MR imaging in Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventy-eight MR examinations of various stages of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease have been performed in 36 children (5-11 years), in 18 prior to arthrography. The effect of varus osteotomy was assessed with MR imaging in 12 children. MR imaging provided information about the extent of the epephyseal necrosis and revascularization, improving interpretation of conventional radiographs. In addition, MR imaging depicted the increased thickness and shape of the epiphyseal cartilage in good correlation with arthrography. Spherical remodeling and improved containment following varus osteotomy was observed in nine hips. Poor containment with large epiphyseal deformities not available for surgical treatment was identified in early stages of the disease, making MR imaging a useful tool in the prognostication and monitoring of these patients

  12. Comparison of Cervical Spine Anatomy in Calves, Pigs and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Ren Sheng

    Full Text Available Animals are commonly used to model the human spine for in vitro and in vivo experiments. Many studies have investigated similarities and differences between animals and humans in the lumbar and thoracic vertebrae. However, a quantitative anatomic comparison of calf, pig, and human cervical spines has not been reported.To compare fundamental structural similarities and differences in vertebral bodies from the cervical spines of commonly used experimental animal models and humans.Anatomical morphometric analysis was performed on cervical vertebra specimens harvested from humans and two common large animals (i.e., calves and pigs.Multiple morphometric parameters were directly measured from cervical spine specimens of twelve pigs, twelve calves and twelve human adult cadavers. The following anatomical parameters were measured: vertebral body width (VBW, vertebral body depth (VBD, vertebral body height (VBH, spinal canal width (SCW, spinal canal depth (SCD, pedicle width (PW, pedicle depth (PD, pedicle inclination (PI, dens width (DW, dens depth (DD, total vertebral width (TVW, and total vertebral depth (TVD.The atlantoaxial (C1-2 joint in pigs is similar to that in humans and could serve as a human substitute. The pig cervical spine is highly similar to the human cervical spine, except for two large transverse processes in the anterior regions ofC4-C6. The width and depth of the calf odontoid process were larger than those in humans. VBW and VBD of calf cervical vertebrae were larger than those in humans, but the spinal canal was smaller. Calf C7 was relatively similar to human C7, thus, it may be a good substitute.Pig cervical vertebrae were more suitable human substitutions than calf cervical vertebrae, especially with respect to C1, C2, and C7. The biomechanical properties of nerve vascular anatomy and various segment functions in pig and calf cervical vertebrae must be considered when selecting an animal model for research on the spine.

  13. Femoroacetabular impingement related to Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Zorica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Femoroacetabular impingement is an undesirable contact between acetabular rim and femoral neck and presents abnormality of proximal femoral part and acetabulum, as well. Two forms may appear: cam impingement and pincer impingement. Femoroacetabular impingement related to Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease may be caused by various reasons, as the consequence of the disease itself, and as the consequence of its treatment. Coxa magna deformity (large femoral head and neck and coxa brevis deformity (shortened femoral neck may produce cam femoroacetabular impingement during hip flexion. After the disease, the flattened femoral head (coxa plana may persist. Chiari pelvic osteotomy is the only treatment option for such femoral head deformity. Acetabular labrum squeezed continuously between the femoral head and the non-articular part of the cut iliac bone lead to cam femoroacetabular impingement, as well. If Salter or triple pelvic osteotomy is used that may cause a very large iatrogenic acetabular retroversion, we can also refer to radial type pincer femoroacetabular impingement. Treatment of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease should be conducted according to the natural course of the disease and prognosis. Treatment should start on time, well before a crushed femoral head develops, because it is the easiest way to establish hip spherical congruency at the end of treatment. This is the best option to prevent secondary hip arthrosis caused by femoroacetabular impingement or by insufficient head coverage at the end of remodelling. In each case of delayed hip pain, followed by a limited range of movements, femoroacetabular impingement should be taken into consideration, confirmed, and treated by some of the available therapeutic methods.

  14. Consequences of selection for yield traits on calving ease performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Maturana, E; Ugarte, E; Komen, J; van Arendonk, J A M

    2007-05-01

    The impact of different breeding goals on the genetic response for calving ease (CE) and yield traits was studied in the Basque Holstein cattle population. The economic value for CE was estimated with a bioeconomic model, using Basque production and market circumstances and taking into account the categorical nature of CE. The economic value for CE was -18.03 euros/cow per calving interval per liability unit. This value was relatively insensitive to changes in the market price of animals but was more sensitive to changes in the incidence of dystocia. Records from parities between 1995 and 2002 were used for the estimation of genetic parameters for yield (actual milk, fat, and protein yield) and CE using a multivariate model. Linear sire models for yield traits and a threshold sire-maternal grandsire model for CE were used. A Holstein population was simulated to determine the consequences of including CE in the breeding goal. Three selection strategies were considered: 1) selection only on yield traits, 2) selection on yield and direct CE (DCE), and 3) selection on yield, DCE, and maternal CE (MCE). Selection on yield traits only resulted in a slight reduction of dystocia. Selection strategies in which DCE or DCE and MCE were included in the breeding goal did not improve the genetic response for DCE and MCE obtained with the first selection strategy. Genetic responses were also calculated using the 2.5th, 50th, and 97.5th percentiles of posterior densities of genetic correlations between DCE and MCE and yield traits. Because responses in CE were sensitive to deviations in estimates of genetic parameters, the inclusion of CE in the monitoring scheme is recommended. Genetic evaluation of bulls for CE is of considerable value because it provides farmers with the opportunity to use assortative matings of sires with favorable estimated breeding values for DCE to primiparous cows. PMID:17430954

  15. Assessment of an application for touchscreen devices to record calving-related events in dairy herds and monitor personnel performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragan, A A; Workman, J D; Bas, S; Proudfoot, K L; Schuenemann, G M

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to assess (1) the effectiveness of a calving training workshop and an application (app) for touchscreen devices to capture calving-related events, and (2) personnel compliance with calving protocols (time from birth to feeding of first colostrum and time that cows spent in labor). Calving personnel (n=23) from 5 large dairy farms (range: 800-10,000 cows) participated in the study. Participants received training through an on-farm workshop regarding calving management practices and functioning of the app before recording calving-related events. Pre- and posttest evaluations were administered to each participant to measure their knowledge gain and satisfaction with the workshop. Calving personnel recorded calving-related events (n=323) using the app for 7 d following training. Furthermore, the records collected with the app were used to assess missing and incorrect data and calving personnel compliance with calving management protocols (recording time that cows spent in labor and timing of feeding first colostrum to calves). Calving personnel reported that the information provided during the training was relevant (agree=14.3% and strongly agree=85.7%) and of great immediate use (agree=33.3% and strongly agree=66.7%). The presented materials and hands-on demonstrations substantially increased the knowledge level of the attendees (by 23.7 percentage points from pre- to posttest scores). The follow-up assessment with participants revealed that the app was easy to use (91.3%) and that they would continue to use it (100%). Frequency of incorrect (r=0.77) or missing (r=0.76) data was positively correlated with calving:personnel ratio. Furthermore, calving personnel compliance with calving protocols was significantly different within and between herds. These results substantiated the great variation in compliance with calving management protocols within and between dairy farms. Furthermore, the app may serve as a tool to monitor

  16. Comparison of production characteristics from birth through slaughter of calves sired by Angus, Charolais or Piedmontese bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J F; Lunt, D K

    1990-06-01

    Birth, weaning, growth and carcass records for calves sired by Angus, Charolais or Piedmontese bulls were used to evaluate the potential contribution of Piedmontese to beef production in the U.S. Bulls were mated by AI to Hereford and crossbred cows and heifers. Calves were born during fall 1985 or spring 1986. Statistical models used to analyze the importance of sire breed used sire nested within sire breed as a random effect. Effects of sex, birth season, contemporary group, dam breed and parity were considered fixed and tested with the residual error. Piedmontese-sired calves had the longest gestation length, followed by Charolais and Angus-sired calves (287.5, 285.0 and 282.8 d, respectively). Breed of sire was not significant for birth weight, but Piedmontese- and Charolais-sired calves had longer cannon bones than Angus-sired calves. Differences were found for weaning hip height, but weaning weights, weaning muscle scores and ADG during the preweaning period were similar for calves by the three sire breeds. When fed to a similar fat thickness, Angus-sired calves required fewer days on feed, produced lighter carcasses and gained less per day than Charolais- or Piedmontese-sired calves. Piedmontese-sired calves required more days on feed than Charolais-sired calves when slaughtered at a similar subcutaneous fat thickness. Piedmontese-sired calves produced carcasses with a larger average rib eye area, higher dressing percentage and lower (more desirable) yield grade than Charolais- or Angus-sired calves. No significant sire breed differences were detected for tissue cholesterol content. PMID:2384357

  17. BIRTH OF TWIN CALVES THROUGH MULTIPLE OVULATION AND EMBRYO TRANSFER: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Sengupta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A surrogate Gir cow delevered twin calves after receiving embryo from a donor Sahiwal cow at Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer laboratory, Haringhata, West Bengal, India is reported.

  18. Regucalcin Expression as a Diagnostic Tool for the Illicit Use of Steroids in Veal Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starvaggi Cucuzza, Laura; Biolatti, Bartolomeo; Sereno, Alessandra; Cannizzo, Francesca T

    2015-06-17

    It has been previously demonstrated that sex steroid hormone treatment down-regulates regucalcin gene expression in the accessory sex glands and testis of prepubertal and adult male bovines. The aim of this study was to investigate whether low doses of sex steroid hormones combined with other drugs significantly affect regucalcin gene expression in the accessory sex glands and testis of veal calves. The regucalcin expression was down-regulated in the bulbo-urethral glands of estrogen-treated calves, whereas it was up-regulated in the prostate of estrogen-treated calves. Only the testis of androgen-treated calves showed a down-regulation of the regucalcin expression. Thus, the administration of sex steroid hormones, even in low doses and combined with other molecules, could affect regucalcin expression in target organs. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests regucalcin expression in this organ as a first molecular biomarker of illicit androgen administration in bovine husbandry. PMID:26016660

  19. A note on distribution of lipolytic activity in the digestive tract of veal calves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marounek, Milan; Dušková, D.; Savka, Oksana; Výborná, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 17, - (2008), s. 166-170. ISSN 1230-1388 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : veal calves * digestion * lipolysis Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 0.386, year: 2008

  20. Ultrastructural findings in congenital anemia, dyskeratosis, and progressive alopecia in Polled Hereford calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, D J; Leipold, H W; Elliott, G S; Smith, J E

    1992-05-01

    Ultrastructural evidence of dyserythropoiesis was found in ten calves (ages 1 to 16 months) previously diagnosed as having congenital anemia, dyskeratosis, and progressive alopecia. Morphologic abnormalities found in erythroid precursors of all calves were associated with the nucleus. Rubriblast nuclei were irregular with numerous blebs, indentations, and deep clefts. Elongated blebs appeared as satellite nuclei in some sections. Nuclear membranes had numerous defects or gaps, which were frequently present in, but not limited to, recently divided cells. Cytoplasmic material could be found within these gaps and extending into the nucleus. Rubricytes had chromatin that was abnormally condensed and hyperosmiophilic, with numerous translucent vacuoles present. Binucleate rubricytes occurred frequently in affected calves. These changes resemble those of type I congenital dyserythropoiesis in human beings, and we suggest congenital anemia, dyskeratosis, and progressive alopecia of Polled Hereford calves as the appropriate diagnostic terms to describe this disease. PMID:1621331

  1. Effect of pre-calving zeolite, magnesium and phosphorus supplemention on periparturient serum mineral concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Anders; Pallesen, Flemming; Jørgensen, Rolf Jess;

    2008-01-01

    the magnesium phosphate and group C: standard mineral and vitamin mix, monoammonium phosphate. All cows in group B had an apparently less variable serum calcium concentration around calving with no cases of milk fever and no subclinical hypocalcaemia or hypomagnesaemia recorded. In contrast, a...... cows were each given the following daily supplements from 2 weeks before the expected date of calving until actual calving: group A: zeolite, monoammonium phosphate, standard dry cow mineral and vitamin mix, containing 61g magnesium phosphate; group B: zeolite, standard mineral and vitamin mix without...... parturient drop in blood Ca was seen in group A as well as group C. In group A, one cow was hypocalcaemic at calving, and developed milk fever. In group C, 12 blood samples, representing six cows, were hypocalcaemic, and three of these cows were treated for milk fever. All groups remained normomagnesaemic...

  2. Moose calving areas and use on the Kenai National Moose Range, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In this paper we describe the locations of several known moose calving areas on the Kenai National Moose Range, the features and vegetation in the MooseChickaloon...

  3. Study of Serum Drug Levels in Calves Following Intramuscular Administration of Three Tetracycline Drug Preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Black, W. D.; Claxton, J; G.A Robinson

    1982-01-01

    Three antibiotic formulations, oxytetracycline (A) in propylene glycol and oxytetracycline (B) in polyvinyl pyrrolidine and pyrrolidino-methyltetracycline in an oil suspension were given to calves by the intramuscular route. Only oxytetracycline (A) appeared to cause much pain after injection.

  4. Moose Calving Areas and Use on the Kenai National Moose Range, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a study done on Kenai National Wildlife Refuge to determine which habitats moose prefer to calve in. The majority of observations of female...

  5. [Problems with feeding concentrated milk by-products to veal calves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regi, G; Morel-Egger, I; Huber, H U; Meisser, A; Wanner, M; Hässig, M

    2003-08-01

    In Switzerland between 35,000 and 50,000 farm calves per year are fed rations containing concentrated whey. If the ration is balanced, whey has no adverse effects on health and growth rates of calves. Feeding whey to farm animals makes ecological and economical sense and constitutes a sound management for the disposal of milk by-products. The described case consisted of 53 calves of which 7 (13.2%) died within the feedlot-period. Based on clinical and management findings, salt-intoxication was diagnosed because of deprivation of free access to water. When large amounts of hypertonic feed containing low quality whey are fed to calves, their health is adversely affected. Therefore, article 16 of the Swiss Animal Protection Regulation should be changed. PMID:12951906

  6. Annual re-habituation of calving caribou to oilfields in northern Alaska : implications for expanding development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskell, S.P.; Ballard, W.B. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Natural Resources Management

    2008-07-15

    Studies have suggested that calving caribou are rehabituated to human activities related to the petroleum industry over time as well as annually after Spring migrations. This study used predictor variables of annual and Spring snowmelt indices to evaluate caribou responses to human activities. Response variables included calf percentage and sighting rates of calving caribou along a high traffic road system from 1982 to 1990, and again from 2000 to 2002. Local calf percentages were considered. Caribou density was evaluated by aerial surveys. Results of the study showed no evidence of habituation to human activities over longer periods of time. An analysis of post hoc models showed a slight tolerance response. However, calving caribou were under-represented near the road system. The behavioural adaptability of calving caribou suggested that a no-hunt policy is appropriate. It was concluded that habitat selection and forage availability must also be considered when interpreting avoidance behaviour. 92 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  7. Implantation of temperature loggers in 100 Danish dairy calves: Surgical procedure and follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alban, L.; Chriel, M.; Tegtmeier, C.; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten

    1999-01-01

    submitted for histologic examination. This paper presents 1) the surgical procedure, 2) the prevalence of tissue reaction at the post-operative visits, 3) the degree of implant recovery, 4) the results of histopathologic examinations, 5) an evaluation of age at implantation or veterinary practitioner as......One hundred Danish dairy calves had temperature loggers implanted subcutaneously on the neck. Post-operatively, the calves were given a single antibiotic treatment, and tissue reactions were assessed on 6 post-operative visits. After approximately 5 months, the loggers were removed and material...... risk factors for tissue reaction and missing implant recovery 5 months after implantation, and 6) evaluation of tissue reaction as a risk factor for lack of recovery 5 months after implantation. The implant was rejected on 7 calves (7%). Additionally, 5 calves (5%) had the temperature logger removed...

  8. The effect of large milk meals on digestive physiology and behaviour in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, Kristian; Mejdell, Cecilie M; Ottesen, Nina; Larsen, Stig; Grøndahl, Ann Margaret

    2016-02-01

    It is commonly believed that young calves should not be fed more than about 2l of milk per meal. If calves are fed beyond this volume, it is said that the capacity of the abomasum may be exceeded and that milk could enter the rumen. This can disturb the microbial flora/fauna of the rumen and increase the risk of indigestion, diarrhoea and reduced growth. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of large milk meals on digestive physiology and behaviour in dairy calves. Six calves (19-23days of age at the beginning of the experiment) were fed 2l of warm whole milk by teat bottle three times per day, which was the recommended Norwegian feeding regime at the time. The calves were given free access to hay, concentrates and water. During three morning feeding sessions, each separated by 48h, all calves were offered larger meals. The offered amounts were calculated according to the within patient 3-level Response Surface Pathway (RSP) design. The milk given on the three test days contained a contrast medium (barium sulphate), and the animals were radiographed before, during and immediately after intake to reveal whether milk entered the rumen. Four out of the six calves drank more than 5l in one meal and the highest voluntary intake was 6.8l in one meal (13.2% of BW). Abdominal radiographs showed that the abomasum has a large ability for distension. Milk in the rumen was not observed in any of the calves, regardless of intake. The behaviour of the calves was observed for 2h after each test session. No behaviour indicating abdominal pain or discomfort was observed regardless of intake. The results indicate that when warm whole milk is administered from a teat bottle, farmers can increase the amount of milk they offer their calves beyond the traditionally recommended portion size without risk of milk entering the rumen. Hence, farmers who want to feed their calves more milk can do so by increasing meal sizes, and not necessarily by introducing an additional meal

  9. Comparative plasma pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur sodium and ceftiofur crystalline-free acid in neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, J S; Caldwell, M; Cox, S; Hines, M; Credille, B C

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the plasma pharmacokinetic profile of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) and ceftiofur sodium in neonatal calves between 4 and 6 days of age. In one group (n = 7), a single dose of CCFA was administered subcutaneously (SQ) at the base of the ear at a dose of 6.6 mg/kg of body weight. In a second group (n = 7), a single dose of ceftiofur sodium was administered SQ in the neck at a dose of 2.2 mg/kg of body weight. Concentrations of desfuroylceftiofur acetamide (DCA) in plasma were determined by HPLC. Median time to maximum DCA concentration was 12 h (range 12-48 h) for CCFA and 1 h (range 1-2 h) for ceftiofur sodium. Median maximum plasma DCA concentration was significantly higher for calves given ceftiofur sodium (5.62 μg/mL; range 4.10-6.91 μg/mL) than for calves given CCFA (3.23 μg/mL; range 2.15-4.13 μg/mL). AUC0-∞ and Vd/F were significantly greater for calves given CCFA than for calves given ceftiofur sodium. The median terminal half-life of DCA in plasma was significantly longer for calves given CCFA (60.6 h; range 43.5-83.4 h) than for calves given ceftiofur sodium (18.1 h; range 16.7-39.7 h). Cl/F was not significantly different between groups. The duration of time median plasma DCA concentrations remained above 2.0 μg/mL was significantly longer in calves that received CCFA (84.6 h; range 48-103 h) as compared to calves that received ceftiofur sodium (21.7 h; range 12.6-33.6 h). Based on the results of this study, CCFA administered SQ at a dose of 6.6 mg/kg in neonatal calves provided plasma concentrations above the therapeutic target of 2 μg/mL for at least 3 days following a single dose. It is important to note that the use of ceftiofur-containing products is restricted by the FDA and the use of CCFA in veal calves is strictly prohibited. PMID:26542633

  10. The effect of early weaning on feedlot performance and measures of stress in beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthington, J D; Spears, J W; Miller, D C

    2005-04-01

    Forty crossbred steers (Brahman x English) were categorized into two groups: 1) early weaned (EW; n = 20); and 2) normal weaned (NW; n = 20). Calves were 89 and 300 d of age at the time of EW and NW, respectively; SEM = 4.4. Early-weaned calves were kept on-site (University of Florida, Ona), provided supplement (1% of BW), and grazed on annual and perennial pastures until NW. At the time of normal weaning, all calves were loaded on a commercial livestock trailer and transported to the North Carolina State University Research Feedlot in Butner (approximately 1,200 km). Upon arrival, calves were stratified by BW and randomly allotted to four pens per weaning age treatment. Individual calf BW and blood samples were collected at the time of normal weaning, on arrival at the feedlot (d 1; 24 h following weaning), and on d 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of the receiving period. Individual BW was collected at the start and end of the growing and finishing periods, and feed intake by pen was measured daily. As an estimate of stress during the receiving period, plasma was collected and analyzed for the acute-phase proteins, haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin. Early-weaned calves were lighter (P = 0.03) at normal weaning than NW calves (221 vs. 269 kg; SEM = 10.6). By d 28, EW calves tended (P = 0.12) to be lighter than NW calves (242 vs. 282 kg, respectively). Gain:feed was improved for EW compared with NW calves during both the receiving (G:F = 0.157 vs. 0.081) and growing (0.159 vs. 0.136) periods. There tended (P yield grade, marbling score, and LM area, did not differ between treatments. These data imply that EW calves, which are maintained onsite before shipping, may be more tolerant to the stressors associated with transportation and feed yard entry. Early weaned calves, managed within the system described in this study, may have improved G:F. PMID:15753350

  11. Caribou distribution during calving in the northeast National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, June 1998 to 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn E. Noel

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti of the Teshekpuk Caribou Herd (TCH inhabit the western portion of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain within the National Petroleum Reserve—Alaska (NPR-A. Alaska's North Slope communities, management agencies, and private industry are interested in this herd because of its importance as a subsistence resource and location relative to potential petroleum development. From 1998 through 2000, we monitored caribou distribution during the calving period within the Northeast Planning Area of the NPR-A using systematic strip-transect aerial surveys, as well as VHF and satellite telemetry for cow caribou. Aerial survey and telemetry data indicated cows with calves were distributed around Teshekpuk Lake, with a concentration south of the lake in 1999 and 2000. Inconsistencies in weather conditions, survey timing (both strip-transect and VHF surveys, 100% coverage survey areas, and small sample sizes confound interpretations of our results. However, several patterns were apparent. Later transect survey timing (7—12 June versus 4—7 and 5—8 June resulted in more cow/calf pairs recorded. Our 18% coverage area, originally based on VHF telemetry data for the extent of TCH calving, covered a consistently high proportion (95% to 100% of the annual calving ranges (95% kernel utilization distributions, but accounted for only 24% to 46% of the adult cows in the TCH based on the current Alaska Department of Fish and Game population estimate (1999 and average 1998¬2000 herd composition. It appears that either our transect survey methodology significantly underestimated the true number of caribou cows in the study area, many cows calved outside the area or moved into the area and calved after our surveys, or we have over estimated the number of reproductive cows in the herd. Our 100% coverage transect areas covering oil and gas lease areas, contained 38% of the calving range with 23% of TCH cows in 1999; and 18% of

  12. Occurrence of congenital cerebral theileriosis in a newborn twin Holstein calves in Iran: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Tolouei Kaleibar, Mohammad; Ashrafi Helan, Javad; Fathi, Ezzatollah

    2014-01-01

    An 8-day-old newborn female twin Holstein calves with a history of weakness, anorexia, emaciation and convulsion were presented to Tabriz University Veterinary Teaching Hospital. On admission, the calves were febrile and recumbent. Physical examination revealed many ticks from the external body surface of the animals, right and left prescapular lymphadenopathy, severe opisthotonos, nystagmus, pedaling, blindness, hyperpnea and hypersthenia. Buccal and vaginal mucous were pale and no other phy...

  13. Immune complexes in blood serum of calves with clinical symptoms of bronchopneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fratrić Natalija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumonia in preruminant calves is a multifactorial disease. Infectious agents, the environment, management and the immune status of the calves are all important factors in determining the outcome of an infection. Until today, the level and composition of circulating immune complexes in preruminant calves with pneumonia have not been studied in detail. We performed this work with the aim to determine whether pneumonia in three-month-old calves is followed by changes in the immune complex level and changes in the γ-globulin level as their possible constituents. Immune complexes from the calves’ sera were isolated by polyethylene glycol (PEG precipitation methods. Optical density at 350 nm (OD350 of redissolved precipitates was measured to determine the circulating immune complexes level. The OD350 level of PEG precipitates of calves with pneumonia at the time of diagnosis was 0.577±0.206 and it was statistically significantly higher (p<0.001 than OD350 the level of PEG precipitates of healthy calves (0.286±0.080. Electrophoretic analysis of sera and PEG precipitates showed that both slow and fast γ-globulins are found among serum and immune-complexes' γ-globulins, but the concentration of fast γ-globulins was significantly lower in sera of diseased calves. The level of PEG precipitable immune complexes was not correlated with the concentration of serum and PEG precipitable g-globulins. The results of this study have shown that by relatively simple PEG precipitation assay it is possible to detect an increased level of circulating immune complexes in calves with pneumonia. This can be used as an additional diagnostic parameter for the detection and follow up of the disease.

  14. Performance of crossbred calves raised on different dietary treatments under smallholder dairy farm conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyimo, H L N; Laswai, G H; Mtenga, L A;

    2010-01-01

    and ME 13 MJ per kg DM) used by farmers in the study area. Treatment 3 (FP) was a control, where farmers followed their normal calf rearing practice with no interference. Restricted suckling, ad libitum feeding of forages and up to 1 kg concentrate were used for the calves on DC and FC. Weaning was at......), respectively. It was concluded that feeding balanced calf concentrates formulated using locally available feed resources improves performance of calves under small holder dairy production systems....

  15. Dairy calving management: description and assessment of a training program for dairy personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuenemann, G M; Bas, S; Gordon, E; Workman, J D

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive calving management program designed to enhance the flow of applied, research-based, calving information to dairy personnel. Calving personnel (n=70), serving an estimated 18,100 cows from 18 Ohio dairies, attended the calving management program (∼1h of training and ∼2h of demonstration). Description of the birth canal, behavioral signs of normal parturition (stages I to III), dystocia (presentations, positions, and postures), hygiene practices during the assistance procedure, strategies for intervention (when and how to intervene), record-keeping, communication (when to call for help), and newborn care were discussed. Posttraining follow-ups (2/yr) were available for participating personnel. Educational materials were delivered through lectures followed by group discussions and hands-on demonstrations. Attendees were assessed using pre- and posttests of knowledge to determine the level of knowledge gained during the training program. Participants evaluated the program and provided feedback at the conclusion of the program. Dairy personnel reported that the overall program, presentations, and discussions were useful. The presented materials and demonstrations substantially increased the knowledge level of the attendees by 20.9 percentage points from pre- to posttest scores. Importance of open communication within the farm team, recognizing the landmarks for parturition, signs of calving progress, reference times for intervention, hygiene practices at calving, and strategies to correct abnormal presentation, position, or posture were listed as learned concepts with immediate field application. The follow-up assessment with participant personnel revealed that they were able to implement and apply their learned skills, communicate calving records with the farm team, and follow written calving protocols. Results indicated that the workshop was relevant and effective, offering information

  16. Isolation and characterization of a coronavirus from elk calves with diarrhea.

    OpenAIRE

    Majhdi, F; Minocha, H C; Kapil, S

    1997-01-01

    This is the first report of the isolation of a coronavirus from elk calves. Two fecal samples from elk calves with diarrhea were shown to be positive for coronavirus-like particles by electron microscopy, and the particles were propagated in the human rectal tumor-18 cell line. After 24 h, syncytia were observed, and cell culture supernatants from both samples showed hemagglutinating activity with mouse erythrocytes. Cells infected with both elk coronavirus (ECV) isolates reacted with Z3A5, a...

  17. The effect of unrestricted milk feeding on the growth and health of Jersey calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Uys

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding high milk volumes on the growth rate, health and cross-sucking behaviour in group-fed Jersey calves. Three-day-old heifers (n = 120 in a seasonal calving dairy herd were randomly assigned to one of 6 treatment groups. Three groups received high milk volumes (HMV, consisting of ad libitum milk or milk replacer feeding twice a day, while 3 groups received restricted milk volumes (RMV, consisting of 2 twice daily, during the pre-weaning period. After a pre-weaning period during which feeding was reduced to once daily, all calves were weaned at 42 days and monitored until 60 days of age.Adjusting for birth mass, birth date,damparity and sire, average daily mass gain (ADG, both pre-weaning (days 0–42 and overall (days 0–60, was higher inHMVthan inRMVcalves (P<0.001.After weaning, growth rates showed no differences and at 60 days of age the HMV calves maintained a 6.74 kg advantage in mean body mass (P < 0.001. The mean intake of dry starter feed was higher in RMV than in HMVcalves. Overall feed conversion rate ofHMVcalves was 9.6%better thanRMVcalves. However, the variable cost per kg mass gain was 12 % higher for HMV calves. In the RMV groups 75 % of calves showed cross-sucking behaviour pre-weaning and 18 % post-weaning, whereas in HMV calves the proportions were 2 % and 7 %, respectively. There was no significant effect of milk volume on the incidence of diarrhoea.We conclude that the feeding of high volumes of milk to Jersey calves has a positive effect on growth rate, without compromising health or reducing solid feed intake after weaning. However, the higher cost of such a feeding system may limit its implementation.

  18. Performance and Health of Group-Housed Calves Kept in Igloo Calf Hutches and Calf Barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Wójcik*, Renata Pilarczyk, Anna Bilska, Ottfried Weiher1 and Peter Sanftleben1

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Group-reared calves are usually housed in common buildings, such as calf barns of all sorts; however, there are concerns about this practice due to problems such as an increased incidence of diseases and poor performance of the calves. Group calf rearing using igloo hutches may be a solution combining the benefits of individual and group housing systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate group-reared calves housed in Igloo-type hutches compared with those housed in common calf barns. The experiment was carried out on a large private dairy farm located in Vorpommern, Germany. A total of 90 Deutsche-Holstein bull calves were assigned to 2 treatment groups: the calf-barn group, with calves grouped in pens in a building, and the Igloo-hutch group, with calves housed in outdoor enclosures with an access to group igloo-style hutches. Calves entering the 84-day experiment were at an average age of about three weeks, with the mean initial body weight of about 50 kg. The calves housed in the group Igloo hutches attained higher daily weight gains compared to those housed in the calf barn (973 vs 721 g/day, consumed more solid feeds (concentrate, corn grain and maize silage: (1.79 vs 1.59 kg/day, and less milk replacer (5.51 vs 6.19 kg/day, had also a lower incidence of respiratory diseases (1.24 vs 3.57% with a shorter persistence of the illness.

  19. Meat Quality of Loin and Top Round Muscles from the Hanwoo and Holstein Veal Calves

    OpenAIRE

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Chung, Eui-Gang; Chung, Ku-Young

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the meat qualities of loin (m. longissimus dorsi) and top round (m. semimembranosus) from Hanwoo and Holstein veal. Ten Hanwoo and Holstein calves were randomly selected from a local cattle farm and raised. They were slaughtered when they were 8 mon old and weighed. Weight and percentage in primal cuts and slaughter performance of Hanwoo and Holstein veal calves are obtained. Immediately after weighting, slices of loin and top round muscles were sampled. Af...

  20. Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Subtropical Calves Fed Untraditional Fattening Ration

    OpenAIRE

    Amal El-Asheeri; Mutassim Abdelrahman; Ahmed Saad Sami; Mohamed Radwan

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding two levels of corn silage on growth performance, carcass characteristics of subtropical calves. Fifteen Egyptian native calves (initially weighed 245.33.0 kg) were randomly divided into three equal groups as follows: group 1 (Control, C): fed Concentrate Fed Mixture (CFM) and rice straw; group 2 (50%): CFM was replaced with 50% corn and group 3 (75%); CFM was replaced with 75% corn silage on dry matter basis. Growth performa...

  1. A Yeast Related Ethanol Intoxication Syndrome in Experimental Calves: Prevention with Nystatin

    OpenAIRE

    Wijayasinghe, M. S.; Miranda, M; Smith, N. E.; Baldwin, R L; Wijayasinghe, C.; Har, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    In a calf nutrition-metabolism study in which a high glucose (60% glucose and 3% lard) versus a high fat (23% glucose and 30% lard) milk replacer were compared, a syndrome characterized by anorexia, an unstable gait, depression, a distended abdomen and an odor of alcohol on the breath was observed in some calves. These signs were associated with intoxicating levels of plasma ethanol and the predominance of the yeast species Torulopsis glabrata in gastrointestinal contents of afflicted calves....

  2. Possibilities of the application of supplemental and nonconventional methods in prevention and health care in calves

    OpenAIRE

    KONRÁDOVÁ, Petra

    2008-01-01

    Diarrhoeas in calves pose one of the most serious risks of calf management and cause economic losses. This is the reason why the objective of this paper was to evaluate in operation conditions the effect of selected dietary supplements on the frequency of diarrhoea occurrence in calves in the first stages of the period after weaning for milk nutrition. An agricultural enterprise where the workers were willing to cooperate and provide the biological material was selected: ZEFA Volary. In 2005 ...

  3. Heterogeneity of genetic parameters for calving difficulty in Holstein heifers in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Hickey, J.M.; Keane, M.G.; Kenny, D.A.; Veerkamp, R. F.; Cromie, A.R.; Amer, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Calving difficulty is a trait that greatly affects animal welfare, herd profitability, and the amount of labor required by cattle farmers. It is influenced by direct and maternal genetic components. Selection and breeding strategies can optimize the accuracy of genetic evaluations and correctly emphasize calving difficulty in multiple-trait indices provided there are accurate estimates of genetic parameters. In Ireland, large differences exist in the age at which heifers first give birth to c...

  4. Survey of management practices related to bovine respiratory disease in preweaned calves on California dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, W J; Lehenbauer, T W; Karle, B M; Hulbert, Lindsey E; Anderson, Randall J; Van Eenennaam, A L; Farver, T B; Aly, S S

    2016-02-01

    In the spring of 2013, a survey of California (CA) dairies was performed to characterize management practices related to bovine respiratory disease in preweaned calves, compare these practices across geographic regions of the state, and determine the principal components that explain the variability in management between herds. The questionnaire consisted of 53 questions divided into 6 sections to assess management practices affecting dairy calves from precalving to weaning. The questionnaire was mailed to 1,523 grade A licensed dairies in CA and 224 responses (14.7%) were collected. Survey response rates were similar over the 3 defined regions of CA: northern CA, northern San Joaquin Valley, and the greater southern CA region. The mean size of respondent herds was 1,423 milking cows. Most dairies reported raising preweaned calves on-site (59.7%). In 93.3% of dairies, preweaned calves were raised in some form of individual housing. Nonsaleable milk was the most frequent liquid diet fed to preweaned heifers (75.2%). Several important differences were identified between calf-raising practices in CA and practices reported in recent nationwide studies, including herd sizes, housing practices, and sources of milk fed to heifers. The differences between the CA and nationwide studies may be explained by differences in herd size. Regional differences within CA were also identified. Compared with the 2 other regions, northern CA dairies were found to have smaller herds, less Holstein cattle, calves remained with dams for longer periods of time after calving, were more likely to be certified organic dairies, and raised their own calves more often. Principal component analysis was performed and identified 11 components composed of 28 variables (questions) that explained 66.5% of the variability in the data. The identified components and questions will contribute to developing a risk assessment tool for bovine respiratory disease in preweaned dairy calves. PMID:26709177

  5. Distribution of bovine herpesvirus type 1 in the nervous system of experimentally infected calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, M S; Leunda, M R; Verna, A E; Morán, P E; Odeón, A C; Pérez, S E

    2016-03-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) is responsible for respiratory and genital disease in cattle. BoHV-1 encephalitis is only occasionally reported. However, several cases of neurological disease have been recently attributed to BoHV-1. In this study, the distribution and pathological alterations caused by two BoHV-1 strains in the nervous system of experimentally infected calves during acute infection and reactivation are described. Calves were inoculated intranasally with BoHV-1 Los Angeles (BoHV-1.LA) or Cooper (BoHV-1.Cooper) strains. Acutely infected calves were euthanased at 6 days (BoHV-1.Cooper, n = 2) and 7 days post-inoculation (BoHV-1.LA, n = 2). Latently infected calves that were given dexamethasone to induce reactivation were euthanased at 2 days (BoHV-1.Cooper, n = 2) or 5 days (BoHV-1.LA, n = 2) after dexamethasone administration. Both BoHV-1 strains were isolated from the brains of acutely infected calves. Distribution of viral DNA in the neural tissues was similar for both strains. During reactivation, neither BoHV-1.LA nor BoHV-1.Cooper was isolated from any brain section or trigeminal ganglia in infected calves. Macroscopic lesions were not evident in any group. In BoHV-1.LA infected calves, microscopic lesions were found in the brain but not in the trigeminal ganglia. Microscopic lesions in the brain of BoHV-1.Cooper infected calves were not as evident as in BoHV-1.LA infected animals. However, mononuclear infiltrates and neuronophagia were present in trigeminal ganglia. The results of this study demonstrated that respiratory BoHV-1 strains are able to replicate and disseminate within the bovine nervous tissue and provide evidence of the neuroinvasiveness of BoHV-1 strains. PMID:26831158

  6. Longitudinal evaluation of diagnostics in experimentally infected young calves during subclinical and clinical paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortier, Rienske A R; Barkema, Herman W; Orsel, Karin; Muench, Gregory P; Bystrom, Janet M; Illanes, Oscar; De Buck, Jeroen

    2015-12-01

    Five calves were inoculated orally at 2 weeks of age with a dose of 5 × 10(9) colony-forming units of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) on 2 consecutive days. Two calves developed clinical Johne's disease at 12 and 16 months of age after being consistently positive for MAP on fecal culture and antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), starting 2 to 3 weeks and 4 to 5 months after inoculation, respectively. PMID:26663923

  7. Orphan caribou, Rangifer tarandus, calves: A re-evaluation of overwinter survival data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Kyle

    2000-01-01

    Low sample size and high variation within populations reduce power of statistical tests. These aspects of statistical power appear to have affected an analysis comparing overwinter survival rates of non-orphan and orphan Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) calves by an earlier study for the Porcupine Caribou Herd. A re-evaluation of the data revealed that conclusions about a lack of significant difference in the overwinter survival rates between orphan and non-orphan calves were premature.

  8. Age-related alterations in trimethoprim-sulfadiazine disposition following oral or parenteral administration in calves.

    OpenAIRE

    Guard, C L; Schwark, W S; Friedman, D S; Blackshear, P; Haluska, M

    1986-01-01

    Age-related changes in the absorption and distribution patterns of trimethoprim/sulfadiazine were studied following oral or subcutaneous administration of 15 mg/kg of the drug combination in calves. Following oral administration, the time course of trimethoprim/sulfadiazine appearance and dissipation in serum, synovial fluid and urine was followed for periods up to 48 hours in calves one day, one week and six weeks of age. The profiles of drug appearance-disappearance in these body fluids wer...

  9. Behavioral and Physiological Responses of Calves to Marshalling and Roping in a Simulated Rodeo Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michelle; Keeley, Tamara; Lefebvre, Anne-Cecile; Phillips, Clive J C

    2016-01-01

    Rodeos are public events at which stockpeople face tests of their ability to manage cattle and horses, some of which relate directly to rangeland cattle husbandry. One of these is calf roping, in which a calf released from a chute is pursued by a horse and rider, who lassoes, lifts and drops the calf to the ground and finally ties it around the legs. Measurements were made of behavior and stress responses of ten rodeo-naïve calves marshalled by a horse and rider, and ten rodeo-experienced calves that were roped. Naïve calves marshalled by a horse and rider traversed the arena slowly, whereas rodeo-experienced calves ran rapidly until roped. Each activity was repeated once after two hours. Blood samples taken before and after each activity demonstrated increased cortisol, epinephrine and nor-epinephrine in both groups. However, there was no evidence of a continued increase in stress hormones in either group by the start of the repeated activity, suggesting that the elevated stress hormones were not a response to a prolonged effect of the initial blood sampling. It is concluded that both the marshalling of calves naïve to the roping chute by stockpeople and the roping and dropping of experienced calves are stressful in a simulated rodeo calf roping event. PMID:27136590

  10. Behavioral and Physiological Responses of Calves to Marshalling and Roping in a Simulated Rodeo Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Sinclair

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rodeos are public events at which stockpeople face tests of their ability to manage cattle and horses, some of which relate directly to rangeland cattle husbandry. One of these is calf roping, in which a calf released from a chute is pursued by a horse and rider, who lassoes, lifts and drops the calf to the ground and finally ties it around the legs. Measurements were made of behavior and stress responses of ten rodeo-naïve calves marshalled by a horse and rider, and ten rodeo-experienced calves that were roped. Naïve calves marshalled by a horse and rider traversed the arena slowly, whereas rodeo-experienced calves ran rapidly until roped. Each activity was repeated once after two hours. Blood samples taken before and after each activity demonstrated increased cortisol, epinephrine and nor-epinephrine in both groups. However, there was no evidence of a continued increase in stress hormones in either group by the start of the repeated activity, suggesting that the elevated stress hormones were not a response to a prolonged effect of the initial blood sampling. It is concluded that both the marshalling of calves naïve to the roping chute by stockpeople and the roping and dropping of experienced calves are stressful in a simulated rodeo calf roping event.

  11. Effect of ferrous sulphate on haematological, biochemical and immunological parameters in neonatal calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobna S. Elgebaly

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of oral administration of iron on haematological, biochemical and immunological parameters in neonatal calves was studied. Ten calves from a private farm in Gharbia Governorate were used. Calves were separated from their dams immediately after birth and received colostrum during the first hours after calving and twice daily for 48 h. Thereafter, they received whole milk. Calves were divided into two equal groups. The first group was kept as controls. Calves of the second group were given ferrous sulphate at a dose of 250 mg/calf daily, beginning at one day of age; this was continued for 28 days. Three blood samples were collected from each calf in all groups at 14, 21, 28 and 35 days of age. Iron administration produced a significant increase in red blood cell count, haemoglobin, packed cell volume and blood indices, in addition to non-significant changes in total and differential leukocyte counts. The administration of iron resulted in a significant increase in serum iron, total proteins, globulins, thyroid hormones, lymphocyte stimulation index, phagocytosis, body weight and body gain. The administration of iron is suggested as routine practice in calf-producing farms due to its advantageous effects on the parameters tested.

  12. Ultrastructural Changes and Bacterial Localization in Buffalo Calves Following Oral Exposure to Pasteurella multocida B:2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Abubakar, M. Zamri-Saad* and S. Jasni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the ultrastructural changes and distribution of P. multocida B:2 in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts of buffalo calves following oral exposure and compared with intratracheal exposure. Nine 8-month old buffalo calves were divided into 3 groups. At the start of the experiment, dexamethasone (1mg/kg was injected intramuscularly into buffaloes of all groups for three consecutive days. Then, calves of Group 1 were exposed orally to 50ml of the inoculum containing 109 colony-forming unit (CFU/mL of live P. multocida B:2. Calves of Group 2 were exposed intra-tracheal to the same inoculum while calves of Group 3 were exposed orally to PBS. Transient and mild clinical signs were observed in calves of Groups 1 and 2. Pasteurella multocida B:2 was isolated from the nasal mucosa for up to 5 days post-infection. Only calf that was killed at 48 h post-infection had P. multocida B:2 in both respiratory and gastro-intestinal tracts showing ultrastructural changes typical of acute cellular injury, with degeneration of endothelium and vascular walls. There were deciliation in the respiratory and microvilli degeneration in the gastrointestinal tracts. The study concludes that oral exposure may not play major role in the development of hemorrhagic septicemia. Nevertheless, the buffalo calf that succumbed to hemorrhagic septicemia carried P. multocida B:2 in the gastro-intestinal organs.

  13. Pair housing and enhanced milk allowance increase play behavior and improve performance in dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Duve, Linda Rosager; Weary, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    -housed calves could perform social play behavior (play fighting), and the duration of this was greater on d 15 and 29 than on d 43 [8.3, 10.7 and 3.5 (±1.3) corresponding to 69, 115 and 12 s/24 h for d 15, 29, and 43]. Among calves on enhanced milk, pair-housed animals had a greater concentrate intake than...... observed no effect of pair versus individual housing [810 and 840 (±40) g/d]. In conclusion, greater durations of play behavior in enhanced-fed calves suggest an animal welfare benefit of this feeding method. Enhanced-fed calves consumed less concentrate, but pair housing stimulated concentrate intake in......To investigate the effects of social housing and milk feeding on play behavior and performance, 48 Holstein-Friesian male and female calves were either individually or pair housed in straw-bedded pens (3.0 m × 4.5 m). Half of the calves in each housing treatment were fed a standard milk allowance...

  14. Methods and on-farm devices to predict calving time in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Dizier, Marie; Chastant-Maillard, Sylvie

    2015-09-01

    In livestock farming, accurate prediction of calving time is a key factor for profitability and animal welfare. The most accurate and sensitive methods to date for prediction of calving within 24 h are the measurement of pelvic ligament relaxation and assays for circulating progesterone and oestradiol-17β. Conversely, the absence of calving within the next 12-24 h can be accurately predicted by the measurement of incremental daily decrease in vaginal temperature and by the combination of pelvic ligament relaxation and teat filling estimates. Continuous monitoring systems can detect behavioural changes occurring on the actual day of calving, some of them being accentuated in the last few hours before delivery; standing/lying transitions, tail raising, feeding time, and dry matter and water intakes differ between cows with dystocia and those with eutocia. Use of these behavioural changes has the potential to improve the management of calving. Currently, four types of devices for calving detection are on the market: inclinometers and accelerometers detecting tail raising and overactivity, abdominal belts monitoring uterine contractions, vaginal probes detecting a decrease in vaginal temperature and expulsion of the allantochorion, and devices placed in the vagina or on the vulvar lips that detect calf expulsion. The performance of these devices under field conditions and their capacity to predict dystocia require further investigation. PMID:26164528

  15. Comparison between Two Cecostomy Techniques for Treatment of Atresia Coli in Cattle and Buffalo Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Abdelfattah Abdelrhman, Aiman Mahmoud Seddek*1 and Hossam Ahmad Bakr2

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at determination of the cecostomy technique that will preserve the long-term maximal diameter of the created fistula. The subjects of the study were 79 newly born cattle and buffalo calves suffered from atresia coli, recti and ani. The calves were grouped into four groups for evaluation of incisional and herniation cecostomy techniques either on the right or left flank. With each technique, 4 cm diameter permanent fistula was created and evaluated at the 1stweek, and 1st, 4th and 8th months post-surgery. Both of the short and long-term complications were recorded and managed conservatively. Follow up could be achieved for 45 calves only and all of them showed stunted growth. The results revealed wider stoma in the calves operated by herniation technique, and in those operated on the right flank, moreover the operated cattle calves had wider stoma than buffalo calves. It is concluded that the right flank herniation technique has a beneficial effect on long-term preserving of a wider diameter of the created fistula.

  16. Petermann Glacier, North Greenland: massive calving in 2010 and the past half century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Johannessen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Greenland's marine-terminating glaciers drain large amounts of solid ice through calving of icebergs, as well as melting of floating glacial ice. Petermann Glacier, North Greenland, has the Northern Hemisphere's long floating ice shelf. A massive (~270 km2 calving event was observed from satellite sensors in August 2010. In order to understand this in perspective, here we perform a comprehensive retrospective data analysis of Petermann Glacier calving-front variability spanning half a century. Here we establish that there have been at least four massive (100+ km2 calving events over the past 50 years: (1 1959–1961 (~153 km2, (2 1991 (~168 km2, (3 2001 (~71 km2 and (4 2010 (~270 km2, as well as ~31 km2 calved in 2008. The terminus position in 2010 has retreated ~15 km beyond the envelope of previous observations. Whether the massive calving in 2010 represents natural episodic variability or a response to global and/or ocean warming in the fjord remains speculative, although this event supports the contention that the ice shelf recently has become vulnerable due to extensive fracturing and channelized basal melting.

  17. Immunological responses of pregnant swamp and murrah buffalo cows and calves to Toxocara (Neoascaris) vitulorum infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swamp buffalo cows from an area where T. vitulorum infection was heavy were examined for serum antibodies. Serum from all cows showed strongly positive precipitin reactions from the 4th to 6th months of pregnancy and after parturition using homologous larval, adult worm and adult excretory and secretory antigens; these precipitins were still being detected in the sera 4-6 months after calving. The sera of calves born to these cows were negative for T. vitulorum precipitins before feeding with colostrum but a precipitin reaction was evident from 24 hours of birth. Nevertheless, patent infections developed from 19-21 days after birth and one calf died with severe diarrhoea; the remainder revealed heavy faecal Toxocara egg counts. In six calves the infection was spontaneously eliminated between 40 and 60 days after birth suggesting a 'self-cure' reaction. In a similar study involving 30 Murrah cows sera precipitins were not observed during the first 4-6 months of pregnancy. In 14 calves born to these animals serum precipitins were never observed, but the animals had T. vitulorum egg counts comparable with those in swamp buffalo calves. After an initial natural infection a strong resistance to reinfection was acquired by most calves of both breeds in that larvae did not generally develop beyond the second stage. (author)

  18. Growth, intake, and health of Holstein heifer calves fed an enhanced preweaning diet with or without postweaning exogenous estrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, A J; Parsons, C L M; James, R E; Akers, R M

    2016-05-01

    Research has shown that changes in nutrition both before and after weaning can affect mammary development. Additionally, estrogen is known to be a potent mammogenic stimulant. Our objectives were to determine effects of altered preweaning feeding and exogenous estradiol postweaning on growth, intake, and health. Thirty-six Holstein heifer calves were reared on (1) a restricted milk replacer (MR) diet fed at 0.44kg powder dry matter (DM)/day [R; 20.9% crude protein (CP), 19.8% fat, DM basis], or (2) an enhanced MR fed at 1.08kg powder DM/d (EH; 28.9% CP, 26.2% fat, DM basis). The MR feeding was reduced 50% during wk 8 to prepare for weaning. Starter was offered after wk 4 but balanced between treatments. Body weight and frame were measured weekly with intakes and health monitored daily. At weaning, a subset of calves were slaughtered (n=6/diet). Enhanced-fed calves had greater carcass, thymus, liver, spleen, and mammary gland (parenchyma and mammary fat pad) weights. The EH calves also had greater average daily gain (ADG) starting during wk 1 (0.36 vs. -0.06kg/d) and lasting through wk 7 (1.00 vs. 0.41kg/d). Remaining calves received estrogen implants or placebo and were slaughtered at the end of wk 10, creating 4 treatments: (1) R, (2) R + estrogen (R-E2), (3) EH, and (4) EH + estrogen (EH-E2). Postweaning ADG was similar between R, EH, and EH-E2 calves, but greater in R-E2 calves than E calves. The EH-E2 calves had the heaviest mammary glands, and R-E2 calves had heavier mammary glands than R calves. The EH calves consumed more MR DM, CP, and fat preweaning. The R-fed calves consumed more starter DM preweaning. Fecal score was greater for EH calves (1.74 vs. 1.50) preweaning, but days medicated did not differ. Fecal scores were lower for R-E2 calves postweaning. Improved preweaning feeding of calves increased body weights and frame measures. Differences in body weights remained postweaning. Enhanced-fed calves showed greater ADG during the preweaning period but

  19. Effect of early feed type exposure on diet-selection behavior of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; DeVries, T J

    2011-01-01

    Dairy cattle exhibit characteristic feeding behavior patterns that may be influenced by early experiences. The objective of this study was to determine how early exposure to different feed types affects diet selection behavior of dairy calves once fed a mixed ration after weaning off milk. Eight Holstein bull calves were randomly assigned at birth to a feed exposure treatment: concentrate or grass/alfalfa hay, offered ad libitum. All calves were offered 8 L/d of milk replacer [1.2 kg of dry matter (DM)] from birth, which was incrementally reduced after 4 wk to enable weaning by the end of wk 7. After milk weaning, all calves were fed a mixed ration containing (on a DM basis) 60% concentrate and 40% grass/alfalfa hay for 9 wk. Intake was recorded daily, and calves were weighed 3 times/wk. Samples of fresh feed and orts were taken in wk 8, 12, and 16 for particle size analysis. The separator had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) producing long, medium, short, and fine particle fractions. Sorting of each fraction was calculated as actual intake as a percentage of predicted intake. Calves exposed to concentrate tended to have greater DM intake than calves exposed to hay both before (0.49 vs. 0.16 kg/d) and after weaning off milk (3.3 vs. 2.6 kg/d). Weights were similar during the milk-feeding stage, but calves exposed to concentrate had greater weights overall in the postweaning stage (129.8 vs. 112.6 kg). Initially after weaning, calves sorted for familiar feed; calves previously exposed to concentrate sorted for short particles (126.4%), which were primarily concentrate, whereas calves previously exposed to hay did not (94.2%). Calves previously exposed to hay tended to sort for long particles (113.4%), which were solely hay, whereas calves previously exposed to concentrate sorted against them (56.4%). The sorting observed for short particles was associated with consuming a diet with a greater concentration of protein, nonfiber carbohydrates, and metabolizable energy

  20. The influence of different fibrous supplements in the diet on ruminal histology and histometry in veal calves

    OpenAIRE

    A. Di Giancamillo; G. Bosi; Arrighi, S.; Savoini, G.; C. Domeneghini

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the administration of four different solid feeds would influence selected morphological and morphofunctional aspects of the rumen mucosa in veal calves. The fibrous supplementation of the liquid diet of veal calves has been provided by recent EU formulation (EC Council Directive 91/629/1991; EC Council Directive 97/2/1997). Twenty-five Holstein calves were assigned to either exclusively liquid diet (milk replac...

  1. Effects of accompanying use of heat treated corn grain and whole soybeans in concentrates on weaned calves performances

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanović B.; Grubić G.; Đorđević N.; Adamović M.; Radivojević M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of simultaneous using heat-treated corn grain as basic energy source and heat treated whole soybeans as protein source, in diet for calves 60-120 days old. The main predicted effects were improved energy and nutrients utilization efficiency and production performances of calves at this age. Thirty-six weaned Holstein calves were used, there were three treatments using different concentrates, formulated as: concentrate with micronize...

  2. Endocrine Measurements and Calving Performance of Swedish Red and White and Swedish Holstein Dairy Cattle with Special Respect to Stillbirth

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson H; Kindahl H; Franzén G; Kornmatitsuk B

    2003-01-01

    During 3 consecutive calving seasons, calving performance, placental characteristics and endocrine profiles of total 98 pregnancies of late pregnant Swedish Red and White (SRB) and Swedish Holstein (SLB) dairy heifers and cows, were investigated. Ninety-four singleton pregnancies and 4 sets of twins were recorded. In animals with singleton pregnancy, 8 stillbirths, 7 weak calves, 3 premature parturitions and 1 abortion were registered. In the SLB heifers, 19% of stillbirth (5/26) were observ...

  3. Air quality in barns for milk-fed calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventy per cent of the veal produced in Canada comes from Quebec. This paper reported on the air quality in barns used for milk-fed calves. It is known that air quality inside livestock buildings has an impact on both workers and animals, particularly in winter when air circulation is reduced. In this study, air quality inside barns was studied during the winter, spring and summer. Three types of barns with 3 different types of ventilation typically found in Quebec were evaluated. These included those with preheated corridors, lateral air entries, and central chimneys. Gases were measured in order to determine concentrations and emissions of: ammonia (NH3) which is toxic, colourless and flammable; hydrogen sulfide (H2S) which is very toxic, flammable; carbon dioxide (CO2) which is colourless and odourless; nitrous oxide (N2O) which is colourless and flammable, but harmless to health in the short-term; carbon monoxide (CO) which is colourless, odourless and flammable; and methane (CH4) which is the principal constituent released by animals, and is also colourless, odourless and extremely flammable. When exposed to air, both methane and carbon monoxide can produce an explosive mix especially in an enclosed area. Bacteria, mold, endotoxins, and dust are also present in barns. Samples of gases were analyzed with the help of different portable apparatuses. Results revealed that there are no significant problems with air quality in barns used for milk-fed calves in Quebec. It was determined that the inside temperature was appropriate even during summer periods, and although the relative humidity was higher than the recommended values for the care and handling of farm animals, it was still acceptable. In winter, ammonia was the only gas present in concentrations that reached values of weighted average exposure. Also, concentrations of bacteria were higher during winter. It was suggested that better air ventilation during the winter period would lower ammonia and bacteria

  4. Genetic analyses of days to calving and their relationships with other traits in a Canchim cattle herd

    OpenAIRE

    Talita Buttarello Mucari; Maurício Mello de Alencar; Pedro Franklin Barbosa; Rogério Taveira Barbosa

    2007-01-01

    Heritabilities and genetic correlations in a Canchim beef cattle herd were estimated using data on the following traits: male scrotal circumference at twelve months (SC12); days to first calving (DFC) for heifers; days to calving (DC) for cows; male and female weight (W) at twelve months (W12); heifer weight at the start of the first breeding season (WFBS) and at first calving (WFC); and cow weight at the start of the breeding season (WBS) and at calving (WC). Analyses of the DFC and DC trait...

  5. Sites of replication of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in naturally infected calves as determined by in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viuff, B.; Uttenthal, Åse; Tegtmeier, C.; Alexandersen, Søren

    1996-01-01

    Replication of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) was studied in three naturally infected calves by in situ hybridization using strand-specific RNA probes. One of the calves was a 5-month-old Friesian, the other two calves were a 3-month-old and a 2-week-old Jersey. Two Jersey calves, 3...... months and 3 weeks of age, served as controls. Replication of BRSV took place in the luminal lining of the respiratory tract. In one of the BRSV infected animals (calf No. 1), replication was especially seen in the bronchi, whereas in the two other animals (calf Nos. 2 and 3) replication of BRSV was...

  6. Effects of feeding whey protein on growth rate and mucosal IgA induction in Japanese Black calves

    OpenAIRE

    Yasumatsuya, Keiko; Kasai, Koji; Yamanaka, Kengo; SAKASE, Mitsuhiro; Nishino, Osamu; Akaike, Masaru; Mandokoro, Koki; Nagase, Tatsuo; Kume, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    Data from 63 Japanese Black calves were collected to clarify the effects of feeding whey protein on the growth rate and mucosal IgA induction in calves. Dietary treatments in milk replacers were 1) 26% CP as in skim milk (control), 2) 26% CP as whey and skim milk and 3) 26% CP as whey. Diets were offered from 3 to 63 days of age in calves. Feeding whey protein had no effects on growth rate, fecal consistency and fecal water in calves. Compared with 2 days of age, fecal IgA concentration in ca...

  7. Reproductive performance of cows mated to and preweaning performance of calves sired by Brahman vs alternative subtropically adapted breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrift, F A

    1997-10-01

    Comparisons involving Brahman and Brahman-derivative (Brangus, Santa Gertrudis, Beef-master, Simbrah, Braford) sires indicate the following: 1) cows mated to Brangus and Santa Gertrudis bulls had a shorter gestation length than cows mated to Brahman bulls, 2) calves sired by Brangus and Beefmaster bulls were lighter at birth and weaning than calves sired by Brahman bulls, and 3) birth and weaning weights were similar for calves sired by Santa Gertrudis and Brahman bulls and for calves sired by Simbrah and Brahman bulls. Comparisons involving Brahman and other Zebu (Sahiwal, Nellore, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Boran, Romana Red) sires indicate that gestation length was slightly longer for cows mated to Sahiwal and Nellore bulls and that, relative to the Brahman, birth and weaning weights were similar to or lighter for calves sired by bulls of the other Zebu breeds. The only exception to this pattern was birth weight of Indu-Brazil-sired calves, which were heavier than calves sired by Brahman bulls. Comparisons involving Brahman and non-Zebu subtropically adapted (Tuli, Senepol) sires indicate that cows mated to Tuli bulls had a slightly shorter gestation length than cows mated to Brahman bulls and that birth and weaning weights of calves sired by Tuli and Senepol bulls were lighter than those of calves sired by Brahman bulls. PMID:9331860

  8. Effects of Degree and Timing of Social Housing on Reversal Learning and Response to Novel Objects in Dairy Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Rebecca K.; Daros, Rolnei R.; Costa, João H. C.; von Keyserlingk, Marina A. G.; Hötzel, Maria J.; Weary, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Rodents and primates deprived of early social contact exhibit deficits in learning and behavioural flexibility. They often also exhibit apparent signs of elevated anxiety, although the relationship between these effects has not been studied. To investigate whether dairy calves are similarly affected, we first compared calves housed in standard individual pens (n = 7) to those housed in a dynamic group with access to their mothers (n = 8). All calves learned to approach the correct stimulus in a visual discrimination task. Only one individually housed calf was able to re-learn the task when the stimuli were reversed, compared to all but one calf from the group. A second experiment investigated whether this effect might be explained by anxiety in individually housed animals interfering with their learning, and tested varying degrees of social contact in addition to the complex group: pair housing beginning early (approximately 6 days old) and late (6 weeks old). Again, fewer individually reared calves learned the reversal task (2 of 10 or 20%) compared to early paired and grouped calves (16 of 21 or 76% of calves). Late paired calves had intermediate success. Individually housed calves were slower to touch novel objects, but the magnitude of the fear response did not correlate with reversal performance. We conclude that individually housed calves have learning deficits, but these deficits were not likely associated with increased anxiety. PMID:26274583

  9. Reticulo-rumen temperature as a predictor of calving time in primiparous and parous Holstein females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J B G; Ahola, J K; Weller, Z D; Peel, R K; Whittier, J C; Barcellos, J O J

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this research was to define and analyze drops in reticulo-rumen temperature (Trr) as an indicator of calving time in Holstein females. Data were collected from 111 primiparous and 150 parous Holstein females between November 2012 and March 2013. Between -15 and -5 d relative to anticipated calving date, each female received an orally administered temperature sensing reticulo-rumen bolus that collected temperatures hourly. Daily mean Trr was calculated from d -5 to 0 relative to using all Trr values (A-Trr) or only Trr values ≥37.7°C (W-Trr) not altered by water intake. To identify a Trr drop, 2 methodologies for computing the baseline temperature were used. Generalized linear models (GLM) were used to estimate the probability of calving within the next 12 or 24 h for primiparous, parous, and all females, based on the size of the Trr drop. For all GLM, a large drop in Trr corresponded with a large estimated probability of calving. The predictive power of the GLM was assessed using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The ROC curve analyses showed that all models, regardless of methodology in calculation of the baseline or tested category (primiparous or parous), were able to predict calving; however, area under the ROC curve values, an indication of prediction quality, were greater for methods predicting calving within 24 h. Further comparisons between GLM for primiparous and parous, and using baseline 1 and 2, provide insight on the differences in predictive performance. Based on the GLM, Trr drops of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4°C were identified as useful indicators of parturition and further analyzed using sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratios. Based on sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratios, the best indicator of calving was an average Trr drop ≥0.2°C, regardless of methodology used to compute the baseline or category of animal evaluated. PMID:27060819

  10. Effects of forage provision to young calves on rumen fermentation and development of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, L; Bach, A; Aris, A; Terré, M

    2013-08-01

    Fifteen Holstein male calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments according to age and body weight (BW) to determine the effects of feeding different forages sources on rumen fermentation and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development. Treatments consisted of a starter (20% crude protein, 21% neutral detergent fiber) fed alone (CON) or supplemented with alfalfa (AH) or with oat hay (OH). All calves received 2L of milk replacer (MR) at 12.5% dry matter twice daily until 49 d of age. Calves received 2L of the same MR from 50 to 56 d of age and were weaned at 57 d of age. Individual starter, forage, and MR intakes were recorded daily and BW was recorded weekly. A rumen sample was taken weekly to determine rumen pH and volatile fatty acid concentrations. Three weeks after weaning, animals were harvested and each anatomical part of the GIT was separated and weighed with and without contents. Rumen pH was lower in CON than in OH and AH calves. Furthermore, acetate proportion in the rumen liquid tended to be greater in AH than in CON and OH treatments. Total GIT weight, expressed as a percentage of BW, tended to be greater in AH compared with the other 2 treatments. Rumen tissue tended to weigh more in CON than in OH animals. Animals with access to forage tended to have a greater expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1 than CON calves. In conclusion, calves supplemented with oat hay have a better rumen environment than calves offered no forage and do not have an increased gut fill. PMID:23706491

  11. Instrumental objective measurement of veal calves carcass colour at slaughterhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Vandoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 6700 veal calves were used to compare the ability of chromameter CR300 in measuring the veal meat colour on-line at slaughterhouse and to develop a prediction equation of colour score based on relationship between instrumental and visual assessments. A total of 5000 carcasses were used to develop equation of prediction while 1700 were used to test it. The meat colour was assessed subjectively in 3 different slaughterhouses by the slaughterhouse’s judges 10h post mortem and objectively by chromameter CR300 45 post mortem on the Rectus abdominis. The prediction equation classified correctly 79% of carcasses and was characterized by an R2 of 78%. Furthermore it has to be underlined that the chroma contributes to the total R2 with a 0.21 partial R2. This data confirmed that chromameter CR300 can be used on-line to measure objectively veal meat colour at the end of the slaughter line.

  12. Congenital anemia, dyskeratosis, and progressive alopecia in Polled Hereford calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, D J; Leipold, H W; Gibb, J; Smith, J E

    1991-05-01

    A new syndrome of anemia, alopecia, and dyskeratosis was identified in Polled Hereford calves in this study. Cutaneous changes included hyperkeratosis and hair loss around the muzzle and ear margins, which progressed to a generalized alopecia and hyperkeratotic dermatitis. Histologically, orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis with dyskeratosis of epidermal and follicular keratinocytes was present. Alopecia was correlated with dyskeratosis of Huxley's layer and an increasing proportion of follicles in the telogen phase of the hair cycle. Dermatitis was characterized by a mild dermal mononuclear cell infiltrate and mild lymphocytic perivascular dermatitis. The anemia present at birth was nonprogressive and was classified as normochromic and normocytic to macrocytic. Reticulocytosis was absent, but bone marrow was markedly hyperplastic. Nuclear cytoplasmic asynchrony of the rubricyte and metarubricyte stages occurred in the bone marrow. Abnormal rubricyte nuclei and maturation arrest at the late rubricyte stage were common. Cytologic features of the erythroid series are similar to those of type I congenital dyserythropoietic anemia of human beings. Genealogic features suggest that this is a primary hereditary defect. The mode of inheritance, however, remains to be determined. PMID:1858254

  13. Radiologic diagnosis of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and conventional radiography in two planes are considered the most important methods of investigation for early diagnosis and for assessment of the course of the disease. MRI can reveal the early marrow oedema, thus allowing early differential diagnosis against diseases that are similar in clinical appearance (coxitis fugax, epiphyseal dysplasia). The extent of the necrotica area within the epiphysis, the most important indicator of the prognosis of the disease and thus for the therapeutic management, can be assessed earlier and more reliably with MRI than with other techniques. The loss of containment can be visualized by MRI, because depiction of the cartilaginous structures is possible earlier than with conventional radiography. Staging of LCPD is also possible with MRI, especially in stages I and II. Radiography shows the reossification and the osseous remodelling of the epiphysis better. A disadvantage of MRI seems to be the occasional need for sedation or anaesthesia of the child to avoid motion artefacts. (orig.)

  14. MR manifestation of Legg-Calve'-Perthes disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the role of MR in the examination of Legg-Calve'-Perthes(LCP) disease, we retrospective analysed the signal intensity of the osseous lesion, thickness of the articular cartilage, change of surrounding soft tissue, joint effusion and femoral head containment in 32 cases of LCP diseases in 27 patients. The bony lesion was limited within the epiphysis in 19 case(59%) and extended to the physis and myopathies in 13 cases(41%). The epiphyseal lesion showed homogeneous(26/32) or heterogeneous(6/32) low signal intensity(SI) on T1-weighted images (T1WI), and homogeneous(16/28) or heterogeneous(12/28) low SI on T2-weighted images(T2WI). The metaphyseal lesion showed low SI(13/13) on T1WI, and low(9/11) or iso(3/11) SI on T2WI. Associated metaphseal cyst showed low SI on T1WI and high SI on T2 WI. An althought physeal involvement(13/32) was indistinct, the lesion showed increased SI on both T1 and T2WI. Thickening of articular cartilage(32/32), swelling of the ligamentum teres(7/32), synovial hypertrophy(7/32) and joint effusion(27/32) were demonstrated. Lateral subluxation of the femoral head on coronal image indicated incongruity of the femoral head in 25 case(78%). We conclude that MR is an useful tool for the diagnosis as well as treatment planning in LCP disease

  15. Serum calcium and magnesium level in dairy cows at calving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Pulimeno

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk fever and hypocalcaemia are post-partum metabolic diseases affecting about 6% of dairy cows and are due to a fail of the homeostatic metabolism regulating the calcium blood level around 9 and 10mg/100mL. The calcium drainage to the mammary gland along with the reduced capacity of the animal to mobilize calcium from bone reserve lead to a drop of the calcium blood level under 5-6mg/100mL with paresis like clinical symptoms known as milk fever. The incidence of the clinical milk fever is low, however the occurrence of mild hypocalcaemia (subclinical could be as high as 15- 20% within few days after calving, particularly in multiparous cows. The hypocalcaemia status as for the reduced bone calcium mobilization and intestinal absorption leads to reduced feed intake and make it a good start for ketosis, retained placenta, displaced abomasums and mastitis problems (Beede, 1991. The acid-base balance of the cow in the late pregnancy is determinant for hypocalcaemia............

  16. Reproductive rates, birth weight, calving ease and 24-h calf survival in a four-breed diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, J W; Bertrand, J K; Benyshek, L L; Johnson, M H

    1987-01-01

    Calving and weaning rates, birth weight, calving ease, and 24-h calf survival were evaluated in a four-breed diallel of Simmental (S), Limousin (L), Polled Hereford (H) and Brahman (B) beef cattle in five calf crops. Limousin dams tended to have the highest calving and weaning rates because they were able to have heavier calves with less calving difficulty and higher survival rates. Brahman-sired calves were the heaviest at birth (P less than .05) and B dams produced the lightest calves (P less than .001). Lower birth weights tended to be the limiting factor on survival of these calves. A linear comparison among means to evaluate purebred, additive, maternal and specific combining ability effects showed most of the reduction in birth weight from B dams was due to maternal effects. Breed of dam accounted for a higher proportion of variation in calving ease than did sire breed. Simmental sires had significantly heavier calves at birth and S and H dams tended to have more calving difficulty and lower survival rates. Heterosis for these traits was generally not significant. Correlations were generally positive and significant for birth weight and calving ease, but were more variable for birth weight and survival. Linear regressions of calving ease on birth weight both within years and within dam-breed-year subclasses were very similar in that the association of these two traits was reduced as dam age increased. PMID:3818492

  17. The effect of parturition induction treatment on interval to calving, calving ease, postpartum uterine health, and resumption of ovarian cyclicity in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šavc, Miha; Kenny, David A; Beltman, Marijke E

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two parturition induction protocols with a nontreated control group, on interval to calving, calving ease, postpartum uterine health, and ovarian cyclicity in beef heifers. At Day 285 of gestation, 81 crossbred recipient beef heifers carrying purebred Simmental fetuses, were blocked by live-weight, body condition score, expected calving date and fetal sex, and assigned to one of three groups: (1) control (CON; no induction treatment, n = 29); (2) induction with corticosteroids (CORT; n = 27); or (3) induction with corticosteroids plus prostaglandin (CORT + PG; n = 25). Interval from induction to calving in hours and calving ease on a scale of 1 to 5 were recorded. Vaginal mucus samples were collected on Day 21 and Day 42 after calving (Day 0) by means of a Metricheck and scored on a scale of 0 to 3. Reproductive tract examinations were conducted on Day 21 and Day 42 after calving, and uterine cytology samples were obtained on Day 21. A positive cytologic sample was defined as greater than 18% neutrophils in the sample obtained via a cytobrush technique. Cows were considered to have resumed ovarian cyclicity if the presence of the CL was confirmed. Data were analyzed using the Mixed (normally distributed data) and Genmod (nonparametric data) procedures of SAS (v. 9.3). The interval from treatment to calving was longer (P < 0.0001) for CON (161.9 ± 15.12 hours) animals compared with CORT (39.7 ± 11.64 hours) or CORT + PG (32.6 ± 12.10 hours), which did not differ. Treatment did not affect calving difficulty score. There was also no difference in incidence of retained placenta between the three groups. At Day 21 postpartum, cytology score tended to be higher for both induced groups (48%) compared with the control animals (24%), but this was not the case for vaginal mucus score (CON 52%, CORT 70%, and CORT + PG 52%). A higher proportion of CON had an involuted uterus by Day 21 postpartum (69

  18. Short communication: analysis of health and survival in a population of Ontario Holstein heifer calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorquodale, C E; Sewalem, A; Miglior, F; Kelton, D; Robinson, A; Koeck, A; Leslie, K E

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate health and survival in heifer calves, from 16 farms in southwestern Ontario. Research technicians visited the farms on a weekly schedule for 16 mo, starting in January 2008, and collected blood samples and various measurements to determine the overall health status of the calves. Data of 1,588 Holstein heifer calves from birth until 90 to 120 d of age were analyzed. Initially, a survival analysis was carried out to determine which factors surrounding birth increased a calf's risk of mortality. The factors examined were type of birth, calving ease, season of birth, serum total protein, weight during first week of life, treatment status during first week of life, total number of treatments, and bovine respiratory disease status. In general, calves born in fall (October-December), low serum total protein, low weight, and calves treated for illness during the first week of life, increasing number of treatments, and being treated for bovine respiratory disease all increased a calf's risk of mortality. Genetic parameters for requiring treatment for illness, survival, bovine respiratory disease, other diseases, height, and weight were estimated. Heritabilities for treatment, survival, and diseases were low, ranging from 0.04 to 0.07, and were not significant. Moderate and significant heritabilities were found for height (0.33 to 0.45) and weight (0.24 to 0.44). Treatment and survival to 90 to 120 d of age were favorably correlated, indicating that calves requiring less treatment have a higher survival rate and vice versa. Further, body weight was found to have a tendency of favorable genetic correlation (-0.22 to -0.53) with treatment for diseases, indicating that calves with higher body weight in their first month of life were genetically more resistant to diseases than those with average body weight. Overall, our results show the potential of using data on calfhood disease and survival in future dairy cattle breeding

  19. Changes in biochemical analytes in calves infected by nematode parasites in field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cezaro, Marcela C; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Tecles, Fernando; Céron, José J; Eckersall, David P; Ferreira, João C P; Schmidt, Elizabeth M S

    2016-03-30

    Parasitic infections caused by nematodes are a major problem in bovines that resulting in losses in animal health and production. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate alterations in selected serum biochemical analytes in calves naturally infected with gastrointestinal (GI) and pulmonary nematodes without clinical signs. For this, samples of feces and blood of 86 calves were collected. Fecal egg counts (FEC) were determined using the modified McMaster technique with a sensitivity of 50 eggs per gram of feces (EPG). Positive nematode FEC was processed for coproculture using pooled samples to identify Strongylidae infective larvae (L3). First stage-larvae (L1) of Dictyocaulus viviparous were identified by a modified Baermann method. The biochemical analytes determined were: acute phase proteins such as haptoglobin and paraoxonase type 1; the enzymes acetylcholinesterase; butyrylcholinesterase; the lipid profile (triglycerides and total, HDL, and LDL-cholesterol); serum iron profile (iron and unsaturated iron-binding capacity); total protein and albumin; pancreatic profile (amylase and lipase); and minerals (phosphorus and calcium). The calves were divided into four groups according to the results of EPG and the modified Baermann method. Group 1: healthy control animals (n=16); Group 2: calves with only GI parasites (n=51): This group was sub-divided into sub-groups according to the EPG threshold: 2a-GI parasites with low EPG (n=23), and 2b-GI parasites with high EPG (n=28). Group 3: animals with only lungworms (n=5), and Group 4: calves with lung+GI parasites (n=14). The more prevalent genera in all coprocultures were: Cooperia spp., Haemonchus spp., Oesophagostomum spp., and Trichostrongylus spp. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the groups and Dunn's post-test was used for multiple comparisons as the data was not normally distributed (Pacetylcholinesterase was observed in calves infected with lungworms. Cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL

  20. Feeding a higher plane of nutrition and providing exogenous estrogen increases mammary gland development in Holstein heifer calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, A J; Parsons, C L M; Akers, R M

    2016-09-01

    Feeding heifers a higher plane of nutrition postweaning but before puberty can negatively affect mammary gland development and future milk yield. However, enhanced nutrition preweaning may promote development and future production. Our objectives were to determine the effects of enhanced feeding preweaning and exogenous estrogen immediately postweaning on mammary gland development and the composition of the mammary parenchyma (PAR) and mammary fat pad (MFP). Thirty-six Holstein heifer calves (water. Starter feeding began at wk 5 and was balanced between treatments. Udders were evaluated by palpation and physical measurements weekly. Subsets of calves were killed at weaning (n=6 per diet) and at the conclusion of the trial (n=6 per treatment). Udders were removed, dissected, and weighed. At wk 8, EH calves had longer front and rear teats. Providing estrogen to EH calves increased the length of rear teats during wk 9 and 10. Enhanced-fed calves had 5.2-fold more trimmed mammary gland mass than R calves. Providing estrogen to EH calves further increased mammary gland weight. Masses of PAR and MFP were markedly greater for EH calves than for R calves (e.g., 7.3-fold greater PAR tissue). Estrogen increased the mass of both PAR and MFP in EH calves. Feeding a higher plane of nutrition increased total protein, DNA, and fat in the MFP and total protein and DNA in the PAR. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry estimates of mammary fat mass were highly correlated with biochemical analyses of fat content. From histological study, we observed that the degree of expansion of epithelium into the adjacent stromal tissue and the complexity of ductal development were minimal in R, increased in EH, and increased by estrogen in both dietary treatments. Results provide compelling evidence that preweaning nutrition and estrogen administration immediately postweaning markedly increase mammary gland development in dairy calves. Cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for these

  1. Multilocus genotyping of Giardia duodenalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in dairy and native beef (Qinchuan) calves in Shaanxi province, northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X T; Wang, R J; Ren, G J; Yu, Z Q; Zhang, L X; Zhang, S Y; Lu, H; Peng, X Q; Zhao, G H

    2016-03-01

    Giardia duodenalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are two common protozoa that parasitize the intestinal epithelium of animals and humans. Calves have been identified as important reservoirs of these two pathogens, but limited data is available for these two pathogens in calves in China. In the present study, the prevalence and assemblages/genotypes of both parasites in calves of dairy and native beef (Qinchuan) cattle in Shaanxi province, northwestern China, were analyzed using multilocus genotyping (MLST). Of 371 fecal samples collected from calves (including 198 dairy calves and 173 Qinchuan calves), the respective overall prevalence of G. duodenalis and E. bieneusi was 18.87 (70 of 371) and 19.68 % (73 of 371). Both the zoonotic G. duodenalis assemblage A and animal adapted assemblage E were found in dairy and Qinchuan calves. Seventeen, eight, five, and two G. duodenalis subtypes were detected at the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), β-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) loci, with five and two novel subtypes detected at the tpi and bg loci, forming 25 multiple genotypes (MLGs) (15 and 11 in dairy and Qinchuan calves, respectively). Of 73 samples that were positive for E. bieneusi at the ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) locus, five ITS genotypes were found, including three known zoonotic genotypes (I, J, CHN1) and two novel genotypes (CSX1 and CSX2). MLST analysis of three microsatellite loci (MS1, MS3, MS7) and one minisatellite locus (MS4) detected six, two, two, and two genotypes at the MS1, MS3, MS4, and MS7 loci, respectively, forming ten MLGs (seven and four in dairy and Qinchuan calves, respectively). These results indicate complex population structures of G. duodenalis and E. bieneusi in calves in Shaanxi province and the zoonotic potential of these two pathogens in calves in this province. PMID:26782809

  2. Lying behaviour and IgG-levels of newborn calves after feeding colostrum via tube and nipple bottle feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonk, Stephanie; Nadalin, Audrey; Heuwieser, Wolfgang; Veira, Douglas

    2016-08-01

    Oesophageal tube feeding colostrum is used to ensure sufficient colostrum intake in newborn calves but the impact of tube feeding on animal behaviour is unclear. Therefore the objective of this study was to compare lying behaviour of tube-fed or bottle-fed dairy calves. Calves (n = 37) in 3 groups were offered 3·5 l colostrum 2 h after birth. Calves of the bottle group were fed with a nipple bottle. Calves of the placebo tubing group were tubed for 4 min but no colostrum was given and they were then fed with a nipple bottle. Calves of the tubing group received 3·5 l colostrum via tube feeding. Consumed amount of bottle and placebo tubing calves was recorded. If they refused some of the offered 3·5 l the rest was offered in a second feeding 2 h later. Lying behaviour was measured by data loggers fitted to right hind leg for 3 d. Blood samples were taken 24 h after birth for determination of IgG concentration. The voluntary colostrum intake differed significantly between bottle-fed and placebo tubed calves at first feeding. Considering both colostrum feedings, bottle-fed calves consumed 3·44 ± 0·14 l and placebo tubed calves consumed 3·20 ± 0·38 l colostrum. ImmunoglobulinG intake (255·6 ± 77·5 g IgG), serum IgG concentration 24 h after birth (22·8 ± 6·7 g/l) and total serum protein concentration (6·1 ± 0·6 g/dl) did not differ between groups. None of the calves had a failure of passive transfer. There was no effect of tubing on lying behaviour. PMID:27600963

  3. [Feeding of milk from cows with diseased udders to calves from the viewpoint of public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hässig, M

    1999-01-01

    Milk that cannot be brought to the market is often given to calves. While some authors recommend avoidance of the feeding of such milk, others do not see problems related to their use if this milk is treated and supplemented correctly. When altered milk is fed, the producer of calves is responsible for the risk that the calf could contract a disease and to a lesser extent that the health of the consumer of veal could be endangered. Because the owner of the calves is responsible for the risk associated with the feeding of altered milk, he should be informed on the danger and consequences. The consumer whose wishes control the market wants a product that is free from bacteria and drugs. Therefore, the necessity exists for the implementation of similar withdrawal times for the use of altered milk in calves. Two questions related to public health are asked to the veterinarians:how long the flora of the gastrointestinal tract of the calf remains affected after feeding of altered milk and how long antimicrobials can be detected in the edible tissues of the calves? If these questions are answered, guidelines for the use of mastitis milk could be used. PMID:10095367

  4. Invited review: Influence of climatic conditions on the development, performance, and health of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, L; Drillich, M; Klein-Jöbstl, D; Iwersen, M

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this review is to provide the reader with an overview of thermoregulatory mechanisms and the influence of climatic conditions in different housing systems on the development, performance, and health of calves. Thermic stress is observed in association with extreme temperatures and large temperature variations, but other variables such as relative humidity and wind speed can also contribute to thermic stress. Thermoregulation in calves is similar to that in adult cattle, but especially dystocial calves are more prone to heat loss. Heat or cold stress results in direct economic losses because of increased calf mortality and morbidity, as well as indirect costs caused by reduced weight gain, performance, and long-term survival. The climatic conditions in a variety of housing systems, associated health problems, and strategies to mitigate thermic stress are discussed in this review. The goal of housing is to alleviate the effect of climate on calves and provide a microclimate. Adequate ventilation with fresh air is essential to reduce respiratory disease. Common practices such as raising calves in individual outdoor enclosures have been challenged lately. Recent research seeks to evaluate the suitability of group housing under practical, economic, and animal welfare considerations. Limited results for reducing thermic stress can be achieved by simple measures such as shades or shelter, but additional heat or cold stress relieving strategies can be required depending on the housing system. PMID:26874416

  5. Rearing of Meat Breed Calves in the System Without Commercial Milk Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Java Voříšková

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article the results of rearing purebred meat breeds of cattle in the system without commercial milk production on a private farm situated at the foot of the mountains in South Bohemia are shown. The herd of dams consisted of 149 pcs. of the breed Charolaise (CH, Meat Simmental (MS, Blonde d´Aquitaine (BA, Limousine (LI and Belgian Blue (BM. The average age at first calving was the lowest in the breed MS (941 days and the highest in the breed CH (1087 days. The average length of the Between-calving interval of the herd was 442.6 days. The highest birth weight was achieved by the calves of the breed BA (51.2 kg and the lowest by the breed MS (42.4 kg at P≤0.001. At the age of 120 and 210 days the highest live weight was proved in the breed CH (193.8 kg resp. 316.5 kg. The calves of the breed ET showed a significantly higher live weight only in the age of 120 days (difference of 12.8 kg at P≤0.01. The influence of bulls on the growth parameters of calves was proved within the breed CH in live weight at the age of 210 days.

  6. Screening of species-specific lactic acid bacteria for veal calves multi-strain probiotic adjuncts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, Barbara; Agazzi, Alessandro; Bersani, Carla; De Dea, Paola; Pecorini, Chiara; Pirani, Silvia; Rebucci, Raffaella; Savoini, Giovanni; Stella, Simone; Stenico, Alberta; Tirloni, Erica; Domeneghini, Cinzia

    2011-06-01

    The selection of promising specific species of lactic acid bacteria with potential probiotic characteristics is of particular interest in producing multi species-specific probiotic adjuncts in veal calves rearing. The aim of the present work was to select and evaluate in vitro the functional activity of lactic acid bacteria, Bifidobacterium longum and Bacillus coagulans strains isolated from veal calves in order to assess their potential use as multi species-specific probiotics for veal calves. For this purpose, bacterial strains isolated from faeces collected from 40 healthy 50-day-calves, were identified by RiboPrinter and 16s rRNA gene sequence. The most frequent strains belonged to the species B. longum, Streptococcus bovis, Lactobacillus animalis and Streptococcus macedonicus. Among these, 7 strains were chosen for testing their probiotic characteristics in vitro. Three strains, namely L. animalis SB310, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei SB137 and B. coagulans SB117 showed varying individual but promising capabilities to survive in the gastrointestinal tract, to adhere, to produce antimicrobial compounds. These three selected species-specific bacteria demonstrated in vitro, both singularly and mixed, the functional properties needed for their use as potential probiotics in veal calves. PMID:21619939

  7. Serum protein concentrations, including acute phase proteins, in calves experimentally infected with Salmonella Dublin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gomes da Silva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate serum protein concentrations in calves experimentally inoculated with Salmonella Dublin. Twelve healthy 10 to 15-day-old Holstein calves were randomly allotted into two groups, control and infected with 10(8 CFU of Salmonella Dublin orally. The calves were subjected to physical evaluation and blood samples were collected shortly before administration of the bacteria and also 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 168 hours post-infection. The concentration of serum proteins was determined through sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Thirty serum proteins ranging from molecular weight of 24,000 Da to molecular weight of 236,000 Da were detected. Serum concentrations of ceruloplasmin (125,000 Da, haptoglobin (45,000 Da, acid glycoprotein (40,000 Da and a 34,000 Da protein were significantly increased in the experimentally infected calves, when compared with their concentrations in the control animals. Therefore, this study showed that S. Dublin infection could lead to the increase of certain serum proteins in calves.

  8. An experimental vaccine composed of two adjuvants gives protection against Mycoplasma bovis in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Katarzyna; Bednarek, Dariusz; Ayling, Roger D; Kycko, Anna; Szacawa, Ewelina; Karpińska, Teresa A

    2016-06-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a major pathogen affecting cattle causing bronchopneumonia, mastitis, and other disorders. Only autogenous vaccines made specifically for individual farms are available in parts of Europe and the United States. A novel experimental vaccine composed of a field M. bovis isolate combined with saponin and Emulsigen(®) adjuvants was evaluated. Eighteen 3-4 week old calves were placed in three equal groups: vaccinated (Vac), positive control (PC) and negative control (NC). The Vac calves were subcutaneously injected with 8ml of the vaccine; the PC and NC calves received phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Three weeks later the Vac and PC calves were challenged with a virulent M. bovis strain, the NC group received PBS. Throughout the study clinical observations, microbiology and immunological tests were carried out. Three weeks post challenge two calves from each group were euthanased for necropsy and histopathological examination. The vaccine effectively stimulated the humoral immune response, with high titres of anti-M. bovis specific antibodies and total Ig concentration. This vaccine also intensified the IgA response. A clinically protective effect of the vaccine was demonstrated as it also reduced the gross pathological lung lesions and nasal shedding of M. bovis. PMID:27156637

  9. Growth performances of F1 Angus Plus calves grazing on pasture in Hawaii's tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Ferreira, R; Duponte, M W; Fukumoto, G K; Zhao, B

    2009-04-01

    Angus Plus cattle offer advantages for heat tolerance and forage utilization by introduction of Brangus and Brahman to Angus. To evaluate its adaptability in Hawaii Islands, we reported the growth performances of 213 F1 Angus Plus calve grazing on pasture. Least-square means of pre-weaning ADG ranged from 1,087 to 1,167 g in bull calves and from 1,030 to 1,048 g in heifer calves. The 205 d-adjusted weaning weight were 226 to 285 kg in bulls and 214 to 252 kg in heifers. The birth weight and hip height at birth were significantly correlated with weaning weight, 205 d-adjusted weaning weight, hip height at weaning and pre-weaning ADG (P < 0.01). Sire group significantly influenced pre-weaning growth performances through interaction with sex of calf. Bull calves from sire group of high growth were 1.0-3.8 kg heavier in birth weight than the bull calves from other sires (P < 0.001). Sire group x sex interaction was significant (P < 0.05) for calf birth weight, 205-d adjusted weaning weight and pre-weaning ADG. Sire group also played a significant role in hip height at birth (P < 0.05). Selections of the sires preferable for growth significantly improved calf pre-weaning growth performances. PMID:18759132

  10. Breed effects and genetic parameter estimates for calving difficulty and birth weight in a multibreed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, C M; Kuehn, L A; Thallman, R M; Kachman, S D; Snelling, W M; Spangler, M L

    2016-05-01

    Birth weight (BWT) and calving difficulty (CD) were recorded on 4,579 first-parity females from the Germplasm Evaluation Program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC). Both traits were analyzed using a bivariate animal model with direct and maternal effects. Calving difficulty was transformed from the USMARC scores to corresponding -scores from the standard normal distribution based on the incidence rate of the USMARC scores. Breed fraction covariates were included to estimate breed differences. Heritability estimates (SE) for BWT direct, CD direct, BWT maternal, and CD maternal were 0.34 (0.10), 0.29 (0.10), 0.15 (0.08), and 0.13 (0.08), respectively. Calving difficulty direct breed effects deviated from Angus ranged from -0.13 to 0.77 and maternal breed effects deviated from Angus ranged from -0.27 to 0.36. Hereford-, Angus-, Gelbvieh-, and Brangus-sired calves would be the least likely to require assistance at birth, whereas Chiangus-, Charolais-, and Limousin-sired calves would be the most likely to require assistance at birth. Maternal breed effects for CD were least for Simmental and Charolais and greatest for Red Angus and Chiangus. Results showed that the diverse biological types of cattle have different effects on both BWT and CD. Furthermore, results provide a mechanism whereby beef cattle producers can compare EBV for CD direct and maternal arising from disjoined and breed-specific genetic evaluations. PMID:27285683

  11. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae isolated from gull-inflicted wounds in southern right whale calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorito, Carla D; Bentancor, Adriana; Lombardo, Daniel; Bertellotti, Marcelo

    2016-08-31

    Southern right whales Eubalaena australis from Peninsula Valdés, Argentina, show wounds produced by kelp gulls Larus dominicanus that feed on the whales' dorsal skin and blubber. During the 2013 whale season, several calves were reported showing kelp gull injuries with a swollen area surrounded by rhomboid-shaped raised edges. Samples from 9 calves were taken in order to establish the etiology of these rhomboid-shaped wounds; 2 calves (one living, one dead) showed gull-inflicted injuries with rhomboid-shaped edges. Samples from the dead calf were histologically characterized by the presence of dermal congestion, suppurative dermatitis and panniculitis, necrotizing vasculitis and vascular thrombosis. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae was detected by culture and PCR in samples from both calves. In this study we report, for the first time to our knowledge, the isolation of E. rhusiopathiae from wounds produced by gull attacks on southern right whale calves, supplying evidence that these wounds may act as an entry route for pathogens. This work provides new information about the consequences of gull-inflicted injuries for whale health. PMID:27596861

  12. Tracking the Development of Muscular Myoglobin Stores in Mysticete Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Rachel; Newton, Cori; West, Kristi M; Rice, Jim; Niemeyer, Misty; Burek, Kathryn; Wilson, Andrew; Wall, Alison N; Remonida-Bennett, Jean; Tejeda, Areli; Messi, Sarah; Marcial-Hernandez, Lila

    2016-01-01

    For marine mammals, the ability to tolerate apnea and make extended dives is a defining adaptive trait, facilitating the exploitation of marine food resources. Elevated levels of myoglobin within the muscles are a consistent hallmark of this trait, allowing oxygen collected at the surface to be stored in the muscles and subsequently used to support extended dives. In mysticetes, the largest of marine predators, details on muscular myoglobin levels are limited. The developmental trajectory of muscular myoglobin stores has yet to be documented and any physiological links between early behavior and the development of muscular myoglobin stores remain unknown. In this study, we used muscle tissue samples from stranded mysticetes to investigate these issues. Samples from three different age cohorts and three species of mysticetes were included (total sample size = 18). Results indicate that in mysticete calves, muscle myoglobin stores comprise only a small percentage (17-23%) of conspecific adult myoglobin complements. Development of elevated myoglobin levels is protracted over the course of extended maturation in mysticetes. Additionally, comparisons of myoglobin levels between and within muscles, along with details of interspecific differences in rates of accumulation of myoglobin in very young mysticetes, suggest that levels of exercise may influence the rate of development of myoglobin stores in young mysticetes. This new information infers a close interplay between the physiology, ontogeny and early life history of young mysticetes and provides new insight into the pressures that may shape adaptive strategies in migratory mysticetes. Furthermore, the study highlights the vulnerability of specific age cohorts to impending changes in the availability of foraging habitat and marine resources. PMID:26788728

  13. The effects of social contact and milk allowance on responses to handling, play, and social behavior in young dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duve, Linda Rosager; Weary, D.M.; Halekoh, Ulrich; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of social contact and milk allowance on social behavior, play behavior, and responses to handling in dairy calves. Forty test calves and 16 companion calves were allocated to 1 of 5 treatments from birth to 4 wk of age: (1) housed singly and fed...... 5 L of milk/d; (2) housed singly and fed 9 L of milk/d; (3) housed in pairs and fed 5 L of milk/d; (4) housed in pairs and fed 9 L of milk/d; or (5) kept with the dam and fed 9 L of milk/d. From 4 to 6 wk of age, all calves were offered 5 L of milk/d to promote intake of solid feed before weaning...... the dam, and pair-housed calves struggled at an intermediate level. Play behavior was recorded for 20 min/wk after the provision of fresh straw; calves housed singly and fed a low milk allowance spent less time playing than did calves in all other treatments. Three days after grouping, calves were...

  14. Effects of supplementation level and particle size of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirzaei, M.; Khorvash, M.; Ghorbani, G.R.; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M.; Riasi, A.; Nabipour, A.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of particle size (PS) of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves at two levels of alfalfa supplementation. Fifty newborn dairy calves (42.7 ± 2.2 kg BW) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors sup

  15. Experimental selection for calving ease and postnatal growth in seven cattle populations. I. Changes in estimated breeding values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experimental selection was used to create beef cattle lines with similar yearling weight direct and weaning weight maternal EBV and either lower 2-yr-old heifer calving difficulty score EBV or proportionally average birth weight EBV. Select (low heifer calving difficulty score EBV) and control line...

  16. The effects of dexamethasone administration and E. bovis challenge on fecal oocyst count and immune function in weaned beef calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stressful events are believed to predispose beef calves to clinical coccidiosis. Previous studies aimed at reproducing stress-induced coccidiosis have been unsuccessful. No study has simultaneously subjected calves to stress and Eimeria challenge. Our initial goal was to develop a model of stress...

  17. Characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus isolates resistant to a novel antiviral compound obtained from persistently infected calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to characterize isolates resistant to a novel antiviral compound (DB772) isolated from persistently infected (PI) calves treated with the compound. Viral isolates were obtained from four Angus-cross beef calves (A,B,C,D) persistently infected with BVDV type 1 or 2 ...

  18. Bronchoalveolar lavage of cranial and caudal lung regions in selected normal calves: cellular, microbiological, immunoglobulin, serological and histological variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, J K; Viel, L; Shewen, P E; Willoughby, R A; Martin, S W; Valli, V E

    1988-01-01

    Of a group of 30 clinically normal male Holstein calves two to eight weeks of age, six two week old and six four week old calves met various radiographical and clinicopathological criteria for normality. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy on cranial and caudal lung regions in all 30 calves and samples analyzed for free cells, microorganisms, and immunoglobulins. Lateral chest radiographs and lung biopsies were also conducted on each calf. Calves were euthanized and necropsied ten days after bronchoalveolar lavage was conducted. Reported in this paper are results from the 12 normal calves. Microorganisms were present in small numbers in the lower respiratory tract of some normal calves. There were no differences in the above parameters between cranial and caudal lobes. There were statistically significant changes in bronchoalveolar lavage cell proportions with age although there were no detectable differences in clinical signs. Four week old calves had a lower percentage of macrophages and a higher percentage of epithelial cells than two week old animals (p less than 0.05). There was also a trend toward an increased percentage of neutrophils in older calves but this was not significant (p greater than 0.05). Total bronchoalveolar lavage protein also appeared to increase with age (p less than 0.05). In both groups a higher proportion of IgG2 in bronchoalveolar lavage compared to serum was found, suggesting the presence of a local selective transfer mechanism into respiratory secretions. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:3370559

  19. Effects of hunger level and tube diameter on thefeeding behavior of teat-fed dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Mette S; Skjøth, Flemming; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2010-01-01

    via esophageal tube before feeding; increased, in which calves were fed half milk ration at the previous feeding, or control, in which calves were fed normal ration at the previous feeding) on feeding behavior of calves fed via different tube diameters (6.0, 3.0, or 1.5 mm). Behavior observed during a...... 40-min period after morning milk feeding on d 7, 9, and 11 of testing is reported. No significant interactions between tube diameter and hunger level on behavior were found. Reduced tube diameter led to increased latency to empty the teat bucket, increased duration of nutritive sucking, and decreased...... sucking and butting when hunger was increased. The results suggest that nonnutritive sucking is a more sensitive indicator than drinking rate of changes in feeding motivation. Consequently, reduction in nonnutritive sucking might be a new candidate in the search for behavioral indicators of disease in...

  20. Concurrent Infestation of Buffalo Calves with Ctenocephalides felis strongylus and Piroplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Iqbal, Muhammad Sohail Sajid*, Muhammad Kasib Khan and Zeeshan Furhaad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present report describes four cases of Ctenocephalides felis strongylus infestation in buffalo calves of district Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan. The infested animals were suffering from pyrexia, alopecia, hyperkeratinization, accelerated pulse, tachypnea, depression, anemic mucous membranes and ataxia (n=3. Flea infestation was generalized with higher infestation in hairy areas of body especially legs, flank and mane. Microscopic examination of the peripheral blood revealed moderate (n=2 to high (n=2 numbers of piroplasms. All four calves were treated with ivermectin (Ivomec, Merial, France; 0.02mg/kg twice at 15 days intervals. The treated calves were found aparasitemic on day 10th post treatment. The three cases recovered in 10 days after completion of the second round of treatment. One calf died 8 days after second treatment on day 11. However, the vector role of Ctenocephalides felis strongylus may be better studied on conventional/ molecular grounds using salivary glands of the specimens.

  1. Lymphocyte alterations in zinc-deficient calves with lethal trait A46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, L E; Leach, D R; Davis, W C; Mickelsen, W D; Heller, S R; Ochs, H D; Ellis, J A; Brummerstedt, E

    1989-07-01

    Lymphocyte numbers and activities were evaluated at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of age in two calves with lethal trait A46 (A46), a genetic disorder affecting intestinal zinc absorption. Plasma zinc concentrations declined to subnormal by 3 weeks of age, after which anorexia, diarrhea, alopecia and hyperkeratosis occurred. Lymphocyte response to phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA), concanavalin A (Con A) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) stimulation was variably reduced. CD4+ T-lymphocytes were subnormal on at least one observation period following onset of zinc deficiency, and relative numbers of B lymphocytes were decreased at 8 weeks. Secondary antibody responses to bacteriophage phi X 174 were significantly reduced. The results demonstrate that calves homozygous for the A46 trait have normal numbers of functional lymphocyte subpopulations at birth, and that the activity of their lymphocytes is altered once the calves become zinc deficient. PMID:2800326

  2. Prevalence of gastrointestinal round worms in calves in Sokoto, northwestern, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Mahmuda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An investigation to determine the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal roundworms in calves in Sokoto metropolis was carried out. A total of 216 faecal samples from calves were examined using Modified McMaster technique for morphological egg differentiation and count of worm-egg per gram of faeces of the sampled calves. Positive samples were cultured to differentiate between morphologically indistinguishable nematode genera. An overall prevalence was found to be 133 (61.57%. Eight different nematode genera were identified with Cooperia spp being highest in prevalence (28.78% followed by Haemonchus spp (26.76% and the least was Toxocara spp (0.50%. The prevalence was generally higher in females (56.39% than in males (43.61%.

  3. The effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on pregnancy rates in reindeer calves (Rangifer tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Ropstad

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available In September 1990, a total of 69 calves with a minimum body weight of 46 kg were allocated into two groups, one treated with a single injection of 75 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (N = 35, the other serving as control (N=34. Blood samples were collected for progesterone analysis in December 1990 and 1991. Udder palpation was performed in July and September 1990. Treated animals had significantly lower plasma progesterone levels in December 1990. The pregnancy rate as determined by udder palpation was 16.7% for treated animals and 48.3% for controls (P<0.01. All animals which were found to be pregnant had high progesterone levels (>5 ng/ml the following winter. The mean body weight increase was 5.1 kg lower in females which kept their calves until September than in barren females (P<0.05. More than 50% of the pregnant females lost their calves during the summer.

  4. COMPARISONS OF FUNCTOINAL CAPACITIES OF BLOOD MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES (MNL) AND NEUTROPHILS (PMN) FROM CALVES AND HEIFERS VACCINATED WITH ATTENUATED MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS (BCG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development and modulation of immune competency in calves during the first months of life is not well described. The purpose of this study was to characterize age-related changes in the functional capacities of PMN and MNL populations from young calves. Milk replacer-fed calves were nonvaccinated ...

  5. Limited efficacy of Fever Tag® temperature sensing ear tags in calves with naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease or induced bovine viral diarrhea virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    McCorkell, Robert; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Windeyer, Claire; Schaefer, Al

    2014-01-01

    Temperature sensing ear tags were tested in 1) auction-derived calves with 50% incidence of bovine respiratory disease, and 2) specific pathogen-free calves infected with bovine virus diarrhea virus. There were no false positives, but tag placement, probe displacement, and a high threshold for activation all contributed to failure to reliably detect sick calves.

  6. Genotype x environment interactions for postweaning performance in crossbred calves grazing winter wheat pasture or dormant native prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W A; Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Coleman, S W

    2001-06-01

    Data from 403 calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows sired by Polled Hereford bulls were used to evaluate the impact of postweaning backgrounding forages on postweaning BW, gains, and carcass traits. Calves were born (spring of 1991 through 1994) and reared on either endophyte-infected tall fescue or common bermudagrass pastures. After weaning, calves were transported 360 km to the Grazinglands Research Laboratory, west of El Reno, OK, and, within breed and preweaning forage, were assigned to one of the following winter stocker treatments: 1) winter wheat pasture or 2) dormant native prairie plus supplemental CP. In March, winter stocker treatments were ended and calves were grazed as a single group on cool-season grasses until early July (1992, 1993, and 1994) or late May (1995), when the feedlot phase began. In the feedlot, calves were fed a high concentrate diet for an average of 120 d until a backfat thickness of > 10 mm was reached. Calves were shipped in truck load lots to Amarillo, TX (350 km), for processing and collection of carcass data. Averaged over calf breed group, calves wintered on wheat pasture gained faster (P < 0.01) during the stocker phase (0.71 vs 0.43 kg); had heavier (P < 0.01) final feedlot weights (535 vs 512 kg); lower feedlot (P < 0.01) ADG (1.37 vs 1.53 kg); heavier (P < 0.01) carcass weights (337 vs 315 kg); larger (P < 0.01) longissimus muscle (84.9 vs 81.8 cm2); higher percentage (P < 0.01) of kidney, heart, and pelvic fat (2.32 vs 2.26); and higher (P < 0.01) dressing percentage (62.2 vs 61.3) than calves backgrounded on native prairie. Maternal heterosis for stocker ADG was evident in calves backgrounded on native prairie but not on winter wheat (P < 0.10), but the two environments were similar in maternal heterosis for feedlot ADG and carcass traits. Calves wintered on native prairie were restricted in growth and expressed compensatory gain during the feedlot phase but not during the spring stocker phase. Dormant

  7. Prevalence of Locomotory System Disorders in Veal Calves and Risk Factors for Occurrence of Bursitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Brščić

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to assess the prevalence of locomotory system disorders within a wide cross-sectional study in 174 veal calves farms and to investigate risk factors associated to disorders with a relevant prevalence (>1%. A representative sample of the European veal production systems was considered in the three major producing countries (100 in NL, 50 in FR, 24 in IT. One batch/farm was observed in three stages of the fattening. At each visit calves with evidence of bursitis, hoof lesions, joint lesions, and lameness were recorded. A set of production system descriptors gathered by an interview to the farmer were considered as potential risks. Results showed an average prevalence ≤1% of calves for hoof and joint lesions, and lameness at any stage. Bursitis was observed on 0.2%, 4.1% and 11.2% of calves at 3, 13 wks and at the end of fattening, respectively. Risk factors for bursitis were linked to concrete and wooden slatted floors, to space allowance ≤1.8 m2/calf, and floors aged <8 years while type of housing system (small vs. large groups was not relevant. There was a significant interaction between stage of fattening and type of floor on bursitis. At the early stage, slatted and bedded floor were similar while at the end of the fattening the highest least mean was observed for calves on concrete floors. Bedding materials had a preventive effect. Rubber or straw should be largely adopted for veal calves as alternative solutions to hard floors in order to improve animals’ comfort, locomotory system health and welfare status.

  8. Prevalence of Locomotory System Disorders in Veal Calves and Risk Factors for Occurrence of Bursitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Brščić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to assess the prevalence of locomotory system disorders within a wide cross-sectional study in 174 veal calves farms and to investigate risk factors associated to disorders with a relevant prevalence (>1%. A representative sample of the European veal production systems was considered in the three major producing countries (100 in NL, 50 in FR, 24 in IT. One batch/farm was observed in three stages of the fattening. At each visit calves with evidence of bursitis, hoof lesions, joint lesions, and lameness were recorded. A set of production system descriptors gathered by an interview to the farmer were considered as potential risks. Results showed an average prevalence ≤1% of calves for hoof and joint lesions, and lameness at any stage. Bursitis was observed on 0.2%, 4.1% and 11.2% of calves at 3, 13 wks and at the end of fattening, respectively. Risk factors for bursitis were linked to concrete and wooden slatted floors, to space allowance ≤1.8 m2/calf, and floors aged <8 years while type of housing system (small vs. large groups was not relevant. There was a significant interaction between stage of fattening and type of floor on bursitis. At the early stage, slatted and bedded floor were similar while at the end of the fattening the highest least mean was observed for calves on concrete floors. Bedding materials had a preventive effect. Rubber or straw should be largely adopted for veal calves as alternative solutions to hard floors in order to improve animals’ comfort, locomotory system health and welfare status.

  9. Fine mapping of a calving QTL on Bos taurus autosome 18 in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, X; Kadri, N K; Thomasen, J R; De Koning, D J; Sahana, G; Guldbrandtsen, B

    2016-06-01

    Decreased calving performance not only directly impacts the economic efficiency of dairy cattle farming but also influences public concern for animal welfare. Previous studies have revealed a QTL on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 18 that has a large effect on calving traits in Holstein cattle. In this study, fine mapping of this QTL was performed using imputed high-density SNP chip (HD) genotypes followed by imputed next-generation sequencing (NGS) variants. BTA18 was scanned for seven direct calving traits in 6113 bulls with imputed HD genotypes. SNP rs136283363 (BTA18: 57 548 213) was consistently the most significantly associated SNP across all seven traits [e.g. p-value = 2.04 × 10(-59) for birth index (BI)]. To finely map the QTL region and to explore pleiotropic effects, we studied NGS variants within the targeted region (BTA18: 57 321 450-57 625 355) for associations with direct calving traits and with three conformation traits. Significant variants were prioritized, and their biological relevance to the traits was interpreted. Considering their functional relationships with direct calving traits, SIGLEC12, CD33 and CEACAM18 were proposed as candidate genes. In addition, pleiotropic effects of this QTL region on direct calving traits and conformation traits were observed. However, the extent of linkage disequilibrium combined with the lack of complete annotation and potential errors in the Bos taurus genome assembly hampered our efforts to pinpoint the causal mutation. PMID:26486911

  10. Effect of Shading on Physiological, Biochemical and Behaviour Changes in Crossbred Calves Under Hot Climatic Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance and the effect of shading and non-shading house on physiological changes, body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), total antioxidant and thyroid hormones in crossbred calves under hot conditions. Thirty six growing crossbred calves (Friesian x Baladi) aged 8-10 months were divided into two groups (each 18 calves); the first group was maintained in shaded house and the second in house without shade (climatic house). The period of study was 79 days during hot conditions. Performance variables (BW, ADG) were measured and the blood samples were collected to assess some biochemical parameters including antioxidants such as total antioxidant (TA), catalase (CAT), total protein, thyroid hormones (T3, T4) and immunoglobulin factor (IgG). Respiration rates and behaviour parameters (feeding, drinking, standing, lying and agonistic) were also measured during the study. The data indicated that the shaded calves had higher ADG (P<0.05) and final BW than non-shaded ones. Also, a significant improvement in total protein levels and globulins were recorded in shaded house calves as compared to non-shaded ones. The same result was obtained for T3 level whereas non-significant changes were observed for T4 level as well as the level of IgG at different times. The present data indicated that using shaded house will decrease the effect of heat stress on calves which will increase the animal performance through improving BW and ADG as well as some biochemical parameters in addition to T3 hormonal level.

  11. Milk yield and season of calving in buffaloes and cattle in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R. Bajwa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Seasonality of calving and its association with milk yield was analyzed in Nili-Ravi buffaloes and compared with Sahiwal cattle and Sahiwal (x Friesian or Jersey crossbreds. Records of 9,174 lactations of Nili-Ravi buffaloes from four institutional herds, 22,499 lactations from five Sahiwal herds and 656 lactations from a crossbred cattle herd were used for comparison. All the herds were located in Punjab province of Pakistan where environment is tropical. Month of calving was important source of variation in lactation milk yield of Nili- Ravi buffaloes and Sahiwal cattle but not in crossbred cattle (due to wide variation. Interactions of month of calving with parity as well as with herd were significant (P<0.01 both for buffaloes and Sahiwal cattle. First parity lactation milk yield averaged 1813±23.2, 1305±11.0 and 2459±81.8 litres while averages of later parity animals were 1926±19.0, 1527±7.6 and 2842±54.2 litres for Nili-Ravi buffaloes, Sahiwal and crossbred cattle, respectively. Milk yield pattern in crossbreds was more similar to buffaloes than to Sahiwals. Yet, crossbreds calving in June produced statistically similar but numerically higher lactation milk yield (2950±170 litres than other months but this was not true for buffaloes and Sahiwals. Buffaloes and Sahiwal cows calving in January-February produced better lactation yields than those calving in other months. Different pattern of milk yield in the three dairy species can be used advantageously for sustainable milk supply throughout the year.

  12. Molasses as a possible cause of an "endocrine disruptive syndrome" in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masgoret, M S; Botha, C J; Myburgh, J G; Naudé, T W; Prozesky, L; Naidoo, V; Van Wyk, J H; Pool, E J; Swan, G E

    2009-06-01

    During the mid 1990s a potentially serious, chronic syndrome was reported in well-managed beef and dairy herds from unrelated parts of South Africa. Farmers reported that it manifested as various combinations of decreased production, decreased weaning masses, apparent immune breakdown in previously immunocompetent animals, increased reproductive disorders, various mineral imbalances in non-deficient areas and goitre, noticeable as enlarged thyroid glands. The farmers associated this syndrome with certain batches of sugar cane molasses and molasses-based products. The syndrome was reminiscent of an "endocrine disruptive syndrome". The objective of this study was to evaluate the suspected endocrine disruptive effect of molasses included in cattle feed. Using existing in vitro assays, four batches of molasses syrup were screened for possible inclusion in a calf feeding trial. Two batches were selected for the trial. Thirty-two, 4- to 6-week-old, weaned Holstein bull calves were included in the single phase, three treatment, parallel design experiment. In two of the groups of calves, two different batches of molasses were included in their rations respectively. The control group was fed a ration to which no molasses was added, but which was balanced for energy and mineral content. The mass gain of the calves was recorded over the 6-month study period. The calves were clinically examined every week and clinical pathology parameters, immune responses and endocrine effects were regularly evaluated. Even though endocrine disrupting effects were detected with the in vitro screening assays, these could not be reproduced in the calves in the experiment. The two batches of molasses utilized in the calf feeding trial did not induce major differences in any of the parameters measured, with the exception of a lower mass gain in one of the molasses-fed groups (Group 1), which tended towards significance. The results of the study indicate that the two batches of molasses had no

  13. Effect of sodium butyrate supplementation in milk replacer and starter diet on rumen development in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Pietrzak, P; Kotunia, A; Kiljanczyk, R; Flaga, J; Holst, J J; Guilloteau, P; Zabielski, R

    2009-10-01

    Rumen development is an important factor determining early solid feed intake and performance in cattle. A popular trend towards early weaning of newborn dairy calves necessitated looking for ways of accelerating the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development. The present study aimed to determine the effect of sodium butyrate (NaB) supplementation in milk replacer and starter diet on rumen development in rearing calves. Fourteen bull calves (5-day-old) were randomly allocated to two groups: Control (C) and NaB. The later received 0.3 % NaB in milk replacer and starter diet. Animals were in experiment up to age of 26 days. Addition of NaB to milk replacer and starter diet had no effect on daily growth rate, but reduced the weight loss observed in C calves in first 11 days of age. Additionally, the NaB calves weighed more at the end of the study and tended to have higher growth rate in the whole trial period (Pweight (P=0.13) and higher reticulorumen weight expressed as a percent of whole stomach weight (P=0.02) as compared to control. Histometry analysis indicated larger rumen papillae length and width (P<0.01) in NaB group, and no change in muscle layer thickness, as compared to control. Plasma glucagon-like peptide-2 relative increase was higher in NaB group than in C group, and may be involved in rumen development. In conclusion, supplementation of the diet (milk replacer and starter diet) with NaB may enhance rumen development in neonatal calves. PMID:19996481

  14. Impact of nutritional programming on the growth, health, and sexual development of bull calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollwein, H; Janett, F; Kaske, M

    2016-07-01

    The growth, health, and reproductive performance of bull calves are important prerequisites for a successful cattle breeding program. Therefore, several attempts have been made to improve these parameters via nutritional programming. Although an increase in energy uptake during the postweaning period (7-8 mo of age) of the calves leads to a faster growing rate, it has no positive effects on sexual development. In contrast, a high-nutrition diet during the prepubertal period (8-20 wk of age) reduced the age at puberty of the bulls and increased the size and/or weight of the testis and the epididymal sperm reserves. This faster sexual development is associated with an increased transient LH peak, which seems to be mediated by an increase in serum IGF-I concentrations. However, the exact mechanisms responsible for the interaction between nutrition and the subsequent development of the calves are not clear. The sexual development of bull calves depends not only on the nutrition of the calves after birth but also on the feed intake of their mothers during pregnancy. In contrast to the effects of the feed intake of the bull calves, a high-nutrition diet fed to the mother during the first trimester has negative effects on the reproductive performance of their offspring. In conclusion, it has been clearly demonstrated that growth, health, and reproductive performance can be improved by nutritional programming, but further studies are necessary to obtain a better understanding about the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon. PMID:27345315

  15. Molasses as a possible cause of an ''endocrine disruptive syndrome'' in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Masgoret

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available During the mid 1990s a potentially serious, chronic syndrome was reported in well-managed beef and dairy herds from unrelated parts of South Africa. Farmers reported that it manifested as various combinations of decreased production, decreased weaning masses, apparent immune breakdown in previously immunocompetent animals, increased reproductive disorders, various mineral imbalances in non-deficient areas and goitre, noticeable as enlarged thyroid glands. The farmers associated this syndrome with certain batches of sugar cane molasses and molasses-based products. The syndrome was reminiscent of an ''endocrine disruptive syndrome''. The objective of this study was to evaluate the suspected endocrine disruptive effect of molasses included in cattle feed. Using existing in vitro assays, four batches of molasses syrup were screened for possible inclusion in a calf feeding trial. Two batches were selected for the trial. Thirty-two, 4- to 6-week-old, weaned Holstein bull calves were included in the single phase, three treatment, parallel design experiment. In two of the groups of calves, two different batches of molasses were included in their rations respectively. The control group was fed a ration to which no molasses was added, but which was balanced for energy and mineral content. The mass gain of the calves was recorded over the 6-month study period. The calves were clinically examined every week and clinical pathology parameters, immune responses and endocrine effects were regularly evaluated. Even though endocrine disrupting effects were detected with the in vitro screening assays, these could not be reproduced in the calves in the experiment. The two batches of molasses utilized in the calf feeding trial did not induce major differences in any of the parameters measured, with the exception of a lower mass gain in one of the molasses-fed groups (Group 1, which tended towards significance. The results of the study indicate that the two batches

  16. Modelling the dynamic response of Jakobshavn Isbræ, West Greenland, to calving rate perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondzio, J. H.; Seroussi, H.; Morlighem, M.; Kleiner, T.; Rückamp, M.; Humbert, A.; Larour, E.

    2015-10-01

    Calving is a major means of ice discharge of the Antarctic and Greenland Ice Sheets. The breaking off of icebergs changes the ice front configuration of marine terminating glaciers, which affects the stress regime of their upstream areas. Recent observations show the close correlation between the ice front position and the behaviour of many outlet glaciers. However, modelling of a glacier subject to calving poses various challenges. No universal calving rate parametrisation is known, and tracking of a moving ice front and the related boundary conditions in two or three spatial dimensions is non-trivial. Here, we present the theoretical and technical framework for a Level-Set Method, an implicit boundary tracking scheme, which we implemented into the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM). The scheme allows us to study the dynamic response of a drainage basin to user-defined front ablation rates. We apply the method in a suite of experiments to Jakobshavn Isbræ, a major marine terminating outlet glacier of the western Greenland Ice Sheet. The model robustly reproduces the high sensitivity of the glacier to frontal ablation in form of calving. We find that enhanced calving is able to trigger significant acceleration of the ice stream. Upstream acceleration is sustained through a combination of various feedback mechanisms. However, lateral stress and ice influx into the trough are able to stabilise the ice stream. This study contributes to the present discussion on causes and effects of the continued changes occurring at Jakobshavn Isbræ, and emphasises that the incorporation of seasonal calving and dynamic lateral effects is key for realistic model projections of future global sea level rise on centennial time scales.

  17. Genetic parameters of three methods of temperament evaluation of Brahman calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S E; Neuendorff, D A; Riley, D G; Vann, R C; Willard, S T; Welsh, T H; Randel, R D

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the heritability of 3 measures of temperament in Brahman and Brahman-influenced calves (n = 1,209). Individual animal pen scores (PS) were determined by a trained observer who evaluated groups of 5 or 4 calves at a time for willingness to be approached by a human. Exit velocity (EV) was the rate (m/s) at which each calf exited a squeeze chute. Temperament score (TS) was calculated individually as (PS + EV)/2. Temperament was evaluated at 5 different times of record (28 d preweaning, weaning, 28 d postweaning, 56 d postweaning, and yearling). Contemporary groups (n = 34) comprised calves of the same sex born in the same season of the same year. There were an average of 36 calves per contemporary group and group size ranged from 3 to 78 calves. Average weaning age (186 d) ranged from 105 to 304 d. Calves were born from 2002 through 2012. Random effects included additive genetic and the permanent environmental variance. The fixed effects analyzed were age of dam, sex of calf, contemporary group, fraction of Brahman (2 levels: 1 and 0.5), age of calf at record, and weaning age. At weaning, the mean PS was 2.68 ± 0.1, the mean EV was 2.41 ± 0.1, and the mean TS was 2.48 ± 0.1. The PS was affected by fraction of Brahman (P = 0.034) and tended to be affected by age of dam (P = 0.06). The EV was affected by contemporary group (P Brahman cattle. PMID:24821821

  18. POSSIBILITIES OF USING UNCONVENTIONAL METHODS AND DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS TO AFFECT WEIGHT GAINS OF CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubo Zbransk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Healthy and strong individuals are fundamental in every cattle breeding. The aim of this study was to find out which of these given supplement had the best influence on calf weight gain in the early period after weaning to milk nutrition. This research was carried out in cooperation with the farm in Haklovy Dvory. Calves were studied from March 2012 to February 2013. They were weaned into outdoor individual box after birth. There were added supplements into their ration in the first two weeks of life. Calves were partitioned according to the added supplement into three experimental groups and one control group. The first weight control of calves was after birth and the second weight control was at the age of thirty days. The average weight gain was calculated from the differences in these values. The best demonstrable effect was in the experimental Homeopathy and Prebiotics (Biopolym groups with the average increment of 26.9 kilograms, then in the experimental Probiotics (Lactovita group with the average increment of 26.1 kilograms. The last group was the Control one, there was not any change in the calves ration and their average increment was 23.5 kilograms. The results of the statistical evaluation was p = 0.0572 in the Biopolym group, p = 0.2570 in the Lactovita group and p = 0.2124 in the Homeopathy group versus the Control group. It can be concluded from the results of this study that calves had a positive reaction on the supplements added in the first days of life and these had a favourable effect on diarrhoea prevention. Prebiotics, homeopathic drugs and probiotics beneficially stimulate calvesdigestive system and, in general, they have a positive effect on the calves physiological condition.

  19. The effects of vagotomy on the abomasum in calves: Radiography and protein gene product 9.5 immunohistochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abomasal disorders of calves with total vagotomy, operated on at 1 week old, were investigated with radiography and protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 immunohistochemistry. Radiographic findings indicated abomasal atony with dilatation in all calves 2 weeks after vagotomy, while 4 weeks after vagotomy abomasal dilatation was detected in 2 calves and another 2 calves showed dilatation and impaction. The densities of PGP 9.5-immunoreactive nerves in the tunica muscularis decreased significantly in the corpus region of the greater curvature 2 weeks after vagotomy and in the pyloric region of the lesser curvature 4 weeks after vagotomy, and it was at its lowest 4 weeks after vagotomy in all regions examined. In conclusion, abomasal dilatation and / or impaction in vagotomized calves confirmed by radiography were related with a decreased frequency of nerves in the tunica muscularis of the abomasum

  20. The first year of behavioral development and maternal care of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) calves in human care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Heather M; Campbell, Carolyn; Dalton, Les; Osborn, Steven

    2013-01-01

    The current study provides additional information for the behavioral development and maternal care of belugas or white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in the care of humans. The behaviors and mother-calf interactions of two female beluga calves were recorded from birth to 12 months as part of a longitudinal study of beluga behavioral development. As expected, the primary calf activity for both calves involved swimming with their mothers. The calves initiated the majority of the separations from and reunions with their mothers and exhibited early bouts of independence. Both mothers bonded with their calves and displayed similar maternal care behaviors but exhibited different behavioral patterns. Despite differences in social groupings, housing, and physical health, the two female belugas followed the behavioral development of beluga calves observed previously. PMID:24038426

  1. Urea recycling contributes to nitrogen retention in calves fed milk replacer and low-protein solid feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berends, Harma; van den Borne, Joost J G C; Røjen, Betina A.;

    2014-01-01

    recycling to protein anabolism in calves during the transition from preruminants (milk-fed calves) to ruminants [solid feed (SF)-fed calves] is unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify urea recycling in milk-fed calves when provided with low-protein SF. Forty-eight calves [164 ± 1.6 kg body weight (BW......Urea recycling, with urea originating from catabolism of amino acids and hepatic detoxification of ammonia, is particularly relevant for ruminant animals, in which microbial protein contributes substantially to the metabolizable protein supply. However, the quantitative contribution of urea.......55 g (P < 0.01). Of this increase in nitrogen retention, 19% could be directly explained by urea recycling. Additionally, part of the observed increase in nitrogen retention could be explained by the extra protein provided by the SF and likely by a greater efficiency of postabsorptive use of nitrogen...

  2. Prevalence of Locomotory System Disorders in Veal Calves and Risk Factors for Occurrence of Bursitis

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Brščić; Flaviana Gottardo; Hélène Leruste; Joop Lensink; Kees C. G. Van Reenen; Giulio Cozzi

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to assess the prevalence of locomotory system disorders within a wide cross-sectional study in 174 veal calves farms and to investigate risk factors associated to disorders with a relevant prevalence (>1%). A representative sample of the European veal production systems was considered in the three major producing countries (100 in NL, 50 in FR, 24 in IT). One batch/farm was observed in three stages of the fattening. At each visit calves with evidence of bursitis, hoof lesions,...

  3. Genetic effects on birth weight in reciprocal Brahman-Simmental crossbred calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, J A; Riley, D G; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Thallman, R M

    2015-02-01

    Brahman-cross calves exhibit unusual inheritance of birth weight: Brahman-sired crossbreds out of females are heavier with greater difference between sexes than calves of the reciprocal cross. The objectives of this work were to confirm that unusual inheritance and to investigate non-Mendelian genetic effects that may influence differences in Brahman × Simmental crossbred calves. Crossbred calves were produced by embryo transfer ( = 2,862) and natural service or artificial insemination ( = 2,125) from 1983 to 1991 by a private seedstock producer. Brahman-sired F embryos out of Simmental donors weighed 9.4 ± 1.1 ( Simmental-sired F embryos out of Brahman donor cows when transferred to comparable recipients. This reciprocal difference was accompanied by sexual dimorphism: within Brahman-sired F calves, males were 5.0 ± 1.4 kg heavier than females, whereas within Simmental-sired F calves, females were 0.7 ± 0.5 kg heavier than males. Covariates were constructed from the pedigree to represent genetic effects: proportion Brahman in calves and dams (direct and maternal breed effects), direct and maternal breed heterozygosity, probability of Brahman mitochondrial origin, probability of Brahman Y chromosome, probability of Brahman X chromosome, genomic imprinting (the difference between the probabilities of Brahman in the genetic dam and in the sire), nonrandom X inactivation by breed of origin (the probability of breed heterozygosity of the X chromosomes of a female), and nonrandom X inactivation by parent of origin (the difference between probabilities of a female inheriting a paternal or maternal Brahman X chromosome). The maternal breed heterozygosity, genomic imprinting, probability of Brahman X chromosome, and genomic imprinting × sex effect covariates from the full model were significant with regression coefficients of 1.1 ± 0.5 ( < 0.05), ‒8.3 ± 2.3 ( < 0.01), ‒3.5 ± 1.3 ( < 0.01), and ‒5.3 ± 2.0 ( < 0.01), respectively. Results suggest that sex

  4. A comparison of prophylactic efficacy of tilmicosin and a new formulation of oxytetracycline in feedlot calves

    OpenAIRE

    Schunicht, Oliver C.; Guichon, P. Timothy; Booker, Calvin W.; Jim, G. Kee; Wildman, Brian K.; Hill, Bruce W.; Ward, Tracy I.; Bauck, Stewart W.; Jacobsen, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Two replicated-pen field studies were performed under commercial feedlot conditions in western Canada to compare the administration of long-acting oxytetracycline at 30 mg/kg body weight (BW) versus tilmicosin at 10 mg/kg BW to feedlot calves upon arrival at the feedlot. Ten thousand nine hundred and eighty-nine, recently weaned, auction market derived, crossbred beef steer and bull calves were randomly allocated upon arrival at the feedlot to one of 2 experimental groups as follows: oxytetra...

  5. Colostral transmission of bluetongue virus nucleic acid among newborn dairy calves in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, C E; Crossley, B M; Hietala, S K; Gardner, I A; Breitmeyer, R E; Maclachlan, N James

    2010-08-01

    There have been substantial recent changes in the global distribution and nature of bluetongue virus (BTV) infection of ungulates, perhaps as a result of climate change. To evaluate the epidemiology of BTV infection in California, an area historically endemic for the virus, we monitored newborn dairy calves at different sites for 1 year for the presence of BTV RNA and virus-specific antibodies. The data confirm both localized, vector-mediated, seasonal transmission of BTV as well as dissemination of BTV and/or viral nucleic acid to newborn calves following ingestion of colostrum. PMID:20557494

  6. Comparison of feed additive technologies for preconditioning of weaned beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersom, M; Imler, A; Thrift, T; Yelich, J; Arthington, J

    2015-06-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the response of weaned calves to different supplemental feed additives in a supplement to affect calf performance and mitigate stress response observed during weaning and preconditioning. At weaning in each of 2 yr, 160 Angus and Brangus calves (203 and 227 ± 2.3 and 2.5 kg) were stratified by BW, sex, and breed and were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments ( = 40 calves/treatment): 1) supplement without feed additives (control, CON), 2) supplemented with chlortetracycline, 350 mg/d (CTC), 3) supplemented with monensin, 175 mg/d (RUM), and 4) supplemented with rumen modifier, 5 g/d (ACT). Calves were held by treatment in 1 of 4 drylot pens for 7 d after weaning and were offered ad libitum access to hay and 2.27 kg/d of supplement before placement in one of thirty-two 0.8-ha pastures (5 calves/pasture). On pasture calves were supplemented with 2.27 kg/d (yr 1) or supplemented at 1.0% BW (yr 2). Calf BW and blood samples were collected following weaning (d 0, 1, 4, 7, 11 in yr 1; d 0, 1, 3, 7, 14 in yr 2), at the conclusion of the preconditioning period (d 50, 51 in yr 2), and after transportation (d 52, 55, 59, 65 in yr 2) for analysis of acute phase protein (APP) concentrations. In yr 2, after 44 d on pasture, calves were loaded on 2 semitrucks and transported for 24 h. On return, calves were placed in 4 pastures with hay and fed their respective supplements for 14 d. For each year, data were analyzed with the MIXED procedure of SAS. The model included the main effect of treatment, and pasture was the experimental unit. All variables quantified by day were analyzed using repeated measures. In yr 1, ACT and CTC had greater (P 0.05) among treatments; however an effect of day after transport (P < 0.001) was observed. Feed cost of gain and income over production cost (P ≥ 0.15; mean = $0.51/kg and $73.51, respectively) were not different among treatments. Use of supplemental additives may improve calf performance during a

  7. The use of the radioimmunoassay for detection of diethylstilbestrol in fecal samples of fattened calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay for diethylstilbestrol (DES) in fecal samples of fattened calves is described. The antibody used in this test showed no cross reactions with natural estrogens or other steroids. Blank values (fecal samples without DES) varied between 0 an 4,9 ng DES-equivalent/g sample. The distribution of blank values shows the significant proof of existence of DES in concentrations above 10 ng/g sample. The method has been applied for the control of living calves at the producer. Examples of illegal DES applications are given. The described radioimmunoassay is suitable for routine analysis as a control for illegal estrogen treatment. (orig.)

  8. The modern principles in treatment of Legg – Calve – Perthes syndrome in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubashkin S.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim: to improve the results of treatment of degenerative hip’s diseases in children by means of pathogenetic pattern. Methods and Materials. 56 children with Legg — Calve — Perthes syndrome aged from 4 to 12 years and 20 children of control group without hip’s diseases have been studied. Results. The modern principles of surgical treatment of Legg — Calve — Perthes syndrome in children have been identified. Conclusion. The results of surgical treatment of patients with a different degree of pathological process depending on a type of surgery (osteoplastic surgery, formation of vascularizing autotransplant, varus osteotomy, rotational intertrochanteric osteotomy have been presented.

  9. The modern principles in treatment of Legg – Calve – Perthes syndrome in children

    OpenAIRE

    Rubashkin S.A.; Sertakova A.V.; Gerasimov V.A.; Anisimov D.I.; Vasilieva G.A; Bakhteeva N.Kh.

    2013-01-01

    The aim: to improve the results of treatment of degenerative hip’s diseases in children by means of pathogenetic pattern. Methods and Materials. 56 children with Legg — Calve — Perthes syndrome aged from 4 to 12 years and 20 children of control group without hip’s diseases have been studied. Results. The modern principles of surgical treatment of Legg — Calve — Perthes syndrome in children have been identified. Conclusion. The results of surgical treatment of patients with a different degree ...

  10. Clinical disease and lung lesions in calves experimentally inoculated with Histophilus somni five days after metaphylactic administration of tildipirosin or tulathromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confer, Anthony W; Snider, Timothy A; Taylor, Jared D; Montelongo, Marie; Sorensen, Nicholas J

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare clinical disease and lung lesions in calves experimentally inoculated with Histophilus somni 5 days after metaphylactic administration of tildipirosin or tulathromycin. ANIMALS Twenty-four 3-month-old Holstein and Holstein-crossbreed steers. PROCEDURES Calves were randomly allocated to 3 groups of 8 calves. On day 0, calves in group 1 received tildipirosin (4 mg/kg, SC), calves in group 2 received tulathromycin (2.5 mg/kg, SC), and calves in group 3 received isotonic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (1 mL/45 kg, SC; control). On day 5, calves were inoculated with 10 mL of a solution containing H somni strain 7735 (1.6 × 10(9) CFUs/mL, intrabronchially; challenge). Calves were clinically evaluated on days 5 through 8 and euthanized on day 8. The lungs were grossly evaluated for evidence of pneumonia, and bronchial secretion samples underwent bacteriologic culture. RESULTS The mean clinical score for each group was significantly increased 12 hours after challenge, compared with that immediately before challenge, and was significantly lower for tildipirosin-treated calves on days 6, 7, and 8, compared with those for tulathromycin-treated and control calves. The mean percentage of lung consolidation for tildipirosin-treated calves was significantly lower than those for tulathromycin-treated and control calves. Histophilus somni was isolated from the bronchial secretions of some tulathromycin-treated and control calves but was not isolated from tildipirosin-treated calves. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that metaphylactic administration of tildipirosin to calves 5 days prior to H somni challenge prevented subsequent culture of the pathogen from bronchial secretions and was more effective in minimizing clinical disease and lung lesions than was metaphylactic administration of tulathromycin. PMID:27027834

  11. Experimental infection of calves, sheep, goats and pigs with HoBi-like viruses by direct inoculation or exposure to persistently infected calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermann, F V; Falkenberg, S M; Decaro, N; Flores, E F; Ridpath, J F

    2015-12-31

    HoBi-like viruses are an emerging species of pestiviruses associated with respiratory and reproductive disease in cattle and in water buffaloes. Although cattle appear to be the main natural hosts, little is know about the potential for HoBi-like viruses to be transmitted to other livestock. In this study, seronegative calves, goats and pigs, and sheep harboring pestivirus antibodies (probably due to previous exposure to BVDV) were exposed to HoBi-like viruses either by direct inoculation (GIn) or by contact with calves persistently infected with HoBi-like viruses (GEx). Both GIn and GEx groups were monitored for clinical signs, lymphocyte count, virus in buffy coats and nasal swabs up to day 18 post-inoculation (pi). Evidence of transmission of HoBi-like virus by PI calves was observed in all studied species. No difference in clinical presentation was observed between animals in the GIn or GEx groups. Evidence of infection, depending on the species included lymphocyte depletion, fever, viral RNA detection, and/or seroconversion. Depletion of lymphocytes was observed in calves and goats (35% and 50%, respectively) but not in pigs. Seroconversion was observed in at least one animal of each group and for all exposed species. The rate of seroconversion was higher in animals in the GIn experimental groups. In sheep, pre-existing moderate to high neutralizing titers against BVDV did not prevent viral replication and shed. The study demonstrated that naive cattle, goats and pigs, in addition to antibody positive sheep, can be infected by HoBi-like virus via persistently infected calf and potentially transmit the virus. PMID:26525738

  12. Generation of cloned calves from different types of somatic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Six types of bovine somatic cell lines,including a granulosa cell line of Chinese red-breed yellow cattle(YGR),a granulosa cell line of Holstein cow(HGR),two skin fibroblast cell lines of two adult Holstein cows respectively(AFB1 and AFB2),a skin fibroblast cell line(FFB)and an oviduct epithelial cell line(FOV)of a Holstein fetus,were established.Somatic cell nuclear transfer(SCNT)was carried out using these cells as nuclei donor,and a total of 12 healthy calves were cloned.The effects of different types of donor cells on developmental potential of bovine SCNT embryos were investigated.(i)There was no significant difference in development rates to the blastocyst stage for SCNT embryos from YGR and HGR(33.2% and 35.1%,respectively).Pregnancy rates of them were 33.3% and 30.2%,respectively; and birth rates were 16.7%and 11.6%,respectively.(ii)Development rates to the blastocyst stage for SCNT embryos from diffetent individuals(AFB1 and AFB2)differed significantly(27.9% and 39.4%,respectively,P <0.05).Pregnancy rates of them were 36.2% and 36.4%,respectively; and birth rates were 14.9% and 27.3%,respectively.(iii)There was significant difference in development rates to the blastocyst stage for SCNT embryos from FFB and FOV of the same fetus(37.9% and 41.5%,respectively,P < 0.05).Pregnancy rates of them were 45.7% and 24.1%,respectively; and birth rates were 22.9 % and 10.3%,respectively.Finally,developmental potential of bovine SCNT embryos from all four types of somatic cells from Holstein cows(HGR,AFB,FFB and FOV)were compared.For in vitro development stage,development rates to the blastocyst stage for SCNT embryos from HGR,AFB,FFB and FOV were 35.1%A,29.4%B,37.9%A and 41.5%C,respectively(pABC<0.05); for in vivo development stage,pregnancy rates of them were 30.2%,36.2%,45.7%and 24.1%,respectively; and birth rates of them were 11.6%,17.2%,22.9% and 10.3% respectively.

  13. Physiological responses of camel calves to weaning stress with absence of dams under group or individual rearing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was performed to investigate the effects of weaning stress, rearing system and probiotics supplementation on live body weight, LBW; total feed intake, TFI, water consumption, WC, average daily gain, ADG and growth rate, GR, plasma cortisol and thyroid hormones concentrations during weaning period. This study was carried out at Maryout Research Station of the Desert Research Center, 35 km southwest of Alexandria, Egypt. Ten Maghraby breed camel calves were separated from their dams at 280 days of age with initial LBW of 236.76±0.22 kg. The duration of the study was 35 days and divided into five weeks; first week served as pre-weaning period followed by four weeks served as post-weaning period. Camel calves were weaned using calf-dam contact off system (calves were completely separated from their dams at all times during weaning process) under two rearing systems (6 calves penned in two groups and 4 calves penned in complete isolation, each alone in 4 replicates). Half of calves in each type of rearing system were supplemented with probiotics while the others were not-supplemented with probiotics. The results showed that maternal and milk deprivation affect significantly LBW, TWG, ADG and GR during post-weaning period (28 days), where grouped and isolated calves were different significantly in LBW, TWG and ADG, during the first two weeks post-weaning, but not different significantly in GR (1.66%) at the end of weaning period (28 days). However, grouped calves were more endurance (less responsive) to weaning stress along weaning period. The beneficial effect of probiotics supplementation on TFI was more pronounced from d14 till d28 post-weaning for both grouped and isolated-housed calves. The results showed also that completely social isolation was more pronounced as a stressful condition, this was indicated by the physiological changes which were considered indicative for a higher state of stress, such as an acute release of cortisol hormone and

  14. Bio-discrimination of a-tocopherol stereoisomers in rearing and veal calves fed milk replacer supplemented with all-rac-a-tocopheryl acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dersjant-Li, Y.; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Bos, L.W.;

    2009-01-01

    conditions. Two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, six rearing calves were fed milk replacer supplemented with 80 mg/kg all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate for a period of 9 weeks. The calves were supplied calf starter concentrate from 1 to 12 weeks. In experiment 2, six veal calves were fed milk...... replacer supplemented with 80 mg/kg all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate for a period of 24 weeks. Blood samples were taken at the start and every 4 weeks until 12 weeks for rearing calves in experiment 1, and until slaughter (24 weeks) for veal calves in experiment 2. Liver, adipose, muscle, and brain samples...

  15. Preweaning growth of Angus- (Bos taurus), Brahman- (Bos indicus), and Tuli- (Sanga) sired calves and reproductive performance of their Brahman dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, R; Leite-Browning, M L; Neuendorff, D A; Randel, R D

    1995-09-01

    Calves born to Angus (A), Brahman (B), or Tuli (T) bulls and B cows were evaluated to determine sire breed of calf effects on preweaning calf growth and reproductive performance of their dams. Records from 242 cow-calf pairs over 2 yr were used to assess birth weight, calf ADG, weaning weight, gestation length, and postpartum interval to estrus (PPI). The sire breed x sex of calf interaction was important (P Angus-sired F1 calves and similar to straightbred Brahman calves in preweaning growth. Crossbred calves had shorter gestations but longer postpartum intervals than purebred calves. PMID:8582844

  16. Eimeriosis in Danish Dairy Calves – Correlation between Species, Oocyst Excretion and Diarrhoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Dahl, Jan; Enemark, Jörg M Dehn

    2013-01-01

    determined, along with opg values for the specific Eimeria spp. Association between opg and faeces consistency was evaluated in a multinomial, logistic regression model. Overall prevalence of Eimeria spp. was 96.2 % with a prevalence of 60.9 % in individual calves. E. zuernii and/or E. bovis were detected in...

  17. Effect of sodium butyrate supplementation in milk replacer and starter diet on rumen development in calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Pietrzak, P;

    2009-01-01

    Rumen development is an important factor determining early solid feed intake and performance in cattle. A popular trend towards early weaning of newborn dairy calves necessitated looking for ways of accelerating the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development. The present study aimed to determine the...

  18. Occurrence of congenital cerebral theileriosis in a newborn twin Holstein calves in Iran: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolouei Kaleibar, Mohammad; Ashrafi Helan, Javad; Fathi, Ezzatollah

    2014-01-01

    An 8-day-old newborn female twin Holstein calves with a history of weakness, anorexia, emaciation and convulsion were presented to Tabriz University Veterinary Teaching Hospital. On admission, the calves were febrile and recumbent. Physical examination revealed many ticks from the external body surface of the animals, right and left prescapular lymphadenopathy, severe opisthotonos, nystagmus, pedaling, blindness, hyperpnea and hypersthenia. Buccal and vaginal mucous were pale and no other physical abnormalities were diagnosed. Fecal flotation, complete blood count, bone marrow aspiration, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, necropsy and histopathological examination were performed. Fecal flotation showed no helminth eggs or coccidial oocysts. On blood smears obtained from the earlap, >70 percent of erythrocytes were infected with piroplasms organisms and schizonts were obvious in smears of lymphocytes lymph node. Blood count revealed a lymphopenia, poikilocytosis, anisocytosis and non-regenerative anemia (packed cell volume; mean, 16%). Histopathological examination revealed Arthus reaction through the walls of cerebral blood vessels, which resulted in local necrosis of the brain. Analysis of CSF showed no abnormality in appearance or biochemical and cell counts. Although the calves were treated with a single intramuscular injection of buparvaquone and oxytetracycline once daily they did not respond to the treatment and died. In conclusion, the present cases showed a rare cerebral form of theileriosis by vertical transmission that confirmed by the presence of piroplasms on blood films and multinuclear schizonts on lymph node aspiration smears, gross and histopathological examinations and unsuccessful treatment in a newborn twin Holstein calves. PMID:25568725

  19. Behaviour and welfare of veal calves in relation to husbandry systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilt, de J.G.

    1985-01-01

    The traditional housing of veal calves in individual crates without roughage has received prolonged and serious criticism, since it denies the animals various social activities, freedom of movement and the possibility to consume roughage and to ruminate. In order to develop an economically acceptabl

  20. Possible contamination with clenbuterol from treated veal calves to untreated pen mates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.; Lasaroms, J.J.P.; Bennekom, van E.O.; Hende, van J.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether clenbuterol-treated calves could contaminate untreated pen mates, three animal experiments were performed. (1) One calf of a pen of five was treated with clenbuterol by injection (Ventipulmin injection, REG NL 2532, 2.5 mL/100 kg) twice a day for 10 days. (2) In two pens, one

  1. Effect of number of animals per pen on growth performance and meat quality of veal calves

    OpenAIRE

    Cozzi, G.; Dorigo, M.; F. Gottardo

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have been carried out on the effect of the group housing system in comparison with the traditional individual crate on growth performance, carcass traits and behavior of veal calves (Andrighetto et al. 1999, Cozzi et al. 2000, Verga et al. 2000).

  2. Effect of number of animals per pen on growth performance and meat quality of veal calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cozzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been carried out on the effect of the group housing system in comparison with the traditional individual crate on growth performance, carcass traits and behavior of veal calves (Andrighetto et al. 1999, Cozzi et al. 2000, Verga et al. 2000.

  3. Effect of Calcium Supplementation on Growth, Nutrient Digestibility and Fecal Lactobacilli in Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yuangklang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Based on earlier studies in veal calves and rats, the hypothesis tested was that high calcium intakes by ruminating dairy calves reduce fat digestibility, but do not affect growth performance due to enhanced colonization of the intestine with lactobacilli. Approach: In dairy calves that were fed on a combination of milk replacer, concentrate on grass hay, the effects of supplemental calcium on growth, nutrient digestibility and fecal lactobacilli were studied. Four concentrates with different levels of calcium were used. Results: Final body weight and weight gain were raised by the calcium level in the concentrate in a dose-dependent, linear fashion. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and crude fat were not influenced by the level of calcium in the concentrate. The number of fecal lactobacilli was significantly increased by higher dietary calcium levels, the effect having a linear trend. Calcium intake did not change the number of fecal E. coli. The apparent absorptions of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium were lowered in a linear, dose-dependent fashion by the calcium level in the concentrate. Conclusion: Increased calcium intakes stimulate weight gain in dairy calves fed a combination of milk replacer, concentrate and grass hay. This calcium effect may be related to an enhanced colonization of the intestine with lactobacilli.

  4. Growth performances and carcass characteristics of veal calves fed acidified whole milk and milk replacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tedprasit, S.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the growth performances and carcass characteristics of male veal calves fed at different levels of acidified whole milk and milk replacer. Twenty-four male Holstein- Friesian 75% crossbred calves with an initial average live weight of 35.44±1.73 kg were allotted into 4 groups under a completely randomized design (CRD for 90 days. Group 1 received 100% whole acidified milk (AM, group 2 received 75% AM and 25% milk replacer (MR, group 3 received 50% AM and 50% MR and group 4 received 100% MR. All groups received 10% body weight of liquid diet, 2% live weight of starter feed and ad libitum of rice straw. After 90 days, the calves in group 1 showed the best final live weight (98.33 kg followed by groups 2 (75.08 kg, 3 (70.00 kg and 4 (57.36 kg (P0.05 in the percentage of fore-quarter and hind-quarter between the treatments. Considering production costs, calves in group 1 showed the lowest cost per live weight gain (53.31 baht/kg gain, followed by group 2 (64.39 baht/kg gain, 3 (77.74 baht/kg gain and 4 (116.82 baht/kg gain, respectively.

  5. Effect of slaughter age on meat qualitative traits of veal calves

    OpenAIRE

    D. Bergero; C. Russo; G. Preziuso; A. Schiavone; M.I. Tarantola

    2011-01-01

    Veal calves breeding holds an important of bovine meat production part over all our country, as for the appreciation by the consumers for its pale coloured flesh, believed to be more digestible, than for favourable use of Frisian males that are slaughtered because they exceed the restocking of beef (Balasini, 2000)...

  6. Prenatal transportation and immune indices in neonatal and growing Brahman calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate effects of prenatal transportation on immune indices in neonatal calves. Ninety-six pregnant Brahman cows matched by age and parity were separated into a transported group (TRANS, n=48; transported for 2 hours on gestational day 60, 80, 100, 120, and 14...

  7. Prenatal Transportation Stress Alters Temperament and Serum Cortisol Concentrations in Suckling Brahman Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment examined the relationship between prenatal stress and subsequent calf temperament through weaning. The prenatal stressor utilized was repeated transportation of pregnant Brahman cows for 2 hours at 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 days of gestation. Prenatally stressed calves (n = 41) were ...

  8. Evaluation of the optimal driving mode during left ventricular assist with pulsatile catheter pump in calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihaylov, D; Verkerke, GJ; Blanksma, PK; Elstrodt, J; de Jong, ED; Rakhorst, G

    1999-01-01

    The pulsatile catheter (PUCA) pump, a left ventricular assist device, was tested during acute experiments in calves using asynchronous and EGG-synchronous assist modes. The aim of the study is to compare ECG-synchronous and asynchronous assist and to find the optimal driving mode for the PUCA pump w

  9. Effect of spiramycin and tulathromycin on abomasal emptying rate in milk-fed calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashnavadi, Mehdi; Nouri, Mohammad; Haji Hajikolaei, Mohammad R.; Najafzadeh, Housain; Constable, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Impaired abomasal motility is common in cattle with abomasal disorders. The macrolide erythromycin has been demonstrated to be an effective prokinetic agent in healthy calves and in adult cattle with abomasal volvulus or left displaced abomasum. We hypothesized that 2 structurally related macrolides, spiramycin and tulathromycin, would also be effective prokinetic agents in cattle. Six milk-fed, male, Holstein-Friesian calves were administered each of the following 4 treatments: spiramycin, 75 000 IU/kg BW, IM, this dose approximates 25 mg/kg BW, IM; tulathromycin, 2.5 mg/kg BW, SC; 2 mL of 0.9% NaCl (negative control); and erythromycin, 8.8 mg/kg BW, IM (positive control). Calves were fed 2 L of cow’s milk containing acetaminophen (50 mg/kg body weight) 30 min after each treatment was administered and jugular venous blood samples were obtained periodically after the start of sucking. Abomasal emptying rate was assessed by the time to maximal plasma acetaminophen concentration. Spiramycin, tulathromycin, and the positive control erythromycin increased abomasal emptying rate compared to the negative control. We conclude that the labeled antimicrobial dose of spiramycin and tulathromycin increases the abomasal emptying rate in healthy milk-fed calves. Additional studies investigating whether spiramycin and tulathromycin exert a prokinetic effect in adult cattle with abomasal hypomotility appear indicated. PMID:24396182

  10. Serial MR findings of metaphyseal cyst in Legg-Calve-Perthes disease: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metaphyseal cysts are common findings in Lee-Calve-Perthes(LCP) disease, though usually disappear within 6-12 months several studies have described the MR imaging findings of these cysts, though serial MRI findings have not been documented. In this report, therefore, we report the serial MRI results of metaphyseal cyst in LCP patients

  11. An Outbreak of Cryptosporidiosis among Veterinary Science Students Who Work with Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiser, Gary; Preiser, Lynda; Madeo, Leslie

    2003-01-01

    The authors describe an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis among students working with calves as part of their veterinary science technology program. After an off-campus provider identified an index case, school authorities requested cryptosporidium (crypto) as part of the stool ova and parasite examination of all students presenting to the college…

  12. Initial lung lesions in two calves experimentally infected with Haemophilus somnus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, Conny; Bloch, B.; Jensen, N.E.; Jensen, H.E.

    1999-01-01

    The initial lung lesions in two calves intrabronchially inoculated with Haemophilus somnus are described. The animals were euthanized wit hin 7 h after challenge. The in situ location of H. somnus and accompanying lesions were examined by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and transmission...

  13. Candidate causative mutation on BTA18 associated with calving and conformation traits in Holstein bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complementing quantitative methods with sequence data analysis is a major goal of the post-genome era of biology. In this study, we analyzed Illumina HiSeq sequence data derived from 11 US Holstein bulls in order to identify putative causal mutations associated with calving and conformation traits. ...

  14. Calf health from birth to weaning. II. Management of diarrhoea in pre-weaned calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Ingrid

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calfhood diseases have a major impact on the economic viability of cattle operations. The second of this three part review series considers the management of diarrhoeic diseases in pre-weaned calves. In neonatal calf diarrhoea, oral rehydration therapy is the single most important therapeutic measure to be carried out by the farmer and is usually successful if instigated immediately after diarrhoea has developed. Continued feeding of milk or milk replacer to diarrhoeic calves is important, to prevent malnourishment and weight loss in affected calves. Indiscriminative antibiotic treatment of uncomplicated diarrhoea is discouraged, whereas systemically ill calves can benefit from systemic antibiotic treatment for the prevention of septicaemia or concurrent diseases. Ancillary treatments and specific preventive measures are discussed. Eimeriosis has a high economic impact on the farming industries due to direct cost of treatment and calf losses, but especially due to decreased performance of clinically as well as sub-clinically affected animals. Emphasis lies on prophylactic or metaphylactic treatment, since the degree of damage to the intestinal mucosa once diarrhoea has developed, makes therapeutic intervention unrewarding.

  15. Aberrant histone H4 acetylation in dead somatic cell-cloned calves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Zhang; Shaohua Wang; Qiang Li; Xiangdong Ding; Yunping Dai; Ning Li

    2008-01-01

    In somatic cell-cloned animals, inefficient epigenetic reprogramming can result in an inappropriate gene expression and histone H4 acetylation is one of the key epigenetic modifications regulating gene expression. In this study, we investigated the levels of histone H4 acetylation of 11 development-related genes and expression levels of 19 genes in lungs of three normal control calves and nine aber-rant somatic cell-cloned calves. The results showed that nine studied genes had decreased acetylation levels in aberrant clones (p 0.05). Whereas 13 genes had significantly decreased expression (p 0.05), and only one gene had higher expression level in clones (p < 0.05). Furthermore, FGFR, GHR, HGFR and IGF1 genes showed lowered levels of both histone H4 acetylation and expression in aberrant clones than in controls, and the level of histone H4 acetylation was even more lowered in aberrant clones than those in controls. It was suggested that the lower levels of histone H4 acetylation in aberrant clones caused by the previous memory of cell differentiation might not support enough chromatin reprogramming, thus affecting appropriate gene expressions, and growth and development of the cloned calves. To our knowledge, this is the first study on how histone H4 acetylation affects gene expression in organs of somatic cell-cloned calves.

  16. Measurement of total respiratory impedance in calves by the forced oscillation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustin, P; Dhem, A R; Lomba, F; Lekeux, P; Van de Woestijne, K P; Làndsér, F J

    1988-05-01

    We have determined the resistance (Rrs) and the reactance (Xrs) of the total respiratory system in unsedated spontaneously breathing calves at various frequencies. A pseudorandom noise pressure wave was produced at the nostrils of the animals by means of a loudspeaker adapted to the nose by a tightly fitting mask. A Fourier analysis of the pressure in the nostrils and flow signals yielded mean Rrs and Xrs, over 16 s, at frequencies of 2-26 Hz. A good correlation was found between values of pulmonary resistances measured by the isovolume method at the respiratory frequency of animals and values obtained at a frequency of 6 Hz by use of our technique. The linearity of the respiratory system, the reproducibility of the technique, and the effects of upper airways on results have been studied. In healthy calves, Rrs increases with frequency. Mean resonant frequency is 7.5 Hz. Bronchospasm was induced in six calves by administration of intravenous organophosphates. Rrs tended to decrease with increasing frequency. Resonant frequency exceeded 26 Hz. All parameters returned to initial values after administration of atropine. In healthy calves, atropine produces a decrease in Rrs, especially at low frequencies. Values of resonant frequency are not modified. PMID:3391882

  17. Study on the pathophysiology of Haemonchus contortus (Rudolph, 1803) in calves with the use of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to investigate the pathophysiology of Haemonchus contortus infection in friesian calves. The animals were divided in two groups of four calves each. One group was infected, orally, with 500 Haemonchus contortus larvae per kg body weight and the other one as the worm-free control. Five weeks after infection they were all housed in metabolic crates and injected with 125I-bovine albumin, 51Cr-red cell and 59Fe-transferrin to study the albumin metabolism, the erythokinetic and ferrokinetic. The results showed that there was a significant reduction in the mean haematocrit values and an evidence of lower weight gains over the period of experiment in the infected calves compared with the controls. There was also a change in the distribution of albumin from the extravascular to the intravascular pool and a significant increase in the plasma and blood volumes of infected calves. The study of ferrokinetic showed an increase in the iron turnover and in the rate of iron utilization in the infected group. The blood and albumin loss by the gastrointestinal tract were similar in both groups. (author)

  18. Maternal-calf relationships and their influence on calves up to 120 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoela Souza-Conde AL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To research parental behavior and measure the weight of Nelore and Guzerat calves up to 120 days of age, collecting data from birth up to the first lactation. Materials and methods. Seven different corporal positions were considered to obtain specific data for each of the following categories: time to stand (TP, time to intend to feed after standing (TPTM, weight at birth (PN, weight at 120 days (P120, and time in contact with the calf (TCC. Additionally, independent variables were also evaluated, organized by class: weight at birth (CPN, number of calvings (CNP, order of calving in relation with the herd (CLPR, time of calving (CHP, and finally, hindering to feed (CTAT. Results. There was a significant result in favor of the Nelore race over the Guzerat race. The statistical averages for Nelore and Guzerat were: Time to stand averaged 71 and 153 minutes; time to intend to feed after standing, 39 minutes for Nelore and of 114 minutes for Guzerat. For variable weight at 120 days, Nelore reached an average of 122 kg, and Guzerat 109 kg. For the time in contact with the calf variable there was no significant variance between races. Conclusions. Results showed the superiority of the Nelore race, considering it better adapted to local environmental conditions.

  19. Genetic relationships between calving performance and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.; Groen, A.F.; Carnier, P.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain estimates of genetic correlations between direct and maternal calving performance of heifers and cows and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle. Beef production traits were daily gain, live fleshiness, and bone thinness measured on 1,602 young bulls tested at

  20. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every December, for 3 years, 87 beef cows, nursing cows, (594 ' 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November) were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender. They were divided randomly into 6 groups and assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual swards (0.45 hectares/cow...

  1. CEACAM18 as candidate for the Holstein calving QTL on BTA18

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Xiaowei; Kadri, Naveen Kumar; de Koning, DirkJan;

    A genome-wide association study of Nordic Holstein cattle SNP chip genotypes and imputed next generation sequencing (NGS) variants identified carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 18 (CEACAm 18) on BTa 18 as the gene most highly significantly associated with direct calving traits...

  2. Postweaning gains in calves sired by six sire breeds evaluated under two postweaning management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postweaning ADG of 462 calves from Brangus cows and sired by 6 breeds (Bonsmara, Brangus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Romosinuano) was measured over a 4-yr period to evaluate the impact of preweaning forage, postweaning management, sire breed, and gender on postweaning gain. Preweaning forages were impro...

  3. DYNAMIC OF CHANGES OF BLOOD PLASMA ENERGY METABOLISM PARAMETERS IN SUCKLING COWS DURING CALVING INTERVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Pavlik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effect of environmental condition changes during gazing period on energy metabolism parameters was investigated. Totally 40 Aberdeen Angus cows were selected for observation. Calving all of cows was situated into March. The feeding ration for the animals was comprised by pasture during the grazing period and corn silage, hay and granulated distiller’s grains during the winter period. At average age 9 days before calving, and subsequently 10, 81, 151, 189 and 273 days after calving, blood was sampled and analysed for glucose and NEFA (non-esterified fatty acid concentrations on KONELAB T20xt automatic analyser (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Finland and currently available commercial kits (Biovendor-Laboratorni medicina, Czech Republic. A rapid increase (p < 0.05 of glucose concentration was detected in blood plasma of cows in period before calving to 81 days post partum. Average value of glucose concentration at 273 days postpartum was significant (p < 0.05 lower comparing to day 189. The highest concentrations of NEFA in blood plasma of cows were found at 10 day postpartum. After that, during the persisted higher temperature period the NEFA concentration decreased significantly (p < 0.01 till 189 days postpartum. At the end of monitored period concentration of NEFA in blood plasma significantly decreased (p < 0.05. Changes of hot and cold season during the grazing period probably according to forage quality and had significant effects on blood plasma NEFA and glucose concentrations.

  4. Age at First Calving in Holstein Cattle in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heifer rearing costs account for 15 to 20% of the total expense of milk production, and the decline in fertility of U.S. Holsteins is well documented. Earlier age at first calving (AFC) may improve profitability and fertility. Records for 400,000 U.S Holstein cows born on or after January 1, 1997 we...

  5. Dominant inherited distal spinal muscular atrophy with atrophic and hypertrophic calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, R J; Sie, O G; van Weerden, T W

    1993-01-01

    The clinical, electrophysiological, radiological and morphological data of 3 members of a family with autosomal dominant distal spinal muscular atrophy (DSMA) are reported. One patient has the clinical picture of peroneal muscular atrophy with atrophic calves. His father and sister suffer from cramp

  6. Body Fat Deposition Does Not Originate from Carbohydrates in Milk-Fed Calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Lobley, G.E.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Muylaert, J.M.; Alferink, S.J.J.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Milk-fed heavy calves utilize dietary protein with a low efficiency and often develop hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Distributing the daily nutrient intake over an increasing number of meals increases protein deposition and improves glucose homeostasis. Therefore, we examined effects of feedi

  7. Parasitism level by helminths and weight gain of calves kept in organic and conventional grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable production is a principle in which we must meet the needs of the present without compromising the capacity of future generations. Despite the successful development of pesticides against endo and ectoparasites found in domestic ruminants, these parasites are still the major problem of the herbivore production system. The purpose of this study was to know the population of gastrintestinal parasites and their influence on weight gain of calves kept in organic and conventional grazing. Thus, organic and conventional calves were randomly selected in 2008 and 2009. The fecal egg count (FEC indentified the following genders of helminths: Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomum, Cooperia, Strongyloides, Trichuris and oocysts of Eimeria. There was no significant difference (p>0.05 between FEC in organic and conventional animals. Calves younger than 6 months showed significant higher infection (p<0.05 than calves between 7 and 12 months of age. The weight gain observed during the study was of 327g/day and 280g/day for conventional and organic systems animals, respectively. Consequently, the combination of sustainable practices of grazing associated with the selective application of anthelmintics may be a feasible alternative for nematode control in a conventional system and in transition to an organic one.

  8. Whole Genome Analysis of Response to BVDV2 Vaccinations in Angus Calves Using Bayesian Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to evaluate the impact of environmental factors and genetic controls on response to vaccination against bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV2) in Purebred American Angus beef cattle. This study utilized 245 Angus calves born in the spring (n = 139) and fall (n = 106) of 2...

  9. Prenatal transportation stress alters temperament and serum cortisol concentrations in suckling Brahman calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, B P; Price, D M; Banta, J P; Lewis, A W; Neuendorff, D A; Carroll, J A; Vann, R C; Welsh, T H; Randel, R D

    2016-02-01

    This experiment examined the relationship between prenatal stress and subsequent calf temperament through weaning. The prenatal stressor used was repeated transportation of pregnant Brahman cows for 2 h at 60 ± 5, 80 ± 5, 100 ± 5, 120 ± 5, and 140 ± 5 d of gestation. Prenatally stressed calves ( = 41) were compared with controls ( = 44; dams did not undergo transportation during pregnancy) from 2 wk of age until weaning (average age at weaning = 174.8 ± 1.3 d). Temperament was defined by pen score (PS; 1 = calm and 5 = excitable), exit velocity (EV; m/sec), and temperament score (TS; (PS + EV)/2) and was recorded for each calf on d -168, -140, -112, -84, -56, -28, and 0 relative to weaning (d 0 = weaning). Cortisol concentrations were determined in serum samples obtained on d -168, -140, -28, and 0 relative to weaning. Birth weight and weaning weight were not different between treatment groups ( > 0.1). Pen score was greater ( = 0.03) in prenatally stressed calves (2.84 ± 0.21) relative to controls (2.31 ± 0.21). Exit velocity was greater ( Brahman calves that were prenatally stressed were more temperamental and had greater circulating serum concentrations of cortisol than control calves. PMID:27065130

  10. Food for rumination : developing novel feeding strategies to improve the welfare of veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, L.E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of thesis entitled: “Food for Rumination – Developing novel feeding strategies to improve the welfare of veal calves”, Laura Webb Veal calves are typically fed high levels of milk replacer supplemented with solid feed, which tends to contain a relatively small roughage comp

  11. Sodium zeolite A supplementation and its impact on the skeleton of dairy calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty calves were placed on study at three days of age, and were placed according to birth order into one of two groups: SS, which received 0.05% BW sodium zeolite A (SZA) added to their milk replacer and CO, which received only milk replacer. Blood samples were taken on d 0, 30, and 60 for osteoca...

  12. Invited review: Environmental enrichment of dairy cows and calves in indoor housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, R; Whay, H R; Klement, E; Nicol, C J

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of farmers are choosing to keep their cows indoors throughout the year. Indoor housing of cows allows farmers to provide high-yielding individuals with a nutritionally balanced diet fit for their needs, and it has important welfare benefits for both cows and their calves, such as protection from predators, parasites, and exposure to extreme weather conditions. However, it also confronts cows and calves with a wide range of environmental challenges. These include abiotic environmental sources of stress (e.g., exposure to loud and aversive sound) and confinement-specific stressors (e.g., restricted movement and maintenance in abnormal social groups). Cows and calves that live indoors are also faced with the challenge of occupying long periods with a limited range of possible behavioral patterns. Environmental enrichment can improve biological functioning (measured as increased lifetime reproductive success, increased inclusive fitness, or a correlate of these such as improved health), help animals to cope with stressors in their surroundings, reduce frustration, increase the fulfillment of behavioral needs, and promote more positive affective states. Here, we review recent findings on the effect of social, occupational, physical, sensory, and nutritional enrichment on dairy cows and calves, and we assess the appropriateness and practicality of implementing different enrichment practices on commercial dairy farms. Some of the enrichment methods reviewed here may also be applied to those more extensive cattle-raising systems, where similar challenges occur. PMID:26774729

  13. Redistribution of calving caribou in response to oil field development on the Arctic slope of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerial surveys were conducted annually in June 1978-87 near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, to determine changes in the distribution of calving caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) that accompanied petroleum-related development. With construction of an oil field access road through a calving concentration area, mean caribou density (no./km2) decreased from 1.41 to 0.31 within 1 km and increased from 1.41 to 4.53, 5-6 km from the road. Concurrently, relative caribou use of the adjacent area declined apparently in response to increasing surface development. It is suggested that perturbed distribution associated with roads reduced the capacity of the nearby area to sustain parturient females and that insufficient spacing of roads may have depressed overall calving activity. Use of traditional calving grounds and of certain areas therein appears to favor calf survival, principally through lower predation risk and improved foraging conditions. Given the possible loss of those habitats through displacement and the crucial importance of the reproductive process, a cautious approach to petroleum development on the Arctic Slope is warranted. 37 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Control of Boophilus microplus ticks in cattle calves by immunization with a recombinant Bm86 glucoprotein antigen preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf-Allah, S S

    1999-06-01

    Forty Egyptian native cattle calves of 4-6 months old randomly allocated into two groups of twenty animals each were used to assess the effect of immunization of animals with a recombinant Bm86 antigen derived from Boophilus microplus ticks on induction of immunity that could protect calves during tick season. The immunization protocol involved two injections administered intramuscularly, the first was applied with complete Freund's adjuvant and the second was given with incomplete Freund's adjuvant two months later. Control calves were given saline plus adjuvant. Immunization reduced the number of adult ticks developing from a subsequent challenge infestation by 78% in immunized calves. Vaccination also, significantly reduced the weight of adult ticks in immunized calves (30.51%). The results of skin delayed hypersensitivity reaction revealed that the diameter of sites injected with the recombinant Bm86 antigen was significantly larger in immunized calves than those in controls. Analysis of the immune response indicated that there was a significant increase in the level of IgG and IgA antibodies in serum of immunized calves and protection from reinfestation was correlated with the levels of circulating antibodies. PMID:10422372

  15. Investigations of presence of antibodies against bovine herpesvirus-1 in blood serum of calves prior to colostrum diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Sava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigations of the presence of the bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1 in samples of blood serum from 106 cows and 107 of their calves (one cow had twins. Blood was sampled from the cows immediately after parturition, and from the calves before feeding on colostrum. The examined cows and their calves originated from 5 herds in which previous investigations had shown infection with the bovine herpesvirus-1. The determination of antibodies against BHV-1 was performed using the method of virus neutralization in culture of MDBK cells with 100 TCID/50 viruses (BHV-1, TN-41 Am. Bio Research, USA. Antibodies against BHV-1 were determined in all blood serum samples of cows and in 16 samples of precolostral blood serums of calves. The antibody titer values in cows ranged from 1:4 to 1:512, and in calves the determined values were from 1:2 to 1:16. The results indicate that cows that are seropositive to BHV-1 can deliver calves seropositive to BHV-1 in about 15% cases. This must be kept in mind in selecting cows for the production of breeding material, in particular bulls for reproduction centers, as well as in making a programme for the immunoprophylaxis of calves against BHV-1. .

  16. Immunoglobulin concentration in blood serum of postcolostral calves: Ratio between immunoglobulin level and appearance of enzootic pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonić Branko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The timely supply of newborn calves with optimal quantities of colostrum has a key role in the process of immune protection in the early phase of their lives. Passively acquired antibodies can protect the digestive organs from infection caused by E.coli bacteria, and it seems also from the appearance of diseases of the respiratory tract. These examinations were performed on a cattle farm where bronchopneumonia was one of the most significant health problems, and a group of 39 calves were selected for the investigations. The calves were fed with their mothers’ colostrum after birth, and then with collective milk. Immunoglobulin concentration was determined in blood samples taken during the postcolostral period, with the method using zinc-sulphate. At the age of 40 days, the calves were administered a polyvalent inactivated vaccine, and revaccinated 20 days after that (Vibak, Veterinary Department Subotica. In 74.34% calves, the immunoglobulin G concentration ranged from 26 to 40 g/l. In 25.66% calves, the immunoglobulin concentration was lower, from 8 to 25 g/l. The calves found to have a lower concentration of immunoglobulin in blood contracted bronchopneumonia more frequently, and the outcome of the disease in some cases was mortality, even.

  17. Comparison of video and direct observation methods for measuring oral behaviour in veal calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Verga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring behaviour, especially oral behaviour, has always been a debated issue: therefore the aim of this paper is to closely examine the study of oral behaviour in calves and the approaching methodology. Behavioural observations were conducted by two media (direct observations by check sheets and indirect observations by videotapes recorded by cam- eras connected to a digital field switcher and a time-lapse video recorder in order to compare data and assess the reli- ability and validity of the two methods in identifying some oral behavioural patterns in calves. The study was carried out on 54 Polish Friesian calves housed in group pens and in individual crates. The behaviour of the calves was investigated during the fattening period on the 2nd, 7th, 13th, 18th and 23rd week, one hour before and one hour after each of the two meals. Two experienced observers checked the behaviour of the calves, including oral behaviours on structures and buckets and oral stereotypies, by direct observations using a scan sampling every 2 min- utes. The calves' behaviour was also video recorded on the same days in which the direct observations were carried out and analysed by the same two observers. Percentages of time spent on each type of behaviour were calculated and anal- ysed by Chi-square test. Regardless of the housing system, the comparison between direct and indirect observations revealed significant differences in almost every behavioural category. Licking, biting and nibbling structures, nibbling and sucking the bucket, playing with the bucket and the teat, chewing and oral stereotypies were significantly higher in direct observations compared to indirect (P < 0.001, while inactivity was higher in video recorded observations (P < 0.001. In conclusion, regardless of the type of housing, our results revealed an objective difficulty in analysing videotapes with very detailed behavioural categories, like oral behaviours. Although video recording can

  18. Is it Beneficial to Inseminate Cow Early after Calving in smallholder Dairy Herds?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insemination of cows after calving is often more prolonged than recommended by the extension service in the smallholder dairy herds. The rationale behind the practice is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate through simulation, the potential benefits of implementing early insemination of cows after calving as recommended by the extension. The simulation was based on a reference herd reflecting an average performing smallholder dairy herd in the Kiambu peri-urban area. Data inputs displaying collapsed lactation curve were obtained from the National Dairy Development Project reports. The study used a dynamic stochastic model designed for on-farm decision support in dairying which can be modified to farm specific situation. Simulations was performed till steady state was derived reflecting the reproductive and productivity which corresponds with the estimated input and output variable of the reference herd. This form the basic situation in which insemination is on 165 days after calving. This resulted in 465 days calving interval (CI), and on annual basis 2355 kg milk per cow, 2.7 calvings, 25.8% culling rates giving gross margins of Ksh. 14,933 per cow. Compare to the basic situation, inseminating cows on day 105 after calving (60 days earlier) improved the annual gross margins per cow by Ksh 1060. The improved gross margins resulted from Shortened CI by 41 days, increased annual calvings in the herd by 0.1, increased milk production by 74 kg per cow annually and reduce culling rate by 4.8% annually. The resultant effect of these did offset the increased costs of feeding which was Ksh 473 and 11 per cow annually for the concentrates and Napier, respectively. The results showed that early insemination has potential economic benefits to smallholders. Implementing early insemination decisions need consider the investment feeding. The study showed that it is difficult to get a replacement heifer at the present level of reproductive performance in

  19. Effect of different forage sources on performance and feeding behavior of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Ll; Bach, A; Araujo, G; Montoro, C; Terré, M

    2012-01-01

    One hundred seventy-nine Holstein male calves [44.7 kg of body weight (BW) and 8.3 d of age] participated in a series of 3 experiments to evaluate the effect of different forage sources on performance, apparent digestibility, and feeding behavior. Animals in each study were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 different dietary treatments: control (CON) calves were fed starter feed without any forage provision (this treatment was repeated in each of the 3 experiments), and the 2 other treatments consisted of the same starter feed plus a forage source: chopped alfalfa (AH) or rye-grass hay (RH) in the first study; chopped oat hay (OH) or chopped barley straw (BS) in the second study; corn silage (CS) or triticale silage (TS) in the third study. All calves were offered 2L of milk replacer (MR) at 12.5% dry matter (DM) twice daily via a bottle until 50 d of age, and 2L of MR at 12.5% DM during the week before weaning (57 d of age). The study finished when calves were 71 d old. Starter feed, MR, and forage intakes were recorded daily and BW weekly. Calves were individually housed and bedded with wood shavings. Compared with CON, animals receiving OH, TS, and BS consumed more starter feed (0.88 vs. 1.14, 1.17, 1.06 kg/d, respectively) and had greater average daily gain (0.72 vs. 0.93, 0.88, 0.88 kg/d, respectively). Animals in treatments RH, BS, CS, and TS consumed less forage (51 g/d) than AH (120 g/d) and OH (101 g/d) calves. Apparent organic matter, DM, and neutral detergent fiber digestibilities did not differ among treatments (81.5, 81.1, and 54.4%, respectively). Apparent crude protein digestibility was greater in RH, CS, and AH treatments than in CON (80.5 vs. 76.4%, respectively). Compared with CON calves, animals in the AH treatment spent less time eating starter feed and lying, animals in AH and RH treatments spent more time ruminating, with odds ratios (OR) of 5.24 and 5.40, respectively. The AH and RH calves devoted less time to performing nonnutritive oral behaviors

  20. Nutrient digestibility of veal calves fed large amounts of different solid feeds during the first 80 days of fattening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Brscic

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at evaluating nutrients apparent digestibility in veal calves fed 3 feeding plans based on milk-replacer plus large amounts of solid feeds differing in their composition during the first 80 days of fattening. Twelve Polish Friesian male calves (70.6±1.9 kg were randomly assigned to one of the following feeding treatments: i milk-replacer plus corn grain (CG; ii milk-replacer plus 80:20 mixture (as fed basis of corn grain and wheat straw (CGS; and iii milk-replacer plus 72:20:8 mixture of corn grain, wheat straw and extruded soybean (CGSES. Calves received the same milk-replacer but the daily amount was restricted (96% for CGSES calves to balance dietary protein. Total dry matter intake from milk-replacer and solid feeds was similar among treatments, but CGSES calves showed better growth performance than CG ones. Calves were introduced into a metabolism stall (1/pen during week 9 of fattening for a 3- day adaptation period and a 4-day digestibility trial. Calves fed CG showed the greatest DM, NFC, and ash digestibility while CGSES calves showed the lowest CP digestibility. Haemoglobin concentrations measured at day 5, 31 and 80 were similar among feeding treatments and significantly decreased over time. In CGSES treatment, the combination of milkreplacer with solid feed closer to a complete diet for ruminants led to better calves’ growth performance. However, the reduced protein digestibility with CGSES indicates that protein quality becomes a key factor when formulating diets for veal calves using alternatives to dairy sources.

  1. Chopped or long roughage: what do calves prefer? Using cross point analysis of double demand functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Webb

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to quantify calves' (Bos taurus preference for long versus chopped hay and straw, and hay versus straw, using cross point analysis of double demand functions, in a context where energy intake was not a limiting factor. Nine calves, fed milk replacer and concentrate, were trained to work for roughage rewards from two simultaneously available panels. The cost (number of muzzle presses required on the panels varied in each session (left panel/right panel: 7/35, 14/28, 21/21, 28/14, 35/7. Demand functions were estimated from the proportion of rewards achieved on one panel relative to the total number of rewards achieved in one session. Cross points (cp were calculated as the cost at which an equal number of rewards was achieved from both panels. The deviation of the cp from the midpoint (here 21 indicates the strength of the preference. Calves showed a preference for long versus chopped hay (cp = 14.5; P = 0.004, and for hay versus straw (cp = 38.9; P = 0.004, both of which improve rumen function. Long hay may stimulate chewing more than chopped hay, and the preference for hay versus straw could be related to hedonic characteristics. No preference was found for chopped versus long straw (cp = 20.8; P = 0.910. These results could be used to improve the welfare of calves in production systems; for example, in systems where calves are fed hay along with high energy concentrate, providing long hay instead of chopped could promote roughage intake, rumen development, and rumination.

  2. Prevalence of calves coccidiosis in Jimma town dairy farms, South-Western Ethiopia

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    Tadele Kabeta Yadeessa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A cross- sectional study was conducted from October 2009 to March 2010 on Jimma town dairy farms to determine the prevalence of Calves coccidian and assess associated risk factors. Faecal samples were collected once from a total of 385 calves range from 5-365 days old and examined for the oocysts of Eimeria species by centrifugal faecal flotation technique using concentrated sucrose solution. Out result revealed that overall prevalence of 198(51.42% Eimeria species. Of the 53 dairies sampled, almost all of the farms had calves shedding Eimeria oocysts. The species of Eimeria circulating in the farms was presumed to be based on morphology of the oocysts and certain epidemiological features of the Eimeria, a total of 8 species were identified namely Eimeria bovis 94(24.4%, Eimeria zuernii 58(15.1%, Eimeria auburnensis 56(14.6%, Eimeria Canadensis 53(13.8%, Eimeria ellipsoidalis 28(7.3%, Eimeria subspherica 22(5.7%, Eimeria cylindrical 20(5.2% and Eimeria alabamensis 16(4.2% in descending order of their relative prevalence. Eimeria species were not found to be statistically associated with faecal consistency, breed and sex (P>0.05. Among the risk factors studied, hygiene status and age of the calves were the most important factors associated with the possibility of infection with diseases. The mean and maximum Eimeria oocysts per gram of faeces (OPG determined by using McMaster technique was 100 and 24,000, respectively. Coccidiosis is a common and important cause of morbidity and economical loss in calves in study areas. Hence appropriate disease prevention and control measure is paramount importance to reduce these impacts.

  3. Serological detection of infection dynamics for respiratory viruses among dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Pelin; Yeşilbağ, Kadir

    2015-11-18

    The aim of this study is to reveal infection dynamics of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (PI-3), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAV-3) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV), which are important viral pathogens of respiratory disease complex in ruminants. Through such an analysis, the regression period of maternally derived antibodies and optimum vaccination time in calves can be recommended. A total of 10 farms were grouped as large (4)-, medium (2)- and small (4)- sized enterprises according to their animal population. Newborn calves (n: 94) delivered during a calendar month on the farms were studied. Blood samples were collected from these calves during their 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th months of age. Blood samples were also taken from their dams during the first sampling. Neutralizing antibody titers were detected using the serum neutralization test (SN50). New PI-3 and BVDV infections at the early stages of life were determined in the calves. Maternal antibodies began to decrease in the 2nd month for BRSV, BHV-1 and BAV-3 (97.8%, 25.5% and 91.4%) and in the 3rd month for PI-3, BVDV and BCoV (85.1%, 67% and 93.6%). It was concluded that maternal antibodies begin to decrease after the 1st month and that the possible first exposure of calves to respiratory viruses is after the 2nd month. Therefore, it is recommended that the first vaccination program including prime and booster doses can be applied between 2 and 4 months of age. Furthermore, re-vaccination of animals at 6 months after the booster dose is also suggested. PMID:26380946

  4. Effect of feeding selenium-fertilized alfalfa hay on performance of weaned beef calves.

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    Jean A Hall

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient in cattle, and Se-deficiency can affect morbidity and mortality. Calves may have greater Se requirements during periods of stress, such as during the transitional period between weaning and movement to a feedlot. Previously, we showed that feeding Se-fertilized forage increases whole-blood (WB Se concentrations in mature beef cows. Our current objective was to test whether feeding Se-fertilized forage increases WB-Se concentrations and performance in weaned beef calves. Recently weaned beef calves (n = 60 were blocked by body weight, randomly assigned to 4 groups, and fed an alfalfa hay based diet for 7 wk, which was harvested from fields fertilized with sodium-selenate at a rate of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha. Blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for WB-Se concentrations. Body weight and health status of calves were monitored during the 7-wk feeding trial. Increasing application rates of Se fertilizer resulted in increased alfalfa hay Se content for that cutting of alfalfa (0.07, 0.95, 1.55, 3.26 mg Se/kg dry matter for Se application rates of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha, respectively. Feeding Se-fertilized alfalfa hay during the 7-wk preconditioning period increased WB-Se concentrations (P Linear<0.001 and body weights (P Linear = 0.002 depending upon the Se-application rate. Based upon our results we suggest that soil-Se fertilization is a potential management tool to improve Se-status and performance in weaned calves in areas with low soil-Se concentrations.

  5. Experimental Infection of Calves by Two Genetically-Distinct Strains of Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William C.; Davis, A. Sally; Gaudreault, Natasha N.; Faburay, Bonto; Trujillo, Jessie D.; Shivanna, Vinay; Sunwoo, Sun Young; Balogh, Aaron; Endalew, Abaineh; Ma, Wenjun; Drolet, Barbara S.; Ruder, Mark G.; Morozov, Igor; McVey, D. Scott; Richt, Juergen A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of Rift Valley fever in ruminant livestock, characterized by mass abortion and high mortality rates in neonates, have raised international interest in improving vaccine control strategies. Previously, we developed a reliable challenge model for sheep that improves the evaluation of existing and novel vaccines in sheep. This sheep model demonstrated differences in the pathogenesis of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infection between two genetically-distinct wild-type strains of the virus, Saudi Arabia 2001 (SA01) and Kenya 2006 (Ken06). Here, we evaluated the pathogenicity of these two RVFV strains in mixed breed beef calves. There was a transient increase in rectal temperatures with both virus strains, but this clinical sign was less consistent than previously reported with sheep. Three of the five Ken06-infected animals had an early-onset viremia, one day post-infection (dpi), with viremia lasting at least three days. The same number of SA01-infected animals developed viremia at 2 dpi, but it only persisted through 3 dpi in one animal. The average virus titer for the SA01-infected calves was 1.6 logs less than for the Ken06-infected calves. Calves, inoculated with either strain, seroconverted by 5 dpi and showed time-dependent increases in their virus-neutralizing antibody titers. Consistent with the results obtained in the previous sheep study, elevated liver enzyme levels, more severe liver pathology and higher virus titers occurred with the Ken06 strain as compared to the SA01 strain. These results demonstrate the establishment of a virulent challenge model for vaccine evaluation in calves. PMID:27223298

  6. Longitudinal study on morbidity and mortality in white veal calves in Belgium

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    Pardon Bart

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality and morbidity are hardly documented in the white veal industry, despite high levels of antimicrobial drug use and resistance. The objective of the present study was to determine the causes and epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in dairy, beef and crossbred white veal production. A total of 5853 calves, housed in 15 production cohorts, were followed during one production cycle. Causes of mortality were determined by necropsy. Morbidity was daily recorded by the producers. Results The total mortality risk was 5,3% and was significantly higher in beef veal production compared to dairy or crossbreds. The main causes of mortality were pneumonia (1.3% of the calves at risk, ruminal disorders (0.7%, idiopathic peritonitis (0.5%, enterotoxaemia (0.5% and enteritis (0.4%. Belgian Blue beef calves were more likely to die from pneumonia, enterotoxaemia and arthritis. Detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus at necropsy was associated with chronic pneumonia and pleuritis. Of the calves, 25.4% was treated individually and the morbidity rate was 1.66 cases per 1000 calf days at risk. The incidence rate of respiratory disease, diarrhea, arthritis and otitis was 0.95, 0.30, 0.11 and 0.07 cases per 1000 calf days at risk respectively. Morbidity peaked in the first three weeks after arrival and gradually declined towards the end of the production cycle. Conclusions The present study provided insights into the causes and epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in white veal calves in Belgium, housed in the most frequent housing system in Europe. The necropsy findings, identified risk periods and differences between production systems can guide both veterinarians and producers towards the most profitable and ethical preventive and therapeutic protocols.

  7. Gastrointestinal nematode infection and performance of weaned stocker calves in response to anthelmintic control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R S; Miller, J E; Monlezun, C J; LaMay, D; Navarre, C; Ensley, D

    2013-10-18

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasite control recommendations are in a state of flux because of the increase in anthelmintic resistant cattle parasites, such as Cooperia spp. In addition, Cooperia spp. infection is typically high in warm-season grass pastures and can affect growth performance of grazing stocker calves in the Gulf Coast Region. This study evaluated the effects of moxidectin pour-on, oxfendazole oral suspension, or a combination of the two given at separate times on infection and performance of weaned beef calves grazing summer forages. Steers (n=42) and heifers (n=31) were stratified by sex, d-11 fecal egg count (FEC), and d-1 shrunk body weight (BW) to one of 10 pastures with four anthelmintic treatments and one control. Treatments included: (1) oxfendazole given on d 0 and moxidectin on d 73 (O+M), (2) moxidectin given on d 0 and oxfendazole on d 73 (M+O), (3) moxidectin given on d 0 (M), (4) oxfendazole given on d 0 (O) and (5) no anthelmintic given (CON). Calves grazed for d-110 beginning May 27th. Response variables were FEC (collected on d-11, 14, 31, 45, 59, 73, 87 and 108), coprocultures (evaluated for d 87 and 108), final shrunk BW, shrunk BW gain, average daily gain (ADG), and full BW gain (collected on d 31, 59, 73, 87, and 108). Calves treated with either oxfendazole (O+M and O) or moxidectin (M+O and M) on d 0 had significantly lower (Pparasite control and improve animal gains for stocker calves grazing warm-season grass pastures. PMID:23953143

  8. Effects of the supplementation with yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae) on weight gain and development of water buffalo calves

    OpenAIRE

    García, N.; Medina, S.; J. F. Ramírez

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a commercial yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on weight gain and development of buffalo calves from water buffalo herd in north of Colombia. The buffalo calves (age: 71,12 +/- 22 days old) were randomly assigned to one of two treatments, during 45 days. One group (n=13) received 50 gr/day of commercial product of yeast and the other group (n = 13) don’t received yeast. The buffalo calves grazed in same pastures under sam...

  9. Evaluation of the effects of treating dairy cows with meloxicam at calving on retained fetal membranes risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Nathalie C.; Renaud, David; Tremblay, Robert; Duffield, Todd F.

    2014-01-01

    Some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increase the risk of retained fetal membranes. This is the first study to investigate the effects of meloxicam on the risk of retained fetal membranes. Administration of meloxicam to dairy cattle immediately following calving revealed no differences in the incidence of retained fetal membranes between meloxicam-treated and untreated animals. There was no difference between the 2 groups in the incidence of periparturient diseases following calving. Meloxicam can be used on the day of calving in lactating cows without increasing the risk of retained fetal membranes. PMID:25477550

  10. Extracorporeal irradiation of calves blood. Effects on: the lymphocytes, the blood-platelet function, seric proteins, and fibrinogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper reports the results obtained after extracorporeal irradiation of circulating blood of calves. Animals are divided in 3 groups as follows: - control animals: blood circulation without irradiation; - calves which received 40000 rads during 24 hours of continuous irradiation; - calves which received the same dose, during a period of 5 days (5 hours every day). The more interesting results are: - the early lymphopenia which persists for 7 or 8 weeks and may be in relationship with the change of immunoglobulins; - a constant hyperfibrinemia (12 g/l) never reported, as far as we know, by authors using I.E.C. Several hypothesis are advanced to explain this phenomenon. (authors)

  11. Lipid profile of commercial beef cuts from grazing, suckling calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas, Karin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to determine the contents of fat, cholesterol and fatty acids of eight beef cuts from unsupplemented, suckling, 7-8 month old male and female calves reared on permanent pastures in the VIIth Region of Chile by small cattle producers. A total of 54 animals with a mean carcass weight of 150 ± 22 kg were slaughtered in a commercial abattoir on three different dates during the month of March, 2008. Five samples of each of eight cuts were collected at random as they exited the abattoir, cooled and packed following industry practices. Beef cuts were selected based on an earlier, unreplicated analysis of 21 common cuts, to represent a wide range of cuts currently available to consumers. Large and significant differences were observed in fat content with a mean of 2.12%, ranging between 4.23% for sirloin strip and 0.68% for butcher’s roast. The cholesterol content did not differ between cuts (mean 44.7 mg/100 mg meat and was unrelated to fat percentage. A stringent discriminant analysis of the fatty acid profiles detected highly significant differences between cuts and correctly classified 37 of the 40 samples. The n6:n3 ratio did not differ between cuts and ranged between 1.9 for sirloin strip and 2.6 for rib roast and silverside’s end. Significant differences between cuts were detected for most fatty acids, and for the atherogenicity index. Nevertheless, the latter only varied between 0.60 and 1.07 for topside and sirloin strip respectively. The results are compared with literature values. Notwithstanding differences between cuts, all beef samples were lean and had lipid profiles compatible with human health as part of a balanced diet.El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar el contenido de grasa, colesterol y perfil de ácidos grasos de ocho cortes provenientes de terneros lactantes, de 7-8 meses de edad y engordados en prados permanentes de la VII Region de Chile, por productores pequeños. Se

  12. Effect of weaning stress, housing system and probiotics supplementation on cortisol, thyroid activity and productive performance of sucker camel calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The weaning process has been identified as associated with potential psychological, nutritional and physiological stressors on both dam and her young. These stressors are often stressful for the young. Ten sucker camel calves were weaned using calf-dam on and suckling off weaning system (calves were kept with their dams at all times during weaning process and prevented from suckling) under two housing systems, 6 calves in group housing system (G) and 4 calves in individually housing system (I). Half of calves in each housing system were supplemented with probiotics (treated, P), while the other was not-supplemented with probiotics (control, C). This study was carried out at Maryout Research Station of the Desert Research Center, 35 km to southwest of Alexandria, Egypt. Calves were weaned at 280 days of age with initial live body weight (LBW) of 236.76±0.224 kg. The duration of the study was 35 days and divided into five weeks; one week served as pre-weaning followed by four weeks served as post-weaning period (calves were in treatments). Calves and their dams were used to estimate the effects of weaning stress, housing systems (group, G vs. individually, I) and probiotics supplementation on the productive performance, cortisol (COR) and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) concentrations of camel calves (Camelus dromedaries). No measurements were done on the dams. The results indicated that, regardless the effect of housing system and Abdel-Fattah et al., J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 4(B) (2011) 1292 probiotics supplementation, weaning stress declined LBW -0.89% at d7 post weaning. Concerned housing system effect, group-housed calves and individually-housed calves lost -0.36 and -1.43% of their body weights, respectively on d7 post-weaning and they recovered their weaning weight (d0) on d14 post-weaning period (2.45 and 0.57%). Neither group housing system nor probiotics supplementation prevented the weight lost resulted by weaning stress during the first week

  13. Blocking opioid receptors alters short-term feed intake and oro-sensorial preferences in weaned calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, C; Ipharraguerre, I R; Bach, A

    2012-05-01

    Opioid peptides may participate in the control of feed intake through mechanisms involving pleasure reward linked to consumption of palatable feed. The objective of this study was to determine whether blocking opioid receptors might void oro-sensorial preferences of calves, and affect circulating glucose, insulin, and anorexigenic hormones in fasted and fed calves. Two experiments involved 32 Holstein calves [body weight (BW)=86.5±1.73 kg, age=72±0.6 d]. In experiment 1, all calves received an ad libitum choice of the same feed either unflavored or flavored with a sweetener (Luctarom SFS-R, Lucta, Montornès del Vallès, Spain). Feed consumption was recorded every 2 h from 0800 to 1400 h for 3 consecutive days to verify the establishment of an oro-sensorial preference for sweet feed (SF). The SF was preferred over the control feed (CF) at all recorded times. In experiment 2, calves were subjected to a 2 × 2 factorial design to study the interaction between opioid activity and metabolic state. Half of the calves were fasted for 14 h (FAS), whereas the other half remained well fed (FED). Within each of these groups, at feeding time (0800 h), half of the calves received an i.v. injection of naloxone (NAL, an opioid receptor antagonist; 1 mg/kg of BW) and the other half was injected with saline solution (SAL; 0.9% NaCl). Therefore, treatments were FED-NAL, FED-SAL, FAS-NAL, and FAS-SAL. Blood samples were taken at -10, 20, 180, and 240 min relative to NAL or SAL injections. As expected, cumulative consumption of starter feed was greater in FAS than in FED calves. Total feed consumption 2 h after feeding was lower in NAL than in SAL calves. Calves in the FAS group did not discern between CF and SF during the first 4 h after feed offer. Preference for SF was greater in SAL than in NAL calves. Calves in the FED-SAL treatment preferred SF at 2 and 6 h after feed offer and tended to prefer SF at 4 h after feeding. However, FED-NAL calves did not discern between SF and CF

  14. [Cryptosporidiosis in newborn calves in Ankara region: clinical, haematological findings and treatment with Lasalocid-NA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahal, M; Karaer, Z; Yasa Duru, S; Cizmeci, S; Tanyel, B

    2005-06-01

    In the first part of the present study, a total of 109 faeces samples collected from calves suffering from diarrhoea were examined for Cryptosporidium parvum oocytes and 39 (35.8%) of them were found to be positive. On the basis of oocyte counts, 14 (36%) samples were assessed as mildly infected and 25 (64%) samples as heavily infected. The occurrence of the disease was more common in winter (56.4%) than during other seasons (autuma 0%, summer 15.4% spring 28.2%. In the present study, the ionophore polyetherantibiotic Lasalocid-Na, that is licensed as a feed additive (Bovatec, 15% Lasalocid-Na, Roche AG) in Turkey, was administered to 11 calves naturally infected with Cryptosporidium and its therapeutic effect was evaluated. Lasalocid-Na (8 mg/ kg BW) was given once daily for 3 days added to the milk. The clinical parameters of infected calves were evaluated before and 3 days after the treatment in 24 hour intervals. The oocyst counts of faeces of calves with cryptosporidiosis were between 15 x 10(6) and 96 x 10(6)/mL before treatment. No oocystes were found in faecal samples of 3 calves (27.3%) after 48 hours and 4 (40%) calves after 72 hours of treatment, respectively. The number of oocytes in the faeces of the remaining calves varied between 90 and 1.2 x 10(6)/mL during the respective period. The number of oocystes before treatment was significantly higher than the number of oocytes after treatment. One of the calves died 56 h after the first treatment despite the treatment. The pH of venous blood was decreased prior to treatment as expected. The lowest pH was 6.83, the lowest bicarbonate concentration was 3.80 mmol/l and the lowest base excess was -31.2 mmol/l. After the treatment, pH, pCO2, HCO3- and BE values of the venous blood increased significantly and reached physiological values before discharge. The differences between the values assessed before the treatment and at the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th sampling time were statistically significant. Number of leucocyte

  15. The influence of age and weaning on permeability of the gastrointestinal tract in Holstein bull calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, K M; Palmer, S I; Steele, M A; Metcalf, J A; Penner, G B

    2015-10-01

    Fourteen Holstein bull calves were used in a randomized complete block design to investigate the effect of calf age and weaning on permeability of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: (1) a weaning protocol that was initiated on d 35; WN; n=7), or (2) a control treatment where calves were not weaned (CON; n=7). Calves were bottle-fed milk replacer (150 g/L), in 3 equal portions/d targeting 15% of their body weight (BW) in liquid milk intake [approximately 21.1g/kg of BW/d, dry matter (DM) basis]. On d 35, the amount of milk replacer offered to WN calves was reduced to 7.5% of BW for 7 d before calves were weaned on d 42. On d 14, 28, and 42, calves were orally dosed with 500 mL of Cr-EDTA (179 mM Cr-EDTA solution) and housed in a metabolism crate to enable total urine collection and determination of total urinary Cr recovery as an indicator of total-tract permeability. On d 44, calves were killed and tissues from the rumen, omasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and proximal and distal colon were collected, rinsed, and transported in buffer solution (pH 7.4 at 38.5°C). Tissues were incubated in Ussing chambers under short-circuit conditions with buffer solutions designed to mimic the mucosal and serosal energy source that would be available in vivo (glucose for tissues from the small intestine and short-chain fatty acids for tissues that would be exposed to fermentation; rumen, omasum, and large intestinal tissues). The serosal to mucosal flux of (14)C-mannitol and (3)H-inulin was measured for each region. Although we detected treatment × period interactions for BW and starter intake, dietary treatments did not differ within a week. Overall, the time that ruminal pH was <5.5 was less before weaning than after weaning. We observed a differential response for the appearance of Cr in urine for WN and CON calves, where the appearance of Cr (mg/48 h) in urine decreased for both treatments from d 14 to 28, but

  16. Effects of fractionated colostrum replacer and vitamins A, D, and E on haptoglobin and clinical health in neonatal Holstein calves challenged with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, L A; Reinhardt, T A; Beitz, D C; Stuart, R L; Stabel, J R

    2016-04-01

    Thirty Holstein calves were obtained from 2 dairy farms in central Iowa at birth and randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatment groups: (1) colostrum deprived (CD), no vitamins; (2) colostrum replacer (CR), no vitamins; (3) CR, vitamin A; (4) CR, vitamin D3; (5) CR, vitamin E; and (6) CR, vitamins A, D3, E, with 5 calves per treatment in a 14-d study. Calves were fed pasteurized whole milk (CD) or fractionated colostrum replacer (CR) at birth (d 0) and injected with vitamins according to treatment group. From d 1 through d 14 of the study, all calves were fed pasteurized whole milk (PWM) supplemented with vitamins as assigned. All calves were inoculated with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis on d 1 and 3 of age. Calves fed CR acquired IgG1 and haptoglobin in serum within 24 h of birth, whereas CD calves did not. The CR-fed calves were 2.5 times less likely to develop scours, and CR calves supplemented with vitamins D3 and E also demonstrated a decreased incidence of scours. Serum vitamin levels of A, D, and E increased within treatment group by d 7 and 14 of the study. Interestingly, synergistic effects of supplemental vitamins A, D3, and E on serum 25-(OH)-vitamin D were observed at d 7, resulting in higher levels than in calves administered vitamin D only. Further, vitamin D3 deficiency was observed in CD and CR calves fed a basal diet of pasteurized whole milk and no supplemental vitamins. Colonization of tissues with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis was negligible and was not affected by colostrum feeding or vitamin supplementation. Results demonstrated passive transfer of haptoglobin to neonatal calves, and potential health benefits of supplemental vitamins D3 and E to calves fed pasteurized whole milk. PMID:26805975

  17. Occurrence of dermatomycosis (ringworm) due to Trichophyton verrucosum in dairy calves and its spread to animal attendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabacha, J K; Gitau, G K; Bebora, L C; Bwanga, C O; Wamuri, Z M; Mbithi, P M

    1998-12-01

    Persistent dermatomycosis (ringworm) caused by Trichophyton verrucosum affected 20 dairy calves aged between 3 months and 1 year and housed together. The infection also spread to 2 animal attendants working among the calves. The major clinical lesions observed on the affected calves were extensive alopecia and/or circumscribed thick hairless skin patches affecting the head, neck, flanks and limbs. The observed lesions persisted for more than 17 weeks and most of the calves did not respond to topical treatment with various anti-fungal drugs within the anticipated period of 9 weeks. Two animal attendants developed skin lesions that were circumscribed and itchy and there was good response to treatment following the application of anti-fungal skin ointment. Although ringworm in dairy animals in Kenya has not previously been associated with spread to humans, the potential is evident from this report. PMID:10192093

  18. Occurrence of dermatomycosis (ringworm due to Trichophyton verrucosumin dairy calves and its spread to animal attendants : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Wabacha

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Persistent dermatomycosis (ringworm caused by Trichophyton verrucosum affected 20 dairy calves aged between 3 months and 1 year and housed together. The infection also spread to 2 animal attendants working among the calves. The major clinical lesions observed on the affected calves were extensive alopecia and/or circumscribed thick hairless skin patches affecting the head, neck, flanks and limbs. The observed lesions persisted for more than 17 weeks and most of the calves did not respond to topical treatment with various anti-fungal drugs within the anticipated period of 9 weeks. Two animal attendants developed skin lesions that were circumscribed and itchy and there was good response to treatment following the application of anti-fungal skin ointment. Although ringworm in dairy animals in Kenya has not previously been associated with spread to humans, the potential is evident from this report.

  19. Step-wise changes in glacier flow speed coincide with calving and glacial earthquakes at Helheim Glacier, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nettles, M.; Larsen, T. B.; Elósegui, P.;

    2008-01-01

    Geodetic observations show several large, sudden increases in flow speed at Helheim Glacier, one of Greenland's largest outlet glaciers, during summer, 2007. These step-like accelerations, detected along the length of the glacier, coincide with teleseismically detected glacial earthquakes and major...... iceberg calving events. No coseismic offset in the position of the glacier surface is observed; instead, modest tsunamis associated with the glacial earthquakes implicate glacier calving in the seismogenic process. Our results link changes in glacier velocity directly to calving-front behavior at...... Greenland's largest outlet glaciers, on timescales as short as minutes to hours, and clarify the mechanism by which glacial earthquakes occur. Citation: Nettles, M., et al. (2008), Step-wise changes in glacier flow speed coincide with calving and glacial earthquakes at Helheim Glacier, Greenland....

  20. Effect of protein provision via milk replacer or solid feed on protein metabolism in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, H; van den Borne, J J G C; Røjen, B A; Hendriks, W H; Gerrits, W J J

    2015-02-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of protein provision to calves fed a combination of solid feed (SF) and milk replacer (MR) at equal total N intake on urea recycling and N retention. Nitrogen balance traits and [(15)N2]urea kinetics were measured in 30 calves (23 wk of age, 180±3.7kg of body weight), after being exposed to the following experimental treatments for 11 wk: a low level of SF with a low N content (SF providing 12% of total N intake), a high level of SF with a low N content (SF providing 22% of total N intake), or a high level of SF with a high N content (SF providing 36% of total N intake). The SF mixture consisted of 50% concentrates, 25% corn silage, and 25% straw on a dry matter basis. Total N intake was equalized to 1.8g of N·kg of BW(-0.75)·d(-1) by adjusting N intake via MR. All calves were housed individually on metabolic cages to allow for quantification of a N balance of calves for 5 d, and for the assessment of urea recycling from [(15)N2]urea kinetics. Increasing low-N SF intake at equal total N intake resulted in a shift from urinary to fecal N excretion but did not affect protein retention (0.71g of N·kg of BW(-0.75)·d(-1)). Increasing low-N SF intake increased urea recycling but urea reused for anabolism remained unaffected. Total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility decreased (-9%) with increasing low-N SF intake, indicating reduced rumen fermentation. Increasing the N content of SF at equal total N intake resulted in decreased urea production, excretion, and return to ornithine cycle, and increased protein retention by 17%. This increase was likely related to an effect of energy availability on protein retention due to an increase in total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestion (>10%) and due to an increased energy supply via the MR. In conclusion, increasing low-N SF intake at the expense of N intake from MR, did not affect protein retention efficiency in calves. Increasing the N content of SF at equal total N

  1. Genetic analysis of calving traits by the multi-trait individual animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, J I; Ezra, E

    2016-01-01

    Five alternative models were applied for analysis of dystocia and stillbirth in first and second parities. Models 1 and 2 were included only to estimate the parameters required for model 4, and models 3 and 5 are included only as comparisons to the model 4 estimates. Variance components were estimated by multi-trait REML, including cows with valid calving records for both parities. For the effects of sire of calf on first and second parities, variance components were estimated including only calvings with the same sire of calf for both parities. All heritabilities for the cow effect were quite low, but higher for dystocia than for stillbirth and higher in first parity. The sire-of-calf heritabilities were higher than the cow effect heritabilities, except for stillbirth in parity 2. Unlike the effect of cow correlations, all sire of calf correlations were >0.6, and the correlations for the same trait in parities 1 and 2 were >0.9. Thus, a multi-trait analysis should yield a significant gain in accuracy with respect to the sire of calf effects for bulls not mated to virgin heifers. A multi-trait individual animal model algorithm was developed for joint analysis of dystocia and stillbirth in first and second parities. Relationships matrices were included both for the effects of cow and sire of calf. In addition, random herd-year-season and fixed sex of calf effects were included in the model. Records were preadjusted for calving month and age. A total of 899,223 Israeli Holstein cows with first calvings since 1985 were included in the complete analysis. Approximate reliabilities were computed for both sire of cow and sire of calf effects. Correlations between these reliabilities and reliabilities obtained by direct inversion of the coefficient matrix for a sire of cow-sire of calf model were all close to 0.99. Phenotypic trends for cows born from 1983 through 2007 were economically unfavorable for dystocia and favorable for stillbirth in both parities. Genetic trends

  2. Bursts of calving activity and controls on the terminus position of Yahtse Glacier, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaus, T. C.; Larsen, C. F.; West, M. E.; Oneel, S.

    2011-12-01

    The tidewater glacier terminus is the interface that links oceanic and glaciological processes. Tidewater glaciers contribute large amounts of cold, fresh water to their fjords. Ocean heat exerts a significant control on glacier mass balance. On the Gulf of Alaska, the terminus of tidewater Yahtse Glacier has advanced slowly since its 1990 post-Little Ice Age minimum. At Yahtse's terminus, ice flowing at 18 m/d encounters water with temperatures of up to 10.5°C (measured 1.5 km from the terminus). Profiles of temperature and salinity in Icy Bay, in which Yahtse Glacier terminates, have revealed a strongly stratified, single-cell circulation pattern. Fresh, glacier outflow exits the bay atop warm, saline Gulf of Alaska water. The Alaska Coastal Current, a major source of Icy Bay water, has warmed by 1°C over the last 40 years. These observations prompt the question of how a tidewater advance may be sustained in spite of warming ocean and atmosphere temperatures. Superimposed on Yahtse Glacier's longer-term advance have been smaller-scale summer retreats and winter-spring re-advances. These smaller fluctuations indicate that factors that change on short timescales, such as ocean conditions and weather, also have an important control on terminus position. Observed bursts in calving frequency are a further reflection of the unsteady conditions at the glacier terminus. In the present study, we use seismograms recorded on bedrock within 500 m of the glacier terminus as a calving counter. The epicenters of a significant majority of glacier-generated seismic events within the St. Elias Mountains have been located to within 15 km of the terminus of Yahtse Glacier. Previous study at Yahtse Glacier has revealed that at least 75% of these seismic events originate from calving processes, most notably through the interactions between iceberg and water. Calving frequency is characterized by a relatively steady rate of background events, punctuated by bursts of calving activity

  3. T cell responses in calves to a primary Eimeria bovis infection: phenotypical and functional changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, C; Bürger, H J; Zahner, H

    1999-07-01

    The study aimed to characterize T cell responses in calves to a primary E. bovis infection. For this purpose, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were isolated from six infected calves and three controls during prepatency (Day 12 post infection (p.i.), patency (Day 25 p.i.) and postpatency (Day 35 p.i.). In addition, lymphocytes were isolated from various lymphatic organs (lnn. cervicales superficiales, lnn. jejunales craniales, lnn. jejunales caudales, lnn. caecales, lnn. colici, Peyer's patches (PP) and spleen) at necropsy (Day 35 p.i.). FACS analyses determined the proportions of CD4+-, CD8+-, CD2+-, and gammadelta+-T cells. Proliferative responses of the cells after stimulation with Concanavalin A (Con A) and an E. bovis-merozoite I antigen (EbAg) were measured. Furthermore, in situ hybridization experiments were performed for the detection of IL-2 and IL-4 mRNA in histological sections of lymphatic organs. Proportions of CD4+-, CD8+- and CD2+-expressing PBL were significantly increased 12 days p.i. in infected calves. While the proportions of CD4+- and CD8+-PBL declined until day 25 p.i. and finally reached control values, proportions of activated PBL (CD2+-T cells) remained at a high level throughout the observation period. Those of gammadelta+-PBL, in contrast, remained unaffected. The proportions of CD4+-, gammadelta+- and CD2+-T cells in lymphatic organs were significantly increased in comparison to uninfected controls, when determined 35 days p.i. Concerning the proportions of CD8+-T cells of the organs, however, there were no differences between the groups. PBL and cells from lymphatic organs except those from the PP showed strong proliferative response to the mitogen Con A, without a significant difference between the groups. Reactions to EbAg in contrast differed significantly between controls and E. bovis infected calves. Proliferation responses of PBL of infected animals were highest 12 days p.i.; subsequently they decreased and 35 days p.i. they were

  4. Prevalence and potential influencing factors of non-nutritive oral behaviors of veal calves on commercial farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leruste, H; Brscic, M; Cozzi, G; Kemp, B; Wolthuis-Fillerup, M; Lensink, B J; Bokkers, E A M; van Reenen, C G

    2014-11-01

    Veal calves raised under intensive conditions may express non-nutritive oral behaviors. When expressed in an abnormal way, these behaviors can be a sign of mental suffering and reduced welfare due to a mismatch between environmental or management features and the animal's needs. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of non-nutritive oral behaviors in a large sample of veal farms in Europe and to determine the potential influencing factors present at farm level. Data were collected on 157 commercial veal farms in the 3 main veal-producing countries in Europe (the Netherlands, France, and Italy). Observations of 3 non-nutritive oral behaviors (manipulating substrates, tongue rolling, and manipulating a penmate) were performed when calves were aged 14 wk, and the prevalence of these behaviors was calculated. Information on management practices and characteristics of the building and equipment were collected on all farms to assess potential influencing factors for each of the 3 behaviors. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to evaluate the effect of each individual factor within a generalized linear model. The mean percentage of calves per farm performing manipulating substrates was 11.0 ± 0.46%, performing tongue rolling 2.8 ± 0 .18%, and manipulating a penmate 2.7 ± 0.09%, with a high range between farms. Allowing more space for calves than the legal minimum requirement of 1.8 m(2)/ calf and housing them in groups of >10 calves/pen reduced the incidences of manipulating substrates and tongue rolling. Incidence of manipulating substrates was lower for calves fed maize silage compared with calves fed cereal grain, pellets, or muesli. A higher risk of tongue rolling was found when baby-boxes (i.e., single housing during the first 5 to 8 wk) were not used. Risk of calves manipulating a penmate was higher for calves of milk- or meat-type breeds compared with dual-purpose breeds and for calves fed with 280 to 380 kg compared with

  5. Lactose in milk replacer can partly be replaced by glucose, fructose, or glycerol without affecting insulin sensitivity in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantophlet, A J; Gilbert, M S; van den Borne, J J G C; Gerrits, W J J; Roelofsen, H; Priebe, M G; Vonk, R J

    2016-04-01

    Calf milk replacer (MR) contains 40 to 50% lactose. Lactose strongly fluctuates in price and alternatives are desired. Also, problems with glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity (i.e., high incidence of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia) have been described for heavy veal calves (body weight >100kg). Replacement of lactose by other dietary substrates can be economically attractive, and may also positively (or negatively) affect the risk of developing problems with glucose metabolism. An experiment was designed to study the effects of replacing one third of the dietary lactose by glucose, fructose, or glycerol on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in veal calves. Forty male Holstein-Friesian (body weight=114±2.4kg; age=97±1.4 d) calves were fed an MR containing 462g of lactose/kg (CON), or an MR in which 150g of lactose/kg of MR was replaced by glucose (GLU), fructose (FRU), or glycerol (GLY). During the first 10d of the trial, all calves received CON. The CON group remained on this diet and the other groups received their experimental diets for a period of 8 wk. Measurements were conducted during the first (baseline) and last week of the trial. A frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed to assess insulin sensitivity and 24 h of urine was collected to measure glucose excretion. During the last week of the trial, a bolus of 1.5g of [U-(13)C] substrates was added to their respective meals and plasma glucose, insulin, and (13)C-glucose responses were measured. Insulin sensitivity was low at the start of the trial and remained low [1.2±0.1 and 1.0±0.1 (mU/L)(-1) × min(-1)], and no treatment effect was noted. Glucose excretion was low at the start of the trial (3.4±1.0g/d), but increased in CON and GLU calves (26.9±3.9 and 43.0±10.6g/d) but not in FRU and GLY calves. Postprandial glucose was higher in GLU, lower in FRU, and similar in GLY compared with CON calves. Postprandial insulin was lower in FRU and GLY and similar

  6. Associations of serum haptoglobin in newborn dairy calves with health, growth, and mortality up to 4 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C F; Windeyer, M C; Duffield, T F; Haley, D B; Pearl, D L; Waalderbos, K M; Leslie, K E

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate factors associated with serum haptoglobin (Hp) levels in newborn calves. In addition, the associations between serum Hp levels in newborn calves with growth, morbidity, and mortality in calves heifer calves from 15 dairy farms were enrolled in this study from January to December, 2008. Following calving, a birth record was completed, including information on the calving event, colostrum administration, and other details. During weekly farm visits, each calf was assessed at 1 to 8 d, 15 to 21 d, 36 to 42 d, and 90 to 120 d of age. At these sampling times, each calf was assessed using a standardized clinical score for general health, and height and weight were measured. At 1 to 8 d of age, a blood sample was collected to measure serum total protein and Hp concentrations. Treatment events and death loss were recorded throughout the study by the farm staff. Serum Hp concentration in the first week of life was not significantly associated with the degree of calving difficulty. However, serum Hp was higher in calves with a higher rectal temperature and depressed attitude at the first sampling time. Furthermore, the association between serum Hp and the severity of nasal discharge varied by age at first sampling time. Calves with higher Hp in their first week of life had significantly higher total health scores throughout the entire sampling period. Haptoglobin was not significantly associated with average daily gain or treatment for bovine respiratory disease. Yet, for every 1 g/L increase in serum Hp in the first week of life, the odds of being treated for any other disease during the study period increased by 7.6 times. Treatment for bovine respiratory disease, diarrhea, or any other disease resulted in increased odds of calf mortality. In addition, Hp concentration in the first week of life was associated with mortality in calves <4 mo of age. The optimal cut point for Hp was determined to be 0.13 g/L for the prediction

  7. Effect of injectable trace minerals on the humoral immune response to multivalent vaccine administration in beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthington, J D; Havenga, L J

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of injectable trace minerals on humoral responses of calves receiving a viral vaccination. Beef steer calves (n = 99; average BW = 316 ± 4.2 kg), seronegative for bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus, genotypes 1 and 2 (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2), were sourced from 2 locations. All calves, except 15 non-vaccinated (sentinel) calves, received a single dose of a multivalent modified live vaccine (Titanium 5; AgriLabs, St. Joseph, MO) containing BHV-1, BVDV-1, BVDV-2, bovine parainfluenza virus type 3, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus. Among the vaccinated calves, 2 treatments were concurrently and randomly applied on the basis of initial serum Se status and BW, including 1) injectable trace mineral supplement (ITM; n = 42; 7 mL subcutaneous.; MultiMin, Fort Collins, CO) containing 15, 40, 10, and 5 mg/mL of Cu, Zn, Mn (all as disodium EDTA salts), and Se (as Na selenite) or 2) saline-injected control (Control; n = 42). As a measure of humoral immunity, neutralizing antibody titers were measured on d 0, 14, 30, 60, and 90, relative to vaccine administration. All calves were seronegative for each of the 3 viruses on d 0, and sentinel calves remained seronegative throughout the study. Serum mineral concentrations were evaluated on d 0 and 14. No differences (P ≥ 0.30) in serum Cu, Zn, Mn, or Se were observed between treatments on d 0. Control steers experienced a decrease (P < 0.001) in serum Zn and Se, and ITM steers had an increase (P = 0.007) in serum Cu on d 14 relative to initial d 0 values. On d 14, serum Zn and Se concentrations were greater (P < 0.01) in ITM compared with Control steers. Vaccinated calves experienced marked increases in neutralizing antibody titers by d 30 following vaccine administration. Calves receiving ITM at the time of vaccination experienced greater (P ≤ 0.003) neutralizing antibody titers to BHV-1 on d 14, 30, and 60 compared with Control. These

  8. Prevalence, prediction and risk factors of enteropathogens in normal and non-normal faeces of young Dutch dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Chris J M; Holzhauer, Menno; Jorritsma, Ruurd; Swart, Wim A J M; Lam, Theo J G M

    2010-02-01

    Between January and April 2007, 424 calves under 22 days of age from 108 Dutch dairy herds were sampled to estimate the prevalence of non-normal faeces ('custard-like'-yellowish-coloured with custard consistency or diarrhoea: watery-like faeces) and the shedding of enteropathogens Escherichia coli K99 (E. coli), Coronavirus, Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum), Rotavirus and Clostridium perfringens (Cl. perfringens). In addition, information was collected on animal characteristics and herd-management practices. The probability of detecting each one of five enteropathogens given a calf with 'custard-like' faeces or diarrhoea was estimated using Bayes' rule and was based on the predicted probabilities from a multinominal model including each of five enteropathogens as independent variables. In addition, putative risk factors for the presence of each of five enteropathogens were analysed using logistic regression models with random herd effects. Fifty-seven percent of calves had faeces of normal colour (brownish) and consistency (firm), 23.8% (95%CI: 19.8-28.2%) had 'custard-like' faeces and 19.1% (95%CI: 15.5-23.2%) had diarrhoea. E. coli was the least detected enteropathogen (2.6% (95%CI: 1.3-4.6%) of calves, 9% (95%CI: 5-16%) of herds) and Cl. perfringens was most detected (54.0% (95%CI: 49.1-58.8%) of calves, 85% (95%CI: 77-91%) of herds). E. coli and Coronavirus were detected incidentally in only one or two calves per herd, whereas C. parvum and Cl. perfringens were frequently detected in up to four calves per herd. For calves with 'custard-like' faeces, the probability of detecting Rotavirus from a calf in its first week of age was 0.31 whereas for a calf in its second week, there was a 0.66 probability of detecting C. parvum. The probabilities of detecting E. coli, Rotavirus and C. parvum in calves with diarrhoea in their first week of age were 0.10, 0.20 and 0.43, respectively. In calves with diarrhoea between 1 and 2 weeks of age, the probability of detecting

  9. Effect of Milk Allowance on Concentrate Intake, Ruminal Environment, and Ruminal Development in Milk-Fed Holstein Calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Sehested, Jakob; Jensen, Søren Krogh;

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to test the hypothesis that a barley-based concentrate would induce an acidic ruminal environment in young calves and that increased milk allowance would alleviate this condition.......The aim of the present experiment was to test the hypothesis that a barley-based concentrate would induce an acidic ruminal environment in young calves and that increased milk allowance would alleviate this condition....

  10. The incorporation of solubilized wheat proteins in milk replacers for veal calves: effects on growth performance and muscle oxidative capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Ortigues-Marty, Isabelle; Hocquette, Jean-François; Bertrand, Gérard; Martineau, Christophe; Vermorel, Michel; Toullec, René

    2003-01-01

    Replacement of skim milk proteins by solubilized wheat protein (SWP) in milk replacers for veal calves would contribute to the reduction in feeding costs. The occurrence of metabolic disorders has, however, been reported. Forty-two male calves received one of three treatments over 140 days: a control diet, a diet containing SWP without or with branched-chain amino acid supplementation. Liveweight gain, carcass yield, color and conformation did not show any significant differences. No metaboli...

  11. Evaluation of the effects of treating dairy cows with meloxicam at calving on retained fetal membranes risk

    OpenAIRE

    Newby, Nathalie C.; Renaud, David; Tremblay, Robert; Duffield, Todd F.

    2014-01-01

    Some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increase the risk of retained fetal membranes. This is the first study to investigate the effects of meloxicam on the risk of retained fetal membranes. Administration of meloxicam to dairy cattle immediately following calving revealed no differences in the incidence of retained fetal membranes between meloxicam-treated and untreated animals. There was no difference between the 2 groups in the incidence of periparturient diseases following calving. Me...

  12. Effects of Different Weaning Age and Housing System on the Growth Performances of Holstein-Friesian Calves

    OpenAIRE

    Doğan, Zeynep; Koç, Atakan

    2014-01-01

    Early life of the cattle is very critical; they require intensive care and this period is probably the most expensive period in their life. By understanding the principles of growth, nutrition, health and behavior of calves, a farmer can develop successful calf rearing system on his/her farm. In this study, different weaning age (5 weeks and 8 weeks) and housing systems (individual calf hutch, group barn and combination of these two systems) of Holstein-Friesian calves were investigated. The ...

  13. Genetic parameters for calving rate and calf survival from linear, threshold, and logistic models in a multibreed beef cattle population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, J L L; Franke, D E; Blouin, D C

    2006-12-01

    Generalized mixed linear, threshold, and logistic sire models and Markov chain, Monte Carlo simulation procedures were used to estimate genetic parameters for calving rate and calf survival in a multibreed beef cattle population. Data were obtained from a 5-generation rotational crossbreeding study involving Angus, Brahman, Charolais, and Hereford (1969 to 1995). Gelbvieh and Simmental bulls sired terminal-cross calves from a sample of generation 5 cows. A total of 1,458 cows sired by 158 bulls had a mean calving rate of 78% based on 4,808 calving records. Ninety-one percent of 5,015 calves sired by 260 bulls survived to weaning. Mean heritability estimates and standard deviations for daughter calving rate from posterior distributions were 0.063 +/- 0.024, 0.150 +/- 0.049, and 0.130 +/- 0.047 for linear, threshold, and logistic models, respectively. For calf survival, mean heritability estimates and standard deviations from posterior distributions were 0.049 +/- 0.022, 0.160 +/- 0.058, and 0.190 +/- 0.078 from linear, threshold, and logistic models, respectively. When transformed to an underlying normal scale, linear sire, mixed model, heritability estimates were similar to threshold and logistic sire mixed model estimates. Posterior density distributions of estimated heritabilities from all models were normal. Spearman rank correlations between sire EPD across statistical models were greater than 0.97 for daughter calving rate and for calf survival. Sire EPD had similar ranges across statistical models for daughter calving rate and for calf survival. PMID:17093211

  14. Extended lactation in dairy cows:effects of milking frequency, calving season and nutrition on lactation persistency and milk quality

    OpenAIRE

    Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D. Donald; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2008-01-01

    Twelve spring-calving and twelve winter-calving cows were managed for extended lactation cycles of 18-months duration, with the former group then completing a second extended lactation. Half of the cows were fed according to standard management practice for the herd; the other half received supplementary concentrate from week 9 of lactation onwards. Commencing at the same time, half of the udder of each cow was subjected to increased milking frequency (thrice daily rather than twice daily). L...

  15. Comparison of two formulations of oxytetracycline given prophylactically to reduce the incidence of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot calves

    OpenAIRE

    Guichon, P. Timothy; Booker, Calvin W.; Jim, G. Kee

    1993-01-01

    A trial involving 1,803 feedlot calves was conducted under commercial feedlot conditions in western Canada to compare the relative effectiveness of a new oxytetracycline formulation, administered either intramuscularly (BMI) or subcutaneously (BMS), to a currently available oxytetracycline formulation, administered intramuscularly (LAB), for the prevention of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in feedlot calves. All experimental treatments were administered upon arrival at the feedlot and again...

  16. Evaluation of F1 calves sired by Brahman, Boran, and Tuli bulls for birth, growth, size, and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Knutson, R E; Lunt, D K

    1996-05-01

    Birth (n = 308), weaning (n = 291), feedlot and carcass (n = 142), and yearling heifer traits (n = 139) were evaluated in F1 calves sired by Brahman (BR), Boran (BO), and Tuli (TU) bulls and born to multiparous Hereford and Angus cows. Calves sired by BR were heaviest (P Brahman crosses had larger (P yield grade among sire breeds. Heifers sired by BR were heaviest (P Brahman F1 heifers had larger (P yield traits, among these three breeds. PMID:8726726

  17. Salmonella typhimurium infection in calves: specific immune reactivity against O-antigenic polysaccharide detectable in in vitro assays.

    OpenAIRE

    Robertsson, J A; Fossum, C; Svenson, S B; Lindberg, A A

    1982-01-01

    Peripheral blood lymphocytes collected from calves infected experimentally with Salmonella typhimurium (O antigens 4,5,12) or Salmonella sp. serotype dublin (O 9,12) were stimulated with various bacterial cell envelope components, and their [3H]thymidine incorporation was measured. It was found that peripheral blood lymphocytes from infected calves incorporated significantly more [3H]thymidine than peripheral blood lymphocytes from uninfected controls (P values ranged from less than 0.05 to l...

  18. Increased Wounding of Southern Right Whale (Eubalaena australis Calves by Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus at Peninsula Valdes, Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina F Marón

    Full Text Available At least 626 southern right whale (Eubalaena australis calves died at the Península Valdés calving ground, Argentina, between 2003 and 2014. Intense gull harassment may have contributed to these deaths. In the 1970s, Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus began feeding on skin and blubber pecked from the backs of living right whales at Valdés. The frequency of gull attacks has increased dramatically over the last three decades and mother-calf pairs are the primary targets. Pairs attacked by gulls spend less time nursing, resting and playing than pairs not under attack. In successive attacks, gulls open new lesions on the whales' backs or enlarge preexisting ones. Increased wounding could potentially lead to dehydration, impaired thermoregulation, and energy loss to wound healing. The presence, number and total area of gull-inflicted lesions were assessed using aerial survey photographs of living mother-calf pairs in 1974-2011 (n = 2680 and stranding photographs of dead calves (n = 192 in 2003-2011. The percentage of living mothers and calves with gull lesions increased from an average of 2% in the 1970s to 99% in the 2000s. In the 1980s and 1990s, mothers and calves had roughly equal numbers of lesions (one to five, but by the 2000s, calves had more lesions (nine or more covering a greater area of their backs compared to their mothers. Living mother-calf pairs and dead calves in Golfo Nuevo had more lesions than those in Golfo San José in the 2000s. The number and area of lesions increased with calf age during the calving season. Intensified Kelp Gull harassment at Península Valdés could be compromising calf health and thereby contributing to the high average rate of calf mortality observed in recent years, but it cannot explain the large year-to-year variance in calf deaths since 2000.

  19. Antibody transferred from the blood to the gastrointestinal tract and its role in enteric immunity of neonatal calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besser, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    High passive blood immunoglobulin concentrations are associated with decreased infectious enteric disease mortality in neonatal calves. Passive immunoglobulin transferred from the blood to the gastrointestinal tract may explain this protection. To measure the rate at which immunoglobulin G/sub 1/ (IgG/sub 1/) is transferred to the gastrointestinal tract, /sup 125/I-labelled bovine IgG/sub 1/ anti-DNP antibody was administered to calves by intravenous injection. The clearance rate of /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ from the blood was measured and compared to the rate of /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ appearance in the gastrointestinal tract, as measured (1) by the rate of fecal /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ excretion, and (2) by the amount of /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ in the gastrointestinal tract of calves at necropsy. Rotavirus antibody titers in the gastrointestinal contents of 5- and 10-days-old calves correlated with the calves' serum passive rotavirus antibody titers, and were increased in proportion to the amount of colostral antibody fed on the first day of life. In contrast, when colostral rotavirus antibody was fed to 48-hour-old calves, when absorption of passive immunoglobulin does not occur, there was no measurable increase in antibody in the intestine 5 days later. Intestinal antibody in the 5- and 10-day-old calves therefore resulted from blood antibody transferred to the gastrointestinal tract. Rotavirus antibody administered to calves by parenteral injection protected them from infection and diarrhea after rotavirus challenge. These results indicate that passive blood IgG enters the calf gastrointestinal tract, where it contributes to intestinal immunity.

  20. Effect of Feeding Different Protein and Energy Supplements on Performance and Health of Beef Calves During the Backgrounding Period

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, Robert Jesse

    2001-01-01

    EFFECT OF FEEDING DIFFERENT PROTEIN AND ENERGY SUPPLEMENTS ON PERFORMANCE AND HEALTH OF BEEF CALVES DURING THE BACKGROUNDING PERIOD By R. Jesse Austin Committee Chair: Joseph P. Fontenot Animal and Poultry Sciences (ABSTRACT) Newly received or weaned calves are highly susceptible to the incidence of bovine respiratory disease. In addition to high levels of stress, decreased feed intake and exposure to foreign antigens result in increased morbidity and possib...

  1. Evaluation of calving seasons and marketing strategies in Northern Great Plains beef enterprises: I. Cow-calf systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisenauer Leesburg, V L; Tess, M W; Griffith, D

    2007-09-01

    A bioeconomic computer model was used to evaluate alternate calving seasons in a cow-calf enterprise under range conditions representative of the Northern Great Plains. The simulated ranch utilized a rotational breeding system based on Hereford and Angus and had a fixed forage base (4,500 animal unit months of native range, 520 t of grass hay, and 183 t of alfalfa hay). Calving seasons studied were spring (SP, beginning March 15), summer (SU, beginning May 15), and fall (FA, beginning August 15). Weaning dates were October 31, December 15, and February 1, for SP, SU, and FA. The SP system was also simulated with a 5% increase in calf mortality (SP-IM), and SU with early weaning on October 31 (SU-EW). Herd size for the fixed resource was 509, 523, 519, 560, and 609 cows exposed per year for SP, SP-IM, SU, SU-EW, and FA, respectively. Corresponding values for weight weaned per cow exposed were 206, 186, 193, 153, and 145 kg. Steer calves, nonreplacement heifer calves, and cull cows were sold at the time of weaning. Quarterly cattle and feed prices used were representative of the peak, descending, valley, and ascending phases of the 1990s cattle cycle adjusted for inflation. Estimates of ranch gross margin (gross returns minus variable costs) were greatest for SP, followed by SP-IM, SU, SU-EW, and FA, and the ranks were consistent across phases of the cattle cycle. Differences between ranch gross margin for SP-IM and SU were small. In beef enterprises representative of the Northern Great Plains, with a restricted grazing season, limited access to low-cost, high-quality grazeable forage, and with calves sold at weaning, switching from early spring to a summer or fall calving date is not expected to improve profitability. If delaying calving improves calf survival, then calving in early summer may be a competitive choice. PMID:17504951

  2. Effect of Suckling Systems on Serum Oxytocin and Cortisol Concentrations and Behavior to a Novel Object in Beef Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siyu; Tanaka, Shigefumi; Ogura, Shin-Ichiro; Roh, Sanggun; Sato, Shusuke

    2015-11-01

    We investigated differences between effects of natural- and bucket-suckling methods on basal serum oxytocin (OT) and cortisol concentrations, and the effect of OT concentration on affiliative and investigative behavior of calves to a novel object. Ten Japanese Black calves, balanced with birth order, were allocated evenly to natural-suckling (NS) and bucket suckling (BS) groups. Blood samples were collected at the ages of 1 and 2 months (1 week after weaning) calves, and serum OT and cortisol concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzymeimmunoassay tests, respectively. Each calf at the age of 2 months (2 weeks after weaning) was released into an open-field with a calf decoy, and its investigative and affiliative behaviors were recorded for 20 minutes. In 1-month-old calves, the basal serum OT concentration (25.5±4.9 [mean±standard deviation, pg/mL]) of NS was significantly higher than that of BS (16.9±6.7) (p<0.05), whereas the basal cortisol concentration (5.8±2.5 [mean±standard deviation, ng/mL]) of NS was significantly lower than that in BS (10.0±2.8) (p<0.05). Additionally, a negative correlation was noted between serum OT and cortisol concentrations in 1-month-old calves (p = 0.06). Further, the higher serum OT concentration the calves had at 1 month old, the more investigative the calves were at 2 months old but not affiliative in the open-field with a calf decoy. Thus, we concluded that the natural suckling method from a dam elevates the basal serum OT concentration in calves, and high serum OT concentrations induce investigative behavior and attenuate cortisol concentrations. PMID:26580289

  3. Effects of the supplementation with yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae on weight gain and development of water buffalo calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. García

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a commercial yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae on weight gain and development of buffalo calves from water buffalo herd in north of Colombia. The buffalo calves (age: 71,12 +/- 22 days old were randomly assigned to one of two treatments, during 45 days. One group (n=13 received 50 gr/day of commercial product of yeast and the other group (n = 13 don’t received yeast. The buffalo calves grazed in same pastures under same milking system. All animals were weighed and measured weekly. During the test the animals gain 11,38 +/- 5,2 Kgr y 13.92 +/- 5,0 Kgr by treated and non treated calves, respectively. The increase of the corporal measures during the test was (cm: Toraxic Circumference 7,0 +/- 5,58 Vs 9,23 +/- 4,02, Height 5,77 +/- 6,81 Vs 5,92 +/- 4,5 and Length 2,92 +/- 8,17 Vrs 0,54 +/- 4,86 by treated and no treated calves, respectively. No statistic difference was found between groups. In conclusion, the feeding with yeast culture didn’t increase significantly the weight gain and development in water buffalo calves.

  4. Comparison of radiographic and necropsy findings of lung lesions in calves after challenge exposure with Pasteurella multocida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives-To test suitability of radiographic evaluation of lung lesions as a substitute for lung lesion scores derived by examination at necropsy in challenge-exposure models of bovine pneumonia. Animals-10 calves selected by body weight from 20 multiple-source male Holstein calves approximately 1 to 2 months old enrolled in a Pasteurella multocida challenge-exposure study. Procedure-Calves were paired on the basis of weight and randomly assigned within pairs to vaccine or control (saline solution) group. By use of deep tracheal cannulation, calves were challenge exposed with a culture of virulent P. multocida, observed for 10 days, euthanatized, and necropsied, and the lungs were scored for pneumonic lesions. Radiographic views of the lung fields of the calves were taken before challenge exposure and before necropsy and were evaluated for alveolar disease by a veterinary radiologist. Lung lesion scores were compared with radiographic evaluations. Results-There was a strong and significant correlation (R2 = 0.91, P < 0.001) between results of the evaluation of postchallenge-exposure radiographs and necropsy results. There also was also strong and significant correlation (R2 = 0.90, P < 0.001) between evaluation of the prechallenge-exposure radiographs-and necropsy results. Conclusions-Radiographic evaluation of lung lesions correlates well with lung lesions found at necropsy. The findings emphasize the need for caution in interpreting the results of challenge-exposure studies of bovine respiratory tract disease in which small numbers of calves are studied

  5. Modelling calving front dynamics using a level-set method: application to Jakobshavn Isbræ, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondzio, Johannes H.; Seroussi, Hélène; Morlighem, Mathieu; Kleiner, Thomas; Rückamp, Martin; Humbert, Angelika; Larour, Eric Y.

    2016-03-01

    Calving is a major mechanism of ice discharge of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets, and a change in calving front position affects the entire stress regime of marine terminating glaciers. The representation of calving front dynamics in a 2-D or 3-D ice sheet model remains non-trivial. Here, we present the theoretical and technical framework for a level-set method, an implicit boundary tracking scheme, which we implement into the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM). This scheme allows us to study the dynamic response of a drainage basin to user-defined calving rates. We apply the method to Jakobshavn Isbræ, a major marine terminating outlet glacier of the West Greenland Ice Sheet. The model robustly reproduces the high sensitivity of the glacier to calving, and we find that enhanced calving triggers significant acceleration of the ice stream. Upstream acceleration is sustained through a combination of mechanisms. However, both lateral stress and ice influx stabilize the ice stream. This study provides new insights into the ongoing changes occurring at Jakobshavn Isbræ and emphasizes that the incorporation of moving boundaries and dynamic lateral effects, not captured in flow-line models, is key for realistic model projections of sea level rise on centennial timescales.

  6. Relationship between blood haemoglobin and serum iron concentrations and heart girth in pre-weaned dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Klinkon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to study the relation between blood haemoglobin (Hb and serum iron (Fe concentrations and changing of heart girth with age in calves. Blood samples of 66 dairy calves were taken at the age of 3, 5 and 16 weeks (wks. Blood samples were analysed for Hb and serum Fe concentration. At each bleeding, the heart girth was measured. The lowest mean concentration of Hb was measured at the age of five wks. The concentration of serum Fe and heart girth increased with age. Significant positive correlations were found between Fe concentration at 3 wks of age and heart girth of calves at 5wks (r=0.270; P=0.032 and between Fe concentration at 5 wks and heart girth of calves at 5 (r=0.283; P=0.021 and 16 wks (r=0.284; P=0.028. The lowest Hb concentration recorded at 5 wks, might suggest that this is the most critical period for developing anaemia in calves. The correlations established between heart girth and Fe concentration at different ages indicate that serum Fe concentration has some influence on changing of heart girth in calves.

  7. Effect of time of day and type of shading on the physiological responses of crossbred calves in tropical environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Oliveira Lima

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Many studies report adverse environmental conditions, damage yield, especially in dairy cows. However, studies on the effects of environment on young animals, especially calves of mixed race, are rare. Study effects of time, day and type of shading on the physiological responses of crossbred calves in tropical environment. Twenty-four ½ Holstein and SPRD (without defined breed calves were identified in two nursery facilities, one provided with natural shading and the other provided with artificial shading by means of cement tile. In both facilities, environmental data including air temperature, wind speed, and black globe temperature were recorded between7 a.m. to 4 p.m. to calculate the radiant thermal load. Physiological responses, rectal temperature and respiratory rates were measured in the morning and in the afternoon. The natural shading provided less thermal comfort because of higher radiant thermal load, especially in the afternoon. The crossbred calves showed higher rectal temperature and respiratory frequency as compared with SPRD calves in both periods and in both nursery facilities, with the highest values reported under natural shading. Calves of different genotypes respond differently in hot environments, should be to test in future research another types of trees to verify their thermal quality.

  8. Effects of two-stage weaning with nose flap devices applied to calves on cow body condition, calf performance, and calf humoral immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippolis, K D; Ahola, J K; Mayo, C E; Fischer, M C; Callan, R J

    2016-02-01

    The effects of nose flap devices in calves before dam separation on cow BCS, pre- and postseparation calf performance, and humoral immune response were compared with traditional weaning. Primiparous and multiparous Angus and Hereford cows ( = 113) and their Angus, Hereford, and Angus × Hereford calves (179.4 ± 3.92 kg and 161 ± 22.7 d of age) were used. Cow-calf pairs were allocated to 1 of 2 treatments in a completely randomized design: 1) nose flap for 21 d before separation from the dam (NF) or 2) no nose flap for 21 d before separation from the dam (CON). Calves were separated from dams on d 0, and calves were placed in group feed-yard pens for 28 d. A subset ( = 75) of weaned calves were placed into 1 of 8 pens to evaluate DMI. Cow BCS was measured on d -21 and 56, and calves were given modified live vaccinations (d -21 and 1), challenged with ovalbumin (OVA; d 1), and weighed (d -21, 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28). In addition, blood samples were collected (d -21, 1, 14, and 28) to measure primary humoral immune response. Control calves tended to have greater BW on d 14 ( = 0.09) and 21 ( = 0.07) than NF calves, and CON calves had greater ( bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (BVDV-1) and bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) were used to measure humoral response to a viral vaccination. Serum antibody titers to BVDV-1 for CON calves tended ( = 0.08) to be greater on d 1 and were greater ( < 0.05) by d 28 vs. NF calves. By d 28, a greater percentage ( < 0.05) of CON calves seroconverted for BVDV-1 than NF calves (82.1 vs. 66.7%, respectively). Serum antibody titers for BHV-1 were greater ( < 0.05) on d 1 and 28 for CON vs. NF calves. Humoral immune response to OVA during the 28-d postseparation period from the dam was evaluated in a subset ( = 57) of calves. There was no difference ( = 0.92) in OVA-specific IgG between treatments on d 14 or 28 ( = 0.76); however, OVA-specific IgM was greater ( < 0.05) in CON vs. NF calves on d 28. Results indicate that nose flap devices

  9. Meat Quality of Loin and Top Round Muscles from the Hanwoo and Holstein Veal Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Chung, Eui-Gang; Chung, Ku-Young

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the meat qualities of loin (m. longissimus dorsi) and top round (m. semimembranosus) from Hanwoo and Holstein veal. Ten Hanwoo and Holstein calves were randomly selected from a local cattle farm and raised. They were slaughtered when they were 8 mon old and weighed. Weight and percentage in primal cuts and slaughter performance of Hanwoo and Holstein veal calves are obtained. Immediately after weighting, slices of loin and top round muscles were sampled. After vacuum packaging, the samples were subjected to proximate composition, physicochemical and microbiological analyses. Dressing weight and percentage were heavier and greater (pveal, whereas fat content, pH, cooking loss, a* (redness), and b* (yellowness) were higher in the Hanwoo than in the Holstein veal (pveal during the first 10 d of storage (p<0.05). PMID:26877632

  10. Prevalence and risk factors for Salmonella in veal calves at Danish cattle abattoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L. R.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Aabo, Søren;

    2011-01-01

    The study's objectives were to determine herd- and animal-level prevalence and herd-level risk factors for Salmonella in dairy-bred veal calves at slaughter in Denmark. In total, 1296 faecal samples were collected at five cattle abattoirs in Denmark during 2007 2008. The animals came from 71...... randomly selected specialized veal-calf producers that delivered more than 100 animals to slaughter per year. Salmonella Dublin bacteria were isolated from 19 samples from 12 herds and Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from one sample. The apparent prevalence of herds delivering Salmonella......-shedding animals to slaughter was 18% (95% CI 9-27). The overall estimated true prevalence of shedding calves at slaughter was 1.3%. Veal-calf herds that purchased animals from herds not classified as low risk in the Danish Salmonella surveillance programme had significantly (P = 0.03) higher risk of delivering...

  11. INTERVALO ENTRE PARTOS EM GADO AZEBUADO CALVING INTERVAL IN CROSSBRED ZEBU CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcelino Sobrinho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O trabalho apresenta o estudo de 296 dados de intervalos entre partos em gado azebuado do planalto central de Goiás, município de Anápolis. Observou-se que o intervalo médio entre partos foi de 17,37 +/- 0,24 meses.

    The work presents the study of 296 calving intervals data in crossbred zebu cattle of the Central Plateau in Anápolis, Goiás. It was observed that the average calving intervals were 17.37 +/- 0.24 months.

  12. Legg-Calve-Perthes disease: Detection of cartilaginous changes by MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T1-weighted spin-echo images were obtained in ten patients with Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (unilateral in nine cases, bilateral in one). Measurement of acetabular and femoral head cartilage disclosed a significant increase in the thickness of all articulating surfaces in affected hips. The range of average increase above normal varied from 1.3 to 5.0 mm, depending on location within the joint. Loss of femoral head containment by the acetabulum was identified in most cases, but with variability in degree. MR imaging is a noninvasive means of evaluating the articulating cartilage of the hip affected by Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, allowing assessment of femoral head containment

  13. Comparison of MRI and arthrography in the preoperative work up of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. Comparison between conventional arthrography and MRI in the preoperative work up of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. Material and methods. We studied 17 children (18 hips) who had arthrography and MRI (open-magnet configuration) the same day. Coronal and sagittal T1 weighted were realised with the hip in neutral position. Additional coronal T1 weighted with abduction of the hip were obtained. Two readers analysed individually MRI and arthrographic findings: shape of femoral head, index of Heyman (antero-external covering), came effect, re-centering of femoral head and quality of examination. Results. No statistical difference between MRI and arthrography could be noted-exception made for the index of Heyman. Conclusion. MRI can replace arthrography in Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. (authors)

  14. Notes on the diurnal activity of early post-natal black wildebeest calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vrahimis

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal activities of early post-natal black wildebeest calves Connochaetes gnou were investigated at the game farm Tussen-die-Riviere, Orange Free State. Calves younger than one month spent approximately 85 of the diurnal budget lying, alternated by 10 standing. At two and three months of age, slightly more than half of the diurnal time budget was spent lying down, with a minor peak in the early morning and a major peak in the afternoon. A progressive increase in the time spent feeding occurred from the first to the third month of life. No fixed diurnal pattern could be distinguished with respect to standing and "other" categories of activity.

  15. Phylogeographic implications for release of critically endangered manatee calves rescued in Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Fábia O.; Bonde, Robert K.; Attademo, Fernanda L.N.; Saunders, Jonathan W.; Meigs-Friend, Gaia; Passavante, José Zanon O.; Hunter, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    1. The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus), a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, is a large-bodied marine mammal found in fresh, brackish, and marine habitats throughout the Caribbean Islands and Central and South America. Antillean manatees in Brazil are classified as critically endangered, with a census size of approximately 500 individuals. The population in the Northeast region of Brazil is suspected to have approximately 300 manatees and is threatened by habitat alteration and incidental entanglement in fishing gear. 2. A high incidence of dependent calf strandings have been identified near areas of altered critical manatee habitat. The majority of the calves are neonates, discovered alive, with no potential mothers nearby. These calves typically require human intervention to survive.

  16. Babesia divergens: protection of intact calves against heterologous challenge by the injection of irradiated piroplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood from a splenectomized calf infected with Babesia divergens was divided into 20 ml aliquots which were γ-irradiated at doses of 0, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 krad and then inoculated into groups of three intact calves. Animals receiving non-irradiated blood had typical mild B. divergens reactions, but those receiving irradiated blood had either very mild reactions or no overt reaction. When the calves were challenged with a similar number (7.5 X 109) of heterologous parasites of a recently-isolated field strain, those which had received blood irradiated at 0, 24, 28 and 32 krad were all immune whereas four of the five surviving animals which had received blood irradiated at 36 or 40 krad were susceptible. The immune status of individual cattle was reflected accurately in the results of the micro-ELISA test, which detected a significant rise in serum antibody titre of the four susceptible animals by day 21 after challenge. (Auth.)

  17. Anthelmintic resistance impact on tropical beef cattle productivity: effect on weight gain of weaned calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Fernando A; Almeida, Gabriel D; Heckler, Rafael P; Lemes, Raul T; Onizuka, Marcel K V; Borges, Dyego G L

    2013-03-01

    The performance of grazing cattle in tropical areas is deeply influenced by parasitism, and the increasing reports of resistance are a threat to effective nematode control. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of avermectins on the performance of weaned calves naturally infected by ivermectin-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. The effect of four commercial endectocides (ivermectin 2.25 % + abamectin 1.25 %, ivermectin 3.15 %, doramectin 3.15 %, and doramectin 1 %) on parasitism and performance of a hundred weaned Nellore calves were evaluated during 112 days. The most effective anthelmintic showed efficacy of 84 % and resulted in an increase (P parasites in beef cattle in the weaning phase may not result in increased productivity when carried out without technical criteria. PMID:23076819

  18. Prevalence and first genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in beef calves in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Sam Thi; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Nguyen, Duc Tan; Tada, Chika; Nakai, Yutaka

    2016-04-01

    Little information is available on the epidemiology of Giardia duodenalis in beef cattle from Vietnam. This study was performed to determine the prevalence and genotypes/assemblages of G. duodenalis in native beef calves younger than 6 months in the region. A total of 412 calf fecal samples, randomly selected from 99 small-scale farms located in DacLac and KhanhHoa provinces, central Vietnam, were screened for the presence of G. duodenalis cysts using the zinc-sulfate flotation method followed by iodine staining. The overall prevalence on the sample and herd levels were 13.8 % (57/412) and 42.4 % (42/99), respectively. Molecular analysis in the β-giardin and triosephosphate isomerase genes demonstrated the presence of only G. duodenalis assemblage E in the animals. Since assemblage E has been rarely reported in humans, the zoonotic risk in beef calves in the region appears to be minimal. PMID:26922741

  19. Spotted hyaenas Crocuta crocuta prey on new-born elephant calves in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Salnicki

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta are known to be opportunists and to have a varied diet including mammals, reptiles and birds. Prey most often hunted are medium sized ungulates but spotted hyaenas will on occasion take larger species such as giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis and zebra Equus burchellii. They are also known to hunt whichever species are most abundant and will vary their prey seasonally. In this study spotted hyaenas were observed to take an unusual prey species in the form of elephant calves (Loxodonta africana. On a number of occasions hyaenas were observed feeding on or killing newborn and very young elephant calves. These observations were made whilst the authors were conducting research on spotted hyaena ecology in the woodlands of Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe and were made during the dry season between September and November 1999.

  20. Kinematic first-order calving law implies potential for abrupt ice-shelf retreat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Levermann

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently observed large-scale disintegration of Antarctic ice shelves has moved their fronts closer towards grounded ice. In response, ice-sheet discharge into the ocean has accelerated, contributing to global sea-level rise and emphasizing the importance of calving-front dynamics. The position of the ice front strongly influences the stress field within the entire sheet-shelf-system and thereby the mass flow across the grounding line. While theories for an advance of the ice-front are readily available, no general rule exists for its retreat, making it difficult to incorporate the retreat in predictive models. Here we extract the first-order large-scale kinematic contribution to calving which is consistent with large-scale observation. We emphasize that the proposed equation does not constitute a comprehensive calving law but represents the first order kinematic contribution which can and should be complemented by higher order contributions as well as the influence of potentially heterogeneous material properties of the ice. When applied as a calving law, the equation naturally incorporates the stabilizing effect of pinning points and inhibits ice shelf growth outside of embayments. It depends only on local ice properties which are, however, determined by the full topography of the ice shelf. In numerical simulations the parameterization reproduces multiple stable fronts as observed for the Larsen A and B Ice Shelves including abrupt transitions between them which may be caused by localized ice weaknesses. We also find multiple stable states of the Ross Ice Shelf at the gateway of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet with back stresses onto the sheet reduced by up to 90% compared to the present state.

  1. Kinematic first-order calving law implies potential for abrupt ice-shelf retreat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Levermann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently observed large-scale disintegration of Antarctic ice shelves has moved their fronts closer towards grounded ice. In response, ice-sheet discharge into the ocean has accelerated, contributing to global sea-level rise and emphasizing the importance of calving-front dynamics. The position of the ice front strongly influences the stress field within the entire sheet-shelf-system and thereby the mass flow across the grounding line. While theories for an advance of the ice-front are readily available, no general rule exists for its retreat, making it difficult to incorporate the retreat in predictive models. Here we extract the first-order large-scale kinematic contribution to calving which is consistent with large-scale observation. We emphasize that the proposed equation does not constitute a comprehensive calving law but represents the first-order kinematic contribution which can and should be complemented by higher order contributions as well as the influence of potentially heterogeneous material properties of the ice. When applied as a calving law, the equation naturally incorporates the stabilizing effect of pinning points and inhibits ice shelf growth outside of embayments. It depends only on local ice properties which are, however, determined by the full topography of the ice shelf. In numerical simulations the parameterization reproduces multiple stable fronts as observed for the Larsen A and B Ice Shelves including abrupt transitions between them which may be caused by localized ice weaknesses. We also find multiple stable states of the Ross Ice Shelf at the gateway of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet with back stresses onto the sheet reduced by up to 90 % compared to the present state.

  2. Effects of seasonal and climate variations on calves' thermal comfort and behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripon, Iulian; Cziszter, Ludovic Toma; Bura, Marian; Sossidou, Evangelia N.

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effect of season and climate variations on thermal comfort and behaviour of 6-month-old dairy calves housed in a semi-opened shelter to develop animal-based indicators for assessing animal thermal comfort. The ultimate purpose was to further exploit the use of those indicators to prevent thermal stress by providing appropriate care to the animals. Measurements were taken for winter and summer seasons. Results showed that season significantly influenced ( P ≤ 0.01) the lying down behaviour of calves by reducing the time spent lying, from 679.9 min in winter to 554.1 min in summer. Moreover, season had a significant influence ( P ≤ 0.01) on feeding behaviour. In detail, the total length of feeding periods was shorter in winter, 442.1 min in comparison to 543.5 min in summer. Time spent drinking increased significantly ( P ≤ 0.001), from 11.9 min in winter to 26.9 min in summer. Furthermore, season had a significant influence ( P ≤ 0.001) on self grooming behaviour which was 5.5 times longer in duration in winter than in summer (1,336 s vs 244 s). It was concluded that calves' thermal comfort is affected by seasonal and climate variations and that this can be assessed by measuring behaviour with animal-based indicators, such as lying down, resting, standing up, feeding, rumination, drinking and self grooming. The indicators developed may be a useful tool to prevent animal thermal stress by providing appropriate housing and handling to calves under seasonal and climate challenge.

  3. Excretion of Antibiotic Resistance Genes by Dairy Calves Fed Milk Replacers with Varying Doses of Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Thames, Callie H; Pruden, Amy; James, Robert E.; Ray, Partha P.; Knowlton, Katharine F.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in soil and water have been linked to livestock farms and in some cases feed antibiotics may select for antibiotic resistant gut microbiota. The purpose of this study was to examine the establishment of ARGs in the feces of calves receiving milk replacer containing no antibiotics versus subtherapeutic or therapeutic doses of tetracycline and neomycin. The effect of antibiotics on calf health was also of interest. Twenty-eight male and fema...

  4. Antibiotic resistance gene abundance in feces of calves fed pirlimycin-dosed whole milk

    OpenAIRE

    Littier, Heather Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to antibiotics has the potential to increase the incidence and proliferation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) in the gut and fecal microbiome. Non-saleable, antibiotic-containing milk from cows treated with antibiotics (waste milk) is commonly fed to dairy calves but the effects of ingestion of antibiotics at an early age on the gut microbiome and the development of ARG in the naive gut are not well understood. Pirlimycin, a lincosamide antibiotic acting against Gram positive bac...

  5. Food for rumination : developing novel feeding strategies to improve the welfare of veal calves

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, L.E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of thesis entitled: “Food for Rumination – Developing novel feeding strategies to improve the welfare of veal calves”, Laura Webb Veal calves are typically fed high levels of milk replacer supplemented with solid feed, which tends to contain a relatively small roughage component. Feeding strategies used in veal production have been associated with welfare issues, including the development of abnormal oral behaviours (AOB) and poor gastrointestinal health. AOB include...

  6. The aerobic bacterial flora of the nasal cavity in healthy Anatolian water buffalo calves

    OpenAIRE

    Şeker, Esra; Yardimci, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    Nasal swab samples from clinically healthy Anatolian water buffalo calves, breeding in Afyonkarahisar provinceof Turkey, were collected to determine the bacterial microflora of their nasal mucosa. A total of 160 samples were examined and 165bacterial isolates were identified by using standard microbiological and biochemical methods. Ninety-seven isolates were detected toGram positive bacteria (58.8%) and 68 isolates to Gram negative bacteria (41.2%). Ten bacterial genera including Staphylococ...

  7. Prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders recorded at postmortem inspection in white veal calves and associated risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    M. Brscic; Heutinck, L.F.M.; Wolthuis-Fillerup, M.; STOCKHOFE, N.; B. Engel; Visser, E.K.; F. Gottardo; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Lensink, B.J.; Cozzi, G.; Reenen, van, C.G.

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed at assessing the prevalence of poor rumen development, presence of rumen plaques, rumen papillae hyperkeratinization, and abomasal lesions in veal calves and to investigate risk factors for their occurrence at the farm level. Within a wide cross-sectional study, a sample of 170 veal farms representative of the European veal meat production systems was considered in the 3 major producing countries (99 in the Netherlands, 47 in France, and 24 in Italy). An average of 59 ± 10 (SD...

  8. Longitudinal study on morbidity and mortality in white veal calves in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Pardon Bart; De Bleecker Koen; Hostens Miel; Callens Jozefien; Dewulf Jeroen; Deprez Piet

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Mortality and morbidity are hardly documented in the white veal industry, despite high levels of antimicrobial drug use and resistance. The objective of the present study was to determine the causes and epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in dairy, beef and crossbred white veal production. A total of 5853 calves, housed in 15 production cohorts, were followed during one production cycle. Causes of mortality were determined by necropsy. Morbidity was daily recorded by t...

  9. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CALVES OF AMAZONIAN MANATEES IN PERU: A STUDY CASE

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Roldán Arévalo-Sandi; Delma Nataly Castelblanco-Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Trichechus inunguis is an endemic species of the Amazon, which inhabits mainly in lakes and calm rivers. The objective of this study case was to describe the social behaviour of two female-orphaned calves, of T. inunguis in captivity. They were kept in the same pool at the facilities of the Amazon Rescue Center (ARC, Iquitos, Peruvian Amazon). Between February and October 2011, the individuals were observed during day and night times, completing 352 hours of observation. Through ad libitum ob...

  10. The pathology of enterotoxemia by Clostridium perfringens type C in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jorge P; Anderson, Mark; Blanchard, Patricia; Mete, Asli; Uzal, Francisco A

    2013-05-01

    The pathology of Clostridium perfringens type C infection has been described with detail only in foals and piglets. The current report describes the diagnostic workup and detailed pathology of 3 cases of C. perfringens type C infection in calves. A 2-day-old Jersey calf and fresh and fixed tissues from a 4-week-old Angus calf and from a 1-week-old Jersey calf were received at the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System with a history of digestive disease and death. The gross changes in the gastrointestinal tract of 1 calf consisted of multifocal subserosal hemorrhages of the rumen, diffuse congestion and multifocal hemorrhages of the small intestinal mucosa, and dilated cecum with bloody liquid contents. In a second calf, a large segment of small intestine was hemorrhagic. The small intestine of the third calf was dilated and filled with abundant yellow fluid content. Microscopically, all 3 calves had diffuse coagulation necrosis of the intestinal mucosa. Clostridium perfringens type A was isolated from the intestinal content of 2 calves. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Bovine rotavirus was positive on colonic content of 1 calf. Small numbers of cryptosporidia were seen in smears of colonic content of 2 calves, and Salmonella sp. group E was detected in the small intestinal content of another calf. Clostridium perfringens beta toxin was detected in the intestinal content of the 3 animals. A diagnosis of C. perfringens type C infection was confirmed based on pathological findings and detection of beta toxin in the intestinal content of the 3 animals. PMID:23592750

  11. Susceptibility loci revealed for bovine respiratory disease complex in pre-weaned holstein calves

    OpenAIRE

    Neibergs, Holly L.; Seabury, Christopher M.; Wojtowicz, Andrzej J.; Wang, Zeping; Scraggs, Erik; Kiser, Jennifer N; Neupane, Mahesh; Womack, James E.; Van Eenennaam, Alison; Hagevoort, Gerald Robert; Lehenbauer, Terry W.; Aly, Sharif; Davis, Jessica; Taylor, Jeremy F; ,

    2014-01-01

    Background Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is an infectious disease of cattle that is caused by a combination of viral and/or bacterial pathogens. Selection for cattle with reduced susceptibility to respiratory disease would provide a permanent tool for reducing the prevalence of BRDC. The objective of this study was to identify BRDC susceptibility loci in pre-weaned Holstein calves as a prerequisite to using genetic improvement as a tool for decreasing the prevalence of BRDC. High ...

  12. T1-weighted MR images in radiographic stage of fragmentation of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven femoral heads of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD) in radiographic stage of fragmentation were examined in 6 boys by MRI. Characteristic appearances of capital epiphysis and the surrounding cartilaginous structures can be seen. These were proved by four indices for measurement of cartilaginous contour. Cartilaginous contour of epiphysis is enlarged with crescent like deformity resulting from deformity of growth plate. Characteristic layers or honeycomb pattern of extremely low and intermediate signal intensity can be seen. (author)

  13. Pain and sickness behavior associated with corneal lesions in dairy calves [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon J. Woods

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK is a common corneal disease of calves that adversely affects animal welfare by causing pain and weight loss. Identifying behavioral indicators of pain and sickness in calves with IBK is necessary for designing studies that aim to identify effective means of pain mitigation. Consistent with principles of the 3Rs for animal use in research, data from a randomized blinded challenge study was used to identify and describe variation of behaviors that could serve as reliable indicators of pain and sickness in calves with corneal injuries. Behavioral observations were collected from 29 Holstein calves 8 to 12 weeks of age randomly allocated to one of three treatments: (1 corneal scarification only, (2 corneal scarification with inoculation with Moraxella bovoculi and (3 corneal scarification with inoculation with Moraxella bovis. Behavior was continuously observed between time 1230 - 1730 h on day -1 (baseline time period and day 0 (scarification time period. Corneal scarification and inoculation occurred between 0800 - 1000 h on day 0. Frequency of head-directed behaviors (head shaking, head rubbing, head scratching and durations of head rubbing, feeding, standing with head lifted, lying with head lifted and sleeping were compared between study days and groups. Following scarification, the frequency of head-directed behavior significantly increased (p = 0.0001, as did duration of head rubbing (p=0.02. There was no significant effect of trial, trial day, treatment or treatment-day interaction on other behaviors studied. Our study demonstrated that head-directed behavior, such as head shaking, rubbing and scratching, was associated with scarification of eyes using an IBK challenge model, but sickness behavior was not observed.

  14. Comparison of abomasal emptying in neonatal calves with a nuclear scintigraphic procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappert, G; Lattimer, J C

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate that nuclear medicine technology allows observation of the effect that milk clotting has on abomasal emptying in the living neonatal calf. Scintigraphic evaluation of abomasal emptying was carried out in 6 healthy male Holstein calves. The calves were fed 10% of their body weight daily as whole cow's milk that was divided equally and consumed as 2 feedings via a nipple bottle. One day before the nuclear scintigraphic procedure, the calves were randomly fed whole cow's milk, or an oral rehydration solution (ORS) containing bicarbonate and high levels of soluble fibre was fed for 3 consecutive feedings an hour before the portion of milk. For each calf, both feeding programs were repeated twice at a one-week interval. Immediately following administration of the 99mTC-sulfur-colloid-containing milk, the calves were imaged with the gamma camera positioned lateral and ventral to the abomasum. Additional right lateral and ventral views of the abomasum were collected at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, and 240 min after administration of the radionuclide. Blood glucose determination were performed at one-hour intervals for 7 h after feeding milk to evaluate milk digestibility in both feeding programs. No significant differences in the results of the glucose absorption test or in the radionuclide counts of the abomasum were found between both feeding programs. Scintigraphic evaluation of abomasal emptying was found to be a useful technique for visualization of milk clotting and to test the effect of an ORS on milk digestibility. PMID:11227195

  15. Tuberculosis en terneros: resultados de un estudio prospectivo (Tuberculosis in calves: results of a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garro, C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenUn estudio prospectivo fue realizado en un rodeo lechero con tuberculosis bovina (TB endémica para investigar el riesgo atribuido a la alimentación con leche cruda en terneros durante la crianza artificial.SummaryA prospective study was conducted in a dairy herd with endemic bovine tuberculosis (BT to assess the risk attributed to raw milk in feeding calves during the artificial rearing.

  16. Study of the immunomodulatory properties of gamithromycin and dexamethasone in a lipopolysaccharide inflammation model in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessers, E; Watteyn, A; Wyns, H; Pardon, B; De Backer, P; Croubels, S

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to define the in vivo immunomodulatory properties of the macrolide antibiotic gamithromycin in calves, with respect to the acute phase response. Additionally, the corticosteroid dexamethasone was included as a positive control immunomodulatory drug. Both drugs, as well as their combination,were studied in a previously developed inflammation model,which was initiated by an intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge (0.5 μg/kg body weight). Twenty-four 4-week-old male Holstein Friesian calves were randomized into four groups: no pharmacological treatment (n = 6) or a pharmacological treatment with gamithromycin (n= 6), dexamethasone (n= 6) or their combination (n= 6) 1 h prior to LPS administration. Blood collection and clinical scoring were performed at regular time points until 72 h post LPS challenge. Plasma concentrations of selected cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6)) and acute phase proteins (serum amyloid A and haptoglobin) were subsequently determined. Gamithromycin did not have any beneficial effect on the LPS-induced clinical signs (dyspnea, fever, anorexia and depression), nor on the studied inflammatory mediators. In the dexamethasone and combination groups, the occurrence of dyspnea and fever was not prominently influenced, although the calves recovered significantly faster from the challenge. Moreover, dexamethasone significantly inhibited the levels of TNF-α and IL-6, suggesting a key role for these cytokines in sickness behaviour. In conclusion, unlike dexamethasone, gamithromycin did not directly reduce cytokine release in an LPS inflammation model in calves. PMID:26679821

  17. Genetic parameters for milk yield, lactation length and calving intervals of Murrah buffaloes from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Henrique Mendes Malhado; Ana Claudia Mendes Malhado; Alcides de Amorim Ramos; Paulo Luiz Souza Carneiro; Julio César de Souza; Akin Pala

    2013-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to estimate heritability and genetic correlations between milk yield (MY) and calving interval (CI) and lactation length (LL) in Murrah buffaloes using Bayesian inference. The database used belongs to the genetic improvement program of four buffalo herds from Brazil. To obtain the estimates of variance and covariance, bivariate analyses were performed with the Gibbs sampler, using the program MTGSAM. The heritability coefficient estimates were 0.28, 0.03 ...

  18. Insemination factors affecting the conception rate in seasonal calving Holstein-Friesian cows

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, Frank; Mee, John; O'Sullivan, Kathleen; Evans, Ross; Berry, Donagh; Dillon, Pat

    2003-01-01

    Differences in conception rate to first service between artificial inseminations (AI) carried out by commercial AI operators (CAI) or do-it-yourself operators (DIY), between natural service (NAT) and AI, between different AI sires, and between fresh and frozen-thawed semen, on Irish commercial dairy farms, were studied using logistic regression. The study comprised 12 933 potential first inseminations from 77 spring-calving dairy herds. The data were recorded during 1999 and 2000. Amongst the...

  19. Sudden increase in tidal response linked to calving and acceleration at a large Greenland outlet glacier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Juan, Julia; Elósegui, Pedro; Nettles, Meredith; Larsen, Tine B.; Davis, James L.; Hamilton, Gordon S.; Stearns, Leigh A.; Andersen, Morten L.; Ekström, Göran; Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.; Stenseng, Lars; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Forsberg, René

    2010-01-01

    of geodetic data shows decimeter-level periodic position variations in response to tidal forcing. However, we also observe transient increases of more than 100% in the glacier's responsiveness to such tidal forcing following glacial-earthquake calving events. The timing and amplitude of the changes......-bedrock interface, and suggests a new means by which geodetic data may be used to infer glacier properties....

  20. Quality of colostral passive immunity and pattern of serum protein fluctuation in newborn calves

    OpenAIRE

    Pauletti Patricia; Machado Neto Raul; Packer Irineu Umberto; d'Arce Raul Dantas; Bessi Rosana

    2003-01-01

    Immunity acquired by newborn animals is known as passive immunity, and for ruminants, antibody acquisition depends on the ingestion and absorption of adequate amounts of immunoglobulins from colostrum. This study relates different initial levels of acquired passive protection and serum total protein (TP) and immunoglobulin G (IgG). Serum immunoglobulin concentration and total protein were evaluated for female Holstein calves in the first sixty days of life. Animals were separated into three g...

  1. Colostral transmission of bluetongue virus nucleic acid among newborn dairy calves in California

    OpenAIRE

    Mayo, Christie E.; Crossley, Beate M.; Hietala, Sharon K.; Gardner, Ian A; Breitmeyer, Richard E.; Maclachlan, N. James

    2010-01-01

    There have been substantial recent changes in the global distribution and nature of bluetongue virus (BTV) infection of ungulates, perhaps as a result of climate change. To evaluate the epidemiology of BTV infection in California, an area historically endemic for the virus, we monitored newborn dairy calves at different sites for one year for the presence of BTV RNA and virus-specific antibodies. The data confirm both localized, vector-mediated, seasonal transmission of BTV as well as dissemi...

  2. Immunofluorescence of bovine virus diarrhea viral antigen in white blood cells from experimentally infected immunocompetent calves.

    OpenAIRE

    Bezek, D M; Baker, J. C.; Kaneene, J B

    1988-01-01

    A study to evaluate the detection of bovine virus diarrhea viral antigen using immunofluorescence testing of white blood cells was conducted. Five colostrum-deprived calves were inoculated intravenously with a cytopathic strain of the virus. Lymphocyte and buffy coat smears were prepared daily for direct immunofluorescent staining for detection of antigen. Lymphocytes were separated from heparinized blood using a Ficoll density procedure. Buffy coat smears were prepared from centrifuged blood...

  3. Rice gluten meal as an alternative by-product feed for growing dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohit; Thakur, Sudarshan Singh; Mahesh, M S

    2016-03-01

    This experiment aimed at studying the nutritional characteristics and feeding value of rice gluten meal (RGM, a wet-milling by-product of rice) in growing dairy calves. RGM contained 464 g/kg of crude protein with 821 and 196 g/kg nitrogen (N) of borate-phosphate insoluble N and acid detergent insoluble N, respectively, which were higher (P matter digestibility and energy values were comparable between RGM and GNC. For in vivo trial, 18 Karan-Fries calves (6-12 months) were randomly assigned into three groups based on comparable body weight and age. The first group (GP-I) was fed concentrate mixture containing mainly GNC as protein source, whilst it was replaced by RGM up to 50 and 75 % on N basis, in second (GP-II) and third (GP-III) groups, respectively. Thus, RGM constituted 140 and 210 g/kg of concentrate mixture of GP-II and GP-III, respectively. In addition, all animals were offered chopped green maize and wheat straw for the whole experimental period of 90 days. Results revealed that there was no difference in intake and digestibility of nutrients, N balance, average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency among three groups. Nevertheless, RGM-based diets produced cost-effective ADG than GP-I. Furthermore, experimental calves did not differ in haematological variables like glucose, blood urea N, plasma proteins and non-esterified fatty acids. This study demonstrated that RGM could be incorporated successfully in the concentrate mixture, replacing 75 % of GNC without any discernable compromise in the performance of growing calves. PMID:26885987

  4. Management of the calving pen is a crucial factor for paratuberculosis control in large dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donat, Karsten; Schmidt, Mandy; Köhler, Heike; Sauter-Louis, Carola

    2016-05-01

    Improvement of hygiene and herd management to reduce the contact of calves with adult cow feces to prevent new infections is one of the basic strategies to manage paratuberculosis-affected dairy herds. Control programs should recommend an evidence-based selection of factors that demonstrably reduce the transmission of the infectious agent and decrease the prevalence of infected cattle to improve acceptance and implementation of the recommended measures among farmers. This study aimed to assess the influence of several management measures on control success in a longitudinal study in 28 large dairy herds with a median size of 415 cows in Thuringia, Germany. The cumulative incidence of cows shedding Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) per year was determined by individual fecal culture of all cows during 5 consecutive years. Relevant management practices as well as herd size, milk yield, and purchase of cattle were recorded by on-farm risk assessment. Mean holding time of MAP shedders within the herd was calculated from individual data of each shedding cow. Using multiple regression models, separate calving pens for shedders and disinfection of the pen after use were identified as significant risk factors that reduced the cumulative incidence of MAP shedders per year on the herd level. The results provide evidence that, in addition to other factors, calving hygiene and management of the calving pens are crucial for paratuberculosis control, particularly in large dairy herds. Considered together with the outcome from other studies, these results might be important to weight various risk factors and to avoid overburdening and overwhelming farmers and keeping them committed. PMID:26947285

  5. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Stacey A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In December of 3 years, 87 beef cows with nursing calves (594 ± 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November at side were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender and divided randomly into 6 groups assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual pastures (0.45 ha/cow that had been interseeded into a dormant common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers./bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge sod. Pastures contained 1 of the following 3 seeding mixtures (2 pastures/mixture: 1 wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., WRG, 2 wheat and ryegrass plus red clover (Trifolium pretense L., WRR, or 3 wheat and ryegrass plus white (Trifolium repens L. and crimson clovers (Trifolium incarnatum L., WRW. All groups had ad libitum access to grass hay (12% crude protein; 58% total digestible nutrients. The second week in December, cow estrous cycles were synchronized and artificially inseminated. In late December, a bull was placed with each group for 60-d. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance using a mixed model containing treatment as the fixed effect and year as the random effect. Body weight and condition scores did not differ (P ≥ 0.27 among cows between February and June. Calf birth weights or average daily gain did not differ (P ≥ 0.17 among treatments; however, calves grazing pastures with clovers did tend (P = 0.06 to weigh more than calves grazing grass only. Weaning weight per cow exposed to a bull was greater (P = 0.02 for WRR and WRW than WRG. Cows grazing winter-annual pastures containing clovers tended to wean more calf body weight per cow exposed to a bull than cows grazing the grass only pastures.

  6. Effect of protein provision via milk replacer or solid feed on protein metabolism in veal calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berends, H.; van den Borne, J. J G C; Røjen, B. A.;

    2015-01-01

    total N intake). The SF mixture consisted of 50% concentrates, 25% corn silage, and 25% straw on a dry matter basis. Total N intake was equalized to 1.8g of N·kg of BW-0.75·d-1 by adjusting N intake via MR. All calves were housed individually on metabolic cages to allow for quantification of a N balance...

  7. Effects of different rations on growth and rumen development of calves

    OpenAIRE

    Noci, Bardhyl

    2010-01-01

    The switch of a calf from the monogastric status shortly after birth to the ruminant status should take place as uncomplicated as possible ensuring optimal growth. Nowadays calves receive hay, silage and concentrates additionally to milk very early in their lives in order to ensure early adaptation of the rumen to the components of the ration of the later dairy cow. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different feedstuffs (chopped hay H, pelleted starter KF, chopped ha...

  8. Partitioning of Submarine Melt and Calving across the front of Store Glacier, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, A., II; Chauche, N.

    2015-12-01

    Processes unique to the marine-termini of fast-flowing tidewater outlet glaciers can potentially drive extreme rates of mass wastage thereby providing a rapid link between the terrestrial ice reservoir and the oceanic sink. Here we attempt to directly quantify the pattern and magnitude of calving and melt at the front of Store Glacier, a major outlet draining the western sector of the Greenland ice sheet. Integration of range-survey technologies on a robust, heavy displacement marine platform coupled with high-resolution photogrammetry allowed the production of accurate, ~m resolution 3d digital terrain models (DTMs) of the glacier front. A swath-interferometric sonar system calibrated via an inertial motion unit stabilized with RTK GPS and vector-compass data-streams was combined with photogrammetric processing of repeat UAV surveys. The results of three repeat surveys across the front of Store Glaciers in 2012 is presented during which significant ice flow, melt and calving events were imaged, complimented with AWS, on-ice GPS stations and time-lapse/video camera sequences. The residual of successive DTMs yield the 3d pattern of frontal change allowing the processes calving and melt to be quantified and constrained in unprecedented detail. The pattern of submarine melt is further validated against indirect estimates of submarine melt derived from oceanographic circulation measurements within the fjord.

  9. Performance, rumen development, and carcass traits of male calves fed starter concentrate with crude glycerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raylon Pereira Maciel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to assess the effects of including crude glycerin in the diet on intake, performance, rumen development, and carcass traits of dairy crossbred veal calves fed starter concentrate containing 0, 80, 160, and 240 g kg−1 crude glycerin. Twenty-eight calves with an average weight of 38.03±6.7 kg and five days of age were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments with seven replications. Calves were individually housed in covered stalls equipped with feeders and drinkers for 56 days. The calf response to inclusion of crude glycerin in the concentrate changed over the weeks and the inclusion level of 240 g kg−1 resulted in greater dry matter intake and average daily gain. There was no effect on the final weight and total weight gain of the animals, with mean values of 73.60 and 35.16 kg, respectively. The weight of the rumen-reticulum adjusted for body weight, empty body weight, and total stomach weight increased linearly with the inclusion of crude glycerin. Blood total protein, globulin, urea, cholesterol, gamma glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations did not differ among treatments. Carcass traits and meat color were not affected. Crude glycerin can be added to dairy calf starter concentrate up to 240 g kg−1 dry matter because it benefits concentrate intake, performance, and rumen development without affecting animal health.

  10. Mycobacterium avium Subsp. avium Infection in Four Veal Calves: Differentiation from Intestinal Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Goepfert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (Maa is an intracellular pathogen belonging to the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC. Reservoirs of MAC are the natural environment, wildlife and domestic animals. In adult bovine, MAC infections are typically caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map. Maa infections in bovine are rarely reported but may cause clinical disease and pathological lesions similar to those observed in paratuberculosis or those induced by members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC. Therefore, differentiation of MAC from MTBC infection should be attempted, especially if unusual mycobacterial lesions are encountered. Four veal calves from a fattening farm dying with clinical signs of otitis media, fever, and weight loss were submitted for necropsy. Samples from affected organs were taken for histologic investigation, bacteriologic culture, and bacterial specification using PCR. Macroscopic thickening of the intestinal mucosa was induced by granulomatous enteritis and colitis. Intracytoplasmic acid-fast bacteria were detected by Ziehl-Neelsen stains and PCR revealed positive results for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. Clinical and pathological changes of Maa infection in veal calves had features of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and the MTBC. Therefore, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection should be considered in cases of granulomatous enteritis in calves.

  11. Determination of trenbolone in urine and faeces of calves by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunological methods were established for the determination of residues of trenbolone acetate (TBA) in urine and faeces of calves treated with TBA. Both methods are easy to handle (about 60-80 samples within 2 days). Their reliability has been demonstrated by means of examining specificity, sensitivity, accuracy and reproducibility. The lower limit of sensitivity is around 0.024-0.032 ng TBOH/ml urine and 0.034-0.048 ng TBOH/g faeces. Both RIAs could be applied for routine control of illegal treatment of veal calves with TBA. For the first time the excretion of TBOH after implantation with TBA was measured radioimmunological in 2 veal calves. Residues of TBA are measurable in urine and in faeces during the whole fest period (up to 61 days after implantation). The major part of TBOH is excreted with the faeces. Until the substances needed for the RIA of TBOH are available commercially, thin-layer-chromatography (Vogt 1977) can alternatively be used for the determination of residues of TBA. (orig.)

  12. Hyena disease (premature physeal closure) in calves due to overdose of vitamins A, D3, E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kenichi; Sadahito, Kobayashi; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Nobuyuki, Onizuka; Mikami, Osamu; Yamada, Manabu; Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Yasuyuki, Nakajima

    2003-03-01

    Holstein suckling calves on a farm manifested severe emaciation, generalized alopecia, dome-like cranial deformation, and high mortality (Case 1). Metaphyseal growth plates of the femur were achondroplastic; segmented, partially resorped, and replaced with immature bony trabeculae containing degenerated chondrocytes. The skull was thin and partially replaced with connective tissue. Diffuse and severe fatty degeneration was observed in the hepatic stellate (Ito') cells. After 6 mo, surviving calves manifested unthrifty with short and irregular hindquarters (Case 2). The metaphyseal growth plates were poorly formed, irregular, partially disappeared centrally, and often sealed with thin bony trabeculae. The cartilage matrix was not homogeneous but was finely fibrous, and chondrocytes were flat and degenerated. The bone lesion was diagnosed as chondrodysplasia due to premature physeal closure. These calves had been administered excessive amounts of vitamins A, D3 and E, and blood chemistry of acute case showed hypervitaminosis A and E. Case I demonstrated acute disease, while Case 2 demonstrated chronic sequelae. Hypervitaminosis A was the suspected cause. PMID:12678294

  13. Genotype by environment interaction for livability of dairy calves from first parity cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouweltjes, W; Windig, J J; van Pelt, M L; Calus, M P L

    2015-10-01

    Death of calves around parturition is a matter of concern for dairy farmers. Relatively high stillbirth rates and unfavourable trends have been reported for Holstein heifers in the Netherlands and several other countries. In our study, we investigated herd differences, genetic parameters and genotype by environment interaction for heifer calf livability. A large dataset with data from calvings between 1993 and 2012 of Dutch dairy farms was used. There were considerable differences between herds in livability of calves from heifers, with averages ranging from 74% to 95%. Both herds with relatively high and low averages showed the same negative trend between 1993 and 2012, with largest declines in herds with the lowest averages. We found that heritability and genetic variation of first parity livability were substantially larger in herd environments where the likelihood of stillbirth was high v. environments where stillbirth was at a low level. The genetic correlations between herd environment levels were all very close to unity, indicating that ranking of sires was similar for all environments. However, for herds with a relatively high stillbirth incidence selecting sires with favourable breeding values is expected to be twice as profitable as in herds with a relatively low stillbirth incidence. PMID:26123138

  14. Prevalence and Genetic Characterization of Cryptosporidium Species in Dairy Calves in Central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegayehu, Teklu; Karim, Robiul; Anberber, Manyazewal; Adamu, Haileeyesus; Erko, Berhanu; Zhang, Longxian; Tilahun, Getachew

    2016-01-01

    The burden of cryptosporidiosis due to Cryptosporidium parvum is well documented in HIV-positive patients in Ethiopia. However, the role of animals in zoonotic transmission of the disease is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium species in dairy calves; to assess the role of cattle in zoonotic transmission in central Ethiopia. A total of 449 fecal samples were collected and screened using modified Ziehl-Neelson staining method and PCR targeting the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 9.4% (42/449) and 15.8% (71/449) as detected by microscopy and nested PCR, respectively. The prevalence of infection varied significantly across the study areas with the higher prevalence being observed in Chancho 25.4% (30/118). Crossbred calves had significantly higher prevalence of Cryptosporidium than indigenous zebu. Genotyping results revealed the presence of C. andersoni (76.1%), C. bovis (19.7%) and C. ryanae (4.2%). The occurrence of these Cryptosporidium species appeared to be age-related. C. andersoni constituted 92.1% of the Cryptosporidium infection in calves older than 3 months. Sequence analysis also showed the existence of intra-species variation at SSU rRNA gene. Findings of the current study indicate that cattle may not be an important source of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis in central Ethiopia. Further molecular studies are needed to support this observation from other part of the country. PMID:27135243

  15. 99mTc-MDP bone imaging Legg-Calve'-Perthes disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pathology of Legg-Calve'-Perthes disease be can described as a vascular disturbance leading to necrosis and subsequent revascularization of the femoral epiphyseal ossification center. The regional distribution of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals in the skeleton can depend on a number of factors, but bone blood flow is a major physiological determinant of regional skeletal uptake of Tc-99m polyphosphate and bone imaging may thus be used for the detection of areas with both decreased and increased vascular supply. The authors analyzed the scintigraphic findings of 14 cases of Legg-Calve'-Perthes disease at Kyung Hee University Hospital from Mar. '81 to Oct. '82. The results were as follows: 1. Scintigraphy revealed area of absent radioactivity in 14 cases; lateral 2/3 portion of the femoral epiphyseal ossification center was involved in 9 cases among 14 cases, and also increased radioactivity in epiphyseal ossification center, epiphyseal plate, or proximal metaphysis of femur were associated in 7 cases. 2. Three cases had radiographically normal hip, whereas scintigraphy reviewed distinctly absent radioactivity in femoral epiphyseal ossification center. 3. Magnification of hip imaging using a pinhole collimator provided good definition of presence and extent of pathologic defect or uptake in epiphyseal ossification center, epiphyseal plate, and metaphysis. Bone imaging provided earlier and more accurate information concerning the extent of the necrotic and revascularization process of Legg-Calve'-Perthes disease than the radiographys alone

  16. Evaluation of performance and carcass characteristics of camel-calves fattened with molasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Mohamed,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty camel-calves were employed in this feeding trial for a period of 98 days. Calves were stratified according to body weight into two groups, then allotted randomly to two dietary treatments. Diet (A consists of molasses feed while Diet (B consists of sorghum grain feed. During the pre-experimental period (12 days, the experimental animals were maintained on sorghum Stover diet, the experimental diets were introduced gradually until full replacement took place. The results indicated that no significant differences (P<0.05 were observed in dry matter intake, rate of body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio. No significant differences were found (in percentage between the two groups; in head, hide, four feet, intestine, stomach, mesenteric fats, kidneys, kidneys fats, liver, heart, lung and diaphragm. Also, no significant differences were found between the two groups in hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight and dressing percentage. This trial confirmed that no significant differences were found in chemical analysis, carcass colour and water holding capacity and cooking loss. This study was carried out to evaluate performance and carcass characteristics of camel-calves fattened with molasses that replaced sorghum grains which is the basal diet of most Sudanese people.

  17. Prevalence of Salmonella and E. coli in neonatal diarrheic calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.R. El-Seedy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal calf diarrhea remains one of the most important problems faced by livestock, causing great economic losses. This study investigated the prevalence of Salmonella and Escherichia coli, especially enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC, in diarrheic calves. Fecal samples were collected from 127 diarrheic calves up to 3 months of age at 12 farms from different governorates in Egypt. 119 bacterial isolates (93.7% were recovered and the prevalences of Salmonella and E. coli in diarrheic calves were 18.1% and 75.6%, respectively. Serotyping of Salmonella isolates revealed that S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium were the most prevalent serotypes, representing 60.9% and 30.4%, respectively, while S. Dublin was 8.7%. Serogrouping of E. coli isolates showed that 10 O-serogroups were obtained where O26 and O103 were the most prevalent (17.7% of each. Salmonella serotypes showed positive results with PCR test using oligonucleotide primer amplifying 521 bp fragment of invA gene of Salmonella while 70% of E. coli serogroups possessed ETEC virulent gene (K99. The in-vitro antibiotic sensitivity test indicated that Salmonella serotypes showed high sensitivity against enrofloxacin, spectinomycin and neomycin while E. coli isolates showed high sensitivities against marbofloxacin, spectinomycin and neomycin only.

  18. Multilocus sequence typing and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from dairy calves in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eKlein-Jöbstl

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Human campylobacteriosis is primarily associated with poultry but also cattle. In this study, 55 Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from 382 dairy calves’ feces were differentiated by multilocus sequence typing and tested for antimicrobial resistance. The most prevalent sequence type (ST was ST883 (20.0%, followed by ST48 (14.5%, and ST50 (9.1%. In contrast to ST48 and ST50, ST883 has rarely been described in cattle previously. Furthermore, risk factor analysis was performed for the presence of the most prevalent STs in these calves. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the type of farm (organic versus conventional and calf housing (place, and individual versus group were identified as significantly (p<0.05 associated with the presence of ST883 in calves, and ST50 was associated with calf diarrhea. Antimicrobial resistance was detected in 58.2% of the isolates. Most of the resistant isolates (81.3% were resistant to more than one antimicrobial. Most frequently, resistance to ciprofloxacin (49.1%, followed by nalidixic acid with (42.8%, and tetracycline (14.5% was observed. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that dairy calves may serve as a potential reservoir for Campylobacter jejuni and pose a risk for transmission, including antimicrobial resistant isolates to the environment and to humans.

  19. Growth and Blood Parameters of Weaned Crossbred Beef Calves Fed Forage Kale (Brassica oleracea spp. acephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chorfi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty lightweight calves (206.4±3.2 kg were randomly distributed to four treatments: (Control low nutritive value pasture and hay plus 1 kg d−1 of rolled barley; (Pasture management intensive pasture; (Haylage timothy haylage; and (Kale 50% timothy haylage −50% kale pasture. Blood samples were analysed for thyroid hormones, liver enzymes, glucose, cholesterol, total proteins (TP, albumin, globulins, and urea-N. At the end of the trial, the Pasture group was the heaviest with 323.6±4.2 kg BW and 1.54 kg ADG. Final BW and ADG were similar for the Kale and Haylage groups. Blood T3 was higher for Kale than for the other groups. The T3/T4 ratio was greater for Control at the end of the experiment. There were no treatment differences for T4, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH, cholesterol, and glucose. Blood urea-N was lower for Kale and higher for Pasture; however albumin concentrations were greater for Pasture and similar for other treatments. Except for the Control group, calves had a lower concentration of circulating globulins at the end than at the beginning of the experiment. This study showed that Kale could be fed to backgrounding calves without detrimental effects on performance.

  20. Molecular Microbial Analysis of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from the Gut of Calves for Potential Probiotic Use

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    Lorena P. Soto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota has an influence on the growth and health status of the hosts. This is of particular interest in animals reared using intensive farming practices. Hence, it is necessary to know more about complexity of the beneficial intestinal microbiota. The use of molecular methods has revolutionized microbial identification by improving its quality and effectiveness. The specific aim of the study was to analyze predominant species of Lactobacillus in intestinal microbial ecosystem of young calves. Forty-two lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from intestinal tract of young calves were characterized by: Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA, by using Hae III, Msp I, and Hinf I restriction enzymes, and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. ARDRA screening revealed nine unique patterns among 42 isolates, with the same pattern for 29 of the isolates. Gene fragments of 16S rDNA of 19 strains representing different patterns were sequenced to confirm the identification of these species. These results confirmed that ARDRA is a good tool for identification and discrimination of bacterial species isolated from complex ecosystem and between closely related groups. This paper provides information about the LAB species predominant in intestinal tract of young calves that could provide beneficial effects when administered as probiotic.

  1. Evolution of phagocytic function in monocytes and neutrophils blood cells of healthy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Camila F; Blagitz, Maiara G; Bertagnon, Heloisa G; Gomes, Renata C; Santos, Kamila R; Della Libera, Alice M M P

    2015-12-01

    The immune system of newborn calves is immature and must mature gradually. Understanding how this immunity is established may define different profiles. Twelve healthy calves were monitored during 8 time periods to assess the innate immune system during the first 90d. Blood samples were collected, and the blood phagocytes, identified by the expression of CD14 and CH138 surface molecules, were evaluated for phagocytic functionality (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli stained with propidium iodide) and the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (2,7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate oxidation). Functional changes in the CD14+ and CH138+ cells occurred at 40d of age, with sporadic increases in phagocytosis intensity and reactive oxygen species production, and decreased phagocytosis occurred at 60d of age. Therefore, fewer phagocytes were active from 40d of age, although those that were active performed their roles with greater efficacy. That change presumably occurred because the calf phagocytes began to support the immune response without the influence of passive immunity. The animals failed to reach the stability needed to complete the maturation of the innate immune response by 90d of age. These data are applicable for healthy calves only. PMID:26476941

  2. Multi-method observation and analysis of an impulse wave and tsunami caused by glacier calving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüthi, M. P.; Vieli, A.

    2015-11-01

    Glacier calving can cause violent impulse waves which, upon landfall, can lead to destructive tsunami-like waves. Here we present data acquired during a calving event from Eqip Sermia, an ocean-terminating glacier in West Greenland. During an exceptionally well documented event, the collapse of 9 × 105 m3 ice from a 200 m high ice cliff caused an impulse wave of 50 m height, traveling at a speed of 25-30 m s-1. This wave was filmed from a tour boat in 800 m distance from the calving face, and simultaneously measured with a terrestrial radar interferometer and a tide gauge. Tsunami wave run-up height on the steep opposite shore in 4 km distance was 10-15 m, destroying infrastructure and eroding old vegetation. These observations indicate that such high tsunami waves are a recent phenomenon in the history of this glacier. Analysis of the data shows that only moderately bigger tsunami waves are to be expected in the future, even under rather extreme scenarios.

  3. Multi-method observation and analysis of a tsunami caused by glacier calving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüthi, Martin P.; Vieli, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Glacier calving can cause violent tsunami waves which, upon landfall, can cause severe destruction. Here we present data acquired during a calving event from Eqip Sermia, an ocean-terminating glacier in west Greenland. During an exceptionally well-documented event, the collapse of 9 × 105 m3 ice from a 200 m high ice cliff caused a tsunami wave of 50 m height, traveling at a speed of 25-33 m s-1. This wave was filmed from a tour boat at 800 m distance from the calving face, and simultaneously measured with a terrestrial radar interferometer and a tide gauge. Tsunami wave run-up height on the steep opposite shore at a distance of 4 km was 10-15 m, destroying infrastructure and eroding old vegetation. These observations indicate that such high tsunami waves are a recent phenomenon in the history of this glacier. Analysis of the data shows that only moderately bigger tsunami waves are to be expected in the future, even under rather extreme scenarios.

  4. Morbidity-mortality and performance evaluation of Brahman calves from in vitro embryo production

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    Pimenta-Oliveira Andreza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The use of bovine in vitro embryo production (IVP increases the reproductive potential of genetically superior cows, enabling a larger scale of embryo production when compared with other biotechnologies. However, deleterious effects such as abnormal fetal growth, longer gestation period, increased birth weight, abortion, preterm birth and higher rates of neonatal mortality have been attributed to IVP. The aim of this study was to compare the influence of in vitro embryo production and artificial insemination (AI on gestation length, complications with birth, birth weight, method of feeding colostrum, passive transfer of immunity, morbidity-mortality, and performance in Brahman calves. Results Whilst gestation length and birth weight were significantly increased in IVP-derived calves, no difference in weaning weight was observed between groups. The passive transfer of immunity (PT, was assessed in IVP (n = 80 and AI (n = 20 groups 24 hours after birth by determination of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT and gammaglobulin activity as well as by quantification of the concentration of total protein in serum. No differences in passive transfer or incidences of dystocia and diseases at weaning were observed between groups. Birth weight, method of feeding colostrum and dystocia were not correlated with PT in either group. Conclusions In this study, in vitro embryo production did not affect the health status, development, or passive transfer of immunity in Brahman calves.

  5. Multilocus Sequence Typing and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Dairy Calves in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Jöbstl, Daniela; Sofka, Dmitri; Iwersen, Michael; Drillich, Marc; Hilbert, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Human campylobacteriosis is primarily associated with poultry but also cattle. In this study, 55 Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from 382 dairy calves' feces were differentiated by multilocus sequence typing and tested for antimicrobial resistance. The most prevalent sequence type (ST) was ST883 (20.0%), followed by ST48 (14.5%), and ST50 (9.1%). In contrast to ST48 and ST50, ST883 has rarely been described in cattle previously. Furthermore, risk factor analysis was performed for the presence of the most prevalent STs in these calves. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the type of farm (organic vs. conventional) and calf housing (place, and individual vs. group) were identified as significantly (p acid (42.8%), and tetracycline (14.5%) was observed. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that dairy calves may serve as a potential reservoir for C. jejuni and pose a risk for transmission, including antimicrobial resistant isolates to the environment and to humans. PMID:26870027

  6. Egg Yolk IgY: Protection against Rotavirus induced Diarrhea and Modulatory effect on the systemic and mucosal antibody responses in newborn calves

    OpenAIRE

    Vega, C.; De Bok, M; Chacana, P.; Saif, L; Fernandez, F; Parreño, V.

    2011-01-01

    Bovine rotavirus (BRV) is an important cause of diarrhea in newborn calves. Local passive immunity is the most efficient protective strategy to control the disease. IgY technology (the use of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins) is an economic and practical alternative to prevent BRV diarrhea in dairy calves. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protection and immunomodulation induced by the oral administration of egg yolk enriched in BRV specific IgY to experimentally BRV infected calves. ...

  7. Effects of Probiotic and Prebiotic on Average Daily Gain, Fecal Shedding of Escherichia Coli, and Immune System Status in Newborn Female Calves

    OpenAIRE

    Roodposhti, Pezhman Mohamadi; Dabiri, Najafgholi

    2012-01-01

    Thirty two Holstein female calves (initial body weight = 40±3.0 kg) were used to investigate the effects of probiotic and prebiotic on average daily gain (ADG), fecal E. coli count, white blood cell count, plasma IgG1 level and cell-mediated immune response to injection of phytohemagglutinin in suckling female calves. Calves were assigned randomly to one of the four treatments, including whole milk without additives (control), whole milk containing probiotic, whole milk containing prebiotic a...

  8. Intratypic heterologous vaccination of calves can induce an antibody response in presence of maternal antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus

    OpenAIRE

    Dekker, A.; Eble, P.L.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N; Chenard, G.

    2014-01-01

    Background - Maternal antibodies can interfere with foot-and-mouth disease vaccination. In this study we determined whether intratypic heterologous vaccination could help to improve herd immunity. Results - In unvaccinated calves, a half-life of maternal antibodies of 21 days was determined. At two weeks of age, calves without maternal antibodies showed a good antibody response against both vaccines used in the trial, while in calves with maternal antibodies no antibody response to homologous...

  9. Comparative serological response in calves to eight commercial vaccines against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3, bovine respiratory syncytial, and bovine viral diarrhea viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; van den Hurk, Jan V.; McCartney, Duane; Harland, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    A field trial was conducted to compare the serological responses in calves to eight commercial vaccines against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and/or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Calves given IBRV, P13V, BRSV, and BVDV vaccines had significantly higher antibodies to these viruses than unvaccinated controls; however, serological responses to killed BVDV vaccines were low. Calves with preexisting an...

  10. Time-lapse techniques for surface velocity, front position and calving rate measurement of a fast-flowing tidewater glacier in Svalbard

    OpenAIRE

    Smith-Johnsen, Silje

    2015-01-01

    Calving is the mechanical loss of icebergs from tidewater glaciers, responsible for 70% of the annual transfer of mass from the cryosphere to the ocean (van der Veen 1998a, 2002). To be able to correctly predict future global sea level changes it is important to understand calving processes and incorporate them into the models. The aim of this thesis is to investigate surface velocities, front positions and calving rates of a fast flowing tidewater glacier in Svalbard using an automatic o...

  11. Effect of tropically adapted sire breeds on preweaning growth of F1 Angus calves and reproductive performance of their Angus dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, C C; Hammond, A C; Olson, T A

    2000-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of tropically adapted sire breeds on preweaning growth performance of F1 calves and on reproductive performance of their Angus dams. Angus (A) cows were bred in two consecutive years (1992 and 1993) by AI using semen from Brahman (B; Bos indicus; n = 10), Senepol (S; Bos taurus; n = 10), and Tuli (T; Sanga; n = 9) bulls. A total of 82 B x A, 85 S x A, and 91 T x A calves were born. The statistical model included the fixed effects of year, sire breed, calf sex, sire breed x calf sex, and cow parity and the random effect of sire within sire breed. Birth weight, weaning weight, 205-d adjusted weaning weight, ADG from birth to weaning, and hip height at weaning were greater (P x A calves than for S x A or T x A calves. Greater differences were detected between sexes for B x A than for S x A and T x A (for all traits sire breed x calf sex, P x A, 87%; S x A, 98%; and T x A, 100%) and tended (P x A, 90%; S x A, 94%; and T x A, 98%). Sire breed of calf did not affect (P > .10) length of gestation, and sire breed did not affect the interval from calving to first observed estrus or pregnancy in Angus dams. These results demonstrate that preweaning growth performance of B x A calves was greater than that of either S x A or T x A calves. However, use of Brahman sires on Angus dams led to calving problems and tended to reduce the percentage of calves that survived until weaning. Thus, heavier weaning weights of B x A calves would be an advantage for cow-calf producers marketing calves, but heavier birth weights and calving difficulty attributed to Brahman sires would be a disadvantage. PMID:10834561

  12. Supplementation with difructose anhydride III promotes passive calcium absorption in the small intestine immediately after calving in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramura, M; Wynn, S; Reshalaitihan, M; Kyuno, W; Sato, T; Ohtani, M; Kawashima, C; Hanada, M

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of hypocalcemia increases in high-parity dairy cows because resorption of bone Ca is delayed in these animals, and they appear to have a reduced ability to absorb Ca from the intestine during the early postpartum period. Difructose anhydride (DFA) III has been shown to promote the absorption of intestinal Ca via a paracellular pathway. However, past studies have not reported this effect in peripartum dairy cows. Therefore, we investigated the effect of DFA III supplementation on Ca metabolism during the peripartum period to determine whether DFA III promotes intestinal Ca absorption via this route. Seventy-four multiparous Holstein cows were separated into DFA and control groups based on their parity and body weight. The feed of the DFA group was supplemented with 40g/d of DFA III from -14 to 6d relative to calving. The control group did not receive DFA III. At calving (0h relative to calving), serum Ca declined below 9mg/dL in both groups. However, serum Ca concentrations were greater in the DFA group than in the control group at 6, 12, 24, and 48h relative to calving, and the time required for serum Ca to recover to 9mg/dL during the postpartum period was shorter in the high-parity cows in the DFA group than in those in the control group. Parathyroid hormone concentrations increased immediately after calving in both groups and were greater in the control group than in the DFA group at 12 and 24h relative to calving. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations increased at 0 and 12h relative to calving in both groups and were higher in the control group than in the DFA group at 72h relative to calving. Serum concentrations of the bone-resorption marker cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) were not different between the groups during peripartum period, and serum NTX in all cows was lower at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72h relative to calving than at -21, 4, and 5d relative to calving. Thus, DFA treatment induced faster recovery of serum Ca

  13. Effect of Imidocarb dipropionate on the immune response to Foot and Mouth Disease vaccine in healthy and anaplasmosis-infected calves

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    N. A. Afifi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This work was performed to investigate the effect of a potent anti-protozoan drug, Imidocarb on the cell mediated and humoral immune response to foot and mouth disease vaccine (FMDV, O1 strain in normal and Anaplasmosis-infected calves. Materials and Methods: A total of 55 male mixed bred calves were used and divided into two main groups of 25 calves each. The first group was healthy and the second was Anaplasma - infected calves. FMDV was administered in both groups. Calves of the first and second groups were subdivided into equal five subgroups of 5 calves each. The first subgroup was vaccinated control. The treated subgroups were each given 3 mg / kg body weight Imidocarb dipropionate in a single intramuscular dose at one week before vaccination, at time of vaccination, one week and two weeks post vaccination with FMDV (O1, respectively. The cellular immune response in the different groups was evaluated weekly, however antibody titers were measured by ELISA and serum neutralization test Results: Imidocarb increased rate of erythrocyte rosette forming lymphocytes when it was administered one week before vaccination, at time of vaccination and one week post vaccination. Imidocarb increased antibody titre of FMDV in both normal and anaplasmosis-infected calves. The protection rate due to challenge with virulent FMDV was high in treated calves as compared with the vaccinated control. Conclusion: The best immunopotentiating effect of Imidocarb is achieved by dosing one week before vaccinating calves with FMD vaccine.

  14. Effects of a Bacteria-Based Probiotic on Ruminal pH, Volatile Fatty Acids and Bacterial Flora of Holstein Calves

    OpenAIRE

    QADIS, Abdul Qadir; GOYA, Satoru; IKUTA, Kentaro; YATSU, Minoru; Kimura, Atsushi; NAKANISHI, Shusuke; Sato, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Twelve ruminally cannulated Holstein calves (age, 12 ± 3 weeks) were used to identify the effect of a probiotic comprised of Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecium and Clostridium butyricum on ruminal components. The calves were adapted to a diet containing a 50% high-concentrate (standard diet) for 1 week, and then, the probiotic was given once daily for 5 days (day 1–5) at 1.5 or 3.0 g/100 kg body weight to groups of four calves each. Four additional calves fed the standard ...

  15. Competition during the milk-feeding stage influences the development of feeding behavior of pair-housed dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated how the feeding behavior of pair-housed calves develops in response to reduced teat and feed place availability. Twenty Holstein bull calves were pair housed and provided with milk replacer (MR) and grain concentrate ad libitum via either (1) 1 teat and feed bucket/pen, such that calves could not feed simultaneously [competitive feeding (CF)] or (2) 2 teats and feed buckets/pen [noncompetitive feeding (NCF)]. The calves were weaned during wk 7 of life by incrementally diluting the MR. Postweaning, all pens were managed identically and offered a complete pelleted diet ad libitum via 2 feed buckets/pen (NCF) in period 1 (wk 8 and 9) and period 3 (wk 12 and 13) and exposed to a competitive challenge with CF in period 2 (wk 10 and 11). Feeding times and competitive interactions were recorded from video for 3 d/wk in wk 2, 4, and 6 and 2 d/wk in wk 8 to 13. Meal criteria were used to calculate daily meal frequency, meal time, and synchronized meal time (the percentage of meal time when calves within the pen were engaged in simultaneous meals). Milk replacer intake was subject to a treatment × week interaction, with calves in CF pens having lower MR intake (wk 2: 8.3 vs. 10.0 L/calf per day for CF vs. NCF), but compensating by increasing intake to a greater extent over time (wk 4-5: 13.3 vs. 11.7 L/d for CF vs. NCF). Corresponding to MR intake, meal frequencies and feeding times evolved differently over this period, increasing in CF pens and decreasing in NCF pens (wk 2: 5.8 vs. 11.1 and wk 4-6: 6.2 vs. 5.1 meals/d for CF vs. NCF). Calves in CF pens also spent less time engaged in synchronized meals (28 vs. 51% of meal time; standard error=7.1) and displaced each other 5 times more frequently during synchronized eating. Postweaning, calves in previously CF pens maintained 5 times greater displacement frequencies and had fewer overlapping meals than calves in previously NCF pens (34.5 vs. 40.7% of meals, respectively). Postweaning, when calves

  16. Insemination factors affecting the conception rate in seasonal calving Holstein-Friesian cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Frank; Mee, John; O'Sullivan, Kathleen; Evans, Ross; Berry, Donagh; Dillon, Pat

    2003-01-01

    Differences in conception rate to first service between artificial inseminations (AI) carried out by commercial AI operators (CAI) or do-it-yourself operators (DIY), between natural service (NAT) and AI, between different AI sires, and between fresh and frozen-thawed semen, on Irish commercial dairy farms, were studied using logistic regression. The study comprised 12,933 potential first inseminations from 77 spring-calving dairy herds. The data were recorded during 1999 and 2000. Amongst the total, 4,394 cows had repeated records across the two years. Adjustment variables included: herd, year, parity, calving period, calving to service interval, herd size, proportion of North American Holstein-Friesian genes, peak milk yield, semen fresh or frozen-thawed status, AI sire and a cow history variable to account for the correlation structure that may exist between performance records of cows present in both years of the study. Interactions of interest were tested but were non-significant. No significant association was observed between the category of AI operator and the likelihood of conception rate to first service (PREG1). The variation in PREG1 observed within the category of operator (CAI and DIY) was investigated using the Levene test for homogeneity of variance. There was no difference between the level of variation observed within CAI and DIY operators. There were significant differences in the likelihood of PREG1 between different AI sires. Amongst the 40 most commonly used AI sires, 3 sires had a lower likelihood of PREG1 (P < 0.05) when compared to the reference AI sire (sire with PREG1 similar to the mean of the group). There was a tendency for a reduced likelihood of PREG1 with the use of fresh semen compared to frozen-thawed semen (OR = 0.80, P = 0.067). Amongst the adjustment variables in the model, those significantly associated with the likelihood of PREG1 included the herd, calving period, calving to first service interval and peak milk yield. No

  17. Effect of Different Protein Levels On Nutrient Digestion Metabolism and Serum Biochemical Parameters in Calves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; DIAO Qi-yu; ZHANG Nai-feng; TU Yan; WANG Ji-feng

    2008-01-01

    The current study has been performed to examine the effects of different dietary protein levels on the growth,nutrient digestion and absorption,as well as biochemical parameters in calves.Nine healthy newborn calves were selected,randomly divided into 3 groups and fed 3 milk replacers with different protein levels(18,22,and 26%),respectively.Five period-digestion-metabolism trials were taken between 12-20,22-30,32-40,42-50,and 52-60 days after birth.All 3 groups showed a similar growth curve during 11 to 61 experimental days,however,the growth rate of the 22%crude protein(CP) group was 8.89%higher than that of the 18%CP group and 19.48%higher than that of the 26%CP group.respectively. The apparent digestibility of dry material(DM)declined gradually with age,whereas,the apparent digestibility of N,extract ether(EE)rose slightly.Compared to the 22%CP and 26%CP group,calves fed with 18%CP apparently had a lower digestibility than DM,EE,and nitrogen(N).The average apparent digestibilities of N were 69.39,75.36,and 74.55%, respectively.Both the apparent digestibility and retention of calcium(Ca)and phosphorus(P)were steady throughout the experiment,but the average apparent digestibility of P in the 26%CP group was only 63.83%,which was markedly lower than that of the 18%CP group(70.40%)and 22%CP group(69.73%).In addition,the sernm concentrations of total protein(TP),albumin(ALB),and globulin(GLOB)of the 22%CP group were higher than those in the 18%CP and 26%CP groups.The urea N(BUN)content in the 18%CP group,on the other hand,was significantly lower than that of the other two groups.The highest glucose(GLU)concentration was found in the 22%CP group(5.38 mmol L-1),at the end of the trials.The protein levels in the milk replacer affected the digestion metabolism of nutrition and the serum biochemical parameters of calves at different physiological phases.Calves fed with 22%CP milk replacer had a better growth performance than the other groups.

  18. Ontogenic development of brown adipose tissue in Angus and Brahman fetal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, M D; Carstens, G E; McPhail, E G; Randel, R D; Green, K K; Slay, L; Smith, S B

    2002-03-01

    Brahman calves experience greater neonatal mortality than Angus calves if cold-stressed. To establish a developmental basis for this, three fetuses of each breed type were taken at 96, 48, 24, 14, and 6 d before expected parturition, and at parturition. Overall fetal BW tended (P = 0.08) to be greater for Angus than for Brahman fetuses. There was no difference between breed types in total brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass or grams of BAT/kg BW. Brown adipocyte density decreased 56%, whereas lipogenesis from acetate and glucose in vitro decreased 97% during the last 96 d of gestation in both breed types. Glycerolipid synthesis from palmitate declined by 85% during the last trimester but still contributed 98% to total lipid synthesis at birth. The fetal age x breed interaction was significant for lipogenesis from glucose (P = 0.05) and palmitate (P = 0.005); rates were higher at 96 d before birth in Brahman BAT but declined to similar rates by birth. Uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) mRNA tripled during gestation in both breed types (P = 0.002), whereas mitochondrial cross-sectional area did not change (P = 0.14) during gestation. Neither the breed nor the age x breed effect was significant (P > or = 0.24) for UCP1 mRNA concentration or mitochondrial cross-sectional area. In both breed types, a marked decrease in BAT UCP1 mRNA between 24 and 14 d prepartum was associated with a similar reduction in lipogenesis from palmitate and a noticeable change in BAT mitochondrial morphology, as the mitochondria became more elongated and the cristae became more elaborate. Uncoupling protein-1 mRNA initially was elevated in Angus tailhead s.c. adipose tissue, but was barely detectable by birth, and tended to be greater overall (P = 0.09) in Angus than in Brahman BAT. If uncoupling protein activity in s.c. adipose tissue persists after birth, then s.c. adipose tissue may contribute more to thermogenesis in Angus newborn calves than in Brahman calves. In contrast, we did not observe

  19. STUDY OF SOME PRODUCTION TRAITS IN SAHIWAL COWS AND THEIR CALVES AFTER IMMUNOSTIMULATION OF PREGNANT DAMS DURING LATE GESTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sattar, L. A. Lodhi1, I. Ahmad, Z. I. Qureshi1 and N. Ahmad1

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty two Sahiwal cows (Bos indicus in the last trimester of pregnancy were used to evaluate the effect of immunostimulation on some production traits in the control and treated dams and calves born to them. The cows were divided into four equal groups. Group-I served as untreated control while groups-II, III and IV were treated with levamisole hydrochloride (0.5 mg/Kg body weight orally, vitamin E-selenium (10 ml intramuscularly per cow and BCG (Bacille Calmette Guerin vaccine (0.5 ml subcutaneously per cow, respectively. These immunostimulants were given twice with one week interval at about 60 days prior to expected date of calving. Some production traits, i.e., milk yield and lactation length of the control and treated dams while birth weight, weaning weight and growth rate upto weaning of calves born to these dams were determined. Milk yield in Sahiwal cows was the lowest (1032.63 litres in control group and highest (1341.63 litres in levamisole treated group while lactation length in both these groups was 224.63 and 266.00 days, respectively. The birth weight was the lowest (21.38 kg in the calves born to control group of cows while weaning weight and growth rate were the lowest (48.33 kg and 0.302 kg/day in the calves born to BCG treated group of cows. The highest values of birth weight, weaning weight and growth rate (24.38 kg, 53.86 kg and 0.330 kg/day were observed in the calves born to levamisole treated group of Sahiwal cows. The differences between all the groups for all the production traits recorded were statistically non-significant except one trait, i.e., growth rate which was significantly higher in the calves born to levamisole treated cows as compared to those born to BCG treated dams.

  20. An explorative study to assess the efficacy of Toltrazuril-sulfone (Ponazuril in calves experimentally infected with Neospora caninum

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    Greif Gisela

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neospora caninum is an important cause of infectious abortion and stillbirth in cattle world-wide. Infection is common and may frequently be passed from mother to calf (vertical transmission with no signs of disease. Based on our previous observation that N. caninum-infection can be efficiently controlled with Toltrazuril-sulfone (Ponazuril in experimentally infected mice, we addressed the question if efficacy could also be obtained in experimentally infected calves. Material and Methods The study included 19 calves and represents an initial explorative approach to document a basic effectiveness at first. Fifteen animals received each 2 x 108N. caninum trophozoites, half of the dose being injected intravenously and the other half subcutaneously. Efficacy of treatment was assessed using molecular detection of parasite DNA with PCR and pathological alterations by immunohistochemistry in different organs of the animals. Assessment included also clinical, serological and pathophysiological parameters. Results In those calves medicated with ponazuril (one, or six consecutive days, respectively, starting one day after infection, a complete abrogation of the parasite detectability was obtained in the brain and other organs, while 50% of non-treated calves became PCR-positive in brain and muscles. Clinically, ponazuril chemotherapy of infected calves – in comparison to non-treated infected animals – reduced symptoms (fever, but no differences were observed between treated and non-treated animals with regard to serum enzymes and metabolites. Efficacy of a six-day treament was also reflected by significantly lower anti-Neospora antibody concentrations developed after infection, when compared to non-treated animals. Conclusion Based on our findings in this initially explorative approach that indicate a basic effectiveness of ponazuril against experimental N. caninum infection in calves, we plan to follow our chemotherapeutical

  1. Growth and metabolism of growing beef calves fed tall fescue haylage supplemented with protein and(or) energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W L; Gay, N; Boling, J A; Muntifering, R B

    1987-10-01

    Endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum)-infected Kentucky 31 tall fescue was fertilized in mid-August, stockpiled, harvested November 4 to 6 and stored in a concrete stave silo. Ninety-six growing calves (189 kg) were assigned to the following treatments (24 calves/treatment): 1) corn silage (CS) plus .4 kg/d of soybean meal (SBM; 2) fescue haylage plus .4 kg/d of SBM; 3) fescue haylage plus 1.6 kg/d of corn and 4) fescue haylage plus 1.6 kg/d of corn and .4 kg/d of SBM. Daily gains and dry matter (DM) intakes during the 91-d trial were .52, 4.58; .51, 5.22; .59, 6.06; and .63, 6.18 kg for treatments 1 through 4, respectively. Daily gains of calves fed corn silage plus SBM and fescue haylage plus SBM were not different (P greater than .05). However, a difference (P less than .05) existed between treatments 1 and 2 vs 3 and 4. Feed conversion was improved (P less than .05) in calves fed corn silage. Calves in a metabolism trial were fed either 1) 6.2 kg November-ensiled fescue haylage or 2) 6.2 kg November-ensiled fescue haylage plus 1.6 kg/d of corn. Digestibility of DM, N-free extract (NFE) and TDN did not differ (P greater than .05) between treatments. Ether extract digestibility was greater (P less than .05) for the added corn diet, while that of CP was greater (P less than .05) for the fescue haylage diet. Nitrogen retained was higher (P less than .05) for calves fed added corn. A follow-up trial with 96 growing calves (190 kg) compared September- and November-harvested fescue haylages supplemented with either 1.3 or 2.6 kg corn/d.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3667454

  2. The association between mastitis and reproductive performance in seasonally-calved dairy cows managed on a pasture-based system

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    CI Gómez-Cifuentes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess association between clinical, subclinical mastitis, body condition score and the reproductive performance of cows under seasonally calving conditions in a pasture-based management system. Data from 182 cows calved during 2008 were analyzed. Chi-square and logistic regression were performed considering pregnancy at the end of breeding season and number of services as dependent variables, whereas clinical and subclinical mastitis and other variables related to the animal that could have an effect on the dependent variables (e.g. parity, BCS, concurrent diseases were considered as independent variables. Lactation number, calving difficulty, interval from calving to the beginning of breeding season and body condition score had a significant effect on pregnancy at the end of breeding season. Cows with one or two lactations (P = 0.031, those with no difficulty at calving (P = 0.003, those with more days from calving to the beginning of breeding season (P = 0.001, and those with body condition score > 2.5 (P = 0.007 were most likely to become pregnant. Subclinical mastitis affected reproductive performance increasing the number of services (P = 0.03. Also, breeding season influenced number of services, since summer-calving cows needed more services to become pregnant (P = 0.046. Clinical mastitis was not associated with pregnancy as a final measure of reproductive performance (P = 0.863. Although subclinical mastitis influenced reproductive performance, several parameters related to reproductive and nutritional management, significantly affected the outcome variables under experimental conditions of this study. This information can be valuable to improve reproductive performance in similar management systems.

  3. Effects of replacing lactose from milk replacer by glucose, fructose, or glycerol on energy partitioning in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M S; Pantophlet, A J; van den Borne, J J G C; Hendriks, W H; Schols, H A; Gerrits, W J J

    2016-02-01

    Calf milk replacers contain 40 to 50% lactose. Fluctuating dairy prices are a major economic incentive to replace lactose from milk replacers by alternative energy sources. Our objective was, therefore, to determine the effects of replacement of lactose with glucose, fructose, or glycerol on energy and protein metabolism in veal calves. Forty male Holstein-Friesian calves (114±2.4 kg) were fed milk replacer containing 46% lactose (CON) or 31% lactose and 15% of glucose (GLUC), fructose (FRUC), or glycerol (GLYC). Solid feed was provided at 10 g of dry matter (DM)/kg of metabolic body weight (BW(0.75)) per day. After an adaptation of 48 d, individual calves were harnessed, placed in metabolic cages, and housed in pairs in respiration chambers. Apparent total-tract disappearance of DM, energy, and N and complete energy and N balances were measured. The GLUC, FRUC, and GLYC calves received a single dose of 1.5 g of [U-(13)C]glucose, [U-(13)C]fructose, or [U-(13)C]glycerol, respectively, with their milk replacer at 0630 h and exhaled (13)CO2 and (13)C excretion with feces was measured. Apparent total-tract disappearance was decreased by 2.2% for DM, 3.2% for energy, and 4.2% for N in FRUC compared with CON calves. Energy and N retention did not differ between treatments, and averaged 299±16 kJ/kg of BW(0.75) per day and 0.79±0.04 g/kg of BW(0.75) per day, respectively, although FRUC calves retained numerically less N (13%) than other calves. Recovery of (13)C isotopes as (13)CO2 did not differ between treatments and averaged 72±1.6%. The time at which the maximum rate of (13)CO2 production was reached was more than 3 h delayed for FRUC calves, which may be explained by a conversion of fructose into other substrates before being oxidized. Recovery of (13)C in feces was greater for FRUC calves (7.7±0.59%) than for GLUC (1.0±0.27%) and GLYC calves (0.5±0.04%), indicating incomplete absorption of fructose from the small intestine resulting in fructose excretion or

  4. Source of carbohydrate and metabolizable lysine and methionine in the diet of recently weaned dairy calves on digestion and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, T M; Quigley, J D; Bateman, H G; Aldrich, J M; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2016-04-01

    Two 56-d trials with weaned Holstein dairy calves (initially 72±1.8kg of body weight, 58 to 60d of age) fed 95% concentrate and 5% chopped grass hay diets were conducted. Each trial used 96 calves (4 calves/pen). During 15 of the last 21d of the first trial and 10 of 14d of the second and third week of the second trial, fecal samples were taken to estimate digestibility using acid-insoluble ash as an internal marker. Digestibility estimates along with 56-d average daily gain (ADG), hip width change, body condition score, and fecal score were analyzed with pen as the experimental unit. In trial 1, a textured diet (19% crude protein) with high starch [52% starch, 13% neutral detergent fiber (NDF)] based on whole corn and oats or a pelleted low-starch (20% starch, 35% NDF), high-digestible fiber diet were used. Within starch level, diets were formulated from supplemental soybean meal or soybean meal with blood meal and Alimet (Novus International Inc., St. Charles, MO) to provide 2 metabolizable protein levels (1 and 1.07% metabolizable lysine plus methionine). The 4 treatments were analyzed as a completely randomized design with a 2 by 2 factorial arrangement (6 pens/diet). In trial 2, all pelleted diets (19% crude protein) were fed. Diets were based on soybean hulls, wheat middlings, or corn, which contained increasing concentrations of starch (13, 27, and 42% starch and 42, 23, and 16% NDF, respectively; 8 pens/diet). Contrast statements were constructed to separate differences in the means (soybean hulls plus wheat middlings vs. corn; soybean hulls vs. wheat middlings). In trial 1, intake of organic matter (OM) did not differ. Digestibility of OM was greater in calves fed high- versus low starch-diets. Digestibility of NDF and starch were less in calves fed the high- versus low-starch diets. Calf ADG and hip width change were greater for high- versus low-starch diets. Source of protein did not influence digestibility or ADG. In trial 2, intake of OM was not

  5. Blood serum free amino acids pattern in newborn calves on colostral diet and orally treated with zeolite

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    Gvozdić Dragan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral zeolite treatement effects on the blood serum free amino acid pattern in newborn calves was investigated. The total number of 30 newborn Holstein calves of both sexes, weighting 35±3 kg (mean±SD, were immediately after parturition separated from their dams and placed in individual pens. Calves were divided in two experimental groups, 15 calves each. All calves were bottle-fed twice/ day (1.5 L/meal during the first 48 hours after delivery, in 12 hour intervals, with their mother's first (during 24 hours postpartum or second colostrum (at 24-48 hours postpartum, starting two hours after delivery. Zeolite suspension (20 mL, 25% suspension in distilled water was added to every meal for treated calves. Colostrum samples were collected from six cows at 0-12h and 24h after delivery. Total and colostral whey protein concentrations were determined using the colorimetric method. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein of calves at 6, 16, 30 and 40 hours after birth. After spontaneous coagulation at room temperature blood serum was separated and stored at -20°C until analyzed. Total protein concentration was determined by the colorimetric method. Blood serum immunoglobulin G (IgG concentrations were determined using single radial immunodiffusion (sRID plates. Pooled blood serum free amino acids (aspartic acid - Asp, glutamic acid - Glu, serine - Ser, histidine - His, glycine - Gly, threonine - Thr, alanine - Ala, proline - Pro, tyrosine - Tyr, arginine - Arg, valine - Val, methionine - Met, Leucine - Leu, Isoleucine - Ile, phenylalanine - Phe were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, GBC Australia. Total and colostral whey protein concentrations were significantly higher in the first colostrum and decreased between 50-75% at 24-48 hours later on. Mean blood serum IgG concentration was significantly increased at 6 and 16 hours in the treated calves (26±7:20±5 and 55±15:42±13 g/L, p<0.05. Blood

  6. Neonatal lipopolysaccharide exposure does not diminish the innate immune response to a subsequent lipopolysaccharide challenge in Holstein bull calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, A L; Korkmaz, F T; Elsasser, T H; Kerr, D E

    2016-07-01

    The innate immune response following experimental mastitis is quite variable between individual dairy cattle. An inflammatory response that minimizes collateral damage to the mammary gland while still effectively resolving the infection following pathogen exposure is beneficial to dairy producers. The ability of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure in early life to generate a low-responding phenotype and thus reduce the inflammatory response to a later-life LPS challenge was investigated in neonatal bull calves. Ten Holstein bull calves were randomly assigned to either an early life LPS (ELL) group (n=5) or an early life saline (ELS) group (n=5). At 7d of age, calves received either LPS or saline, and at 32d of age, all calves were challenged with an intravenous dose of LPS to determine the effect of the early life treatment (LPS or saline) on the immune response generated toward a subsequent LPS challenge. Dermal fibroblast and monocyte-derived macrophage cultures from each calf were established at age 20 and 27d, respectively, to model sustained effects from the early life LPS exposure on gene expression and protein production of components within the LPS response pathway. The ELL calves had greater levels of plasma IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α than the ELS calves following the early life LPS or saline treatments. However, levels of these 2 immune markers were similar between ELL and ELS calves when both groups were subsequently challenged with LPS. A comparison of the in vitro LPS responses of the ELL and ELS calves revealed similar patterns of protein production and gene expression following an LPS challenge of both dermal fibroblast and monocyte-derived macrophage cultures established from the treatment groups. Whereas an early life exposure to LPS did not result in a dampened inflammatory response toward a later LPS challenge in these neonatal bull calves, the potential that exposure to inflammation or stress in early life or in utero can create an

  7. Postweaning performance of calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue or common bermudagrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M A; Phillips, W A; Brown, A H; Coleman, S W; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1999-01-01

    Data from 403 Polled Hereford-sired calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows were used to evaluate the effects of preweaning forage environment on postweaning performance. Calves were spring-born in 1991 to 1994 and managed on either endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+) or common bermudagrass (BG) during the preweaning phase. After weaning, calves were shipped to the Grazinglands Research Laboratory, El Reno, OK and stratified to one of two winter stocker treatments by breed and preweaning forage; stocker treatments were winter wheat pasture (WW) or native range plus supplemental CP (NR). Each stocker treatment was terminated in March, calves grazed cool-season grasses, and calves were then moved to a feedlot phase in June. In the feedlot phase, calves were fed to approximately 10 mm fat over the 12th rib and averaged approximately 115 d on feed. When finished, calves were weighed and shipped to Amarillo, TX for slaughter. Averaged over calf breed group, calves from E+ gained faster during the stocker phase (Pyield grade, marbling score, and dressing percentage. Maternal heterosis was larger in calves from E+ for starting weight on feed (P<.01), finished weight (P<.10), and carcass weight (P<.16). These data suggest that few carryover effects from tall fescue preweaning environments exist, other than lighter, but acceptable, weights through slaughter. These data further suggest that the tolerance to E+ in calves from reciprocal-cross cows, expressed in weaning weights, moderated postweaning weight differences between E+ and BG compared to similar comparisons in calves from purebred cows. PMID:10064024

  8. EFFECTS OF SUPPLEMENTAL LYSINE ON PERFORMANCE, ANTIBODY TITER AND RECTAL TEMPERATURE IN RESPONSE TO A MODIFIED-LIVE VIRAL VACCINE IN NEONATAL CALVES

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    Kate Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR, caused by bovine herpesvirus-1, contributes significantly to economic losses in the dairy and beef cattle industry. Lysine has been shown reduce virulence of herpesviruses in felids and humans. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of supplemental lysine on serum IBR antibody titer and rectal temperature in response to a modified-live Intranasal (IN or Intramuscular (IM respiratory-virus vaccination. Sixty-four neonatal Holstein bull calves (7±2 d of age; BW = 37±4.2 kg were used in a completely randomized design. Calves were fed milk replacer supplemented with either 17 g/d L-lysine monohydrochloride (LYS; 28 calves or an equivalent amount of casein (CAS; 28 calves for 42 d. Calves were then vaccinated with either an IN IBR-Parainfluenza virus-3 (PI3 or an IM (IBR-PI3-bovine viral diarrhea type I and II, bovine respiratory syncytial virus modified-live vaccine on d 36. A control group (8 calves received no supplement or vaccination. All calves were housed in individual calf pens (1.2×2.1 m. Daily feed intakes were monitored and BW measured weekly. Calves were bled on d 0, 35, 36, 37 and 42. Temperature data loggers were attached to rectal probes and temperatures were recorded every 5 min from d 28 to d 42. No significant differences were determined for average performance, rectal temperature, or IBR antibody titers with either IN or IM vaccinations between LYS and CAS treated calves (p>0.10. However, serum urea nitrogen and the ratio of serum lysine: Arginine increased (p<0.05 for LYS compared to CAS calves. These results suggest that supplementing lysine impacts nitrogen metabolism but does not alter the response to IBR vaccination or animal performance in neonatal Holstein calves.

  9. Congenital dyserythropoiesis and progressive alopecia in Polled Hereford calves: hematologic, biochemical, bone marrow cytologic, electrophoretic, and flow cytometric findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, D J; Elliott, G S; Leipold, H W; Smith, J E

    1992-01-01

    Congenital dyserythropoiesis with dyskeratosis is a slow, progressive, and often fatal disease in Polled Hereford calves. Affected calves have a macrocytic normochromic anemia with a mild reticulocytosis. Studies indicate that calves are hyperferremic with increased saturation of serum total iron binding capacity, which rules out iron deficiency as a cause. Other secondary causes of dyserythropoiesis, including cobalamin and folate deficiencies, are unlikely because serum cobalamin and folate levels of affected calves were normal. Virus isolation was negative, and failure to identify bovine retroviral antigens or antibodies from several calves suggested that viral agents were not involved. Bone marrow cytologic findings were similar to those in congenital hereditary dyserythropoiesis in humans and included occasional multinucleate cells, internuclear chromatin bridging between nuclei of partially divided cells, and, more frequently, irregular nuclear shapes and chromatin patterns. DNA content and cell cycle distribution of erythroid cells appeared normal, and no electrophoretic abnormalities were detected in erythrocyte membrane proteins. The Polled Hereford syndrome is similar in many ways to type I congenital dyserythropoiesis in humans and may be an appropriate biomedical model for studying erythroid proliferation during dyserythropoiesis. PMID:1348189

  10. Genetic analyses of days to calving and their relationships with other traits in a Canchim cattle herd

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    Talita Buttarello Mucari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Heritabilities and genetic correlations in a Canchim beef cattle herd were estimated using data on the following traits: male scrotal circumference at twelve months (SC12; days to first calving (DFC for heifers; days to calving (DC for cows; male and female weight (W at twelve months (W12; heifer weight at the start of the first breeding season (WFBS and at first calving (WFC; and cow weight at the start of the breeding season (WBS and at calving (WC. Analyses of the DFC and DC traits were carried out excluding and including penalized (DFC P and DC P non-calving females. The restricted maximum likelihood method was used, applying one-trait models for the DFC and DC analyses and two-trait models for analyses of DFC and DC combined with the other traits studied. Statistical models included fixed and additive direct random effects for all traits, maternal permanent environmental random effect for SC12 and W12, and the animal permanent environmental random effect for DC P, WBS and WC. We found that DFC and DC values can be improved by selecting for an increase in the SC12. Genetic correlations between DFC and W12 and between DC and W12 indicated that selection for increased W12 may increase DFC but does not produce significantly correlated responses in DC. Associations of the other body weight traits with DC and DFC suggest that heavier females experience lower reproductive performance.

  11. Rapid Communication: Cholesterol deficiency-associated APOB mutation impacts lipid metabolism in Holstein calves and breeding bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, J J; Schwinn, A-C; Schmitz-Hsu, F; Menzi, F; Drögemüller, C; Albrecht, C; Bruckmaier, R M

    2016-04-01

    During the last months, the number of reports on Holstein calves suffering from incurable idiopathic diarrhea dramatically increased. Affected calves showed severe hypocholesterolemia and mostly died within days up to a few months after birth. This new autosomal monogenic recessive inherited fat metabolism disorder, termed cholesterol deficiency (CD), is caused by a loss of function mutation of the bovine gene. The objective of the present study was to investigate specific components of lipid metabolism in 6 homozygous for the mutation (CDS) and 6 normal Holstein calves with different genotypes. Independent of sex, CDS had significantly lower plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), free cholesterol (FC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), triacylglycerides (TAG), and phospholipids (PL) compared with homozygous wild-type calves ( plasma concentrations of TC, FC, HDL-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C, TAG, and PL were lower compared with CDF bulls ( lipid metabolism in affected Holstein calves and adult breeding bulls. Besides cholesterol, the concentrations of PL, TAG, and lipoproteins also were distinctly reduced in homozygous and heterozygous carriers of the mutation. Beyond malabsorption of dietary lipids, deleterious effects of apolipoprotein B deficiency on hepatic lipid metabolism, steroid biosynthesis, and cell membrane function can be expected, which may result in unspecific symptoms of reduced fertility, growth, and health. PMID:27136033

  12. Associations between milk production level, calving interval length, lactation curve parameters and economic results in Holstein cows

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    Dana Němečková

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of work was to evaluate effects of milk production level (MY1≥9500 kg, n=23; MY2 = 8000-9499, n=28; and MY3≤7999 kg, n=29 and calving interval length (CI1≥440 days, n=22; CI2 = 400-439 days, n=33; and CI3≤399 days, n=25 on the lactation curve parameters calculated using MilkBot® Model and economic profitability of Holstein dairy cow breeding. Data were obtained from 80 Holstein cows on 1st to 4th parity calved between January and August 2012 on the dairy farm of the Czech University of Life Sciences Prague in Czech Republic. Lactation curve parameters differed more in relation with milk production level compared to calving interval length. Lactation curve in cows with the highest MY was characterized with significantly higher overall magnitude (scale parameter of milk production (P<0.01, higher peak yield (P<0.01 which occurred later (P<0.05 and higher persistence (P<0.05. Due to combination of higher persistence and total yield, average milk yield per day of calving interval was significantly (P<0.05 higher in cows with middle CI than in short CI. Optimal calving interval length should be assessed in relation with lactation persistence and milk production level. The highest individual profitability was reached by cows in MY1 and CI2 group.

  13. Exigências nutricionais de bezerros nelores lactentes Nutritional requirements of nursing Nellore calves

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    Mozart Alves Fonseca

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar as exigências de proteína, energia e macrominerais de bezerros nelores do nascimento aos 180 dias. Foram utilizados 20 bezerros (10 machos e 10 fêmeas com peso corporal médio de 30±3 kg. Imediatamente após o nascimento, quatro bezerros, dois machos e duas fêmeas, foram abatidos para estimar a composição corporal inicial dos animais restantes no experimento. Aos 90 dias, foram abatidos oito bezerros (quatro machos e quatro fêmeas, o restante dos animais abatidos aos 180 dias. Além do leite, os bezerros foram alimentados com silagem de milho à vontade e concentrado comercial fixado em no máximo 0,5 kg/animal/dia. Foram conduzidos dois ensaios de digestibilidade, aos 30 e 90 dias para estimar os consumos de energia dos bezerros. Após o abate, todos os bezerros tiveram suas meias-carcaças direitas dissecadas. Os conteúdos corporais de proteína, energia e minerais foram estimados pela equação Y = a . PCVZb, sendo PCVZ o peso de corpo vazio. A relação PCVZ/PC dos bezerros foi de 0,9622 e a de ganho (G de PCVZ/GPC foi de 0,958. As exigências líquidas de proteína e energia aumentaram com o aumento do peso corporal, enquanto as de cálcio diminuíram. As exigências de proteína metabolizável para ganho de 1 kg de PC foram de 216,96 e 261,98 g para bezerros de 100 e 200 kg, respectivamente. Recomenda-se utilizar as seguintes equações para estimar os conteúdos corporais de bezerros Nelore lactentes: proteína (g/dia = 0,135 × PCVZ1,0351; energia (Mcal/dia = 1,1798 × PCVZ1,1805; cálcio (g/dia = 0,091 × PCVZ0,6019; fósforo (g/dia = 0,00894 × PCVZ0,9629; sódio (g/dia = 0,00126 × PCVZ0,9791; magnésio (g/dia = 0,000405 × PCVZ0,9827; potássio (g/dia = 0,00165 × PCVZ0,9364.This experiment was carried out to evaluate the nutritional requirements of protein, energy and macro minerals for Nellore calves from birth to 180 days. A total of 20 calves, 10 males (M and 10

  14. The use of plant-tissue preparation for the treatment and prevention of gastrointestinal infections in calves in the ural region

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    Olga Petrova

    2014-04-01

    Imurium Use of the drug to treat colibacillosis and salmonellosis calves reduces treatment time and improves blood hematological parameters .Based on the studies recommend the use of plant-tissue drug with immunomodulating effect for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases , mainly colibacillosis and salmonellosis calves.

  15. Association of tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-alpha)gene promoter polymorphisms with hyper-responsiveness to endotoxin (LPS)in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, we identified a subpopulation of beef calves that failed to develop normal immune tolerance as defined by the patterns and magnitude of changes in plasma TNF-alpha concentration after 2 repeated LPS challenges. In these hyper responding calves (HRC), impaired LPS tolerance was related to...

  16. Quantification of transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus caused by an environment contaminated with secretions and excretions from infected calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo De Rueda, C.; Jong, de M.; Eblé, P.L.; Dekker, A.

    2015-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infected animals can contaminate the environment with their secretions and excretions. To quantify the contribution of a contaminated environment to the transmission of FMDV, this study used calves that were not vaccinated and calves that were vaccinated 1 week pr

  17. Effect of protein and protein-free energy intake on plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I and thyroid hormones in preruminant calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, W.J.J.; Decuypere, E.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Karabinas, V.

    1998-01-01

    We conducted two experiments with preruminant calves weighing 80 to 240 kg to study the long-term nutritional regulation of circulating IGF-I, thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3). The two experiments were similar in design but were performed with calves of two live weight ranges: 80 to 160 kg

  18. Insulin sensitivity in calves decreases substantially during the first 3 months of life and is unaffected by weaning or fructo-oligosaccharide supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantophlet, A.J.; Gilbert, M.S.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Priebe, M.G.; Vonk, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    Veal calves at the age of 4 to 6 mo often experience problems with glucose homeostasis, as indicated by postprandial hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. It is not clear to what extent the ontogenetic development of calves or the feeding strategy [e.g., prolonged milk replacer (M

  19. Effect of oral alpha-tocopherol and zinc on plasma status, IGF-I levels, weight gain and immune response in young calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, J.; Jørgensen, C.; Mortensen, S.B.; Jensen, S.K.; Vestergaard, M.; Koch, P.; Jungersen, Gregers; Eriksen, Lizzie

    Thirty newborn calves were supplemented with a-tocopherol (vit. E) (n = 10), zinc (Zn) (n = 10) or nothing (control) (n = 10) for 8 weeks. All calves were vaccinated against tetanus at week 5. Plasma Zn and cc-tocopherol were significantly increased in the Zn and vit. E groups, respectively. Plasma...

  20. Pharmacokinetic study of flunixin and its interaction with enrofloxacin after intramuscular administration in calves

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    K. Abo-EL-Sooud

    Full Text Available The Pharmacokinetic aspects of flunixin (FL administered alone and in combination with enrofloxacin (EN, were studied in clinically healthy calves. The experiments were performed on two groups: FL alone {2.2 mg/kg,intramuscular (IM}, and combination of FL (2.2 mg/kg, IM and EN {2.5 mg/kg, IM}. Plasma concentrations of FL were determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC method. Moreover, the effects of FL alone or in combination on liver and kidney functions were also assessed. Flunixin was rapidly absorbed intramuscularly with a half-life of absorption (t of 0.094 h and the peak plasma concentration (C was 1.27 g/mL was attained after 1/2ab max 0.49 h (T . Enrofloxacin significantly altered the pharmacokinetics of FL by delaying its absorption and accelerate its max elimination from body. Significant increases (32% in the area under the curve (AUC and (37% in the elimination rate constant (K from the central compartment and a significant decrease (27% in the elimination half-life (t of FL el 1/2el were found following coadministration with EN, compared with administration of FL alone. The maximum plasma drug concentration (C showed significant increase (28% following the coadministration of EN with FL as max compared to that following the administration of FL alone. It was concluded that the combination of FL and EN negatively altered the kinetics of FL and exaggerated the adverse effect on hepato-renal function in calves consequently; the concomitant use of FL and EN should be avoided in calves. [Vet. World 2011; 4(10.000: 449-454