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Sample records for calotropis procera latex

  1. Anticonvulsant action of Calotropis procera latex proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Raquel Cristina de Sousa; Silva, Márcia Calheiros Chaves; Aguiar, Carlos Clayton Torres; Chaves, Edna Maria Camelo; Dias, Kátia Cilene Ferreira; Macêdo, Danielle Silveira; de Sousa, Francisca Cléa Florenço; Carvalho, Krishnamurti de Morais; Ramos, Márcio Viana; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes

    2012-02-01

    Calotropis procera (Ait.) R.Br. is a laticiferous plant belonging to the Apocynaceae family. C. procera latex proteins were evaluated with respect to anticonvulsant and sedative activity in mouse models of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-, pilocarpine-, and strychnine-induced convulsions or turning behavior and pentobarbital-induced sleep. In the strychnine- and pilocarpine-induced seizure models, C. procera latex proteins caused no significant alterations in latencies to convulsions and death, as compared with controls. In the PTZ-induced seizure model, administration of C. procera latex proteins in high doses (50 or 100mg/kg) and diazepam caused significant increases in latencies to convulsions and death. C. procera latex proteins (50 or 100mg/kg) and 2mg/kg diazepam caused a decrease in sleep latency and an increase in sleep time compared with the control group and groups treated with 5 or 10mg/kg. Our results suggest that C. procera latex proteins have a central nervous system-depressant activity as reflected in their potentiation of pentobarbital-induced sleeping time and their anticonvulsant action in the PTZ-induced seizure model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of latex silver nanoparticles using Calotropis procera

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    Nadia Hussein Mohamed

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: It can be concluded that serum latex of Calotropis procera was found to display strong potential for the synthesis of AgNPs as antimicrobial agents through rapid reduction of silver ions (Ag+ to Ag0. The green synthesized AgNPs were found to show higher antimicrobial efficacy than crude latex.

  3. Ocular toxicity by latex of Calotropis procera (Sodom apple).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Samar K; Bhaumik, Arup; Mohanta, Ayan; Singhal, Prashant

    2009-01-01

    We report the spectrum of ocular toxicity following accidental inoculation of latex of Calotropis procera (Sodom apple) in 29 eyes between January 2003 and December 2006. All patients presented with sudden painless dimness of vision with photophobia. Twenty-five (86%) patients had initial visual acuity of less than 20/60. All eyes had conjunctival congestion and mild to severe corneal edema with Descemet's folds. Three (10%) eyes had an epithelial defect, nine (31%) had iridocyclitis, and seven (24%) had associated secondary glaucoma. After treatment with topical corticosteroids, antiglaucoma agents, cycloplegics, hypertonic saline and tears supplements, 27 (93%) eyes recovered completely within 3-14 days. After three months, 17 (74%) out of 23 eyes showed a significant low endothelial cell count compared to the normal fellow eye ( P 0.001). The latex of Calotropis procera causes significant ocular morbidity which may be preventable by simple health education. The long-term effect on corneal endothelium has to be studied further.

  4. Effects of Oral Administration of the Latex of Calotropis procera on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keyword: Blood chemistry, Calotropis procera, HB, PCV, rat, weight. The latex of Calotropis procera was obtained daily and administered to groups of rats through oral cannular in different sets of study. In one set of study, the latex was administered daily at varying doses and the packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell ...

  5. Ocular toxicity by latex of Calotropis procera (Sodom apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Samar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the spectrum of ocular toxicity following accidental inoculation of latex of Calotropis procera (Sodom apple in 29 eyes between January 2003 and December 2006. All patients presented with sudden painless dimness of vision with photophobia. Twenty-five (86% patients had initial visual acuity of less than 20/60. All eyes had conjunctival congestion and mild to severe corneal edema with Descemet′s folds. Three (10% eyes had an epithelial defect, nine (31% had iridocyclitis, and seven (24% had associated secondary glaucoma. After treatment with topical corticosteroids, antiglaucoma agents, cycloplegics, hypertonic saline and tears supplements, 27 (93% eyes recovered completely within 3-14 days. After three months, 17 (74% out of 23 eyes showed a significant low endothelial cell count compared to the normal fellow eye ( P 0.001. The latex of Calotropis procera causes significant ocular morbidity which may be preventable by simple health education. The long-term effect on corneal endothelium has to be studied further.

  6. Enzymatic activities and protein profile of latex from Calotropis procera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Cleverson Diniz T; Oliveira, Jefferson Soares; Miranda, Maria Raquel A; Macedo, Nívea Maria R; Sales, Maurício Pereira; Villas-Boas, Laurival A; Ramos, Márcio Viana

    2007-01-01

    The laticifer fluid of Calotropis procera is rich in proteins and there is evidence that they are involved in the pharmacological properties of the latex. However, not much is known about how the latex-containing proteins are produced or their functions. In this study, laticifer proteins of C. procera were pooled and examined by 1D and 2D electrophoresis, masses spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) and characterized in respect of proteolytic activity and oxidative enzymes. Soluble laticifer proteins were predominantly composed of basic proteins (PI>6.0) with molecular masses varying between 5 and 95 kDa. Proteins with a molecular mass of approximately 26,000 Da were more evident. Strong anti-oxidative activity of superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) (1007.74+/-91.89 Ug(-1)DM) and, to a lesser extent ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.1) (0.117(d)+/-0.013 microMol H(2)O(2)g(-1)min(-1)), were detected. However, catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) was absent. The strong proteolytic activities of laticifer proteins from C. procera were shown to be shared by at least four distinct cysteine proteinases (EC 3.4.22.16) that were isolated by gel filtration chromatography. Serine and metaloproteinases were not detected and aspartic proteinase activities were barely visible. Chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14) were also isolated in a chitin column and their activities quantified. The presence of these enzymatic activities in latex from C. procera may confirm their involvement in resistance to phytopathogens and insects, mainly in its leaves where the latex circulates abundantly.

  7. Extract from Calotropis procera latex activates murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddek, Abdel latif Shaker; Mahmoud, Motamed Elsayed; Shiina, Takahiko; Hirayama, Haruko; Iwami, Momoe; Miyazawa, Seiji; Nikami, Hideki; Takewaki, Tadashi; Shimizu, Yasutake

    2009-07-01

    Calotropis procera latex has long been used in traditional medicines. Extracts from C. procera latex have been reported to have various pharmacological actions, including protection from myocardial infarction, hepatoprotective action, antitumor activity, antinociceptive, and pro- and anti-inflammatory actions. To evaluate the immunomodulatory functions of the water-soluble C. procera extract (CPE), we investigated its ability to activate macrophages-effector cells in inflammatory and immune responses. Intraperitoneal injection of CPE in mice (2 mg/mouse) induced migration of macrophages to the intraperitoneal cavity, confirming the proinflammatory effects of water-soluble CPE. The direct effects of CPE on macrophages were then assessed by measuring the production of nitric oxide (NO) as an indicator for macrophage activation. Addition of CPE (1-10 microg/ml) to the culture medium of the murine monocyte/macrophage cell line RAW264.7 caused an increase in NO production in a time- and dose-dependent manner. CPE-elicited NO production was blocked by application of an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Expression of iNOS mRNA was induced by treatment of cultured macrophages with CPE. Injection of CPE in mice also resulted in an increase in plasma NO level. The results suggest that CPE activates macrophages and facilitates NO production via up-regulation of iNOS gene expression.

  8. Involvement of prostaglandins in inflammation induced by latex of Calotropis procera

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    Yatin M. Shivkar

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aerial parts of the plant Calotropis procera produce milky white latex that causes inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes. Prostaglandins are one of the mediators released in an inflammatory response following induction of cyclooxygenase (COX. In the present study, we have evaluated the role of prostaglandins in inflammatory response elicited by the latex of C. procera.

  9. Calotropis procera -induced keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Nidhi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Calotropis procera produces copious amounts of latex, which has been shown to possess several pharmacological properities. Its local application produces intense inflammatory response. In the 10 cases of Calotropis procera -induced keratitis reported here, the clinical picture showed corneal edema with striate keratopathy without any evidence of intraocular inflammation. The inflammation was reversed by the local application of steroid drops.

  10. Calotropis procera -induced keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Nidhi; Chandrakar, A K; Garg, M L; Patel, Santosh Singh

    2009-01-01

    Calotropis procera produces copious amounts of latex, which has been shown to possess several pharmacological properities. Its local application produces intense inflammatory response. In the 10 cases of Calotropis procera -induced keratitis reported here, the clinical picture showed corneal edema with striate keratopathy without any evidence of intraocular inflammation. The inflammation was reversed by the local application of steroid drops.

  11. Lipoxygenase inhibitors from the latex of Calotropis Procera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Mageed, Wael M; Mohamed, Nadia H; Liu, Miaomiao; El-Gamal, Ali A; Basudan, Omer A; Ismail, Mady Ahmed; Quinn, Ronald J; Liu, Xueting; Zhang, Lixin; Shoreit, Ahmed A M

    2016-03-09

    A radical-scavenging, guided phytochemical study of the latex of Calotropis Procera afforded five lignans (1-5), including a new one (4). The structural determination was accomplished using 1D- and 2D-NMR, high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS), and correlation with known compounds. Among the isolated compounds, acylated lignans (3-5) showed stronger antioxidant activity than non-acylated derivatives (1,2). Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by determining the inhibitory potential against 5- and 15-lipoxygenase enzymes. The highest anti-inflammatory activity was observed in compound 4, with IC50s values of 7.6 µM and 2.7 µM against 5-LOX and 15-LOX, respectively.

  12. Molecular and biochemical evaluation of genetic effect of Calotropis procera (Ait.) latex on Aspergillus terreus (Thom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qari, Sameer H

    2008-10-01

    The present study was conducted to observe the genotoxic effect of latex of Calotropis procera. Dense conidial suspensions of Aspergillus terreus Thorn were treated with different concentrations of Calotropis latex and assayed for percentage survival, auxotrophic mutants, DNA and total protein contents and further subjected to RAPD and SDS-PAGE tests. It was found that latex of Calotropis procera had potent lethal and mutagenic activities. Percentage survival decreased as concentration or time of exposure increased. Frequency of auxotrophic mutants increased with increase in concentration or exposure time. Most auxotrophic mutants were amino acid requiring mutants. DNA and total protein contents of each mutant was significantly lower than wild type of Aspergillus terreus. RAPD demonstrated polymorphic genetic bands which were the electrophoretic products of PCR for all mutants compared with the wild type strain. SDS-PAGE results expressed a polymorphism of protein bands as well. All these results indicated the mutagenicity of latex of Calotropis procera.

  13. Latex proteins from Calotropis procera: Toxicity and immunological tolerance revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Camila F; Mota, Érika F; Silva, Ana Claudia M; Tomé, Adriana R; Silva, Maria Z R; de Brito, Daniel; Porfírio, Camila T M N; Oliveira, Ariclécio C; Lima-Filho, José V; Ramos, Márcio V

    2017-08-25

    Many thousands of plants are disseminated worldwide in traditional and folk medicines based on the belief that their leaves, roots, seeds, bark or secretions, when adequately handled, can treat, alleviate or ameliorate numerous disease symptoms. Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae) is a popular medicinal plant and the claims of this shrub's phytomedicinal properties have been scientifically validated. In this study, further prospects towards the in vivo toxicity and oral immunological tolerance of phytomodulatory proteins isolated from the latex of C. procera are reported. Acute toxicity was determined in mice by oral and intraperitoneal administration of latex proteins (LP) and was followed behavioral, hematological and histological analyses. Oral immunological tolerance to LP was assessed by intraperitoneal immunization in mice that had received LP orally before. Animals given 5000 mg/kg orally exhibited only discrete behavioral alterations and augmentation of monocytes. Death was not notified 14 days after exposure. However, all animals receiving LP 150 mg/kg by i.p. died in 1 h. Death (20%) was documented when LP (75 mg/kg) was given in the peritoneum and signs of harmful effects were observed in the survivors (80%). Oral immunological tolerance was observed in animals previously given LP orally, when they were further immunized/challenged with peritoneal exposure to different doses of LP. This was confirmed by the lowering of IgE and IgG in the serum, IL-4 and IFN-γ in spleen homogenates and the absence of anaphylaxis signs. It is therefore concluded that LP exhibited quite discrete adverse effects when orally administrated at higher concentrations and this route of administration did not stimulate adverse immunological reactions. Instead it was observed immunological tolerance. The present study contributes very important information concerning the safe use of C. procera as a phytotherapeutic agent. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Histamine mediates the pro-inflammatory effect of latex of Calotropis procera in rats

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    Yatin M. Shivkar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calotropis procera is known to produce contact dermatitis and the latex of this plant produces intense inflammation when injected locally. However, the precise mode of its pro-inflammatory effect is not known. In present study we have pharmacologically characterized the inflammation induced by latex of C. procera in a rat paw edema model and determined the role of histamine in latex-induced inflammation.

  15. Cytotoxic cardenolides from the latex of Calotropis procera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Nadia H; Liu, Miaomiao; Abdel-Mageed, Wael M; Alwahibi, Lamya H; Dai, Huanqin; Ismail, Mady Ahmed; Badr, Gamal; Quinn, Ronald J; Liu, Xueting; Zhang, Lixin; Shoreit, Ahmed A M

    2015-10-15

    Three new cardenolides (3, 9 and 10), along with eight known ones, were isolated from the latex of Calotropis procera. The structural determination was accomplished by the 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra as well as HRESIMS analysis. The growth inhibitory activity of the latex and its sub-fractions as well as isolated compounds was evaluated against human A549 and Hela cell lines. The results exhibited that latex had strong growth inhibitory activity with IC50s of (3.37 μM, A-549) and (6.45 μM, Hela). Among the four extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous), chloroform extract displayed the highest potential cytotoxic activity, with IC50s of (0.985 μM, A-549) and (1.471 μM, Hela). All the isolated compounds displayed various degrees of cytotoxic activity and the highest activity was observed by calactin (1) with IC50s values of (0.036 μM, A-549) and (0.083 μM, Hela). None of these isolated compounds exhibited good antimicrobial activity evaluated by determination of their MICs using the broth microdilution method against various infectious pathogens. The structure-activity relationships for cytotoxic activity were also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Photochemical and chemical transformation of Calotropis procera latex towards obtaining value added chemicals and fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, D.K.; Arora, M.; Behera, B.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    1996-12-31

    Photothermal degradation of the latex obtained from Calotropis procera showed enhanced extraction in heptane up to 50%. Treatment of the latex with different concentrations of NaOH resulted in the reduction in heptane extraction of the latex. Treatment of latex with aqueous HCl coagulated it, resulting in an increase in extraction yield. The {sup 1}HNMR, {sup 13}CNMR and FTIR spectral analyses of treated latex showed an increase in the olefinic and carbonyl groups in the latex. This showed that photothermal treatments rendered the latex more amenable to hydrocracking for obtaining value added chemicals and fuels from the latex. 13 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Calotropis procera

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Histomorphometric and histopathological evaluations of the effects of fresh leaf extract of Calotropis procera on the reproductive organs of male wistar rats given 20mg\\gm body weight of the extract once daily, orally, for varying number of days showed varying degrees of desquamation of seminiferous epithelial cells, ...

  18. Anticancer and cytotoxic properties of the latex of Calotropis procera in a transgenic mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Choedon, Tenzin; Mathan, Ganeshan; Arya, Soneera; Kumar, Vijay L.; Kumar, Vijay

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the anticancer property of the dried latex (DL) of Calotropis procera, a tropical medicinal plant, in the X15-myc transgenic mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma and to elucidate its mechanism of action in cell culture.

  19. Calotropis procera-induced keratitis

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Nidhi; Chandrakar, A K; M.L. Garg; Patel, Santosh Singh

    2009-01-01

    Calotropis procera produces copious amounts of latex, which has been shown to possess several pharmacological properities. Its local application produces intense inflammatory response. In the 10 cases of Calotropis procera-induced keratitis reported here, the clinical picture showed corneal edema with striate keratopathy without any evidence of intraocular inflammation. The inflammation was reversed by the local application of steroid drops.

  20. Insights on the phytochemical profile (cyclopeptides) and biological activities of Calotropis procera latex organic fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jucá, Thiago Lustosa; Ramos, Márcio Viana; Moreno, Frederico Bruno Mendes Batista; Viana de Matos, Mayara Patrícia; Marinho-Filho, José Delano Barreto; Moreira, Renato Azevedo; de Oliveira Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Calotropis procera is a medicinal plant whose pharmacological properties are associated with its latex. Here, the Calotropis procera latex fractions were investigated in an attempt to trace its phytochemical profile and measure its anti-inflammatory and toxicity activity. The crude latex was partitioned, yielding five fractions (49.4% hexane, 5.2% dichloromethane, 2.0% ethyl acetate, 2.1% n-butanol, and 41.1% aqueous). Phytochemical screening and spectroscopy analysis revealed that dichloromethane is the most chemically diverse fraction. Triterpenes were detected in both the hexane and dichloromethane fractions, while flavonoids were detected in the dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions. These fractions were cytotoxic to cancer cell lines (LD50 0.05 to 3.9  μ g/mL) and lethal to brine shrimp (LD50 10.9 to 65.7  μ g/mL). Reduced neutrophil migration in rats was observed in carrageenan-induced peritonitis for the dichloromethane (67%), ethyl acetate (56%), and aqueous (72%) fractions. A positive reaction with tolidine and ninhydrin suggested that cyclopeptides are in the ethyl acetate fraction. It is therefore concluded that Calotropis procera latex dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions exhibit both in vitro and in vivo activities as well as anti-inflammatory properties. Cyclopeptide detection is especially interesting because previous attempts to investigate these low-molecular cyclic amino acid sequences in C. procera have failed.

  1. Insights on the Phytochemical Profile (Cyclopeptides and Biological Activities of Calotropis procera Latex Organic Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Lustosa Jucá

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calotropis procera is a medicinal plant whose pharmacological properties are associated with its latex. Here, the Calotropis procera latex fractions were investigated in an attempt to trace its phytochemical profile and measure its anti-inflammatory and toxicity activity. The crude latex was partitioned, yielding five fractions (49.4% hexane, 5.2% dichloromethane, 2.0% ethyl acetate, 2.1% n-butanol, and 41.1% aqueous. Phytochemical screening and spectroscopy analysis revealed that dichloromethane is the most chemically diverse fraction. Triterpenes were detected in both the hexane and dichloromethane fractions, while flavonoids were detected in the dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions. These fractions were cytotoxic to cancer cell lines (LD50 0.05 to 3.9 μg/mL and lethal to brine shrimp (LD50 10.9 to 65.7 μg/mL. Reduced neutrophil migration in rats was observed in carrageenan-induced peritonitis for the dichloromethane (67%, ethyl acetate (56%, and aqueous (72% fractions. A positive reaction with tolidine and ninhydrin suggested that cyclopeptides are in the ethyl acetate fraction. It is therefore concluded that Calotropis procera latex dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions exhibit both in vitro and in vivo activities as well as anti-inflammatory properties. Cyclopeptide detection is especially interesting because previous attempts to investigate these low-molecular cyclic amino acid sequences in C. procera have failed.

  2. Insights on the Phytochemical Profile (Cyclopeptides) and Biological Activities of Calotropis procera Latex Organic Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jucá, Thiago Lustosa; Ramos, Márcio Viana; Moreno, Frederico Bruno Mendes Batista; Viana de Matos, Mayara Patrícia; Marinho-Filho, José Delano Barreto; Moreira, Renato Azevedo; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Calotropis procera is a medicinal plant whose pharmacological properties are associated with its latex. Here, the Calotropis procera latex fractions were investigated in an attempt to trace its phytochemical profile and measure its anti-inflammatory and toxicity activity. The crude latex was partitioned, yielding five fractions (49.4% hexane, 5.2% dichloromethane, 2.0% ethyl acetate, 2.1% n-butanol, and 41.1% aqueous). Phytochemical screening and spectroscopy analysis revealed that dichloromethane is the most chemically diverse fraction. Triterpenes were detected in both the hexane and dichloromethane fractions, while flavonoids were detected in the dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions. These fractions were cytotoxic to cancer cell lines (LD50 0.05 to 3.9 μg/mL) and lethal to brine shrimp (LD50 10.9 to 65.7 μg/mL). Reduced neutrophil migration in rats was observed in carrageenan-induced peritonitis for the dichloromethane (67%), ethyl acetate (56%), and aqueous (72%) fractions. A positive reaction with tolidine and ninhydrin suggested that cyclopeptides are in the ethyl acetate fraction. It is therefore concluded that Calotropis procera latex dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions exhibit both in vitro and in vivo activities as well as anti-inflammatory properties. Cyclopeptide detection is especially interesting because previous attempts to investigate these low-molecular cyclic amino acid sequences in C. procera have failed. PMID:24348174

  3. Histamine mediates the pro-inflammatory effect of latex of Calotropis procera in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivkar, Yatin M; Kumar, Vijay L

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTiON: Calotropis procera is known to produce contact dermatitis and the latex of this plant produces intense inflammation when injected locally. However, the precise mode of its pro-inflammatory effect is not known. In present study we have pharmacologically characterized the inflammation induced by latex of C. procera in a rat paw edema model and determined the role of histamine in latex-induced inflammation. METHODS: Inflammation was induced in the hind paw of rats by injecting different doses of dried latex (DL) of C. procera. The inhibitory effect of phenylbutazone, dexamethasone, celecoxib, cyproheptadine, chlorpheniramine and compound 48/80 on edema volume was evaluated and compared with that against carrageenan. The histamine content of DL was measured fluorometrically. RESULTS: DL produced dose-dependent inflammation of the rat paw. Cyproheptadine and chlorpheniramine effectively inhibited DL-induced inflammation (90%; p procera latex-induced inflammation and antihistaminic drugs could be effectively used to inhibit inflammatory response elicited by exposure to latex. PMID:14760937

  4. Efficacy and phytochemical analysis of latex of Calotropis procera against selected dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Rabiu Muhammad; Abubakar, Mikaeel Bala; Kasarawa, Adamu Bello; Dabai, Yakubu Umar; Lawal, Nafiu; Bello, Muhammad Bashir; Fardami, Aminu Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Since ancient time, increased interest has been witnessed in the use of an alternative herbal medicine for managing, and the treatment of fungal diseases worldwide. This may be connected to the cost and relative toxicities of the available antifungal drugs. It has been a known tradition practiced in the northern part of Nigeria that parents and teachers use the white latex of Calotropis procera to treat Tinea capitis in children attending the local religious school in the area. This study was conducted in 2009 to ascertain the above claim. Fresh latex of C. procera was screened for their antifungal activity against species of dermatophytes: Trichophyton spp., Microsporum spp. and Epidermophyton spp. using the agar incorporation method. The result shows that the latex inhibits the in vitro growth of these pathogenic fungi to varying extents with Trichophyton spp. being the most susceptible (P < 0.05) and thus highly inhibited by the latex followed by the Microsporum spp. and Epidermopyton spp. was least inhibited. These inhibitions followed a dose-dependent trend as undiluted latex (100%) gave the highest inhibitory impacts (P < 0.05) when compared to serially diluted latex. The phytochemical analysis of the fresh latex indicated the presence of alkaloids, saponin, tannins, steroids, flavonoids, anthraquinone, and triterpenoids. The findings of this study confirmed the perceived usefulness of the latex in the treatment of T. capitis (ringworm) practiced in our society and therefore, its use topically in the treatment of dermatomycotic infection is encouraged.

  5. Immunological and allergenic responses induced by latex fractions of Calotropis procera (Ait.) R.Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, M V; Aguiar, V C; Melo, V M M; Mesquita, R O; Silvestre, P P; Oliveira, J S; Oliveira, R S B; Macedo, N M R; Alencar, N M N

    2007-04-20

    Immunological and allergenic responses against the latex of Calotropis procera were investigated in mice by oral and subcutaneous routes. The latex was fractionated according to water solubility and molecular size of its components. The fractions were named as non-dialyzable latex (NDL) corresponding to the major latex proteins, dialyzable latex (DL) corresponding to low molecular size substances and rubber latex (RL) which was highly insoluble in water. Anti-sera against these fractions were assayed for total IgG and IgA titration by ELISA and IgE and IgG(1) were quantified by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in rats and mice, respectively. None of the fractions induced antibodies level increases when mice received latex fractions by oral route and thus, did not develop allergy. Nonetheless, anti-sera of mice sensitized with NDL and RL by subcutaneous route displayed considerable immunological response while DL did not. IgG level augmented consistently against NDL and RL while IgA response was detected only to NDL. NDL and RL induced very strong PCA reactions suggesting that both fractions would contain latex substances involved in allergy. Furthermore, protein analysis of NDL and RL suggests that RL still retain residual proteins abundantly found in NDL that could explain its similar allergenic effect. No IgG(1) reaction was detected in any of the anti-sera tested. According to the results, the proteins of latex of Calotropis procera can provoke allergy by subcutaneous route. The NDL has previously shown to display anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities by intraperitoneal injection. It should be relevant to determine whether NDL could induce such activities when assayed by oral route since it was ineffective to induce allergy by this way.

  6. Antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities of Calotropis procera latex on Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) exposed to toxic 4-nonylphenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Alaa El-Din H; Mohamed, Nadia H; Ismail, Mady A; Abdel-Mageed, Wael M; Shoreit, Ahmed A M

    2016-06-01

    Calotropis procera L. is known as medicinal plant. The Phytochemical analyzes of its latex revealed that it possessed antioxidants, namely terpenes, phenolic compounds and cardenolides, flavonoids and saponins, while tannins, alkaloids and resin were absent in moderate to high concentration. In the present study, the role of latex of Calotropis procera as antioxidant and antiapoptotic was reported. To carry out this aim, fishes were exposed to 100 µg l(-1) 4-nonylphenol as chemical pollutant. The enzymes, superoxidase dismutase, catalase, acetlycholinstrase (AchE), glutathione s-transferase, cortisol, G6PDH) and apoptotic cells increased significantly (pCalotropis procera possessed antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities against the toxicity of 4-Nonylphenol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Involvement of prostaglandins in inflammation induced by latex of Calotropis procera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay L; Shivkar, Yatin M

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION:The aerial parts of the plant Calotropis procera produce milky white latex that causes inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes. Prostaglandins are one of the mediators released in an inflammatory response following induction of cyclooxygenase (COX). In the present study, we have evaluated the role of prostaglandins in inflammatory response elicited by the latex of C. procera. METHODS: Aqueous extract of dried latex of C. procera was injected into the 6-day air-pouch in the rat. The inflammatory response was evaluated by studying the air-pouch fluid for its volume, protein and prostaglandin (PG) E2 concentrations, and leucocyte counts. The granulation tissue from the pouch was quantified and studied for COX-2 expression by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The inhibitory effect of celecoxib and dexamethasone was evaluated on the aforementioned parameters. RESULTS: Dried latex produced an inflammatory response that was maximum at 6 h. It was associated with the accumulation of protein-rich fluid, leucocytes and PGE2 production. It also resulted in granulation of the pouch cavity that was a maximum on day 3. COX-2 expression could be detected in the granulation tissue on day 1 and it increased progressively up to day 5. The anti-inflammatory drugs celecoxib and dexamethasone significantly attenuated the inflammatory response and inhibited COX-2 expression in granulation tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Latex of C. procera induces an inflammatory response characterized by an early exudative phase accompanied by PGE2 production and a late proliferative phase associated with COX-2 induction. Both the phases were effectively inhibited by COX-2 inhibitors. PMID:15223605

  8. Protective effect of Calotropis procera latex extracts on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, S; Wahane, V D; Kumar, V L

    2010-02-03

    Calotropis procera is a wild growing plant with multifarious medicinal properties. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dried latex (DL) of Calotropis procera and its methanol extract (MeDL) against gastric ulcers induced in rats. Aqueous suspension of DL (20 and 100mg/kg) and MeDL (10 and 50mg/kg) were given orally to 36h fasted rats and ulcers were induced by ethanol, pyloric ligation and aspirin. Parameters like ulcer score and levels of oxidative stress markers were measured in all the models. The effect on gastric hemorrhage and tissue histology was studied in ethanol model and on acidity, pH and volume of gastric secretion was evaluated in pyloric ligation model. The protective effect of DL and MeDL was compared with that of standard anti-ulcer drug famotidine (20 mg/kg). DL and MeDL produced 85-95% inhibition of gastric mucosal damage in ethanol model and 70-80% inhibition in aspirin model. The protective effect of these extracts was associated with marked reduction in gastric hemorrhage, maintenance of tissue integrity and normalization of levels of oxidative stress markers like glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and superoxide dismutase. Like famotidine, DL and MeDL decreased the gastric acidity from 376.17+/-21.47 mequiv./l to 163.88+/-6.86 and 201.48+/-8.86 mequiv./l respectively in pyloric ligation model. These extracts increased the gastric pH without affording any protection to gastric mucosa in this model. The latex of Calotropis procera has the therapeutic potential to relieve gastric hyperacidity and to prevent gastric ulceration induced by necrotizing agents. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of aqueous suspension of dried latex of Calotropis procera on hepatorenal functions in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, A; Kumar, V L

    2009-02-25

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dry latex (DL) of Calotropis procera, a plant of the family Asclepiadaceae, on the functions of liver and kidney in normal rats. Aqueous suspension of DL was orally administered to rats at doses of 10, 100 and 400 mg/kg for a period of 45 days and the effect on various parameters reflecting liver and kidney functions was compared with that of normal controls. Treatment with DL did not alter the serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, urea and urinary levels of glucose and protein as compared to the normal rats. It exhibited a modulatory role in maintaining the levels of blood glucose and serum insulin. The liver and kidney of DL treated and normal rats were also comparable with regard to the tissue levels of oxidative stress markers and histology. Further, no signs of toxicity were observed in the DL treated rats over the study period. Our study reveals that aqueous suspension of Calotropis procera latex does not produce any toxicity and could be safely used for therapeutic purpose at the doses studied.

  10. Calotropis procera latex affords protection against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhy, B M; Srivastava, A; Kumar, V L

    2007-09-25

    In the present study, latex of Calotropis procera possessing potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties was evaluated for its hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Subcutaneous injection of CCl(4,) administered twice a week, produced a marked elevation in the serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Histological analysis of the liver of these rats revealed marked necro-inflammatory changes that were associated with increase in the levels of TBARS, PGE(2) and catalase and decrease in the levels of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Daily oral administration of aqueous suspension of dried latex (DL) of Calotropis procera at 5, 50 and 100mg/kg doses produced a dose-dependent reduction in the serum levels of liver enzymes and inflammatory mediators and attenuated the necro-inflammatory changes in the liver. The DL treatment also normalized various biochemical parameters of oxidative stress. Our study shows that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of DL and silymarin were comparable and suggests that DL could be used as a hepatoprotective agent.

  11. Physicochemical properties and tenderness of meat samples using proteolytic extract from Calotropis procera latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawdkuen, Saroat; Jaimakreu, Manon; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2013-01-15

    This study was conducted in order to tenderise muscle foods (pork, beef and chicken) by using crude enzyme extract from Calotropis procera latex. Chunks of knuckle muscle from pork and beef as well as of breast muscle from chicken were marinated with distiled water (control) and 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.5% (w/w) of crude enzyme extract powder for 60 min at 4°C. The marinated samples were then subjected to various physical and chemical property determinations. A decrease in moisture content was observed when the crude enzyme extract was added. Firmness and toughness of the muscle samples significantly decreased with the increased addition of crude enzyme extract (p0.05). Crude enzyme extract had no effect on the pH of the pork sample, but it slightly increased the pH in the beef and chicken. An increase in protein solubility and TCA-soluble peptides content was observed in all of the treated samples. The electrophoresis pattern of the muscle treated samples also revealed extensive proteolysis occurring in each muscle type. From the results, it is determined that latex from Calotropis procera can be used as an alternative source of proteolytic enzymes for the effective tenderising of meat. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Calotropis procera Latex-Induced Inflammatory Hyperalgesia—Effect of Antiinflammatory Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Sehgal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The milky white latex of plant Calotropis procera produces inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes on accidental exposure. It produces edema on local administration due to the release of histamine and prostaglandins and is associated with hyperalgesia. In the present study we have evaluated the antiedematous and analgesic activity of antiinflammatory drugs against inflammatory response induced by dried latex (DL of C procera in rat paw edema model. An aqueous extract of DL of C procera was injected into the subplantar surface of the rat paw and the paw volume was measured by a plethysmometer at 0, 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 hours. Concomitantly the hyperalgesic response was also evaluated by motility test, stair climbing ability test, dorsal flexion pain test, compression test, and observing the grooming behavior. The inhibitory effect of diclofenac and rofecoxib on edema formation and hyperalgesic response was compared with cyproheptadine (CPH. DL-induced edema formation was maximum at 2 hours that was associated with decreased pain threshold, functional impairment, and grooming. Treatment with antiinflammatory drugs and CPH significantly attenuated the edematous response and grooming, increased the pain threshold, and improved functional parameters. Both antiinflammatory and antiserotonergic drugs significantly inhibited the hyperalgesia associated with DL-induced paw edema. Rofecoxib was found to be superior than diclofenac and was as effective as CPH in ameliorating the hyperalgesia. However, it was found to be less effective than CPH in attenuating edema formation.

  13. In vivo growth inhibition of sarcoma 180 by latex proteins from Calotropis procera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jefferson S; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V; Bezerra, Daniel P; Alencar, Nylane M N; Marinho-Filho, José Delano B; Figueiredo, Ingrid Samantha T; Moraes, Manoel O; Pessoa, Claudia; Alves, Ana Paula N N; Ramos, Márcio V

    2010-08-01

    Latex of Calotropis procera has been described as a relevant source of pharmacologically active proteins, including proteins with anticancer activity. A previous in vitro study of laticifer proteins (LP) from C. procera reported that they had selective cytotoxic effects on human cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of LP in vivo using mice transplanted with sarcoma 180. Biochemical, hematological, histopathological, and morphological analyses were performed in animals given LP by oral or intraperitoneal routes. LP significantly reduced tumor growth (51.83%) and augmented the survival time of animals for up to 4 days. Tumor growth inhibitory activity was lost when LP fraction was submitted to proteolysis, acidic treatment, or pretreated with iodoacetamide. However, LP retained its inhibitory activities on sarcoma 180 growth after heat treatment. Thus, it seems that heat-stable proteins are involved in tumor suppression. Biochemical parameters, such as the enzymatic activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase and urea content in serum were not affected in treated mice. It is worth noting that LP completely eliminated the 5-FU-induced depletion of leukocytes in mice even when given orally. The active proteins were recovered in a single fraction by ion exchange chromatography and still exhibited anticancer activity. This study confirms the pharmacological potential of proteins from the latex of C. procera to control sarcoma cell proliferation.

  14. Calotropis procera Latex-Induced Inflammatory Hyperalgesia—Effect of Antiinflammatory Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Raman; Kumar, Vijay L.

    2005-01-01

    The milky white latex of plant Calotropis procera produces inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes on accidental exposure. It produces edema on local administration due to the release of histamine and prostaglandins and is associated with hyperalgesia. In the present study we have evaluated the antiedematous and analgesic activity of antiinflammatory drugs against inflammatory response induced by dried latex (DL) of C procera in rat paw edema model. An aqueous extract of DL of C procera was injected into the subplantar surface of the rat paw and the paw volume was measured by a plethysmometer at 0, 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 hours. Concomitantly the hyperalgesic response was also evaluated by motility test, stair climbing ability test, dorsal flexion pain test, compression test, and observing the grooming behavior. The inhibitory effect of diclofenac and rofecoxib on edema formation and hyperalgesic response was compared with cyproheptadine (CPH). DL-induced edema formation was maximum at 2 hours that was associated with decreased pain threshold, functional impairment, and grooming. Treatment with antiinflammatory drugs and CPH significantly attenuated the edematous response and grooming, increased the pain threshold, and improved functional parameters. Both antiinflammatory and antiserotonergic drugs significantly inhibited the hyperalgesia associated with DL-induced paw edema. Rofecoxib was found to be superior than diclofenac and was as effective as CPH in ameliorating the hyperalgesia. However, it was found to be less effective than CPH in attenuating edema formation. PMID:16192671

  15. Inhibition of Calotropis procera Latex-Induced Inflammatory Hyperalgesia by Oxytocin and Melatonin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhy, Biswa M.; Kumar, Vijay L.

    2005-01-01

    The latex of the wild growing plant Calotropis procera produces inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes upon accidental exposure. On local administration it elicits an intense inflammatory response due to the release of histamine and prostaglandins that is associated with hyperalgesia. In the present study we have evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of oxytocin and melatonin against rat paw edema induced by dried latex (DL) of C procera and compared it with that against carrageenan-induced paw edema. Aqueous extract of DL of C procera or carrageenan (1%) was injected into the subplantar surface of the rat paw and the paw volume was measured at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, and 24 hours. The associated hyperalgesic response and functional impairment were also evaluated concomitantly by dorsal flexion pain test, motility test, and stair climbing ability test. The inhibitory effect of oxytocin and melatonin on edema formation and hyperalgesic response was compared with dexamethasone. DL-induced edema formation was maximum at 2 hours and was associated with decreased pain threshold and functional impairment. Treatment with melatonin significantly attenuated the edematous response while both oxytocin and melatonin increased the pain threshold and improved functional parameters. Both oxytocin and melatonin significantly inhibited the hyperalgesia associated with DL-induced paw edema. Oxytocin was found to be as effective as melatonin in ameliorating the hyperalgesic response. However, it was found to be less effective than melatonin in attenuating edema formation. PMID:16489256

  16. Effectiveness and feasibility of methanol extracted latex of Calotropis procera as larvicide against dengue vectors of western Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Manju; Purohit, Anil; Chattopadhyay, Sushmita

    2015-06-01

    Identification of novel effective larvicide from natural resources is essential to combat developing resistances, environmental concerns, residue problems and high cost of synthetic insecticides. Results of earlier laboratory findings have shown that Calotropis procera extracts showed larvicidal, ovicidal and refractory properties towards ovipositioning of dengue vectors; further, latex extracted with methanol was found to be more effective compared to crude latex. For testing efficacy and feasibility of extracted latex in field, the present study was undertaken in different settings of Jodhpur City, India against dengue vectors. Study areas were selected based on surveillance design for the control of dengue vectors. During the study period domestic and peri-domestic breeding containers were treated with methanol extracted latex and mortality was observed after 24 h as per WHO guidelines. Latex was manually collected from internodes of Calotropis procera and extracted using methanol (AR) grade. Methanol extracted latex of C. procera was found effective and feasible larvicide against dengue vectors in the field conditions. Cement tanks, clay pots and coolers (breeding sites) were observed as key containers for the control of dengue transmission. Today environmental safety is considered to be very important. Herbal composition prepared by the extraction of latex of C. procera can be used as an alternative approach for the control of dengue vectors. This will reduce the dependence on expensive products and stimulate local efforts to enhance the public involvement.

  17. New insights into the complex mixture of latex cysteine peptidases in Calotropis procera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, M V; Araújo, E S; Jucá, T L; Monteiro-Moreira, A C O; Vasconcelos, I M; Moreira, R A; Viana, C A; Beltramini, L M; Pereira, D A; Moreno, F B

    2013-07-01

    The latex of Calotropis procera is a rich source of proteolytic activity. This latex is known to contain two distinct cysteine peptidases: procerain and procerain B. In this study, new cysteine peptidases were purified from C. procera latex. The enzymes were purified by two sequential ion-exchange chromatography steps (CM-Sepharose plus Resource S(®)) at pH 5.0 and 6.0. The purified enzymes had molecular mass spectra corresponding to CpCP-1=26,213, CpCP-2=26,133 and CpCP-3=25,086 Da. These enzymes exhibited discrete differences in terms of enzymatic activity at a broad range of pH and temperature conditions and contained identical N-terminal amino acid sequences. In these respects, these three new proteins are distinct from those previously studied (procerain and procerain B). Circular dichroism analysis revealed that the new peptidases contain extensive secondary structures, α(15-20%) and β(26-30%), that were stabilized by disulfide bonds. The purified enzymes exhibited plasma-clotting activity mediated by a thrombin-like mechanism. The set of results suggest the three isolated polypeptides correspond to different post-translationally processed forms of the same protein. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Antiinflammatory Efficacy of Extracts of Latex of Calotropis procera Against Different Mediators of Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Soneera; Kumar, Vijay L

    2005-01-01

    The latex of the plant Calotropis procera has been reported to exhibit potent antiinflammatory activity against carrageenin and formalin that are known to release various mediators. In the present study, we have evaluated the efficacy of extracts prepared from the latex of C procera against inflammation induced by histamine, serotonin, compound 48/80, bradykinin (BK), and prostaglandin E2(PGE2) in the rat paw oedema model. The paw oedema was induced by the subplantar injection of various inflammagens and oedema volume was recorded using a plethysmometer. The aqueous and methanol extracts of the dried latex (DL) and standard antiinflammatory drugs were administered orally 1 hour before inducing inflammation. The inhibitory effect of the extracts was also evaluated against cellular influx induced by carrageenin. The antiinflammatory effect of aqueous and methanolic extracts of DL was more pronounced than phenylbutazone (PBZ) against carrageenin while it was comparable to chlorpheniramine and PBZ against histamine and PGE2, respectively. Both extracts produced about 80%, 40%, and 30% inhibition of inflammation induced by BK, compound 48/80, and serotonin. The histological analysis revealed that the extracts were more potent than PBZ in inhibiting cellular infiltration and subcutaneous oedema induced by carrageenin. The extracts of DL exert their antiinflammatory effects mainly by inhibiting histamine and BK and partly by inhibiting PGE2. PMID:16192673

  19. Protective effect of latex of Calotropis procera in Freund's Complete Adjuvant induced monoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V L; Roy, S

    2009-01-01

    The protective effect of latex of Calotropis procera in Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA) induced monoarticular arthritis was evaluated in rats. Arthritis was induced by a single intra-articular injection of 0.1 mL of 0.1% FCA in the right ankle joint. The effect of dried latex (DL, 200 and 400 mg/kg) and its methanol extract (MeDL, 50 and 500 mg/kg) following oral administration was evaluated on joint inflammation, hyperalgesia, locomotor function and histology at the time of peak inflammation. The effects of DL and MeDL were compared with antiinflammatory drugs phenylbutazone (100 mg/kg), prednisolone (20 mg/kg), rofecoxib (20 and 100 mg/kg) and immuno-suppressant methotrexate (0.3 mg/kg). Daily oral administration of DL and its methanol extract (MeDL) produced a significant reduction in joint inflammation (about 50% and 80% inhibition) and associated hyperalgesia. The antihyperalgesic effect of MeDL was comparable to that of rofecoxib. Both DL and MeDL produced a marked improvement in the motility and stair climbing ability of the rats. The histological analysis of the arthritic joint also revealed significant reduction in oedema and cellular infiltration by MeDL that was comparable to that of rofecoxib. Thus, our study suggests that the latex of C. procera has the potential to be used as an antiarthritic agent. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Antiinflammatory Efficacy of Extracts of Latex of Calotropis procera Against Different Mediators of Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soneera Arya

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The latex of the plant Calotropis procera has been reported to exhibit potent antiinflammatory activity against carrageenin and formalin that are known to release various mediators. In the present study, we have evaluated the efficacy of extracts prepared from the latex of C procera against inflammation induced by histamine, serotonin, compound 48/80, bradykinin (BK, and prostaglandin E(PGE in the rat paw oedema model. The paw oedema was induced by the subplantar injection of various inflammagens and oedema volume was recorded using a plethysmometer. The aqueous and methanol extracts of the dried latex (DL and standard antiinflammatory drugs were administered orally 1 hour before inducing inflammation. The inhibitory effect of the extracts was also evaluated against cellular influx induced by carrageenin. The antiinflammatory effect of aqueous and methanolic extracts of DL was more pronounced than phenylbutazone (PBZ against carrageenin while it was comparable to chlorpheniramine and PBZ against histamine and PGE, respectively. Both extracts produced about 80%, 40%, and 30% inhibition of inflammation induced by BK, compound 48/80, and serotonin. The histological analysis revealed that the extracts were more potent than PBZ in inhibiting cellular infiltration and subcutaneous oedema induced by carrageenin. The extracts of DL exert their antiinflammatory effects mainly by inhibiting histamine and BK and partly by inhibiting PGE.

  1. Antifungal Activity of Leaf and Latex Extracts of Calotropis procera (Ait.) against Dominant Seed-Borne Storage Fungi of Some Oil Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Manoorkar V B; Mandge S V; B D Gachande

    2015-01-01

    In present study, aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaf & latex of Calotropis procera (Ait.) was tested for their antifungal activity against dominant storage seed-borne fungi of some oil seeds such as groundnut, soybean, sunflower and mustard. The antifungal effect of ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaf & latex of Calotropis procera (Ait.) against ten seed-borne dominant fungi viz., Cuvularia lunata, Alternaria alternata, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, Penicillium chrysogenum, Asperg...

  2. First insights into the diversity and functional properties of chitinases of the latex of Calotropis procera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Cleverson D T; Viana, Carolina A; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Moreno, Frederico B B; Lima-Filho, José V; Oliveira, Hermogenes D; Moreira, Renato A; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina O; Ramos, Márcio V

    2016-11-01

    Chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14) found in the latex of Calotropis procera (Ait) R. Br. were studied. The proteins were homogeneously obtained after two ion exchange chromatography steps. Most proteins were identified individually in 15 spots on 2-D gel electrophoresis with isoelectric points ranging from 4.6 to 6.0 and molecular masses extending from 27 to 30 kDa. Additionally, 66 kDa proteins were identified as chitinases in SDS-PAGE. Their identities were further confirmed by mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of the tryptic digests of each spot and MS analysis of the non-digested proteins. Positive reaction for Schiff's reagent suggested the proteins are glycosylated. The chitinases exhibited high catalytic activity toward to colloidal chitin at pH 5.0, and this activity underwent decay in the presence of increasing amounts of reducing agent dithiothreitol. Spore germination and hyphae growth of two phytopathogenic fungi were inhibited only marginally by the chitinases but were affected differently. This suggested a complex relationship might exist between the specificity of the proteins toward the fungal species. The chitinases showed potent insecticidal activity against the Bruchidae Callosobruchus maculatus, drastically reducing survival, larval weight and adult emergence. It is concluded that closely related chitinases are present in the latex of C. procera, and the first experimental evidence suggests these proteins are involved more efficiently in defence strategies against insects rather than fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Biogas production from Calotropis procera: a latex plant found in West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traore, A.S. (Universite de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, (West Africa). ISN-IDR, Faculte des Sciences et Technqiues, Dept. de Biochimie et Microbiologie)

    1992-01-01

    Calotropis procera is a bush latex plant, 1-3m high; its leaves are 10-13 cm wide by 17-19cm long. This plant is very drought-resistant and grows throughout the Sahelian countries, notably in Burkina Faso. Batch fermentation experiments show that it is a good substrate for biogas production. The highest productivities obtained varied from 2.9 to 3.6 litres biogas day {sup -1} litre {sup -1} when the digester loading was a 4% (w/v) suspension of dry leaves at initial pH 7.5. The acidogenic step of the fermentation was very fast, about 66% of dry material loaded being degraded during the first 2 days of incubation at 30{sup o}C. The resulting biogas contained 56-59% (v/v) methane. (author).

  4. Studies on biotransformation of Calotropis procera latex - a renewable source of petroleum, value-added chemicals, and products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, B.K.; Arora, M.; Sharma, D.K.

    2000-10-01

    Petroleum reserves of the world may not last forever. There is a need to develop alternative and renewable sources of petroleum. Petrocrops (wild and waste plants) are renewable sources of petroleum hydrocarbons. Calotropis procera is one of the potential candidates for petrofarming. The latex obtained from C. procera may be hydrocracked to obtain hydrocarbons. This involves severe thermochemical conditions. Biodegradation of latex may afford a milder and less energy-intensive technique of latex degradation. In the present work, the latex obtained from C. procera has been subjected to microbial treatment using different fungi and bacteria. The biotransformed and biodegraded latex showed enhancement in the heptane extraction in comparison to that of untreated latex. The biotransformed and biodegraded latex was subjected to {sup 1}H-NMR, {sup 13}C-NMR, and FTIR spectral analysis. The latex was found to have undergone demethylation, dehydrogenation, carboxylation, and aromatization during microbial treatment. Average molecular weight of the latex compounds was found to have decreased as a result of microbial treatment. The biotransformed and biodegraded latex may be hydrotreated to obtain petroleum and other value-added chemicals and cleaner fuels. (Author)

  5. Calotropis procera latex-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia - effect of bradyzide and morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay L; Sehgal, Raman

    2007-07-01

    1 The milky white latex of the plant Calotropis procera induces inflammatory response upon accidental exposure and on local administration that could be effectively ameliorated by antihistaminic and standard anti-inflammatory drugs. 2 The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-oedematogenic and analgesic effect of the bradykinin antagonist, bradyzide (BDZ) and the opioidergic analgesic, morphine (Mor) against inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by the dried latex (DL) of C. procera in the rat paw oedema model. 3 An aqueous solution of DL (0.1 ml of 1% solution) was injected into the sub-plantar surface of the rat paw and the paw volume was measured at different time intervals. The inhibitory effect of bradyzide and morphine on oedema formation and hyperalgesic response was compared with that of cyproheptadine (CPH), a potent inhibitor of DL-induced oedema formation. 4 The hyperalgesic response was evaluated by the dorsal flexion pain test, compression test and by observing motility, stair-climbing ability, and the grooming behaviour of the rats. 5 The effect of these drugs was also evaluated against DL-induced writhings in the mouse model. 6 Both bradyzide and morphine inhibited DL-induced oedema formation by 30-40% and CPH was more effective in this regard (81% inhibition). The antihyperalgesic effect of both the drugs was more pronounced than that of CPH. Both bradyzide and morphine markedly inhibited the grooming behaviour and the effect of morphine could be reversed by pretreatment with naloxone. 7 Thus, our study shows that DL-induced oedema formation is effectively inhibited by antihistaminic/antiserotonergic drug and associated hyperalgesia by analgesic drugs.

  6. Chemical composition and in vitro activity of Calotropis procera (Ait.) latex on Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Géssica S; de Morais, Selene M; Andre, Weibson P P; Ribeiro, Wesley L C; Rodrigues, Ana L M; De Lira, Fábia C M L; Viana, Janaína M; Bevilaqua, Claudia M L

    2016-08-15

    Calotropis procera is among the species of medicinal plants that have traditionally been used for the treatment of parasites in small ruminants, stimulating the scientific validation of anthelmintic effects. This study aimed to investigate the chemical composition of ethyl acetate extract of Calotropis procera latex (EAECPL), assess the in vitro effect against Haemonchus contortus and the structural changes caused in the adult worm. The latex was collected, lyophilized and subjected to washing with the ethyl acetate solvent to obtain EAECPL. The constituents of the extract were isolated by column chromatography and identified by (13)C and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The egg hatching test (EHT), larval development test (LDT) and adult worms motility test (WMT) were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of EAECPL on eggs, larvae and adult of H. contortus, respectively. The worms obtained from the WMT, after 24h exposure to EAECPL or controls were observed on a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results were analysed by variance analysis and compared with Tukey's test (P<0.05). Three compounds were isolated from EAECPL and identified as urs-19(29)-en-3-yl acetate, (3β)-Urs-19(29)-en-3-ol, and 1-(2',5'-dimethoxyphenyl)-glycerol. In the EHT, EAECPL inhibited larval hatching by 91.8% at dose of 4mg/ml. In the LDT 1mg/ml inhibited 99.8% larval development. In the WMT, EAECPL in the concentration of 100μg/ml inhibited 100% motility of worms, 12h post-exposition. In the SEM, obvious differences were not detected between the negative control worms and the worms treated with EAECPL. In this study, EAECPL showed an effect on inhibition egg hatching, larval development and motility of the adult worms of H. contortus. This should be related both to the identified compounds, as well as the other compounds present in the EAECPL, acting alone or synergistically. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Antiedematogenic and antioxidant properties of high molecular weight protein sub-fraction of Calotropis procera latex in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Priyanka; de Araújo Viana, Carolina; Ramos, Marcio V; Kumar, Vijay L

    2015-03-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effect of high molecular weight protein fraction of Calotropis procera latex on edema formation and oxidative stress in carrageenan-induced paw inflammation. A sub-plantar injection of carrageenan was given to induce edema in the hind paw of the rat. The inhibitory effect of high molecular weight protein fraction of C. procera latex was evaluated following intravenous administration (5 and 25 mg/kg body weight) and was compared with that of diclofenac given orally (5 mg/kg). The levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in the inflamed paw tissue at the end of the study. The high molecular weight protein fraction obtained from the latex of C. procera produced a dose-dependent inhibition of edema formation that was accompanied by normalization of levels of oxidative stress markers (GSH and TBARS) and MPO, a marker for neutrophils in the paw tissue. The high molecular weight protein fraction of C. procera latex ameliorates acute inflammation in the paw through its antioxidant effect.

  8. Wound-healing and potential anti-keloidal properties of the latex of Calotropis procera (Aiton) Asclepiadaceae in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderounmu, A O; Omonisi, A E; Akingbasote, J A; Makanjuola, M; Bejide, R A; Orafidiya, L O; Adelusola, K A

    2013-01-01

    Calotropis Procera (CP) has been used in the management of toothache, fresh skin burns, gum bleeding as well as others to make it qualify as a medicinal plant. This study was designed to assess its wound-healing property in rabbits and its potentials for anti keloidal activity.Fresh latex of Calotropis were obtained and evaluated phytochemically. Fifteen male rabbits were used and four excisional wounds were created on each rabbit. The rabbits were divided into five groups of three each. Group 1 was the negative control and received no treatment. The wounds of group 2 animals were treated with 2mL of Calotropis latex; group 3 with 2mL honey; and group 4 with a mixture of 1ml honey and 1 mL of the latex. The animals in group 5 were given 2mg triamcinolone intramuscularly. All the groups had their wounds treated daily for 21 days. The wounds' diameters were measured on the day of wound creation, thereafter on days 7, 14 and 21 post wound creation. Biopsies of the wounds were taken on days 3 and 21 and viewed histologically. Phytochemical study of the latex revealed the presence of glycosides, tannins and alkaloids. The wounds were found to be significantly (pCalotropis latex revealed the presence of florid granulation tissues on day 3 while there was a marked reduction in quantity and size of collagen fibres on day 21 post wound creation which was comparable with what was seen for the triamcinolone-treated group.The general effect of Calotropis latex on wound-healing was noted. Likewise it's similarity to that of triamcinolone, an anti-keloidal agent; this makes it a probable candidate for future anti-keloidal study using a suitable model.

  9. Osmotin from Calotropis procera latex: new insights into structure and antifungal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Cleverson Diniz Teixeira; Lopes, José Luiz de Souza; Beltramini, Leila Maria; de Oliveira, Raquel Sombra Basílio; Oliveira, José Tadeu Abreu; Ramos, Márcio Viana

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed at investigating the structural properties and mechanisms of the antifungal action of CpOsm, a purified osmotin from Calotropis procera latex. Fluorescence and CD assays revealed that the CpOsm structure is highly stable, regardless of pH levels. Accordingly, CpOsm inhibited the spore germination of Fusarium solani in all pH ranges tested. The content of the secondary structure of CpOsm was estimated as follows: α-helix (20%), β-sheet (33%), turned (19%) and unordered (28%), RMSD 1%. CpOsm was stable at up to 75°C, and thermal denaturation (T(m)) was calculated to be 77.8°C. This osmotin interacted with the negatively charged large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac-1-glycerol (POPG), inducing vesicle permeabilization by the leakage of calcein. CpOsm induced the membrane permeabilization of spores and hyphae from Fusarium solani, allowing for propidium iodide uptake. These results show that CpOsm is a stable protein, and its antifungal activity involves membrane permeabilization, as property reported earlier for other osmotins and thaumatin-like proteins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines and anti-inflammatory properties of chitinases from Calotropis procera latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Carolina Araújo; Ramos, Márcio V; Filho, José Delano Barreto Marinho; Lotufo, Letícia Veras Costa; Figueiredo, Ingrid Samantha Tavares; de Oliveira, Jefferson Soares; Mastroeni, Pietro; Lima-Filho, José Vitor; Alencar, Nylane Maria Nunes

    2017-07-11

    The role of chitinases from the latex of medicinal shrub Calotropis procera on viability of tumor cell lines and inflammation was investigated. Soluble latex proteins were fractionated in a CM Sepharose Fast-Flow Column and the major peak (LPp1) subjected to ion exchange chromatography using a Mono-Q column coupled to an FPLC system. In a first series of experiments, immortalized macrophages were cultured with LPp1 for 24 h. Then, cytotoxicity of chitinase isoforms (LPp1-P1 to P6) was evaluated against HCT-116 (colon carcinoma), OVCAR-8 (ovarian carcinoma), and SF-295 (glioblastoma) tumor cell lines in 96-well plates. Cytotoxic chitinases had its anti-inflammatory potential assessed through the mouse peritonitis model. We have shown that LPp1 was not toxic to macrophages at dosages lower than 125 μg/mL but induced high messenger RNA expression of IL-6, IL1-β, TNF-α, and iNOs. On the other hand, chitinase isoform LPp1-P4 retained all LPp1 cytotoxic activities against the tumor cell lines with IC50 ranging from 1.2 to 2.9 μg/mL. The intravenous administration of LPp1-P4 to mouse impaired neutrophil infiltration into the peritoneal cavity induced by carrageenan. Although the contents of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and IL1-β were high in the bloodstreams, such effect was reverted by administration of iNOs inhibitors NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and aminoguanidine. We conclude that chitinase isoform LPp1-P4 was highly cytotoxic to tumor cell lines and capable to reduce inflammation by an iNOs-derived NO mechanism.

  11. Protective effect of proteins derived from Calotropis procera latex against acute inflammation in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V L; Guruprasad, B; Chaudhary, P; Fatmi, S M A; Oliveira, R S B; Ramos, M V

    2015-07-01

    The non-dialysable proteins present in the latex of plant Calotropis procera possess anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of latex proteins (LP) on the level of inflammatory mediators, oxidative stress markers and tissue histology in the rat model of carrageenan-induced acute inflammation. This study also aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory efficacy of LP against different mediators and comparing it with their respective antagonists. Paw inflammation was induced by subplantar injection of carrageenan, and the effect of LP was evaluated on oedema volume, level of TNF-α, PGE(2), myeloperoxidase, nitric oxide, reduced glutathione, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and tissue histology at the time of peak inflammation. Paw inflammation was also induced by histamine, serotonin, bradykinin and PGE(2), and the inhibitory effect of LP against these mediators was compared with their respective antagonists at the time of peak effect. Treatment with LP produced a dose-dependent inhibition of oedema formation, and its anti-inflammatory effect against carrageenan-induced paw inflammation was accompanied by reduction in the levels of inflammatory mediators, oxidative stress markers and normalization of tissue architecture. LP also produced a dose-dependent inhibition of oedema formation induced by different inflammatory mediators, and its efficacy was comparable to their respective antagonists and more pronounced than that of diclofenac. Thus, our study shows that LP has a potential to be used for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions where the role of these mediators is well established. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Protective effect of proteins derived from the latex of Calotropis procera against inflammatory hyperalgesia in monoarthritic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay L; Chaudhary, Priyanka; Ramos, Marcio V; Mohan, Madan; Matos, Mayara P V

    2011-09-01

    Calotropis procera (family: Apocynaceae) is a plant growing in the wild and has been used in the traditional medicinal system for the treatment of various diseases. The plant produces milky latex that possesses potent antiinflammatory and analgesic properties. In present study the non-dialysable protein fraction isolated from the latex (LP) of this plant was evaluated for its efficacy against inflammation in rats where paw edema was induced by sub-plantar injection of carrageenin or monoarthritis was induced by intra-articular injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA). The effect of LP was evaluated on edema volume in the paw model and on joint diameter, stair climbing ability, motility, dorsal flexion pain, levels of oxidative stress markers and joint histology in arthritis model. The protection afforded by LP was compared with that of standard antiinflammatory drug, diclofenac (5 mg/kg). LP exhibited a dose-dependent antiinflammatory effect and produced 32% and 60% inhibition of paw edema at 10 and 25 mg/kg doses and 12% and 36% inhibition of joint inflammation at 50 and 150 mg/kg doses. The protective effect of LP was associated with normalization of joint functions, histology and levels of oxidative stress markers in joint tissue. The findings of this study suggest that the protein fraction of latex of Calotropis procera has the potential to relieve inflammation and pain associated with various arthritic conditions. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Protective effect of aqueous suspension of dried latex of Calotropis procera against oxidative stress and renal damage in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay L; Padhy, Biswa M

    2011-12-01

    Calotropis species have been used in the traditional medicinal system for the treatment of diseases of the liver and abdomen. In view of the antioxidant and anti-hyperglycemic properties of an aqueous suspension obtained from the dried latex of Calotropis procera, the present study was carried out to evaluate its efficacy in affording protection against alloxan induced changes in rat kidney. A single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg) in rats produced hyperglycemia within 3 days and altered kidney functions over a period of 90 days. Daily oral administration of the aqueous suspension (100 and 400 mg/kg) in diabetic rats produced anti-hyperglycemic effect that was comparable to that of glibenclamide (10 mg/kg). Unlike glibenclamide, the aqueous suspension did not increase the serum insulin levels in diabetic rats. However, it produced a marked reduction in the levels of urinary glucose and protein and normalized the renal tissue levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and glutathione (GSH) in diabetic rats and the effect was comparable to that of glibenclamide. The protection afforded by the aqueous suspension was also evident from the histological analysis of the renal tissue. Our study shows that by exhibiting antioxidant and anti-hyperglycemic property the aqueous suspension of dried latex of C. procera affords protection against the complications associated with diabetes.

  14. Latex protein extracts from Calotropis procera with immunomodulatory properties protect against experimental infections with Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Danielle Cristina de Oliveira; Ralph, Maria Taciana; Batista, Jacqueline Ellen Camelo; Silva, Diogo Manoel Farias; Gomes-Filho, Manoel Adrião; Alencar, Nylane Maria; Leal, Nilma Cintra; Ramos, Márcio Viana; Lima-Filho, Jose Vitor

    2016-06-15

    The latex from the medicinal plant Calotropis procera is often used in folk medicine against infectious and inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigate a protein fraction with immunomodulatory properties, named LPPI, against experimental infections, in vitro and in vivo, with a virulent strain of Listeria monocytogenes. LPPI was exposed to cultured macrophages or Swiss mice and then challenged with L. monocytogenes. Peritoneal macrophages were obtained from Swiss mice, and cultured in 96-well microplates. Soluble latex proteins (LP) were subjected to fractionation by ion-exchange chromatography. The major peak (LPPI) was added into wells at 10 or 100µg/ml. Albumin (100µg/ml) was used for comparison between protein treatments. After incubation for 1h at 5% CO2/ 37°C, the supernatant was discarded and 0.2ml of L. monocytogenes overnight culture was added in the wells. Following 4h and 24h infection, the cytokine mRNA expression was evaluated as well as the number of intracellular colony forming units. Swiss mice (n=16) were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with LPPI (5 and 10mg/kg) while the control mice received albumin (10mg/kg) or LP (10mg/kg). After 24h, all animal groups were challenged with L. monocytogenes (10(6) CFU/ ml), also by i.p. route. LPPI was not toxic to uninfected macrophages (pMØ) and significantly increased mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and iNOS. Following infection, cell viability was reduced by 50% in albumin-treated pMØ (control); but only 17% in pMØ treated with LPPI at 100µg/ml. In this case, LPPI increased expression of TNF-α and IL-6 whereas the number of bacterial colony-forming units was reduced 100-fold in comparison to control groups. Swiss mice pretreated with LPPI showed dose-dependent survival rates that reached 80%, while mice that received albumin died 1-3 days after infection. After 24h infection, leukocyte migration to the infectious foci was high in LPPI-treated mice whereas the number of viable

  15. Protective Effect of High Molecular Weight Protein Sub-fraction of Calotropis procera Latex in Monoarthritic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Priyanka; Ramos, Marcio V; Vasconcelos, Mirele da Silveira; Kumar, Vijay L

    2016-05-01

    Proteins present in the latex of Calotropis procera have been shown to produce anti-inflammatory effect and to afford protection in various disease models. To determine the efficacy of high molecular weight protein sub-fraction (LPPI) of latex of C. procera in ameliorating joint inflammation and hyperalgesia in a preclinical model of arthritis. Monoarthritis was induced in rats by intra-articular injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) and the effect of two doses of LPPI (5 and 25 mg/kg) and diclofenac (5 mg/kg) was evaluated on joint swelling, stair climbing ability, motility, and dorsal flexion pain on day 3. The rats were sacrificed on day 3 to measure tissue levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Evaluation of joint histology was also made. Intra-articular injection of FCA produced joint swelling and difficulty in stair climbing ability, motility, and pain on flexion of the joint as revealed by scores obtained for these functional parameters. LPPI produced a dose-dependent decrease in joint swelling and improved joint functions. Arthritic rats also revealed altered oxidative homeostasis where joint tissue GSH levels were decreased and TBARS levels were increased as compared to normal rats. The levels of these oxidative stress markers were near normal in arthritic rats treated with LPPI. Moreover, treatment with LPPI also maintained the structural integrity of the joint. The protective effect of LPPI was comparable to the standard anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac. The findings of the present study show that LPPI fraction comprising high molecular weight proteins could be used for the alleviation of arthritic symptoms. High molecular weight protein sub-fraction of latex of Calotropis procera (LPPI) reduced joint swelling and hyperalgesia in arthritic ratsLPPI produced a significant improvement in stair climbing ability and motility in arthritic ratsLPPI normalized the levels of oxidative stress markers in

  16. Antimicrobial activities of calotropis procera on selected pathogenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial effect of ethanol, aqueous and chloroform extracts of leaf and latex of Calotropis procera on six bacteria namely, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus albus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae and three fungi: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporium ...

  17. Antibacterial activity of Calotropis procera and Ficus sycomorus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    70%) and aqueous extracts of Calotropis procera and Ficus sycomorus leaves and latex were evaluated against five Gram-negative bacteria (Neisseria lactamica ATCC 23970, Salmonella typhi ATCC 19430, Shigella flexenri ATCC 12022, ...

  18. In Vivo Efficacy of Latex from Calotropis procera in Ameliorating Fever-Biochemical Characteristics and Plausible Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay L; Guruprasad, B; Fatmi, Syed Meraj A; Chaudhary, Priyanka; Alencar, Nylane Maria Nunes; Lima-Filho, José Vitor Moreira; Ramos, Márcio Viana

    2017-07-01

    Calotropis procera latex fractions possessing anti-inflammatory property were characterized for their biochemical properties, compared for their efficacy in ameliorating fever in rats and their mechanism of action was elucidated. Aqueous fraction and methanol extract (AqDL and MeDL) were derived from the dried latex (DL) and proteins were separated from the fresh latex (LP). Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis carried out under denaturing conditions showed the presence of proteins with some similarity in LP and AqDL and both of these fractions exhibited proteinase activity by gelatin zymography. A further analysis revealed that only the LP fraction possesses cysteine proteinase activity. Oral administration of both AqDL and MeDL produced a dose-dependent reduction in body temperature in rats where fever was induced by yeast and their effect was comparable to that of standard drug paracetamol while intravenous administration of LP was not so effective. Both AqDL and MeDL produced a significant reduction in the levels of TNF-α, PGE 2 , and immunoreactivity of COX-2 in the hypothalamus as compared to yeast control group. This study shows that both AqDL and MeDL, the orally effective anti-inflammatory fractions of latex, have therapeutic potential in treating various febrile conditions.

  19. Latex constituents from Calotropis procera (R. Br. display toxicity upon egg hatching and larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viana Ramos

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Calotropis procera R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae is a well-known medicinal plant with leaves, roots, and bark being exploited by popular medicine to fight many human and animal diseases. This work deals with the fractionation of the crude latex produced by the green parts of the plant and aims to evaluate its toxic effects upon egg hatching and larval development of Aedes aegypti. The whole latex was shown to cause 100% mortality of 3rd instars within 5 min. It was fractionated into water-soluble dialyzable (DF and non-dialyzable (NDF rubber-free materials. Both fractions were partially effective to prevent egg hatching and most of individuals growing under experimental conditions died before reaching 2nd instars or stayed in 1st instars. Besides, the fractions were very toxic to 3rd instars causing 100% mortality within 24 h. When both fractions were submitted to heat-treatment the toxic effects were diminished considerably suggesting low thermostability of the toxic compounds. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of both fractions and their newly fractionated peaks obtained through ion exchange chromatography or desalting attested the presence of proteins in both materials. When submitted to protease digestion prior to larvicidal assays NDF lost most of its toxicity but DF was still strongly active. It may be possible that the highly toxic effects of the whole latex from C. procera upon egg hatching and larvae development should be at least in part due to its protein content found in NDF. However the toxicity seems also to involve non protein molecules present in DF.

  20. Latex peptidases of Calotropis procera for dehairing of leather as an alternative to environmentally toxic sodium sulfide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopéz, Laura M I; Viana, Carolina A; Errasti, María E; Garro, María L; Martegani, José E; Mazzilli, Germán A; Freitas, Cléverson D T; Araújo, Ídila M S; da Silva, Rafaela O; Ramos, Márcio V

    2017-06-17

    Dehairing of crude leather is a critical stage performed at the beginning of its processing to obtain industrially useful pieces. Tanneries traditionally apply a chemical process based on sodium sulfide. Since this chemical reactive is environmentally toxic and inefficiently recycled, innovative protocols for reducing or eliminating its use in leather depilation are welcomed. Therefore, latex peptidases from Calotropis procera (CpLP) and Cryptostegia grandiflora (CgLP) were assayed for this purpose. Enzyme activity on substrates representative of skin such as hide powder azure (UHPA), elastin (UE), azocollagen (UAZOCOL), keratin (UK), and epidermis (UEP) was determined, while depilation activity was assayed on cow hide. Only CpLP was active against keratin (13.4 UK) and only CgLP was active against elastin (0.12 UE). CpLP (93.0 UHPA, 403.6 UAZOCOL, 36.3 UEP) showed higher activity against the other substrates than CgLP (47.6 UHPA, 261.5 UAZOCOL, 8.5 UEP). In pilot assays, CpLP (0.05% w/v with sodium sulfite 0.6% w/v as activator) released hairs from cow hide pieces. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses of the hide revealed that the dehairing process was complete and the leather structure was preserved. The proteolytic system of C. procera is a suitable bioresources to be exploited by tanneries.

  1. Biochemical effects of Calotropis procera on hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ismaiel Ali Abd Alrheam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calotropis procera commonly known as Sodom apple is a 6-meter high shrub that belongs to the Aclepiadaceae plant family and is commonly found in West Africa and other tropical places. In Saudi Arabia the plant is commonly used in traditional medicine for the treatment of variety of diseases including fever, constipation, muscular spasm and joint pain. Aim: In the present study C. procera were investigated for the hepatoprotective activity. Material and Methods: Carbon tetrachloride is used to produce hepatotoxicity. Forty two male albino rats, weighting 150-200 gm divided into seven groups, each consisted of 6 rats. Carbon tetrachloride 2ml/kg was administered twice a week to all of the groups of animals except group I, which served as control and given the normal saline. Group II served as Carbon tetrachloirde control. Group III received Silymarin at 100 mg/kg/day dose, Group IV received aqueous leaves extracts C. procera 200mg/kg, Group V received chloroform leaves extracts C. procera 200mg/kg, Group VI received ethanol leaves extracts C. procera 200 mg/kg, Group VII received latex of C. procera 200mg/kg. The effect of aqueous, chloroform, ethanol leaves extract and latex C. procera on biochemical parameters of liver was measured. Results: The results showed that the aqueous, chloroform, ethanol leaves extract and latex C. procera produced significant decrease in Acid phosphatase, Alkaline phosphatase, Aspartate aminotransferase, Alanine aminotransferase, Total protein, Albumin and total bilirubin levels compared to the CCL4 treated group II. Conclusion: Calotropis procera appears to to have hepatoprotective activity and these may be due to enrich of the plant by phytoconstituents that activate and in hence a pharmacological response of different parts of the body and this study need further studies to shows the complete properties of the plant. [Biomed Res Ther 2015; 2(12.000: 446-453

  2. The osmotin of Calotropis procera latex is not expressed in laticifer-free cultivated callus and under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Isabel C C; Ramos, Márcio V; Costa, José H; Freitas, Cleverson D T; Oliveira, Raquel S B; Moreno, Frederico B; Moreira, Renato A; Carvalho, Cristina P S

    2017-10-01

    The latex of Calotropis procera has previously been reported to contain osmotin. This protein (CpOsm) inhibited phytopathogens and this was mechanistically characterized. Here, the time-course profile of CpOsm transcripts was examined in the salt-stressed cultivated callus of C. procera in order to better understand its role in the physiology of the plant. Stressed callus (80 mM NaCl) showed an unbalanced content of organic compounds (proline and total soluble sugar) and inorganic ions (Na + , Cl - , and K + ). Under salt treatment, the transcripts of CpOsm were detected after 12 h and slightly increased to a maximum at day seven, followed by reduction. Interestingly, CpOsm was not detected in the soluble protein fraction recovered from the salt-stressed callus as probed by electrophoresis, dot/Western blotting and mass spectrometry. The results suggested that (1) CpOsm is not constitutive in cultivated cells (laticifer-free tissues); (2) CpOsm transcripts appear under salt-stressed conditions; (3) the absence of CpOsm in the protein fractions of stressed cultivated cells indicated that salt-induced transcripts were not used for protein synthesis and this accounts to the belief that CpOsm may be a true laticifer protein in C. procera. More effort will be needed to unveil this process. In this study we show evidences that CpOsm gene is responsive to salt stress. However the corresponding protein is not produced in cultivated cells. Therefore, presently the hypothesis that CpOsm is involved in abiotic stress is not fully supported. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Osmotin purified from the latex of Calotropis procera: biochemical characterization, biological activity and role in plant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Cleverson Diniz Teixeira; Nogueira, Fábio César Sousa; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Oliveira, José Tadeu Abreu; Domont, Gilberto Barbosa; Ramos, Márcio Viana

    2011-07-01

    A protein, similar to osmotin- and thaumatin-like proteins, was purified from Calotropis procera (Ait.) R.Br latex. The isolation procedure required two cation exchange chromatography steps on 50mM Na-acetate buffer (pH 5.0) CM-Sepharose Fast Flow and 25 mM Na-phosphate buffer (pH 6.0) Resource-S, respectively. The protein purity was confirmed by an unique N-terminal sequence [ATFTIRNNCPYTIWAAAVPGGGRRLNSGGTWTINVAPGTA]. The osmotin (CpOsm) appeared as a single band (20,100 Da) in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and as two spots in two-dimensional electrophoresis (pI 8.9 and 9.1). Both polypeptides were further identified by mass spectrometry as two osmotin isoforms with molecular masses of 22,340 and 22,536 Da. The CpOsm exerted antifungal activity against Fusarium solani (IC₅₀=67.0 μg mL⁻¹), Neurospora sp. (IC₅₀=57.5 μg mL⁻¹) and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (IC₅₀=32.1 μg mL⁻¹). However, this activity was lost when the protein was previously treated with a reducing agent (DTT, Dithiothreitol) suggesting the presence of disulfide bounds stabilizing the protein. The occurrence of osmotin in latex substantiates the defensive role of these fluids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Cardiac and testicular toxicity effects of the latex and ethanolic leaf extract of Calotropis procera on male albino rats in comparison to abamectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Osama M; Fahim, Hanaa I; Boules, Magdy W; Ahmed, Heba Y

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to assess the toxic effect of latex and ethanolic leaf extract of Calotropis procera (C. procera), in comparison to abamectin, on serum biomarkers of function and histological integrity of heart and testis in male albino rats. To achieve this aim, the albino rats were separately administered 1/20 and 1/10 of LD50 of C. procera latex, ethanolic C. procera leaf extract and abamectin respectively by oral gavage for 4 and 8 weeks. C. procera latex and leaf extract as well as abamectin markedly elevated the activities of serum CK-MB, AST and LDH at the two tested periods in a dose dependent manner. Lipid peroxidation was significantly increased while GSH level and GPx, GST and SOD activities were significantly depleted in heart and testis of all treated rats. All treatments also induced a marked increase in serum TNF-α and decrease in serum IL-4, testosterone, FSH and LH levels in a dose dependent manner. The latex seemed to be more effective in deteriorating the testicular function and sex hormones' levels while the ethanolic leaf extract produced more deleterious effects on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system in both heart and testis. The normal histological architecture and integrity of the heart and testis were perturbed after treatments and the severity of lesions, which include odema, inflammatory cell infiltration, necrosis and degeneration, is dose and time dependent. In conclusion, the findings of this study indicated that C. procera latex and ethanolic extract of leaves could induce marked toxicity in heart and testis and these toxic effects may be more or less similar to those of abamectin. The cardiotoxicity and testicular toxicity may be mediated via stimulation of inflammation, increased oxidative stress and suppression of antioxidant defense system.

  5. Anticancer and cytotoxic properties of the latex of Calotropis procera in a transgenic mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choedon, Tenzin; Mathan, Ganeshan; Arya, Soneera; Kumar, Vijay L; Kumar, Vijay

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the anticancer property of the dried latex (DL) of Calotropis procera, a tropical medicinal plant, in the X15-myc transgenic mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma and to elucidate its mechanism of action in cell culture. METHODS: The young transgenic mice were orally fed with the aqueous suspension of DL (400 mg/kg for 5 d/wk) for 15 wk and their liver was examined for histopathological changes at 20 wk. Serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were also measured in these animals. To characterize the active fraction, DL was extracted with petroleum ether followed by methanol. The methanolic extract was sub-fractionated on a silica gel G column using a combination of non-polar and polar solvents and eleven fractions were obtained. Each fraction was analysed for cytotoxic effect on hepatoma (Huh7) and non-hepatoma (COS-1) cell lines and non-transformed hepatocytes (AML12) using tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Finally, the mechanism of cell death was investigated by measuring the levels of Bcl2, caspase 3 and DNA fragmentation. RESULTS: DL treatment of mice showed a complete protection against hepatocarcinogenesis. No adverse effect was observed in these animals. The serum VEGF level was significantly lowered in the treated mice as compared to control animals. Cell culture studies revealed that the methanolic extract of DL as well as its fraction 8 induced extensive cell death in both Huh-7 and COS-1 cells while AML12 cells were spared. This was accompanied by extensive fragmentation of DNA in Huh-7 and COS-1 cells. No change in the levels of canonical markers of apoptosis such as Bcl2 and caspase 3 was observed. CONCLUSION: DL of C. procera has the potential for anti-cancer therapy due to its differentiable targets and non-interference with regular pathway of apoptosis. PMID:16688796

  6. Calotropis procera Latex Extract Affords Protection against Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Freund's Complete Adjuvant-Induced Monoarthritis in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay L.; Roy, Sanjeev

    2007-01-01

    In view of the well-established anti-inflammatory properties of latex of Calotropis procera (DL), the present study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of its methanol extract (MeDL) against inflammation and oxidative stress in monoarthritis induced by Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) in rats. Intra-articular injection of FCA produced inflammation of the joint with a peak effect occurring on day 4 where a maximum increase in the levels of myeloperoxidase and inflammatory mediators like PGE2, TNF-α, and nitric oxide was observed. This was associated with oxidative stress with a marked reduction in the levels of glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and an increase in the lipid peroxidation as indicated by the higher levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs). Subsequently on day 28 the histological analysis of the joint also revealed arthritic changes. Daily treatment of rats with MeDL (50 and 500 mg/kg) and standard anti-inflammatory drug rofecoxib (20 and 100 mg/kg), produced a significant attenuation in the inflammatory response and ameliorated the arthritic changes in the joint. The protection afforded by MeDL and rofecoxib was more pronounced than that of phenylbutazone and was associated with normalization of the levels of inflammatory mediators and biochemical parameters of oxidative stress. However, the overall protection afforded by rofecoxib was better than that of MeDL. PMID:17497032

  7. Calotropis procera Latex Extract Affords Protection against Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Freund's Complete Adjuvant-Induced Monoarthritis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Roy

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In view of the well-established anti-inflammatory properties of latex of Calotropis procera (DL, the present study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of its methanol extract (MeDL against inflammation and oxidative stress in monoarthritis induced by Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA in rats. Intra-articular injection of FCA produced inflammation of the joint with a peak effect occurring on day 4 where a maximum increase in the levels of myeloperoxidase and inflammatory mediators like PGE2, TNF-α, and nitric oxide was observed. This was associated with oxidative stress with a marked reduction in the levels of glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and an increase in the lipid peroxidation as indicated by the higher levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs. Subsequently on day 28 the histological analysis of the joint also revealed arthritic changes. Daily treatment of rats with MeDL (50 and 500 mg/kg and standard anti-inflammatory drug rofecoxib (20 and 100 mg/kg, produced a significant attenuation in the inflammatory response and ameliorated the arthritic changes in the joint. The protection afforded by MeDL and rofecoxib was more pronounced than that of phenylbutazone and was associated with normalization of the levels of inflammatory mediators and biochemical parameters of oxidative stress. However, the overall protection afforded by rofecoxib was better than that of MeDL.

  8. Proteins from latex of Calotropis procera prevent septic shock due to lethal infection by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Filho, José V; Patriota, Joyce M; Silva, Ayrles F B; Filho, Nicodemos T; Oliveira, Raquel S B; Alencar, Nylane M N; Ramos, Márcio V

    2010-06-16

    The latex of Calotropis procera has been used in traditional medicine to treat different inflammatory diseases. The anti-inflammatory activity of latex proteins (LP) has been well documented using different inflammatory models. In this work the anti-inflammatory protein fraction was evaluated in a true inflammatory process by inducing a lethal experimental infection in the murine model caused by Salmonella enterica Subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Experimental Swiss mice were given 0.2 ml of LP (30 or 60 mg/kg) by the intraperitoneal route 24 h before or after lethal challenge (0.2 ml) containing 10(6) CFU/ml of Salmonella Typhimurium using the same route of administration. All the control animals succumbed to infection within 6 days. When given before bacterial inoculums LP prevented the death of mice, which remained in observation until day 28. Even, LP-treated animals exhibited only discrete signs of infection which disappeared latter. LP fraction was also protective when given orally or by subcutaneous route. Histopathological examination revealed that necrosis and inflammatory infiltrates were similar in both the experimental and control groups on days 1 and 5 after infection. LP activity did not clear Salmonella Typhimurium, which was still present in the spleen at approximately 10(4) cells/g of organ 28 days after challenge. However, no bacteria were detected in the liver at this stage. LP did not inhibit bacterial growth in culture medium at all. In the early stages of infection bacteria population was similar in organs and in the peritoneal fluid but drastically reduced in blood. Titration of TNF-alpha in serum revealed no differences between experimental and control groups on days 1 and 5 days after infection while IL-12 was only discretely diminished in serum of experimental animals on day 5. Moreover, cultured macrophages treated with LP and stimulated by LPS released significantly less IL-1beta. LP-treated mice did not succumb to septic shock when

  9. Phytochemical investigation of Calotropis procera

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    Sony J. Chundattu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Several sterols were isolated from Calotropis procera. Analysis of their spectral data (UV, IR, MS, 1H, 13C NMR experiments confirmed their structures as urs-19(29-en-3-yl acetate, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol, multiflorenol, urs-19(29-en-3-β-ol and 3β,27-dihydroxy-urs-18-en-13,28-olide.

  10. Phytochemical investigation of Calotropis procera

    OpenAIRE

    Sony J. Chundattu; Agrawal, Vijay Kumar; Ganesh, N.

    2016-01-01

    Several sterols were isolated from Calotropis procera. Analysis of their spectral data (UV, IR, MS, 1H, 13C NMR experiments) confirmed their structures as urs-19(29)-en-3-yl acetate, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol, multiflorenol, urs-19(29)-en-3-β-ol and 3β,27-dihydroxy-urs-18-en-13,28-olide.

  11. Actividad Ribonucleasa en el Látex de Calotropis procera (Aiton W.T. Aiton y Pedilanthus tithymaloides (L. Poit / Ribonuclease Activity in Latex from Calotropis procera (Aiton W.T. Aiton and Pedilanthus tithymaloides (L. Poit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Rueda de Arvelo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Las enzimas ribonucleasas (RNasas han sido utilizadascon efectividad en el tratamiento de ciertos tipos de cáncer ypueden tener otras propiedades aplicables en biotecnología. Con el objetivo de identificar la presencia de actividad RNasa en el látex de las plantas tropicales Calotropis procera y Pedilanthus tithymaloides se colectaron muestras a partir de plantas adultas ubicadas al norte del estado Aragua, Venezuela. Las proteínas solubles fueron extraídas con acetato de sodio 50 mM pH 5 (16 μL/μgde látex y eliminada la porción poliisoprenoide por centrifugación a 16.000 x g durante 15 min. La actividad RNasa se estimó utilizando una técnica que incluye la aplicación de alícuotas de la mezcla de reacción sobre geles de poliacrilamida-urea y separadaspor electroforesis. La degradación del sustrato fue cuantificada pordensitometría. Se probaron diversos sustratos (ARNttotal, ARNtphe yARNm transcrito in vitro a partir de ADN plasmídico. El látexde ambas especies presentó actividad RNasa, con actividadesespecíficas iniciales de 1,42 ± 0,74 μg de ARN hidrolizado/min/ μg de proteína; 0,45 ± 0,18 ng de ARN hidrolizado/min/ng de proteína y 0,28 ± 0,07 ng de ARN hidrolizado/min/ng de proteínapara el ARNttotal, ARNm transcrito y ARNtphe, respectivamente, en C. procera, y de 0,02 ± 0,001 ng de ARN hidrolizado/min/ng de proteína para el ARNm transcrito y ARNtphe en P. tithymaloides. Este constituye el primer reporte acerca de la presencia de enzimas RNasas en el látex de estas especies. / Ribonuclease enzymes (RNase have been used effectively in the treatment of certain cancers and other properties that may be applicable in biotechnology. In order to identify the RNase activity in the latex of Calotropis procera and Pedilanthus tithymaloides, tropical plants samples were collected from adult plants located in the North State of Aragua, Venezuela. Soluble proteins were extracted with 50 mM sodium acetate pH 5 (16

  12. Phytochemical components of sodom apple ( Calotropis procera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the phytochemical components of Calotropis procera Leaf Juice (CPLJ) and Calotropis procera Stem Juice (CPSJ) and to assess the biochemical characteristics of calotropain in them. CPLJ contained significantly (p<0.05) higher saponin, tannin, alkaloids, oxalate, phytate and ...

  13. Novel route for rapid biosynthesis of copper nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Calotropis procera L. latex and their cytotoxicity on tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harne, Shrikant; Sharma, Ashwinikumar; Dhaygude, Mayur; Joglekar, Shreeram; Kodam, Kisan; Hudlikar, Manish

    2012-06-15

    This paper accounts for novel, low-cost, eco-friendly route for rapid biosynthesis of copper nanoparticles. Cysteine proteases present in the latex of Calotropis procera L. were used to fabricate copper nanoparticles from copper acetate. Copper nanoparticles were initially characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction technique (XRD). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to estimate the size and shape of nanoparticles. The average size of copper nanoparticles was found to be 15 ± 1.7 nm. Energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) showed distinct peaks of copper. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was performed to confirm capping behavior of the latex proteins that contributed to long term stability of copper nanoparticles (6 months) in aqueous medium. Copper nanoparticles synthesized by above method were monodisperse type. Cytotoxicity studies of latex stabilized copper nanoparticles were carried out on HeLa, A549 and BHK21 cell lines by MTT dye conversion assay. HeLa, A549 and BHK21 cells showed excellent viability even at 120 μM concentration of copper nanoparticles. This shows that copper nanoparticles synthesized by above method hold excellent biocompatibility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Involvement of NO in the inhibitory effect of Calotropis procera latex protein fractions on leukocyte rolling, adhesion and infiltration in rat peritonitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Márcio V; Oliveira, Jefferson S; Figueiredo, Jozy G; Figueiredo, Ingrid S T; Kumar, Vijay L; Bitencourt, Flávio S; Cunha, F Q; Oliveira, Raquel S B; Bomfim, Liezelotte R; Vitor Lima-Filho, José; Alencar, Nylane M N

    2009-09-25

    The latex of Calotropis procera has been used in the traditional medicinal system for the treatment of leprosy, ulcers, tumors, piles and diseases of liver, spleen, abdomen and toothache. It comprises of a non-dialyzable protein fraction (LP) that exhibits anti-inflammatory properties and a dialyzable fraction (DF) exhibiting pro-inflammatory properties. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of LP sub-fractions on neutrophil functions and nociception in rodent models and to elucidate the mediatory role of nitric oxide (NO). The LP was subjected to ion exchange chromatography and the effect of its three sub-fractions (LP(PI), LP(PII) and LP(PIII)) thus obtained was evaluated on leukocyte functions in the rat peritonitis model and on nociception in the mouse model. LP sub-fractions exhibit distinct protein profile and produce a significant decrease in the carrageenan and DF induced neutrophil influx and exhibit anti-nociceptive property. The LP and its sub-fractions produced a marked reduction in the number of rolling and adherent leukocytes in the mesenteric microvasculature as revealed by intravital microscopy. The anti-inflammatory effect of LP(PI), the most potent anti-inflammatory fraction of LP, was accompanied by an increase in the serum levels of NO. Further, our study shows that NO is also involved in the inhibitory effect of LP(PI) on neutrophil influx. Our study shows that LP fraction of Calotropis procera comprises of three distinct sets of proteins exhibiting anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of which LP(PI) was most potent in inhibiting neutrophil functions and its effects are mediated through NO production.

  15. Corneal endothelial cytotoxicity of the Calotropis procera (ushaar) plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mezaine, Hani S; Al-Amry, Mohammed A; Al-Assiri, Abdullah; Fadel, Talal S; Tabbara, Khalid F; Al-Rajhi, Ali A

    2008-05-01

    To report 6 eyes of 5 patients with transient corneal edema after exposure to the milky latex of Calotropis procera (ushaar). Interventional case series. Intracorneal penetration of ushaar latex can lead to permanent endothelial cell loss with morphologic alteration. Corneal edema resolved completely in approximately 2 weeks in all cases, despite reduced endothelial cell count and abnormal morphology. Corneal endothelial toxicity of ushaar latex is caused by its ability to penetrate the corneal stroma and induce permanent loss of endothelial cells. Corneal edema resolves if sufficient endothelial cell viability is still present after resolution of ushaar keratitis.

  16. Physico-chemical characterization of dairy gel obtained by a proteolytic extract from Calotropis procera - A comparison with chymosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayanatou, Issa Ado; Mahamadou, ElHadji Gounga; Garric, Gilles; Harel-Oger, Marielle; Leduc, Arlette; Jardin, Julien; Briard-Bion, Valérie; Cauty, Chantal; Adakal, Hassane; Grongnet, Jean François; Gaucheron, Frédéric

    2017-10-01

    Chymosin is the major enzyme used in cheesemaking but latex enzymes are also used. The aim of this work was to characterize the composition and the structure of dairy gel obtained by an extract of Calotropis procera leaves in comparison with those obtained by chymosin. The biochemical and mineral compositions of the curds and the cheese yields obtained by using Calotropis procera extract or chymosin were relatively similar. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations of proteolysis after milk coagulation, determined by the non-protein nitrogen content and chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, indicated that Calotropis procera extract was more proteolytic than chymosin and that κ-casein was proteolyzed. The main consequence of proteolysis by Calotropis procera extract or chymosin was the formation of a similar and regular network with the presence of aggregates of casein micelles. These results support that Calotropis procera extract can be used as effective coagulant in cheesemaking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Two novel cardenolides from Calotropis procera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweidan, Nuha I; Abu Zarga, Musa H

    2015-01-01

    Two new cardenolides, named ischarin and ischaridin in addition to 10 known compounds, were isolated from Calotropis procera Ait. (Asclepiadaceae), growing wild in Jordan. Their structures were established mainly by the extensive application of one- and two-dimensional (1)H and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy.

  18. Protein fraction of Calotropis procera latex protects against 5-fluorouracil-induced oral mucositis associated with downregulation of pivotal pro-inflammatory mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Ana Paula F; Bitencourt, Flavio S; Brito, Gerly Anne C; de Alencar, Nylane Maria N; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A; Lima-Júnior, Roberto Cesar P; Ramos, Marcio V; Vale, Mariana L

    2012-10-01

    Oral mucositis is an important dose-limiting and costly side effect of cancer chemotherapy. Soluble proteins obtained of the latex of Calotropis procera have been extensively characterized as anti-inflammatory in different experimentally induced inflammatory conditions, including arthritis and sepsis. In this study, the phytomodulatory laticifer proteins (LP) were challenged to regress the inflammatory events associated with 5-fluorouracil-induced oral mucositis. We also evaluated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inducible enzymes, such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Oral mucositis was induced in hamsters by two injections of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; 60 and 40 mg/kg, i.p., on experimental days 1 and 2, respectively). LP (5 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected 24 h before and 24 h after mechanical trauma of the cheek pouches. A normal control group received only saline. On day 10, the animals were sacrificed, and the cheek pouches were excised for macroscopic and histopathological analysis, myeloperoxidase activity measurement, and immunohistochemical assessment of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), iNOS, and COX-2. LP significantly inhibited macroscopic histopathological scores and myeloperoxidase activity compared with the 5-FU control group. 5-Fluorouracil also induced marked immunostaining of TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS, and COX-2 on inflamed conjunctive and epithelial tissue compared with the normal control group. Such damage was significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) by LP treatment compared with the 5-FU group. These findings demonstrate an anti-inflammatory effect of LP on 5-FU-induced oral mucositis. The protective mechanism appears to involve inhibition of the expression of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β.

  19. Side-Effects of Irinotecan (CPT-11), the Clinically Used Drug for Colon Cancer Therapy, Are Eliminated in Experimental Animals Treated with Latex Proteins from Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alencar, Nylane Maria Nunes; da Silveira Bitencourt, Flávio; de Figueiredo, Ingrid Samantha Tavares; Luz, Patrícia Bastos; Lima-Júnior, Roberto César P; Aragão, Karoline Sabóia; Magalhães, Pedro Jorge Caldas; de Castro Brito, Gerly Anne; Ribeiro, Ronaldo Albuquerque; de Freitas, Ana Paula Fragoso; Ramos, Marcio Viana

    2017-02-01

    Intestinal mucositis (IM) is the critical side effect of irinotecan (CPT-11), which is the front-line drug used for the treatment of colorectal cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of latex proteins (LP) from Calotropis procera to prevent IM and diarrhea in animals. Swiss mice were treated daily with saline or LP (1, 5, or 50 mg/kg, i.v.) 24 h prior to CTP-11 (75 mg/kg/4 days, i.p) and for additional 6 days. Animal survival, body weight variation, and diarrhea were registered. After animal sacrifice (day 7 post first injection of CPT-11), intestinal samples were collected to study morphology and inflammatory parameters. Animals given LP exhibited improved parameters (survival, body weight, and absence of diarrhea) as compared with the CPT-11 control. The severity of IM observed in animals given CPT-11 was reduced in animals treated with LP. Treatment with LP also prevented the reduction in the villus/crypt ratio promoted by CPT-11. The rise in MPO activity and pro-inflammatory cytokines, over-contractility of the smooth muscle, and diarrhea were all abrogated in LP-treated mice. Markedly reduced immunostaining intensity for COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS, and NF-κB was observed in the intestinal tissue of animals treated with LP. The side-effects of CPT-11 were eliminated by LP treatment in experimental animals and improved clinical parameters characteristic of IM All known biochemical pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Antioxidant and cytotoxic flavonols from Calotropis procera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mona A; Hamed, Manal M; Ahmed, Wafaa S; Abdou, Allia M

    2011-01-01

    Phytochemical investigations of Calotropis procera leaves have led to the isolation of two new compounds: quercetagetin-6-methyl ether 3-O-beta-D-4C1-galacturonopyranoside (3) and (E)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl-2-O-beta-D-4C1 -glucopyranoside)-methyl propenoate (4), along with eleven known metabolites: nine flavonol and two cinnamic acid derivatives. All metabolites were isolated for the first time from the genus Calotropis, except for 1 isolated previously from Calotropis gigantea. The structures were determined by spectroscopic methods (UV, ESI-MS, 1H, 13C NMR, 1H-1H COSY, HSQC, and HMBC). The radical scavenging activity of the aqueous methanol extract and compounds 8-13 was measured by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Cytotoxic screening of the same compounds was carried out on brine shrimps as well.

  1. Identification and characterization of two germin-like proteins with oxalate oxidase activity from Calotropis procera latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Cleverson D T; Freitas, Deborah C; Cruz, Wallace T; Porfírio, Camila T M N; Silva, Maria Z R; Oliveira, Jefferson S; Carvalho, Cristina Paiva S; Ramos, Márcio V

    2017-07-25

    Germin-like proteins (GLPs) have been identified in several plant tissues. However, only one work describes GLP in latex fluids. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate GLPs in latex and get new insights concerning the structural and functional aspects of these proteins. Two complete sequences with high identity (>50%) with other GLPs, termed CpGLP1 and CpGLP2, were obtained and consecutively presented 216 and 206 amino acid residues, corresponding to molecular masses of 22.7 and 21.7kDa, pI 6.8 and 6.5. The three-dimensional models revealed overall folding similar to those reported for other plant GLPs. Both deduced sequences were grouped into the GER 2 subfamily. Molecular docking studies indicated a putative binding site consisting of three highly conserved histidines and a glutamate residue, which interacted with oxalate. This interaction was later supported by enzymatic assays. Superoxide dismutase (common activity in GLPs) was not detected for CpGLP1 and CpGLP2 by zymogram. The two proteins were detected in the latex, but not in non-germinated or germinated seeds and calli. These results give additional support that germin-like proteins are broadly distributed in plants and they are tissue-specific. This particularity deserves further studies to better understand their functions in latex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydrocarbons from Calotropis procera in northern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carruthers, I.B.; Griffiths, D.J.; Home, V.; Williams, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey has been undertaken of the yield of cyclohexane-extractable compounds (biocrude') from natural stands of Calotropis procera from 39 sampling sites in northern Australia. A mean yield of 4.82% 'biocrude' (on a dry weight basis) was obtained from sites in the Northern Territory and north West Australia, against 4.13% from sites in north Queensland. There was no evidence of marked seasonal variations in yield of 'biocrude' and no variations related to soil type. 18 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  3. Hydrocarbons from Calotropis procera in northern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carruthers, I.B.; Griffiths, D.J.; Home, V.; Williams, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey has been undertaken of the yield of cyclohexane-extractable compounds ('biocrude') from natural stands of Calotropis procera from 39 sampling sites in northern Australia. A mean yield of 4.82% 'biocrude' (on a dry weight basis) was obtained from sites in the Northern Territory and north west Australia, against 4.13% from sites in north Queensland. There was no evidence of marked seasonal variations in yield of 'biocrude' and no variations related to soil type.

  4. Inflammation induced by phytomodulatory proteins from the latex of Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae) protects against Salmonella infection in a murine model of typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Raquel S B; Figueiredo, Ingrid S T; Freitas, Lyara B N; Pinheiro, Rachel S P; Brito, Gerly Anne C; Alencar, Nylane M N; Ramos, Márcio V; Ralph, Maria T; Lima-Filho, José V

    2012-07-01

    Laticifer proteins (LP) of Calotropis procera were fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography, and the influence of a sub-fraction (LP(PI)) on the inflammatory response of Swiss mice challenged by Salmonella enterica Ser. Typhimurium was investigated. Mice (n = 10) received LP(PI) (30 or 60 mg/kg) in a single inoculum by the intraperitoneal route 24 h before infection. To investigate the relevance of the proteolytic activity, three additional groups were included: the first one received heat-treated LP (30 mg/kg-30 min at 100 °C), the second received LP (30 mg/kg) inactivated by iodoacetamide, and a control group received only phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The survival rate reached 100 % in mice treated with LP(PI) and was also observed with the other treatment, whereas the PBS group died 1-3 days after infection. The neutrophil infiltration into the peritoneal cavity of pretreated mice was enhanced and accompanied by high bacterial clearance from the bloodstream. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA transcripts, but not interferon-gamma, were detected early in spleen cells of pretreated mice after infection; however, the nitric oxide contents in the bloodstream were decreased in comparison to the PBS group. The inflammatory stimulus of C. procera proteins increased phagocytosis and balanced the nitric oxide release in the bloodstream, preventing septic shock induced by Salmonella infection.

  5. Pharmacognostic standardization of leaves of Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Murti, Y.; Yogi, B; Pathak, D.

    2010-01-01

    Calotropis procera, belonging to the Asclepidaceae family, is present more or less throughout India and in other warm, dry places such as, Warizistan, Afghanistan, Egypt, and tropical Africa. Its common names are Akra, Akanal, and Madar. The leaves of Calotropis procera are said to be valuable as an antidote for snake bite, sinus fistula, rheumatism, mumps, burn injuries, and body pain. The leaves of Calotropis procera are also used to treat jaundice. A study on Calotropis procera leaf sample...

  6. Calotropis procera: A potential cognition enhancer in scopolamine and electroconvulsive shock-induced amnesia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malabade, Rohit; Taranalli, Ashok D

    2015-01-01

    Present study evaluates the effect of Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae) dry latex on cognitive function in rats using scopolamine and electroconvulsive shock (ECS) induced amnesia model. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of C. procera dry latex in scopolamine-induced amnesia model. Dose showing maximum effect in cognitive performance was selected and further evaluated using scopolamine and ECS-induced amnesia model for its effect on neurochemical enzymes and cognitive performance. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, β amyloid1-42, and dopamine level were analyzed, while the cognitive performance was assessed by elevated plus maze, step-through passive avoidance test, and Morris water maze. Simultaneously, C. procera dry latex (25, 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 μg/mL) was screened for in vitro AChE inhibition assay. Pretreatment with (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg) C. procera dry latex shows dose dependent increase in cognitive performance in scopolamine-induced amnesia. Further, pretreatment with the selected dose (800 mg/kg) showed significant improvement in transfer latency (P amnesia model.

  7. [Calotropis procera (AITON W.T. AITON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÍLVIA REGINA SILVA DE OLIVEIRA-BENTO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Calotropis procera (Aiton W.T. Aiton - Apocynaceae (silk-flower is an important species for several usages: ornamental, forage, timber, textile and medicine, that justify its study. We investigated the physiological behavior and the vigor of seeds under different storage conditions. There were performed month-ly evaluations of germination, seedling emergence, speed of emergence, seedling length and weight of seedling dry matter, during 180 days. Experimental design was completely randomized with a 6x5x3x2 factorial, using combinations of six storage periods (30, 60, 90, 120, 150 e 180 days, five moisture contents (30, 24, 18, 12 e 7%, three package types (paper bags, plastic bags and PET bottles and two environmental conditions (chamber: 16 °C a 18 °C and laboratory: 27 °C a 30 °C, both environments with 50±5% with four replications of 50 seeds. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance using F (p≤ 0.05 test to treatments and Tukey test for averages comparison, with polynomial regression analysis considering the storage periods. There were con-cluded that silk flower seeds presented orthodox physiological behavior; the vigor decreased when stored for 180 days; silk flower seeds with 7% moisture content are preserved efficiently in paper bags and controlled environment for 90 days.

  8. Efficacy and Phytochemical Analysis of Aqueous Extract of Calotropis procera against Selected Dermatophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabiu Muhammad Aliyu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since ancient time, an increased interest had been witnessed in the use of an alternative herbal medicine for managing and the treatment of fungal disease worldwide. This may be connected to the cost and relative toxicities of the available fungal drugs. Since ancient time, it has been a known tradition practised in the northern part of Nigeria that parents and teachers use the white latex of Calotropis procera (Tumfafiya to treat Tinea capitis (Makero in children attending the local religious school in the area. This study was conducted in 2009 to designed to ascertain the above claim scientifically. Latex extract of Calotropis procera was screened for their antifungal and phytochemical properties. Agar incorporation method against species of dermatophytes: Trichophyton sp., Microsporum sp. and Epidermophyton sp. shows that the latex inhibits the in vitro growth of these three filamentous fungi to varying extents. Statistical analysis of the results shows that Trichophyton sp. is the most susceptible and thus highly inhabited by the latex extract followed by the Microsporum Sp. and Epidermopyton sp. was least inhibited. Undiluted latex (100% of C. procera gave the highest inhibitory impacts on the dermatophytes and corresponding lowest least (20% concentration. The phytochemical analysis of the latex extract indicates the presence alkaloids, saponin, tannins, steroids, flavonoids, anthraquinone and triterpenoids. The findings of this study confirmed the perceived usefulness of the latex in the treatment of Tinea capitis (ringworm practiced in the society and therefore, its use in the treatment of dermatomycotic infection is encouraged. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(4.000: 314-317

  9. West African soft cheese 'wara' processed with Calotropis procera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... could be a good supplement for Fe and Mn in food deficient of the minerals. Key words: 'Wara', Carica papaya, Calotropis procera, nutrient compositions. INTRODUCTION. The use of vegetable extracts as milk coagulants in soft cheese processing has been known since antiquity. Milk coagulants of plant ...

  10. Hepatoprotective Activity Of Leaf- Extract Of Calotropis Procera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanolic leaf-extract of Calotropis procera (CL) was tested for antioxidant properties and hepatoprotective activities (acetaminophen and hepatitis virus induced hepatotoxicity) in albino rats. The antioxidative properties gave total phenolic content (43.79mg/g gallic acid), reducing property (16.67%) and free radical ...

  11. Clinical and pathological effects of Calotropis procera exposure in sheep and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Joseney Maia; de Freitas, Francisco Joelson Correia; Amorim, Raimundo Neilson Lima; Câmara, Antônio Carlos Lopes; Batista, Jael Soares; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the toxic effects resulting from the administration of Calotropis procera (Aiton) W. T. Aiton latex to rats and C. procera leaves to sheep. We studied male sheep that received C. procera leaves by gavage. Twenty male rats were separated into 5 groups and were subjected to an intra-peritoneal injection of fresh C. procera latex (without carrier solvent) at 1.0, 0.6, 0.3 or 0.1 ml of latex/kg of body weight, and control animals were injected with 0.9% NaCl. All rats were treated with the highest dose, but none of the rats from the other groups, died. The histological lesions were restricted to rats dosed with 1.0 ml of latex/kg body weight and included multi-focal coagulation necrosis of cardiac fibers and vacuolized hepatocytes. Subsequently, three groups of two sheep were treated with (1) a single dose of 30 g/kg, (2) a single dose of 60 g/kg or (3) 60 g/kg per day for 10 consecutive days. Exposure to the C. procera leaves was responsible for tachycardia and transitory cardiac arrhythmias in sheep from all groups. Gross pathological analysis of sheep dosed with 60 g/kg per day for 10 days revealed mild ascites, exudates on the trachea, pulmonary edema, mild hemorrhage in the liver, hydropericardium, flaccid heart, ulcers on the abomasum and kidneys presenting pale juxtamedullary cortex. The histological findings of the rat and sheep studies were similar and included multi-focal coagulation necrosis of cardiac fibers and vacuolized hepatocytes. In conclusion, our findings indicate that C. procera is a cardiotoxic and hepatotoxic plant. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhanced hydrocarbon extraction from Calotropis procera - a petrocrop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, R.; Singh, R. (Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies)

    1993-01-01

    With fast disappearing petroleum reserves, renewable resources like biomass are of great significance. Petrocrop, Calotropis procera is a wild shrub and does not compete with food and fodder crops for land. This paper presents an investigation on enhancement of hydrocarbon extraction from Calotropis procera. An extraction yield of 8% has been obtained with toluene, as solvent. Increase in extraction to 11.5% has been achieved by modification of design of a conventional Soxhlet extractor. Further enhancement in extraction has been achieved by pre-treatment of the biomass with alkali or acid. Pre-treatment results in extractive or hydrolytic breakdown of plant structure and hence exposes hydrocarbons to solvent attack. Alkali pretreatment of ground biomass resulted in much higher extraction. So it was studied in further detail with more alkalis of varying strength. An enhancement from 8% to 18% has been achieved by pre-treatment with sodium hydroxide. 9 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. West African soft cheese 'wara' processed with Calotropis procera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritional contents of Carica papaya and Calotropis procera processed cheeses were evaluated. The following nutrients and elements were assayed; fat, protein, moisture, sugar, Zn, Mn, Fe, and Cu and their values were 22.3 and 31.45%, 31.60 and 33.84%, 62.5 and 61.70%, 2.05 and 8.10%, 1.19 and 4.14%, 2.80 ...

  14. Optimal levels of calotropis procera leaf and stem juices for optimal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal levels of Calotropis procera Leaf Juice (CPLJ) and Calotropis procera Stem Juice (CPSJ) that would give the highest cheese yield with good chemical composition and consumer acceptance as determined by the organoleptic properties were assessed. 14 x 500ml of milk from 30 White Fulani cows placed in ...

  15. Potential effect of the medicinal plants Calotropis procera, Ficus elastica and Zingiber officinale against Schistosoma mansoni in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif el-Din, Sayed H; El-Lakkany, Naglaa M; Mohamed, Mona A; Hamed, Manal M; Sterner, Olov; Botros, Sanaa S

    2014-02-01

    Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae), Ficus elastica Roxb. (Moraceae) and Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) have been traditionally used to treat many diseases. The antischistosomal activity of these plant extracts was evaluated against Schistosoma mansoni. Male mice exposed to 80 ± 10 cercariae per mouse were divided into two batches. The first was divided into five groups: (I) infected untreated, while groups from (II-V) were treated orally (500 mg/kg for three consecutive days) by aqueous stem latex and flowers of C. procera, latex of F. elastica and ether extract of Z. officinale, respectively. The second batch was divided into four comparable groups (except Z. officinale-treated group) similarly treated as the first batch in addition to the antacid ranitidine (30 mg/kg) 1 h before extract administration. Safety, worm recovery, tissues egg load and oogram pattern were assessed. Calotropis procera latex and flower extracts are toxic (50-70% mortality) even in a small dose (250 mg/kg) before washing off their toxic rubber. Zingiber officinale extract insignificantly decrease (7.26%) S. mansoni worms. When toxic rubber was washed off and ranitidine was used, C. procera (stem latex and flowers) and F. elastica extracts revealed significant S. mansoni worm reductions by 45.31, 53.7 and 16.71%, respectively. Moreover, C. procera extracts produced significant reductions in tissue egg load (∼34-38.5%) and positively affected oogram pattern. The present study may be useful to supplement information with regard to C. procera and F. elastica antischistosomal activity and provide a basis for further experimental trials.

  16. Chemometric profile & antimicrobial activities of leaf extract of Calotropis procera and Calotropis gigantea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattnaik, Pratap Keshari; Kar, Dattatreya; Chhatoi, Hiranyamayee; Shahbazi, Sajad; Ghosh, Goutam; Kuanar, Ananya

    2017-08-01

    Calotropis procera and Calotropis gigantea are medicinal plant having therapeutic value. The leaf extracts of C. procera have been investigated, its pharmacological actions in detail and leaf extracts of C. gigantea were not studied till date. The objective of present work was to find the bioactive constituents present in the ethanolic leaf extract of C. procera and C. gigantea to evaluate their antibacterial and anifungal activities. The major phytochemical groups in C. procera ethanolic leaf extracts were fatty acid ethyl ester (21.36%), palmitic acid ester (10.24%), linoleic acid (7.43%) and amino acid (8.10%) respectively, whereas ethanolic leaf extracts of C. gigantea contain palmitic acid (46.01%), diterpene (26.53%), triterpene (17.39%), linoleic acid (5.13%) as the major phytochemical groups. Ethanol extract of C. procera leaves showed the highest inhibition (11 mm) against Escherichia coli, while ethanolic extract of C. gigantea leaves inhibited Klebsiella (20 mm). These findings will use in new directions in pharmacological investigations.

  17. Calotroposide S, New Oxypregnane Oligoglycoside from Calotropis procera Root Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrin R. M. Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Calotroposide S (1, a new oxypregnane oligoglycoside has been isolated from the n-butanol fraction of Calotropis procera (Ait R. Br. root bark. The structure of 1 was assigned based on various spectroscopic analyses. Calotroposide S (1 possesses the 12-O-benzoylisolineolon aglycone moiety with eight sugar residues attached to C-3 of the aglycone. It showed potent anti-proliferative activity towards PC-3 prostate cancer, A549 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, and U373 glioblastoma (GBM cell lines with IC 50 0.18, 0.2, and 0.06 µM, respectively compared with cisplatin and carboplatin.

  18. Dry matter and hydrocarbon yields of Calotropis procera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PeopLes, T.R. (Genoco Research and Development, Tucson, AZ); Lee, C.W.

    1982-04-01

    Calotropis procera was evaluated during four years of production as a source of high quality hydrocarbon-like materials (biocrude). In the second and third growth seasons, the fruit was found to contain the highest level of biocrude while the leaves and stems contained approximately one-half the concentration. Dry matter and biocrude yields increased over the first three years and a four year production average from a planting density of 10,000 plants ha/sup -1/ was calculated as 14,800 kg dry matter ha/sup -1/ and 6.6 bbl biocrude ha/sup -1/. 1 figure, 2 tables.

  19. Calotropis procera: a preliminary survey on its phytoextracion capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Newton P.U.; Fernandes, Geraldo W. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Ecologia Evolutiva e Biodiversidade], e-mail: newtonulhoa@gmail.com, e-mail: gw.fernandes@gmail.com; Uemura, George; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C.; Matos, Ludmila V.S.; Silva, Maria Aparecida da [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: george@cdtn.br, e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br; Menezes, Romulo S.C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear], e-mail: rmenezes@ufpe.br; Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Lab. de Interacao Planta-Animal], e-mail: cortez_jarcy@yahoo.com

    2009-07-01

    Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae) is an exotic species, from Africa and Asia, introduced in North-eastern Brazil at the beginning of last century; C. procera is a ruderal plant (adapted to poor soil), fit to survive in dry environments, that blooms and fructifies all year round, and its seeds germinate easily. With these characteristics, it is not surprising that its invasiveness has become a matter of concern: its presence has already been reported among native vegetation of caatinga, savannah and rain forest in Brazil. C. procera has medical uses, in India, for many ailments; other uses are as forage, textile and food applications, and as fuel; Furthermore, it is capable of accumulating heavy metals and metalloids; comparisons between leaf samples from polluted and non-polluted sites were already carried out by different authors. Due to the above mentioned, it was decided to analyse, through neutron activation analysis, k{sub 0}-method, samples of leaves of C. procera, from polluted and non-polluted sites from the State of Pernambuco, in order to verify which elements were present; samples of the soils from these regions were also analysed. The results that will be presented strongly suggest that C. procera might be an accumulator of Se, and, what has not been reported before, it is capable of absorbing Ba, Cs, La, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta and Th; also, our results indicate that experiments under controlled conditions should be carried out, in order to ascertain that C. procera is really capable of accumulating the mentioned elements, and its possibilities in phytoremediation strategies. (author)

  20. Phytotoxic effects of Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br. extract on three weed plants

    OpenAIRE

    Gulzar, A.; Siddiqui, M.B.; Arerath, U.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the potential and nature of allelopathic interference of Calotropis procera on seed germination and seedling growth of three weed species (Ageratum conyzoides L., Cannabis sativa L. and Trifolium repens L). Aqueous extracts of Calotropis procera at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0% concentrations were applied to determine their effect on seed germination and seedling growth of test plants under laboratory conditions. The aqueous extracts had retardary effect on seed ge...

  1. Antibacterial potential of Calotropis procera (flower) extract against various pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abid; Ansari, Asma; Qader, Shah Ali Ul; Mumtaz, Majid; Saied, Sumayya; Mahboob, Tabassum

    2014-09-01

    Increased bacterial resistance towards commonly used antibiotics has become a debated issue all over the world in a last few decades. Due to this, consumer demand towards natural anti-microbial agents is increasing day by day. Natural anti-microbial agents have gained enormous attention as an alternative therapeutic agent in pharmaceutical industry. Current study is an effort to explore and identify a bactericidal potential of various solvent extracts of Calotropis procera flower. Flowers of C. procera were extracted with hexane, butanol, ethyl acetate and aqua to evaluate the antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method against the various human pathogens. The microorganisms used in this study includes Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli (O157:H7), Micrococcus luteus KIBGE-IB20 (Gen Bank accession: JQ250612) and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) KIBGE-IB23 (Gen Bank accession: KC465400). Zones of inhibition were observed against all four pathogenic strains. Fraction soluble in hexane showed broad spectrum of inhibition against all the studied pathogens. However, fractions soluble in ethyl acetate inhibited the growth of E. coli, MRSA, and M. luteus. In case of butanol and aqueous extracts only growth of M. luteus was inhibited. Results revealed that the flower extracts of C. procera have a potential to be used as an antibacterial agent against these pathogenic organisms.

  2. BIOPESTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF Calotropis procera L. AGAINST Macrophomina phaseolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, Nidra; Jabeen, Khajista; Iqbal, Sumera; Javaid, Arshad

    2016-01-01

    Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] is an important pulse crop globally. This imperative crop is severely affected by charcoal rot disease caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. In the present study, the leaves of Calotropis procera L. were tested for their antifungal potential against M. phaseolina. Various concentrations i.e. 1%, 2.5%, 4%, 5.5% and 7% of methanolic extract of C. procera leaves were prepared and their in vitro bioactivity was examined against the test fungus. Methnolic leaf extract was partitioned using n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol and antifungal activity of each fraction was evaluated. n-Hexane fraction was subjected to GC-MS analysis. The higher concentration of methanolic leaf extract (7%) caused maximum inhibition in the diameter of M. phaseolina i.e. 38%. The n-hexane fraction of methanolic leaf extract was found to be the most effective against M. phaseolina. Seven compounds belonging to classes of chlorocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, azocompounds, aromatic carboxylic acids and fatty acids were identified in GC-MS analysis of n-hexane fraction. Antifungal activity of the methanolic leaf extract of C. procera might be due to the presence of the identified compounds in n-hexane fraction of methanolic leaf extract.

  3. Comparative studies on chemical and natural coagulants and preservatives to get biocrude from the latex of Calotropsis procera (Ait. ) R. Br. and an alternative light-scattering technique to screen the coagulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, M.; Behera, B.K. (MD Univ., Rohtak (India). Dept. of Bio-Sciences); Sharma, D.K. (Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Centre of Energy Studies)

    1993-07-01

    Preservation of Calotropis procera (Ait.) R.Br. latex was studied in terms of changes in pH, colour and the extent of coagulation on using various preservatives. In addition, a comparison of synthetic and natural coagulating agents was made for coagulation of C. procera latex for biocrude production. Natural coagulant (bark extract) was found to be better than synthetic coagulants. A quick light-scattering technique was developed to study the extent of coagulation and the yield of biocrude. (Author)

  4. Hydrocarbons from Calotropis procera - product enhancement and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, R.; Singh, Ritu (Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Centre of Energy Studies)

    1993-12-01

    The paper presents an investigation of the enhancement of hydrocarbon extraction from calotropis procera. An extraction yield of 8% has been obtained, with toluene as the solvent. An increase in the yield to 11.5% has been achieved by modification of the design of the conventional 'Soxhlet' extractor. A further enhancement has been achieved by pretreatment of the biomass with alkali or acid. This results in an extractive or hydrolytic breakdown of the plant structure and hence exposes the hydrocarbons to solvent attack. As alkali pretreatment of ground biomass resulted in a much higher extraction, it was studied in further detail with more alkalis of varying strength. AN enhancement from 8 to 18% has been achieved by pretreatment with 1 N sodium hydroxide. Analytical studies by the use of IR and NMR have been conducted to prove that the enhancement in extraction is due to efficient extraction of hydrocarbons. (author)

  5. Pharmacognostic standardization of leaves of Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murti, Y; Yogi, B; Pathak, D

    2010-01-01

    Calotropis procera, belonging to the Asclepidaceae family, is present more or less throughout India and in other warm, dry places such as, Warizistan, Afghanistan, Egypt, and tropical Africa. Its common names are Akra, Akanal, and Madar. The leaves of Calotropis procera are said to be valuable as an antidote for snake bite, sinus fistula, rheumatism, mumps, burn injuries, and body pain. The leaves of Calotropis procera are also used to treat jaundice. A study on Calotropis procera leaf samples extracted the air-dried leaf powder with different solvents such as petroleum-ether (60-80 degrees C), benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and sterile water. Preliminary phytochemical analysis was done long with measurement of the leaf constants, fluorescence characteristics, and extractive values. Quantitative estimation of total ash value, acid insoluble ash, and water- soluble ash may serve as useful indices for identification of the powdered drug. Histochemical studies which reveal rows of cylindrical palisade cells and, vascular bundles may also serve as useful indices for identification of the tissues. These studies suggested that the observed pharmacognostic and physiochemical parameters are of great value in quality control and formulation development of Calotropis procera.

  6. Gastric antiulcer and antiinflammatory activities of Calotropis procera stem bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh S. Tour

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a widespread search has been launched to identify new antiinflammatory and antiulcer-drugs from natural sources. The study was aimed at evaluating the antiinflammatory and antiulcer activity of chloroform extract (CH and hydroalcoholic extract (HE of the stem bark of Calotropis procera (Aiton W.T. Aiton, Apocynaceae, obtained successively by cold maceration. The antiinflammatory effect of the CH and HE extracts of the stem bark of the C. procera against carrageenan-induced paw oedema and also its antiulcer activity by using two acute models: Aspirin (100 mg/kg, p.o. and ethanol (96%, 1 mL/200 g in albino rats have been studied and found to be significant at 200 and 400 mg/kg when compared to the standard drugs. As a part of investigations to obtain compounds with antiinflammatory and antiulcer activity in this work, a bioassay was carried out with fractions obtained from chloroform extract with n-hexane (NF1, 1-butanol (BF1, ethyl acetate (EF1 and chloroform (CF1. The hydroalcoholic extract (HE of the stem bark was fractionated with n-hexane (NF2, 1-butanol (BF2, ethyl acetate (EF2, chloroform (CF2 and water (WF2. The fractions were freeze-dried and evaluated for its antiinflammatory and antiulcer activity. Fractions NF1, CF1, BF2 and EF2 (20 mg/kg showed significant antiinflammatory and antiulcer activity. The results obtained for antiulcer activity were also supported well by the histopathological examination of the open excised rat stomach. Further experiments are underway to determine which phytoconstituents are involved in antiinflammatory and antiulcer activities as well as mechanisms involved in gastroprotection.

  7. Extraction and phytochemical investigation of Calotropis procera: effect of plant extracts on the activity of diverse muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, A M Y; Ahmed, S H; Nabil, Z I; Hussein, A A; Omran, M A

    2010-10-01

    Calotropis procera (Ait.) R.Br. (Asclepiadaceae) is a shrub or small tree that grows wild in Egypt. Calotropis acts as a purgative, anthelmintic, anticoagulant, palliative (in problems with respiration, blood pressure), antipyretic, and analgesic, and induces neuromuscular blocking activity. Little research has been done to study the electrophysiological effects of this plant's extracts on cardiac, smooth, and skeletal muscle activities. The present study was conducted to determine the phytochemical composition and the effect of the total alcohol extract of the shoot of the plant, which contains almost all of C. procera's cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, and saponins. Also, this study attempted to throw more light on the electrophysiological effects of the plant extracts on cardiac, smooth, and skeletal muscle activities and to clarify the mechanism(s) of their observed action(s). The aerial parts of the plant were air dried and their ethanol extracts partitioned with successive solvents. Cardiac, smooth, and skeletal muscles were used in this study to investigate the physiological and pharmacological effects of the plant extracts from different solvents. The data were analyzed by paired t-test. The phytochemical investigation of Calotropis procera revealed the presence of cardenolides, flavonoids, and saponins. The effects of ethanol, n-butanol, and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts were each evaluated on isolated toad heart and their mechanisms of action determined. Perfusion with 2 μg/mL ethanol, 0.2 μg/mL butanol, and 0.2 μg/mL EtOAc extracts caused a significant decrease in heart rate (bradycardia), significant increase in the force of ventricular contraction, and increase in T-wave amplitude. In addition, the effects of different extracts of the studied plant on smooth muscle and skeletal muscle were investigated in this study. The different extracts and latex of C. procera induced a negative chronotropic effect and decreased the heart rate (HR) of

  8. Assessment of Antihyperglycaemic Activity of Calotropis Procera Leaves Lxtract on Alloxan-Induced Diabetes Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaymaa Abd Al-Jasim Alshukri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims  studying the influences of treatment with methanol watery leaf extracts of Calotropis procera  on Fasting blood glucose and Insulin level in alloxan induced diabetic male rats. phytochemical analysis of leaves extract reveals presence of Glycosides, Tannines, phenols compound, Flavonoids, Coumarins, Resins and terpenes. Also methanol watery leaf extracts of Calotropis procera  dose 250 and 500mg/kg body weight showed significant lowering in the blood glucose from 348.16 ± 36.67 to 169.33 ±21.80 after 45 day of treatment. While showed non-significant enhancement in fasting serum Insulin level.

  9. Calotropis procera as a source of plant hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdman, M.D.; Erdman, B.A.

    1981-01-01

    Hexane-Soxhlet extractions of oven-dried whole plants, stems, leaves and pods (less than or equal to 6 mo of age) yielded 4.35, 3.83, 5.13, and 9.37 weight % of hexane extract (HE), respectively The HE from whole plants had a density of 0.9299 g/cubic cm; 0.71% total ash; 9973.4 cal/g; and 78.03, 11.22, and 10.71% C, H, and O respectively. Similar values were obtained from stems, leaves, and pods when analyzed separately. MeOH-Soxhlet extractions of residues previously extracted with hexane yielded 16.14, 18.50, 12.15, and 20.98 weight % MeOH extract (ME) from whole plants, stems, leaves, and pods, respectively. The ME from whole-plant residues had a density of 1.2267 g/cubic cm; 12.05% total ash; 4647.4 cal/g; and 40.88, 6.86, and 30.05% C, H, and O respectively. Similar values were obtained from stems, leaves and pods when analyzed separately. Calotropis procera can be used as a renewable source of hydrocarbon fuels and intermediate energy resources.

  10. Hydrogen transfer hydrocracking of C. procera latex under ambient pressure conditions to get value added chemicals and fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, D.K.; Behera, B.K.; Arora, M. (Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India). Fuels and Biofuels Engineering Lab.)

    1994-01-01

    Biomass is renewable source of energy while the reserves of petroleum are being depleted. The latex of a potential petrocrop, Calotropis procera, a laticifer, arid-plant which is rich in hydrocarbon type triterpene compounds etc. was found to be a better feed stock for thermal hydrocracking as compared to whole plant biomass in terms of liquid product yield. Studies of chemical reaction dynamics of the thermal cracking of latex at 200-400[degree]C showed that the process should be termed as hydrogen-transfer (H-T) hydrocracking of latex under ambient pressure conditions. The hydrogen rich cracked triterpenoids act as the H-donors in this process, where nascent hydrogen atoms and free radicals chemically plug the cracked moieties to stabilise these. Latex was also coagulated and the H-T hydrocracking of the feedstock coagulum gave a higher yield of cracked oil in comparison to that from the dried latex. The temperature for hydrocracking of latex has been optimized to 350[degree]C and molecular sieve was found to catalyse the H-T hydrocracking process to yield more liquid product. The distillation range of cracked latex oil (CLO) obtained from H-T hydrocracking of C. procera latex indicated that it can be used as fuel oil or substitute for diesel fuel. Moreover, CLO resembled diesel fuels and was predominantly paraffinic in nature as characterised by NMR and FTIR spectral analysis. A process has been recommended for getting value added fuels and chemicals from C. procera latex. 29 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. [Senegalese pharmacopoeia: study of acute toxicity and antitussive activity of Calotropis procera AIT (Asclepiadaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieye, A M; Tidjani, M A; Diouf, A; Bassene, E; Faye, B

    1993-01-01

    We confirmed the innocuity of different extracts (leaves and stem bark) of Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae), a plant widely used in Asian and West African traditional therapy in dermatological and bronchal affections. We proved the against cough activity of the aqueous stem bark extract after administration, per os, upon bronchal irritation by ammoniac on Guinea Pig.

  12. Anthelmintic activity of Calotropis procera (Ait.) Ait. F. flowers in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zafar; Lateef, Muhammad; Jabbar, Abdul; Muhammad, Ghulam; Khan, Muhammad Nisar

    2005-11-14

    The anthelmintic activity of Calotropis (C.) procera flowers in comparison with levamisole was evaluated through in vitro and in vivo studies. In vitro studies revealed anthelmintic effects (PCalotropis procera flowers on live Haemonchus (H.) contortus as evident from their mortality or temporary paralysis. For in vivo studies, Calotropis procera flowers were administered as crude powder (CP), CAE and CME to sheep naturally infected with mixed species of gastrointestinal nematodes. Egg count percent reduction (ECR) was recorded as 88.4 and 77.8% in sheep treated with CAE and CP at 3gkg(-1) body weight on day 7 and 10 post-treatment (PT), respectively. CME was least effective resulting in 20.9% reduction in ECR on day 7 PT. It was found that Calotropis procera flowers possess good anthelmintic activity against nematodes, yet it was lower than that exhibited by levamisole (97.8-100%). It is suggested that further research on large scale be carried out involving a large number of animals, doses higher than those used in the current study, identification of active principles, and standardization of dose and toxicity studies for drug development.

  13. Effet du compost à base de Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T. Aiton sur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 août 2016 ... Objectifs : Une étude à base de compost de Calotropis procera a été menée afin de mesurer l'effet sur la production ... correspondent respectivement au témoin sans engrais et sans compost (T0), à la dose NPK (T1), à la dose SA. (T2) et à la ..... sont parvenus à accroître le rendement des plantes cultivées ...

  14. Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Synthesized From Calotropis procera

    OpenAIRE

    Poovizhi. J; Krishnaveni B

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the yield, nature and antimicrobial activity of nanoparticles synthesized using Calotropis procera leaf extract. ZnO NPs synthesized were characterized by FTIR and SEM. It was evident from SEM images that the size of the particles obtained by biological method is ranging from 100-200 nm. Antibacterial study was carried out on human bacterial and plant bacterial pathogens and their MIC values were determined. The antibacterial activity towards human bacteria...

  15. Phytotoxic effects of Calotropis procera (Ait. R. Br. extract on three weed plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzar, A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the potential and nature of allelopathic interference of Calotropis procera on seed germination and seedling growth of three weed species (Ageratum conyzoides L., Cannabis sativa L. and Trifolium repens L. Aqueous extracts of Calotropis procera at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0% concentrations were applied to determine their effect on seed germination and seedling growth of test plants under laboratory conditions. The aqueous extracts had retardary effect on seed germination, root length and shoot length. Germination percentage, root length and shoot length of weed species decreased progressively when treated with increasing extract concentration (0.5, 1, 2 and 4%. The pH values did not increase at all extract concentrations. Therefore, the change in pH values in this experiment is not responsible for the inhibition of test species growth.The phenolic content analysed show more pronounced increase in its contents at 4% concentrations. The study concludes that C. procera releases phenolics into the extract and these are probably involved in the growth inhibitory effect, which causes allelopathy operative in the community dominated by C. procera and provide an advantage to the weed.

  16. Metabolomic response of Calotropis procera growing in the desert to changes in water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Ahmed; Sabir, Jamal S M; Alakilli, Saleha Y M; Shokry, Ahmed M; Gadalla, Nour O; Edris, Sherif; Al-Kordy, Magdy A; Al-Zahrani, Hassan S; El-Domyati, Fotouh M; Bahieldin, Ahmed; Baker, Neil R; Willmitzer, Lothar; Irgang, Susann

    2014-01-01

    Water availability is a major limitation for agricultural productivity. Plants growing in severe arid climates such as deserts provide tools for studying plant growth and performance under extreme drought conditions. The perennial species Calotropis procera used in this study is a shrub growing in many arid areas which has an exceptional ability to adapt and be productive in severe arid conditions. We describe the results of studying the metabolomic response of wild C procera plants growing in the desert to a one time water supply. Leaves of C. procera plants were taken at three time points before and 1 hour, 6 hours and 12 hours after watering and subjected to a metabolomics and lipidomics analysis. Analysis of the data reveals that within one hour after watering C. procera has already responded on the metabolic level to the sudden water availability as evidenced by major changes such as increased levels of most amino acids, a decrease in sucrose, raffinose and maltitol, a decrease in storage lipids (triacylglycerols) and an increase in membrane lipids including photosynthetic membranes. These changes still prevail at the 6 hour time point after watering however 12 hours after watering the metabolomics data are essentially indistinguishable from the prewatering state thus demonstrating not only a rapid response to water availability but also a rapid response to loss of water. Taken together these data suggest that the ability of C. procera to survive under the very harsh drought conditions prevailing in the desert might be associated with its rapid adjustments to water availability and losses.

  17. Antifungal effect of Calotropis procera stem bark on Epidermophyton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result of the Ames test indicated that the crude extract is not mutagenic. Phytochemical screening of the crude extract revealed the presence of saponin, tannins, sequiterpene and alkaloids. The results of the study suggest that C. procera stem could be a potential source of chemotherapeutic drugs for the treatment of ...

  18. Biopesticidal activity of Calotropis procera L. against Macrophomina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: Various concentrations i.e. 1%, 2.5%, 4%, 5.5% and 7% of methanolic extract of C. procera leaves were prepared and their in vitro bioactivity was examined against the test fungus. Methnolic leaf extract was partitioned using n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol and antifungal activity of ...

  19. Hepatoprotective activity of Calotropis procera flowers against paracetamol-induced hepatic injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra Setty, S; Quereshi, Absar Ahmed; Viswanath Swamy, A H M; Patil, Tushar; Prakash, T; Prabhu, K; Veeran Gouda, A

    2007-12-01

    Hydro-ethanolic extract (70%) of Calotropis procera flowers was prepared and tested for its hepatoprotective effect against paracetamol-induced hepatitis in rats. Alteration in the levels of biochemical markers of hepatic damage like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, bilirubin, cholesterol, HDL and tissue GSH were tested in both treated and untreated groups. Paracetamol (2 g/kg) has enhanced the SGPT, SGOT, ALP, bilirubin and cholesterol levels and reduced the serum levels of HDL and tissue level of GSH. Treatment with hydro-ethanolic extract of C. procera flowers (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) has brought back the altered levels of biochemical markers to the near normal levels in the dose dependent manner.

  20. STUDIES ON THE METHOD – ETHNOBOTANY OF CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA AND C.PROCERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Malaya K.; Mohanty, Manoj K.; Das, Pradeep K

    1993-01-01

    The paper reviews the economic and traditional medicinal uses of the plants, Calotropis gigantean and C. procera from the published literature from various of India. The ethno-medicinal uses of the former species in Orissa are also incorporated. Their distribution in India, Botany, Physical and Chemical properties of the plant parts are provided. Uses of the traditional medicines and their authentication as evidence by the available clinical trials are discussed. Besides, uses and standardization of doses against various ailments are suggested. PMID:22556631

  1. Biocrude crop production in arid lands. [Calotropis procera, Chrysothamus paniculatus, Euphorbia lathyris, Grindelia camporum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, S.P.; Kingsolver, B.E.; Hoffmann, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Published and unpublished estimates of land and water requirements and energy yield were used to prepare energy budgets for 4 potential biocrude (liquid fuel) crops in the SW USA: the perennials Calotropis procera and Chrysothamnus paniculatus and the annuals Euphorbia lathyris and Grindelia camporum. Estimated annual costs are examined and discussed for an operation processing 300,000 t/yr. The cheapest energy was produced by C. paniculatus, although it required the largest land area. The paper emphasizes that selecting for biocrude content (biomass quality) of plants may be at the expense of productivity (quantity) since the 2 have been shown to be inversely related in many cases. 8 references.

  2. Preliminary Anti-Fungal Activity of the Aqueous Bark Extract of Calotropis procera (ASCLEPIADACEAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaitan, Olatunde James; Wasagu, S U Rabiu; Adepoju-Bello, Aderonke Ayinke; Nwaeze, Kenneth Uzoma; Olufunsho, Awodele

    2013-01-01

    Calotropis procera is a species of flowering plant which belongs to the Asclepiadaceous family. Its other names are Apple of Sodom, Giant Milkweed and Swallow-wort. It's native to Africa and Asian countries where they exist as a spreading shrub or small tree with height of about 4m. They. exude copious milky sap when cut or broken. It has a broad grey-green leaves with a pointed tip, two rounded basal lobes and no leaf stalk. Their flowers are waxy white. The different part of this plant has been used for different medicinal purposes such as cure of leprosy, eczema, inflammation, cutaneous infections, syphilis, malarial and low hectic fevers, and as abortifacient. The extract of the bark of the plant Calotropis procera used locally by people in Sokoto to treat ringworm infection was investigated for the claimed activity by subjecting the extract collected to both phytochemical and antifungal screening. The extracts of water, n-hexane, petroleum ether and chloroform of the bark of the plant Calotropis procera were evaluated for the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, saponins, steroids and flavonoids. And the water extract which is often used by the local people was tested for antifungal activity using Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) in Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method developed by Kirby et al. Fulcin tablet was used as a standard and two petridishes that does not contain the extracts were used as control. In the phytochemical study using extracts of n-hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform and water, the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and steroids (cardiac glycoside) were confirmed. Also, for the antifungal activity of the plant, there was a complete inhibition of Microsporum specie and Trichophyton specie in the sample after 10 days of inoculation when water extract at different concentrations (i.e. 20 mg/L, 30 mg/L and 40 mg/L) were applied. The tablet only completely inhibited Trichophyton specie. Epidermophyton specie was not found in the sample

  3. Effet du compost à base de Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T. Aiton sur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectifs: Une étude à base de compost de Calotropis procera a été menée afin de mesurer l'effet sur la production de l'arachide sur de sols pauvres. Méthodologie et résultats: L'essai a été conduit sur le site de Doyaba au niveau des zones marginales du Tchad avec la variété fleur 11 d'arachide (Arachis hypogaea L.) ...

  4. Complete 1H and 13C signal assignments of 5α-cardenolides isolated from Calotropis procera R. BR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgamal, M. Hani A.; Hanna, Atef G.; Morsy, Nagy A. M.; Duddeck, Helmut; Simon, András; Gáti, Tamás; Tóth, Gábor

    1999-03-01

    Four cardenolides were isolated from Calotropis procera. Their structure and conformational behaviour were investigated by the extensive application of one- and two-dimensional 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Complete 1H and 13C assignments for the compounds were achieved.

  5. Saponins-rich fraction of Calotropis procera leaves elicit no antitrypanosomal activity in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Aliyu, Abubakar Babando; Meduteni, Kayode; Yunusa, Isa

    2013-07-01

    To examine the in vitro and in vivo anti-Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi ) activity of saponins-rich fraction of Calotropis procera (cpsf) leaves as well as the effect of the fraction on the parasite-induced anemia. A 60-minutes time course experiment was conducted with various concentrations of the fraction using a 96-well microtiter plate technique, and subsequently used to treat experimentally T. evansi infected rats at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Index of anemia was analyzed in all animals during the experiment. The cpsf did not demonstrate an in vitro antitrypanosomal activity. Further, the cpsf treatments did not significantly (P>0.05) keep the parasites lower than the infected untreated groups. At the end of the experiment, all T. evansi infected rats developed anemia whose severity was not significantly (P>0.05) ameliorated by the cpsf treatment. It was concluded that saponins derived from Calotropis procera leaves could not elicit in vitro and in vivo activities against T. evansi.

  6. Metabolomic response of Calotropis procera growing in the desert to changes in water availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ramadan

    Full Text Available Water availability is a major limitation for agricultural productivity. Plants growing in severe arid climates such as deserts provide tools for studying plant growth and performance under extreme drought conditions. The perennial species Calotropis procera used in this study is a shrub growing in many arid areas which has an exceptional ability to adapt and be productive in severe arid conditions. We describe the results of studying the metabolomic response of wild C procera plants growing in the desert to a one time water supply. Leaves of C. procera plants were taken at three time points before and 1 hour, 6 hours and 12 hours after watering and subjected to a metabolomics and lipidomics analysis. Analysis of the data reveals that within one hour after watering C. procera has already responded on the metabolic level to the sudden water availability as evidenced by major changes such as increased levels of most amino acids, a decrease in sucrose, raffinose and maltitol, a decrease in storage lipids (triacylglycerols and an increase in membrane lipids including photosynthetic membranes. These changes still prevail at the 6 hour time point after watering however 12 hours after watering the metabolomics data are essentially indistinguishable from the prewatering state thus demonstrating not only a rapid response to water availability but also a rapid response to loss of water. Taken together these data suggest that the ability of C. procera to survive under the very harsh drought conditions prevailing in the desert might be associated with its rapid adjustments to water availability and losses.

  7. Calotropis procera seedlings could be used as a rapid cost effective bioindicator for measuring aluminum environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosa, Kareem A.; El-Keblawy, Ali; Najar, Atyat

    2017-04-01

    Calotropis procera seedlings could be used as a rapid cost effective bioindicator for measuring aluminum environmental pollution Kareem A. Mosa, Ali El-Keblawy, Atyat Najar Department of Applied Biology, College of Sciences, University of Sharjah, UAE Rapid industrialization and urbanization processes has led to the incorporation of different heavy metals in natural resources like soil, water and air thus affecting their quality. Aluminum (Al) is a dominant heavy metal pollutant that causes serious toxic effects to living systems including plants. Therefore, it is critical to regularly monitor the changes in Al levels in natural resources. Living organisms could be used as bioindicators for monitoring and measuring the levels of heavy metals in environmental samples. The aim of this study was to develop a cost effective bioindicator for monitoring aluminum (Al) and assess the damage caused by Al bioaccumulation using the root system of Calotropis Procera seedlings. A hydroponic system was developed for growing C. Procera in four different concentrations of Al (20, 40, 60 and 80 ppm). Root length and shoot fresh and dry weights were assessed after 5, 10, 15 and 20 days of Al treatment. The results showed remarkable sensitivity of C. Procera seedlings for the different concentrations of Al. There was gradual but significant decrease in C. Procera root length with the increase in the Al concentrations. X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XRF) analysis indicated a significant increase in Al concentration in C. Procera roots with the increase of both Al concentration in the hydroponic solution and the growing period. Moreover, electrical conductivity analysis showed that Al induced damage to C. Procera root plasma membrane as indicated by the increase in electrolyte leakages. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR analysis confirmed the genotoxin effect of Al which induced C. Procera genomic DNA modification. Altogether, the result demonstrated that C. Procera could

  8. Pilot Study with regard to the Wound Healing Activity of Protein from Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal Samy, Ramar; Chow, Vincent T K

    2012-01-01

    We provide the scientific basis for the use of Calotropis procera for treating skin and wound infections in traditional medicine. The aqueous extract of stem-bark of C. procera exhibited more pronounced potent antimicrobial activity. Calo-protein was purified and identified from the most-active aqueous extracts of C. procera and showed broad-spectrum activity. Calo-protein inhibited the growth of S. aureus and E. aerogenes effectively at 25 μg/ml concentration. Mice topically treated with Calo-protein revealed significant wound healing after 14 days comparable to fusidic acid (FA) as positive control. This protein was devoid of cytolytic effect even at higher concentrations on skin cells after 24 h. Further investigation of this Calo-protein of C. procera on bacterial inhibition may provide a better understanding of the scientific basis and justification for its use in traditional medicine.

  9. In-vitro Studies on Calotropis procera Leaf Extracts as Inhibitors of Key Enzymes Linked to Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeem, Mutiu Idowu; Mayaki, Ayuva Mercy; Ogungbe, Bimpe Folashade; Ojekale, Anthony Babajide

    2016-01-01

    The side effects associated with the usage of synthetic antidiabetic drugs make it imperative to search for alternative drugs from medicinal plants. Therefore, this study was aimed at evaluating the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of Calotropis procera leaf, as well as its possible mode of inhibiting these enzymes. Acetone, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C. procera leaf was subjected to standard enzymes' inhibitory assay in-vitro using porcine pancreatic α-amylase and rat intestinal α-glucosidase. Results obtained showed that out of all the extracts tested, ethanolic and aqueous extracts possessed the best inhibition of α-amylase (IC50 7.80 mg/mL) and α-glucosidase (3.25 mg/mL) respectively. The kinetic analysis of the mode of inhibition of these enzymes by the leaf extracts of C. procera, revealed that these extracts inhibited both enzymes in a non-competitive manner. It is speculated that the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory properties of leaf extracts of C. procera may be due to the presence of some phytochemicals such as flavonoids, tannins and saponins in the plant. It can be concluded from this study that the Calotropis procera extracts could serve as source of antidiabetic agents which may act through the inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, α-amylase and α-glucosidase.

  10. Biomonitoring and speciation of road dust for heavy metals using Calotropis procera and Delbergia sissoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Prajapati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted for identifying the important heavy metals present in the road dust and at the same time biomonitor them using Calotropis procera and Delbergia sissoo leaves. The study clearly indicated that both the plants can be used as biomonitor for As, Pb, Fe, V, Cd, Cr, Zn and Cu. The heavy metals were estimated using AAS-7000 (Shimadzu. Reason for selecting the plants were their abundance in the area and high air pollution indices. Presence of these heavy metals in the road dust can be attributed to the red soil and more importantly thermal power plants operating in the study area. Since plants are able to capture the road dust, they can also prevent the particulate pollution which is having adverse health impacts for humans.

  11. Acyclic diterpenic constituents from the roots of Calotropis procera (Ait. R. Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilasha Mittal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new terpenic constituents characterized as 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl hexadecanyl 6′-methyl hept-5′-enyl ether (phytyl iso-octyl ether (1, 2,6,10,14,18-pentamethylnonadecanoyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(2 → 1-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(2 → 1-β-d-glucopyranoside (procerasesterterpenoyl triglucoside (3 and 3,7,11,15 tetramethylhexadecanoyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(2 → 1-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(2 → 1-β-d-glucopyranosyl(2 → 1-β-d-glucofuranoside (dihydrophytoyl tetraglucoside (4 have been isolated for the first time from the roots of Calotropis procera (Ait. R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae along with the known compound 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-3-phosphatyl glycerol (2. The structures of all these phytoconstituents have been established by spectral data analysis and chemical reactions.

  12. Digestibility, fermentation and microbiological characteristics of Calotropis procera silage with different quantities of grape pomace

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    Clérison dos Santos Belém

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Preserving forage plants adapted to a semi-arid climate as silage may minimize the animal feed deficit during drought. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different quantities of grape pomace added to Calotropis procera silage on its fermentation, in vitro digestibility, total digestible nutrients and microbiology. A completely randomized experimental design was used with four treatments (0, 10, 20 and 40% fresh matter and four replicates. The silos were opened after 90 days of ensilage, and the soluble carbohydrate, ethanol, organic acid and ammoniacal nitrogen concentrations; pH; fermentation loss; dry matter (DM recovery; DM density, and microbial populations were determined. The pH (3.96-3.87 was adequate for ensiling in all silage samples. The soluble carbohydrate concentration decreased (p<0.05, and the ethanol concentration increased with increasing quantities of grape pomace. The lactic acid concentration decreased (p<0.05 from 5.3 to 1.94% DM, and the acetic, propionic and butyric acid concentrations increased with increasing quantities of grape pomace. The lactic acid bacteria decreased linearly (p <0.05, varying from 6.43 to 5.82 log CFU/g silage. The mold and yeast population variations fit best using a third-order polynomial equation (p <0.05. Enterobacteria and Clostridium spp were not observed. Adding grape pomace to the silage increased the effluent and gas loss; the latter varied from 5.35 to 14.4%. The total digestible nutrient (TDN variation fit best using a second-order polynomial equation, and the maximum value was estimated at 82.95% DM with 3.5% grape pomace using the regression equation. The percent digestibility decreased linearly (p<0.05 with increasing quantities of grape pomace. We show that Calotropis procera has potential as silage even without adding grape pomace.

  13. Anti-inflammatory and gastromucosal protective effects of Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae) stem bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, Nagesh; Talele, Gokul

    2011-07-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory and gastromucosal protective effect of chloroform extract (CH) and hydroalcoholic extract (HE) of the stem bark of Calotropis procera obtained successively by cold maceration. The anti-inflammatory effect of the CH and HE extracts of the stem bark of Calotropis procera against carrageenan-induced paw oedema and also its gastromucosal protective effect has been studied by using two acute models: aspirin (100 mg/kg, p.o.) and ethanol (96%) in albino rats. CH and HE extracts showed significant anti-inflammatory activity at 200 and 400 mg/kg, while CH extract at 400 mg/kg was also found to have a significant gastromucosal protective effect. As part of investigations to obtain compounds with anti-inflammatory and gastromucosal protective effects in this work, a bioassay was carried out with fractions obtained from the CH extract with n-hexane (NF1), 1-butanol (BF1), ethyl acetate (EF1) and chloroform (CF1). The HE extract of the stem bark was fractionated with n-hexane (NF2), 1-butanol (BF2), ethyl acetate (EF2), chloroform (CF2) and water (WF2). The fractions were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and gastromucosal protective effects. Fractions NF1, CF1, BF2 and EF2 (20 mg/kg) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity, while NF1 and BF2 (20 mg/kg) also showed gastromucosal protective effects. The results obtained for gastromucosal protective effects were also well supported by histopathological examination of the open excised rat stomach.

  14. L'arbuste Calotropis procera, un épisode de son histoire dans le bassin du lac Tchad

    OpenAIRE

    Seignobos, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Venu des marges du désert Calotropis procera descend progressivement vers le sud, conséquence tout à la fois d’une diffusion anthropique et d’une dégradation du milieu. Crédité de pouvoirs qu’il tirerait de son étrangeté, rarement arbuste n’a autant été sollicité par l’homme. Dans le nord du Cameroun il sert une infinité de rituels de protection, d’ordalies… et fournit le long registre de la pharmacopée. Coming initially from the desert’s margins, Calotropis procera is now progressively mo...

  15. Calotropis procera Root Extract Has the Capability to Combat Free Radical Mediated Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shashank; Gupta, Ashutosh; Pandey, Abhay K

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the antioxidant and membrane protective activities of Calotropis procera aqueous root extract using several in vitro assays along with the determination of phenolic as well as flavonoid contents. Total phenol and flavonoid contents in extract were 15.67 ± 1.52 mg propyl gallate equivalent/g and 1.62 ± 0.05 mg quercetin equivalent/g, respectively. UV-visual spectroscopic scanning of the extract indicated the presence of glycoside-linked tannins or flavonoids. The extract exhibited appreciable reducing power signifying hydrogen donating potential. DPPH radical scavenging assay revealed substantial free radical scavenging activity (42-90%) in the extracts. Concentration dependent response was observed in the metal ion chelating activity (16-95%). Extracts also provided protection against iron induced lipid peroxidation in rat tissue (liver, brain, and kidney) homogenates. Comparatively better protective efficacy against peroxidative damage was observed in liver (71%) followed by kidney (65%) and brain (60%) tissues. Positive correlation (r (2) = 0.756) was observed between DPPH free radical scavenging activity and reducing power of extract. Similarly strong positive correlation (r (2) ≈ 0.756) was observed between metal ion chelating ability and percentage lipid peroxidation inhibition in different tissues. The study demonstrated considerable protective efficacy in C. procera root aqueous extracts against free radical and metal ion mediated oxidative damage.

  16. In vitro and in vivo antiproliferative activity of Calotropis procera stem extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Hemerson I F; Ferreira, Paulo M P; Moura, Eraldo S; Torres, Márcia R; Alves, Ana P N N; Pessoa, Otília D L; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V; Moraes, Manoel O; Pessoa, Cláudia

    2010-06-01

    The cytotoxic potential of stem organic extracts from Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae) was firstly evaluated against cancer cell lines by MTT assay. Subsequently, samples considered cytotoxic were tested for antimitotic activity on sea urchin egg development and for in vivo antiproliferative activity in mice bearing Sarcoma 180 tumor. Among the five extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol), ethyl acetate and acetone extracts displayed higher cytotoxic potential against tumor cells, with IC50 ranging from 0.8 to 4.4 microg/mL, while methanolic extract was weakly cytotoxic. Cytotoxic extracts also exhibited cell division inhibition capacity by antimitotic assay, revealing IC50 values lower than 5 microg/mL. In the in vivo antitumor assessments, ethyl acetate- and acetone-treated animals showed tumor growth inhibition ratios of 64.3 and 53.1%, respectively, with reversible toxic effects on liver and kidneys. Further studies are in progress in order to identify C. procera cytotoxic compound(s) and to understand the mechanism of action responsible for this tumor-decreasing potential.

  17. Calotropis procera root extracts block VEGF-induced angiogenesis: quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Rajani; Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Mathur, Sandeep Rajinder; Velpandian, Thirumurthy

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis is controlled by number of growth factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Plant derived anti-angiogenic molecules acting via VEGF are being investigated for curtailing angiogenesis dependent diseases. In this study, methanolic (CM), n-hexane (CH), ethylacetate (CE) and water (CW) extracts of the roots of Calotropis procera were tested for anti-angiogenic activity. In the chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay, CM, CH and CE but not CW inhibited VEGF-induced neovascularization in a dose-dependent manner. Of all the tested extracts, CM at the dose of 10, 5 and 2.5 ng most effectively inhibited over 83, 71 and 64%, of neovascularization induced by 10ng of VEGF, respectively. Sponge implantation assay in mice further showed that at the dose of 100ng CM, CH and CE but not CW significantly inhibited neovascularization induced by VEGF (100 ng). Taken together, this study indicates that the root extracts of C. procera may possess anti-angiogenic activity.

  18. Identification and characterization of plasma membrane aquaporins isolated from fiber cells of Calotropis procera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Usman; Khatoon, Asia; Cheema, Hafiza Masooma Naseer; Bashir, Aftab

    2013-07-01

    Calotropis procera, commonly known as "milkweed", possesses long seed trichomes for seed dispersal and has the ability to survive under harsh conditions such as drought and salinity. Aquaporins are water channel proteins expressed in all land plants, divided into five subfamilies plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), NOD26-like proteins (NIPs), small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs), and the unfamiliar X intrinsic proteins (XIPs). PIPs constitute the largest group of water channel proteins that are involved in different developmental and regulatory mechanisms including water permeability, cell elongation, and stomata opening. Aquaporins are also involved in abiotic stress tolerance and cell expansion mechanisms, but their role in seed trichomes (fiber cells) has never been investigated. A large number of clones isolated from C. procera fiber cDNA library showed sequence homology to PIPs. Both expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) studies revealed that the transcript abundance of this gene family in fiber cells of C. procera is greater than that of cotton. Full-length cDNAs of CpPIP1 and CpPIP2 were isolated from C. procera fiber cDNA library and used for constructing plant expression vectors under constitutive (2×35S) and trichome-specific (GhLTP3) promoters. Transgenic tobacco plants were developed via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The phenotypic characteristics of the plants were observed after confirming the integration of transgene in plants. It was observed that CpPIP2 expression cassette under 2×35S and GhLTP3 promoter enhanced the numbers of stem and leave trichomes. However, 2×35S::CpPIP2 has a more amplified effect on trichome density and length than GhLTP3::CpPIP2 and other PIP constructs. These findings imply the role of C. procera PIP aquaporins in fiber cell elongation. The PIPs-derived cell expansion mechanism may be exploited through transgenic approaches for

  19. Procerain B, a cysteine protease from Calotropis procera, requires N-terminus pro-region for activity: cDNA cloning and expression with pro-sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandana, Vidhyadhar; Singh, Sushant; Singh, Abhay Narayan; Dubey, Vikash Kumar

    2014-11-01

    We have previously reported isolation and characterization of a novel plant cysteine protease, Procerain B, from the latex of Calotropis procera. Our initial attempts for active recombinant Procerain B in Escherichiacoli expression system was not successful. The reason for inactive enzyme production was attributed to the absence of 5' pro-region in the Procerain B cDNA that may be involved in proper folding and production of mature active protein. The current manuscript reports the cloning of full length Procerain B for the production of the active protein. The complete cDNA sequence of Procerain B with pro-region sequence was obtained by using RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of 5' cDNA ends (RLM-RACE). The N-terminus pro-sequence region consists of 127 amino acids and characterized as the member of inhibitory I29 family. Further the three dimensional structure of full length Procerain B was modelled by homology modelling using X-ray crystal structure of procaricain (PDB ID: 1PCI). N-terminus pro-sequence of full length Procerain B runs along the active site cleft. Full length Procerain B was expressed in prokaryotic system and activated in vitro at pH 4.0. This is the first study reporting the production of active recombinant cysteine protease from C.procera. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Allelopathic effect of Calotropis procera (Ait. R. Br. on growth and antioxidant activity of Brassi

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    Aasifa Gulzar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study intended to investigate the effect of aqueous extract from Calotropis procera on the growth of Brassica oleracea var botrytis. Seeds of brassica were soaked in solutions containing 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% concentrations of leaf, fruit and flower extract of C. procera. For control, distilled water was used. The effects of extracts on germination percentage, seedling growth, dry biomass, and relative water content were investigated. Higher concentrations of extract (60% and 80% significantly reduced germination percentage, radicle length, plumule length, dry matter accumulation, and relative water content of the brassica seedlings as compared to control. The retardatory effect increases with the increase in the concentration of three types of extract used, with more pronounced effect noticed by leaf extract followed by fruit and flower extract. There were significant interactions among the different concentrations of extracts used, etype of extract with respect to gemination percentage, seedling length, dry biomass, and relative water content. The effect of pot based assay in relation to chlorophyll content was significantly reduced and antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD, and catalase (CAT activities] show both significant and non-significant effect on antioxidant enzymes based on concentrations of extract and extract type used. The antioxidant enzymes show the significant decrease in its activity at low concentrations (20% and 40% and non-significant increase at higher concentration (60% and 80% of extracts in contrast to control. Based on the investigation, it could be speculated that the delayed germination and low germination rate of the test species after treatment by extracts could be due to the fact that extracts damaged the membrane system of the seeds and C. procera might release phenolics into the soil and these are probably involved in the growth inhibitory effect of test species.

  1. Calotropis procera mediated combustion synthesis of ZnAl2O4:Cr3+ nanophosphors: Structural and luminescence studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, B. S.; Nagabhushana, H.; Sharma, S. C.; Vidya, Y. S.; Anantharaju, K. S.

    2015-02-01

    ZnAl2O4:Cr3+ nanophosphors were synthesized for the first time by a simple and environment friendly route using Calotropis procera milk latex as fuel. The structural and surface morphological studies were carried out using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The photoluminescence (PL) properties of ZnAl2O4:Cr3+ as a function of dopant concentration and calcination temperature was studied in detail. The PXRD patterns and Rietveld confinement confirmed the cubic crystal system with space group Fd-3m. The crystallite size estimated from Scherrer's and W-H plots was found to be in the range of 16-26 nm. The PL spectrum shows an intense peak at ∼688 and ∼699 nm assigned to spin - forbidden 2Eg → 4A2g transition of Cr3+ ions. The PL measurements for two excitations (∼410 and 527 nm) and with respect to calcination temperature indicated no significant change in the shape and position of emission peak except PL intensity. The CIE chromaticity coordinates lies well within the white region. Thermoluminescence (TL) studies revealed well resolved glow peak at ∼212 °C with a small shoulder at 188 and 233 °C. The glow peak intensity at ∼212 °C increases linearly with γ-dose which suggest ZnAl2O4:Cr3+ is suitable candidate for radiation dosimetric applications. The activation energy (E in eV), order of kinetics (b) and Frequency factor (s) were estimated using glow peak shape method.

  2. Calotropis procera mediated combustion synthesis of ZnAl2O4:Cr(3+) nanophosphors: structural and luminescence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, B S; Nagabhushana, H; Sharma, S C; Vidya, Y S; Anantharaju, K S

    2015-02-05

    ZnAl2O4:Cr(3+) nanophosphors were synthesized for the first time by a simple and environment friendly route using Calotropis procera milk latex as fuel. The structural and surface morphological studies were carried out using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The photoluminescence (PL) properties of ZnAl2O4:Cr(3+) as a function of dopant concentration and calcination temperature was studied in detail. The PXRD patterns and Rietveld confinement confirmed the cubic crystal system with space group Fd-3m. The crystallite size estimated from Scherrer's and W-H plots was found to be in the range of 16-26 nm. The PL spectrum shows an intense peak at ∼688 and ∼699 nm assigned to spin-forbidden (2)Eg→(4)A2g transition of Cr(3+) ions. The PL measurements for two excitations (∼410 and 527 nm) and with respect to calcination temperature indicated no significant change in the shape and position of emission peak except PL intensity. The CIE chromaticity coordinates lies well within the white region. Thermoluminescence (TL) studies revealed well resolved glow peak at ∼212°C with a small shoulder at 188 and 233°C. The glow peak intensity at ∼212°C increases linearly with γ-dose which suggest ZnAl2O4:Cr(3+) is suitable candidate for radiation dosimetric applications. The activation energy (E in eV), order of kinetics (b) and Frequency factor (s) were estimated using glow peak shape method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity and the healing action of the ethanol extract of Calotropis procera bark against surgical wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Emery Tsala

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential and the wound healing effect of the ethanolic extract of the bark of Calotropis procera. The antioxidant study was evaluated in vitro, using DPPH and deoxyribose degradation assays. Wound healing was studied using excision and incision wound on normal and dexamethasone-suppressed wound healing rodent models. Alkaloids, flavonoids, proteins and phenols where screened in the extract used whereas saponins and true tannins where absent. The extract contains only 12.5 gallic acid equivalent and 399.54 rutin equivalent. It was found to inhibit DPPH and deoxyribose oxidation (IC50= 24.24 and 5.40 respectively. In vivo study demonstrated a significant reduction in the epithelialization time (P<0,001 to 17-18 days in normal and dexamethasone treated rats following the ethanolic extract of the bark of Calotropis procera application. The same extract also significantly increased the breaking strength in dexamethasone treated rats. Histological examination of incision wounds of treated group showed matured extracellular matrix, numerous fibroblasts. This study illustrated an excellent potential of the bark of Calotropis procera therapy on dermal wound healing, with a tentative mechanism of action related to improved collagen deposition and reduced inflammatory reaction. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(1.000: 64-69

  4. In vitro and in vivo antiproliferative activity of Calotropis procera stem extracts

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    Hemerson I.F. Magalhães

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The cytotoxic potential of stem organic extracts from Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae was firstly evaluated against cancer cell lines by MTT assay. Subsequently, samples considered cytotoxic were tested for antimitotic activity on sea urchin egg development and for in vivo antiproliferative activity in mice bearing Sarcoma 180 tumor. Among the five extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol, ethyl acetate and acetone extracts displayed higher cytotoxic potential against tumor cells, with IC50 ranging from 0.8 to 4.4 μg/mL, while methanolic extract was weakly cytotoxic. Cytotoxic extracts also exhibited cell division inhibition capacity by antimitotic assay, revealing IC50 values lower than 5 μg/mL. In the in vivo antitumor assessments, ethyl acetate- and acetone-treated animals showed tumor growth inhibition ratios of 64.3 and 53.1%, respectively, with reversible toxic effects on liver and kidneys. Further studies are in progress in order to identify C. procera cytotoxic compound(s and to understand the mechanism of action responsible for this tumor-decreasing potential.O potencial citotóxico de extratos orgânicos do caule de Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae foi primeiramente avaliado frente a linhagens de células tumorais através do ensaio de MTT. Aquelas amostras consideradas citotóxicas foram sub-sequentemente testadas para atividade antimitótica sobre o desenvolvimento de ovos de ouriço-do-mar e para atividade antiproliferativa in vivo em camundongos transplantados com tumor Sarcoma 180. Dentre os cinco extratos estudados (hexano, diclorometano, acetato de etila, acetona e metanol, os extratos acetato de etila e acetona mostraram maior potencial citotóxico contra células tumorais, com CI50 variando de 0,8 to 4,4 μg/mL, enquanto o extrato metanólico revelou ser fracamente citotóxico. s extratos citotóxicos também exibiram capacidade de inibição da divisão celular com valores de CI50 menores

  5. Phytochemical composition, mosquito larvicidal, ovicidal and repellent activity of Calotropis procera against Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex gelidus

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    Gaurav Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Focus of this study was to determine the phytochemical composition and mosquito controlling potential of aqueous extract of Calotropis procera (Ait. R.Br. leaves using in vitro methods. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the extract showed the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides and phytosterols as major phytochemical groups. Aqueous extract of C. procera leaves (1,000 ppm exhibited 100% larvicidal activity against fourth instar larvae of Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. gelidus. Extract treatment (1,000 ppm of both mosquitoes’ eggs resulted in to 100% ovicidal activity. At 1,000 ppm, extract provided complete protection from mosquito bite for 240 min against both mosquitoes; however at lower doses the protection time was less. The findings of the current study emphasise the potentiality of C. procera leaves for controlling the mosquito population and their possible way in the developing the natural insecticide for the control of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. gelidus mosquitoes.

  6. Effect of Cuscuta reflexa stem and Calotropis procera leaf extracts on glucose tolerance in glucose-induced hyperglycemic rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Sultan, Shamsuddin; Toma, Tanzila Taher; Lucky, Sayeda-A-Safa; Chowdhury, Majeedul H; Haque, Wahid Mozammel; Annay, Eashmat Ara; Jahan, Rownak

    2009-12-30

    Cuscuta reflexa (whole plant) and Calotropis procera (leaves) are used in folk medicine of Bangladesh to control blood sugar in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus. The hypoglycemic effects of methanol and chloroform extracts of whole plants of Cuscuta reflexa, and methanol extract of leaves of Calotropis procera were investigated in oral glucose tolerance tests in Long Evans rats and Swiss albino mice, respectively. Both methanol and chloroform extracts of Cuscuta reflexa whole plant demonstrated significant oral hypoglycemic activity in glucose-loaded rats at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. The methanol extract of leaves of Calotropis procera, when tested at doses of 100 and 250 mg/kg body weight did not demonstrate any oral hypoglycemic effect when tested in glucose-loaded mice.

  7. Alternative control of early blight of tomato using plant extracts from Acacia nilotica, Achillea fragrantissima and Calotropis procera

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    Zakaria A.M. BAKA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro and in vivo antifungal potential of extracts of three wild medicinal plants, (Acacia nilotica (L. Delile, Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk. Sch.Bip. and Calotropis procera (Aiton W. T. Aiton was examined against Alternaria solani, the causal agent of the early blight of tomato. Aqueous or ethanol extracts of all tested plants reduced the mycelial growth and conidium germination of A. solani in vitro. Ethanol extracts were more effective against the pathogen than the aqueous extracts. Extract of C. procera exhibited more antifungal potential against the pathogen than other plant extracts. Observations by scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed dramatic alterations in the morphology and ultrastructure of A. solani when treated with the ethanol extract of C. procera at a concentration of 20%. Phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of many bioactive constituents in the extracts which were in greater amounts in C. procera than the other two plants. In a plot experiment, both types of extracts from C. procera reduced disease severity. Tomato fruit yield was increased after the treatment with the plant extracts.

  8. Evaluation of antihyperglycaemic activity of Calotropis procera leaves extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in Wistar rats

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    Mário C. L. Neto

    Full Text Available Calotropis procera (Aiton W.T.Aiton,Apocynaceae, popularly known as "algodão-de-seda", is a wild African bush, rich in bioactive substances that determine the medicinal potential of this species. Diabetes mellitus is a disease that affects about 10% of the population. This study aimed to evaluate the antihyperglycaemic activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of C. procera of occurrence in coast of Pernambuco, Brazil. The hydroalcholic extract of the leaves of C. procera (300 and 600 mg/kg/day, vehicle, insulin (6U, s.c. or metformin (500 mg/ kg/day were administered orally to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (n = 7/group for four weeks. Changes in body weight, food and water intake, biochemical markers, fasting glucose levels and oral glucose tolerance test were evaluated. The results showed that the C. procera dried extract (300 and 600 mg/kg reduced significantly the level of blood glucose throughout the evaluation period and improved metabolic status of the animals and ameliorate the oral tolerance glucose test. The phytochemical screening revealed and quantified the presence of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in a percentage of 29.1 and 2.9%, respectively. Thus, we conclude that the extract of the leaves of C. procera has antihyperglycemic activity.

  9. Wound-healing and potential anti-keloidal properties of the latex of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calotropis Procera (CP) has been used in the management of toothache, fresh skin burns, gum bleeding as well as others to make it qualify as a medicinal plant. This study was designed to assess its wound-healing property in rabbits and its potentials for anti keloidal activity.Fresh latex of Calotropis were obtained and ...

  10. POTENCIAL TERAPÊUTICO E TECNOLÓGICO DA PLANTA Calotropis procera

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    Nagilla Daniela de Jesus Costa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas na medicina popular é amplamente expandido no Brasil, tendo sua base na tradição familiar durante muito tempo como a única alternativa para o tratamento de várias doenças, cujas plantas são consumidas com pouca ou nenhuma comprovação de suas propriedades farmacológicas. São cada vez mais frequentes estudos envolvendo a espécie Calotropis procera (Ait.R. Br (Apocynacea já que ultimamente ela é utilizada como planta medicinal contra muitas enfermidades. A análise prospectiva é um importante instrumento na identificação das oportunidades e das necessidades mais relevantes em Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento (P & D bem como das influências planejadas em sistemas de inovação. Levando em consideração que o Brasil possui uma grande abundância da planta, desta forma, este estudo realizou um rastreamento das pesquisas já desenvolvidas e com resultados patenteados, avaliando-se a utilização de C. procera com fins medicinais. Para isso, a prospecção foi realizada no Banco Europeu de Patentes (EPO, no banco da Organização Mundial de Propriedade Intelectual (WIPO, no Banco Americano de Marcas (USPTO e no banco de dados do Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial do Brasil (INPI e nas bases de periódicos Web of Science, Sciencie Direct, e Scielo. A pesquisa envolvendo fins medicinais, terapêuticos e farmacêuticos somam 22 patentes, sendo A61K a classificação de patente mais recorrente. Embora o Brasil detenha o maior número de artigos científicos na base da dados Scielo, a pouca expressividade de patentes (3 no total reflete a falta de investimento nacional em pesquisa, inovação e desenvolvimento de tecnologias como uma forma de agregar valores à C. procera.

  11. Anthelmintic potential of Calotropis procera, Azadirachta indica and Punica granatum against Gastrothylax indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Rama; Kaur, Kiranjeet; Suri, Mansi; Bagai, Upma

    2016-12-01

    Anthelmintic activity of both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Calotropis procera flowers, Azadirachta indica leaves and Punica granatum fruit peel in comparison with albendazole was evaluated through in vitro studies by the worm motility inhibition assay. Significant anthelmintic effects (p Gastrothylax indicus worm as evident from their mortality at 4 h post exposure to both ethanolic and aqueous extracts. Phytochemical analysis of extracts revealed the presence of phenols, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, steroids and triterpenoids. LC-50 values were determined to be 12.05 mg/ml ± 3.24 and 23.52 mg/ml ± 6.4 for C. procera, 24.37 mg/ml ± 4.11 and 21.02 mg/ml ± 4.6 for A. indica, 18.92 mg/ml ± 4.54 and 24.43 mg/ml ± 6.96 for P. granatum ethanolic and aqueous extracts respectively, whereas it was 29.23 μg/ml ± 4.51 for albendazole. The mean mortality index (MI) was 1.0 and 0.90 for C. procera, 0.90 for A. indica and 0.73 and 0.80 for P. granatum ethanolic and aqueous extracts respectively whereas for albendazole it was 1.0. Percent mean worm motility inhibition (%WMI) was observed to be between 70 and 100 % for different extracts.Various concentrations (5-5000 μg/ml) of all the plant extracts and albendazole were used to detect their cytotoxic effects against HeLa cell line to determine CC-50 by MTT assay. CC-50 values, of all the plant extracts were determined to be >1000 μg/ml and for albendazole it was found to be >10 μM. All the three plants can be potential sources for novel anthelmintics.

  12. Transcriptome and Metabolite analysis reveal candidate genes of the cardiac glycoside biosynthetic pathway from Calotropis procera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Akansha; Swarnkar, Vishakha; Pandey, Tushar; Srivastava, Piush; Kanojiya, Sanjeev; Mishra, Dipak Kumar; Tripathi, Vineeta

    2016-10-05

    Calotropis procera is a medicinal plant of immense importance due to its pharmaceutical active components, especially cardiac glycosides (CG). As genomic resources for this plant are limited, the genes involved in CG biosynthetic pathway remain largely unknown till date. Our study on stage and tissue specific metabolite accumulation showed that CG's were maximally accumulated in stems of 3 month old seedlings. De novo transcriptome sequencing of same was done using high throughput Illumina HiSeq platform generating 44074 unigenes with average mean length of 1785 base pair. Around 66.6% of unigenes were annotated by using various public databases and 5324 unigenes showed significant match in the KEGG database involved in 133 different pathways of plant metabolism. Further KEGG analysis resulted in identification of 336 unigenes involved in cardenolide biosynthesis. Tissue specific expression analysis of 30 putative transcripts involved in terpenoid, steroid and cardenolide pathways showed a positive correlation between metabolite and transcript accumulation. Wound stress elevated CG levels as well the levels of the putative transcripts involved in its biosynthetic pathways. This result further validated the involvement of identified transcripts in CGs biosynthesis. The identified transcripts will lay a substantial foundation for further research on metabolic engineering and regulation of cardiac glycosides biosynthesis pathway genes.

  13. Calotroposides H-N, new cytotoxic oxypregnane oligoglycosides from the root bark of Calotropis procera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Mohamed, Gamal A; Shaala, Lamiaa A; Banuls, Laetitia Moreno Y; Kiss, Robert; Youssef, Diaa T A

    2015-04-01

    As a part of our continuing interest in identifying anticancer drug leads from natural sources, we have investigated the n-BuOH fraction of the root bark of Calotropis procera (Ait) R. Br. Seven new oxypregnane oligoglycosides: calotroposides H-N (1-7) were isolated and identified. Their structures were established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR studies, HRMS, and GCMS spectral data. The in vitro growth inhibitory activity of the n-BuOH fraction and compounds 1-7 was evaluated against A549 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), U373 glioblastoma (GBM), and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines. Compounds 4 and 6 showed subnanomolar growth inhibition activity with IC50 ranging from 0.5 to 0.7μM against U373 glioblastoma (GBM) and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines. These results provide further insight into the chemical diversity and biological activities of this class of compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Anti-hyperbilirubinemic and wound healing activity of aqueous extract of Calotropis procera leaves in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Rupali Arun; Makwana, Aakash B

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bilirubin lowering and wound healing property of aqueous extract of Calotropis procera (AECP) leaves in Wistar rats. Albino Wistar rats of either sex were used for the study. Bilirubin lowering property of C. procera leaves was evaluated using phenylhydrazine and paracetamol as inducing agents followed by measuring the concentration of serum total bilirubin in hyperbilirubinemic rats. Wound healing property was evaluated using incision and excision models by measuring tensile breaking strength, percentage wound contractions, and epithelization days, respectively. Statistical comparison between groups in each experiment was done with one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. AECP showed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in concentrations of serum total bilirubin in hyperbilirubinemic rats as well as significant (P < 0.05) increase in breaking strength and percentage wound contractions with decreased epithelization period when compared to control groups. AECP showed significant bilirubin lowering and wound healing property in Wistar rats.

  15. Pharmacological characterization of different fractions of Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae) in streptozotocin induced experimental model of diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sandeep Kumar; Nagori, Badri Prakash; Desai, Prashant Kumar

    2014-03-14

    Calotropis procera (Ait.) R.Br. is one of an ancient traditional shrub, which has been used for the treatment of diabetes, pain and inflammation for thousands of years in India. The root extract of Calotropis procera has been widely used by the tribal׳s of district Udaipur, Rajasthan (India) for treatment of diabetes mellitus and its associated complications like diabetic neuropathy. The present study was performed to explore the protective effect of root, stem and leaf extracts of Calotropis procera in diabetes and diabetic neuropathy against tactile allodynia, mechanical hyperalgesia and thermal hyperalgesia in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Diabetes and peripheral neuropathy were induced in Wistar rats by injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg/intraperitoneally). The roots, stem and leaves of Calotropis procera were sequentially extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. All the extracts were assessed by oral administration at 100 and 250 mg/kg in streptozotocin diabetic rats. The following compounds were used as positive controls: insulin NPH (1 IU/kg/day), metformin (500 mg/kg/day), glibenclamide (2.5 mg/kg/day) and a combination of acarbose (20 mg/kg/day) with methylcobalamine (500 µg/kg/day). In contrast, the streptozotocin induced untreated diabetic rats termed as negative control. Thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia were evaluated in all groups of streptozotocin diabetic rats to assess the extent of neuropathy by Eddy׳s hot plate, tail immersion, Randall-Selitto and Von Frey hair tests. The basal nociceptive thresholds were assessed in week 4 of post streptozotocin injection. All groups received their treatment on a regular basis from 28 to 42 days following a confirmation of diabetic neuropathy. The nociceptive thresholds were assessed in all groups in week 5 and 6. The histopathology of pancreas and biochemical estimations of plasma insulin and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C%) levels

  16. Floating capital pattern and biomass slope allocation method in the life history of calotropis procera (AIT.) AIT. F.

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, A. M. A. [احمد محمد علي اسماعيل

    1992-01-01

    Plants of the woody perennial Calotropis procera (Asclepediaceae) were grown from seed to seed-set in an open field. Smith's slope allocation and fractional-allocation or percentage methods were used to study dry matter partitioning in the species. The two methods differed in thier predictions of the biomass allocated to the various organs. There were differences in the direction of change in the root/shoot ratio: increase, decrease and no change. The mean root/shoot ratio was 0.21:1 during t...

  17. Indirect organogenesis in milkweed ( Calotropis procera from mature zygotic embryo explants

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    Hojatollah Abbasi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Milkweed ( Calotropis procera is a valuable medicinal plant which grows in many regions of Iran. Its significant medicinal properties have made it an important crop which is cultivated commercially. This plant is propagated from seeds as well as root and shoot cuttings. Due to problems in the usage of these reproduction methods, new propagation methods such as tissue culturing should be developed. This study was aimed at obtaining appropriate concentrations of plant hormones for indirect organogenesis of milkweed. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD with 3 replications. The effects of various concentrations of (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid 2,4-D (0.1, 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mg/l were studied in terms of callus induction and shoot regeneration on an MS based medium supplemented with BA (benzyl amino purine and NAA (naphthalene acetic acid at the same concentration. Mature embryos were used as explants and morphological traits such as embryo size, callus size, number and size of shoots and roots were recorded. The results showed that 2,4-D significantly increased the size of cultured embryos (P < 0.05. The largest embryo volume was observed in cultures treated with 3 mg/l 2,4-D. The highest callusing was recorded in 2 mg/l 2,4-D. The effects of BA and NAA concentrations on shoot regeneration were significant and the highest values were observed for a combination of 1 mg/l BA and 2 mg/l NAA. 1 mg/l IBA (Indole 3-butyric acid was able to induce the highest number of better quality roots and shoots.

  18. Photosynthetic limitation and mechanisms of photoprotection under drought and recovery of Calotropis procera, an evergreen C3 from arid regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Rebeca; Frosi, Gabriella; Ramos, Diego G; Pereira, Silvia; Benko-Iseppon, Ana M; Santos, Mauro G

    2017-09-01

    Calotropis procera is a C3 plant native from arid environmental zones. It is an evergreen, shrubby, non-woody plant with intense photosynthetic metabolism during the dry season. We measured photosynthetic parameters and leaf biochemical traits, such as gas exchange, photochemical parameters, A/Ci analysis, organic solutes, and antioxidant enzymes under controlled conditions in potted plants during drought stress, and following recovery conditions to obtain a better insight in the drought stress responses of C. procera. Indeed, different processes contribute to the drought stress resilience of C. procera and to the fast recovery after rehydration. The parameters analyzed showed that C. procera has a high efficiency for energy dissipation. The photosynthetic machinery is protected by a robust antioxidant system and photoprotective mechanisms such as alternative pathways for electrons (photorespiration and day respiration). Under severe drought stress, increased stomatal limitation and decreased biochemical limitation permitted C. procera to maintain maximum rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vc,max) and photosynthetic rate (Amax). On the other hand, limitation of stomatal or mesophyll CO2 diffusion did not impair fast recovery, maintaining Vc,max, chloroplast CO2 concentration (Cc) and mesophyll conductance (gm) unchanged while electron flow used for RuBP carboxylation (Jc) and Amax increased. The ability to tolerate drought stress and the fast recovery of this evergreen C3 species was also due to leaf anti-oxidative stress enzyme activity, and photosynthetic pigments. Thus, these different drought tolerance mechanisms allowed high performance of photosynthetic metabolism by drought stressed plants during the re-watering period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity and the healing action of the ethanol extract of Calotropis procera bark against surgical wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsala, David Emery; Nga, Nnanga; Thiery, Bella Ndzana Martin; Bienvenue, Mballa Therese; Theophile, Dimo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential and the wound healing effect of the ethanolic extract of the bark of Calotropis procera. The antioxidant study was evaluated in vitro, using 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and deoxyribose degradation assays. Wound healing was studied using excision and incision wound on normal and dexamethasone-suppressed wound healing rodent models. Alkaloids, flavonoids, proteins and phenols were screened in the extract used whereas saponins and true tannins were absent. The extract contains only 12.5 gallic acid equivalent and 399.54 rutin equivalent. It was found to inhibit DPPH and deoxyribose oxidation (IC50 = 24.24 and 5.40 respectively). In vivo study demonstrated a significant reduction in the epithelialization time (P procera application. The same extract also significantly increased the breaking strength in dexamethasone treated rats. Histological examination of incision wounds of treated group showed matured extracellular matrix, numerous fibroblasts. This study illustrated an excellent potential of the bark of C. procera therapy on dermal wound healing, with a tentative mechanism of action related to improved collagen deposition and reduced inflammatory reaction.

  20. UNBS1450 from Calotropis procera as a regulator of signaling pathways involved in proliferation and cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juncker, Tom; Schumacher, Marc; Dicato, Mario; Diederich, Marc

    2009-07-01

    Despite significant progress in oncology therapeutics in the last decades, the urge to discover and to develop new, alternative or synergistic anti-cancer agents still remains. For centuries it has been known that the coarse shrub Calotropis procera is a very promising source of ascaricidal, schizonticidal, anti-bacterial, anthelmintic, insecticidal, anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrhoeal, larvicidal and cytotoxic chemicals. Different compounds like norditerpenic esters, organic carbonates, the cysteine protease procerain, alkaloids, flavonoids, sterols as well as numerous types of cardenolides have provided this plant for centuries with scientists' interest. The chemical class of cardenolides and their related bioactivity evaluation and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies pointed out their therapeutic utility and led to the discovery of promising drug candidates. Recently the cardiotonic steroid UNBS1450 01 (derived from 2-oxovoruscharin 02) from C. procera was shown to additionally exert an anti-cancer activity. UNBS1450 01 has been proven to be a potent sodium pump inhibitor, showing anti-proliferative and cell death-inducing activities. This anti-cancer potential of UNBS1450 01 is achieved by disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton after binding to the sodium pump at the cellular membrane, by inducing autophagy-related cell death, by repressing NF-kappaB activation as well as by down-regulating c-Myc in cancer cells. We aim to review pharmacologically important chemical extracts from C. procera and focus more specifically on the anti-cancer activities of UNBS1450 01.

  1. Identification of Calotropis procera L. as a potential phytoaccumulator of heavy metals from contaminated soils in Urban North Central India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Souza, Rohan J., E-mail: rohan_rjd@yahoo.com [Department of Botany, St. John' s College, Agra 282 002 (India); Varun, Mayank [Department of Botany, St. John' s College, Agra 282 002 (India); Masih, Jamson [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Paul, Manoj S. [Department of Botany, St. John' s College, Agra 282 002 (India)

    2010-12-15

    Lead and cadmium levels were monitored in soil at fifteen urban (riverbank, roadside, industrial and residential) sites in the north central part of India. Calotropis procera, a hardy xerophytic plant was identified and selected for remedial potential as it was seen growing well at all sites. Root and leaf samples were collected simultaneously with soil samples to assess the characteristics of accumulation and tolerance of Pb and Cd in C. procera. Chlorophyll and phenological studies were undertaken to investigate the health of plants. The overall trend of Pb and Cd content in soil and plant samples was in the order Industrial > Roadside > Riverbank > Residential. The highest uptake of both the metals was observed in plants from industrial sites. Sites with more anthropogenic disturbance like vehicular and machinery exhausts exhibited reduced chlorophyll levels, stunted growth as well as a delayed, shortened reproductive phase. The ratios of Pb in leaves to Pb in soil were in the range of 0.60-1.37; while similar ratios of Cd were in the range of 1.25-1.83. Highly significant correlation coefficients were determined between concentrations of Pb and Cd in the samples with R{sup 2} values 0.839 for soil, 0.802 for leaf and 0.819 for root samples. The strong correlation between the degree of contamination and concentrations of Pb and Cd in plant samples identifies C. procera as an effective heavy metal remediator of contaminated lands coupled with environmental stress.

  2. PERSPECTIVAS DE UTILIZAÇÃO DA FLOR-DE-SEDA (Calotropis procera NA PRODUÇÃO ANIMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Germano Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Calotropis procera has been an alternative feed for the ruminants in the brasilian semiarid region, presenting fast establishment and constant availability of fitomassa, until 3.0 t of DM/cut, in the dry season. On the aspect biochemical studies have detected various active substances as cardiac glycosides, non enzymatic proteins and enzimatics proteins, that can cause toxicity in animals when inserted in their diet. In nutritional terms, this species provides important nutrients with emphasis on protein, average value of 20%, and in vitro digestibility above 70%. It researches they showed that the intake of C. procera by goats and sheep in the form in nature can cause deaths, however, to make the process of hay and silage the toxicological effects are reduced. The utilization of C. procera is promissing, needing studies for maximize of the productivity; biochemical evaluation for identification of active substances, their mechanisms and local action in the animal, as well as testing to obtain the safe levels for inclusion in various forms of supply (in natura, hay and silage.

  3. The Effect of Biduri (Calotropis gigantean) Latex on Meat Quality of Post Laying Hen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuhriawangsa, A. M. P.; Swastike, W.; Hertanto, B. S.; W, A.; Pradisha, E. D.

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of biduri (Calotropis gigantean) latex treatment on physical quality and hedonic test of meat of post laying hen. Samples of this research used meat of post laying hen strain Lohman aged 90 weeks. Thigh muscle was used for physical quality and breast muscle for hedonic test. Extract of biduri latex were obtained by cutting and tapping of young stem tissue, and it was centrifuged to obtain crude fluid of biduri latex (supernatant). Variables of this research were pH, cooking loss, tenderness, and water holding capacity (WHC), and hedonic test. Levels of biduri latex were 0, 3, 6 and 9% were measured from weight of the samples and the treatment of biduri latex by smearing on the surface of meat samples. The experimental design of the research used one way randomized design. The data was analyzed by using ANOVA, and differences between treatment means were further analysed using Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. The effect of biduri latex did not affect on pH, but it significantly affected on cooking loss, WHC, tenderness, and hedonic test (platex with concentration of 3% could increase meat quality of meat of post laying hen.

  4. Antibacterial and cytotoxic potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using latex of Calotropis gigantea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkuberan, Chandrasekaran; Sudha, Kannaiah; Sathishkumar, Gnanasekar; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaperumal

    2015-02-05

    The present study aimed to synthesis silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in a greener route using aqueous latex extract of Calotropis gigantea L. toward biomedical applications. Initially, synthesis of AgNPs was confirmed through UV-Vis spectroscopy which shows the surface plasmonic resonance peak (SPR) at 420 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis provides clear evidence that protein fractions present in the latex extract act as reducing and stabilizing bio agents. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) spectroscopy confirms the presence of silver as a major constituent element. X-ray diffractograms displays that the synthesized AgNPs were biphasic crystalline nature. Electron microscopic studies such as Field emission scanning electron microscopic (Fe-SEM) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) reveals that synthesized AgNPs are spherical in shape with the size range between 5 and 30 nm. Further, crude latex aqueous extract and synthesized AgNPs were evaluated against different bacterial pathogens such as Bacillus cereus, Enterococci sp, Shigella sp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Compared to the crude latex aqueous extract, biosynthesized AgNPs exhibits a remarkable antimicrobial activity. Likewise in vitro anticancer study manifests the cytotoxicity value of synthesized AgNPs against tested HeLa cells. The output of this study clearly suggesting that biosynthesized AgNPs using latex of C. gigantea can be used as promising nanomaterial for therapeutic application in context with nanodrug formulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. cDNA cloning and molecular modeling of procerain B, a novel cysteine endopeptidase isolated from Calotropis procera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhay Narayan; Yadav, Prity; Dubey, Vikash Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Procerain B, a novel cysteine protease (endopeptidase) isolated from Calotropis procera belongs to Asclepiadaceae family. Purification of the enzyme, biochemical characterization and potential applications are already published by our group. Here, we report cDNA cloning, complete amino acid sequencing and molecular modeling of procerain B. The derived amino acid sequence showed high sequence homology with other papain like plant cysteine proteases of peptidase C1A superfamily. The three dimensional structure of active procerain B was modeled by homology modeling using X-ray crystal structure of actinidin (PDB ID: 3P5U), a cysteine protease from the fruits of Actinidia arguta. The structural aspect of the enzyme is also discussed.

  6. Proceraside A, a new cardiac glycoside from the root barks of Calotropis procera with in vitro anticancer effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, S R M; Mohamed, G A; Shaala, L A; Moreno, L; Banuls, Y; Kiss, R; Youssef, D T A

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the ethyl acetate fraction of the methanolic extract of the root barks of Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae) from Egypt. Bioassay-directed fractionation and final purification of the extract resulted in the identification of a new cardenolide glycoside named proceraside A (1) together with two known compounds, frugoside (2) and calotropin (3). Their structures were elucidated by extensive NMR studies and mass spectrometric data. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds was evaluated against A549 non-small cell lung cancer, U373 glioblastoma and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines. They showed potent activity against the tested cancer cell lines with IC50 ranging from 0.005 to 0.3 μg/mL. Cisplatin was used as positive control.

  7. cDNA cloning and molecular modeling of procerain B, a novel cysteine endopeptidase isolated from Calotropis procera.

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    Abhay Narayan Singh

    Full Text Available Procerain B, a novel cysteine protease (endopeptidase isolated from Calotropis procera belongs to Asclepiadaceae family. Purification of the enzyme, biochemical characterization and potential applications are already published by our group. Here, we report cDNA cloning, complete amino acid sequencing and molecular modeling of procerain B. The derived amino acid sequence showed high sequence homology with other papain like plant cysteine proteases of peptidase C1A superfamily. The three dimensional structure of active procerain B was modeled by homology modeling using X-ray crystal structure of actinidin (PDB ID: 3P5U, a cysteine protease from the fruits of Actinidia arguta. The structural aspect of the enzyme is also discussed.

  8. Cysteine Protease Profiles of the Medicinal Plant Calotropis procera R. Br. revealed by de novo transcriptome analysis.

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    Chang Woo Kwon

    Full Text Available Calotropis procera R. Br., a traditional medicinal plant in India, is a promising source of commercial proteases, because the cysteine proteases from the plant exhibit high thermo-stability, broad pH optima, and plasma-clotting activity. Though several proteases such as Procerain, Procerain B, CpCp-1, CpCp-2, and CpCp-3 have been isolated and characterized, the information of their transcripts is limited to cDNAs encoding their mature peptides. Due to this limitation, in this study, to determine the cDNA sequences encoding full open reading frame of these cysteine proteases, transcripts were sequenced with an Illumina Hiseq2000 sequencer. A total of 171,253,393 clean reads were assembled into 106,093 contigs with an average length of 1,614 bp and an N50 of 2,703 bp, and 70,797 contigs with an average length of 1,565 bp and N50 of 2,082 bp using Trinity and Velvet-Oases software, respectively. Among these contigs, we found 20 unigenes related to papain-like cysteine proteases by BLASTX analysis against a non-redundant NCBI protein database. Our expression analysis revealed that the cysteine protease contains an N-terminal pro-peptide domain (inhibitor region, which is necessary for correct folding and proteolytic activity. It was evident that expression yields using an inducible T7 expression system in Escherichia coli were considerably higher with the pro-peptide domain than without the domain, which could contribute to molecular cloning of the Calotropis procera protease as an active form with correct folding.

  9. Cysteine Protease Profiles of the Medicinal Plant Calotropis procera R. Br. revealed by de novo transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Chang Woo; Park, Kyung-Min; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl; Kweon, Dae-Hyuk; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Shin, Sang Woon; Je, Yeon Ho; Chang, Pahn-Shick

    2015-01-01

    Calotropis procera R. Br., a traditional medicinal plant in India, is a promising source of commercial proteases, because the cysteine proteases from the plant exhibit high thermo-stability, broad pH optima, and plasma-clotting activity. Though several proteases such as Procerain, Procerain B, CpCp-1, CpCp-2, and CpCp-3 have been isolated and characterized, the information of their transcripts is limited to cDNAs encoding their mature peptides. Due to this limitation, in this study, to determine the cDNA sequences encoding full open reading frame of these cysteine proteases, transcripts were sequenced with an Illumina Hiseq2000 sequencer. A total of 171,253,393 clean reads were assembled into 106,093 contigs with an average length of 1,614 bp and an N50 of 2,703 bp, and 70,797 contigs with an average length of 1,565 bp and N50 of 2,082 bp using Trinity and Velvet-Oases software, respectively. Among these contigs, we found 20 unigenes related to papain-like cysteine proteases by BLASTX analysis against a non-redundant NCBI protein database. Our expression analysis revealed that the cysteine protease contains an N-terminal pro-peptide domain (inhibitor region), which is necessary for correct folding and proteolytic activity. It was evident that expression yields using an inducible T7 expression system in Escherichia coli were considerably higher with the pro-peptide domain than without the domain, which could contribute to molecular cloning of the Calotropis procera protease as an active form with correct folding.

  10. Effect of Calotropis procera (madar and amprolium supplementation on parasitological parameters of broilers during mixed Eimeria species infection

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    Sakshi Chauhan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An experiment was conducted on day old 168 broiler chicks to study the effect of 0.4% as well as 0.2% Calotropis procera (madar leaf powder and 0.0125% amprolium supplementation on parasitological parameters of broilers during mixed Eimeria species infection. Materials and Methods: Chicks were randomly divided into seven groups (I-VII each with two replicates of 12 chicks. On 15th day of experiment, broilers of Group II, IV, VI, and VII were infected with 50,000 sporulated oocysts of mixed Eimeria species. To evaluate the anticoccidial effect of different feed supplements percent fecal score, percent survival, percent weight gain, performance index (PI, average oocyst production, and percent reduction in oocyst production were calculated. Results: It was observed that amprolium supplementation had maximum anticoccidial effect as it gave the best efficacy in terms of all parameters, whereas supplementation of 0.4% madar leaf powder showed nonsignificant difference with amprolium for some parameters such as percent survival, percent weight gain, and PI. Conclusion: It can be concluded that madar (C. procera leaf powder and amprolium had comparable activity against coccidiosis. Hence, madar leaf powder may be used for the prevention and control of mixed Eimeria spp. infection prevalent in field conditions.

  11. Germination responses of the invasive Calotropis procera (Ait. R. Br. (Apocynaceae: comparisons with seeds from two ecosystems in northeastern Brazil

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    LAURA C. LEAL

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Life history traits are considered key indicators of plant invasibility. Among them, the germination behavior of seeds is of major relevance because it is influenced by environmental factors of invaded ecosystem. Here, we investigated how seed traits and seed tolerance to environmental factors on seed germination of Calotropis procera vary depending on the invaded ecosystems in northeastern Brazil. We have tested seeds from two vegetation types – Caatinga and Restinga – to different levels of light intensity, salinity, and water stress. Previous to those experiments, seed-set and morphometric analysis were carried out for both studied populations. We have observed a higher seed-set in Caatinga. Seeds produced in this ecosystem had lower seed moisture content. Seeds from Restinga showed lower germination time when light intensity decreased. We observed a reduction in both the germinability and the synchronization index with decreasing osmotic potential and increasing salinity. Nevertheless, both populations exhibited changes in photoblastism when seeds were submitted to water and saline stress. In conclusion, C. procera seeds are tolerant to environmental factors assessed. That characteristic ensures the colonization success and wide distribution of this plant species in the studied ecosystems.

  12. Germination responses of the invasive Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br. (Apocynaceae): comparisons with seeds from two ecosystems in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Laura C; Meiado, Marcos V; Lopes, Ariadna V; Leal, Inara R

    2013-09-01

    Life history traits are considered key indicators of plant invasibility. Among them, the germination behavior of seeds is of major relevance because it is influenced by environmental factors of invaded ecosystem. Here, we investigated how seed traits and seed tolerance to environmental factors on seed germination of Calotropis procera vary depending on the invaded ecosystems in northeastern Brazil. We have tested seeds from two vegetation types - Caatinga and Restinga - to different levels of light intensity, salinity, and water stress. Previous to those experiments, seed-set and morphometric analysis were carried out for both studied populations. We have observed a higher seed-set in Caatinga. Seeds produced in this ecosystem had lower seed moisture content. Seeds from Restinga showed lower germination time when light intensity decreased. We observed a reduction in both the germinability and the synchronization index with decreasing osmotic potential and increasing salinity. Nevertheless, both populations exhibited changes in photoblastism when seeds were submitted to water and saline stress. In conclusion, C. procera seeds are tolerant to environmental factors assessed. That characteristic ensures the colonization success and wide distribution of this plant species in the studied ecosystems.

  13. Identification of Calotropis procera L. as a potential phytoaccumulator of heavy metals from contaminated soils in Urban North Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Rohan J; Varun, Mayank; Masih, Jamson; Paul, Manoj S

    2010-12-15

    Lead and cadmium levels were monitored in soil at fifteen urban (riverbank, roadside, industrial and residential) sites in the north central part of India. Calotropis procera, a hardy xerophytic plant was identified and selected for remedial potential as it was seen growing well at all sites. Root and leaf samples were collected simultaneously with soil samples to assess the characteristics of accumulation and tolerance of Pb and Cd in C. procera. Chlorophyll and phenological studies were undertaken to investigate the health of plants. The overall trend of Pb and Cd content in soil and plant samples was in the order Industrial>Roadside>Riverbank>Residential. The highest uptake of both the metals was observed in plants from industrial sites. Sites with more anthropogenic disturbance like vehicular and machinery exhausts exhibited reduced chlorophyll levels, stunted growth as well as a delayed, shortened reproductive phase. The ratios of Pb in leaves to Pb in soil were in the range of 0.60-1.37; while similar ratios of Cd were in the range of 1.25-1.83. Highly significant correlation coefficients were determined between concentrations of Pb and Cd in the samples with R(2) values 0.839 for soil, 0.802 for leaf and 0.819 for root samples. The strong correlation between the degree of contamination and concentrations of Pb and Cd in plant samples identifies C. procera as an effective heavy metal remediator of contaminated lands coupled with environmental stress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ocorrência de Calotropis procera (Ait. R. Br. (Apocynaceae como espécie invasora de restinga Occurrence of Calotropis procera (Ait. R. Br. (Apocynaceae as an invasive species in restinga vegetation

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    Elisangela de Sousa Rangel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de possuírem grande importância ao nível de conservação ambiental, existe no Brasil uma acentuada escassez de trabalhos relacionados às invasões biológicas em ambientes terrestres. As restingas, sobretudo, são ambientes extremamente susceptíveis a este tipo de ameaça. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a ocorrência e a estrutura populacional da espécie exótica Calotropis procera na Restinga do Xexé, Farol de São Thomé, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. Uma varredura que abrangeu uma área de 126 ha (1400m x 900m foi realizada, sendo amostrado um total de 475 indivíduos, ou seja, uma média de 3,8 indivíduos por hectare. Para a avaliação da distribuição dos indivíduos num gradiente interior-praia, foram alocados três transectos (300m x 10m nesta direção. A amostragem nos transectos indicou a ocorrência de 28 indivíduos com altura > 50 cm e nenhum com altura Although invasive species are one of the main reasons for the loss of biodiversity, in Brazil there is little information about biological invasions in terrestrial ecosystems. Sandy coastal plain forests (restinga and shrubby vegetation are places extremely susceptible to this kind of threat. The goal of this work was to evaluate the occurrence of the exotic species Calotropis procera in the Restinga do Xexé, Farol de São Tomé, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil. A survey covering an area of 126 ha (1400 m x 900 m was carried out, where a total of 475 individuals were sampled (mean of 3.8 indiv.ha-1. To assess the spatial distribution and population structure of this species, three transects (300 m x 10 m were created, which were perpendicular to the vegetation gradient from interior to shoreline, and all individuals of C. procera were sampled. A total of 28 individuals > 50 cm tall were sampled, and no individuals < 50 cm tall were found in the three transects. The plants were restricted to areas with vestiges of human disturbance. The absence of seedling

  15. Estudo fitoquímico da Calotropis procera Ait. , sua utilização na alimentação de caprinos: efeitos clínicos e bioquímicos séricos.

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    L. C. Gonçalves

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Para a determinação das substâncias ativas presentes nas partes aéreas da Calotropis procera, realizou-se estudo fitoquímico, detectando-se nas folhas glicosídeos flavônicos, glicosídeos cardiotônicos, triterpenos, esteróides e polifenóis. Objetivando-se estudar a toxicidade das folhas de Calotropis procera, utilizou-se vinte caprinos, divididos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos, recebendo concentrações diferentes da planta durante quarenta dias consecutivos: Grupo I (Controle; Grupo II (20%, Grupo III (40% e Grupo IV (60%. Exames clínicos diários e bioquímicos séricos a cada 10 dias foram realizados em todos os animais. PALAVRAS CHAVE: Calotropis procera, estudo fitoquímico, enzimas, caprinos SUMMARY: This study was designed to determine the presence of active substances in the aerial parts of Calotropis procera Ait. by phytochemical study. The results obtained were flavonis glycosides, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, steroids and poliphenols. To investigate the Calotropis procera toxicity, twenty male goats were randomly allotted into four groups of five animals, receiving different concentrations of this plant for forty days: Group I (Control; Group II (20%, Group III (40% and Group IV (60%. Clinical examination was performed daily in each animal, besides evaluation biochemical parameters at ten days interval. KEYWORDS: Calotropis procera, phytochemical study, enzymes, goat

  16. Antimicrobial activity of Calotropis procera Ait. (Asclepiadaceae) and isolation of four flavonoid glycosides as the active constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenaah, Gomah

    2013-07-01

    Antimicrobial activity of solvent extracts and flavonoids of Calotropis procera growing wild in Saudi Arabia was evaluated using the agar well-diffusion method. A bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude flavonoid fraction (Cf3) of MeOH extract which showed the highest antimicrobial activity led to the isolation of four flavonoid glycosides as the bioactive constituents. Structure of compounds have been elucidated using physical and spectroscopic methods including (UV, IR, (1)H, (13)C-NMR, DEPT, 2D (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY). Compounds were found to be the 3-O-rutinosides of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin, besides the flavonoid 5-hydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyflavone-4'-O-β-glucopyranoside. Most of the isolated extracts showed antimicrobial activity against the test microorganisms, where the crude flavonoid fraction was the most active, diameter of inhibition zones ranged between 15.5 and 28.5 mm against the tested bacterial strains, while reached 30 mm against the fungal Candida albicans. The minimal inhibitory concentrations varied from 0.04 to 0.32 mg/ml against all of the tested microorganisms in case of the crude flavonoid fraction. Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside showed superior activity over the remainder flavonoids. The Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) were more susceptible than the Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enteritidis) and the yeast species were more susceptible than the filamentous fungi. The study recommend the use of such natural products as antimicrobial biorationals.

  17. Molluscicidal activity of methomyl and cardenolide extracts from Calotropis procera and Adenium arabicum against the land snail Monacha cantiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sarar, Ali; Hussein, Hamdy; Abobakr, Yasser; Bayoumi, Alaa

    2012-05-07

    In this work, we have evaluated the molluscicidal activity of two cardenolide extracts from Adenium arabicum Balf f. [the benzene (B) and methanol (M) extracts], one cardenolide extract from Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T. Aiton (extract C), and methomyl against the harmful land snail Monacha cantiana (Montagu). The contact LD₅₀ values for the above mentioned plant extracts were 12.62, 34.63, and 34.35 mg·kg⁻¹ of body weight, respectively, while the LD₅₀ for methomyl was 116.62 mg·kg⁻¹, that is, the plant extracts were 9.24, 3.37, and 3.4 times more toxic than methomyl. In addition, a simple colorimetric method, based on Kedde reagent, was modified to determine cardenolide concentrations in plant extracts. Thin layer chromatography analysis (TLC) showed several cardiac glycosidal compounds in each plant extract. The results proved that cardiac glycosides are promising candidate compounds that could be used to control land snails, or exploited to develop new, effective, and environmentally friendly molluscicides.

  18. Kinetic, Equilibrium and thermodynamic studies on the biosorption of Cd(II) from aqueous solutions by the leaf biomass of Calotropis procera - 'Sodom apple'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwudumebi Overah, Loretta; Babalola, Oyebamiji.; Babarinde, Adesola; Oninla, Vincent; Olatunde, Abimbola

    2013-04-01

    The kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of the biosorption of Cd (II) from aqueous solution by the leaf biomass of Calotropis procera popularly known in western Nigeria as 'bom bom' and generally known as Sodom apple were investigated at different experimental conditions. Optimum conditions of pH,contact time, biomass dosage, initial metal ion concentration and temperature were determined to be 5, 60 minutes, 110 mg, 0.3 mM and 27°C respectively. The maximum biosorption capacity was found to be 8.91 mg/g. The kinetic studies indicated that the biosorption process of the metal ion followed the pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion models with an R-square value of 0.998 and 0.985 respectively. Equilibrium studies showed that the biosorption of Cd (II) is well represented by both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms but the Langmuir model gave a better fit with an R-square value of 0.979,Langmuir constant, bm of 0.0080 and monolayer adsorption capacity, μm of 123.46. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (ΔG° -4.846 kJmol-1, ΔH° 10.60 kJmol-1 and ΔS° 0.052 kJK-1mol-1) showed that the biosorption of Cd (II)is feasible, spontaneous, endothermic and highly disordered in nature under the experimental conditions. Thesefindings indicate that the leaf of Calotropis procera could be employed in the removal of Cd (II) from industrial effluents. Key words: Calotropis procera, Cadmium, Adsorption isotherm.

  19. Reproductive phenological pattern of Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae, an invasive species in Brazil: annual in native areas; continuous in invaded areas of caatinga

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    Mellissa Sousa Sobrinho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the phenological patterns (vegetative and reproductive of Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae in Brazil, comparing its phenology in an area where it is invasive with that observed in areas to which it is native. Phenological observations were carried out over a 24-month period at sites in and around areas of caatinga (shrublands. We estimated the relative frequency of each phenophase, and we documented a dramatic difference between phenophases in terms of the pattern of reproductive phenology . The pattern of continuous flowering and fruiting observed in the invaded area strongly diverges from the 2- to 6-month flowering and fruiting period of the annual pattern. The continuous pattern of reproduction seems to have facilitated the invasion of the Brazilian caatinga by C. procera.

  20. Dust loadings on some common plants near Lucknow city. [Acacia melanoxylon, Bauhinia malabarica, Bougain-villea glabra, Calotropis procera, Catharanthus roseus, Eucalyptus globulus, Ipomoea fistulosa and Peltophorum pterocarpum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunus, M.; Dwivedi, A.K.; Kulshreshtha, K.; Ahmad, K.J.

    1985-01-01

    Eight plant species - Acacia melanoxylon, Bauhinia malabarica, Bougain-villea glabra, Calotropis procera, Catharanthus roseus, Eucalyptus globulus, Ipomoea fistulosa and Peltophorum pterocarpum - were collected from a newly established suburb colony of Lucknow city, where the major pollutant is dust, to study the dust cleansing efficiency of the plant canopy and also to establish the correlation between the leaf morphological characteristics and their dust trapping potential. The dust load, in milligrams per square centimeter of leaf surface, was measured and related to foliar epidermal and cuticular characteristics, and morphological features.

  1. PURIFIKASI DAN KARAKTERISASI PARSIAL ENZIM PROTEASE DARI GETAH TANAMAN BIDURI (Calotropis gigantea [Purification and Partial Characterization of Protease from Biduri (Calotropis gigantea Latex

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    Yuli Witono1

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this research we to purify protease from biduri (Calotropis gigantean latex and its partial characterization in relation with this application in the food processing. Protease was extracted from biduri latex by using ammonium sulphate 35-80%, dialyzed and then purified subsequently through sephadex G-25 gel and CM sephadex C-50 caution exchanger. Biduri protease has specific activity of 59 unit/g in casein substrate. Optimum pH was 7 and temperature 550C. Apparent Km was 21.63 g/ml and reaction maximum velocity (Vmax being 18.9 mg/ml/min. SDS-PAGE (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis analysis showed the apparent molecular weight of the protease was 25.2 kD. Moreover, the protease can be inactivated at 900C for 10 min, or 600C for 30 min.

  2. Evaluation of Antiulcer and Cytotoxic Potential of the Leaf, Flower, and Fruit Extracts of Calotropis procera and Isolation of a New Lignan Glycoside

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    Areej Mohammad Al-Taweel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Calotropis procera is traditionally used for treating many diseases including ulcers and tumors. It was thus deemed of interest to investigate and compare the antiulcer and cytotoxic activities of C. procera leaf, flower, and fruit extracts in an attempt to verify its traditional uses. Phytochemical studies on the fruits, flowers, and leaves of C. procera, collected from the desert of Saudi Arabia, led to the isolation of one new lignan 7′-methoxy-3′-O-demethyl-tanegool-9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and five known compounds from the flowers, four compounds from leaves, and a flavonoid glycoside and a lignan glycoside from the fruits. The structures of compounds were determined by spectroscopic techniques. Ethanol extracts of the three parts of C. procera were evaluated for their antiulcer activity and we found that the leaf extract possessed a powerful antiulcer activity which could be considered as a promising drug candidate. All the extracts and the isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against MCF-7, HCT-116, HepG-2, and A-549 human cancer cell lines. Compound 2 was highly active on all the cell lines, whereas compounds 5 and 11 were more selective on colon and liver cell lines. Compound 10 demonstrated a significant activity on liver and lung cancer cell lines.

  3. Evaluation of Antiulcer and Cytotoxic Potential of the Leaf, Flower, and Fruit Extracts of Calotropis procera and Isolation of a New Lignan Glycoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Taweel, Areej Mohammad; Perveen, Shagufta; Fawzy, Ghada Ahmed; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Khan, Afsar; Mehmood, Rashad; Fadda, Laila Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Calotropis procera is traditionally used for treating many diseases including ulcers and tumors. It was thus deemed of interest to investigate and compare the antiulcer and cytotoxic activities of C. procera leaf, flower, and fruit extracts in an attempt to verify its traditional uses. Phytochemical studies on the fruits, flowers, and leaves of C. procera, collected from the desert of Saudi Arabia, led to the isolation of one new lignan 7'-methoxy-3'-O-demethyl-tanegool-9-O-β-d-glucopyranoside and five known compounds from the flowers, four compounds from leaves, and a flavonoid glycoside and a lignan glycoside from the fruits. The structures of compounds were determined by spectroscopic techniques. Ethanol extracts of the three parts of C. procera were evaluated for their antiulcer activity and we found that the leaf extract possessed a powerful antiulcer activity which could be considered as a promising drug candidate. All the extracts and the isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against MCF-7, HCT-116, HepG-2, and A-549 human cancer cell lines. Compound 2 was highly active on all the cell lines, whereas compounds 5 and 11 were more selective on colon and liver cell lines. Compound 10 demonstrated a significant activity on liver and lung cancer cell lines.

  4. Efficacy of leaves extract of Calotropis procera Ait. (Asclepiadaceae) in controlling Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elimam, Abdalla M; Elmalik, Khitma H; Ali, Faysal S

    2009-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate, the larvicidal, adult emergence inhibition and oviposition deterrent activity of aqueous leaves extract of Calotropis procera against Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus as natural mosquito larvicide. The larvicidal activity was monitored against 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar larvae of each mosquito species 24 h post-treatment. Adult emergence inhibition activity was tested by exposing 3rd instar larvae of each mosquito species to different concentrations of extracts (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 ppm for An. arabiensis and 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 ppm for Cx. quinquefasciatus). Probit analysis was used to analyze data from bioassay experiments. The oviposition deterrent activity was tested by using three different concentrations of extracts (1000, 500 and 200 for An. arabiensis, and 1000, 500 and 100 for Cx. quinquefasciatus) that caused high, moderate and low larval mortality in the larvicidal experiment against 3rd instar larvae. It was found that, LC50-LC90 values calculated were 273.53-783.43, 366.44-1018.59 and 454.99-1224.62 ppm for 2nd, 3rd and 4th larval instars, respectively, of An. arabiensis and 187.93-433.51, 218.27-538.27 and 264.85-769.13 ppm for 2nd, 3rd and 4th larval instars, respectively, of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Fifty percent of adult emergence inhibition (EI50) was shown at 277.90 and 183.65 ppm for An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The pupal stage was not affected till a concentration of 5000 ppm. The extract showed oviposition deterrence and effective repellence against both mosquito species at different concentrations, with the observation on that maximal eggs were laid in low concentration of extract. These results suggest that the leaves extract of C. procera possess remarkable larvicidal, adult emergence inhibitor, repellent and oviposition deterrent effect against both An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus, and might be used as natural biocides for mosquito

  5. Efficacy of leaves extract of Calotropis procera Ait. (Asclepiadaceae) in controlling Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elimam, Abdalla M.; Elmalik, Khitma H.; Ali, Faysal S.

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate, the larvicidal, adult emergence inhibition and oviposition deterrent activity of aqueous leaves extract of Calotropis procera against Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus as natural mosquito larvicide. The larvicidal activity was monitored against 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar larvae of each mosquito species 24 h post-treatment. Adult emergence inhibition activity was tested by exposing 3rd instar larvae of each mosquito species to different concentrations of extracts (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 ppm for An. arabiensis and 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 ppm for Cx. quinquefasciatus). Probit analysis was used to analyze data from bioassay experiments. The oviposition deterrent activity was tested by using three different concentrations of extracts (1000, 500 and 200 for An. arabiensis, and 1000, 500 and 100 for Cx. quinquefasciatus) that caused high, moderate and low larval mortality in the larvicidal experiment against 3rd instar larvae. It was found that, LC50–LC90 values calculated were 273.53–783.43, 366.44–1018.59 and 454.99–1224.62 ppm for 2nd, 3rd and 4th larval instars, respectively, of An. arabiensis and 187.93–433.51, 218.27–538.27 and 264.85–769.13 ppm for 2nd, 3rd and 4th larval instars, respectively, of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Fifty percent of adult emergence inhibition (EI50) was shown at 277.90 and 183.65 ppm for An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The pupal stage was not affected till a concentration of 5000 ppm. The extract showed oviposition deterrence and effective repellence against both mosquito species at different concentrations, with the observation on that maximal eggs were laid in low concentration of extract. These results suggest that the leaves extract of C. procera possess remarkable larvicidal, adult emergence inhibitor, repellent and oviposition deterrent effect against both An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus, and might be used as natural biocides

  6. Calotropis procera extract induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in human skin melanoma (SK-MEL-2) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Aparna L; Roham, Pratiksha H; Mhaske, Rooth; Jadhav, Mahadev; Krishnadas, Kavitha; Kharat, Amol; Hardikar, Bhagyashree; Kharat, Kiran R

    2015-01-01

    Calotropis procera (family: Asclepiadaceae) contains cardiac glycosides which are cytotoxic to cancer cells. The extracts of C. procera have been reported to be cytotoxic to many cancer cell lines and this is the first report against the human skin melanoma cells (SK-MEL-2). The SK-MEL-2 cells treated with C. procera methanolic extract (CPME) were analysed for growth inhibition and apoptosis. The exposure of phosphatidylserine in apoptotic SK-MEL-2 was analysed by using the Annexin-V FITC flow cytometry method. In CPME-treated SK-MEL-2 cells, 19.6% of apoptotic and 58.3% dead cells were observed. The 15.97% and 15.85% of early apoptotic cells were found at 20 μg/mL of the ouabain and paclitaxel, respectively. Active caspases, nuclear degradation confirmed apoptotic SK-MEL-2 cells in time- and dose-dependent manner. The cell cycle analysis shows that CPME treated cells halt at G2/M phase. Significant cytotoxic activity of CPME against SK-MEL-2 may be attributed to its high cardenolide content.

  7. Detection of a Usp-like gene in Calotropis procera plant from the de novo assembled genome contigs of the high-throughput sequencing dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokry, Ahmed M; Al-Karim, Saleh; Ramadan, Ahmed; Gadallah, Nour; Al Attas, Sanaa G; Sabir, Jamal S M; Hassan, Sabah M; Madkour, Magdy A; Bressan, Ray; Mahfouz, Magdy; Bahieldin, Ahmed

    2014-02-01

    The wild plant species Calotropis procera (C. procera) has many potential applications and beneficial uses in medicine, industry and ornamental field. It also represents an excellent source of genes for drought and salt tolerance. Genes encoding proteins that contain the conserved universal stress protein (USP) domain are known to provide organisms like bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa and plants with the ability to respond to a plethora of environmental stresses. However, information on the possible occurrence of Usp in C. procera is not available. In this study, we uncovered and characterized a one-class A Usp-like (UspA-like, NCBI accession No. KC954274) gene in this medicinal plant from the de novo assembled genome contigs of the high-throughput sequencing dataset. A number of GenBank accessions for Usp sequences were blasted with the recovered de novo assembled contigs. Homology modelling of the deduced amino acids (NCBI accession No. AGT02387) was further carried out using Swiss-Model, accessible via the EXPASY. Superimposition of C. procera USPA-like full sequence model on Thermus thermophilus USP UniProt protein (PDB accession No. Q5SJV7) was constructed using RasMol and Deep-View programs. The functional domains of the novel USPA-like amino acids sequence were identified from the NCBI conserved domain database (CDD) that provide insights into sequence structure/function relationships, as well as domain models imported from a number of external source databases (Pfam, SMART, COG, PRK, TIGRFAM). Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection of a Usp-like gene in Calotropis procera plant from the de novo assembled genome contigs of the high-throughput sequencing dataset

    KAUST Repository

    Shokry, Ahmed M.

    2014-02-01

    The wild plant species Calotropis procera (C. procera) has many potential applications and beneficial uses in medicine, industry and ornamental field. It also represents an excellent source of genes for drought and salt tolerance. Genes encoding proteins that contain the conserved universal stress protein (USP) domain are known to provide organisms like bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa and plants with the ability to respond to a plethora of environmental stresses. However, information on the possible occurrence of Usp in C. procera is not available. In this study, we uncovered and characterized a one-class A Usp-like (UspA-like, NCBI accession No. KC954274) gene in this medicinal plant from the de novo assembled genome contigs of the high-throughput sequencing dataset. A number of GenBank accessions for Usp sequences were blasted with the recovered de novo assembled contigs. Homology modelling of the deduced amino acids (NCBI accession No. AGT02387) was further carried out using Swiss-Model, accessible via the EXPASY. Superimposition of C. procera USPA-like full sequence model on Thermus thermophilus USP UniProt protein (PDB accession No. Q5SJV7) was constructed using RasMol and Deep-View programs. The functional domains of the novel USPA-like amino acids sequence were identified from the NCBI conserved domain database (CDD) that provide insights into sequence structure/function relationships, as well as domain models imported from a number of external source databases (Pfam, SMART, COG, PRK, TIGRFAM). © 2014 Académie des sciences.

  9. Characterization of liquid products from the co-cracking of ternary and quaternary mixture of petroleum vacuum residue, polypropylene, Samla coal and Calotropis Procera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ahmaruzzaman; D.K. Sharma [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2008-08-15

    The co-cracking of the petroleum vacuum residue (XVR) with polypropylene (PP), Samla coal (SC) and Calotropis procera (CL) has been carried out in a batch reactor under isothermal conditions at atmospheric pressure. The liquids obtained by co-cracking have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), {sup 13}C NMR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and inductively coupled argon plasma analyses. It was found that the liquid products obtained from the co-cracking of ternary and quaternary mixtures of the petroleum vacuum residue with polypropylene, coal and C. procera contained less than 1 ppm of Ni and V. The HPLC analyses indicates that the liquids obtained from the cracking of ternary mixture of XVR+PP+CL were mainly aliphatic in nature (saturates content 87.4%). NMR analyses showed that the aromatic carbon contents decreased (15.0%) in the liquid products derived from the co-cracking of quaternary mixtures of XVR+PP+SC+CL compared to their theoretical averages (taking the averages of aromatic carbon contents of the liquids from XVR, PP, SC and CL individually). The overall results indicated that there exists a definite interaction of reactive species when XVR, PP, SC and CL were co-cracked together. 27 refs., 5 tabs.

  10. Anti-tumor studies with extracts of Calotropis procera (Ait.) R.Br. root employing Hep2 cells and their possible mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Rajani; Gupta, Suresh K; Mathur, Sandeep R; Velpandian, Thirumurthy

    2009-05-01

    Anti-tumor potential of root extracts of Calotropis procera: methanolic extract (CM), hexane extract (CH), aqueous extract (CW) and ethylacetate extract (CE) and its possible mechanism against Hep2 cancer cells has been investigated. Cellular proliferation activities were assayed by tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetry. Morphological changes of cancer cells were observed under inverted microscope and cell cycle parameters were determined by flow cytometry following propidium iodide staining. Treatment with the extracts at various doses of 1, 5, 10 and 25 microg/ml revealed that CM, CH and CE possessed cytotoxicity, whereas CW did not have cytotoxic effect. CE (10 microg/ml) showed strongest cytotoxic effect (96.3%) on Hep2 at 48 hr following treatment, whereas CM and CH showed cytotoxicity of 72.7 and 60.5%, respectively. Extract-treated cells exhibited typical morphological changes of apoptosis. Results of flow cytometric analysis clearly demonstrated that root extracts initiated apoptosis of Hep2 cells through cell cycle arrest at S phase, thus preventing cells from entering G2/M phase. Results of the study indicate that the root extracts of C. procera inhibit the proliferation of Hep2 cells via apoptotic and cell cycle disruption based mechanisms.

  11. Microwave-assisted enhancement of milkweed (Calotropis procera L.) leaves as an eco-friendly source of natural colorants for textile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaan, Muhammad; Iqbal, Naeem; Adeel, Shahid; Azeem, Muhammad; Tariq Javed, M; Raza, Ali

    2017-02-01

    Application of natural colorants to textile fabrics has gained worldwide public acceptance due to the hazardous nature of synthetic dyes. Present study investigated the microwave's mediated extraction of natural colorants from leaves of milkweed (Calotropis procera L.) as well as their application to cotton fabrics assisted with biochemical mordants. Dye extraction from C. procera leaves was carried out in various mediums (alkali and aqueous), and the extracted dye as well as cotton fabrics was irradiated with microwaves for 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 min. Effect of various temperature regimes and sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations was also evaluated on the color strength of dyed cotton fabrics. The results revealed that extraction of natural colorants was enhanced when microwave radiations were applied for 4 min by using alkali as an extraction medium as compared to aqueous one. Optimum dyeing of cotton fabrics was achieved by using NaCl at a temperature of 55 °C. Among the chemical mordants, iron was effective for better color strength when used as pre- and post-mordant. Among the studied bio-mordants, extract of Acacia nilotica bark significantly improved the color strength and fastness properties as pre-mordant and Curcuma longa tuber as post-mordant. It was concluded that extract of C. procera leaves was a potential source of natural colorants and a high level of dye was obtained upon irradiation of alkali-solubilized extract for 4 min. Application of NaCl at concentration of 3 g/100 mL and temperature treatment of 55 °C significantly improved the color strength of dyed cotton fabrics.

  12. Characterization of P5CS gene in Calotropis procera plant from the de novo assembled transcriptome contigs of the high-throughput sequencing dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Ahmed M; Hassanein, Sameh E

    2014-12-01

    The wild plant known as Calotropis procera is important in medicine, industry and ornamental fields. Due to spread in areas that suffer from environmental stress, it has a large number of tolerance genes to environmental stress such as drought and salinity. Proline is one of the most compatible solutes that accumulate widely in plants to tolerate unfavorable environmental conditions. Plant proline synthesis depends on Δ-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS) gene. But information about this gene in C. procera is unavailable. In this study, we uncovered and characterized P5CS (P5CS, NCBI accession no. KJ020750) gene in this medicinal plant from the de novo assembled transcriptome contigs of the high-throughput sequencing dataset. A number of GenBank accessions for P5CS sequences were blasted with the recovered de novo assembled contigs. Homology modeling of the deduced amino acids (NCBI accession No. AHM25913) was further carried out using Swiss-Model, accessible via the EXPASY. Superimposition of C. procera P5CS-like full sequence model on Homo sapiens (P5CS_HUMAN, UniProt protein accession no. P54886) was constructed using RasMol and Deep-View programs. The functional domains of the novel P5CS amino acids sequence were identified from the NCBI conserved domain database (CDD) that provide insights into sequence structure/function relationships, as well as domain models imported from a number of external source databases (Pfam, SMART, COG, PRK, TIGRFAM). Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Desempenho agronômico do rabanete adubado com Calotropis procera (Ait. R. Br. em duas épocas de cultivo

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    Antonia Francilene Alves da Silva

    Full Text Available RESUMO Indicadores agronômicos foram avaliados no rabanete adubado com diferentes quantidades de biomassa de Calotropis procera (Ait. R. Br. (Flor-de-seda, em distintos tempos de incorporação ao solo e cultivada em duas épocas (primavera e outono-inverno, no município de Serra Talhada-PE. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial 4 x 4, com três repetições, sendo o primeiro fator: as quantidades de biomassa de C. procera (5,4; 8,8; 12,2 e 15,6 t ha-1 em base seca; e o segundo: tempos de incorporação ao solo (0; 10; 20 e 30 dias antes do plantio do rabanete. As características determinadas no rabanete foram: altura de plantas, número de folhas por planta, diâmetro de raízes, massas seca e fresca de raiz tuberosa, massa fresca de raiz comercial. O rendimento máximo do rabanete foi obtido na quantidade de biomassa de C. procera de 15,6 t ha-1 incorporada ao solo. Uma sincronia entre o fornecimento de nutrientes pelo adubo verde e o período de máxima demanda pelo rabanete foi observada no tempo de incorporação de 22 dias antes do plantio. O cultivo no outono-inverno aumentou o ciclo do rabanete, proporcionando maiores rendimentos comercial e total de raízes.

  14. Crystal structure of an antifungal osmotin-like protein from Calotropis procera and its effects on Fusarium solani spores, as revealed by atomic force microscopy: Insights into the mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Marcio V; de Oliveira, Raquel S B; Pereira, Humberto M; Moreno, Frederico B M B; Lobo, Marina D P; Rebelo, Luciana M; Brandão-Neto, José; de Sousa, Jeanlex S; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana C O; Freitas, Cléverson D T; Grangeiro, Thalles Barbosa

    2015-11-01

    CpOsm is an antifungal osmotin/thaumatin-like protein purified from the latex of Calotropis procera. The protein is relatively thermostable and retains its antifungal activity over a wide pH range; therefore, it may be useful in the development of new antifungal drugs or transgenic crops with enhanced resistance to phytopathogenic fungi. To gain further insight into the mechanism of action of CpOsm, its three-dimensional structure was determined, and the effects of the protein on Fusarium solani spores were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The atomic structure of CpOsm was solved at a resolution of 1.61Å, and it contained 205 amino acid residues and 192 water molecules, with a final R-factor of 18.12% and an Rfree of 21.59%. The CpOsm structure belongs to the thaumatin superfamily fold and is characterized by three domains stabilized by eight disulfide bonds and a prominent charged cleft, which runs the length of the front side of the molecule. Similarly to other antifungal thaumatin-like proteins, the cleft of CpOsm is predominantly acidic. AFM images of F. solani spores treated with CpOsm resulted in striking morphological changes being induced by the protein. Spores treated with CpOsm were wrinkled, and the volume of these cells was reduced by approximately 80%. Treated cells were covered by a shell of CpOsm molecules, and the leakage of cytoplasmic content from these cells was also observed. Based on the structural features of CpOsm and the effects that the protein produces on F. solani spores, a possible mechanism of action is suggested and discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pilot Study with regard to the Wound Healing Activity of Protein from Calotropis procera (Ait. R. Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramar Perumal Samy

    2012-01-01

    and wound infections in traditional medicine. The aqueous extract of stem-bark of C. procera exhibited more pronounced potent antimicrobial activity. Calo-protein was purified and identified from the most-active aqueous extracts of C. procera and showed broad-spectrum activity. Calo-protein inhibited the growth of S. aureus and E. aerogenes effectively at 25 μg/ml concentration. Mice topically treated with Calo-protein revealed significant wound healing after 14 days comparable to fusidic acid (FA as positive control. This protein was devoid of cytolytic effect even at higher concentrations on skin cells after 24 h. Further investigation of this Calo-protein of C. procera on bacterial inhibition may provide a better understanding of the scientific basis and justification for its use in traditional medicine.

  16. Proteins derived from in vitro culture of the callus and roots of Calotropis procera ameliorate acute inflammation in the rat paw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay L; Sharma, Nisha; Souza, Isabel Cristina da Cósta; Ramos, Márcio Viana; Carvalho, Cristina Paiva da Silveira

    2015-02-01

    The callus and roots developed from the hypocotyl and cotyledon explants of the germinating seeds of Calotropis procera were grown in culture, and the proteins isolated from them (CP and RP) were evaluated for their efficacy in inhibiting edema formation induced by sub-plantar injection of carrageenan in the hind paw of rat. Intravenous administration of both CP and RP 30 min before inducing inflammation produced a dose-dependent inhibition of edema formation at 1 and 5 mg/kg doses. The extents of inhibition with these proteins ranged between 40 and 70 % at the doses included while the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac produced 50 to 60 % inhibition at 5 mg/kg dose. The inhibitory effect with these proteins was accompanied by a dose-dependent reduction in the tissue levels of inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and oxidative stress markers namely glutathione and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and maintenance of tissue architecture. The present study shows that the proteins isolated from the differentiated and undifferentiated tissues derived from the germinating seeds have therapeutic application in the treatment of inflammatory conditions, and these tissues could be used as an alternative source to minimize variability of plant-derived formulations.

  17. Exploring applications of procerain b, a novel protease from Calotropis procera, and characterization by N-terminal sequencing as well as peptide mass fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhay Narayan; Dubey, Vikash Kumar

    2011-07-01

    Procerain B is a novel cysteine protease isolated from Calotropis procera by our group and published recently. We have further characterized the enzyme by N-terminal sequencing and peptide mass fingerprinting. Procerain B showed maximum sequence similarity (80%) with Asclepain. Moreover, the characteristic VDWR motif of cysteine proteases is present in procerain B. The N-terminal and peptide mass fingerprinting analysis showed a distinct nature of the enzyme. Various applications of the enzyme were also evaluated. Procerain B is very effective in milk-clotting and may be a potential candidate for this process in the cheese industry. Additionally, the enzyme has potential application as dietary supplement to aid digestion. Effects of various metal ions on milk-clotting activity were also studied. The milk-clotting activity was increased in case of few metals while others have a negative effect. It is worth mentioning that the easy availability of plant material and simple purification method makes industrial production of the enzyme feasible. A protease with easy purification and suitable properties for application is always desired.

  18. Identification of a novel Calotropis procera protein that can suppress tumor growth in breast cancer through the suppression of NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samy, Ramar Perumal; Rajendran, Peramaiyan; Li, Feng; Anandi, Narayana Moorthy; Stiles, Bradley G; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Sethi, Gautam; Chow, Vincent T K

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. To date, improvements in hormonal and cytotoxic therapies have not yet led to a sustained remission or cure. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo antitumor activities of a novel Calotropis procera protein (CP-P) isolated from root bark. CP-P protein inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells through the suppression of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kB) activation. CP-P, when administered individually or in combination with cyclophosphamide (CYC, 0.2 mg/kg) to rats with 7, 12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer decreased tumor volume significantly without affecting the body weight. To elucidate the anticancer mechanism of CP-P, antioxidant activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and non-enzymatic antioxidant - reduced glutathione (GSH), vitamin E and C generation in the breast were analyzed by various assays. SOD, CAT, GST, GSH, vitamin E and C levels were high in combination-treated groups (CP-P+CYC) versus the CYC alone-treated groups. Also, the combination was more effective in down-regulating the expression of NF-kB-regulated gene products (cyclin D1 and Bcl-2) in breast tumor tissues. Our findings indicate that CP-P possesses significant antitumor activity comparable to a commonly used anticancer drug, cyclophosphamide, and may form the basis of a novel therapy for breast cancer.

  19. Identification of a novel Calotropis procera protein that can suppress tumor growth in breast cancer through the suppression of NF-κB pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramar Perumal Samy

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. To date, improvements in hormonal and cytotoxic therapies have not yet led to a sustained remission or cure. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo antitumor activities of a novel Calotropis procera protein (CP-P isolated from root bark. CP-P protein inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells through the suppression of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kB activation. CP-P, when administered individually or in combination with cyclophosphamide (CYC, 0.2 mg/kg to rats with 7, 12-dimethyl benz(aanthracene (DMBA-induced breast cancer decreased tumor volume significantly without affecting the body weight. To elucidate the anticancer mechanism of CP-P, antioxidant activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione-s-transferase (GST and non-enzymatic antioxidant - reduced glutathione (GSH, vitamin E and C generation in the breast were analyzed by various assays. SOD, CAT, GST, GSH, vitamin E and C levels were high in combination-treated groups (CP-P+CYC versus the CYC alone-treated groups. Also, the combination was more effective in down-regulating the expression of NF-kB-regulated gene products (cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 in breast tumor tissues. Our findings indicate that CP-P possesses significant antitumor activity comparable to a commonly used anticancer drug, cyclophosphamide, and may form the basis of a novel therapy for breast cancer.

  20. Caracterização dos taninos condensados das espécies maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglazovii, flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera, feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa, L e jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus Characterization of condensed tannin of the species maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglaziovii, flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera, feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa and jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E.S.B.S. Cruz

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Caracterizaram-se os taninos condensados (TC e determinaram-se a composição bromatológica e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS das espécies maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglazovii Pax & Hoffman, flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera, feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa, L e jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus (L. Willd. As concentrações em tanino solúvel, tanino ligado ao resíduo e tanino total (TT das espécies foram determinadas pelo método butanol-HCL e a adstringência pelo método de difusão radial. Para a DIVMS, foi utilizado método de dois estágios. Foram observadas diferenças entre as espécies (PCondensed tannins (CT of the species maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglaziovii, flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera, feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa and jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus were characterized and the chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of those species were determined. Concentration of soluble tannin (ST, bound tannin (BT and total tannin (TT of the plants was determined using butanol-HCL method; astringency was determined, using radial diffusion method, and the IVDMD was determined using two-stages method. Concentration and astringency of condensed tannins varied between species (P<0.01. Jureminha was the species that presented the highest value (2.4% TT and 13.7-3 astringency. No tannins were detected in flor-de-seda. Crude protein was higher than 16% in all studied species, and the ADF and lignin values were lower than 39 and 15%, respectively. The IVDMD was low in jureminha (43% and high in flor-de-seda (80%. The correlation between IVDMD and TT was low (r²=0.097.

  1. Photoluminescent reduced graphene oxide quantum dots from latex of Calotropis gigantea for metal sensing, radical scavenging, cytotoxicity, and bioimaging in Artemia salina: A greener route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, Balaji; Sonamuthu, Jegatheeswaran; Pandiyan, Nithya; Pandi, Boomi; Samayanan, Selvam; Mahalingam, Sundrarajan

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we report the fabrication of green fluorescent reduced graphene oxide quantum dots (rGOQDs) from the latex of Calotropis gigantea by simple one-step microwave assisted greener route. The latex of Calotropis gigantea calcined at 300°C and its ethanolic extract is used for the synthesis of QDs, The rGOQDs showed particle size ranging from 2 to 8nm and it exhibited green fluorescent in longer UV region at 360-520nm. The rGOQDs graphitic nature was confirmed by RAMAN and XRD analysis. The FTIR, XPS demonstrate that presence of functional groups such as CO, COC, -OH, hence it's addressing them as rGOQDs. It is used to design the greener and economically adopted fluorescent probe for the detection of Pb2+ ions. It provides simple and appropriate for the selective and sensitive detection of Pb2+ ions in water purification process. It also trapped the free radicals and neutralized that and act as an excellent radical scavenger in DPPH radical scavenging assessment. These rGOQDs showed excellent biocompatibility on brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina) up to 160μg/mL for 24h incubation. Furthermore, rGOQDS were demonstrated as fluorescent bioimaging probe selectively in the inner digestion part of Artemia salina. In summary, stable, economically viable, highly biocompatible, greener method based rGOQDs were prepared for heavy metal ion detecting, radical scavenging, bioimaging applications which can play a vital role in the future nanotechnology-based biomedical field. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. New constitutive latex osmotin-like proteins lacking antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Cleverson D T; Silva, Maria Z R; Bruno-Moreno, Frederico; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana C O; Moreira, Renato A; Ramos, Márcio V

    2015-11-01

    Proteins that share similar primary sequences to the protein originally described in salt-stressed tobacco cells have been named osmotins. So far, only two osmotin-like proteins were purified and characterized of latex fluids. Osmotin from Carica papaya latex is an inducible protein lacking antifungal activity, whereas the Calotropis procera latex osmotin is a constitutive antifungal protein. To get additional insights into this subject, we investigated osmotins in latex fluids of five species. Two potential osmotin-like proteins in Cryptostegia grandiflora and Plumeria rubra latex were detected by immunological cross-reactivity with polyclonal antibodies produced against the C. procera latex osmotin (CpOsm) by ELISA, Dot Blot and Western Blot assays. Osmotin-like proteins were not detected in the latex of Thevetia peruviana, Himatanthus drasticus and healthy Carica papaya fruits. Later, the two new osmotin-like proteins were purified through immunoaffinity chromatography with anti-CpOsm immobilized antibodies. Worth noting the chromatographic efficiency allowed for the purification of the osmotin-like protein belonging to H. drasticus latex, which was not detectable by immunoassays. The identification of the purified proteins was confirmed after MS/MS analyses of their tryptic digests. It is concluded that the constitutive osmotin-like proteins reported here share structural similarities to CpOsm. However, unlike CpOsm, they did not exhibit antifungal activity against Fusarium solani and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. These results suggest that osmotins of different latex sources may be involved in distinct physiological or defensive events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Peptidases and peptidase inhibitors in gut of caterpillars and in the latex of their host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Márcio V; Pereira, Danielle A; Souza, Diego P; Silva, Maria-Lídia S; Alencar, Luciana M R; Sousa, Jeanlex S; Queiroz, Juliany-Fátima N; Freitas, Cleverson D T

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating the resistance-susceptibility of crop insects to proteins found in latex fluids have been reported. However, latex-bearing plants also host insects. In this study, the gut proteolytic system of Pseudosphinx tetrio, which feeds on Plumeria rubra leaves, was characterized and further challenged against the latex proteolytic system of its own host plant and those of other latex-bearing plants. The gut proteolytic system of Danaus plexippus (monarch) and the latex proteolytic system of its host plant (Calotropis procera) were also studied. The latex proteins underwent extensive hydrolysis when mixed with the corresponding gut homogenates of the hosted insects. The gut homogenates partially digested the latex proteins of foreign plants. The fifth instar of D. plexippus that were fed diets containing foreign latex developed as well as those individuals who were fed diets containing latex proteins from their host plant. In vitro assays detected serine and cysteine peptidase inhibitors in both the gut homogenates and the latex fluids. Curiously, the peptidase inhibitors of caterpillars did not inhibit the latex peptidases of their host plants. However, the peptidase inhibitors of laticifer origin inhibited the proteolysis of gut homogenates. In vivo analyses of the peritrophic membrane proteins of D. plexippus demonstrate resistance against latex peptidases. Only discrete changes were observed when the peritrophic membrane was directly treated with purified latex peptidases in vitro. This study concludes that peptidase inhibitors are involved in the defensive systems of both caterpillars and their host plants. Although latex peptidase inhibitors inhibit gut peptidases (in vitro), the ability of gut peptidases to digest latex proteins (in vivo) regardless of their origin seems to be important in governing the resistance-susceptibility of caterpillars.

  4. Molluscicidal Activity of Methomyl and Cardenolide Extracts from Calotropis procera and Adenium arabicum Against the Land Snail Monacha cantiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Bayoumi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have evaluated the molluscicidal activity of two cardenolide extracts from Adenium arabicum Balf f. [the benzene (B and methanol (M extracts], one cardenolide extract from Calotropis procera (Aiton W.T. Aiton (extract C, and methomyl against the harmful land snail Monacha cantiana (Montagu. The contact LD50 values for the above mentioned plant extracts were 12.62, 34.63, and 34.35 mg·kg−1 of body weight, respectively, while the LD50 for methomyl was 116.62 mg·kg−1, that is, the plant extracts were 9.24, 3.37, and 3.4 times more toxic than methomyl. In addition, a simple colorimetric method, based on Kedde reagent, was modified to determine cardenolide concentrations in plant extracts. Thin layer chromatography analysis (TLC showed several cardiac glycosidal compounds in each plant extract. The results proved that cardiac glycosides are promising candidate compounds that could be used to control land snails, or exploited to develop new, effective, and environmentally friendly molluscicides.

  5. Herbage Dynamics and Soils of two Different Sites of Calotropis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative abundance of Calotropis procera (Ait) R. Br. (Asclepiadaeceae), types and relative abundance of herb species in association with it and the soil types in two different sites, Tudun Sarki (ABU) and Basawa in the Northern Guinea Savanna zone of Nigeria were assessed. To determine herbage dynamics, herbs in ...

  6. Irritant and allergenic potential of some latex producing Indian plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasricha J

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The iatex exuding from the freshly sliced stems/leaves of 11 Indian plants was tested on 10 volunteers each by the open patch test and in 5 volunteers each by the 48 hour occluded patch test technique. In the open patch test, there was no reaction with (1 calotropis procera, (2 Alstonia scholaris,(3 Euphorbia splendens, (4 Euphorbia clarkina (5 Nerium indicum, and (6 Padilanthus tithymaloides (Green and white leaf variety, while mild reactions were observed with Euphorbia pulcherrima in 3 volunteers, Ficus elastida in 2 volunteers, and Pedilanthus tithymaloidas (Green leaf variety and Plumeria indica in one volunteer each Sapium sebiferum on the other hand produced severe itching, burning and erythema in all the 10 volunteers. The 48 hour occluded patch test produced definite reactions with Pedilanthus tithymaloides (Green leaf varietyin 2 cases and calotropis procera and Euphorbia clarkina in 1 case each. Sapium sebiferum on the other hand produced cauterization type of reactions in all the cases.

  7. Growth-Suppressing Effect of Calotropis procera (Giant Milkweed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    v20i3.4492 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors. OTHER RESOURCES... Journal Quality · for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access · FAQ's ...

  8. West African soft cheese 'wara' processed with Calotropis procera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... reasons (e.g. Judaism and Islam), diet (vegetarianism), or being genetically engineer food (e.g. in Germany and the Netherlands forbid the use of recombinant calf rennet) (Roseiro et al., 2003). The first reference to the substitution of animal rennet by vegetable coagulants dates from experiments in 1935 ...

  9. Water relations and photosynthetic capacity of two species of Calotropis in a tropical semi-arid ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezara, Wilmer; Colombo, Rita; Coronel, Ilsa; Marín, Oranys

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Calotropis procera and Calotropis gigantea, originally from warm parts of Africa and Asia, are now pan-tropical and in ecological terms considered an indicator of overgrazed, disturbed lands; they grow successfully in dry areas. Variations in water relations, morphology and photosynthesis of the two species growing in the same habitat were studied to assess possible mechanisms of tolerance to drought and how these relate to their ecophysiological success. Also the hypothesis that their photosynthetic rate (A) under drought would be affected by stomatal and non-stomatal limitations was tested. Methods Water relations, gas exchange, water use efficiency (WUE), fluorescence parameters, pubescence and specific leaf area (SLA) of Calotropis procera and C. gigantea plants growing in the field were evaluated during the wet (WS) and dry (DS) seasons. Results The xylem water potential (ψ) was similar in both species during the WS and DS; drought caused a 28 % decrease of ψ. In C. procera, A, stomatal conductance (gs) and carboxylation efficiency (CE) were higher in the WS with half the values of those during the DS, this species being more affected by drought than C. gigantea. A high δ13C of C. gigantea (–26·2 ‰) in the WS indicated a higher integrated WUE, in agreement with its lower gs. Leaves of C. gigantea were more pubescent than C. procera. Relative stomatal and non-stomatal limitation of A increased with drought in both species; no changes in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII; Fv/Fm) were observed. The decrease in the relative quantum yield of PSII (φPSII) and in the photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) was more pronounced in C. procera than in C. gigantea. Conclusions The photosynthetic capacity of C. procera was higher than that of C. gigantea. During the DS, A was regulated by stomatal and non-stomatal factors in a coordinated manner and drought did not cause chronic photoinhibition. A higher density of trichomes and

  10. Cytotoxic Cardenolides from Calotropis Species: A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Wei Chiang Chan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available From different plant parts of Calotropis species (C. gigantea and C. procera, various classes of compounds such as oxy pregnanes, terpenoids, sterols, cardenolides and flavonoids have been isolated. Of these compounds, the cardenolides stand out as many of them have anticancer properties. Cardenolides are C 23 steroids with a five-membered unsaturated butyrolactone ring consisting of a steroid nucleus, a lactone moiety at C-17 and a sugar moiety at C-3. The roles of cardenolides in the treatment of human cancer have been established as they can induce apoptosis and inhibit the growth of cancer cells. Structure‒activity relationship analyses have yielded some interesting findings on their cytotoxicity. Compounds with six-membered ring sugar groups generally have significantly stronger inhibitory activity than those with five-membered ring sugar groups. A formyl or methyl-hydroxyl group at C-10 enhances cytotoxicity while the presence of a 4´-OH or 16-OH group decreases cytotoxicity. Chemical modification of 2”-oxovoruscharin, a novel cardenolide extracted from the root bark of C. procera, has led to the synthesis of UNBS1450. The compound is characterized by more potent anti-proliferative activity, lower toxicity, and is a strong sodium pump inhibitor and inducer of non-apoptotic cell death. UNBS1450 is currently in Phase I clinical trials.

  11. Practical Latex

    CERN Document Server

    Grätzer, George

    2014-01-01

    Accessible at 200+ pages to all who want to learn the practical usages of LaTeX Avoids technical subjects like font usage Friendly and easy to read, with many examples included Extra source materials include sample LaTeX files and suggestions for further reading

  12. Managing latex allergies at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latex products; Latex allergy; Latex sensitivity; Contact dermatitis - latex allergy ... Items that may contain latex include: Balloons Condoms and diaphragms Rubber bands Shoe soles Bandages Latex gloves Toys Paint Carpet backing Baby-bottle nipples and ...

  13. گزارش علمی کوتاه: بررسی اثر شوری بر جوانه زنی بذر استبرق Calotropi procera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    نازیلا خائف

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available گونه استبرق (Calotropis  procer یک درختچه دائمی سازگار با مناطق خشک است که به طور وسیعی در عملیات احیاء مناطق بیابانی مورد استفاده قرار می­گیرد. بذر استبرق در شرایط طبیعی از جوانه­ زنی کمی برخوردار است. جوانه ­زنی بذر و استقرار گیاهچه یک مرحله بحرانی برای بقای گیاه می­باشد. به منظور بررسی تاثیر عامل شوری بر جوانه­زنی بذر استبرق، آزمایش جوانه­زنی در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با آرایش فاکتوریل درچهار تکرار انجام شد، که در آن عامل شوری (دو نمک کلرید سدیم و کلرید کلسیم به نسبت 5 به 1  در پنج سطح (صفر، 0/01- ، 0/05- ، 0/1 - ، 0/15-  مگا پاسکال بود و در سطوح بدون پیش تیمار و با پیش تیمار آزمایش گردید. شوری (کلرید سدیم تاثیر بسیار معنی­داری بر درصد جوانه­زنی داشت. با افزایش شوری، درصد و سرعت جوانه­ زنی و طول گیاهچه کاهش یافت. درصد جوانه ­زنی بذر استبرق در سطح شاهد بدون نمک 99 درصد و در سطح شوری 0/01- مگا پاسکال 80 درصد و در سطح شوری 0/05- مگا پاسکال 55 درصد بود و با افزایش نمک به تدریج درسطح شوری 0/1-  و 0/15- مگا پاسکال به صفر رسید. پیش تیمار با کلرید سدیم و کلرید کلسیم (0/1-  مگا پاسکال در مدت چهار روز تاثیر بسیار معنی ­داری بر درصد جوانه ­زنی داشت. پیش تیمار مخصوصاً در 0/05- مگاپاسکال سرعت جوانه­ زنی و طول گیاهچه را افزایش

  14. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    Calotropis Procera (CP) has been used in the management of toothache, fresh skin burns, gum bleeding as well as others to make it qualify as a medicinal plant. This study was designed to assess its wound-healing property in rabbits and its potentials for anti keloidal activity.Fresh latex of Calotropis were obtained and ...

  15. Influence of atropine and loperamide on reduced intestinal transit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of Calotropis procera latex alone and in the presence of loperamide and atropine on intestinal transit in rats were determined to elucidate the action of C. procera on intestinal transit. Six groups of rats containing ten rats per group were used. Each rat in the control group (I) received 0.5 ml of normal saline.

  16. Cysteine proteases from the Asclepiadaceae plants latex exhibited thrombin and plasmin like activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaprasad, H V; Riyaz, M; Venkatesh Kumar, R; Dharmappa, K K; Tarannum, Shaista; Siddesha, J M; Rajesh, R; Vishwanath, B S

    2009-10-01

    In the present study we evaluated the presence of cysteine protease from the latex of four plants Asclepias curassavica L., Calotropis gigantea R.Br., Pergularia extensa R.Br. and Cynanchum puciflorum R.Br. belongs to the family Asclepiadaceae. Cysteine proteases from these plants latex exhibited both thrombin and plasmin like activities. Latex enzyme fraction in a concentration dependent manner induced the formation of clot in citrated blood plasma. Direct incubation of fibrinogen with latex enzyme fraction resulted in the formation of fibrin clot similar to thrombin enzyme. However prolonged incubation resulted in degradation of the formed fibrin clot suggesting plasmin like activity. Latex enzyme fraction preferentially hydrolyzed Aalpha and Bbeta chains of fibrinogen to form fibrin clot. Latex enzyme fraction also hydrolyzed the subunits of fully cross linked fibrin efficiently, the order of hydrolysis was alpha-polymer > alpha-chains > beta-chain and gamma-gamma dimer. Cysteine proteases from all the four Asclepiadaceae plants latex exhibited similar action on fibrinogen and fibrin. This study scientifically validate the use of plant latex in stop bleeding and wound healing by traditional healers all over the world.

  17. EFFECT OF CALITROPIS PROCERA AQUEOUS ROOT EXTRACT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABUBAKAR

    The C. Procera root extract was found to significantly (p<0.05) reduce the serum levels of AST, ... urea. These indicates the possible hepatocurative effects of aqueous root extract of C. ... extracts is an excellent source of therapeutic agents.

  18. Latex agglutination test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003334.htm Latex agglutination test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The latex agglutination test is a laboratory method to check ...

  19. Biogas Production Potential of Calatropis Procera (Sodom Apple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves and stems of Calatropis procera was digested under anaerobic condition to generate biogas. Cow dung was used as reference sample. Three digesters Calatropis procera leaves (CPL), Calatropis procera stem (CPS) and Cow Dung (CWD) respectively were used. Each contained 40g sample and 800 ml of ...

  20. Anti-plasmodia activity of leaf extracts of Calotropis procera Linn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    CP1-01 to CP1-05 for the plant. Each of these fractions was phytochemically screened to detect the class of secondary metabolite present. The fractions obtained from the plant were found to be selectively active against brine shrimp larvae. These fractions were also subjected to antimalaria parasites bioassay. Fractions ...

  1. Effects of the aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Calotropis procera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oryctolagus cuniculus). Low levels of phytochemicals (alkaloids, ... female New Zealand rabbits, 8 - 10 week old, same weight range were obtained from the Small Animal .... weight loss by Dada et al. (2002) were not observed. Mild.

  2. lipolytic effect of calotropis procera in the skin of wistar rats.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olaleye

    tissue in the hypodermis and partial degeneration of the dermis at the site of merging with the hypodermis. No significant histological changes were, however, observed in the stratified squamous epithelium of the epidermis. Hair follicles and .... structural changes in the cardiac muscle and Variation in the blood serum ...

  3. Fuel characteristics and pyrolysis studies of solvent extractables and residues from the evergreen shrub Calotropis procera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdman, M.D.; Gregorski, K.S.; Pavlath, A.E.

    1984-01-01

    Solvent extractables and residues from milkweed were evaluated as sources of liquid and solid fuels. Selected chemical, physical and pyrolytic determinations of the extractables and residues indicated that hexane extract is a potentially valuable, high density fuel resource. Methanol extract was shown to be a lower energy, highly toxic extract. Extracted residues were demonstrated to be valuable as solid fuel energy resources. 31 references.

  4. Effects of the aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Calotropis procera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... described by Reithman and Frenkel (1957) were employed. Serum protein and albumin were analyzed as described by Gornall et al. (1949) and Bartholomew and Delaney (1966), respectively. Statistical analysis. Stat Graphics Plus software was used and data analysis was done using Students t-test.

  5. lipolytic effect of calotropis procera in the skin of wistar rats.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olaleye

    ... of adipose tissue in the hypodermis and partial degeneration of the dermis at the site of merging with the hypodermis. ... merge with the loose areolar connective tissue of the hypodermis ... to cardiovascular disease, diabetes and shortening.

  6. Roostertree (Calotropis procera under different amounts and periods of incorporation on yield of coriander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Ferreira Linhares

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 The goal of this paper was to evaluate the roostertree under different amounts and periods of incorporation on yield of coriander. This paper was conducted at the experimental farm Rafael Fernandes of, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA, Mossoró-RN, in the period October-December 2009. Experimental design was a randomized complete block with treatments arranged in a factorial 4 x 4, with three replications, with 144 plants per plot, with the first factor consists of the amounts of roostertree (5.4, 8.8, 12.2 and 15.6 t ha-1 on a dry basis, the second by periods of soil incorporation (0, 10, 20, and 30 days before sowing - DAS. The cultivar was planted cilantro palmtrees. The characteristics evaluated were such: plant height, number of stems plant-1, yield and dry matter weight of shoots. Significant interaction between treatments was observed for the characteristic coriander yield with better agronomic performance observed in the amount of 15.6 t ha-1 roostertree applied between incorporation 30 days before sowing coriander, with an average yield of 4404 kg ha-1. Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE

  7. PRODUCTION OF LETTUCE UNDER GREEN MANURING WITH Calotropis procera IN TWO CULTIVATION SEASONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÊNIO GOMES FLÔR SOUZA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of vegetable crops is characterized by intensive land use, high input demands and the requirement of strategic management adoption with an agro - ecological approach. In this study, agronomic indicators were evaluated in lettuce fertilized with different amounts of roostertree biomass; fertilizer was incorporated into the soil at distinct times and seedlings were planted in two cropping seasons (spring and autumn - winter in Serra Talhada, Pernambuco state, Brazil. The experimental design consisted of randomized complete blocks with three replications and treatments arranged in a 4 x 4 factorial scheme. The first factor was the amounts of roostertree biomass (5.4, 8.8, 12.2, and 15.6 t ha - 1 on a dry basis and the second the manure incorporation times (0, 10, 20, and 30 days before lettuce transplanting. The variables evaluated in the lettuce crop were: plant height and diameter, number of leaves per plant, productivity of green mass, and dry shoot mass. Maximum productivity and dry shoot mass were obtained using fertilization with 15.6 t ha - 1 . A synchrony between supply of nutrients by green manure and the period of maximum demand by lettuce was observed in the incorporation times of 10 (spring and 20 (autumn - winter days before transplanting. Cultivation in the spring resulted in higher vegetative growth.

  8. Biochemical and microstructural characteristics of meat samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to compare the efficiency of different plant proteases for changing biochemical and microstructural characteristics in muscle foods. The meat samples from chicken, giant catfish, pork and beef were treated with four types of proteolytic enzymes: Calotropis procera latex proteases, papaya latex ...

  9. Comparative Studies Of The Proteolytic And The Milk Clotting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of enzymes as catalysts for industrial processes is becoming increasingly widespread, particularly in the food industry. The proteolytic and milk clotting activities of the crude latex of Calotropis procera, Carica papaya, and Musa paradisiaca were examined. The proteolytic activities of the crude latex were determined ...

  10. Latex Allergy: Tips to Remember

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatments ▸ Library ▸ Allergy Library ▸ Latex allergy TTR Share | Latex Allergy This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI Natural rubber latex, a milky fluid found in rubber trees, is ...

  11. Latex Allergy: A Prevention Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH Latex Allergy A Prevention Guide Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... years--especially among health care workers. What is latex? In this pamphlet, the term "latex" refers to ...

  12. Somatic Embryogenesis in Juniperus Procera using Juniperus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of somatic embryogenesis in Juniperus communis has been conducted as a preliminary study for the further development of somatic embryogenesis, micropropagation and long-term conservation/cryopreservation in Juniperus procera, which is economically and ecologically important and endangered forest ...

  13. Somatic Embryogenesis in Juniperus Procera using Juniperus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The study of somatic embryogenesis in Juniperus communis has been conducted as a preliminary study for the further development of somatic embryogenesis, micropropagation and long-term conservation/cryopreservation in Juniperus procera, which is economically and ecologically important and ...

  14. Protection measures of Juniperus procera Hochst. ex Endl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protection measures of Juniperus procera Hochst. ex Endl. (Cupressaceae) and Eucalyptus deglupta Blume (Myrtaceae) sawn timbers against subterranean termites and fungal attack at Miesso, eastern Ethiopia.

  15. [Allergy to latex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxenaire, M C; Moneret-Vautrin, D A

    In France 18% of all preoperative allergic shock syndromes result from allergic reactions to latex. IgE antibodies mediate the immediate hypersensitivity reaction to natural latex proteins extracted for the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). Sensibilization occurs after repeated direct contact of the skin or mucosa with latex products including gloves, urinary catheters or after chronic inhalation of airborne particles of latex in the operating theatre. Clinical expressions include skin rash, asthma or anaphylactic shock. During the preoperative period, the shock may occur late after induction of anaesthesia and after the operative procedure has begun or after the arm cuff has been released. In obstetrics oxytocin injection can precipitate the phenomenon. Subjects at risk have been clearly identified: subjects who wear gloves regularly, those working in an environment contaminated with airborne latex, children who have undergone multiple operations on malformations of the urinary tract or who have had repeated catheterisms (40% of the spina bifida patients are sensitized), atopic subjects, those allergic to exotic fruits (banana, avocado, kiwi). These patients should be identified during the preoperative work-up in order to perform allergy tests. The diagnosis of over-sensitivity should be confirmed by prick-tests and perhaps complete antilatex antibody assay and challenge. All material composed of natural latex should be avoided for these patients. Proposed alternatives include synthetic rubber. Hypoallergenic gloves add no further safety. The operative procedure should be conducted using standard techniques.

  16. Blends of guayule natural rubber latex with commercial latex polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guayule (Parthenium argentatum) is a woody desert shrub that produces natural rubber, cis-1,4 polyisoprene, by biosynthesis. It is currently cultivated in the southwestern United States as a source of latex and rubber for commercial development. Guayule latex is similar to Hevea latex in polymer mo...

  17. Latex and friends

    CERN Document Server

    Dongen, M R C van

    2012-01-01

    LaTeX is a free, automated state-of-the-art typesetting system. This book teaches all the ins and outs of LaTeX which are needed to write an article, report, thesis, or book. The book teaches by example, giving many worked out examples showing input and output side by side. The book presents the most recent techniques for presenting data plots, complex graphics, and computer presentations, but does not require previous knowledge. However, it is also a reference for the more seasoned user, with pointers to modern techniques and packages. Recurring themes in the book are consistent and effective

  18. More math into Latex

    CERN Document Server

    Grätzer, George

    2007-01-01

    For close to two decades, Math into Latex has been the standard introduction and complete reference for writing articles and books containing mathematical formulas. In this fourth edition, the reader is provided with important updates on articles and books. An important new topic is discussed: transparencies (computer projections). Key features of More Math into Latex, 4th edition: Installation instructions for PC and Mac users; An example-based, visual approach and a gentle introduction with the Short Course; A detailed exposition of multiline math formulas with a Visual Guide; A unified appr

  19. Latex allergy in health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Virtič

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of natural rubber latex medical gloves in the last three decades has caused an increase in latex allergy. The majority of risk groups for allergy development include health care workers, workers in the rubber industry, atopic individuals and children with congenital malformations. Three types of pathological reactions can occur in people using latex medical gloves: irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis and immediate hypersensitivity. The latex allergy is caused by constituent components of latex gloves and added powders; there are also numerous latex allergens involved in cross-reactivity between latex and fruits and vegetables, the so-called latex-fruit syndrome. The diagnosis is based on an accurate history of exposure, clinical presentation and confirmatory in vivo and in vitro tests. Prevention is the easiest, most effective and least expensive way to avoid latex allergy. Powder-free latex gloves with reduced levels of proteins and chemicals, and synthetic gloves for allergic workers must be provided in the work environment. There are already many health care institutions around the world where all latex products have been replaced by synthetic material products.

  20. Yeasts in Hevea brasiliensis Latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushakova, A M; Kachalkin, A V; Maksimova, I A; Chernov, I Yu

    2016-07-01

    Yeast abundance and species diversity in the latex of caoutchouc tree Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Juss.) M611. Arg., on its green leaves, and in soil below the plant Was studied. The yeasts present in the fresh latex in concentrations of up to 5.5 log(CFU/g) were almost exclusively represented by the species Candida heveicola, which was previously isolated from Hevea latex in China. In the course of natural modification of the latex yeast diversity increased, while yeast abundance decreased. The yeasts of thickened and solidified latex were represented by typical epiphytic and ubiquitous species: Kodamea ohmeri, Debaryomyces hansenii, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and synanthropic species Candida parapsilosis and Cutaneotrichosporon arbori- formis. The role of yeasts in latex modification at the initial stages of succession and their probable role in de- velopment of antifungal activity in the latex are discussed.

  1. Latex medical gloves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palosuo, Timo; Antoniadou, Irini; Gottrup, Finn

    2011-01-01

    Many hospitals have implemented policies to restrict or ban the use of devices made of natural rubber latex (NRL) in healthcare as precautionary measures against the perceived risk of NRL allergy. Changes in glove technology, progress in measuring the specific allergenic potential of gloves...

  2. Ethanopharmacological study of the aqueous, chloroform, ethanol leaves extracts and latex of Calotropisprocera in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ismaiel Ali-Abd Alrheam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calotropisprocera is a member of the plant family Asclepiadaceae, a shrub about 6m high and is widely distributed in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to show some medicinal potentials and biological activity of Calotropisprocera and to discover new natural, safe and effective materials available in the Saudi Arabia environment. Marerial and Methods:The leaves extracts and latex of Calotropisprocerawere investigated for its anti-hyperglycemic effect in Male Wister Albino rats. Diabetes was induced by administration of single dose of streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg, I.P. Forty two male albino rats, weighting 150-200 gm divided into seven groups, each consisted of 6 rats as follows: Group I : Normal control, Group II: Diabetic control, Group III: Diabetic rats given Glibenclamide 600 and #956;g/kg, Group IV: Diabetic rats given aqueous leaves extracts C. procera200mg/kg b. wt, Group V: Diabetic rats given chloroform leaves extracts C. procera200mg/kg b. wt, Group VI: Diabetic rats given ethanol leaves extracts C. procera200mg/kg b. wt, Group VII: Diabetic rats given latex of C. procera200mg/kg b. wt.The leaves extracts and latex of Calotropisprocera were administered as single dose per day to diabetes-induced rats for a period of 15 days.The effect of C. proceraon blood glucose level was measured in the diabetic rats. Serum lipid profile (Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density, and high density lipoprotein also were measured. The activities were also compared to that effect produced by a standard anti-diabetic agent, glibenclamide 500 and #956;g/kg. Results and Discussion:The results showed a significant decrease in the mean level of blood glucose and serum cholesterol, Triglycrides, HDL, LDL. Calotropisprocera appears to be a rich source of phytoconstituents that activate and inhence a pharmacological response of different parts of the body and this study need further studies to shows the complete properties of the

  3. phytochemical properties and antibacterial activities of the leaf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. A comparative preliminary study on the phytochemistry and antibacterial effects of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the leaves and latex of Calotropis procera on four pathogenic clinical bacterial isolates namely Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella species and Pseudomonas species was ...

  4. Nigerian Food Journal - Vol 31, No 1 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical, Toxicological, Biochemical and Haematological Studies on Avocado (Persea americana) in Experimental Animals · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL ... Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Aqueous and Organic Extracts of Calotropis procera Ait Leaf and Latex · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  5. Phytochemical properties and antibacterial activities of the leaf and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative preliminary study on the phytochemistry and antibacterial effects of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the leaves and latex of Calotropis procera on four pathogenic clinical bacterial isolates namely Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella species and Pseudomonas species was carried out using ...

  6. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences - Vol 2, No 1 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical properties and antibacterial activities of the leaf and latex extracts of calotropis procera (ait.f.) Ait.f. EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A Kawo, A Mustapha, B Abdullahi, L Rogo, Z Gaiya, A Kumurya, 34-40.

  7. Meat quality of lambs fed silk flower hay (Calotropis procera SW in the diet Qualidade de carne de cordeiros alimentados com feno de flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera SW na dieta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Germano Costa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of using silk flower hay replacing corn and soybean meal on physical-chemical and sensorial traits of lamb meat. It was used 32 intact Morada Nova male lambs (12.7 ± 2 kg initial body weigth on feedlot system, distributed in a completely randomized design with four levels (0, 15, 30 and 45% on dry matter basis. The use of silk flower hay in the diet influenced quality of meat and carcass, leg weight, tissue composition, moisture, juiciness and flavor. Replacing corn (26.67% and soybean (3.33% with silk flower hay does not affect the tissue composition, ratios and muscularity index of leg and physical-chemical parameters of semimembranosus muscle of Morada Nova lambs.Objetivou-se avaliar a influência do uso de feno de flor-de-seda em substituição ao milho e ao farelo de soja nas características físico-químicas e sensoriais da carne de cordeiros. Utilizaram-se 32 cordeiros Morada Nova, machos não-castrados (12,7 ± 2 kg de peso vivo inicial, em confinamento, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com quatro níveis (0, 15, 30 e 45% com base na MS. A utilização de feno de flor-de-seda na dieta influenciou a qualidade da carcaça e da carne, o peso da perna, a composição tecidual, a umidade, a suculência e o sabor. A substituição do milho (26,67% e da soja (3,33% pelo feno de flor-de-seda não altera composição tecidual, relação e índice de muscularidade da perna e os parâmetros físico-químicos do músculo semimembranosus de cordeiros Morada Nova.

  8. Produção de cenoura fertilizada com flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera (Ait. R.Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiele Leandro da Silva

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido na Fazenda Experimental Rafael Fernandes, no período de agosto 2011 a janeiro de 2012, com o objetivo de determinar a quantidade de flor-de-seda incorporada ao solo e o(s tipo(s de parcelamento (s dessa quantidade que devem ser usados no desempenho agronômico da cenoura. O delineamento experimental usado foi de blocos completos casualizados com três repetições, em esquema fatorial 4 x 3 (4 quantidades e 3 parcelamentos. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro quantidades de flor-de-seda (6; 19; 32 e 45 t ha-1 em base seca, parceladas em três proporções (30% 15 dias antes da semeadura (DAS + 70% aos 30 dias depois da semeadura (DDS, 40% aos 15 DAS + 60% aos DDS e 50% aos 15 DAS + 50% aos 30 DDS. A cultivar de cenoura plantada foi a 'Brasília'. As características avaliadas foram: altura de plantas, número de hastes por planta, massa seca da parte aérea, produtividade comercial, total e classificada de raízes. A maior performance agronômica da cenoura foi obtida na quantidade de 45 t ha-1 de flor-de-seda incorporada ao solo no parcelamento de 30% 15 dias antes da semeadura + 70% 30 dias depois da semeadura.

  9. Effets de supplémentation des feuilles séchées de Calotropis procera

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    et Siri, 2012). Cependant, le secteur de l'élevage demeure confronté à des contraintes de diverses natures parmi lesquelles la dégradation et la rareté des ..... production systems. Proc. Nut. Soc., 63: 631-639. DOI: 10.1079/. PNS2004396. Belem AMG, Kaboré A, Bessin R. 2005a. Gastrointestinal helminthes of sheep in.

  10. Effect of aqueous extract of silk cotton (Calotropis procera Ait. R.Br.) on the reproductive performance of Rhipicephalus microplus

    OpenAIRE

    Lázaro, S.F; Fonseca, L.D; Fernandes, R.C; Tolentino, J.S; Martins, E.R; Duarte, E.R.

    2012-01-01

    O carrapato Rhipicephalus microplus é um dos principais parasitos dos rebanhos bovinos. Diferentes grupos de carrapaticidas sintéticos têm sido empregados para o controle desse ácaro, contudo, o uso constante desses produtos tem selecionado populações resistentes. Na tentativa de minimizar esses impactos tem-se buscado avaliar fitoterápicos para o controle desse parasito. Assim, objetivou-se analisar a eficácia in vitro do extrato aquoso do algodão de seda em diferentes concentrações no contr...

  11. Latex allergy in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toraason, M; Sussman, G; Biagini, R; Meade, J; Beezhold, D; Germolec, D

    2000-11-01

    While less than 1% of the general population is sensitized to latex, the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration estimates that 8-12% of health-care workers are sensitized. The major source of workplace exposure is powdered natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves. NRL is harvested from HEVEA: brasiliensis trees and ammoniated to prevent coagulation resulting in the hydrolysis of the latex proteins. Prior to use in manufacturing, the latex is formulated by the addition of multiple chemicals. Thus, human exposure is to a mixture of residual chemicals and hydrolyzed latex peptides. Clinical manifestations include irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis (type IV), and type I immediate hypersensitivity response. Type I (IgE-mediated) NRL allergy includes contact urticaria, systemic urticaria, angioedema, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, bronchospasm, and anaphylaxis. Taking an accurate history, including questions on atopic status, food allergy, and possible reactions to latex devices makes diagnosis of type-I latex allergy possible. To confirm a diagnosis, either in vivo skin prick testing (SPT) or in vitro assays for latex-specific IgE are performed. While the SPT is regarded as a primary confirmatory test for IgE-mediated disease, the absence of a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-licensed HEVEA: brasiliensis latex extract has restricted its use in diagnosis. Serological tests have, therefore, become critically important as alternative diagnostic tests. Three manufacturers currently have FDA clearance for in vitro tests, to detect NRL-specific IgE. The commercially available assays may disagree on the antibody status of an individual serum, which may be due to the assay's detecting anti-NRL IgEs to different allergenic NRL proteins. Sensitized individuals produce specific IgE antibody to at least 10 potent HEVEA: allergens, Hev b 1-Hev b 10, each of which differs in its structure, size, and net charge. The relative content and ratios of Hevs in the

  12. [Latex allergy--Part I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chełmińska, Marta

    2004-01-01

    Natural rubber latex (NRL), is a resin sap produced in the cells of caoutchouc plants. It is a water dispersion of cis-1,4-polisopren (caoutchouc)--35%, stabilized with little amounts of proteins, sugar, alcohol, fatty acids and salts. The concentration of all solid substances is about 40%, the rest is water. Immunogenicity of latex depends on the proteins it contains. For many years we read in medical papers about the cases of contact urticaria, asthma, rhinitis, and anaphylaxis after contacting with latex products. It turns out that medical staff is the group of high occupational risk, because of exposure to gloves and other latex products. It is connected with the fact of high gloves usage caused by the danger of virus infections: HIV, HBV, HCV. Latex allergy is one of the reasons of dramatic complications after surgical operations. People who are allergic to latex may have cross reactions to allergens not connected with occupational environment. These are: food and houseplants (Ficus benjamina). The frequency of latex allergy is about 0.1% of the population. In the groups of high risk the frequency rises sharply. It is 17% among medical staff and it reaches 60% among children with spina bifida.

  13. Evaluation of effective parameters on fiber separation from calotropis stems in mechanical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Tarabi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Calotropis is an evergreen and perennial shrub that grows in tropical areas of Iran and has valuable fibers in the bark of its stem. Fibers obtained from Calotropis stem have 75% cellulose. Tensile strength and modulus of the fibers is more than Cotton and elongation of the fibers is higher than Linen fibers. Calotropis stem fibers are researched for paper pulp applications and also has been evaluated for some applications such as their fiber characteristics for cloth making. However, there are no more studies on Calotropis bark fibers and very limited information is available about fibers extraction methods. In traditional methods of extraction, the stems were wetted for a period of 8 days and then the fibers were separated manually. In another method that was common in south region of Iran, the dried stems were threshed by hand and the fibers were separated from the crushed stems manually. These methods need cumbersome works, and require long times for processing. Therefore the aim of this study is to develop an extraction method for Calotropis bark fibers based on mechanical ways. Investigation of some importance characteristics, e.g. moisture content and rotational speed on the performance of extraction machine is another objective of this study. Materials and Methods Considering that the fibers are in the bark of the stems, extracting principle is based on bark separation by pushing of stems against some pairs of sharp blades. Since diameter of stems is variable, it is essential that the designed system to be capable of auto-adjusting for different diameters. So the stems were fed through the blades, via two serrated rollers. The roller, blade and other parts of a separated unit were tightened to a yoke, so when thick stems are inserted, the roller compresses the spring and moves up, as a result, the blade was pulled up. The Yoke was connected to the frame through two long screws. For complete debarking and fibers extraction

  14. 40 CFR 428.100 - Applicability; description of the latex-dipped, latex-extruded, and latex-molded rubber subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... latex-dipped, latex-extruded, and latex-molded rubber subcategory. 428.100 Section 428.100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex-Dipped, Latex-Extruded, and Latex-Molded Rubber Subcategory § 428.100...

  15. Latex allergy and filaggrin null mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit C; Meldgaard, Michael; Hamann, Dathan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Natural rubber latex (NRL) contains over 200 proteins of which 13 have been identified as allergens and the cause of type I latex allergy. Health care workers share a high occupational risk for developing latex allergy. Filaggrin null mutations increase the risk of type I sensitizations...... to aeroallergens and it is possible that filaggrin null mutations also increase the risk of latex allergy. The aim of this paper was to examine the association between filaggrin null mutations and type I latex allergy. Methods Twenty latex allergic and 24 non-latex allergic dentists and dental assistants......, occupationally exposed to latex, were genotyped for filaggrin null mutations R501X and 2282del4. Latex allergy was determined by a positive reaction or a historical positive reaction to a skin prick test with NRL. Results 41 individuals were successfully genotyped. Three individuals were filaggrin mutation...

  16. Cream concentrated latex for foam rubber products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksup, R.; Imkaew, C.; Smitthipong, W.

    2017-12-01

    Fresh natural latex (around 40% rubber and 60% water) can be transformed to concentrated natural latex (around 60% rubber and 40% water) in order to realise economical transportation and easier latex product’s preparation. The concentrated natural latex is an extremely valuable material. It can be applied for many types of products, for example, foam rubber as pillow and mattress, elastic band, etc. Industrially, the concentrated natural latex can be prepared by centrifugation which requires an enormous expensive machine. From the eco-friendly products point of view, most of rubber entrepreneurs in the world try to develop a green rubber product. So, the main objective of this study is to prepare the cream concentrated latex without any sophisticated machine. Thus, we work on a simple, cheap and green method that does not use any expensive machine but uses water-based chemical as sodium alginate to prepare the cream concentrated latex. The optimal amount of sodium alginate in the latex was studied. The main characteristics of the cream concentrated latex were tested by various technics, such as alkalinity, total solid content (TSC), dry rubber content (DRC), etc. We found that there are no significant differences of results between fresh natural latex and cream concentrated latex, except for the TSC and DRC. The TSC and DRC of cream latex are higher than those of fresh natural latex. Finally, we propose a model of natural rubber particle and sodium alginate to form the cream concentrated latex.

  17. Biopesticide activity of crude extracts and fractions of Calotropis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ethyl acetate fraction (35 ± 0.71 eggs) or a respective rate of reduction of spawning 52.93% and 63.25% compared to the control. After characterization of reactions, it is clear from this study that the bioactivity of extracts of C. procera is likely related to suspected active compounds (alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, anthracene ...

  18. The latex story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulf, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The milky sap of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis is the source of the commercial production of natural rubber latex (NRL) devices, and also represents a source of potent allergenic proteins. NRL materials were introduced in the health care field in about 1840 with the advent of technical abilities to produce suitable and flexible NRL materials for medical products, especially gloves. In the late 1980s, with the increase of transmittable diseases, particularly HIV infection, the use of NRL gloves increased dramatically. During the 1990s, NRL emerged as a major cause of clinically relevant allergy in health care workers using NRL gloves and spina bifida patients with operation on the first day. The increased recognition of NRL allergies, the enhanced research on allergen characterization and sensitization mechanisms, and education about this allergy in health care facilities combined with the introduction of powder-free gloves with reduced protein levels are all factors associated with a decline in the number of suspected cases of NRL allergies in the late 1990s. NRL allergy is a very good example of a 'new allergy' that suddenly arises with tremendous health and economic implications, and also of an allergy which becomes history in a relatively short period of time based on successful primary prevention strategies by strict allergen avoidance. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. EVALUATION OF LOW-VOC LATEX PAINTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of four commercially available low-VOC (volatile organic compound) latex paints as substitutes for conventional latex paints by assessing both their emission characteristics and their performance as coatings. Bulk analysis indicated that ...

  20. Rare earth elements in parasol mushroom Macrolepiota procera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Sapkota, Atindra; Mędyk, Małgorzata; Feng, Xinbin

    2017-04-15

    This study aimed to investigate occurrence and distribution of 16 rare earth elements (REEs) in edible saprobic mushroom Macrolepiota procera, and to estimate possible intake and risk to human consumer. Mushrooms samples were collected from sixteen geographically diverse sites in the northern regions of Poland. The results showed that for Ce as the most abundant among the RREs in edible caps, the mean concentration was at 0.18±0.29mgkg -1 dry biomass. The mean concentration for Σ16 REEs determined in caps of fungus was 0.50mgkg -1 dry biomass and in whole fruiting bodies was 0.75mgkg -1 dry biomass. From a point of view by consumer, the amounts of REEs contained in edible caps of M. procera could be considered small. Hence, eating a tasty caps of this fungus would not result in a health risk for consumer because of exposure to the REEs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Parametric characterizations in superparamagnetic latex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of synthesis parameters on the production of superparamagnetic latex, which are magnetite nanoparticles covered with a poly(methyl methacrylate) layer, ... Chemistry Department, Science and Literature Faculty, Balikesir University, 10145 Balikesir, Turkey; Physics Department, Science and Literature Faculty, ...

  2. Latex Allergy - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Athma Prasanna

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The usage of rubber and its products are not uncommon in various walks of life. A continuous exposure or contact may sensitize the human body, causing reactions from mild to fatal. Despite the availability of the literature, medical personnel are still unaware of the implications of the use of latex materials.

  3. Integration of latex protein sequence data provides comprehensive functional overview of latex proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Won Kyong; Jo, Yeonhwa; Chu, Hyosub; Park, Sang-Ho; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2014-03-01

    The laticiferous system is one of the most important conduit systems in higher plants, which produces a milky-like sap known as latex. Latex contains diverse secondary metabolites with various ecological functions. To obtain a comprehensive overview of the latex proteome, we integrated available latex proteins sequences and constructed a comprehensive dataset composed of 1,208 non-redundant latex proteins from 20 various latex-bearing plants. The results of functional analyses revealed that latex proteins are involved in various biological processes, including transcription, translation, protein degradation and the plant response to environmental stimuli. The results of the comparative analysis showed that the functions of the latex proteins are similar to those of phloem, suggesting the functional conservation of plant vascular proteins. The presence of latex proteins in mitochondria and plastids suggests the production of diverse secondary metabolites. Furthermore, using a BLAST search, we identified 854 homologous latex proteins in eight plant species, including three latex-bearing plants, such as papaya, caster bean and cassava, suggesting that latex proteins were newly evolved in vascular plants. Taken together, this study is the largest and most comprehensive in silico analysis of the latex proteome. The results obtained here provide useful resources and information for characterizing the evolution of the latex proteome.

  4. Relevance of latex aeroallergen for healthcare workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Baur

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The dispersion of latex allergen bound on glove powder has been shown to be of clinical importance to latex-sensitized medical staff and patients. To investigate whether latex aeroallergen is associated with the development of latex allergic reactions in health care workers, air samples were collected in 33 hospital rooms and two physicians' offices. Concentrations of latex allergens in the samples were determined by a competitive inhibition immunoassay and related to reported hypersensitivity reactions and to specific IgE results of 111 staff members engaged in these rooms. Latex aeroallergen (up to 205 ng/m3 could be detected in all rooms where powdered latex gloves were used and ventilation systems were not installed. Conjunctivitis (n=10, rhinitis (n=12 and dyspnea (n=4 were reported exclusively by employees working in such contaminated rooms. Also workers with latex-specific IgE antibodies (n=l 7 were found only in these rooms. Urticaria in personnel (n=26 was reported in rooms with and without detectable allergen load. All symptoms were significantly associated with latex-specific IgE antibodies. Our results demonstrate that immediate-type sensitization and allergic symptoms are associated with detectable latex aeroallergen.

  5. [Latex allergy. Diagnosis and therapeutic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Palacios, A

    2001-01-01

    In the last two decades of the 20th century, latex allergy has reached epidemic proportions. Epidemiological studies demonstrate that 3-25 % of health personnel is allergic to latex. The main risk groups are health workers, machine operators in latex factories, and children with spina bifida and urogenital anomalies. From the allergenic point of view, latex contains 240 peptides but approximately 50 are able to react to IgE. Latex elongation factor Hevdl is the relevant allergen in patients with spina bifida. Prohevein (hev B6) behaves as a major allergen, since it reacts to IgE in most of the sera of patients with latex allergy. The nature of latex is complex; it is an allergenic mixture that depends on chemical, immunological and epidemiological variables. Latex proteins show strong cross reactivity with several proteins from fruit and vegetable grains such as avocado, potato, banana, tomato, chestnut, and kiwi. In vivo studies have shown that class I chitinase from avocado and chestnut behave as major allergens in allergic patients with latex-fruit syndrome. The clinical manifestations related to the use of latex products depend on the type of exposure, the amount of the allergen, and individual variability. The most useful diagnostic method is the skin prick test. Several perioperative guidelines are recommended in patients sensitized to latex as well as various alternatives to rubber gloves. An increasing number of studies describe the efficacy of etiological treatment (immunotherapy), using different guidelines and routes of administration. These preliminary data encourage the hope that in the near future immunomodulatory therapy will be available to mitigate against the latex allergy epidemic.

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Allergenicity of latex rubber products used in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , to minimise the risk of sensitisation to these proteins. Background. Allergens from latex products in health care settings are known to trigger latex-induced allergic reactions in HCWs. Adverse effects associated with the use of latex rubber ...

  7. Effect of irradiation on the prevulcanized latex/low nitrosamines latex blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Pairu; Zin, Wan Manshol Wan [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Daik, Rusli [Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,43600 bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Radiation Prevulcanized Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL) was blended with Low Nitrosamines Latex (LNL) at different composition ratio. Methyl Metachrylate (MMA) was added for grafting onto the blended latex. Blended latex was subjected to gamma irradiation at various doses up to 8kGy. The mechanical properties and FTIR analysis were investigated as a function of the blended composition and irradiation dose. It was found that blending at specific ratio and gamma irradiation at specific dose led to significant improvement on the properties of the latex. The optimum mechanical properties was attained at a total blending ratio of 70% RVNRL and 30% of LNL.

  8. Latex Allergy In Health Care Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayriye Sarıcaoğlu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: We aimed to determine the frequency of latex allergy in our hospital and to to evaluate the clinical and demographical features of the cases.Materials and Methods: A detailed questionnaire was administered to healthcare workers by a physician. Skin prick test with latex and patch test with rubber chemicals and a piece of latex glove were performed for all healthcare workers. Latex-specific IgE was measured in serum.Results: The study sample consisted of 36 nurses, 14 doctors, and 50 healthcare workers. While 46 subjects had symptoms, 54 subjects had no symptoms. The relationship of clinical disease with working duration, exposure duration (hour/day, history of atopy, and drug/food allergies was statistically significant. Five nurses and 1 healthcare worker had positive skin prick test. Two of them had positive latex-specific IgE. Positive skin prick test statistically significantly correlated with occupation, working duration, exposure duration (hour/day and positive latex-specific IgE. Two nurses and 2 healthcare workers had positive latex-specific IgE. Two of them had positive skin prick test. Positive latexspecific IgE statistically significantly correlated with working duration, exposure duration, and positive skin prick test. Patch test with a piece of latex glove was negative in all subjects. Three healthcare workers had positive patch test with thiuram-mix, one of them had also positive patch test with mercaptobenzothiazole.Discussion: One of the risk factors for latex allergy is occupations involving frequent exposure to latex products. Latex allergy should be taken into consideration if type I hypersensitivity reactions occur in occupational groups at risk for anaphylactic reaction.

  9. Ficus sycomorus latex: A thermostable peroxidase

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-30

    Nov 30, 2011 ... cannabinoids and tannins (Evert, 2006). Latex not only serves as a repository for natural products but also exhibit unique proteomes, including ..... characias latex contained 1 mol of endogenous calcium per mol of enzyme; removal of this calcium ion resulted in almost complete loss of the enzyme activity.

  10. RADIATION INDUCED VULCANIZATION OF RUBBER LATEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesrobian, R.B.; Ballantine, D.S.; Metz, D.J.

    1964-04-28

    A method of vulcanizing rubber latex by exposing a mixture containing rubber latex and from about 15 to about 21.3 wt% of 2,5-dichlorostyrene to about 1.1 megarads of gamma radiation while maintaining the temperature of the mixture at a temperature ranging between from about 56 to about 59 deg C is described. (AEC)

  11. Relationships between physiological parameters of latex and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural rubber must be technically specified for various uses. Variability in technological properties of raw nat-ural rubber leads to problems of grading. A study was conducted to establish relationships between physio-logical parameters of latex and technological properties of the raw rubber. The latex samples were ...

  12. Writing with LateX

    OpenAIRE

    Pokutta, Sebastian

    2003-01-01

    Almost all publications in mathematics and other natural sciences are originally created using LaTeX. This format has many advantages, especially concerning the retrieval of information. Moreover, given a LaTeX-document, it is possible to generate almost every customary format, for instance, one can easily obtain the corresponding dvi-, ps-, or pdf-file. In contrast to its importance, however, the LaTeX-format has been widely neglected in many library projects. The question concerning us in ...

  13. Comparison of the fit of Procera crowns made from stone with those made from polyurethane resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahme, Habib Y; Adib, Salim M; Zebouni, Elie A; Bechara, Boulos B; Rifai, Khaldoun T

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the average marginal gap of Procera crowns fabricated from a definitive cast made from polyurethane resin with those made from type IV stone. A metallic maxillary central incisor and first premolar were prepared according to the Procera guidelines and incorporated into a U-shaped definitive cast. From this definitive cast, 20 primary casts were made in polyurethane resin. Two sets of impressions (10 with type IV stone and 10 with polyurethane resin) were made and poured onto these casts. Forty pure aluminum oxide substructures for Procera crowns were made for these groups, with 10 incisors and 10 premolars in each group. Each substructure was cemented on the respective primary die and sectioned. Using an optical microscope and special software, sections were measured and compared for marginal adaptation. Based on the findings, both materials were equally adequate for producing a Procera crown. However, the mean margin gap was consistently larger for type IV stone dies than for polyurethane resin dies.

  14. Jackfruit anaphylaxis in a latex allergic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongrakpanich, Supakanya; Klaewsongkram, Jettanong; Chantaphakul, Hiroshi; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

    2015-03-01

    Several fruits have been reported to crossreact with latex antigen in latex allergy patients but little is known regarding tropical fruits in particular. Here we report the case of a 34-year old nurse who developed anaphylaxis following the ingestion of dried jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus). The patient had a history of chronic eczema on both hands resulting from a regular wear of latex gloves. She and her family also had a history of atopy (allergic rhinitis and/or atopic dermatitis). The results of skin prick tests were positive for jackfruit, latex glove, kiwi and papaya, but the test was negative for banana. While we are reporting the first case of jackfruit anaphylaxis, further research needs to be conducted to identify the mechanisms underlying it. In particular, in-vitro studies need to be designed to understand if the anaphylaxis we describe is due to a cross reactivity between latex and jackfruit or a coincidence of allergy to these 2 antigens.

  15. Transcript Profiling of Hevea brasiliensis during Latex Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jinquan; Yang, Shuguang; Chen, Yueyi; Tian, Wei-Min

    2017-01-01

    Latex exploitation enhances latex regeneration in rubber trees. The latex exploitation-caused latex flow lasts from 10 min to a few hours, which is convenient for exploring the transcript profiling of latex metabolism-related genes at the different stages of latex flow. In the present study, the expression pattern of 62 latex metabolism-related genes involved in water transportation, carbohydrate metabolism, natural rubber biosynthesis, hormone signaling, ROS generation and scavenging, and latex coagulum across three stages of latex flow between rubber tree clones CATAS7-33-97 and CATAS8-79 were comparatively analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. The two clones show differences in latex regeneration and have a different duration of latex flow. The results showed that the expression levels of 38 genes were significantly higher in CATAS8-79 latex than in CATAS7-33-97 during latex regeneration, while 45 genes had a notably higher expression level in CATAS8-79 latex during latex flow. Together with the activation of the MEP pathway and jasmonate pathway in CATAS8-79 latex, HbPIP1;3, HbPIP1;4, HbSUT3, HbSus3, HbHMGS1-2, HbMK should contribute to the high latex regeneration ability. The up-regulation of ethylene signaling and Hb44KD and the down-regulation of latex coagulation-related genes in CATAS8-79 latex might contribute to its longer latex flow duration. This study provides some cues for revealing the regulation of latex metabolism in rubber trees. PMID:29163621

  16. Transcript Profiling of Hevea brasiliensis during Latex Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinquan Chao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Latex exploitation enhances latex regeneration in rubber trees. The latex exploitation-caused latex flow lasts from 10 min to a few hours, which is convenient for exploring the transcript profiling of latex metabolism-related genes at the different stages of latex flow. In the present study, the expression pattern of 62 latex metabolism-related genes involved in water transportation, carbohydrate metabolism, natural rubber biosynthesis, hormone signaling, ROS generation and scavenging, and latex coagulum across three stages of latex flow between rubber tree clones CATAS7-33-97 and CATAS8-79 were comparatively analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. The two clones show differences in latex regeneration and have a different duration of latex flow. The results showed that the expression levels of 38 genes were significantly higher in CATAS8-79 latex than in CATAS7-33-97 during latex regeneration, while 45 genes had a notably higher expression level in CATAS8-79 latex during latex flow. Together with the activation of the MEP pathway and jasmonate pathway in CATAS8-79 latex, HbPIP1;3, HbPIP1;4, HbSUT3, HbSus3, HbHMGS1-2, HbMK should contribute to the high latex regeneration ability. The up-regulation of ethylene signaling and Hb44KD and the down-regulation of latex coagulation-related genes in CATAS8-79 latex might contribute to its longer latex flow duration. This study provides some cues for revealing the regulation of latex metabolism in rubber trees.

  17. Allergenicity of latex rubber products used in South African dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Latex sensitisation is recognised as a health problem among health care workers (HCWs) using latex products. The aim of this study was to quantify specific latex allergens in latex devices used in South African academic dental schools. The current study also compared the total protein content and the levels of ...

  18. Reinforcement of latex rubber by the incorporation of amphiphilic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latex rubbers are fabricated from latex suspensions. During the fabrication process, latex particles are bound together while water is removed from the suspension. This report shows that the mechanical properties of latex rubbers can be improved by incorporating a small amount of amphiphilic submicr...

  19. Precision of fit: the Procera AllCeram crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, K B; Russell, M M; Razzoog, M E; Lang, B R

    1998-10-01

    Strength, color stability, and precision of fit are requirements for all-ceramic restorations. The Procera AllCeram crown system, composed of a densely sintered high-purity alumina core combined with a low fusing surface porcelain, appears to satisfy most of these requirements. However, evaluation of marginal fit has not been reported. This study measured the precision of fit of the Procera AllCeram crown fabricated with Procera CAD/CAM technology for the premolar and molar teeth fit to a die. Five ivorine maxillary first premolars and first molars were prepared for full-coverage crowns. Preparations were standardized with a convergence angle of 10 degrees, chamfer margins of 1.3 to 1.5 mm circumferentially, and occlusal reduction of 2.0 mm. AllCeram crowns were fabricated for the dies, and the fit of the crown to the die was determined by using a standardized procedure with a silicone impression material that served a dual role: (1) as a retrievable luting agent, and (2) to replicate the internal aspects of the crown. Laser videography was used to measure the gap dimension between the crowns and the dies at the marginal opening, the axial wall, the cusp tip, and the occlusal adaptation measurement locations. Mean gap dimensions and standard deviations (SDs) were calculated for marginal opening, internal adaptation, and precision of fit. Mean gap dimensions and standard deviations at the marginal opening for the premolar and molar crowns were 56.0 microns SD +/- 21 and 63.0 microns SD +/- 13 microns, respectively. The mean gap dimensions and SDs of the internal adaptation were 69.0 microns SD +/- 17 microns for axial wall, 48.0 microns SD +/- 12 microns for cusp tip, and 36.0 microns SD +/- 7 microns for occlusal adaptation for the premolar crowns; and 49.0 microns SD +/- 3 microns axial wall, 67.0 microns SD +/- 21 microns cusp tip, and 74.0 microns SD +/- 29 microns occlusal adaptation for molar crowns. Precision of fit and SDs for premolar and molar crowns were

  20. CNS activity of leaves extract of Calotropis gigantea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Dattatraya Ghule

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study central nervous system activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Calotropis gigantea (C. gigantea (Asclepiadaceae, such as anticonvulsant, sedative and muscle relaxation activity. Methods: The ethanolic extract of C. gigantea administered orally in experimental animals at different doses 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg body weight. The anticonvulsant properties were studied on maximal electroshock test and strychnine-induced convulsions model. Sedative property studied using actophotometer and skeletal muscle relaxant property studied using rota rod. Results: This extract protected rats against maximal electroshock induced seizures, but had no or a moderate effect only against strychnine-induced seizures. Locomotor activity in mice found to be decreased and motor coordination was also decreased. The acute toxicity study revealed safely of the extract up to a dose of 2 000 mg/kg. Conclusions: With these effects, the leaves of C. gigantea possess anticonvulsant sedative and muscle relaxant effect that might explain its use as a traditional medicine.

  1. [Latex allergy in a population at risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Fernández, M; Flores Sandoval, G; Orea Solano, M

    1999-01-01

    The allergy to latex is an illness whose prevalence has been increased in very significant form in the last years. To know the allergy incidence to latex in population of risk, as well as to identify the related sintomatology and the importance or paper that play the atopia antecedents and time of contact with latex for the development of the illness. We carry out a prospective, descriptive, experimental and traverse study in population of risk, in the service of Allergy and clinical Immunology of the Hospital Regional Lic. Adolfo López Mateos, ISSSTE. One hundred patients of both sexes were included, with age of 20 to 50 years, with the antecedent of being personal medical and paramedic and to have presented contact with latex material in a minimum period of one year. They were carried out clinical history with registration of sintomatology nasal, bronchial, cutaneous and associated to contact with latex. They were carried out cutaneous test for prick to latex with positive control with the help of histamine solution and negative control with solution of Evans and immediate reading of the same one. 22% of the patients in study, they presented positive skin test latex, with a time of exhibition 10 year-old average, 68% presented antecedent of atopy personal, family and, likewise the associate sintomatology was in a 33.3% dermatology, 54.5 nasal, nobody presented bronchial symptoms and a 9% asymptomatic was reported. We support that the immediate skin test latex for Prick is an important parameter of support diagnosis for allergy to type 1 latex.

  2. Catalysis by Polymer Latexes and Dendrimers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ford, Warren

    1999-01-01

    ... were shown to depend mainly on the ability of the latex to sorb the organic reactant from water. The catalysts were active for hydrolysis of organophosphates in aqueous NaOH at phosphate concentrations as high...

  3. Efeito do extrato aquoso do algodão de seda (Calotropis procera Aiton) sobre a eficiência reprodutiva do carrapato bovino

    OpenAIRE

    Lázaro,S.F; Fonseca,L.D; Fernandes,R.C; Tolentino,J.S; Martins,E.R; Duarte,E.R.

    2012-01-01

    O carrapato Rhipicephalus microplus é um dos principais parasitos dos rebanhos bovinos. Diferentes grupos de carrapaticidas sintéticos têm sido empregados para o controle desse ácaro, contudo, o uso constante desses produtos tem selecionado populações resistentes. Na tentativa de minimizar esses impactos tem-se buscado avaliar fitoterápicos para o controle desse parasito. Assim, objetivou-se analisar a eficácia in vitro do extrato aquoso do algodão de seda em diferentes concentrações no contr...

  4. Comparison of fit accuracy between Procera® custom abutments and three implant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais Alves da Cunha, Tiago; de Araújo, Roberto Paulo Correia; da Rocha, Paulo Vicente Barbosa; Amoedo, Rosa Maria Pazos

    2012-12-01

    Although increase of misfit has been reported when associating implant and abutment from different manufacturers, Procera custom abutment has been universally used in clinical practice. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the vertical gap of zirconia Procera® abutment associated with implants from the same manufacturer (Procera manufacturer) and two other implant systems. Twenty-four zirconia Procera abutments were produced using computer-assisted design and manufacture and paired with (a) eight MK III, RP 4.1 × 10 mm implants (Nobel Biocare™, Göteborg, Sweden) - GNB group (Nobel Biocare group); (b) eight Try on, 4.1 × 10 mm implants (Sistema de Implantes, São Paulo, Brazil) - ES group (SIN experimental group) ; and (c) eight Master screw, 4.1 × 10 mm implants (Conexão® Sistema de Prótese, São Paulo, Brazil) - EC group (Conexão experimental group). A comparison of the vertical misfit at the implant-abutment interface was taken at six measuring sites on each sample using scanning electron microscopy with a magnification of 408×. One-way analysis of variance was used to test for differences, and Tukey's test was used for pair-wise comparison of groups (α = 0.05). Significant differences relative to average misfit were found when Procera abutments were associated with other implant manufacturers. The ES group and EC group did not differ significantly, but both demonstrated significantly larger average misfit than the GNB group (p = .001). The average misfit was 5.7 µm ± 0.39, 9.53 µm ± 0.52, and 10.62 µm ± 2.16, respectively, for groups GNB, ES, and EC. The association of Procera zirconia abutment with other implant systems different from its manufacturer demonstrated significant alteration of vertical misfit at implant-abutment interface. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Low prevalence of latex allergy in children with spinal dysraphism in non-latex-free environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Hanan; Aharony, Shachar; Levy, Yael; Sivan, Bezalel; Baniel, Jack; Ben Meir, David

    2016-02-01

    Studies in the past have shown that children with spinal dysraphism have highly prevalent latex allergy. These children have a spectrum of congenital spinal anomalies, caused by defects in neural tube closure, with an incidence of 1 in 1000 births. Proposed risk factors for latex allergy include multiple surgeries since birth, including an insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, elevated IgE titers, repeat multiple catheterizations, and atopy. In the 1990 s, studies published in the United States and Europe showed a latex allergy prevalence of over 70% in these patients. On the other hand, studies published years later in other countries showed a declining prevalence of no more than 17%. Our goal was to prospectively assess the prevalence of latex allergy in children with spinal dysraphism in our non-latex free environment center compared with a control group. The study group included 58 children with spinal dysraphism attending our center between 2010 and 2013. Findings were compared to 65 children referred for evaluation of allergic diseases. The parents completed questionnaires assessing personal and familial history of allergic diseases. All children were tested for blood latex IgE-specific antibodies (IMMULITE 2000). The mean age was 120.9 (67.6) months in the study group and 129.5 (68.5) months in the control group (p = 0.27). The corresponding median number of surgical procedures was 2 (range 0-10) and 0 (range 0-4), and mean duration of clean intermittent catheterization was 52 (72.2) months in the study group. Positive IgE antibodies and clinical allergic reactions were low with very similar prevalence in both groups (Figure). Our results show considerable lower latex allergy and sensitization than studies published in the United States and Europe in the past, despite the fact that our center utilizes minimal avoidance measures for latex allergy. Study limitations include the relatively small number of patients in our single-center study. Moreover, our

  6. Hypersensitivity to latex and Ficus benjamina allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbourg, M F; Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Guilloux, L; Ville, G

    1995-12-01

    Association between allergy to Ficus benjamina and Hevea brasiliensis, two botanically unrelated plants, was suspected in consequence of two clinical observations. Symptoms were rhinitis and asthma. This study was undertaken to assess the in vivo and in vitro cross-reactivity between Ficus benjamina and Hevea brasiliensis allergens. The two patients were asked about use and contact with latex devices and relationship between symptoms and Ficus benjamina exposure. Skin prick tests were performed with Ficus benjamina, Hevea brasiliensis extracts and common allergens. Double-blind nasal and bronchial challenge tests were done using the rinse fluid from a brand of latex gloves. Total and specific IgE antibodies to Ficus benjamina and Hevea brasiliensis were determined. In vitro cross-reactivity was investigated by means of CAP RAST and immunodot inhibition experiments. We observed that for the first patient the primary phenomenon is probably allergy to latex followed by allergy to Ficus benjamina. For the second patient, allergy to Ficus benjamina was diagnosed (improvement related to the avoidance of exposure to Ficus benjamina allergens) and positivity to latex skin prick tests may be due to the cross-reacting allergens. In vitro assays showed specific IgE antibodies to both allergens and cross-reactivity was confirmed in the two cases by reciprocal inhibition of the two extracts. The increasing risk of sensitization to widely used latex devices and extensive exposure to Ficus species in households and offices indicates increased allergenic risk from this newly recognized cross-reactivity.

  7. The Morphology of Emulsion Polymerized Latex Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wignall, G. D.; Ramakrishnan, V. R.; Linne, M. A.; Klein, A.; Sperling, L. H.; Wai, M. P.; Gelman, R. A.; Fatica, M. G.; Hoerl, R. H.; Fisher, L. W.

    1987-11-01

    Under monomer starved feed conditions, emulsion polymerization of perdeuterated methyl methacrylate and styrene in the presence of preformed polymethylmethacrylate latexes resulted in particles with a core-shell morphology, as determined by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis for a hollow sphere. The locus of polymerization of the added deuterated monomer is therefore at the particle surface. In similar measurements a statistical copolymer of styrene and methyl methacrylate was used as seed particles for further polymerization of trideuteromethyl methacrylate. The resulting polymer latex was again shown to have a core-shell morphological structure as determined by SANS. SANS experiments were also undertaken on polystyrene latexes polymerized by equilibrium swelling methods, with deuterated polymer forming the first or second step. The experiments covered a molecular weight range of 6 x 10{sup 4} 10{sup 6} the molecular weights are consistent with the experimental errors, indicating that the deuterium labeled molecules are randomly distributed in the latex. These results led to the finding that the polymer chains were constrained in the latex particles by factors of 2 to 4 from the relaxed coil dimensions. For M < 10{sup 6} g/mol SANS gave zero angle scattering intensities much higher than expected on the basis of a random distribution of labeled molecules. Several models were examined, including the possible development of core-shell structures at lower molecular weights.

  8. The morphology of emulsion polymerized latex particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wignall, G.D.; Ramakrishnan, V.R.; Linne, M.A.; Klein, A.; Sperling, L.H.; Wai, M.P.; Gelman, R.A.; Fatica, M.G.; Hoerl, R.H.; Fisher, L.W.

    1987-11-01

    Under monomer starved feed conditions, emulsion polymerization of perdeuterated methyl methacrylate and styrene in the presence of preformed polymethylmethacrylate latexes resulted in particles with a core-shell morphology, as determined by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis for a hollow sphere. The locus of polymerization of the added deuterated monomer is therefore at the particle surface. In similar measurements a statistical copolymer of styrene and methyl methacrylate was used as seed particles for further polymerization of trideuteromethyl methacrylate. The resulting polymer latex was again shown to have a core-shell morphological structre as determined by SANS. SANS experiments were also undertaken on polystyrene latexes polymerized by equilibrium swelling methods, with deuterated polymer forming the first or second step. The experiments covered a molecular weight range of 6 x 10/sup 4/ < M < 6 x 10/sup 6/ g/mol. For M > 10/sup 6/ the molecular weights are consistent with the experimental errors, indicating that the deuterium labeled molecules are randomly distributed in the latex. These results led to the finding that the polymer chains were constrained in the latex particles by factors of 2 to 4 from the relaxed coil dimensions. For M < 10/sup 6/ g/mol SANS gave zero angle scattering intensities much higher than expected on the basis of a random distribution of labeled molecules. Several models were examined, including the possible development of core-shell structures at lower molecular weights. 25 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION AND RECYCLING OF WASTE WATER FROM GUAYULE LATEX EXTRACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guayule commercialization for latex production to be used in medical products and other applications is now a reality. Currently, waste water following latex extraction is discharged into evaporation ponds. As commercialization reaches full scale, the liquid waste stream from latex extraction will b...

  10. LaTeX for Agricultural Extension Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaTeX is a free open source document preparation system for professional quality documents and presentation materials. Extension professionals, trying to reach their audience though various forms of printed and online resources, can benefit from the vast potential of LaTeX. Using LaTeX empowers the ...

  11. TRITERPENE COMPOUNDS FROM THE LATEX OF FICUS SUR I ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two pentacyclic triterpenoids of oleanane and ursene structures have been isolated from the latex of the Ficus sur. The compounds isolated from the latex are naturally acetylated in the 3-position and their structures have been elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic studies. KEY WORDS: Latex, Ficus sur, Moraceae, ...

  12. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Calotropis gigantea and their potential mosquito larvicidal property

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years the utilization of secondary metabolites from plant extract has emerged as a novel technology for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of plant synthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Calotropis gigan...

  13. Emotion with tears decreases allergic responses to latex in atopic eczema patients with latex allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, Hajime

    2006-07-01

    Allergic responses are enhanced by stress, whereas they are reduced by laughter in atopic eczema patients. Emotion with tears decreases plasma IL-6 levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Thus, the effect of emotion with tears on allergic responses in patients with atopic eczema was studied. Sixty patients with atopic eczema having latex allergy viewed both the weather information video and the heart-warming movie, Kramer vs. Kramer. Just before and immediately after viewing each video, allergic responses to latex were measured. Viewing the weather information video did not cause emotion with tears in any patients, and it failed to modulate allergic responses. In contrast, viewing Kramer vs. Kramer caused emotion with tears in 44 of 60 patients, and it reduced allergic skin wheal responses to latex and latex-specific IgE production in them. Emotion with tears reduced allergic responses, and it may be useful in the treatment of allergic diseases.

  14. Exploiting epoxidized natural rubber latex (ENRL) as a starting raw material for latex-based products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siti Nor Qamarina, M.; Fatimah Rubaizah, M. R.; Nurul Suhaira, A.; Norhanifah, M. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Epoxidized natural rubber latex (ENRL) is a chemically modified natural rubber latex produced from epoxidation process that involves usage of organic peracids. Conversion of the ENRL into dry rubber products has been known to exhibit many beneficial properties, however limited published works were found on diversifiying the ENRL latex-based products applications. In this preliminary work, different source of raw materials and neutralization systems were investigated. The objective was to explore possibilities in producing distinctive ENRL. Findings have demonstrated that different source of raw materials and neutralization systems influenced the typical ENRL specifications, stability behavior and particle size distribution. Morphological observations performed on these ENRL systems appeared to agree with the ENRL characteristics achieved. Since experimenting these two main factors resulted in encouraging ENRL findings, detailed work shall be further scrutinized to search for an optimum condition in producing marketable ENRL specifically for latex-based products applications.

  15. Latex glove sensitivity amongst diagnostic imaging healthcare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... gloves prior to this investigation. The paper concludes that latex hypersensitivity is a real problem amongst diagnostic imaging healthcare personnel in our locality. This preliminary work, therefore, provides the basis of a much larger controlled study in the future. African Journal of Health Sciences Vol. 15 (1&2) 2008: pp.

  16. Latex allergy in dentistry: clinical cases report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raggio, D.P.; Camargo, L.B.; Naspitz, G.M.C.C.; Politano, G.T.; Bonifacio, C.C.; Mendes, F.M.; Kierstman, F.

    2010-01-01

    Generally natural rubber latex (NRL) allergy is detected after some exposition to the material. As NRL is commonly found in different materials used daily in dental clinic, the allergy can be manifested in the pediatric dentistry clinic. The first clinical manifestation can be smooth but also

  17. Shear viscosity of an ordering latex suspension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vorst, A.M.; van der Vorst, B.; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Aelmans, N.J.J.; Mellema, J.

    1997-01-01

    The shear viscosity of a latex which is ordered at rest is studied as a function of the shear rate and volume fraction. At low shear rates and for moderate to high volume fractions, the flow curves show dynamic yield behavior which disappears below a volume fraction of 8%. At high shear rates, the

  18. Ficus sycomorus latex: A thermostable peroxidase | Mohamed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peroxidase from sycamore fig Ficus sycomorus latex (POLI) was purified by heat treatment, anion exchange chromatography and molecular exclusion chromatography. The purity was determined from high specific activity (9166 units/mg protein), purification fold (28), RZ value 3.1 and a single band in native polyacrylamide ...

  19. Latex glove sensitivity amongst diagnostic imaging healthcare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu. State, Nigeria. ezecharlesu@yahoo.com. SUMMARY. The paper ... of the respondents had previous knowledge of hypersensitivity reaction to latex gloves prior to ... radiology staff in the five Southeastern states of Nigeria ...

  20. Comparison of fit accuracy between Procera custom abutments and three implant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves da Cunha, Tiago de Morais; Correia de Araújo, Roberto Paulo; Barbosa da Rocha, Paulo Vicente; Pazos Amoedo, Rosa Maria

    2012-10-01

    Although increase of misfit has been reported when associating implant and abutment from different manufacturers, Procera® (Nobel Biocare™, Göteborg, Sweden) custom abutment has been universally used in clinical practice. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the vertical gap of zirconia Procera abutment associated with implants from the same manufacturer (Nobel Biocare) and two other implant systems. Twenty-four zirconia Procera abutments were produced using computer-assisted design and manufacture (CAD/CAM) and paired with (1) eight MK Iii RP 4.1 × 10 mm implants (Nobel Biocare) - GNB group; (2) eight Try on, 4.1 × 10 mm implants (Sistema de Implantes, São Paulo, Brazil) - ES group; and (3) eight Master screw, 4.1 × 10 mm implants (Conexão Sistema de Prótese, São Paulo, Brazil) - EC group. A comparison of the vertical misfit at the implant-abutment interface was taken at six measuring sites on each sample using scanning electron microscopy with a magnification of 408×. One-way analysis of variance was used to test for differences, and Tukey's test was used for pairwise comparison of groups (α = 0.05). Significant differences relative to average misfit were found when Procera abutments were associated with other implant manufacturers. The ES group and EC group did not differ significantly, but both demonstrated significantly larger average misfit than the GNB group (p = .001). The average misfit was 5.7 µm ± 0.39, 9.53 µm ± 0.52 and 10.62 µm ± 2.16, respectively, for groups GNB, ES, and EC. The association of Procera zirconia abutment with other implant systems different from its manufacturer demonstrated significant alteration of vertical misfit at implant-abutment interface. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Triterpenoid biosynthesis in Euphorbia lathyris latex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, D.R.

    1987-11-01

    The structures of triterpenols, not previously been known, from Euphorbia lathyris latex are reported. A method for quantifying very small amounts of these compounds was developed. Concerning the biochemistry of the latex, no exogenous cofactors were required for the biosynthesis and the addition of compounds such as NADPAH and ATP do not stimulate the biosynthesis. The addition of DTE or a similar anti-oxidant was found to help reduce the oxidation of the latex, thus increasing the length of time that the latex remains active. The requirement of a divalent cation and the preference for Mn in the pellet was observed. The effect of several inhibitors on the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids was examined. Mevinolin was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids from acetate, but not mevalonate. A dixon plot of the inhibition of acetate incorporation showed an I/sub 50/ concentration of 3.2 ..mu..M. Fenpropimorph was found to have little or no effect on the biosynthesis. Tridemorph was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of all of the triterpenoids with an I/sub 50/ of 4 ..mu..M. It was also observed that the cyclopropyl containing triterpenols, cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol were inhibited much more strongly than those containing an 8-9 double bond, lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol. The evidence indicates, but does not definetely prove, that lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol are not made from cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol via a ring-opening enzyme such as cycloeucalenol-obtusifoliol isomerase. The possibilty that cycloartenol is made via lanosterol was investigated by synthesizing 4-R-4-/sup 3/H-mevalonic acid and incubating latex with a mixture of this and /sup 14/C-mevalonic acid. From the /sup 3/H//sup 14/C ratio it was shown that cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol are not made via an intermediate containing as 8-9 double bond. 88 refs., 15 figs., 30 tabs.

  2. Force decay of latex and non-latex intermaxillary elastics: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Mendes, Jéssica Lima; da Silva, Camila Anselmo; Lacerda Dos Santos, Rogério; Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate force decay between intermaxillary orthodontic elastics with and without latex in the oral medium at different time intervals. Intermaxillary orthodontic elastics with and without latex [1/8″ (3.2mm), 1/4″ (6.35mm), and 5/16″ (7.94mm) in diameter] were evaluated 'clinically'. For this purpose, 26 patients served as hosts for the elastics during the evaluation period. Initially, 52 thermoplasticized plates 1mm thick were made according to the patients' mould. Then, the orthodontic accessories were bonded to the plates, which kept the elastics distended throughout the experimental period. The force released by the elastics at this distance was evaluated at 0, 12, and 24 hours. Statistical analyses were performed using the Friedman, Wilcoxon, and Mann-Whitney tests (significance set at 5 per cent). Elastics with and without latex presented with permanent deformation and increasing internal diameter throughout the entire period. Elastics with latex, 1/8″ (3.2mm) in diameter, sustained higher levels of force than those without latex. Elastics measuring 1/4″ (6.35mm) and 5/16″ (7.94mm) in diameter without latex sustained higher levels of force at 0 and 12 hours compared to those with latex. At the end of the experiment (24 hours), no significant difference was observed between the elastics (P > 0.05). This study only evaluated three time intervals: 0, 12, and 24 hours. If the behaviour was evaluated at different time intervals, different behaviours of these materials might be revealed. Elastics with latex 1/8″ in diameter sustained a higher level of final force than the corresponding type without latex. The 1/4 and 5/16 elastics with and without latex were not different at the end of the evaluation period. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Effect of diphenyldisulphides with different substituents on the reclamation of NR based latex products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, V.V.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Joseph, R.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2007-01-01

    The latex industry has expanded over the years to meet the world demands for gloves, condoms, latex thread etc. Because of the strict specifications for the products and the unstable nature of the latex, as high as 15% of the final latex products are rejected. Since waste latex rubber (WLR)

  4. [Latex. An important aeroallergen involved in occupational asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirce, S; Olaguíbel, J M; Alvarez, M J; Tabar, A I

    2003-01-01

    Latex has become one of the most frequent aetiological agents of occupational asthma in the last decade, especially amongst health personnel. The prevalence of occupational asthma due to latex in the different affected occupations varies between 2.5 and 10%, figures that give an idea of the magnitude of the problem. Latex proteins, absorbed in the dust of cornstarch, used as a lubricant, are responsible for asthma due to latex gloves. This cornstarch dust that covers the inside of the gloves acts as a vehicle for dispersing allergenic proteins. Latex aeroallergens are found in particles of different dimensions. The levels of latex aeroallergens in the environment capable of causing sensitization and of unleashing symptoms are not well defined. The determination of these levels of exposure to latex is complicated, since with latex one is dealing with a complex mixture of allergens with differing stability and bio-availability. The bioaerosol of latex is mainly produced by the active use of powdered gloves, but rugs or carpets and coverings act as important reservoirs of the allergen. Besides, the movement of people from areas with a high environmental concentration of latex constitutes an important means of dispersing the allergen, and probably ventilation systems as well. As in other cases of occupational asthma, diagnosis in many cases requires that a bronchial challenge be realized. The specific challenge tests through inhalation with latex have been carried out by different methods, which can be grouped by those that use an aqueous extract of latex and those that consist in handling or shaking gloves, which thus generate a dust aerosol. Each method has its advantages and drawbacks as described. Once the sensitized patient begins manifestations of the disease, his prognosis is poor if measures aimed at a maximum reduction of exposure to latex are not applied.

  5. Efeito do extrato aquoso do algodão de seda (Calotropis procera Aiton sobre a eficiência reprodutiva do carrapato bovino Effect of aqueous extract of silk cotton (Calotropis procera Ait. R.Br. on the reproductive performance of Rhipicephalus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F Lázaro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O carrapato Rhipicephalus microplus é um dos principais parasitos dos rebanhos bovinos. Diferentes grupos de carrapaticidas sintéticos têm sido empregados para o controle desse ácaro, contudo, o uso constante desses produtos tem selecionado populações resistentes. Na tentativa de minimizar esses impactos tem-se buscado avaliar fitoterápicos para o controle desse parasito. Assim, objetivou-se analisar a eficácia in vitro do extrato aquoso do algodão de seda em diferentes concentrações no controle da postura e eclodibilidade dos ovos do R. microplus. Foram avaliados os efeitos das concentrações 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 e 100% do extrato aquoso obtido juntamente com controles com água destilada ou com cipermetrina, 12,5 mg L-1, associada a organofosforado, 150 mg L-1, sobre a eficiência reprodutiva do carrapato. Foi realizado o biocarrapaticidograma sendo que a eficácia acaricida das concentrações 5, 25 e 100% foram superiores àquela observada para o produto comercial utilizado, que correspondeu a 93,98%, indicando a importância de futuras pesquisas para avaliar o potencial toxigênico e a eficácia in vivo dessa planta para o controle do R. microplus .The tick Rhipicephalus microplus is one of the main parasites of bovine herds. Different groups of synthetic acaricides have been used to control this mite; however, the constant use of these products has selected resistant populations. In an attempt to minimize these impacts, researchers have tried to evaluate herbal remedies to control this parasite. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the in vitro efficacy of aqueous extract of silk cotton at different concentrations to control the hatchability of R. microplus eggs. The effects of the concentrations 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% aqueous extract together with controls with distilled water or with cypermethrin, 12.5 mg L-1, associated with organophosphate, 150 mg L-1, were assessed on the reproductive efficiency of the tick. Immersion test was performed and the acaricide efficacy of the 5, 25 and 100% concentrations were higher than that obtained for the commercial product, which corresponded to 93.98%, indicating the importance of further research to assess the toxigenic potential and the in vivo efficacy of this plant to control R. microplus .

  6. Identification and practical management of latex allergy in occupational settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, María Luisa; Quirce, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Allergy to natural rubber latex (NRL) from Hevea brasiliensis is a relevant occupational health hazard. The use of gloves and products manufactured with latex and environmental allergen exposure in the work environment are risks factors for the development of occupational allergy among different job categories. Healthcare workers have been the most commonly affected, but other professions with exposure to latex products such as hairdressers, cleaners, food handlers and those making natural rubber latex (NRL) products are also at risk of developing occupational allergy. Clinical manifestations of IgE-mediated latex allergy can range from troublesome skin disorders to life-threatening systemic reactions. It is very important to identify the occupational allergic diseases in their early stages in order to implement avoidance strategies. For this purpose, the interventions for prevention should emphasize the importance of latex allergy awareness and surveillance among exposed workforces.

  7. Drying of latex films and coatings: Reconsidering the fundamental mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren

    2006-01-01

    The two existing theories describing drying of latex films or coatings are reconsidered. Subsequently, a novel mathematical drying model is presented, the simulations of which can match and explain experimental drying rate data of two previous investigations with latex films. In contrast...... to previous model studies, but in agreement with observations, simulations suggest that during the falling rate period of the drying process of a latex film, a porous skin of partly coalesced latex particles is indeed formed, which limits transport of water vapour from the receding air-liquid interphase......), latex particle size (500-600 nm), initial polymer volume concentration (19-47 vol.%), and molecular weight of latex polymer (not quantified). Simulations also demonstrate that the transition from a constant to a falling drying rate in all cases takes place when the polymer volume concentration...

  8. Subconjunctival latex paint from occupational injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhav, Ashika; Kollipara, Ramya; Teymoorian, Savak; Lord, Ron K; Lyon, David B

    2013-05-01

    Accidental eye trauma with spray guns are rare, but potentially very serious, injuries. Although it is agreed that these injuries require immediate and vigorous therapy, the specifics of such therapy are poorly defined. With latex paint sprayer injuries to hands and extremities, resulting chemical-induced inflammation, high-pressure necrosis, ischemic necrosis, and gangrene require surgical debridement and possibly, amputation. With eye injuries, treatment is directed at preservation of vision, as there is a potential risk of visual loss. There is currently no consensus on optimal treatment of ocular spray paint injuries. Here we propose a management approach to ocular spray paint injuries with a successful outcome in the case reported. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of an industrial airless spray gun injury that resulted in subconjunctival deposition of latex paint in a soft contact lens wearer. Vision was preserved with medical management consisting of irrigation and topical corticosteroids, antibiotics and cycloplegics. Although latex paint spray gun injuries to the eye are not encountered frequently in practice, this case shows that conservative medical management with no surgical intervention is effective for ocular injuries with preserved vision. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Shear Driven Aggregation in Latex Colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Suresh

    2013-03-01

    Reynolds number is small in colloidal flow and therefore, colloidal volume fraction and Peclet number are important. AS the volume fraction and attractive coupling between particles increase, relaxation time and Weisenberg number become significant. Shear-induced aggregation of latex colloids is due to the interplay between the shear-induced formation and breakage of latex.particles. While particle size is limited by breakage, their number density increases with the shearing-time. Upon cessation of shear, the particles interconnect into an assembly held by grainy bonds. It results in increase in yield stress and dynamic modulus. A contact model enables aggregates maintaining their structures under low stress while being restructured under high stress. Modeling involves solution of Navier- Stokes equation with moving particles as boundary condition for the flow like using the Lattice Boltzmann approach or by using (accelerated) Stokesian Dynamics. Alternate approach is to model the fluid phase by soft repulsive particles with pair-wise noise and friction, known as dissipative particle dynamics (DPD). This method by construction produces full inertial hydrodynamics, but applying the correct fluid-particle boundary condition is non-trivial. Both particle to particle and particle to wall collisions can be considered using Johnson-Kendall- Roberts (JKR) analysis of collision dynamics of dissipative forces using a soft-sphere modeling technique. Our experimental work used emulsion polymerized latex that was subjected to steady and dynamic shear. Yield stress, dynamic modulus and relaxation time increased on shearing in conjunction with changes in aggregate size.

  10. Production of latex agglutination reagents for pneumococcal serotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortika, Belinda D; Habib, Maha; Dunne, Eileen M; Porter, Barbara D; Satzke, Catherine

    2013-02-05

    The current 'gold standard' for serotyping pneumococci is the Quellung test. This technique is laborious and requires a certain level of training to correctly perform. Commercial pneumococcal latex agglutination serotyping reagents are available, but these are expensive. In-house production of latex agglutination reagents can be a cost-effective alternative to using commercially available reagents. This paper describes a method for the production and quality control (QC) of latex reagents, including problem solving recommendations, for pneumococcal serotyping. Here we describe a method for the production of latex agglutination reagents based on the passive adsorption of antibodies to latex particles. Sixty-five latex agglutination reagents were made using the PneuCarriage Project (PCP) method, of which 35 passed QC. The other 30 reagents failed QC due to auto-agglutination (n=2), no reactivity with target serotypes (n=8) or cross-reactivity with non-target serotypes (n=20). Dilution of antisera resulted in a further 27 reagents passing QC. The remaining three reagents passed QC when prepared without centrifugation and wash steps. Protein estimates indicated that latex reagents that failed QC when prepared using the PCP method passed when made with antiserum containing ≤ 500 μg/ml of protein. Sixty-one nasopharyngeal isolates were serotyped with our in-house latex agglutination reagents, with the results showing complete concordance with the Quellung reaction. The method described here to produce latex agglutination reagents allows simple and efficient serotyping of pneumococci and may be applicable to latex agglutination reagents for typing or identification of other microorganisms. We recommend diluting antisera or removing centrifugation and wash steps for any latex reagents that fail QC. Our latex reagents are cost-effective, technically undemanding to prepare and remain stable for long periods of time, making them ideal for use in low-income countries.

  11. Use-value and importance of socio-cultural knowledge on Carapa procera trees in the Sudanian zone in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembélé, Urbain; Lykke, Anne Mette; Koné, Yénizié; Témé, Bino; Kouyaté, Amadou Malé

    2015-03-02

    Carapa procera is a native oil tree species with multipurpose values traditionally exploited by the local population in Southern Mali. This study focused on the assessment of local knowledge about the use of Carapa procera. Semi-structured ethnobotanical questionnaires were conducted among the ethnic groups Senufo, Fulani and Bambara in two localities in the Sudanian zone in Mali. Use values among these ethnic groups and gender were evaluated. This study showed that Carapa procera is a species with multiple uses and high use values. According to the consensus value for plant parts (CPP), the nuts constituted 57% of exploited plant parts followed by bark and leaves (12%), wood and roots (7%), mistletoes (4%) and gum (1%). The use diversity (UD) values of Carapa procera showed a high proportion of cosmetic (UD = 0.49) and therapeutic (UD = 0.36) uses. The UD for therapeutic uses was higher for ethnic groups in Ziékorodougou than in Niankorobougou. In contrast, the UD for cosmetic uses was higher for ethnic groups in Niankorobougou than in Ziékorodougou. Comparative analysis between ethnic groups revealed that the highest UD for cosmetic uses (0.63) was observed in the Bambara ethnic group, whereas the highest UD for therapeutic uses (0.39) was obtained in the Senufo ethnic group. The UD showed that cosmetic uses were higher for women than for men in both locations. Men in Ziékorodougou had the highest level of knowledge regarding plant parts used, forms of use and the specific reasons for using Carapa procera. This study highlighted the sociocultural importance of Carapa procera. In the light of its multipurpose uses, the promotion and enhancement of Carapa procera can provide significant socio-economic benefits to local people. In this perspective, it is necessary to implement conservation strategies and sustainable management through domestication of the species.

  12. Follow-up Study of Latex-allergic Health Care Workers in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Yagami

    2006-01-01

    Conclusions: After avoiding latex products and following our educational suggestions, the patients' allergy symptoms had generally improved. This indicates that our countermeasures against latex allergy were largely successful.

  13. Analysis of some metallic elements and metalloids composition and relationships in parasol mushroom Macrolepiota procera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Sapkota, Atindra; Dryżałowska, Anna; Mędyk, Małgorzata; Feng, Xinbin

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to characterise the multi-elemental composition and associations between a group of 32 elements and 16 rare earth elements collected by mycelium from growing substrates and accumulated in fruiting bodies of Macrolepiota procera from 16 sites from the lowland areas of Poland. The elements were quantified by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry using validated method. The correlation matrix obtained from a possible 48 × 16 data matrix has been used to examine if any association exits between 48 elements in mushrooms foraged from 16 sampling localizations by multivariate approach using principal component (PC) analysis. The model could explain up to 93% variability by eight factors for which an eigenvalue value was ≥1. Absolute values of the correlation coefficient were above 0.72 (significance at p elements. From a point of view by consumer, the absolute content of Cd, Hg, Pb in caps of M. procera collected from background (unpolluted) areas could be considered elevated while sporadic/occasional ingestion of this mushroom is considered safe. The multivariate functional analysis revealed on associated accumulation of many elements in this mushroom. M. procera seem to possess some features of a bio-indicative species for anthropogenic Pb but also for some geogenic metals.

  14. Evaluation of immunomodulatory potential of ethanolic extract of Roscoea procera rhizomes in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh S Sahu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The aim of present study was to evaluate immunomodulatory potential of ethanolic extract of Roscoea procera (Zingiberaceae rhizomes by using delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH and carbon clearance method in comparison to standard established immunosuppressant drug, cyclophosphamide (30 mg/kg, i.p. in mice. Material and Methods : The extract was comprised to acute toxicity (OECD-423 guideline, DTH and carbon clearance method for their immunomodulatory potential. Ethanolic extract of Roscoea procera rhizomes administered orally at doses 300 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg, p.o. to mice. Result and Conclusion : Result of our study revealed that, the foot pat thickness of ethanolic extract group (P<0.05 significantly enhanced the production of circulating antibody titre in response to Sheep red blood cells (SRBC and phagocytic functions of mononuclear macrophages and non-specific immunity. Result were also supported by serological and haematological tests data. Hence, the present investigation reveals that, ethanolic extract of Roscoea procera rhizomes possesses immunostimulant properties. Further studies to identify the active moieties and elucidation of the mechanism of action are recommended.

  15. Effets de supplémentation des feuilles séchées de Calotropis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Par contre, la supplémentation a entraîné une baisse importante de H. contortus, T. colubriformis et Cooperia spp dans les fèces des lots supplémentés comparés au lot témoin. L'utilisation de C. procera pourrait donc être envisagée dans une stratégie de lutte ciblée contre ces parasites, notamment H. contortus.

  16. Simple latex agglutination assay for rapid serodiagnosis of human leptospirosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, H. L.; van der Hoorn, M. A.; Goris, M. G.; Gussenhoven, G. C.; Yersin, C.; Sasaki, D. M.; Terpstra, W. J.; Hartskeerl, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    A newly developed latex agglutination assay for the detection of genus-specific Leptospira antibodies in human sera was evaluated. The assay is performed by mixing, on an agglutination card, serum with equal volumes of stabilized antigen-coated, dyed test and control latex beads and is read within 2

  17. 21 CFR 801.435 - User labeling for latex condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Special Requirements for Specific Devices § 801.435 User labeling for... over time. To protect the public health and minimize the risk of device failure, latex condoms must... spermicidal stability testing is different from the expiration date based upon latex integrity testing, the...

  18. High concentrations of natural rubber latex allergens in gloves used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gloves to be purchased from prospective suppliers of new gloves ... The price of latex gloves ranged from R0.26 to R11.30 per pair in January 2011. ... In addition, penetration of allergens through compromised skin .... Mabe DO, Singh TS, Bello B, Jeebhay MF, Lopata AL, Wadee A. Allergenicity of latex rubber products.

  19. Home Healthcare Workers: How to Prevent Latex Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... polymer gloves appropriate for infectious materials. • Provide reduced-protein, powder-free gloves, if latex gloves are selected for ... offer protection against infectious materials. • Ask for reduced-protein, powder-free gloves, if your employer supplies latex gloves. • ...

  20. Installing fonts in LaTeX a user's experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, F.T.Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a user's experience with installing fonts for use in LaTeX. It will be shown that it is not hard to make a standard Type 1 font work, if you use modern font installation software for LaTeX. All the steps necessary to install the example fonts will be shown. The example fonts used

  1. Terpenoid compounds from the latex of Euphorbia drupifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at the isolation and characterization of terpenoid compounds from the latex of Euphorbia drupifera. Methylated spirit extract of the latex was suspended in aqueous methanol and partitioned with petroleum spirit. The aqueous methanol residue was washed with ether. The ethereal fraction was subjected to ...

  2. A comparison of different LaTeX programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Ruud H.

    2001-01-01

    In this review two commercial and two freeware LaTeX implementations are discussed and compared: teTeX (Linux, Unix) pcTeX32 (Windows 3.1, Windows95/98/NT) Scientific Workplace (Windows95/98/NT) mikTeX (Windows95/98/NT) Keywords: LaTeX, word processing

  3. Assessing the potency of Pedilanthus tithymaloides latex against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The latex of Pedilanthus tithymaloides is used in traditional medicine for treating malaria attack. This usage was investigated by testing for in vivo antiplasmodial activity of the latex against Plasmodium berghei berghei in mice. Curative effect against established infection and suppressive activity against earlier infection of ...

  4. Antimalarial Anthrone and Chromone from the Leaf Latex of Aloe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ethiopian traditional medicine, the leaf latex of Aloe debranan Chrstian is used for the treatment of several diseases including malaria. In an ongoing search for effective, safe and cheap antimalarial agents from plants, the leaf latex of A. debrana was tested for its in vivo antimalarial activity, in a 4-day suppressive assay ...

  5. Rapid latex agglutination test for the serodiagnosis of human brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdoel, Theresia H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2007-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a user-friendly latex agglutination assay for the serodiagnosis of human brucellosis. The assay was obtained by coating colored latex beads with Brucella lipopolysaccharides and drying of the activated beads onto white agglutination cards. Individual cards were sealed in a

  6. Acute Toxicity of Crude Euphorbia tirucalli Latex Extracts to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity of crude Euphorbia tirucalli latex extracts to Oreochromis niloticus juveniles was investigated in the College of Agriculture, Lafia. A four day static acute toxicity test was performed to determine the LC50 value of crude Euphorbia tirucalli latex extract for the fresh water fish, Oreochromis niloticus. Various ...

  7. A Protease Isolated from the Latex of Plumeria rubra Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To isolate, purify and characterize protease from the latex of the plant. Methods: Protease was isolated from the latex of Plumeria rubra Linn using acetone precipitation method and purified by a sequence of DEAE cellulose column chromatography, followed by two successive column purification in Sephadex G-50 ...

  8. The Latex Of Jatropha Curcas Linn (Euphorblaceae): A Prospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The latex of Jatropha curcas Linn (Euphorbiaceae) has been investigated as a prospective haemostatic agent. The latex reduced clotting and bleeding times significantly (P<0.0001) compared to Tincture of Benzoin Co (TBC); Iodine tincture, Tannin and 90%v/v Ethanol. There was a significant positive correlation between ...

  9. Latex allergy in an infant with acquired hydrocephalus | Ehiozw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Latex allergy is a potentially life-threatening intraoperative occurrence which is relatively rare in our environment. We report the case of a 3 month old male infant with acquired hydrocephalus undergoing ventriculo-peritoneal shunt insertion who developed wheals and suffered a respiratory arrest following contact with latex ...

  10. Assessment of adverse reactions to latex gloves use among nurses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adverse reaction to latex is a common problem among nurses and other health care workers. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of adverse reactions to latex amongst nurses at Mankweng Hospital. A cross sectional study was carried out amongst 235 nurses at Mankweng Hospital using a ...

  11. Incidence of latex harvesting technologies on agronomic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental design was a randomized complete blocks with different latex harvesting technologies. The estimated parameters were rubber yield, radial vegetative growth, physiological profile and the profitability of applied latex harvesting technologies. Results indicated that non-stimulated combined with high tapping ...

  12. Syntheses of crosslinked latex nanoparticles using differential microemulsion polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassmoro, N. F.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.

    2013-06-01

    The differential microemulsion polymerization was used to synthesize latex nanoparticles. In this paper, 1, 3-butylene glycol dimethacrylate (1, 3-BGDMA) was used as a crosslinker respectively 1-5 weight% of monomer total. Butyl acrylate (BA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), and methacrylic acid (MAA) was used as the monomer. The thin film of latex nanoparticles were prepared by using spin coating method and have been dried at 100°C for 5 minutes. The amount of the crosslinker added in the polymerization was optimized and we found that the particle sizes fall in the range of 30-60 nm. The structural morphology of the uncrosslinked latex represented the most homogeneous image compared to the crosslinked latex. The effect of the amount of crosslinker on the particle sizes investigated by the Zeta-sizer Nano series while Atomic Force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the structural properties of latex nanoparticles.

  13. Polyphenoloxidase silencing affects latex coagulation in Taraxacum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahler, Daniela; Gronover, Christian Schulze; Richter, Carolin; Foucu, Florence; Twyman, Richard M; Moerschbacher, Bruno M; Fischer, Rainer; Muth, Jost; Prüfer, Dirk

    2009-09-01

    Latex is the milky sap that is found in many different plants. It is produced by specialized cells known as laticifers and can comprise a mixture of proteins, carbohydrates, oils, secondary metabolites, and rubber that may help to prevent herbivory and protect wound sites against infection. The wound-induced browning of latex suggests that it contains one or more phenol-oxidizing enzymes. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the major latex proteins from two dandelion species, Taraxacum officinale and Taraxacum kok-saghyz, and enzymatic studies showing that polyphenoloxidase (PPO) is responsible for latex browning. Electrophoretic analysis and amino-terminal sequencing of the most abundant proteins in the aqueous latex fraction revealed the presence of three PPO-related proteins generated by the proteolytic cleavage of a single precursor (pre-PPO). The laticifer-specific pre-PPO protein contains a transit peptide that can target reporter proteins into chloroplasts when constitutively expressed in dandelion protoplasts, perhaps indicating the presence of structures similar to plastids in laticifers, which lack genuine chloroplasts. Silencing the PPO gene by constitutive RNA interference in transgenic plants reduced PPO activity compared with wild-type controls, allowing T. kok-saghyz RNA interference lines to expel four to five times more latex than controls. Latex fluidity analysis in silenced plants showed a strong correlation between residual PPO activity and the coagulation rate, indicating that laticifer-specific PPO plays a major role in latex coagulation and wound sealing in dandelions. In contrast, very little PPO activity is found in the latex of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, suggesting functional divergence of latex proteins during plant evolution.

  14. Polyphenoloxidase Silencing Affects Latex Coagulation in Taraxacum Species1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahler, Daniela; Gronover, Christian Schulze; Richter, Carolin; Foucu, Florence; Twyman, Richard M.; Moerschbacher, Bruno M.; Fischer, Rainer; Muth, Jost; Prüfer, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Latex is the milky sap that is found in many different plants. It is produced by specialized cells known as laticifers and can comprise a mixture of proteins, carbohydrates, oils, secondary metabolites, and rubber that may help to prevent herbivory and protect wound sites against infection. The wound-induced browning of latex suggests that it contains one or more phenol-oxidizing enzymes. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the major latex proteins from two dandelion species, Taraxacum officinale and Taraxacum kok-saghyz, and enzymatic studies showing that polyphenoloxidase (PPO) is responsible for latex browning. Electrophoretic analysis and amino-terminal sequencing of the most abundant proteins in the aqueous latex fraction revealed the presence of three PPO-related proteins generated by the proteolytic cleavage of a single precursor (pre-PPO). The laticifer-specific pre-PPO protein contains a transit peptide that can target reporter proteins into chloroplasts when constitutively expressed in dandelion protoplasts, perhaps indicating the presence of structures similar to plastids in laticifers, which lack genuine chloroplasts. Silencing the PPO gene by constitutive RNA interference in transgenic plants reduced PPO activity compared with wild-type controls, allowing T. kok-saghyz RNA interference lines to expel four to five times more latex than controls. Latex fluidity analysis in silenced plants showed a strong correlation between residual PPO activity and the coagulation rate, indicating that laticifer-specific PPO plays a major role in latex coagulation and wound sealing in dandelions. In contrast, very little PPO activity is found in the latex of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, suggesting functional divergence of latex proteins during plant evolution. PMID:19605551

  15. Synthesis and characterization of novel polyacid-stabilized latexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pengcheng; Armes, S P

    2012-09-18

    A series of novel polyacid macromonomers based on 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA) were prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) via a two-step route. First, a range of well-defined PHPMA homopolymer precursors were synthesized by ATRP using a tertiary amine-functionalized initiator, 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl-2-bromoisobutyrylamide, and a CuCl/2, 2'-bipyridine (bpy) catalyst in alcoholic media at 50 °C. ATRP polymerizations were relatively slow and poorly controlled in pure isopropanol (IPA), especially when targeting higher degrees of polymerization (DP > 30). Improved control was achieved by addition of water: low polydispersity (M(w)/M(n) emulsion polymerization or alcoholic dispersion polymerization conditions. Near-monodisperse polystyrene latexes were obtained via aqueous emulsion polymerization using 10 wt % PSPMA macromonomer (with respect to styrene monomer) with various initiators as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy, disk centrifuge photosedimentometry and light scattering studies. PSPMA macromomer concentrations as low as 1.0 wt % also produced near-monodisperse latexes, suggesting that these PSPMA macromonomers are highly effective stabilizers. Alcoholic dispersion polymerization of styrene conducted in various ethanol/water mixtures with 10 wt % PSPMA(50) macromonomer produced relatively large near-monodisperse latexes. Increasing the water content in such formulations led to smaller latexes, as expected. Control experiments conducted with 10 wt % PSPMA(50) homopolymer produced relatively large polydisperse latexes via emulsion polymerization and only macroscopic precipitates via alcoholic dispersion polymerization. Thus the terminal styrene group on the macromonomer chains is essential for the formation of well-defined latexes. FT-IR spectroscopy indicated that these latexes contained PSPMA macromonomer, whereas (1)H NMR spectroscopy studies of dissolved latexes allowed stabilizer contents to be determined. Aqueous

  16. Experimental investigation of the effect of latex solid/water ratio on latex modified co-matrix mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Diab

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous researches were performed on latex modified concretes and associated properties, however; some vital factors were not given attention in previous works. This study focus on new factor which significantly affects the properties of latex modified cement paste, mortar or concrete. This factor is termed as ‘latex solid/water ratio’ which is defined herein as the ratio of weight of solid latex to weight of total water content of cement composite including the water in latex itself. The effect of this factor on some properties of cement paste, mortar and concrete were experimentally evaluated. Properties of cement paste include the produced calcium hydroxide and ettringite content during hydration process, while those of cement mortar take account of absorption and effect of temperature on compressive strength. Furthermore, the effect of this factor on the compressive and flexural strengths, modulus of elasticity, water penetration depth and drying shrinkage of concrete were explored. Based on experimental evidences, and spite of using different cement contents, sources of latex, water–cement ratios and slump values, it can be generally concluded that the latex solid/water ratio is a dominant factor affecting different properties of latex modified mortars and concrete.

  17. Latex symptoms and sensitisation in health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larese Filon, F; Bosco, A; Fiorito, A; Negro, C; Barbina, P

    2001-04-01

    Natural rubber latex has become an important occupational health concern, particularly among health care workers, who for protection are required to wear latex gloves when at work. This study evaluated the prevalence of latex-related symptoms and sensitisation among a large group of health care workers in Trieste hospitals. We evaluated the prevalence of latex-related symptoms in 1,165 health care workers, by means of a questionnaire, a medical examination, skin prick tests and IgE-specific evaluation. We determined atopy and latex sensitivity by skin prick tests using a battery of common inhalant allergens, a commercial latex extract (Lofarma Allergeni, Milan) and individual skin puncture tests for each of the vegetables immunologically related to latex (potato, tomato, chestnut, banana, kiwi fruit). Associations between potential risk factors for latex allergy were assessed. Glove-related symptoms were noticed on 17.2% of the nurses (200) the majority of symptoms being mild dermatitis with itching and erythema (120 subjects, 11.1%). Symptoms suggestive of IgE-mediated latex allergy were found in 51 subjects: 35 (3%) complained of contact urticaria and 16 (2.2%) complained of asthma and/or rhinitis. The resulting symptoms were significantly related to skin prick tests that were positive to latex (odds ratio (OR) = 11.89; 6.40-22.2), to personal atopy (OR = 2.15; 1.47-3.12), to familiar atopy (OR = 2.12; 1.48-3.03), to skin prick test positivity to related fruit (OR = 2.01; 1.16-3.46) but not to prick test positivity to common inhalant allergens (OR = 1.00; 0.71-1.39). Symptoms increased as a direct function of the time-usage of latex gloves and were more prevalent in operating room staff. In this large cross-sectional study, glove-related symptoms and latex skin sensitisation appear to be substantial among health care workers, and are related to common signs of atopy. We stress the need of preventive measures to avoid latex exposure when health care workers are at

  18. Latex allergy in dental students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangveeravong, Mukda; Sirikul, Jintana; Daengsuwan, Tassalapa

    2011-08-01

    Latex allergy is a major occupational health problem in health care workers who regularly use latex gloves. Dentists are one of the high risk groups for latex allergy and sensitization as it is generally found that healthcare workers (HCW) have 3 times greater prevalence of latex allergy. There are very few studies of latex allergy in HCW in Thailand. To study the prevalence of latex-related symptoms, latex-sensitization and possible risk factors in dental students. A cross-sectional study was performed on all dental students of the Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, during Dec 2007 to May 2008, using questionnaires and skin prick tests (SPT), using 3 latex extracts prepared from Proglove, Doctor Plus gloves and a commercial latex allergen (Stallergenes, France). SPT was done only in those who were willing and signed informed consents. There were 617 completed questionnaires (87.3%). The mean age of the volunteers was 20.9 +/- 1.7 years with 29.3% male and 70.7% female. The prevalence of latex glove-related symptoms was 5.0%. These symptoms were all local, cutaneous symptoms, ranging from hand pruritus (64.5%), hand eczema (19.4%) and contact urticaria (16.1%). Eight subjects (1.3%) reported pruritus or urticaria on exposure to other rubber products while 12 subjects (1.9%) reported reactions to some fruits. The risk factors for latex-glove allergy were personal history of allergic diseases (atopic dermatitis, urticaria, pruritus and rubber allergy), duration of using gloves more than 18 hours per week, more than 3 pairs of gloves used per day and timing of glove exposure. The 4th to 6th year students were observed significantly more prevalence of symptoms than the 1st to 3rd year students (OR, 3.69; 95% CI, 1.73-7.87; p = 0.0003). SPT for 3 extracts of latex was done in 247 cases (40.0%); overall latex sensitization rate was 14.2%. The commercial extract had higher incidence of latex sensitization compared to the 2 gloves extract. The 1st year

  19. The Synthesis and Modification of Nanosized Clickable Latex Particles

    KAUST Repository

    Almahdali, Sarah

    2013-05-01

    This research aims to add to the current knowledge available for miniemulsion polymerization reactions and to use this knowledge to synthesize multifunctional nanosized latex particles that have the potential to be used in catalysis. The physical properties of the latex can be adjusted to suit various environments due to the multiple functional groups present. For this research, styrene, pentafluorostyrene, azidomethyl styrene, pentafluorostyrene with azidomethyl styrene and pentafluorostyrene with styrene latexes were produced, and analyzed by dynamic light scattering. The latexes were synthesized using a miniemulsion polymerization technique found through this research. Potassium oleate and potassium 1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4-nonafluorobutane-1-sulfonate were used as surfactants during the miniemulsion polymerization reaction to synthesize pentafluorostyrene with azidomethyl styrene latex. Transmission electron microscopy data and dynamic light scattering data have been collected to analyze the structure of this latex, and it has been synthesized using a number of conditions, differing in reaction time, surfactant amount and sonication methods. We have also improved the solubility of the latex through a copper(I) catalyzed 1,3-dipolar azide-alkyne reaction, by clicking (polyethylene glycol)5000 onto the azide functional groups.

  20. Estimation of total phenol and in vitro antioxidant activity of Albizia procera leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    khatoon, Mahfuza; Islam, Ekramul; Islam, Rafikul; Rahman, Aziz Abdur; Alam, A H M Khurshid; Khondkar, Proma; Rashid, Mamunur; Parvin, Shahnaj

    2013-03-27

    Research on natural products has gained a wide popularity due to the potential of discovering active compounds. The antioxidant properties contained in plants have been proposed as one of the mechanisms for the observed beneficial effect. Therefore, the present study investigated the antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents of various solvent extracts of Albizia procera leaves. Antioxidant activity of the methanol extract and its derived fractions petroleum ether (APP), carbon tetrachloride (APC), dichloromethane (APD), ethyl acetate (APE), and residual aqueous fraction (APA) of the leaves of Albizia procera was performed by in vitro chemical analyses. Total phenolic content of the APM and other five fractions were also determined. APM and its derived fractions were also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening test for various constituents. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, steroids, tannins, glycosides and flavonoids in the extracts. Amongst the extracts, APE showed the highest total phenolic content (449.18 ± 18.41mg of gallic acid equivalent/g of extract). In DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging test, the IC(50) value of APM, APP, APC, APD, APE and APA was 43.43, 63.60, 166.18, 41.15, 11.79, and 63.06 μg/mL, respectively. Therefore, among the APM and its derived fractions, APE showed the highest antioxidant activity which is comparable to that of standard ascorbic acid (AA) (IC(50) 10.12 μg/mL). The total antioxidant capacity was found to be varied in different fractions. The reducing activity on ferrous ion was ranked as APE > APD > APM > APA > APC. The above evidences suggest that APE of A. procera leaf is a potential source of natural antioxidant and can be used to prevent diseases associated with free radicals.

  1. Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex with low energy accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, Emdadul; Makuuchi, Keizo; Ikeda, Kenichi; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Mitomo, Hiroshi [Gunma Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    The radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex (RVNRL) with the recently installed electron beam (EB) pilot plant at Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment, Takasaki, Japan has been discussed. The accelerating voltage and beam current of the plant are 250 kV and 10 mA respectively. The plant has a reaction vessel with the capacity of 18 liters latex to irradiate at a time. In order to obtain a suitable setting of experimental for RVNRL under EB of the plant the parameters such as irradiation time, defoamer concentration, volume of latex, beam current etc. are being optimized by varying the individual parameter at a constant set of the other variables. (author)

  2. Trypsin-specific Inhibitors from the Macrolepiota procera, Armillaria mellea and Amanita phalloides wild mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukanc, Tjaša; Brzin, Jože; Kos, Janko; Sabotič, Jerica

    2017-01-01

    Wild growing mushrooms are a rich source of novel proteins with unique features. We have isolated and characterized trypsin inhibitors from two edible mushrooms, the honey fungus (Armillaria mellea) and the parasol mushroom (Macrolepiota procera), and from the poisonous death cap (Amanita phalloides). The trypsin inhibitors isolated: armespin, macrospin and amphaspin, have similar molecular masses, acidic isoelectric points and are not N-glycosylated. They are very strong trypsin inhibitors and weak chymotrypsin inhibitors. They are resistant to exposure to high temperatures and withstand extreme pH values. These exceptional characteristics are advantageous for their potential use in biotechnology, agriculture and medicine.

  3. Comparative study on plant latex particles and latex coagulation in Ficus benjamina, Campanula glomerata and three Euphorbia species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Bauer

    Full Text Available Among latex-producing plants, mainly the latex of Hevea brasiliensis has been studied in detail so far, while comprehensive comparative studies of latex coagulation mechanisms among the more than 20,000 latex-bearing plant species are lacking. In order to give new insights into the potential variety of coagulation mechanisms, the untreated natural latices of five latex-bearing plants from the families Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae and Campanulaceae were visualised using Cryo-SEM and their particle size compared using the laser diffraction method. Additionally, the laticifers of these plants species were examined in planta via Cryo-SEM. Similar latex particle sizes and shape were found in Ficus benjamina and Hevea brasiliensis. Hence, and due to other similarities, we hypothesize comparable, mainly chemical, coagulation mechanisms in these two species, whereas a physical coagulation mechanism is proposed for the latex of Euphorbia spp. The latter mechanism is based on the huge amount of densely packed particles that after evaporation of water build a large surface area, which accelerates the coagulation procedure.

  4. Comparative study on plant latex particles and latex coagulation in Ficus benjamina, Campanula glomerata and three Euphorbia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Georg; Gorb, Stanislav N; Klein, Marie-Christin; Nellesen, Anke; von Tapavicza, Max; Speck, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Among latex-producing plants, mainly the latex of Hevea brasiliensis has been studied in detail so far, while comprehensive comparative studies of latex coagulation mechanisms among the more than 20,000 latex-bearing plant species are lacking. In order to give new insights into the potential variety of coagulation mechanisms, the untreated natural latices of five latex-bearing plants from the families Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae and Campanulaceae were visualised using Cryo-SEM and their particle size compared using the laser diffraction method. Additionally, the laticifers of these plants species were examined in planta via Cryo-SEM. Similar latex particle sizes and shape were found in Ficus benjamina and Hevea brasiliensis. Hence, and due to other similarities, we hypothesize comparable, mainly chemical, coagulation mechanisms in these two species, whereas a physical coagulation mechanism is proposed for the latex of Euphorbia spp. The latter mechanism is based on the huge amount of densely packed particles that after evaporation of water build a large surface area, which accelerates the coagulation procedure.

  5. Production of Gum from Cashew Tree Latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. AZEEZ

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at producing gum from cashew tree latex, which can act as substitute for gum Arabic. The method used include drying and size reduction of the exudates gum, sieving of the gum to remove impurities, dissolution of the gum in distilled water, filtration to remove polysaccharide waste and finally concentration and stability of the gum. Glycerine, starch and Zinc oxide are some of the additives used in stabilizing the gum. The pH and Viscosity on addition of various percentage concentration of stabilizing agent were determined. Gum of the best quality was obtained with viscosity and pH of 4.52 Ns/m2 and 4.2 respectively; this is because the natural pH of gum from Acacia Senegal ranges between 3.9 - 4.9. The gum can be used as an alternative for synthetic adhesive used presently for stamps and envelopes.

  6. Chemical characterization and insecticidal activity of Calotropis gigantea L. flower extract against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rowshanul Habib

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the insecticidal activity of ethyl acetate extract of Calotropis gigantea L. flower (designated as EECF against stored grain pest Tribolium castaneum (Herbst of different larval and adult stages. Methods: Residual film method was used here to study the toxicity of EECF against Tribolium castaneum and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis was also performed to characterize the chemicals of EECF. Results: In residual film bioassay, EECF showed lowest LD50 (0.134 mg/cm2 against 1st instar larvae of Tribolium castaneum and this finding ultimately revealed that the insect of initial stage was more susceptible than other stages. From the results of this study, it was found that with the increasing of age, Tribolium castaneum showed some extent of resistance against the toxicity of EECF. Moreover, chemical profiles of EECF identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis were also found to consistent with its insecticidal activity. Conclusions: So, the overall results suggested that extracts of Calotropis gigantea L. flower have potential insecticidal effect which might be used in pest control.

  7. Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex sensitized with commercial gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chirinos, H.; Lugao, A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    The industrial activities using natural rubber latex are fully compatible with rural areas in Amazon and other places in Brazil, as well as in other tropical countries. However the classical sulfur vulcanization presents many occupational problems for the workers in rural areas. Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex is a much more friendly process as sulfur compounds are not needed for crosslinking, although chemicals as acrylate monomers, particularly multifunctional acrylates are still used as sensitizers for radiation processes. Two commercial gases, acetylene and butadiene, were selected as sensitizers for the radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex instead of acrylates. These gases accelerate the crosslinking rates of the cure process and lower the radiation dose required to achieve vulcanization of natural rubber latex and improve the mechanical properties to reduce the tackiness of rubber goods. (author)

  8. [Drugs having latex and therapeutic alternatives in hospital formulary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damas Fuentes, Rosa María; Pérez León, Moisés; Piñero González, Marta; Sangil Monroy, Nayra; Molero Gómez, Rafael; Domínguez Lantigua, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the latex content of drugs in hospital formulary and establish possible therapeutic alternatives. All drugs susceptible of having latex were selected and written information was obtained from manufacturers. A therapeutic alternative was found for each of them, if possible. Written information from manufacturer was obtained for 605 (97.9%) and from label information for 8 of 632 selected drugs. For 43.9% of not safe drugs (total 57) on patients with latex allergy, a therapeutic alternative was found in hospital formulary. Knowing drugs having latex improve the prescription security, while the therapeutic alternatives chart eases the validation. The published data updates the scarce and variable information for patients and healthcare professionals. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Highly filled polymer nanocomposite films derived from novel nanostructured latexes

    OpenAIRE

    Ruggerone, Riccardo

    2010-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis has been to assess the potential of latex-based technologies for the preparation of polymer/clay nanocomposites. The key feature of latex-based technologies is that they offer the possibility of improved control of the final nanocomposite morphology at significantly higher clay loadings than can be obtained with more conventional processing techniques, such as melt blending or in situ polymerization. The idea is to exploit swelling of the clay in either the aque...

  10. Assessment of atmospheric pollution level using Asclepias procera leaves as biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daud, M.; Khalid, N.; Ahmad, S. [Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Nuclear Chemistry Div.; Iqbal, J. [University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan). Inst. of Chemistry

    2007-07-01

    The potential of Asclepias procera plant leaves as biomonitor for air pollution monitoring has been explored by analyzing 36 elements in the leaf samples employing Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) techniques. The leaf samples were collected in summer and winter seasons from urban areas of Islamabad with different anthropogenic activities as well as from a rural area as a reference site. The soil samples of the respective sites were also analyzed. The reliability of the methods used was established by analyzing the certified reference materials under identical experimental conditions and comparing the results obtained with the certified values, which are in quite good agreement with each other. Pollution Load Index (PLI) of the determined elements was computed and is discussed accordingly. The uptake of metals from soil to roots, stem and leaves has also been investigated by analyzing these parts of the same plant. The results suggest that the leaves of Asclepias procera plant have a good potential to indicate the air pollution levels both in the vicinity of industrial as well as near roadside areas. (orig.)

  11. Capsular Serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae by latex agglutination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Barbara D; Ortika, Belinda D; Satzke, Catherine

    2014-09-25

    Latex agglutination reagents are widely used in microbial diagnosis, identification and serotyping. Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality world-wide. Current vaccines target the pneumococcal capsule, and there are over 90 capsular serotypes. Serotyping pneumococcal isolates is therefore important for assessing the impact of vaccination programs and for epidemiological purposes. The World Health Organization has recommended latex agglutination as an alternative method to the 'gold standard' Quellung test for serotyping pneumococci. Latex agglutination is a relatively simple, quick and inexpensive method; and is therefore suitable for resource-poor settings as well as laboratories with high-volume workloads. Latex agglutination reagents can be prepared in-house utilizing commercially-sourced antibodies that are passively attached to latex particles. This manuscript describes a method of production and quality control of latex agglutination reagents, and details a sequential testing approach which is time- and cost-effective. This method of production and quality control may also be suitable for other testing purposes.

  12. Immune response modulation by curcumin in a latex allergy model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Raghavan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a worldwide increase in allergy and asthma over the last few decades, particularly in industrially developed nations. This resulted in a renewed interest to understand the pathogenesis of allergy in recent years. The progress made in the pathogenesis of allergic disease has led to the exploration of novel alternative therapies, which include herbal medicines as well. Curcumin, present in turmeric, a frequently used spice in Asia has been shown to have anti-allergic and inflammatory potential. Methods We used a murine model of latex allergy to investigate the role of curcumin as an immunomodulator. BALB/c mice were exposed to latex allergens and developed latex allergy with a Th2 type of immune response. These animals were treated with curcumin and the immunological and inflammatory responses were evaluated. Results Animals exposed to latex showed enhanced serum IgE, latex specific IgG1, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, eosinophils and inflammation in the lungs. Intragastric treatment of latex-sensitized mice with curcumin demonstrated a diminished Th2 response with a concurrent reduction in lung inflammation. Eosinophilia in curcumin-treated mice was markedly reduced, co-stimulatory molecule expression (CD80, CD86, and OX40L on antigen-presenting cells was decreased, and expression of MMP-9, OAT, and TSLP genes was also attenuated. Conclusion These results suggest that curcumin has potential therapeutic value for controlling allergic responses resulting from exposure to allergens.

  13. Proteomics analysis of latex from Hevea brasiliensis (clone RRIM 600).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Mohd Afiq Hazlami; Yuen, Gan Chee; Othman, Fazilah; Zainudin, Nurul Nabilah; Latiff, Aishah Abdul; Ismail, Mohd Nazri

    2017-04-01

    The natural rubber latex extracted from the bark of Hevea brasiliensis plays various important roles in today's modern society. Following ultracentrifugation, the latex can be separated into 3 layers: C-serum, lutoids, and rubber particles. Previous studies have shown that a large number of proteins are present in these 3 layers. However, a complete proteome for this important plant is still unavailable. Protein sequences have been recently translated from the completed draft genome database of H. brasiliensis, leading to the creation of annotated protein databases of the following H. brasiliensis biosynthetic pathways: photosynthesis, latex allergens, rubberwood formation, latex biosynthesis, and disease resistance. This research was conducted to identify the proteins contained within the latex by way of de novo sequencing from mass spectral data obtained from the 3 layers of the latex. Peptides from these proteins were fragmented using collision-induced dissociation, higher-energy collisional dissociation, and electron-transfer dissociation activation methods. A large percentage of proteins from the biosynthetic pathways (63% to 100%) were successfully identified. In addition, a total of 1839 unique proteins were identified from the whole translated draft genome database (AnnHBM).

  14. Euphorbia plant latex is inhabited by diverse microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardana, Manjula; Hyde, Embriette R; Lahmeyer, Sean; Dorsey, Brian L; La Val, Taylor P; Mullen, Madeline; Yoo, Jennifer; Knight, Rob; Baum, Marc M

    2015-12-01

    The antimicrobial properties and toxicity of Euphorbia plant latex should make it a hostile environment to microbes. However, when specimens from Euphorbia spp. were propagated in tissue culture, microbial growth was observed routinely, raising the question whether the latex of this diverse plant genus can be a niche for polymicrobial communities. Latex from a phylogenetically diverse set of Euphorbia species was collected and genomic microbial DNA extracted. Deep sequencing of bar-coded amplicons from taxonomically informative gene fragments was used to measure bacterial and fungal species richness, evenness, and composition. Euphorbia latex was found to contain unexpectedly complex bacterial (mean: 44.0 species per sample; 9 plants analyzed) and fungal (mean: 20.9 species per sample; 22 plants analyzed) communities using culture-independent methods. Many of the identified taxa are known plant endophytes, but have not been previously found in latex. Our results suggest that Euphorbia plant latex, a putatively hostile antimicrobial environment, unexpectedly supports diverse bacterial and fungal communities. The ecological roles of these microorganisms and potential interactions with their host plants are unknown and warrant further research. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  15. Troubleshooting for the observed problems in processing latex concentrate from natural resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afreen, S.; Haque, K. R.; Huda, M. K.

    2013-06-01

    Natural latex has special importance in the rubber industry for manufacturing different types of goods like gloves, balloons, male contraceptive and similar thin walled articles. This natural latex is much more sensitive a liquid to handle since it can easily become contaminated and thereby coagulated which makes it unfavourable for centrifuge and getting concentrate from it. Some other related measures also are included in consideration during the processing of concentrate latex from the natural raw latex. The problems that are being faced in a concentrate latex processing plant can be categorized in different groups like, problems related to the latex property, mechanical problems, electrical problems, handling and storage problems, transformation problems, problems related to environmental issues, etc. Among them, the most common and vital problems frequently observed in a concentrate latex processing plant are discussed here with a view to finding the measures for solution which will help to maintain the latex property in any latex processing plant.

  16. Detection of meningococcal antigen by latex agglutination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobanski, M A; Barnes, R A; Coakley, W T

    2001-01-01

    Meningococcal meningitis and septicemia are serious infections with significant morbidity and mortality. A sensitive affordable test is required to provide evidence of meningococcal disease at the earliest opportunity to improve local management and give early warning of potential outbreaks of disease. Culture of organisms is considered the gold standard for diagnosis but is slow (24 h or more) and increasingly influenced by prior antibiotic treatment. Recently, the development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has improved diagnosis but this sensitive assay is costly, is not available at most primary care institutions and is not feasible for developing countries. Conventional latex agglutination (LA) enables rapid detection of bacterial antigen in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (1,2) and can also be used to test specimens of blood (3,4) or urine (5) and for serogroup determinations on primary cultures (6,7). We discuss here test-card agglutination and also describe a new technique based upon LA in an ultrasonic standing wave that retains the speed of direct antigen testing while significantly increasing sensitivity.

  17. Evaluation of the medicinal properties of Cyrtocarpa procera Kunth fruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Elizalde, Karla Stephanie; Jimenez-Estrada, Manuel; Flores, Cesar Mateo; Hernandez, Luis Barbo; Rosas-Lopez, Rocio; Duran-Diaz, Angel; Nieto-Yañez, Oscar J; Barbosa, Elizabeth; Rodriguez-Monroy, Marco Aurelio; Canales-Martinez, Margarita

    2015-03-21

    The fruit of Cyrtocarpa procera is used to treat stomach diseases by people living in San Rafael, Coxcatlan, Puebla. This work investigated the antibacterial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activities of the fruit produced by this species. Methanol extract was obtained by maceration. After obtaining the methanol extract (MeOH1), methanol subextract (MeOH2) and hexane (H) were obtained. The antibacterial activities of MeOH1, MeOH2 and H were evaluated through disc-diffusion. The quenching of free radicals was evaluated by decolorizing a methanolic DPPH solution. The cytotoxic activity of MeOH2 was evaluated by in vitro assay system of growth inhibition of human cervical carcinoma cell line (CasKi). The IL-1β and TNF-α were determined through ELISA in the supernatants of the macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7). The MeOH2 subextract was separated by column chromatography, seventy-three fractions were collected. The Gram-positive and -negative bacteria examined were sensitive to MeOH1 and MeOH2; the MeOH2 was bactericidal toward Staphyloccocus aureus (MIC = 4 mg/mL) and Vibrio cholera (MIC = 4 mg/mL). The MeOH2 inhibited the DPPH radical (SC50 = 69.7 μg/mL), but a cytotoxicity assay revealed that the extract is not toxic according to the National Cancer Institute (LD50 = 22.03 μg/mL). The production of proinflammatory cytokines (IL- 1β and TNF- α) by LPS- stimulated macrophages was reduced after the treatments. The methanol extract contained various organic acids, such as citric acid, palmitic acid and α- linoleic acid. The fruits of Cyrtocarpa procera are employed to treat ailments such as diarrhea, in this study were demonstrated some biological activities involved in a bacterial infection. This is the first research about of the medicinal properties of C. procera fruit.

  18. Comparative transcriptome analysis of latex from rubber tree clone CATAS8-79 and PR107 reveals new cues for the regulation of latex regeneration and duration of latex flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jinquan; Chen, Yueyi; Wu, Shaohua; Tian, Wei-Min

    2015-04-18

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) is the primarily commercial source of natural rubber in the world. Latex regeneration and duration of latex flow after tapping are the two factors that determine rubber yield of rubber tree, and exhibit a huge variation between rubber tree clones CATAS8-79 and PR107. To dissect the molecular mechanism for the regulation of latex regeneration and duration of latex flow, we sequenced and comparatively analyzed latex of rubber tree clone CATAS8-79 and PR107 at transriptome level. More than 26 million clean reads were generated in each pool and 51,829 all-unigenes were totally assembled. A total of 6,726 unigenes with differential expression patterns were detected between CATAS8-79 and PR107. Functional analysis showed that genes related to mass of categories were differentially enriched between the two clones. Expression pattern of genes which were involved in latex regeneration and duration of latex flow upon successive tapping was analyzed by quantitative PCR. Several genes related to rubber biosynthesis, cellulose and lignin biosynthesis and rubber particle aggregation were differentially expressed between CATAS8-79 and PR107. This is the first report about probing latex regeneration and duration of latex flow by comparative transcriptome analysis. Among all the suggested factors, it is more important that the level of endogenous jasmonates, carbohydrate metabolism, hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) and Hevea rubber transferase (HRT) in mevalonate (MVA) parthway for latex regeneration while the level of endogenous ethylene (ETH), lignin content of laticifer cell wall, antioxidants and glucanases for the duration of latex flow. These data will provide new cues for understanding the molecular mechanism for the regulation of latex regeneration and duration of latex flow in rubber tree.

  19. Factors affecting the drying process of latex films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Farai T.

    During the past two decades, an improved understanding of the operative particle deformation mechanisms during latex film formation has been gained. For a particular colloidal dispersion with a known particle size, the Routh-Russel deformation maps predict the dominant mechanism for particle deformation for a particular set of conditions (evaporation rate, temperature, and initial film thickness). Although qualitative tests of the Routh-Russel model have been reported previously, a systematic study of the relationship between the film formation conditions and the resulting water concentration profiles is lacking. Here, the water distribution during the film formation of a series of acrylic copolymer latexes with varying glass transition temperature, Tg (values of -22, -11, 4 and 19 °C) has been obtained using GARField nuclear magnetic resonance profiling. A significant reduction in the rate of water loss from the latex with the lowest Tg was found, which is explained by its relatively low polymer viscosity enabling the growth of a coalesced skin layer. The transition between slowed drying and unimpeded drying occurs at the boundary between the capillary deformation and wet sintering regimes, in full agreement with the Routh-Russel model. An inverse correlation between the model¡¦s dimensionless control parameter and the dimensionless drying time is discovered, which is useful for the design of fast-drying waterborne films. The effect of particle size and bimodality on the film formation of latexes was also investigated. The differences in the drying rates at the early stages of drying due to different particle sizes were discovered. The latexes with unimodal smaller particle sizes were found to have longer characteristic drying times compared to those with unimodal larger particle sizes. This was postulated to be due to the Kelvin-Laplace theory of the reduction of vapour pressure of water due to the radius of the water menisci between polymer particles at the

  20. The antigenotoxic activity of latex from Himatanthus articulatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião de O. Rebouças

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Himatanthus articulatus (Vahl Woodson (Apocynaceae is a native plant to the Amazon popularly used to treat ulcers, tumors, inflammations, cancer, syphilis and malaria. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vivo genotoxic/antigenotoxic and mutagenic potential of this plant, using the comet and the micronucleus assays in mice. Female and male adult mice were treated with different doses of H. articulatus latex by gavage for two consecutive days. For the experiments, the latex was serially diluted with water to 1:2 (D1; 1:4 (D½ and 1:8 (D¼ and administered to the animals. The blood slides were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (ex vivo to evaluate antigenotoxic effect. Under the experimental conditions used in this study, the latex of H. articulatus did not increase the frequency of DNA damage as measured by the comet assay and micronucleus test in treated mice, indicating a non-genotoxic and non-mutagenic activity. In relation to the antigenotoxicity, latex exerted protective effect against DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide. Therefore, our results add new information about the antigenotoxic potential of H. articulatus latex, which is popularly used in the Amazon to treat different pathologies.

  1. Investigating the rheological properties of native plant latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Georg; Friedrich, Christian; Gillig, Carina; Vollrath, Fritz; Speck, Thomas; Holland, Chris

    2014-01-06

    Plant latex, the source of natural rubber, has been of interest to mankind for millennia, with much of the research on its rheological (flow) properties focused towards industrial application. However, little is known regarding the rheology of the native material as produced by the plant, a key factor in determining latex's biological functions. In this study, we outline a method for rheological comparison between native latices that requires a minimum of preparatory steps. Our approach provides quantitative insights into the coagulation mechanisms of Euphorbia and Ficus latex allowing interpretation within a comparative evolutionary framework. Our findings reveal that in laboratory conditions both latices behave like non-Newtonian materials with the coagulation of Euphorbia latex being mediated by a slow evaporative process (more than 60 min), whereas Ficus appears to use additional biochemical components to increase the rate of coagulation (more than 30 min). Based on these results, we propose two different primary defensive roles for latex in these plants: the delivery of anti-herbivory compounds (Euphorbia) and rapid wound healing (Ficus).

  2. Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) vaginal infection of goats: clinical efficacy of fig latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camero, Michele; Marinaro, Mariarosaria; Losurdo, Michele; Larocca, Vittorio; Bodnar, Livia; Patruno, Giovanni; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The latex of Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) has been shown to interfere with the replication of caprine herpesvirus (CpHV)-1 in vitro. The present study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of vaginal administration of fig latex in goats experimentally infected with CpHV-1. The fig latex reduced the clinical signs of the herpetic disease although it slightly influenced the titres of CpHV-1 shed. Thus, the fig latex maintained a partial efficacy in vivo.

  3. 40 CFR 428.40 - Applicability; description of the latex rubber subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... latex rubber subcategory. 428.40 Section 428.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Rubber Subcategory § 428.40 Applicability; description of the latex rubber subcategory. The provisions of...

  4. Molecular detection of Papaya meleira virus in the latex of Carica papaya by RT-PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo, de M.M.M.; Tavares, E.T.; Silva, da F.R.; Marinho, V.L.D.; Souza, M.T.

    2007-01-01

    A RT-PCR assay was developed for early and accurate detection of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) in the latex from infected papayas. The meleira disease is characterized by an excessive exudation of more fluidic latex from fruits, leaves and stems. This latex oxidises and gives the fruit a ¿sticky¿

  5. Morphology and film formation of poly(butyl methacrylate)-polypyrrole core-shell latex particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijs, F; Lang, J

    Core-shell latex particles made of a poly(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) core and a thin polypyrrole (PPy) shell were synthesized by two-stage polymerization. In the first stage, PBMA latex particles were synthesized in a semicontinuous process by free-radical polymerization. PBMA latex particles were

  6. Science and technology of rubber reclamation with special attention to NR based waste latex products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, V.V.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Joseph, R.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive overview of reclamation of cured rubber with special emphasis on latex reclamation is depicted in this paper. The latex industry has expanded over the years to meet the world demands for gloves, condoms, latex thread, etc. Due to the strict specifications for the products and the

  7. Evaluation of hemostatic activity of latex from three Euphorbiaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgujar, Shamkant B

    2014-01-01

    Latices from several plant species of Euphorbiaceae family have been traditionally applied over fresh cuts to stop bleeding and subsequently applied over wounds to enhance healing process. The latex arrested bleeding from fresh wounds by reducing bleeding and whole blood coagulation time which are important indices of hemostatic activity. It has been accepted that hemostatic activity is due to the proteolytic fraction of plant latices. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the clot inducing properties of three Euphorbiaceae plants viz., Euphorbia nivulia Buch.-Ham., Pedilanthus tithymaloides (L.) Poit and Synadenium grantii Hook F. In the present study, various proteolytic activities namely protease, gelatinase, milk clotting and whole blood clotting assay of the enzyme fraction of latices of Euphorbia nivulia, Pedilanthus tithymaloides and Synadenium grantii have been investigated. The inhibition profile of protease specific inhibitors was assessed. Also, the effects of protein fractions were studied using bleeding/clotting time test of fresh experimentally-induced wounds in mice. Euphorbia nivulia latex protease has noticeable blood clotting activity followed by Pedilanthus tithymaloides and Synadenium grantii. Stem latex protease of Pedilanthus tithymaloides exhibits superior procoagulant activity in different mammal's blood samples viz., Capra hircus, Bubalus bubalis, Ovibos moschatus and Bos indicus. Blood sample of ox was the most sensitive to latex protease than other mammal's blood. Concomitantly, the plant latex protease could significantly reduce whole blood clotting time of human and mice blood samples. The protease fraction of latices of Euphorbia nivulia, Pedilanthus tithymaloides and Synadenium grantii possesses phytoconstituents capable of arresting wound bleeding, and accelerating whole blood coagulation process. It suggests good potentiality for use of latex proteases in wound management. Also, the finding of this study showed that the protease

  8. Human fibrinogen adsorption on positively charged latex particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeliszewska, Paulina; Bratek-Skicki, Anna; Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Cieśla, Michał

    2014-09-23

    Fibrinogen (Fb) adsorption on positively charged latex particles (average diameter of 800 nm) was studied using the microelectrophoretic and the concentration depletion methods based on AFM imaging. Monolayers on latex were adsorbed from diluted bulk solutions at pH 7.4 and an ionic strength in the range of 10(-3) to 0.15 M where fibrinogen molecules exhibited an average negative charge. The electrophoretic mobility of the latex after controlled fibrinogen adsorption was systematically measured. A monotonic decrease in the electrophoretic mobility of fibrinogen-covered latex was observed for all ionic strengths. The results of these experiments were interpreted according to the three-dimensional electrokinetic model. It was also determined using the concentration depletion method that fibrinogen adsorption was irreversible and the maximum coverage was equal to 0.6 mg m(-2) for ionic strength 10(-3) M and 1.3 mg m(-2) for ionic strength 0.15 M. The increase of the maximum coverage was confirmed by theoretical modeling based on the random sequential adsorption approach. Paradoxically, the maximum coverage of fibrinogen on positively charged latex particles was more than two times lower than the maximum coverage obtained for negative latex particles (3.2 mg m(-2)) at pH 7.4 and ionic strength of 0.15 M. This was interpreted as a result of the side-on adsorption of fibrinogen molecules with their negatively charged core attached to the positively charged latex surface. The stability and acid base properties of fibrinogen monolayers on latex were also determined in pH cycling experiments where it was observed that there were no irreversible conformational changes in the fibrinogen monolayers. Additionally, the zeta potential of monolayers was more positive than the zeta potential of fibrinogen in the bulk, which proves a heterogeneous charge distribution. These experimental data reveal a new, side-on adsorption mechanism of fibrinogen on positively charged surfaces and

  9. Evaluation of metal concentration and antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer potentials of two edible mushrooms Lactarius deliciosus and Macrolepiota procera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Kosanić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is designed for the determination of metal concentrations, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer potential of two edible mushrooms Lactarius deliciosus and Macrolepiota procera. Concentrations of nine metals are determined and all metals are present in the allowable concentrations in the tested mushrooms except Cd in M. procera. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by free radical scavenging and reducing power. M. procera extract had more potent free radical scavenging activity (IC50=311.40 μg/mL than L. deliciosus extract. Moreover, the tested extracts had effective reducing power. The total content of phenol in the extracts was examined using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent and obtained values expressed as pyrocatechol equivalents. Further, the antimicrobial potential was determined with a microdilution method on 15 microorganisms. Among the tested species, extract of L. deliciosus showed a better antimicrobial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 2.5 mg/mL to 20 mg/mL. Finally, the cytotoxic activity was tested using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method on human epithelial carcinoma HeLa cells, human lung carcinoma A549 cells, and human colon carcinoma LS174 cells. Extract of both mushrooms expressed similar cytotoxic activity with IC50 values ranging from 19.01 μg/mL to 80.27 μg/mL.

  10. Defense-related Proteins from Chelidonium majus L. as Important Components of its Latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrot, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review is to cover most recent research on plant pathogenesis- and defenserelated proteins from latex-bearing medicinal plant Chelidonium majus (Papaveraceae) in the context of its importance for latex activity, function, pharmacological activities, and antiviral medicinal use. These results are compared with other latex-bearing plant species and recent research on proteins and chemical compounds contained in their latex. This is the first review, which clearly summarizes pathogenesisrelated (PR) protein families in latex-bearing plants pointing into their possible functions. The possible antiviral function of the latex by naming the abundant proteins present therein is also emphasized. Finally latex-borne defense system is hypothesized to constitute a novel type of preformed immediate defense response against viral, but also non-viral pathogens, and herbivores. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. LaTeX - Know what you are missing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunther Maier

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article gives a brief introduction to \\LaTeX\\ and related tools. The aim is to give an overview, to demonstrate the flexibility and versatility of the software, and to assist the reader taking first steps using it. The article links to a number of valuable resources for further information.

  12. How To Refinish Wood Siding With Latex Paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. A. Mraz

    1976-01-01

    Every homeowner with painted wood siding and trim at some time faces the job of repainting. In this note a simple test is described to determine whether an old surface will form a satisfactory bond with latex paints, and suggestions are given on preparing the surface to achieve a satisfactory bond.

  13. Latex allergy at Groote Schuur hospital prevalence, clinical features ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Workers who were symptomatic had Immunocap RAST (CAP RAST) or skin-prick tests to confirm latex sensitivity. Latexavoidance measures were implemented in positive subjects. One hundred symptomatic, sensitised individuals were followed up 3 months after intervention to assess their clinical status. A further cohort of ...

  14. Natural rubber latex: determination and interpretation of flow curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Lourenço Corrêa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAs consumers become more demanding, the importance grows of guaranteeing the quality of products. The employment of reliable testing techniques that assure the origin and characteristics of the inputs used by industry is a key factor in this respect. In the rubber processing industry, the most commonly used characterization tests include determination of the total solids and dry rubber content, mechanical stability, odor, color and presence of volatile compounds, among others. For the most part, these tests are sufficient for the latex transformation industry. However, in situations where there is a need to know the behavior of latex in reaction to the mechanical forces of machines (mixers, pumps, etc., other tests must be used. Rheological tests to determine viscoelastic data by means of plotting flow curves combined with the application of theoretical models can provide important details for characterization of different types of latex. This article presents the protocol employed by the Rheology and Image Laboratory of Rio de Janeiro State University (UERJ for the rheological study of Brazilian latex. The samples analyzed came from the state of São Paulo.

  15. A Protease Isolated from the Latex of Plumeria rubra Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The protease was isolated from the latex of the plant by acetone precipitation method and given a trivial name, Plumerin-R. The anti-inflammatory activity of the protease was based on its effects on carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats. Its wound healing effect was investigated using an excision wound rat ...

  16. In vitro antifungal activity of Argemone ochroleuca Sweet latex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mahmoud

    2013-02-22

    Feb 22, 2013 ... cancer (Ducray et al., 2011), antiparasitic (Martínez et al.,. 2010) and antiprotozoa ... Morelos, México against four fungal postharvest pathogens of fruits ... from the latex of Hevea brasiliensis on oral microorganisms. Mycoses ...

  17. Incidence of latex harvesting technologies on agronomic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High tapping frequency does not therefore have a negative effect on thiol group content, but rather results in high concentrations linked to a higher metabolic activity (Jacob et al.,. 1995). This result shows and confirms that tapping increases the metabolic energy of the tree. Incidence of latex harvesting technologies.

  18. Light scattering of PMMA latex particles in benzene: structural effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, E.A.; Vrij, A.

    1979-01-01

    Intra- and interparticle structural effects were studied in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) latex dispersions in a nonpolar solvent with the technique of light scattering. The required transparency of the dispersions was attained by a close matching of the refractive index of PMMA and solvent, for

  19. Systemes De Recolte Du Latex Adaptes A La Saignee Descendante ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However systems applied up to now were to harvest the latex of this clone didn't allowed eradicating its sensitivity to tapping panel dryness and fragility. An experiment was led in south east of Côte d'Ivoire in order to determine a high performance harvesting technique of this clone in downward tapping. The clone PB 235 ...

  20. Incidence of latex harvesting technologies on agronomic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    field of plant and latex physiology (Jacob et al., 1988; Lacrotte, 1991; Gohet, 1996). These works helped group clones into three metabolic activity classes' slow, moderate and rapid (Serres et al., 1994; Jacob et al., 1995;. Gohet et al., 1996). Rapid metabolic activity class includes clones with an easy flow leading to high ...

  1. Latex allergy: 'Plight, rights and fights' | Potter | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 103, No 6 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Latex allergy: 'Plight, rights and fights'. PC Potter. Abstract. No Abstract.

  2. Plant latex lipase as biocatalysts for biodiesel production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MAZOU Mouaïmine

    2016-07-13

    Jul 13, 2016 ... extensively studied, little research has been focused on the use of plant lipases namely plant latex lipases. The present .... When the fruit is green, it .... high pH levels. Optimum conditions for assaying CPL activity on olive oil were therefore set at pH 9. No significant activity could be detected at pH 6 or less.

  3. Oil-acrylic hybrid latexes as binders for waterborne coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamersveld, van E.M.S.; Es, van J.; German, A.L.; Cuperus, F.P.; Weissenborn, P.; Hellgren, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    The combination of the characteristics of oil, or alkyd, emulsions and acrylic latexes in a waterborne binder has been the object of various studies in the past. Strategies for combining the positive properties of alkyds, e.g. autoxidative curing, gloss and penetration in wood, with the fast drying

  4. Page 1 CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF JACK TREE LATEX AND ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    green stem is cut or when a twig or leaf is broken off. During the war there was great interest in the study of plant latices and we had occasion to examine a small quantity of the Jack tree latex. It was coagulated by adding just enough of alcohol (equal volume) and the resulting coagulum. (A) and aqueous alcoholic mother ...

  5. Marine bacterial prodigiosin as dye for rubber latex, polymethyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prodigiosin is known for its immunomodulatory, antibacterial, antimycotic, antimalarial, algicidal and anticancer activities. Here, we reported the evaluation of prodigiosin pigment as a dyeing agent in rubber latex, paper and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) so that it can be considered as an alternative to synthetic pigments.

  6. Phosphorus removal from aquaculture wastewater and latex by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The treatments included raw municipal wastewater (RMW), treated municipal wastewater (TMW), and diluted fresh latex (DFL). The experiment was performed in the open air of Khorasgan University area for 18 days “without aeration” and 18 days “with aeration” after the period of “without aeration”. The results of the study ...

  7. A Latex Agglutination Test for Capripoxvirus | Muinamia | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% ...

  8. Metabolic routes affecting rubber biosynthesis in Hevea brasiliensis latex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Keng-See; Mat-Isa, Mohd.-Noor; Bahari, Azlina; Ghazali, Ahmad-Kamal; Alias, Halimah; Mohd.-Zainuddin, Zainorlina; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Wan, Kiew-Lian

    2012-01-01

    The cytosolic mevalonate (MVA) pathway in Hevea brasiliensis latex is the conventionally accepted pathway which provides isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) for cis-polyisoprene (rubber) biosynthesis. However, the plastidic 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway may be an alternative source of IPP since its more recent discovery in plants. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) expression profiles of genes from both pathways in latex showed that subcellular compartmentalization of IPP for cis-polyisoprene synthesis is related to the degree of plastidic carotenoid synthesis. From this, the occurrence of two schemes of IPP partitioning and utilization within one species is proposed whereby the supply of IPP for cis-polyisoprene from the MEP pathway is related to carotenoid production in latex. Subsequently, a set of latex unique gene transcripts was sequenced and assembled and they were then mapped to IPP-requiring pathways. Up to eight such pathways, including cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis, were identified. Our findings on pre- and post-IPP metabolic routes form an important aspect of a pathway knowledge-driven approach to enhancing cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis in transgenic rubber trees. PMID:22162870

  9. Implication of Climate Variability for Latex Exudates F Rubber Tree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at: assessing the relationship between latex exudates and climate variability; identifying the most critical climate element(s) in the yield variability of rubber; and examining the predictability of rubber yield based on climate variability. Fifteen years data was collected from documented, but unpublished, ...

  10. In vitro antifungal activity of Argemone ochroleuca Sweet latex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro antifungal activities of crude latex of Argemone ochroleuca Sweet against four clinical isolates of Candida (Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis) and six isolates of plant pathogenic fungi (Alternaria alternate, Drechslera halodes, Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina ...

  11. Evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of latex agglutination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sensitivity and specificity of latex agglutination test (LAT) and Complement fixation test (CFT) for the field diagnosis of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia were determined using 90 bovine sera from various parts of the country. Of the ninety samples tested, 17 (18.9%) were positive in both tests, 2 (2.2%) were ...

  12. Statistical discrimination of latex between healthy and white root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    White root disease is a critical factor of infection to rubber trees in Malaysia. Therefore, research represent the identification of healthy and infected rubber trees is very significant in order to maintain the yield of rubber tree latex. A total of 60 samples from healthy and white root disease (WRD) infected rubber tree respectively ...

  13. SUBSTRATE EFFECTS ON VOC EMISSIONS FROM A LATEX PAINT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of two substrates -- a stainless steel plate and a gypsum board -- on the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from a latex paint were evaluated by environmental chamber tests. It was found that the amount of VOCs emitted from the painted stainless steel was 2 to...

  14. Cutting height effects on guayule latex, rubber and resin yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray) is a perennial shrub native to the Chihuahuan Desert. While guayule traditionally has been cultivated for rubber, more recently it is being cultivated for its hypoallergenic latex. Other uses including termite resistant wood products and as an energy source have ...

  15. Alergia látex-fruta Latex-fruit allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Andréia MARIN

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O látex está sendo considerado o alergênico do ano 2000, tendo em vista que inúmeros indivíduos, principalmente profissionais da área de saúde e pacientes submetidos a várias intervenções diagnósticas e terapêuticas, estão freqüentemente expostos aos alérgenos do látex, presentes em produtos de borracha natural. As manifestações clínicas conseqüentes às reações alérgicas de hipersensibilidade imediata vão desde rinite, urticária, conjuntivite, angioedema, asma, até anafilaxia. Estudos recentes estão demonstrando que pacientes alérgicos ao látex desenvolvem concomitantemente sensibilização a certos alimentos de origem vegetal, especialmente frutas como papaia, figo, banana, abacate, kiwi, pêssego, abacaxi, melão e castanha, acreditando-se numa provável ocorrência de reações cruzadas entre os alérgenos do látex e destas frutas. Faz-se, então, uma revisão sobre a alergia ao látex, em particular sobre os grupos de risco, incluindo a presença de reatividade cruzada entre o látex e as frutas.The latex is being considered the allergenic agent of the year 2000, taking into account that several individuals, mainly health care professionals, and patients who had undergone many diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, are frequently exposed to latex allergens, which are present in natural rubber latex products. The clinical manifestations, derived from allergic reactions of immediate hypersensitivity vary from since rhinitis, conjunctivitis, urticaria, angioedema, asthma, to anaphylaxis. Recent researches are demonstrating that patients allergic to latex develop concomitantly sensitization to certain vegetable foods, especially fruits like papaya, fig, banana, avocado, kiwi, peach, pineapple, melon and chestnut, and a probable occurrence of cross reaction between allergens of latex and of these fruits is believed. A review is made about latex allergy, in particular about risk groups, including the presence of

  16. A novel arctigenin-containing latex glove prevents latex allergy by inhibiting type I/IV allergic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Xin; Xue, Dan-Ting; Liu, Meng; Zhou, Zheng-Min; Shang, Jing

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed at developing a natural compound with anti-allergic effect and stability under latex glove manufacturing conditions and investigating whether its anti-allergic effect is maintained after its addition into the latex. The effects of nine natural compounds on growth of the RBL-2H3 cells and mouse primary spleen lymphocytes were determined using MTT assay. The compounds included glycyrrhizin, osthole, tetrandrine, tea polyphenol, catechin, arctigenin, oleanolic acid, baicalin and oxymatrine. An ELISA assay was used for the in vitro anti-type I/IV allergy screening; in this process β-hexosaminidase, histamine, and IL-4 released from RBL-2H3 cell lines and IFN-γ and IL-2 released from mouse primary spleen lymphocytes were taken as screening indices. The physical stability of eight natural compounds and the dissolubility of arctigenin, selected based on the in vitro pharnacodynamaic screening and the stability evaluation, were detected by HPLC. The in vivo pharmacodynamic confirmation of arctigenin and final latex product was evaluated with a passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) model and an allergen-specific skin response model. Nine natural compounds showed minor growth inhibition on RBL-2H3 cells and mouse primary spleen lymphocytes. Baicalin and arctigenin had the best anti-type I and IV allergic effects among the natural compounds based on the in vitro pharmacodynamic screening. Arctigenin and catechin had the best physical stability under different manufacturing conditions. Arctigenin was the selected for further evaluation and proven to have anti-type I and IV allergic effects in vivo in a dose-dependent manner. The final product of the arctigenin-containing latex glove had anti-type I and IV allergic effects in vivo which were mainly attributed to arctigenin as proved from the dissolubility results. Arctigenin showed anti-type I and IV allergic effects in vitro and in vivo, with a good stability under latex glove manufacturing conditions

  17. Effects of Different Treatments on Seed Germination Improvement of Calotropis persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Farajollahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different treatments on seed germination in the desert plant species Calotropis persica (Gand.. This species is known to have long time for seed germination considering arid region condition and short time of access moist. An experiment was performed with 13 treatments and 4 replications in a completely randomized design. Treatments included KNO3 with concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 percent, immersion in hot water for five min, acetylsalicylic acid 100, 200, and 300 mg L−1, ethereal sulfuric acid (60% for 5 and 10 min, thiourea with concentrations of 0.1% and 0.3%, and prechilling for 10 days. Tap water was used as the control. Our findings indicate that KNO3 0.1% and 100 mg L−1 acetylsalicylic acid were the most effective treatments for improvement of seed germination properties in this species. In a comparison of the two mentioned treatment, KNO3 0.1% treatments is the best.

  18. Aktivitas Vermisidal dan Ovisidal Daun Biduri (Calotropis Spp. Terhadap Cacing Fasciola Gigantica Secara In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilang Kala Maulana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas vermisidal dan ovisidal daun Biduri (Calotropis spp. terhadap cacing F. gigantica. Sampel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu telur dan cacing F. gigantica yang diperoleh dari Rumah Potong Hewan Pesanggaran dan daun biduri diambil dari pantai Sanur, Denpasar Bali. Konsentrasi daun biduri dibuat menggunakan daun segar yang dihancurkan dan kemudian dicampurkan dengan cairan empedu untuk vermisidal dan aquades untuk ovisidal. Konsentrasi yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu 2,5%, 5%, 7,5%, dan 10%. Pengujian dilakukan secara in vitro dengan menggunakan lima perlakuan dan empat kali ulangan. Pengamatan vermisidal dilakukan setiap 30 menit sedangkan untuk ovisidal dilakukan pada hari ke-21 dan ke-28. Hasil dari penelitian didapatkan konsentrasi daun biduri (2,5%, 5%, 7,5%, dan 10% pada masing-masing kelompok perlakuan memiliki pengaruh vermisidal, tidak berbeda nyata (P>0.05 terhadap satu dengan yang lainnya. Efek ovisidal pada hari ke-21 dan ke-28 didapatkan adanya pengaruh yang nyata (P<0.05 terhadap daya hambat tetas telur cacing F. gigantica. Disimpulkan bahwa daun biduri memiliki aktivitas vermisidal dan ovisidal terhadap cacing dan telur F. gigantica. Konsentrasi yang paling efektif untuk vermisidal dan ovisidal terhadap cacing F. gigantica adalah 5%.

  19. VERMISIDAL DAN OVISIDAL GETAH BIDURI (Calotropis Spp. TERHADAP FASCIOLA GIGANTICA SECARA IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Gustav Satriadistfa Septiadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efek vermisidal dan ovisidal getah biduri (Calotropis spp. serta perbedaan pengaruh konsentrasi terhadap cacing dan telur cacing Fasciola gigantica. Sampel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah telur dan cacing Fasciola gigantica yang diambil di Rumah Potong Hewan Pesanggaran. Getah biduri diambil dari tanaman biduri yang berada di pantai sanur, Denpasar Bali. Konsentrasi getah biduri dibuat menggunakan getah segar yang ditambahkan dengan cairan empedu untuk vermisidal dan aquades untuk ovisidal. Konsentrasi yang digunakan yaitu 2,5%, 5%, 7,5%, dan 10 %. Pengujian dilakukan secara in vitro dengan 5 perlakuan dan 4 kali ulangan. Pengamatan vermisidal dilakukan setiap jam, sedangkan ovisidal pada hari ke-21 dan ke-28. Hasil dari penelitian ini didapatkan getah biduri memiliki aktivitas vermisidal dan ovisidal terhadap cacing dan telur cacing Fasciola gigantica. Konsentrasi getah biduri (2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, dan 10% tidak memiliki pengaruh vermisidal yang berbeda terhadap Fasciola gigantica. Efek ovisidal pada hari ke-21 dan 28 menunjukkan adanya pengaruh yang nyata (P<0.05 terhadap daya hambat tetas telur cacing Fasciola gigantica. Berdasarkan hasil yang didapatkan dapat disimpulkan bahwa vermisidal getah biduri terhadap cacing Fasciola gigantica tidak memiliki efek yang berbeda pada tiap konsentrasi yang digunakan, sedangkan pada uji ovisidal didapatkan hasil yang berbeda pada setiap konsentrasi yang digunakan.

  20. [Contact allergy to latex in health care workers--study of case reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krecisz, Beata; Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta

    2004-01-01

    Contact allergy to latex is a relatively new problem that gives rise to much controversy among researchers. The aim of the study was to develop a study model of contact allergy induced by latex proteins. The study covered 60 health care workers who had reported decreased tolerance of rubber gloves. They were subjected to routine dermatological examinations, patch tests to a standard set of allergens (Chemotechnique Diagnosis, Sweden), expanded to include high ammoniac latex, and prick tests with latex and common inhalatory allergens. In addition, total and latex specific IgE antibodies were determined. Of the total group, contact allergy to latex was found in 5 persons, including 3 persons with concurrent immediate reaction to latex, and 2 persons with allergy of the isolated nature. Only in 1 person coexistent late allergy to latex and rubber accelerator of the thiurams group were observed. Path tests with 30% ammoniac latex seem to be a useful diagnostic method in the detection of contact allergy to latex. In case of doubtful reactions, the use of lower allergen concentrations is recommended.

  1. Caractérisation, germination et conservation des graines de Carapa procera DC. (Meliaceae, une espèce utile en santé humaine et animale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanogo, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization, germination and conservation of seeds of Carapa procera DC. (Meliaceae, a useful medicinal species for human and animal health. Carapa procera DC. (Meliaceae is a widespread species occurring in the woodlands of Africa and Latin America. It is a medicinal plant overexploited by the rural populations of southern Mali. Leaves, fruits and seeds, the bark of the trunk and the roots are used in the preparation of medicine for human and animal health. Such uses result in enormous pressures on natural stands of the species, which have great difficulty in regenerating naturally. Cultivation of C. procera was investigated through studies of its seed physiology and seedling production techniques for reintroduction into its natural habitat. Results showed that fresh seeds of C. procera had a moisture content of over 50% (based on fresh weight and ≥ 90% germination. When seeds were dried in a ventilated room condition, their moisture content dropped below 20% after 2 weeks, resulting in a total loss of their germination capacity. Carapa procera seeds can therefore be described as recalcitrant seeds. Stored in kegs containing wood chips, 50% of (small size seeds germinated after one month and 33% after three months, maintaining a 23.5% moisture content. This study recommends that seed moisture content should be kept at above 35% in order to maintain seed viability in storage. We found that using a substrate of silty clay in the nursery allowed a good growth of seedlings (≥ 40 cm, which could be planted out in the field within three months. In order to sustainably use and conserve C. procera in the savannah areas of West Africa, it is recommended that the species be cultivated through the establishment of plantations in its habitat by rural communities.

  2. Prenatal latex sensitization in patients with spina bifida: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Michael; Goettler, Susanne; Eschenburg, Georg; Kracht, Thorben; Kunkel, Philip; Von der Wense, Axel; Reinshagen, Konrad

    2014-03-01

    Patients with spina bifida are particularly vulnerable to developing immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated latex sensitization. Even though many risk factors leading to latex allergy in these patients have been described, it is still unclear whether the increased prevalence of latex sensitization is disease associated or due to the procedures used to treat spina bifida. The aim of this study was to assess prenatal latex sensitization in patients with spina bifida by examining IgE levels in umbilical cord blood. Patients with spina bifida and matched healthy infants were recruited from the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf and Children's Hospital Altona. Latex-specific and total IgE were assessed in umbilical cord blood using ImmunoCAP testing to evaluate the degree of prenatal latex sensitization. Twenty-two subjects, 10 with spina bifida and 12 healthy individuals, were included. Subjects were selected after matching for sex, gestational age, weight, parental allergy profile, number of prenatal examinations, and utilization of latex tools during pregnancy (propensity score estimates, p = 0.36). In patients with spina bifida, latex-specific and total IgE levels were significantly higher than those in healthy individuals (p = 0.001). After normalization to total IgE, latex-specific IgE levels were higher, yet not significantly increased (p = 0.085). Perinatally, there is a significant augmentation of total and latex-specific IgE in patients with spina bifida. After correcting for total IgE, latex-specific IgE was increased, yet not significantly higher than in matched, healthy controls. This pilot study gives novel insights in the immunological reactions related to spina bifida. The increased latex-specific IgE levels could possibly be associated with the occurrence of a latex allergy in the future.

  3. Transparent, conductive coatings from latex-based dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiakuan

    Flexible, transparent and conductive coatings were prepared using polymeric latex as the matrix starting material, and transparent and conductive nanoparticles as the conductive filler. A stable aqueous dispersion of latex and conductive nanoparticles was prepared and deposited onto polymer substrates. Upon drying above the glass transition temperature of polymer, latex particles consolidated, compacted, deformed, and eventually coalesced, forcing the conductive nanoparticles into the boundary regions between latex and thereby resulting in a segregated microstructure. This segregated microstructure enables electrical conduction at relatively low filler concentration and optical transparency as well. The conductivity of the composite coatings is described by percolation theory. The colloidal stability of the starting aqueous dispersions affects the coating microstructures and properties. A stable dispersion with the separated colloidal state dominated by electrostatic repulsion is desired for a good combination of conductivity and transparency. The electrical properties of the composite coatings are affected by the physical morphology of latices and conductive fillers, the intrinsic resistivity of conductive fillers, and the interaction between matrix and filler. The transparency is affected by the distribution of conductive fillers in matrix and the refractive index difference between matrix and filler. As latex particle size increases, the conductivity percolation occurs at lower filler contents. As the intrinsic resistivity of filler decreases, the conductivity of the resulting composite coatings past the percolation threshold increases. So far, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiothene)/poly(4-styrenesufonate) PEDOT/PSS gel particles appear to be the best conductive filler due to their special morphology (water-swelled polymeric gel particles), high intrinsic conductivity (after polar solvent modification), and nearly matching refractive index with matrix polymer. The

  4. A novel β-trefoil lectin from the parasol mushroom (Macrolepiota procera) is nematotoxic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žurga, Simon; Pohleven, Jure; Renko, Miha; Bleuler-Martinez, Silvia; Sosnowski, Piotr; Turk, Dušan; Künzler, Markus; Kos, Janko; Sabotič, Jerica

    2014-08-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins present in all organisms. Some cytoplasmic lectins from fruiting bodies of dikaryotic fungi are toxic against a variety of parasites and predators. We have isolated, cloned and expressed a novel, single domain lectin from Macrolepiota procera, designated MpL. Determination of the crystal structure revealed that MpL is a ricin B-like lectin with a β-trefoil fold. Biochemical characterization, site-directed mutagenesis, co-crystallization with carbohydrates, isothermal titration calorimetry and glycan microarray analyses show that MpL forms dimers with the carbohydrate-binding site at the α-repeat, with the highest specificity for terminal N-acetyllactosamine and other β-galactosides. A second putative carbohydrate-binding site with a low affinity for galactose is present at the γ-repeat. In addition, a novel hydrophobic binding site was detected in MpL with specificity for molecules other than carbohydrates. The tissue specific distribution of MpL in the stipe and cap tissue of fruiting bodies and its toxicity towards the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans indicate a function of MpL in protecting fruiting bodies against predators and parasites. Nucleotide sequence data have been deposited in the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases under accession numbers HQ449738 and HQ449739. Structural data have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank under accession codes 4ION, 4IYB, 4IZX and 4J2S. © 2014 FEBS.

  5. Extractable protein of radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soebianto, Y.S. [Center for Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, BATAN, Jakarta (Indonesia); Upul, R.M. [Rubber Research Institute of Sri Lanka, Ratmalana (Sri Lanka); Makuuchi, K.; Yoshii, F.; Kume, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    A new method to reduce the protein level in the latex products by irradiation is reported. Water soluble protein (WSP) solution (10%) was added into radiation vulcanized NR latex (RVNRL) as much as 3 phr in three different processes: added to RVNRL, added to re-centrifuged RVNRL, and added to RVNRL followed by centrifugation. The protein content was determined by enhanced BCA method, and identified by SDS-PAGE analysis. Addition of WSP followed by centrifugation reduces EP up to the minimum protein detection, and shortens the leaching time to 20-30 min. SDS-PAGE analysis confirms the reduction of soluble protein in the serum phase, and disappearance of protein bands in the rubber extract. Protein-WSP interaction produces water soluble complex, and removed by centrifugation. The molecular weight of WSP dictates the efficiency of protein removal. (author)

  6. Synthesis of PMMA/Polysiloxane Core-Shell Latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chengbing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, silicon-acrylic latex, consisting of poly (methyl methacrylate (PMMA as the core and modified polysiloxane as the shell, had been successfully synthesized via cationic emulsion polymerization. The structure of the silicon-acrylic latex was confirmed by means of DLS, FTIR and TGA. There was an increase of 24.74 nm in average particle size and a shift of the size distribution to large sizes for core-shell particles in comparison with the original PMMA core particles, which indicated the formation of core-shell structure. The typical absorption peaks of Si-O-Si and Si-O-C in infrared spectrum indicated that the hydroxyl groups on the PMMA surface had reacted with the silanol groups, which could be confirmed by heterogeneous two-component system form TGA test.

  7. CDNA library from the Latex of Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilaiwan Chotigeat

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Latex from Hevea brasiliensis contains 30-50% (w/w of natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene, the important rawmaterial for many rubber industries. We have constructed a cDNA library from the latex of H. brasiliensis to investigate theexpressed genes and molecular events in the latex. We analyzed 412 expressed sequence tags (ESTs. More than 90% of theEST clones showed homology to previously described sequences in public databases. Functional classification of the ESTsshowed that the largest category were proteins of unknown function (30.1%, 11.4% of ESTs encoded for rubber synthesisrelatedproteins (RS and 8.5% for defense or stress related proteins (DS. Those with no significant homology to knownsequences (NSH accounted for 8.7%, primary metabolism (PM and gene expression and RNA metabolism were 7.8% and6.6%, respectively. Other categories included, protein synthesis-related proteins (6.6%, chromatin and DNA metabolism(CDM 3.9%, energy metabolism (EM 3.4%, cellular transport (CT 3.2%, cell structure (CS 3.2%, signal transduction (ST2.2%, secondary metabolism (SM 1.7%, protein fate (PF 2.2%, and reproductive proteins (RP 0.7%.

  8. Progress in radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Vulcanization dose defined as the radiation dose at which cross-linked natural rubber in latex has the maximum tensile strength can be reduced by adding carbon tetrachloride as a reaction accelerator. The radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex was selected as one of regional projects of IAEA in 1989 and a pilot plant was built in Jakarta. The products from it were evaluated during 1983-1985, followed by IAEA decision to support the continued R and D study at Takasaki, JAERI. Various factors to improve the properties of the products have been studied. Several advantages of the process over conventional method, such as absence of N-nitrosoamines, low cytotoxicity, decomposability in the environment, transparency and softness, were confirmed. The technology has been transferred toward commercial application in Thailand, and pilot plants being set up in Indonesia, India, Malaysia and Thailand. Moreover, the process was found to be effective in reducing protein remaining in natural rubber latex products and the initial investment and irradiation cost was found to be greatly reduced by employing low energy electron accelerator. This paper reviews such progress. (S. Ohno)

  9. Therapeutic effects of fig tree latex on bovine papillomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmatzadeh, F; Fatemi, A; Amini, F

    2003-12-01

    The effects of fig tree latex in treating teat papillomatosis in cow in comparison with salicylic acid were evaluated. For this purpose, 12 cows of 1-3 years of age (average 2.25) affected by teat papillomatosis were divided into three groups. In group A, four cows were treated by fig tree (Ficus carica) latex; in group B, four cows were treated with 10% salicylic acid solution and in group C, four cows were kept as control animals receiving no treatment. Animals in each treatment group received their treatment once every 5 days. In groups A and B, de-epithelialization and shrinking of the warts began from the fifth day of treatment and all the warts disappeared within 30 days. However, in the control group no changes in the number of warts were observed until day 15 but thereafter a number of warts disappeared spontaneously in some of the animals. Both salicylic acid and fig tree latex were evaluated as having similar therapeutic effects in treating teat papillomatosis in cow.

  10. Extractable proteins from field radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, Duclerc F. [Chemical and Environmental Centre, Nuclear Energy Research Institute, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242-CEP Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: dfparra@ipen.br; Pinto Martins, Carlos Felipe [Chemical and Environmental Centre, Nuclear Energy Research Institute, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242-CEP Sao Paulo (Brazil); Collantes, Hugo D.C. [Chemical and Environmental Centre, Nuclear Energy Research Institute, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242-CEP Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lugao, Ademar B. [Chemical and Environmental Centre, Nuclear Energy Research Institute, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242-CEP Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The type I allergy associated with the use of natural rubber latex (NRL) products is caused by the NRL proteins leached by the sweat or other body fluids. Makuuchi's group proposed for the first time the proteins removal by the addition of water-soluble polymers (WSP) on radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex (RVNRL) that is a promising process under development in many countries. In this study, Brazilian field natural rubber was irradiated with a {sup 60}Co gamma source to reduce the content of WSP in the final product. WSP was used as additive to improve the extraction of protein. After irradiation the RVNRL was centrifuged to extract the WSP and proteins. The analytical methodology for protein content was based on the modified Lowry method according to ASTM D5712. Protein determination was carried out in serum of latex and in the extracts of the gloves. The concentration of extractable water-soluble proteins in serum of irradiated field NRL (NRL1), not irradiated one (NRL2); of twice centrifuged sample with polymer additive NRL (NRL3) and of the glove manufactured (NRLG) are compared with commercial glove (CG). The irradiation process increases the extractable water-soluble proteins, EP, as reported in the literature. In this study the use of polymeric additive on the bi-centrifugation process to remove protein was successful and the EP of the glove obtained in NRL3 was at around 40% of the commercial glove.

  11. Chitinase III in Euphorbia characias latex: Purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanò, Delia; Pospiskova, Kristyna; Safarik, Ivo; Pisano, Maria Barbara; Pintus, Francesca; Floris, Giovanni; Medda, Rosaria

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with the purification of a class III endochitinase from Euphorbia characias latex. Described purification method includes an effective novel separation step using magnetic chitin particles. Application of magnetic affinity adsorbent noticeably simplifies and shortens the purification procedure. This step and the subsequently DEAE-cellulose chromatography enable to obtain the chitinase in homogeneous form. One protein band is present on PAGE in non-denaturing conditions and SDS-PAGE profile reveals a unique protein band of 36.5 ± 2 kDa. The optimal chitinase activity is observed at 50 °C, pH 5.0. E. characias latex chitinase is able to hydrolyze colloidal chitin giving, as reaction products, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, chitobiose and chitotriose. Moreover, we observed that calcium and magnesium ions enhance chitinase activity. Finally, we cloned the cDNA encoding the E. characias latex chitinase. The partial cDNA nucleotide sequence contains 762 bp, and the deduced amino acid sequence (254 amino acids) is homologous to the sequence of several plant class III endochitinases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Differentiating of cross-reactions in patients with latex allergy with the use of ISAC test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chełmińska, Marta; Specjalski, Krzysztof; Różyło, Anna; Kołakowska, Agata; Jassem, Ewa

    2016-04-01

    Differentiating between cross-reactivity and double sensitization is still a challenging issue in allergology. To differentiate cross-reactions accompanying latex allergy with the use of the ISAC test. Thirty-nine patients reporting immediate allergic reactions to latex were enrolled into the study (group A). The control group was comprised of 41 patients with allergic diseases not associated with latex (group B) and 20 healthy individuals (group C). Their history was recorded and skin prick tests were performed with latex, airborne and food allergens. Specific IgE against food allergens, latex (k82) and recombined latex allergens were determined. ImmunoCAP ISAC test was performed with 103 molecules. Sensitization to latex was found by means of skin tests in 16 cases and sIgE against latex was revealed in 12 cases (including 10 positive in both SPT and sIgE). In the ISAC test antibodies against recombined latex allergens were found in 8 patients with rHev b 6 as the most common. All the patients positive for rHev b 1, 5, 6, 8 had allergy or asymptomatic sensitization to food allergens cross-reacting with latex. Some reactions could not have been differentiated due to the lack of allergens in the ISAC test. Others, not related to latex-fruits syndrome were explained by cross-reactivity with other profilins or PR-10 proteins. ImmunoCAP ISAC test could be useful in differentiating between cross-reactions and double sensitizations. However, in the case of latex its advantages are limited due to a small panel of allergens.

  13. Comprehensive Proteomics Analysis of Laticifer Latex Reveals New Insights into Ethylene Stimulation of Natural Rubber Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuchu; Wang, Dan; Sun, Yong; Yang, Qian; Chang, Lili; Wang, Limin; Meng, Xueru; Huang, Qixing; Jin, Xiang; Tong, Zheng

    2015-09-08

    Ethylene is a stimulant to increase natural rubber latex. After ethylene application, both fresh yield and dry matter of latex are substantially improved. Moreover, we found that ethylene improves the generation of small rubber particles. However, most genes involved in rubber biosynthesis are inhibited by exogenous ethylene. Therefore, we conducted a proteomics analysis of ethylene-stimulated rubber latex, and identified 287 abundant proteins as well as 143 ethylene responsive latex proteins (ERLPs) with mass spectrometry from the 2-DE and DIGE gels, respectively. In addition, more than 1,600 proteins, including 404 ERLPs, were identified by iTRAQ. Functional classification of ERLPs revealed that enzymes involved in post-translational modification, carbohydrate metabolism, hydrolase activity, and kinase activity were overrepresented. Some enzymes for rubber particle aggregation were inhibited to prolong latex flow, and thus finally improved latex production. Phosphoproteomics analysis identified 59 differential phosphoproteins; notably, specific isoforms of rubber elongation factor and small rubber particle protein that were phosphorylated mainly at serine residues. This post-translational modification and isoform-specific phosphorylation might be important for ethylene-stimulated latex production. These results not only deepen our understanding of the rubber latex proteome but also provide new insights into the use of ethylene to stimulate rubber latex production.

  14. Elements of the LaTeX system for the development of large publications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    This document presents gives a quick overview over the LATEX system from the viewpoint of the production of books and complex papers. Thereby it provides the starting point for the author's selection of a set of LATEX packages and the development of related commands.......This document presents gives a quick overview over the LATEX system from the viewpoint of the production of books and complex papers. Thereby it provides the starting point for the author's selection of a set of LATEX packages and the development of related commands....

  15. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Hancornia speciosa latex in Allium cepa root model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, T P; Sousa, T R; Arruda, A S; Peixoto, N; Gonçalves, P J; Almeida, L M

    2016-02-01

    The latex obtained from Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Mangabeira tree) is widely used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseases, including diarrhea, ulcer, gastritis, tuberculosis, acne and warts. In this study, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects of H. speciosa latex on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa were examined. Onion bulbs were exposed to different concentrations of latex and then submitted to microscopic analysis using Giemsa stain. Water was used as a negative control and sodium azide as a positive control. The results showed that, under the testing conditions, the mitotic index (MI) of the onion roots submitted to latex treatment did not differ significantly from the negative control, which suggests that the latex is not cytotoxic. Low incidence of chromosome aberrations in the cells treated with H. speciosa latex was also observed, indicating that the latex does not have genotoxic effect either. The MI and the chromosome aberration frequency responded to the latex concentration, requiring more studies to evaluate the dosage effect on genotoxicity. The results indicate that in tested concentrations H. speciosa latex is probably not harmful to human health and may be potentially used in medicine.

  16. Oriented growth of poly(m-phenylenediamine) on Calotropis gigantea fiber for rapid adsorption of ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Enjuan; Duan, Wenzhen; Wang, Aiqin; Zheng, Yian

    2017-03-01

    A facile polymerization of m-phenylenediamine (mPD) in methanol/water (50:50, v/v) was performed via conventional chemical oxidative method by using Calotropis gigantea fiber (CGF) as the natural biotemplate. The as-prepared CGF oriented poly(m-phenylenediamine) (PmPD), i.e. CGF-O-PmPD, exhibits a well defined fiber-oriented morphology. The presence of PmPD layer enables CGF-O-PmPD to present roughen surface with N-rich functional groups that can show high performance for the adsorption of ciprofloxacin. The variables affecting the adsorption capacity were systematically investigated, including contact time, initial concentration, initial pH, ion strength, and so forth. The experimental data reveal that with increasing the amount of mPD from 0.2, 0.5 to 2.0 g, the adsorption capacity for ciprofloxacin shows a monotonic decrease, while the adsorption kinetics show a monotonic increase, with the adsorption percentage from >50%, >60% to >70% within 10 s, demonstrating its superfast adsorption kinetics for ciprofloxacin. In addition, an increasing adsorption capacity is observed over the pH range studied, with the adsorption capacity from 0.73 to 6.7 mg g -1 at pH 2.0 to 64.9-77.3 mg g -1 at pH 10.0. After five adsorption-desorption cycles, the adsorption capacity of CGF-O-PmPD for ciprofloxacin shows no significant decrease, indicating its excellent reusability and potential application in treating antibiotic-containing wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of pests and assessment of their damage on Carapa procera and Lophira lanceolata in Burkina Faso, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tindano, Baslayi; Gnankine, Olivier; Ouésdraogo, Amadé

    2017-01-01

    Nontimber forest products are a source of income for women in rural African communities. However, these products are frequently damaged by insect pests. The present study investigates the diversity and damage rates of insect pests that attack Carapa procera seeds and Lophira lanceolata fruits. Th...

  18. Latex Hypersensitivity among Allergic Egyptian Children: Relation to Parental/Self Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab A. El-Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Latex allergy is one of the major health concerns and allergic reactions to latex may be serious and fatal. Purpose. In this study, we sought to determine the frequency of latex hypersensitivity in a group of allergic Egyptian infants and children and its relation to the history provided by the patients or caregivers. Methods. We consecutively enrolled 400 patients with physician diagnosed allergic diseases. The study measurements included clinical evaluation for the site and duration of allergy, history suggestive of latex allergy, family history of allergy, and skin prick testing (SPT using a commercial latex extract. Results. The study revealed that 16/400 (4% patients had positive SPT; 11 of them only had positive history of sensitivity to latex. Positive latex SPT was reported in 3.4% (11/326 of patients with bronchial asthma, 5.9% (7/118 of patients with skin allergy, and 4.5% (2/44 of patients with allergic rhinitis. SPT was positive in 7.4% (4/54 of patients with concomitant respiratory and skin allergy. Latex SPT was more specific than sensitive (97.69% and 77.77%, resp. with a negative predictive value of 99.47%. Conclusion. Although underrecognized, latex is an important allergen in the pediatric age group with a sensitization frequency of 4% among allergic children. It was observed to be especially associated with multiple allergic diseases coexisting in the same patient. Pediatric allergologists should educate their patients on latex allergy and encourage the use of latex-free products.

  19. Asthma caused by Ficus benjamina latex: evidence of cross-reactivity with fig fruit and papain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Gómez, M L; Quirce, S; Aragoneses, E; Cuevas, M

    1998-01-01

    Ficus benjamina or weeping fig is a plant used increasingly for indoor decoration that can cause allergic rhinitis and asthma. We report a clinical and immunologic study in a patient with perennial asthma caused by F. benjamina latex in whom several episodes of angioedema of the oropharyngeal tract and tongue followed ingestion of figs and kiwi. Hypersensitivity to latex from F. benjamina and from Hevea brasiliensis, fig fruit, kiwi, papain, and bromelain was investigated by means of skin prick test, specific IgE determination by CAP, histamine release test, and bronchial provocation test to F. benjamina latex. CAP-inhibition assays were carried out to study possible cross-reactivity among these antigens. Hypersensitivity to F. benjamina latex, fig, kiwi, and proteases was demonstrated by means of skin prick test, determination of specific IgE and histamine release test. Bronchial provocation test with F. benjamina latex resulted in a dual asthmatic reaction, confirming the etiologic role of this plant. A rise of eosinophil cationic protein in patient's serum was observed 21 hours after bronchial challenge, suggesting activation of eosinophils. Inhibition assays showed that F. benjamina latex as liquid-phase inhibited up to 95% the CAP to fig and up to 57% the CAP to papain. Neither sensitization nor cross-allergenicity with H. brasiliensis latex was found. Hypersensitivity to F. benjamina latex may cause IgE-mediated respiratory allergy. The association with allergy to fig and papain is likely due to the existence of cross-reactive allergen structures.

  20. Changes in protein profile during coagulation of latex from Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva L.G.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the changes in peptide composition by SDS-PAGE analysis of latex from Carica papaya collected at various times after incision of the unripe fruit. The data show that during latex coagulation several peptides are processed in an orderly fashion.

  1. Latex allergy symptoms among health care workers: results from a university health and safety surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epling, Carol; Duncan, Jacqueline; Archibong, Emma; Østbye, Truls; Pompeii, Lisa A; Dement, John

    2011-01-01

    We sought to describe risk factors for latex glove allergy symptoms among health care workers by combining data from an active clinical surveillance program and a comprehensive occupational health surveillance system. A total of 4,584 employers completed a latex allergy questionnaire. Six percent (n = 276) of subjects reported symptoms consistent with latex allergy. Years of latex glove use was a significant risk factor for latex allergy symptoms even after controlling for the effects of atopy, gender, age, race, fruit, and other allergies. Nurses, medical or lab technicians, physician's assistants, other clinical professionals, and housekeepers had the highest prevalence of latex glove allergy symptoms. Forty subjects (0.87%) who were confirmed as having latex sensitization. Sensitizsation may have been underestimated due to use of specific IgE antibody, less sensitive than skin-prick testing, and tiered design leading to laboratory assessment on a subset of the cohort. This surveillance program identified risk factors for latex allergy symptoms. Our findings provide a basis for tailoring future prevention strategies.

  2. The use of fiber reinforcement in latex modified concrete overlay : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The requirement to quickly reopen highways in North Carolina has motivated the increased use of rapid-setting concrete in overlays. The addition of polymer latex to the material has been used to increase the service life of the overlays. The latex mo...

  3. Polylactide/Montmorillonite Hybrid Latex as a Barrier Coating for Paper Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davide Bandera; Veronika R Meyer; David Prevost; Tanja Zimmermann; Luciano F Boesel

    2016-01-01

    .... The coating latex is prepared from inexpensive materials and can be used for a solvent-free coating process. In addition, the ingredients of the latex are non-toxic; thus, the coated papers can be safely used for food packaging.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of core-shell acrylate based latex and study of its reactive blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Fan, Xiao-Dong; Tang, Min-Feng; Nie, Ying

    2008-03-01

    Techniques in resin blending are simple and efficient method for improving the properties of polymers, and have been used widely in polymer modification field. However, polymer latex blends such as the combination of latexes, especially the latexes with water-soluble polymers, were rarely reported. Here, we report a core-shell composite latex synthesized using methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA), 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) as monomers and ammonium persulfate and sodium bisulfite redox system as the initiator. Two stages seeded semi-continuous emulsion polymerization were employed for constructing a core-shell structure with P(MMA-co-BA) component as the core and P(EHA-co-GMA) component as the shell. Results of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Dynamics Light Scattering (DLS) tests confirmed that the particles obtained are indeed possessing a desired core-shell structural character. Stable reactive latex blends were prepared by adding the latex with waterborne melamine-formaldehyde resin (MF) or urea-formaldehyde resin (UF). It was found that the glass transition temperature, the mechanical strength and the hygroscopic property of films cast from the latex blends present marked enhancements under higher thermal treatment temperature. It was revealed that the physical properties of chemically reactive latexes with core-shell structure could be altered via the change of crosslinking density both from the addition of crosslinkers and the thermal treatment.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Core-Shell Acrylate Based Latex and Study of Its Reactive Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Nie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Techniques in resin blending are simple and efficient method for improving the properties of polymers, and have been used widely in polymer modification field. However, polymer latex blends such as the combination of latexes, especially the latexes with water-soluble polymers, were rarely reported. Here, we report a core-shell composite latex synthesized using methyl methacrylate (MMA, butyl acrylate (BA, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA as monomers and ammonium persulfate and sodium bisulfite redox system as the initiator. Two stages seeded semi-continuous emulsion polymerization were employed for constructing a core-shell structure with P(MMA-co-BA component as the core and P(EHA-co-GMA component as the shell. Results of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and Dynamics Light Scattering (DLS tests confirmed that the particles obtained are indeed possessing a desired core-shell structural character. Stable reactive latex blends were prepared by adding the latex with waterborne melamine-formaldehyde resin (MF or urea-formaldehyde resin (UF. It was found that the glass transition temperature, the mechanical strength and the hygroscopic property of films cast from the latex blends present marked enhancements under higher thermal treatment temperature. It was revealed that the physical properties of chemically reactive latexes with core-shell structure could be altered via the change of crosslinking density both from the addition of crosslinkers and the thermal treatment.

  6. Molecular profile of sensitization in subjects with short occupational exposure to latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Lamberti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We examined the prevalence of latex allergy in subjects with occupational exposure to latex allergens for less than 5 years, determining the disease spectrum in symptomatic workers. We identified the most frequent molecular allergens by Immuno- CAP (ICAP, correlating the findings with skin prick test (SPT results. Material and Methods: Seven hundred twenty-three healthcare students using latex gloves on a regular basis were invited to participate in a baseline questionnaire screening. An ICAP serum test was performed only when a possible latex allergy was indicated by the questionnaire. Results: The total number of participants responding to the baseline survey was 619. Glove-related symptoms were indicated by 4% (N = 25 of the students. The most common symptom was contact dermatitis (N = 18, 72%. In 12 subjects, ICAP revealed a real sensitization to latex, with a recombinant latex allergen profile showing a high frequency for rHev b 6.01 specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE (N = 9, 67%. In these individuals, skin symptoms were more prevalent than other types (88%. Conclusions: The combined positivity for rHev b 6.01, rHev 8 and rHev b 5 determined by ICAP identified 92% of latex-allergic subjects with short-term exposure to latex.

  7. Involvement of Ethylene in the Latex Metabolism and Tapping Panel Dryness of Hevea brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putranto, Riza-Arief; Herlinawati, Eva; Rio, Maryannick; Leclercq, Julie; Piyatrakul, Piyanuch; Gohet, Eric; Sanier, Christine; Oktavia, Fetrina; Pirrello, Julien; Kuswanhadi; Montoro, Pascal

    2015-08-04

    Ethephon, an ethylene releaser, is used to stimulate latex production in Hevea brasiliensis. Ethylene induces many functions in latex cells including the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The accumulation of ROS is responsible for the coagulation of rubber particles in latex cells, resulting in the partial or complete stoppage of latex flow. This study set out to assess biochemical and histological changes as well as changes in gene expression in latex and phloem tissues from trees grown under various harvesting systems. The Tapping Panel Dryness (TPD) susceptibility of Hevea clones was found to be related to some biochemical parameters, such as low sucrose and high inorganic phosphorus contents. A high tapping frequency and ethephon stimulation induced early TPD occurrence in a high latex metabolism clone and late occurrence in a low latex metabolism clone. TPD-affected trees had smaller number of laticifer vessels compared to healthy trees, suggesting a modification of cambial activity. The differential transcript abundance was observed for twenty-seven candidate genes related to TPD occurrence in latex and phloem tissues for ROS-scavenging, ethylene biosynthesis and signalling genes. The predicted function for some Ethylene Response Factor genes suggested that these candidate genes should play an important role in regulating susceptibility to TPD.

  8. Polymer composites prepared from heat-treated starch and styrene-butadiene latex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermoplastic starch/latex polymer composites were prepared using styrene–butadiene (SB) latex and heat-treated cornstarch. The composites were prepared in a compression mold at 130 °C, with starch content 20%. An amylose-free cornstarch, waxy maize, was used for this research and the heat treatment...

  9. Hancornia speciosa latex for biomedical applications: physical and chemical properties, biocompatibility assessment and angiogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Luciane Madureira; Floriano, Juliana Ferreira; Ribeiro, Thuanne Pires; Magno, Lais Nogueira; da Mota, Lígia Souza Lima Silveira; Peixoto, Nei; Mrué, Fátima; Melo-Reis, Paulo; Lino Junior, Ruy de Souza; Graeff, Carlos Frederico de Oliveira; Gonçalves, Pablo José

    2014-09-01

    The latex obtained from Hancornia speciosa is used in folk medicine for treatment of several diseases, such as acne, warts, diabetes, gastritis and inflammation. In this work, we describe the biocompatibility assessment and angiogenic properties of H. speciosa latex and its potential application in medicine. The physical-chemical characterization was carried out following different methodologies (CHN elemental analyses; thermogravimetric analyses and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). The biocompatibility was evaluated through cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests in fibroblast mouse cells and the angiogenic properties were evaluated using the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay model. The physical-chemical results showed that the structure of Hancornia speciosa latex biomembrane is very similar to that of Hevea brasiliensis (commercially available product). Moreover, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assays showed that H. speciosa latex is biocompatible with life systems and can be a good biomaterial for medical applications. The CAM test showed the efficient ability of H. speciosa latex in neovascularization of tissues. The histological analysis was in accordance with the results obtained in the CAM assay. Our data indicate that the latex obtained from H. speciosa and eluted in water showed significant angiogenic activity without any cytotoxic or genotoxic effects on life systems. The same did not occur with H. speciosa latex stabilized with ammonia. Addition of ammonia does not have significant effects on the structure of biomembranes, but showed a smaller cell survival and a significant genotoxicity effect. This study contributes to the understanding of the potentialities of H. speciosa latex as a source of new phytomedicines.

  10. Molecular profile of sensitization in subjects with short occupational exposure to latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Monica; Buonanno, Rosaria; Ritonnaro, Chiara; Giovane, Giancarlo; Crispino, Vincenzo; Feola, Antonia; Medici, Nicola; Sannolo, Nicola; Di Carlo, Angelina; Di Domenico, Marina

    2015-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of latex allergy in subjects with occupational exposure to latex allergens for less than 5 years, determining the disease spectrum in symptomatic workers. We identified the most frequent molecular allergens by Immuno- CAP (ICAP), correlating the findings with skin prick test (SPT) results. Seven hundred twenty-three healthcare students using latex gloves on a regular basis were invited to participate in a baseline questionnaire screening. An ICAP serum test was performed only when a possible latex allergy was indicated by the questionnaire. The total number of participants responding to the baseline survey was 619. Glove-related symptoms were indicated by 4% (N = 25) of the students. The most common symptom was contact dermatitis (N = 18, 72%). In 12 subjects, ICAP revealed a real sensitization to latex, with a recombinant latex allergen profile showing a high frequency for rHev b 6.01 specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) (N = 9, 67%). In these individuals, skin symptoms were more prevalent than other types (88%). The combined positivity for rHev b 6.01, rHev 8 and rHev b 5 determined by ICAP identified 92% of latex-allergic subjects with short-term exposure to latex. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  11. Prevalence of latex allergy in a population of patients diagnosed with myelomeningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Claudio A S; Petriz, Natalia A; Busaniche, Julio N; Cortines, María C; Frangi, Fernando A; Portillo, Santiago A; de Badiola, Francisco I

    2016-02-01

    Latex allergy is one of the main reasons of anaphylaxis in the operating room. The prevalence of this condition is higher among patients with myelomeningocele. Epidemiological data obtained from Argentine patients is scarce. To estimate the prevalence of latex sensitivity and latex allergy in a population of patients with myelomeningocele and to describe associated risk factors. Descriptive, cross-sectional, observational study. Family and personal history of allergy, number of surgeries, history of symptoms caused by having been in contact with latex or cross-reactive foods, eosinophil count, measurement of total immunoglobulin E and specific immunoglobulin E levels by means of skin and serologic testing for latex, aeroallergens and cross-reactive fruit. Eighty-two patients diagnosed with myelomeningocele were assessed: 41 were males and their average age was 15.3 ± 7.66 years old. Out of all patients, two did not complete skin and serologic testing. Among the remaining 80 patients, 16 (19.51%) had latex allergy, 46 (57.5%) were not allergic, and 18 (22%) showed sensitivity but not allergy. Having undergone more than five surgeries was a risk factor associated with latex allergy (p= 0.035). No significant association was observed with the remaining outcome measures. According to this study, the prevalence of latex allergy in this population of patients is 19.51% and the most important risk factor for this condition is a history of having undergone more than five surgeries. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  12. Banded cucumber beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) resistance in romaine lettuce: understanding latex chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many plants subjected to herbivore damage exude latex, a rich source of biochemicals, which play important roles in host plant resistance. Our previous studies showed that fresh latex from Valmaine, a resistant cultivar of romaine lettuce Lactuca sativa L., applied to artificial diet is highly deter...

  13. In vitro evaluation of the effect of Euphorbia kamerunica latex on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Euphorbia kamerunica latex on the blood of albino rat (Rattus novergicus) was studied. Two different samples were prepared, one with 10% E. kamerunica latex in blood of albino rat and the other, whole blood. Blood from each of the two samples was analyzed haematologically for the packed cell volume ...

  14. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM LATEX PAINT - PART 1. CHAMBER EXPERIMENTS AND SOURCE MODEL DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latex paints are widely used in residential and commercial indoor environments. The surface areas covered by the paints in these environments are relatively large. Thus, latex paints have the potential for having a major impact on indoor air quality (IAQ). A study was undertaken ...

  15. Prevalence of latex-specific IgE antibodies in hospital personnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaczmarek, RG; Silverman, BG; Gross, TP; Hamilton, RG; Kessler, E; ArrowsmithLowe, JT; Moore, RM

    Background: Rubber latex hypersensitivity is an important concern for health care workers. Purpose: The Center for Devices and Radiological Health, in collaboration with the Consumer Product Safety Commission, conducted a multicenter study of the prevalence of latex-specific IgE antibodies among

  16. Nitrogen removal from concentrated latex wastewater by land treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikanda Thongnuekhang

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the concentrated latex factories in the South of Thailand discharge treated wastewater that contains high level of nitrogen to a nearby river or canals leading to a water pollution problem. A study of land treatment system was conducted to treat and utilize nitrogen in treated wastewater from the concentrated latex factory. The experimental pilot-scale land treatment system was constructed at the Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai Campus. It consisted of water convolvulus (Ipomea aquatica, I. Reptans, tropical carpet grass (Axonopus compresus (Swartz Beav. and control unit (no plantation. The treated wastewater from the stabilization pond system of the selected concentrated latex factoryin Songkhla was used to irrigate each experimental unit. Influent and effluent from the experimental units were analyzed for TKN, NH3-N, Org-N, NO3 --N, NO2 --N, BOD5, sulfate, pH and EC. The land treatment system resulted a high removal efficiency for nitrogen. Tropical carpet grass provided higher removal efficiency than other units for all parameters. The removal efficiency of water convolvulus and control unit were not significantly different. The average removal efficiency of TKN, NH3-N, Org-N, BOD5 and sulfate for tropical carpet grass unit were 92, 97, 61, 88 and 52%, for water convolvulus unit were 75, 80, 43, 41 and 30%, and for control unit were 74, 80, 41, 31 and 28%, respectively. Mass balance of nitrogen transformation was conducted. It revealed that plant uptake was the major mechanism for nitrogen removal in land treatment.

  17. A Latex Metabolite Benefits Plant Fitness under Root Herbivore Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Meret; Epping, Janina; Schulze Gronover, Christian; Fricke, Julia; Aziz, Zohra; Brillatz, Théo; Swyers, Michael; Köllner, Tobias G.; Vogel, Heiko; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Triebwasser-Freese, Daniella; Robert, Christelle A. M.; Verhoeven, Koen; Preite, Veronica; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Erb, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce large amounts of secondary metabolites in their shoots and roots and store them in specialized secretory structures. Although secondary metabolites and their secretory structures are commonly assumed to have a defensive function, evidence that they benefit plant fitness under herbivore attack is scarce, especially below ground. Here, we tested whether latex secondary metabolites produced by the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.) decrease the performance of its major native insect root herbivore, the larvae of the common cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha), and benefit plant vegetative and reproductive fitness under M. melolontha attack. Across 17 T. officinale genotypes screened by gas and liquid chromatography, latex concentrations of the sesquiterpene lactone taraxinic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G) were negatively associated with M. melolontha larval growth. Adding purified TA-G to artificial diet at ecologically relevant concentrations reduced larval feeding. Silencing the germacrene A synthase ToGAS1, an enzyme that was identified to catalyze the first committed step of TA-G biosynthesis, resulted in a 90% reduction of TA-G levels and a pronounced increase in M. melolontha feeding. Transgenic, TA-G-deficient lines were preferred by M. melolontha and suffered three times more root biomass reduction than control lines. In a common garden experiment involving over 2,000 T. officinale individuals belonging to 17 different genotypes, high TA-G concentrations were associated with the maintenance of high vegetative and reproductive fitness under M. melolontha attack. Taken together, our study demonstrates that a latex secondary metabolite benefits plants under herbivore attack, a result that provides a mechanistic framework for root herbivore driven natural selection and evolution of plant defenses below ground. PMID:26731567

  18. A Latex Metabolite Benefits Plant Fitness under Root Herbivore Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Meret; Epping, Janina; Schulze Gronover, Christian; Fricke, Julia; Aziz, Zohra; Brillatz, Théo; Swyers, Michael; Köllner, Tobias G; Vogel, Heiko; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Triebwasser-Freese, Daniella; Robert, Christelle A M; Verhoeven, Koen; Preite, Veronica; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Erb, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce large amounts of secondary metabolites in their shoots and roots and store them in specialized secretory structures. Although secondary metabolites and their secretory structures are commonly assumed to have a defensive function, evidence that they benefit plant fitness under herbivore attack is scarce, especially below ground. Here, we tested whether latex secondary metabolites produced by the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.) decrease the performance of its major native insect root herbivore, the larvae of the common cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha), and benefit plant vegetative and reproductive fitness under M. melolontha attack. Across 17 T. officinale genotypes screened by gas and liquid chromatography, latex concentrations of the sesquiterpene lactone taraxinic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G) were negatively associated with M. melolontha larval growth. Adding purified TA-G to artificial diet at ecologically relevant concentrations reduced larval feeding. Silencing the germacrene A synthase ToGAS1, an enzyme that was identified to catalyze the first committed step of TA-G biosynthesis, resulted in a 90% reduction of TA-G levels and a pronounced increase in M. melolontha feeding. Transgenic, TA-G-deficient lines were preferred by M. melolontha and suffered three times more root biomass reduction than control lines. In a common garden experiment involving over 2,000 T. officinale individuals belonging to 17 different genotypes, high TA-G concentrations were associated with the maintenance of high vegetative and reproductive fitness under M. melolontha attack. Taken together, our study demonstrates that a latex secondary metabolite benefits plants under herbivore attack, a result that provides a mechanistic framework for root herbivore driven natural selection and evolution of plant defenses below ground.

  19. A Latex Metabolite Benefits Plant Fitness under Root Herbivore Attack.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meret Huber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants produce large amounts of secondary metabolites in their shoots and roots and store them in specialized secretory structures. Although secondary metabolites and their secretory structures are commonly assumed to have a defensive function, evidence that they benefit plant fitness under herbivore attack is scarce, especially below ground. Here, we tested whether latex secondary metabolites produced by the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg. decrease the performance of its major native insect root herbivore, the larvae of the common cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha, and benefit plant vegetative and reproductive fitness under M. melolontha attack. Across 17 T. officinale genotypes screened by gas and liquid chromatography, latex concentrations of the sesquiterpene lactone taraxinic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G were negatively associated with M. melolontha larval growth. Adding purified TA-G to artificial diet at ecologically relevant concentrations reduced larval feeding. Silencing the germacrene A synthase ToGAS1, an enzyme that was identified to catalyze the first committed step of TA-G biosynthesis, resulted in a 90% reduction of TA-G levels and a pronounced increase in M. melolontha feeding. Transgenic, TA-G-deficient lines were preferred by M. melolontha and suffered three times more root biomass reduction than control lines. In a common garden experiment involving over 2,000 T. officinale individuals belonging to 17 different genotypes, high TA-G concentrations were associated with the maintenance of high vegetative and reproductive fitness under M. melolontha attack. Taken together, our study demonstrates that a latex secondary metabolite benefits plants under herbivore attack, a result that provides a mechanistic framework for root herbivore driven natural selection and evolution of plant defenses below ground.

  20. Characteristics of Red Algae Bioplastics/Latex Blends under Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nizar Machmud

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava, corn, sago and the other food crops have been commonly used as raw materials to produce green plastics. However, plastics produced from such crops cannot be tailored to fit a particular requirement due to their poor water resistance and mechanical properties. Nowadays, researchers are hence looking to get alternative raw materials from the other sustainable resources to produce plastics. Their recent published studies have reported that marine red algae, that has been already widely used as a raw material for producing biofuels, is one of the potential algae crops that can be turned into plastics. In this work, Eucheuma Cottonii, that is one of the red alga crops, was used as raw material to produce plastics by using a filtration technique. Selected latex of Artocarpus altilis and Calostropis gigantea was separately then blended with bioplastics derived from the red algae, to replace use of glycerol as plasticizer. Role of the glycerol and the selected latex on physical and mechanical properties of the red algae bioplastics obtained under a tensile test performed at room temperature are discussed. Tensile strength of some starch-based plastics collected from some recent references is also presented in this paperDoi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.81-88 [How to cite this article: Machmud, M.N., Fahmi, R.,  Abdullah, R., and Kokarkin, C.  (2013. Characteristics of Red Algae Bioplastics/Latex Blends under Tension. International Journal of Science and Engineering, 5(2,81-88. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.81-88

  1. Comparative evaluation of Type 1 latex hypersensitivity in patients with chronic urticaria, rubber factory workers and healthy control subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piskin, Gamze; Akyol, Aynur; Uzar, Hatice; Tulek, Necla; Boyvat, Ayse; Gurgey, Erbak

    2003-01-01

    Latex hypersensitivity manifests itself most commonly with contact urticaria. In this study, we investigated the frequency of latex hypersensitivity as a possible aetiological factor in patients with chronic urticaria (CU) and compared latex hypersensitivity of CU patients (n = 50) with that of

  2. Latex agglutination: diagnose the early cryptococcus neoformans test of capsular polysaccharide antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanrong; Yuan, Xueqian; Zhang, Lifeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the early diagnosis value of latex agglutination test in Cryptococcal meningitis. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 112 patients with definite Cryptococcal meningitis and 26 patients with tubercular meningitis and virus meningitis were collected, latex agglutination test is adopted to detect Cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide antigen. Then it was compared with fungal culture and direct microscopy method for evaluating the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis. The sensitivity of three methods including latex agglutination test, fungal culture and direct microscopy was 91.1%,69.6% and 73.2% respectively. The specificity of latex agglutination test was 96.0%, 100% and 100% respectively. That latex agglutination test to detect Cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide antigen could be taken as the early diagnostic method of Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis.

  3. Calotropis gigantiea (L.) R. Br (Apocynaceae): a phytochemical and pharmacological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiyala, Madhuri; Ponnusankar, S; Elango, Kannan

    2013-10-28

    Calotropis gigantiea (L.) R. Br (Apocynaceae) commonly called as "crown flower" or "giant milk weed" is a well-known weed to many cultures for treating various disorders related to central nervous system, skin diseases, digestive system, respiratory system, reproductive system etc. Indigenous groups made the plant as a part of their lives since they use the fruit fibre to make ropes, household items, for weaving clothes and flowers for garlands apart from usage for various indications. The study aims at far-reaching review on phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, ethnopharmacology, intellectual property transfer on pharmacological therapies, toxicity which aids to provide scientific evidence for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be conducted as a future research prerequisite. A systematic literature search was performed using different databases such as Scopus, Science direct, PubMed and Sciverse with no timeline limit set during the search. All the available abstracts and full text articles were included in the systematic review. Most of the folkloric uses were validated by the scientific studies such as analgesic, anti-arthritic, anti-asthmatic, anti-bacterial, anti-convulsant, anti-pyretic, central nervous system disorders, contraceptive, anti-ulcer and wound healing. In addition other studies such as anti-diabetic, anti-diarrhoeal, anti-helminthic, anti-histamine, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, cardio-protective studies, cytotoxicity, hepatoprotectivity, fibrinolytic, mosquitocidal, nerve muscle activity, vasodilation and skeletal muscle activities were also reported for the plant. Isolated compounds such as calotropin, frugoside and 4'-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl frugoside were tested for the cytotoxicity efficacy against both human and rat cell lines out of which calotropin showed potent activity (IC50-15 ng/ml). However there were no clinical trials reported on the plant which is one of the major lacunas. This

  4. Thrombin like activity of Asclepias curassavica L. latex: action of cysteine proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaprasad, H V; Rajesh, R; Nanda, B L; Dharmappa, K K; Vishwanath, B S

    2009-05-04

    To validate the scientific basis of plant latex to stop bleeding on fresh cuts. Cysteine protease(s) from Asclepias curassavica (Asclepiadaceae) plant latex was assessed for pro-coagulant and thrombin like activities. A waxy material from the latex of Asclepias curassavica latex was removed by freezing and thawing. The resulted latex enzyme fraction was assayed for proteolytic activity using denatured casein as substrate. Its coagulant activity and thrombin like activity were determined using citrated plasma and pure fibrinogen, respectively. Inhibition studies were performed using specific protease inhibitors to know the type of protease. The latex enzyme fraction exhibited strong proteolytic activity when compared to trypsin and exerted pro-coagulant action by reducing plasma clotting time from 195 to 58 s whereas trypsin reduced clotting time marginally from 195 to 155 s. The pro-coagulant activity of this enzyme fraction was exerted by selectively hydrolyzing A alpha and B beta subunits of fibrinogen to form fibrin clot when pure fibrinogen was used as substrate as assessed by fibrinogen-agarose plate method and fibrinogen polymerization assay. Trypsin failed to induce any fibrin clot under similar conditions. The electrophoretic pattern of latex enzyme fraction-induced fibrin clot was very much similar to that of thrombin-induced fibrin clot and mimic thrombin like action. The proteolytic activity including thrombin like activity of Asclepias curassavica latex enzyme fraction was completely inhibited by iodoaceticacid (IAA). Cysteine proteases from Asclepias curassavica latex exhibited strong pro-coagulant action and were found to be specific in its action (Thrombin like). This could be the basis for the use of plant latex in pharmacological applications that justify their use as folk medicine.

  5. [Failure of sublingual immunotherapy to treat latex allergy. A report of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfin Maciel, Blanca María; Castillo Morfin, Blanca María

    2008-01-01

    Natural rubber latex has been in widespread use for over a century. Reports of immediate hypersensitivity to latex have increased dramatically since the first case was reported in 1979, specially in persons with cumulative latex exposure. A 13 year old male was referred to our office. He had been wearing orthodontic rubber bands for two years. The previous year he started having itchy, red and watery eyes, with sneezing and runny nose when he was exposed to rubber products. Then he developed oral edema and lip ulcers. Finally, he experienced cough, wheezing, chest tightness and dyspnea. The patient had no history of undergoing surgery, and his mother denied pacifier use. He had no history of fruit and vegetables allergy. Physical examination revealed conjunctival hyperemia, with fine papillary response in the upper tarsal plate, hyaline rhinorrhea, turbinate hypertrophy and perioral ulcers. Skin prick test were positive for latex and Quercus albus. Patch test with latex glove was negative, but positive with rubber tourniquet. Total IgE was 365 UI/mL. Latex-specific IgE testing confirmed the diagnosis. Spirometric values were normal. He started rush sublingual immunotherapy with latex extract. When he had finished, he traveled abroad. At immigration the inspectors examined him with latex gloves. Immediately he developed anaphylaxis, needing urgent medical attention. Although the efficacy and safety of sublingual immunotherapy for latex allergy has been demonstrated, the most effective strategy is complete avoidance of latex-containing products. World Public Health Services must promote the use of synthetic elastomer gloves in airports worldwide.

  6. The influence of aggregation of latex particles on membrane fouling attachments & ultrafiltration performance in ultrafiltration of latex contaminated water and wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrasoul, Amira; Doan, Huu; Lohi, Ali; Cheng, Chil-Hung

    2017-02-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the influence of latex particle aggregation on membrane fouling attachments and the ultrafiltration performance of simulated latex effluent using Cetyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) as a cationic surfactant. Hydrophilic polysulfone and ultrafilic flat heterogeneous membranes, with molecular weight cut off (MWCO) of 60,000 and 100,000, respectively, as well as hydrophobic polyvinylidene difluoride with MWCO of 100,000, were used under a constant flow rate and cross-flow mode in ultrafiltration of latex solution. In addition, a polycarbonate flat membrane with uniform pore size of 0.05μm was likewise used during the experiment. The effects of CTAB on the latex particle size distribution were investigated at various concentrations, different treatment times, and diverse agitation duration times. The effects of CTAB on the zeta potential of membrane surfaces and latex particles were also investigated. The data obtained indicate that the particle size distribution of treated latex effluent experienced significant shifts in the peaks toward a larger size range caused by the aggregation of particles. As a result, the mass of fouling contributing to pore blocking and the irreversible fouling were noticeably reduced. The optimum results occurred in the instance when CTAB was added at the critical micelle concentration of 0.36g/L, for the duration of 10min and with minimal agitation. Notably, a higher stirring rate had an overall negative effect on the membrane fouling minimization. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Metronidazole release using natural rubber latex as matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rondinelli Donizetti Herculano

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural Rubber Latex (NRL can be used successfully in controlled release drug delivery due to their excellent matrix forming properties. Recently, NRL has shown to stimulate angiogenesis, cellular adhesion and the formation of extracellular matrix, promoting the replacement and regeneration of tissue. A dermatological delivery system comprising a topically acceptable, inert support impregnated with a metronidazole (MET solution was developed. MET 2-(2- methyl- 5-nitro- 1H- imidazol- 1-yl ethanol, has been widely used for the treatment of protozoa and anaerobic bacterial infections. MET is a nitroimidazole anti-infective medication used mainly in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible organisms, particularly anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. In a previous study, we have tested NRL as an occlusive membrane for GBR with promising results. One possible way to decrease the inflammatory process, it was incorporated the MET in NRL. MET was incorporated into the NRL, by mixing it in solution for in vitro protein delivery experiments. The solutions of latex and MET were polymerized at different temperatures, from -100 to 40 °C, in order to control the membrane morphology. SEM microscopy analysis showed that the number, size and distribution of pores in NRL membranes varied depending on polymerization temperature, as well as its overall morphology. Results demonstrated that the best drug-delivery system was the membrane polymerized at -100 °C, which does release 77,1% of its MET content for up 310 hours.

  8. Prevention of allergy to acrylates and latex in dental personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlson, Carl-Göran; Svensson, Lisbeth

    2002-01-01

    Contact allergy to acrylate monomers and immediate hypersensitivity to latex gloves in dental personnel calls for preventive measures to reduce the risks. The aim of the study was to evaluate the preventive effect of an information campaign after a 3-year follow-up. The campaign included instructions and training according to an ordinance, both in writing and orally, e.g. concerning the choice of products and protection devices and the proper handling of the materials. The follow-up was carried out through 1997-2000 and included all eligible 513 subjects. Information on new cases was ascertained by a questionnaire and reports from the occupational health service and the department of dermatology. The number of expected new cases was based on the incidence rate, derived from a preceding prevalence study in the same county, and the exposed years at risk in the follow-up period. No new case of allergy to acrylates or latex rubber was found in the follow-up period as against 4.91 expected (p = 0.007). In conclusion, this study indicates that occupational allergies can be prevented successfully, but requires vigorous measures to influence the behaviour and the routines of daily work in dental practice.

  9. [Latex covering and mechanical analysis of balloon expandable stents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, B; von Segesser, L K; Carrel, T; Turina, M

    1996-01-01

    To the moment a few stents of metallic coils or meshes are available with a sealing coverage. In the present study balloon-expandable stents have been covered with a thin layer of natural rubber latex. The physical properties of these impervious stents were compared to the conventional stents. The expansion, the loss of expansion and the deformity during and after balloon inflation have been analyzed. In the pressure zone of 4-6 bar the mechanical characteristics of the impervious stents were similar to the conventional stents. The stents were expanded at 100% related on the balloon diameter used for expansion. Additional pressure of 1 bar was necessary to expand the impervious stents. At balloon pressure below 4 bar the stents tied the balloons in the midzone. The impervious stents, expanded at 6, 8 and 10mm, underwent a loss of expansion of 10% after withdrawal of the balloons. Their configuration was barrel-shaped (4% central enlargement) due to the latex rubber, constricting the wire meshes at both ends. These preliminary results are encouraging and allow further investigations.

  10. Tomato allergy in children and young adults: cross-reactivity with latex and potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reche, M; Pascual, C Y; Vicente, J; Caballero, T; Martín-Muñoz, F; Sanchez, S; Martín-Esteban, M

    2001-12-01

    Several studies have shown that allergy to natural rubber latex is associated with cross-reactivity to certain foods such as tomato and potato. The objective was to investigate the clinical and immunologic differences between a group of patients with clinical allergy to tomato and latex and another which had only clinical allergy to tomato. We also aimed to assess, in vitro, the relationship of tomato and latex allergens, which could explain the cross-reactivity. Forty patients with histories of adverse reactions to tomato and IgE-mediated hypersensitivity were enrolled in the study. Tomato, latex, and potato components were analyzed by SDS-PAGE immunoblotting. CAP and immunoblot inhibition were used to study allergen cross-reactivity. Patients from group A had a mean age of 13.2 years, and in group B the mean age was 21.7 years. In group B, 9/10 patients belonged to the latex-fruits syndrome. All patients of both groups tolerated potato. Immunoblotting patterns obtained with patients' sera from pool A showed IgE-binding bands to tomato ranging from 44 to 46 kDa and a triple band at 67 kDa. For latex, there was a strong binding at 44 kDa, and potato showed a strong band of 44 kDa and a 67-kDa triple band. In pool B, the binding to the band of 44 kDa in latex and tomato was more intense than in pool A. In pool A, immunoblot inhibition with potato allergen showed an intense inhibition of the three allergens (potato, latex, and tomato); with latex, inhibition was partial and with tomato, a complete inhibition of tomato and latex was observed, and a partial inhibition of potato. In pool B, the inhibition pattern followed a similar tendency to pool A. The CAP inhibition confirmed the high rate of cross-reactivity between tomato, potato, and latex. In our study, tomato, potato, and latex showed a common band of 44-46 kDa probably corresponding to patatin. This protein could be implicated in the high cross-reactivity between tomato, latex, and potato observed in the

  11. Specific IgE response to purified and recombinant allergens in latex allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Siti AM

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, allergy to natural rubber latex has emerged as a major allergy among certain occupational groups and patients with underlying diseases. The sensitization and development of latex allergy has been attributed to exposure to products containing residual latex proteins. Although improved manufacturing procedures resulted in a considerable reduction of new cases, the potential risk for some patient groups is still great. In addition the prevalent cross-reactivity of latex proteins with other food allergens poses a major concern. A number of purified allergens and a few commercial kits are currently available, but no concerted effort was undertaken to evaluate them. Methods We studied 11 purified latex allergens, Hev b 1 to Hev b 10, and Hev b 13 along with several crude allergen extracts and two commercial ImmunoCAP assays to evaluate specific IgE antibody in the sera from latex allergic patients and controls. Health care workers and spina bifida patients with clinical symptoms of latex allergy, spina bifida patients without latex allergy, and non-atopic health care workers have been studied. Results The results suggest that Hev b 2, 5, 6, and 13 together identified over 80 percent health care workers with latex allergy, while Hev b 6 along with Hev b 1 or 3 detected specific IgE antibody in all sera studied from patients with spina bifida and latex allergy. The ImmunoCAP results using both Hev b 5 amplified and non-amplified closely agreed with the clinical diagnosis of latex allergy in health care workers and in spina bifida. Conclusion Although the purified allergens and crude extracts reacted diversely with IgE from different patient groups, the results indicated that use of certain combinations of purified recombinant antigens will be useful in commercial kits or in in-house assays for detecting specific IgE antibody in the sera. The results suggest that a combination of Hev b 2, 3, 5, 6, and 13 together

  12. Profiling Ethylene-Responsive Genes Expressed in the Latex of the Mature Virgin Rubber Trees Using cDNA Microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhiyi; Kang, Guijuan; Duan, Cuifang; Li, Yu; Dai, Longjun; Zeng, Rizhong

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene is commonly used as a latex stimulant of Hevea brasiliensis by application of ethephon (chloro-2-ethylphosphonic acid); however, the molecular mechanism by which ethylene increases latex production is not clear. To better understand the effects of ethylene stimulation on the laticiferous cells of rubber trees, a latex expressed sequence tag (EST)-based complementary DNA microarray containing 2,973 unique genes (probes) was first developed and used to analyze the gene expression changes in the latex of the mature virgin rubber trees after ethephon treatment at three different time-points: 8, 24 and 48 h. Transcript levels of 163 genes were significantly altered with fold-change values ≥ 2 or ≤ -2 (q-value latex actin cytoskeleton might play important roles in ethylene-induced increase of latex production. The results may provide useful insights into understanding the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of ethylene on latex metabolism of H. brasiliensis.

  13. Molluscicidal effect of Euphorbia umbellata (Pax Bruyns latex on Biomphalaria glabrata, Schistosoma mansoni host snail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Patrícia Lima Alves Pereira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Euphorbia umbellata (Pax Bruyns is an easily cultivated shrub, with occurrence in the tropical regions of the American and African continents. Chemical studies have revealed that the latex of this plant is rich in terpene compounds, which are highly toxic to snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Basommatophora: Planorbidae. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and molluscicidal activity of the latex produced by E. umbellata, as well as the safety of its application in aquatic environments. The concentration of latex that killed 90% of the exposed snails after 24 h exposure (LC90 was 3.69 mg/L. Toxicity bioassays using Danio rerio (zebrafish revealed that these animals were less susceptible to latex than planorbids. However, it is important to perform other toxicity tests to ensure the feasibility of using latex to control populations of mollusks that contribute to schistosomiasis transmission. A phytochemical screening performed with the E. umbellata latex identified the triterpenoid and coumarin class. Further studies are warranted to isolate, identify, and test the active compounds of E. umbellata latex in B. glabrata.

  14. Frequency in allergy to proteins of latex in health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, H L; Avila, E; Angulo, Y; Portillo, J; Moreno, L; Reza, G; Hernández, V; Levario, M

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate allergy prevalence to latex proteins in health care workers at the Laboratory and Surgery Room of Hospital CIMA Chihuahua. A thorough clinical chart was recorded for all health care workers studied: hematic biometry, total IgE by ELISA method, specific IgE to latex antigen by ELISA (pharmacy CAP system), cutaneous tests with latex antigen (Aphi de México, Hevea Brasiliensis Biopal Inc. Spoken WA), through scarification, together with histamine and Evans (positive-negative control). The number included is 99 individuals. Specific IgE to latex in 4 cases was positive (4%) and in the cutaneous tests to latex, 24 cases (24%) resulted positive. The study reports a prevalence of (4%) when performing the specific IgE to latex and (24%) to the cutaneous test with antigen to total latex. This data allows us to continue evaluating the personnel at risk at the hospital, with better results in the administration of Labor Medicine at this medical institution.

  15. In vitro antiviral activity of Ficus carica latex against caprine herpesvirus-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camero, Michele; Marinaro, Mariarosaria; Lovero, Angela; Elia, Gabriella; Losurdo, Michele; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The latex of Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) has been shown to possess antiviral properties against some human viruses. To determine the ability of F. carica latex (F-latex) to interfere with the infection of caprine herpesvirus-1 (CpHV-1) in vitro, F-latex was resuspended in culture media containing 1% ethanol and was tested for potential antiviral effects against CpHV-1. Titration of CpHV-1 in the presence or in the absence of F-latex was performed on monolayers of Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells. Simultaneous addition of F-latex and CpHV-1 to monolayers of MDBK cells resulted in a significant reduction of CpHV-1 titres 3 days post-infection and this effect was comparable to that induced by acyclovir. The study suggests that the F-latex is able to interfere with the replication of CpHV-1 in vitro on MDBK cells and future studies will determine the mechanisms responsible for the observed antiviral activity.

  16. N Latex FLC serum free light-chain assays in patients with renal impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Joannes F M; Hoedemakers, Rein M J; Teunissen, Elisa; Te Velthuis, Henk

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish ranges for N Latex free light-chain (FLC) monoclonal-based nephelometric assays in patients with renal impairment. In this retrospective study, serum samples from 284 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 1-5 were measured with N Latex and Freelite FLC reagents on the Siemens BNII system and compared with controls without renal impairment. Both κFLC and λFLC concentrations increased with the N Latex FLC and the Freelite assays with each increment in CKD stage. No difference was found in FLC κ concentrations between the two methods. In patients with renal failure, N Latex FLC detected higher concentrations of λFLC (CKD5 median, 128 mg/L; 95% range, 43-302) compared with Freelite (89.5 mg/L, 35-197) (pLatex reference limits for healthy controls (0.31-1.56). The N Latex FLC κ/λ ratio in the CKD5 group (0.69, 0.32-1.54) was significantly lower compared with the control group (pLatex FLC κ/λ ratio in patients with renal failure did not differ from the reference limits for healthy controls.

  17. Evaluating interventions aimed at reducing occupational exposure to latex and rubber glove allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Susan; McNamee, Roseanne; Agius, Raymond; Wilkinson, Stephen Mark; Carder, Melanie; Stocks, Susan J

    2012-12-01

    Concerns over occupational exposures to blood-borne viruses resulted in increased protective glove use; consequentially latex allergy became a hazard for some occupational groups. Interventions aimed at managing this problem included substitution measures (eg, non-powdered/non-latex gloves), but such changes may not occur simultaneously across occupational sectors. This study evaluated whether the incidence of occupational dermatoses fell after interventions aiming to reduce exposure to 'latex and rubber glove allergens' ('latex') were introduced, and whether these interventions were more effective for healthcare workers (HCWs), compared with non-HCWs. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) comparing cases reported to EPIDERM (a UK-wide surveillance scheme) during post versus pre-intervention periods were calculated, both where 'latex' was cited and for cases associated with other exposures ('controls'). Among HCWs, cases of contact urticaria and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) where 'latex' was cited showed significant downward trends post-intervention, with IRRs of 0.72, 95% CI; 0.52 to 1.00 and 0.47, 95% CI; 0.35 to 0.64 respectively. For HCWs, this fall in 'latex' associated ACD was significantly greater (p=0.02) than for other exposures ('controls') IRR=0.85, 95% CI; 0.57 to 1.28, and greater than that among non-HCWs (IRR 0.75, 95% CI; 0.61 to 0.93). Increases over time were seen for irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) reporting for HCWs, both for cases associated with 'latex' (IRR 1.47, 95% CI: 1.02 to 2.13) and for other exposures ('controls') IRR 1.36, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.76, but not for non-HCWs. A reduction in overall ACD, particularly in HCWs, coincided with interventions aimed at managing workplace contact dermatoses associated with 'latex' exposure. A coincidental rise in ICD reporting is also important, both for hand care and for infection control strategies.

  18. Effect of silica fume and SBR latex on the pasteaggregate interfacial transition zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Adriano Rossignolo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the effect of silica fume and styrene-butadiene latex (SBR on the microstructure of the interfacial transition zone (ITZ between Portland cement paste and aggregates (basalt. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM equipped with energy dispersive x ray analysis system (EDX was used to determine the ITZ thickness. In the plain concrete a marked ITZ around the aggregate particles (55 µm was observed, while in concretes with silica fume or latex SBR the ITZ was less pronounced (35-40 µm. However, better results were observed in concretes with silica fume and latex SBR (20-25 µm.

  19. Glove powder's carrying capacity for latex protein: analysis using the ASTM ELISA test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beezhold, D; Horton, K; Hickey, V; Daddona, J; Kostyal, D

    2003-01-01

    Glove donning powders carry latex proteins and disperse them into the workplace environment. We have used the ASTM D6499 ELISA to quantify the amount of latex antigen bound to and carried by glove powders. We could differentiate between a small amount of protein actually bound to the powders and a larger amount carried by the powder. Enhanced binding of a major allergen, Hev b 5, to the starch powders was demonstrated by Western blot. The D6499 ELISA is able to measure total latex antigen, soluble and powder bound, simultaneously without the need to centrifuge the samples.

  20. Latex allergy and its clinical features among healthcare workers at Mankweng Hospital, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risenga, S M; Shivambu, G P; Rakgole, M P; Makwela, M L; Nthuli, S; Malatji, T A P; Maligavhada, N J; Green, R J

    2013-03-15

    Latex allergy, caused by sensitisation in atopic individuals, is a common occupational disease among healthcare workers who use latex gloves. It may be present in non-atopic individuals as well. The main objective of this study was to document the prevalence and disease spectrum of latex allergy at Mankweng Hospital, Limpopo Province, South Africa. The secondary objective was to determine clinical presentation of the disease. A cross-sectional descriptive study, with an analytical component, was conducted among healthcare workers who worked in high-risk areas for latex sensitisation. ImmunoCAP testing was performed and followed by a skin-prick test (SPT) in those who tested negative to the blood test. Two hundred screening questionnaires were distributed to healthcare workers at the hospital. Of these 158 (79.0%) were returned, with 59 participants meeting the inclusion criteria (experiencing symptoms due to wearing latex gloves). The mean age of the participants was 39.6 years (standard deviation 9.8 years, range 20 - 60 years). There were more females (98.1%) than males (1.9%). Glove-related symptoms were present in 59 subjects (37.1%), in 7 (11.9%) of whom the ImmunoCAP was positive to latex (95% confidence interval 4.2 - 22.9%). Fourteen participants were lost to follow-up before the SPT was performed. Thirty-eight of the participants with negative ImmunoCAP tests underwent SPT. Positive SPTs were reported in 5 of these 38 workers (13.2%), indicating that the ImmunoCAP test missed 11.1% (5/45) of latex-allergic individuals. The prevalence of latex allergy in this study was 8.3% (12/144). A denominator of 144 was used, as there is a possibility that some of the 14 individuals lost to follow-up could have tested positive to latex sensitisation by SPT. The symptoms experienced by latex-sensitised workers were rhinitis (100.0%), asthma (50.0%), dermatitis (25.0%), severe anaphylaxis (8.3%), abdominal pain (8.3%) and angio-oedema (8.3%). Our findings reveal that

  1. Occupational Latex Allergy: the Current State of Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Olivier; Raulf, Monika

    2017-03-01

    Allergy to natural rubber latex (NRL) reached epidemic proportions during the nineties and led to intense preventive efforts. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive compilation of the current status of occupational NRL allergy. Recent advances led to the characterization of 15 NRL allergens and the development of assays for measuring the allergen content of NRL materials and specific IgE antibodies against NRL allergen components. Preventive measures aimed at reducing workplace exposure to NRL allergens were associated with decreasing incidence rates of NRL allergy. However, a pooled analysis of epidemiological surveys published during the last 10 years provided prevalence estimates of NRL sensitization and allergy similar to those derived from studies conducted before 2003. Substantial progress has been made in the understanding and prevention of NRL allergy, although the disease may still remain a worldwide cause of concern.

  2. Magnetic Latex Beads Chaining on a Spherical Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGorty, R. J.; Dinsmore, A. D.

    2004-03-01

    We study chain formation of magnetic beads confined on a curved interface. Using an inverted light microscope, we observe how micron-sized superparamagnetic latex beads behave on the interface of toluene droplets in water with an external magnetic field. We observe the beads attracting one another where the interface is parallel to the external field but repelling one another where the interface is perpendicular. At some given angle between the external field and interface the chain length stops increasing, regardless of field strength or droplet size. A detailed understanding of such chain formations may provide the ability to coat droplets with beads arranged in interesting patterns or create chains with a controllable curvature and length. This work is supported by the UMass Faculty Research Grant program.

  3. Convertisseur d'équations LATEX2Ink

    OpenAIRE

    Montaser Awal, A.; Cousseau, R.; Viard-Gaudin, C.

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Dans cet article nous présentons un outil de génération de formules mathématiques manuscrites en ligne à partir d'une chaîne LATEX. Ce générateur permettra facilement de fabriquer à partir d'un corpus de référence d'expressions mathématiques une base de données qui sera annotée automatiquement au niveau symbole. Ainsi, à partir d'une base de symboles isolés, nous pouvons produire de façon pseudo-synthétique une formule mathématique quelconque par un placement et un dim...

  4. Effet de quatre types de fumiers d'animaux domestiques sur le ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    ): 27-35. Hussain MAH, Mukhtar T, Kayani AZ, 2011. Efficacy evaluation of Azadirachta indica, Calotropis procera, Datura stramonium and Tagetes erecta against root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita. Pakistan Journal ...

  5. 2369-IJBCS-Article-Jean-Marc Ategbo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Aganthospermum hispidum. Albizia ferruginea. Albizia adianthiofolia. Aloe buettneri. Anagallis arvensis. Ananas comsus. Aristolochia albida. Aspilia africana. Eugenia aromatica. Azadiratai ndica. Baphia nitida. Bidens pilosa. Bridelia micrantha. Bridelia ferruginia. Calendula officinalis. Calotropis procera. Carica papaya.

  6. Purification of papain from fresh latex of Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Monti

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we wish to report a method of crystallizing papain from fresh papaya latex which gave higher yields than previously reported. This method does not involve the use of sulphydryl reagents. The papain thus obtained is practically pure and shows a single band when submitted to electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel, and is identical to the papain obtained by other methods. In routine enzymatic assays, specific activity was measured using Z-gly-pNP and BAEE as substrates. Papain crystallized by this method, without the use of high concentrations of salts or thiol-containing substances such as cysteine and dithiothreitol, is obtained in the form of a complex with natural inhibitors existent in latex which can be removed by dialysis.No presente trabalho apresenta-se um método de cristalização da papaína oriunda do látex fresco de mamão, o qual apresenta uma alta produtividade em relação aos métodos previamente descritos. A metodologia aqui descrita não envolve o uso de reagentes sulfidrílicos, a papaína foi obtida de forma praticamente pura, apresentando uma simples banda quando submetida a eletroforese, e com propriedades idênticas àquelas obtidas por outros métodos. A atividade específica foi determinada utilizando Z-gly-pNP e BAEE como substrato. A papaína obtida por essa metodologia, sem uso de substâncias tais como cisteína e ditiotreitol, apresenta-se na forma de um complexo com inibidores naturais, os quais podem ser removidos por diálise.

  7. Prevalence of Allergy to Natural Rubber Latex and Potential Cross Reacting Food in Operation Room Staff in Shiraz Hospitals -2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nabavizade

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Allergic reactions to natural rubber latex have increased during past 10 years especially among health care workers and patients with high exposure to latex allergens. Allergic reaction to latex is related to many diseases like occupational asthma. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of allergy to natural rubber latex and potential cross reacting food in operation room staff in Shiraz hospitals. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study five hundred eighty operation room staff of ten private and state hospitals in Shiraz completed latex allergy questionnaire. They were questioned about personal history and previous history of latex sensitivity, symptoms of latex reactivity and about other allergies particularly to foods that may cross react with latex. Informed consent was obtained and skin prick testing was performed with natural rubber latex. Skin prick tests were done with three potentially cross reacting food (banana, Kiwi, and potato. The obtained data were analyzed with SPSS software and Chi-square test. Results: Among the 580 operation room workers 104 (17.9 % of participants were positive to latex skin test. We found a significant association between positive skin test to latex in operation room staff and atopy, urticaria and food allergy. Positive skin test to latex related to positive kiwi skin test (p<0.05. The prevalence did not vary by sex, age, education, surgical and non surgical glove users, history of contact dermatitis or smoking status. Conclusion: Latex allergy has a high prevalence in personnel of operation room. Evaluation of present symptom and prediction of future disease necessitate screening test in individuals at risk.

  8. Biochemical analysis of a papain-like protease isolated from the latex of Asclepias curassavica L

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liggieri, Constanza; Obregón, Walter; Trejo, Sebastián; Priolo, Nora

    2009-01-01

    ... and secondary metabolites. A new papain-like endopeptidase (asclepain cII) has been isolated and characterized from the latex extracted from petioles of Asclepias curassavica L. (Asclepiadaceae...

  9. Synthesis and applications of MANs/poly(MMA-co-BA) nanocomposite latex by miniemulsion polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Sheng; Chen, Huayao; Zhou, Xinhua; Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    2017-11-01

    We have synthesized core-shell structured 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) functionalized antimony-doped tin oxide nanoparticles (MANs)-poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate) (PMMA-co-BA, PMB) nanocomposite latex particles via miniemulsion polymerization method. Polymerizable anionic surfactant DNS-86 (allyloxy polyoxyethylene(10) nonyl ammonium sulfate) was first introduced to synthesize core-shell nanocomposite. The morphologies of synthesized MANs and MANs/PMB latex nanocomposite particles were studied with transmission electron microscopy, which revealed particles, on average 70 nm in size, with a core-shell structure. Owing to the uniformity and hydrophobicity of MANs, the MANs-embedded PMB latex nanocomposite can be tailored more precisely than other nanoparticles-embedded nanocomposites. Films incorporating 10 wt% of MANs in the MAN/PMB latex nanocomposite exhibit good transmittance in the visible region, and excellent opacity in the near infrared region. The MANs/PMB nanocomposite film also appears suitable for heat insulation applications.

  10. Maillard Reaction in Natural Rubber Latex: Characterization and Physical Properties of Solid Natural Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Montha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maillard reaction in Natural Rubber (NR latex was investigated by treating fresh NR latex with glutaraldehyde (C5H8O2 in amounts of 0, 50, 100, and 200 mmol/kg of latex. Protein cross-linking in fresh NR latex and solid NR was confirmed by using sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR spectroscopy, respectively. It was found that degree of protein cross-linking in NR increased with increasing C5H8O2 concentration. Physical properties of untreated and treated NR substances in terms of gel content, initial Wallace plasticity (P0, plasticity retention index (PRI, Mooney viscosity, and tensile strength were carefully explored. Results clearly showed that the Maillard cross-linking of proteins had remarkable effect on bulk NR properties, that is, solvent resistance, hardness, resistance to oxidation, rheological behavior, and resistance to stretching out.

  11. 515 Prevalence of Latex Sensitization Between Medicine and Dentistry Students from Nuevo Leon University

    OpenAIRE

    González, Arya; González-Díaz, Sandra; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Macías-Weinmann, Alejandra; Rodríguez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Background Latex allergy has become an important health problem in the last 2 decades. Sensitization in general population is about 1%.1 Healthcare workers have a frequency of 2% to 25%.2 There is not information about this issue in Mexico. Our objective was to know and compare prevalence of latex sensitization in last grade medicine and dentistry students of the Nuevo Leon University. Methods This was an observational, prospective and comparative study. Last grade medicine and dentistry stud...

  12. Estimation of some alkaloids in the capsule and stem latex of papaver somniferum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerkan, E. (Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul (Turkey))

    1983-06-01

    The contents of morphine and its N-oxides, codeine and thebaine in the capsule and stem latex of Papaver somniferum L. are being estimated by using N-methyl-/sup 14/C-morphine HCl as a tracer. The results show that the stem latex, as well, contains considerable amounts of alkaloids and that the stems may well play an important role in alkaloid production, in the country.

  13. Suitability of Natural Rubber Latex and Waste Foundry Sand in Cement Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Idiculla Thomas; Nabil Hossiney; Arjun H R; Beulah. M

    2016-01-01

    Suitability of Natural Rubber Latex (NRL) as an additive and Waste Foundry Sand (WFS) as partial replacement to river sand, in cement concrete was investigated. Experimental study was performed with concrete mixtures containing 1% latex to water ratio, along with 5% and 10% replacement of river sand by WFS. Properties of concrete were studied in both fresh and hardened state. The results of laboratory tests indicate that WFS and NRL reduces the workability of concrete. Slight reduction in ...

  14. Synthesis and applications of MANs/poly(MMA-co-BA) nanocomposite latex by miniemulsion polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Sheng; Chen, Huayao; Zhou, Xinhua; Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    2017-01-01

    We have synthesized core-shell structured 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) functionalized antimony-doped tin oxide nanoparticles (MANs)–poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate) (PMMA-co-BA, PMB) nanocomposite latex particles via miniemulsion polymerization method. Polymerizable anionic surfactant DNS-86 (allyloxy polyoxyethylene(10) nonyl ammonium sulfate) was first introduced to synthesize core-shell nanocomposite. The morphologies of synthesized MANs and MANs/PMB latex nanocomp...

  15. Diagnostic value of the ISAC(®) allergy chip in detecting latex sensitizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfarth, Florian; Schliemann, Sibylle; Wiegand, Cornelia; Hipler, Uta-Christina; Elsner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Latex allergy can be diagnosed by different test methods such as IgE quantification, Western blot, cellular antigen stimulation test (CAST), and in vivo methods [e.g. skin prick test (SPT)]. Phadia provides two modern methods using recombinant latex allergens: ImmunoCAP(®) and the Immuno Solid-phase Allergen Chip (ISAC(®)), which enables simultaneous determination of specific IgE against five latex allergens. We compared the diagnostic sensitivity of the ISAC(®) test kit and the conventional Hev b 5-spiked ImmunoCAP(®) latex extract. Forty sera were sampled from subjects with suspected natural rubber latex (NRL) allergy. These patients had positive SPT to NRL extract, positive NRL Western blots, and positive results in the CAST. All sera were analysed using the ISAC(®) and recombinant NRL ImmunoCAP(®) allergens and compared to the results of 20 negative control sera. Only 22 of the 40 subjects (55 %) showed positivity to at least one latex allergen on the ISAC(®) (sensitivity ISAC(®) 55 %). The sensitivity of the ImmunoCAP(®) latex extract was 70 %. The most frequently detected sensitization was against Hev b 6.01 (n = 12). When the serum samples were tested with all recombinant ImmunoCAP(®) allergens, three additional sensitizations against latex could be detected compared to the ISAC(®). Microarrays do offer many potential benefits such as elegant simultaneous determination of sensitizations against different NRL allergens with minimal amounts of serum. However, a negative NRL test result should be regarded with caution and at least be confirmed by other in vitro methods.

  16. Performance Analysis of Styrene Butadiene Rubber-Latex on Cement Concrete Mixes.

    OpenAIRE

    Er. Kapil Soni; Dr. Y.P Joshi

    2014-01-01

    To improve the performance of concrete, polymers are mixed with concrete. It has been observed that polymer-modified concrete (PMC) is more durable than conventional concrete due to superior strength and high durability. In this research, effect of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR) latex on compressive strength and flexural strength of concrete has been studied and also the optimum polymer (SBR-Latex) content for concrete is calculated. This research was carried out to establish t...

  17. Capacitance Regression Modelling Analysis on Latex from Selected Rubber Tree Clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, A. D.; Hashim, H.; Khairuzzaman, N. A.; Mohd Sampian, A. F.; Baharudin, R.; Abdullah, N. E.; Sulaiman, M. S.; Kamaru'zzaman, M.

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates the capacitance regression modelling performance of latex for various rubber tree clones, namely clone 2002, 2008, 2014 and 3001. Conventionally, the rubber tree clones identification are based on observation towards tree features such as shape of leaf, trunk, branching habit and pattern of seeds texture. The former method requires expert persons and very time-consuming. Currently, there is no sensing device based on electrical properties that can be employed to measure different clones from latex samples. Hence, with a hypothesis that the dielectric constant of each clone varies, this paper discusses the development of a capacitance sensor via Capacitance Comparison Bridge (known as capacitance sensor) to measure an output voltage of different latex samples. The proposed sensor is initially tested with 30ml of latex sample prior to gradually addition of dilution water. The output voltage and capacitance obtained from the test are recorded and analyzed using Simple Linear Regression (SLR) model. This work outcome infers that latex clone of 2002 has produced the highest and reliable linear regression line with determination coefficient of 91.24%. In addition, the study also found that the capacitive elements in latex samples deteriorate if it is diluted with higher volume of water.

  18. Latex Rubber Gloves as a Sampling Dosimeter Using a Novel Surrogate Sampling Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Gayatri; Lopez, Terry; Ries, Steve; Ross, John; Vega, Helen; Eastmond, David A; Krieger, Robert I

    2015-01-01

    Pesticide exposure during harvesting of crops occurs primarily to the workers' hands. When harvesters wear latex rubber gloves for personal safety and hygiene harvesting reasons, gloves accumulate pesticide residues. Hence, characterization of the gloves' properties may be useful for pesticide exposure assessments. Controlled field studies were conducted using latex rubber gloves to define the factors that influence the transfer of pesticides to the glove and that would affect their use as a residue monitoring device. A novel sampling device called the Brinkman Contact Transfer Unit (BCTU) was constructed to study the glove characteristics and residue transfer and accumulation under controlled conditions on turf. The effectiveness of latex rubber gloves as sampling dosimeters was evaluated by measuring the transferable pesticide residues as a function of time. The validation of latex rubber gloves as a residue sampling dosimeter was performed by comparing pesticide transfer and dissipation from the gloves, with the turf transferable residues sampled using the validated California (CA) Roller, a standard measure of residue transfer. The observed correlation (Pearson's correlation coefficient R(2)) between the two methods was .84 for malathion and .96 for fenpropathrin, indicating that the BCTU is a useful, reliable surrogate tool for studying available residue transfer to latex rubber gloves under experimental conditions. Perhaps more importantly, these data demonstrate that latex gloves worn by workers may be useful quantifiable matrices for measuring pesticide exposure.

  19. Physical Methods for the Preparation of Hybrid Nanocomposite Polymer Latex Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Roberto F. A.; Bon, Stefan A. F.

    In this chapter, we will highlight conceptual physical approaches towards the fabrication of nanocomposite polymer latexes in which each individual latex particle contains one or more "hard" nanoparticles, such as clays, silicates, titanates, or other metal(oxides). By "physical approaches" we mean that the "hard" nanoparticles are added as pre-existing entities, and are not synthesized in situ as part of the nanocomposite polymer latex fabrication process. We will narrow our discussion to focus on physical methods that rely on the assembly of nanoparticles onto the latex particles after the latex particles have been formed, or its reciprocal analogue, the adhesion of polymer onto an inorganic nanoparticle. First, will discuss the phenomenon of heterocoagulation and its various driving forces, such as electrostatic interactions, the hydrophobic effect, and secondary molecular interactions. We will then address methods that involve assembly of nanoparticles onto or around the more liquid precursors (i.e., swollen/growing latex particles or monomer droplets). We will focus on the phenomenon of Pickering stabilization. We will then discuss features of particle interaction with soft interfaces, and see how the adhesion of particles onto emulsion droplets can be applied in suspension, miniemulsion, and emulsion polymerization. Finally, we will very briefly mention some interesting methods that make use of interface-driven templating for making well-defined assembled clusters and supracolloidal structures.

  20. Contraceptive effectiveness of a polyurethane condom and a latex condom: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Markus J; Dominik, Rosalie; Rountree, R Wesley; Nanda, Kavita; Dorflinger, Laneta J

    2003-03-01

    To compare the contraceptive effectivenesses of a polyurethane condom and a standard latex condom. Secondary outcomes of interest were safety, functionality, discontinuation, and acceptability. We randomized 901 couples to use either the polyurethane condom or a standard latex condom as their only form of contraception. We tested for pregnancy at enrollment and at every scheduled follow-up visit (weeks 4, 10, 16, 22, and 30). The 6-month typical-use pregnancy probabilities were 9.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.9, 12.2) for the polyurethane group and 5.4% (95% CI 2.9, 7.8) for the latex group; the hazard ratio was 1.7 (95% CI 1.1, 2.7), and we failed to reject the null hypothesis of our test of noninferiority. Females in the polyurethane group reported fewer genital irritations (hazard ratio 0.6; 95% CI 0.5, 0.8; P effective as the latex comparator condom for pregnancy prevention. However, the risk of pregnancy in the polyurethane group falls in the range of other barrier methods. For people with latex sensitivity or who find latex condoms unacceptable, this polyurethane condom represents one of several synthetic male condom alternatives currently available on the US market.

  1. Oral dosing with papaya latex is an effective anthelmintic treatment for sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnan Alison A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cysteine proteinases in papaya latex have been shown to have potent anthelmintic properties in monogastric hosts such as rodents, pigs and humans, but this has not been demonstrated in ruminants. Methods In two experiments, sheep were infected concurrently with 5,000 infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and 10,000 infective larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and were then treated with the supernatant from a suspension of papaya latex from day 28 to day 32 post-infection. Faecal egg counts were monitored from a week before treatment until the end of the experiment and worm burdens were assessed on day 35 post-infection. Results We found that the soluble fraction of papaya latex had a potent in vivo effect on the abomasal nematode H. contortus, but not on the small intestinal nematode T. colubriformis. This effect was dose-dependent and at tolerated levels of gavage with papaya latex (117 μmol of active papaya latex supernatant for 4 days, the H. contortus worm burdens were reduced by 98%. Repeated treatment, daily for 4 days, was more effective than a single dose, but efficacy was not enhanced by concurrent treatment with the antacid cimetidine. Conclusions Our results provide support for the idea that cysteine proteinases derived from papaya latex may be developed into novel anthelmintics for the treatment of lumenal stages of gastro-intestinal nematode infections in sheep, particularly those parasitizing the abomasum.

  2. Differential expression of mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase gene correlates with latex yield and tapping in rubber tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweena CHUENWARIN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene is a product of the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway which requires an allylic pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP to initiate and elongate the rubber molecule. The biosynthesis of IPP occurs via two distinct routes: the mevalonate (MVA and methylerythritol phosphate (MEP pathways. In this study, the expression of 34 genes related to rubber biosynthesis were compared between high and low latex yielding trees of two rubber tree clones, PB 217 and PB 260. Almost all tested genes revealed no significantly differential expression related to latex yield. Only mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDCE1 showed specific up-regulation in the high latex yielding trees of both tested clones. Interestingly, the expression of PDCE1 involving in the production of acetyl-CoA in mitochondria was also significantly induced by latex loss upon tapping. The increasing of acetyl-CoA and energy production may favor rubber tree to produce more latex. The in silico analysis showed that HbPDCE1 promoter contained ethylene and copper-responsive elements. Ethylene is worldwide used rubber stimulant while copper sulfate was also reported to be able to stimulate the latex yield. This suggested that HbPDCE1 may be transcriptionally regulated by these two compounds however the in vivo regulation of this gene should be further investigated.

  3. Characterisation of general proteolytic, milk clotting and antifungal activity of Ficus carica latex during fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskovic, Brankica; Lazic, Jelena; Polovic, Natalija

    2016-01-30

    The physiological role of fig latex is to protect the plant from pathogens. Latex is a rich source of proteases, predominantly ficin. Fig latex also contains collagenolytic protease and chitinolytic enzymes. Our aim was to investigate changes in protein composition, enzyme and antifungal activities of fig latex during fruit ripening. Comparison of latex samples in different time periods showed a uniform increase of protein concentration in chronological order. The content of collagenolytic protease did not differ significantly in the latex samples, while the content of ficin decreased. Ficin-specific activity towards casein was the highest at the beginning of fruit development (about 80 U mg(-1)). Specific milk clotting activity increased as well as the abundance of casein band in the clots. Specific chitinolytic activity at the beginning of flowering was 6.5 times higher than the activity in the period when fruits are ripe. Antifungal activity is the most extensive in spring. Ficin forms with different casein specificities are present in different proportions during fruit ripening, which is of importance for applications in the dairy industry. The protection mechanism against insects and fungi, which relies on chitinolytic activity, is the most important in the early phases of flowering and is replaced with other strategies over time. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Enhanced protein adsorption and patterning on nanostructured latex-coated paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvonen, Helka; Määttänen, Anni; Ihalainen, Petri; Viitala, Tapani; Sarfraz, Jawad; Peltonen, Jouko

    2014-06-01

    Specific interactions of extracellular matrix proteins with cells and their adhesion to the substrate are important for cell growth. A nanopatterned latex-coated paper substrate previously shown to be an excellent substrate for cell adhesion and 2D growth was studied for directed immobilization of proteins. The nanostructured latex surface was formed by short-wavelength IR irradiation of a two-component latex coating consisting of a hydrophilic film-forming styrene butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer and hydrophobic polystyrene particles. The hydrophobic regions of the IR-treated latex coating showed strong adhesion of bovine serum albumin (cell repelling protein), fibronectin (cell adhesive protein) and streptavidin. Opposite to the IR-treated surface, fibronectin and streptavidin had a poor affinity toward the untreated pristine latex coating. Detailed characterization of the physicochemical surface properties of the latex-coated substrates revealed that the observed differences in protein affinity were mainly due to the presence or absence of the protein repelling polar and charged surface groups. The protein adsorption was assisted by hydrophobic (dehydration) interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Latex Imaging by Environmental STEM: Application to the Study of the Surfactant Outcome in Hybrid Alkyd/Acrylate Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Faucheu, Jenny; Chazeau, Laurent; Gauthier, Catherine; Cavaille, Jean-Yves; Goikoetxea, Monika; Minari, Roque; Asua, Jose M.

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Among other uses. latexes are a successful alternative to solvent-borne binders for coatings. Efforts are made to produce hybrid nanostructured latexes containing an acrylic phase and an alkyd phase, However, after the film-forming process, the surfactant used to stabilize these latexes remains in the film, and its location can have a drastic effect on the application properties. Among the processing parameters, the alkyd hydrophobicity can strongly influence this loca...

  6. Latex imaging by environmental STEM: application to the study of the surfactant outcome in hybrid alkyd/acrylate systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheu, Jenny; Chazeau, Laurent; Gauthier, Catherine; Cavaillé, Jean-Yves; Goikoetxea, Monika; Minari, Roque; Asua, José M

    2009-09-01

    Among other uses, latexes are a successful alternative to solvent-borne binders for coatings. Efforts are made to produce hybrid nanostructured latexes containing an acrylic phase and an alkyd phase. However, after the film-forming process, the surfactant used to stabilize these latexes remains in the film, and its location can have a drastic effect on the application properties. Among the processing parameters, the alkyd hydrophobicity can strongly influence this location. This article aims at the imaging of these surfactant molecules in two hybrid latexes with different hydrophobicity level of the alkyd resin. A first part of this paper is dedicated to the understanding of the contrast provided by the surfactant in environmental STEM imaging of latexes. Then, the influence of surfactant-polymer affinity on the surfactant location after film-forming of those hybrid alkyd/acrylate latexes is studied by this technique. It is shown that in the hybrid latex with an alkyd shell (obtained with the most hydrophilic resin), the surfactant molecules tend to remain buried in the alkyd phase. Conversely, in the hybrid latex with an acrylate shell (in the case of the most hydrophobic resin), the surfactant molecules tend to gather into islands like in pure acrylate latex films.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of polymer-silica hybrid latexes and sol-gel-derived films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petcu, Cristian; Purcar, Violeta [National Research-Development Institute for Chemistry and Petrochemistry-ICECHIM, Polymer Department, Splaiul Independentei 202, 6th district, 060021, Bucharest (Romania); Ianchiş, Raluca, E-mail: ralumoc@yahoo.com [National Research-Development Institute for Chemistry and Petrochemistry-ICECHIM, Polymer Department, Splaiul Independentei 202, 6th district, 060021, Bucharest (Romania); Spătaru, Cătălin-Ilie; Ghiurea, Marius; Nicolae, Cristian Andi [National Research-Development Institute for Chemistry and Petrochemistry-ICECHIM, Polymer Department, Splaiul Independentei 202, 6th district, 060021, Bucharest (Romania); Stroescu, Hermine [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu” of the Romanian Academy, Splaiul Independentei 202, 060021, Bucharest (Romania); Atanase, Leonard-Ionuţ [University Apollonia, “Acad. Ioan Haulica” Research Institute, Iasi (Romania); Frone, Adriana Nicoleta; Trică, Bogdan; Donescu, Dan [National Research-Development Institute for Chemistry and Petrochemistry-ICECHIM, Polymer Department, Splaiul Independentei 202, 6th district, 060021, Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Si-based polymer is distributed onto the silica surface of sol-gel hybrid films. • FT-IR spectra of sol-gel derived materials confirmed the different chemical structure. • Hydrophobicity increased due to the increasing number of alkyl groups attached to the surface. - Abstract: Sol-gel derived organic-inorganic hybrid systems were obtained by applying alkaline-catalyzed co-hydrolysis and copolycondensation reactions of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), methyltriethoxysilane (MTES), isobutyltriethoxysilane (IBTES), diethoxydimethylsilane (DMDES), and vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES), respectively, into a polymer latex functionalized with vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES). The properties of the latex hybrid materials were analyzed by FTIR, water contact angle, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), TEM and AFM analysis, respectively. FT-IR spectra confirmed that the chemical structures of the sol-gel derived organic-inorganic materials are changed as function of inorganic precursor and Si−O−Si networks are formed during the co-hydrolysis and copolycondensation reactions. The water contact angle on the sol-gel latex film containing TEOS + VTES increased to 135° ± 2 compared to 65° ± 5 for the blank latex, due VTES incorporation into latex material. TGA curves of hybrid sample modifies against neat polymer, the thermal stability being influenced by the presence of the inorganic partner. ESEM analysis showed that the latex hybrid films prepared with different inorganic precursors were formed and the Si-based polymers were distributed on the surface of the dried sol-gel hybrid films. TEM and AFM photos revealed that the latex emulsion morphology was modified due to the VTES incorporation into system.

  8. Cross-reactivity between Ficus benjamina latex and fig fruit in patients with clinical fig allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focke, M; Hemmer, W; Wöhrl, S; Götz, M; Jarisch, R

    2003-07-01

    Anaphylactic reactions to fig fruits (Ficus carica) have been reported from subjects sensitized to Ficus benjamina (FB) latex allergens. Figs may also be involved in the latex-fruit syndrome. To study the immunologic relationship between fig fruit, Ficus benjamina, natural rubber latex (Hevea brasiliensis), and other tropical fruits. RAST inhibition and Western blotting with FB and fruit extracts was performed in five patients with oral allergy syndrome (OAS) or anaphylaxis after the ingestion of figs and one patient with symptoms from exposure to FB trees. Co-sensitization to rubber latex and tropical fruits (kiwi, banana, avocado, papaya, pineapple, mulberry) was studied by skin testing. RAST to FB was inhibited >95% by FB extracts and 16-65% (mean 49%) by extracts from fresh fig. RAST to fig fruit was inhibited >95% by FB and fresh fig, 63-97% (mean 86%) by dried fig, and 0-84% (mean 35.5%) by kiwi fruit. FB and fig extracts lost most of their allergenicity when denatured by heat (95 degrees C) or reduced by dithiothreitol. Western blotting after non-reducing gel electrophoresis revealed IgE binding to proteins of 22 and 28-34 kDa in FB latex; however, no corresponding allergens could be detected in fig extracts. Positive skin tests were obtained most often with kiwi fruit, papaya, and avocado. Sensitization to rubber latex could not be demonstrated in any of the patients. RAST to papain was positive in three of five patients. Allergic reactions to fresh or dried figs can present as a consequence of primary sensitization to airborne FB allergens independent of sensitization to rubber latex allergens. Kiwi fruit, papaya, and avocado as well as pineapple and banana may be other fruits associated with sensitization to Ficus allergens.

  9. [Usefulness of a questionnaire and RAST in screening of health care workers allergic to latex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copertaro, A; Bracci, M; Barbaresi, Mariella; Bianchini, G

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of latex mediated IgE allergy in health care workers varies, according to the various studies, from 0.5% to 16. 7%. The onset of latex allergy involves aspects concerning the worker's health, the need for job transfer and possible retraining. In any case, the use of latex gloves in health care environments cannot be discarded, since they offer more efficacious protection from biological agents, compared to gloves of different materials. Our objectives were to verify the prevalence of latex allergy in a sample of 515 health care workers and evaluate the usefulness of RAST and a questionnaire especially organized to identify potentially allergic subjects, at the same time limiting the number of false positive and false negative results. 515 health care workers of the ASUR Zone7-Ancona local health unit accepted to answer to a questionnaire and to undergo a RAST testfor latex. Those with positive responses to the questionnaire or to RAST were later invited to undergo further allergological tests (prick and prick by prick). The questionnaire was revised according to the results obtained, thus increasing its positive predictiveness. Prevalence of latex allergy in our sample was 1, 7%, positive predictiveness of RAST was rather low (31.3%), but increased considerably if combined with the modified questionnaire (62.5%). The Prick by Prick test gave more specific results than the Prick test. The proposed questionnaire can reduce the number of false positive workers needing to undergo further allergological tests and may be usefully applied in the screening of latex mediated IgE allergy in health care workers.

  10. Changes in chemical permeation of disposable latex, nitrile, and vinyl gloves exposed to simulated movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalen, Robert N; Le, Thi; Wong, Weng Kee

    2014-01-01

    Glove movement can affect chemical permeation of organic compounds through polymer glove products. However, conflicting reports make it difficult to compare the effects of movement on chemical permeation through commonly available glove types. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of movement on chemical permeation of an organic solvent through disposable latex, nitrile, and vinyl gloves. Simulated whole-glove permeation testing was conducted using ethyl alcohol and a previously designed permeation test system. With exposure to movement, a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.001) in breakthrough time (BT) was observed for the latex (-23%) and nitrile gloves (-31%). With exposure to movement, only the nitrile glove exhibited a significant increase (p ≤ 0.001) in steady-state permeation rate (+47%) and cumulative permeation at 30 min (+111%). Even though the nitrile glove provided optimum chemical resistance against ethyl alcohol, it was most affected by movement. With exposure to movement, the latex glove was an equivalent option for overall worker protection, because it was less affected by movement and the permeation rate was lower than that of the nitrile glove. In contrast, the vinyl glove was the least affected by movement, but did not provide adequate chemical resistance to ethyl alcohol in comparison with the nitrile and latex gloves. Glove selection should take movement and polymer type into account. Some glove polymer types are less affected by movement, most notably the latex glove in this test. With nitrile gloves, at least a factor of three should be used when attempting to assign a protection factor when repetitive hand motions are anticipated. Ultimately, the latex gloves outperformed nitrile and vinyl in these tests, which evaluated the effect of movement on chemical permeation. Future research should aim to resolve some of the observed discrepancies in test results with latex and vinyl gloves.

  11. Evaluation of some Australian plant species for potential as hydrocarbon-producing crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L.R.; Casali, J.; Home, V.

    1981-01-01

    Calotropis procera, Calotropis gigantea, Cryptostegia grandiflora, and Asclepias fruticosa were evaluated for their potential to be cultivated to provide a renewable source of fuel and energy. The cyclohexane extracts of the dried plants gave thick dark oils which were not mobile at less than 70-80 degrees. From elemental analysis, a proportion of O was always present in the extract.

  12. 2018-02-22T05:48:42Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    article/76147 2018-02-22T05:48:42Z apra:ART Evaluation of the Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Calotropis Procera on the Hematology and Serum Biochemistry of Adult Albino Rats Oladele, GM Faramade, IA Okediran, BS Sodom apple, Calotropis ...

  13. Rapid diagnosis of bacterial meningitis by latex agglutination test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghani, S M; Hassan, E M; Masoud, S; Guirgis, N I

    1989-01-01

    Forty-three patients admitted to Abassia Fever Hospital suffering from meningitis were studied. They were 27 male and 16 female and divided into 3 age groups, as a control, 4 normal CSF samples were collected. A sterile CSF was collected and examined for pressure, aspect, glucose, protein and cellular content. Although all these tests were helpful in differentiating the type of meningitis, a remarkable overlap between the results were detected. Bacteriological study of CSF showed that bacterial culture was more sensitive than the Gram-stained film in (80% and 72% respectively) (p less than 0.05). However, it is a time consuming and its results greatly affected by prior uses of antibiotics. Also the antigen of N. meningitidis A & C, H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae were detected by latex agglutination (L.A.) and gave positive results in 76% of cases. It was less sensitive than the culture method. As a conclusion, L.A. test is a rapid and simple method of diagnosis of bacterial meningitis which give immediate information to the clinician. The sensitivity and specificity of L.A. can be greatly improved by using a higher quality of antibody for all serotypes in the locality.

  14. On the release of metronidazole from natural rubber latex membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herculano, Rondinelli D., E-mail: rond@assis.unesp.br [Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas - Faculdade de Ciencias e Letras de Assis-Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. Dom Antonio, 2100, Zip Code: 19806-900, Assis, SP (Brazil); Alencar de Queiroz, Alvaro A. [Departamento de Fisica e Quimica-Universidade Federal de Itajuba, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Kinoshita, Angela [Universidade do Sagrado Coracao-Rua Irma Arminda, 10-50, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Osvaldo N. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos-Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Graeff, Carlos F.O. [Departamento de Fisica - FC - Universidade Estadual Paulista, Bauru, SP (Brazil)

    2011-03-12

    The controlled release of drugs can be efficient if a suitable encapsulation procedure is developed, which requires biocompatible materials to hold and release the drug. In this study, a natural rubber latex (NRL) membrane is used to deliver metronidazole (MET), a powerful antiprotozoal agent. MET was found to be adsorbed on the NRL membrane, with little or no incorporation into the membrane bulk, according to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy data indicated that MET retained its structural and spectroscopic properties upon encapsulation in the NRL membrane, with no molecular-level interaction that could alter the antibacterial activity of MET. More importantly, the release time of MET in a NRL membrane in vitro was increased from the typical 6-8 h for oral tablets or injections to ca. 100 h. The kinetics of the drug release could be fitted with a double exponential function, with two characteristic times of 3.6 and 29.9 h. This is a demonstration that the induced angiogenesis known to be provided by NRL membranes can be combined with a controlled release of drugs, whose kinetics can be tailored by modifying experimental conditions of membrane fabrication for specific applications.

  15. Latex micro-balloon pumping in centrifugal microfluidic platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeinehvand, Mohammad Mahdi; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Harun, Sulaiman Wadi; Al-Faqheri, Wisam; Thio, Tzer Hwai Gilbert; Kazemzadeh, Amin; Madou, Marc

    2014-03-07

    Centrifugal microfluidic platforms have emerged as point-of-care diagnostic tools. However, the unidirectional nature of the centrifugal force limits the available space for multi-step processes on a single microfluidic disc. To overcome this limitation, a passive pneumatic pumping method actuated at high rotational speeds has been previously proposed to pump liquid against the centrifugal force. In this paper, a novel micro-balloon pumping method that relies on elastic energy stored in a latex membrane is introduced. It operates at low rotational speeds and pumps a larger volume of liquid towards the centre of the disc. Two different micro-balloon pumping mechanisms have been designed to study the pump performance at a range of rotational frequencies from 0 to 1500 rpm. The behaviour of the micro-balloon pump on the centrifugal microfluidic platforms has been theoretically analysed and compared with the experimental data. The experimental data show that the developed pumping method dramatically decreases the required rotational speed to pump liquid compared to the previously developed pneumatic pumping methods. It also shows that within a range of rotational speed, a desirable volume of liquid can be stored and pumped by adjusting the size of the micro-balloon.

  16. Hormonal treatment of the bark of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis) increases latex yield through latex dilution in relation with the differential expression of two aquaporin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tungngoen, Kessarin; Viboonjun, Unchera; Kongsawadworakul, Panida; Katsuhara, Maki; Julien, Jean-Louis; Sakr, Soulaiman; Chrestin, Hervé; Narangajavana, Jarunya

    2011-02-15

    Natural rubber is synthesized in laticifers in the inner liber of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). Upon bark tapping, the latex is expelled due to liber turgor pressure. The mature laticifers are devoid of plasmodesmata; therefore a corresponding decrease in the total latex solid content is likely to occur due to water influx inside the laticifers. Auxins and ethylene used as efficient yield stimulants in mature untapped rubber trees, but, bark treatments with abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) could also induce a transient increase latex yield. We recently reported that there are three aquaporin genes, HbPIP2;1, HbTIP1;1 and HbPIP1;1, that are regulated differentially after ethylene bark treatment. HbPIP2;1 was up-regulated in both the laticifers and the inner liber tissues, whereas HbTIP1;1 was up-regulated in the latex cells, but very markedly down-regulated in the inner liber tissues. Conversely, HbPIP1;1 was down-regulated in both tissues. In the present study, HbPIP2;1 and HbTIP1;1 showed a similar expression in response to auxin, ABA and SA, as seen in ethylene stimulation, while HbPIP1;1 was slightly regulated by auxin, but neither by ABA nor SA. The analysis of the HbPIP1;1 promoter region indicated the presence of only ethylene and auxin responsive elements. In addition, the poor efficiency of this HbPIP1;1 in increasing plasmalemma water conductance was confirmed in Xenopus oocytes. Thus, an increase in latex yield in response to all of these hormones was proposed to be the major function of aquaporins, HbPIP2;1 and HbTIP1;1. This study emphasized that the circulation of water between the laticifers and their surrounding tissues that result in latex dilution, as well as the probable maintenance of the liber tissues turgor pressure, favor the prolongation of latex flow. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Latex-allergic patients sensitized to the major allergen hevein and hevein-like domains of class I chitinases show no increased frequency of latex-associated plant food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radauer, Christian; Adhami, Farzaneh; Fürtler, Irene; Wagner, Stefan; Allwardt, Dorothee; Scala, Enrico; Ebner, Christof; Hafner, Christine; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Mari, Adriano; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2011-01-01

    Allergies to certain fruits such as banana, avocado, chestnut and kiwi are described in 30-70% of latex-allergic patients. This association is attributed to the cross-reactivity between the major latex allergen hevein and hevein-like domains (HLDs) from fruit class I chitinases. We aimed to assess the extent of cross-reactivity between hevein and HLDs using sera from latex-allergic patients with and without plant food allergy. Hevein and HLDs of latex, banana, and avocado chitinases were expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins with the maltose-binding protein and purified by affinity chromatography. IgE binding to these proteins was studied in sera from 59 latex-allergic patients and 20 banana-allergic patients without latex allergy by ELISA and ELISA inhibition. Additionally, 16,408 allergic patients' sera were tested for IgE binding to hevein, latex chitinase, and wheat germ agglutinin using an allergen microarray. Hevein-specific IgE was detected in 34/59 (58%) latex-allergic patients' sera. HLDs of latex, banana, and avocado chitinases were recognized by 21 (36%), 20 (34%), and 9 (15%) sera, respectively. In contrast, only one of 20 banana-allergic patients without latex allergy was sensitized to chitinase HLDs. In most tested latex-allergic patients' sera, IgE binding to hevein was only partially reduced by preincubation with HLDs. Among hevein-sensitized, latex-allergic patients, the percentage of plant food allergy (15/34 = 44%) was equal to latex-allergic patients without hevein sensitization (11/25 = 44%). In the general allergic population, 230 of 16,408 sera (1.4%) reacted to hevein and/or a hevein-like allergen. Of these, 128 sera showed an isolated sensitization to hevein, whereas only 17 bound to latex chitinase or wheat germ agglutinin without hevein sensitization. In conclusion, the IgE response to HLDs is elicited by hevein as sensitizing allergen in most cases. Despite considerable cross-reactivity between these allergens, no correlation

  18. Latex-allergic patients sensitized to the major allergen hevein and hevein-like domains of class I chitinases show no increased frequency of latex-associated plant food allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radauer, Christian; Adhami, Farzaneh; Fürtler, Irene; Wagner, Stefan; Allwardt, Dorothee; Scala, Enrico; Ebner, Christof; Hafner, Christine; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Mari, Adriano; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2011-01-01

    Allergies to certain fruits such as banana, avocado, chestnut and kiwi are described in 30–70% of latex-allergic patients. This association is attributed to the cross-reactivity between the major latex allergen hevein and hevein-like domains (HLDs) from fruit class I chitinases. We aimed to assess the extent of cross-reactivity between hevein and HLDs using sera from latex-allergic patients with and without plant food allergy. Hevein and HLDs of latex, banana, and avocado chitinases were expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins with the maltose-binding protein and purified by affinity chromatography. IgE binding to these proteins was studied in sera from 59 latex-allergic patients and 20 banana-allergic patients without latex allergy by ELISA and ELISA inhibition. Additionally, 16,408 allergic patients’ sera were tested for IgE binding to hevein, latex chitinase, and wheat germ agglutinin using an allergen microarray. Hevein-specific IgE was detected in 34/59 (58%) latex-allergic patients’ sera. HLDs of latex, banana, and avocado chitinases were recognized by 21 (36%), 20 (34%), and 9 (15%) sera, respectively. In contrast, only one of 20 banana-allergic patients without latex allergy was sensitized to chitinase HLDs. In most tested latex-allergic patients’ sera, IgE binding to hevein was only partially reduced by preincubation with HLDs. Among hevein-sensitized, latex-allergic patients, the percentage of plant food allergy (15/34 = 44%) was equal to latex-allergic patients without hevein sensitization (11/25 = 44%). In the general allergic population, 230 of 16,408 sera (1.4%) reacted to hevein and/or a hevein-like allergen. Of these, 128 sera showed an isolated sensitization to hevein, whereas only 17 bound to latex chitinase or wheat germ agglutinin without hevein sensitization. In conclusion, the IgE response to HLDs is elicited by hevein as sensitizing allergen in most cases. Despite considerable cross-reactivity between these allergens, no

  19. Gastroprotective Mechanism and Ulcer Resolution Effect of Cyrtocarpa procera Methanolic Extract on Ethanol-Induced Gastric Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Itzel Escobedo-Hinojosa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric ulcers are a worldwide health problem and their poor healing is one of the most important causes for their recurrence. We have previously reported the remarkable gastroprotective and anti-Helicobacter pylori activities of the methanolic extract (CpMet of Cyrtocarpa procera bark. This work investigates, in a murine model, the CpMet gastroprotective mechanism and establishes its preclinical efficacy in the resolution of ethanol-induced gastric ulcers. The results showed that the gastroprotective activity of CpMet is mainly associated with endogenous NO and prostaglandins, followed by sulfhydryl groups and KATP channels. Furthermore, CpMet (300 mg/kg, twice a day orally administered during 20 consecutive days promoted an ulcer area reduction of 62.65% at the 20th day of the treatment. The effect was confirmed macroscopically by the alleviation of gastric mucosal erosions and microscopically by an increase in mucin content and a reduction in the inflammatory infiltration at the site of the ulcer. No clinical symptoms or signs of toxicity were observed in the treated animals. The results indicate the safety and efficacy of CpMet in promoting high quality of ulcer healing by different mechanisms, but mostly through cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects, making it a promising phytodrug for ulcer treatment.

  20. Computational selections of terpenes present in the plant Calotropis gigantea as mosquito larvicide’s by blocking the sterol carrying protein, AeSCP-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Suresh Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the phytochemical properties of Calotropis gigantea (Asclepiadaceae commonly known as milk weed. In addition, in silico docking analysis was also carried out to assess the mosquito larvicidal potential of three terpene compounds isolated from C. gigantea. Considerable amount of primary metabolites, essential macro and micro nutrients were documented in the plant. The GC-MS analysis of the chloroform extract revealed the presence of eight terpenes in the plant. From the docking studies it is evident that ?- amyrin has a great potential against AeSCP-2. The phytochemical screening and docking results gives strong baseline information for the posterity.