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Sample records for calorimeter readout electronics

  1. The NA48 LKr calorimeter readout electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Gianoli, A; Barr, C; Brodier-Yourstone, P; Buchholz, P; Ceccucci, Augusto; Cerri, C; Chlopik, A; Constantini, F; Fantechi, R; Formenti, F; Funk, W; Giudici, Sergio; Gorini, B; Guzik, J A; Hallgren, Björn I; Kozhevnikov, Yu; Iwansky, W; de La Taille, C; Lacourt, A; Laverrière, G C; Ljuslin, C; Mannelli, I; Martin-Chassard, G; Martini, M; Papi, A; Seguin-Moreau, N; Sozzi, M; Tarlé, J C; Velasco, M; Vossnack, O; Wahl, H; Ziolkowski, M

    2000-01-01

    The NA48 experiment at the CERN SPS accelerator is making a measurement of the direct CP violation parameter epsilon '/ epsilon by comparing the four rates of decay of K/sub S/ and K/sub L/ into 2 pi /sup 0/ and pi /sup +/ pi /sup -/. To reconstruct the decays into 2 pi /sup 0/ the information from the almost 13500 channels of a quasi-homogeneous liquid krypton electromagnetic calorimeter is used. The readout electronics of the calorimeter has been designed to provide a dynamic range from a few MeV to about 50 GeV energy deposition per cell, and to sustain a high rate of incident particles. The system is made by cold charge preamplifiers (working at 120 degrees K), low-noise fast shapers followed by digitizer electronics at 40 MHz sampling rate that employs a gain switching technique to expand the dynamic range, where the gain can be selected for each sample individually (i.e. every 25 ns). To reduce the amount of data collected the system contains a zero suppression circuit based on halo expansion. (12 refs)...

  2. Trigger readout electronics upgrade for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkespiler, B.

    2017-09-01

    The upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) scheduled for the 2019-2020 shut-down period, referred to as Phase-I upgrade, will increase the instantaneous luminosity to about three times the design value. Since the current ATLAS trigger system does not allow sufficient increase of the trigger rate, an improvement of the trigger system is required. The Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeter read-out will therefore be modified to deliver digital trigger signals with a higher spatial granularity in order to improve the identification efficiencies of electrons, photons, tau, jets and missing energy, at high background rejection rates at the Level-1 trigger. The new trigger signals will be arranged in 34000 so-called Super Cells which achieves 5-10 times better granularity than the trigger towers currently used and allows an improved background rejection. The readout of the trigger signals will process the signal of the Super Cells at every LHC bunch-crossing at 12-bit precision and a frequency of 40 MHz. The data will be transmitted to the Back End using a custom serializer and optical converter and 5.12 Gb/s optical links. In order to verify the full functionality of the future Liquid Argon trigger system, a demonstrator set-up has been installed on the ATLAS detector and is operated in parallel to the regular ATLAS data taking during the LHC Run-2 in 2015 and 2016. Noise level and linearity on the energy measurement have been verified to be within our requirements. In addition, we have collected data from 13 TeV proton collisions during the LHC 2015 and 2016 runs, and have observed real pulses from the detector through the demonstrator system. The talk will give an overview of the Phase-I Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter readout and present the custom developed hardware including their role in real-time data processing and fast data transfer. This contribution will also report on the performance of the newly developed ASICs including their radiation tolerance

  3. Development of ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Readout Electronics for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Horn, Philipp; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The high-luminosity LHC will provide 5-7 times higher luminosites than the orignal design. An improved readout system of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter is needed to readout the 182,500 calorimeter cells at 40-80 MHz with 16 bit dynamic range in these conditions. Low-noise, low-power, radiation-tolerant and high-bandwidth electronics components are being developed in 65 and 130 nm CMOS technologies. The design of the readout chain and the status of the R&D of the components will be presented.

  4. Performance of the Electronic Readout of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, H; Aleksa, M; Aperio Bella, L; Archambault, JP; Arfaoui, S; Arnaez, O; Auge, E; Aurousseau, M; Bahinipati, S; Ban, J; Banfi, D; Barajas, A; Barillari, T; Bazan, A; Bellachia, F; Beloborodova, O; Benchekroun, D; Benslama, K; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Bernat, P; Bernier, R; Besson, N; Binet, S; Blanchard, JB; Blondel, A; Bobrovnikov, V; Bohner, O; Boonekamp, M; Bordoni, S; Bouchel, M; Bourdarios, C; Bozzone, A; Braun, HM; Breton, D; Brettel, H; Brooijmans, G; Caputo, R; Carli, T; Carminati, L; Caughron, S; Cavalleri, P; Cavalli, D; Chareyre, E; Chase, RL; Chekulaev, SV; Chen, H; Cheplakov, A; Chiche, R; Citterio, M; Cojocaru, C; Colas, J; Collard, C; Collot, J; Consonni, M; Cooke, M; Copic, K; Costa, GC; Courneyea, L; Cuisy, D; Cwienk, WD; Damazio, D; Dannheim, D; De Cecco, S; De La Broise, X; De La Taille, C; de Vivie, JB; Debennerot, B; Delagnes, E; Delmastro, M; Derue, F; Dhaliwal, S; Di Ciaccio, L; Doan, O; Dudziak, F; Duflot, L; Dumont-Dayot, N; Dzahini, D; Elles, S; Ertel, E; Escalier, M; Etienvre, AI; Falleau, I; Fanti, M; Farooque, T; Favre, P; Fayard, Louis; Fent, J; Ferencei, J; Fischer, A; Fournier, D; Fournier, L; Fras, M; Froeschl, R; Gadfort, T; Gallin-Martel, ML; Gibson, A; Gillberg, D; Gingrich, DM; Göpfert, T; Goodson, J; Gouighri, M; Goy, C; Grassi, V; Gray, J; Guillemin, T; Guo, B; Habring, J; Handel, C; Heelan, L; Heintz, H; Helary, L; Henrot-Versille, S; Hervas, L; Hobbs, J; Hoffman, J; Hostachy, JY; Hoummada, A; Hrivnac, J; Hrynova, T; Hubaut, F; Huber, J; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Iengo, P; Imbert, P; Ishmukhametov, R; Jantsch, A; Javadov, N; Jezequel, S; Jimenez Belenguer, M; Ju, XY; Kado, M; Kalinowski, A; Kar, D; Karev, A; Katsanos, I; Kazarinov, M; Kerschen, N; Kierstead, J; Kim, MS; Kiryunin, A; Kladiva, E; Knecht, N; Kobel, M; Koletsou, I; König, S; Krieger, P; Kukhtin, V; Kuna, M; Kurchaninov, L; Labbe, J; Lacour, D; Ladygin, E; Lafaye, R; Laforge, B; Lamarra, D; Lampl, W; Lanni, F; Laplace, S; Laskus, H; Le Coguie, A; Le Dortz, O; Le Maner, C; Lechowski, M; Lee, SC; Lefebvre, M; Leonhardt, K; Lethiec, L; Leveque, J; Liang, Z; Liu, C; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Loch, P; Lu, J; Ma, H; Mader, W; Majewski, S; Makovec, N; Makowiecki, D; Mandelli, L; Mangeard, PS; Mansoulie, B; Marchand, JF; Marchiori, G; Martin, D; Martin-Chassard, G; Martin dit Latour, B; Marzin, A; Maslennikov, A; Massol, N; Matricon, P; Maximov, D; Mazzanti, M; McCarthy, T; McPherson, R; Menke, S; Meyer, JP; Ming, Y; Monnier, E; Mooshofer, P; Neganov, A; Niedercorn, F; Nikolic-Audit, I; Nugent, IM; Oakham, G; Oberlack, H; Ocariz, J; Odier, J; Oram, CJ; Orlov, I; Orr, R; Parsons, JA; Peleganchuk, S; Penson, A; Perini, L; Perrodo, P; Perrot, G; Perus, A; Petit, E; Pisarev, I; Plamondon, M; Poffenberger, P; Poggioli, L; Pospelov, G; Pralavorio, P; Prast, J; Prudent, X; Przysiezniak, H; Puzo, P; Quentin, M; Radeka, V; Rajagopalan, S; Rauter, E; Reimann, O; Rescia, S; Resende, B; Richer, JP; Ridel, M; Rios, R; Roos, L; Rosenbaum, G; Rosenzweig, H; Rossetto, O; Roudil, W; Rousseau, D; Ruan, X; Rudert, A; Rusakovich, N; Rusquart, P; Rutherfoord, J; Sauvage, G; Savine, A; Schaarschmidt, J; Schacht, P; Schaffer, A; Schram, M; Schwemling, P; Seguin Moreau, N; Seifert, F; Serin, L; Seuster, R; Shalyugin, A; Shupe, M; Simion, S; Sinervo, P; Sippach, W; Skovpen, K; Sliwa, R; Soukharev, A; Spano, F; Stavina, P; Straessner, A; Strizenec, P; Stroynowski, R; Talyshev, A; Tapprogge, S; Tarrade, F; Tartarelli, GF; Teuscher, R; Tikhonov, Yu; Tocut, V; Tompkins, D; Thompson, P; Tisserant, S; Todorov, T; Tomasz, F; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Trinh, Thi N; Trochet, S; Trocme, B; Tschann-Grimm, K; Tsionou, D; Ueno, R; Unal, G; Urbaniec, D; Usov, Y; Voss, K; Veillet, JJ; Vincter, M; Vogt, S; Weng, Z; Whalen, K; Wicek, F; Wilkens, H; Wingerter-Seez, I; Wulf, E; Yang, Z; Ye, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Zarzhitsky, P; Zerwas, D; Zhang, H; Zhang, L; Zhou, N; Zimmer, J; Zitoun, R; Zivkovic, L

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS detector has been designed for operation at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. ATLAS includes electromagnetic and hadronic liquid argon calorimeters, with almost 200,000 channels of data that must be sampled at the LHC bunch crossing frequency of 40 MHz. The calorimeter electronics calibration and readout are performed by custom electronics developed specifically for these purposes. This paper describes the system performance of the ATLAS liquid argon calibration and readout electronics, including noise, energy and time resolution, and long term stability, with data taken mainly from full-system calibration runs performed after installation of the system in the ATLAS detector hall at CERN.

  5. Development of ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters readout electronics for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00388354; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will provide 5-7 times greater instantaneous and total luminosities than assumed in the original design of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters and their readout system. The improved trigger system has a higher acceptance rate of 1 MHz and a longer latency of up to 60 micro-seconds. This requires an upgrade of the readout electronics, a better radiation tolerance is also required. This paper will present concepts for the future readout of the 182,468 calorimeter channels at 40 or 80 MHz with a 16 bit dynamic range. Progress of the development of low-noise, low-power and high-bandwidth electronic components will be presented. These include radiation-tolerant preamplifiers, analog-to-digital converters (ADC) up to 14 bits and low-power optical links providing transfer rates of at least 10 Gbps per fiber.

  6. Development of ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters Readout Electronics for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00388354; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider will provide 5-7 times greater instantaneous and total luminosities than assumed in the original design of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters and their readout system. An improved trigger system with a higher acceptance rate of 1 MHz and a longer latency of up to 60 micro-seconds together with a better radiation tolerance require an upgrade of the readout electronics. Concepts for the future readout of the 182,500 calorimeter channels at 40/80 MHz and 16 bit dynamic range, and the development of low-noise, low-power and high-bandwidth electronic components will be presented. These include ASIC developments towards radiation-tolerant low-noise pre-amplifiers, analog-to-digital converters up to 14 bits and low-power optical links providing transfer rates of at least 10 Gb/s per fiber.

  7. Installation and Commissioning of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Read-Out Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Perrot, G

    2008-01-01

    The cryostats of the ATLAS LAr calorimeter system are installed in the ATLAS cavern since several years. Following this, an effort to install and commission the front-end and back-end read-out electronics as well as the timing, trigger and control electronics (infrastructure, crates, and boards) has been ongoing and is finished now, in time for the cavern closure. Following cautious procedures and with continuous testing-campaigns of the electronics at each step of the installation advancemen...

  8. Readout Electronics for the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter at HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, H

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters are high precision, high sensitivity and high granularity detectors designed to provide precision measurements of electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy. ATLAS and its LAr calorimeters have been operating and collecting proton-proton collisions at LHC since 2009. The current front-end electronics of the LAr calorimeters need to be upgraded to sustain the higher radiation levels and data rates expected at the upgraded high luminosity LHC machine (HL-LHC), which will have 5 times more luminosity than the LHC in its ultimate configuration. The complexity of the present electronics and the obsolescence of some of components of which it is made, will not allow a partial replacement of the system. A completely new readout architecture scheme is under study and many components are being developed in various R&D programs of the LAr Calorimeter Group. The new front-end readout electronics will send data continuously at each bunch crossing through high speed...

  9. R&D Studies of the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Readout Electronics for super-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, H

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters are high precision, high sensitivity and high granularity detectors designed to provide precision measurements of electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy. 180,000 signals are digitized and processed real-time on detector, to provide energy and time deposited in each detector element at every occurrence of the L1-trigger. A luminosity upgrade (x10) of the LHC will occur around 2016. The current readout electronics will have to be upgraded to sustain the higher radiation levels. A completely innovative readout scheme is being developed. The frontend readout will send out data continuously at each bunch crossing through highspeed radiation resistant optical links. The data (100Gbps each board) will be processed real-time with the possibility of implementing trigger algorithms for clusters and electron/photon identification at a much higher granularity than what currently implemented. We present here an overview of the R&D activities and architectural s...

  10. Electronics Development for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Trigger and Readout for Future LHC Running

    CERN Document Server

    Pacheco Rodriguez, Laura; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHC will provide up to 7.5 times greater instantaneous and total luminosities than assumed in the original design of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters. The radiation tolerance criteria and the improved trigger system with higher acceptance rate and longer latency require an upgrade of the LAr readout electronics. In the first upgrade phase in 2019-2020, a trigger-readout with up to 10 times higher granularity will be implemented. This allows an improved reconstruction of electromagnetic and hadronic showers and will reduce the background for electron, photon and energy-flow signals at the first trigger level. The analog and digital signal processing components are currently in their final design stages and a fully functional demonstrator system is operated and tested on the LAr Calorimeters. In a second upgrade stage in 2024-2026, the readout of all 183,000 LAr Calorimeter cells will be performed without trigger selection at 40 MHz sampling rate and 16 bit dynamic range. Calibrated ...

  11. Upgraded Trigger Readout Electronics for the ATLAS LAr Calorimeters for Future LHC Running

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce almost 200K signals that are digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics for every triggered event. Additionally, the front-end electronics sums analog signals to provide coarse-grained energy sums to the first- level (L1) trigger system. The current design was optimized for the nominal LHC luminosity of 10^34cm^−2s^−1. In order to retain the capability to trigger on low energy electrons and photons when the LHC is upgraded to higher luminosity, an improved LAr calorimeter trigger readout is proposed and being constructed. The new trigger readout system makes available the fine segmentation of the calorimeter at the L1 trigger with high precision in order to reduce the QCD jet background in electron, photon and tau triggers, and to improve jet and missing ET trigger performance. The new LAr Trigger Digitizer Board is designed to receive the higher granularity signals, digitize them on-detector and send them via fast optical links to a...

  12. Readout Electronics for the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter at HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the two general-purpose detectors designed to study proton-proton collisions (14 TeV in the center of mass) produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and to explore the full physics potential of the LHC machine at CERN. The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters are high precision, high sensitivity and high granularity detectors designed to provide precision measurements of electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy. ATLAS (and its LAr Calorimeters) has been operating and collecting p-p collisions at LHC since 2009. The on-detector electronics (front-end) part of the current readout electronics of the calorimeters measures the ionization current signals by means of preamplifiers, shapers and digitizers and then transfers the data to the off-detector electronics (back-end) for further elaboration, via optical links. Only the data selected by the level-1 calorimeter trigger system are transferred, achieving a bandwidth reduction to 1.6 Gbps. The analog trigger sum sig...

  13. Readout Electronics for the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter at HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hucheng; ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Group

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters are high precision, high sensitivity and high granularity detectors designed to provide precision measurements of electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy. ATLAS and its LAr calorimeters have been operating and collecting proton-proton collisions at LHC since 2009. The current front-end electronics of the LAr calorimeters need to be upgraded to sustain the higher radiation levels and data rates expected at the upgraded high luminosity LHC machine (HL-LHC), which will have 5 times more luminosity than the LHC in its ultimate configuration. The complexity of the present electronics and the obsolescence of some of components of which it is made, will not allow a partial replacement of the system. A completely new readout architecture scheme is under study and many components are being developed in various R&D programs of the LAr Calorimeter Group.The new front-end readout electronics will send data continuously at each bunch crossing through high speed radiation resistant optical links. The data will be processed real-time with the possibility of implementing trigger algorithms for clusters and electron/photon identification at a higher granularity than that which is currently implemented. The new architecture will eliminate the intrinsic limitation presently existing on Level-1 trigger acceptance. This article is an overview of the R&D activities which covers architectural design aspects of the new electronics as well as some detailed progress on the development of several ASICs needed, and preliminary studies with FPGAs to cover the backend functions including part of the Level-1 trigger requirements. A recently proposed staged upgrade with hybrid Tower Builder Board (TBB) is also described.

  14. Test Beam Studies for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Upgrade Readout Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Douglas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider is expected to deliver 3-4/ab of p-p collisions with around 200 collisions per proton bunch crossing starting in 2026, and the readout electronics of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter need to be upgraded to deal with the high rate of data taking as well as the large pileup conditions. The proposed digitizer/shaper cards were tested in 2016-7 in the North Area at CERN using the beam from the SPS to produce high energy pions, electrons, muons, and kaons. This presentation summarizes the setup for particle identification and study of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter data taking in preparation for the production of main boards and digitizer/shaper boards for the photo-multiplier tubes. The fully assembled and tested mini-drawers will start to be installed after the LHC long shutdown in December 2023. The pulse shape, uniformity, and timing precision of the upgrade system are demonstrated.

  15. The Phase-I Trigger Readout Electronics Upgrade for the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Ochoa, Ines; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Electronics developments are pursued for the trigger readout of the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeter towards the Phase-I upgrade scheduled in the LHC shut-down period of 2019-2020. The LAr Trigger Digitizer system will digitize 34000 channels at a 40 MHz sampling with 12 bit precision after the bipolar shaper at the front-end system, and transmit to the LAr Digital Processing system in the back-end to extract the transverse energies. Results of ASIC developments including QA and radiation hardness evaluations, and performances on prototypes will presented with the overall system design.

  16. Development of ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Readout Electronics for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00069444; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The LHC high-luminosity upgrade in 2024-2026 requires the associated detectors to operate at luminosities about 5-7 times larger than assumed in their original design. The pile- up is expected to increase to up to 200 events per proton bunch-crossing. To be able to retain interesting physics events at electroweak energy scales, increased trigger rates are foreseen for the ATLAS detector. At the hardware selection stage acceptance rates of up to 1 MHz are planned, combined with longer latencies up to 40 micro-seconds in order to read out the necessary data from all detector channels. The current readout of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters does not provide sufficient buffering and bandwidth capabilities. For these reasons a replacement of the LAr front-end and off-detector readout systems is foreseen for all 182,500 readout channels, with the exception of the cold pre-amplifier and summing devices of the hadronic LAr Calorimeter. The new low-power electronics must be able to capture the triangular dete...

  17. Upgrade for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Readout Electronics at the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Carrió, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    This work presents an overview of the on-detector and off-detector electronics for the Phase II Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at the LHC scheduled around 2022. Three options are being studied for the implementation of the new front end readout: an improved version of the 3-in-1 card, a new version of the QIE chip and a dedicated ASIC called FATALIC. Moreover, the MainBoard will manage incoming signals of the FEBs and the DaughterBoard will send the digitized data to the off-detector electronics where the sROD will perform processing tasks on them. This work summarizes the status of the project.

  18. Development of ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Readout Electronics for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00534610; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The LHC high-luminosity upgrade in 2024-2026 requires the associated detectors to operate at luminosities about 5-7 times larger than assumed in their original design. The pile-up is expected to increase to up to 200 events per proton bunch-crossing. To be able to retain interesting physics events even at rather low transverse energy scales, increased trigger rates are foreseen for the ATLAS detector. At the hardware selection stage acceptance rates of 1 MHz are planned, combined with longer latencies up to 60 micro-seconds in order to read out the necessary data from all detector channels. Under these conditions, the current readout of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters does not provide sufficient buffering and bandwidth capabilities. Furthermore, the expected total radiation doses are beyond the qualification range of the current front-end electronics. For these reasons a replacement of the LAr front-end and back-end readout system is foreseen for all 182,500 readout channels, with the exception of t...

  19. Proton and Neutron Irradiation Tests of Readout Electronics of the ATLAS Hadronic Endcap Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Menke, Sven; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The readout electronics of the ATLAS Hadronic Endcap Calorimeter will have to withstand the about ten times larger radiation environment of the future high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) compared to their design values. The GaAs ASIC which comprises the heart of the readout electronics has been exposed to neutron and proton radiation with fluences up to ten times the total expected fluences for ten years of running of the HL-LHC. Neutron tests where performed at the NPI in Rez, Czech Republic, where a 36 MeV proton beam is directed on a thick heavy water target to produce neutrons. The proton irradiation was done with 200 MeV protons at the PROSCAN area of the Proton Irradiation Facility at the PSI in Villigen, Switzerland. In-situ measurements of S-parameters in both tests allow the evaluation of frequency dependent performance parameters - like gain and input impedance - as a function of the fluence. The linearity of the ASIC response has been measured directly in the neutron tests with a triangular input pulse of...

  20. Proton and Neutron Irradiation Tests of Readout Electronics of the ATLAS Hadronic Endcap Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00106910

    2012-01-01

    The readout electronics of the ATLAS Hadronic Endcap Calorimeter will have to withstand the about ten times larger radiation environment of the future high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) compared to their design values. The GaAs ASIC which comprises the heart of the readout electronics has been exposed to neutron and proton radiation with fluences up to ten times the total expected fluences for ten years of running of the HL-LHC. Neutron tests were performed at the NPI in Rez, Czech Republic, where a 36 MeV proton beam is directed on a thick heavy water target to produce neutrons. The proton irradiation was done with 200 MeV protons at the PROSCAN area of the Proton Irradiation Facility at the PSI in Villigen, Switzerland. In-situ measurements of S-parameters in both tests allow the evaluation of frequency dependent performance parameters - like gain and input impedance - as a function of the fluence. The linearity of the ASIC response has been measured directly in the neutron tests with a triangular input pulse of ...

  1. The Trigger Readout Electronics for the Phase-I Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00389433; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    For the Phase-I luminosity upgrade of the LHC a higher granularity trigger readout of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters is foreseen to enhance the trigger feature extraction and background rejection. The new readout system digitizes the detector signals, grouped into 34000 so-called Super Cells, with 12bit precision at 40MHz and transfers the data on optical links to the digital processing system, which computes the Super Cell transverse energies. In this paper, development and test results of the new readout system are presented.

  2. Phase-I Trigger Readout Electronics Upgrade for the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Vallier, Alexis; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) scheduled for shut-down period of 2018-2019, referred to as Phase-I upgrade, will increase the instantaneous luminosity to about three times the design value. Since the current ATLAS trigger system does not allow sufficient increase of the trigger rate, an improvement of the trigger system is required. The Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeter read-out will therefore be modified to use digital trigger signals with a higher spatial granularity in order to improve the identification efficiencies of electrons, photons, tau, jets and missing energy, at high background rejection rates at the Level-1 trigger. The new trigger signals will be arranged in 34000 so-called Super Cells which achieves 5-10 times better granularity than the trigger towers currently used and allows an improved background rejection. The readout of the trigger signals will process the signal of the Super Cells at every LHC bunch-crossing at 12-bit precision and a frequency of 40 MHz. The data will be tr...

  3. Phase - I Trigger Readout Electronics upgrade for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Dinkespiler, Bernard; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) scheduled for shut-down period of 2018-2019, referred to as Phase-I upgrade, will increase the instantaneous luminosity to about three times the design value. Since the current ATLAS trigger system does not allow sufficient increase of the trigger rate, an improvement of the trigger system is required. The Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeter read-out will therefore be modified to use digital trigger signals with a higher spatial granularity in order to improve the identification efficiencies of electrons, photons, tau, jets and missing energy, at high background rejection rates at the Level-1 trigger. The new trigger signals will be arranged in 34000 so-called Super Cells which achieves 5-10 times better granularity than the trigger towers currently used and allows an improved background rejection. The readout of the trigger signals will process the signal of the Super Cells at every LHC bunch-crossing at 12-bit precision and a frequency of 40 MHz. The data will be tr...

  4. The Trigger Readout Electronics for the Phase-1 Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Wolff, Robert; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider, scheduled for 2019-2020, will increase the instantaneous luminosity by more than three, hence the ATLAS trigger rates. To cope with this increase, the trigger signals from the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter will be rearranged in 34000 so-called super cells to get a 5 to 10 times finer granularity. This will improve the background rejection performance through more precise energy measurements and the use of shower shape information to discriminate electrons, photons and hadronically decaying tau leptons from jets. The new system will process the super cell signal at 40 MHz and with 12 bit precision. The data will be transmitted at 5.12 Gb/s to the back-end system using a custom serializer and optical transmitter. To verify full functionality, a demonstrator set- up has been installed on the ATLAS detector and operated during the LHC Run 2. This document gives a status on hardware developments towards the final design readout system, including the performance of the new...

  5. Design of the Readout Electronics for the BGO Calorimeter of DAMPE Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Changqing; Zhang, Deliang; Zhang, Junbin; Gao, Shanshan; Yang, Di; Zhang, Yunlong; Zhang, Zhiyong; Liu, Shubin; An, Qi

    2015-12-01

    The DAMPE (DArk Matter Particle Explorer) is a scientific satellite being developed in China, aimed at cosmic ray study, gamma ray astronomy, and searching for the clue of dark matter particles in the near future. The BGO (Bismuth Germanate Oxide) Calorimeter, which consists of 616 PMTs (photomultiplier tubes) and 1848 dynode signals, is a crucial part of the DAMPE payload for measuring the energy of cosmic ray particles, distinguishing interesting particles from background, and providing trigger information. An electronics system, which consists of 16 FEE (Front End Electronics) modules with a total power consumption of about 26 W, has been developed. Its main functions are based on the low power, 32-channel VA160 and VATA160 ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuits) for precisely measuring the charge of PMT signals and providing“hit”signals as well. To assure the long-term reliability in harsh space environment, a series of critical issues such as the radiation hardness, thermal design, components and board level quality control, etc., are taken into consideration. Test result showed that the system level ENC (equivalent noise charge) for each channel is about 10 fC in RMS (root mean square), and the timing uncertainty of the hit signals is about 300 ns, both of which satisfy the physics requirements of the detector. Experiments with 60Co radioactive source proved that 20 krad(Si) TID (Total Ionizing Dose) level is achieved, while the heavy ion beam and laser beam tests indicated that its SEL (Single Event Latch-up) and SEU (Single Event Upset) performance in orbit will be acceptable by taking some hardness measures. All the readout modules successfully passed the board-level screening, the sub-system level and finally the satellite system level environmental tests, and behave well in the beam test at CERN (European Organisation for Nuclear Research).

  6. RT2016 Phase-I Trigger Readout Electronics Upgrade for the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)478829; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    For the Phase-I luminosity upgrade of the LHC, a higher granularity trigger readout of the ATLAS LAr Calorimeters is foreseen in order to enhance the trigger feature extraction and background rejection. The new readout system digitizes the detector signals, which are grouped into 34000 so-called Super Cells, with 12-bit precision at 40 MHz. The data is transferred via optical links to a digital processing system which extracts the Super Cell energies. A demonstrator version of the complete system has now been installed and operated on the ATLAS detector. The talk will give an overview of the Phase-I Upgrade of the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter readout and present the custom developed hardware including their role in real-time data processing and fast data transfer. This contribution will also report on the performance of the newly developed ASICs including their radiation tolerance and on the performance of the prototype boards in the demonstrator system based on various measurements with the 13 TeV collision data. R...

  7. Tests of CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeter Upgrade Readout Box Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Sergey; Sirunyan, Albert; Tumasyan, Armen; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Cornelis, Tom; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit Florent; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Alves, Gilvan Augusto; Martins, Thiago Dos Reis; Pol, Maria Elena; Vaz Da Silva Filho, Mario; Alda Junior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner De Paula; Chinellato, Jose Augusto; De Oliveira Martins, Carley Pedro; Figueiredo, Diego Matos; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson Jose; Molina Insfran, Jorge Andres; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Rosa Lopes Zachi, Alessandro; Finger, Miroslav; Finger, Michael; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Borras, Kerstin; Gunnellini, Paolo; Jung, Hannes; Knutsson, Albert Hans; Lutz, Benjamin; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro Miguel; Sen, Niladri; Baus, Colin; Katkov, Igor; Ulrich, Ralf Matthias; Wohrmann, H; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Horvath, D; Bala, Suman; Gupta, Ruchi; Jindal, M; Lal, Manjit Kaur; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, S; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sharan, Manoj Kumar; Aziz, Tariq; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Katta, Sudhakar; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant Raichand; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Jafari, Abideh; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Zeinali, Maryam; Penzo, Aldo; Afanasyev, A; Bunin, Pavel; Ershov, Yuri; Fedoseev, Oleg; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Konoplynikov, V; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoly; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Krasnikov, Nikolay; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, A; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kosov, Mikhail Vladimirovich; Kudinov, Ilya; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, V; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlassov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, A; Boos, Eduard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Korotkikh, Vladimir; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Popov, Andrey; Savrin, Victor; Snigirev, Alexander; Vardanyan, Irina; Andreev, V; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Vinogradov, Alexey; Bayshev, Igor; Bityukov, Sergey; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kryshkin, Victor; Petrov, V; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrey; Turchanovich, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Uzunyan, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Santanastasio, Francesco; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Numan Mustafa; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; G�kbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Aliyev, Takhmasib; Deniz, Muhammed; Guler, Ali Murat; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Gulmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Cankocak, Kerem; Levchuk, Leonid; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, H; Scarborough, Tara Ann; Rumerio, Paolo; Heister, Arno; Hill, C; Lawson, Philip Daniel; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; St. John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Gennadiy, G; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Narain, Meenakshi; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Tsang, Ka Vang; Long, Owen Rosser; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher Alan; Apresyan, Artur; Chen, Y; Mott, Alexander Robert; Spiropulu, Maria; Winn, David; Abdoulline, Salavat; Anderson, J; Chlebana, Frank; Freeman, James; Green, Daniel; Hanlon, J; Hirschauer, James Francis; Joshi, Umeshwar; Kunori, Shuichi; Musienko, Yuri; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William Jeffrey; Tkaczyk, Slawomir; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, W; Gaultney, Vanessa; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete Edward; Martinez, German Ruben; Gleyzer, Sergei; Hagopian, Sharon Lee; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Charles Merrill; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian L; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren James; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony Richard; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, John Edwin; Olson, Jonathan Edward; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Schmidt, Ianos; Tiras, Emrah; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Kenny, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael Joseph; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Baden, Andrew; Calvert, Brian Michael; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime Arturo; Grassi, Tullio; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Y; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice Louise Cox; Peterman, Alison Marie; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite Belt; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin Humphrey; Mans, Jeremiah Michael; Pastika, Nathaniel Joseph; Kroeger, Robert; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Jain, S; Anastassov, Anton; Velasco, Mayda Marie; Won, Steven; Heering, Adriaan; Karmgard, Daniel; Pearson, Tessa Jae; Ruchti, Randal; Berry, Edmund A; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam Paul; Lujan, Paul Joseph; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Saka, Halil; Tully, Christopher; Zuranski, Andrzej Maciej; Barnes, Virgil Everett; Laasanen, Alvin; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; de Barbaro, Pawel Jan; Eshaq, Yossof; Garcia-bellido, Aran Angel; Goldenzweig, Pablo David; Han, Ji Yeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert Adam; Flanagan, Will Hogan; Kamon, Teruki; Montalvo, Roy Joaquin; Sakuma, Tai; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Gurrola, Alfredo; Milstene, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    A readout box prototype for CMS Hadron Forward calorimeter upgrade is built and tested in CERN H2 beamline. The prototype is designed to enable simultaneous tests of different readout options for the four anode upgrade PMTs, new front-end electronics design and new cabling. The response of the PMTs with different readout options is uniform and the background response is minimal. Multi-channel readout options further enhance the background elimination. Passing all the electronics, mechanical and physics tests, the readout box proves to be capable of providing the forward hadron calorimeter operations requirements in the upgrade era.

  8. Fiber and Crystals Dual Readout calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Cascella, Michele; Lee, Sehwook

    2016-01-01

    The RD52 (DREAM) collaboration is performing R\\&D on dual readout calorimetry techniques with the aim of improving hadronic energy resolution for future high energy physics experiments. The simultaneous detection of Cherenkov and scintillation light enables us to measure the electromagnetic fraction of hadron shower event-by-event. As a result, we could eliminate the main fluctuation which prevented from achieving precision energy measurement for hadrons. We have tested the performance of the lead and copper fiber prototypes calorimeters with various energies of electromagnetic particles and hadrons. During the beam test, we investigated the energy resolutions for electrons and pions as well as the identification of those particles in a longitudinally unsegmented calorimeter. Measurements were also performed on pure and doped PbWO$_{4}$ crystals, as well as BGO and BSO, with the aim of realising a crystal based dual readout detector. We will describe our results, focusing on the more promising properties ...

  9. Commissioning of the readout electronics for the prototypes of a hadronic calorimeter and a tailcatcher and muon tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, B.

    2006-12-15

    The goal of the CALICE collaboration is to develop and design a highly granular calorimeter for an experiment at the future international linear collider. In an integrated study all parts of the calorimeter are considered. Within this project a hadronic calorimeter prototype, built at DESY, and a tailcatcher and muon tracker prototype, built at NIU and Fermilab, are developed. The subject of this thesis is the combined readout electronics for these prototypes. In a set of measurements it is demonstrated that the individual components answer their purposes. This includes the classification of noise, linearity and signal to noise ratio of the amplifier and a study of the differential nonlinearity of the analog to digital converter in the data acquisition. In addition to these measurements of common parameters, some attributes are measured that are special to the use of the combined system, including the influence of the limited time resolution of the hold signal and the consequences of signals with variable input signal shape. Furthermore, an algorithm is developed for the determination of the SiPM gain from single photoelectron spectra that are recorded with the detector readout electronics. Particular effort is made to ensure that the developed method can be run independently from human intervention, as a 8000 channel system demands. The accuracy and stability of the gain measurement is checked with actual data from the first available hadronic calorimeter modules and a set of requirements for a measurement of 1% accuracy is fixed. Finally, the established gain measurement is used in the calibration of modules with cosmic muons. And the temperature dependence of the SiPM gain is verified. (orig.)

  10. Phase-I Trigger Readout Electronics Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Tatsuya; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is foreseen to be upgraded during the shut-down period of 2018-2019 to deliver about 3 times the instantaneous design luminosity. Since the ATLAS trigger system, at that time, will not support such an increase of the trigger rate an improvement of the trigger system is required. The ATLAS LAr Calorimeter readout will therefore be modified and digital trigger signals with a higher spatial granularity will be provided to the trigger. The new trigger signals will be arranged in 34000 Super Cells which achieves a 5-10 better granularity than the trigger towers currently used and allows an improved background rejection. The Super Cell readout is composed of custom developed 12-bit combined SAR ADCs in 130 nm CMOS technology which will be installed on-detector in a radiation environment and digitizes the detector pulses at 40 MHz. The data will be transmitted to the back end using a custom serializer and optical converter applying 5.44 Gb/s optical links. These components are install...

  11. Demonstrator System for the Phase-I Upgrade of the Trigger Readout Electronics of the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Kai; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The trigger readout electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters will be improved for the Phase- I luminosity upgrade of the LHC, to enhance the trigger feature extraction. Signals with higher spatial granularity will be digitized and processed by newly developed front-end and back- end electronics. In order to evaluate technical and performance aspects, a demonstrator system has been set up, many off-detector tests have been done. Analog signal parameters including the noise and cross-talk, as well as digital signal treatment, high speed data transmission have been measured and verified. After a series of tests, the demonstrator system has been installed on the ATLAS detector before the LHC run-2.

  12. Demonstrator System for the Phase-I Upgrade of the Trigger Readout Electronics of the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Kai; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The trigger readout electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters are foreseen to be improved for the Phase-I luminosity upgrade of the LHC, in 2019, in order to enhance the trigger feature extraction. Signals with higher spatial granularity will be digitized and processed by newly developed front-end and back-end components. In order to evaluate technical and performance aspects, a demonstrator system is being developed, with the intention of installing it on the ATLAS detector for operation during the data-taking period beginning in 2015. Results from system tests of the analog signal treatment, the trigger digitizer, the optical signal transmission and the FPGA-based back-end modules will be reported.

  13. Irradiation tests and expected performance of readout electronics of the ATLAS hadronic endcap calorimeter for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cheplakov, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The readout electronics of the ATLAS Hadronic Endcap Calorimeter (HEC) will have to withstand a much more demanding radiation environment at the future high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) compared to LHC design values. The heart of the HEC read-out electronics is the pre-amplifier and summing (PAS) system which is realized in GaAs ASIC technology. The PAS devices are installed inside the LAr cryostat directly on the detector. They have been proven to operate reliably in LHC conditions up to luminosities of 1000 fb-1, within safety margins. However, at the HL-LHC a total luminosity of 3000 fb-1 is expected, which corresponds to radiation levels being increased by a factor 3-5. On top of that a safety factor of at least 2 needs to be accounted for to reflect our confidence in the simulations. The GaAs ASIC has therefore been exposed to neutron and proton radiation with integrated fluences in excess of 4∙10^15 n/cm2 and 2.6∙10^14 p/cm2, several factors above the levels corresponding to ten years of HL-LHC running. ...

  14. Irradiation Tests and Expected Performance of Readout Electronics of the ATLAS Hadronic Endcap Calorimeter for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cheplakov, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The readout electronics of the ATLAS Hadronic Endcap Calorimeter (HEC) will have to withstand a much more demanding radiation environment at the future high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) compared to LHC design values. The heart of the HEC read-out electronics is the pre-amplifier and summing (PAS) system which is realized in GaAs ASIC technology. The PAS devices are installed inside the LAr cryostat directly on the detector. They have been proven to operate reliably in LHC conditions up to luminosities of 1000 fb-1, within safety margins. However, at the HL-LHC a total luminosity of 3000 fb-1 is expected, which corresponds to radiation levels being increased by a factor 3-5. On top of that a safety factor of at least 2 needs to be accounted for to reflect our confidence in the simulations. The GaAs ASIC has therefore been exposed to neutron and proton radiation with integrated fluences in excess of 4x10^15 n/cm2 and 2.6x10^14 p/cm2, several factors above the levels corresponding to ten years of HL-LHC running. In-s...

  15. Irradiation Tests and Expected Performance of Readout Electronics of the ATLAS Hadronic Endcap Calorimeter for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Nagel, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The readout electronics of the ATLAS Hadronic Endcap Calorimeter will have to withstand an about 10 times larger radiation environment at the future high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) compared to their design values. The GaAs ASIC, which comprises the heart of the readout electronics and consists of a Pre-Amplification and a Summing stage (PAS), has been exposed to neutron and proton radiation with fluences corresponding to ten years of running of the HL-LHC. Neutron tests were performed at the NPI in Rez, Czech Republic, where a 36 MeV proton beam is directed on a thick heavy water target to produce neutrons. The proton irradiation was done with 200 MeV protons at the PROSCAN area of the Proton Irradiation Facility at the PSI in Villigen, Switzerland. In-situ measurements of S-parameters in both tests allow the evaluation of frequency dependent performance parameters, like gain and input impedance, as a function of fluence. The non-linearity of the ASIC response has been measured directly in the neutron tests with...

  16. Irradiation Tests and Expected Performance of Readout Electronics of the ATLAS Hadronic Endcap Calorimeter for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00030110; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The readout electronics of the ATLAS Hadronic Endcap Calorimeter (HEC) will have to withstand an about 3-5 times larger radiation environment at the future high-luminosity LHC (HLLHC) compared to their design values. The preamplifier and summing boards (PSBs), which are equipped with GaAs ASICs and comprise the heart of the readout electronics, were irradiated with neutrons and protons with fluences surpassing several times ten years of operation of the HL-LHC. Neutron tests were performed at the NPI in Rez, Czech Republic, where a 36 MeV proton beam was directed on a thick heavy water target to produce neutrons. The proton irradiation was done with 200 MeV protons at the PROSCAN area of the Proton Irradiation Facility at the PSI in Villigen, Switzerland. In-situ measurements of S-parameters in both tests allow the evaluation of frequency dependent performance parameters, like gain and input impedance, as a function of fluence. The linearity of the ASIC response was measured directly in the neutron tests with...

  17. Upgrade readout and trigger electronics for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters for future LHC running

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce almost 200K signals that must be digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics at every triggered event. Additionally, the front-end electronics sums analog signals to provide coarse-grained energy sums to the first-level (L1) trigger system. The current design was optimized for the nominal LHC luminosity of 10^34 cm^-2s^-1. However, in future higher-luminosity phases of LHC operation, the luminosity (and associated pile-up noise) will be 3-7 times higher. An improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is therefore proposed, in order to improve the trigger performance at high background rejection rates. For the first upgrade phase in 2018, new LAr Trigger Digitizer Boards are being designed to receive the higher granularity signals, digitize them on-detector and send them via fast optical links to a new digital processing system (DPS). This applies digital filtering and identifies significant energy depositions in each trigger ch...

  18. Upgraded readout and trigger electronics for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters for future LHC running

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hong; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce almost 200K signals that must be digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics for every triggered event. Additionally, the front-end electronics sums analog signals to provide coarse-grained energy sums to the first-level (L1) trigger system. The current design was optimized for the nominal LHC luminosity of 10^34/cm^2/s. However, in future higher-luminosity phases of LHC operation, the luminosity (and associated pile-up noise) will be 3-7 times higher. An improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is therefore proposed, in order to improve the trigger performance at high background rejection rates. For the first upgrade phase in 2018, new LAr Trigger Digitizer Boards are being designed to receive the higher granularity signals, digitize them on-detector and send them via fast optical links to a new digital processing system (DPS). This applies digital filtering and identifies significant energy depositions in each trigger chan...

  19. Upgraded readout and trigger electronics for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters for future LHC running

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce almost 200K signals that must be digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics at every triggered event. Additionally, the front-end electronics sums analog signals to provide coarse-grained energy sums to the first-level (L1) trigger system. The current design was optimized for the nominal LHC luminosity of 10^34 cm^-2s^-1. However, in future higher-luminosity phases of LHC operation, the luminosity (and associated pile-up noise) will be 3-7 times higher. An improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is therefore proposed, in order to improve the trigger performance at high background rejection rates. For the first upgrade phase in 2018, new LAr Trigger Digitizer Boards are being designed to receive the higher granularity signals, digitize them on-detector and send them via fast optical links to a new digital processing system (DPS). This applies digital filtering and identifies significant energy depositions in each trigger ch...

  20. The Trigger Readout Electronics for the Phase-1 Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Wolff, Robert; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) scheduled for the shut-down period of 2018-2019 (Phase-I upgrade), will increase the instantaneous luminosity to about three times the design value. Since the current ATLAS trigger system does not allow a corresponding increase of the trigger rate, an improvement of the trigger system is required. The new trigger signals from the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter will be arranged in 34000 so-called Super Cells which achieve 5-10 times better granularity than the current system; this improves the background rejection capabilities through more precise energy measurements, and the use of shower shapes to discriminate electrons and photons from jets. The new system will process the signal of the Super Cells at every LHC bunch-crossing at 12-bit precision and a frequency of 40 MHz. The data will be transmitted to the back-end using a custom serializer and optical converter with 5.12 Gb/s. To verify the full functionality, a demonstrator set-up has been installed on the A...

  1. Optical Links for ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Front-end Electronics Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    We present optical data links for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter. The current status of the VCSEL failures, the up-to-date results in searching for the failure cause, experiences gained in the searching process, possible backup plans for the optical transmitters and the lessons learned are also discussed.

  2. Design of the new front-end electronics for the readout of the upgraded CMS electromagnetic calorimeter for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cometti, Simona

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC will increase the instantaneous luminosity by about a factor of 5 from current levels and CMS will accumulate an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$^{-1}$ by about 2035. With such high luminosity the electromagnetic calorimeter of CMS will have to cope with a challenging increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing and in radiation levels. \\\\The front-end readout electronics will be completely redesigned, with the goals of providing precision timing, low noise and added flexibility in the trigger system. It will use a faster pre-amplifier, increase the sampling frequency from 40 MS/s to 160 MS/s and implement a trigger system that resides entirely off-detector.

  3. Simulation of the upgraded Phase-1 Trigger Readout Electronics of the Liquid-Argon Calorimeter of the ATLAS Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00338138

    In the context of an intensive upgrade plan for the LHC in order to provide proton beams of increased luminosity, a revision of the data readout electronics of the Liquid-Argon-Calorimeter of the ATLAS detector is scheduled. This is required to retain the efficiency of the trigger at increased event rates despite its fixed bandwidth. The focus lies on the early digitization and finer segmentation of the data provided to the trigger. Furthermore, there is the possibility to implement new energy reconstruction algorithms which are adapted to the specific requirements of the trigger. In order to constitute crucial design decisions, such as the digitization scale or the choice of digital signal processing algorithms, comprehensive simulations are required. High trigger efficiencies are decisive at it for the successful continuation of the measurements of rare Standard Model processes as well as for a high sensitivity to new physics beyond the established theories. It can be shown that a significantly improved res...

  4. Very forward calorimeters readout and machine interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper describes the requirements for the readout electronics and DAQ for the instrumentation of the forward region of the future detector at the international linear collider. The preliminary design is discussed. Author Affiliations. Wojciech Wierba1 on behalf of the FCAL Collaboration. The Henryk Niewodniczański ...

  5. A Complete Readout Chain of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter for the HL-LHC: from FATALIC Front-End Electronics to Signal Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Senkin, Sergey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We present a front-end readout system, an ASIC called FATALIC, proposed for the high-luminosity phase LHC upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter. Based on 130 nm CMOS technology, FATALIC performs the full signal processing, including amplification, shaping and digitisation.

  6. Read-out and calibration of a tile calorimeter for ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tardell, S.

    1997-06-01

    The read-out and calibration of scintillating tiles hadronic calorimeter for ATLAS is discussed. Tests with prototypes of FERMI, a system of read-out electronics based on a dynamic range compressor reducing the dynamic range from 16 to 10 bits and a 40 MHz 10 bits sampling ADC, are presented. In comparison with a standard charge integrating read-out improvements in the resolution of 1% in the constant term are obtained. 33 refs, 21 figs, 4 tabs.

  7. DIRAC v2 a DIgital Readout Asic for hadronic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Gaglione, R; Chefdeville, M; Drancourt, C; Vouters, G

    2009-01-01

    DIRAC is a 64 channel mixed-signal readout integrated circuit designed for Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MICROMEGAS, Gas Electron Multiplier) or Resistive Plate Chambers. These detectors are foreseen as the active part of a digital hadronic calorimeter for a high energy physics experiment at the International Linear Collider. Physic requirements lead to a highly granular hadronic calorimeter with up to thirty million channels with probably only hit information (digital calorimeter). The DIRAC ASIC has been especially designed for these constraints. Each channel of the DIRAC chip is made of a 4 gains charge preamplifier, a DC-servo loop, 3 switched comparators and a digital memory, thus providing additional energy information for a hit. A bulk MICROMEGAS detector with embedded DIRAC v1 ASIC has been built. The tests of this assembly, both in laboratory with X-Rays and in a beam at CERN are presented, demonstrating the feasibility of a bulk MICROMEGAS detector with embedded electronics. The second version of...

  8. The New Readout System of the NA62 LKr Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ceccucci, A; Farthouat, P; Lamanna, G; Rouet, J; Ryjov, V; Venditti, S

    2015-01-01

    The NA62 experiment [1] at CERN SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) accelerator aims at studying Kaon decays with high precision. The high resolution Liquid Krypton (LKr) calorimeter, built for the NA48 [2] experiment, is a crucial part of the photon-veto system; to cope with the demanding NA62 re- quirements,itsback-endelectron icshadtobecompletelyrenewed. The new readout system is based on the Calorimeter REAdout Module (CREAM) [3], a 6U VME board whose design and pro- duction was sub-contracted to CAEN [4], with CERN NA62 group continuously supervising the de velopment and production phase. The first version of the board was delivered by the manufacturer in March 2013 and, as of June 2014, the full board production is ongoing. In addition to describing the CREAM board, all aspects of the new LKr readout system, including its integration within the NA62 TDAQ scheme, will be treated.

  9. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrió Fernando

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work summarizes the status of the on-detector and off-detector electronics developments for the Phase 2 Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at the LHC scheduled around 2022. A demonstrator prototype for a slice of the calorimeter including most of the new electronics is planned to be installed in ATLAS in the middle of 2014 during the first Long Shutdown. For the on-detector readout, three different front-end boards (FEB alternatives are being studied: a new version of the 3-in-1 card, the QIE chip and a dedicated ASIC called FATALIC. The Main Board will provide communication and control to the FEBs and the Daughter Board will transmit the digitized data to the off-detector electronics in the counting room, where the super Read-Out Driver (sROD will perform processing tasks on them and will be the interface to the trigger levels 0, 1 and 2.

  10. Evolution of the dual-readout calorimeter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Measuring the energy of hadronic jets with high precision is essential at present and future colliders, in particular at ILC. The 4th concept design is built upon calorimetry criteria that result in the DREAM prototype, read-out via two different types of longitudinal fibers, scintillator and quartz respectively, and therefore ...

  11. Evolution of the dual-readout calorimeter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Measuring the energy of hadronic jets with high precision is essential at present and future colliders, in particular at ILC. The 4th concept design is built upon calorimetry criteria that result in the DREAM prototype, read-out via two different types of longitudinal fibers, scintillator and quartz respectively, and therefore capable ...

  12. Very forward calorimeters readout and machine interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    digital link based on LVDS chips will transmit data to the DAQ. Proposed solution is shown in figure 2. For the BeamCal a similar readout scheme will be needed. LumiCal has to provide a raw luminosity measurement every minute. The MC studies show only a few Bhabha events hitting detector in one bunch train. For that.

  13. Multi-Anode Photomultplier (MAPMT) readout for High Granularity Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Mkrtchyan, Tigran; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Hadron calorimeter high performance in jet sub-structure measurements can be achieved for objects with $p_{T}$ greater than 1 TeV if the readout geometry is finely segmented in $\\Delta\\eta \\times \\Delta\\phi$. A feasibility study to increase the readout granularity of TileCal, the central hadron calorimeter of the ATLAS detector, is presented. We show a preliminary study exploring the possibility to increase by a factor 4 the present readout granularity of the inner layer cells of TileCal (0.1->0.025 in $\\Delta\\eta$) and to split into two layers the intermediate section of TileCal. The proposed solution is designed to cope with mechanical and readout bandwidth and power constraints. Assuming that the mechanics of the Tile modules cannot be changed, Multi-Anode PMTs with same boundary geometry of the present single-anode PMTs are considered to readout WLS bers, ideally one per pixel, carrying the signals from the individual scintillating tiles of each detector cells. The discussed challenges of the design are: ...

  14. ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter back end electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bán, J; Bellachia, F; Blondel, A; Böttcher, S; Clark, A; Colas, Jacques; Díaz-Gómez, M; Dinkespiler, B; Efthymiopoulos, I; Escalier, M; Fayard, Lo; Gara, A; He, Y; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hubaut, F; Ionescu, G; Karev, A; Kurchaninov, L; Lafaye, R; Laforge, B; La Marra, D; Laplace, S; Le Dortz, O; Léger, A; Liu, T; Martin, D; Matricon, P; Moneta, L; Monnier, E; Oberlack, H; Parsons, J A; Pernecker, S; Perrot, G; Poggioli, L; Prast, J; Przysiezniak, H; Repetti, B; Rosselet, L; Riu, I; Schwemling, P; Simion, S; Sippach, W; Strässner, A; Stroynowski, R; Tisserant, S; Unal, G; Wilkens, H; Wingerter-Seez, I; Xiang, A; Yang, J; Ye, J

    2007-01-01

    The Liquid Argon calorimeters play a central role in the ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus) experiment. The environment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) imposes strong constraints on the detectors readout systems. In order to achieve very high precision measurements, the detector signals are processed at various stages before reaching the Data Acquisition system (DAQ). Signals from the calorimeter cells are received by on-detector Front End Boards (FEB), which sample the incoming pulse every 25ns and digitize it at a trigger rate of up to 75~kHz. Off-detector Read Out Driver (ROD) boards further process the data and send reconstructed quantities to the DAQ while also monitoring the data quality. In this paper, the ATLAS Liquid Argon electronics chain is described first, followed by a detailed description of the off-detector readout system. Finally, the tests performed on the system are summarized.

  15. A Complete Readout Chain of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter for the HL-LHC: from FATALIC Front-End Electronics to Signal Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Senkin, Sergey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Collaboration has started a vast programme of upgrades in the context of high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) foreseen in 2024. We present here one of the front-end readout options, an ASIC called FATALIC, which is proposed for the high-luminosity phase LHC upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter. Based on a 130 nm CMOS technology, FATALIC performs the complete signal processing, including amplification, shaping and digitisation. Hereby we describe the full characterisation of FATALIC and also the signal reconstruction up to the observables of interest for physics: the energy and the arrival time of the particle. The Optimal Filtering signal reconstruction method is adapted to fully exploit the FATALIC three-range layout. Additionally, we present the performance in terms of resolution of the whole chain measured using the charge injection system designed for calibration. Finally, the results of the signal reconstruction used on real data collected during a preliminary beam test at CERN are discussed.

  16. The ATLAS liquid Argon calorimeters read-out system

    CERN Document Server

    Blondel, A; Fayard, L; La Marra, D; Léger, A; Matricon, P; Perrot, G; Poggioli, L; Prast, J; Riu, I; Simion, S

    2004-01-01

    The calorimetry of the ATLAS experiment takes advantage of different detectors based on the liquid Argon (LAr) technology. Signals from the LAr calorimeters are processed by various stages before being delivered to the Data Acquisition system. The calorimeter cell signals are received by the front-end boards, which digitize a predetermined number of samples of the bipolar waveform and sends them to the Read-Out Driver (ROD) boards. The ROD board receives triggered data from 1028 calorimeter cells, and determines the precise energy and timing of the signals by processing the discrete samplings of the pulse. In addition, it formats the digital stream for the following elements of the DAQ chain, and performs monitoring. The architecture and functionality of the ATLAS LAr ROD board are discussed, along with the final design of the Processing Unit boards housing the Digital Signal Processors (DSP). (9 refs).

  17. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the status of the on-detector and off-detector electronics developments for the Phase II Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at the LHC scheduled around 2024. A demonstrator prototype for a slice of the calorimeter including most of the new electronics is planned to be installed in ATLAS in middle 2014 during the Long Shutdown. For the on-detector readout, three different front-end boards (FEB) alternatives are being studied: a new version of the 3-in-1 card, the QIE chip and a dedicated ASIC called FATALIC. The MainBoard will provide communication and control to the FEBs and the DaughterBoard will transmit the digitized data to the off-detector electronics in the counting room, where the sROD will perform processing tasks on them.

  18. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F

    2013-01-01

    This work summarizes the status of the on-detector and off-detector electronics developments for the Phase II Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at the LHC scheduled around 2022. A demonstrator prototype for a slice of the calorimeter including most of the new electronics is planned to be installed in ATLAS in middle 2014 during the Long Shutdown. For the on-detector readout, three different front-end boards (FEB) alternatives are being studied: a new version of the 3-in-1 card, the QIE chip and a dedicated ASIC called FATALIC. The MainBoard will provide communication and control to the FEBs and the DaughterBoard will transmit the digitized data to the off-detector electronics in the counting room, where the sROD will perform processing tasks on them.

  19. The readout driver (ROD) for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Efthymiopoulos, I

    2001-01-01

    The Readout Driver (ROD) for the Liquid Argon calorimeter of the ATLAS detector is described. Each ROD module receives triggered data from 256 calorimeter cells via two fiber-optics 1.28 Gbit/s links with a 100 kHz event rate (25 kbit/event). Its principal function is to determine the precise energy and timing of the signal from discrete samples of the waveform, taken each period of the LHC clock (25 ns). In addition, it checks, histograms, and formats the digital data stream. A demonstrator system, consisting of a motherboard and several daughter-board processing units (PUs) was constructed and is currently used for tests in the lab. The design of this prototype board is presented here. The board offers maximum modularity and allows the development and testing of different PU designs based on today's leading integer and floating point DSPs. (3 refs).

  20. Commissioning of CMS Forward Hadron Calorimeters with Upgraded Multi-anode PMTs and uTCA Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Tiras, Emrah; Onel, Yasar

    2016-01-01

    The high flux of charged particles interacting with the CMS Forward Hadron Calorimeter PMT windows introduced a significant background for the trigger and offline data analysis. During Long Shutdown 1, all of the original PMTs were replaced with multi-anode, thin window photomultiplier tubes. At the same time, the back-end electronic readout system was upgraded to uTCA readout. The experience with commissioning and calibration of the Forward Hadron Calorimeter is described as well as the uTCA system. The upgrade was successful and provided quality data for Run 2 data-analysis at 13 TeV.

  1. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Souza, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. Its main upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (phase 2) where the peak luminosity will increase 5-fold compared to the design luminosity (10exp34 cm−2s−1) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity leveling. This upgrade will probably happen around 2023. The upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals are directly digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. The smallest independent on-detector electronics module has been reduced from 45 channels to 6, greatly reducing the consequences of a failure in the on-detector electronics. The size of t...

  2. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. Its main upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (phase 2) where the luminosity will have increased 5-fold compared to the design luminosity (1034 cm−2s−1) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional luminosity increase by a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity leveling. This upgrade will probably happen around 2022. The upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off- detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals are directly digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. An ambitious upgrade development program is pursued studying different electronics options. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Which one to u...

  3. Design, Construction and Testing of the Digital Hadron Calorimeter (DHCAL) Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, C; Bilki, B; Butler, J; Corriveau, F; Cundiff, T; Drake, G; Francis, K; Guarino, V; Haberichter, B; Hazen, E; Hoff, J; Holm, S; Kreps, A; DeLurgio, P; Monte, L Dal; Mucia, N; Norbeck, E; Northacker, D; Onel, Y; Pollack, B; Repond, J; Schlereth, J; Smith, J R; Trojand, D; Underwood, D; Velasco, M; Walendziak, J; Wood, K; Wu, S; Xia, L; Zhang, Q; Zhao, A

    2016-01-01

    A novel hadron calorimeter is being developed for future lepton colliding beam detectors. The calorimeter is optimized for the application of Particle Flow Algorithms (PFAs) to the measurement of hadronic jets and features a very finely segmented readout with 1 x 1 cm2 cells. The active media of the calorimeter are Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) with a digital, i.e. one-bit, readout. To first order the energy of incident particles in this calorimeter is reconstructed as being proportional to the number of pads with a signal over a given threshold. A large-scale prototype calorimeter with approximately 500,000 readout channels has been built and underwent extensive testing in the Fermilab and CERN test beams. This paper reports on the design, construction, and commissioning of the electronic readout system of this prototype calorimeter. The system is based on the DCAL front-end chip and a VME-based back-end.

  4. A segmented scintillator-lead photon calorimeter using a double wavelength shifter optical readout system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fent, J.; Fessler, H.; Freund, P.; Gebauer, H. J.; Polakos, P.; Pretzl, K. P.; Schouten, T.; Seyboth, P.; Seyerlein, J.

    1984-09-01

    The construction and performance of a prototype scintillator lead photon calorimeter using a double wavelength shifter optical readout is described. The calorimeter is divided into 4 individual cells, each consisting of 44 layers of 3 mm lead plus 1 cm thick scintillator. The edges of each scintillator plate are covered by acrylic bars doped with a wavelength shifting material. The light produced in each scintillator plate is first converted in these bars and then converted a second time in a set of acrylic rods, which run longitudinally through the calorimeter along the corners of each calorimeter cell. A photomultiplier is attached to each of these rods at the back end of the calorimeter. The energy resolution obtained with incident electrons in the energy range of 2-30 GeV is σ/ E = 0.12/√ E. The uniformity of response across the front face of each cell was measured. Showers within each cell can be localised with an accuracy of better than σ = 7 mm.

  5. Characterization of COTS ADC radiation properties for ATLAS LAr calorimeter readout upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Takai, H; The ATLAS collaboration; Chen, H; Chen, K; Lanni, F; Rescia, S

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS LAr calorimeters plan to upgrade the readout electronics for both Phase-I and Phase-II LHC luminosity upgrades. Detector signals will be digitized at the front-end, and data will be streamed out to the back-end system continuously. Therefore, radiation tolerant ADCs are key components for both upgrade phases. This presentation will report on irradiation test results of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) ADCs that have potentials to be used in the readout electronics upgrade. Total-ionization-dose (TID) irradiation test results will be described, which has been used to pre-screen COTS ADCs for further studies. Various SEE studies of a candidate ADC with both neutron and proton beams will be presented. Finally, annealing studies following ATLAS policy on radiation tolerant electronics will be reported.

  6. Characterization of COTS ADC radiation properties for ATLAS LAr calorimeter readout upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Takai, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS LAr calorimeters plan to upgrade the readout electronics for both Phase I and Phase II LHC luminosity upgrades. Detector signals will be digitized at the front-end, and data will be streamed out to the back-end system continuously. Therefore, radiation tolerant ADCs are key components for both upgrade phases. This presentation will report on irradiation test results of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) ADCs that have potentials to be used in the readout electronics upgrade. Total-ionization-dose (TID) irradiation test results will be described, which has been used to pre-screen COTS ADCs for further studies. Various SEE studies of a candidate ADC with both neutron and proton beams will be presented. Finally, annealing studies following ATLAS policy on radiation tolerant electronics will be reported.

  7. Hadron calorimeter with MAPD readout in the NA61/SHINE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ivashkin, A; Asfandiyarov, R; Bravar, A; Blondel, A; Dominik, W; Fodor, Z; Gazdzicki, M; Golubeva, M; Guber, F; Hasler, A; Korzenev, A; Kuleshov, S; Kurepin, A; Laszlo, A; Marin, V; Musienko, Yu; Petukhov, O; Röhrich, D; Sadovsky, A; Sadygov, Z; Tolyhi, T; Zerrouk, F

    2012-01-01

    The modular hadron calorimeter with micro-pixel avalanche photodiodes readout for the NA61/SHINE experiment at the CERN SPS is presented. The calorimeter consists of 44 independent modules with lead-scintillator sandwich structure. The light from the scintillator tiles is captured by and transported with WLS-fibers embedded in scintillator grooves. The construction provides a longitudinal segmentation of the module in 10 sections with independent MAPD readout. MAPDs with pixel density of $~10^{4}$/mm$^2$ ensure good linearity of calorimeter response in a wide dynamical range. The performance of the calorimeter prototype in a beam test is reported.

  8. Light-to-light readout system of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Denes, P; Lustermann, W; Mathez, H; Pangaud, P; Walder, J P

    2001-01-01

    For the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, an 8OOOO-crysral electromagnetic calorimeter will measure electron and photon energies with high precision over a dynamic range of roughly 16 bits. The readout electronics will be located directly behind the crystals, and must survive a total dose of up to 2x10 Gy along with 5x10**1**3 n/cm**2. A readout chain consisting of a custom wide-range acquisition circuit, commercial ADC and custom optical link for each crystal is presently under construction. An overview of the design is presented, with emphasis on the large-scale fiber communication system. 11 Refs.

  9. An FPGA-based sampling-ADC readout for the crystal barrel calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muellers, Johannes [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany); Marciniewski, Pawel [Angstroemlaboratoriet, Uppsala (Sweden); Collaboration: CBELSA/TAPS-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The CBELSA/TAPS experiment at the electron accelerator ELSA (Bonn) investigates the photoproduction of mesons off protons and neutrons. Presently the readout of the CsI(Tl)-crystals of the Crystal Barrel calorimeter is being upgraded from a PIN-diode readout to an APD readout to create a fast signal for first-level-triggering. This will increase the trigger efficiency especially for final states with only neutral particles substantially. To increase the possible data readout rate, which is currently limited by the digitization stage (LeCroy QDC 1885F) to ∼ 2 kHz, the implementation of a new Sampling-ADC (SADC) readout is being prepared. Based on the 64-channel PANDA-SADC, the CB-SADC design was modified and adapted to the needs of the CBELSA/TAPS experiment. It offers 64 channels in one NIM module, together with modular analog or FPGA-based digital shaping. The data transfer will be realized by two standard gigabit links. Using an FPGA together with SADCs provides a multitude of possibilities for online feature extraction, such as the determination of the energy deposited in the crystal, TDC capabilities and pile-up detection and recovery.

  10. An FPGA-based Sampling-ADC readout for the crystal barrel calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muellers, Johannes [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany); Marciniewski, Pawel [Angstroemlaboratoriet, Uppsala (Sweden); Collaboration: CBELSA/TAPS-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The CBELSA/TAPS experiment at the electron accelerator ELSA (Bonn) investigates the photoproduction of mesons off protons and neutrons. The Crystal Barrel Calorimeter has been upgraded replacing its photodiode readout by APDs, which allows the integration of the calorimeter into the first level trigger. Since the possible DAQ rate is currently limited by the digitization stage (LeCroy QDC1885F) to ∼ 2 kHz, the implementation of a new Sampling-ADC (SADC) readout is the second important step in the upgrade of the detector system. Based on the 64-channel PANDA-SADC, the design was modified, adapting it to the needs of the CBELSA/TAPS experiment. The CB-SADC offers 64 channels in one NIM module with up to 14 bit rate at 125 MHz, accompanied by a modular analog input stage and power supply. Data processing and reduction are realized with Kintex7 FPGAs. Readout is possible via gigabit ethernet links. Using an FPGA provides a multitude of possibilities for online feature extraction, such as the determination of the energy deposited in the crystal, TDC capabilities and pile-up detection and recovery. The SADC development is discussed, and first measurements performed in comparison to the presently used LeCroy QDC are presented.

  11. A tower structured scintillator-lead photon calorimeter using a novel fiber optics readout system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessler, H.; Freund, P.; Gebauer, J.; Glas, J. M.; Pretzl, K. P.; Seyboth, P.; Seyerlein, J.; Thevenin, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Described is the construction and the performance of a tower-structured scintillator-lead photon calorimeter using a novel fiber optics readout system. The calorimeter is divided into 9 individual towers. Each tower has a cross section of 5 × 5 cm 2 and consists of 60 layers of 2 mm lead plus 5 mm thick scintillator. The four sides of each tower are covered by thin acrylic sheets (1.5 mm thick) doped with a wavelength shifting material. The light produced in each scintillator plate is first converted in these sheets, then converted a second time in a set of polystyrene optical fibers (diameter 2 mm) which run longitudinally through the calorimeter along the corners of each tower. A small diameter photomultiplier was attached to the fibers at the back end of the calorimeter. The obtained energy resolution with incident electrons in the range of 0.25-5.0 {GeV}/{c} is {σ}/{E} = {0.10}/{√E}. The uniformity of response across the front face of each tower was measured.

  12. Polystyrene calorimeter for electron beam dose measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1995-01-01

    Calorimeters from polystrene have been constructed for dose measurement at 4-10 MeV electron accelerators. These calorimeters have been used successfully for a few years, and polystyrene calorimeters for use at energies down to 1 MeV and being tested. Advantage of polystyrene as the absorbing...

  13. The front-end electronics for LHCb calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Breton, D

    2002-01-01

    For the readout of the calorimeters of the LHCb experiment at CERN, specific front-end electronics have been designed. In particular, three different front-end analog chips were studied respectively for the ECAL/HCAL, preshower and scintillator pad detector. We will present the three front-end electronic chains, point out their specific requirements together with their common purpose, and describe the corresponding ASICs. (6 refs).

  14. Study of a Readout System for a Liquid Argon Calorimet er at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Buchanan, Norm

    A readout system for the liquid argon calorimeter of the ATLAS detector was built and tested at CERN in 1996. This system contained an analog pipeline and was designed to operate in a dual gain mode as m-el1 as a single gain mode. Koise, linearity. dynamic range. and electron energy resolution of the system were rneasured. The total noise introduced by the electronics was found to be approsimately 100 MeI,' to 220 MeV per channel. The nonlinearity of the system was less than 0.3% over a dynamic range of 11.2 bits. The measured electroti energv resolution was less than 1.9% for the 100 GeV, 150 GeV, and 200 GeV electrons. The effects of different operating parameters were studied.

  15. Neutron and proton tests of different technologies for the upgrade of the cold readout electronics of the ATLAS Hadronic End-cap Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00030110

    2013-01-01

    The expected increase of total integrated luminosity by a factor ten at the HL-LHC compared to the design goals for LHC essentially eliminates the safety factor for radiation hardness realized at the current cold amplifiers of the ATLAS Hadronic End-cap Calorimeter (HEC). New more radiation hard technologies have been studied: SiGe bipolar, Si CMOS FET and GaAs FET transistors have been irradiated with neutrons up to an integrated fluence of 2.2 x 10^{16} n/cm^2 and with 200 MeV protons up to an integrated fluence of 2.6 x 10^{14} p/cm^2. Comparisons of transistor parameters such as the gain for both types of irradiations are presented.

  16. Muon Identification with the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Read-Out Driver for Level-2 Trigger Purposes

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz-Martinez, A

    2008-01-01

    The Hadronic Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) at the ATLAS experiment is a detector made out of iron as passive medium and plastic scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the particles is converted to electrical signals which are digitized in the front-end electronics and sent to the back-end system. The main element of the back-end electronics are the VME 9U Read-Out Driver (ROD) boards, responsible of data management, processing and transmission. A total of 32 ROD boards, placed in the data acquisition chain between Level-1 and Level-2 trigger, are needed to read out the whole calorimeter. They are equipped with fixed-point Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) that apply online algorithms on the incoming raw data. Although the main purpose of TileCal is to measure the energy and direction of the hadronic jets, taking advantage of its projective segmentation soft muons not triggered at Level-1 (with pT<5 GeV) can be recovered. A TileCal standalone muon identification algorithm is presented and i...

  17. The selective read-out processor for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Girão de Almeida, Nuño Miguel; Faure, Jean Louis; Gachelin, Olivier; Gras, Philippe; Mandjavidze, Irakli; Mur, Michel; Varela, João

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the selective read-out processor (SRP) proposed for the electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at LHC (CERN). The aim is to reduce raw ECAL data to a level acceptable by the CMS data acquisition (DAQ) system. For each positive level 1 trigger, the SRP is guided by trigger primitive generation electronics to identify ECAL regions with energy deposition satisfying certain programmable criteria. It then directs the ECAL read-out electronics to apply predefined zero suppression levels to the crystal data, depending whether the crystals fall within these regions or not. The main challenges for the SRP are some 200 high speed (1.6 Gbit/s) I/O channels, asynchronous operation at up to 100 kHz level 1 trigger rate, a 5- mu s real-time latency requirement and a need to retain flexibility in choice of selection algorithms. The architecture adopted for the SRP is based on modern parallel optic pluggable modules and high density field programmable gate array ...

  18. A Triggerless readout system for the ANDA electromagnetic calorimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemens, M.

    2015-01-01

    One of the physics goals of the future ANDA experiment at FAIR is to research newly discovered exotic states. Because the detector response created by these particles is very similar to the background channels, a new type of data readout had to be developed, called "triggerless" readout. In this

  19. Electronic calibration developed for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Baek, Y W; David, P Y; Ditta, J; Hermel, V; Fouque, N; Mendiburu, J P; Nédélec, P; Peigneux, J P; Poireau, V; Rebecchi, P; Silou, D

    2004-01-01

    An electronic system, designed to provide a relative calibration for the readout of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (CMS-ECAL), is described. On request, this system injects a pulse at the input of a predetermined group of preamplifiers with preselected amplitude and a shape identical to the one produced by the photodetectors. Several chips, in DMILL 0.8 mu m technology, have been developed for integration on the front-end electronics. We describe the principle, the testing, the measurement of their precision, and radiation hardness. (6 refs).

  20. Development of ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Front-end Electronics for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00219286; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider will provide 5-7 times greater luminosities than assumed in the original detector design. An improved trigger system requires an upgrade of the readout electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter. Concepts for the future readout of the 182,500 calorimeter channels at 40-80 MHz and 16-bit dynamic range and the developments of radiation-tolerant, low-noise, low-power, and high-bandwidth front-end electronic components, including preamplifiers and shapers, 14-bit ADCs, and 10-Gb/s laser diode array drivers, are presented.

  1. LHCb: Upgrade of the LHCb calorimeter electronics

    CERN Multimedia

    Mauricio Ferre, J

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration foresees a major upgrade of the detector for the high luminosity run that should take place after 2018. Apart from the increase of the instantaneous luminosity at the interaction point of the experiment, one of the major ingredients of this upgrade is a full readout at 40MHz of the sub-detectors and the acquisition of the data by a large farm of PC. The trigger will be done by this farm and should increase the overall trigger efficiency with respect to the current detector, especially in hadronic B meson decays. A general overview of the modifications foreseen to the calorimeter system and the integration of the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters in this new scheme will be described.

  2. Irradiation tests of readout chain components of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, C; Golikov, V; Golubyh, S M; Kukhtin, V; Kulagin, E; Luschikov, V; Minashkin, V F; Shalyugin, A N

    1999-01-01

    Various readout chain components of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters have been exposed to high neutron fluences and $gamma$-doses at the irradiation test facility of the IBR-2 reactor of JINR, Dubna. Results of the capacitance and impedance measurements of coaxial cables are presented. Results of peeling tests of PC board samples (kapton and copper strips) as a measure of the bonding agent irradiation hardness are also reported.

  3. Research and Development for a Free-Running Readout System for the ATLAS LAr Calorimeters at the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)758889; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters were designed and built to measure electromagnetic and hadronic energy in proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at centre-of-mass energies up to \\SI{14}{\\tera\\electronvolt} and instantaneous luminosities up to \\SI{d34}{\\per\\centi\\meter\\squared\\per\\second}. The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) programme is now developed for up to 5-7 times the design luminosity, with the goal of accumulating an integrated luminosity of \\SI{3000}{\\per\\femto\\barn}. In the HL-LHC phase, the increased radiation levels require a replacement of the front-end (FE) electronics of the LAr Calorimeters. Furthermore, the ATLAS trigger system is foreseen to increase the trigger accept rate and the trigger latency which requires a larger data volume to be buffered. Therefore, the LAr Calorimeter read-out will be exchanged with a new FE and a high bandwidth back-end (BE) system for receiving data from all \

  4. Research and Development for a Free-Running Readout System for the ATLAS LAr Calorimeters at the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Hils, Maximilian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters were designed and built to measure electromagnetic and hadronic energy in proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to $10^{34} \\text{cm}^{-2} \\text{s}^{-1}$. The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) programme is now developed for up to 5-7 times the design luminosity, with the goal of accumulating an integrated luminosity of $3000~\\text{fb}^{-1}$. In the HL-LHC phase, the increased radiation levels require a replacement of the front-end electronics of the LAr Calorimeters. Furthermore, the ATLAS trigger system is foreseen to increase the trigger accept rate by a factor 10 to 1 MHz and the trigger latency by a factor of 20 which requires a larger data volume to be buffered. Therefore, the LAr Calorimeter read-out will be exchanged with a new front-end and a high bandwidth back-end system for receiving data from all 186.000 channels at 40 MHz LHC bunch-crossing frequency and for off-detector buffering...

  5. Development of Readout Interconnections for the Si-W Calorimeter of SiD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, M.; Fields, R.G.; Holbrook, B.; Lander, R.L.; Moskaleva, A.; Neher, C.; Pasner, J.; Tripathi, M.; /UC, Davis; Brau, J.E.; Frey, R.E.; Strom, D.; /Oregon U.; Breidenbach, M.; Freytag, D.; Haller, G.; Herbst, R.; Nelson, T.; /SLAC; Schier, S.; Schumm, B.; /UC, Santa Cruz

    2012-09-14

    The SiD collaboration is developing a Si-W sampling electromagnetic calorimeter, with anticipated application for the International Linear Collider. Assembling the modules for such a detector will involve special bonding technologies for the interconnections, especially for attaching a silicon detector wafer to a flex cable readout bus. We review the interconnect technologies involved, including oxidation removal processes, pad surface preparation, solder ball selection and placement, and bond quality assurance. Our results show that solder ball bonding is a promising technique for the Si-W ECAL, and unresolved issues are being addressed.

  6. Development of readout interconnections for the Si-W calorimeter of SiD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, M.; Fields, R. G.; Holbrook, B.; Lander, R. L.; Moskaleva, A.; Neher, C.; Pasner, J.; Tripathi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Frey, R. E.; Strom, D.; Breidenbach, M.; Freytag, D.; Haller, G.; Herbst, R.; Nelson, T.; Schier, S.; Schumm, B.

    2011-12-01

    The SiD collaboration is developing a Si-W sampling electromagnetic calorimeter, with anticipated application for the International Linear Collider. Assembling the modules for such a detector will involve special bonding technologies for the interconnections, especially for attaching a silicon detector wafer to a flex cable readout bus. We review the interconnect technologies involved, including oxidation removal processes, pad surface preparation, solder ball selection and placement, and bond quality assurance. Our results show that solder ball bonding is a promising technique for the Si-W ECAL, and unresolved issues are being addressed.

  7. Studies of VCSEL Failures in the Optical Readout Systems of the ATLAS Silicon Trackers and Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Mark S

    2011-01-01

    The readout systems for the ATLAS silicon trackers and liquid argon calorimeters utilize vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes to communicate between on and off detector readout components. A number of these VCSEL devices have failed well before their expected lifetime. We summarize the failure history and present what has been learned thus far about failure mechanisms and the dependence of the lifetime on environmental conditions.

  8. The front-end electronics system for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Pastrone, Nadia

    2004-01-01

    The CMS electromagnetic calorimeter at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been designed to measure the energy of electrons and photons with high resolution over a wide dynamic range, using lead tungstate scintillating crystals. To minimize external noise most of the readout chain must be placed within the detector in a high radiation environment, inside the 4 T magnetic field. To cope with these demanding constraints innovative solutions have been adopted since most of the common technologies are excluded. The basic architecture and the first prototype tests of the on-detector readout chain are described. (12 refs).

  9. ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Trigger Electronics Phase-1 Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) scheduled for a shut-down period of 2019-2020, referred to as the Phase-I upgrade, will increase the instantaneous luminosity to about three times the design value. Since the current ATLAS trigger system does not allow sufficient increase of the trigger rate, an improvement of the trigger system is required. The Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeter read-out will therefore be modified to use digital trigger signals with a higher spatial granularity in order to improve the identification efficiencies of electrons, photons, tau, jets and missing energy, at high background rejection rates at the Level-1 trigger. The new trigger signals will be arranged in 34000 so-called Super Cells which achieves 5-10 times better granularity than the trigger towers currently used and allows an improved background rejection. The readout of the trigger signals will process the signal of the Super Cells at every LHC bunch-crossing at 12-bit precision and a frequency of 40 MHz. The data will...

  10. Lessons from Monte Carlo simulations of the performance of a dual-readout fiber calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Akchurin, N; Cardini, A; Cascella, M; De Pedis, D; Ferrari, R; Fracchia, S; Franchino, S; Fraternali, M; Gaudio, G; Genova, P; Hauptman, J; La Rotonda, L; Lee, S; Livan, M; Meoni, E; Pinci, D; Policicchio, A; Saraiva, J G; Scuri, F; Sill, A; Venturelli, T; Wigmans, R

    2014-01-01

    The RD52 calorimeter uses the dual-readout principle to detect both electromagnetic and hadronic showers, as well as muons. Scintillation and Cherenkov light provide the two signals which, in combination, allow for superior hadronic performance. In this paper, we report on detailed, GEANT4 based Monte Carlo simulations of the performance of this instrument. The results of these simulations are compared in great detail to measurements that have been carried out and published by the DREAM Collaboration. This comparison makes it possible to understand subtle details of the shower development in this unusual particle detector. It also allows for predictions of the improvement in the performance that may be expected for larger detectors of this type. These studies also revealed some inadequacies in the GEANT4 simulation packages, especially for hadronic showers, but also for the Cherenkov signals from electromagnetic showers.

  11. Lumped-element Josephson parametric amplifier at 650 MHz for nano-calorimeter readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, Visa; Saira, Olli-Pentti; Räisänen, Ilmo; Möttönen, Mikko; Grönberg, Leif; Pekola, Jukka; Hassel, Juha

    2017-08-01

    We design a sub-gigahertz Josephson parametric amplifier for the readout of nanoscale calorimeters which consist of normal-metal-superconductor heterostructures. We characterize the amplifier performance at two operating points, 605 and 655 MHz, corresponding to reproducible local frequency maxima with respect to the applied magnetic flux. At the 655 MHz operating point, the device displays its maximum small-signal gain of 32 dB and gain-bandwidth product of 2π × 3.3 {MHz}. The gain remains above 20 dB for incident powers up to -119 dBm. The added noise of the amplifier, determined by the hot/cold source method, assumes a minimum value of 0.2 K.

  12. A Review of Infrared Readout Electronics for Space Science Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Fossum, Eric R.

    1993-01-01

    A review of infrared readout electornics for space science sensors is presented. General requirements for scientific IR FPA readout are discussed. Specific approaches to the unit cell electronics are described with respect to operation, complexity, noise and other operating parameters. Recent achievements in IR FPA readout electronics are reviewed. Implementation technologies for realization of IR FPA readout electronics are discussed. Future directions for addressing NASA and other scientific users' needs are suggested.

  13. The Phase-2 Electronics Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter System

    CERN Document Server

    Vachon, Brigitte; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The LHC high-luminosity upgrade in 2024-2026 requires the associated detectors to operate at luminosities about 5-7 times larger than assumed in their original design. The pile- up is expected to increase to up to 200 events per proton bunch-crossing. The current readout of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters does not provide sufficient buffering and bandwidth capabilities to accommodate the hardware triggers requirements imposed by these harsh conditions. Furthermore, the expected total radiation doses are beyond the qualification range of the current front-end electronics. For these reasons an almost complete replacement of the front-end and back- end readout system is foreseen for the 182,468 readout channels. The new readout system will be based on a free-running architecture, where calorimeter signals are amplified, shaped and digitized by on-detector electronics, then sent at 40 MHz to the back-end for further processing. Results from the design studies on the performance of the components of the readou...

  14. Upgrade Design of TileCal Front-end Readout Electronics and Radiation Hardness Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, K; The ATLAS collaboration; Drake, G; Eriksson, D; Muschter, S; Oreglia, M; Pilcher, J; Price, L; Tang, F

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is essential for measuring the energy and direction of hadrons and taus produced in LHC collisions. The TileCal consists of "tiles" of plastic scintillator dispersed in a fine-grained steel matrix . Optical fibers from the tiles are sent to ~10,000 photomultiplier tubes (PMT) and associated readout electronics. The TileCal front-end analog readout electronics process the signals from ~10,000 PMTs. Signals from each PMT are shaped with a 7-pole passive LC shaper and split it to two channels amplified by a pair of clamping amplifiers with a gain ratio of 32. Incorporated with two 40Msps 12-bit ADCs, the readout electronics provide a combined dynamic range of 17-bits. With this dynamic range, the readout system is capable of measuring the energy deposition in the calorimeter cells from ~220MeV to 1.3TeV with the least signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 20. The digitized data from each PMT are transmitted off-detector optically, where the data are further processed with ded...

  15. Electron identification in and performance of the ND280 Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Carver, Antony

    T2K is an o axis neutrino beam experiment with a baseline of 295 km to the far detector, Super-Kamiokande. The near detector, ND280, measures the ux and energy spectra of electron and muon neutrinos in the direction of Super-Kamiokande. An electromagnetic calorimeter constructed from lead and scintillator surrounds the inner detector. Three time projection chambers and two ne grained scintillator detectors sit inside the calorimeter. This thesis describes the development of a particle identification algorithm for the calorimeter and studies how it can enhance a simple electron neutrino analysis. A particle identification algorithm was written for the electromagnetic calorimeter to separate minimally ionising particles, electromagnetic and hadronic showers. A Monte Carlo study suggested that the algorithm produced an electron sample with a relative muon contamination of 10+-2 whilst maintaining an electron efficiency of 80%. Data collected at CERN was then used to make comparisons between the Monte Carlo simul...

  16. The front-end data conversion and readout electronics for the CMS ECAL upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Mazza, Gianni

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will require a significant upgrade of the readout electronics for the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL). The Very Front-End (VFE) output signal will be sampled at 160 MS/s (i.e. four times the current sampling rate) with 13 bit resolution. Therefore, a high-speed, high-resolution ADC is required. Moreover, each readout channel will produce 2.08 Gb/s, thus requiring fast data transmission circuitry. A new readout architecture, based on two 12 bit, 160 MS/s ADCs, lossless data compression algorithms and fast serial links have been developed for the ECAL upgrade. These functions will be integrated in a single ASIC which is currently under design in a commercial CMOS 65 nm technology using radiation damage mitigation techniques.

  17. The Phase-2 Electronics Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter System

    CERN Document Server

    Vachon, Brigitte; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The LHC high-luminosity upgrade in 2024-2026 requires the associated detectors to operate at luminosities about 5-7 times larger than assumed in their original design. The pile-up is expected to increase to up to 200 events per proton bunch-crossing. The current readout of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters does not provide sufficient buffering and bandwidth capabilities to accommodate the hardware triggers requirements imposed by these harsh conditions. Furthermore, the expected total radiation doses are beyond the qualification range of the current front-end electronics. For these reasons an almost complete replacement of the LAr front-end and back-end readout system is foreseen for the 182,500 readout channels. The system will follow a free-running architecture, where the calorimeter signals are amplified, shaped and digitized by on-detector electronics, then sent at 40MHz to the backend, which performs the energy and time reconstruction, send inputs to the trigger, and buffers the data until trigge...

  18. Pixel readout electronics for LHC and biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Blanquart, L; Comes, G; Delpierre, P A; Fischer, P; Hausmann, J C; Keil, M; Lindner, Manfred; Meuser, S; Wermes, N

    2000-01-01

    The demanding requirements for pixel readout electronics for high- energy physics experiments and biomedical applications are reviewed. Some examples of the measured analog performance of prototype chips are given. The readout architectures of the PIxel readout for the ATlas experiment (PIRATE) chip suited for LHC experiments and of the multi-picture element counter (MPEC) counting chip targeted for biomedical applications are presented. First results with complete chip-sensor assemblies are also shown. (12 refs).

  19. Prototype readout electronics for the upgraded ALICE Inner Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielewicz, K. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Bonora, M.; Ferencei, J.; Giubilato, P.; Rossewij, M. J.; Schambach, J.; Vanat, T.

    2017-01-01

    The ALICE Collaboration is preparing a major upgrade to the experimental apparatus. A key element of the upgrade is the construction of a new silicon-based Inner Tracking System containing 12 Gpixels in an area of 10 m2. Its readout system consists of 192 readout units that control the pixel sensors and the power units, and deliver the sensor data to the counting room. A prototype readout board has been designed to test: the interface between the sensor modules and the readout electronics, the signal integrity and reliability of data transfer, the interface to the ALICE DAQ and trigger, and the susceptibility of the system to the expected radiation level.

  20. AIDA: concerted calorimeter development

    CERN Multimedia

    Felix Sefkow

    2013-01-01

    AIDA – the EU-funded project bringing together more than 80 institutes worldwide – aims at developing new detector solutions for future accelerators. Among the highlights reported at AIDA’s recent annual meeting in Frascati was the completion of an impressive calorimeter test beam programme, conducted by the CALICE collaboration over the past two years at CERN’s PS and SPS beam lines.   The CALICE tungsten calorimeter prototype under test at CERN. This cubic-metre hadron calorimeter prototype has almost 500,000 individually read-out electronics channels – more than all the calorimeters of ATLAS and CMS put together. Calorimeter development in AIDA is mainly motivated by experiments at possible future electron-positron colliders, namely ILC or CLIC. The physics requirements of such future machines demand extremely high-performance calorimetry. This is best achieved using a finely segmented system that reconstructs events using the so-called pa...

  1. Contribution to the study of the readout of the electromagnetic calorimeter crystals in the CMS experiment at LHC; Contribution a l`etude de la lecture des cristaux du calorimetre electromagnetique de l`experience CMS au LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Franck [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon-1, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1998-07-03

    The search for neutral Higgs boson through its decay into two photons provides a very promising signal for a mass between 90 and 150 GeV. It requires an electromagnetic calorimeter of very high resolution. The CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) electromagnetic calorimeter must be made up of more than 80,000 lead tungstate crystals. In the central part (the barrel), the scintillation light readout is performed by means of avalanche photodiodes, a silicon photo-sensor with internal gain which is a relative novelty in high energy physics. Concerning the readout electronics, the energy available in the centre-of-mass (14 TeV) as well as the collision frequency (40 MHz) of LHC impose constraints with respect to the signal treatment up to the acquisition. The retained solution consists in pairing two avalanche photodiodes, the parameters of which (gain, temperature dependence, dark current, etc) must be controlled, and coupling them to a low noise preamplifier of high dynamical range (5 MeV - 2 TeV) followed by a four-slopes linear compressor and a analog-digital sampling converter of 12 bits, 40 MHz. The thesis presents the prototypes of different electromagnetic calorimeters tested in the high energy beam. An energy resolution of 0.6% at 100 GeV was obtained with a conventional readout circuitry, while the integrated associated circuits were radiation resistant 73 refs., 100 figs., 19 tabs.

  2. Silicon Drift Detector Readout Electronics for a Compton Camera

    OpenAIRE

    Nurdan, T. Conka; Nurdan, K; Walenta, A. H.; Besch, H J; Fiorini, C; Freisleben, B.; Pavel, N. A.

    2003-01-01

    A prototype detector for Compton camera imaging is under development. A monolithic array of 19 channel Silicon drift detector with on-chip electronics is going to be used as a scatter detector for the prototype system. Custom designed analog and digital readout electronics for this detector was first tested by using a single cell Silicon drift detector. This paper describes the readout architecture and presents the results of the measurement.

  3. A Silicon Hadron Calorimeter Module Operated in a Strong Magnetic Field with VLSI Readout for LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD35 \\\\ \\\\ On the basis of a cost optimized Silicon production technology we proposed to build a hadron calorimeter active plane. \\\\ \\\\The production of detectors is closely followed and final quality control is performed according to specifications. \\\\ \\\\The technology designed for the cheap pad detector production is applied for the coarse strip detector manufacturing. These strip detectors will be used in the preshower of the electromagnetic calorimeter of CMS. \\footnote{Research & Prod. Assoc. ELMA, RSFSR} \\footnote{Byelorussian State Univ. Minsk} \\footnote{Research & Prod. Comp. SIAPS, RSFSR} \\footnote{Joffe Physical-Technical Inst. RSFSR} \\footnote{Ansaldo Richerche spa, Genoa} \\footnote{SGS-THOMSON, Castelletto, Milan}

  4. The Time Structure of Hadronic Showers in Calorimeters with Scintillator and with Gas Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Szalay, M

    2015-01-01

    The time structure of hadronic showers is characterized by apromptcomponent from relativistic particles and by late components predominantly connected to neutrons in the cascade.The sensitivity to this late component thus depends on the choice of the active medium for hadronic calorimeters.

  5. Development of an analogue optical link for the front-end read-out of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Dinkespiler, B; Olivetto, C; Martin, O; Mirea, A; Monnier, E; Tisserant, S; Wielers, M; Andrieux, M L; Ballon, J; Collot, J; Patti, A; Eek, L O; Go, A; Lund-Jensen, B; Pearce, M; Söderqvist, J; Coulon, J P

    1999-01-01

    We have developed an analogue optical data transmission system intended to meet the read-out requirements of the ATLAS liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter. Eight-way demonstrators have been built and tested. The link uses arrays of VCSEL diodes as the optical emitters, coupled to a 70 m long fibre ribbon to simulate the distance between the detector and the control room. The receiver is based around a custom-designed PIN photodiode array. We describe here the final results of laboratory tests on a demonstrator, laying stress on the VCSEL-to-fibre coupling issues, and the overall performance of the full link. A 9-bit dynamic range is achieved, with a 5on-linearity.

  6. Sub electron readout noise & photon counting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gach, J.-L.; Balard, Ph.; Daigle, O.; Destefanis, G.; Feautrier, Ph.; Guillaume, Ch.; Rothman, J.

    We present recent advances on ultra low noise visible detectors at Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, photon counting and EMCCD developments in collaboration with Observatoire de haute provence, Laboratoire d'astrophysique de l'observatoire de Grenoble and Laboratoire d'Astrophysique Experimentale (Montreal). After a review of the progress with third generation Image Photon Counting Systems (IPCS), we present the OCAM camera, based on the E2V CCD220 EMCCD, part of the Opticon JRA2 programme, and the CCCP controller, a new controller for the 3DNTT instrument that reduces the clock induced charge of an EMCCD by a factor 10, making it competitive with IPCS detectors for very faint fluxes. We will finally present the RAPID project and the concept of photon counting avalanche photodiode CMOS device (in collaboration with CEA-LETI) which is foreseen to be the ultimate detector for the visible-IR range providing no readout noise, high QE and extremely fast readout.

  7. Development of Flexible, Scalable, Low Cost Readout for Beam Tests of High Granularity Calorimeter for the CMS Endcap

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinov, Paul

    2016-01-01

    As part of the development of the High Granularity Calorimeter for the CMS Endcap at HL-LHC, The CMS collaboration is conducting a comprehensive series of beam tests. The first beam test, with a single HGC module was carried out in March of 2016 at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility, continuing to a 16 module test in July of 2016. We describe here the development of a low cost readout system that is simple to implement and is able to grow with the system under test. The system is based on the low cost Zynq SoC that allows simple DAQ development in a Linux environment. For this application we used the Digilent ZedBoard, which allows high speed LVDS links and Linux software development on a single commercial board. A small custom FPGA board designed to comply with the VITA 57 Field Programmable Mezzanine Card standard implements the interface to the readout ASIC mounted on the HGC sensor modules and provides the LVDS links to the ZedBoard, either directly over the FMC connector or via a custom carrier card. This a...

  8. Operational Experience with Radioactive Source Calibration of the CMS Hadron Endcap Calorimeter Wedges with Phase I Upgrade Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bilki, Burak

    2017-01-01

    The Phase I Upgrade of the CMS Hadron Endcap Calorimeters consist of new photodetectors (Silicon Photomultipliers in place of Hybrid Photo-Diodes) and front-end electronics (QIE11). The upgrade will allow the elimination of the high amplitude noise and drifting response of the Hybrid Photo-Diodes, at the same time enabling the mitigation of the radiation damage of the scintillators and the wavelength shifting fibers with a larger spectral acceptance of the Silicon Photomultipliers. The upgrade will also allow to increase the longitudinal segmentation of the readout to be beneficial for pile-up mitigation and recalibration due to depth-dependent radiation damage.As a realistic operational exercise, the responses of the Hadron Endcap Calorimeter wedges are being calibrated with a $^{60}$Co radioactive source both with current and upgrade electronics. The exercise will provide a manifestation of the benefits of the upgrade. Here we describe the instrumentation details and the operational experiences related to t...

  9. Operational Experience with Radioactive Source Calibration of the CMS Hadron Endcap Calorimeter Wedges with Phase I Upgrade Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bilki, Burak

    2017-01-01

    The Phase I Upgrade of the CMS Hadron Endcap Calorimeters consists of new photodetectors and front-end electronics. The upgrade will allow the elimination of the high amplitude noise and drifting response of the Hybrid Photo-Diodes, at the same time enabling the mitigation of the radiation damage of the scintillators and the wavelength shifting fibers with a larger spectral acceptance of the Silicon Photomultipliers. The upgrade will also allow increasing the longitudinal segmentation of the readout to be beneficial for pile-up mitigation and recalibration due to depth-dependent radiation damage. As a realistic operational exercise, the responses of the Hadron Endcap Calorimeter wedges were calibrated with a 60Co radioactive source both with current and upgrade electronics. The exercise provided significant experience towards the full upgrade during the Year End Technical Stop 2017-2018. Here we describe the instrumentation details and the operational experiences related to the sourcing exercise.

  10. Calorimeter insertion

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Calorimeter insertion between toroids in the ATLAS experiment detector Calorimeters are surrounding the inner detector. Calorimeters will absorb and measure the energies of the most charged and neutral particles after the collisions. The saved energy in the calorimeter is detected and converted to signals that are taken out with data taking electronics.

  11. The CMS silicon strip tracker and its electronic readout

    CERN Document Server

    Friedl, M

    2001-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, CH) will be the world's biggest accelerator machine when operation starts in 2006. One of its four detector experiments is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), consisting of a large-scale silicon tracker and electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters, all embedded in a solenoidal magnetic field of 4T, and a muon system surrounding the magnet coil. The Silicon Strip Tracker has a sensitive area of 206m sup 2 with 10 million analog channels which are read out at the collider frequency of 40 MHz. The building blocks of the CMS Tracker are the silicon sensors, APV amplifier ASICs, supporting front-end ASICs, analog and digital optical links as well as data processors and control units in the back-end. Radiation tolerance, readout speed and the huge data volume are challenging requirements. I have modeled the charge collection in silicon detectors which is discussed as well as the concepts of readout amplifiers with respect to the LHC requirements, including the deconvolut...

  12. Channel Control ASIC for the CMS hadron calorimeter front end readout module

    CERN Document Server

    Yarema, R J; Boubekeur, A; Elias, J E; Shaw, T

    2002-01-01

    The Channel Control ASIC (CCA) is used along with a custom Charge Integrator and Encoder (QIE) ASIC to digitize signals from the hybrid photo diodes (HPDs) and photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) in the CMS hadron calorimeter. The CCA sits between the QIE and the data acquisition system. All digital signals to and from the QIE pass through the CCA chip. One CCA chip interfaces with two QIE channels. The CCA provides individually delayed clocks to each of the QIE chips in addition to various control signals. The QIE sends digitized PMT or HPD signals and time slice information to the CCA, which sends the data to the data acquisition system through an optical link. (2 refs) .

  13. A micromachined surface stress sensor with electronic readout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlen, Edwin; Weinberg, M.S.; Zapata, A.M.; Borenstein, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    A micromachined surface stress sensor has been fabricated and integrated off chip with a low-noise, differential capacitance, electronic readout circuit. The differential capacitance signal is modulated with a high frequency carrier signal, and the output signal is synchronously demodulated and

  14. Production of the LHCb Silicon Tracker Readout Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Vollhardt, Achim; Carron, Benjamin; Fauland, Peter; Frei, Raymond; Jimenez-Otero, S; Perrin, A; Tran, Minh Tâm; Van Hunen, Jeroen; Vervink, Kim; Agari, Michaela; Bauer, Christian; Blouw, Johan; Hofmann, Werner; Knöpfle, K T; Löchner, S; Schmelling, Michael; Schwingenheuer, Bernhard; Smale, Nigel; Adeva, Bernardo; Esperante, Daniel; Lois, Cristina; Vazquez, Pablo; Bernhard, Ralf Patrick; Bernet, Roland; Gassner, Johannes; Köstner, S; Lehner, Frank; Needham, Matthew; Steinkamp, Olaf; Straumann, Ulrich; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voss, Helge; Wenger, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    We give an overview on the status of production of the LHCb Silicon Tracker Electronics. Lessons learned together with industry in the preseries production of the Silicon Tracker Digitizer Boards were integrated into the design to optimize the production and assembly yield for the main batch of 700 Digitizer Boards. A report on the preseries readout module performance and on the testing procedures for the full production lot is given. In addition, a final proton irradiation test of a complete readout system has been performed, of which results will be presented.

  15. A New Readout Electronics for the LHCb Muon Detector Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Cadeddu, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    The 2018/2019 upgrade of LHCb Muon System foresees a 40 MHz readout scheme and requires the development of a new Off Detector Electronics (nODE) board that will be based on the nSYNC, a radiation tolerant custom ASIC developed in UMC 130 nm technology. Each nODE board has 192 input channels processed by 4 nSYNCs. The nSYNC is equipped with fully digital TDCs and it implements all the required functionalities for the readout: bunch crossing alignment, data zero suppression, time measurements. Optical interfaces, based on GBT and Versatile link components, are used to communicate with DAQ, TFC and ECS systems.

  16. The CALICE Tile Hadron Calorimeter Prototype With SiPM Readout: Design, Construction and First Test Beam Results

    CERN Document Server

    Wattimena, N

    2008-01-01

    The CALICE collaboration has constructed a test beam hadronic calorimeter (HCAL) with 7608 scintillator tiles, individually read out by novel multi-pixel Geiger mode photodiodes, so called SiPMs, and tested it in electron and hadron beams at CERN. This prototype is the first device which uses SiPMs on a large scale; its purpose is to establish the technology and to record hadron shower data with unprecedented granularity for the validation of simulation models and the development of clustering algorithms.

  17. Electronics and triggering challenges for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Lobanov, Artur

    2017-01-01

    The High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL), presently being designed by the CMS collaboration to replace the CMS endcap calorimeters for the High Luminosity phase of LHC, will feature six million channels distributed over 52 longitudinal layers. The requirements for the front-end electronics are extremely challenging, including high dynamic range (0-10 pC), low noise (~2000e- to be able to calibrate on single minimum ionising particles throughout the detector lifetime) and low power consumption (~10mW/channel), as well as the need to select and transmit trigger information with a high granularity. Exploiting the intrinsic precision-timing capabilities of silicon sensors also requires careful design of the front-end electronics as well as the whole system, particularly clock distribution. The harsh radiation environment and requirement to keep the whole detector as dense as possible will require novel solutions to the on-detector electronics layout. Processing all the data from the HGCAL imposes equally large ch...

  18. The electronics of the H1 lead/scintillating-fibre calorimeters-H1 SpaCal Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appuhn, R.-D. E-mail: cozzika@hep.saclay.cea.fr; Arndt, C.; Barrelet, E.; Barschke, R.; Bassler, U.; Blouzon, F.; Boudry, V.; Brasse, F.; Bruel, Ph.; Bruncko, D.; Buchholz, R.; Cahan, B.; Chechelnitski, S.; Claxton, B.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dau, W.D.; Deckers, H.; Deckers, T.; Descamps, F.; Dirkmann, M.; Dowdell, J.; Drancourt, C.; Durant, O.; Efremenko, V.; Eisenhandler, E.; Eliseev, A.N.; Falley, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fleischer, M.; Fominykh, B.; Gadow, K.; Goerlach, U.; Gorbov, L.A.; Gorelov, I.; Grewe, M.; Hajduk, L.; Herynek, I.; Hladky, J.; Huette, M.; Hutter, H.; Janata, M.; Janczur, W.; Janoth, J.; Joensson, L.; Kacl, I.; Kolanoski, H.; Korbel, V.; Krivan, F.; Lacour, D.; Laforge, B.; Lamarche, F.; Landon, M.P.J.; Laporte, J.-F.; Lebollo, H.; Coguie, A. Le; Lehner, F.; Maracek, R.; Matricon, P.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.; Migliori, A.; Moreau, F.; Mueller, G.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Nicholls, T.C.; Ozerov, D.; Passerieux, J.-P.; Perez, E.; Pharabod, J.P.; Poeschl, R.; Renard, Ch.; Rostovtsev, A.; Royon, C.; Rybicki, K.; Schlief, S.; Schmitt, K.; Schuhmacher, A.; Semenov, A.; Shekelyan, V.; Sirois, Y.; Smirnov, P.A.; Solochenko, V.; Spalek, J.; Spielmann, S.; Steiner, H.; Stellberger, A.; Stiewe, J.; Tasevsky, M.; Tchernyshov, V.; Thiele, K.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Valkar, S.; Vallee, C.; Vallereau, A.; VanDenPlas, D.; Villet, G.; Wacker, K.; Walther, A.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Wenk, T.; Zacek, J.; Zhokin, A.; Zini, P.; Zuber, K

    1999-05-01

    The electronic system developed for the SpaCal lead/scintillating-fibre calorimeters of the H1 detector in operation at the HERA ep collider is described in detail and the performance achieved during H1 data taking is presented. The 10 MHz bunch crossing rate of HERA puts severe constraints on the requirements of the electronics. The energy and time readout are performed, respectively, with a 14-bit dynamic range and with a resolution of {approx}0.4 ns. The trigger branch consists of a nanosecond-resolution calorimetric time of flight for background rejection and an electron trigger based on analog 'sliding windows'. The on-line background rejection currently achieved is {approx}10{sup 6}. The electron trigger allows a low-energy trigger threshold to be set at {approx}0.50{+-}0.08 (RMS) GeV with an efficiency {>=}99.9%. The energy and time performance of the readout and trigger electronics is based on a newly developed low noise ({sigma}{sub noise}{approx}0.4 MeV) wideband (f{<=}200 mHz) preamplifier located at the output of the photomultipliers which are used for the fibre light readout in the {approx}1 T magnetic field of H1.

  19. A custom readout electronics for the BESIII CGEM detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rocha Rolo, M.; Alexeev, M.; Amoroso, A.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bianchi, F.; Bugalho, R.; Calcaterra, A.; Canale, N.; Capodiferro, M.; Carassiti, V.; Cerioni, S.; Chai, J. Y.; Chiozzi, S.; Cibinetto, G.; Cossio, F.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; De Mori, F.; Destefanis, M.; Di Francesco, A.; Dong, J.; Evangelisti, F.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Felici, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Gatta, M.; Greco, M.; Lavezzi, L.; Leng, C. Y.; Li, H.; Maggiora, M.; Malaguti, R.; Marcello, S.; Marciniewski, P.; Melchiorri, M.; Mezzadri, G.; Mignone, M.; Morello, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Pellegrino, J.; Pelosi, A.; Rivetti, A.; Savrié, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Soldani, E.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Tskhadadze, E.; Varela, J.; Verma, S.; Wheadon, R.; Yan, L.

    2017-07-01

    For the upgrade of the inner tracker of the BESIII spectrometer, planned for 2018, a lightweight tracker based on an innovative Cylindrical Gas Electron Multiplier (CGEM) detector is now under development. The analogue readout of the CGEM enables the use of a charge centroid algorithm to improve the spatial resolution to better than 130 μm while loosening the pitch strip to 650 μm, which allows to reduce the total number of channels to about 10 000. The channels are readout by 160 dedicated integrated 64-channel front-end ASICs, providing a time and charge measurement and featuring a fully-digital output. The energy measurement is extracted either from the time-over-threshold (ToT) or the 10-bit digitisation of the peak amplitude of the signal. The time of the event is generated by quad-buffered low-power TDCs, allowing for rates in excess of 60 kHz per channel. The TDCs are based on analogue interpolation techniques and produce a time stamp (or two, if working in ToT mode) of the event with a time resolution better than 50 ps. The front-end noise, based on a CSA and a two-stage complex conjugated pole shapers, dominate the channel intrinsic time jitter, which is less than 5 ns r.m.s. The time information of the hit can be used to reconstruct the track path, operating the detector as a small TPC and hence improving the position resolution when the distribution of the cloud, due to large incident angle or magnetic field, is very broad. Event data is collected by an off-detector motherboard, where each GEM-ROC readout card handles 4 ASIC carrier FEBs (512 channels). Configuration upload and data readout between the off-detector electronics and the VME-based data collector cards are managed by bi-directional fibre optical links. This paper covers the design of a custom front-end electronics for the readout of the new inner tracker of the BESIII experiment, addressing the relevant design aspects of the detector electronics and the front-end ASIC for the CGEM readout

  20. Fabrication of the GLAST Silicon Tracker Readout Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldini, Luca; Brez, Alessandro; Himel, Thomas; Johnson, R.P.; Latronico, Luca; Minuti, Massimo; Nelson, David; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Sgro, Carmelo; Spandre, Gloria; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Tajima, Hiro; Cohen Tanugi, Johann; Young, Charles; Ziegler, Marcus; /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /SLAC /UC, Santa Cruz

    2006-03-03

    A unique electronics system has been built and tested for reading signals from the silicon-strip detectors of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope mission. The system amplifies and processes signals from 884,736 36-cm long silicon strips in a 4 x 4 array of tower modules. An aggressive mechanical design fits the readout electronics in narrow spaces between the tower modules, to minimize dead area. This design and the resulting departures from conventional electronics packaging led to several fabrication challenges and lessons learned. This paper describes the fabrication processes and how the problems peculiar to this design were overcome.

  1. Test system for the production of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter front- end electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Calvet, D

    2004-01-01

    The Atlas hadronic Tile Calorimeter front-end electronics is fully included in the so-called "super-drawers". The 256 super-drawers needed for the entire calorimeter are assembled and extensively tested in Clermont-Ferrand before being sent to CERN to be inserted in the calorimeter modules. A mobile system has been developed to perform a complete test of the super-drawers during their insertion.

  2. Muon g-2 Calorimeter Prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polly, Chris; /Fermilab

    2010-05-03

    The proposed design is a tungsten-scintillating fiber calorimeter with 35 segments, each read out by a separate PMT. Tungsten, which is significantly denser than lead, produces compact showers. This is necessary, in order to improve shower separation in analysis and to fully contain the showers within a calorimeter that satisfies the strict space constraints of the experiment. A single calorimeter segment (4 x 6 x 15 cm{sup 3}) has been constructed in order establish the feasibility of the new design and study its properties. Initial tests of the detector segment at the Paul Scherrer Institute were conducted with a low energy < 400 MeV/c electron beam. A higher-energy test with electrons up to a few GeV/c was performed at the Test Beam Facility under the experimental number T-967. All data from that test have been analyzed and published, and the tungsten-scintillating fiber calorimeter still appears to be a viable candidate. For this test beam run, a larger calorimeter (15 x 15 x 11 cm{sup 3}) has been constructed and an emphasis will be placed on understanding shower leakage and the ability to separate pileup events with a more granular readout. The experimenters will measure the energy resolution, linearity, and shower size of the calorimeter segment. This will provide important information for finalizing decisions on the angle of the fibers relative to the incoming electrons and the optimal granularity of the readout.

  3. Dual-Readout Calorimetry with Lead Tungstate Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Akchurin, N; Cardini, A; Ferrari, R; Gaudio, G; Hauptman, J; Kim, H; La Rotonda, L; Livan, M; Meoni, E; Paar, H; Penzo, Aldo L; Pinci, D; Policicchio, Antonio; Popescu, S; Susinno, G; Roh, Y; Vandelli, W; Wigmans, R

    2008-01-01

    Results are presented of beam tests in which a small electromagnetic calorimeter consisting of lead tungstate crystals was exposed to 50 GeV electrons and pions. This calorimeter was backed up by the DREAM Dual-Readout calorimeter, which measures the scintillation and \\v{C}erenkov light produced in the shower development, using two different media. The signals from the crystal calorimeter were analyzed in great detail in an attempt to determine the contributions from these two types of light to the signals, event by event. This information makes it possible to eliminate the dominating source of fluctuations and thus achieve an important improvement in hadronic calorimeter performance.

  4. Dual-readout calorimetry with lead tungstate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akchurin, N.; Berntzon, L.; Cardini, A.; Ferrari, R.; Gaudio, G.; Hauptman, J.; Kim, H.; La Rotonda, L.; Livan, M.; Meoni, E.; Paar, H.; Penzo, A.; Pinci, D.; Policicchio, A.; Popescu, S.; Susinno, G.; Roh, Y.; Vandelli, W.; Wigmans, R.

    2008-01-01

    Results are presented of beam tests in which a small electromagnetic calorimeter consisting of lead tungstate crystals was exposed to 50 GeV electrons and pions. This calorimeter was backed up by the DREAM Dual-Readout calorimeter, which measures the scintillation and Cherenkov light produced in the shower development, using two different media. The signals from the crystal calorimeter were analyzed in great detail in an attempt to determine the contributions from these two types of light to the signals, event by event. This information makes it possible to eliminate the dominating source of fluctuations and thus achieve an important improvement in hadronic calorimeter performance.

  5. Design of a Portable Test Facility for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Front-End Electronics Verification

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, HY; The ATLAS collaboration; Carrio, F; Moreno, P; Masike, T; Reed, R; Sandrock, C; Schettino, V; Shalyugin, A; Solans, C; Souza, J; Suter, R; Usai, G; Valero, A

    2013-01-01

    An FPGA-based motherboard with an embedded hardware processor is used to implement a portable test- bench for the full certification of Tile Calorimeter front-end electronics in the ATLAS experiment at CERN. This upgrade will also allow testing future versions of the TileCal read-out electronics as well. Because of its lightness the new facility is highly portable, allowing on-detector validation using sophisticated algorithms. The new system comprises a front-end GUI running on an external portable computer which controls the motherboard. It also includes several dedicated daughter-boards that exercise the different specialized functionalities of the system. Apart from being used to evaluate different technologies for the future upgrades, it will be used to certify the consolidation of the electronics by identifying low frequency failures. The results of the tests presented here show that new system is well suited for the 2013 ATLAS Long Shutdown. We discuss all requirements necessary to give full confidence...

  6. Electronic readout for THGEM detectors based on FPGA TDCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Tobias; Buechele, Maximilian; Fischer, Horst; Gorzellik, Matthias; Grussenmeyer, Tobias; Herrmann, Florian; Joerg, Philipp; Koenigsmann, Kay; Kremser, Paul; Kunz, Tobias; Michalski, Christoph; Schopferer, Sebastian; Szameitat, Tobias [Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg Univ. (Germany); Collaboration: COMPASS-II RICH upgrade Group

    2013-07-01

    In the framework of the RD51 programme the characteristics of a new detector design, called THGEM, which is based on multi-layer arrangements of printed circuit board material, is investigated. The THGEMs combine the advantages for covering gains up to 10{sup 6} in electron multiplication at large detector areas and low material budget. Studies are performed by extending the design to a hybrid gas detector by adding a Micromega layer, which significantly improves the ion back flow ratio of the chamber. With the upgrade of the COMPASS experiment at CERN a MWPC plane of the RICH-1 detector will be replaced by installing THGEM chambers. This summarizes to 40k channels of electronic readout, including amplification, discrimination and time-to-digital conversion of the anode signals. Due to the expected hit rate of the detector we design a cost-efficient TDC, based on Artix7 FPGA technology, with time resolution below 100 ps and sufficient hit buffer depth. To cover the large readout area the data is transferred via optical fibres to a central readout system which is part of the GANDALF framework.

  7. A new electronic read-out for the YAPPET scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Damiani, C; Malaguti, R; Guerra, A D; Domenico, G D; Zavattini, G

    2002-01-01

    A small animal PET-SPECT scanner (YAPPET) prototype was built at the Physics Department of the Ferrara University and is presently being used at the Nuclear Medicine Department for radiopharmaceutical studies on rats. The first YAPPET prototype shows very good performances, but needs some improvements before it can be fully used for intensive radiopharmaceutical research. The main problem of the actual prototype is its heavy electronics, based on NIM and CAMAC standard modules. For this reason a new, compact read-out electronics was developed and tested. The results of a first series of tests made on the first prototype will be presented in the paper.

  8. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Heelan, Louise; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) provides highly-segmented energy measurements of incoming particles. It is a key detector for the measurement of hadrons, jets, tau leptons and missing transverse energy. It is also useful for identification and reconstruction of muons due to good signal to noise ratio. The calorimeter consists of thin steel plates and 460,000 scintillating tiles configured into 5000 cells, each viewed by two photomultipliers. The calorimeter response and its readout electronics is monitored to better than 1% using radioactive source, laser and charge injection systems. The calibration and performance of the calorimeter have been established through test beam measurements, cosmic ray muons and the large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired in 2011 and 2012. Results on the calorimeter performance are presented, including the absolute energy scale, timing, noise and associated stabilities. The results demonstrate that the Tile Calorimeter has performed well within the design ...

  9. The readout electronics for Plastic Scintillator Detector of DAMPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jie; Yang, Haibo; Zhao, Hongyun; Su, Hong; Sun, Zhiyu; Yu, Yuhong; JingZhe, Zhang; Wang, XiaoHui; Liu, Jie; Xiao, Guoqing; Ma, Xinwen

    2016-07-01

    The Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) satellite, which launched in December 2015, is designed to find the evidence of the existence of dark matter particles in the universe via the detection of the high-energy electrons and gamma-ray particles produced possibly by the annihilation of dark matter particles. Plastic Scintillator Detector (PSD) is one of major part of the satellite payload, which is comprised of a crossed pair of layers with 41 plastic scintillator-strips, each read out from both ends by the same Hamamatsu R4443MOD2 photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs). In order to extend linear dynamic range of detector, PMTs read out each plastic scintillator-strip separately with two dynode pickoffs. Therefore, the readout electronics system comprises of four Front-end boards to receive the pulses from 328 PMTs and implement charge measurement, which is based on the Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) chip VA160, 16 bits ADC and FPGA. The electronics of the detector has been designed following stringent requirements on mechanical and thermal stability, power consumption, radiation hardness and double redundancy. Various experiments are designed and implemented to check the performance of the electronics, some excellent results has been achieved.According to experimental results analysis, it is proved that the readout electronics works well.

  10. Search for supersymmetric top-quark partners using support vector machines and upgrade of the hadron calorimeter front-end readout control system at CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Mehmet Oezguer

    2017-04-15

    In this thesis a search for direct pair production of supersymmetric top-quark partners as well as work on the upgrade of the front-end readout controller of the Hadron Calorimeter (HCAL) of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment are presented. The most appealing extension of the Standard Model (SM) is supersymmetry (SUSY), relating the integer spin (bosons) and half-integer spin elementary particles (fermions). Supersymmetric top-quark partners (t) around and below the TeV energy scale offer a solution to the hierarchy problem. Furthermore, R-parity conserving SUSY models propose a cold dark matter candidate in the form of stable lightest supersymmetric particles, e.g. lightest neutralinos (χ{sup 0}). The analysis performed in this thesis is a search for top-squark pair production in a final state consisting of a single isolated lepton, jets, among which at least one is tagged as bottom-quark jet, and large missing transverse energy at the CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with 8 TeV center-of-mass energy. A new Support Vector Machines (SVM) High-Energy Physics interface (SVM-HINT) software is introduced to classify signal events originating from new physics processes and the SM background. SVM-HINT is enhanced with a novel statistical significance based optimization algorithm providing a state-of-the-art classification power. Monte Carlo simulations are used in the training and optimization procedure, and high signal purity search regions are determined in the search for top-squark pair production. The background event yields in each search region are predicted using a data-driven background estimation method. The results are interpreted within a simplified model assuming a branching ratio of 100% to t → tχ{sup 0}. No significant discrepancy between the data and the SM predictions has been observed. Exclusion limits were derived to constrain the m{sub t} and m{sub χ{sup 0}} of the investigated simplified model. The sensitivity of the

  11. Dual-readout Calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Akchurin, N; Cardini, A.; Cascella, M.; Cei, F.; De Pedis, D.; Fracchia, S.; Franchino, S.; Fraternali, M.; Gaudio, G.; Genova, P.; Hauptman, J.; La Rotonda, L.; Lee, S.; Livan, M.; Meoni, E.; Moggi, A.; Pinci, D.; Policicchio, A.; Saraiva, J.G.; Sill, A.; Venturelli, T.; Wigmans, R.

    2013-01-01

    The RD52 Project at CERN is a pure instrumentation experiment whose goal is to un- derstand the fundamental limitations to hadronic energy resolution, and other aspects of energy measurement, in high energy calorimeters. We have found that dual-readout calorimetry provides heretofore unprecedented information event-by-event for energy resolution, linearity of response, ease and robustness of calibration, fidelity of data, and particle identification, including energy lost to binding energy in nuclear break-up. We believe that hadronic energy resolutions of {\\sigma}/E $\\approx$ 1 - 2% are within reach for dual-readout calorimeters, enabling for the first time comparable measurement preci- sions on electrons, photons, muons, and quarks (jets). We briefly describe our current progress and near-term future plans. Complete information on all aspects of our work is available at the RD52 website http://highenergy.phys.ttu.edu/dream/.

  12. The ALICE silicon pixel detector read-out electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Krivda, Marian; Burns, M; Cali, I; Ceresa, S; Kluge, A; Torcato de Matos, C; Morel, M; Riedler, P; Aglieri-Rinella, G; Sándor, L; Stefanini, G

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE silicon pixel detector (SPD) constitutes the two innermost layers of the ALICE inner tracker system. The SPD contains 10 million pixels segmented in 120 detector modules (half staves), which are connected to the offdetector electronics with bidirectional optical links. Raw data from the on-detector electronics are sent to 20 FPGA-based processor cards (Routers) each carrying three 2-channel linkreceiver daughter-cards. The routers process the data and send them to the ALICE DAQ system via the ALICE detector data link (DDL). The SPD control, configuration and data monitoring is performed via the VME interface of the routers. This paper describes the detector readout and control via the off-detector electronics.

  13. Low Background Signal Readout Electronics for the Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinn, Ian [University of Washington; Rielage, Keith Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elliott, Steven Ray [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Xu, Wenqin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goett, John Jerome III [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-06-11

    The MAJORANA Collaboration will seek neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in 76Ge using isotopically enriched p-type point contact (PPC) high purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. A tonne-scale array of HPGe detectors would require background levels below 1 count/ROI-tonne-year in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039 keV Q-value of the decay. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of such an experiment, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, a 40 kg HPGe detector array, is being constructed. The DEMONSTRATOR has a background goal of < 3 counts/ROI-tonne-year, which is expected to scale down to < 1 count/ROI-tonne-year for a one tonne experiment. The signal readout electronics, which must be placed in close proximity to the detectors, present a challenge toward reaching this background goal. This paper discusses the materials and design used to construct signal readout electronics with low enough backgrounds for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR.

  14. Principal component analysis for neural electron/jet discrimination in highly segmented calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Vassali, M R

    2001-01-01

    A neural electron/jet discriminator based on calorimetry is developed for the second-level trigger system of the ATLAS detector. As preprocessing of the calorimeter information, a principal component analysis is performed on each segment of the two sections (electromagnetic and hadronic) of the calorimeter system, in order to reduce significantly the dimension of the input data space and fully explore the detailed energy deposition profile, which is provided by the highly-segmented calorimeter system. It is shown that projecting calorimeter data onto 33 segmented principal components, the discrimination efficiency of the neural classifier reaches 98.9% for electrons (with only 1% of false alarm probability). Furthermore, restricting data projection onto only 9 components, an electron efficiency of 99.1% is achieved (with 3% of false alarm), which confirms that a fast triggering system may be designed using few components. (6 refs).

  15. Readout electronics development for the ATLAS silicon tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Borer, K; Anghinolfi, Francis; Aspell, P; Chilingarov, A G; Jarron, Pierre; Heijne, Erik H M; Santiard, Jean-Claude; Verweij, H; Gössling, C; Lisowski, B; Reichold, A; Bonino, R; Clark, A G; Kambara, H; La Marra, D; Léger, A; Wu, X; Richeux, J P; Taylor, G N; Fedotov, M G; Kuper, E A; Velikzhanin, Yu S; Campbell, D; Murray, P; Seller, P

    1995-01-01

    We present the status of the development of the readout electronics for the large area silicon tracker of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, carried out by the CERN RD2 project. Our basic readout concept is to integrate a fast amplifier, analog memory, sparse data scan circuit and analog-to-digital convertor (ADC) on a single VLSI chip. This architecture will provide full analog information of charged particle hits associated unambiguously to one LHC beam crossing, which is expected to be at a frequency of 40 MHz. The expected low occupancy of the ATLAS inner silicon detectors allows us to use a low speed (5 MHz) on-chip ADC with a multiplexing scheme. The functionality of the fast amplifier and analog memory have been demonstrated with various prototype chips. Most recently we have successfully tested improved versions of the amplifier and the analog memory. A piecewise linear ADC has been fabricated and performed satisfactorily up to 5 MHz. A new chip including amplifier, analog memory, memory controller, ADC...

  16. Prometeo: A portable test-bench for the upgraded front-end electronics of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bullock, D; The ATLAS collaboration; Hofsajer, I; Govender, M; Mellado, B; Moreno, P; Reed, R; Ruan, X; Sandrock, C; Solans, C; Suter, R; Usai, G; Valero, A

    2014-01-01

    Prometeo is the portable test-bench for the full certification of the front-end electronics of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter designed for the upgrade phase-II. It is a high throughput electronics system designed to simultaneously read-out all the samples from 12 channels at the LHC bunch crossing frequency and assess the quality of the data in real-time. The core of the system is a Xilinx Virtex 7 evaluation board extended with a dual QSFP FMC module to read-out and control the front-end boards. The rest of the functionalities of the system are provided by a HV mezzanine board that to turn on the gain of the photo-multipliers, an LED board that sends light to illuminate them, and a 12 channel ADC board that samples the analog output of the front-end. The system is connected by ethernet to a GUI client from which QA tests are performed on the electronics such as noise measurements and linearity response to an injected charge.

  17. "Simulation of the full noise pattern in Tile Calorimeter Front End electronics a phenomenological approach to coherent effects"

    CERN Document Server

    Spanó, F

    2008-01-01

    The noise pattern in the high gain read-out of the TileCal front-end electronics is simulated including correlations. A basic comparison with test beam data is carried out. The limits and potentialities of the current approach are discussed. A preliminary extrapolation to simulated QCD di-jet events implies that, on average, the correlated noise component can increase TileCal noise contribution to the jet energy by about 87\\% on average, while the total calorimeters noise is expected to remain between 2\\% to 4\\% of the total jet energy. An initial strategy for analysing and incorporating these effects during LHC data-taking, particularly in the early phase, is also outlined.

  18. The CLAS forward electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Amarian, M; Beard, K; Brooks, W; Burkert, V; Carstens, T; Coleman, A; Demirchyan, R; Efremenko, Yu V; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K; Funsten, H; Gavrilov, V; Giovanetti, K; Marshall, R M; Mecking, B; Minehart, R C; Mkrtchan, H; Ohandjanyan, M; Sharabyan, Yu G; Smith, L C; Stepanyan, S; Stephens, W A; Tung, T Y; Zorn, C

    2001-01-01

    The CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab utilizes six iron-free superconducting coils to provide an approximately toroidal magnetic field. The six sectors are instrumented individually to form six independent spectrometers. The forward region (8 deg. < 45 deg.) of each sector is equipped with a lead-scintillator electromagnetic sampling calorimeter (EC), 16 radiation lengths thick, using a novel triangular geometry with stereo readout. With its good energy and position resolution, the EC is used to provide the primary electron trigger for CLAS. It is also used to reject pions, reconstruct pi deg. and eta decays and detect neutrons. This paper treats the design, construction and performance of the calorimeter.

  19. Time alignment of the front end electronics of the LHCb calorimeters.

    CERN Document Server

    Abellan Beteta, C; Ajaltouni, Z; Amhis, Y; Barsuk, S; Beigbeder-Beau, C; Belyaev, I; Bohner, G; Bonnefoy, R; Breton, D; Calvo Gómez, M; Camilleri, L; Callot, O; Camboni, A; Chanal, H; Charlet, D; Comerma-Montells, A; Cornat, R; Crouau, M; Dalmagne, B; Deschamps, O; Domingo Bonal, F; Drancourt, C; Duarte, O; Dzhelyadin, R; Egorychev, V; Filippov, S; Fulda Quenzer, F; Garra Ticó, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar de Valenzuela, A; Gioi, L L; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; González Bano, C; Grabalosa Gàndara, M; Graciani Díaz, R; Graugés, E; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Jean-Marie, B; Konoplyannikov, A; Kristic, R; Kvaratskheliya, T; Ky, B; Lecoq, J; Lefèvre, R; Lefrançois, J; López Asamar, E; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I; Martens, A; Minard, M N; Monteil, S; Niess, V; Perret, P; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Puig Navarro, A; Reinmuth, G; Riera-Baburés, J; Robbe, P; Roselló, M; Ruiz, H; Savrina, D; Schopper, A; Schune, M H; Shatalov, P; Sobczak, K; T’Jampens, S; Tocut, V; Vàzquez Gómez, R; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vilasís-Cardona, X; Zhokhov, A

    2012-01-01

    LHCb is the experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN designed for performing studies of CP-symmetry violation and rare decays of B-hadrons. Its calorimeter system allows to trigger on photons and electrons by associating the information from a scintillating pad signing charged particle (SPD), a pre-shower tagging electromagnetic particle (PS), an electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) and a hadronic calorimeter (HCAL). We present the principles and procedures for its fine time-alignment through the commissioning and the first collision phases. We give a particular emphasis to the choices made in the electronic design of the calorimeters to deal with the signal shape and spill over. Also we summarise the achieved levels of synchronisation.

  20. Readiness of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter for LHC Collisions

    CERN Document Server

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Head, S.J.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heinemann, B.; Heisterkamp, S.; Helary, L.; Heller, M.; Hellman, S.; Helsens, C.; Hemperek, T.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henke, M.; Henrichs, A.; Henriques-Correia, A.M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hensel, C.; Henß, T.; Hershenhorn, A.D.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hessey, N.P.; Hidvegi, A.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, D.; Hill, J.C.; Hiller, K.H.; Hillier, S.J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hirose, M.; Hirsch, F.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.; Hodgkinson, M.C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M.R.; Hoffman, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holmgren, S.O.; Holy, T.; Holzbauer, J.L.; Homma, Y.; Homola, P.; Horazdovsky, T.; Hori, T.; Horn, C.; Horner, S.; Horvat, S.; Hostachy, J-Y; Hou, S.; Houlden, M.A.; Hoummada, A.; Howe, T.; Hrivnac, J.; Hryn'ova, T.; Hsu, P.J.; Hsu, S-C; Huang, G.S.; Hubacek, Z.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Hughes, E.W.; Hughes, G.; Hughes-Jones, R.E.; Hurst, P.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Iacobucci, G.; Iakovidis, G.; Ibragimov, I.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Idarraga, J.; Iengo, P.; Igonkina, O.; Ikegami, Y.; Ikeno, M.; Ilchenko, Y.; Iliadis, D.; Ilyushenka, Y.; Imori, M.; Ince, T.; Ioannou, P.; Iodice, M.; Irles-Quiles, A.; Ishikawa, A.; Ishino, M.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Isobe, T.; Issakov, V.; Issever, C.; Istin, S.; Itoh, Y.; Ivashin, A.V.; Iwanski, W.; Iwasaki, H.; Izen, J.M.; Izzo, V.; Jackson, J.N.; Jackson, P.; Jaekel, M.; Jahoda, M.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jakobsen, S.; Jakubek, J.; Jana, D.; Jansen, E.; Jantsch, A.; Janus, M.; Jared, R.C.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarron, P.; Jeanty, L.; Jelen, K.; Jen-La Plante, I; Jenni, P.; Jez, P.; Jézéquel, S.; Ji, W.; Jia, J.; Jiang, Y.; Jimenez Belenguer, M; Jin, G.; Jin, S.; Jinnouchi, O.; Joffe, D.; Johansen, M.; Johansson, K.E.; Johansson, P.; Johnert, S.; Johns, K.A.; Jon-And, K.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.W.L.; Jones, T.W.; Jones, T.J.; Jonsson, O.; Joos, D.; Joram, C.; Jorge, P.M.; Juranek, V.; Jussel, P.; Kabachenko, V.V.; Kabana, S.; Kaci, M.; Kaczmarska, A.; 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Sankey, D.P.C.; Sanny, B.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C; Santi, L.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, D.; Santos, J.; Saraiva, J.G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, T.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Savard, P.; Savine, A.Y.; Savinov, V.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D.H.; Says, L.P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scannicchio, D.A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schäfer, U.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A.C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schamov, A.G.; Schegelsky, V.A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M.I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schlereth, J.L.; Schmid, P.; Schmidt, M.P.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitz, M.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schreiner, A.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schroers, M.; Schuler, G.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Schumacher, J.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B.A.; Schune, Ph; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Scott, W.G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S.C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J.M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D.M.; Sellden, B.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M.E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L.Y.; Shank, J.T.; Shao, Q.T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P.B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, C.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M.J.; Shupe, M.A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siebel, A.; Siegert, F.; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S.B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N.B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Sivoklokov, S.Yu.; Sjoelin, J.; Sjursen, T.B.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloper, J.; Sluka, T.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S.Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L.N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B.C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K.M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A.A.; Snow, S.W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C.A.; Solar, M.; Solfaroli-Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A.A.; Solovyanov, O.V.; Soluk, R.; Sondericker, J.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sosebee, M.; Sosnovtsev, V.V.; Sospedra-Suay, L.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Speckmayer, P.; Spencer, E.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St Denis, R D; Stahl, T.; Stamen, R.; Stancu, S.N.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R.W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E.A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stastny, J.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H.J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G.; Stockton, M.C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D.M.; Strong, J.A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Soh, D.A.; Su, D.; Suchkov, S.I.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V.V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J.E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M.R.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Sviridov, Yu M; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szymocha, T.; Sánchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M.C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tappern, G.P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F.E.; Taylor, G.N.; Taylor, R.P.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Ten Kate, H; Teng, P.K.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R.J.; Tevlin, C.M.; Thadome, J.; Thananuwong, R.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Thomas, T.L.; Thompson, E.N.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, R.J.; Thompson, A.S.; Thomson, E.; Thun, R.P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V.O.; Tikhonov, Y.A.; Timmermans, C.J.W.P.; Tipton, P.; Tique-Aires-Viegas, F.J.; Tisserant, S.; Tobias, J.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Tomasz, F.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, D.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N.D.; Torrence, E.; Torró Pastor, E; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D.R.; Tovey, S.N.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T.N.; Tripiana, M.F.; Triplett, N.; Trivedi, A.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J.C-L.; Tsiafis, I.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P.V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E.G.; Tsukerman, I.I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J-W; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P.M.; Twomey, M.S.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D.G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J A; Van Berg, R; van der Graaf, H; van der Kraaij, E; van der Poel, E; Van Der Ster, D; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; van Kesteren, Z; van Vulpen, I; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F; Vari, R.; Varnes, E.W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K.E.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vassilakopoulos, V.I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J.J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vetterli, M.C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G.H.A.; Villa, M.; Villani, E.G.; Villaplana Perez, M; Villate, J.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M.G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.V.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaques, F; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogt, H.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H; von Loeben, J; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A.P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T.T.; Vossebeld, J.H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T; Vudragovic, D.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Walbersloh, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.C.; Wang, S.M.; Ward, C.P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, M.F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A.T.; Waugh, B.M.; Webel, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.D.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P.S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Werthenbach, U.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S.J.; Whitaker, S.P.; White, A.; White, M.J.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F.J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L.A.M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M.A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H.G.; Williams, E.; Williams, H.H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J.A.; Wilson, M.G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M.W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B.K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M.J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S.L.; Wu, X.; Wulf, E.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, N.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W-M; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, M.; Yu, X.; Yuan, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zambrano, V.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zema, P.F.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C.G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zilka, B.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Zivkovic, L.; Zmouchko, V.V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M; Zutshi, V.

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter has been operating continuously since August 2006. At this time, only part of the calorimeter was readout, but since the beginning of 2008, all calorimeter cells have been connected to the ATLAS readout system in preparation for LHC collisions. This paper gives an overview of the liquid argon calorimeter performance measured in situ with random triggers, calibration data, cosmic muons, and LHC beam splash events. Results on the detector operation, timing performance, electronics noise, and gain stability are presented. High energy deposits from radiative cosmic muons and beam splash events allow to check the intrinsic constant term of the energy resolution. The uniformity of the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter response along eta (averaged over phi) is measured at the percent level using minimum ionizing cosmic muons. Finally, studies of electromagnetic showers from radiative muons have been used to cross-check the Monte Carlo simulation. The performance results obtained u...

  1. Performance of the ATLAS Hadronic Endcap Calorimeter Modules to Electrons and Pions

    CERN Document Server

    Fortin, Dominique

    2000-01-01

    During the summer of 1999, the first six production modules of the Hadronic Endcap Calorimeter were assembled and installed in a beam test cryostat at CERN. In this thesis the performance of the calorimeter is assessed in terms of its response and resolution to electrons and pions The calorimeter is evaluated at five impact points and over an energy range of 10 to 200 GeV. The linearity of the response to electrons is observed to be within approximately one percent, and the average electromagnetic scale constant is measured to be 3.82 +/- 0.04 GeV/nA. The intrinsic energy resolution (not including the electronic noise) is obtained for electrons and pions. Comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and the effect of the electronics calibration procedure are discussed. Finally, the ratio of electromagnetic to hadronic response, e/h, is measured to be 1.509 +/- 0.021.

  2. Development of an external readout electronics for a hybrid photon detector

    CERN Document Server

    Uyttenhove, Simon; Tichon, Jacques; Garcia, Salvador

    The pixel hybrid photon detectors currently installed in the LHCb Cherenkov system encapsulate readout electronics in the vacuum tube envelope. The LHCb upgrade and the new trigger system will require their replacement with new photon detectors. The baseline photon detector candidate is the multi-anode photomultiplier. A hybrid photon detector with external readout electronics has been proposed as a backup option. This master thesis covers a R & D phase to investigate this latter concept. Extensive studies of the initial electronics system underlined the noise contributions from the Beetle chip used as front-end readout ASIC and from the ceramic carrier of the photon detector. New front-end electronic boards have been developed and made fully compatible with the existing LHCb-RICH infrastructure. With this compact readout system, Cherenkov photons have been successfully detected in a real particle beam environment. The proof-of-concept of a hybrid photon detector with external readout electronics was val...

  3. Simulation and validation of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter response

    CERN Document Server

    Karpov, S N; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is the central section of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter at the Large Hadron Collider. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from approximately 10000 PMTs are measured and digitized before being transferred to off-detector data acquisition systems. This contribution describes the detailed simulation of this large scale calorimeter from the implementation of the geometrical elements down to the realistic description of the electronics readout pulses, the special noise treatment and the signal reconstruction. The improved description of the optical and electronic signal propagation is highlighted and the validation with the real particle data is presented.

  4. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter experience with 10,000 readout photomultipliers operating since the start of the $p-p$ collisions at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)802259; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The channels of TileCal, the hadron calorimeter of the Atlas experiment at the LHC, is readout with 8-stage fine-mesh PhotoMulTipliers (PMTs), a special version of the Hamamatsu model R5900. About 10000 PMTs are operating in TileCal. The PMT response stability allows to calibrate accurately the calorimeter and to achieve high performance of the energy reconstruction of the cells. Currently, no PMT replacement is foreseen before completion of the High Luminosity program of the LHC collider in the next decade. In this perspective, a number of measurements and tests are in progress to qualify the PMT robustness in terms of lifetime and response stability. Data from the Tile calibration procedure for the detector PMTs and from laboratory tests of spare PMTs are being analysed. Results on PMT failures, gain loss and quantum efficiency loss are presented. Analysis is focused on the study of the observed down-drift with time of the PMT response as a function of the integrated anode charge, and depending on the indiv...

  5. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter experience with 10,000 readout photomultipliers operating since the start of the p-p collisions at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lazar, Hadar; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The channels of TileCal, the hadron calorimeter of the Atlas experiment at the LHC, is readout with 8-stage fine-mesh PhotoMulTipliers (PMTs), a special version of the Hamamatsu model R5900. About 10000 PMTs are operating in TileCal. The PMT response stability allows to calibrate accurately the calorimeter and to achieve high performance of the energy reconstruction of the cells. Currently, no PMT replacement is foreseen before completion of the High Luminosity program of the LHC collider in the next decade. In this perspective, a number of measurements and tests are in progress to qualify the PMT robustness in terms of lifetime and response stability. Data from the Tile calibration procedure for the detector PMTs and from laboratory tests of spare PMTs are being analysed. Results on PMT failures, gain loss and quantum efficiency loss are presented. Analysis is focused on the study of the observed down-drift with time of the PMT response as a function of the integrated anode charge, and depending on the indiv...

  6. Use of the calorimeter in the dosimetry for electron accelerators; Uso del calorimetro en la dosimetria para aceleradores de electrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez B, A

    1991-02-15

    The measure of different radiation types, with specific dosemeters, requires that the absorbed dose should be measured with accuracy by some common standard. The existent problem around the dosimetry of accelerated electrons has forced to the development of diverse detector types that after having analyzed the characteristics; dependability and reproducibility are used as dosemeters. Recently the calorimeters have been developed, with the purpose of carrying out dosimetry for electron accelerators. The RISO laboratory in Denmark, in it 10 MeV accelerator had been used for the dosimetry those water calorimeters, later on, using the principle of the water calorimeter, it was designing one similar, for the accelerator of 400 keV. Recently manufactured simple calorimeters of graphite have been used, which can be used in both accelerators of 10 MeV and 400 keV. (Author)

  7. Dedicated front-end electronics for the next generation of linear collider electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Manen, S; Lecoq, J; Fleury, J; de La Taille, C; Martin, G

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an R&D electronic program for the next generation of linear collider electromagnetic calorimeter. After a brief presentation of the requirements, a global scheme of the electronics is given. Then, we describe the three different building blocks developed in 0.35\\mum CMOS technology: an amplifier, a comparator and finally the pipelined ADC

  8. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter: simulation and validation of the response

    CERN Document Server

    Faltova, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter at the Large Hadron Collider. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is readout by wavelength shifting fibers and transmitted to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from approximately 10000 PMTs are measured and digitized before being further transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. Detailed simulations are described in this contribution, ranging from the implementation of the geometrical elements to the realistic description of the electronics readout pulses, including specific noise treatment and the signal reconstruction. Special attention is given to the improved optical signal propagation and the validation with the real particle data.

  9. Run 1 Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Heelan, Louise; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) provides highly-segmented energy measurements of incoming particles. It is a key detector for the measurement of hadrons, jets, tau leptons and missing transverse energy. It is also useful for identification and reconstruction of muons due to good signal to noise ratio. The calorimeter consists of thin steel plates and 460,000 scintillating tiles configured into 5000 cells, each viewed by two photomultipliers. The calorimeter response and its readout electronics is monitored to better than 1% using radioactive source, laser and charge injection systems. The calibration and performance of the calorimeter have been established through test beam measurements, cosmic ray muons and the large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired in 2011 and 2012. Results on the calorimeter performance are presented, including the absolute energy scale, timing, noise and associated stabilities. The results demonstrate that the Tile Calorimeter has performed well within the design ...

  10. LHCb calorimeter front-end electronics radiation dose and single event effects

    CERN Document Server

    Beigbeder-Beau, C; Charlet, D; Lefrançois, J; Machefert, F P; Tocut, V; Truong, K D

    2002-01-01

    The LHCb calorimeter front-end electronics will be located above the ECAL / HCAL, i.e. in a region which is not protected from radiations. We present here an estimation of the radiation effect for the electronics and the solutions we investigate to reduce it. Two irradiation tests of the calorimeter front-end shaper have been performed, in June 2001 at the Centre de Proton Thérapie (Orsay) and in December 2001 at GANIL (Caen). The results of the tests clearly show the satisfying resistance of the shaper to SEL.

  11. MAPMTs and FE electronics for the LHCb preshower readout

    CERN Document Server

    Cârloganu, C

    2004-01-01

    The LHCb preshower is a scintillator plane preceded by a lead sheet of 2.5radiation lengths. Its main task is to validate the electromagnetic nature of the showers for the Level 0 trigger. The readout system, working at the LHC frequency, has a large dynamics, high accuracy and allows successive triggers. It includes 64 anode photomultiplier tubes, an analogue very front end board and a digital front end board. The full readout system will be described in the following.

  12. Electron beam test of an iron/gas calorimeter based on ceramic parallel plate chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arefiev, A.; Bencze, Gy.L.; Bizzeti, A.; Choumilov, E.; Civinini, C; Dalla Santa, F.; D' Alessandro, R.; Ferrando, A.; Fouz, M.C.; Herve, A.; Iglesias, A.; Ivochkin, V.; Josa, M.I.; Maggi, F.; Malinin, A.; Meschini, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Radermacher, E.; Salicio, J.M.

    1995-07-01

    The baseline option for the very forward calorimetry in the CMS experiment is an iron/gas calorimeter based on parallel plate chambers. A small prototype module of such a calorimeter, has been tested using electrons of 5 to 100 GeV/c momentum with various high voltages and two gases: CO2 (100%) and CF4/CO2 (80/20), at atmospheric pressure. The collected charge has been measured as a function of the high voltage and of the electron energy. The energy resolution has also been measured. Comparisons have been made with Monte-Carlo predictions. Agreement between data an simulation allows to make and estimation of the expected performance of a full size calorimeter. (Author) 23 refs.

  13. Study of an automatic readout integrated circuit for the signal shaping of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter; Etude d`un circuit integre de commutation automatique de gain pour le circuit de mise en forme du signal du calorimetre electromagnetique d`ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussat, J.M. [Laboratoire d`Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules, 74 - Annecy-le-Vieux (France)

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes the present state of the development of an automatic readout integrated circuit that can be used, connected to the four gain shaper of LAL, at the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter.

  14. Upgrade of the ATLAS Calorimeters for Higher LHC Luminosities

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00424300; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHC will bring instantaneous and total luminosities which are a factor 5-7 beyond the original design of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) and Tile Calorimeters and their read-out systems. Due to radiation requirements and a new hardware trigger concept the read-out electronics will be improved in two phases. In Phase-I, a dedicated read-out of the LAr Calorimeters will provide higher granularity input to the trigger, in order to mitigate pile-up effects and to reduce the background rates. In Phase-II, completely new read-out electronics will allow a digital processing of all LAr and Tile Calorimeter channels at the full 40 MHz bunch-crossing frequency and a transfer of calibrated energy inputs to the trigger. Results from system design and performance of the developed read-out components, including fully functioning demonstrator systems already operated on the detector, will be reported. Furthermore, the current Forward Calorimeter (FCal) may suffer from signal degradation and argon bubble form...

  15. Search for Supersymmetric Top-Quark Partners Using Support Vector Machines and Upgrade of the Hadron Calorimeter Front-End Readout Control System at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Sahin, Mehmet Ozgur; Schleper, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis a search for direct pair production of supersymmetric top-quark partners aswell as work on the upgrade of the front-end readout controller of the Hadron Calorimeter(HCAL) of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment are presented.The most appealing extension of the Standard Model (SM) is supersymmetry (SUSY), relating the integer spin (bosons) and half-integer spin elementary particles (fermions). Supersymmetric top-quark partners (t) around and below the TeV energy scale offer a solution to thehierarchy problem. Furthermore, R-parity conserving SUSY models propose a cold dark matter candidate in the form of stable lightest supersymmetric particles, e.g. lightest neutralinos(χ0 ).The analysis performed in this thesis is a search for top-squark pair production in a final state consisting of a single isolated lepton, jets, among which at least one is tagged asbottom-quark jet, and large missing transverse energy at the CMS experiment at the CERNLarge Hadron Collider (LHC) with 8 TeV center-of-...

  16. Commissioning of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The Liquid Argon calorimeter (LAr) is one of the main sub-detectors in the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. It provides precision measurements of electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy produced in the LHC pp collisions. The LAr calorimeter has been installed in the ATLAS cavern and filled with liquid argon since 2006. The electronic calibration of the readout system, a critical system for precision measurements, has been continuously exercised in the commissioning phase, resulting in a fully commissioned calorimeter with its readout and a small number of problematic channels. A total of only 0.02% of the read out channels are dead beyond repair and 0.4% need special treatment for calibration. Throughout the last two years a large amount of calibration data has been collected. Cosmic muon data, first triggered via specially developed trigger boards on the LVL1 output of the Tile calorimeter and later with the standard ATLAS LVL1 calorimeter trigger, have been recorded at various stages of commissio...

  17. General-purpose readout electronics for white neutron source at China Spallation Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Cao, P.; Qi, X.; Yu, T.; Ji, X.; Xie, L.; An, Q.

    2018-01-01

    The under-construction White Neutron Source (WNS) at China Spallation Neutron Source is a facility for accurate measurements of neutron-induced cross section. Seven spectrometers are planned at WNS. As the physical objectives of each spectrometer are different, the requirements for readout electronics are not the same. In order to simplify the development of the readout electronics, this paper presents a general method for detector signal readout. This method has advantages of expansibility and flexibility, which makes it adaptable to most detectors at WNS. In the WNS general-purpose readout electronics, signals from any kinds of detectors are conditioned by a dedicated signal conditioning module corresponding to this detector, and then digitized by a common waveform digitizer with high speed and high precision (1 GSPS at 12-bit) to obtain the full waveform data. The waveform digitizer uses a field programmable gate array chip to process the data stream and trigger information in real time. PXI Express platform is used to support the functionalities of data readout, clock distribution, and trigger information exchange between digitizers and trigger modules. Test results show that the performance of the WNS general-purpose readout electronics can meet the requirements of the WNS spectrometers.

  18. Development of TORCH readout electronics for customised MCPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, R.; Brook, N.; Castillo García, L.; Cussans, D.; Fohl, K.; Forty, R.; Frei, C.; Gys, T.; Harnew, N.; Piedigrossi, D.; Rademacker, J.; Ros García, A.; Van Dijk, M.

    2016-04-01

    The TORCH detector is being developed for low-momentum particle identification, combining time-of-flight and Cherenkov techniques to achieve charged particle pi/K/p separation up to 10 GeV/c over a flight distance of 10m. This requires a timing resolution of 70 ps for single photons. Based on an existing scalable design, production and testing of a TORCH readout system has been undertaken over the past year, and a novel customized Micro Channel Plate (MCP) photomultiplier device with 128-channels has been instrumented. This paper will report on the development of the readout system which is being used to measure time-of-flight in a test-beam, and its performance. We will also discuss the communication and data alignment between the TORCH system and the TimePix3 telescope in order to provide track reconstruction.

  19. An electromagnetic calorimeter for the silicon detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silicon calorimeters are quite stable. Since the largest change in response is due to the electronics, it is designed with an internal calibration system. This internal calibration should limit the spread within a chip to ∼1%. Chip-to-chip variations could be larger. Each sensor might be calibrated after the readout chip has been.

  20. Phase I Upgrade of the CMS Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Seth Isaac

    2014-01-01

    In preparation for Run 2 (2015) and Run 3 of the LHC (2019), the CMS hadron calorimeter has begun a series of ambitious upgrades. These include new photodetectors in addition to improved front-end and back-end readout electronics. In the hadron forward calorimeter, the existing photomultiplier tubes are being replaced with thinner window, multi-anode readout models, while in the central region, the hybrid photodiodes will be replaced with silicon photomultipliers. The front-end electronics will include high precision timing readout, and the backend electronics will handle the increased data bandwidth. The barrel and endcap longitudinal segmentation will also be increased. This report will describe the motivation for the upgrade, its major components, and its current status.

  1. Development of radiation hard readout electronics for LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Sexauer, Edgar; Lindenstruth, Volker

    2001-01-01

    The experiment LHCb is under development at CERN and aims to measure CP-violation in the B-Meson system at very high precision. The experiment makes use of a vertex detector that is equipped with silicon microstrip detectors. A chip suitable for the readout of this detector has been developed in a working group at the ASIC-laboratory Heidelberg. This readout chip 'Beetle-1.0' contains 128 analog input stages of a charge sensitive preamplifier, a pulse shaper and a buffer. The analog signal is fed into a comparator, from which a fast trigger signal can be derived. The following pipeline, realized as an array of gate capacitances, can be used to either store the analog output of the input amplifiers or to store the digital comparator output. External trigger signals mark events that have to be read out and the according pipeline location is stored in a derandomizing buffer. Pending events are read out from the pipeline via a charge-sensitive, resetable amplifier and an analog multiplexer, which serializes the s...

  2. Superconductor Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors: System Model of the Readout Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Alimenti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the readout electronics needed by superconductor Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs. MKIDs are typically implemented in the form of cryogenic-cooled high quality factor microwave resonator. The natural frequency of these resonators changes as a millimeter or sub-millimeter wave radiation impinges on the resonator itself. A quantitative system model of the readout electronics (very similar to that of a vector network analyzer has been implemented under ADS environment and tested by several simulation experiments. The developed model is a tool to further optimize the readout electronic and to design the frequency allocation of parallel-connected MKIDs resonators. The applications of MKIDs will be in microwave and millimeter-wave radiometric imaging as well as in radio-astronomy focal plane arrays.

  3. Electron and photon energy reconstruction in the electromagnetic calorimeter of ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2075753; Mandelli, Luciano

    2007-01-01

    The Atlas LAr electromagnetic calorimeter is designed to provide a precise measurement of electrons and photons energies, in order to meet the requirements coming from the LHC physics program. This request of precision makes important to understand the behavior of the detector in all its aspect. Of fundamental importance to achieve the best possible performances is the calibration of the EM calorimeter, and this is the topic of this thesis. With detailed Monte Carlo simulations of single electrons and photons in the Atlas detector, we find a method to calibrate the electromagnetic calorimeter, based only on the informations that come from it. All the informations needed to develop a calibration method come from the simulations made with the technique of the Calibration Hits, that allows to know the en- ergy deposited in all the materials inside the detector volume, and not only in the active layer of each subdetector as possible in the standard simulations. This technique required a big effort for the develop...

  4. Electronics and triggering challenges for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Borg, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL) is presently being designedto replace the CMS endcap calorimeters for the HighLuminosity phase at LHC. It will feature six million silicon sensor channelsand 52 longitudinal layers. The requirements for the frontendelectronics include a 0.3 fC-10 pC dynamic range, low noise (2000 e-) and low power consumption (10 mW /channel).In addition, the HGCAL will perform 50 ps resolution time of arrivalmeasurements to combat the effect of the large number of interactions taking placeat each bunch crossing, and will transmit both triggered readoutfrom on-detector buffer memory and reduced resolution real-time trigger data.We present the challenges related to the frontend electronics, data transmissionand off-detector trigger preprocessing that must be overcome, and the designconcepts currently being pursued.

  5. Design, Performance, and Calibration of CMS Hadron Endcap Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Baiatian, G; Emeliantchik, Igor; Massolov, V; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Stefanovich, R; Damgov, Jordan; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Piperov, Stefan; Vankov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Bencze, Gyorgy; Laszlo, Andras; Pal, Andras; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zálán, Peter; Fenyvesi, Andras; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Jas Bir; Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Dugad, Shashikant; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Katta, S; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Sudhakar, Katta; Verma, Piyush; Hashemi, Majid; Mohammadi-Najafabadi, M; Paktinat, S; Babich, Kanstantsin; Golutvin, Igor; Kalagin, Vladimir; Kamenev, Alexey; Konoplianikov, V; Kosarev, Ivan; Moissenz, K; Moissenz, P; Oleynik, Danila; Petrosian, A; Rogalev, Evgueni; Semenov, Roman; Sergeyev, S; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Vishnevskiy, Alexander; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Druzhkin, Dmitry; Ivanov, Alexander; Kudinov, Vladimir; Orlov, Alexandre; Smetannikov, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Gershtein, Yuri; Ilyina, N; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kisselevich, I; Kolossov, V; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kuleshov, Sergey; Litvintsev, Dmitri; Ulyanov, A; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Demianov, A; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Teplov, V; Vardanyan, Irina; Yershov, A; Abramov, Victor; Goncharov, Petr; Kalinin, Alexey; Khmelnikov, Alexander; Korablev, Andrey; Korneev, Yury; Krinitsyn, Alexander; Kryshkin, V; Lukanin, Vladimir; Pikalov, Vladimir; Ryazanov, Anton; Talov, Vladimir; Turchanovich, L; Volkov, Alexey; Camporesi, Tiziano; de Visser, Theo; Vlassov, E; Aydin, Sezgin; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Koylu, S; Kurt, Pelin; Onengüt, G; Ozkurt, Halil; Polatoz, A; Sogut, Kenan; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Yetkin, Taylan; Cankoc, K; Esendemir, Akif; Gamsizkan, Halil; Güler, M; Ozkan, Cigdem; Sekmen, Sezen; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Sever, Ramazan; Yazgan, Efe; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isiksal, Engin; Kaya, Mithat; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Grynev, B; Lyubynskiy, Vadym; Senchyshyn, Vitaliy; Hauptman, John M; Abdullin, Salavat; Elias, John E; Elvira, D; Freeman, Jim; Green, Dan; Los, Serguei; ODell, V; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Suzuki, Ichiro; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Arcidy, M; Hazen, Eric; Heering, Arjan Hendrix; Lawlor, C; Lazic, Dragoslav; Machado, Emanuel; Rohlf, James; Varela, F; Wu, Shouxiang; Baden, Drew; Bard, Robert; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Grassi, Tullio; Jarvis, Chad; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunori, Shuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Skuja, Andris; Podrasky, V; Sanzeni, Christopher; Winn, Dave; Akgun, Ugur; Ayan, S; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Miller, Michael; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Schmidt, Ianos; Akchurin, Nural; Carrell, Kenneth Wayne; Gusum, K; Kim, Heejong; Spezziga, Mario; Thomas, Ray; Wigmans, Richard; Baarmand, Marc M; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Kramer, Laird; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Cushman, Priscilla; Ma, Yousi; Sherwood, Brian; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Reidy, Jim; Sanders, David A; Karmgard, Daniel John; Ruchti, Randy; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Tully, Christopher; Bodek, Arie; De Barbaro, Pawel; Budd, Howard; Chung, Yeon Sei; Haelen, T; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Barnes, Virgil E; Laasanen, Alvin T

    2008-01-01

    Detailed measurements have been made with the CMS hadron calorimeter endcaps (HE) in response to beams of muons, electrons, and pions. Readout of HE with custom electronics and hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) shows no change of performance compared to readout with commercial electronics and photomultipliers. When combined with lead-tungstenate crystals, an energy resolution of 8\\% is achieved with 300 GeV/c pions. A laser calibration system is used to set the timing and monitor operation of the complete electronics chain. Data taken with radioactive sources in comparison with test beam pions provides an absolute initial calibration of HE to approximately 4\\% to 5\\%.

  6. The CLAS Forward Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Amarian; Geram Asryan; Kevin Beard; Will Brooks; Volker Burkert; Tom Carstens; Alan Coleman; Raphael Demirchyan; Yuri Efremenko; Hovanes Egiyan; Kim Egiyan; Herb Funsten; Vladimir Gavrilov; Kevin L. Giovanetti; R.M. Marshall; Berhard Mecking; R.C. Minehart; H. Mkrtchan; Mavrik Ohandjanyan; Youri Sharabian; L.C. Smith; Stepan Stepanyan; W.A. Stephens; T.Y. Tung; Carl Zorn

    2001-05-01

    The CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab utilizes six iron-free superconducting coils to provide an approximately toroidal magnetic field. The six sectors are instrumented individually to form six independent spectrometers. The forward region (8deg < (theta) < 45deg) of each sector is equipped with a lead-scintillator electromagnetic sampling calorimeter (EC), 16 radiation lengths thick, using a novel triangular geometry with stereo readout. With its good energy and position resolution, the EC is used to provide the primary electron trigger for CLAS. It is also used to reject pions, reconstruct pi-0 and eta decays and detect neutrons, This paper treats the design, construction and performance of the calorimeter.

  7. Simulation and validation of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Artamonov, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    --Simulation and validation of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at LHC TileCal is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. This sampling calorimeter uses iron plates as absorber and plastic scintillating tiles as the active material. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from the approximately 10000 PMTs are measured and digitized every 25 ns before being transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. This contribution describes the detailed simulation of this large scale calorimeter from the implementation of the geometrical elements down to the realistic description of the electronics readout pulses, the special noise treatment and the signal reconstruction. Detector non-uniformities and imperfections are also represented. Detailed validation has shown that the simulated detector response characteristics have been successfully integrated and...

  8. Development of Digital Readout Electronics for the CMS Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Corrin, E P

    2002-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general-purpose detector, based at CERN in Switzerland, designed to look for new physics in high-energy protonproton collisions provided by the Large Hadron Collider. The CMS tracker has 10 million readout channels being sampled at a rate of 40 MHz, then read out at up to 100 kHz, generating huge volumes of data; it is essential that the system can handle these rates without any of the data being lost or corrupted. The CMS tracker FED processes the data, removing pedestal and common mode-noise, and then performing hit and cluster finding. Strips below threshold are discarded, resulting in a significant reduction in data size. These zero suppressed data are stored in a buffer before being sent to the DAQ. The processing on the FEDs is done using FPGAs. Programmable logic was chosen over custom ASICs because of the lower cost, faster design and verification process, and the ability to easily upgrade the firmware at a later date. This thesis is concerned with the digital read...

  9. Upgrade of the Cold Electronics of the ATLAS HEC Calorimeter for sLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Oberlack, H G; Fischer, A; Hambarzumjan, A; Pospelov, G; Reimann, O; Rudert, A; Schacht, P

    2009-01-01

    The signal amplification and summation electronics of the ATLAS Hadronic End-cap Calorimeter (HEC) is operated at the circumference of the HEC calorimeters inside the cryostats in liquid argon. The present electronics is designed to operate at irradiation levels expected for the LHC. For operation at the sLHC the irradiation levels are expected to be a factor 10 higher, therefore a new electronic system might be needed. The technological possibilities are investigated. From irradiation tests of the present HEC electronics it is known that it will operate up to a dose of 55 kGy of ionizing radiation and up to a neutron fluence of 3 * 10**14 n/cm**2, where it shows some degradation of performance. This matches well the requirements of up to 1.5 * 10**13 n/cm**2 for 10 years of LHC operation, including safety factors. For a subsequent sLHC running phase with 10 times higher expected irradiation levels, a more radiation hard HEC electronics will be needed. Therefore generic studies of different technologies have ...

  10. Orthogonal sequencing multiplexer for superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with RSFQ electronics readout circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofherr, Matthias; Wetzstein, Olaf; Engert, Sonja; Ortlepp, Thomas; Berg, Benjamin; Ilin, Konstantin; Henrich, Dagmar; Stolz, Ronny; Toepfer, Hannes; Meyer, Hans-Georg; Siegel, Michael

    2012-12-17

    We propose an efficient multiplexing technique for superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors based on an orthogonal detector bias switching method enabling the extraction of the average count rate of a set of detectors by one readout line. We implemented a system prototype where the SNSPDs are connected to an integrated cryogenic readout and a pulse merger system based on rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) electronics. We discuss the general scalability of this concept, analyze the environmental requirements which define the resolvability and the accuracy and demonstrate the feasibility of this approach with experimental results for a SNSPD array with four pixels.

  11. Electronic readout system for the Belle II imaging Time-Of-Propagation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotchetkov, Dmitri

    2017-07-01

    The imaging Time-Of-Propagation (iTOP) detector, constructed for the Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB e+e- collider, is an 8192-channel high precision Cherenkov particle identification detector with timing resolution below 50 ps. To acquire data from the iTOP, a novel front-end electronic readout system was designed, built, and integrated. Switched-capacitor array application-specific integrated circuits are used to sample analog signals. Triggering, digitization, readout, and data transfer are controlled by Xilinx Zynq-7000 system on a chip devices.

  12. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Skuja

    Since the beginning of 2007, HCAL has made significant progress in the installation and commissioning of both hardware and software. A large fraction of the physical Hadron Calorimeter modules have been installed in UX5. In fact, the only missing pieces are HE- and part of HO. The HB+/- were installed in the cryostat in March. HB scintillator layer-17 was installed above ground before the HB were lowered. The HB- scintillator layer-0 was installed immediately after completion of EB- installation. HF/HCAL Commissioning The commissioning and checkout of the HCAL readout electronics is also proceeding at a rapid pace in Bldg. 904 and USC55. All sixteen crates of HCAL VME readout electronics have been commissioned and certified for service. Fifteen are currently operating in the S2 level of USC55. The last crate is being used for firmware development in the Electronics Integration Facility in 904. All installed crates are interfaced to their VME computers and receive synchronous control from the fully-equipp...

  13. The ALICE TPC Readout Electronics Design, performance optimization and verification of the DAQ circuit

    CERN Document Server

    Attiq, urRehman; Dieter, Røhrich

    2012-12-03

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is a dedicated heavy-ion experiment at CERN’s LHC (Large Hadron Collider). It is designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma in heavy-ion collisions. It contains a large volume Time Projection Chamber (TPC) as its main tracking device. The ALICE TPC is the largest ever built gaseous TPC, both in terms of dimensions and number of read-out channels (557,578). A total number of 128 channels are packed in one TPC Front End Card (FEC) and 4,356 FECs are distributed over 216 independent readout partitions. Each readout partition steered by a single Readout Control Unit (RCU) functions as an independent unit in the data acquisition system of the TPC. The RCU functions as an interface between the FECs, Data AcQuisition system (DAQ), the Trigger and Timing Circuit (TTC) and the Detector Control System (DCS). The ALICE TPC readout electronics is in operation since the start of the LHC in November 2009. The primary objectives of the wo...

  14. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Skuja

    Central Calorimeter (HB/HE/HO) Photodetectors The main activity of the HCAL group during the present shutdown is the replacement of a small fraction of the Central Calorimeter (HB/HE/HO) photodetectors -- the Hybrid Photo-Detectors (HPDs). During the MTCC of 2006 it was established that all HPDs exhibit a low rate of discharge generating large random pulses. This behaviour persists at the full CMS field. However, at relatively low fields (0.5 Tesla) this discharge rate increases dramatically and becomes very large for a fraction of the HPDs. The HO HPDs which sit in the gap of the return yoke are thus adversly affected. These discharge pulses have been labelled "HPD noise" (which must be distinguished from low level electronic noise which manifests itself as pedestal noise for all HPD readout channels). Additional intermediate level noise can be generated by ion-feedback arising from thermal and field emission electrons. Ion feedback noise never exceeds the equivalent of few 10s of GeV, the...

  15. Readout electronics for CBM-TOF super module quality evaluation based on 10 Gbps ethernet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, D.; Cao, P.; Huang, X.; Zheng, J.; Wang, Q.; Li, B.; Li, J.; Liu, S.; An, Q.

    2017-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter-Time of Flight (CBM-TOF) wall uses high performance of Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC) assembled in super modules to identify charged particles with high channel density and high measurement precision at high event rate. Electronics meet the challenge for reading data out from a super module at high speed of about 6 Gbps in real time. In this paper, the readout electronics for CBM-TOF super module quality evaluation is proposed based on 10 Gigabit Ethernet. The digitized TOF data from one super module will be concentrated at the front-end electronics residing on the side of the super module and transmitted to an extreme speed readout module (XSRM) housed in the backend crate through the PCI Express (PCIe) protocol via optic channels. Eventually, the XSRM transmits data to the data acquisition (DAQ) system through four 10 Gbps Ethernet ports in real time. This readout structure has advantages of high performance and expansibility. Furthermore, it is easy to operate. Test results on the prototype show that the overall data readout performance for each XSRM can reach up to 28.8 Gbps, which means XSRM can meet the requirement of reading data out from 4 super modules with 1280 channels in real time.

  16. Performances of the ATLAS Hadronic Tile Calorimeter Modules for Electrons and Pions

    CERN Document Server

    Kulchitskii, Yu A

    2004-01-01

    With the aim of establishing of an electromagnetic energy scale of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter and understanding of performance of the calorimeter to electrons 12 \\% of modules have been exposed in electron beams with various energies by three possible ways: cell-scan at $\\theta =20^o$ at the centers of the front face cells, $\\eta$-scan and tilerow scan at $\\theta = 90^o$ for the module side cells. We have extracted the electron calibration constants and electron energy resolutions some of these barrel and extended barrel modules at energies E = 10, 20, 50, 100 and 180 GeV for the cell-scan at $\\theta = 20^o$, the $\\eta$ scan and the tile scan at $90^o$. The average values of these constants are equal to $\\langle R_e \\rangle =1.157\\pm0.002$ pC/GeV for the cell-scan at $\\theta = 20^o$, $\\langle R_e \\rangle =1.143\\pm0.005$ pC/GeV for the $\\eta$-scan and $\\langle R_e\\rangle =1.196\\pm0.005$ pC/GeV for the tile-scan at $\\theta = 90^o$. The RMS values are the following: for the cell-scan is $RMS=2.6\\pm0.1$ \\%, for t...

  17. Readiness of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter for LHC collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aad, G.; et al., [Unknown; Bentvelsen, S.; Colijn, A.P.; de Jong, P.; Doxiadis, A.; Garitaonandia, H.; Gosselink, M.; Kayl, M.S.; Koffeman, E.; Lee, H.; Mechnich, J.; Mussche, I.; Ottersbach, J.P.; Rijpstra, M.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Tsiakiris, M.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Poel, E.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vreeswijk, M.

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter has been operating continuously since August 2006. At this time, only part of the calorimeter was readout, but since the beginning of 2008, all calorimeter cells have been connected to the ATLAS readout system in preparation for LHC collisions. This paper gives an

  18. The Front End Electronics of the Scintillator Pad Detector of LHCb Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Gascon, David; Bota, S; Comerma, A; Diéguez, A; Garrido, L; Gaspar, A; Graciani, R; Graciani, E; Herms, A; Llorens, M; Luengo, S; Picatoste, E; Riera, J; Rosselló, M; Ruiz, H; Tortella, S; Vilasís, X

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the Front End electronics of the Scintillator Pad Detector (SPD) is outlined. The SPD is a sub-system of the Calorimeter of the LHCb experiment designed to discriminate between charged and neutral particles for the first level trigger. The system design is presented, describing its different functionalities implemented through three different cards and several ASICs. These functionalities are signal processing and digitization, data transmission, interface with control and timing systems of the experiment, low voltage power supply distribution and monitoring. Special emphasis is placed on installation and commissioning subjects such as cabling, grounding, shielding and power distribution.

  19. Performance of a Tungsten-Cerium Fluoride Sampling Calorimeter in High-Energy Electron Beam Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, R.; Dissertori, G.; Djambazov, L.; Donega, M.; Lustermann, W.; Marini, A.C.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Peruzzi, M.; Schönenberger, M.; Cavallari, F.; Dafinei, I.; Diemoz, M.; Lope, C. Jorda; Meridiani, P.; Nuccetelli, M.; Paramatti, R.; Pellegrino, F.; Micheli, F.; Organtini, G.; Rahatlou, S.; Soffi, L.; Brianza, L.; Govoni, P.; Martelli, A.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Monti, V.; Pastrone, N.; Trapani, P.P.; Candelise, V.; Della Ricca, G.

    2015-12-21

    A prototype for a sampling calorimeter made out of cerium fluoride crystals interleaved with tungsten plates, and read out by wavelength-shifting fibres, has been exposed to beams of electrons with energies between 20 and 150 GeV, produced by the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron accelerator complex. The performance of the prototype is presented and compared to that of a Geant4 simulation of the apparatus. Particular emphasis is given to the response uniformity across the channel front face, and to the prototype's energy resolution.

  20. Low Background Signal Readout Electronics for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinn, I. [University of Washington, Seattle; Abgrall, N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Avignone, III, F. T. [University of South Carolina/Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Bertrand, F. E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Efremenko, Yuri [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Galindo-Uribarri, A [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Green, M. P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Radford, D. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Romero-Romero, E. [UTK/ORNL; Varner, R. L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); White, B. R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Wilkerson, J. F. [UNC/Triangle Univ. Nucl. Lab, Durham, NC/ORNL; Yu, C.-H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Majorana, [MAJORANA Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a planned 40 kg array of Germanium detectors intended to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing a tonne-scale experiment that will seek neutrinoless double beta decay (0 nu beta beta) in Ge-76. Such an experiment would require backgrounds of less than 1 count/tonne-year in the 4 keV region of interest around the 2039 keV Q-value of the beta beta decay. Designing low-noise electronics, which must be placed in close proximity to the detectors, presents a challenge to reaching this background target. This paper will discuss the MAJORANA collaboration's solutions to some of these challenges.

  1. Readout electronics for the Wide Field of view Cherenkov/Fluorescence Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, R.; Bai, L.; Zhang, J.; Huang, J.; Yang, C.; Cao, Z.

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO), supported by IHEP of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, is a multipurpose project with a complex detectors array for high energy gamma ray and cosmic ray detection. The Wide Field of view Cherenkov Telescope Array (WFCTA), as one of the components of the LHAASO project, aim to tag each primary particle that causes an air shower. The WFCTA is a portable telescope array used to detect cosmic ray spectra. The design of the readout electronics of the WFCTA is described in this paper Sixteen photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), together with their readout electronics are integrated into a single sub-cluster. To maintain good resolution and linearity over a wide dynamic range, a dual-gain amplification configuration on an analog board is used The digital board contains two 16channel 14-bit, 50 Msps analog-to-digital converters (ADC) and its power consumption, noise level, and relative deviation are all tested.

  2. Beam test results for the upgraded LHCb RICH opto-electronic readout system

    CERN Multimedia

    Carniti, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is devoted to high-precision measurements of CP violation and search for New Physics by studying the decays of beauty and charmed hadrons produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Two RICH detectors are currently installed and operating successfully, providing a crucial role in the particle identification system of the LHCb experiment. Starting from 2019, the LHCb experiment will be upgraded to operate at higher luminosity, extending its potential for discovery and study of new phenomena. Both the RICH detectors will be upgraded and the entire opto-electronic system has been redesigned in order to cope with the new specifications, namely higher readout rates, and increased occupancies. The new photodetectors, readout electronics, mechanical assembly and cooling system have reached the final phase of development and their performance was thoroughly and successfully validated during several beam test sessions in 2014 and 2015 at the SPS facility at CERN. Details of the test setup and perf...

  3. Irradiation tests of the pixel front-end readout electronics for the ALICE experiment at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badala, A.; Barbera, R.; Lo Re, G.; Palmeri, A.; Pappalardo, G.S.; Riggi, F. E-mail: franco.riggi@ct.infn.it; Di Liberto, S.; Meddi, F.; Cavagnoli, A.; Morando, M.; Scarlassara, F.; Segato, G.; Soramel, F.; Vannucci, L

    2002-01-11

    The problem of radiation damage for the electronics of the pixel detectors in the Inner-Tracking-System of the ALICE experiment is discussed. Simulations allowed to estimate total doses and particle fluences during 10 years of operation period. Several irradiation tests have been carried out on the various prototypes of the readout chips. The results obtained so far points out that the recent prototypes will retain their functionality up to doses and neutron fluences well above those expected in ALICE.

  4. High-speed readout method of ID information on a large amount of electronic tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagate, Wataru; Sasabe, Masahiro; Nakano, Hirotaka

    2006-10-01

    An electronic tag such as RFID is expected to create new services that cannot be achieved by the traditional bar code. Specifically, in a distribution system, simultaneous readout method of a large amount of electronic tags embedded in products is required to reduce costs and time. In this paper, we propose novel methods, called Response Probability Control (RPC), to accomplish this requirement. In RPC, a reader firstly sends an ID request to electronic tags in its access area. It succeeds reading information on a tag only if other tags do not respond. To improve the readout efficiency, the reader appropriately controls the response probability in accordance with the number of tags. However, this approach cannot entirely avoid a collision of multiple responses. When a collision occurs, ID information is lost. To reduce the amount of lost data, we divide the ID registration process into two steps. The reader first gathers the former part of the original ID, called temporal ID, according to the above method. After obtaining the temporal ID, it sequentially collects the latter part of ID, called remaining ID, based on the temporal ID. Note that we determine the number of bits of a temporal ID in accordance with the number of tags in the access area so that each tag can be distinguishable. Through simulation experiments, we evaluate RPC in terms of the readout efficiency. Simulation results show that RPC can accomplish the readout efficiency 1.17 times higher than the traditional method where there are a thousand of electronic tags whose IDs are 128 bits.

  5. Electromagnetic Compatibility of a Low Voltage Power Supply for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Front-End Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchot, Georges; Hruska, I; Korolkov, I Ya; Palan, B; Pontt, J; Toro, A; Usai, G

    2007-01-01

    The front-end electronics of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is powered by DC/DC converters that sit close to it. The performance of the detector electronics is constrained by the conducted noise emissions of its power supply. A compatibility limit is defined for the system. The noise susceptibility of the front-end electronics is evaluated, and different solutions to reduce the front-end electronics noise are discussed and tested.

  6. Response of the CALICE Si-W Electromagnetic Calorimeter Physics Prototype to Electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Repond, J.; Yu, J.; Eigen, G.; Hawkes, C.M.; Mikami, Y.; Miller, O.; Watson, N.K.; Wilson, J.A.; Goto, T.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Yan, W.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Krim, M.; Benyamna, M.; Boumediene, D.; Brun, N.; Carloganu, C.; Gay, P.; Morisseau, F.; Blazey, G.C.; Chakraborty, D.; Dyshkant, A.; Francis, K.; Hedin, D.; Lima, G.; Zutshi, V.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Morin, L.; D'Ascenzo, N.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Fabbri, R.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Garutti, E.; Gottlicher, P.; Jung, T.; Karstensen, S.; Korbel, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lutz, B.; Meyer, N.; Morgunov, V.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Vargas-Trevino, A.; Wattimena, N.; Wendt, O.; Feege, N.; Groll, M.; Haller, J.; Heuer, R.-D.; Richter, S.; Samson, J.; Kaplan, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch.; Shen, W.; Tadday, A.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Kim, E.J.; Baek, N.I.; Kim, D-W.; Lee, K.; Lee, S.C.; Kawagoe, K.; Tamura, Y.; Bowerman, D.A.; Dauncey, P.D.; Magnan, A.-M.; Yilmaz, H.; Zorba, O.; Bartsch, V.; Postranecky, M.; Warren, M.; Wing, M.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Green, M.G.; Salvatore, F.; Bedjidian, M.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Bailey, D.S.; Barlow, R.J.; Kelly, M.; Thompson, R.J.; Danilov, M.; Tarkovsky, E.; Baranova, N.; Karmanov, D.; Korolev, M.; Merkin, M.; Voronin, A.; Frey, A.; Lu, S.; Prothmann, K.; Simon, F.; Bouquet, B.; Callier, S.; Cornebise, P.; Fleury, J.; Li, H.; Richard, F.; de la Taille, Ch.; Poeschl, R.; Raux, L.; Ruan, M.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Wicek, F.; Anduze, M.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J-C.; Gaycken, G.; Mora de Freitas, P.; Musat, G.; Reinhard, M.; Rouge, A.; Vanel, J-Ch.; Videau, H.; Park, K-H.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Belmir, M.; Nam, S.W.; Park, I.H.; Yang, J.; Chai, J.-S.; Kim, J.-T.; Kim, G.-B.; Kang, J.; Kwon, Y.-J.

    2009-01-01

    A prototype Silicon-Tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) for an International Linear Collider (ILC) detector was installed and tested during summer and autumn 2006 at CERN. The detector had 6480 silicon pads of dimension 1x1 cm^2. Data were collected with electron beams in the energy range 6 to 45 GeV. The analysis described in this paper focuses on electromagnetic shower reconstruction and characterises the ECAL response to electrons in terms of energy resolution and linearity. The detector is linear to within approximately the 1% level and has a relative energy resolution of (16.6 +- 0.1)/ \\sqrt{E(GeV}) + 1.1 +- 0.1 (%). The spatial uniformity and the time stability of the ECAL are also addressed.

  7. Design and Prototyping of a High Granularity Scintillator Calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zutshi, Vishnu [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2016-03-27

    A novel approach for constructing fine-granularity scintillator calorimeters, based on the concept of an Integrated Readout Layer (IRL) was developed. The IRL consists of a printed circuit board inside the detector which supports the directly-coupled scintillator tiles, connects to the surface-mount SiPMs and carries the necessary front-end electronics and signal/bias traces. Prototype IRLs using this concept were designed, prototyped and successfully exposed to test beams. Concepts and implementations of an IRL carried out with funds associated with this contract promise to result in the next generation of scintillator calorimeters.

  8. Calibration and Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter During the LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00221190; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) covers the central part of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for the reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling hadronic calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by charged particles in tiles is transmitted by wavelength-shifting fibres to photomultipliers, where it is converted to electric pulses and further processed by the on-detector electronics located in the outermost part of the calorimeter. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements and an integrator based readout system. Combined information from all systems allows to monitor and equalize the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scintillation light to digitisation. The performance of the calorimeter has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sample of the proton-proton col...

  9. Calibration and performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter during the Run 2 of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Solovyanov, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is a hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. It is a non-compensating sampling calorimeter comprised of steel and scintillating plastic tiles which are read-out by photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The TileCal is regularly monitored and calibrated by several different calibration systems: a Cs radioactive source that illuminates the scintillating tiles directly, a laser light system to directly test the PMT response and a charge injection system (CIS) for the front-end electronics. These calibrations systems, in conjunction with data collected during proton-proton collisions, provide extensive monitoring of the instrument and a means for equalising the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal propagation. The performance of the calorimeter and its calibration has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sample of the proton-proton collisions to study the energy response at the electromagnetic scale, probe of the hadron...

  10. Calibration and Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter during the LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Faltova, Jana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) covers the central part of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for the reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling hadronic calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by charged particles in tiles is transmitted by wavelength-shifting fibres to photomultipliers, where it is converted to electric pulses and further processed by the on-detector electronics located in the outermost part of the calorimeter. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements and an integrator based readout system. Combined information from all systems allows to monitor and equalize the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scintillation light to digitisation. The performance of the calorimeter is established with the large sample of the proton-proton collisions. Isolated hadrons a...

  11. Energy Linearity and Resolution of the ATLAS Electromagnetic Barrel Calorimeter in an Electron Test-Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Aharrouche, M; Di Ciaccio, L; El-Kacimi, M; Gaumer, O; Gouanère, M; Goujdami, D; Lafaye, R; Laplace, S; Le Maner, C; Neukermans, L; Perrodo, P; Poggioli, L; Prieur, D; Przysiezniak, H; Sauvage, G; Tarrade, F; Wingerter-Seez, I; Zitoun, R; Lanni, F; Ma, H; Rajagopalan, S; Rescia, S; Takai, H; Belymam, A; Benchekroun, D; Hakimi, M; Hoummada, A; Barberio, E; Gao, Y S; Lü, L; Stroynowski, R; Aleksa, Martin; Beck-Hansen, J; Carli, T; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fassnacht, P; Follin, F; Gianotti, F; Hervás, L; Lampl, W; Collot, J; Hostachy, J Y; Ledroit-Guillon, F; Martin, P; Ohlsson-Malek, F; Saboumazrag, S; Leltchouk, M; Parsons, J A; Seman, M; Simion, S; Banfi, D; Carminati, L; Cavalli, D; Costa, G; Delmastro, M; Fanti, M; Mandelli, L; Mazzanti, M; Tartarelli, F; Bourdarios, C; Fayard, L; Fournier, D; Graziani, G; Hassani, S; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Kado, M; Lechowski, M; Lelas, M; Parrour, G; Puzo, P; Rousseau, D; Sacco, R; Serin, L; Unal, G; Zerwas, D; Camard, A; Lacour, D; Laforge, B; Nikolic-Audit, I; Schwemling, P; Ghazlane, H; Cherkaoui-El-Moursli, R; Idrissi Fakhr-Eddine, A; Boonekamp, M; Kerschen, N; Mansoulié, B; Meyer, P; Schwindling, J; Lund-Jensen, B; Tayalati, Y

    2006-01-01

    A module of the ATLAS electromagnetic barrel liquid argon calorimeter was exposed to the CERN electron test-beam at the H8 beam line upgraded for precision momentum measurement. The available energies of the electron beam ranged from 10 to 245 GeV. The electron beam impinged at one point corresponding to a pseudo-rapidity of eta=0.687 and an azimuthal angle of phi=0.28 in the ATLAS coordinate system. A detailed study of several effects biasing the electron energy measurement allowed an energy reconstruction procedure to be developed that ensures a good linearity and a good resolution. Use is made of detailed Monte Carlo simulations based on Geant which describe the longitudinal and transverse shower profiles as well as the energy distributions. For electron energies between 15 GeV and 180 GeV the deviation of the measured incident electron energy over the beam energy is within 0.1%. The systematic uncertainty of the measurement is about 0.1% at low energies and negligible at high energies. The energy resoluti...

  12. Development of Trigger and Readout Electronics for the ATLAS New Small Wheel Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Guan, Liang; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The present small wheel muon detector at ATLAS will be replaced with a New Small Wheel (NSW) detector to handle the increase in data rates and harsh radiation environment expected at the LHC. Resistive Micromegas and small strip Thin Gap Chambers will be used to provide both trigger and tracking primitives. Muon segments found at NSW will be combined with the segments found at the Big Wheel to determine the muon transverse momentum at the first-level trigger. A new trigger and readout system is developed for the NSW detector. The new system has about 2.4 million trigger and readout channels and about 8,000 Front-End boards. The large number of input channels, short time available to prepare and transmit data, harsh radiation environment, and low power consumption all impose great challenges on the design. We will discuss the overall electronics design and studies with various ASICs and high-speed circuit board prototypes.

  13. Development of Trigger and Readout Electronics for the ATLAS New Small Wheel Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Antrim, Daniel Joseph; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The present small wheel muon detector at ATLAS will be replaced with a New Small Wheel (NSW) detector to handle the increase in data rates and harsh radiation environment expected at the LHC. Resistive Micromegas and small-strip Thin Gap Chambers will be used to provide both trigger and tracking primitives. Muon segments found at NSW will be combined with the segments found at the Big Wheel to determine the muon transverse momentum at the first-level trigger. A new trigger and readout system is developed for the NSW detector. The new system has about 2.4 million trigger and readout channels and about 8,000 frontend boards. The large number of input channels, short time available to prepare and transmit data, harsh radiation environment, and low power consumption all impose great challenges on the design. We will discuss the overall electronics design and studies with various ASIC and board prototypes.

  14. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter: simulation and validation of the response

    CERN Document Server

    Davidek, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central secti1 on of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter at the Large Hadron Collider. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is readout by wavelength shifting fibers and transmitted to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from approximately 10000 PMTs are measured and digitized before being further transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. Detailed simulations are described in this contribution, ranging from the implementation of the geometrical elements to the realistic description of the electronics readout pulses, including specific noise treatment and the signal reconstruction. Special attention is given to the improved optical signal propagation and the validation with the real particle data.

  15. The New Front-End Electronics for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase 2 Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, Gary; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    We present the plans, design, and performance results to date ofor the new front-end electronics being developed for the Phase 2 Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter. The front-end electronics will be replaced to address the increase in beam energy and luminosity planned for the LHC around 2023, as well as to upgrade to faster, more modern components with higher radiation tolerance. The new electronics will operate dead-timelessly, pushing full data sets from each beam crossing to the data acquisition system that resides off-detector in the USA15 counting room. The new electronics contains five main parts: the front-end boards that connect directly to the photo-multiplier tubes; the Main Boards that digitize the data; the Daughter Boards that collect the data streams and contain the high-speed optical communication links for writing data to the data acquisition system; a programmable high voltage control system; and a new low-voltage power supply. There are different options for implementing these subcompone...

  16. The New Front-End Electronics for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase 2 Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00029377; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    We present the design for the new front-end electronics being developed for the Phase 2 Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter. The front-end electronics will be replaced to address the increase in beam energy and luminosity planned for the LHC around 2023, as well as to upgrade to faster, more modern components with higher radiation tolerance. The new electronics will operate dead-timelessly, pushing full data sets from each beam crossing to the data acquisition system that resides off-detector in the USA15 counting room. The new electronics contains five main parts: the Front End Boards that connect directly to the photo-multiplier tubes; the Main Boards that digitize the data; the Daughter Boards that collect the data streams and contain the high-speed optical communication links for writing data to the data acquisition system; a programmable high voltage control system; and a new low-voltage power supply. There are different options for implementing these subcomponents, which will be described. The new sys...

  17. Optimization of the ATLAS (s)MDT readout electronics for high counting rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortner, Oliver; Kroha, Hubert; Nowak, Sebastian; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In the ATLAS muon spectrometer, Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers are used for precise muon track measurement. For the high background rates expected at HL-LHC, which are mainly due to neutrons and photons produced by interactions of the proton collision products in the detector and shielding, new small-diameter muon drift tube (sMDT)-chambers with half the drift tube diameter of the MDT-chambers and ten times higher rate capability have been developed. The standard MDT readout electronics uses bipolar shaping in front of a discriminator. This shaping leads to an undershoot of same charge but opposite polarity following each pulse. With count rates also the probability of having the subsequent pulse in this undershoot increases, which leads to losses in efficiency and spatial resolution. In order to decrease this effect, discrete prototype electronics including Baseline Restoration has been developed. Results of their tests and data taken with them during muon beamtime measurements at CERN's Gamma Irradiation Facility will be presented. which causes a deterioration of signal pulses by preceding background hits, leading to losses in muon efficiency and drift tube spatial resolution. In order to mitigate these so-called signal pile-up effects, new readout electronics with active baseline restoration (BLR) is under development. Discrete prototype electronics with BLR functionality has been tested in laboratory measurements and in the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN under high γ-irradiation rates. Results of the measurements are presented.

  18. The CMS Outer Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhandari, Virender; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Deshpande, Pandurang Vishnu; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguli, Som N; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Krishnaswamy, Marthi Ramaswamy; Kumar, Arun; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Narasimham, Vemuri Syamala; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L V; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Singh, B; Singh, Jas Bir; Sudhakar, Katta; Tonwar, Suresh C; Verma, Piyush

    2006-01-01

    The CMS hadron calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter with brass absorber and plastic scintillator tiles with wavelength shifting fibres for carrying the light to the readout device. The barrel hadron calorimeter is complemented with a outer calorimeter to ensure high energy shower containment in CMS and thus working as a tail catcher. Fabrication, testing and calibrations of the outer hadron calorimeter are carried out keeping in mind its importance in the energy measurement of jets in view of linearity and resolution. It will provide a net improvement in missing $\\et$ measurements at LHC energies. The outer hadron calorimeter has a very good signal to background ratio even for a minimum ionising particle and can hence be used in coincidence with the Resistive Plate Chambers of the CMS detector for the muon trigger.

  19. An aging study of a gas electron multiplier with micro-strip gas chamber readout

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, J

    1999-01-01

    We have performed an aging study of a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) readout with a Micro-Strip Gas Chamber (MSGC). The GEM is constructed from Kapton and copper, and the MSGC is constructed from semiconductive glass and gold. When the detector (GEM+MSGC) is operated in an argon-dimethyl ether (DME) gas mixture and irradiated with a 5.4 keV photon beam, about 220 mC/cm of charge can be accumulated without degradation of the detector performance. This corresponds to about 20 years of operation at the LHC.

  20. SiPM arrays and miniaturized readout electronics for compact gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinu, N., E-mail: dinu@lal.in2p3.fr [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator, IN2P3, CNRS, Orsay (France); Imando, T. Ait; Nagai, A. [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator, IN2P3, CNRS, Orsay (France); Pinot, L. [Laboratory of Imaging and Modelisation in Neurobiology and Cancerology, IN2P3, CNRS, Orsay (France); Puill, V. [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator, IN2P3, CNRS, Orsay (France); Callier, S. [Omega Microelectronics Group, CNRS, Palaiseau (France); Janvier, B.; Esnault, C.; Verdier, M.-A. [Laboratory of Imaging and Modelisation in Neurobiology and Cancerology, IN2P3, CNRS, Orsay (France); Raux, L. [Omega Microelectronics Group, CNRS, Palaiseau (France); Vandenbussche, V.; Charon, Y.; Menard, L. [Laboratory of Imaging and Modelisation in Neurobiology and Cancerology, IN2P3, CNRS, Orsay (France)

    2015-07-01

    This article reports on the design and features of a very compact and light gamma camera based on SiPM arrays and miniaturized readout electronics dedicated to tumor localization during radio-guided cancer surgery. This gamma camera, called MAGICS, is composed of four (2×2) photo-detection elementary modules coupled to an inorganic scintillator. The 256 channels photo-detection system covers a sensitive area of 54×53 m{sup 2}. Each elementary module is based on four (2×2) SiPM monolithic arrays, each array consisting of 16 SiPM photo-sensors (4×4) with 3×3 mm{sup 2} sensitive area, coupled to a miniaturized readout electronics and a dedicated ASIC. The overall dimensions of the electronics fit the size of the detector, enabling to assemble side-by-side several elementary modules in a close-packed arrangement. The preliminary performances of the system are very encouraging, showing an energy resolution of 9.8% and a spatial resolution of less than 1 mm at 122 keV.

  1. Low power analog readout front-end electronics for time and energy measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleczek, R.; Grybos, P.; Szczygiel, R.

    2014-06-01

    We report on the design and measurements of an analog front-end readout electronics dedicated for silicon microstrip detectors with relatively large capacitance of the order of tens pF for time and energy measurements of incoming pulses. The front-end readout electronics is required to process input pulses with an average rate of 150 kHz/channel with low both power consumption and noise at the same time. In the presented solution the single channel is built of two different parallel processing paths: fast and slow. The fast path includes the fast CR-RC shaper with the peaking time tp=40 ns and is optimized to determine the input charge arrival time. The slow path, which consists of the slow CR-(RC)2 shaper with the peaking time tp=80 ns, is dedicated for low noise accurate energy measurement. The analog front-end electronics was implemented in UMC 180 nm CMOS technology as a prototype ASIC AFE. The AFE chip contains 8 channels with the size of 58 μm×1150 μm each. It has low power dissipation Pdiss=3.1 mW per single channel. The article presents the details of the front-end architecture and the measurement results.

  2. Progress on the upgrade of the CMS Hadron Calorimeter Front-End electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Jake; Whitmore, Juliana; /Fermilab

    2011-11-01

    We present a scheme to upgrade the CMS HCAL front-end electronics in the second long shutdown to upgrade the LHC (LS2), which is expected to occur around 2018. The HCAL electronics upgrade is required to handle the major instantaneous luminosity increase (up to 5 * 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and an expected integrated luminosity of {approx}3000 fb{sup -1}. A key aspect of the HCAL upgrade is to read out longitudinal segmentation information to improve background rejection, energy resolution, and electron isolation at the L1 trigger. This paper focuses on the requirements for the new electronics and on the proposed solutions. The requirements include increased channel count, additional timing capabilities, and additional redundancy. The electronics are required to operate in a harsh environment and are constrained by the existing infrastructure. The proposed solutions span from chip level to system level. They include the development of a new ASIC ADC, the design and testing of higher speed transmitters to handle the increased data volume, the evaluation and use of circuits from other developments, evaluation of commercial FPGAs, better thermal design, and improvements in the overall readout architecture. We will report on the progress of the designs for these upgraded systems, along with performance requirements and initial design studies.

  3. BLASTbus electronics: general-purpose readout and control for balloon-borne experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, S. J.; Ade, P. A.; Amiri, M.; Angilè, F. E.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Bryan, S. A.; Chiang, H. C.; Contaldi, C. R.; Crill, B. P.; Devlin, M. J.; Dober, B.; Doré, O. P.; Farhang, M.; Filippini, J. P.; Fissel, L. M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Fukui, Y.; Galitzki, N.; Gambrel, A. E.; Gandilo, N. N.; Golwala, S. R.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M.; Hilton, G. C.; Holmes, W. A.; Hristov, V. V.; Irwin, K. D.; Jones, W. C.; Kermish, Z. D.; Klein, J.; Korotkov, A. L.; Kuo, C. L.; MacTavish, C. J.; Mason, P. V.; Matthews, T. G.; Megerian, K. G.; Moncelsi, L.; Morford, T. A.; Mroczkowski, T. K.; Nagy, J. M.; Netterfield, C. B.; Novak, G.; Nutter, D.; O'Brient, R.; Ogburn, R. W.; Pascale, E.; Poidevin, F.; Rahlin, A. S.; Reintsema, C. D.; Ruhl, J. E.; Runyan, M. C.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Shariff, J. A.; Soler, J. D.; Thomas, N. E.; Trangsrud, A.; Truch, M. D.; Tucker, C. E.; Tucker, G. S.; Tucker, R. S.; Turner, A. D.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Weber, A. C.; Wiebe, D. V.; Young, E. Y.

    2014-07-01

    We present the second generation BLASTbus electronics. The primary purposes of this system are detector readout, attitude control, and cryogenic housekeeping, for balloon-borne telescopes. Readout of neutron transmutation doped germanium (NTD-Ge) bolometers requires low noise and parallel acquisition of hundreds of analog signals. Controlling a telescope's attitude requires the capability to interface to a wide variety of sensors and motors, and to use them together in a fast, closed loop. To achieve these different goals, the BLASTbus system employs a flexible motherboard-daughterboard architecture. The programmable motherboard features a digital signal processor (DSP) and field-programmable gate array (FPGA), as well as slots for three daughterboards. The daughterboards provide the interface to the outside world, with versions for analog to digital conversion, and optoisolated digital input/output. With the versatility afforded by this design, the BLASTbus also finds uses in cryogenic, thermometry, and power systems. For accurate timing control to tie everything together, the system operates in a fully synchronous manner. BLASTbus electronics have been successfully deployed to the South Pole, and own on stratospheric balloons.

  4. The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters Read Out Driver (ROD) system

    CERN Document Server

    Henry-Coüannier, F

    2000-01-01

    The electronic Readout chain for the Liquid Argon calorimeters of the ATLAS detector is briefly presented. Special attention is given to the Read Out Drivers (ROD) which will receive the triggered data from approximately 200,000 calorimeter cells at a 100 kHz event rate. In the ROD boards the energy will be computed for each cell from discrete samples of the waveform using optimal filtering algorithms running in fast digital signal processors. The monitoring of the calorimeter data will also be performed at the ROD level. Performances expected in ATLAS which have been evaluated from simulation studies are presented. A demonstrator system currently under construction is described and performances of the Processing Units (DSP daughter boards) are presented. 4 Refs.

  5. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes, located in the outer part of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two photomultiplier in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements and an integrator based readout system. Combined information from all systems allows to monitor and equalise the calorimeter r...

  6. Test of New Readout Electronics for the BONuS12 Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrhart, Mathieu [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire (IPN), Orsay (France)

    2017-07-01

    For decades, electron-proton scattering experiments have been providing a large amount of data on the proton structure function. However, because of the instability of free neutrons, fewer experiments have been able to study the neutron structure function. The BONuS collaboration at Jefferson Laboratory addresses this challenge by scattering electrons off a deuterium target, using a RTPC capable of detecting the low-momentum spectator protons near the target. Events of electrons scattering on almost free neutrons are selected by constraining the spectator protons to very low momenta and very backward scattering angles. In 2005, BONuS successfully measured the neutron structure with scattering electrons of up to 5.3 GeV energy. An extension of this measurement has been approved using the newly upgraded 12 GeV electron beam and CLAS12 (CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer). For this new set of measurements, a new RTPC detector using GEM trackers is being developed to allow measurements of spectator protons with momenta as low as 70 MeV/c. The new RTPC will use a new readout electronic system, which is also used by other trackers in CLAS12. This thesis will present the first tests of this electronics using a previously built RTPC of similar design.

  7. Electronic Image Readout Devices Used In Conjunction With Picosecond Streak Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavailler, C.; Genoud, M.; Fleurot, N.; Launspach, J.; Mazataud, D.; Mens, A.

    1985-02-01

    Understanding the laser-matter interaction experiments require a dynamic recording of the phenomena as well as a good knowledge of the laser pulse occuring during the irradiation of the target ; those measurements are made with streak cameras the increasing number of which leads to processing problems when the results are recorded on films. Furthermore, since physicists wish to have those temporal information immediatly, we unfolded automatic image readout devices fitted specially to streak cameras. The first one used an ISOCON tube operating with a slow sweep (0.5 s frame)1-2. The sensitivity of the tube was very good but its dynamic range was too limited when seeing pulsed images at low light level. So we developped two electronic readout chains with solid state devices which behave better for that kind of light. The first one was designed to get the most information along the temporal axis of the camera sweep (1024 points) in one or two spatial channels ; this device operates a linear 1024 photodiodes array the signal of which is digitized on 12 bits. We have obtained a temporal resolution better than 15 ps and a dynamic range over 500 ; this system is mainly useful to study laser pulses (rise time, temporal profile...)3. For applications requiring two dimension images, we studied and realized a device operating a CCD array and a fiber optics reducer (40-18 mm) adapting the image of the streak camera screen to the dimensions of the input fiber optics of the CCD. A comparison has been made on different CCD cameras on a test setup which simulates the experimental conditions, in order to choose the CCD which would fit the best for that purpose ; we present these results here, as well as those of the associated readout chains.

  8. ALICE electromagnetic calorimeter prototype test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awes, Terry; /Oak Ridge

    2005-09-01

    This Memorandum of Understanding between the Test Beam collaborators and Fermilab is for the use of beam time at Fermilab during the Fall, 2005 Meson Test Beam Run. The experimenters plan to measure the energy, position, and time resolution of prototype modules of a large electromagnetic calorimeter proposed to be installed in the ALICE experiment at the LHC. The ALICE experiment is one of the three large approved LHC experiments, with ALICE placing special emphasis on the LHC heavy-ion program. The large electromagnetic calorimeter (EMCal) is a US initiative that is endorsed by the ALICE collaboration and is currently in the early stages of review by the Nuclear Physics Division of the DOE. The installation in the test beam at FNAL and test beam measurements will be carried out by the US members of the ALICE collaboration (ALICE-USA). The overall design of the ALICE EMCal is heavily influenced by its location within the ALICE L3 magnet. The EMCal is to be located inside the large room temperature magnet within a cylindrical integration volume approximately l12cm deep, by 5.6m in length, sandwiched between the ALICE TPC space frame and the L3 magnet coils. The chosen technology is a layered Pb-scintillator sampling calorimeter with a longitudinal pitch of 1.6mm Pb and 1.6mm scintillator. The full detector spans {eta} = -0.7 to {eta} = 0.7 with an azimuthal acceptance of {Delta}{phi} = 120{sup o}. The EMCal readout is of a ''Shish-Kabob'' type similar to the PHENIX Pb-scintillator sampling calorimeter in which the scintillation light is collected via wavelength shifting fibers running through the Pb-scintillator tiles perpendicular to the front surface. The detector is segmented into {approx}14000 towers. The basic structural units of the calorimeter are supermodules, each subtending approximately {approx}20{sup o} in {Delta}{phi} and 0.7 units in {Delta}{eta}. Supermodules are assembled from individual modules. The modules are further segmented

  9. Performance of the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter with Cosmic Muons and LHC Single Beam Data

    CERN Document Server

    MANGEARD, PS

    2009-01-01

    The Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeter is a key detector component in the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, designed to provide precision measurements of electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy. The LAr calorimeter has been installed in the ATLAS cavern and filled with liquid argon since 2006. Cosmic muon data, first triggered via specially developed trigger boards on the LVL1 output of the Tile calorimeter and later with the standard ATLAS LVL1 calorimeter trigger, have been recorded at various stages of commissioning. In Sept 2008, with the first single beams circulating in the LHC ring and a near full readout of the calorimeter, events resulting from beam-gas interactions and beam-collimator splash were recorded. We present here the calorimeter performance study based on these cosmic muon and LHC beam events. With the reconstructed muon minimum ionizing signal in the calorimeter, the uniformity of the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter can be checked. The timing alignment as measured from the data ca...

  10. A NEW ELECTRONIC BOARD TO DRIVE THE LASER CALIBRATION SYSTEM OF THE ATLAS HADRON CALORIMETER

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00086824; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The LASER calibration system of the ATLAS hadron calorimeter aims at monitoring the ~10000 PMTs of the TileCal. The LASER light injected in the PMTs is measured by sets of photodiodes at several stages of the optical path. The monitoring of the photodiodes is performed by a redundant internal calibration system using an LED, a radioactive source, and a charge injection system. The LASer Calibration Rod (LASCAR) electronics card is a major component of the LASER calibration scheme. Housed in a VME crate, its main components include a charge ADC, a TTCRx, a HOLA part, an interface to control the LASER, and a charge injection system. The 13 bits ADC is a 2000pc full-scale converter that processes up to 16 signals stemming from 11 photodiodes, 2 PMTs, and 3 charge injection channels. Two gains are used (x1 and x4) to increase the dynamic range and avoid a saturation of the LASER signal for high intensities. The TTCRx chip (designed by CERN) retrieves LHC signals to synchronize the LASCAR card with the collider. T...

  11. Trigger and readout electronics for the Phase-I upgrade of the ATLAS forward muon spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Moschovakos, Paris; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The upgrades of the LHC accelerator and the experiments in 2019/20 and 2023/24 will increase the instantaneous and integrated luminosity, but also will drastically increase the data and trigger rates. To cope with the huge data flow while maintaining high muon detection efficiency and reducing fake muons found at Level-1, the present ATLAS small wheel muon detector will be replaced with a New Small Wheel (NSW) detector for high luminosity LHC runs. The NSW will feature two new detector technologies: resistive micromegas and small strip Thin Gap Chambers conforming a system of ~2.4 million readout channels. Both detector technologies will provide trigger and tracking primitives. A common readout path and a separate trigger path are developed for each detector technology. The electronics design of such a system will be implemented in about 8000 front-end boards, including the design of a number of custom radiation tolerant Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), capable of driving trigger and tracking...

  12. Trigger and Readout Electronics for the Phase-I Upgrade of the ATLAS Forward Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Moschovakos, Paris; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The upgrades of the LHC accelerator and the experiments in 2019/20 and 2023/24 will increase the instantaneous and integrated luminosity, but also will drastically increase the data and trigger rates. To cope with the huge data flow while maintaining high muon detection efficiency and reducing fake muons found at Level-1, the present ATLAS small wheel muon detector will be replaced with a New Small Wheel (NSW) detector for high luminosity LHC runs. The NSW will feature two new detector technologies: resistive micromegas (MM) and small strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC) conforming a system of ~2.4 million readout channels. Both detector technologies will provide trigger and tracking primitives. A common readout path and a separate trigger path are developed for each detector technology. The electronics design of such a system will be implemented in about 8000 front-end boards, including the design of a number of custom radiation tolerant Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), capable of driving trigger ...

  13. Data acquisition and processing in the ATLAS tile calorimeter phase-II upgrade demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00306349; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The LHC has planned a series of upgrades culminating in the High Luminosity LHC which will have an average luminosity 5-7 times larger than the nominal Run 2 value. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter will undergo an upgrade to accommodate the HL-LHC parameters. The TileCal readout electronics will be redesigned, introducing a new readout strategy. A Demonstrator program has been developed to evaluate the new proposed readout architecture and prototypes of all the components. In the Demonstrator, the detector data received in the Tile PreProcessors (PPr) are stored in pipeline buffers and upon the reception of an external trigger signal the data events are processed, packed and readout in parallel through the legacy ROD system, the new Front-End Link eXchange system and an ethernet connection for monitoring purposes. This contribution describes in detail the data processing and the hardware, firmware and software components of the TileCal Demonstrator readout system.

  14. Data acquisition and processing in the ATLAS tile calorimeter phase-II upgrade demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, A.; Tile Calorimeter System, ATLAS

    2017-10-01

    The LHC has planned a series of upgrades culminating in the High Luminosity LHC which will have an average luminosity 5-7 times larger than the nominal Run 2 value. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter will undergo an upgrade to accommodate the HL-LHC parameters. The TileCal readout electronics will be redesigned, introducing a new readout strategy. A Demonstrator program has been developed to evaluate the new proposed readout architecture and prototypes of all the components. In the Demonstrator, the detector data received in the Tile PreProcessors (PPr) are stored in pipeline buffers and upon the reception of an external trigger signal the data events are processed, packed and readout in parallel through the legacy ROD system, the new Front-End Link eXchange system and an ethernet connection for monitoring purposes. This contribution describes in detail the data processing and the hardware, firmware and software components of the TileCal Demonstrator readout system.

  15. Fast imaging readout and electronics--a novel high-speed imaging system for micro-channel plates

    CERN Document Server

    Lapington, J S

    2002-01-01

    The band-width of charge division readout anodes used with micro-channel plates (MCP) is usually limited by the speed of the acquisition electronics. We present a novel charge division anode that does not require analogue to digital conversion. The Fast Imaging Readout and Electronics is a new concept in high-speed imaging using an MCP detector. The imaging system described comprises an MCP intensifier coupled to a charge division image readout using high-speed, multichannel electronics. It has a projected spatial resolution of up to 128x128 pixels, though the image format is inherently flexible, and the potential for rates up to 100 million events per second with nanosecond timing resolution. The readout pattern has a planar electrode structure and the collected charge from each event is shared amongst all electrodes, grouped in pairs. The unique design of the readout obviates the need for charge measurement, usually the dominant process determining the event-processing deadtime. Instead, high-speed signal c...

  16. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Robert; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the main hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC operation (Phase 2 around 2023) where the peak luminosity will increase 5x compared to the design luminosity (10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). The TileCal upgrade aims to replace the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals can be digitized and directly sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. This will reduce pile-up problems and allow more complex trigger algorithms. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 Gbps optical links are used to read out all digitized data to t...

  17. Readout electronics for the SiPM tracking plane in the NEXT-1 prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero, V. [Instituto de Instrumentacion para Imagen Molecular I3M (Centro mixto CSIC-Universitat Politecnica de Valencia-CIEMAT), 46022 Valencia (Spain); Toledo, J., E-mail: jtoledo@eln.upv.es [Instituto de Instrumentacion para Imagen Molecular I3M (Centro mixto CSIC-Universitat Politecnica de Valencia-CIEMAT), 46022 Valencia (Spain); Catala, J.M.; Esteve, R. [Instituto de Instrumentacion para Imagen Molecular I3M (Centro mixto CSIC-Universitat Politecnica de Valencia-CIEMAT), 46022 Valencia (Spain); Gil, A.; Lorca, D. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universidad de Valencia), 46980 Valencia (Spain); Monzo, J.M.; Sanchis, F. [Instituto de Instrumentacion para Imagen Molecular I3M (Centro mixto CSIC-Universitat Politecnica de Valencia-CIEMAT), 46022 Valencia (Spain); Verdugo, A. [CIEMAT-Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-12-11

    NEXT is a new experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay using a 100 kg radio-pure high-pressure gaseous xenon TPC with electroluminescence readout. A large-scale prototype with a SiPM tracking plane has been built. The primary electron paths can be reconstructed from time-resolved measurements of the light that arrives to the SiPM plane. Our approach is to measure how many photons have reached each SiPM sensor each microsecond with a gated integrator. We have designed and tested a 16-channel front-end board that includes the analog paths and a digital section. Each analog path consists of three different stages: a transimpedance amplifier, a gated integrator and an offset and gain control stage. Measurements show good linearity and the ability to detect single photoelectrons.

  18. Front-end electronics for the readout of CdZnTe sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Moraes, D; Rudge, A

    2006-01-01

    The CERN_DxCTA is a front-end ASIC optimized for the readout of CdZn Te sensors. The chip is implemented in 0.25 mum CMOS technology. The circuit consists of 128 channels equipped with a transimpedance amplifier followed by a gain-shaper stage with 20 ns peaking time and two discriminators, allowing two threshold settings. Each discriminator includes a 5-bit trim DAC and is followed by an 18-bit static ripple-counter. The channel architecture is optimized for the detector characteristics in order to achieve the best energy resolution at counting rates of up to 5 M counts/second. Complete evaluation of the circuit is presented using electronic pulses and Cd ZnTe pixel detectors.

  19. Upgrade Analog Readout and Digitizing System for ATLAS TileCal Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Akerstedt, H; Biot, A; Bohm, C; Carrio, F; Drake, G; Hildebrand, K; Muschter, S; Oreglia, M; Paramonov, A

    2013-01-01

    A potential upgrade for the front-end electronics and signal digitization and data acquisition system of the ATLAS hadron calorimeter for the high luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) is described. A Demonstrator is being built to readout a slice of the TileCal detector. The on-detector electronics includes up to 48 Analog Front-end Boards for PMT analog signal processing, 4 Main Boards for data digitization and slow controls, 4 Daughter Boards with high speed optical links to interface the on-detector and off-detector electronics. Two super readout driver boards are used for off-detector data acquisition and fulfilling digital trigger.\

  20. The Laser calibration of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter during the LHC run 1

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00305555

    2016-10-12

    This article describes the Laser calibration system of the Atlas hadronic Tile Calorimeter that has been used during the run 1 of the LHC. First, the stability of the system associated readout electronics is studied. It is found to be stable with variations smaller than 0.6 %. Then, the method developed to compute the calibration constants, to correct for the variations of the gain of the calorimeter photomultipliers, is described. These constants were determined with a statistical uncertainty of 0.3 % and a systematic uncertainty of 0.2 % for the central part of the calorimeter and 0.5 % for the end-caps. Finally, the detection and correction of timing mis-configuration of the Tile Calorimeter using the Laser system are also presented.

  1. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Skuja

    During the last 3 months commissioning of HCAL has continued for HO and HE+. We have also started the commissioning of the first wedge of HB+. Progress continues to be made by our Trigger/DAQ, DCS and DPG colleagues. HF will be used to obtain a Luminosity measurement for CMS. A first test of the modifications to the HF electronics was made in the August CMS global run. In addition to installation and commissioning of various parts of HCAL, we also completed a very successful summer Test Beam period which saw measurements of the combined HE/EE/ES calorimeter system in the H2 test beam. Installation and Commissioning a. HB commissioning This week, part of the final water-cooling system for HB was commissioned. Eighteen HB- wedges and two pilot wedges on HB+ have been connected to the water circuit on YB0. On Sept 6, 2007 cabling and commissioning was started for the first HB readout box (RBX) using temporary set of cables. We have connected RBX-17 to the Low Voltage PS and the HCAL Detector Control Sy...

  2. A digital Front-End and Readout MIcrosystem for calorimetry at LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD-16 A Digital Front-End and Readout Microsystem for Calorimetry at LHC \\\\ \\\\Front-end signal processing for calorimetric detectors is essential in order to achieve adequate selectivity in the trigger function of an LHC experiment, with data identification and compaction before readout being required in the harsh, high rate environment of a high luminosity hadron machine. Other crucial considerations are the extremely wide dynamic range and bandwidth requirements, as well as the volume of data to be transferred to following stages of the trigger and readout system. These requirements are best met by an early digitalization of the detector information, followed by integrated digital signal processing and buffering functions covering the trigger latencies.\\\\ \\\\The FERMI (Front-End Readout MIcrosystem) is a digital implementation of the front-end and readout electronic chain for calorimeters. It is based on dynamic range compression, high speed A to D converters, a fully programmable pipeline/digital filter c...

  3. Reliability Analysis of a Low Voltage Power Supply Design for the Front-End Electronics of the Atlas Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Gopalakrishnan, A; Mahadik, S; Mellado, B; Proudfoot, J

    2012-01-01

    –We present a reliability study on a new low voltage power supply design for the front-end electronics of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter. Using the reliability data from the manufacturers of the components, we derive an estimate of the expected number of failures per year during the normal operating lifetime of the power supply bricks. This may be useful for other power supply designs or front-end electronics designs where high reliability is required. We discuss the factors in the design that limit reliability, and present conclusions for improvements to the power distribution system for the LHC Phase 2 upgrade.

  4. Reliability Analysis of a Low Voltage Power Supply Design for the Front-End Electronics of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Senthilkumaran, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Gopalakrishnan, A; Mahadik, S; Drake, G; Proudfoot, J

    2012-01-01

    We present a reliability study on a new low voltage power supply design for the front-end electronics of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter. Using the reliability data from the manufacturers of the components, we derive an estimate of the expected number of failures per year during the normal operating lifetime of the power supply bricks. We will illustrate the technique, which may be useful for other power supply designs or front-end electronics designs where high reliability is required. We discuss the factors in the design that limit reliability, and present our preliminary design work for improvements in the power distribution system for the LHC Phase 2 upgrade.

  5. Dose intercomparison for 400–500 keV electrons using FWT-60 film and glutamine (spectrophotometric readout) dosimeters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, B. L.; Nilekani, S. R.; Gehringer, P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the dose and the depth dose measurements with FWT-60 film and glutamine (Spectrophotometric readout) dosimeters for 400–500 keV electrons. The glutamine powder was spread uniformly in polyethylene bags and the powder thickness in each bag was 5 mg cm−2. Both techniques show...

  6. Design of a large dynamics fast acquisition device: application to readout of the electromagnetic calorimeter in the ATLAS experiment; Conception d`un dispositif d`acquisition rapide de grande dynamique: application a la lecture du calorimetre electromagnetique de l`experience ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussat, Jean-Marie [Universite de Paris Sud, 91 - Orsay (France)

    1998-06-05

    The construction of the new particle accelerator, the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at CERN is entails many research and development projects. It is the case in electronics where the problem of the acquisition of large dynamic range signals at high sampling frequencies occurs. Typically, the requirements are a dynamic range of about 65,000 (around 16 bits) at 40 MHz. Some solutions to this problem will be presented. One of them is using a commercial analog-to-digital converter. This case brings up the necessity of a signal conditioning equipment. This thesis describes a way of building such a system that will be called `multi-gain system`. Then, an application of this method is presented. It involves the realization of an automatic gain switching integrated circuit. It is designed for the readout of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter. The choice and the calculation of the components of this systems are described. They are followed by the results of some measurements done on a prototype made using the AMS 1.2{mu}m BiCMOS foundry. Possible enhancements are also presented. We conclude on the feasibility of such a system and its various applications in a number of fields that are not restricted to particle physics. (author) 33 refs., 132 figs., 22 tabs.

  7. The Phase II Upgrade of the ATLAS Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will show the status of the upgrade projects of the ATLAS calorimeter system for the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC). For the HL-LHC, the instantaneous luminosity is expected to increase up to L ≃ 7.5 × 1034 cm−2 s−1 and the average pile-up up to 200 interactions per bunch crossing. The Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeter electronics will need to be replaced to cope with these challenging conditions: the expected radiation doses will indeed exceed the qualification range of the current readout system, and the upgraded trigger system will require much longer data storage in the electronics (up to 60 us), that the current system cannot sustain. The status of the R&D of the low-power ASICs (pre-amplifier, shaper, ADC, serializer and transmitters) and of the readout electronics design will be discussed. Moreover, a High Granularity Timing Detector (HGTD) is proposed to be added in front of the LAr calorimeters in the end-cap region (2.4 <|eta|< 4.2) for pile-up mitigation a...

  8. RF Single Electron Transistor Readout Amplifiers for Superconducting Astronomical Detectors for X-Ray to Sub-mm Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Thomas; Aassime, Abdelhanin; Delsing, Per; Frunzio, Luigi; Li, Li-Qun; Prober, Daniel; Schoelkopf, Robert; Segall, Ken; Wilson, Chris; Stahle, Carl

    2000-01-01

    We report progress on using a new type of amplifier, the Radio-Frequency Single-Electron Transistor (RF-SET), to develop multi-channel sensor readout systems for fast and sensitive readout of high impedance cryogenic photodetectors such as Superconducting Tunnel Junctions and Single Quasiparticle Photon Counters. Although cryogenic, these detectors are desirable because of capabilities not other-wise attainable. However, high impedances and low output levels make low-noise, high-speed readouts challenging, and large format arrays would be facilitated by compact, low-power, on-chip integrated amplifiers. Well-suited for this application are RF-SETs, very high performance electrometers which use an rf readout technique to provide 100 MHz bandwidth. Small size, low power, and cryogenic operation allow direct integration with detectors, and using multiple rf carrier frequencies permits simultaneous readout of 20-50 amplifiers with a common electrical connection. We describe both the first 2-channel demonstration of this wavelength division multiplexing technique for RF-SETs, and Charge-Locked-Loop operation with 100 kHz of closed-loop bandwidth.

  9. Status on the development of front-end and readout electronics for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Final results on a CMOS 0.18 µm front-end chip for silicon strips readout are summarized and ... In any detector concept foreseen at the ILC, a front-end readout system for tracking silicon detectors has to ... signal processing techniques such as analog sampling and on-chip digitization. For detectors that covers of ...

  10. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chomont, Arthur Rene; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), located on the outside of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser and charge injection elements and it allows to monitor and equalize the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scin...

  11. Optimizing read-out of the NECTAr front-end electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorobiov, S., E-mail: vorobiov@lpta.in2p3.fr [LUPM, Universite Montpellier II and IN2P3/CNRS, Montpellier (France); DESY-Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Feinstein, F. [LUPM, Universite Montpellier II and IN2P3/CNRS, Montpellier (France); Bolmont, J.; Corona, P. [LPNHE, Universite Paris VI and Universite Paris VII and IN2P3/CNRS, Paris (France); Delagnes, E. [IRFU/DSM/CEA, Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Falvard, A. [LUPM, Universite Montpellier II and IN2P3/CNRS, Montpellier (France); Gascon, D. [ICC-UB, Universitat Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Glicenstein, J.-F. [IRFU/DSM/CEA, Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Naumann, C.L.; Nayman, P. [LPNHE, Universite Paris VI and Universite Paris VII and IN2P3/CNRS, Paris (France); Ribo, M.; Sanuy, A. [ICC-UB, Universitat Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Tavernet, J.-P.; Toussenel, F.; Vincent, P. [LPNHE, Universite Paris VI and Universite Paris VII and IN2P3/CNRS, Paris (France)

    2012-12-11

    We describe the optimization of the read-out specifications of the NECTAr front-end electronics for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The NECTAr project aims at building and testing a demonstrator module of a new front-end electronics design, which takes an advantage of the know-how acquired while building the cameras of the CAT, H.E.S.S.-I and H.E.S.S.-II experiments. The goal of the optimization work is to define the specifications of the digitizing electronics of a CTA camera, in particular integration time window, sampling rate, analog bandwidth using physics simulations. We employed for this work real photomultiplier pulses, sampled at 100 ps with a 600 MHz bandwidth oscilloscope. The individual pulses are drawn randomly at the times at which the photo-electrons, originating from atmospheric showers, arrive at the focal planes of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The timing information is extracted from the existing CTA simulations on the GRID and organized in a local database, together with all the relevant physical parameters (energy, primary particle type, zenith angle, distance from the shower axis, pixel offset from the optical axis, night-sky background level, etc.), and detector configurations (telescope types, camera/mirror configurations, etc.). While investigating the parameter space, an optimal pixel charge integration time window, which minimizes relative error in the measured charge, has been determined. This will allow to gain in sensitivity and to lower the energy threshold of CTA telescopes. We present results of our optimizations and first measurements obtained using the NECTAr demonstrator module.

  12. Measuring Electron Tunneling Times as a Means of Single Shot/Single Electron Spin Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Hans D.; Szkopek, Thomas; Rao, Deepak S.; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2004-03-01

    In this talk, we present our strategy for measuring the spin of a single electron trapped in an gate-defined quantum dot in a single shot measurement. The electron is allowed to tunnel out of the electron into a spin dependent final state, or conversely, an external electron with a definite spin is allowed to tunnel onto the dot. The measurement of spin is thereby turned into a measurement of time. A necessary prerequisite is the ability to reliably and accurately measure the dwell time for single electrons on the quantum dot with microsecond accuracy. We report on our experimental progress in this area, where rather than using a relatively hard to fabricate SET for charge detection, we employ a quantum point contact FET that is cofabricated with the quantum dot.

  13. The AFS hadron calorimeter at the CERN ISR

    CERN Document Server

    Botner, O; Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang; Gordon, H; Jeffreys, P; Kesseler, G; Molzon, W R; Oren, Y; Rosselet, L; Schindler, R; Smith, S D; Van der Lans, J; Wang, C J; Willis, W J; Witzeling, W; Woody, C

    1981-01-01

    The hadron calorimeter for the AFS experiment at CERN consists of a fine sampling uranium/copper scintillator sandwich. It is designed for high modularity and will provide azimuthal coverage over 8 sterad. The authors describe the optical readout system, consisting of acrylic scintillator and wavelength shifter plates, and present the performance of test modules with respect to the energy resolution for electrons ( sigma =0.16/ square root E) and hadrons ( sigma =0.36/ square root E), the linearity of response and the ratio of electron to hadron response (e/ pi =1.11). (4 refs).

  14. Commissioning of the CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeters Phase I Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bilki, Burak

    2017-01-01

    The final phase of the CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeters Phase I upgrade is being performed during the Extended Year End Technical Stop of 2016 â?? 2017. In the framework of the upgrade, the PMT boxes are being reworked to implement two channel readout in order to exploit the benefits of the multi-anode PMTs in background tagging and signal recovery. The front-end electronics is also being upgraded to QIE10-based electronics which will implement larger dynamic range and a 6-bit TDC to eliminate the background to have an effect on the trigger. Following this major upgrade, the Hadron Forward Calorimeters will be commissioned for operation readiness in 2017. Here we describe the details and the components of the upgrade, and discuss the operational experience and results obtained during the upgrade and commissioning.

  15. Commissioning of the CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeters Phase I Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bilki, Burak

    2017-01-01

    The final phase of the CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeters Phase I upgrade was performed during the Extended Year End Technical Stop of 2016 and 2017. In the framework of the upgrade, the PMT boxes were reworked to implement two channel readout in order to exploit the benefits of the multi-anode PMTs in background tagging and signal recovery. The front-end electronics were also upgraded to QIE10-based electronics which implement larger dynamic range and a 6-bit TDC. Following this major upgrade, the Hadron Forward Calorimeters were commissioned for operation readiness in 2017. Here we describe the details and the components of the upgrade, and discuss the operational experience and results obtained during the upgrade and commissioning.

  16. Design, Construction and Commissioning of the Digital Hadron Calorimeter - DHCAL

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, C; Bilki, B.; Butler, J.; Corriveau, F.; Cundiff, T.; Drake, G.; Francis, K.; Furst, B.; Guarino, V.; Haberichter, B.; Hazen, E.; Hoff, J.; Holm, S.; Kreps, A.; DeLurgio, P.; Matijas, Z.; Monte, L.Dal; Mucia, N.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; Pollack, B.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Skrzecz, F.; Smith, J.R.; Trojand, D.; Underwood, D.; Velasco, M.; Walendziak, J.; Wood, K.; Wu, S.; Xia, L.; Zhang, Q.; Zhao, A.

    2016-01-01

    A novel hadron calorimeter is being developed for future lepton colliding beam detectors. The calorimeter is optimized for the application of Particle Flow Algorithms (PFAs) to the measurement of hadronic jets and features a very finely segmented readout with 1 x 1 cm2 cells. The active media of the calorimeter are Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) with a digital, i.e. one-bit, readout. To first order the energy of incident particles in this calorimeter is reconstructed as being proportional to the number of pads with a signal over a given threshold. A large-scale prototype calorimeter with approximately 500,000 readout channels has been built and underwent extensive testing in the Fermilab and CERN test beams. This paper reports on the design, construction, and commissioning of this prototype calorimeter.

  17. THick Gas Electron Multiplier (THGEM) detector readout based on TDC-FPGAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechele, Maximilian; Fischer, Horst; Gorzellik, Matthias; Grussenmeyer, Tobias; Herrmann, Florian; Joerg, Philipp; Kremser, Paul; Schopferer, Sebastian [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg (Germany); Collaboration: THGEM Group of the COMPASS Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The RD51 program has been investigating a novel photon detector technology called THGEM, aimed to be operated in future Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) Counters. The THGEM design is adopted from the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) using Printed Circuit Board (PCB) material. The manufacturing process uses standard PCB drilling and etching techniques which allows to cover large detector areas at gains up to 10{sup 6} in a mechanically robust and very cost-efficient manner. Promising results have also been obtained with a hybrid approach, which combines the THGEM with a Micromega layer to further suppress the ion back flow to the photocathode. In the course of the RICH-1 detector upgrade of the COMPASS experiment at CERN, the existing Multi Wire Proportional Chambers will partly be replaced by a set of THGEMs. For the digital readout, we are designing a front-end board processing 384 detector channels by TDC-FPGAs. The boards reading a single THGEM chamber are connected in a star topology in order to exploit the data rate capability of the optical transceivers interfacing with the downstream data acquisition system.

  18. Studies of Read-Out Electronics and Trigger for Muon Drift Tube Detectors at High Luminosities

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, Sebastian

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Centre for Particle Physics, CERN, collides protons with an unprecedentedly high centre-of-mass energy and luminosity. The collision products are recorded and analysed by four big experiments, one of which is the ATLAS detector. For precise measurements of the properties of the Higgs-Boson and searches for new phenomena beyond the Standard Model, the LHC luminosity of $L=10^{34}cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ is planned to be increased by a factor of ten leading to the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). In order to cope with the higher background and data rates, the LHC experiments need to be upgraded. In this thesis, studies for the upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer are presented with respect to the read-out electronics of the Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) and the small-diameter Muon Drift Tube (sMDT) chambers and the Level-1 muon trigger. Due to the reduced tube diameter of sMDT chambers, background occupancy and space charge effects are suppressed by an order of magnitude compar...

  19. Development of Trigger and Readout Electronics for the ATLAS New Small Wheel Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Junjie; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The planned Phase-I and Phase-II upgrades of the LHC accelerator drastically impacts the ATLAS trigger and trigger rates. A replacement of the ATLAS innermost endcap muon station with a new small wheel (NSW) detector is planned for the second long shutdown period of 2019 - 2020. This upgrade will allow us to maintain a low pT threshold for single muon and excellent tracking capability even after the High-Luminosity LHC upgrade. The NSW detector will feature two new detector technologies, Resistive Micromegas and small-strip Thin Gap Chambers. Both detector technologies will provide trigger and tracking primitives. The total number of trigger and readout channels is about 2.4 millions, and the overall power consumption is expected to be about 75 kW. The electronics design will be implemented in some 8000 front-end boards including the design of four custom front-end ASICs capable to drive trigger and tracking primitives with high speed sterilizers to drive trigger candidates to the backend trigger processor sy...

  20. The front-end readout electronics for the P-bar ANDA Focussing-Lightguide Disc DIRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowie, E; Hill, G; Hoek, M; Kaiser, R; Keri, T; Murray, M; Rosner, G; Seitz, B [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Kelvin Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Foehl, K; Glazier, D, E-mail: t.keri@physics.gla.ac.u [School of Physics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    One of the key detectors of the upcoming P-bar ANDA experiment for particle identification will be the Focussing-Lightguide Disc DIRC, based on a novel detector technique. It will use a fused silica disc as a solid radiator to generate Cherenkov light by the passing of charged particles. These photons will be transported by total-internal-reflection to the rim, where LiF crystals will be used to perform dispersion corrections. Focussing lightguides will map propagation angles to spatial positions on the surface of photon detectors. Fast single photon detection devices will be used to measure azimuthal angles and spatial positions, which can be used to reconstruct kinematic properties of the passing particles. The expected average interaction rate of 20 MHz yields a photon detection rate of 1.3 MHz, as it is foreseen to use 128 MCP-PMT, each with 32 channels, for continuous readout. Moderate timing resolution of 300 ps improves signal from noise separation. The readout design requirements for the Focussing-Lightguide Disc DIRC will be introduced. The current candidate for implementation of the front-end readout electronic system will be described and several alternative readout scenarios will be discussed. Finally, a summary and an outlook for further developments and tests will be given.

  1. CMS Technical Design Report for the Phase 1 Upgrade of the Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067097; Anderson, J; Dahmes, B; de Barbaro, P; Freeman, J; Grassi, T; Hazen, E; Mans, J; Ruchti, R; Schimdt, I; Shaw, T; Tully, C; Whitmore, J; Yetkin, T

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the technical design and outlines the expected performance of the Phase 1 Upgrade of the CMS Hadron Calorimeters. The upgrade is designed to improve the performance of the calorimeters at high luminosity with large numbers of pileup events by increasing the depth-segmentation of the calorimeter and providing new capabilities for anomalous background rejection. The photodetectors of the CMS Barrel and Endcap Hadron Calorimeters, currently hybrid photodiodes (HPDs), will be replaced by silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) devices. The single-channel phototubes of the Forward Hadron Calorimeter will be replaced by multi-anode phototubes operated in a dual-anode configuration. The readout electronics for all three calorimeter systems will also be replaced. A new charge-integrating ADC, the QIE10, with an integrated TDC will be used along with a 4.8 Gbps data-link. The off-detector electronics will also be substantially upgraded to handle higher data volumes and improve the information sent to the ...

  2. The KLOE electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adinolfi, M; Antonelli, A; Antonelli, M; Anulli, F; Barbiellini, G; Bencivenni, G; Bertolucci, Sergio; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bocci, V; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Cabibbo, G; Caloi, R; Campana, P; Casarsa, M; Cataldi, G; Ceradini, F; Cervelli, F; Ciambrone, P; De Lucia, E; De Simone, P; De Zorzi, G; Dell'Agnello, S; Denig, A; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Falco, S; Doria, A; Erriquez, O; Farilla, A; Ferrari, A; Ferrer, M L; Finocchiaro, G; Forti, C; Franceschi, A; Franzini, P; Gao, M L; Gatti, C; Gauzzi, P; Giannasi, A; Giovannella, S; Graziani, E; Han, H G; Han, S W; Huang, X; Incagli, M; Ingrosso, L; Keeble, L; Kim, W; Kuo, C; Lanfranchi, G; Lee-Franzini, J; Lomtadze, T A; Mao Chen Sheng; Martemyanov, M; Mei, W; Messi, R; Miscetti, S; Moccia, S; Moulson, M; Murtas, F; Müller, S; Pacciani, L; Palomba, M; Palutan, M; Pasqualucci, E; Passalacqua, L; Passeri, A; Picca, D; Pirozzi, G; Pontecorvo, L; Primavera, M; Santangelo, P; Santovetti, E; Saracino, G; Schamberger, R D; Sciascia, B; Scuri, F; Sfiligoi, I; Silano, P; Spadaro, T; Spiriti, E; Tortora, L; Valente, P; Valeriani, B; Venanzoni, G; Ventura, A; Wu, Y; Wölfle, S; Xie, Y G; Zema, P F; Zhang, C D; Zhang, J Q; Zhao, P P

    2002-01-01

    The KLOE detector was designed primarily for the study of CP violation in neutral kaon decays at DAPHINE, the Frascati phi-factory. The detector consists of a tracker and an electromagnetic calorimeter. A lead-scintillating-fiber sampling calorimeter satisfies best the requirements of the experiment, providing adequate energy resolution and superior timing accuracy. We describe in the following the construction of the calorimeter, its calibration and how the calorimeter information is used to obtain energy, point of entry and time of the arrival of photons, electrons and charged particles. With e sup + e sup - collision data at DAPHINE for an integrated luminosity of some 2 pb sup - sup 1 we find for electromagnetic showers, an energy resolution of 5.7%/sq root E(GeV) and a time resolution of 54/sq root E(GeV) ps. We also present a measurement of efficiency for low energy photons.

  3. The Energy Response of the ATLAS Calorimeter System

    CERN Document Server

    Schlager, G; Carli, T; Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang; Henriques, A

    2006-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) currently under construction at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva will collide two proton beams with a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. At this high energy frontier a new chapter of particle physics will be opened. The ATLAS experiment is a general-purpose LHC detector for proton-proton collisions. The electromagnetic liquid argon-lead sampling calorimeter (LAr Calorimeter) is designed to measure the energy and position of electrons and photons with high precision and the hadronic scintillator-iron sampling calorimeter (TileCal) complements the measurement of the energy and direction of jets. Both calorimeters are installed in the ATLAS experimental cavern and are presently being commissioned. To be able to start the commissioning of the TileCal in an early phase, even before the final electronic readout system was available, a mobile data acquisition system (MobiDAQ) was developed in the context of this PhD-thesis. It is capable of reading up to e...

  4. Resolution and Efficiency of Monitored Drift-Tube Chambers with Final Read-out Electronics at High Background Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Dubbert, J; Kortner, O; Kroha, H; Manz, A; Mohrdieck-Möck, S; Rauscher, F; Richter, R; Staude, A; Stiller, W

    2003-01-01

    The performance of a monitored drift-tube chamber for ATLAS with the final read-out electronics was tested at the Gamma Irradiation facility at CERN under varyin photon irradiation rates of up to 990~Hz\\,cm$^{-2}$ which corresponds to 10 times the highest background rate expected in ATLAS. The signal pulse-height measurement of the final read-out electronics was used to perform time-slewing corrections. The corrections improve the average single-tube resolution from 106~$\\mu$m to 89~$\\mu$m at the nominal discriminator threshold of 44~mV without irradiation, and from 114~$\\mu$m to 89~$\\mu$m at the maximum nominal irradiation rate in ATLAS of 100~Hz\\,cm$^{-2}$. The reduction of the threshold from 44~mV to 34~mV and the time-slewing corrections lead to an average single-tube resolution of 82~$\\mu$m without photon background and of 89~$\\mu$m at 100~Hz\\,cm$^{-2}$. The measured muon detection efficiency agrees with the expectation for the final read-out electronics.

  5. Response Uniformity of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Aharrouche, M; Di Ciaccio, L; El Kacimi, M; Gaumer, O; Gouanère, M; Goujdami, D; Lafaye, R; Laplace, S; Le Maner, C; Neukermans, L; Perrodo, P; Poggioli, L; Prieur, D; Przysiezniak, H; Sauvage, G; Wingerter-Seez, I; Zitoun, R; Lanni, F; Lü, L; Ma, H; Rajagopalan, S; Takai, H; Belymam, A; Benchekroun, D; Hakimi, M; Hoummada, A; Gao, Y; Stroynowsk, R; Aleksa, M; Carli, T; Fassnacht, P; Gianotti, F; Hervás, L; Lampl, W; Collot, J; Hostachy, J Y; Ledroit-Guillon, F; Malek, F; Martin, P; Viret, S; Leltchouk, M; Parsons, J A; Simion, S; Barreiro, F; Del Peso, J; Labarga, L; Oliver, C; Rodier, S; Barrillon, P; Benchouk, C; Djama, F; Hubaut, F; Monnier, E; Pralavorio, P; Sauvage, D; Serfon, C; Tisserant, S; Tóth, J; Banfi, D; Carminati, L; Cavalli, D; Costa, G; Delmastro, M; Fanti, M; Mandell, L; Mazzanti, M; Tartarelli, F; Kotov, K; Maslennikov, A; Pospelov, G; Tikhonov, Yu; Bourdarios, C; Fayard, L; Fournier, D; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Kado, M; Parrour, G; Puzo, P; Rousseau, D; Sacco, R; Serin, L; Unal, G; Zerwas, D; Dekhissi, B; Derkaoui, J; EL Kharrim, A; Maaroufi, F; Cleland, W; Lacour, D; Laforge, B; Nikolic-Audit, I; Schwemling, Ph; Ghazlane, H; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R; Idrissi Fakhr-Eddine, A; Boonekamp, M; Kerschen, N; Mansoulié, B; Meyer, P; Schwindlingy, J; Lund-Jensen, B

    2007-01-01

    The construction of the ATLAS electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter modules is completed and all the modules are assembled and inserted in the cryostats. During the production period four barrel and three endcap modules were exposed to test beams in order to assess their performance, ascertain the production quality and reproducibility, and to scrutinize the complete energy reconstruction chain from the readout and calibration electronics to the signal and energy reconstruction. It was also possible to check the full Monte Carlo simulation of the calorimeter. The analysis of the uniformity, resolution and extraction of constant term is presented. Typical non-uniformities of 0.5% and typical global constant terms of 0.6% are measured for the barrel and end-cap modules.

  6. Progress on the Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Eric Eisenhandler

    The Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger (L1Calo) has recently passed a number of major hurdles. The various electronic modules that make up the trigger are either in full production or are about to be, and preparations in the ATLAS pit are well advanced. L1Calo has three main subsystems. The PreProcessor converts analogue calorimeter signals to digital, associates the rather broad trigger pulses with the correct proton-proton bunch crossing, and does a final calibration in transverse energy before sending digital data streams to the two algorithmic trigger processors. The Cluster Processor identifies and counts electrons, photons and taus, and the Jet/Energy-sum Processor looks for jets and also sums missing and total transverse energy. Readout drivers allow the performance of the trigger to be monitored online and offline, and also send region-of-interest information to the Level-2 Trigger. The PreProcessor (Heidelberg) is the L1Calo subsystem with the largest number of electronic modules (124), and most of its fu...

  7. SIGNAL RECONSTRUCTION PERFORMANCE OF THE ATLAS HADRONIC TILE CALORIMETER

    CERN Document Server

    Do Amaral Coutinho, Y; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    "The Tile Calorimeter for the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillators as active medium. The scintillators are readout by wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal front-end electronics allows to read out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. The read-out system is responsible for reconstructing the data in real-time fulfilling the tight time constraint imposed by the ATLAS first level trigger rate (100 kHz). The main component of the read-out system is the Digital Signal Processor (DSP) which, using an Optimal Filtering reconstruction algorithm, allows to compute for each channel the signal amplitude, time and quality factor at the required high rate. Currently the ATLAS detector and the LHC are undergoing an upgrade program tha...

  8. Status on the development of front-end and readout electronics for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... Abstract. Final results on a CMOS 0.18 m front-end chip for silicon strips readout are summarized and preliminary results on time measurement are discussed. The status of the next version in 0.13 m is briefly presented.

  9. Testing and development of the CMS silicon tracker front-end readout electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Leaver, James D G

    2006-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general purpose detector that will operate at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a particle accelerator designed for the study of new physics at the TeV energy scale. A key component of CMS is the Silicon Tracker, which has ~9.3 million detector channels and is expected to generate over 70% of the total CMS data volume. The Tracker readout system must process data at a rate that is orders of magnitude higher than in any previous particle physics experiment. On-detector readout is performed by the APV25 front end chip. To ensure a Tracker of the highest quality and efficiency, each APV25 must be rigorously verified; a wafer probing test station has been developed for post production quality assurance. The APV25 contains internal pipelines which buffer event data pending readout. An APV Emulator has been designed to prevent APV25 buffer overflow due to random fluctuations in the Level 1 trigger rate. The first stage of the off-detector readout is performed by the Front En...

  10. Studies of the ATLAS hadronic Calorimeter response to different particles at Test Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Zakareishvili, Tamar; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Phase II upgrade aims to increase the accelerator luminosity by a factor of 5-10. Due to the expected higher radiation levels and the aging of the current electronics, a new readout system of the ATLAS experiment hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) is needed. A prototype of the upgrade TileCal electronics has been tested using the beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) accelerator at CERN. Data were collected with beams of muons, electrons and hadrons at various incident energies and impact angles. The muons data allow to study the dependence of the response on the incident point and angle in the cell. The electron data are used to determine the linearity of the electron energy measurement. The hadron data will allow to tune the calorimeter response to pions and kaons modelling to improve the reconstruction of the jet energies. The results of the ongoing data analysis are discussed in the presentation.

  11. A CMOS readout system for very large detector capacitances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeneberg, U.; Hosticka, B. J.; Fent, J.; Oberlack, H.; Zimmer, G.

    1990-03-01

    In this contribution we present readout electronics for a liquid-argon calorimeter. It has been designed and optimized for operation at cryogenic temperatures and it is integrated in an n-well 2 μm CMOS technology. The chip contains 16 analog channels with switched-capacitor circuits for charge collection, storage, and amplification, and averaging and correlated double sampling circuits for noise reduction. Further components include a trigger generator, an analog multiplexer, digital control circuits for analog switching, and 50 ω cable drivers.

  12. Dual-Readout Calorimetry for High-Quality Energy

    CERN Multimedia

    During the past seven years, the DREAM collaboration has systematically investigated all factors that determine and limit the precision with which the properties of hadrons and jets can be measured in calorimeters. Using simultaneous detection of the deposited energy and the Cerenkov light produced in hadronic shower development ${(dual}$ ${readout}$), the fluctuations in the electromagnetic shower fraction could be measured event by event their effects on signal linearity, response function and energy resolution eliminated. Detailed measurement of the time structure of the signals made it possible to measure the contirbutions of nuclear evaporation neutrons to the signals and thus reduce the effects of fluctuations in "invisible energy". We are now embarking on the construction of a full-scale calorimeter which incorporates all these elements and which should make it possible to measure the four-vectors of both electrons, hadrons and jets with very high precision, in an instrument that can be simply calibrat...

  13. Dual-Readout Calorimetry for High-Quality Energy Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Wigmans, R

    2010-01-01

    During the past seven years, the DREAM Collaboration has systematically investigated all factors that determine and limit the precision with which the properties of hadrons and jets can be measured in calorimeters. Using simultaneous detection of the deposited energy and the Cerenkov light produced in hadronic shower development (dual readout), the fluctuations in the electromagnetic shower fraction could be measured event by event and their effects on signal linearity, response function and energy resolution eliminated. Detailed measurement of the time structure of the signals made it possible to measure the contributions of nuclear evaporation to the signals and thus reduce the effects of fluctuations in “invisible energy”. We are now embarking on the construction of a full-scale calorimeter which incorporates all these elements and which should make it possible to measure the four-vectors of both electrons, hadrons and jets with very high precision, in an instrument that can be simply calibrated with e...

  14. Zero suppression logic of the ALICE muon forward tracker pixel chip prototype PIXAM and associated readout electronics development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouzat, C.; Değerli, Y.; Guilloux, F.; Orsini, F.; Venault, P.

    2015-05-01

    In the framework of the ALICE experiment upgrade at HL-LHC, a new forward tracking detector, the Muon Forward Tracker (MFT), is foreseen to overcome the intrinsic limitations of the present Muon Spectrometer and will perform new measurements of general interest for the whole ALICE physics. To fulfill the new detector requirements, CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) provide an attractive trade-off between readout speed, spatial resolution, radiation hardness, granularity, power consumption and material budget. This technology has been chosen to equip the Muon Forward Tracker and also the vertex detector: the Inner Tracking System (ITS). Since few years, an intensive R&D program has been performed on the design of MAPS in the 0.18 μ m CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) process. In order to avoid pile up effects in the experiment, the classical rolling shutter readout system of MAPS has been improved to overcome the readout speed limitation. A zero suppression algorithm, based on a 3 by 3 cluster finding (position and data), has been chosen for the MFT. This algorithm allows adequate data compression for the sensor. This paper presents the large size prototype PIXAM, which represents 1/3 of the final chip, and will focus specially on the zero suppression block architecture. This chip is designed and under fabrication in the 0.18 μ m CIS process. Finally, the readout electronics principle to send out the compressed data flow is also presented taking into account the cluster occupancy per MFT plane for a single central Pb-Pb collision.

  15. Design, Performance, and Calibration of the CMS Hadron-Outer Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullin, Salavat; Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Adam, Nadia; Adams, Mark Raymond; Akchurin, Nural; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Anderson, E Walter; Antchev, Georgy; Arcidy, M; Ayan, S; Aydin, Sezgin; Aziz, Tariq; Baarmand, Marc M; Babich, Kanstantsin; Baden, Drew; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bard, Robert; Barnes, Virgil E; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Baiatian, G; Bencze, Gyorgy; Beri, Suman Bala; Berntzon, Lisa; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Bhatti, Anwar; Bodek, Arie; Bose, Suvadeep; Bose, Tulika; Budd, Howard; Burchesky, Kyle; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cankocak, Kerem; Carrell, Kenneth Wayne; Cerci, Salim; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Chung, Yeon Sei; Clarida, Warren; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Cushman, Priscilla; Damgov, Jordan; De Barbaro, Pawel; Debbins, Paul; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demianov, A; de Visser, Theo; Deshpande, Pandurang Vishnu; Díaz, Jonathan; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Dugad, Shashikant; Dumanoglu, Isa; Duru, Firdevs; Efthymiopoulos, I; Elias, John E; Elvira, D; Emeliantchik, Igor; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ershov, Alexander; Erturk, Sefa; Esen, Selda; Eskut, Eda; Fenyvesi, Andras; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Freeman, Jim; Ganguli, Som N; Gaultney, Vanessa; Gamsizkan, Halil; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Genchev, Vladimir; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Golutvin, Igor; Goncharov, Petr; Grassi, Tullio; Green, Dan; Gribushin, Andrey; Grinev, B; Gurtu, Atul; Murat Güler, A; Gülmez, Erhan; Gümüs, K; Haelen, T; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Halyo, Valerie; Hashemi, Majid; Hauptman, John M; Hazen, Eric; Heering, Arjan Hendrix; Heister, Arno; Hunt, Adam; Ilyina, N; Ingram, D; Isiksal, Engin; Jarvis, Chad; Jeong, Chiyoung; Johnson, Kurtis F; Jones, John; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kalagin, Vladimir; Kalinin, Alexey; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kaur, Manjit; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Kellogg, Richard G; Khmelnikov, Alexander; Kim, Heejong; Kisselevich, I; Kodolova, Olga; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Kolossov, V; Korablev, Andrey; Korneev, Yury; Kosarev, Ivan; Kramer, Laird; Krinitsyn, Alexander; Krishnaswamy, Marthi Ramaswamy; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kryshkin, V; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kumar, Arun; Kunori, Shuichi; Laasanen, Alvin T; Ladygin, Vladimir; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Laszlo, Andras; Lawlor, C; Lazic, Dragoslav; Lee, Sang Joon; Levchuk, Leonid; Linn, Stephan; Litvintsev, Dmitri; Lobolo, L; Los, Serguei; Lubinsky, V; Lukanin, Vladimir; Ma, Yousi; Machado, Emanuel; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mans, Jeremy; Marlow, Daniel; Markowitz, Pete; Martínez, German; Mazumdar, Kajari; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mescheryakov, G; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Miller, Michael; Möller, A; Mohammadi-Najafabadi, M; Moissenz, P; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Mossolov, Vladimir; Nagaraj, P; Narasimham, Vemuri Syamala; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Onengüt, G; Ozkan, Cigdem; Ozkurt, Halil; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Ozok, Ferhat; Paktinat, S; Pal, Andras; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Penzo, Aldo; Petrushanko, Sergey; Petrosian, A; Pikalov, Vladimir; Piperov, Stefan; Podrasky, V; Polatoz, A; Pompos, Arnold; Popescu, Sorina; Posch, C; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Qian, Weiming; Ralich, Robert; Reddy, L; Reidy, Jim; Rogalev, Evgueni; Roh, Youn; Rohlf, James; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Ruchti, Randy; Ryazanov, Anton; Safronov, Grigory; Sanders, David A; Sanzeni, Christopher; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Satyanarayana, B; Schmidt, Ianos; Sekmen, Sezen; Semenov, Sergey; Senchishin, V; Sergeyev, S; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Singh, B; Singh, Jas Bir; Sirunyan, Albert M; Skuja, Andris; Sharma, Seema; Sherwood, Brian; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Sogut, Kenan; Sonmez, Nasuf; Sorokin, Pavel; Spezziga, Mario; Stefanovich, R; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Sudhakar, Katta; Sulak, Lawrence; Suzuki, Ichiro; Talov, Vladimir; Teplov, Konstantin; Thomas, Ray; Tonwar, Suresh C; Topakli, Huseyin; Tully, Christopher; Turchanovich, L; Ulyanov, A; Vanini, A; Vankov, Ivan; Vardanyan, Irina; Varela, F; Vergili, Mehmet; Verma, Piyush; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Vidal, Richard; Vishnevskiy, Alexander; Vlassov, E; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Volobouev, Igor; Volkov, Alexey; Volodko, Anton; Wang, Lei; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Wetstein, Matthew; Winn, Dave; Wigmans, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Shouxiang; Yazgan, Efe; Yetkin, Taylan; Zálán, Peter; Zarubin, Anatoli; Zeyrek, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    The CMS hadron calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter with brass absorber and plastic scintillator tiles with wavelength shifting fibres for carrying the light to the readout device. The barrel hadron calorimeter is complemented with an outer calorimeter to ensure high energy shower containment in the calorimeter. Fabrication, testing and calibration of the outer hadron calorimeter are carried out keeping in mind its importance in the energy measurement of jets in view of linearity and resolution. It will provide a net improvement in missing $\\et$ measurements at LHC energies. The outer hadron calorimeter will also be used for the muon trigger in coincidence with other muon chambers in CMS.

  16. Consolidation and upgrades of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Cerda Alberich, Leonor; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This is a presentation of the status of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter during the EYETS and before starting 2017 data-taking. Updates on the upgrade of the readout system such as doubling the RODs output links and the number of processing units (PUs) are being worked on at the moment as well as items concerning the maintenance of the detector which involves issues such as cooling leaks and consolidation of the Low Voltage Power Supplies, which are being replaced if necessary. Other updates include works on the Tile calibration, in particular on the Cesium system. In addition, the whole Tile readout electronics is being replaced for Phase-II and it is being tested in Test Beam area.

  17. Prospects for a precision timing upgrade of the CMS PbWO$_{4}$ crystal electromagnetic calorimeter for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Marzocchi, Badder

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) crystal electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL), which will operate at the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), will achieve a timing resolution of around 30 ps for high energy photons and electrons. In this talk we will discuss the benefits of precision timing for the ECAL event reconstruction at HL-LHC. Simulation studies on the timing properties of PbWO crystals, as well as the impact of the photosensors and the readout electronics on the timing performance, will be presented. Test beam studies on the timing performance of PbWO$_{4}$ crystals with various photosensors and readout electronics will be shown.

  18. Prometeo: A portable test-bench for the upgraded front-end electronics of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bullock, D; The ATLAS collaboration; Govender, M; Hofsajer, I; Mellado, B; Moreno, P; Reed, R; Ruan, X; Sandrock, C; Solans, C; Suter, R; Usai, G; Valero, A

    2014-01-01

    Prometeo is a portable test-bench for full certification of the front-end electronics of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter, designed for the upgrade phase-II. It is a high-throughput electronic system designed to simultaneously read out all the digitized samples from 12 channels at the LHC bunch crossing frequency and assess the quality of the data in real-time. The core of the system is a Xilinx Virtex 7 evaluation board extended with a dual QSFP FMC module to read out and control the on-detector electronics. The rest of the functionalities of the system are provided by a HV mezzanine board that supplied the HV to the photo-multipliers, an LED board that sends light to illuminate them, and a 12 channel ADC board that samples the analog trigger output of the front- end. The system is connected by ethernet to a GUI client from which QA tests are performed on the electronics such as noise measurements and linearity response to an injected charge.

  19. A multi-purpose readout electronics for CdTe and CZT detectors for x-ray imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, X. B.; Deng, Z.; Xing, Y. X.; Liu, Y. N.

    2017-09-01

    A multi-purpose readout electronics based on the DPLMS digital filter has been developed for CdTe and CZT detectors for X-ray imaging applications. Different filter coefficients can be synthesized optimized either for high energy resolution at relatively low counting rate or for high rate photon-counting with reduced energy resolution. The effects of signal width constraints, sampling rate and length were numerical studied by Mento Carlo simulation with simple CRRC shaper input signals. The signal width constraint had minor effect and the ENC was only increased by 6.5% when the signal width was shortened down to 2 τc. The sampling rate and length depended on the characteristic time constants of both input and output signals. For simple CR-RC input signals, the minimum number of the filter coefficients was 12 with 10% increase in ENC when the output time constant was close to the input shaping time. A prototype readout electronics was developed for demonstration, using a previously designed analog front ASIC and a commercial ADC card. Two different DPLMS filters were successfully synthesized and applied for high resolution and high counting rate applications respectively. The readout electronics was also tested with a linear array CdTe detector. The energy resolutions of Am-241 59.5 keV peak were measured to be 6.41% in FWHM for the high resolution filter and to be 13.58% in FWHM for the high counting rate filter with 160 ns signal width constraint.

  20. Compact frontend-electronics and bidirectional 3.3 Gbps optical datalink for fast proportional chamber readout

    CERN Document Server

    Lüders, S; Eichler, R; Grab, C; Meier, B; Streuli, S; Szeker, K; Baumeister, D; Löchner, S; Stange, U; Boesiger, K; Robmann, P; Schmid, B A; Steiner, S; Straumann, U; Truöl, P

    2002-01-01

    The 9600 channels of the multi-wire proportional chamber of the H1 experiment at HERA have to be read out within 96 ns and made available to the trigger system. The tight spatial conditions at the rear end flange require a compact bidirectional readout electronics with minimal power consumption and dead material. A solution using 40 identical optical link modules, each transferring the trigger information with a physical rate of 4x832 Mbps via optical fibers, has been developed and commissioned. The analog pulses from the chamber can be monitored and the synchronization to the global HERA clock signal is ensured.

  1. Compact Frontend-Electronics and Bidirectional 3.3 Gbps Optical Datalink for Fast Proportional Chamber Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Lüders, S

    2001-01-01

    The 9600 channels of the multi-wire proportional chamber of the H1 experiment at HERA have to be read out within 96 ns and made available to the trigger system. The tight spatial conditions at the rear end flange require a compact bidirectional readout electronics with minimal power consumption and dead material. A solution using 40 identical optical link modules, each transferring the trigger information with a physical rate of 4 x 832 Mbps via optical fibers, has been developed and commisioned. The analog pulses from the chamber can be monitored and the synchronization to the global HERA clock signal is ensured.

  2. High-pitch metal-on-glass technology for pad pitch adaptation between detectors and readout electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Ullán, Miguel; Campabadal, Francesca; Fleta, Celeste; Garcia, Carmen; Gonzalez, Francisco; Bernabeu, Jose

    2004-01-01

    Modern high-energy physics and astrophysics strip detectors have increased channel density to levels at which their connection with readout electronics has become very complex due to high pad pitch. Also, direct wire bonding is prevented by the fact that typically detector's pad pitch and electronics' pad pitch do not match. A high- pitch metal-on-glass technology is presented, that allows pad pitch adaptation between detectors and readout electronics. It consists of high-density metal lines on top of an insulating glass substrate. A photoresist layer is deposited covering the metal tracks for passivation and protection The technology is tested for conductivity, bondability, bonding pull force, peel off, and radiation hardness, and it is an established technology in the clean room of the CNM Institute in Barcelona. This technology has been chosen by the ATLAS Collaboration for the pad pitch adapters (PPA) of the SCT Endcap Modules, by a Compton camera project, and by other HEP groups for interconnection betwe...

  3. Feasibility study to use an SRAM-based FPGA in the readout electronics of the upgraded LHCb Outer Tracker detector

    CERN Document Server

    Färber, Christian; Herrmann, Norbert; Wiedner, Dirk

    2013-12-09

    This thesis presents a study of the feasibility to use SRAM-based FPGAs as central component of the upgraded LHCb Outer Tracker readout electronics. The FPGA should contain the functionality of a TDC and should provide fast data links using multi-GBit/s transceivers. The TDC core that was developed provides 5 bit time measurements for 32 channels with a bin size of 780 ps. The TDC has the required time resolution of better than 1 ns. This was achieved by manually placing every logic element of the TDC channels and with an iterative procedure feeding timing measurements back to the Place&Route step of the router software. A transceiver and TDC card, and an adapter board for the existing readout electronics was developed. Both boards were used successfully to read out drift times from an Outer Tracker straw-tube module in a cosmic setup. To qualify the proposed electronics for the expected radiation levels an irradiation test with 22 MeV protons and two FPGA boards was performed up to a total ionization dos...

  4. The ATLAS tile calorimeter ROD injector and multiplexer board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero, A., E-mail: alberto.valero@cern.c [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Paterna, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Castillo, V.; Ferrer, A. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Paterna, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Gonzalez, V. [Departamento de Ingenieria electronica, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot, 46100 Valencia (Spain); Hernandez, Y.; Higon, E. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Paterna, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Sanchis, E. [Departamento de Ingenieria electronica, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot, 46100 Valencia (Spain); Solans, C. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Paterna, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Torres, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria electronica, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot, 46100 Valencia (Spain); Valls, J.A. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Paterna, 46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-02-11

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is a sampling detector composed by cells made of iron-scintillator tiles. The calorimeter cell signals are digitized in the front-end electronics and transmitted to the Read-Out Drivers (RODs) at the first level trigger rate. The ROD receives triggered data from up to 9856 channels and provides the energy, phase and quality factor of the signals to the second level trigger. The back-end electronics is divided into four partitions containing eight RODs each. Therefore, a total of 32 RODs are used to process and transmit the data of the TileCal detector. In order to emulate the detector signals in the production and commissioning of ROD modules a board called ROD Injector and Multiplexer Board (RIMBO) was designed. In this paper, the RIMBO main functional blocks, PCB design and the different operation modes are described. It is described the crucial role of the board within the TileCal ROD test-bench in order to emulate the front-end electronics during the validation of ROD boards as well as during the evaluation of the ROD signal reconstruction algorithms. Finally, qualification and performance results for the injection operation mode obtained during the Tile Calorimeter ROD production tests are presented.

  5. Upgrade of Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS detector for the High Luminosity LHC.

    CERN Document Server

    Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment. TileCal is a sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillators as active medium. The scintillators are read-out by wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The High Luminosity Large Hadron collider (HL-LHC) will have a peak luminosity of 5x10^34 cm-2s-1, five times higher than the design luminosity of the LHC. TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics for the high luminosity programme of the LHC in 2026. The calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals are reconstructed and shipped to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide a better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow th...

  6. Upgrade of Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS detector for the High Luminosity LHC.

    CERN Document Server

    Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment. TileCal is a sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillators as active medium. The scintillators are read-out by wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) will have a peak luminosity of $5 * 10^{34} cm^{-2} s ^{-1} $, five times higher than the design luminosity of the LHC. TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics for the high luminosity programme of the LHC in 2026. The calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals are reconstructed and shipped to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide a better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allo...

  7. Proposal to assemble a high resolution-electron sensitive-energy flow calorimeter in the NEULAND spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    A ..gamma.. catcher and a liquid scintillation calorimeter module in a simple configuration that is well suited to the investigation of several different neutrino induced processes are described. The variety of neutrino beams now available at Fermilab and synchrotron intensity and energy together with the high resolution calorimeter allow a multiplicity of experiments to be carried out with a single detector configuration.

  8. Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger starts firing

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephen Hillier

    2007-01-01

    L1Calo is one of the major components of ATLAS First Level trigger, along with the Muon Trigger and Central Trigger Processor. It forms all of the first-level calorimeter-based triggers, including electron, jet, tau and missing ET. The final system consists of over 250 custom designed 9U VME boards, most containing a dense array of FPGAs or ASICs. It is subdivided into a PreProcessor, which digitises the incoming trigger signals from the Liquid Argon and Tile calorimeters, and two separate processor systems, which perform the physics algorithms. All of these are highly flexible, allowing the possibility to adapt to beam conditions and luminosity. All parts of the system are read out through Read-Out Drivers, which provide monitoring data and Region of Interest (RoI) information for the Level-2 trigger. Production of the modules is now essentially complete, and enough modules exist to populate the full scale system in USA15. Installation is proceeding rapidly - approximately 90% of the final modules are insta...

  9. The ALICE HMPID on-detector front-end and readout electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Santiard, Jean-Claude

    2004-01-01

    In the ALICE HMPID detector, Cherenkov photons are localised by measuring the charge induction on a MWPC cathode segmented into pads. Two ASICs have been developed: the Gassiplex07-3, which is an analogue 16-channels multiplexed front-end circuit dedicated to the readout of gaseous detector and the Dilogic-3, a sparse data scan digital processor. The combination of multiplexed and parallel- pipelined architecture allows to store several events between two L2 trigger and to transfer the 32-bits data words at a rate of 80 Mbytes per second through an optical data link.

  10. Single Event Upsets in SRAM FPGA based readout electronics for the Time Projection Chamber in the ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Røed, K; Helstrup, H; Natås, T

    2009-01-01

    Single Event Upsets in SRAM FPGA based readout electronics for the Time Projection Chamber in the ALICE experiment irradiation test results have been used to predict the single event upset rate expected during operation in the ALICE experiment. Due to the number of FPGAs utilized in the TPC front-end electronics, single event upsets can be a reliability concern. In order to reduce the probability of system malfunction, a reconfiguration solution was developed that enables the possibility to clear single event upsets in the configuration memory of the FPGA. Irradiation test results show that combined with additional system level mitigation techniques, this reconfiguration solution can be used to finally reduce the functional failure rate of the FPGA. Because irradiation testing can be time consuming, costly and sometimes even technically difficult, a software based fault injection solution has been implemented without any modification to the existing hardware setup. It provides an alternative and possibly syst...

  11. Comparison of two highly granular hadronic calorimeter concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubueser, Coralie

    2016-11-15

    The CALICE collaboration develops hadron calorimeter technologies with high granularity for future electron-positron linear colliders. These technologies differ in active material, granularity and their readout and thus their energy reconstruction schemes. The Analogue Hadron Calorimeter (AHCAL), based on scintillator tiles with Silicon Photomultiplier readout, measures the signal amplitude of the energy deposition in the cells of at most 3 x 3 cm{sup 2} size. The Digital, Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) based, HCAL (DHCAL) detects hits above a certain threshold by firing pad sensors of 1 x 1 cm{sup 2}. A 2 bit readout is provided by the, also RPC based, Semi-Digital HCAL (SDHCAL), which counts hits above three different thresholds per 1 x 1 cm{sup 2} pad. All three calorimeter concepts have been realised in 1 m{sup 3} prototypes with interleaved steel absorber and tested at various test beams. The differences in active medium, granularity and readout have different impacts on the energy resolution and need to be studied independently. This analysis concentrates on the comparison between these technologies by investigating the impact of the different energy reconstruction schemes on the energy resolution of the AHCAL testbeam data and simulation. Additionally, a so-called software compensation algorithm is developed to weight hits dependent on their energy content and correct for the difference in the response to the electromagnetic and hadronic sub-showers (e/h≠1) and thus reduce the influence of fluctuations in the π{sup 0} generation. The comparison of the energy resolutions revealed that it is mandatory for the AHCAL with 3 x 3 cm{sup 2} cell size to have analogue signal readout, to apply the software compensation algorithm and thus achieve the best possible energy resolution. The effect of the granularity is studied with a simulation of the AHCAL with 1 x 1 cm{sup 2} cell size, and it has been found that to achieve the best possible energy resolution the semi

  12. Calibration and Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter During the Run 2 of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Solovyanov, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is a hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. It is a non-compensating sampling calorimeter comprised of steel and scintillating plastic tiles which are read-out by photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The TileCal is regularly monitored and calibrated by several di erent calibration systems: a Cs radioactive source that illuminates the scintillating tiles directly, a laser light system to directly test the PMT response, and a charge injection system (CIS) for the front-end electronics. These calibrations systems, in conjunction with data collected during proton-proton collisions, provide extensive monitoring of the instrument and a means for equalizing the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal propagation. The performance of the calorimeter and its calibration has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sample of the proton-proton collisions to study the energy response at the electromagnetic scale, probe of the hadroni...

  13. A Low Noise CMOS Readout Based on a Polymer-Coated SAW Array for Miniature Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chun Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An electronic nose (E-Nose is one of the applications for surface acoustic wave (SAW sensors. In this paper, we present a low-noise complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC based on an SAW sensor array for achieving a miniature E-Nose. The center frequency of the SAW sensors was measured to be approximately 114 MHz. Because of interference between the sensors, we designed a low-noise CMOS frequency readout circuit to enable the SAW sensor to obtain frequency variation. The proposed circuit was fabricated in Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS process technology. The total chip size was nearly 1203 × 1203 μm2. The chip was operated at a supply voltage of 1 V for a digital circuit and 1.8 V for an analog circuit. The least measurable difference between frequencies was 4 Hz. The detection limit of the system, when estimated using methanol and ethanol, was 0.1 ppm. Their linearity was in the range of 0.1 to 26,000 ppm. The power consumption levels of the analog and digital circuits were 1.742 mW and 761 μW, respectively.

  14. A Low Noise CMOS Readout Based on a Polymer-Coated SAW Array for Miniature Electronic Nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Chun; Liu, Szu-Chieh; Chiu, Shih-Wen; Tang, Kea-Tiong

    2016-10-25

    An electronic nose (E-Nose) is one of the applications for surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors. In this paper, we present a low-noise complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) based on an SAW sensor array for achieving a miniature E-Nose. The center frequency of the SAW sensors was measured to be approximately 114 MHz. Because of interference between the sensors, we designed a low-noise CMOS frequency readout circuit to enable the SAW sensor to obtain frequency variation. The proposed circuit was fabricated in Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS process technology. The total chip size was nearly 1203 × 1203 μm². The chip was operated at a supply voltage of 1 V for a digital circuit and 1.8 V for an analog circuit. The least measurable difference between frequencies was 4 Hz. The detection limit of the system, when estimated using methanol and ethanol, was 0.1 ppm. Their linearity was in the range of 0.1 to 26,000 ppm. The power consumption levels of the analog and digital circuits were 1.742 mW and 761 μW, respectively.

  15. Performance and description of the upgraded readout with the new back-end electronics for the ATLAS Pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Yajima, Kazuki; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    LHC increased drastically its performance during the RUN2 data taking, starting from a peak instantaneous luminosity of up to $5\\times10^{33} \\mathrm{cm}^{-2} \\mathrm{s}^{-1}$ in 2015 to conclude with the record value of $1.4\\times10^{34} \\mathrm{cm}^{-2} \\mathrm{s}^{-1}$ in November 2016. The concurrent increase of the trigger rate and event size forced the ATLAS experiment to exploit its sub-detectors to the maximum, approaching and possibly overcoming the design parameters. The ATLAS Pixel data acquisition system was upgraded to avoid possible bandwidth limitations. Two upgrades of the read-out electronics have been done. The first one during 2015/16 YETS, when the outermost pixel layer (Layer-2) was upgraded and its bandwidth was doubled. This upgrade partly contributed to maintain the data taking efficiency of the Pixel detector at a relatively high level ($\\sim$99%) during the 2016 run. A similar upgrade of the read-out system for the middle layer (Layer-1) is ongoing during 2016/17 EYETS. The details o...

  16. The ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Level 1 Trigger Signal pre-Processing System: Installation, Commissioning and Calibration Results.

    CERN Document Server

    Boulahouache, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The Liquid Argon calorimeter is one of the main sub-detectors in the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. It provides precision measurements of electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy produced in the LHC pp collisions. The calorimeter information is a key ingredient in the first level (L1) trigger decision to reduce the 40 MHz p-p bunch crossing rate to few 100 kHz of accepted events waiting to be readout in full precision, in the system pipelines. This presentation covers the LAr calorimeter electronics used to prepare signals for the L1 trigger. After exiting the cryostat, part of the current signal, at the front end, is directly split off the main readout path and summed with neighbouring channels forming trigger towers which are transmitted in analog form over 50 to 70 meters to the counting room. There, the signals are calibrated, reordered and futher summed for fast digitization using the L1 trigger hardware. Many factors like calorimeter capacitances and pulse shapes have to be taken into accoun...

  17. The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Garvey, J; Mahout, G; Moye, T H; Staley, R J; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Achenbach, R; Hanke, P; Kluge, E E; Meier, K; Meshkov, P; Nix, O; Penno, K; Schmitt, K; Ay, Cc; Bauss, B; Dahlhoff, A; Jakobs, K; Mahboubi, K; Schäfer, U; Trefzger, T M; Eisenhandler, E F; Landon, M; Moyse, E; Thomas, J; Apostoglou, P; Barnett, B M; Brawn, I P; Davis, A O; Edwards, J; Gee, C N P; Gillman, A R; Perera, V J O; Qian, W; Bohm, C; Hellman, S; Hidvégi, A; Silverstein, S; RT 2003 13th IEEE-NPSS Real Time Conference

    2004-01-01

    The architecture of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger system (L1Calo) is presented. Common approaches have been adopted for data distribution, result merging, readout, and slow control across the three different subsystems. A significant amount of common hardware is utilized, yielding substantial savings in cost, spares, and development effort. A custom, high-density backplane has been developed with data paths suitable for both the em/tt cluster processor (CP) and jet/energy-summation processor (JEP) subsystems. Common modules also provide interfaces to VME, CANbus and the LHC Timing, Trigger and Control system (TTC). A common data merger module (CMM) uses FPGAs with multiple configurations for summing electron/photon and tau/hadron cluster multiplicities, jet multiplicities, or total and missing transverse energy. The CMM performs both crate- and system-level merging. A common, FPGA-based readout driver (ROD) is used by all of the subsystems to send input, intermediate and output data to the data acquis...

  18. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). PMT signals are then digitized at 40 MHz and stored on detector and are only transferred off detector once the first level trigger acceptance has been confirmed. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements and an integrator b...

  19. Upgrade Analog Readout and Digitizing System for ATLAS TileCal Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Akerstedt, H; Biot, A; Bohm, C; Carrio, F; Drake, G; Hildebrand, K; Muschter, S; Oreglia, M; Paramonov, A

    2013-01-01

    A potential upgrade for the front-end electronics and signal digitization and data acquisition system of the ATLAS hadron calorimeter for the high luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) is described. A Demonstrator is being built to readout a slice of the TileCal detector. The on-detector electronics includes up to 48 Analog Front-end Boards for PMT analog signal processing, 4 Main Boards for data digitization and slow controls, 4 Daughter Boards with high speed optical links to interface the on-detector and off-detector electronics. Two super readout driver boards are used for off-detector data acquisition and fulfilling digital trigger. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter on-detector electronics is housed in the drawers at the back of each of the 256 detector wedges. Each drawer services up to 48 photomultiplier tubes. The new readout system is designed to replace the present system as it will reach component lifetime and radiation tolerance limits making it incompatible with continued use into the HL-LHC era. Wi...

  20. The effect of inoperative readout layers on SDC calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.

    1993-08-01

    The SDC calorimeter is to be constructed using Pb and Fe absorbers and scintillator active sampling using the tile/fiber technique. In this note, the effect of the inoperative readout of a single sampling layer is studied. The goal of this study is to inform on a cost/benefit analysis of the need to repair inoperative layers of the calorimetric readout.

  1. Reliable and redundant FPGA based read-out design in the ATLAS TileCal Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Åkerstedt, Henrik; The ATLAS collaboration; Drake, Gary; Anderson, Kelby; Bohm, Christian; Oreglia, Mark; Tang, Fukun

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter at ATLAS is a hadron calorimeter based on steel plates and scintillating tiles read out by PMTs. The current read-out system uses standard ADCs and custom ASICs to digitize and temporarily store the data on the detector. However, only a subset of the data is actually read out to the counting room. The on-detector electronics will be replaced around 2023. To achieve the required reliability the upgraded system will be highly redundant. Here the ASICs will be replaced with Kintex-7 FPGAs from Xilinx. This, in addition to the use of multiple 10 Gbps optical read-out links, will allow a full read-out of all detector data. Due to the higher radiation levels expected when the beam luminosity is increased, opportunities for repairs will be less frequent. The circuitry and firmware must therefore be designed for sufficiently high reliability using redundancy and radiation tolerant components. Within a year, a hybrid demonstrator including the new read-out system will be installed in one slice of ...

  2. Instrumented module of the ATLAS tile calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    The ATLAS tile calorimeter consists of steel absorber plates interspersed with plastic scintillator tiles. Interactions of high-energy hadrons in the plates transform the incident energy into a 'hadronic shower'. When shower particles traverse the scintillating tiles, the latter emit an amount of light proportional to the incident energy. This light is transmitted along readout fibres to a photomultiplier, where a detectable electrical signal is produced. These pictures show one of 64 modules or 'wedges' of the barrel part of the tile calorimeter, which are arranged to form a cylinder around the beam axis. The wedge has been instrumented with scintillators and readout fibres. Photos 03, 06: Checking the routing of the readout fibres into the girder that houses the photomultipliers. Photo 04: A view of the fibre bundles inside the girder.

  3. Analysis of de-noising methods to improve the precision of the ILSF BPM electronic readout system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, M.; Feghhi, S. A. H.; Rahighi, J.

    2016-12-01

    In order to have optimum operation and precise control system at particle accelerators, it is required to measure the beam position with the precision of sub-μm. We developed a BPM electronic readout system at Iranian Light Source Facility and it has been experimentally tested at ALBA accelerator facility. The results show the precision of 0.54 μm in beam position measurements. To improve the precision of this beam position monitoring system to sub-μm level, we have studied different de-noising methods such as principal component analysis, wavelet transforms, filtering by FIR, and direct averaging method. An evaluation of the noise reduction was given to testify the ability of these methods. The results show that the noise reduction based on Daubechies wavelet transform is better than other algorithms, and the method is suitable for signal noise reduction in beam position monitoring system.

  4. The CMS PbWO4 Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Lethuillier, M

    2004-01-01

    The electromagnetic calorimeter under construction for the CMS experiment at LHC will be the largest crystal calorimeter ever built. The very fast and precise energy measurement of electrons and photons is based upon 76000 lead tungstate crystals read by avalanche photodiodes (APD) in the central barrel region and vacuum phototriodes (VPT) in the endcap regions. The major challenges to be faced are the ability to operate in a strong magnetic field of 4T and under unprecedented radiation levels, the LHC bunch crossing time of 25 ns, the need for a precise energy measurement over a very large dynamic range, from approximately 50 MeV to more than 1 TeV, and the high reliability required of the full on-board readout chain which will be inaccessible after the start of LHC in 2007. A review of the calorimeter design is given and the current status of the construction is reported. Highlights of results obtained during beam tests are also presented.

  5. Installation and Commissioning of the CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeters Phase I Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Onel, Yasar

    2017-01-01

    The final phase of the CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeters Phase I upgrade was performed during the Extended Year End Technical Stop of 2016-2017. In the framework of the upgrade, the PMT boxes were reworked to implement two channel readout in order to exploit the benefits of the multi-anode PMTs in background tagging and signal recovery. The front-end electronics was also being upgraded to QIE10-based electronics which will implement larger dynamic range and a 6-bit TDC to provide additional handles to eliminate the background. Following this major upgrade, the Hadron Forward Calorimeters are being commissioned for operation readiness in 2017. Here we describe the details and the components of the upgrade, and discuss the operational experience and results obtained during the upgrade and commissioning.

  6. Upgrading the ATLAS fast calorimeter simulation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00032940; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider require very large samples of simulated events, and producing these using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Often, a very detailed detector simulation is not needed, and in these cases fast simulation tools can be used to reduce the calorimeter simulation time. In ATLAS, a fast simulation of the calorimeter systems was developed, called Fast Calorimeter Simulation (FastCaloSim). It provides a parametrized simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software, and can be tuned to data more easily than with GEANT4. An improved parametrization is being developed, to eventually address shortcomings of the original version. It makes use of statistical techniques such as principal component analysis, and a neural network parametrization to optimise the amount of information to store in the ATL...

  7. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter performance at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cuciuc, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal), the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment, is a key detector component to detect hadrons, jets and taus and to measure the missing transverse energy. Due to the very good muon signal to noise ratio it assists the spectrometer in the identification and reconstruction of muons. TileCal is built of steel and scintillating tiles coupled to optical fibers and read out by photomultipliers. The calorimeter is equipped with systems that allow to monitor and to calibrate each stage of the readout system exploiting different signal sources: laser light, charge injection and a radioactive source. The calorimeter performance and its stability has been evaluated with the rich sample of collision data in 2011 but also with calibration data, random triggered data, cosmic muons and splash events. Results on the absolute energy scale calibration precision, on the energy and timing uniformity, on the time resolution and on the synchronization precision are presented...

  8. Electrical Control, Read-out and Initialization of Single Electron Spins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafiei, M.

    2013-01-01

    An electron, in addition to its electric charge, possesses a small magnetic moment, called spin. The spin of an electron can point parallel (spin-up) or antiparallel (spin-down) to the magnetic field. These two states are analogous to zero and one of the logical bit in current digital electronic

  9. Pixel readout electronics development for the ALICE pixel vertex and LHCb RICH detector

    CERN Document Server

    Snoeys, W; Cantatore, E; Cencelli, V; Dinapoli, R; Heijne, Erik H M; Jarron, Pierre; Lamanna, P; Minervini, D; O'Shea, V; Quiquempoix, V; San Segundo-Bello, D; Van Koningsveld, B; Wyllie, Ken H

    2001-01-01

    The ALICE1LHCB pixel readout chip emerged from previous experience at CERN. The RD-19 collaboration provided the basis for the installation of a pixel system in the WA97 and NA57 experiments. Operation in these experiments was key in the understanding of the system issues. In parallel the RD-49 collaboration provided the basis to obtain radiation tolerance in commercial submicron CMOS through special circuit layout. The new ALICE1LMB chip was developed to serve two different applications: particle tracking in the ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector and particle identification in the LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector. To satisfy the different needs for these two experiments, the chip can be operated in two different modes. In tracking mode all the 50 mu m*435 mu m pixel cells in the 256*32 array are read out individually, whilst in particle identification mode they are combined in groups of 8 to form a 32*32 array of 400 mu m*425 mu m cells. The circuit is currently being manufactured in a commercial 0.25 mu m CMO...

  10. Multi-anode photon-multiplier readout electronics for the LHCb ring imaging Cherenkov detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Smale, N J

    2004-01-01

    A readout system for the Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) detectors of the LHCb experiment has been developed. Two detector technologies for the measurement of Cherenkov photons are considered, the Multi-Anode Photo-Multiplier Tube (MAPMT) and the Hybrid Photon Detector (HPD), both of which meet the RICH requirements. The properties of the MAPMT are evaluated using a controlled single-photon source; a pixel-to-pixel gain variation of ~3 and a typical signal to noise of ~20 is measured. The relative tube efficiency is found to be reduced by ~26 % due to the detailed focusing structure of the MAPMT device. A radiation hard application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chip, the Beetle1.2MA0, has been developed to capture and store signals from a pair of MAPMTs. The Beetle1.2MA0 is built on the architecture of the Beetle family that was designed for silicon strip detectors, the difference being a modified front-end amplifier. The 128 input-channels of the Beetle1.2MA0 have a charge-sensitive pre-amplifier followed...

  11. Front-end counting mode electronics for CdZnTe sensor readout

    CERN Document Server

    Moraes, Danielle; Kaplon, Jan

    2004-01-01

    The development of a front-end circuit optimized for CdZnTe detector readout, implemented in 0.25 mu m CMOS technology, is reported. The ASIC comprises 17 channels of a charge sensitive amplifier with an active feedback, followed by a gain-shaper stage and a discriminator with a 5 bit fine-tune DAC. The signal from the discriminator is sensed by a 25 ns mono-stable circuit and an 18-bit static ripple- counter. The channel architecture is optimized for the detector characteristics in order to achieve the best energy resolution at a maximum counting rate of 2 million counts/second. The amplifier shows a linear sensitivity of 24 mV/fC with 50 ns peaking time and an equivalent noise charge of about 650 e/sup -/, for a detector capacitance of 10 pF. When connected to a 3*3*7 mm/sup 3/ CdZnTe detector the amplifier gain is about 8 mV/keV with a noise around 3.6 keV.

  12. NA48 prototype calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    1990-01-01

    This is a calorimeter, a detector which measures the energy of particles. When in use, it is filled with liquid krypton at -152°C. Electrons and photons passing through interact with the krypton, creating a shower of charged particles which are collected on the copper ribbons. The ribbons are aligned to an accuracy of a tenth of a millimetre. The folding at each end allows them to be kept absolutely flat. Each shower of particles also creates a signal in scintillating material embedded in the support disks. These flashes of light are transmitted to electronics by the optical fibres along the side of the detector. They give the time at which the interaction occurred. The photo shows the calorimeter at NA48, a CERN experiment which is trying to understand the lack of anti-matter in the Universe today.

  13. UA2 central calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    The UA2 central calorimeter measured the energy of individual particles created in proton-antiproton collisions. Accurate calibration allowed the W and Z masses to be measured with a precision of about 1%. The calorimeter had 24 slices like this one, each weighing 4 tons. The slices were arranged like orange segments around the collision point. Incoming particles produced showers of secondary particles in the layers of heavy material. These showers passed through the layers of plastic scintillator, generating light which was taken by light guides (green) to the data collection electronics. The amount of light was proportional to the energy of the original particle. The inner 23 cm of lead and plastic sandwiches measured electrons and photons; the outer 80 cm of iron and plastic sandwiches measured strongly interacting hadrons. The detector was calibrated by injecting light through optical fibres or by placing a radioactive source in the tube on the bottom edge.

  14. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Spalding

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the entire proton-proton run of 2011, all HCAL calorimeters operated very efficiently. Over 99% of HCAL readout and trigger channels were alive. However, during the year we did face two hardware problems. One major operation problem was the occasional loss of data from a single RBX caused by single event upsets (SEUs). The rate of RBX data loss was on average one incident per 10 pb–1 of integrated luminosity. This led to approximately 1% of CMS data loss. In order to mitigate this problem, HCAL has introduced an automatic reset of the RBX. With this reset, full operation was restored within about one minute. The final hardware correction of the problem will be possible only during a long shutdown (LS1) in 2013-’14. Another hardware problem that developed in 2011 was the failure of QPLL (quartz phase lock loops) chips. This led to the loss of phase of the readout clock with respect to the LHC clock. As a consequence, in two sections in HCAL (10 degree in φ on HB and 1...

  15. Fast Calorimeter Simulation in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Schaarschmidt, Jana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Producing the very large samples of simulated events required by many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Fast simulation tools are a useful way of reducing CPU requirements when detailed detector simulations are not needed. During the LHC Run-1, a fast calorimeter simulation (FastCaloSim) was successfully used in ATLAS. FastCaloSim provides a simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level, taking into account the detailed particle shower shapes and the correlations between the energy depositions in the various calorimeter layers. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software, and it can be tuned to data more easily than GEANT4. It is 500 times faster than full simulation in the calorimeter system. Now an improved version of FastCaloSim is in development, incorporating the experience with the version used during Run-1. The new FastCaloSim makes use of mach...

  16. Tile Calorimeter Muon Trigger Signal

    CERN Document Server

    Cerqueira, A S; Usai, G L

    2002-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter contributes to the first level trigger with the fast analog signal coming from the trigger summing boards, so-called analog adder. The adders provide two kinds of output: the total energy sum in a trigger tower and the signal from the respective cell of the last radial calorimeter layer, which can be used for identifying muons, thus making the muon first level trigger more robust. This note reviews the adder specifications and laboratory tests, whereas the main focus is put on the data analysis from the testbeam periods in~2001. Several improvements achieved by tuning the read-out are described. Using the testbeam results, the ability to identify muons in the last radial Tilecal layer is discussed. The experimental results obtained at the testbeams are completed with the Monte Carlo simulations.

  17. Upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter for the High luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Solodkov, Alexander; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment. TileCal is a sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillators as active medium. The scintillators are read-out by wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) will have a peak luminosity of 5x10ˆ34 cm-2s-1, five times higher than the design luminosity of the LHC. TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics for the high luminosity programme of the LHC starting in 2026. All signals will be digitized and then transferred directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals will be reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will a...

  18. Upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter for the High luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00127668; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment. TileCal is a sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillators as active medium. The scintillators are read-out by wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) will have a peak luminosity of 5 1034cm2s1, five times higher than the design luminosity of the LHC. TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics for the high luminosity programme of the LHC starting in 2026. All signals will be digitized and then transferred directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals will be reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow ...

  19. The upgrade of the CMS hadron calorimeter with silicon photomultipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Strobbe, N

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the hadron calorimeter of the CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is currently underway. The endcap sections will be upgraded in the winter of 2016–2017 and the barrel sections during the second LHC long shutdown in 2019. The existing photosensors will be replaced with about 16 000 new silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), resulting in the first large installation of SiPMs in a radiation environment. All associated front-end electronics will also be upgraded. This paper discusses the motivation for the upgrade and provides a description 17 of the new system, including the SiPMs with associated control electronics and the front-end readout cards.

  20. High-speed, multi-channel detector readout electronics for fast radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, Wolfgang

    2012-06-22

    In this project, we are developing a high speed digital spectrometer that a) captures detector waveforms at rates up to 500 MSPS b) has upgraded event data acquisition with additional data buffers for zero dead time operation c) moves energy calculations to the FPGA to increase spectrometer throughput in fast scintillator applications d) uses a streamlined architecture and high speed data interface for even faster readout to the host PC These features are in addition to the standard functions in our existing spectrometers such as digitization, programmable trigger and energy filters, pileup inspection, data acquisition with energy and time stamps, MCA histograms, and run statistics. In Phase I, we upgraded one of our existing spectrometer designs to demonstrate the key principle of fast waveform capture using a 500 MSPS, 12 bit ADC and a Xilinx Virtex-4 FPGA. This upgraded spectrometer, named P500, performed well in initial tests of energy resolution, pulse shape analysis, and timing measurements, thus achieving item (a) above. In Phase II, we are revising the P500 to build a commercial prototype with the improvements listed in items (b)-(d). As described in the previous report, two devices were built to pursue this goal, named the Pixie-500 and the Pixie-500 Express. The Pixie-500 has only minor improvements from the Phase I prototype and is intended as an early commercial product (its production and part of its development were funded outside the SBIR). It also allows testing of the ADC performance in real applications.The Pixie-500 Express (or Pixie-500e) includes all of the improvements (b)-(d). At the end of Phase II of the project, we have tested and debugged the hardware, firmware and software of the Pixie-500 Express prototype boards delivered 12/3/2010. This proved substantially more complex than anticipated. At the time of writing, all hardware bugs have been fixed, the PCI Express interface is working, the SDRAM has been successfully tested and the SHARC

  1. Highly Integrated Mixed-Mode Electronics for the readout of Time Projection Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    França Santos, Hugo Miguel; Musa, Luciano

    Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) are one of the most prevalent particle trackers for high-energy physics experiments. Future planed TPCs for the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) entail very high spatial resolution in large gas volumes, but impose low material budget for the end caps of the TPC cylinder. This constraint is not accomplished with the state-of-the-art front-end electronics because of its unsuited relatively large mass and of its associated water cooling system. To reach the required material budget, highly compact and power efficient dedicated TPC front-end electronics should be developed. This project aims at re-designing the different electronic elements with significant improvements in terms of performance, power efficiency and versatility, and developing an integrated circuit that merges all components of the front-end electronics. This chip ambitions a large volume production at low unitary cost and its employment in multiple detectors. The design of ...

  2. Study of an electromagnetic calorimeter for HADES (High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer); Etude d`un calorimetre electromagnetique pour HADES (High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pienne, Cyril [Universite Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand 2, (CNRS), 63 - Aubiere (France). U.F.R. de Recherche Scientifique et Technique

    1996-11-27

    The physics context of this work is the study of heavy ion collisions at relativistic energies where dielectron are chosen as a probe of the produced hot and dense nuclear matter. The experimental set-up in construction, the HADES spectrometer, is designed to study the decays of {rho}, {omega}, {phi} mesons into e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs inside the excited medium. The goal is to show that restoration of chiral symmetry, theoretically predicted, manifests itself through the in-medium properties of particles, mesons in particular. Moreover, another goal is the study of electromagnetic form factors of hadrons which are involved in production of dileptons, test of a vector dominance model (VDM) in particular. In the case of the {omega}, its Dalitz decay is not well understood, and the use of a calorimeter could help to solve this mystery. In addition, a calorimeter could provide a redundant characterisation of electrons and positrons. Our work consisted in studying two materials: lead glass and lead tungstate. In the first case, only simulations have been made and led to the following conclusions: - energy resolution ({sigma}{sub E}/E) = 3.89/{radical}E+5.2(%); - spatial resolution ({sigma}{sub x,y}) = 0.14/{radical}E+0.73(cm); - possibility of separation e/h, e/{mu}; - accurate study of the {omega} for factor via its Dalitz decay. The study of lead tungstate began with test of quality and homogeneity of crystal samples in order to check that they have similar properties.. Experiments were performed at the MAMI microtron in Mainz (Germany) with electrons of 180, 450, 855 MeV energy and yielded the following results, never obtained so far: - energy resolution ({sigma}{sub E}/E) = 2.45/{radical}E+97(%); - spatial resolution ({approx_equal} 0.3 cm); - time resolution ({sigma}){approx}1.41 ps at 8.55 MeV for T = 20 deg. C. (author) 52 refs., 90 figs., 30 tabs.

  3. A high performance Front End Electronics for drift chamber readout in MEG experiment upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarello, G. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi” – Universitá del Salento, Via Arnesano, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sez. Lecce, Via Arnesano, Lecce (Italy); Chiri, C.; Corvaglia, A.; Grancagnolo, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sez. Lecce, Via Arnesano, Lecce (Italy); Panareo, M. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi” – Universitá del Salento, Via Arnesano, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sez. Lecce, Via Arnesano, Lecce (Italy); Pepino, A., E-mail: aurora.pepino@le.infn.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi” – Universitá del Salento, Via Arnesano, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sez. Lecce, Via Arnesano, Lecce (Italy); Pinto, C.; Tassielli, G. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi” – Universitá del Salento, Via Arnesano, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sez. Lecce, Via Arnesano, Lecce (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    Front End (FE) Electronics plays an essential role in Drift Chambers (DC) for time resolution and, therefore, spatial resolution. The use of cluster timing techniques, by measuring the timing of all the individual ionization clusters after the first one, may enable to reach resolutions even below 100 μm in the measurement of the impact parameter. To this purpose, a Front End Electronics with a wide bandwidth and low noise is mandatory in order to acquire and amplify the drift chamber signals.

  4. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    Roger Rusack

    Occupancy of the trigger primitives during a global run: the observed pattern is consistent with the polar angle dependence of the transverse energy equivalent of the electronic noise in the endcaps.   Progress on ECAL since the last CMS week has been mostly on three major fronts: we have continued with the installation and commissioning of the preshower detectors; the endcap calorimeter trigger has been installed and tested; and there have been many changes to the calorimeter detector control and safety systems. Both Preshower (ES) endcaps were installed in CMS on schedule, just before Easter. There followed a campaign of "first commissioning" to ensure that all services were correctly connected (electrical, optical, cooling, etc.). Apart from some optical ribbons that had to be replaced the process went rather smoothly, finishing on 23rd April. All power supplies are installed and operational. The cooling system (two branches of the joint Tracker-Preshower system) is fully fun...

  5. Triggering on electrons, jets and tau leptons with the CMS upgraded calorimeter trigger for the LHC RUN II

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068461; Cadamuro, L.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Romanteau, T.; Sauvan, J.B.; Strebler, T.; Marrouche, J.; Wardle, N.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Brooke, J.; Newbold, D.; Paramesvaran, S.; Smith, D.; Baber, M.; Bundock, A.; Citron, M.; Elwood, A.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Laner, C.; Penning, B.; Rose, A.; Tapper, A.; Durkin, T.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.; Thea, A.; Williams, T.

    2016-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment has implemented a sophisticated two-level online selection system that achieves a rejection factor of nearly 10e5. During Run II, the LHC will increase its centre-of-mass energy up to 13 TeV and progressively reach an instantaneous luminosity of 2e34cm-2s-1. In order to guarantee a successful and ambitious physics programme under this intense environment, the CMS Trigger and Data acquisition (DAQ) system has been upgraded. A novel concept for the L1 calorimeter trigger is introduced the Time Multiplexed Trigger (TMT). In this design, nine main receive each all of the calorimeter data from an entire event provided by 18 preprocessors. This design is not different from that of the CMS DAQ and HLT systems. The advantage of the TMT architecture is that a global view and full granularity of the calorimeters can be exploited by sophisticated algortihms. The goal is to maintain the current thresholds for calorimeter objects and improve the performance for their selection. T...

  6. Development of polystyrene calorimeter for application at electron energies down to 1.5 MeV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.; Kovacs, A.; Kuntz, F.

    2002-01-01

    Polystyrene (PS) calorimeters developed at Riso National Laboratory for use below 4 MeV have been modified due to irradiation technology requirements concerning both design principles and dimensions. The temperature-time relationship after irradiation was measured, and two ways of dose measurement...

  7. 3-D readout-electronics packaging for high-bandwidth massively paralleled imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Kris; Lyke, James

    2007-12-18

    Dense, massively parallel signal processing electronics are co-packaged behind associated sensor pixels. Microchips containing a linear or bilinear arrangement of photo-sensors, together with associated complex electronics, are integrated into a simple 3-D structure (a "mirror cube"). An array of photo-sensitive cells are disposed on a stacked CMOS chip's surface at a 45.degree. angle from light reflecting mirror surfaces formed on a neighboring CMOS chip surface. Image processing electronics are held within the stacked CMOS chip layers. Electrical connections couple each of said stacked CMOS chip layers and a distribution grid, the connections for distributing power and signals to components associated with each stacked CSMO chip layer.

  8. Signal Reconstruction of the ATLAS Hadronic Tile Calorimeter: implementation and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Usai, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    TileCal, the central hadronic section of the ATLAS Calorimeter, is a sampling calorimeter made of steel and scintillating tiles. The TileCal front-end electronics read out about 10000 photo-multipliers at 40MHz measuring energies ranging from $simeq 30~MeV$ to $simeq 2~TeV$. The read-out system is designed to provide the ATLAS High Level Trigger with reconstructed PMT signals within the time budget allowed by the First Level Trigger maximun trigger rate of 75 KHz. The signal amplitude, time and a reconstruction quality factor are obtained for each PMT using Optimal Filtering techniques implemented in the Digital Signal Processors (DSP). After a short overview of the Tile Cal read out system we will discuss the implementation of Optimal Filtering algorithms highlighting the constraints imposed by the use of DSPs. We will report on the validation of the DSP algorithm and present the performances as measured in calibration and collision events.

  9. The Prism Plastic Calorimeter (PPC)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This proposal supports two goals: \\\\ \\\\ First goal:~~Demonstrate that current, widely used plastic technologies allow to design Prism Plastic Calorimeter~(PPC) towers with a new ``liquid crystal'' type plastic called Vectra. It will be shown that this technique meets the requirements for a LHC calorimeter with warm liquids: safety, hermeticity, hadronic compensation, resolution and time response. \\\\ \\\\ Second goal:~~Describe how one can design a warm liquid calorimeter integrated into a LHC detector and to list the advantages of the PPC: low price, minimum of mechanical structures, minimum of dead space, easiness of mechanical assembly, accessibility to the electronics, possibility to recirculate the liquid. The absorber and the electronic being outside of the liquid and easily accessible, one has maximum flexibility to define them. \\\\ \\\\ The R&D program, we define here aims at showing the feasibility of these new ideas by building nine towers of twenty gaps and exposing them to electron and hadron beams.

  10. The Mu2e Undoped CsI Crystal Calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanov, N.; et al.

    2018-01-07

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab will search for Charged Lepton Flavor Violating conversion of a muon to an electron in an atomic field. The Mu2e detector is composed of a tracker, an electromagnetic calorimeter and an external system, surrounding the solenoid, to veto cosmic rays. The calorimeter plays an important role to provide: a) excellent particle identification capabilities; b) a fast trigger filter; c) an easier tracker track reconstruction. Two disks, located downstream of the tracker, contain 674 pure CsI crystals each. Each crystal is read out by two arrays of UV-extended SiPMs. The choice of the crystals and SiPMs has been finalized after a thorough test campaign. A first small scale prototype consisting of 51 crystals and 102 SiPM arrays has been exposed to an electron beam at the BTF (Beam Test Facility) in Frascati. Although the readout electronics were not the final, results show that the current design is able to meet the timing and energy resolution required by the Mu2e experiment.

  11. ATLAS-Hadronic Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Hall 180 work on Hadronic Calorimeter The ATLAS hadronic tile calorimeter The Tile Calorimeter, which constitutes the central section of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter, is a non-compensating sampling device made of iron and scintillating tiles. (IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 53 (2006) 1275-81)

  12. Construction and commissioning of a hadronic test-beam calorimeter to validate the particle-flow concept at the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groll, M.

    2007-06-15

    This thesis discusses research and development studies performed for a hadronic calorimeter concept for the International Linear Collider (ILC). The requirements for a detector for the ILC are de ned by the particle-ow concept in which the overall detector performance for jet reconstruction is optimised by reconstructing each particle individually. The calorimeter system has to have unprecedented granularity to ful l the task of shower separation. The validation of the shower models used to simulate the detector performance is mandatory for the design and optimisation of the ILC detector. The construction and operation of a highly granular test-beam system will serve as a tool for this validation. This motivates the urgent need of research and development on calorimeter prototypes. One possible realisation of the hadronic calorimeter is based on a sampling structure of steel and plastic scintillator with analogue readout, where the sensitive scintillator layers are divided into tiles. A newly developed silicon based photo-detector (SiPM) o ers the possibilities to design such a system. The SiPM is a multi-pixel avalanche photo-diode operated in Geiger mode. Due to its small dimensions it is possible to convert the light produced in the calorimeter to an electronic signal already inside the calorimeter volume. The basic developments on scintillator, tile and photo-detector studies provide the basis for prototype construction. The main part of this thesis will discuss the construction and rst commissioning of an analogue hadronic calorimeter prototype consisting of 8000 channels read out with SiPMs. The smallest calorimeter unit is the tile system including the SiPM. The production and characterisation chain of this unit is an essential step in the construction of a large scale prototype. These basic units are arranged on readout layers, which are already a multi-channel system of 200 channels. In addition, the new photo-detector requires dedicated readout

  13. A TTC to Data Acquisition interface for the ATLAS Tile Hadronic calorimeter at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Valero, Alberto; The ATLAS collaboration; Torres Pais, Jose Gabriel; Soret Medel, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    TileCal is the central tile hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It is a sampling calorimeter where scintillating tiles are embedded in steel absorber plates. The tiles are read-out using almost 10,000 photomultipliers which convert the light into an electrical signal. These signals are digitized and stored in pipelines memories in the front-end electronics. Upon the reception of a trigger signal, the PMT data is transferred to the Read-Out Drivers in the back-end electronics which process and transmits the processed data to the ATLAS Data AcQuisition (DAQ) system. The Timing, Trigger and Control (TTC) system is an optical network used to distribute the clock synchronized with the accelerator, the trigger signals and configuration commands to both the front-end and back-end electronics components. During physics operation, the TTC system is used to configure the electronics and to distribute trigger information used to synchronize the different parts of the ...

  14. A Novel Read-Out Electronics Design Based on 1-Bit Sigma-Delta Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhixiang; Huang, Qiu; Gong, Zheng; Su, Zhihong; Moses, William W.; Xu, Jianfeng; Peng, Qiyu

    2017-02-01

    The conventional front-end electronics for PET imaging consist of an energy circuit and a timing circuit. A single channel in front-end electronics typically requires several amplifiers, an ADC and a TDC. In this paper, we present a novel front-end electronic design using 1-bit sigma-delta (Σ-Δ) modulation and an FPGA. The new design requires only one analog amplifier per channel. The output of the analog amplifier is read directly by the FPGA. Both the energy and timing calculation are implemented in FPGA firmware. The scope of this paper is to introduce the novel design in detail and to evaluate its performance in energy and dark current measurements. Simulink simulations were performed to validate the design with ideal components. A one-channel prototype circuit was built to assess the design with real components. The prototype circuit was tested with different input signals, including test pulses, pulse signals from a PMT detector, DC current signals and dark current signals from an SiPM sensor. Both the simulation and experimental results show that the method is inherently stable and has excellent accuracy and linearity in energy and dark current measurements. The prototype analog board was built with discrete components cost about $0.5 in total. The power consumption was about 20 mW. We conclude that the new method provides a cost-efficient and power-efficient way to accurately measure the energies of analog pulses and dark currents from detectors. The timing performance of this method is currently under evaluation.

  15. Highly segmented large-area hybrid photodiodes with bialkali photocathodes and enclosed VLSI readout electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Braem, André; Filthaut, Frank; Go, A; Joram, C; Weilhammer, Peter; Wicht, P; Dulinski, W; Séguinot, Jacques; Wenzel, H; Ypsilantis, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    We report on the principles, design, fabrication, and operation of a highly segmented, large-area hybrid photodiode, which is being developed in the framework of the LHCb RICH project. The device consists of a cylindrical, 127 mm diameter vacuum envelope capped with a spherical borosilicate UV-glass entrance window, with an active-to-total-area fraction of 81A fountain-focusing electron optics is used to demagnify the image onto a 50 mm diameter silicon sensor, containing 2048 pads of size 1*1 mm/sup 2/. (10 refs).

  16. Test beam results on Atlas electromagnetic end-cap calorimeter: Electrons-jets separation; Resultats des tests en faisceau sur les bouchons du calorimetre electromagnetique d'ATLAS - separation electrons-jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serfon, C

    2005-05-15

    ATLAS is one of the four experiments being built on the future proton-proton collider at CERN: the LHC. This experiment has a large physics program, from Standard Model to new physics. The search for the Higgs boson in two photons or in four leptons, or the search of Z' or W' needs a good energy resolution for the electromagnetic calorimeter. This thesis describes the beam tests performed on three modules of the electromagnetic end cap calorimeter. A 0.6% non-uniformity, and a 0.7% energy resolution global constant term (dominant at high energy) has been obtained. Moreover, a study on the separation between electrons and jets is also performed. This study shows that a jets rejection factor of 10{sup 5} can be obtained keeping an electron efficiency better than 78%. (author)

  17. Electronics for the CMS muon drift tube chambers the read-out minicrate

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Oller, Juan Carlos; Willmott, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    On the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experimentat the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the CERN laboratory, the drift tube chambers are responsible for muon detection and precise momentum measurement. In this paper the first level of the read out electronics for these drift tube chambers is described. These drift tube chambers will be located inside the muon barrel detector in the so-called minicrates (MCs), attached to the chambers. The read out boards (ROBs) are the main component of this first level data acquisition system, and they are responsible for the time digitalization related to Level 1 Accept (L1A) trigger of the incoming signals from the front-end electronics, followed by a consequent data merging to the next stages of the data acquisition system. ROBs' architecture and functionality have been exhaustively tested, as well as their capability of operation beyond the expected environmental conditions inside the CMS detector. Due to the satisfactory results obtained, final production of ROBs and their a...

  18. Data volume reduction strategies in the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Paganini, P

    2002-01-01

    The electromagnetic calorimeter of CMS consists of a barrel and two endcap calorimeters containing a sum of over 80000 lead tungstate crystals. If all the crystals were to be read-out in a triggered event, the total amount of ECAL data would excess by a factor 20 the CMS data acquisition system limits allowed for ECAL. This paper presents the strategies developed by CMS in order to reduce the ECAL data volume to the required level. (5 refs).

  19. Testbeam results for a Shashlik calorimeter with longitudinal segmentation

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    In the frame of R & D for electromagnetic calorimetry at future e+ e- linear colliders different techniques have been studied to implement longitudinal segmentation in Shashlik calorimeters. Two prototypes with 5 multiplied by 5 cm2 lead/scintillator towers and WLS readout have been built. The longitudinal segmentation of the shower is achieved by modifying the front part of the detector. In one prototype vacuum photodiodes are inserted laterally for the first 8 radiation lengths, while in the second one fast scintillator is used in the first 5 radiation lengths. Both the prototypes have been exposed to beam at the CERN West Area, and the performance in term of energy resolution, uniformity, spatial resolution and electron/pion separation are described. The preliminary results of the exposure to the same beam of a third prototype, with a 3 multiplied by 3 cm2 lateral granularity are also presented.

  20. Prospects for a precision timing upgrade of the CMS PbWO crystal electromagnetic calorimeter for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Massironi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) crystal electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL), which will operate at the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), will achieve a timing resolution of around 30 ps for high energy photons and electrons. In this talk we will discuss the benefits of precision timing for the ECAL event reconstruction at HL-LHC. Simulation studies focused on the timing properties of PbWO$_4$ crystals, as well as the impact of the photosensors and the readout electronics on the timing performance, will be presented. Test beam studies intended to measure the timing performance of the PbWO$_4$ crystals with different photosensors and readout electronics will be shown.

  1. CsI calorimeter with 3-D position resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Schopper, Herwig Franz; Shaw, H; Nefzger, C; Zoglauer, A; Schönfelder, V; Kanbach, G

    2000-01-01

    New gamma-ray calorimeter have been developed for the MEGA Compton camera. They consist of arrays of small CsI(Tl) scintillator bars read out by Silicon PIN-diodes and low noise, self-triggering frontend electronics. The length of the bars (the thickness of the calorimeter) can be varied for different applications to fit the stopping power needed and the light loss tolerable. In this paper we present calibration results from 2 cm long bars with diodes on one side, and 8 cm long bars with diodes on two opposite sides. Double-sided readout gives 3-D information of interactions which will be used to overcome the limited position resolution in Anger-cameras at high energies. Simpler detection devices like Anger-cameras might finally resolve only the centre of gravity. As events from gamma-rays with energies of MeV do extend over several cm, it is a prerequisite for an imaging device to resolve the interaction structure in detail. Combining CsI(Tl) scintillators, Silicon PIN-photodiodes and frontend electronics in...

  2. Upgrading ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Heath, Matthew Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Producing the very large samples of simulated events required by many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Fast simulation tools are a useful way of reducing CPU requirements when detailed detector simulations are not needed. During the LHC Run-1, a fast calorimeter simulation (FastCaloSim) was successfully used in ATLAS. FastCaloSim provides a simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level, taking into account the detailed particle shower shapes and the correlations between the energy depositions in the various calorimeter layers. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software, and it can be tuned to data more easily than Geant4. Now an improved version of FastCaloSim is in development, incorporating the experience with the version used during Run-1. The new FastCaloSim aims to overcome some limitations of the first version by improving the description of s...

  3. Radiation Damage Effects and Performance of Silicon Strip Detectors using LHC Readout Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067734

    1998-01-01

    Future high energy physics experiments as the ATLAS experiment at CERN, will use silicon strip detectors for fast and high precision tracking information. The high hadron fluences in these experiments cause permanent damage in the silicon.Additional energy levels are introduced in the bandgap thus changing the electrical properties such as leakage current and full depletion voltage V_fd .Very high leakage currents are observed after irradiation and lead to higher electronic noise and thus decrease the spatial resolution.V_fd increases to a few hundred volts after irradiation and eventually beyond the point of stable operating voltages. Prototype detectors with either p-implanted strips (p-in-n) and n-implanted strip detectors (n-in-n) were irradiated to the maximum expected fluence in ATLAS.The irradiation and the following study of the current and V_fd were carried out under ATLAS operational conditions.The evolution of V_fd after irradiation is compared to models based on diode irradiations.The qualitative ...

  4. Laser calibration of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Di Gregorio, Giulia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    High performance stability of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter is achieved with a set of calibration procedures. One step of the calibrtion procedure is based on measurements of the response stability to laser excitation of the photomultipliers (PMTs) that are used to readout the calorimeter cells. A facility to study in lab the PMT stability response is operating in the PISA-INFN laboratories since 2015. Goals of the test in lab are to study the time evolution of the PMT response to reproduce and to understand the origin of the resonse drifts seen with the PMT mounted on the Tile calorimeter in its normal operation during LHC run I and run II. A new statistical approach was developed to measure the drift of the absolute gain. This approach was applied to both the ATLAS laser calibration data and to the data collected in the Pisa local laboratory. The preliminary results from these two studies are shown.

  5. Laser Calibration of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Di Gregorio, Giulia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    High performance stability of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is achieved with a set of calibration procedures. One step of the calibration procedure is based on measurements of the response stability to laser excitation of the PMTs that are used to readout the calorimeter cells. A facility to study in lab the PMT stability response is operating in the PISA-INFN laboratories since 2015. Goals of the tests in lab are to study the time evolution of the PMT response to reproduce and to understand the origin of the response drifts seen with the PMT mounted on the Tile calorimeter in its normal operating during LHC run I and run II. A new statistical approach was developed to measure drift of the absolute gain. This approach was applied to both the ATLAS laser calibration data and to data collected in the Pisa local laboratory. The preliminary results from these two studies are shown.

  6. The BGO Calorimeter of BGO-OD Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantes, B.; Bayadilov, D.; Beck, R.; Becker, M.; Bella, A.; Bielefeldt, P.; Bieling, J.; Bleckwenn, M.; Böse, S.; Braghieri, A.; Brinkmann, K.-Th; Burdeynyi, D.; Curciarello, F.; De Leo, V.; Di Salvo, R.; Dutz, H.; Elsner, D.; Fantini, A.; Freyermuth, O.; Friedrich, S.; Frommberger, F.; Ganenko, V.; Geffers, D.; Gervino, G.; Ghio, F.; Giardina, G.; Girolami, B.; Glazier, D.; Goertz, S.; Gridnev, A.; Gutz, E.; Hammann, D.; Hannappel, J.; Hartmann, P.-F.; Hillert, W.; Ignatov, A.; Jahn, R.; Joosten, R.; Jude, T. C.; Klein, F.; Koop, K.; Krusche, B.; Lapik, A.; Levi Sandri, P.; Lopatin, I.; Mandaglio, G.; Mei, P.; Messi, F.; Messi, R.; Metag, V.; Moricciani, D.; Nanova, M.; Nedorezov, V.; Novinskiy, D.; Pedroni, P.; Romaniuk, M.; Rostomyan, T.; Rudnev, N.; Schaerf, C.; Scheluchin, G.; Schmieden, H.; Sumachev, V.; Tarakanov, V.; Vegna, V.; Walther, D.; Watts, D.; Zaunick, H.-G.; Zimmermann, T.

    2015-02-01

    The BGO Rugby Ball is a large solid angle electromagnetic calorimeter now installed in the ELSA Facility in Bonn. The BGO is operating in the BGO-OD experiment aiming to study meson photoproduction off proton and neutron induced by a Bremsstrahlung polarized gamma beam of energies from 0.2 to 3.2 GeV and an intensity of 5 × 107 photons per second. The scintillating material characteristics and the photomultiplier read-out make this detector particularly suited for the detection of medium energy photons and electrons with very good energy resolution. The detector has been equipped with a new electronics read-out system, consisting of 30 sampling ADC Wie-Ne-R modules which perform the off-line reconstruction of the signal start-time allowing for a good timing resolution. Performances in linearity, resolution and time response have been carefully tested at the Beam Test Facility of the INFN National Laboratories in Frascati by using a matrix of 7 BGO crystals coupled to photomultipliers and equipped with the Wie-Ne-R sampling ADCs.

  7. Investigation of high sensitivity radio-frequency readout circuit based on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Tan, Ren-Bing; Sun, Jian-Dong; Li, Xin-Xing; Zhou, Yu; Lü, Li; Qin, Hua

    2015-10-01

    An AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) device is prepared by using a semiconductor nanofabrication process. A reflective radio-frequency (RF) readout circuit is designed and the HEMT device is assembled in an RF circuit through a coplanar waveguide transmission line. A gate capacitor of the HEMT and a surface-mounted inductor on the transmission line are formed to generate LC resonance. By tuning the gate voltage Vg, the variations of gate capacitance and conductance of the HEMT are reflected sensitively from the resonance frequency and the magnitude of the RF reflection signal. The aim of the designed RF readout setup is to develop a highly sensitive HEMT-based detector. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61107093), the Suzhou Science and Technology Project, China (Grant No. ZXG2012024), and the Youth Innovation Promotion Association, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. 2012243).

  8. The sROD Module for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase-II Upgrade Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F; Ferrer, A; Fiorini, L; Hernandez, Y; Higon, E; Mellado, B; March, L; Moreno, P; Reed, R; Solans, C; Valero, A; Valls, J A

    2014-01-01

    TileCal is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The main upgrade of the LHC to increase the instantaneous luminosity is scheduled for 2022. The High Luminosity LHC, also called upgrade Phase-II, will imply a complete redesign of the read-out electronics in TileCal. In the new read-out architecture, the front-end electronics aims to transmit full digitized information to the back-end system in the counting rooms. Thus, the back-end system will provide digital calibrated information with en- hanced precision and granularity to the first level trigger to improve the trigger efficiencies. The demonstrator project is envisaged to qualify this new proposed architecture. A reduced part of the detector, 1/256 of the total, will be upgraded with the new electronics during 2014 to evaluate the proposed architecture in real conditions. The upgraded Read-Out Driver (sROD) will be the core element of the back-end electronics in Phase-II The sROD module is des...

  9. Phase1 upgrade of the CMS-HF Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Gulmez, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    In this presentation, results of the Phase I upgrade of the CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeter (HF) are discussed. The CMS-HF Calorimeter was using regular PMTs. Cherenkov light produced in the quartz fibers embedded in the iron absorber was read out with the PMTs. However, occasionally, stray muons hitting the PMT windows cause Cherenkov radiation in the PMT itself and produce large signals. These large signals mimic a very high-energy particle and are tagged as important by the trigger. To reduce this problem, PMTs had to be replaced. The four-anode PMTs that were chosen have thinner windows; thereby reducing the Cherenkov radiation in the PMT window. As part of the upgrade, the read-out electronics is to be replaced so that the PMTs are read out in two channels by connecting each pair of anodes to a single channel. Information provided by these two channels will help us reject the false signals due to the stray muons since the Cherenkov radiation in the PMT window is more likely to produce a signal only in one...

  10. Design, Construction and Installation of the ATLAS Hadronic Barrel Scintillator-Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Alexa, C; Alves, R; Amaral, P; Ananiev, A; Anderson, K; Andresen, X; Antonaki, A; Batusov, V; Bednar, P; Bergeaas, E; Biscarat, C; Blanch, O; Blanchot, G; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Bosi, F; Bosman, M; Bromberg, C; Budagov, Yu A; Calvet, D; Cardeira, C; Carli, T; Carvalho, J; Cascella, M; Castillo, M V; Costello, J; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Cerqueira, A S; Clément, C; Cobal, M; Cogswell, F; Constantinescu, S; Costanzo, D; Da Silva, P; Davidek, M; David, T; Dawson, J; De, K; Del Prete, T; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Dotti, A; Downing, R; Drake, G; Efthymiopoulos, I; Errede, D; Errede, S; Farbin, A; Fassouliotis, D; Feng, E; Fenyuk, A; Ferdi, C; Ferreira, B C; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, V; Flix, J; Francavilla, P; Fullana, E; Garde, V; Gellerstedt, K; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giangiobbe, V; Gildemeister, O; Gilewsky, V; Giokaris, N; Gollub, N; Gomes, A; González, V; Gouveia, J; Grenier, P; Gris, P; Guarino, V; Guicheney, C; Sen-Gupta, A; Hakobyan, H; Haney, M; Hellman, S; Henriques, A; Higón, E; Hill, N; Holmgren, S; Hruska, I; Hurwitz, M; Huston, J; Jen-La Plante, I; Jon-And, K; Junk, T; Karyukhin, A; Khubua, J; Klereborn, J; Kopikov, S; Korolkov, I; Krivkova, P; Kulchitsky, Y; Kurochkin, Yu; Kuzhir, P; Lapin, V; Le Compte, T; Lefèvre, R; Leitner, R; Li, J; Liablin, M; Lokajícek, M; Lomakin, Y; Lourtie, P; Lovas, L; Lupi, A; Maidantchik, C; Maio, A; Maliukov, S; Manousakis, A; Marques, C; Marroquim, F; Martin, F; Mazzoni, E; Merritt, F S; Myagkov, A; Miller, R; Minashvili, I; Miralles, L; Montarou, G; Némécek, S; Nessi, M; Nikitine, I; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Onofre, A; Oreglia, M; Palan, B; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Pereira, A; Pilcher, J E; Pina, J; Pinhão, J; Pod, E; Podlyski, F; Portell, X; Poveda, J; Pribyl, L; Price, L E; Proudfoot, J; Ramalho, M; Ramstedt, M; Raposeiro, L; Reis, J; Richards, R; Roda, C; Romanov, V; Rosnet, P; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Rumiantsau, V; Russakovich, N; Sada Costa, J; Salto, O; Salvachúa, B; Sanchis, E; Sanders, H; Santoni, C; Santos, J; Saraiva, J G; Sarri, F; Says, L P; Schlager, G; Schlereth, J L; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Shalanda, N; Shevtsov, P; Shochet, M; Simaitis, V; Simonyan, M; Sisakian, A; Sjölin, J; Solans, C; Solodkov, A; Solovianov, J; Silva, O; Sosebee, M; Spanó, F; Speckmeyer, P; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E; Starovoitov, P; Suk, M; Sykora, I; Tang, F; Tas, P; Teuscher, R; Tokar, S; Topilin, N; Torres, J; Underwood, D; Usai, G; Valero, A; Valkár, S; Valls, J A; Vartapetian, A; Vazeille, F; Vellidis, C; Ventura, F; Vichou, I; Vivarelli, I; Volpi, M; White, A; Zaitsev, A; Zenin, A; Zenis, T; Zenonos, Z; Zenz, S; Zilka, B

    2007-01-01

    The scintillator tile hadronic calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter using steel as the absorber structure and scintillator as the active medium. The scintillator is located in "pockets" in the steel structure and the wavelength-shifting fibers are contained in channels running radially within the absorber to photomultiplier tubes which are located in the outer support girders of the calorimeter structure. In addition, to its role as a detector for high energy particles, the tile calorimeter provides the direct support of the liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter in the barrel region, and the liquid argon electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters in the endcap region. Through these, it indirectly supports the inner tracking system and beam pipe. The steel absorber, and in particular the support girders, provide the flux return for the solenoidal field from the central solenoid. Finally, the end surfaces of the barrel calorimeter are used to mount services, power supplies and readout crates for the inner tr...

  11. A first-level calorimeter trigger for LHC experiments - design studies, and beam tests of a first prototype trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.T.; Brawn, I.P., Carney, R.E.; Ermolin, Y.; Garvey, J.; Staley, R..J. [Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom); Eisenhandler, E.; Landon, M. [Queen Mary and Westfield College, London (United Kingdom); Gee, C.N.P.; Gillman, A.R. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    First-level triggering for LHC proton-proton collider experiments poses significant experimental challenges. At a luminosity of 10{sup 34} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1} the inelastic proton-proton collision rate will be approximately 1 GHz. With a bunch-crossing interval of 25 ns this corresponds to approximately 25 collisions per bunch-crossing. The level-1 accept rate will be limited by the readout time of the front-end electronics to less than 100 kHz, requiring a rejection factor of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5}. Physics signatures will be based upon combinations of high-p{sub T} leptons, photons, partons and weakly-interacting particles, and therefore the trigger must be sensitive to these particles. This paper describes tests of a first prototype calorimeter trigger processor and developments in the design of a complete first-level calorimeter trigger system.

  12. The supermodule insertion tool of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter and the first trial insertion of a supermodule.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The first trial insertion of a complete Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) "supermodule" (1700 lead-tungstate crystals, with support structures, light detectors (avalanche photodiodes), readout electronics and cooling system) was performed on 1st March. This delicate operation - sliding a 2-tonne 3m-long object onto support rails (in real life these are attached to the barrel hadron calorimeter (HCAL)) - made use of a custom designed "squirrel cage". The rotatable squirrel cage allows the insertion of any supermodule into any of the 18 positions, including very fine (sub-mm) adjustments. The first supermodule will be inserted into the real HCAL later this month in preparation for the "magnet test and cosmic-ray challenge" (MTCC). In the first image the supermodule is in the centre and the alignment disks are highlighted by the flash.

  13. Commissioning of Upgrade Forward Hadron Calorimeters of CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bilki, Burak

    2016-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is upgrading the photo-detection and readout system of the forward hadron calorimeter (HF). During Long Shutdown 1, all of the original PMTs were replaced with multi-anode, thin window photomultipliers. At the same time, the back-end readout system was upgraded to micro-TCA readout. Here we report on the experience with commissioning and calibrating the HF front-end as well as the online operational challenges of the micro-TCA system.

  14. Low-energetic hadron interactions in a highly granular calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feege, Nils

    2011-12-15

    The CALICE collaboration develops imaging calorimeters for precision measurements at a future electron-positron linear collider. These calorimeters feature a fine granularity in both longitudinal and transverse direction, which is needed to fulfill the shower separation requirement of Particle Flow reconstruction algorithms. CALICE has constructed prototypes for several design options for electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters and has successfully operated these detectors during combined test-beam programs at DESY, CERN, and Fermilab since 2005. The focus of this dissertation is on the prototype for a hadron calorimeter with analog readout (AHCAL), which is a 1m{sup 3} scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter with 38 sensitive layers and a depth of 5.3 nuclear interaction lengths. Each scintillator layer is pieced together from separate tiles with embedded silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) for measuring the scintillation light. With a total of 7608 readout channels, the AHCAL prototype represents the first large-scale application of SiPMs. This thesis covers the commissioning and operation of the AHCAL and other detectors for several months at the Fermilab Test-beam Facility in 2008 and 2009 and the analysis of electron and pion data collected during these measurements. The analysis covers energies from 1 GeV to 30 GeV and is the first analysis of AHCAL data at energies below 8 GeV. Because the purity of the recorded data is not sufficient for analysis, event selection procedures for electrons and pions at these energies and a method to estimate the purities of these data samples are developed. The calibration of detectors employing SiPMs requires parameters that change with operating voltage and temperature. The correction of these parameters for the effects of temperature variations during data collection and their portability to different operating conditions are evaluated using the AHCAL as an example. This is important for the use of this technology in a

  15. Calibration and monitoring of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). PMT signals are then digitized at 40~MHz and stored on detector and are only transferred off detector once the first level trigger acceptance has been confirmed. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements and an integrator b...

  16. The electronics readout and data acquisition system of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope node

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, Diego [IFIC, Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, C/Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, 46980 Paterna (Spain); Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be composed by tens of thousands of glass spheres, called Digital Optical Module (DOM), each of them containing 31 PMTs of small photocathode area (3'). The readout and data acquisition system of KM3NeT have to collect, treat and send to shore, in an economic way, the enormous amount of data produced by the photomultipliers and at the same time to provide time synchronization between each DOM at the level of 1 ns. It is described in the present article the Central Logic Board, that integrates the Time to Digital Converters and the White Rabbit protocol used for the DOM synchronization in a transparent way, the Power Board used in the DOM, the PMT base to readout the photomultipliers and the respective collecting boards, the so called Octopus Board.

  17. Optimisation of the Read-out Electronics of Muon Drift-Tube Chambers for Very High Background Rates at HL-LHC and Future Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, Sebastian; Gadow, Philipp; Ecker, Katharina; Fink, David; Fras, Markus; Kortner, Oliver; Kroha, Hubert; Müller, Felix; Richter, Robert; Schmid, Clemens; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian; Zhao, Yazhou

    2016-01-01

    In the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer, Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers and sMDT chambers with half of the tube diameter of the MDTs are used for precision muon track reconstruction. The sMDT chambers are designed for operation at high counting rates due to neutron and gamma background irradiation expected for the HL-LHC and future hadron colliders. The existing MDT read-out electronics uses bipolar signal shaping which causes an undershoot of opposite polarity and same charge after a signal pulse. At high counting rates and short electronics dead time used for the sMDTs, signal pulses pile up on the undershoot of preceding background pulses leading to a reduction of the signal amplitude and a jitter in the drift time measurement and, therefore, to a degradation of drift tube efficiency and spatial resolution. In order to further increase the rate capability of sMDT tubes, baseline restoration can be used in the read-out electronics to suppress the pile-up effects. A discrete bipolar shaping circuit with baseline...

  18. ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger Subsystem Tests of a Prototype Cluster Processor Module

    CERN Document Server

    Garvey, J; Apostologlou, P; Ay, C; Barnett, B M; Bauss, B; Brawn, I P; Bohm, C; Dahlhoff, A; Davis, A O; Edwards, J; Eisenhandler, E F; Gee, C N P; Gillman, A R; Hanke, P; Hellman, S; Hidévgi, A; Hillier, S J; Jakobs, K; Kluge, E E; Landon, M; Mahboubi, K; Mahout, G; Meier, K; Meshkov, P; Moye, T H; Mills, D; Moyse, E; Nix, O; Penno, K; Perera, V J O; Qian, W; Schmitt, K; Schäfer, U; Silverstein, S; Staley, R J; Thomas, J; Trefzger, T M; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; 9th Workshop On Electronics For LHC Experiments - LECC 2003

    2003-01-01

    The Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger consists of a Preprocessor (PP), a Cluster Processor (CP), and a Jet/Energy-sum Processor (JEP). The CP and JEP receive digitised trigger-tower data from the Preprocessor and produce trigger multiplicity and Region-of-Interest (RoI) information. The trigger will also provide intermediate results to the data acquisition (DAQ) system for monitoring and diagnostic purposes by using Readout Driver (ROD) Modules. The CP Modules (CPM) are designed to find isolated electron/photon and hadron/tau clusters in overlapping windows of trigger towers. Each pipelined CPM processes 8-bit data from a total of 128 trigger towers at each LHC crossing. Four full-specification prototypes of CPMs have been built and results of complete tests on individual boards will be presented. These modules were then integrated with other modules to build an ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger subsystem test bench. Realtime data were exchanged between modules, and time-slice readout data were tagged and transferr...

  19. Search for Technihadrons in Dielectron channel and Alignments of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Electromagnetic calorimeters.

    CERN Document Server

    Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Di Ciaccio, L

    The LHC campaign in the first years of data taking was successful. The 2011 run has allowed to record more than 5 fb−1 of data at sqrt{s}=7 TeV with the ATLAS experiment. In the work presented in this this thesis the whole 2011 data set is used to performed different studies. This thesis is organized in five chapters. In the first chapter is presented a theoretical introduction to the Standard Model (SM) and to one of its possible extension the TechniColor (TC). The second chapter gives an overview of the LHC complex and of the ATLAS detector components. In the third chapter the timing analysis on all the readout channels of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter is reported. A precise timing alignment over the whole calorimeter is used to synchronize the detector readout system with the LHC bunch crossing and has also application in some physics analysis such as those looking for long lived particles. In the searches for new phenomena an excellent electron identification capability, with high efficiency and high ...

  20. Signal Reconstruction of the Atlas Hadronic Tile Calorimeter Implementation and Validation

    CERN Document Server

    Usai, G

    2010-01-01

    TileCal, the central hadronic section of the ATLAS Calorimeter, is a sampling calorimeter consisting of steel and scitntillating tiles. The TileCal front-end electronics allows to measures the signals produced by about 10000 photo-multipliers measuring energies ranging from about 30 MeV to about 2TeV .  The read-out system is responsible to reconstruct the data in real-time fulfilling the tight time constraint imposed by the ATLAS first level trigger rate (100 KHz).  The main component of the read-out system is the Digital Signal Processor (DSP) which, using the Optimal Filtering technique, allows to compute for each channel the signal amplitude, time and quality factor at the required high rate. After a short overview of the TileCal system we will discuss the implementation of Optimal Filtering signal reconstruction highlighting the constraints imposed by the use of the DSP. We will than report results on the validation of the implementation of the DSP signal reconstruction and the overall signal reconstru...

  1. Central electromagnetic calorimeter of UA1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochet, C.; DeBeer, M.; Fournier, J.P.; Givernaud, A.; Laugier, J.P.; Leveque, A.; Locci, E.; Loret, M.; Malosse, J.J.; Micolon, P.

    1986-02-01

    We describe the construction, calibration and performance of the central electromagnetic calorimeter of the UA1 experiment at the CERN proton-antiproton collider. The calorimeter is of the lead-scintillator sandwich type. It is 26.4 radiation lengths thick and covers a surface of about 50 m/sup 2/. We estimate the resolution of the calorimeter for electrons of energy greater than 1 GeV to be the sum in quadrature of 15%/..sqrt..E (E in GeV) and a constant 3%. The first term comes from the inherent resolution of the calorimeter due to sampling fluctuations and photostatistics. The second term comes from uncertainties in the calibration procedure and dominates the resolution for electrons from W and Z/sup 0/ decay. The uncertainty in the overall energy scale also reflects the uncertainties in the calibration procedure and is estimated to be 3%. (orig.).

  2. Performance of the ATLAS Zero Degree Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Leite, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a set of two sampling calorimeters modules symmetrically located at 140m from the ATLAS interaction point. The ZDC covers a pseudorapidity range of |eta| > 8.3 and it is both longitudinally and transversely segmented, thus providing energy and position information of the incident particles. The ZDC is installed between the two LHC beam pipes, in a configuration such that only the neutral particles produced at the interaction region can reach this calorimeter. The ZDC uses Tungsten plates as absorber material and rods made of quartz interspersed in the absorber as active media. The energetic charged particles crossing the quartz rods produces Cherenkov light which is then detected by photomultipliers and sent to the front end electronics for processing, in a total of 120 individual electronic channels. The Tungsten plates and quartz rods are arranged in a way to segment the calorimeters in 4 longitudinal sections. The first section (...

  3. The NA60 experiment readout architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Floris, M; Usai, G L; David, A; Rosinsky, P; Ohnishi, H

    2004-01-01

    The NA60 experiment was designed to identify signatures of a new state of matter, the Quark Gluon Plasma, in heavy-ion collisions at the CERN Super Proton Synchroton. The apparatus is composed of four main detectors: a muon spectrometer (MS), a zero degree calorimeter (ZDC), a silicon vertex telescope (VT), and a silicon microstrip beam tracker (BT). The readout of the whole experiment is based on a PCI architecture. The basic unit is a general purpose PCI card, interfaced to the different subdetectors via custom mezzanine cards. This allowed us to successfully implement several completely different readout protocols (from the VME like protocol of the MS to the custom protocol of the pixel telescope). The system was fully tested with proton and ion beams, and several million events were collected in 2002 and 2003. This paper presents the readout architecture of NA60, with particular emphasis on the PCI layer common to all the subdetectors. (16 refs).

  4. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter performance at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Calkins, R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal), the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment, is a key detector component to detect hadrons, jets and taus and to measure the missing transverse energy. Due to the very good muon signal to noise ratio it assists the spectrometer in the identification and reconstruction of muons. TileCal is built of steel and scintillating tiles coupled to optical fibers and read out by photo-multipliers. The calorimeter is equipped with systems that allow to monitor and to calibrate each stage of the readout system exploiting different signal sources: laser light, charge injection and a radioactive source. The performance of the calorimeter has been measured and monitored using calibration data, random triggered data, cosmic muons, splash events and more importantly LHC collision events. The results presented here assess the absolute energy scale calibration precision, the energy and timing uniformity and the synchronization precision. The ensemble of the results demo...

  5. Identification of positrons and electrons in the cosmic radiation with the electromagnetic calorimeter ECAL for the AMS-02 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080883

    2011-07-19

    In May 2011 AMS-02 detector has been successfully installed on the International Space Station (ISS), where it will take data on cosmic radiation from 1 to 1000 GeV for at least 10 years. Among all scientific objectives of the experiment, one of the most important is the search for Dark Matter (DM), which constitutes 80% of the Universe matter, but its nature is still unknown. A DM signal can be identified by studying the combined fluxes of positrons, photons, antiprotons and antideuterium. Thanks to its high acceptance and its performances, AMS-02 detector can extend primary cosmic ray physics search to a new energy range with high accuracy. A key role for these measurements, in particular for the electromagnetic channels, is played by ECAL calorimeter. This subdetector has been developed to measure e− and e+ energy with an accuracy of few %. Thanks to its 3D shower reconstruction imaging capabilities, it also has a high separation power between electromagnetic and hadronic showers (e/p rejection), essent...

  6. Evaluation of Fermi Read-out of the ATLAS Tilecal Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Agnvall, S; Albiol, F; Alifanov, A; Amaral, P; Amelin, D V; Amorim, A; Anderson, K J; Angelini, C; Antola, A; Astesan, F; Astvatsaturov, A R; Autiero, D; Badaud, F; Barreira, G; Benetta, R; Berglund, S R; Blanchot, G; Blucher, E; Blaj, C; Bodö, P; Bogush, A A; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Borisov, O N; Bosman, M; Bouhemaid, N; Brette, P; Breveglieri, L; Bromberg, C; Brossard, M; Budagov, Yu A; Calôba, L P; Carvalho, J; Casado, M P; Castera, A; Cattaneo, Paolo Walter; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Chadelas, R; Chevaleyre, J C; Chirikov-Zorin, I E; Chlachidze, G; Cobal, M; Cogswell, F; Colaço, F; Constantinescu, S; Costanzo, D; Crouau, M; Dadda, L; Daudon, F; David, J; David, M; Davidek, T; Dawson, J; De, K; Del Prete, T; De Santo, A; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Downing, R; Dugne, J J; Efthymiopoulos, I; Engström, M; Errede, D; Errede, S; Evans, H; Fenyuk, A; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Fristedt, A; Gallas, E J; Gaspar, M; Gildemeister, O; Givoletto, M; Glagolev, V V; Goggi, Giorgio V; Gómez, A; Gong, S; Guz, Yu; Grabskii, V; Grieco, M; Hakopian, H H; Haney, M W; Hansen, M; Hellman, S; Henriques, A; Hentzell, H; Holmberg, T; Holmgren, S O; Honoré, P F; Huston, J; Ivanyushenkov, Yu M; Jon-And, K; Juste, A; Kakurin, S; Karapetian, G V; Karyukhin, A N; Kérek, A; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kopikov, S V; Kostrikov, M E; Kostyukhin, V; Kukhtin, V V; Kulchitskii, Yu A; Kurzbauer, W; Lami, S; Landi, G; Lapin, V; Lazzeroni, C; Lebedev, A; Leitner, R; Li, J; Lippi, M; Le Dortz, O; Löfstedt, B; Lomakin, Yu F; Lomakina, O V; Lokajícek, M; Lund-Jensen, B; Maio, A; Malyukov, S N; Mariani, R; Marroquin, F; Martins, J P; Mazzoni, E; Merritt, F S; Michel, B; Miller, R; Minashvili, I A; Miralles, L; Mnatzakanian, E A; Montarou, G; Motto, S; Muanza, G S; Némécek, S; Nessi, Marzio; Ödmark, A; Onofre, A; Orteu, S; Padilla, C; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Patriarca, J; Pereira, A; Perlas, J A; Persson, S T; Petit, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinhão, J; Poggioli, Luc; Poirot, S; Polesello, G; Price, L E; Proudfoot, J; Pukhov, O; Reinmuth, G; Renzoni, G; Richards, R; Riu, I; Romanov, V; Ronceux, B; Rumyantsev, V; Rusakovitch, N A; Sami, M; Sanders, H; Santos, J; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Sawyer, L; Says, L P; Schwemling, P; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Semenov, A A; Shchelchkov, A S; Shochet, M J; Simaitis, V J; Sissakian, A N; Solodkov, A A; Solovyanov, O; Sonderegger, P; Soustruznik, K; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E A; Stefanelli, R; Stephens, R; Suk, M; Sundblad, R; Svensson, C; Tang, F; Tardell, S; Tas, P; Teubert, F; Thaler, J J; Tokár, S; Topilin, N D; Trka, Z; Turcot, A S; Turcotte, M; Valkár, S; Varanda, M J; Vartapetian, A H; Vazeille, F; Vinogradov, V; Vivaldi, F; Vorozhtsov, S B; Wagner, D; White, A; Wolters, H; Yamdagni, N; Yarygin, G; Yosef, C; Yuan, J; Zaitsev, A; Zdrazil, M

    1998-01-01

    Prototypes of the \\fermi{} system have been used to read out a prototype of the \\atlas{} hadron calorimeter in a beam test at the CERN SPS. The \\fermi{} read-out system, using a compressor and a 40 MHz sampling ADC, is compared to a standard charge integrating read-out by measuring the energy resolution of the calorimeter separately with the two systems on the same events. Signal processing techniques have been designed to optimize the treatment of \\fermi{} data. The resulting energy resolution is better than the one obtained with the standard read-out.

  7. Electronics Evaluation, Jet reconstruction and a Study of GMSB in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Sjölin, J

    2000-01-01

    The ATLAS detector is described. Emphasis is put on the Tile calorimeter and its fast readout electronics. An overview of the charge calibration of the electronics tested during the test-beam periods in 1996-98 is given. The evaluation guided a decision concerning methods of signal compression and dynamical range of the Analog to Digital Converter for the final version. An introduction to the topic of jet reconstruction in the ATLAS barrel calorimeter is given. Also included is a study of the sensitivity to model parameters for Gauge Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking with stau as the NLSP using fast simulations of the ATLAS detector.

  8. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00223142; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider require very large samples of simulated events, and producing these using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Often, a very detailed detector simulation is not needed, and in these cases fast simulation tools can be used to reduce the calorimeter simulation time by a few orders of magnitude. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation (FastCaloSim) is an improved parametrisation compared to the one used in the LHC Run-1. It provides a simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level, taking into account the detailed particle shower shapes and the correlations between the energy depositions in the various calorimeter layers. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software, and can be tuned to data more easily than with GEANT4. The new FastCaloSim incorporates developments in geometry and physics lists of the last five years and benefit...

  9. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, Flavia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A very large number of simulated events is required for physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Producing these with the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. As a very detailed detector simulation is not always required, fast simulation tools have been developed to reduce the calorimeter simulation time by a few orders of magnitude. The fast simulation of ATLAS for the calorimeter systems used in Run 1, called Fast Calorimeter Simulation (FastCaloSim), provides a parameterized simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level. It is then interfaced to the ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software. In Run 1, about 13 billion events were simulated in ATLAS, out of which 50% were produced using fast simulation. For Run 2, a new parameterisation is being developed to improve the original version: It incorporates developments in geometry and physics lists of the last five years and benefits from knowledge acquire...

  10. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00176100; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The physics and performance studies of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider re- quire a large number of simulated events. A GEANT4 based detailed simulation of the ATLAS calorimeter systems is highly CPU intensive and such resolution is often unnecessary. To reduce the calorimeter simulation time by a few orders of magnitude, fast simulation tools have been developed. The Fast Calorimeter Simulation (FastCaloSim) provides a parameterised simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level. In Run 1, about 13 billion events were simulated in ATLAS, out of which 50% were produced using fast simulation. For Run 2, a new parameterisation is being developed to improve the original version: it incorporates developments in geometry and physics lists during the last five years and benefits from the knowledge acquired from the Run 1 data. The algorithm uses machine learning techniques to improve the parameterisations and to optimise the amount of information to be stored in the...

  11. Upgrading the ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Hubacek, Zdenek; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider require very large samples of simulated events, and producing these using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Often, a very detailed detector simulation is not needed, and in these cases fast simulation tools can be used to reduce the calorimeter simulation time by a few orders of magnitude. In ATLAS, a fast simulation of the calorimeter systems was developed, called Fast Calorimeter Simulation (FastCaloSim). It provides a parametrized simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software, and can be tuned to data more easily than with GEANT4. The original version of FastCaloSim has been very important in the LHC Run-1, with several billion events simulated. An improved parametrisation is being developed, to eventually address shortcomings of the original version. It incorporates developme...

  12. Micro Calorimeter for Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    As battery technology forges ahead and consumer demand for safer, more affordable, high-performance batteries grows, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has added a patented Micro Calorimeter to its existing family of R&D 100 Award-winning Isothermal Battery Calorimeters (IBCs). The Micro Calorimeter examines the thermal signature of battery chemistries early on in the design cycle using popular coin cell and small pouch cell designs, which are simple to fabricate and study.

  13. LHCb: Radiation tolerance tests of SRAM-based FPGAs for the possible usage in the readout electronics for the LHCb experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Faerber, C; Wiedner, D; Leveringzon, B; Ekelhof, R

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes radiation studies of SRAM-based FPGAs as a central component of the electronics for a possible upgrade of the LHCb Outer Tracker readout electronics to a frequency of 40 MHz. Two Arria GX FPGAs were irradiated with 20 MeV protons to radiation doses of up to 7 Mrad. During and between the irradiation periods the different FPGA currents, the package temperature, the firmware error rate, the PLL stability, and the stability of a 32 channel TDC implemented on the FPGA were monitored. Results on the radiation tolerance of the FPGA and the measured firmware error rates will be presented. The Arria GX FPGA fulfils the radiation tolerance required for the LHCb upgrade (30 krad) and an expected firmware error rate of 10$^{-6}$ Hz makes the chip viable for the LHCb Upgrade.

  14. Front-end electronics in a 65 nm CMOS process for high density readout of pixel sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaioni, Luigi; Manghisoni, Massimo; Ratti, Lodovico; Re, Valerio; Traversi, Gianluca

    2011-09-01

    In future high energy physics experiments (HEP), readout integrated circuits for vertexing and tracking applications will be implemented by means of CMOS devices belonging to processes with minimum feature size in the 100 nm span. In these nanoscale technologies the impact of new dielectric materials and processing techniques on the analog behavior of MOSFETs has to be carefully evaluated. This paper is concerned with the study of the analog properties, in particular in terms of noise performance and radiation hardness, of MOSFET devices belonging to a 65 nm CMOS low power technology. The behavior of the 1/ f and white noise terms is studied as a function of the main device parameters before and after exposure to 10 keV X-rays and 60Co γ-rays. A prototype chip designed in a 65 nm CMOS process including deep n-well MAPS structures and a fast front-end conceived for the readout of high-resistivity pixel sensors will be introduced.

  15. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter for the High luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Usai, Giulio; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS (TileCal) will undergo a complete replacement of its on-detector and off-detector electronics for the high luminosity programme of the LHC in 2024. The calorimeter signals from all PMTs will be digitized and sent directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals are reconstructed and feed into the ATLAS first level trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision and a finer granularity for the trigger system and will allow the development of more efficient trigger selections. To validate this free-running read-out architecture we plan to insert into ATLAS at the end of 2015 one demonstrator prototype. The demonstrator is an hybrid module containing the new electronics but also providing the analog trigger signals to be compatible with the present system. At the current stage of development three different options are being investigated for the upgrade of the front-end electronic and we plan extensive test beam and simulation studies to select the bes...

  16. The upgrade of the CMS hadron calorimeter with silicon 5 photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobbe, N. [Fermilab

    2016-09-01

    The upgrade of the hadron calorimeter of the CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is currently underway. The endcap sections will be upgraded in the winter of 2016–2017 and the barrel sections during the second LHC long shutdown in 2019. The existing photosensors will be replaced with about 16 000 new silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), resulting in the first large installation of SiPMs in a radiation environment. All associated front-end electronics will also be upgraded. This paper discusses the motivation for the upgrade and provides a description 17 of the new system, including the SiPMs with associated control electronics and the front-end readout cards.

  17. Functional Super Read Out Driver Demonstrator for the Phase II Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Carrió, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Ferrer, A; Fiorini, L; González, V; Hernández, Y; Higón, E; Moreno, P; Sanchis, E; Solans, C; Valero, A; Valls, J

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the implementation of a functional super Read Out Driver (sROD) demonstrator for the Phase II Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) in the LHC experiment. The proposed front-end for the Phase II Upgrade communicates with back-end electronics using a multifiber optical connector with a data rate of 57.6 Gbps using the GBT protocol. This functional sROD demonstrator aims to help in the understanding of the problems that could arise in the upgrade of back-end electronics. The demonstrator is composed of three different boards that have been developed in the framework of ATLAS activities: the Optical Multiplexer Board (OMB), the Read-Out Driver (ROD) and the Optical Link Card (OLC). This functional sROD demonstrator will be used to develop a prototype, in ATCA format, of the new ROD for the Phase II.

  18. Development of the CsI Calorimeter Subsystem for AMEGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, J. Eric; Woolf, Richard; Johnson, W. Neil; Phlips, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    We report on the development of the thallium-doped cesium iodide (CsI:Tl) calorimeter subsystem for the All-Sky Medium-Energy Gamma-ray Observatory (AMEGO). The CsI calorimeter is one of the three main subsystems that comprise the AMEGO instrument suite; the others include the double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD) tracker/converter and a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) calorimeter. Similar to the LAT instrument on Fermi, the hodoscopic calorimeter consists of orthogonally layered CsI bars. Unlike the LAT, which uses PIN photodiodes, the scintillation light readout from each end of the CsI bar is done with recently developed large-area silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) arrays. We currently have an APRA program to develop the calorimeter technology for a larger, future space-based gamma-ray observatory. Under this program, we are building and testing a prototype calorimeter consisting of 24 CsI bars (16.7 mm x 16.7 mm x 100 mm) arranged in 4 layers with 6 bars per layer. The ends of each bar are read out with a 2 x 2 array of 6 mm x 6 mm SensL J series SiPMs. Signal readout and processing is done with the IDEAS SIPHRA (IDE3380) ASIC. Performance testing of this prototype will be done with laboratory sources, a beam test, and a balloon flight in conjunction with the other subsystems led by NASA GSFC. Additionally, we will test 16.7 mm x 16.7 mm x 450 mm CsI bars with SiPM readout to understand the performance of longer bars in advance of the developing the full instrument.Acknowledgement: This work was sponsored by the Chief of Naval Research (CNR) and NASA-APRA (NNH15ZDA001N-APRA).

  19. Data acquisition and processing in the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase-II Upgrade Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Valero, Alberto; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The LHC has planned a series of upgrades culminating in the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) which will have an average luminosity 5-7 times larger than the nominal Run-2 value. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) will undergo an upgrade to accommodate to the HL-LHC parameters. The TileCal read-out electronics will be redesigned introducing a new read-out strategy. The photomultiplier signals will be digitized and transferred to the TileCal PreProcessors (TilePPr) located off-detector for every bunch crossing, requiring a data bandwidth of 80 Tbps. The TilePPr will provide preprocessed information to the first level of trigger and in parallel will store the samples in pipeline memories. The data of the events selected by the trigger system will be transferred to the ATLAS global Data AcQuisition (DAQ) system for further processing. A demonstrator drawer has been built to evaluate the new proposed readout architecture and prototypes of all the components. In the demonstrator, the detector data received in the Til...

  20. Upgrade of the Laser Calibration System for the ATLAS Hadronic Calorimeter TileCal

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00352208

    2016-01-01

    We present in this contribution the new system for laser calibration of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter TileCal. The laser system is a part of the three stage calibration apparatus designed to compute the calibration constants of the individual cells of TileCal. The laser system is mainly used to correct for short term (one month) drifts of the readout of the individual cells. A sub-percent accuracy in the control of the calibration constants is required to keep the systematics effects introduced by relative cell miscalibration below the irreducible systematics in determining the parameters of the reconstructed hadronic jets. To achieve this goal in the LHC Run 2 conditions, a new laser system was designed. The architecture of the system is described with details on the new optical line used to distribute laser pulses in each individual detector module and on the new electronics used to drive the laser, to readout the system optical monitors and to interface the system with the Atlas readout, trigger, and slow...

  1. Upgrade of the Laser Calibration System for the ATLAS Hadronic Calorimeter TileCal

    CERN Document Server

    Van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    We present in this contribution the new system for laser calibration of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter TileCal. The laser system is a part of the three stage calibration apparatus designed to compute the calibration constants of the individual cells of TileCal. The laser system is mainly used to correct for short term (one month) drifts of the readout of the individual cells. A sub-percent accuracy in the control of the calibration constants is required to keep the systematics effects introduced by relative cell miscalibration below the irreducible systematics in determining the parameters of the reconstructed hadronic jets. To achieve this goal in the LHC run II conditions, a new laser system was designed. The architecture of the system is described with details on the new optical line used to distribute laser pulses in each individual detector module and on the new electronics used to drive the laser, to readout the system optical monitors and to interface the system with the Atlas readout, trigger, and slo...

  2. An engineering prototype of the Imaging Calorimeter for ACCESS (ICA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rielage, K.; Christl, M.; Adams, J.; Binns, W. R.; Fountain, W.; Hink, P.; Howell, L.; Israel, M.; Kippen, R. M.; Lee, J.; Parnell, T.; Watts, J.

    2001-08-01

    The Imaging Calorimeter for ACCESS (Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for Space Station) is one of several proposed concepts for the ACCESS calorimeter instrument designed to measure the spectrum of protons, helium and heavier nuclei up to ~10 15 eV. This design utilizes a carbon target and high atomic number absorber sampled by thin layers of scintillating fibers. An engineering prototype detector was tested at CERN in August 2000 composed of 15 radiation lengths of interaction material with two types of readout: photomultiplier tubes and an image intensified CCD system. An overview of this prototype and its performance will be presented.

  3. The upgrade of the ATLAS first-level calorimeter trigger

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00227035; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The first-level calorimeter trigger (L1Calo) had operated successfully through the first data taking phase of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Toward forthcoming LHC runs, a series of upgrades is planned for L1Calo to face new challenges posed by the upcoming increases of the beam energy and the luminosity. This article reviews the ATLAS L1Calo trigger upgrade project that introduces new architectures for the liquid-argon calorimeter trigger readout and the L1Calo trigger processing system.

  4. Last Few Metres for the Barrel Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Nyman, T.

    On Friday 4th November, the ATLAS Barrel Calorimeter was moved from its assembly point at the side of the ATLAS cavern to the centre of the toroidal magnet system. The detector was finally aligned, to the precision of within a millimetre, on Wednesday 9th November. The ATLAS installation team, led by Tommi Nyman, after having positioned the Barrel Calorimeter in its final location in the ATLAS experimental cavern UX15. The Barrel Calorimeter which will absorb and measure the energy of photons, electrons and hadrons at the core of the ATLAS detector is 8.6 meters in diameter, 6.8 meters long, and weighs over 1600 Tonnes. It consists of two concentric cylindrical detector elements. The innermost comprises aluminium pressure vessels containing the liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter and the solenoid magnet. The outermost is an assembly of 64 hadron tile calorimeter sectors. Assembled 18 meters away from its final position, the Barrel Calorimeter was relocated with the help of a railway, which allows ...

  5. ATLAS: last few metresfor the Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    On Friday 4th November, the ATLAS Barrel Calorimeter was moved from its assembly point at the side of the ATLAS cavern to the centre of the toroidal magnet system. The detector was finally aligned, to the precision of within a millimetre, on Wednesday 9th November. The ATLAS installation team, led by Tommi Nyman, after having positioned the Barrel Calorimeter in its final location in the ATLAS experimental cavern UX15. The Barrel Calorimeter which will absorb and measure the energy of photons, electrons and hadrons at the core of the ATLAS detector is 8.6 meters in diameter, 6.8 meters long, and weighs over 1600 Tonnes. It consists of two concentric cylindrical detector elements. The innermost comprises aluminium pressure vessels containing the liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter and the solenoid magnet. The outermost is an assembly of 64 hadron tile calorimeter sectors. Assembled 18 meters away from its final position, the Barrel Calorimeter was relocated with the help of a railway, which allows the ...

  6. Design of High Dynamic Range Digital to Analog Converters for the Calibration of the CALICE Si-W Ecal readout electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Gallin-Martel, L; Hostachy, J Y; Rarbi, F; Rossetto, O

    2009-01-01

    The ILC ECAL front-end chip will integrate many functions of the readout electronics including a DAC dedicated to calibration. We present two versions of DAC with respectively 12 and 14 bits, designed in a CMOS 0.35μm process. Both are based on segmented arrays of switched capacitors controlled by a Dynamic Element Matching (DEM) algorithm. A full differential architecture is used, and the amplifiers can be turned into a standby mode reducing the power dissipation. The 12 bit DAC features an INL lower than 0.3 LSB at 5MHz, and dissipates less than 7mW. The 14 bit DAC is an improved version of the 12 bit design.

  7. Software studies of GLD calorimeter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The baseline design of the GLD calorimeter is scintillator-strip arrays interleaved with absorber plates. We present preliminary performance studies of the hit clustering with this calorimeter using a simulator. Also, simulation results of a `digital' calorimeter, which is an option of the GLD calorimeter, are presented.

  8. Investigation and optimization of low-frequency noise performance in readout electronics of dc superconducting quantum interference device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Lee, Yong-Ho; Krause, Hans-Joachim

    2014-05-01

    We investigated and optimized the low-frequency noise characteristics of a preamplifier used for readout of direct current superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). When the SQUID output was detected directly using a room-temperature low-voltage-noise preamplifier, the low-frequency noise of a SQUID system was found to be dominated by the input current noise of the preamplifiers in case of a large dynamic resistance of the SQUID. To reduce the current noise of the preamplifier in the low-frequency range, we investigated the dependence of total preamplifier noise on the collector current and source resistance. When the collector current was decreased from 8.4 mA to 3 mA in the preamplifier made of 3 parallel SSM2220 transistor pairs, the low-frequency total voltage noise of the preamplifier (at 0.1 Hz) decreased by about 3 times for a source resistance of 30 Ω whereas the white noise level remained nearly unchanged. Since the relative contribution of preamplifier's input voltage and current noise is different depending on the dynamic resistance or flux-to-voltage transfer of the SQUID, the results showed that the total noise of a SQUID system at low-frequency range can be improved significantly by optimizing the preamplifier circuit parameters, mainly the collector current in case of low-noise bipolar transistor pairs.

  9. Test vehicles for CMS HGCAL readout ASIC

    CERN Document Server

    Thienpont, Damien

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents first measurement results of two test vehicles ASIC embedding some building blocks for the future CMS High Granularity CALorimeter (HGCAL) read-out ASIC. They were fabricated in CMOS 130 nm, in order to first design the Analog and Mixed-Signal blocks before going to a complete and complex chip. Such a circuit needs to achieve low noise high dynamic range charge measurement and 20 ps resolution timing capability. The results show good analog performance but with higher noise levels compared to simulations. We present the results of the preamplifiers, shapers and ADCs.

  10. Study of the performance of a compact sandwich calorimeter for the instrumentation of the very forward region of a future linear collider detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghenescu, V., E-mail: veta.ghenescu@cern.ch [Institute of Space Science, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Benhammou, Y. [Tel Aviv University, TelAviv (Israel)

    2017-02-11

    The FCAL collaboration is preparing large scale prototypes of special calorimeters to be used in the very forward region at a future linear electron positron collider for a precise and fast luminosity measurement and beam-tuning. These calorimeters are designed as sensor-tungsten calorimeters with very thin sensor planes to keep the Moliere radius small and dedicated FE electronics to match the timing and dynamic range requirements. A partially instrumented prototype was investigated in the CERN PS T9 beam in 2014 and at the DESY-II Synchrotron in 2015. It was operated in a mixed particle beam (electrons, muons and hadrons) of 5 GeV from PS facilities and with secondary electrons of 5 GeV energy from DESY-II. The results demonstrated a very good performance of the full readout chain. The high statistics data were used to study the response to different particles, perform sensor alignment and measure the longitudinal shower development in the sandwich. In addition, Geant4 MC simulations were done, and compared to the data.

  11. Scintillator calorimeters for a future linear collider experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartbrich, Oskar

    2016-07-15

    shower start shows considerable differences between physics lists, especially for the higher end of beam energies available in this analysis. Two separate energy reconstruction algorithms are presented in this thesis. The standard reconstruction uses constant weights per sub-detector to reconstruct the primary pion energy. The implementation of a software compensation reconstruction developed for this analysis aims to distinguish electromagnetic sub-shower depositions in hadronic showers by the deposited energy in each hit. The implementation differs from a previous software compensation scheme used within CALICE by forcing less dependencies on the shapes of the optimised weights, increasing the number of free parameters but ultimately resulting in a more stable parameter optimisation. The software compensation reconstruction improves the energy resolution of data events by 10% to 20%. Applying the software compensation weights obtained from simulations to data events yields a similar performance compared to the native data weights, slightly degrading the response linearity while even slightly improving the energy resolution. The calorimeter prototypes used in the testbeam analysis presented in this thesis were built to prove the general feasibility of high granularity scintillator-SiPM calorimeters, which they fully accomplished. To demonstrate the scalability of such calorimeters to the size and requirements of a full-scale particle physics experiment as ILD, second generation prototypes with fully integrated readout electronics are developed within the CALICE collaboration. A toy simulation study performed for this thesis shows that the development of scintillator-SiPM tile systems should target a lightyield of 15 (px)/(MIP) in order to maintain a 95% MIP efficiency even for 2σ outliers, when assuming a hit energy threshold of 0.5 MIP. An efficient method to extract and validate trigger thresholds positions for all cells of the detector system is presented, requiring

  12. Results from ATLAS Calorimeter Combined Test Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Tarrade, F

    2007-01-01

    Beam tests of combinations of ATLAS calorimeters have been performed both for the barrel and end cap parts. During a combined test beam in summer 2004 a slice of the ATLAS barrel detector - including all detector sub systems from the inner tracker, the calorimetry to the muon system - was exposed to particle beams (electrons, pions, photons, muons) with different energies (1GeV to 350GeV). The aim was to study the combined performance of the different detector sub systems in ATLAS-like conditions. We will present the electronics calibration scheme of the electromagnetic calorimeter and its implementation. The following studies on the combined testbeam data have been performed and will be presented: performance of the electromagnetic calorimetry down to very low energies (> GeV), photon reconstruction including converted photons and position measurements using the very precise ATLAS tracker and the electromagnetic calorimeter. These measurements have been compared to Monte Carlo simulations showing the good de...

  13. Performances of the AMS-02 electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Cervelli, F; Lomtadze, T A; Venanzoni, G; Falchini, E; Maestro, P; Marrocchesi, P S; Paoletti, R; Pilo, F; Turini, N; Valle, G D; Coignet, G; Girard, L; Goy, C; Kossakowski, R; Lees-Rosier, S; Vialle, J P; Chen, G; Chen, H; Liu, Z; Lu, Y; Yu, Z; Zhuang, H L

    2002-01-01

    A full-scale prototype of the e.m. calorimeter for the AMS-02 experiment was tested at CERN in October 2001 using 100 GeV pion and electron beams with energy ranging from 3 to 100 GeV. The detector, a lead-scintillating fiber sampling calorimeter about 17 radiation lengths deep, is read out by an array of multianode photomultipliers. The calorimeter's high granularity allows to image the longitudinal and lateral showers development, a key issue to provide high electron /hadron discrimination. From the test beam data, linearity and energy resolution were measured as well as the effective sampling thickness. The latter was extracted from the data by fitting the longitudinal e.m. shower profiles at different energies. (9 refs).

  14. Dedicated front-end and readout electronics developments for real time 3D directional detection of dark matter with MIMAC

    OpenAIRE

    Bourrion, O.; Bosson, G.; Grignon, C.; Richer, J. P.; Guillaudin, O.; Mayet, F.; Billard, J.; Santos, D.

    2011-01-01

    A complete dedicated electronics, from front-end to back-end, was developed to instrument a MIMAC prototype. A front end ASIC able to monitor 64 strips of pixels and to provide their individual "Time Over Threshold" information has been designed. An associated acquisition electronics and a real time track reconstruction software have been developed to monitor a 512 channel prototype. This auto-triggered electronic uses embedded processing to reduce the data transfer to its useful part only, i...

  15. The sROD Module for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase-2 Upgrade Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Carrió, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Castillo, V; Hernández, Y; Higón, E; Fiorini, L; Mellado, B; March, L; Moreno, P; Reed, R; Solans, C; Valero, A; Valls, J

    2013-01-01

    TileCal is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The main upgrade of the LHC to increase the instantaneous luminosity is scheduled for 2022. The High Luminosity LHC, also called upgrade phase-2, will imply a complete redesign of the read-out electronics in TileCal. In the new read-out architecture, the front-end electronics aims to transmit full digitized information to the back-end system in the counting room. Thus, the back-end system will provide digital calibrated information with enhanced precision and granularity to the first level trigger to improve the trigger efficiencies. The demonstrator project has been envisaged to qualify this new proposed architecture. A reduced part of the detector, 1/256 of the total, will be upgraded with the new electronics during 2014 to evaluate the proposed architecture in real conditions.The sROD module is designed on a double mid-size AMC format and will operate under an AdvancedTCA framework. The module includes...

  16. Search for second generation leptoquarks in $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1.8-TeV $p^-$ pbar at CDF and silicon detector readout electronics development with ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kambara, Hisanori [Geneva U.

    1998-02-01

    In this thesis, a search for second generation leptoquark is presented. It is based on the data collected at the Collider Detector at Fermilab with the Tevatron proton-antiproton collisions of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1.8 TeV. A total integrated luminosity of 110 pb-1 collected during runs in 1992-1995 is used. The search was performed on the charged dimuon plus dijet channel. No evidence for existence of leptoquark was found, and a new production cross section limit is set as a result of this analysis. Using the most recent theoretical calculation of pair leptoquark production [1], a new lower mass limit for second generation scalar leptoquark is extracted. The new limit excludes M(LQ2)< 202 GeV/c2. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a proton-proton collider with a center of mass energy ($\\sqrt{s}$) of 14 TeV, is currently under the construction at CERN. It will be utilised to extend the searches for the leptoquarks to higher mass regions. As in CDF, tracking detectors are essential to identify charged leptons decaying from leptoquarks. A silicon strip tracking detector is being developed for the ATLAS experiment. A dense and fast readout system with a good signal to noise ratio and low power consumption are required with high luminosity and short event collision interval (25 ns) expected at the LHC. A description of a prototype front-end micro-electronic chip, the ADAM, for silicon strip detector readout application is presented. Results from a complete laboratory test as well as its performance on a test beam at CERN are reported.

  17. Pixel detector readout chip

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    Close-up of a pixel detector readout chip. The photograph shows an aera of 1 mm x 2 mm containing 12 separate readout channels. The entire chip contains 1000 readout channels (around 80 000 transistors) covering a sensitive area of 8 mm x 5 mm. The chip has been mounted on a silicon detector to detect high energy particles.

  18. BGO* electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    1988-01-01

    * Short for Bismuth-Germanium-Oxyde, a scintillator of high atomic number Z used in electromagnetic crystal calorimeters. BGO is characterized by fast rise time (a few nanoseconds) and short radiation length (1.11 cm).

  19. GSPEL - Calorimeter Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Testing performance claims on heat transfer componentsThe Calorimeter Lab, located in the Ground Systems Power and Energy Lab (GSPEL), is one of the largest in the...

  20. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Hasib, Ahmed; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Producing the very large samples of simulated events required by many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Fast simulation tools are a useful way of reducing CPU requirements when detailed detector simulations are not needed. During the LHC Run-1, a fast calorimeter simulation (FastCaloSim) was successfully used in ATLAS. FastCaloSim provides a simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level, taking into account the detailed particle shower shapes and the correlations between the energy depositions in the various calorimeter layers. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software, and it can be tuned to data more easily than GEANT4. Now an improved version of FastCaloSim is in development, incorporating the experience with the version used during Run-1. The new FastCaloSim makes use of statistical techniques such as principal component analysis, and a neural n...

  1. The New ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Heath, Matthew Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Producing the large samples of simulated events required by many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Fast simulation tools are a useful way of reducing the CPU requirements when detailed detector simulations are not needed. During Run-1 of the LHC, a fast calorimeter simulation (FastCaloSim) was successfully used in ATLAS. FastCaloSim provides a simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level, taking into account the detailed particle shower shapes and the correlations between the energy depositions in the various calorimeter layers. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitisation and reconstruction software, and it can be tuned to data more easily than Geant4. Now an improved version of FastCaloSim is in development, incorporating the experience with the version used during Run-1. The new FastCaloSim aims to overcome some limitations of the first version by improving the description of...

  2. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Green

    The organization of CMS HCAL contains four “geographic” efforts, HB, HO, HE and HF. In addition there are presently five “common” HCAL activities. These ef¬forts are concentrated on electronics, on controls (DCS), on physics objects (JetMet), on Installation and Commissioning (I&C), and on Test Beam (TB) and Cosmic Challenge (MTCC) data taking. HCAL has begun planning to re-organize to be synchronized with the overall CMS management structure. HF The full production of the wedges is completed for some time. The 2004 test beam work has established the radioactive source calibration system for HF works at the 5 % level or better and a note is completed. The calibration of the complete HF is complete. HF is now in the UX cavern and will be hooked up and read out as soon as the services are available. HE The two HE calorimeters are installed and an initial calibration has been established. In the MTCC the HE was read out and muon data was observed. Event b...

  3. Developments for a scintillator tile sampling hadron calorimeter with 'longitudinal' tile configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Bosman, M; Teubert, F; Blaj, C; Boldea, V; Dita, S; Ajaltouni, Z; Badaud, F; Bouhemaid, N; Brette, P; Brossard, M; Chadelas, R; Chevaleyre, J C; Crouau, M; Daudon, F; Dugne, J J; Michel, B; Montarou, G; Muanza, G S; Pallin, D; Says, L P; Vazeille, F; Gildemeister, O; Nessi, M; Poggioli, L; Sonderegger, P; Amorin, A; Ferreira, P; Gomes, A; Henriques, A; Maio, A; Peralta, L; Leitner, M; Suk, M; Kostrikov, M; Kulagin, M; Lapin, V; Protopopov, Y; Solodkov, Alexander A; Zaitsev, A; Hakobian, H

    1993-01-01

    In a scintillation tile calorimeter with wavelength shifting fiber readout significant simplifications of the construction and the assembly are possible if the tiles are oriented "longitudinally", i.e. in r-phi plane for a barrel configuration. For a hybrid calorimeter consisting of a scintillator tile hadron compartment and a sufficiently containing LAr EM compartment, as proposed for the ATLAS detector, good jet resolution is predicted by simulations. The aim of the proposal is to construct a test module and to check the simulation results by test beam measurements. Several component tests and further simulations and engineering studies are needed to optimize the design of a large calorimeter structure.

  4. Front-End Electronics in calorimetry: from LHC to ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De La Taille, Ch.

    2009-09-15

    This report summarizes the electronics developments for liquid argon calorimeter read-out at LHC and the development carried out in the framework of the CALICE collaboration for those of the future linear collider (ILC). It also includes chips designed for multi-anode photomultipliers (MaPMT) used in the OPERA experiment or on ATLAS luminometer, which also find applications in medical imaging. Started in the early 90's, the development for ATLAS calorimetry was extremely challenging in terms of readout speed, radiation tolerance and measurement accuracy. The high speed has required a new approach using current-sensitive preamplifiers instead of charge sensitive ones and the redefinition of noise performance in terms of ENI. The preamplifiers developed at Orsay and the monolithic shapers are described in Chapter 1, including considerations of digital filtering, which was a new technique in our field. Chapter 2 is dedicated to the calibration system, designed and built by Orsay, for which the high performance and accuracy necessitated in-depth studies. The 3. chapter closes the studies for ATLAS with a summary of the detector measurements which had to be carried out on the 200 000 channels in order to understand and model the detector and achieve everywhere the accuracy and uniformity at per-cent level. These developments for ATLAS ended in 2004, although parallel work was also carried out for the NA48 and DO calorimeters which are not detailed here. The next generation of collider will require a new generation of calorimeters, much more granular, referred to as 'imaging calorimetry' with embedded read-out electronics. The ASICs developed for this purpose in the framework of the CALICE collaboration are described in Chapter 4. They integrate all the functionalities of amplification, digitization and read-out making them complex 'System-On-Chip' circuits extremely efficient that find many other applications. A family of 3 chips reads out the

  5. GEM scintillation readout with avalanche photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Conceição, A S; Fernandes, L M P; Monteiro, C M B; Coelho, L C C; Azevedo, C D R; Veloso, J F C A; Lopesac, J A M; dos Santosa, J M F

    2007-01-01

    The use of the scintillation produced in the charge avalanches in GEM holes as signal amplification and readout is investigated for xenon. A VUV-sensitive avalanche photodiode has been used as photosensor. Detector gains of about 4 × 104 are achieved in scintillation readout mode, for GEM voltages of 490 V and for a photosensor gain of 150. Those gains are more than one order of magnitude larger than what is obtained using charge readout. In addition, the energy resolutions achieved with the scintillation readout are lower than those achieved with charge readout. The GEM scintillation yield in xenon was measured as a function of GEM voltage, presenting values that are about a half of those achieved for the charge yield, and reach about 730 photons per primary electron at GEM voltages of 490 V.

  6. Physics with the CMS forward CASTOR calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Katkov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    The design of the calorimeter is determined by space constraints inside a shield for radiation and for magnetic field and restricted to materials which tolerate a high radiation level. The calorimeter surrounds the beam pipe as a very compact sampling structure of tungsten and quartz plates with a depth of 10 hadronic interaction lengths. The granularity of 16 transversal segments and 14 longitudinal sections allows to reconstruct shower profiles, to separate electron sand photons from hadrons and to search for phenomena with anomalous hadronic energy depositions as expected from exotica. Performance as measured in test beams, first operation experience and first measurements in the very forward region of CMS will be presented.

  7. Rad Hard Active Media For Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Norbeck, E; Möller, A; Onel, Y

    2006-01-01

    Zero-degree calorimeters have limited space and extreme levels of radiation. A simple, low cost, radiation hard design uses tungstenmetal as the absorber and a suitable liquid as the ˇCerenkov radiator. In other applications a PPAC (Parallel Plate Avalanche Counter) operatingwith a suitable atmosphericpressure gas is an attractive active material for a calorimeter. It can be made radiation hard and has sufficient gain in the gas that no electronic components are needed near the detector. It works well even with the highest concentration of shower particles. For this pressure range, R134A (used in auto air conditioners) has many desirable features.

  8. LHCb Calorimeter modules arrive at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Two of the three components of the LHCb Calorimeter system have started to arrive from Russia. Members of the LHCb Calorimeter group with the ECAL and HCAL modules that have just arrived at CERN. The first two of the 56 Hadron Calorimeter (HCAL) modules and 1200 of the 3300 modules of the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) have reached CERN from Russia. The third part of the system, the Preshower detector, is still being prepared in Russia. The calorimeter system identifies and triggers on high-energy particles, namely electrons, hadrons and photons by measuring their positions and energies. The HCAL is going to be a pure trigger device. The ECAL will also be used in the triggering, but in addition it will reconstruct neutral pions and photons from B meson decays. One of the major aims of the LHCb experiment is to study CP violation through B meson decays including Bs mesons with high statistics in different decay modes. CP violation (violation of charge and parity) is necessary to explain why the Universe...

  9. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bartos, Pavol; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter have been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations o...

  10. LHCb: Study of a solution with COTS for the LHCb calorimeter upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Abellan Beteta, C

    2011-01-01

    Since the end of the commissioning of LHCb in 2009 the detector has proven to work nicely even in high pile-up conditions and by the end of 2010 nominal instantaneous luminosity was reached. Data taking is expected to continue for 5 more years, aiming to accumulate an integrated luminosity of 5fb-1. Even if new physics is discovered at that time, it will be difficult to characterize it and it would be more profitable to upgrade the detector. The foreseen long shutdown offers an opportunity to upgrade the detector . As expressed in the Letter of Intend for the LHCb upgrade [1] the main objective of this enhancement is to have a 40MHz readout electronics to allow the use of a more flexible and efficient software-based triggering system. Moreover, after the shutdown, the instantaneous luminosity at the LHCb interaction point is expected to be multiplied by 5. From the point of view of the LHCb calorimeter changing the readout implies a change of the electronic boards. Also because of the luminosity increase and ...

  11. Performance of the CMS Regional Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Klabbers, P; Dasu, S; Efron, J; Fobes, R; Gorski, T; Grogg, K; Grothe, M; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Weinberg, M

    2009-01-01

    The CMS Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) receives eight-bit energies and a data quality bit from the HCAL and ECAL Trigger Primitive Generators (TPGs). The RCT uses these trigger primitives to find e/γ candidates and calculate regional calorimeter sums that are sent to the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) for sorting and further processing. The RCT hardware consists of one clock distribution crate and 18 double-sided crates containing custom boards, ASICs, and backplanes. The RCT electronics have been completely installed since 2007. The RCT has been integrated into the CMS Level-1 Trigger chain. Regular runs, triggering on cosmic rays, prepare the CMS detector for the restart of the LHC. During this running, the RCT control is handled centrally by CMS Run Control and Monitor System communicating with the Trigger Supervisor. Online Data Quality Monitoring (DQM) evaluates the performance of the RCT during these runs. Offline DQM allows more detailed studies, including trigger efficiencies. These and other r...

  12. Calibration systems of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Lundberg, O; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    TileCal is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. This sampling calorimeter uses iron plates as absorber and plastic scintillating tiles as the active material. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from the over 10000 PMTs are measured and digitized before being transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. A multi-faceted calibration system allows to monitor and equalize the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scintillation light to digitization. This calibration system is based on signal generation from different sources: a Cs radioactive source, laser light, charge injection and minimum bias events produced in proton-proton collisions. This talk presents a brief description of the different TileCal calibration systems and presents the latest results on their performance in terms of calibration factors...

  13. Tile/hadronic Calorimeter design viewed from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Santoni, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the barrel hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is a sampling calorimeter using plastic scintillator as the active material and iron as the absorber. In the barrel part of ATLAS, together with the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter, TileCal provides precise measurements of hadrons, jets, taus and the missing transverse energy. To understand the detail of the response of the detector, 11% of the 192 calorimeter modules were exposed to test beams of electrons, muons, and hadrons. Results were also obtained in the experimental hall using random triggers, calibration data and data from muons, isolated pions, and inclusive p-p events. This talk gives an overview of the TileCal performance.

  14. Integrated Circuit Readout for the Silicon Sensor Test Station

    OpenAIRE

    Atkin, E; Kluev, A.; Silaev, A.; Fedenko, A.; Karmanov, D.; Merkin, M.(Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia); Voronin, A.

    2009-01-01

    Various chips for the silicon sensors measurements are described. These chips are based on 0.35 um and 0.18um CMOS technology. Several analog chips together with self-trigger /derandomizer one allow to measure silicon sensors designed for different purposes. Tracking systems, calorimeters, particle charge measurement system and other application sensors can be investigated by the integrated circuit readout with laser or radioactive sources. Also electrical parameters of silicon sensors can be...

  15. ATLAS - End-Cap calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Unit

    2006-01-01

    The End-cap calorimeter was moved with the help of the rails and this calorimeter will measure the energy of particles close to the beam axis when protons collide. Cooling is important for maximum detector efficiency.

  16. Production Test Rig for the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger Digital Processors

    CERN Document Server

    Mahout, Gilles; Andrei, V; Bauss, B; Barnett, B M; Bohm, C; Booth, J R A; Brawn, I P; Charlton, D G; Curtis, C J; Davis, A O; Edwards, J; Eisenhandler, E F; Faulkner, P J W; Föhlisch, F; Gee, C N P; Geweniger, C; Gillman, A R; Hanke, P; Hellman, S; Hidvégi, A; Hillier, S J; Kluge, E E; Landon, M; Mahboubi, K; Meier, K; Perera, V J O; Qian, W; Rieke, S; Rühr, F; Sankey, D P C; Staley, R J; Schäfer, U; Schmitt, K; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Silverstein, S; Stamen, R; Tapprogge, S; Thomas, J P; Trefzger, T; Typaldos, D; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; Weber, P; Woerling, E E

    2007-01-01

    The Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger is a digital pipelined system, reducing the 40 MHz bunch-crossing rate down to 75 kHz. It consists of a Preprocessor, a Cluster Processor (CP), and a Jet/Energy-sum Processor (JEP). The CP and JEP receive digitised trigger-tower data from the Preprocessor and produce electron/photon, tau, and jet trigger multiplicities, total and missing transverse energies, and Region-of-Interest (RoI) information. Data are read out to the data acquisition (DAQ) system to monitor the trigger by using readout driver modules (ROD). A dedicated backplane has been designed to cope with the demanding requirements of the CP and JEP sub-systems. A number of pre-production boards were manufactured in order to fully populate a crate and test the robustness of the design on a large scale. Dedicated test modules to emulate digitised calorimeter signals have been used. All modules, cables and backplanes on test are final versions for use at the LHC. This test rig represents up to one third of the Level-1 ...

  17. arXiv Single-electron and single-photon sensitivity with a silicon Skipper CCD

    CERN Document Server

    Tiffenberg, Javier; Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Essig, Rouven; Guardincerri, Yann; Holland, Steve; Volansky, Tomer; Yu, Tien-Tien

    2017-09-26

    We have developed ultralow-noise electronics in combination with repetitive, nondestructive readout of a thick, fully depleted charge-coupled device (CCD) to achieve an unprecedented noise level of 0.068  e- rms/pixel. This is the first time that discrete subelectron readout noise has been achieved reproducible over millions of pixels on a stable, large-area detector. This enables the contemporaneous, discrete, and quantized measurement of charge in pixels, irrespective of whether they contain zero electrons or thousands of electrons. Thus, the resulting CCD detector is an ultra-sensitive calorimeter. It is also capable of counting single photons in the optical and near-infrared regime. Implementing this innovative non-destructive readout system has a negligible impact on CCD design and fabrication, and there are nearly immediate scientific applications. As a particle detector, this CCD will have unprecedented sensitivity to low-mass dark matter particles and coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering, while ...

  18. The ATLAS Tile Hadronic Calorimeter performance at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Francavilla, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal), the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment, is a key detector component to detect hadrons, jets and taus and to measure the missing transverse energy. Due to the very good muon signal to noise ratio it assists the spectrometer in the identi cation and reconstruction of muons. TileCal is built of steel and scintillating tiles coupled to optical bers and read out by photomultipliers. The calorimeter is equipped with systems that allow to monitor and to calibrate each stage of the read-out system exploiting di erent signal sources: laser light, charge injection, a radioactive source and the signal produced by minimum bias events. The performance of the calorimeter has been measured and monitored using calibration data, random triggered data, cosmic muons, splash events and most importantly the large sample of pp collision events. Results are discussed that demonstrate how the calorimeter is operated, how is monitored and what performance has been obtai...

  19. The ATLAS Tile Hadronic Calorimeter performance at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Francavilla, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal), the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment, is a key detector component to detect hadrons, jets and taus and to measure the missing transverse energy. Due to the very good muon signal to noise ratio it assists the spectrometer in the identification and reconstruction of muons. TileCal is built of steel and scintillating tiles coupled to optical fibers and read out by photomultipliers. The calorimeter is equipped with systems that allow to monitor and to calibrate each stage of the read-out system exploiting different signal sources: laser light, charge injection, a radioactive source and the signal produced by minimum bias events. The performance of the calorimeter has been measured and monitored using calibration data, random triggered data, cosmic muons, splash events and most importantly the large sample of pp collision events. Results are discussed that demostrate how the calorimeter is operated, how is monitored and what performance has been ob...

  20. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    Philippe Bloch

    ECAL Barrel (EB) Great progress has been achieved during the last few months on Barrel commissioning. All 36 supermodules have been run concurrently during the CRUZET in early May. The EB readout has reached the expected performance and is included regularly with central DAQ.  ECAL has been used as a source of triggers during cosmic runs. ECAL Endcaps (EE) Important milestones have been recently achieved: The Endcaps crystal production was completed in mid March. The gluing of the VPTs (Vacuum Photo Triodes) on the crystals, the assembly of Supercrystals (a set of 25 crystals) and their mounting on the Dee backplates (including the connection of the laser monitoring fibers) were finished during May. The mechanical assembly of the four endcap Dees is therefore completed. The assembly of the services and electronics on the backside of the Dees’ back-plates is also proceeding at a fast speed. The laying of the high voltage cables, the inner moderator, the optical fibers for the LED stabilit...

  1. ALICE Zero Degree Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    De Marco, N

    2013-01-01

    Two identical sets of calorimeters are located on both sides with respect to the beam Interaction Point (IP), 112.5 m away from it. Each set of detectors consists of a neutron (ZN) and a proton (ZP) Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC), positioned on remotely controlled platforms. The ZN is placed at zero degree with respect to the LHC beam axis, between the two beam pipes, while the ZP is positioned externally to the outgoing beam pipe. The spectator protons are separated from the ion beams by means of the dipole magnet D1.

  2. LHCb: First year of running for the LHCb calorimeter system

    CERN Multimedia

    Guz, Y

    2011-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is dedicated to precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of B hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva) [1, 2]. LHCb is a single-arm spectrometer with a forward angular coverage from approximately 10 mrad to 300 mrad. It comprises a calorimeter system composed of four subdetectors [3]. It selects transverse energy hadron, electron and photon candidates for the first trigger level (L0), which makes a decision 4µs after the interaction. It provides the identification of electrons, photons and hadrons as well as the measurement of their energies and positions. The set of constraints resulting from these functionalities defines the general structure and the main characteristics of the calorimeter system and its associated electronics. A classical structure of an electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) followed by a hadron calorimeter (HCAL) has been adopted. In addition the system includes in front of them the Scintillating Pad Detector (SPD) and Pre-Showe...

  3. Development and characterization of diamond and 3D-silicon pixel detectors with ATLAS-pixel readout electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathes, Markus

    2008-12-15

    Hybrid pixel detectors are used for particle tracking in the innermost layers of current high energy experiments like ATLAS. After the proposed luminosity upgrade of the LHC, they will have to survive very high radiation fluences of up to 10{sup 16} particles per cm{sup 2} per life time. New sensor concepts and materials are required, which promise to be more radiation tolerant than the currently used planar silicon sensors. Most prominent candidates are so-called 3D-silicon and single crystal or poly-crystalline diamond sensors. Using the ATLAS pixel electronics different detector prototypes with a pixel geometry of 400 x 50 {mu}m{sup 2} have been built. In particular three devices have been studied in detail: a 3D-silicon and a single crystal diamond detector with an active area of about 1 cm{sup 2} and a poly-crystalline diamond detector of the same size as a current ATLAS pixel detector module (2 x 6 cm{sup 2}). To characterize the devices regarding their particle detection efficiency and spatial resolution, the charge collection inside a pixel cell as well as the charge sharing between adjacent pixels was studied using a high energy particle beam. (orig.)

  4. Development and Characterization of Diamond and 3D-Silicon Pixel Detectors with ATLAS-Pixel Readout Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathes, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors are used for particle tracking in the innermost layers of current high energy experiments like ATLAS. After the proposed luminosity upgrade of the LHC, they will have to survive very high radiation fluences of up to 10^16 particles per cm^2 per life time. New sensor concepts and materials are required, which promise to be more radiation tolerant than the currently used planar silicon sensors. Most prominent candidates are so-called 3D-silicon and single crystal or poly-crystalline diamond sensors. Using the ATLAS pixel electronics different detector prototypes with a pixel geometry of 400 × 50 um^2 have been built. In particular three devices have been studied in detail: a 3D-silicon and a single crystal diamond detector with an active area of about 1 cm^2 and a poly-crystalline diamond detector of the same size as a current ATLAS pixel detector module (2 × 6 cm^2). To characterize the devices regarding their particle detection efficiency and spatial resolution, the charge collection ...

  5. Proton Collision Event with 2 Electrons & 2 Muons (Actual Event) An animation of an actual ATLAS proton collision event in 2011. The two muons are detailed as long blue tracks, the two electrons as short blue tracks matching green clusters of energy in the calorimeters which lie outside the inner tracking detector. source: http://www.atlas.ch/multimedia/2-electron-2-muon-event.html

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Experiment

    2011-01-01

    Proton Collision Event with 2 Electrons & 2 Muons (Actual Event) An animation of an actual ATLAS proton collision event in 2011. The two muons are detailed as long blue tracks, the two electrons as short blue tracks matching green clusters of energy in the calorimeters which lie outside the inner tracking detector. source: http://www.atlas.ch/multimedia/2-electron-2-muon-event.html

  6. The ATLAS TileCal Read-Out Drivers Signal Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Valero, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    TileCal is the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC collider at CERN. The Read-Out Drivers (ROD) are the core of the off-detector electronics. The main components of the RODs are the Digital Signal Processor (DSP) placed on the Processing Unit (PU) dautherboards. This paper describes the DSP code and its performance with calibration and real data. The code is divided into two different parts: the first part contains the core functionalities and the second one the reconstruction algorithms. The core acts as an operating system and it controls the configuration, the data reception, transmission, online monitoring and the synchronization between front-end data and the Trigger information. The reconstruction algorithms implemented on the DSP are the Optimal Filtering (OF), Muon Tagging (MTag) and Missing ET (MET) calculation. The OF algorithm reconstructs the deposited energy and the arrival time of the data on every calorimeter cell within a front-end module. This reconstructed energy is used ...

  7. The ATLAS TileCal Read-Out Drivers Signal Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Valero, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    TileCal is the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC collider at CERN. The Read-Out Drivers (ROD) are the core of the off-detector electronics. The main components of the RODs are the Digital Signal Processor (DSP) placed on the Processing Unit (PU) dautherboards. This paper describes the DSP code and its performance with calibration and real data. The code is divided into two different parts: the first part contains the core functionalities and the second one the reconstruction algorithms. The core acts as an operating system and it controls the configuration, the data reception, transmission, online monitoring and the synchronization between front-end data and the Trigger information. The reconstruction algorithms implemented on the DSP are the Optimal Filtering (OF), Muon Tagging (MTag) and Total Transverse Energy (ET) calculation. The OF algorithm reconstructs the deposited energy and the arrival time of the data on every calorimeter cell within a front-end module. This reconstructed ene...

  8. The upgraded calibration system for the scintillator-PMT Tile Hadronic Calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at CERN/LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Dhiman; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy in highest energy proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) located on the outside of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each read out by two PMTs in parallel. A multi-component calibration system is employed to calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during data taking. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser and charge injection elements and it allows to monitor and ...

  9. The Upgraded Calibration System for the Scintillator-PMT Tile Hadronic Calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at CERN/LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Dhiman; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy in highest energy proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) located on the outside of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each read out by two PMTs in parallel. A multi-component calibration system is employed to calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during data taking. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser and charge injection elements and it allows to monitor and ...

  10. The ATLAS tile calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Louis Rose-Dulcina, a technician from the ATLAS collaboration, works on the ATLAS tile calorimeter. Special manufacturing techniques were developed to mass produce the thousands of elements in this detector. Tile detectors are made in a sandwich-like structure where these scintillator tiles are placed between metal sheets.

  11. Precision calibration of the NuTeV calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. A.; Yu, J.; Adams, T.; Alton, A.; Avvakumov, S.; de Barbaro, L.; de Barbaro, P.; Bernstein, R. H.; Bodek, A.; Bolton, T.; Brau, J.; Buchholz, D.; Budd, H.; Bugel, L.; Conrad, J.; Drucker, R. B.; Fleming, B. T.; Frey, R.; Formaggio, J.; Goldman, J.; Goncharov, M.; Johnson, R. A.; Kim, J. H.; Koutsoliotas, S.; Krishnaswami, G.; Lamm, M. J.; Marsh, W.; Mason, D.; McNulty, C.; McFarland, K. S.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Romosan, A.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Schellman, H.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Spentzouris, P.; Stern, E. G.; Vaitaitis, A.; Vakili, M.; Van Ark, E.; Wu, V.; Yang, U. K.; Zeller, G. P.; NuTeV Collaboration

    2000-06-01

    NuTeV is a neutrino-nucleon deep-inelastic scattering experiment at Fermilab. The detector consists of an iron-scintillator sampling calorimeter interspersed with drift chambers, followed by a muon toroidal spectrometer. We present determinations of response and resolution functions of the NuTeV calorimeter for electrons, hadrons, and muons over an energy range from 4.8 to 190 GeV. The absolute hadronic energy scale is determined to an accuracy of 0.43%. We compare our measurements to predictions from calorimeter theory and GEANT3 simulations.

  12. Precision calibration of the NuTeV calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, D.A. E-mail: dharris@fnal.gov; Yu, J.; Adams, T.; Alton, A.; Avvakumov, S.; Barbaro, L. de; Barbaro, P. de; Bernstein, R.H.; Bodek, A.; Bolton, T.; Brau, J.; Buchholz, D.; Budd, H.; Bugel, L.; Conrad, J.; Drucker, R.B.; Fleming, B.T.; Frey, R.; Formaggio, J.; Goldman, J.; Goncharov, M.; Johnson, R.A.; Kim, J.H.; Koutsoliotas, S.; Krishnaswami, G.; Lamm, M.J.; Marsh, W.; Mason, D.; McNulty, C.; McFarland, K.S.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Romosan, A.; Sakumoto, W.K.; Schellman, H.; Shaevitz, M.H.; Spentzouris, P.; Stern, E.G.; Vaitaitis, A.; Vakili, M.; Ark, E. Van; Wu, V.; Yang, U.K.; Zeller, G.P

    2000-06-11

    NuTeV is a neutrino-nucleon deep-inelastic scattering experiment at Fermilab. The detector consists of an iron-scintillator sampling calorimeter interspersed with drift chambers, followed by a muon toroidal spectrometer. We present determinations of response and resolution functions of the NuTeV calorimeter for electrons, hadrons, and muons over an energy range from 4.8 to 190 GeV. The absolute hadronic energy scale is determined to an accuracy of 0.43%. We compare our measurements to predictions from calorimeter theory and GEANT3 simulations.

  13. Test beam results from the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Brunelière, R

    2004-01-01

    A precision lead tungstate crystal calorimeter is being constructed by the CMS collaboration. As a key part of the future CMS detector at the LHC, the electromagnetic calorimeter will play a major role in probing electroweak symmetry-breaking and searches for new physics. In order to check that the required performance of the electromagnetic calorimeter is attainable, every prototype is tested in real conditions within a beam of particles. In 2003 two modules of the electromagnetic calorimeter featuring the final mechanical design and electronic architecture have been tested with two different versions of the front-end electronics. In this paper a review of the main results of test beam campaigns in 2002 and 2003 are given. (7 refs).

  14. Upgrade plans for the Hadronic-Endcap Calorimeter of ATLAS for the high luminosity stage of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadov, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Cheplakov, A; Dominguez, R; Fischer, A; Habring, J; Hambarzumjan, A; Javadov, N; Kiryunin, A; Kurchaninov, L; Menke, S; Molinas Conde, I; Nagel, M; Oberlack, H; Reimann, O; Schacht, P; Strizenec, P; Vogt, S; Wichmann, G; Cadabeschi, Mircea Ioan; Langstaff, Reginald Roy; Lenckowski, Mark Stanley

    2015-01-01

    The expected increase of the instantaneous luminosity of a factor seven and of the total integrated luminosity by a factor 3-5 at the second phase of the upgraded high luminosity LHC compared to the design goals for LHC makes it necessary to re-evaluate the radiation hardness of the read-out electronics of the ATLAS Hadronic Endcap Calorimeter. The current cold electronics made of GaAs ASICs have been tested with neutron and proton beams to study their degradation under irradiation and the effect it would have on the ATLAS physics programme. New, more radiation hard technologies which could replace the current amplifiers have been studied as well: SiGe bipolar, Si CMOS FET and GaAs FET transistors have been irradiated with neutrons and protons with fluences up to ten times the total expected fluences for ten years of running of the high luminosity LHC. The performance measurements of the current read-out electronics and potential future technologies and expected performance degradations under high luminosity ...

  15. Studies on sampling and homogeneous dual readout calorimetry with meta-crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Mavromanolakis, G; Lecoq, P

    2011-01-01

    The meta-crystals concept is an approach that consists of using both undoped and properly doped heavy crystal fibers of identical material as the active medium of a calorimeter. The undoped fibers behave as Cherenkov radiators while the doped ones behave as scintillators. A dual readout calorimeter can be built with its sensitive volume composed of a mixture of both types of crystals. In addition if the calorimeter is adequately finely segmented it can also function as a particle flow calorimeter at the same time. In this way one could possibly combine the advantages of both the particle flow concept and the dual readout scheme. We discuss the approach of dual readout calorimetry with meta-crystals made of Lutetium Aluminium Garnet (LuAG). We brie fly present studies on the material development and first testbeam activities and then focus on performance expectation studies based on simulation. We discuss in more detail the results from generic systematic scannings of the design parameters of a dual readout ca...

  16. An updated front-end data link design for the Phase-2 upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Silverstein, Samuel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We present a new design of the advanced Link Daughter Board (DB) for the front-end electronics upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) for Phase-II. The new TileCal front-end comprises 1024 “mini-drawers” (MD) installed in 256 calorimeter modules. Each MD serves up to 12 PMT channels, with ADCs and calibration provided by one “main board” (MB) per MD. The DB is connected to the MB through a dense, high-speed FMC connector, and provides bi-directional multi-Gb/s optlcal links to the off-detector electronics for timing, control, and continuous high-speed readout of the ADC channels on the MB. The DB is designed for redundancy and fault-tolerance, and previous versions have already been successfully tested at CERN and elsewhere. The new revision includes Kintex Ultrascale+ FPGAs for improved link timing and radiation tolerance, an expanded role for the rad-tolerant GBTx ASICs, and a simpler design requiring fewer components and optical links.

  17. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Mlynarikova, Michaela; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations of the LHC. Prompt isolated muons of high momentum fro...

  18. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Mlynarikova, Michaela; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations of the LHC. Prompt isolated muons of high momentum from elec...

  19. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00383643; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central scintillator-steel sampling hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Jointly with other calorimeters it is designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sample of the proton-proton collisions. The response of high momentum isolated muons is used to study the energy response at the electromagnetic scale, isolated hadr...

  20. The Cms Ecal Readout Architecture and the Clock and Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetta, R.; Gastal, M.; Hansen, M.; Kloukinas, K.; Ljuslin, C.; Marchioro, A.; Nash, J.; Sharp, P.; Hall, G.; Raymond, M.; Crooks, J.; French, M.; Dejardin, M.; Faure, J. L.; Djambazov, L.; Lusterman, W.

    2005-02-01

    This paper gives an overview of the readout and control system for the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) with emphasis on the newly developed ASIC chipset for the front end electronics and the off detector clock and control system. A newly developed ASIC chipset for the front-end electronics using a 0.25 μm radiation tolerant CMOS technology made feasible the implementation of a significant amount of functionality on the detector electronics and helped in keeping the optical fiber count between the front-end and the off-detector electronics at an acceptable level. A Multi-Gain Pre-Amplifier ASIC (MGPA) and a 12-bit, 40MSPS, quad channel ADC have been developed using an architecture of multiple gain ranges that spans the overall required dynamic range. A multifunctional digital ASIC, named FENIX, implements all the necessary DSP functionality needed for the generation of the Trigger Primitives, as well as the functionality needed for the event readout, namely the digital pipelines and the primary event buffers. For the off-detector electronics a set of VME boards have been developed. The Trigger Concentrator Card (TCC) that collects the front end trigger primitives, the Data Concentrator Card (DCC) that receives the crystal data and the Clock and Control System board (CCS) that distributes the fast timing signals to all parts of the system and provides a bidirectional communication path with the front-end electronics for slow control operation. The functionality and the implementation of the CCS board are described in detail.

  1. Performance and Operation of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; 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Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    The operation and general performance of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter using cosmic-ray muons are described. These muons were recorded after the closure of the CMS detector in late 2008. The calorimeter is made of lead tungstate crystals and the overall status of the 75848 channels corresponding to the barrel and endcap detectors is reported. The stability of crucial operational parameters, such as high voltage, temperature and electronic noise, is summarised and the performance of the light monitoring system is presented.

  2. The CMS PbWO4 Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Lethuillier, M

    2003-01-01

    CMS; The electromagnetic calorimeter under construction for the CMS experiment at LHC will be the largest crystal calorimeter ever built. The very fast and precise energy measurement of electrons and photons is based upon 76000 lead tungstate crystals read by avalanche photodiodes (APD) in the central barrel region and vacuum phototriodes (VPT) in the endcap regions. The major challenges to be faced are the ability to operate in a strong magnetic field of 4T and under unprecedented radiation ...

  3. Probing the material in front of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter with energy flow from sqrt(s)=7 TeV minimum bias events

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    In early April 2010, ATLAS collected several million of minimum bias events at a center of mass energy of 7 TeV. Counting the number of energy deposits above 5 times the measured electronic noise in all electromagnetic calorimeter cells allows a channel by channel check of the response to physics. A readout cabling inversion and a high voltage cable swap, affecting 0.4% of the total number of cells in the region |eta|<2.5, were identified and corrected. The method is also sensitive to the total amount of material in front of the calorimeter, complementing other analyses which are only sensitive to the tracker material. The amount of material of the inner detector services running at constant phi in front of the barrel calorimeter, representing ~0.2 X0, is found in good agreement between data and simulations. Up to 1 X0 lack of material in the ATLAS description has been observed in the localised regions close to the rails supporting the inner detector, which can be fed into new Monte Carlo geometry.

  4. Construction and Performance of an Iron-Scintillator Hadron Calorimeter with Longitudinal Tile Configuration

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD34 \\\\ \\\\ In a scintillator tile calorimeter with wavelength shifting fiber readout significant simplifications of the construction and the assembly are possible if the tiles are oriented $^{\\prime\\prime}$longitudinally$^{\\prime\\prime}$, i.e.~in a r-$\\phi$ planes for a barrel configuration. For a hybrid calorimeter consisting of a scintillator tile hadron compartment and a sufficiently containing liquid argon electromagnetic (EM) compartment, as proposed for the ATLAS detector, good jet resolution is predicted by simulations, which is not affected by this particular orientation of the tiles. \\\\ \\\\The aim of the proposed development program is to construct a calorimeter test module with longitudinal tiles and to check the simulation results by test beam measurements. In addition several component tests and further simulations and engineering studies are needed to optimize the design of a large calorimeter structure to be used in collider experiments. The construction of a test module will also provide valua...

  5. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter performance at LHC in pp collisions at 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolucci, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal), the central section of the % hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS % experiment, is a key detector component % to detect hadrons, jets and taus and to % measure the missing transverse energy. % Due to the very good muon signal to noise % ratio it assists the muon % spectrometer in the identification and reconstruction % of muons. ewline %%%% TileCal is built of steel and % scintillating tiles coupled to optical fibers % and read out by photomultipliers. The calorimeter % is equipped with systems that allow to % monitor and to calibrate each stage of the % read-out system exploiting different signal % sources: laser light, charge injection and a radioactive % source. It also uses the Minimum Bias % current integrated over thousands % of LHC collisions to monitor the response % stability and the LHC luminosity.\\ %%%%% The performance of the calorimeter has % been measured and monitored using % calibration data, random triggered data, cosmic % muons, splash events and more importantly...

  6. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter performance at LHC in pp collisions at 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolucci, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal), the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment, is a key detector component to detect hadrons, jets and taus and to measure the missing transverse energy. Due to the very good muon signal to noise ratio it assists the muon spectrometer in the identification and reconstruction of muons. TileCal is built of steel and scintillating tiles coupled to optical fibers and read out by photomultipliers. The calorimeter is equipped with systems that allow to monitor and to calibrate each stage of the read-out system exploiting different signal sources: laser light, charge injection and a radioactive source. It also uses the minimus bias current integrated over thousands of LHC collisions to monitor the response stability and the LHC luminosity. The performance of the calorimeter has been measured and monitored using calibration data, random triggered data, cosmic muons, splash events and more importantly LHC collision events. The results presented assess the absol...

  7. Secondary Emission Calorimeter (SEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, J. J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Northrop, Richard [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Frisch, Henry [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Elagin, Andrey [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Ronzhin, Anatoly [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ramberg, Erik [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Spiropulu, Maria [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Apresyan, Artur [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Xie, Si [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2014-06-25

    This is a technical scope of work (TSW) between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) the experimenters of University of Chicago and California Institute of Technology, who have committed to participate in beam tests to be carried out during the 2014-2015 Fermilab Test Beam Facility program. The TSW is intended primarily for the purpose of recording expectations for budget estimates and work allocations. The experimenters propose using large-area micro-channel plates assembled without the usual bialkali photocathodes as the active element in sampling calorimeters, Modules without photocathodes can be economically assembled in a glove box and then pumped and sealed using the process to construct photomultipliers, This electromagnetic calorimeter is based on W and Pb absorber plates sandwiched with detectors. Measurements can be made with bare plates and absorber inside the vacuum vessel.

  8. Physics with calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretzl, Klaus

    2009-04-01

    Calorimeters played an essential role in the discoveries of new physics, for example neutral currents (Gargamelle), quark and gluon jets (SPEAR, UA2, UA1 and PETRA), W and Z bosons (UA1, UA2), top quark (CDF, D0) and neutrino oscillations (SUPER-KAMIOKANDE, SNO). A large variety of different calorimeters have been developed covering an energy range between several and 1020 eV. This article tries to demonstrate on a few selected examples, such as the early jet searches in hadron-hadron collisions, direct dark matter searches, neutrino-less double beta decay and direct neutrino mass measurements, how the development of these devices has allowed to explore new frontiers in physics.

  9. The ATLAS Electromagnetic Calorimeter Calibration Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    Hong Ma; Isabelle Wingerter

    The ATLAS Electromagnetic Calorimeter Calibration Workshop took place at LAPP-Annecy from the 1st to the 3rd of October; 45 people attended the workshop. A detailed program was setup before the workshop. The agenda was organised around very focused presentations where questions were raised to allow arguments to be exchanged and answers to be proposed. The main topics were: Electronics calibration Handling of problematic channels Cluster level corrections for electrons and photons Absolute energy scale Streams for calibration samples Calibration constants processing Learning from commissioning Forty-five people attended the workshop. The workshop was on the whole lively and fruitful. Based on years of experience with test beam analysis and Monte Carlo simulation, and the recent operation of the detector in the commissioning, the methods to calibrate the electromagnetic calorimeter are well known. Some of the procedures are being exercised in the commisssioning, which have demonstrated the c...

  10. LHCb : First years of running for the LHCb calorimeter system and preparation for run 2

    CERN Multimedia

    Chefdeville, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is dedicated to precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of B hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva). It comprises a calorimeter system composed of four subdetectors: a Scintillating Pad Detector (SPD) and a Pre-Shower detector (PS) in front of an electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) which is followed by a hadron calorimeter (HCAL). They are used to select transverse energy hadron, electron and photon candidates for the first trigger level and they provides the identification of electrons, photons and hadrons as well as the measurement of their energies and positions. The calorimeter has been pre-calibrated before its installation in the pit. The calibration techniques have been tested with data taken in 2010 and used regularly during run 1. For run 2, new calibration methods have been devised to follow and correct online the calorimeter detector response. The design and construction characteristics of the LHCb calorimeter will be recalled. Strategies for...

  11. Readout Architecture for Hybrid Pixel Readout Chips

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)694170; Westerlund, Tomi; Wyllie, Ken

    The original contribution of this thesis to knowledge are novel digital readout architectures for hybrid pixel readout chips. The thesis presents asynchronous bus-based architecture, a data-node based column architecture and a network-based pixel matrix architecture for data transportation. It is shown that the data-node architecture achieves readout efficiency 99 % with half the output rate as a bus-based system. The network-based solution avoids ``broken'' columns due to some manufacturing errors, and it distributes internal data traffic more evenly across the pixel matrix than column-based architectures. An improvement of $>$ 10 % to the efficiency is achieved with uniform and non-uniform hit occupancies. Architectural design has been done using transaction level modeling ($TLM$) and sequential high-level design techniques for reducing the design and simulation time. It has been possible to simulate tens of column and full chip architectures using the high-level techniques. A decrease of $>$ 10 in run-time...

  12. The CMS High Granularity Calorimeter for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mastrolorenzo, Luca

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will integrate 10 times more luminosity than the LHC, posing significant challenges for radiation tolerance and event pileup on detectors, especially for forward calorimetry, and hallmarks the issue for future colliders. As part of its HL-LHC upgrade program, the CMS collaboration is designing a High Granularity Calorimeter to replace the existing endcap calorimeters. It features unprecedented transverse and longitudinal segmentation for both electromagnetic (ECAL) and hadronic (HCAL) compartments. This will facilitate particle-flow calorimetry, where the fine structure of showers can be measured and used to enhance pileup rejection and particle identification, whilst still achieving good energy resolution. The ECAL and a large fraction of HCAL will be based on hexagonal silicon sensors of 0.5 - 1 cm$^2$ cell size, with the remainder of the HCAL based on highly-segmented scintillators with SiPM readout. The intrinsic high-precision timing capabilities of the silicon sensors wi...

  13. The CMS High Granularity Calorimeter for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Sauvan, Jean-baptiste

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will integrate 10 times more luminosity than the LHC, posing significant challenges for radiation tolerance and event pileup on detectors, especially for forward calorimetry, and hallmarks the issue for future colliders. As part of its HL-LHC upgrade program, the CMS collaboration is designing a High Granularity Calorimeter to replace the existing endcap calorimeters. It features unprecedented transverse and longitudinal segmentation for both electromagnetic (ECAL) and hadronic (HCAL) compartments. This will facilitate particle-flow calorimetry, where the fine structure of showers can be measured and used to enhance pileup rejection and particle identification, whilst still achieving good energy resolution. The ECAL and a large fraction of HCAL will be based on hexagonal silicon sensors of 0.5 - 1 cm$^2$ cell size, with the remainder of the HCAL based on highly-segmented scintillators with silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) readout. The intrinsic high-precision timing capabilities...

  14. Readiness of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter for LHC collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Amorim, A.; Amoros, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Bach, A.M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, M.D.; Baker, S; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S.P.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bates, R.L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G.A.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Besana, M.I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanchard, J-B; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bocci, A.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Boser, S.; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bondarenko, V.G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I.R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.E.; Braun, H.M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F.M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodet, E.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W.K.; Brown, G.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A.G.; Budagov, I.A.; Budick, B.; Buscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C.P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J.M.; Buttar, C.M.; Butterworth, J.M.; Byatt, T.; Caballero, J.; Cabrera Urban, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L.P.; Calvet, D.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M.D.M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G.D.; Carron Montero, S.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M.P.; Cascella, M.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N.F.; Cataldi, G.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J.R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A.S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S.A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapman, J.D.; Chapman, J.W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D.G.; Chavda, V.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V.F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Tcherniatine, V.; Chesneanu, D.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S.L.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J.T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I.A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M.L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A.K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M.D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P.J.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J.C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Colijn, A.P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N.J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; 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Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.

    2010-01-01

    The Tile hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS detector has undergone extensive testing in the experimental hall since its installation in late 2005. The readout, control and calibration systems have been fully operational since 2007 and the detector successfully collected data from the LHC single beams in 2008 and first collisions in 2009. This paper gives an overview of the Tile Calorimeter performance as measured using random triggers, calibration data, data from cosmic ray muons and single beam data. The detector operation status, noise characteristics and performance of the calibration systems are presented, as well as the validation of the timing and energy calibration carried out with minimum ionising cosmic ray muons data. The calibration systems' precision is well below the design of 1%. The determination of the global energy scale was performed with an uncertainty of 4%.

  15. Electromagnetic response of a highly granular hadronic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.J. [Savoie Univ., CNRS/IN2P3, Annecy-le-Vieux (FR). Lab. d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules] (and others)

    2010-12-15

    The CALICE collaboration is studying the design of high performance electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters for future International Linear Collider detectors. For the hadronic calorimeter, one option is a highly granular sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillator layers as active material. High granularity is obtained by segmenting the scintillator into small tiles individually read out via silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM). A prototype has been built, consisting of thirty-eight sensitive layers, segmented into about eight thousand channels. In 2007 the prototype was exposed to positrons and hadrons using the CERN SPS beam, covering a wide range of beam energies and incidence angles. The challenge of cell equalization and calibration of such a large number of channels is best validated using electromagnetic processes. The response of the prototype steel-scintillator calorimeter, including linearity and uniformity, to electrons is investigated and described. (orig.)

  16. Electromagnetic response of a highly granular hadronic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C; Blaising, J-J; Drancourt, C; Espargilière, A; Gaglione, R; Geffroy, N; Karyotakis, Y; Prast, J; Vouters, G; Francis, K; Repond, J; Smith, J; Xia, L; Baldolemar, E; Li, J; Park, S T; Sosebee, M; White, A P; Yu, J; Mikami, Y; Goto, N K Watson T; Mavromanolakis, G; Thomson, M A; Yan, D R Ward W; Benyamna, M; Cârloganu, C; Fehr, F; Gay, P; Manen, S; Royer, L; Blazey, G C; Dyshkant, A; Lima, J G R; Zutshi, V; Hostachy, J-Y; Morin, L; Cornett, U; David, D; Fabbri, R; Falley, G; Gadow, K; Garutti, E; Göttlicher, P; Günter, C; Karstensen, S; Krivan, F; Lucaci-Timoce, A-I; Lu, S; Lutz, B; Marchesini, I; Meyer, N; Morozov, S; Morgunov, V; Reinecke, M; Sefkow, F; Smirnov, P; Terwort, M; Vargas-Trevino, A; Wattimena, N; Wendt, O; Feege, N; Haller, J; Richter, S; Eckert, J Samson P; Kaplan, A; Schultz-Coulon, H-Ch; Shen, W; Stamen, R; Tadday, A; Bilki, B; Norbeck, E; Onel, Y; Wilson, G W; Kawagoe, K; Uozumi, S; Ballin, J A; Dauncey, P D; Magnan, A -M; Yilmaz, H S; Zorba, O; Bartsch, V; Postranecky, M; Warren, M; Wing, M; Salvatore, F; Alamillo, E Calvo; Fouz, M -C; Puerta-Pelayo, J; Balagura, V; Bobchenko, B; Chadeeva, M; Danilov, M; Epifantsev, A; Markin, O; Mizuk, R; Novikov, E; Rusinov, V; Tarkovsky, E; Soloviev, Y; Kozlov, V; Buzhan, P; Dolgoshein, B; Ilyin, A; Kantserov, V; Kaplin, V; Karakash, A; Popova, E; Smirnov, S; Frey, A; Kiesling, C; Seidel, K; Simon, F; Soldner, C; Weuste, L; Bonis, J; Bouquet, B; Callier, S; Cornebise, P; Doublet, Ph; Dulucq, F; Faucci Giannelli, M; Fleury, J; Guilhem, G; Li, H; Martin-Chassard, G; Richard, F; de la Taille, Ch; Pöschl, R; Raux, L; Seguin-Moreau, N; Wicek, F; Anduze, M; Boudry, V; Brient, J-C; Jeans, D; Mora de Freitas, P; Musat, G; Reinhard, M; Ruan, M; Videau, H; Bulanek, B; Zacek, J; Cvach, J; Gallus, P; Havranek, M; Janata, M; Kvasnicka, J; Lednicky, D; Marcisovsky, M; Polak, I; Popule, J; Tomasek, L; Tomasek, M; Ruzicka, P; Sicho, P; Smolik, J; Vrba, V; Zalesak, J; Belhorma, B; Ghazlane, H; Kotera, K; Nishiyama, M; Takeshita, T; Tozuka, S

    2010-01-01

    The CALICE collaboration is studying the design of high performance electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters for future International Linear Collider detectors. For the hadronic calorimeter, one option is a highly granular sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillator layers as active material. High granularity is obtained by segmenting the scintillator into small tiles individually read out via silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM). A prototype has been built, consisting of thirty-eight sensitive layers, segmented into about eight thousand channels. In 2007 the prototype was exposed to positrons and hadrons using the CERN SPS beam, covering a wide range of beam energies and incidence angles. The challenge of cell equalization and calibration of such a large number of channels is best validated using electromagnetic processes. The response of the prototype steel-scintillator calorimeter, including linearity and uniformity, to electrons is investigated and described.

  17. Detector electronics for experiments at the large hadron collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikityuk, N. M.; Samoylov, V. N.

    2006-12-01

    The state of the art of a tracking detector and calorimeter electronics that are being developed for experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is discussed. Construction of the detectors is briefly described. The problems of fabrication of integrated circuits based on a radiation-resistant technology are considered, as well as the solution to the problem of microconnections between sensitive elements and readout amplifiers in two-coordinate semiconductor detectors. The parameters and block diagrams of both analog and digital integrated circuits are given; these circuits are used for amplifying and shaping the signals measured by tracking detectors of elementary particles and calorimeters. The contributions of Russian experimenters and physicists of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research to the development of detector electronics for experiments at the LHC is described.

  18. Application of calorimeters for 5 MeV EB and bremsstrahlung dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.; Saito, T.

    1993-01-01

    Graphite and water calorimeters, which were developed for use a 10 MeV electron beams (EB) at Riso National Laboratory, were used for process validation and routine dosimeter calibration at a 5 MeV EB. Water calorimeters were used for reference measurements for 5 MeV EB, the response was found...... at 5 MeV EB. Graphite calorimeters gave reproducible readings within 3.3 % relative errors (95 % confidence level) for X-ray measurement....

  19. Theory and Development of Position-Sensitive Quantum Calorimeters. Degree awarded by Stanford Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Quantum calorimeters are being developed as imaging spectrometers for future X-ray astrophysics observatories. Much of the science to be done by these instruments could benefit greatly from larger focal-plane coverage of the detector (without increasing pixel size). An order of magnitude more area will greatly increase the science throughput of these future instruments. One of the main deterrents to achieving this goal is the complexity of the readout schemes involved. We have devised a way to increase the number of pixels from the current baseline designs by an order of magnitude without increasing the number of channels required for readout. The instrument is a high energy resolution, distributed-readout imaging spectrometer called a Position-Sensitive Transition-Edge Sensor (POST). A POST is a quantum calorimeter consisting of two Transition-Edge Sensors (TESS) on the ends of a long absorber capable of one-dimensional imaging spectroscopy. Comparing rise time and energy information from the two TESS, the position of the event in the POST is determined. The energy of the event is inferred from the sum of the two pulses. We have developed a generalized theoretical formalism for distributed-readout calorimeters and apply it to our devices. We derive the noise theory and calculate the theoretical energy resolution of a POST. Our calculations show that a 7-pixel POST with 6 keV saturation energy can achieve 2.3 eV resolution, making this a competitive design for future quantum calorimeter instruments. For this thesis we fabricated 7- and 15-pixel POSTS using Mo/Au TESs and gold absorbers, and moved from concept drawings on scraps of napkins to a 32 eV energy resolution at 1.5 keV, 7-pixel POST calorimeter.

  20. CMS Level-1 Upgrade Calorimeter Trigger Prototype Development

    CERN Document Server

    Klabbers, Pamela Renee

    2013-01-01

    As the LHC increases luminosity and energy, it will become increasingly difficult to select interesting physics events and remain within the readout bandwidth limitations. An upgrade to the CMS Calorimeter Trigger implementing more complex algorithms is proposed. It utilizes AMC cards with Xilinx FPGAs running in micro-TCA crate with card interconnections via crate backplanes and optical links operating at up to 10 Gbps. Prototype cards with Virtex-6 and Virtex-7 FPGAs have been built and software frameworks for operation and monitoring developed. The physics goals, hardware architectures, and software will be described in this talk. More details can be found in a separate poster at this conference.

  1. Mitigation of Anomalous APD Signals in the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Theofilatos, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Anomalous, large signals are observed in the barrel region of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter during pp collisions at the LHC. Laboratory and beam-test studies, as well as Monte Carlo simulations, have been used to understand their origin. They are ascribed to direct energy depositions by particles in the Avalanche Photo-Diodes used for the scintillation light readout. Their properties and rates are summarized. The methods employed to reject these signals in the online trigger selection and in the offline event reconstruction are presented.

  2. Precision timing calorimeter for high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bornheim, Adolf, E-mail: bornheim@hep.caltech.edu [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Duarte, Javier; Peña, Cristián; Spiropulu, Maria; Trevor, Jason; Xie, Si [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ronzhin, Anatoly [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, PO Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510-5011 (United States)

    2016-07-11

    Scintillator based calorimeter technology is studied with the aim to achieve particle detection with a time resolution on the order of a few 10 ps for photons and electrons at energies of a few GeV and above. We present results from a prototype of a 1.4×1.4×11.4 cm{sup 3} sampling calorimeter cell consisting of tungsten absorber plates and Cerium-doped Lutetium Yttrium Orthosilicate (LYSO) crystal scintillator plates. The LYSO plates are read out with wave lengths shifting fibers which are optically coupled to fast photo detectors on both ends of the fibers. The measurements with electrons were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility (FTBF) and the CERN SPS H2 test beam. In addition to the baseline setup plastic scintillation counter and a MCP-PMT were used as trigger and as a reference for a time of flight measurement (TOF). We also present measurements with a fast laser to further characterize the response of the prototype and the photo sensors. All data were recorded using a DRS4 fast sampling digitizer. These measurements are part of an R&D program whose aim is to demonstrate the feasibility of building a large scale electromagnetic calorimeter with a time resolution on the order of 10 ps, to be used in high energy physics experiments.

  3. Precision timing calorimeter for high energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Duarte, Javier; Peña, Cristián; Spiropulu, Maria; Trevor, Jason; Xie, Si; Ronzhin, Anatoly

    2016-07-01

    Scintillator based calorimeter technology is studied with the aim to achieve particle detection with a time resolution on the order of a few 10 ps for photons and electrons at energies of a few GeV and above. We present results from a prototype of a 1.4×1.4×11.4 cm3 sampling calorimeter cell consisting of tungsten absorber plates and Cerium-doped Lutetium Yttrium Orthosilicate (LYSO) crystal scintillator plates. The LYSO plates are read out with wave lengths shifting fibers which are optically coupled to fast photo detectors on both ends of the fibers. The measurements with electrons were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility (FTBF) and the CERN SPS H2 test beam. In addition to the baseline setup plastic scintillation counter and a MCP-PMT were used as trigger and as a reference for a time of flight measurement (TOF). We also present measurements with a fast laser to further characterize the response of the prototype and the photo sensors. All data were recorded using a DRS4 fast sampling digitizer. These measurements are part of an R&D program whose aim is to demonstrate the feasibility of building a large scale electromagnetic calorimeter with a time resolution on the order of 10 ps, to be used in high energy physics experiments.

  4. The Zeus calorimeter first level trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, W.J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1989-04-01

    The design of the Zeus Detector Calorimeter Level Trigger is presented. The Zeus detector is being built for operation at HERA, a new storage ring that will provide collisions between 820 GeV protons and 30 GeV electrons in 1990. The calorimeter is made of depleted uranium plates and plastic scintillator read out by wavelength shifter bars into 12,864 photomultiplier tubes. These signals are combined into 974 trigger towers with separate electromagnetic and hadronic sums. The calorimeter first level trigger is pipelined with a decision provided 5 {mu}sec after each beam crossing, occurring every 96 nsec. The trigger determines the total energy, the total transverse energy, the missing energy, and the energy and number of isolated electrons and muons. It also provides information on the number and energy of clusters. The trigger rate needs to be held to 1 kHz against a rate of proton-beam gas interactions of approximately 500 kHz. The summed trigger tower pulseheights are digitized by flash ADC`s. The digital values are linearized, stored and used for sums and pattern tests.

  5. First Half Of CMS Hadron Calorimeter Completed

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    CMS HCAL electronics coordinator John Elias from Fermilab inspecting the assembled first half of the calorimeter. The first half barrel of the CMS hadron calorimeter was completed last month and assembly work on the elements of the second half commenced just last week. This is not a simple task considering the fact that the constructed half-barrel consists of eighteen 30 tonne segments each made with 0.15 mm tolerance. But through the work of everyone on the CMS hadron calorimeter team it is all moving forward. In the LHC, detection of particles produced in collisions of two proton beams requires measurement of their energy. To do this, the particle energy has to be changed into a form that can be easily measured. This is achieved by stopping the initial particles in a dense medium, where they create a shower of secondary particles. While particles that interact through electromagnetic forces (electrons and positrons) create relatively small showers, the size of showers created by hadrons, particles that i...

  6. Fast Shower Simulation in the ATLAS Calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barberio, E.; /Melbourne U.; Boudreau, J.; /Pittsburgh U.; Butler, B.; /SLAC; Cheung, S.L.; /Toronto U.; Dell' Acqua, A.; /CERN; Di Simone, A.; /CERN; Ehrenfeld, W.; /Hamburg U. /DESY; Gallas, M.V.; /CERN; Glazov, A.; /DESY; Marshall, Z.; /Caltech /Nevis Labs, Columbia U.; Mueller, J.; /Pittsburgh U.; Placakyte, R.; /DESY; Rimoldi, A.; /Pavia U. /INFN, Pavia; Savard, P.; /Toronto U.; Tsulaia, V.; /Pittsburgh U.; Waugh, A.; /Sydney U.; Young, C.C.; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    The time to simulate pp collisions in the ATLAS detector is largely dominated by the showering of electromagnetic particles in the heavy parts of the detector, especially the electromagnetic barrel and endcap calorimeters. Two procedures have been developed to accelerate the processing time of electromagnetic particles in these regions: (1) a fast shower parameterisation and (2) a frozen shower library. Both work by generating the response of the calorimeter to electrons and positrons with Geant 4, and then reintroduce the response into the simulation at runtime. In the fast shower parameterisation technique, a parameterization is tuned to single electrons and used later by simulation. In the frozen shower technique, actual showers from low-energy particles are used in the simulation. Full Geant 4 simulation is used to develop showers down to {approx} 1 GeV, at which point the shower is terminated by substituting a frozen shower. Judicious use of both techniques over the entire electromagnetic portion of the ATLAS calorimeter produces an important improvement of CPU time. We discuss the algorithms and their performance in this paper.

  7. The PreProcessors for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase II Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)713745; The ATLAS collaboration; Castillo, V.; Cerda, L.; Ferrer, A.; Fiorini, L.; Hernandez, Y.; Higon, E.; Moreno, P.; Solans, C.; Valero, A.; Valls, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has envisaged a series of upgrades towards a High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) delivering five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity. The ATLAS Phase II upgrade will accommodate the detector and data acquisition system for the HL-LHC. In particular, the Tile Hadronic Calorimeter (TileCal) will replace completely front-end and back-end electronics using a new readout architecture. The digitized detector data will be transferred for every beam crossing to the PreProcessors (TilePPr) located in off-detector counting rooms with a total data bandwidth of roughly 80 Tbps. The TilePPr implements increased pipelines memories and must provide pre-processed digital trigger information to Level 0 trigger systems. The TilePPr system represents the link between the front-end electronics and the overall ATLAS data acquisition system. It also implements the interface between the Detector Control System (DCS) and the front-end electronics which is used to control and monitor the high volta...

  8. Functional Super Read Out Driver Demonstrator for the Phase II Upgrade of the Atlas Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Carrió, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Ferrer, A; González, V; Higón, E; Moreno, P; Sanchis, E; Solans, C; Valero, A; Valls, J

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the implementation of a functional super Read Out Driver (sROD) demonstrator for the Phase II Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) in the LHC experiment. The proposed front-end for the Phase II Upgrade communicates with back-end electronics using a multifiber optical connector with a data rate of 57.6 Gbps using the GBT protocol. This functional sROD demonstrator aims to help in the understanding of the problems that could arise in the upgrade of back-end electronics. The demonstrator is composed of three different boards that have been developed in the framework of ATLAS activities: the Optical Multiplexer Board (OMB), the Read-Out Driver (ROD) and the Optical Link Card (OLC). The first two boards, OMB and ROD, are part of the current back-end system where OMB receives two optical fibers with redundant data from front-end, performs online CRC for data and send to ROD the data from the error-free fiber; and ROD is the main element of the back-end electronics and it is responsible...

  9. The PreProcessors for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase II Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio Argos, Fernando; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has envisaged a series of upgrades towards a High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) delivering five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity. The ATLAS Phase II upgrade will accommodate the detector and data acquisition system for the HL-LHC. In particular, the Tile Hadronic Calorimeter (TileCal) will replace completely on- and off-detector electronics using a new read-out architecture. The digitized detector data will be transferred for every beam crossing to the super Read Out Drivers (sRODs) located in off-detector counting rooms with a total data bandwidth of roughly 80 Tbps. The sROD implements increased pipelines memories and must provide pre-processed digital trigger information to Level 0/1 systems. The sROD module represents the link between the on-detector electronics and the overall ATLAS data acquisition system. It also implements the interface between the Detector Control System (DCS) and the on-detector electronics which is used to control and monitor the high voltage...

  10. The NA62 Liquid Krypton calorimeter data acquisition upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Hallgren, Bjorn; Piccini, Mauro; Wendler, Helmut; 10.1109/NSSMIC.2008.4774802

    2009-01-01

    The NA62 experiment at CERN, aiming to start data taking in 2011, intends to measure the branching ratio of extremely rare kaon decays. The existing Liquid Krypton (LKr) calorimeter of the NA48 experiment will play an essential role in the new experiment. For this reason a program for the consolidation of the LKr read-out system was launched in 2006. The first part of the program consists of updating the existing data acquisition system to a modern more reliable technology using Gigabit Ethernet and PC-farm. In the second stage the readout event rate has to be increased from 13 kHz to 1 MHz. Methods to do this, while keeping much of the existing analog system, are discussed.

  11. Calibration and signal reconstruction in the ATLAS Tile Hadronic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Febbraro, R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    Tilecal is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS detector which is one of the four experiment installed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) collider at CERN. In order to calibrate the full read-out path in the TileCal are present different calibration systems. As the final digital signal is the result of successive conversions the signal needs to be calibrated at each stage. The full calibration process relies on three subsystems: the Charge Injection System (CIS), the Laser System, and the Cesium. Once the digital signal is calibrated, it needs to reconstructed in order to determine the amplitude and the time of the deposited energy. In TileCal the Optimal Filter (OF) algorithm is used for this purpose; in particular the signal is reconstructed in the Read-Out Drivers (ROD) using the Digital Signal processor (DSP).

  12. Evaluation of candidate photomultiplier tubes for the NOE scintillating fiber calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Barbarino, G C; Brigida, M; Campana, D; Candela, A; Caruso, R; Ceres, A; De Mitri, I; Di Credico, A; Favuzzi, C; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Leone, A; Lindozzi, M; Loparco, F; Mancarella, G; Mazziotta, M N; Mongelli, M; Osteria, G; Palladino, V; Perchiazzi, M; Pinto, C; Rain; Rain; Sacchetti, A; Scapparone, E; Spinelli, P; Zilli, A

    2002-01-01

    Several measurements have been made on different phototubes in order to select the type to be used for the readout system of the NOE magnetized scintillating fiber calorimeter. Characteristics such as gain, linearity, time resolution and cathode uniformity have been examined on several PMT types with standard, fine mesh or channel multiplier structure. The PMT response in the presence of the magnetized calorimeter fringe fields has also been studied. Here we report on the results of these measurements and of the comparisons between the different PMT types.

  13. Top quark pair production and calorimeter energy resolution studies at a future collider experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Katja

    2012-03-27

    This thesis is focused on detector concepts and analyses investigated at a future linear electron positron collider. For precision measurements at such a collider, the CALICE collaboration develops imaging calorimeters, which are characterized by a fine granularity. CALICE has constructed prototypes of several design options for electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters and has successfully operated these detectors during combined test beam programs at DESY, CERN and Fermilab. To improve the hadronic energy reconstruction and energy resolution of a hadron calorimeter prototype with analog readout three software compensation techniques are presented in this thesis, of which one is a local and two are global software compensation approaches. One method is based on a neural network to optimize the energy reconstruction, while two are energy weighting techniques, depending on the energy density. Weight factors are extracted from and applied to simulated and test beam data and result in an average energy resolution improvement of 15 - 25% compared to a reconstruction without software compensation. Whether such software compensation techniques are also applicable to a detector concept for a future linear electron positron collider is studied in the second part of this thesis. Simulated data, two different hadronic detector models and a local software compensation technique are used for this study. The energy resolutions for single hadrons and for jets are presented with and without software compensation. In the third part of this thesis, a study on top quark pair production at a center-of-mass energy of 500 GeV at the proposed electron positron collider CLIC is presented. The analysis is based on full detector simulations, including realistic background contributions dominated by two photon processes. The mass and width of the top quark are studied in fully-hadronic and semi-leptonic decays of top quark pairs using event samples of signal and Standard Model background

  14. Four-channel readout ASIC for silicon pad detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baturitsky, M. A.; Zamiatin, N. I.

    2000-02-01

    A custom front-end readout ASIC has been designed for silicon calorimeters supposed to be used in high-energy physics experiments. The ASIC was produced using BJT-JFET technology. It contains four channels of a fast low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifier (CSP) with inverting outputs summed by a linear adder (LA) followed by an RC-CR shaping amplifier (SA) with 30 ns peaking time. Availability of separate outputs of the CSPs and the LA makes it possible to join any number of silicon detector layers to obtain the longitudinal and transversal resolution required using only this ASIC in any silicon calorimeter minitower configuration. Noise performance is ENC=1800e -+18e -/pF at 30 ns peaking time for detector capacitance up to Cd=400 pF. Rise time is 8 ns at input capacitance Cd=100 pF. Power dissipation is less than 50 mW/ chip at voltage supply 5 V.

  15. R&D proposal the prism plastic calorimeter:PPC

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Marchand, P; Nédélec, P; Salin, P; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1990-01-01

    This proposal supports two goals: First Goal_Demonstrate that current, widely used plastic technologies allow to design Prism Plastic Calorimeter (PPC) towers with a new "liquid crystal" type plastic called Vectra. It will be shown that this technique meets the requirements for a LHC calorimeter with warm liquids: safety, hermeticity, hadronic compensation, resolution and time response. Second Goal_ Describe how one can design a warm liquid calorimeter integrated into a LHC detector,and list the advantages of the PPC: low price, minimum of mechanical structures, minimum amount of dead space, easiness of mechanical assembly, accessibility to the electronics, possibility to recirculate the liquid. The absorber and the electronics being outside the liquid and easily accessible, one has maximum flexibility to define them. The R&D program we define here aims at showing the feasibility of these new ideas by building nine towers of twenty gaps and exposing them to electron and hadron beams.

  16. ATLAS calorimeters: Run-2 performances and Phase-II upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to $10^{34} cm^{-2} s^{-1}$. A Liquid Argon-lead sampling (LAr) calorimeter is employed as electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters, except in the barrel region, where a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter (TileCal) is used as hadronic calorimeter. This presentation gives first an overview of the detector operation and data quality, as well as of the achieved performances of the ATLAS calorimetry system. Additionally the upgrade projects of the ATLAS calorimeter system for the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) are presented. For the HL-LHC, the instantaneous luminosity is expected to increase up to $L \\simeq 7.5 × 10^{34} cm^{-2} s^{-1}$ and the average pile-up up to 200 interactions per bunch crossing. The major R&D item is the upgrade of the electronics for both LAr and Tile calorimeters in order to cope with longer latenc...

  17. ELECTROMAGNET CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Rusack

    Installation is under way of the last piece of the electromagnetic calorimeter. This is the preshower (ES) that sits in front of the two endcap calorimeters. The construction of the ES was completed in December and went through a detailed set of tests in December and January. The two preshower detectors have a total of 4300 silicon sensors with 137,000 strips. After final assembly and system testing in January, only two of the strips were found to be defective. Once CMS was fully opened a new support structure (‘Gazprom’) was put into place underneath the beam pipe, to support the Surkov platform, on which the preshower installation takes place. In the early hours of 26th February the first two Dees, which form the ‘ES+’ endcap,  were transported to P5 , a journey that took two and a half hours. The Dees, still inside environmental protection boxes, were then lowered  underground and moved to the ‘+’ end of CMS. Installation start...

  18. The PANDA backward calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, Heybat; Deiseroth, Malte; Khaneft, Dmitry; Noll, Oliver; Valente, Roserio; Zambrana, Manuel [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Ahmed, Samer [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Capozza, Luigi; Dbeyssi, Alaa; Froehlich, Bertold; Lin, Dexu; Maas, Frank; Mora Espi, Maria Carmen; Morales Morales, Cristina; Rodriguez Pineiro, David; Zimmermann, Iris [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The PANDA experiment at FAIR is being devised for a broad physics programme in hadron structure and spectroscopy. Full and accurate reconstruction of scattering events, reliable particle identification and an almost complete solid angle coverage are required. An important tool for meeting this requirements will be the electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC). It is required to measure particle energies ranging from some MeVs to several GeVs with a relative resolution of 1% + 2%/√(E/GeV), assuring a compact geometry and radiation hardness at the same time. For these reasons PbWO{sub 4} was chosen as scintillation material. The whole calorimeter has been designed in three sections: a forward end-cap, a central barrel and a backward end-cap (BWEC). The BWEC, under development at Mainz, will cover scattering polar angles between 140 and 170 and will be made of 524 PbWO{sub 4} crystals. The scintillation light will be detected by large area avalanche photodiodes which will be read out by customised front-end ASIC chips. A status report on the development of the BWEC will be given in this contribution.

  19. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Bloch

    ECAL crystal calorimeter (EB + EE) The Barrel and Endcaps ECAL calorimeters have been used routinely in global runs. The CRAFT data have confirmed that ECAL performance is the same with or without magnetic field. The CRUZET and CRAFT runs have allowed experience to be gained with ECAL operation in many areas, in particular for the trigger and the calibration sequence using gap events (laser events and LED pulsing). More details can be found in the Commissioning/DPG report in this bulletin.   The last components remaining to be installed and commissioned are the specific Endcap Trigger modules (TCC-48). Most of the modules have been delivered to LLR and half of them are already at CERN. In parallel, large progress has been made on the validation of the TCC-48 firmware. Preshower (ES) The Preshower project has also made impressive progress during Autumn. All the elements required to complete the detector assembly are at hand. Ladder assembly, test and calibration with cosmic rays at the operating ...

  20. Electronics and Calibration system for the CMS Beam Halo Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Nicolò; Fabbri, Franco L; Finkel, Alexey; Orfanelli, Stella; Loos, R; Montanari, Alessandro; Rusack, R; Stickland, David P

    2014-01-01

    In the context of increasing luminosity of LHC, it will be important to accurately measure the Machine Induced Background. A new monitoring system will be installed in the cavern of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment for measuring the beam background at high radius. This detector is composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators, coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The readout chain of this detector will make use of many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadron Calorimeter electronics, with a dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal will be digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing. The backend electronics will record bunch-by-bunch histograms, which will be published to CMS and the LHC using the newly designed CMS beam instrumentation specific DAQ. A calibration monitoring system has been designed to generate triggered pulses of...

  1. ALICE Time of Flight Readout - AFRO

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, A; CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    Abstract This document describes the design of the ALICE Time of Flight readout system architecture. The requirements of the system are discussed. The architecture which copes with the requirements of the system is described. Further work and research projects concerning the readout are anticipated. In order to describe the system and also the environment, namely the chamber cells and the analog and digital front-end electronics, are described. These parts have been developed by the entire Time of Flight (TOF) collaboration. Further simulations, measurements and prototypes will reveal new results. After that the design has to be adapted accordingly.

  2. Drift time measurement in the ATLAS liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter using cosmic muons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aad, G.; et al., [Unknown; Bentvelsen, S.; Colijn, A.P.; de Jong, P.; Doxiadis, A.; Garitaonandia, H.; Gosselink, M.; Kayl, M.S.; Koffeman, E.; Lee, H.; Mechnich, J.; Mussche, I.; Ottersbach, J.P.; Rijpstra, M.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Tsiakiris, M.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Poel, E.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vreeswijk, M.

    2010-01-01

    The ionization signals in the liquid argon of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter are studied in detail using cosmic muons. In particular, the drift time of the ionization electrons is measured and used to assess the intrinsic uniformity of the calorimeter gaps and estimate its impact on the

  3. An Updated Front-End Data Link Design for the Phase-2 Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Silverstein, Samuel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We present a new design for the advanced Link Daughter Board (DB) for the front-end electronics upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter. The DB provides control, configuration and continuous ADC readout for the front-end, as well as bi-directional multi-GB/s optical links to the off-detector readout system. The DB will operate in high luminosity LHC conditions with limited detector access, so the design is fault tolerant with a high level of redundancy to avoid single-point failure modes. The DB is divided longitudinally, with an FPGA serving the ADC channels on its respective side. The new design is based on the new Xilinx Kintex Ultrascale+ FPGA family, which provides improved high-speed link timing performance as well as better signal compatibility with the CERN-developed GBTx link and timing distribution ASICs. Two GBTx ASICs each provide redundant phase-adjusted, LHC synchronous clocks, parallel control buses and remote JTAG configuration access to both FPGAs on the DB.

  4. Study of a Novel Concept for a Liquid Argon Calorimeter \

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD33 \\\\ \\\\ The development of a fast, highly granular and compact electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter prototype is proposed as a generic R\\&D project for a novel concept of calorimetry in proton-proton and electron-positron collider detectors: the $^{\\prime$Thin Gap Turbine$^{\\prime}$ (TGT). The TGT calorimeter has a modular construction, is flexible in its longitudinal and transverse granularity, and offers a uniform energy response and resolution, independent of the production angle of incident particles. An important aspect of the project is the development of fast, radiation-hard front-end electronics which is operating in the cold.

  5. Development of COTS ADC SEE Test System for the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00338739; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Kai; Mead, Joseph; Liu, Shubin; An, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-tolerant, high speed, high density and low power commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are planned to be used in the upgrade to the Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeter front end (FE) trigger readout electronics. Total ionization dose (TID) and single event effect (SEE) are two important radiation effects which need to be characterized on COTS ADCs. In our initial TID test, Texas Instruments (TI) ADS5272 was identified to be the top performer after screening a total 17 COTS ADCs from different manufacturers with dynamic range and sampling rate meeting the requirements of the FE electronics. Another interesting feature of ADS5272 is its 6.5 clock cycles latency, which is the shortest among the 17 candidates. Based on the TID performance, we have designed a SEE evaluation system for ADS5272, which allows us to further assess its radiation tolerance. In this paper, we present a detailed design of ADS5272 SEE evaluation system and show the effectiveness of this system while evalu...

  6. CaloCube: a novel calorimeter for high-energy cosmic rays in space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rappoldi A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available CaloCube is an R&D project borne to develop a novel calorimeter design, optimized for high-energy cosmic ray measurements in space. A small prototype made of CsI(Tl elements has been built and tested on particle beams. A final version, made of 5×5×18 crystals and with dual readout (two photodiodes for each crystal, to cover the full required dynamic range, is under construction and will be tested at CERN SPS in Summer 2016. The dual readout compensation technique were developed and the feasibility to extract Čerenkov signals from CsI crystals verified.

  7. Comparison of Energy Reconstruction Schemes and Different Granularities in the CALICE Scintillator-Steel Analogue Hadron Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubüser, Coralie

    2017-11-01

    The CALICE collaboration develops different high-granularity hadronic calorimeter technologies for a future linear collider. These technologies differ in active material, granularity and their readout and thus their energy reconstruction schemes. The Analogue Hadron Calorimeter (AHCAL), based on scintillator tiles with Silicon Photomultiplier readout, measures the signal amplitude of the energy deposition in cells of at most 3 × 3 cm2 size. The Digital, Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) based, HCAL (DHCAL) detects hits above a certain threshold by firing pad sensors of 1 × 1 cm2. A 2 bit readout is provided by the, also RPC based, Semi-Digital HCAL (SDHCAL), which counts hits above three different thresholds per 1 × 1 cm2 cell. All three calorimeter concepts have been realised in a 1m3 prototype with interleaved Steel absorber and tested at various test beams. This study investigates the impact of the readout, granularity and active medium on the energy resolution individually by applying the reconstruction procedures on AHCAL data, that can also be processed in a way which emulates a (semi-) digital readout system. The difference in granularity is studied via simulations of an AHCAL with 1 × 1 cm2 cell sizes. Additionally, a so-called Software Compensation algorithm is developed to weight hits dependent on their energy content and correct for the difference in the response to the electromagnetic and hadronic sub-showers (\\displaystyle \\frac{e}{h}\

  8. The CDF miniplug calorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lami, Stefano

    2002-06-28

    Two MiniPlug calorimeters, designed to measure the energy and lateral position of particles in the (forward) pseudorapidity region of 3.6 < |{nu}| < 5.2 of the CDF detector, have been recently installed as part of the Run II CDF upgrade at the Tevatron {bar p}p collider. They consist of lead/liquid scintillator read out by wavelength shifting fibers arranged in a pixel-type towerless geometry suitable for ''calorimetric tracking''. The design concept, the prototype performance and the final design of the MiniPlugs are here described. A recent cosmic ray test resulted in a light yield of approximately 100 pe/MIP, which exceeds our design requirements.

  9. The lead-glass electromagnetic calorimeter for the SELEX experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Y. Balatz et al.

    2004-07-19

    A large-acceptance, highly segmented electromagnetic lead glass calorimeter for Experiment E781 (SELEX) at Fermi National Acceleration Laboratory was designed and built. This detector has been used to reconstruct photons and electrons with energies ranging from few GeV up to 500 GeV in the collisions of the 650 GeV {Sigma}{sup -} hyperons and {pi}{sup -} mesons with the target nucleons. The design, calibration and performance of the calorimeter are described. Energy resolution and position resolution are assessed using both calibration electron beams and {pi}{sup 0} mesons reconstructed in 650 GeV hadron-hadron interactions. The performance of the calorimeter in selecting resonant states that involve photons is demonstrated.

  10. Beam Test of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Garvey, J; Mahout, G; Moye, T H; Staley, R J; Thomas, J P; Typaldos, D; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; Achenbach, R; Föhlisch, F; Geweniger, C; Hanke, P; Kluge, E E; Mahboubi, K; Meier, K; Meshkov, P; Rühr, F; Schmitt, K; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Ay, C; Bauss, B; Belkin, A; Rieke, S; Schäfer, U; Tapprogge, T; Trefzger, T; Weber, GA; Eisenhandler, E F; Landon, M; Apostologlou, P; Barnett, B M; Brawn, I P; Davis, A O; Edwards, J; Gee, C N P; Gillman, A R; Mirea, A; Perera, V J O; Qian, W; Sankey, D P C; Bohm, C; Hellman, S; Hidvegi, A; Silverstein, S

    2005-01-01

    The Level-1 Calorimter Trigger consists of a Preprocessor (PP), a Cluster Processor (CP), and a Jet/Energy-sum Processor (JEP). The CP and JEP receive digitised trigger-tower data from the Preprocessor and produce Region-of-Interest (RoIs) and trigger multiplicities. The latter are sent in real time to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP) where the Level-1 decision is made. On receipt of a Level-1 Accept, Readout Driver Modules (RODs), provide intermediate results to the data acquisition (DAQ) system for monitoring and diagnostic purpose. RoI information is sent to the RoI builder (RoIB) to help reduce the amount of data required for the Level-2 Trigger The Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger System at the test beam consisted of 1 Preprocessor module, 1 Cluster Processor Module, 1 Jet/Energy Module and 2 Common Merger Modules. Calorimeter energies were sucessfully handled thourghout the chain and trigger object sent to the CTP. Level-1 Accepts were sucessfully produced and used to drive the readout path. Online diagno...

  11. Development of the quality control system of the readout electronics for the large size telescope of the Cherenkov Telescope Array observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Masuda, S. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Paoletti, R.; Poulios, S. [SFTA Department, Physics Section, University of Siena and INFN, Siena (Italy); Rugliancich, A., E-mail: andrea.rugliancich@pi.infn.it [SFTA Department, Physics Section, University of Siena and INFN, Siena (Italy); Saito, T. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2016-07-11

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation VHE γ-ray observatory which will improve the currently available sensitivity by a factor of 10 in the range 100 GeV to 10 TeV. The array consists of different types of telescopes, called large size telescope (LST), medium size telescope (MST) and small size telescope (SST). A LST prototype is currently being built and will be installed at the Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos, island of La Palma, Canary islands, Spain. The readout system for the LST prototype has been designed and around 300 readout boards will be produced in the coming months. In this note we describe an automated quality control system able to measure basic performance parameters and quickly identify faulty boards. - Highlights: • The Dragon Board is part of the DAQ of the LST Cherenkov telescope prototype. • We developed an automated quality control system for the Dragon Board. • We check pedestal, linearity, pulse shape and crosstalk values. • The quality control test can be performed on the production line.

  12. Energy Reconstruction and high-speed Data Transmission with FPGAs for the Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Stärz, Steffen

    The Liquid Argon calorimeter of the ATLAS detector at CERN near Geneva is equipped with improved readout and trigger electronics for the operation at higher luminosity LHC in the frame of several upgrades (Phase-0, I, and II). Special attention is given to an early digitisation of detector raw data and their following digital data transmission and processing via FPGAs already for the Level-1 trigger. The upgrades additionally foresee to provide higher spatial granularity information for the Level-1 trigger in order to improve its performance for low momentum single particles at increased collision rates. The first part of this dissertation contains the development and implementation of a modular detector simulation framework, AREUS, which allows to analyse different filter algorithms for the energy reconstruction as well as their performance with respect to the expected digitised detector raw data. In this detector simulation framework the detailed algorithmic functionality of the FPGAs has been taken into ac...

  13. A Luminosity Calorimeter for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H; Kananov, S; Levy, A; Sadeh, I

    2009-01-01

    For the relative precision of the luminosity measurement at CLIC, a preliminary target value of 1% is being assumed. This may be accomplished by constructing a finely granulated calorimeter, which will measure Bhabha scattering at small angles. In order to achieve the design goal, the geometrical parameters of the calorimeter need to be defined. Several factors influence the design of the calorimeter; chief among these is the need to minimize the error on the luminosity measurement while avoiding the intense beam background at small angles. In this study the geometrical parameters are optimized for the best performance of the calorimeter. In addition, the suppression of physics background to Bhabha scattering is investigated and a set of selection cuts is introduced.

  14. Silicon photomultipliers. Properties and applications in a highly granular calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feege, Nils

    2008-12-15

    Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) are novel semiconductor-based photodetectors operated in Geiger mode. Their response is not linear, and both their gain and their photon detection efficiency depend on the applied bias voltage and on temperature. The CALICE collaboration investigates several technology options for highly granular calorimeters for the future ILC. The prototype of a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter with analogue readout for hadrons constructed at DESY and successfully operated in testbeam experiments at DESY, CERN and FNAL by this collaboration is the first large scale application for 7608 SiPMs developed by MEPhI. This thesis deals with properties of the SiPMs used in the calorimeter prototype. The effective numer of pixels of the SiPMs, which influences their saturation behaviour, is extracted from in situ measurements and compared to results obtained for the bare SiPMs. In addition, the effects of temperature and voltage changes on the parameters necessary for the calibration of the SiPMs and the detector are determined. Methods which allow for correcting or compensating these effects are evaluated. An approach to improve the absolute calibration of the temperature sensors in the prototype is described and temperature profiles are studied. Finally, a procedure to adjust the light yield of the cells of the prototype is presented. The results of the application of this procedure during the commissioning of the detector at FNAL are discussed. (orig.)

  15. The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter high-voltage system: commissioning, optimisation, and LHC relative luminosity measurement.

    CERN Document Server

    Arfaoui, Samir; Monnier, E

    2011-01-01

    The main goals of the ATLAS scientific programme are the observation or exclusion of physics beyond the Standard Model (SM), as well as the measurement of production cross-sections of SM processes. In oder to do so,it is important to measure the luminosity at the interaction point with great precision. The ATLAS luminosity is extracted using several detectors with varying efficiencies and acceptances. Different methods, such as inclusive - or coincidence - event counting and calorimeter integrated current measurements, are calibrated and cross-compared to provide the most accurate luminosity determination. In order to provide more cross-checks and a better control on the systematic uncertainties, an independent measurement using the liquid argon (LAr) forward calorimeter (FCal), based on the readout current of its high-voltage system, has been developed. This document describes how the LAr calorimeter high-voltage system has been installed and commissioned, as well as its application to a relative luminosity ...

  16. Optimization of Energy Resolution in the Digital Hadron Calorimeter using Longitudinal Weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. R.; Bilki, B.; Francis, K.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Xia, L.

    2013-04-01

    Physics at a future lepton collider requires unprecedented jet energy and dijet mass resolutions. Particle Flow Algorithms (PFAs) have been proposed to achieve these. PFAs measure particles in a jet individually with the detector subsystem providing the best resolution. For this to work a calorimeter system with very high granularity is required. A prototype Digital Hadron Calorimeter (the DHCAL) based on the Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) technology with a record count of readout channels has been developed, constructed, and exposed to particle beams. In this context, we report on a technique to improve the single hadron energy resolution by applying a set of calibration weights to the individual layers of the calorimeter. This weighting procedure was applied to approximately 1 million events in the energy range up to 60 GeV and shows an improvement in the pion energy resolution. Simulated data is used to verify particle identification techniques and to compare with the data.

  17. Validation of GEANT4 Monte Carlo Models with a Highly Granular Scintillator-Steel Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C; Blaising, J J; Drancourt, C; Espargiliere, A; Gaglione, R; Geffroy, N; Karyotakis, Y; Prast, J; Vouters, G; Francis, K; Repond, J; Schlereth, J; Smith, J; Xia, L; Baldolemar, E; Li, J; Park, S T; Sosebee, M; White, A P; Yu, J; Buanes, T; Eigen, G; Mikami, Y; Watson, N K; Mavromanolakis, G; Thomson, M A; Ward, D R; Yan, W; Benchekroun, D; Hoummada, A; Khoulaki, Y; Apostolakis, J; Dotti, A; Folger, G; Ivantchenko, V; Uzhinskiy, V; Benyamna, M; Cârloganu, C; Fehr, F; Gay, P; Manen, S; Royer, L; Blazey, G C; Dyshkant, A; Lima, J G R; Zutshi, V; Hostachy, J Y; Morin, L; Cornett, U; David, D; Falley, G; Gadow, K; Gottlicher, P; Gunter, C; Hermberg, B; Karstensen, S; Krivan, F; Lucaci-Timoce, A I; Lu, S; Lutz, B; Morozov, S; Morgunov, V; Reinecke, M; Sefkow, F; Smirnov, P; Terwort, M; Vargas-Trevino, A; Feege, N; Garutti, E; Marchesini, I; Ramilli, M; Eckert, P; Harion, T; Kaplan, A; Schultz-Coulon, H Ch; Shen, W; Stamen, R; Bilki, B; Norbeck, E; Onel, Y; Wilson, G W; Kawagoe, K; Dauncey, P D; Magnan, A M; Bartsch, V; Wing, M; Salvatore, F; Alamillo, E Calvo; Fouz, M C; Puerta-Pelayo, J; Bobchenko, B; Chadeeva, M; Danilov, M; Epifantsev, A; Markin, O; Mizuk, R; Novikov, E; Popov, V; Rusinov, V; Tarkovsky, E; Kirikova, N; Kozlov, V; Smirnov, P; Soloviev, Y; Buzhan, P; Ilyin, A; Kantserov, V; Kaplin, V; Karakash, A; Popova, E; Tikhomirov, V; Kiesling, C; Seidel, K; Simon, F; Soldner, C; Szalay, M; Tesar, M; Weuste, L; Amjad, M S; Bonis, J; Callier, S; Conforti di Lorenzo, S; Cornebise, P; Doublet, Ph; Dulucq, F; Fleury, J; Frisson, T; van der Kolk, N; Li, H; Martin-Chassard, G; Richard, F; de la Taille, Ch; Poschl, R; Raux, L; Rouene, J; Seguin-Moreau, N; Anduze, M; Boudry, V; Brient, J-C; Jeans, D; Mora de Freitas, P; Musat, G; Reinhard, M; Ruan, M; Videau, H; Bulanek, B; Zacek, J; Cvach, J; Gallus, P; Havranek, M; Janata, M; Kvasnicka, J; Lednicky, D; Marcisovsky, M; Polak, I; Popule, J; Tomasek, L; Tomasek, M; Ruzicka, P; Sicho, P; Smolik, J; Vrba, V; Zalesak, J; Belhorma, B; Ghazlane, H; Takeshita, T; Uozumi, S; Gotze, M; Hartbrich, O; Sauer, J; Weber, S; Zeitnitz, C

    2013-01-01

    Calorimeters with a high granularity are a fundamental requirement of the Particle Flow paradigm. This paper focuses on the prototype of a hadron calorimeter with analog readout, consisting of thirty-eight scintillator layers alternating with steel absorber planes. The scintillator plates are finely segmented into tiles individually read out via Silicon Photomultipliers. The presented results are based on data collected with pion beams in the energy range from 8GeV to 100GeV. The fine segmentation of the sensitive layers and the high sampling frequency allow for an excellent reconstruction of the spatial development of hadronic showers. A comparison between data and Monte Carlo simulations is presented, concerning both the longitudinal and lateral development of hadronic showers and the global response of the calorimeter. The performance of several GEANT4 physics lists with respect to these observables is evaluated.

  18. A PCIe Gen3 based readout for the LHCb upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bellato, M; D’Antone, I; Durante, P; Galli, D; Jost, B; Lax, I; Liu, G; Marconi, U; Neufeld, N; Schwemmer, R; Vagnoni, V

    2014-01-01

    The architecture of the data acquisition system foreseen for the LHCb upgrade, to be installed by 2018, is devised to readout events trigger-less, synchronously with the LHC bunch crossing rate at 40 MHz. Within this approach the readout boards act as a bridge between the front-end electronics and the High Level Trigger (HLT) computing farm. The readout board baseline ATCA-based design requires dedicated crates and foresees the implementation of a local area network protocol directly in the readout board FPGAs. The alternative solution proposed here consists in building the readout boards as PCIe peripherals of the event-builder servers. The main architectural advantage is that protocol and link-technology of the event-builder can be left open until very late, to profit from the most cost-effective industry technology available at the time of the LHC LS2.

  19. Feature-extraction algorithms for the PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavatsyuk, M.; Guliyev, E.; Lemmens, P. J. J.; Loehner, H.; Poelman, T. P.; Tambave, G.; Yu, B

    2009-01-01

    The feature-extraction algorithms are discussed which have been developed for the digital front-end electronics of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the PANDA detector at the future FAIR facility. Performance parameters have been derived in test measurements with cosmic rays, particle and photon

  20. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080684; Fabbri, F.; Grassi, T.; Hughes, E.; Mans, J.; Montanari, A.; Orfanelli, S.; Rusack, R.; Torromeo, G.; Stickland, D.P.; Stifter, K.

    2016-01-01

    The CMS Beam Halo Monitor has been successfully installed in the CMS cavern in LHC Long Shutdown 1 for measuring the machine induced background for LHC Run II. The system is based on 40 detector units composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes. The readout electronics chain uses many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadronic Calorimeter electronics, with dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time, with few ns resolution, and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing. The backend electronics uses microTCA technology and receives data via a high-speed 5 Gbps asynchronous link. It records histograms with sub-bunch crossing timing resolution and is readout by IPbus using the newly designed CMS data acquisition for non-event based data. The data is processed in real time and published to CMS and the LHC, providi...

  1. Inorganic single crystalline fibers for dual-readout calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Pauwels, Kristof; Lecoq, Paul

    This thesis focuses on the improvement of the energy resolution of hadron calorimeters. The approach is based on dual-readout, which consists in the simultaneous detection of both scintillation and Cherenkov light. The comparison of these two signals allows a compensation of the energy fluctuations, which are inherent to the detection of hadronic showers. Lutetium aluminium garnets (LuAG), which are efficient scintillators when activated with rare-earth dopants (i.e. Cerium), can also act as Cherenkov radiators when undoped. Both undoped and doped crystals can then be assembled to build an efficient dual-readout calorimeter. With the objective to investigate the feasibility of this concept, the effects of the doping concentration and the use of various co-dopant on the light output and the timing properties of LuAG were studied. The growth method was demonstrated to induce significant differences in the nature and concentration of structural defects. The optimum geometry, which is based on single-crystals sha...

  2. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Spalding

    2011-01-01

    All the HCAL calorimeters are ready for data-taking in 2011 and participated fully in the cosmic running and initial beam operations in the last few weeks. Several improvements were made during the winter technical stop, including replacement of the light-guide sleeves in HF, improvements to the low voltage power connections, and separation of HF from HB and HE in the DAQ partitions. During the 2010 running a form of anomalous noise in the HF was identified as being caused by scintillation when charged particles pass through a portion of the air light-guide sleeve. This portion was constructed from a non-conductive mirror-like material called “HEM”. To suppress these anomalous signals, during the recent winter technical stop all sleeves in the detector were replaced with sleeves made of Tyvek. The detector has been recommissioned with all channels fully operational. Recalibration of the detector will be required due to the differing reflectivity of the new sleeves compared with the HEM sl...

  3. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Skuja

    HCAL installation and commissioning is approaching completion. Work continues on commissioning of HE-, HF- and the minus wheels of HO. We expect that all commissioning will be completed by mid-March. HCAL commissioning is interleaved with integration of HCAL and the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT). HCAL is attempting to take data using the HPD self-trigger as part of the GCT trigger path. Initial attempts in mid-February have not succeeded. Work continues on HCAL and the GCT. HPD lifetimes at 4 Tesla are being measured in Princeton. After more than a month of testing in a 4 Tesla field there are no sur¬prises. As the lifetime measurements proceed, the HPD response at intermediate fields of 1 Tesla will be verified and analyzed. Work also continues on HCAL calibration and DCS/DSS at Point 5. More details for some of the subsystems are presented in what follows. HE HE plus The cooling system of HE+ is functional now. The HE+ final connections to the LV system are complete. LV and HV tests to ev...

  4. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    by J. Spalding and A. Skuja

    2010-01-01

    Operations and Maintenance All HCAL sub-detectors participated throughout the recent data taking with 7 TeV collisions. A timing scan of HF was performed to optimize the timing across the detectors and to set the overall time position of the ~10-ns wide signals within the 25-ns integration time slice. This position was chosen to ensure that the trigger primitives in physics events are generated synchronously at the desired bunch crossing, while also providing discrimination between the calorimeter signals and anomalous signals due to interactions within the photomultiplier tubes. This timing discrimination is now used in the standard filter algorithms for anomalous signals. For HB and HE, once the statistics needed to assess the timing of a sufficient number of channels was accumulated, it was verified that the time settings determined with cosmic, splash events and initial collision data were appropriate for the 7 TeV collision data taking. A further fine-tuning of the HB and HE time settings will be perfo...

  5. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Spalding and A. Skuja

    2010-01-01

    Splash and Collision Data HCAL recorded the beam-on-collimator (splash) and the first collision data in November and December 2009, and provided triggers to CMS with the forward calorimeter, HF. Splash events were used to improve the energy inter-calibration of the HB and HE channels, with the basic assumption that the energy deposited in the detector by the large flux of muons that passed through in splash events was a smooth function in eta and phi. The new HB and HE calibration coefficients were applied prior to the collision data taking. For HO, a similar analysis is being finalized. Splash events were also used to determine the relative timing between channels in HB and HE, and new delay settings were calculated based on splashes from one beam, applied and verified with the splash events from the other beam. During Fall 2009, the HF technical trigger was improved in order to be effectively used as one of the main CMS triggers during the collision data taking. Collisions were successfully recorded by all...

  6. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Bloch

    ECAL Barrel (EB) The cabling of the ECAL Barrel services on YB0 was completed early December 2007. The team has now commissioned the complete Barrel. To run all the supermodules in parallel, it is necessary to remove the heat from the service cables on YB0. The corresponding thermal screens are being installed and, for the time being, a max¬imum of 25 supermodules has been run concurrently. EB is read out regularly with a local DAQ as well as with the central DAQ and trigger. The calorimeter trigger has also been commissioned, allowing us to trigger on cosmic muons. ECAL Endcaps (EE) The Endcaps crystal production will be completed before the end of March 2008, as planned. The gluing of the VPTs (Vacuum Photo Triodes) on the crystals and the assembly of Supercrystals (sets of 25 crystals) are proceeding at the pace of 16 Supercrystals (400 channels) per week. Two thirds of the Supercrystals needed for the complete EE have been produced. Their mounting on the Dee backplates (including the connectio...

  7. Calibration of the ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter using muons

    CERN Document Server

    van Woerden, M C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the barrel hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is a sampling calorimeter using plastic scintillator as the active material and iron as the absorber. TileCal , together with the electromagnetic calorimeter, provides precise measurements of hadrons, jets, taus and the missing transverse energy. Cosmic rays muons and muon events produced by scraping 450 GeV protons in one collimator of the LHC machine have been used to test the calibration of the calorimeter. The analysis of the cosmic rays data shows: a) the response of the third longitudinal layer of the Barrel differs from those of the first and second Barrel layers by about 3-4%, respectively and b) the differences between the energy scales of each layer obtained in this analysis and the value set at beam tests using electrons are found to range between -3% and +1%. In the case of the scraping beam data, the responses of all the layer pairs were found to be consisten...

  8. ATLAS Calorimeters: Run-2 performance and Phase-II upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 10^{34} cm^{−2} s^{−1}. A liquid argon (LAr)-lead sampling calorimeter is employed as electromagnetic calorimeter and hadronic calorimter, except in the barrel region, where a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter (TileCal) is used as hadronic calorimter. This presentation will give first an overview of the detector operation and data quality, as well as the achieved performance of the ATLAS calorimetry system. Additionally, the upgrade projects of the ATLAS calorimeter system for the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) will be presented. For the HL-LHC, the instantaneous luminosity is expected to increase up to L ≃ 7.5 × 10^{34} cm^{−2} s^{−1} and the average pile-up up to 200 interactions per bunch crossing. The major R&D item is the upgrade of the electronics for both LAr and Tile calorimeters in order to cope wit...

  9. Fatalic, a very-front-end Asic for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Manen, Samuel Pierre; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Abstract—The ATLAS Collaboration has started a vast program of upgrades in the context of high-luminosity LHC (HLLHC) forseen in 2024. The current readout electronics of every subdetector, including the Tile Calorimeter (TileCal), must be upgraded to comply with the new specifications aiming for the future operating conditions. The ASIC described in this document, named Front-end ATlAs tiLe Integrated Circuit (FATALIC), has been developed to fulfil the requirements of the TileCal upgrade. FATALIC is based on a 130 nm CMOS technology and performs the complete processing of the signal, including amplification, shaping and digitization. The first stage is a current conveyor which splits the input signal into three ranges, allowing to deal with a large dynamic range (from 25 fC up to 1.2 nC). Each current conveyor output is followed by a shaper and a dedicated pipeline 12 bit ADC operating at 40 MHz. Measurements show a non-linearity at the percent level for a typical input charge of interest. The noise of the ...

  10. Design studies for the Phase II upgrade of the CMS Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Orimoto, Toyoko Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will provide unprecedented instantaneous and integrated luminosity. The lead tungstate crystals forming the barrel part of the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) will still perform well, even after the expected integrated luminosity of 3000fb-1 at the end of HL-LHC. The avalanche photodiodes (APDs) used to detect the scintillation light will also continue to be operational, although there will be some increase in noise due to radiation-induced dark currents. This will be mitigated by reducing the barrel operating temperature during HL-LHC running.The front-end electronics of the ECAL barrel will be replaced, in order to remove existing constraints on trigger rate and latency and to provide additional capability to fully exploit the higher luminosity delivered by the HL-LHC. New developments in high-speed optical links will allow single-crystal readout at 40 MHz to upgraded off-detector processors, allowing maximum flexibility and enhanced tri...

  11. The CMS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel upgrade for High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Planer, Michael David

    2014-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will provide unprecedented instantaneous and integrated luminosity. The lead tungstate crystals forming the barrel part of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) will still perform well, even after the expected 3000 fb-1 at the end of HL-LHC. The avalanche photodiodes (APDs) used to detect the scintillation light have recently been exposed to the levels of radiation expected at the end of HL-LHC. Although they will continue to be operational, there will be some increase in noise due to radiation-induced dark-currents. Triggering on electromagnetic objects with ~140 pileup events necessitates a change of the front-end electronics. New developments in high-speed optical links will allow single-crystal readout at 40 MHz to upgraded off-detector processors, allowing maximum flexibility and enhanced triggering capabilities. The very-front-end system will also be upgraded, to provide improved rejection of anomalous signals in the APDs as well as to mitigate the increase in APD n...

  12. The CMS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel upgrade for High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2071985

    2016-03-14

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will provide unprecedented instantaneous and integrated luminosity. The lead tungstate crystals forming the barrel part of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) will still perform well, even after the expected 3000fb-1 at the end of HL-LHC. The avalanche photodiodes (APDs) used to detect the scintillation light have recently been exposed to the levels of radiation expected at the end of HL-LHC. Although they will continue to be operational, there will be some increase in noise due to radiation-induced dark-currents. Triggering CMS with ~140 pileup events necessitates a change of the front-end electronics. New developments in high-speed optical links will allow single-crystal readout at 40 MHz. This will provide maximum flexibility and enhanced triggering possibilities when used in conjunction with upgraded off-detector processors. The very-front-end system will also be upgraded, to provide improved rejection of anomalous signals in the APDs as well as to mitigate the incr...

  13. A low-power high dynamic range front-end ASIC for imaging calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Bagliesi, M G; Marrocchesi, P S; Meucci, M; Millucci, V; Morsani, F; Paoletti, R; Pilo, F; Scribano, A; Turini, N; Valle, G D

    2002-01-01

    High granularity calorimeters with shower imaging capabilities require dedicated front-end electronics. The ICON 4CH and VA4 PMT chip-set is suitable for very high dynamic range systems with strict noise requirements. The ICON 4CH is a 4 channel input, 12 channel output ASIC designed for use in a multi-anode photomultiplier system with very large dynamic range and low-noise requirements. Each of the four input signals to the ASIC is split equally into three branches by a current conveyor. Each of the three branches is scaled differently: 1:1, 1:8 and 1:80. The signal is read out by a 12 channel low noise/low power high dynamic range charge sensitive preamplifier-shaper circuit (VA4-PMT chip), with simultaneous sample- and-hold, multiplexed analog read-out, calibration facilities. Tests performed in our lab with a PMT are reported in terms of linearity, dynamic range and cross-talk of the system. (5 refs).

  14. Drift time measurement in the ATLAS liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter using cosmic muons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aad..[], G.; Dam, Mogens; Hansen, Jørgen Beck

    2010-01-01

    on the constant term of the energy resolution. The drift times of electrons in the cells of the second layer of the calorimeter are uniform at the level of 1.3% in the barrel and 2.8% in the endcaps. This leads to an estimated contribution to the constant term of (0.29^{+0.05}_{-0.04})% in the barrel and (0......The ionization signals in the liquid argon of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter are studied in detail using cosmic muons. In particular, the drift time of the ionization electrons is measured and used to assess the intrinsic uniformity of the calorimeter gaps and estimate its impact...

  15. PANDA straw tube detectors and readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzempek, P.; Panda Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    PANDA is a detector under construction dedicated to studies of production and interaction of particles in the charmonium mass range using antiproton beams in the momentum range of 1.5 - 15 GeV/c at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt. PANDA consists of two spectrometers: a Target Spectrometer with a superconducting solenoid and a Forward Spectrometer using a large dipole magnet and covering the most forward angles (Θ < 10 °). In both spectrometers, the particle's trajectories in the magnetic field are measured using self-supporting straw tube detectors. The expected high count rates, reaching up to 1 MHz/straw, are one of the main challenges for the detectors and associated readout electronics. The paper presents the readout chain of the tracking system and the results of tests performed with realistic prototype setups. The readout chain consists of a newly developed ASIC chip (PASTTREC 〈 PANDASTTReadoutChip 〉) with amplification, signal shaping, tail cancellation, discriminator stages and Time Readout Boards as digitizer boards.

  16. Readout of the upgraded ALICE-ITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepankiewicz, A.; Alice Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The ALICE experiment will undergo a major upgrade during the second long shutdown of the CERN LHC. As part of this program, the present Inner Tracking System (ITS), which employs different layers of hybrid pixels, silicon drift and strip detectors, will be replaced by a completely new tracker composed of seven layers of monolithic active pixel sensors. The upgraded ITS will have more than twelve billion pixels in total, producing 300 Gbit/s of data when tracking 50 kHz Pb-Pb events. Two families of pixel chips realized with the TowerJazz CMOS imaging process have been developed as candidate sensors: the ALPIDE, which uses a proprietary readout and sparsification mechanism and the MISTRAL-O, based on a proven rolling shutter architecture. Both chips can operate in continuous mode, with the ALPIDE also supporting triggered operations. As the communication IP blocks are shared among the two chip families, it has been possible to develop a common Readout Electronics. All the sensor components (analog stages, state machines, buffers, FIFOs, etc.) have been modelled in a system level simulation, which has been extensively used to optimize both the sensor and the whole readout chain design in an iterative process. This contribution covers the progress of the R&D efforts and the overall expected performance of the ALICE-ITS readout system.

  17. Readout of the upgraded ALICE-ITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczepankiewicz, A., E-mail: Adam.Szczepankiewicz@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Institute of Computer Science, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-07-11

    The ALICE experiment will undergo a major upgrade during the second long shutdown of the CERN LHC. As part of this program, the present Inner Tracking System (ITS), which employs different layers of hybrid pixels, silicon drift and strip detectors, will be replaced by a completely new tracker composed of seven layers of monolithic active pixel sensors. The upgraded ITS will have more than twelve billion pixels in total, producing 300 Gbit/s of data when tracking 50 kHz Pb–Pb events. Two families of pixel chips realized with the TowerJazz CMOS imaging process have been developed as candidate sensors: the ALPIDE, which uses a proprietary readout and sparsification mechanism and the MISTRAL-O, based on a proven rolling shutter architecture. Both chips can operate in continuous mode, with the ALPIDE also supporting triggered operations. As the communication IP blocks are shared among the two chip families, it has been possible to develop a common Readout Electronics. All the sensor components (analog stages, state machines, buffers, FIFOs, etc.) have been modelled in a system level simulation, which has been extensively used to optimize both the sensor and the whole readout chain design in an iterative process. This contribution covers the progress of the R&D efforts and the overall expected performance of the ALICE-ITS readout system.

  18. A detailed study of the performance of the uranium-gas sampling calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arefiev, A.; Burov, S.; Chumakov, M.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Gordeev, A.; Gorodkov, Yu.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Klimentov, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Kunin, A.; Malinin, A.; Morgunov, V.; Plyaskin, V.; Pojidaev, V.; Rozhkov, A.; Savin, A.; Shevchenko, S.; Shevchenko, V.; Shmakov, K.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Tarkovsky, E.; Tchoudakov, V.; Vorobiev, I. (Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental' noj Fiziki, Moscow (USSR)); Azemoon, T.; Bal, R.; Capell, M.; Goldfarb, S.; Jones, L.W.; Mills, G.B.; Roe, B.P. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (USA)); Chen, H.S.; Lu, Y.S.; Tung, K.L. (Academia Sinica, Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics); Chen, M.; Ting, S.C.C. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (USA)); Gong, Z.F. (CCAST World Lab., Beijing, BJ (China) China Univ. of Science and Technology, Hefei, AH); Lecomte, P.; LeCoultre, P.; Lettry, J.; Lin, Z.R.; Spiess, B. (Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)); Ulbricht, J. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Wuerenlingen (Switzerland)); L3 Collaboration

    1989-12-20

    Results of experimental studies of the performance of the uranium calorimeter with gas sampling detectors are presented. There is further evidence showing the importance of the contribution of the neutron component of a hadronic shower to the detected signal. The response and the resolution of the uranium calorimeter are measured in the momentum range 0.3-0.6 GeV/c for the different incident particles and different gases that are used in the detectors. For a calorimeter structure with double-gas-detector layers, the correlation between signals from two calorimeters formed by chambers filled with different gas mixtures is measured. The topics that are relevant to the performance of the L3 uranium-gas sampling calorimeter - such as its operation in the magnetic field, the energy dependence of muon response, the uranium noise, as well as the electronics optimization - are discussed. (orig.).