WorldWideScience

Sample records for calorimeter detectors

  1. Barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shebalin, V. E., E-mail: V.E.Shebalin@inp.nsk.su; Anisenkov, A. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Bashtovoy, N. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Epifanov, D. A. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics (Japan); Epshteyn, L. B.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Ignatov, F. V.; Erofeev, A. L.; Kovalenko, O. A.; Kozyrev, A. N.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Logashenko, I. B.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Razuvaev, G. P.; Ruban, A. A.; Shwartz, B. A.; Talyshev, A. A.; Titov, V. M.; Yudin, Yu. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The structure of the barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector is presented in this work. The procedure of energy calibration of the calorimeter and the method of photon energy restoration are described. The distinctive feature of this barrel calorimeter is its combined structure; it is composed of two coaxial subsystems: a liquid xenon calorimeter and a crystalline CsI calorimeter. The calorimeter spatial resolution of the photon conversion point is about 2 mm, which corresponds to an angular resolution of ∼6 mrad. The energy resolution of the calorimeter is about 8% for photons with energy of 200 MeV and 4% for photons with energy of 1 GeV.

  2. Charge Detector for the Imaging Calorimeter for ACCESS (ICA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeongin; Adams, J. H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Cosmic Ray Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS) Mission is planned to consist of a transition radiation detector (TRD) and a thin ionization calorimeter. In order to measure the charge of the primary cosmic ray, it is necessary for the calorimeter to have its own charge detector. Silicon detectors are chosen for the charge detector because of their excellent resolution, small size and nearly square shape. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to find the probability of misidentifying protons as alpha particles due to backscattered radiation from the calorimeter. Simulations were also used to investigate identifying primary cosmic rays that fragmented in the TRD before reaching the calorimeter. For this study algorithms have been developed for determining a direction of the core shower in the calorimeter. These algorithms are used to find the approximate location of the primary particle in the silicon detectors. Results show the probability to misidentify the charge depends upon the energy and direction of the primary particles.

  3. Energy calibration of the barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisenkov, A. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Bashtovoy, N. S.; Bondar, A. E.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Epifanov, D. A.; Epshteyn, L. B.; Erofeev, A. L.; Kovalenko, O. A.; Kozyrev, A. N.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Logashenko, I. B.; Razuvaev, G. P.; Ruban, A. A.; Shebalin, V. E.; Shwartz, B. A.; Talyshev, A. A.; Titov, V. M.; Yudin, Yu. V.

    2017-04-01

    The VEPP-2000 e+e- collider has been operated in the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics since 2010. Experiments are carried out with two detectors CMD-3 and SND. The calorimetry at the CMD-3 detector is based on three subsystems, two coaxial barrel calorimeters—Liquid Xenon calorimeter and crystal CsI calorimeter, and end cap calorimeter with BGO crystals. This paper describes the procedures of the energy calibration of the combined barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector.

  4. LHCb: High Voltage system for the LHCb calorimeter detectors at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Konoplyannikov, A

    2006-01-01

    All calorimeters are equipped with Hamamatsu photo tubes as devices for light to signal conversion. Eight thousand R7899-20 tubes are used for the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters and two hundred 64 channels multi-anode R7600 -00-M64 for Scintillator-Pad/Preshower detectors. Similar photo-detectors are widely used in the Molecular Imaging applications.

  5. Calorimeter insertion

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Calorimeter insertion between toroids in the ATLAS experiment detector Calorimeters are surrounding the inner detector. Calorimeters will absorb and measure the energies of the most charged and neutral particles after the collisions. The saved energy in the calorimeter is detected and converted to signals that are taken out with data taking electronics.

  6. Design studies and sensor tests for the beam calorimeter of the ILC detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsova, E.

    2007-03-15

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is being designed to explore particle physics at the TeV scale. The design of the Very Forward Region of the ILC detector is considered in the presented work. The Beam Calorimeter - one of two electromagnetic calorimeters situated there - is the subject of this thesis. The Beam Calorimeter has to provide a good hermeticity for high energy electrons, positrons and photons down to very low polar angles, serve for fast beam diagnostics and shield the inner part of the detector from backscattered beamstrahlung remnants and synchrotron radiation. As a possible technology for the Beam Calorimeter a diamond-tungsten sandwich calorimeter is considered. Detailed simulation studies are done in order to explore the suitability of the considered design for the Beam Calorimeter objectives. Detection efficiency, energy and angular resolution for electromagnetic showers are studied. At the simulation level the diamondtungsten design is shown to match the requirements on the Beam Calorimeter performance. Studies of polycrystalline chemical vapour deposition (pCVD) diamond as a sensor material for the Beam Calorimeter are done to explore the properties of the material. Results of the measurements performed with pCVD diamond samples produced by different manufacturers are presented. (orig.)

  7. An electromagnetic calorimeter for the silicon detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silicon calorimeters are quite stable. Since the largest change in response is due to the electronics, it is designed with an internal calibration system. This internal calibration should limit the spread within a chip to ∼1%. Chip-to-chip variations could be larger. Each sensor might be calibrated after the readout chip has been.

  8. A Scintillator tile-fiber preshower detector for the CDF Central Calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Lami

    2004-08-12

    The front face of the CDF central calorimeter is being equipped with a new Preshower detector, based on scintillator tiles read out by WLS fibers. A light yield of about 40 pe/MIP at the tile exit was obtained, exceeding the design requirements.

  9. Upgrade of Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS detector for the High Luminosity LHC.

    CERN Document Server

    Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment. TileCal is a sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillators as active medium. The scintillators are read-out by wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The High Luminosity Large Hadron collider (HL-LHC) will have a peak luminosity of 5x10^34 cm-2s-1, five times higher than the design luminosity of the LHC. TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics for the high luminosity programme of the LHC in 2026. The calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals are reconstructed and shipped to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide a better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow th...

  10. Upgrade of Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS detector for the High Luminosity LHC.

    CERN Document Server

    Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment. TileCal is a sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillators as active medium. The scintillators are read-out by wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) will have a peak luminosity of $5 * 10^{34} cm^{-2} s ^{-1} $, five times higher than the design luminosity of the LHC. TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics for the high luminosity programme of the LHC in 2026. The calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals are reconstructed and shipped to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide a better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allo...

  11. Charged particle identification with the liquid Xenon calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V. L.; Fedotovich, G. V.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Kozyrev, A. A.; Shebalin, V. E.; Ruban, A. A.; Bashtovoy, N. S.

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes a procedure of particle identification with the liquid Xenon calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector currently being developed. The procedure uses the boosted decision tree classification method with specific energy losses of charged particles in the liquid Xenon calorimeter as input variables. The efficiency of the procedure is illustrated by an example of the measurement of the cross section of the process e+e-→K+K- in the center-of-mass energy range from 1.8 to 2.0 GeV.

  12. Radiation hardness and precision timing study of Silicon Detectors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL)

    CERN Document Server

    Curras Rivera, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    The high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC or Phase-II) is expected to increase the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC by a factor of about five, delivering about 250 fba-1 per year between 2025 and 2035. Under these conditions the performance degradation of detectors due to integrated radiation dose/fluence will need to be addressed. The CMS collaboration is planning to upgrade many components, including the forward calorimeters. The replacement for the existing endcap preshower, electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters is called the High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL) and it will be realized as a sampling calorimeter, including 30 layers of silicon detectors totalling 600m^2. The sensors will be realized as pad detectors with cell sizes of between 0.5-1.0 cm^2 and an active thickness between 100 um and 300 um depending on their location in the endcaps the thinner sensors will be used in the highest radiation environment. For an integrated luminosity of 3000 fba-1, the electromagnetic calorimetry will sustain integ...

  13. Radiation hardness of plastic scintillators for the Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Jivan, Harshna; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS detector, is a hadronic calorimeter responsible for detecting hadrons as well as accommodating for the missing transverse energy that result from the p-p collisions within the LHC. Plastic scintillators form an integral component of this calorimeter due to their ability to undergo prompt fluorescence when exposed to ionising particles. The scintillators employed are specifically chosen for their properties of high optical transmission and fast rise and decay time which enables efficient data capture since fast signal pulses can be generated. The main draw-back of plastic scintillators however is their susceptibility to radiation damage. The damage caused by radiation exposure reduces the scintillation light yield and introduces an error into the time-of flight data acquired. During Run 1 of the LHC data taking period, plastic scintillators employed within the GAP region between the Tile Calorimeter’s central and extended barrels sustained a significant amount of damage. Wit...

  14. Radiation hardness and precision timing study of Silicon detectors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter (HGC)

    CERN Document Server

    Curras, E; Gallrapp, C; Gray, L; Mannelli, M; Meridiani, P; Moll, M; Nourbakhsh, S; Scharf, C; Silva, P; Steinbrueck, G; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Vila, I

    2016-01-01

    The high luminosity upgraded LHC or Phase-II is expected to increase the instantaneous luminosity by a factor of 10 beyond the LHC's design value, expecting to deliver 250 fb^−1 per year for a further 10 years of operation. Under these conditions the performance degradation due to integrated radiation dose will need to be addressed. The CMS collaboration is planning to upgrade the forward calorimeters. The replacement is called the High Granularity Calorimeter (HGC) and it will be realized as a sampling calorimeter with layers of silicon detectors interleaved. The sensors will be realized as pad detectors with sizes of less that ∼1.0 cm^2 and an active thickness between 100 and 300 μm depending on the position, respectively, the expected radiation levels. For an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb^−1, the electromagnetic calorimetry will sustain integrated doses of 1.5 MGy (150 Mrads) and neutron fluences up to 10^16 neq/cm^2. A radiation tolerance study after neutron irradiation of 300, 200, and 100 μ...

  15. Studies towards optimisation of the analog hadronic calorimeter for future linear collider detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Huong Lan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Collaboration: CALICE-D-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Analog Hadronic Calorimeter (AHCAL) is a highly granular calorimeter developed in the CALICE collaboration for future linear collider detectors. Its design concept is based on 3 x 3 cm{sup 2} scintillator tiles readout by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM). With this design the ambitious required jet energy resolution of 3-4 % can be achieved using the Pandora Particle Flow Algorithm (PandoraPFA). Recent discussions concerning the overall size and cost of the ILD detector has triggered new studies to optimise AHCAL cell size. A smaller number of cells can reduce the detector cost but the corresponding larger cell size can lead to a degradation of the jet energy resolution. The AHCAL optimisation study therefore has to achieve the best balance between physics performance and cost. Recent studies using the latest version of PandoraPFA with improved pattern recognition have shown significant improvement of jet energy resolution. Moreover, a better energy reconstruction of single particles, in which software compensation plays an important role, can lead to further improvements. This talk will discuss the software compensation technique and its impact on the final cell size optimisation.

  16. Charged Particle Identification using the Liquid Xenon Calorimeter of the CMD-3 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Akhmetshin, R R; Anisenkov, A V; Aulchenko, V M; Banzarov, V Sh; Bashtovoy, N S; Bondar, A E; Bragin, A V; Eidelman, S I; Epifanov, D A; Epshteyn, L B; Erofeev, A L; Fedotovich, G V; Gayazov, S E; Grebenuk, A A; Gribanov, S S; Grigoriev, D N; Ignatov, F V; Ivanov, V L; Karpov, S V; Kazanin, V F; Korobov, A A; Kovalenko, O A; Kozyrev, A N; Kozyrev, E A; Krokovny, P P; Kuzmenko, A E; Kuzmin, A S; Logashenko, I B; Lukin, P A; Mikhailov, K Yu; Okhapkin, V S; Pestov, Yu N; Popov, A S; Razuvaev, G P; Ruban, A A; Ryskulov, N M; Ryzhenenkov, A E; Shebalin, V E; Shemyakin, D N; Shwartz, B A; Sibidanov, A L; Solodov, E P; Talyshev, A A; Titov, V M; Vorobiov, A I; Yudin, Yu V

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a currently being developed procedure of the charged particle identification for CMD-3 detector, installed at the VEPP-2000 collider. The procedure is based on the application of the boosted decision trees classification method, and uses as input variables, among others, the specific energy losses of charged particle in the layers of the liquid Xenon calorimeter. The efficiency of the procedure is demonstrated by an example of the extraction of events of e+e- to K+K- process in the center of mass energy range from 1.8 to 2.0 GeV.

  17. The Front End Electronics of the Scintillator Pad Detector of LHCb Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Gascon, David; Bota, S; Comerma, A; Diéguez, A; Garrido, L; Gaspar, A; Graciani, R; Graciani, E; Herms, A; Llorens, M; Luengo, S; Picatoste, E; Riera, J; Rosselló, M; Ruiz, H; Tortella, S; Vilasís, X

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the Front End electronics of the Scintillator Pad Detector (SPD) is outlined. The SPD is a sub-system of the Calorimeter of the LHCb experiment designed to discriminate between charged and neutral particles for the first level trigger. The system design is presented, describing its different functionalities implemented through three different cards and several ASICs. These functionalities are signal processing and digitization, data transmission, interface with control and timing systems of the experiment, low voltage power supply distribution and monitoring. Special emphasis is placed on installation and commissioning subjects such as cabling, grounding, shielding and power distribution.

  18. Radiation hardness and precision timing study of silicon detectors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter (HGC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currás, Esteban, E-mail: ecurrasr@cern.ch [CERN, Organisation europnne pour la recherche nucleaire, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland); Instituto de Física de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Avda. los Castros s/n, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Fernández, Marcos [Instituto de Física de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Avda. los Castros s/n, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Gallrapp, Christian [CERN, Organisation europnne pour la recherche nucleaire, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland); Gray, Lindsey [Fermilab, Wilson Street and Kirk Road, Batavia, IL 60510-5011, Illinois (United States); Mannelli, Marcello [CERN, Organisation europnne pour la recherche nucleaire, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland); Meridiani, Paolo [Istituto Nazionale Di Fisica Nucleare – Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Moll, Michael [CERN, Organisation europnne pour la recherche nucleaire, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland); Nourbakhsh, Shervin [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Scharf, Christian [Hamburg University, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Silva, Pedro [CERN, Organisation europnne pour la recherche nucleaire, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland); Steinbrueck, Georg [Hamburg University, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Fatis, Tommaso Tabarelli de [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Sezione di Milano-Bicocca Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); Vila, Iván [Instituto de Física de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Avda. los Castros s/n, E-39005 Santander (Spain)

    2017-02-11

    The high luminosity upgraded LHC or Phase-II is expected to increase the instantaneous luminosity by a factor of 10 beyond the LHC's design value, expecting to deliver 250 fb{sup −1} per year for a further 10 years of operation. Under these conditions the performance degradation due to integrated radiation dose will need to be addressed. The CMS collaboration is planning to upgrade the forward calorimeters. The replacement is called the High Granularity Calorimeter (HGC) and it will be realized as a sampling calorimeter with layers of silicon detectors interleaved. The sensors will be realized as pad detectors with sizes of less that ∼1.0 cm{sup 2} and an active thickness between 100 and 300 μm depending on the position, respectively, the expected radiation levels. For an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb{sup −1}, the electromagnetic calorimetry will sustain integrated doses of 1.5 MGy (150 Mrads) and neutron fluences up to 10{sup 16} neq/cm{sup 2}. A radiation tolerance study after neutron irradiation of 300, 200, and 100 μm n-on-p and p-on-n silicon pads irradiated to fluences up to 1.6×10{sup 16} neq/cm{sup 2} is presented. The properties of these diodes studied before and after irradiation were leakage current, capacitance, charge collection efficiency, annealing effects and timing capability. The results of these measurements validate these sensors as candidates for the HGC system.

  19. Large-Area Silicon Detectors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Pree, Elias

    2017-01-01

    During the so-called Phase-2 Upgrade, the CMS experiment at CERN will undergo significant improvements to cope with the 10-fold luminosity increase of the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) era. Especially the forward calorimetry will suffer from very high radiation levels and intensified pileup in the detectors. For this reason, the CMS collaboration is designing a High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL) to replace the existing endcap calorimeters. It features unprecedented transverse and longitudinal segmentation for both electromagnetic (CE-E) and hadronic (CE-H) compartments. The CE-E and a large fraction of CE-H will consist of a sandwich structure with silicon as active detector material. This paper presents an overview of the ongoing sensor development for the HGCAL and highlights important design features and measurement techniques. The design and layout of an 8-inch silicon sensor prototype is shown. The hexagonal sensors consist of 235 pads, each with an area of about \\mbox{1~cm$^{2}$}. Furthermore, Synopsys...

  20. A High Granularity Timing Detector for the Phase-2 Upgrade of the ATLAS Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Sebastian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The expected increase of the particle flux at the high luminosity phase of the LHC with instantaneous luminosities up to L ≃ 7.5 × 10^{34} cm^{−2} s^{−1} will have a severe impact on pile-up. The pile-up is expected to increase on average to 200 interactions per bunch crossing. The reconstruction and trigger performance for especially jets and transverse missing energy will be severely degraded in the end-cap and forward region. A High Granularity Timing Detector (HGTD) is proposed in front of the liquid Argon end-cap calorimeters for pile-up mitigation at Level-0 (L0) trigger level and in the offline reconstruction. This device cover the pseudo-rapidity range of 2.4 to about 4.2. Four layers of Silicon sensors, possibly interleaved with Tungsten, are foreseen to provide precision timing information for charged and neutral particles with a time resolution of the order of 30 pico-seconds per readout cell in order to assign the energy deposits in the calorimeter to different proton-proton collision verti...

  1. Performance of fully instrumented detector planes of the forward calorimeter of a Linear Collider detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abusleme, A.; Afanaciev, K.; Aguilar, J.; Alvarez, E.; Avila, D.; Benhammou, Y.; Bortko, L.; Borysov, O.; Bergholz, M.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Castro, E.; Chelkov, G.; Coca, C.; Daniluk, W.; Dumitru, L.; Elsener, K.; Fadeyev, V.; Firlej, M.; Firu, E.; Fiutowski, T.; Ghenescu, V.; Gostkin, M.; Henschel, H.; Idzik, M.; Ishikawa, A.; Kananov, S.; Kollowa, S.; Kotov, S.; Kotula, J.; Kozhevnikov, D.; Kruchonok, V.; Krupa, B.; Kulis, Sz.; Lange, W.; Lesiak, T.; Levy, A.; Levy, I.; Lohmann, W.; Lukic, S.; Milke, C.; Moron, J.; Moszczynski, A.; Neagu, A. T.; Novgorodova, O.; Oliwa, K.; Orlandea, M.; Pandurovic, M.; Pawlik, B.; Preda, T.; Przyborowski, D.; Rosenblat, O.; Sailer, A.; Sato, Y.; Schumm, B.; Schuwalow, S.; Smiljanic, I.; Smolyanskiy, P.; Swientek, K.; Teodorescu, E.; Terlecki, P.; Wierba, W.; Wojton, T.; Yamaguchi, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Zawiejski, L.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhemchugov, A.

    2015-05-01

    Detector-plane prototypes of the very forward calorimetry of a future detector at an e+e- collider have been built and their performance was measured in an electron beam. The detector plane comprises silicon or GaAs pad sensors, dedicated front-end and ADC ASICs, and an FPGA for data concentration. Measurements of the signal-to-noise ratio and the response as a function of the position of the sensor are presented. A deconvolution method is successfully applied, and a comparison of the measured shower shape as a function of the absorber depth with a Monte-Carlo simulation is given.

  2. Performance of fully instrumented detector planes of the forward calorimeter of a Linear Collider detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H.; Afanaciev, K.; Aguilar, J.; Alvarez, E.; Avila, D.; Benhammou, Y.; Bortko, L.; Borysov, O.; Bergholz, M.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Castro, E.; Chelkov, G.; Coca, C.; Daniluk, W.; Dumitru, L.; Elsener, K.; Fadeyev, V.; Firlej, M.; Firu, E.; Fiutowski, T.; Ghenescu, V.; Gostkin, M.; Henschel, H.; Idzik, M.; Ishikawa, A.; Kananov, S.; Kollowa, S.; Kotov, S.; Kotula, J.; Kozhevnikov, D.; Kruchonok, V.; Krupa, B.; Kulis, Sz.; Lange, W.; Lesiak, T.; Levy, A.; Levy, I.; Lohmann, W.; Lukic, S.; Milke, C.; Moron, J.; Moszczynski, A.; Neagu, A.T.; Novgorodova, O.; Oliwa, K.; Orlandea, M.; Pandurovic, M.; Pawlik, B.; Preda, T.; Przyborowski, D.; Rosenblat, O.; Sailer, A.; Sato, Y.; Schumm, B.; Schuwalow, S.; Smiljanic, I.; Smolyanskiy, P.; Swientek, K.; Teodorescu, E.; Terlecki, P.; Wierba, W.; Wojton, T.; Yamaguchi, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Zawiejski, L.; Zgura, I.S.; Zhemchugov, A.

    2015-01-01

    Detector-plane prototypes of the very forward calorimetry of a future detector at an $e^+e^-$ collider have been built and their performance was measured in an electron beam. The detector plane comprises silicon or GaAs pad sensors, dedicated front-end and ADC ASICs, and an FPGA for data concentration. Measurements of the signal-to-noise ratio for different feedback schemes and the response as a function of the position of the sensor are presented. A deconvolution method is successfully applied, and a comparison of the measured shower shape as a function of the absorber depth with a Monte-Carlo simulation is given.

  3. Latest developments on the highly granular Silicon-Tungsten Electromagnetic Calorimeter technological prototype for the International Large Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Irles, Adrián

    2017-01-01

    High precision physics at future colliders requires unprecedented highly granular calorimeters for the application of the Particle Flow (PF) algorithm. The physical proof of concept was given in the previous campaign of beam tests of physic prototypes within the CALICE collaboration. We present here the latest beam and laboratory test results and R&D developments for the Silicon-Tungsten Electromagnetic Calorimeter technological prototype with fully embedded very front-end (VFE) electronics for the International Large Detector at the International Linear Collider project.

  4. The electromagnetic calorimeter for the T2K near detector ND280

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, D.; Andreopoulos, C.; Angelsen, C.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bentham, S.; Bertram, I.; Boyd, S.; Briggs, K.; Calland, R. G.; Carroll, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Carver, A.; Chavez, C.; Christodoulou, G.; Coleman, J.; Cooke, P.; Davies, G.; Densham, C.; Di Lodovico, F.; Dobson, J.; Duboyski, T.; Durkin, T.; Evans, D. L.; Finch, A.; Fitton, M.; Gannaway, F. C.; Grant, A.; Grant, N.; Grenwood, S.; Guzowski, P.; Hadley, D.; Haigh, M.; Harrison, P. F.; Hatzikoutelis, A.; Haycock, T. D. J.; Hyndman, A.; Ilic, J.; Ives, S.; Kaboth, A. C.; Kasey, V.; Kellet, L.; Khaleeq, M.; Kogan, G.; Kormos, L. L.; Lawe, M.; Lawson, T. B.; Lister, C.; Litchfield, R. P.; Lockwood, M.; Malek, M.; Maryon, T.; Masliah, P.; Mavrokoridis, K.; McCauley, N.; Mercer, I.; Metelko, C.; Morgan, B.; Morris, J.; Muir, A.; Murdoch, M.; Nicholls, T.; Noy, M.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Owen, R. A.; Payne, D.; Pearce, G. F.; Perkin, J. D.; Poplawska, E.; Preece, R.; Qian, W.; Ratoff, P.; Raufer, T.; Raymond, M.; Reeves, M.; Richards, D.; Rooney, M.; Sacco, R.; Sadler, S.; Schaack, P.; Scott, M.; Scully, D. I.; Short, S.; Siyad, M.; Smith, R.; Still, B.; Sutcliffe, P.; Taylor, I. J.; Terri, R.; Thompson, L. F.; Thorley, A.; Thorpe, M.; Timis, C.; Touramanis, C.; Uchida, M. A.; Uchida, Y.; Vacheret, A.; Van Schalkwyk, J. F.; Veledar, O.; Waldron, A. V.; Ward, M. A.; Ward, G. P.; Wark, D.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; West, N.; Whitehead, L. H.; Wilkinson, C.; Wilson, J. R.

    2013-10-01

    The T2K experiment studies oscillations of an off-axis muon neutrino beam between the J-PARC accelerator complex and the Super-Kamiokande detector. Special emphasis is placed on measuring the mixing angle θ13 by observing νe appearance via the sub-dominant νμ → νe oscillation and searching for CP violation in the lepton sector. The experiment includes a sophisticated, off-axis, near detector, the ND280, situated 280 m downstream of the neutrino production target in order to measure the properties of the neutrino beam and to understand better neutrino interactions at the energy scale below a few GeV. The data collected with the ND280 are used to study charged- and neutral-current neutrino interaction rates and kinematics prior to oscillation, in order to reduce uncertainties in the oscillation measurements by the far detector. A key element of the near detector is the ND280 electromagnetic calorimeter (ECal), consisting of active scintillator bars sandwiched between lead sheets and read out with multi-pixel photon counters (MPPCs). The ECal is vital to the reconstruction of neutral particles, and the identification of charged particle species. The ECal surrounds the Pi-0 detector (PØD) and the tracking region of the ND280, and is enclosed in the former UA1/NOMAD dipole magnet. This paper describes the design, construction and assembly of the ECal, as well as the materials from which it is composed. The electronic and data acquisition (DAQ) systems are discussed, and performance of the ECal modules, as deduced from measurements with particle beams, cosmic rays, the calibration system, and T2K data, is described.

  5. Simulation of the Scintillator Geometry in the Electromagnetic Calorimeter in the CLAS12 Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Keegan; Gilfoyle, Gerard

    2012-10-01

    We have modified the geometry of the electromagnetic calorimeter (EC) in a simulation of the CLAS12 detector at Jefferson Lab (JLab). The goal of JLab is to understand how quarks and gluons form nucleons and nuclei. It is being upgraded with a higher energy beam and new detectors including CLAS12 in Hall B. To prepare for CLAS12's operation, we use the code gemc that is based on Geant4 to simulate particle tracks. The EC is one of the CLAS12 components and it is used to measure the energy and position of charged and neutral particles. It is composed of alternating layers of lead and scintillating plastic. Each layer of scintillator is, in turn, composed of 36 parallel strips that form a triangle about 4.7 m on a side. Adjacent layers are rotated 120 degrees so the crossed strips can be used to determine the position of a hit. In the past the scintillators have been defined as a large slab instead of stips to reduce computation time. We have redefined them as the more realistic strips in gemc. Using the UNIX ``time'' command we observe about a 5% increase in CPU time in the EC simulation. To test the effect on the interactive graphics in gemc we use glxgears and see about a 25% decrease in frame rate.

  6. The Design, Implementation, and Performance of the Astro-H SXS Calorimeter Array and Anti-Coincidence Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Adams, Joseph S.; Brekosky, Regis P.; Chiao, Meng P.; Chervenak, James A.; Eckart, Megan E.; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Galeazzi, Masimilliano; Grein, Christoph; Jhabvala, Christine A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The calorimeter array of the JAXA Astro-H (renamed Hitomi) Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) was designed to provide unprecedented spectral resolution of spatially extended cosmic x-ray sources and of all cosmic x-ray sources in the Fe-K band around 6 keV, enabling essential plasma diagnostics. The SXS has a square array of 36 microcalorimeters at the focal plane. These calorimeters consist of ion-implanted silicon thermistors and HgTe thermalizing x-ray absorbers. These devices have demonstrated a resolution of better than 4.5 eV at 6 keV when operated at a heat-sink temperature of 50 mK. We will discuss the basic physical parameters of this array, including the array layout, thermal conductance of the link to the heat sink, resistance function, absorber details, and means of attaching the absorber to the thermistor-bearing element. We will also present the thermal characterization of the whole array, including thermal conductance and crosstalk measurements and the results of pulsing the frame temperature via alpha particles, heat pulses, and the environmental background. A silicon ionization detector is located behind the calorimeter array and serves to reject events due to cosmic rays. We will briefly describe this anti-coincidence detector and its performance.

  7. Photon reconstruction in the ATLAS Inner Detector and Liquid Argon Barrel Calorimeter at the 2004 Combined Test Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Abat, E; Addy, T N; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Ahmad, A; Akesson, T.P A; Aleksa, M; Alexa, C; Anderson, K; Andreazza, A; Anghinolfi, F; Antonaki, A; Arabidze, G; Arik, E; Atkinson, T; Baines, J; Baker, O K; Banfi, D; Baron, S; Barr, A J; Beccherle, R; Beck, H P; Belhorma, B; Bell, P J; Benchekroun, D; Benjamin, D P; Benslama, K; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Bernabeu, J; Bertelsen, H; Binet, S; Biscarat, C; Boldea, V; Bondarenko, V G; Boonekamp, M; Bosman, M; Bourdarios, C; Broklova, Z; Burckhart-Chromek, D; Bychkov, V; Callahan, J; Calvet, D; Canneri, M; Capeans Garrido, M; Caprini, M; Cardiel Sas, L; Carli, T; Carminati, L; Carvalho, J; Cascella, M; Castillo, M V; Catinaccio, A; Cauz, D; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Cetin, S A; Chen, H; Cherkaoui, R; Chevalier, L; Chevallier, F; Chouridou, S; Ciobotaru, M; Citterio, M; Clark, A; Cleland, B; Cobal, M; Cogneras, E; Conde Muino, P; Consonni, M; Constantinescu, S; Cornelissen, T; Correard, S; Corso-Radu, A; Costa, G; Costa, M J; Costanzo, D; Cuneo, S; Cwetanski, P; Da Silva, D; Dam, M; Dameri, M; Danielsson, H O; Dannheim, D; Darbo, G; Davidek, T; De, K; Defay, P O; Dekhissi, B; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; Delmastro, M; Derue, F; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Dittus, F; Djama, F; Djobava, T; Dobos, D; Dobson, M; Dolgoshein, B A; Dotti, A; Drake, G; Drasal, Z; Dressnandt, N; Driouchi, C; Drohan, J; Ebenstein, W L; Eerola, P; Efthymiopoulos, I; Egorov, K; Eifert, T F; Einsweiler, K; El Kacimi, M; Elsing, M; Emelyanov, D; Escobar, C; Etienvre, A I; Fabich, A; Facius, K; Idrissi Fakhr-Eddine, A; Fanti, M; Farbin, A; Farthouat, P; Fassouliotis, D; Fayard, L; Febbraro, R; Fedin, O L; Fenyuk, A; Fergusson, D; Ferrari, P; Ferrari, R; Ferreira, B C; Ferrer, A; Ferrere, D; Filippini, G; Flick, T; Fournier, D; Francavilla, P; Francis, D; Froeschl, R; Froidevaux, D; Fullana, E; Gadomski, S; Gagliardi, G; Gagnon, P; Gallas, M; Gallop, B J; Gameiro, S; Gan, K K; Garcia, R; Garcia, C; Gavrilenko, I L; Gemme, C; Gerlach, P; Ghodbane, N; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giangiobbe, V; Giokaris, N; Glonti, G; Gottfert, T.; Golling, T; Gollub, N; Gomes, A; Gomez, M D; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Goodrick, M J; Gorfine, G; Gorini, B; Goujdami, D; Grahn, K J; Grenier, P; Grigalashvili, N; Grishkevich, Y; Grosse-Knetter, J; Gruwe, M; Guicheney, C; Gupta, A; Haeberli, C; Hartel, R.; Hajduk, Z; Hakobyan, H; Hance, M; Hansen, J D; Hansen, P H; Hara, K; Harvey, A., Jr; Hawkings, R J; Heinemann, F.E W; Henriques Correia, A; Henss, T; Hervas, L; Higon, E; Hill, J C; Hoffman, J; Hostachy, J Y; Hruska, I; Hubaut, F; Huegging, F; Hulsbergen, W; Hurwitz, M; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Jansen, E; Jen-La Plante, I; Johansson, P.D C; Jon-And, K; Joos, M; Jorgensen, S; Joseph, J; Kaczmarska, A; Kado, M; Karyukhin, A; Kataoka, M; Kayumov, F; Kazarov, A; Keener, P T; Kekelidze, G D; Kerschen, N; Kersten, S; Khomich, A; Khoriauli, G; Khramov, E; Khristachev, A; Khubua, J; Kittelmann, T H; Klingenberg, R; Klinkby, E B; Kodys, P; Koffas, T; Kolos, S; Konovalov, S P; Konstantinidis, N; Kopikov, S; Korolkov, I; Kostyukhin, V; Kovalenko, S; Kowalski, T Z; Kruger, K.; Kramarenko, V; Kudin, L G; Kulchitsky, Y; Lacasta, C; Lafaye, R; Laforge, B; Lampl, W; Lanni, F; Laplace, S; Lari, T; Le Bihan, A C; Lechowski, M; Ledroit-Guillon, F; Lehmann, G; Leitner, R; Lelas, D; Lester, C G; Liang, Z; Lichard, P; Liebig, W; Lipniacka, A; Lokajicek, M; Louchard, L; Loureiro, K F; Lucotte, A; Luehring, F; Lund-Jensen, B; Lundberg, B; Ma, H; Mackeprang, R; Maio, A; Maleev, V P; Malek, F; Mandelli, L; Maneira, J; Mangin-Brinet, M; Manousakis, A; Mapelli, L; Marques, C; Marti i Garcia, S; Martin, F; Mathes, M; Mazzanti, M; McFarlane, K W; McPherson, R; Mchedlidze, G; Mehlhase, S; Meirosu, C; Meng, Z; Meroni, C; Mialkovski, V; Mikulec, B; Milstead, D; Minashvili, I; Mindur, B; Mitsou, V A; Moed, S; Monnier, E; Moorhead, G; Morettini, P; Morozov, S V; Mosidze, M; Mouraviev, S V; Moyse, E.W J; Munar, A; Myagkov, A; Nadtochi, A V; Nakamura, K; Nechaeva, P; Negri, A; Nemecek, S; Nessi, M; Nesterov, S Y; Newcomer, F M; Nikitine, I; Nikolaev, K; Nikolic-Audit, I; Ogren, H; Oh, S H; Oleshko, S B; Olszowska, J; Onofre, A; Padilla Aranda, C; Paganis, S; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Paolone, V; Parodi, F; Parsons, J; Parzhitski, S; Pasqualucci, E; Passmore, S M; Pater, J; Patrichev, S; Peez, M; Perez Reale, V; Perini, L; Peshekhonov, V D; Petersen, J; Petersen, T C; Petti, R; Phillips, P W; Pilcher, J; Pina, J; Pinto, B; Podlyski, F; Poggioli, L; Poppleton, A; Poveda, J; Pralavorio, P; Pribyl, L; Price, M J; Prieur, D; Puigdengoles, C; Puzo, P; Ragusa, F; Rajagopalan, S; Reeves, K; Reisinger, I; Rembser, C; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.A.; Reznicek, P; Ridel, M; Risso, P; Riu, I; Robinson, D; Roda, C; Roe, S; Rohne, O.; Romaniouk, A; Rousseau, D; Rozanov, A; Ruiz, A; Rusakovich, N; Rust, D; Ryabov, Y F; Ryjov, V; Salto, O; Salvachua, B; Salzburger, A; Sandaker, H; Santamarina Rios, C.Santamarina; Santi, L; Santoni, C; Saraiva, J G; Sarri, F; Sauvage, G; Says, L P; Schaefer, M; Schegelsky, V A; Schiavi, C; Schieck, J; Schlager, G; Schlereth, J; Schmitt, C; Schultes, J; Schwemling, P; Schwindling, J; Seixas, J M; Seliverstov, D M; Serin, L; Sfyrla, A; Shalanda, N; Shaw, C; Shin, T; Shmeleva, A; Silva, J; Simion, S; Simonyan, M; Sloper, J E; Smirnov, S.Yu; Smirnova, L; Solans, C; Solodkov, A; Solovianov, O; Soloviev, I; Sosnovtsev, V V; Spano, F; Speckmayer, P; Stancu, S; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E; Straessner, A; Suchkov, S I; Suk, M; Szczygiel, R; Tarrade, F; Tartarelli, F; Tas, P; Tayalati, Y; Tegenfeldt, F; Teuscher, R; Thioye, M; Tikhomirov, V O; Timmermans, C.J.W P; Tisserant, S; Toczek, B; Tremblet, L; Troncon, C; Tsiareshka, P; Tyndel, M; Karagoz Unel, M.; Unal, G; Unel, G; Usai, G; Van Berg, R; Valero, A; Valkar, S; Valls, J A; Vandelli, W; Vannucci, F; Vartapetian, A; Vassilakopoulos, V I; Vasilyeva, L; Vazeille, F; Vernocchi, F; Vetter-Cole, Y; Vichou, I; Vinogradov, V; Virzi, J; Vivarelli, I; de Vivie, J B; Volpi, M; Vu Anh, T; Wang, C; Warren, M; Weber, J; Weber, M; Weidberg, A R; Weingarten, J; Wells, P S; Werner, P; Wheeler, S; Wiesmann, M; Wilkens, H; Williams, H H; Wingerter-Seez, I; Yasu, Y; Zaitsev, A; Zenin, A; Zenis, T; Zenonos, Z; Zhang, H; Zhelezko, A; Zhou, N

    2011-01-01

    The reconstruction of photons in the ATLAS detector is studied with data taken during the 2004 Combined Test Beam, where a full slice of the ATLAS detector was exposed to beams of particles of known energy at the CERN SPS. The results presented show significant differences in the longitudinal development of the electromagnetic shower between converted and unconverted photons as well as in the total measured energy. The potential to use the reconstructed converted photons as a means to precisely map the material of the tracker in front of the electromagnetic calorimeter is also considered. All results obtained are compared with a detailed Monte-Carlo simulation of the test-beam setup which is based on the same simulation and reconstruction tools as those used for the ATLAS detector itself.

  8. Photon reconstruction in the ATLAS Inner Detector and Liquid Argon Barrel Calorimeter at the 2004 Combined Test Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abat, E.; Abdallah, J. M.; Addy, T. N.; Adragna, P.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahmad, A.; Akesson, T. P. A.; Aleksa, M.; Alexa, C.; Anderson, K.; Andreazza, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Antonaki, A.; Arabidze, G.; Arik, E.; Atkinson, T.; Baines, J.; Baker, O. K.; Banfi, D.; Baron, S.; Barr, A. J.; Beccherle, R.; Beck, H. P.; Belhorma, B.; Bell, P. J.; Benchekroun, D.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benslama, K.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Bernabeu, J.; Bertelsen, H.; Binet, S.; Biscarat, C.; Boldea, V.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Boonekamp, M.; Bosman, M.; Bourdarios, C.; Broklova, Z.; Burckhart Chromek, D.; Bychkov, V.; Callahan, J.; Calvet, D.; Canneri, M.; Capeáns Garrido, M.; Caprini, M.; Cardiel Sas, L.; Carli, T.; Carminati, L.; Carvalho, J.; Cascella, M.; Castillo, M. V.; Catinaccio, A.; Cauz, D.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Cetin, S. A.; Chen, H.; Cherkaoui, R.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chouridou, S.; Ciobotaru, M.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Cleland, B.; Cobal, M.; Cogneras, E.; Conde Muino, P.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Cornelissen, T.; Correard, S.; Corso Radu, A.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Cuneo, S.; Cwetanski, P.; Da Silva, D.; Dam, M.; Dameri, M.; Danielsson, H. O.; Dannheim, D.; Darbo, G.; Davidek, T.; De, K.; Defay, P. O.; Dekhissi, B.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delmastro, M.; Derue, F.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, M.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dotti, A.; Drake, G.; Drasal, Z.; Dressnandt, N.; Driouchi, C.; Drohan, J.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Eerola, P.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Egorov, K.; Eifert, T. F.; Einsweiler, K.; El Kacimi, M.; Elsing, M.; Emelyanov, D.; Escobar, C.; Etienvre, A. I.; Fabich, A.; Facius, K.; Fakhr-Edine, A. I.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farthouat, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fayard, L.; Febbraro, R.; Fedin, O. L.; Fenyuk, A.; Fergusson, D.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira, B. C.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Filippini, G.; Flick, T.; Fournier, D.; Francavilla, P.; Francis, D.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Fullana, E.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Gallas, M.; Gallop, B. J.; Gameiro, S.; Gan, K. K.; Garcia, R.; Garcia, C.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gemme, C.; Gerlach, P.; Ghodbane, N.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giokaris, N.; Glonti, G.; Goettfert, T.; Golling, T.; Gollub, N.; Gomes, A.; Gomez, M. D.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodrick, M. J.; Gorfine, G.; Gorini, B.; Goujdami, D.; Grahn, K.-J.; Grenier, P.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grishkevich, Y.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Gruwe, M.; Guicheney, C.; Gupta, A.; Haeberli, C.; Haertel, R.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Hance, M.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Harvey, A., Jr.; Hawkings, R. J.; Heinemann, F. E. W.; Henriques Correia, A.; Henss, T.; Hervas, L.; Higon, E.; Hill, J. C.; Hoffman, J.; Hostachy, J. Y.; Hruska, I.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hurwitz, M.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Jansen, E.; Jen-La Plante, I.; Johansson, P. D. C.; Jon-And, K.; Joos, M.; Jorgensen, S.; Joseph, J.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Karyukhin, A.; Kataoka, M.; Kayumov, F.; Kazarov, A.; Keener, P. T.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Kerschen, N.; Kersten, S.; Khomich, A.; Khoriauli, G.; Khramov, E.; Khristachev, A.; Khubua, J.; Kittelmann, T. H.; Klingenberg, R.; Klinkby, E. B.; Kodys, P.; Koffas, T.; Kolos, S.; Konovalov, S. P.; Konstantinidis, N.; Kopikov, S.; Korolkov, I.; Kostyukhin, V.; Kovalenko, S.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Krüger, K.; Kramarenko, V.; Kudin, L. G.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Lacasta, C.; Lafaye, R.; Laforge, B.; Lampl, W.; Lanni, F.; Laplace, S.; Lari, T.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Lechowski, M.; Ledroit-Guillon, F.; Lehmann, G.; Leitner, R.; Lelas, D.; Lester, C. G.; Liang, Z.; Lichard, P.; Liebig, W.; Lipniacka, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Louchard, L.; Loureiro, K. F.; Lucotte, A.; Luehring, F.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Lundberg, B.; Ma, H.; Mackeprang, R.; Maio, A.; Maleev, V. P.; Malek, F.; Mandelli, L.; Maneira, J.; Mangin-Brinet, M.; Manousakis, A.; Mapelli, L.; Marques, C.; Garcia, S. Marti i.; Martin, F.; Mathes, M.; Mazzanti, M.; McFarlane, K. W.; McPherson, R.; Mchedlidze, G.; Mehlhase, S.; Meirosu, C.; Meng, Z.; Meroni, C.; Mialkovski, V.; Mikulec, B.; Milstead, D.; Minashvili, I.; Mindur, B.; Mitsou, V. A.; Moed, S.; Monnier, E.; Moorhead, G.; Morettini, P.; Morozov, S. V.; Mosidze, M.; Mouraviev, S. V.; Moyse, E. W. J.; Munar, A.; Myagkov, A.; Nadtochi, A. V.; Nakamura, K.; Nechaeva, P.; Negri, A.; Nemecek, S.; Nessi, M.; Nesterov, S. Y.; Newcomer, F. M.; Nikitine, I.; Nikolaev, K.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Ogren, H.; Oh, S. H.; Oleshko, S. B.; Olszowska, J.; Onofre, A.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Paganis, S.; Pallin, D.; Pantea, D.; Paolone, V.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J.; Parzhitskiy, S.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passmored, S. M.; Pater, J.; Patrichev, S.; Peez, M.; Perez Reale, V.; Perini, L.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Petersen, J.; Petersen, T. C.; Petti, R.; Phillips, P. W.; Pilcher, J.; Pina, J.; Pinto, B.; Podlyski, F.; Poggioli, L.; Poppleton, A.; Poveda, J.; Pralavorio, P.; Pribyl, L.; Price, M. J.; Prieur, D.; Puigdengoles, C.; Puzo, P.; Ragusa, F.; Rajagopalan, S.; Reeves, K.; Reisinger, I.; Rembser, C.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Reznicek, P.; Ridel, M.; Risso, P.; Riu, I.; Robinson, D.; Roda, C.; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Romaniouk, A.; Rousseau, D.; Rozanov, A.; Ruiz, A.; Rusakovich, N.; Rust, D.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryjov, V.; Salto, O.; Salvachua, B.; Salzburger, A.; Sandaker, H.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santi, L.; Santoni, C.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarri, F.; Sauvage, G.; Says, L. P.; Schaefer, M.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schlager, G.; Schlereth, J.; Schmitt, C.; Schultes, J.; Schwemling, P.; Schwindling, J.; Seixas, J. M.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Serin, L.; Sfyrla, A.; Shalanda, N.; Shaw, C.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Silva, J.; Simion, S.; Simonyan, M.; Sloper, J. E.; Smirnov, S. Yu; Smirnova, L.; Solans, C.; Solodkov, A.; Solovianov, O.; Soloviev, I.; Sosnovtsev, V. V.; Spanò, F.; Speckmayer, P.; Stancu, S.; Stanek, R.; Starchenko, E.; Straessner, A.; Suchkov, S. I.; Suk, M.; Szczygiel, R.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, F.; Tas, P.; Tayalati, Y.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Teuscher, R.; Thioye, M.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Timmermans, C. J. W. P.; Tisserant, S.; Toczek, B.; Tremblet, L.; Troncon, C.; Tsiareshka, P.; Tyndel, M.; Karagoez Unel, M.; Unal, G.; Unel, G.; Usai, G.; Van Berg, R.; Valero, A.; Valkar, S.; Valls, J. A.; Vandelli, W.; Vannucci, F.; Vartapetian, A.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vazeille, F.; Vernocchi, F.; Vetter-Cole, Y.; Vichou, I.; Vinogradov, V.; Virzi, J.; Vivarelli, I.; de Vivie, J. B.; Volpi, M.; Anh, T. Vu; Wang, C.; Warren, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weingarten, J.; Wells, P. S.; Werner, P.; Wheeler, S.; Wiessmann, M.; Wilkens, H.; Williams, H. H.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Yasu, Y.; Zaitsev, A.; Zenin, A.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhelezko, A.; Zhou, N.

    2011-04-01

    The reconstruction of photons in the ATLAS detector is studied with data taken during the 2004 Combined Test Beam, where a full slice of the ATLAS detector was exposed to beams of particles of known energy at the CERN SPS. The results presented show significant differences in the longitudinal development of the electromagnetic shower between converted and unconverted photons as well as in the total measured energy. The potential to use the reconstructed converted photons as a means to precisely map the material of the tracker in front of the electromagnetic calorimeter is also considered. All results obtained are compared with a detailed Monte-Carlo simulation of the test-beam setup which is based on the same simulation and reconstruction tools as those used for the ATLAS detector itself.

  9. ATLAS - End-Cap calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Unit

    2006-01-01

    The End-cap calorimeter was moved with the help of the rails and this calorimeter will measure the energy of particles close to the beam axis when protons collide. Cooling is important for maximum detector efficiency.

  10. A High-Granularity Timing Detector for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS Calorimeter system: detector concept description and first beam test results

    CERN Document Server

    Argyropoulos, Spyridon; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The expected increase of the particle flux at the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) with instantaneous luminosities up to L ≃ 7.5 × 1034 cm−2 s-1 will have a severe impact on the ATLAS detector performance. The pile-up is expected to increase on average to 200 interactions per bunch crossing. The reconstruction and trigger performance for electrons, photons as well as jets and transverse missing energy will be severely degraded in the end-cap and forward region, where the liquid Argon based electromagnetic calorimeter has coarser granularity compared to the central region. A High Granularity Timing Detector (HGTD) is proposed in front of the liquid Argon end-cap calorimeters for pile-up mitigation at Level-0 (L0) trigger level and in the offline reconstruction. This device should cover the pseudo-rapidity range of 2.4 to about 4.2. Four layers of Silicon sensors are foreseen to provide a precision timing information for minimum ionizing particle with a time resolution better than 50 pico-seconds ...

  11. A High Granular Timing Detector for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS Calorimeter system: detector concept description and first beam test results

    CERN Document Server

    Lacour, Didier; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The expected increase of the particle flux at the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) with instantaneous luminosities up to L ≃ 7.5 × 1034 cm−2 s-1 will have a severe impact on the ATLAS detector performance. The pile-up is expected to increase on average to 200 interactions per bunch crossing. The reconstruction and trigger performance for electrons, photons as well as jets and transverse missing energy will be severely degraded in the end-cap and forward region, where the liquid Argon based electromagnetic calorimeter has coarser granularity compared to the central region. A High Granularity Timing Detector (HGTD) is proposed in front of the liquid Argon end-cap calorimeters for pile-up mitigation at Level-0 (L0) trigger level and in the offline reconstruction. This device should cover the pseudo-rapidity range of 2.4 to about 4.2. Four layers of Silicon sensors are foreseen to provide a precision timing information for minimum ionizing particle with a time resolution better than 50 pico-seconds ...

  12. Experimental and simulation study of irradiated silicon pad detectors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Peltola, Timo Hannu Tapani

    2017-01-01

    The foreseen upgrade of the LHC to its high luminosity phase (HL-LHC), will maximize the physics potential of the facility. The upgrade is expected to increase the instantaneous luminosity by a factor of 5 and deliver an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$^{-1}$ after 10 years of operation. As a result of the corresponding increase in radiation and pileup, the electromagnetic calorimetry in the CMS endcaps will sustain maximum integrated doses of 1.5 MGy and neutron fluences above 10$^{16}$ n$_{\\mathrm{eq}}$/cm$^2$, necessitating their replacement for HL-LHC operation. The CMS collaboration has decided to replace the existing endcap electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters by a High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL) that will provide unprecedented information on electromagnetic and hadronic showers in the very high pileup of the HL-LHC. The HGCAL will be realized as a sampling calorimeter with 52 layers of active material. The electromagnetic section and the high-radiation region of the hadronic section will use...

  13. End-cap calorimeter performance and identification of the t-channel single top quark process with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cojocaru, Claudiu D

    2008-01-01

    The LHC collider will provide proton-proton collisions with 14 TeV centre of mass energy and an expected peak luminosity of 10 34 cm -2 s -1 . ATLAS is one of the multipurpose detectors that will be used for particles detection and measurement of properties. The first part of this thesis focuses on the study of the response of the ATLAS electromagnetic and hadronic end-cap calorimeters (EMEC and HEC, respectively) in a beam test performed in the summer of 2002. For the EMEC, the dependence of the measured signal versus the beam energy was found to be linear and an electromagnetic conversion constant [Special characters omitted.] = (0.446 ± 0.009) MeV/nA was calculated. The energy resolution for the EMEC was [Special characters omitted.] = [Special characters omitted.] ⊕ (0.4 ± 0.1)%, while for the HEC it was [Special characters omitted.] = [Special characters omitted.] ⊕ (3.0 ± 0.2)%, where the reconstructed energy, E reco , is in GeV. These results feed back into the tuning of the calorimeter Monte Ca...

  14. A High-Granularity Timing Detector for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS Calorimeter system

    CERN Document Server

    Lenzi, Bruno; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The expected increase of the particle flux at the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) with instantaneous luminosities up to L = 7.5 x 10^34 cm−2s−1 will have a severe impact on pile-up. The pile-up is expected to increase on average to 200 interactions per bunch crossing. The reconstruction and trigger performance for electrons, photons as well as jets and transverse missing energy will be severely degraded in the end-cap and forward region, where the liquid Argon based electromagnetic calorimeter has coarser granularity compared to the central region. A High Granularity Timing Detector (HGTD) is proposed in front of the liquid Argon end-cap calorimeters for pile-up mitigation at Level-0 (L0) trigger level and in the offline reconstruction. This device should cover the pseudo-rapidity range of 2.4 to about 4.2. Four layers of Silicon sensors, possibly interleaved with Tungsten, are foreseen to provide precision timing information for charged and neutral particles with a time resolution of the order ...

  15. High-Granularity Timing Detector for the Phase-II up-grade of the ATLAS Calorimeter system

    CERN Document Server

    Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The expected increase of the particle flux at the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) with instantaneous luminosities up to L ≃ 7.5×1034 cm−2s−1 will have a severe impact on pile-up. The pile-up is expected to increase on average to 200 interactions per bunch crossing. The reconstruction and trigger performance for electrons, photons as well as jets and transverse missing energy will be severely degraded in the end-cap and forward region, where the liquid Argon based electromagnetic calorimeter has coarser granularity compared to the central region. A High Granular Timing Detector (HGTD) is proposed in front of the liquid Argon end-cap calorimeters for pile-up mitigation at Level-0 (L0) trigger level and in offline reconstruction. This device should cover the pseudo-rapidity range of 2.4 to about 4.2. Four layers of Silicon sensors, possibly interleaved with Tungsten, are foreseen to provide precision timing information for charged and neutral particles with a time resolution of the order of 50 p...

  16. A High-Granularity Timing Detector for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS Calorimeter system

    CERN Document Server

    Masetti, Lucia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The expected increase of the particle flux at the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) with instantaneous luminosities up to L=7.5 x 10^34 cm^-2 s^-1 will have a severe impact on pile-up. The pile-up is expected to increase on average to 200 interactions per bunch crossing. The reconstruction and trigger performance for electrons, photons as well as jets and transverse missing energy will be severely degraded in the end-cap and forward region, where the liquid Argon based electromagnetic calorimeter has coarser granularity compared to the central region. A High Granular Timing Detector (HGTD) is proposed in front of the liquid Argon end-cap calorimeters for pile-up mitigation at Level-0 (L0) trigger level and in offline reconstruction. This device should cover the pseudo-rapidity range of 2.4 to about 4.2. Four layers of Silicon sensors, possibly interleaved with Tungsten, are foreseen to provide precision timing information for charged and neutral particles with a time resolution of the order of 50 pico...

  17. Re-integration and Consolidation of the Detector Control System for the Compact Muon Solenoid Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Holme, Oliver; Dissertori, Günther; Djambazov, Lubomir; Lustermann, Werner; Zelepoukine, Serguei

    2013-01-01

    The current shutdown of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), following three successful years of physics data-taking, provides an opportunity for major upgrades to be performed on the Detector Control System (DCS) of the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. The upgrades involve changes to both hardware and software, with particular emphasis on taking advantage of more powerful servers and updating third-party software to the latest supported versions. The considerable increase in available processing power enables a reduction from fifteen to three or four servers. To host the control system on fewer machines and to ensure that previously independent software components could run side-by-side without incompatibilities, significant changes in the software and databases were required. Additional work was undertaken to modernise and concentrate I/O interfaces. The challenges to prepare and validate the hardware and software upgrades are described along with details of the ...

  18. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of lead-tungstate crystals needed to complete the barrel and endcap electromagnetic calorimeters of the CMS detectors

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply of lead-tungstate crystals, in order to complete the Barrel and the Endcap Electromagnetic Calorimeters of the CMS detector. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with RUSSIAN ELECTRONICS (RU), for the supply of 18 000 crystals for the Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter and 4 750 crystals for the Endcap Electromagnetic Calorimeter for a total amount of 14 946 191 US dollars (18 697 685 Swiss francs), subject to revision, with options for additional crystals, for an additional amount of 1 026 607 US dollars (1 284 285 Swiss francs), subject to revision, bringing the total amount to 15 972 798 US dollars (19 981 970 Swiss francs), subject to revision. CERN's contribution to the funding of this contract will not exceed 3 836 930 US dollars (4 800 000 Swiss francs). The amounts in Swiss francs have been calculated using the present rate of exchange.

  19. High-Energy 3D Calorimeter based on position-sensitive virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe detectors for use in Gamma-ray Astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotnikov, Alexey [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); De Geronimo, GianLuigi [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Vernon, Emerson [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hays, Elizabeth [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Thompson, David [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); James, Ralph [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Moiseev, Alexander [Center for Research and Exploration; Technology, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and Univ. of Maryland, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2017-08-12

    We present a concept for a calorimeter based on a novel approach of 3D position-sensitive virtual Frischgrid CZT detectors. This calorimeter aims to measure photons with energies from ~100 keV to 10 (goal 50) MeV. The expected energy resolution at 662 keV is ~1% FWHM, and the photon interaction positionmeasurement accuracy is ~1 mm in all 3 dimensions. Each CZT bar is a rectangular prism with typical cross-section of 6x6 mm2 and length of 2-4 cm. The bars are arranged in modules of 4 x 4 bars, and the modules themselves can be assembled into a larger array. The 3D virtual voxel approach solves a long-standing problem with CZT detectors associated with material imperfections that limit the performance and usefulness of relatively thick detectors (i.e., > 1 cm). Also, it allows us to relax the requirements on the quality of the crystals, maintaining good energy resolution and significantly reducing the instrument cost. Such a calorimeter can be successfully used in space telescopes that use Compton scattering of γ rays, such as AMEGO, serving as part of its calorimeter and providing the position and energy measurement for Compton-scattered photons. Also, it could provide suitable energy resolution to allow for spectroscopic measurements of γ-ray lines from nuclear decays. Another viable option is to use this calorimeter as a focal plane to conduct spectroscopic measurements of cosmic γ-ray events. In combination with a coded-aperture mask, it potentially could provide mapping of the 511-keV radiation from the Galactic Center region.

  20. AIDA: concerted calorimeter development

    CERN Multimedia

    Felix Sefkow

    2013-01-01

    AIDA – the EU-funded project bringing together more than 80 institutes worldwide – aims at developing new detector solutions for future accelerators. Among the highlights reported at AIDA’s recent annual meeting in Frascati was the completion of an impressive calorimeter test beam programme, conducted by the CALICE collaboration over the past two years at CERN’s PS and SPS beam lines.   The CALICE tungsten calorimeter prototype under test at CERN. This cubic-metre hadron calorimeter prototype has almost 500,000 individually read-out electronics channels – more than all the calorimeters of ATLAS and CMS put together. Calorimeter development in AIDA is mainly motivated by experiments at possible future electron-positron colliders, namely ILC or CLIC. The physics requirements of such future machines demand extremely high-performance calorimetry. This is best achieved using a finely segmented system that reconstructs events using the so-called pa...

  1. Improving the safety and protective automatic actions of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter detector control system

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez Estupinan, Raul; Cirkovic, Predrag; Di Calafiori, Diogo Raphael; Dissertori, Guenther; Djambazov, Lubomir; Jovanovic, Dragoslav; Lustermann, Werner; Milenovic, Predrag; Zelepoukine, Serguei

    2017-01-01

    The CMS ECAL Detector Control System (DCS) features several monitoring mechanisms able to react and perform automatic actions based on pre-defined action matrices. The DCS is capable of early detection of anomalies inside the ECAL and on its off-detector support systems, triggering automatic actions to mitigate the impact of these events and preventing them from escalating to the safety system. The treatment of such events by the DCS allows for a faster recovery process, better understanding of the development of issues, and in most cases, actions with higher granularity than the safety system. This paper presents the details of the DCS automatic action mechanisms, as well as their evolution based on several years of CMS ECAL operations.

  2. Improving the Safety and Protective Automatic Actions of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez Estupinan, Raul

    2017-01-01

    The CMS ECAL Detector Control System (DCS) features several monitoring mechanisms able to react and perform automatic actions based on pre-defined action matrices. The DCS is capable of early detection of anomalies inside the ECAL and on its off-detector support systems, triggering automatic actions to mitigate the impact of these events and preventing them from escalating to the safety system. The treatment of such events by the DCS allows for a faster recovery process, better understanding of the development of issues, and in most cases, actions with higher granularity than the safety system. This paper presents the details of the DCS automatic action mechanisms, as well as their evolution based on several years of CMS ECAL operations.

  3. The KLOE electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adinolfi, M; Antonelli, A; Antonelli, M; Anulli, F; Barbiellini, G; Bencivenni, G; Bertolucci, Sergio; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bocci, V; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Cabibbo, G; Caloi, R; Campana, P; Casarsa, M; Cataldi, G; Ceradini, F; Cervelli, F; Ciambrone, P; De Lucia, E; De Simone, P; De Zorzi, G; Dell'Agnello, S; Denig, A; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Falco, S; Doria, A; Erriquez, O; Farilla, A; Ferrari, A; Ferrer, M L; Finocchiaro, G; Forti, C; Franceschi, A; Franzini, P; Gao, M L; Gatti, C; Gauzzi, P; Giannasi, A; Giovannella, S; Graziani, E; Han, H G; Han, S W; Huang, X; Incagli, M; Ingrosso, L; Keeble, L; Kim, W; Kuo, C; Lanfranchi, G; Lee-Franzini, J; Lomtadze, T A; Mao Chen Sheng; Martemyanov, M; Mei, W; Messi, R; Miscetti, S; Moccia, S; Moulson, M; Murtas, F; Müller, S; Pacciani, L; Palomba, M; Palutan, M; Pasqualucci, E; Passalacqua, L; Passeri, A; Picca, D; Pirozzi, G; Pontecorvo, L; Primavera, M; Santangelo, P; Santovetti, E; Saracino, G; Schamberger, R D; Sciascia, B; Scuri, F; Sfiligoi, I; Silano, P; Spadaro, T; Spiriti, E; Tortora, L; Valente, P; Valeriani, B; Venanzoni, G; Ventura, A; Wu, Y; Wölfle, S; Xie, Y G; Zema, P F; Zhang, C D; Zhang, J Q; Zhao, P P

    2002-01-01

    The KLOE detector was designed primarily for the study of CP violation in neutral kaon decays at DAPHINE, the Frascati phi-factory. The detector consists of a tracker and an electromagnetic calorimeter. A lead-scintillating-fiber sampling calorimeter satisfies best the requirements of the experiment, providing adequate energy resolution and superior timing accuracy. We describe in the following the construction of the calorimeter, its calibration and how the calorimeter information is used to obtain energy, point of entry and time of the arrival of photons, electrons and charged particles. With e sup + e sup - collision data at DAPHINE for an integrated luminosity of some 2 pb sup - sup 1 we find for electromagnetic showers, an energy resolution of 5.7%/sq root E(GeV) and a time resolution of 54/sq root E(GeV) ps. We also present a measurement of efficiency for low energy photons.

  4. The ATLAS tile calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Louis Rose-Dulcina, a technician from the ATLAS collaboration, works on the ATLAS tile calorimeter. Special manufacturing techniques were developed to mass produce the thousands of elements in this detector. Tile detectors are made in a sandwich-like structure where these scintillator tiles are placed between metal sheets.

  5. Single hadron response measurement and calorimeter jet energy scale uncertainty with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bona, Marcella; Bondarenko, Valery; Bondioli, Mario; Boonekamp, Maarten; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchanan, Norman; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, François; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cambiaghi, Mario; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carrillo Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciba, Krzysztof; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coe, Paul; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collard, Caroline; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Coura Torres, Rodrigo; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cuthbert, Cameron; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lotto, Barbara; de Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dean, Simon; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dobson, Marc; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jürgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hackenburg, Robert; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frédéric; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Jovicevic, Jelena; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamäki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kraus, Jana; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Lilley, Joseph; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Pengo, Ruggero; Penning, Bjoern; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Perus, Antoine; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Radloff, Peter; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Renkel, Peter; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robinson, Mary; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodriguez, Diego; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumiantsev, Viktor; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Runge, Kay; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rust, Dave; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryadovikov, Vasily; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sanchez, Arturo; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Takashi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schäfer, Uli; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schöning, André; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Silvia; Schuler, Georges; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaver, Leif; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shichi, Hideharu; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Maria; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Skvorodnev, Nikolai; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Tobias, Jürgen; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Underwood, David; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wen, Mei; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; Whitaker, Scott; White, Andrew; White, Martin; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaets, Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zanello, Lucia; Zarzhitsky, Pavel; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zenonos, Zenonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2013-03-02

    The uncertainty on the calorimeter energy response to jets of particles is derived for the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). First, the calorimeter response to single isolated charged hadrons is measured and compared to the Monte Carlo simulation using proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 900 GeV and 7 TeV collected during 2009 and 2010. Then, using the decay of K_s and Lambda particles, the calorimeter response to specific types of particles (positively and negatively charged pions, protons, and anti-protons) is measured and compared to the Monte Carlo predictions. Finally, the jet energy scale uncertainty is determined by propagating the response uncertainty for single charged and neutral particles to jets. The response uncertainty is 2-5% for central isolated hadrons and 1-3% for the final calorimeter jet energy scale.

  6. CaloCube: An isotropic spaceborne calorimeter for high-energy cosmic rays. Optimization of the detector performance for protons and nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, O.; Albergo, S.; Auditore, L.; Basti, A.; Berti, E.; Bigongiari, G.; Bonechi, L.; Bonechi, S.; Bongi, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Bottai, S.; Brogi, P.; Carotenuto, G.; Castellini, G.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Daddi, N.; D'Alessandro, R.; Detti, S.; Finetti, N.; Italiano, A.; Lenzi, P.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Mori, N.; Orzan, G.; Olmi, M.; Pacini, L.; Papini, P.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Rappoldi, A.; Ricciarini, S.; Sciuto, A.; Spillantini, P.; Starodubtsev, O.; Stolzi, F.; Suh, J. E.; Sulaj, A.; Tiberio, A.; Tricomi, A.; Trifiro', A.; Trimarchi, M.; Vannuccini, E.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.

    2017-11-01

    The direct detection of high-energy cosmic rays up to the PeV region is one of the major challenges for the next generation of space-borne cosmic-ray detectors. The physics performance will be primarily determined by their geometrical acceptance and energy resolution. CaloCube is a homogeneous calorimeter whose geometry allows an almost isotropic response, so as to detect particles arriving from every direction in space, thus maximizing the acceptance. A comparative study of different scintillating materials and mechanical structures has been performed by means of Monte Carlo simulation. The scintillation-Cherenkov dual read-out technique has been also considered and its benefit evaluated.

  7. The CMS Outer Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhandari, Virender; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Deshpande, Pandurang Vishnu; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguli, Som N; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Krishnaswamy, Marthi Ramaswamy; Kumar, Arun; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Narasimham, Vemuri Syamala; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L V; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Singh, B; Singh, Jas Bir; Sudhakar, Katta; Tonwar, Suresh C; Verma, Piyush

    2006-01-01

    The CMS hadron calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter with brass absorber and plastic scintillator tiles with wavelength shifting fibres for carrying the light to the readout device. The barrel hadron calorimeter is complemented with a outer calorimeter to ensure high energy shower containment in CMS and thus working as a tail catcher. Fabrication, testing and calibrations of the outer hadron calorimeter are carried out keeping in mind its importance in the energy measurement of jets in view of linearity and resolution. It will provide a net improvement in missing $\\et$ measurements at LHC energies. The outer hadron calorimeter has a very good signal to background ratio even for a minimum ionising particle and can hence be used in coincidence with the Resistive Plate Chambers of the CMS detector for the muon trigger.

  8. A measurement of the calorimeter response to single hadrons and determination of the jet energy scale uncertainty using LHC Run-1 $pp$-collision data with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aaboud, Morad; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Aben, Rosemarie; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Ali, Babar; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alstaty, Mahmoud; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antel, Claire; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska-Blenessy, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Billoud, Thomas Remy Victor; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Boerner, Daniela; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bokan, Petar; Bold, Tomasz; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Bossio Sola, Jonathan David; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Broughton, James; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Brunt, Benjamin; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryant, Patrick; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burghgrave, Blake; Burka, Klaudia; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Burr, Jonathan Thomas Peter; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Callea, Giuseppe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvente Lopez, Sergio; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Camincher, Clement; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Camplani, Alessandra; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Ina; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelijn, Remco; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavallaro, Emanuele; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Cerio, Benjamin; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Michael; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crawley, Samuel Joseph; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cueto, Ana; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'amen, Gabriele; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dado, Tomas; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dann, Nicholas Stuart; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Maria, Antonio; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Dehghanian, Nooshin; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Gaudio, Michela; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Duarte-Campderros, Jorge; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duffield, Emily Marie; Duflot, Laurent; Dührssen, Michael; Dumancic, Mirta; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellajosyula, Venugopal; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Ennis, Joseph Stanford; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Federica; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farina, Christian; Farina, Edoardo Maria; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gascon Bravo, Alberto; Gasnikova, Ksenia; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisen, Marc; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; Gentsos, Christos; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Giulia; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gravila, Paul Mircea; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Ruchi; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Hadef, Asma; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hartmann, Nikolai Marcel; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hayakawa, Daiki; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Shuyang; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Huo, Peng; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuriy; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Ishijima, Naoki; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Paul; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Köhler, Markus Konrad; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kaji, Toshiaki; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kanjir, Luka; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Kentaro, Kawade; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khader, Mazin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kilby, Callum; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koehler, Nicolas Maximilian; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozakai, Chihiro; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kravchenko, Anton; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lanfermann, Marie Christine; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le, Brian; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Benoit; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Dave; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lionti, Anthony Eric; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina Maria; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Luzi, Pierre Marc; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousos, Athanasios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mansour, Jason Dhia; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McClymont, Laurie; McDonald, Emily; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melini, Davide; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Melo, Matej; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Miano, Fabrizio; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Stefanie; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Muškinja, Miha; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nguyen Manh, Tuan; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Pacheco Rodriguez, Laura; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palazzo, Serena; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penwell, John; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puddu, Daniele; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Ravinovich, Ilia; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Reale, Marilea; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reisin, Hernan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rimoldi, Marco; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosien, Nils-Arne; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Rzehorz, Gerhard Ferdinand; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Savic, Natascha; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schachtner, Balthasar Maria; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schier, Sheena; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian Ralf; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schneider, Basil; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schott, Matthias; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schuh, Natascha; Schulte, Alexandra; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shaikh, Nabila Wahab; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyed Ruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sickles, Anne Marie; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Slovak, Radim; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smiesko, Juraj; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Hong Ye; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Giordon; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stärz, Steffen; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Baojia(Tony); Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Trofymov, Artur; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsui, Ka Ming; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tu, Yanjun; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turgeman, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tyndel, Mike; Ucchielli, Giulia; Ueda, Ikuo; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; 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Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2017-01-13

    A measurement of the calorimeter response to isolated charged hadrons in the ATLAS detector at the LHC is presented. This measurement is performed with 3.2 nb$^{-1}$ of proton--proton collision data at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV from 2010 and 0.1 nb$^{-1}$ of data at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV from 2012. A number of aspects of the calorimeter response to isolated hadrons are explored. After accounting for energy deposited by neutral particles, there is a 5\\% discrepancy in the modelling, using Geant4 physics lists, of the calorimeter response to isolated charged hadrons in the central calorimeter region. The description of the response to anti-protons at low momenta is found to be improved with respect to previous analyses. The electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters are also examined separately, and the detector simulation is found to describe the response in the hadronic calorimeter well. The jet energy scale uncertainty and correlations in scale between jets of different momenta are derived based on these studies. The uncer...

  9. A measurement of the calorimeter response to single hadrons and determination of the jet energy scale uncertainty using LHC Run-1 pp-collision data with the ATLAS detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

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Rave, S; Ravenscroft, T; Ravinovich, I; Raymond, M; Read, A L; Readioff, N P; Reale, M; Rebuzzi, D M; Redelbach, A; Redlinger, G; Reece, R; Reeves, K; Rehnisch, L; Reichert, J; Reisin, H; Rembser, C; Ren, H; Rescigno, M; Resconi, S; Rezanova, O L; Reznicek, P; Rezvani, R; Richter, R; Richter, S; Richter-Was, E; Ricken, O; Ridel, M; Rieck, P; Riegel, C J; Rieger, J; Rifki, O; Rijssenbeek, M; Rimoldi, A; Rimoldi, M; Rinaldi, L; Ristić, B; Ritsch, E; Riu, I; Rizatdinova, F; Rizvi, E; Rizzi, C; Robertson, S H; Robichaud-Veronneau, A; Robinson, D; Robinson, J E M; Robson, A; Roda, C; Rodina, Y; Perez, A Rodriguez; Rodriguez, D Rodriguez; Roe, S; Rogan, C S; Røhne, O; Romaniouk, A; Romano, M; Saez, S M Romano; Adam, E Romero; Rompotis, N; Ronzani, M; Roos, L; Ros, E; Rosati, S; Rosbach, K; Rose, P; Rosenthal, O; Rosien, N-A; Rossetti, V; Rossi, E; Rossi, L P; Rosten, J H N; Rosten, R; Rotaru, M; Roth, I; Rothberg, J; Rousseau, D; Royon, C R; Rozanov, A; Rozen, Y; Ruan, X; Rubbo, F; Rudolph, M S; Rühr, F; Ruiz-Martinez, A; Rurikova, Z; Rusakovich, N A; Ruschke, A; Russell, H L; Rutherfoord, J P; Ruthmann, N; Ryabov, Y F; Rybar, M; Rybkin, G; Ryu, S; Ryzhov, A; Rzehorz, G F; Saavedra, A F; Sabato, G; Sacerdoti, S; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sadykov, R; Tehrani, F Safai; Saha, P; Sahinsoy, M; Saimpert, M; Saito, T; Sakamoto, H; Sakurai, Y; Salamanna, G; Salamon, A; Loyola, J E Salazar; Salek, D; De Bruin, P H Sales; Salihagic, D; Salnikov, A; Salt, J; Salvatore, D; Salvatore, F; Salvucci, A; Salzburger, A; Sammel, D; Sampsonidis, D; Sánchez, J; Martinez, V Sanchez; Pineda, A Sanchez; Sandaker, H; Sandbach, R L; Sander, H G; Sandhoff, M; Sandoval, C; Sandstroem, R; Sankey, D P C; Sannino, M; Sansoni, A; Santoni, C; Santonico, R; Santos, H; Castillo, I Santoyo; Sapp, K; Sapronov, A; Saraiva, J G; Sarrazin, B; Sasaki, O; Sasaki, Y; Sato, K; Sauvage, G; Sauvan, E; Savage, G; Savard, P; Savic, N; Sawyer, C; Sawyer, L; Saxon, J; Sbarra, C; Sbrizzi, A; Scanlon, T; Scannicchio, D A; Scarcella, M; Scarfone, V; Schaarschmidt, J; Schacht, P; Schachtner, B M; Schaefer, D; Schaefer, R; Schaeffer, J; Schaepe, S; Schaetzel, S; Schäfer, U; Schaffer, A C; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scharf, V; Schegelsky, V A; Scheirich, D; Schernau, M; Schiavi, C; Schier, S; Schillo, C; Schioppa, M; Schlenker, S; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, K R; Schmieden, K; Schmitt, C; Schmitt, S; Schmitz, S; Schneider, B; Schnoor, U; Schoeffel, L; Schoening, A; Schoenrock, B D; Schopf, E; Schott, M; Schovancova, J; Schramm, S; Schreyer, M; Schuh, N; Schulte, A; Schultens, M J; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Schulz, H; Schumacher, M; Schumm, B A; Schune, Ph; Schwartzman, A; Schwarz, T A; Schweiger, H; Schwemling, Ph; Schwienhorst, R; Schwindling, J; Schwindt, T; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Scutti, F; Searcy, J; Seema, P; Seidel, S C; Seiden, A; Seifert, F; Seixas, J M; Sekhniaidze, G; Sekhon, K; Sekula, S J; Seliverstov, D M; Semprini-Cesari, N; Serfon, C; Serin, L; Serkin, L; Sessa, M; Seuster, R; Severini, H; Sfiligoj, T; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shabalina, E; Shaikh, N W; Shan, L Y; Shang, R; Shank, J T; Shapiro, M; Shatalov, P B; Shaw, K; Shaw, S M; Shcherbakova, A; Shehu, C Y; Sherwood, P; Shi, L; Shimizu, S; Shimmin, C O; Shimojima, M; Shiyakova, M; Shmeleva, A; Saadi, D Shoaleh; Shochet, M J; Shojaii, S; Shrestha, S; Shulga, E; Shupe, M A; Sicho, P; Sickles, A M; Sidebo, P E; Sidiropoulou, O; Sidorov, D; Sidoti, A; Siegert, F; Sijacki, Dj; Silva, J; Silverstein, S B; Simak, V; Simic, Lj; Simion, S; Simioni, E; Simmons, B; Simon, D; Simon, M; Sinervo, P; Sinev, N B; Sioli, M; Siragusa, G; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Sjölin, J; Skinner, M B; Skottowe, H P; Skubic, P; Slater, M; Slavicek, T; Slawinska, M; Sliwa, K; Slovak, R; Smakhtin, V; Smart, B H; Smestad, L; Smiesko, J; Smirnov, S Yu; Smirnov, Y; Smirnova, L N; Smirnova, O; Smith, M N K; Smith, R W; Smizanska, M; Smolek, K; Snesarev, A A; Snyder, S; Sobie, R; Socher, F; Soffer, A; Soh, D A; Sokhrannyi, G; Sanchez, C A Solans; Solar, M; Soldatov, E Yu; Soldevila, U; Solodkov, A A; Soloshenko, A; Solovyanov, O V; Solovyev, V; Sommer, P; Son, H; Song, H Y; Sood, A; Sopczak, A; Sopko, V; Sorin, V; Sosa, D; Sotiropoulou, C L; Soualah, R; Soukharev, A M; South, D; Sowden, B C; Spagnolo, S; Spalla, M; Spangenberg, M; Spanò, F; Sperlich, D; Spettel, F; Spighi, R; Spigo, G; Spiller, L A; Spousta, M; Denis, R D St; Stabile, A; Stamen, R; Stamm, S; Stanecka, E; Stanek, R W; Stanescu, C; Stanescu-Bellu, M; Stanitzki, M M; Stapnes, S; Starchenko, E A; Stark, G H; Stark, J; Stark, S H; Staroba, P; Starovoitov, P; Stärz, S; Staszewski, R; Steinberg, P; Stelzer, B; Stelzer, H J; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stenzel, H; Stewart, G A; Stillings, J A; Stockton, M C; Stoebe, M; Stoicea, G; Stolte, P; Stonjek, S; Stradling, A R; Straessner, A; Stramaglia, M E; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strandlie, A; Strauss, M; Strizenec, P; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D M; Stroynowski, R; Strubig, A; Stucci, S A; Stugu, B; Styles, N A; Su, D; Su, J; Suchek, S; Sugaya, Y; Suk, M; Sulin, V V; Sultansoy, S; Sumida, T; Sun, S; Sun, X; Sundermann, J E; Suruliz, K; Susinno, G; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, S; Svatos, M; Swiatlowski, M; Sykora, I; Sykora, T; Ta, D; Taccini, C; Tackmann, K; Taenzer, J; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Taiblum, N; Takai, H; Takashima, R; Takeshita, T; Takubo, Y; Talby, M; Talyshev, A A; Tan, K G; Tanaka, J; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tanaka, S; Tannenwald, B B; Araya, S Tapia; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Tartarelli, G F; Tas, P; Tasevsky, M; Tashiro, T; Tassi, E; Delgado, A Tavares; Tayalati, Y; Taylor, A C; Taylor, G N; Taylor, P T E; Taylor, W; Teischinger, F A; Teixeira-Dias, P; Temming, K K; Temple, D; Kate, H Ten; Teng, P K; Teoh, J J; Tepel, F; Terada, S; Terashi, K; Terron, J; Terzo, S; Testa, M; Teuscher, R J; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T; Thomas, J P; Thomas-Wilsker, J; Thompson, E N; Thompson, P D; Thompson, A S; Thomsen, L A; Thomson, E; Thomson, M; Tibbetts, M J; Torres, R E Ticse; Tikhomirov, V O; Tikhonov, Yu A; Timoshenko, S; Tipton, P; Tisserant, S; Todome, K; Todorov, T; Todorova-Nova, S; Tojo, J; Tokár, S; Tokushuku, K; Tolley, E; Tomlinson, L; Tomoto, M; Tompkins, L; Toms, K; Tong, B; Torrence, E; Torres, H; Pastor, E Torró; Toth, J; Touchard, F; Tovey, D R; Trefzger, T; Tricoli, A; Trigger, I M; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tripiana, M F; Trischuk, W; Trocmé, B; Trofymov, A; Troncon, C; Trottier-McDonald, M; Trovatelli, M; Truong, L; Trzebinski, M; Trzupek, A; Tseng, J C-L; Tsiareshka, P V; Tsipolitis, G; Tsirintanis, N; Tsiskaridze, S; Tsiskaridze, V; Tskhadadze, E G; Tsui, K M; Tsukerman, I I; Tsulaia, V; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Tu, Y; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; Tuna, A N; Tupputi, S A; Turchikhin, S; Turecek, D; Turgeman, D; Turra, R; Turvey, A J; Tuts, P M; Tyndel, M; Ucchielli, G; Ueda, I; Ughetto, M; Ukegawa, F; Unal, G; Undrus, A; Unel, G; Ungaro, F C; Unno, Y; Unverdorben, C; Urban, J; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Usai, G; Usanova, A; Vacavant, L; Vacek, V; Vachon, B; Valderanis, C; Santurio, E Valdes; Valencic, N; Valentinetti, S; Valero, A; Valery, L; Valkar, S; Ferrer, J A Valls; Van Den Wollenberg, W; Van Der Deijl, P C; van der Graaf, H; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; Van Nieuwkoop, J; van Vulpen, I; van Woerden, M C; Vanadia, M; Vandelli, W; Vanguri, R; Vaniachine, A; Vankov, P; Vardanyan, G; Vari, R; Varnes, E W; Varol, T; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vasquez, J G; Vazeille, F; Schroeder, T Vazquez; Veatch, J; Veeraraghavan, V; Veloce, L M; Veloso, F; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Venturini, A; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vest, A; Vetterli, M C; Viazlo, O; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Boeriu, O E Vickey; Viehhauser, G H A; Viel, S; Vigani, L; Villa, M; Perez, M Villaplana; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinogradov, V B; Vittori, C; Vivarelli, I; Vlachos, S; Vlasak, M; Vogel, M; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Volpi, M; von der Schmitt, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V; Vorobev, K; Vos, M; Voss, R; Vossebeld, J H; Vranjes, N; Milosavljevic, M Vranjes; Vrba, V; Vreeswijk, M; Vuillermet, R; Vukotic, I; Vykydal, Z; Wagner, P; Wagner, W; Wahlberg, H; Wahrmund, S; Wakabayashi, J; Walder, J; Walker, R; Walkowiak, W; Wallangen, V; Wang, C; Wang, C; Wang, F; Wang, H; Wang, H; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, K; Wang, R; Wang, S M; Wang, T; Wang, T; Wang, W; Wang, X; Wanotayaroj, C; Warburton, A; Ward, C P; Wardrope, D R; Washbrook, A; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, M F; Watts, G; Watts, S; Waugh, B M; Webb, S; Weber, M S; Weber, S W; Webster, J S; Weidberg, A R; Weinert, B; Weingarten, J; Weiser, C; Weits, H; Wells, P S; Wenaus, T; Wengler, T; Wenig, S; Wermes, N; Werner, M; Werner, M D; Werner, P; Wessels, M; Wetter, J; Whalen, K; Whallon, N L; Wharton, A M; White, A; White, M J; White, R; Whiteson, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wienemann, P; Wiglesworth, C; Wiik-Fuchs, L A M; Wildauer, A; Wilk, F; Wilkens, H G; Williams, H H; Williams, S; Willis, C; Willocq, S; Wilson, J A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winklmeier, F; Winston, O J; Winter, B T; Wittgen, M; Wittkowski, J; Wolf, T M H; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Worm, S D; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wu, M; Wu, M; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wyatt, T R; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xu, D; Xu, L; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yamaguchi, D; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, S; Yamanaka, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, H; Yang, Y; Yang, Z; Yao, W-M; Yap, Y C; Yasu, Y; Yatsenko, E; Wong, K H Yau; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yeletskikh, I; Yen, A L; Yildirim, E; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Yoshihara, K; Young, C; Young, C J S; Youssef, S; Yu, D R; Yu, J; Yu, J M; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yuen, S P Y; Yusuff, I; Zabinski, B; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zakharchuk, N; Zalieckas, J; Zaman, A; Zambito, S; Zanello, L; Zanzi, D; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zeng, J C; Zeng, Q; Zengel, K; Zenin, O; Ženiš, T; Zerwas, D; Zhang, D; Zhang, F; Zhang, G; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, R; Zhang, R; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, X; Zhao, Y; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, C; Zhou, L; Zhou, L; Zhou, M; Zhou, N; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhukov, K; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimine, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Zinser, M; Ziolkowski, M; Živković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Nedden, M Zur; Zwalinski, L

    2017-01-01

    A measurement of the calorimeter response to isolated charged hadrons in the ATLAS detector at the LHC is presented. This measurement is performed with 3.2 nb[Formula: see text] of proton-proton collision data at [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] from 2010 and 0.1 nb[Formula: see text] of data at [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] from 2012. A number of aspects of the calorimeter response to isolated hadrons are explored. After accounting for energy deposited by neutral particles, there is a 5% discrepancy in the modelling, using various sets of Geant4 hadronic physics models, of the calorimeter response to isolated charged hadrons in the central calorimeter region. The description of the response to anti-protons at low momenta is found to be improved with respect to previous analyses. The electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters are also examined separately, and the detector simulation is found to describe the response in the hadronic calorimeter well. The jet energy scale uncertainty and correlations in scale between jets of different momenta and pseudorapidity are derived based on these studies. The uncertainty is 2-5% for jets with transverse momenta above 2 [Formula: see text], where this method provides the jet energy scale uncertainty for ATLAS.

  10. The First Tests of a Large-Area Light Detector Equipped with Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters for Scintillating Bolometers for the LUMINEU Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D.; Enss, C.; Fleischmann, A.; Gastaldo, L.; Hassel, C.; Hengstler, D.; Kempf, S.; Loidl, M.; Navick, X. F.; Rodrigues, M.

    2016-08-01

    Future rare-event searches using scintillating crystals need very low background levels for high sensitivity; however, unresolved pile-up can limit this. We present the design and fabrication of large-area photon detectors based on metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs), optimized for fast rise times to resolve close pile-up. The first prototypes have been characterized using Fe-55 X-rays and ZnMoO4 crystal scintillation light. A fast intrinsic rise time of 25-30 \\upmu s has been measured and has been compared to the 250 \\upmu s scintillation light pulse rise time constant. The difference indicates that the scintillation process limits the light pulse rise time. The fast rise time allows for a reduction of background due to close pile-up events as well as the study of the inherent crystal scintillation process. MMC-based photon detectors are shown to be a promising tool for scintillating crystal based rare event searches.

  11. LHCb: Physics with the LHCb calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Barsuk, S

    2007-01-01

    The LHCb calorimeter comprises the scintillator pad detector (SPD), preshower (PS), electromagnetic Shashlyk type (ECAL) and hadronichadronic Tile (HCAL) calorimeters, arranged in pseudo-projective geometry. All the four detectors follow the general principle of reading the light from scintillator tiles with wave length shifting fibers, and transporting the light towards photomultipliers (25 ns R/O).

  12. ALICE Zero Degree Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    De Marco, N

    2013-01-01

    Two identical sets of calorimeters are located on both sides with respect to the beam Interaction Point (IP), 112.5 m away from it. Each set of detectors consists of a neutron (ZN) and a proton (ZP) Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC), positioned on remotely controlled platforms. The ZN is placed at zero degree with respect to the LHC beam axis, between the two beam pipes, while the ZP is positioned externally to the outgoing beam pipe. The spectator protons are separated from the ion beams by means of the dipole magnet D1.

  13. ATLAS - End-Cap calorimeter lowered in to the cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The End-cap calorimeter was lowered into the ATLAS cavern at POINT1. This calorimeter will measure the energy of particles close to the beam axis when protons collide. Cooling is important for maximum detector efficiency.

  14. Simulation of the upgraded Phase-1 Trigger Readout Electronics of the Liquid-Argon Calorimeter of the ATLAS Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00338138

    In the context of an intensive upgrade plan for the LHC in order to provide proton beams of increased luminosity, a revision of the data readout electronics of the Liquid-Argon-Calorimeter of the ATLAS detector is scheduled. This is required to retain the efficiency of the trigger at increased event rates despite its fixed bandwidth. The focus lies on the early digitization and finer segmentation of the data provided to the trigger. Furthermore, there is the possibility to implement new energy reconstruction algorithms which are adapted to the specific requirements of the trigger. In order to constitute crucial design decisions, such as the digitization scale or the choice of digital signal processing algorithms, comprehensive simulations are required. High trigger efficiencies are decisive at it for the successful continuation of the measurements of rare Standard Model processes as well as for a high sensitivity to new physics beyond the established theories. It can be shown that a significantly improved res...

  15. Particle Identification with Cherenkov detectors in the 2011 CALICE Tungsten Analog Hadronic Calorimeter Test Beam at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Dannheim, D; Klempt, W; Lucaci Timoce, A; van der Kraaij, E

    2013-01-01

    In 2011 the CALICE Tungsten Analog Hadronic Calorimeter prototype (W-AHCAL) was exposed to mixed beams of electrons, pions, kaons and protons with momenta from 10 to 300 GeV in the CERN SPS H8 beam line. The selection of pion, kaon and proton samples is based on the information obtained from two Cherenkov threshold counters. This note presents the strategy for the particle identification, as well as the calibration, operation and analysis of the Cherenkov counters. Efficiency and sample-purity estimates are given for the data selected for the W-AHCAL data analysis.

  16. NA48 prototype calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    1990-01-01

    This is a calorimeter, a detector which measures the energy of particles. When in use, it is filled with liquid krypton at -152°C. Electrons and photons passing through interact with the krypton, creating a shower of charged particles which are collected on the copper ribbons. The ribbons are aligned to an accuracy of a tenth of a millimetre. The folding at each end allows them to be kept absolutely flat. Each shower of particles also creates a signal in scintillating material embedded in the support disks. These flashes of light are transmitted to electronics by the optical fibres along the side of the detector. They give the time at which the interaction occurred. The photo shows the calorimeter at NA48, a CERN experiment which is trying to understand the lack of anti-matter in the Universe today.

  17. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    Roger Rusack

    Occupancy of the trigger primitives during a global run: the observed pattern is consistent with the polar angle dependence of the transverse energy equivalent of the electronic noise in the endcaps.   Progress on ECAL since the last CMS week has been mostly on three major fronts: we have continued with the installation and commissioning of the preshower detectors; the endcap calorimeter trigger has been installed and tested; and there have been many changes to the calorimeter detector control and safety systems. Both Preshower (ES) endcaps were installed in CMS on schedule, just before Easter. There followed a campaign of "first commissioning" to ensure that all services were correctly connected (electrical, optical, cooling, etc.). Apart from some optical ribbons that had to be replaced the process went rather smoothly, finishing on 23rd April. All power supplies are installed and operational. The cooling system (two branches of the joint Tracker-Preshower system) is fully fun...

  18. Particle detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    1999-01-01

    Introduction, interaction of radiation with matter measurement of momentum of charged particles, of energy of e/gamma, hadrons, identification of particles. Design of HEP detectors. Principle of operation and performance of tracking sub-detectors, calorimeters and muon system.

  19. Neutron induced radiation damage of plastic scintillators for the upgrade of the Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdhluli, J. E.; Jivan, H.; Erasmus, R.; Davydov, Yu I.; Baranov, V.; Mthembu, S.; Mellado, B.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Solovyanov, O.; Sandrock, C.; Peter, G.; Tlou, S.; Khanye, N.; Tjale, B.

    2017-07-01

    With the prediction that the plastic scintillators in the gap region of the Tile Calorimeter will sustain a significantly large amount of radiation damage during the HL-LHC run time, the current plastic scintillators will need to be replaced during the phase 2 upgrade in 2018. The scintillators in the gap region were exposed to a radiation environment of up to 10 kGy/year during the first run of data taking and with the luminosity being increased by a factor of 10, the radiation environment will be extremely harsh. We report on the radiation damage to the optical properties of plastic scintillators following irradiation using a neutron beam of the IBR-2 pulsed reactor in Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna. A comparison is drawn between polyvinyl toluene based commercial scintillators EJ200, EJ208 and EJ260 as well as polystyrene based scintillator from Kharkov. The samples were subjected to irradiation with high energy neutrons and a flux density range of 1 × 106-7.7 × 106. Light transmission, Raman spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and light yield testing was performed to characterize the damage induced in the samples. Preliminary results from the tests done indicate a minute change in the optical properties of the scintillators with further studies underway to gain a better understanding of the interaction between neutrons with plastic scintillators.

  20. Characterization of a Silicon Strip Detector and a YAG:Ce Calorimeter for a Proton Computed Radiography Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichelli, David; Bruzzi, Mara; Bucciolini, Marta; Candiano, Giuliana; Pablo Cirrone, Giuseppe A.; Capineri, Lorenzo; Civinini, Carlo; Cuttone, Giacomo; Lo Presti, Domenico; Marrazzo, Livia; Pallotta, Stefania; Randazzo, Nunzio; Sipala, Valeria; Talamonti, Cinzia; Valentini, Samuela; Pieri, Stefano; Reggioli, Valentina; Brianzi, Mirko; Tesi, Mauro

    2010-02-01

    Today, there is a steadily growing interest in the use of proton beams for tumor therapy, as they permit to tightly shape the dose delivered to the target reducing the exposure of the surrounding healthy tissues. Nonetheless, accuracy in the determination of the dose distribution in proton-therapy is up to now limited by the uncertainty in stopping powers, which are presently calculated from the photon attenuation coefficients measured by X-ray tomography. Proton computed tomography apparatus (pCT) has been proposed to directly measure the stopping power and reduce this uncertainty. Main problem with proton imaging is the blurring effect introduced by multiple Coulomb scattering: single proton tracking is a promising technique to face this difficulty. As a first step towards a pCT system, we designed a proton radiography (pCR) prototype based on a silicon microstrip tracker (to characterize particle trajectories) and a segmented YAG:Ce calorimeter (to measure their residual energy). Aim of the system is to detect protons with a 1 MHz particle rate of and with kinetic energy in the range 250-270 MeV, high enough to pass through human body. Design and development of the pCR prototype, as well as the characterization of its single components, are described in this paper.

  1. Secondary Emission Calorimeter (SEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, J. J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Northrop, Richard [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Frisch, Henry [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Elagin, Andrey [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Ronzhin, Anatoly [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ramberg, Erik [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Spiropulu, Maria [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Apresyan, Artur [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Xie, Si [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2014-06-25

    This is a technical scope of work (TSW) between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) the experimenters of University of Chicago and California Institute of Technology, who have committed to participate in beam tests to be carried out during the 2014-2015 Fermilab Test Beam Facility program. The TSW is intended primarily for the purpose of recording expectations for budget estimates and work allocations. The experimenters propose using large-area micro-channel plates assembled without the usual bialkali photocathodes as the active element in sampling calorimeters, Modules without photocathodes can be economically assembled in a glove box and then pumped and sealed using the process to construct photomultipliers, This electromagnetic calorimeter is based on W and Pb absorber plates sandwiched with detectors. Measurements can be made with bare plates and absorber inside the vacuum vessel.

  2. UA2 central calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    The UA2 central calorimeter measured the energy of individual particles created in proton-antiproton collisions. Accurate calibration allowed the W and Z masses to be measured with a precision of about 1%. The calorimeter had 24 slices like this one, each weighing 4 tons. The slices were arranged like orange segments around the collision point. Incoming particles produced showers of secondary particles in the layers of heavy material. These showers passed through the layers of plastic scintillator, generating light which was taken by light guides (green) to the data collection electronics. The amount of light was proportional to the energy of the original particle. The inner 23 cm of lead and plastic sandwiches measured electrons and photons; the outer 80 cm of iron and plastic sandwiches measured strongly interacting hadrons. The detector was calibrated by injecting light through optical fibres or by placing a radioactive source in the tube on the bottom edge.

  3. Family reunion for the UA2 calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Abha Eli Phoboo

    2015-01-01

    After many years in CERN’s Microcosm exhibition, the last surviving UA2 central calorimeter module has been moved to Hall 175, the technical development laboratory of the ATLAS Tile Hadronic Calorimeter (Tilecal). The UA2 and ATLAS calorimeters are cousins, as both were designed by Otto Gildemeister. Now side by side, the calorimeters illustrate the progress made in sampling organic scintillator calorimeters over the past 35 years.   The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter prototypes (left) and the UA2 central calorimeter (right) in Hall 175. (Image: Mario Campanelli/ATLAS.) From 1981 to 1990, the UA2 experiment was one of the two detectors on CERN’s flagship accelerator, the SPS. At the heart of the UA2 detector was the central calorimeter. It was made up of 24 slices – each weighing four tonnes – arranged like orange segments around the collision point. These calorimeter slices played a central role in the research carried out by UA2 for the discovery of W bosons...

  4. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Heelan, Louise; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) provides highly-segmented energy measurements of incoming particles. It is a key detector for the measurement of hadrons, jets, tau leptons and missing transverse energy. It is also useful for identification and reconstruction of muons due to good signal to noise ratio. The calorimeter consists of thin steel plates and 460,000 scintillating tiles configured into 5000 cells, each viewed by two photomultipliers. The calorimeter response and its readout electronics is monitored to better than 1% using radioactive source, laser and charge injection systems. The calibration and performance of the calorimeter have been established through test beam measurements, cosmic ray muons and the large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired in 2011 and 2012. Results on the calorimeter performance are presented, including the absolute energy scale, timing, noise and associated stabilities. The results demonstrate that the Tile Calorimeter has performed well within the design ...

  5. Muon g-2 Calorimeter Prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polly, Chris; /Fermilab

    2010-05-03

    The proposed design is a tungsten-scintillating fiber calorimeter with 35 segments, each read out by a separate PMT. Tungsten, which is significantly denser than lead, produces compact showers. This is necessary, in order to improve shower separation in analysis and to fully contain the showers within a calorimeter that satisfies the strict space constraints of the experiment. A single calorimeter segment (4 x 6 x 15 cm{sup 3}) has been constructed in order establish the feasibility of the new design and study its properties. Initial tests of the detector segment at the Paul Scherrer Institute were conducted with a low energy < 400 MeV/c electron beam. A higher-energy test with electrons up to a few GeV/c was performed at the Test Beam Facility under the experimental number T-967. All data from that test have been analyzed and published, and the tungsten-scintillating fiber calorimeter still appears to be a viable candidate. For this test beam run, a larger calorimeter (15 x 15 x 11 cm{sup 3}) has been constructed and an emphasis will be placed on understanding shower leakage and the ability to separate pileup events with a more granular readout. The experimenters will measure the energy resolution, linearity, and shower size of the calorimeter segment. This will provide important information for finalizing decisions on the angle of the fibers relative to the incoming electrons and the optimal granularity of the readout.

  6. Upgrading the ATLAS fast calorimeter simulation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00032940; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider require very large samples of simulated events, and producing these using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Often, a very detailed detector simulation is not needed, and in these cases fast simulation tools can be used to reduce the calorimeter simulation time. In ATLAS, a fast simulation of the calorimeter systems was developed, called Fast Calorimeter Simulation (FastCaloSim). It provides a parametrized simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software, and can be tuned to data more easily than with GEANT4. An improved parametrization is being developed, to eventually address shortcomings of the original version. It makes use of statistical techniques such as principal component analysis, and a neural network parametrization to optimise the amount of information to store in the ATL...

  7. Fast Calorimeter Simulation in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Schaarschmidt, Jana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Producing the very large samples of simulated events required by many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Fast simulation tools are a useful way of reducing CPU requirements when detailed detector simulations are not needed. During the LHC Run-1, a fast calorimeter simulation (FastCaloSim) was successfully used in ATLAS. FastCaloSim provides a simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level, taking into account the detailed particle shower shapes and the correlations between the energy depositions in the various calorimeter layers. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software, and it can be tuned to data more easily than GEANT4. It is 500 times faster than full simulation in the calorimeter system. Now an improved version of FastCaloSim is in development, incorporating the experience with the version used during Run-1. The new FastCaloSim makes use of mach...

  8. The Prism Plastic Calorimeter (PPC)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This proposal supports two goals: \\\\ \\\\ First goal:~~Demonstrate that current, widely used plastic technologies allow to design Prism Plastic Calorimeter~(PPC) towers with a new ``liquid crystal'' type plastic called Vectra. It will be shown that this technique meets the requirements for a LHC calorimeter with warm liquids: safety, hermeticity, hadronic compensation, resolution and time response. \\\\ \\\\ Second goal:~~Describe how one can design a warm liquid calorimeter integrated into a LHC detector and to list the advantages of the PPC: low price, minimum of mechanical structures, minimum of dead space, easiness of mechanical assembly, accessibility to the electronics, possibility to recirculate the liquid. The absorber and the electronic being outside of the liquid and easily accessible, one has maximum flexibility to define them. \\\\ \\\\ The R&D program, we define here aims at showing the feasibility of these new ideas by building nine towers of twenty gaps and exposing them to electron and hadron beams.

  9. Upgrading the Fast Calorimeter Simulation in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Schaarschmidt, Jana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The tremendous need for simulated samples now and even more so in the future, encourage the development of fast simulation techniques. The Fast Calorimeter Simulation is a faster though less accurate alternative to the full calorimeter simulation with Geant4. It is based on parametrizing the longitudunal and lateral energy deposits of single particles in the ATLAS calorimeter. Principal component analysis and machine learning techniques are used to improve the performance and decrease the memory need compared to the current version of the ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation. The parametrizations are expanded to cover very high energies and very forward detector regions, to increase the applicability of the tool. A prototype of this upgraded Fast Calorimeter Simulation has been developed and first validations with single particles show substantial improvements over the previous version.

  10. Measurement of the neutron capture cross section of the fissile isotope 235U with the CERN n{sub T}OF Total Absorption Calorimeter and fission tagging based on micromegas detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balibrea, J.; Mendoza, E.; Cano-Ott, D.; Berthomieux, E.; Guerrero, C.; TOF Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The future nuclear technologies require accurate nuclear data on neutron-induced capture cross sections and α ratios of fissile isotopes. The measurement of their cross section present several difficulties, most of them related to the larger fission γ-ray background competing with the weaker γ-ray cascades from the capture reactions used as signal. A specific setup was used for the measurement of 235U capture cross section at the CERN n{sub T}OF facility in 2012. The setup consists of a set of micromegas fission detectors surrounding the 235U samples all placed inside a segmented BaF2 Total Absorption Calorimeter. (Author)

  11. Measurement of the neutron capture cross section of the fissile isotope 235U with the CERN n_TOF total absorption calorimeter and a fission tagging based on micromegas detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balibrea-Correa, J.; Mendoza, E.; Cano-Ott, D.; Krtička, M.; Altstadt, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Bécares, V.; Barbagallo, M.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Calviño, F.; Calviani, M.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Chin, M.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Durán, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Fraval, K.; Furman, V.; Göbel, K.; Guerrero, C.; Gómez-Hornillos, M. B.; Ganesan, S.; García, A. R.; Giubrone, G.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Griesmayer, E.; Gunsing, F.; Heftrich, T.; Heinitz, S.; Hernández-Prieto, A.; Heyse, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Katabuchi, T.; Ketlerov, V.; Khryachkov, V.; Kivel, N.; Koehler, P.; Kokkoris, M.; Kroll, J.; Lampoudis, C.; Langer, C.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Leong, L. S.; Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Licata, M.; Losito, R.; Mallick, A.; Manousos, A.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mastromarco, M.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Mondelaers, W.; Paradela, C.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego-Perez, A.; Robles, M.; Rubbia, C.; Ryan, J. A.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Sedyshev, P.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Tarrío, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vermeulen, M. J.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Weiss, C.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    2017-09-01

    The accuracy on neutron capture cross section of fissile isotopes must be improved for the design of future nuclear systems such as Gen-IV reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems. The High Priority Request List of the Nuclear Energy Agency, which lists the most important nuclear data requirements, includes also the neutron capture cross sections of fissile isotopes such as 233,235U and 239,241Pu. A specific experimental setup has been used at the CERN n_TOF facility for the measurement of the neutron capture cross section of 235U by a set of micromegas fission detectors placed inside a segmented BaF2 Total Absorption Calorimeter.

  12. sPHENIX Calorimeter Design and Jet Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, John S.

    2016-12-01

    The PHENIX collaboration is planning a detector upgrade, sPHENIX, which consists of large acceptance calorimetry and tracking detectors built around the superconducting solenoid recently shipped to Brookhaven from the decommissioned BaBar experiment at SLAC. The sPHENIX calorimeter system includes three radial layers of sampling calorimeters, a tungsten-scintillating fiber electromagnetic calorimeter, and two longitudinally segmented sampling hadron calorimeters that are made of scintillator tiles and steel plates. Together, they provide hermetic coverage in | η | < 1 for calorimetry based jet measurements as well as minimal bias jet trigger capability, which coupled with high resolution tracking, enable an extremely rich jet physics program at RHIC.

  13. The CASTOR calorimeter at the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Gunnellini, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    The CASTOR Calorimeter at the CMS experiment is an electromagnetic/hadronic calorimeter which covers the very forward region of the detector (-6.6 < eta < -5.2). CASTOR is a Cherenkov sampling calorimeter, consisting of quartz and tungsten plates, with an overall depth of 10 interaction lengths, able to detect penetrating cascade particles. It is segmented in 16 transversal and 14 longitudinal sections. Surrounding the beam pipe, its design is determined by space constraints and restricted to materials which tolerate a high radiation level. In this presentation we report on the operational experience and measurements with the CASTOR calorimeter during the 2010 data taking at the LHC, with proton-proton and heavy ion collisions. An overview of the broad physics program which can be accessed with CASTOR, as well as the status of published and ongoing physics analyses and detector studies are presented.

  14. The CASTOR calorimeter at the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Gunnellini, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    The CASTOR Calorimeter at the CMS experiment is an electromagnetic/hadronic calorimeter which covers the very forward region of the detector (-6.6 lt eta lt -5.2). CASTOR is a Cherenkov sampling calorimeter, consisting of quartz and tungsten plates, with an overall depth of 10 interaction lengths, able to detect penetrating cascade particles. It is segmented in 16 transversal and 14 longitudinal sections. Surrounding the beam pipe, its design is determined by space constraints and restricted to materials which tolerate a high radiation level. In this presentation we report on the operational experience and measurements with the CASTOR calorimeter during the 2010 data taking at the LHC, with proton-proton and heavy ion collisions. An overview of the broad physics program which can be accessed with CASTOR, as well as the status of published and ongoing physics analyses and detector studies are presented.

  15. ATLAS-Hadronic Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Hall 180 work on Hadronic Calorimeter The ATLAS hadronic tile calorimeter The Tile Calorimeter, which constitutes the central section of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter, is a non-compensating sampling device made of iron and scintillating tiles. (IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 53 (2006) 1275-81)

  16. Electromagnetic calorimeter and accurate measurement with the ATLAS detector of the LHC collider; Calorimetrie electromagnetique et mesures de precision avec le detecteur ATLAS aupres du collisionneur LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pralavorio, P

    2007-06-15

    The main purpose of the ATLAS experiment is the understanding of the underlying mechanisms that drive the breaking of the electro-weak symmetry through the discovery of Higgs bosons. An important element to achieve this aim was the design of an electromagnetic calorimeter able to investigate the decay channels: H {yields} {gamma}{gamma} and H {yields} 4e. The high performance of the calorimeter will allow us to get a better accuracy on the measuring values of W and top masses which is essential to indirectly constrain the mass of the Higgs. In the same way, accurate measurements of top and W properties during the decays of top and tWb vertex will be necessary to question the standard model and to see beyond. The author has been working for 9 years in the ATLAS project, he has been involved in the design, construction, qualification and testing phases of the electromagnetic calorimeter of ATLAS. This document is a detailed presentation of the calorimeter, of its qualification and of its expectations when LHC is operating. This document is organized into 4 chapters: 1) assets and weaknesses of the standard model, 2) the ATLAS experiment, 3) the electromagnetic calorimeter, and 4) accurate measurements with ATLAS. This document presented before an academic board will allow its author to manage research works and particularly to tutor thesis students. (A.C.)

  17. Last Few Metres for the Barrel Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Nyman, T.

    On Friday 4th November, the ATLAS Barrel Calorimeter was moved from its assembly point at the side of the ATLAS cavern to the centre of the toroidal magnet system. The detector was finally aligned, to the precision of within a millimetre, on Wednesday 9th November. The ATLAS installation team, led by Tommi Nyman, after having positioned the Barrel Calorimeter in its final location in the ATLAS experimental cavern UX15. The Barrel Calorimeter which will absorb and measure the energy of photons, electrons and hadrons at the core of the ATLAS detector is 8.6 meters in diameter, 6.8 meters long, and weighs over 1600 Tonnes. It consists of two concentric cylindrical detector elements. The innermost comprises aluminium pressure vessels containing the liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter and the solenoid magnet. The outermost is an assembly of 64 hadron tile calorimeter sectors. Assembled 18 meters away from its final position, the Barrel Calorimeter was relocated with the help of a railway, which allows ...

  18. ATLAS: last few metresfor the Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    On Friday 4th November, the ATLAS Barrel Calorimeter was moved from its assembly point at the side of the ATLAS cavern to the centre of the toroidal magnet system. The detector was finally aligned, to the precision of within a millimetre, on Wednesday 9th November. The ATLAS installation team, led by Tommi Nyman, after having positioned the Barrel Calorimeter in its final location in the ATLAS experimental cavern UX15. The Barrel Calorimeter which will absorb and measure the energy of photons, electrons and hadrons at the core of the ATLAS detector is 8.6 meters in diameter, 6.8 meters long, and weighs over 1600 Tonnes. It consists of two concentric cylindrical detector elements. The innermost comprises aluminium pressure vessels containing the liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter and the solenoid magnet. The outermost is an assembly of 64 hadron tile calorimeter sectors. Assembled 18 meters away from its final position, the Barrel Calorimeter was relocated with the help of a railway, which allows the ...

  19. ELECTROMAGNET CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Rusack

    Installation is under way of the last piece of the electromagnetic calorimeter. This is the preshower (ES) that sits in front of the two endcap calorimeters. The construction of the ES was completed in December and went through a detailed set of tests in December and January. The two preshower detectors have a total of 4300 silicon sensors with 137,000 strips. After final assembly and system testing in January, only two of the strips were found to be defective. Once CMS was fully opened a new support structure (‘Gazprom’) was put into place underneath the beam pipe, to support the Surkov platform, on which the preshower installation takes place. In the early hours of 26th February the first two Dees, which form the ‘ES+’ endcap,  were transported to P5 , a journey that took two and a half hours. The Dees, still inside environmental protection boxes, were then lowered  underground and moved to the ‘+’ end of CMS. Installation start...

  20. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Skuja

    Central Calorimeter (HB/HE/HO) Photodetectors The main activity of the HCAL group during the present shutdown is the replacement of a small fraction of the Central Calorimeter (HB/HE/HO) photodetectors -- the Hybrid Photo-Detectors (HPDs). During the MTCC of 2006 it was established that all HPDs exhibit a low rate of discharge generating large random pulses. This behaviour persists at the full CMS field. However, at relatively low fields (0.5 Tesla) this discharge rate increases dramatically and becomes very large for a fraction of the HPDs. The HO HPDs which sit in the gap of the return yoke are thus adversly affected. These discharge pulses have been labelled "HPD noise" (which must be distinguished from low level electronic noise which manifests itself as pedestal noise for all HPD readout channels). Additional intermediate level noise can be generated by ion-feedback arising from thermal and field emission electrons. Ion feedback noise never exceeds the equivalent of few 10s of GeV, the...

  1. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Bloch

    ECAL crystal calorimeter (EB + EE) The Barrel and Endcaps ECAL calorimeters have been used routinely in global runs. The CRAFT data have confirmed that ECAL performance is the same with or without magnetic field. The CRUZET and CRAFT runs have allowed experience to be gained with ECAL operation in many areas, in particular for the trigger and the calibration sequence using gap events (laser events and LED pulsing). More details can be found in the Commissioning/DPG report in this bulletin.   The last components remaining to be installed and commissioned are the specific Endcap Trigger modules (TCC-48). Most of the modules have been delivered to LLR and half of them are already at CERN. In parallel, large progress has been made on the validation of the TCC-48 firmware. Preshower (ES) The Preshower project has also made impressive progress during Autumn. All the elements required to complete the detector assembly are at hand. Ladder assembly, test and calibration with cosmic rays at the operating ...

  2. Upgrading ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Heath, Matthew Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Producing the very large samples of simulated events required by many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Fast simulation tools are a useful way of reducing CPU requirements when detailed detector simulations are not needed. During the LHC Run-1, a fast calorimeter simulation (FastCaloSim) was successfully used in ATLAS. FastCaloSim provides a simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level, taking into account the detailed particle shower shapes and the correlations between the energy depositions in the various calorimeter layers. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software, and it can be tuned to data more easily than Geant4. Now an improved version of FastCaloSim is in development, incorporating the experience with the version used during Run-1. The new FastCaloSim aims to overcome some limitations of the first version by improving the description of s...

  3. Results from ATLAS Calorimeter Combined Test Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Tarrade, F

    2007-01-01

    Beam tests of combinations of ATLAS calorimeters have been performed both for the barrel and end cap parts. During a combined test beam in summer 2004 a slice of the ATLAS barrel detector - including all detector sub systems from the inner tracker, the calorimetry to the muon system - was exposed to particle beams (electrons, pions, photons, muons) with different energies (1GeV to 350GeV). The aim was to study the combined performance of the different detector sub systems in ATLAS-like conditions. We will present the electronics calibration scheme of the electromagnetic calorimeter and its implementation. The following studies on the combined testbeam data have been performed and will be presented: performance of the electromagnetic calorimetry down to very low energies (> GeV), photon reconstruction including converted photons and position measurements using the very precise ATLAS tracker and the electromagnetic calorimeter. These measurements have been compared to Monte Carlo simulations showing the good de...

  4. The CDF miniplug calorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lami, Stefano

    2002-06-28

    Two MiniPlug calorimeters, designed to measure the energy and lateral position of particles in the (forward) pseudorapidity region of 3.6 < |{nu}| < 5.2 of the CDF detector, have been recently installed as part of the Run II CDF upgrade at the Tevatron {bar p}p collider. They consist of lead/liquid scintillator read out by wavelength shifting fibers arranged in a pixel-type towerless geometry suitable for ''calorimetric tracking''. The design concept, the prototype performance and the final design of the MiniPlugs are here described. A recent cosmic ray test resulted in a light yield of approximately 100 pe/MIP, which exceeds our design requirements.

  5. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Spalding

    2011-01-01

    All the HCAL calorimeters are ready for data-taking in 2011 and participated fully in the cosmic running and initial beam operations in the last few weeks. Several improvements were made during the winter technical stop, including replacement of the light-guide sleeves in HF, improvements to the low voltage power connections, and separation of HF from HB and HE in the DAQ partitions. During the 2010 running a form of anomalous noise in the HF was identified as being caused by scintillation when charged particles pass through a portion of the air light-guide sleeve. This portion was constructed from a non-conductive mirror-like material called “HEM”. To suppress these anomalous signals, during the recent winter technical stop all sleeves in the detector were replaced with sleeves made of Tyvek. The detector has been recommissioned with all channels fully operational. Recalibration of the detector will be required due to the differing reflectivity of the new sleeves compared with the HEM sl...

  6. Calibration of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the Atlas detector: reconstruction of events with non-pointing photons in the frame of a GMSB supersymmetric model; Etalonnage du calorimetre electromagnetique du detecteur Atlas: reconstruction des evenements avec des photons non pointants das le cadre d'un modele supersymetrique GMSB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieur, D

    2005-04-15

    The analysis of test-beam data is focused on the calibration of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter. An electrical model has been developed to predict the shape of the physics pulse out of the calibration signal in order to produce optimal filtering coefficients. They are used to compute energy while minimizing electronic noise and getting rid of any possible time shift. Using these coefficients, the uniformity response is 0.6%, in agreement with the 0.7% global constant term required for the whole calorimeter. The study of non pointing photon is driven by the detection of long lived neutralinos predicted by GMSB SUSY models. A systematic study with a detailed simulation of the ATLAS detector was performed to determine the electromagnetic calorimeter angular resolution for such photons. Results were used to parametrized the detector response and to reconstruct SUSY events from this model. (author)

  7. The ALICE Zero Degree Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaldi, R; Cicalò, C; Cortese, P; De Falco, A; Dellacasa, G; De Marco, N; Ferretti, A; Gallio, M; Macciotta, P; Masoni, A; Mauro, S; Mereu, P; Musso, A; Oppedisano, C; Piccotti, A; Puddu, G; Randaccio, P; Scalas, E; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Siddi, E; Soave, C; Usai, G L; Vercellin, Ermanno

    1999-01-01

    In the ALICE experiment at Cern LHC, a set of hadron calorimeters will be used to determine the centrality of the Pb-Pb collision. The spectator protons and neutrons, will be separated from the ion beams, using the separator magnet (D1) of the LHC beam optics and respectively detected by a proton (ZP) and a neutron (ZN) "Zero-degree Calorimeter" (ZDC). The detectors will be placed in front of the separator D2 magnet, 115 meters away from the beam intersection point. The ZDCs are quartz-fiber spaghetti calorimeters that exploit the Cherenkov light produced by the shower particles in silica optical fibers.This technique offers the advantages of high radiation hardness (up to several Grad), fast response and reduced lateral dimension of the detectable shower. In addition, quartz-fiber calorimeters are intrinsically insensitive to radio-activation background, which produces particles below the Cherenkov threshold.The ALICE ZDC should have an energy resolution comparable with the intrinsic energy fluctuations, whi...

  8. The LDC detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ), the large detector concept (LDC) is being developed. The main points of the LDC are a large volume gaseous tracking system, combined with high precision vertex detector and an extremely granular calorimeter. The main design force ...

  9. CMS Detector Posters

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    CMS Detector posters (produced in 2000): CMS installation CMS collaboration From the Big Bang to Stars LHC Magnetic Field Magnet System Trackering System Tracker Electronics Calorimetry Eletromagnetic Calorimeter Hadronic Calorimeter Muon System Muon Detectors Trigger and data aquisition (DAQ) ECAL posters (produced in 2010, FR & EN): CMS ECAL CMS ECAL-Supermodule cooling and mechatronics CMS ECAL-Supermodule assembly

  10. Moving one of the ATLAS end-cap calorimeters

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2007-01-01

    One of the end-cap calorimeters for the ATLAS experiment is moved using a set of rails. This calorimeter will measure the energy of particles that are produced close to the axis of the beam when two protons collide. It is kept cool inside a cryostat to allow the detector to work at maximum efficiency.

  11. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter performance at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cuciuc, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal), the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment, is a key detector component to detect hadrons, jets and taus and to measure the missing transverse energy. Due to the very good muon signal to noise ratio it assists the spectrometer in the identification and reconstruction of muons. TileCal is built of steel and scintillating tiles coupled to optical fibers and read out by photomultipliers. The calorimeter is equipped with systems that allow to monitor and to calibrate each stage of the readout system exploiting different signal sources: laser light, charge injection and a radioactive source. The calorimeter performance and its stability has been evaluated with the rich sample of collision data in 2011 but also with calibration data, random triggered data, cosmic muons and splash events. Results on the absolute energy scale calibration precision, on the energy and timing uniformity, on the time resolution and on the synchronization precision are presented...

  12. ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter back end electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bán, J; Bellachia, F; Blondel, A; Böttcher, S; Clark, A; Colas, Jacques; Díaz-Gómez, M; Dinkespiler, B; Efthymiopoulos, I; Escalier, M; Fayard, Lo; Gara, A; He, Y; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hubaut, F; Ionescu, G; Karev, A; Kurchaninov, L; Lafaye, R; Laforge, B; La Marra, D; Laplace, S; Le Dortz, O; Léger, A; Liu, T; Martin, D; Matricon, P; Moneta, L; Monnier, E; Oberlack, H; Parsons, J A; Pernecker, S; Perrot, G; Poggioli, L; Prast, J; Przysiezniak, H; Repetti, B; Rosselet, L; Riu, I; Schwemling, P; Simion, S; Sippach, W; Strässner, A; Stroynowski, R; Tisserant, S; Unal, G; Wilkens, H; Wingerter-Seez, I; Xiang, A; Yang, J; Ye, J

    2007-01-01

    The Liquid Argon calorimeters play a central role in the ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus) experiment. The environment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) imposes strong constraints on the detectors readout systems. In order to achieve very high precision measurements, the detector signals are processed at various stages before reaching the Data Acquisition system (DAQ). Signals from the calorimeter cells are received by on-detector Front End Boards (FEB), which sample the incoming pulse every 25ns and digitize it at a trigger rate of up to 75~kHz. Off-detector Read Out Driver (ROD) boards further process the data and send reconstructed quantities to the DAQ while also monitoring the data quality. In this paper, the ATLAS Liquid Argon electronics chain is described first, followed by a detailed description of the off-detector readout system. Finally, the tests performed on the system are summarized.

  13. Study of the performance of a compact sandwich calorimeter for the instrumentation of the very forward region of a future linear collider detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghenescu, V., E-mail: veta.ghenescu@cern.ch [Institute of Space Science, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Benhammou, Y. [Tel Aviv University, TelAviv (Israel)

    2017-02-11

    The FCAL collaboration is preparing large scale prototypes of special calorimeters to be used in the very forward region at a future linear electron positron collider for a precise and fast luminosity measurement and beam-tuning. These calorimeters are designed as sensor-tungsten calorimeters with very thin sensor planes to keep the Moliere radius small and dedicated FE electronics to match the timing and dynamic range requirements. A partially instrumented prototype was investigated in the CERN PS T9 beam in 2014 and at the DESY-II Synchrotron in 2015. It was operated in a mixed particle beam (electrons, muons and hadrons) of 5 GeV from PS facilities and with secondary electrons of 5 GeV energy from DESY-II. The results demonstrated a very good performance of the full readout chain. The high statistics data were used to study the response to different particles, perform sensor alignment and measure the longitudinal shower development in the sandwich. In addition, Geant4 MC simulations were done, and compared to the data.

  14. Electron identification in and performance of the ND280 Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Carver, Antony

    T2K is an o axis neutrino beam experiment with a baseline of 295 km to the far detector, Super-Kamiokande. The near detector, ND280, measures the ux and energy spectra of electron and muon neutrinos in the direction of Super-Kamiokande. An electromagnetic calorimeter constructed from lead and scintillator surrounds the inner detector. Three time projection chambers and two ne grained scintillator detectors sit inside the calorimeter. This thesis describes the development of a particle identification algorithm for the calorimeter and studies how it can enhance a simple electron neutrino analysis. A particle identification algorithm was written for the electromagnetic calorimeter to separate minimally ionising particles, electromagnetic and hadronic showers. A Monte Carlo study suggested that the algorithm produced an electron sample with a relative muon contamination of 10+-2 whilst maintaining an electron efficiency of 80%. Data collected at CERN was then used to make comparisons between the Monte Carlo simul...

  15. Measurement of the neutron capture cross section of the fissile isotope 235U with the CERN n_TOF total absorption calorimeter and a fission tagging based on micromegas detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balibrea-Correa J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy on neutron capture cross section of fissile isotopes must be improved for the design of future nuclear systems such as Gen-IV reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems. The High Priority Request List of the Nuclear Energy Agency, which lists the most important nuclear data requirements, includes also the neutron capture cross sections of fissile isotopes such as 233,235U and 239,241Pu. A specific experimental setup has been used at the CERN n_TOF facility for the measurement of the neutron capture cross section of 235U by a set of micromegas fission detectors placed inside a segmented BaF2 Total Absorption Calorimeter.

  16. Measurement of the Neutron Capture Cross Section of the Fissile Isotope 235U with the CERN n_TOF Total Absorption Calorimeter and a Fission Tagging Based on Micromegas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Balibrea, J; Cano-Ott, D; Guerrero, C; Berthoumieux, E; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Barbagallo, M; Bécares, V; Bečvář, F; Belloni, F; Billowes, J; Boccone, V; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviani, M; Calviño, F; Carrapiço, C; Cerutti, F; Chiaveri, E; Chin, M; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Duran, I; Dressler, R; Dzysiuk, N; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; García, A R; Giubrone, G; Gómez-Hornillos, M B; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Gunsing, F; Gurusamy, P; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F; Karadimos, D; Kawano, T; Kivel, N; Koehler, P; Kokkoris, M; Korschinek, G; Krtička, M; Kroll, J; Langer, C; Lampoudis, C; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Leong, L S; Losito, R; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martínez, T; Mastinu, P F; Mastromarco, M; Massimi, C; Meaze, M; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Mondelaers, W; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Pignatari, M; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J M; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Roman, F; Rubbia, C; Sarmento, R; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Schumann, D; Stetcu, I; Sabaté, M; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tarrío, D; Tassan-Got, L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Versaci, R; Vermeulen, M J; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Wallner, A; Ware, T; Weigand, M; Weiß, C; Wright, T J; Žugec, P

    Current and future nuclear technologies require more accurate nuclear data on (n,γ) cross sections and the α-ratios of fissile isotopes. Their measurement presents several difficulties, mainly related to the strong fission γ-ray background competing with the weaker γ-ray cascades used as the experimental signature of the (n,γ) process. A specific setup was used at the CERN n_TOF facility in 2012 for the measurement of the (n,γ) cross section and α-ratios of fissile isotopes and used for the case of the 235U isotope. The setup consists of a set of micromegas fission detectors surrounding the 235U samples all placed inside a segmented BaF2 Total Absorption Calorimeter.

  17. Measurement of the neutron capture cross section of the fissile isotope $^{235}$U with the CERN n_TOF Total Absorption Calorimeter and a fission tagging based on micromegas detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mendoza, E; Cano-Ott, D; Guerrero, C; Berthoumieux, E; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Barbagallo, M; Bécares, V; Becvár, F; Belloni, F; Billowes, J; Boccone, V; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviani, M; Calviño, F; Carrapiço, C; Cerutti, F; Chiaveri, E; Chin, M; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Duran, I; Dressler, R; Dzysiuk, N; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; García, A R; Giubrone, G; Gómez-Hornillos, M B; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Gunsing, F; Gurusamy, P; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F; Karadimos, D; Kawano, T; Kivel, N; Koehler, P; Kokkoris, M; Korschinek, G; Krticka, M; Kroll, J; Langer, C; Lampoudis, C; Leal-Cidoncha, E; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Leong, L S; Losito, R; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martínez, T; Mastinu, P F; Mastromarco, M; Massimi, C; Meaze, M; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Mondelaers, W; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Pignatari, M; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J M; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Roman, F; Rubbia, C; Sarmento, R; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Schumann, D; Stetcu, I; Sabaté, M; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tarrío, D; Tassan-Got, L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Versaci, R; Vermeulen, M J; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Wallner, A; Ware, T; Weigand, M; Weiss, C; Wright, T; Zugec, P

    2014-01-01

    Actual and future nuclear technologies require more accurate nuclear data on the (n, $\\gamma$) cross sections and $\\alpha$-ratios of fissile isotopes. Their measurement presents several difficulties, mainly related to the strong fission $\\gamma$-ray background competing with the weaker $\\gamma$-ray cascades used as the experimental signature of the (n, $\\gamma$) process. A specific setup has been used at the CERN n_TOF facility in 2012 for the measurement of the (n,$\\gamma$ ) cross section and $\\alpha$- ratios of fissile isotopes and used for the case of the $^{235}$U isotope. The setup consists in a set of micromegas fission detectors surrounding $^{235}$U samples and placed inside the segmented BaF$_2$ Total Absorption Calorimeter.

  18. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). PMT signals are then digitized at 40 MHz and stored on detector and are only transferred off detector once the first level trigger acceptance has been confirmed. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements and an integrator b...

  19. Design, Construction and Commissioning of the Digital Hadron Calorimeter - DHCAL

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, C; Bilki, B.; Butler, J.; Corriveau, F.; Cundiff, T.; Drake, G.; Francis, K.; Furst, B.; Guarino, V.; Haberichter, B.; Hazen, E.; Hoff, J.; Holm, S.; Kreps, A.; DeLurgio, P.; Matijas, Z.; Monte, L.Dal; Mucia, N.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; Pollack, B.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Skrzecz, F.; Smith, J.R.; Trojand, D.; Underwood, D.; Velasco, M.; Walendziak, J.; Wood, K.; Wu, S.; Xia, L.; Zhang, Q.; Zhao, A.

    2016-01-01

    A novel hadron calorimeter is being developed for future lepton colliding beam detectors. The calorimeter is optimized for the application of Particle Flow Algorithms (PFAs) to the measurement of hadronic jets and features a very finely segmented readout with 1 x 1 cm2 cells. The active media of the calorimeter are Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) with a digital, i.e. one-bit, readout. To first order the energy of incident particles in this calorimeter is reconstructed as being proportional to the number of pads with a signal over a given threshold. A large-scale prototype calorimeter with approximately 500,000 readout channels has been built and underwent extensive testing in the Fermilab and CERN test beams. This paper reports on the design, construction, and commissioning of this prototype calorimeter.

  20. Run 1 Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Heelan, Louise; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) provides highly-segmented energy measurements of incoming particles. It is a key detector for the measurement of hadrons, jets, tau leptons and missing transverse energy. It is also useful for identification and reconstruction of muons due to good signal to noise ratio. The calorimeter consists of thin steel plates and 460,000 scintillating tiles configured into 5000 cells, each viewed by two photomultipliers. The calorimeter response and its readout electronics is monitored to better than 1% using radioactive source, laser and charge injection systems. The calibration and performance of the calorimeter have been established through test beam measurements, cosmic ray muons and the large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired in 2011 and 2012. Results on the calorimeter performance are presented, including the absolute energy scale, timing, noise and associated stabilities. The results demonstrate that the Tile Calorimeter has performed well within the design ...

  1. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    by J. Spalding and A. Skuja

    2010-01-01

    Operations and Maintenance All HCAL sub-detectors participated throughout the recent data taking with 7 TeV collisions. A timing scan of HF was performed to optimize the timing across the detectors and to set the overall time position of the ~10-ns wide signals within the 25-ns integration time slice. This position was chosen to ensure that the trigger primitives in physics events are generated synchronously at the desired bunch crossing, while also providing discrimination between the calorimeter signals and anomalous signals due to interactions within the photomultiplier tubes. This timing discrimination is now used in the standard filter algorithms for anomalous signals. For HB and HE, once the statistics needed to assess the timing of a sufficient number of channels was accumulated, it was verified that the time settings determined with cosmic, splash events and initial collision data were appropriate for the 7 TeV collision data taking. A further fine-tuning of the HB and HE time settings will be perfo...

  2. Imaging Calorimeter: What Have We Learned So Far

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lei

    Particle Flow Algorithms (PFAs) have been applied to existing detectors to improve the measurement of hadronic jets in colliding beam experiments. For future experiments, such as a TeV lepton collider, detector concepts optimized for the application of PFAs are being developed. These concepts require so-called imaging calorimeters, with unprecedented granularity. We will review the various recent developments of such highly granular calorimeters.

  3. Performance and Operation of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dimitrov, A; Dyulendarova, M; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Toteva, Z; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Guan, W; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liu, B; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z; Xue, Z; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Ge, Y; Guo, S; Hu, Z; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhu, B; Avila, C; Baquero Ruiz, M; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Gomez, A; Gomez Moreno, B; Ocampo Rios, A A; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Reyes Romero, D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Fereos, R; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Papadakis, A; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Tsiakkouri, D; Zinonos, Z; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Anttila, E; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Nysten, J; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Nedelec, P; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Chipaux, R; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Descamps, J; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Rousseau, D; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Paganini, P; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J L; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J M; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Gross, L; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A C; Patois, Y; Speck, J; Van Hove, P; Baty, C; Bedjidian, M; Blaha, J; Boudoul, G; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; Dupasquier, T; El Mamouni, H; Fassi, F; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Djaoshvili, N; Roinishvili, N; Roinishvili, V; Amaglobeli, N; Adolphi, R; Anagnostou, G; Brauer, R; Braunschweig, W; Edelhoff, M; Esser, H; Feld, L; Karpinski, W; Khomich, A; Klein, K; Mohr, N; Ostaptchouk, A; Pandoulas, D; Pierschel, G; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Sprenger, D; Thomas, M; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Actis, O; Altenhöfer, G; Bender, W; Biallass, P; Erdmann, M; Fetchenhauer, G; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hilgers, G; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Kirsch, M; Klimkovich, T; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Philipps, B; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Sowa, M; Steggemann, J; Szczesny, H; Teyssier, D; Zeidler, C; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Hermanns, T; Heydhausen, D; Kalinin, S; Kress, T; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Poettgens, M; Pooth, O; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Tornier, D; 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Niegel, M; Oberst, O; Oehler, A; Ott, J; Peiffer, T; Piparo, D; Quast, G; Rabbertz, K; Ratnikov, F; Ratnikova, N; Renz, M; Saout, C; Sartisohn, G; Scheurer, A; Schieferdecker, P; Schilling, F P; Schott, G; Simonis, H J; Stober, F M; Sturm, P; Troendle, D; Trunov, A; Wagner, W; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Zeise, M; Zhukov, V; Ziebarth, E B; Daskalakis, G; Geralis, T; Karafasoulis, K; Kyriakis, A; Loukas, D; Markou, A; Markou, C; Mavrommatis, C; Petrakou, E; Zachariadou, A; Gouskos, L; Katsas, P; Panagiotou, A; Evangelou, I; Kokkas, P; Manthos, N; Papadopoulos, I; Patras, V; Triantis, F A; Bencze, G; Boldizsar, L; Debreczeni, G; Hajdu, C; Hernath, S; Hidas, P; Horvath, D; Krajczar, K; Laszlo, A; Patay, G; Sikler, F; Toth, N; Vesztergombi, G; Beni, N; Christian, G; Imrek, J; Molnar, J; Novak, D; Palinkas, J; Szekely, G; Szillasi, Z; Tokesi, K; Veszpremi, V; Kapusi, A; Marian, G; Raics, P; Szabo, Z; Trocsanyi, Z L; Ujvari, B; Zilizi, G; Bansal, S; Bawa, H S; Beri, S B; Bhatnagar, V; Jindal, M; Kaur, M; 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Yang, Y; Zhang, L; Zhu, K; Zhu, R Y; Akgun, B; Carroll, R; Ferguson, T; Jang, D W; Jun, S Y; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Terentyev, N; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Cumalat, J P; Dinardo, M E; Drell, B R; Ford, W T; Heyburn, B; Luiggi Lopez, E; Nauenberg, U; Stenson, K; Ulmer, K; Wagner, S R; Zang, S L; Agostino, L; Alexander, J; Blekman, F; Cassel, D; Chatterjee, A; Das, S; Gibbons, L K; Heltsley, B; Hopkins, W; Khukhunaishvili, A; Kreis, B; Kuznetsov, V; Patterson, J R; Puigh, D; Ryd, A; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W; Teo, W D; Thom, J; Vaughan, J; Weng, Y; Wittich, P; Beetz, C P; Cirino, G; Sanzeni, C; Winn, D; Abdullin, S; Afaq, M A; Albrow, M; Ananthan, B; Apollinari, G; Atac, M; Badgett, W; Bagby, L; Bakken, J A; Baldin, B; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Biery, K; Binkley, M; Bloch, I; Borcherding, F; Brett, A M; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Chetluru, V; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Churin, I; Cihangir, S; Crawford, M; Dagenhart, W; Demarteau, M; Derylo, G; Dykstra, D; Eartly, D P; Elias, J E; Elvira, V D; Evans, D; Feng, L; Fischler, M; Fisk, I; Foulkes, S; Freeman, J; Gartung, P; Gottschalk, E; Grassi, T; Green, D; Guo, Y; Gutsche, O; Hahn, A; Hanlon, J; Harris, R M; Holzman, B; Howell, J; Hufnagel, D; James, E; Jensen, H; Johnson, M; Jones, C D; Joshi, U; Juska, E; Kaiser, J; Klima, B; Kossiakov, S; Kousouris, K; Kwan, S; Lei, C M; Limon, P; Lopez Perez, J A; Los, S; Lueking, L; Lukhanin, G; Lusin, S; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Marraffino, J M; Mason, D; McBride, P; Miao, T; Mishra, K; Moccia, S; Mommsen, R; Mrenna, S; Muhammad, A S; Newman-Holmes, C; Noeding, C; O'Dell, V; Prokofyev, O; Rivera, R; Rivetta, C H; Ronzhin, A; Rossman, P; Ryu, S; Sekhri, V; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sfiligoi, I; Sharma, S; Shaw, T M; Shpakov, D; Skup, E; Smith, R P; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Suzuki, I; Tan, P; Tanenbaum, W; Tkaczyk, S; Trentadue, R; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vidal, R; Whitmore, J; Wicklund, E; Wu, W; Yarba, J; Yumiceva, F; Yun, J C; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Barashko, V; Bourilkov, D; Chen, M; Di Giovanni, G P; Dobur, D; Drozdetskiy, A; Field, R D; Fu, Y; Furic, I K; Gartner, J; Holmes, D; Kim, B; Klimenko, S; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotov, K; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kypreos, T; Madorsky, A; Matchev, K; Mitselmakher, G; Pakhotin, Y; Piedra Gomez, J; Prescott, C; Rapsevicius, V; Remington, R; Schmitt, M; Scurlock, B; Wang, D; Yelton, J; Ceron, C; Gaultney, V; Kramer, L; Lebolo, L M; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, T; Askew, A; Baer, H; Bertoldi, M; Chen, J; Dharmaratna, W G D; Gleyzer, S V; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Jenkins, M; Johnson, K F; Prettner, E; Prosper, H; Sekmen, S; Baarmand, M M; Guragain, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Mermerkaya, H; Ralich, R; Vodopiyanov, I; Abelev, B; Adams, M R; Anghel, I M; Apanasevich, L; Bazterra, V E; Betts, R R; Callner, J; Castro, M A; Cavanaugh, R; Dragoiu, C; Garcia-Solis, E J; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Khalatian, S; Mironov, C; Shabalina, E; Smoron, A; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Ayan, A S; Bilki, B; Briggs, R; Cankocak, K; Chung, K; Clarida, W; Debbins, P; Duru, F; Ingram, F D; Lae, C K; McCliment, E; Merlo, J P; Mestvirishvili, A; Miller, M J; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Parsons, J; Schmidt, I; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Chien, C Y; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, N V; Zhang, Y; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Grachov, O; Murray, M; Radicci, V; Sanders, S; Wood, J S; Zhukova, V; Bandurin, D; Bolton, T; Kaadze, K; Liu, A; Maravin, Y; Onoprienko, D; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, D; Bard, R; Boutemeur, M; Eno, S C; Ferencek, D; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Kunori, S; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Toole, T; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    The operation and general performance of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter using cosmic-ray muons are described. These muons were recorded after the closure of the CMS detector in late 2008. The calorimeter is made of lead tungstate crystals and the overall status of the 75848 channels corresponding to the barrel and endcap detectors is reported. The stability of crucial operational parameters, such as high voltage, temperature and electronic noise, is summarised and the performance of the light monitoring system is presented.

  4. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the status of the on-detector and off-detector electronics developments for the Phase II Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at the LHC scheduled around 2024. A demonstrator prototype for a slice of the calorimeter including most of the new electronics is planned to be installed in ATLAS in middle 2014 during the Long Shutdown. For the on-detector readout, three different front-end boards (FEB) alternatives are being studied: a new version of the 3-in-1 card, the QIE chip and a dedicated ASIC called FATALIC. The MainBoard will provide communication and control to the FEBs and the DaughterBoard will transmit the digitized data to the off-detector electronics in the counting room, where the sROD will perform processing tasks on them.

  5. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F

    2013-01-01

    This work summarizes the status of the on-detector and off-detector electronics developments for the Phase II Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at the LHC scheduled around 2022. A demonstrator prototype for a slice of the calorimeter including most of the new electronics is planned to be installed in ATLAS in middle 2014 during the Long Shutdown. For the on-detector readout, three different front-end boards (FEB) alternatives are being studied: a new version of the 3-in-1 card, the QIE chip and a dedicated ASIC called FATALIC. The MainBoard will provide communication and control to the FEBs and the DaughterBoard will transmit the digitized data to the off-detector electronics in the counting room, where the sROD will perform processing tasks on them.

  6. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrió Fernando

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work summarizes the status of the on-detector and off-detector electronics developments for the Phase 2 Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at the LHC scheduled around 2022. A demonstrator prototype for a slice of the calorimeter including most of the new electronics is planned to be installed in ATLAS in the middle of 2014 during the first Long Shutdown. For the on-detector readout, three different front-end boards (FEB alternatives are being studied: a new version of the 3-in-1 card, the QIE chip and a dedicated ASIC called FATALIC. The Main Board will provide communication and control to the FEBs and the Daughter Board will transmit the digitized data to the off-detector electronics in the counting room, where the super Read-Out Driver (sROD will perform processing tasks on them and will be the interface to the trigger levels 0, 1 and 2.

  7. The Small Angle Tile Calorimeter project in DELPHI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvsvaag, S. J.; Maeland, O. A.; Klovning, A.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Giordano, V.; Guerzoni, M.; Navarria, F. L.; Verardi, M. G.; Camporesi, T.; Vallazza, E.; Bozzo, M.; Cereseto, R.; Barreira, G.; Espirito Santo, M. C.; Maio, A.; Onofre, A.; Peralta, L.; Pimenta, M.; Tome, B.; Carling, H.; Falk, E.; Hedberg, V.; Jarlskog, G.; Kronkvist, I.; Bonesini, M.; Chignoli, F.; Ferrari, P.; Gumenyuk, S.; Leoni, R.; Mazza, R.; Negri, P.; Paganoni, M.; Petrovykh, L.; Terranova, F.; Dharmasiri, D. R.; Nossum, B.; Read, A. L.; Skaali, B.; Castellani, L.; Pegoraro, M.; Fenyuk, A.; Gouz, Yu.; Ivaniouchenkov, Yu.; Karyukhin, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Vlassov, E.; Zaitsev, A.; Bigi, M.; Cassio, V.; Gamba, D.; Migliore, E.; Romero, A.; Simonetti, L.; Torassa, E.; Trapani, P. P.; Bari, M.; Della Ricca, G.; Lanceri, L.; Poropat, P.; Prest, M.

    1995-11-01

    The new Small Angle TIIe Calorimeter (STIC) covers the forward regions in DELPHI. The main motivation for its construction was to achieve a systematic error of 0.1% on the luminosity determination. This detector consists of a "shashlik" type calorimeter, equipped with two planes of silicon pad detectors placed respectively after 4 and 7.4 radiation lengths. A veto counter, composed of two scintillator planes, covers the front of the calorimeter to allow ϱ - γ separation and to provide a neutral energy trigger. The physics motivations for this project, results from extensive testbeam measurements and the performance during the 1994 LEP run are reported here.

  8. sPHENIX Calorimeter Design and Jet Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggerty J. S.

    2016-09-27

    The PHENIX collaboration is planning a detector upgrade, sPHENIX, which consists of large acceptance calorimetry and tracking detectors built around the superconducting solenoid recently shipped to Brookhaven from the decommissioned BaBar experiment at SLAC. The sPHENIX calorimeter system includes three radial layers of samplingcalorimeters, a tungsten-scintillating fiber electromagnetic calorimeter, and two longitudinally segmented samplinghadron calorimeters that are made of scintillator tiles and steel plates. Together, they provide hermetic coverage in n < 1 for calorimetry based jet measurements as well as minimal bias jet trigger capability, which coupled with high resolution tracking, enable an extremely rich jet physics program at RHIC.

  9. Simulation and validation of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Artamonov, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    --Simulation and validation of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at LHC TileCal is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. This sampling calorimeter uses iron plates as absorber and plastic scintillating tiles as the active material. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from the approximately 10000 PMTs are measured and digitized every 25 ns before being transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. This contribution describes the detailed simulation of this large scale calorimeter from the implementation of the geometrical elements down to the realistic description of the electronics readout pulses, the special noise treatment and the signal reconstruction. Detector non-uniformities and imperfections are also represented. Detailed validation has shown that the simulated detector response characteristics have been successfully integrated and...

  10. Micro Calorimeter for Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    As battery technology forges ahead and consumer demand for safer, more affordable, high-performance batteries grows, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has added a patented Micro Calorimeter to its existing family of R&D 100 Award-winning Isothermal Battery Calorimeters (IBCs). The Micro Calorimeter examines the thermal signature of battery chemistries early on in the design cycle using popular coin cell and small pouch cell designs, which are simple to fabricate and study.

  11. Testing and calibration through laser radiation and muon beams of the hadron calorimeter in ATLAS detector; Controle et etalonnage par lumiere laser et par faisceaux de muons du calorimetre hadronique a tuiles scintillantes d'ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garde, V

    2003-10-15

    This study is dedicated to the calibration of the hadronic calorimeter (Tilecal) of the ATLAS detector. This detector will be installed on the LHC collider at CERN. The first data will be taken in 2007. This thesis is divided in two parts. The first part is dedicated to the study of the LASER system. A prototype of the final system was studied. It was shown that the stability and the linearity of this prototype are conform to the specification. Several studies were devoted to measurements which can be done on the Tilecal: The relative gain can be calculated and gives the stability of the Tilecal with a resolution of 0.35 %. The number of photoelectrons per charge unit has been calculated. The linearity was checked for a normal range of functioning and was corrected for the functioning at high charge. In both cases it was shown that the non-linearity was smaller than 0.5 %. The second study is devoted to muons beams in test beam periods. These results are used to find a calibration constant. Several problems which come from the difference of size cells are not totally solved. But the resolution of the calibration constant found by this method cannot exceed 2.3%. (author)

  12. Qualification procedure of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the ATLAS detector; Conception et mise au point de la procedure de qualification du calorimetre electromagnetique a argon liquide du detecteur ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massol, N

    2000-04-19

    LHC is the next collider based at CERN in Europe. The purpose of this machine is the Higgs boson and SUSY particles search. The detectors must have an excellent electromagnetic calorimetry to measure electron and photon energy. To maximize the signal to noise ratio for a low mass Higgs, it is fundamental to obtain a constant term as small as possible. LAPP is participating in the construction of the liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter of the ATLAS collaboration. This technology is well adapted to the LHC experimental conditions. A systematic procedure to qualify the modules of this detector is an essential step to guarantee a 0,7% constant term, which is the collaboration objective. The procedure detailed in this thesis consists of quality monitoring during mechanical assembly and of a set of electrical tests such as electrical continuity, cell and cross-talk capacitance measurement, and high-voltage behaviour. For the whole test, it has been necessary to develop dedicated electronic cards, to develop measurement methods, and the whole operation software. Making the procedure automatic will guarantee the quality of each module during assembly, cabling, and test in liquid argon. (author)

  13. Rad Hard Active Media For Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Norbeck, E; Möller, A; Onel, Y

    2006-01-01

    Zero-degree calorimeters have limited space and extreme levels of radiation. A simple, low cost, radiation hard design uses tungstenmetal as the absorber and a suitable liquid as the ˇCerenkov radiator. In other applications a PPAC (Parallel Plate Avalanche Counter) operatingwith a suitable atmosphericpressure gas is an attractive active material for a calorimeter. It can be made radiation hard and has sufficient gain in the gas that no electronic components are needed near the detector. It works well even with the highest concentration of shower particles. For this pressure range, R134A (used in auto air conditioners) has many desirable features.

  14. The Lund–York–Cologne Calorimeter (LYCCA): Concept, design and prototype developments for a FAIR-NUSTAR detector system to discriminate relativistic heavy-ion reaction products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubev, P., E-mail: Pavel.Golubev@nuclear.lu.se [Department of Physics, Lund University, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Wendt, A. [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität zu Köln, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Scruton, L. [Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Taprogge, J. [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität zu Köln, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Rudolph, D. [Department of Physics, Lund University, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Reiter, P. [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität zu Köln, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Bentley, M.A. [Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Avdeichikov, V. [Department of Physics, Lund University, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Boutachkov, P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Fox, S.P. [Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Gerl, J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Görgen, Ch. [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität zu Köln, D-50937 Köln (Germany); and others

    2013-09-21

    The concept, design and prototype developments for the Lund–York–Cologne CAlorimeter (LYCCA) is presented. LYCCA is a modular device for the NUclear STructure, Astrophysics and Reactions (NUSTAR) science pillar of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt, Germany. LYCCA is designed to discriminate heavy ions produced in nuclear reactions induced by relativistic radioactive ion beams. Measurements of energy loss, total energy, and time-of-flight allow the derivation of proton number, Z, and mass number, A, of the reaction products. LYCCA-inherent tracking of the flight paths of the reaction products enables coincident HIgh-resolution in-beam γ-ray SPECtroscopy (HISPEC) of atomic nuclei far from the line of β-stability.

  15. The Lund-York-Cologne Calorimeter (LYCCA): Concept, design and prototype developments for a FAIR-NUSTAR detector system to discriminate relativistic heavy-ion reaction products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubev, P.; Wendt, A.; Scruton, L.; Taprogge, J.; Rudolph, D.; Reiter, P.; Bentley, M. A.; Avdeichikov, V.; Boutachkov, P.; Fox, S. P.; Gerl, J.; Görgen, Ch.; Hoischen, R.; Kurz, N.; Nara Singh, B. S.; Pascovici, G.; Pietri, S.; Schaffner, H.; Taylor, M. J.; Thiel, S.; Wollersheim, H. J.

    2013-09-01

    The concept, design and prototype developments for the Lund-York-Cologne CAlorimeter (LYCCA) is presented. LYCCA is a modular device for the NUclear STructure, Astrophysics and Reactions (NUSTAR) science pillar of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt, Germany. LYCCA is designed to discriminate heavy ions produced in nuclear reactions induced by relativistic radioactive ion beams. Measurements of energy loss, total energy, and time-of-flight allow the derivation of proton number, Z, and mass number, A, of the reaction products. LYCCA-inherent tracking of the flight paths of the reaction products enables coincident HIgh-resolution in-beam γ-ray SPECtroscopy (HISPEC) of atomic nuclei far from the line of β-stability.

  16. Geometric alignment of the CMD-3 endcap electromagnetic calorimeter using events of two-quantum annihilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetshin, R. R.; Grigoriev, D. N.; Kazanin, V. F.; Kuzmenko, A. E.; Timofeev, A. V.

    2017-08-01

    Since 2010 the electromagnetic endcap calorimeter based on BGO crystals is used in experiments as one of the systems of the CMD-3 detector. The spacial resolution is one of crucial parameters of the calorimeter. Inaccurate knowledge of the real calorimeter position can limit the resolution. In this work the alignment of the center of the calorimeter with respect to the tracking system of the CMD-3 detector has been performed using events of two-quantum annihilation. The alignment technique that has been used to determine the position of the calorimeter is described. Finally, the improvement in spacial resolution of the calorimeter after applying the correction for the real calorimeter position is shown.

  17. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00223142; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider require very large samples of simulated events, and producing these using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Often, a very detailed detector simulation is not needed, and in these cases fast simulation tools can be used to reduce the calorimeter simulation time by a few orders of magnitude. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation (FastCaloSim) is an improved parametrisation compared to the one used in the LHC Run-1. It provides a simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level, taking into account the detailed particle shower shapes and the correlations between the energy depositions in the various calorimeter layers. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software, and can be tuned to data more easily than with GEANT4. The new FastCaloSim incorporates developments in geometry and physics lists of the last five years and benefit...

  18. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, Flavia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A very large number of simulated events is required for physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Producing these with the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. As a very detailed detector simulation is not always required, fast simulation tools have been developed to reduce the calorimeter simulation time by a few orders of magnitude. The fast simulation of ATLAS for the calorimeter systems used in Run 1, called Fast Calorimeter Simulation (FastCaloSim), provides a parameterized simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level. It is then interfaced to the ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software. In Run 1, about 13 billion events were simulated in ATLAS, out of which 50% were produced using fast simulation. For Run 2, a new parameterisation is being developed to improve the original version: It incorporates developments in geometry and physics lists of the last five years and benefits from knowledge acquire...

  19. Upgrading the ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Hubacek, Zdenek; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider require very large samples of simulated events, and producing these using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Often, a very detailed detector simulation is not needed, and in these cases fast simulation tools can be used to reduce the calorimeter simulation time by a few orders of magnitude. In ATLAS, a fast simulation of the calorimeter systems was developed, called Fast Calorimeter Simulation (FastCaloSim). It provides a parametrized simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software, and can be tuned to data more easily than with GEANT4. The original version of FastCaloSim has been very important in the LHC Run-1, with several billion events simulated. An improved parametrisation is being developed, to eventually address shortcomings of the original version. It incorporates developme...

  20. SuperCDMS SNOLAB Low-Mass Detectors: Ultra-Sensitive Phonon Calorimeters for a Sub-GeV Dark Matter Search

    OpenAIRE

    Kurinsky, Noah; Brink, Paul; Partridge, Richard; Cabrera, Blas; Pyle, Matt

    2016-01-01

    We present the technical design for the SuperCDMS high-voltage, low-mass dark matter detectors, designed to be sensitive to dark matter down to 300 MeV/$c^2$ in mass and resolve individual electron-hole pairs from low-energy scattering events in high-purity Ge and Si crystals. In this paper we discuss some of the studies and technological improvements which have allowed us to design such a sensitive detector, including advances in phonon sensor design and detector simulation. With this design...

  1. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Skuja

    During the last 3 months commissioning of HCAL has continued for HO and HE+. We have also started the commissioning of the first wedge of HB+. Progress continues to be made by our Trigger/DAQ, DCS and DPG colleagues. HF will be used to obtain a Luminosity measurement for CMS. A first test of the modifications to the HF electronics was made in the August CMS global run. In addition to installation and commissioning of various parts of HCAL, we also completed a very successful summer Test Beam period which saw measurements of the combined HE/EE/ES calorimeter system in the H2 test beam. Installation and Commissioning a. HB commissioning This week, part of the final water-cooling system for HB was commissioned. Eighteen HB- wedges and two pilot wedges on HB+ have been connected to the water circuit on YB0. On Sept 6, 2007 cabling and commissioning was started for the first HB readout box (RBX) using temporary set of cables. We have connected RBX-17 to the Low Voltage PS and the HCAL Detector Control Sy...

  2. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Spalding and A. Skuja

    2010-01-01

    Splash and Collision Data HCAL recorded the beam-on-collimator (splash) and the first collision data in November and December 2009, and provided triggers to CMS with the forward calorimeter, HF. Splash events were used to improve the energy inter-calibration of the HB and HE channels, with the basic assumption that the energy deposited in the detector by the large flux of muons that passed through in splash events was a smooth function in eta and phi. The new HB and HE calibration coefficients were applied prior to the collision data taking. For HO, a similar analysis is being finalized. Splash events were also used to determine the relative timing between channels in HB and HE, and new delay settings were calculated based on splashes from one beam, applied and verified with the splash events from the other beam. During Fall 2009, the HF technical trigger was improved in order to be effectively used as one of the main CMS triggers during the collision data taking. Collisions were successfully recorded by all...

  3. LHCb: Upgrade of the LHCb calorimeter electronics

    CERN Multimedia

    Mauricio Ferre, J

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration foresees a major upgrade of the detector for the high luminosity run that should take place after 2018. Apart from the increase of the instantaneous luminosity at the interaction point of the experiment, one of the major ingredients of this upgrade is a full readout at 40MHz of the sub-detectors and the acquisition of the data by a large farm of PC. The trigger will be done by this farm and should increase the overall trigger efficiency with respect to the current detector, especially in hadronic B meson decays. A general overview of the modifications foreseen to the calorimeter system and the integration of the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters in this new scheme will be described.

  4. LHCb : First years of running for the LHCb calorimeter system and preparation for run 2

    CERN Multimedia

    Chefdeville, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is dedicated to precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of B hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva). It comprises a calorimeter system composed of four subdetectors: a Scintillating Pad Detector (SPD) and a Pre-Shower detector (PS) in front of an electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) which is followed by a hadron calorimeter (HCAL). They are used to select transverse energy hadron, electron and photon candidates for the first trigger level and they provides the identification of electrons, photons and hadrons as well as the measurement of their energies and positions. The calorimeter has been pre-calibrated before its installation in the pit. The calibration techniques have been tested with data taken in 2010 and used regularly during run 1. For run 2, new calibration methods have been devised to follow and correct online the calorimeter detector response. The design and construction characteristics of the LHCb calorimeter will be recalled. Strategies for...

  5. Performance of the CMS Regional Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Klabbers, P; Dasu, S; Efron, J; Fobes, R; Gorski, T; Grogg, K; Grothe, M; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Weinberg, M

    2009-01-01

    The CMS Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) receives eight-bit energies and a data quality bit from the HCAL and ECAL Trigger Primitive Generators (TPGs). The RCT uses these trigger primitives to find e/γ candidates and calculate regional calorimeter sums that are sent to the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) for sorting and further processing. The RCT hardware consists of one clock distribution crate and 18 double-sided crates containing custom boards, ASICs, and backplanes. The RCT electronics have been completely installed since 2007. The RCT has been integrated into the CMS Level-1 Trigger chain. Regular runs, triggering on cosmic rays, prepare the CMS detector for the restart of the LHC. During this running, the RCT control is handled centrally by CMS Run Control and Monitor System communicating with the Trigger Supervisor. Online Data Quality Monitoring (DQM) evaluates the performance of the RCT during these runs. Offline DQM allows more detailed studies, including trigger efficiencies. These and other r...

  6. Performances of the AMS-02 electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Cervelli, F; Lomtadze, T A; Venanzoni, G; Falchini, E; Maestro, P; Marrocchesi, P S; Paoletti, R; Pilo, F; Turini, N; Valle, G D; Coignet, G; Girard, L; Goy, C; Kossakowski, R; Lees-Rosier, S; Vialle, J P; Chen, G; Chen, H; Liu, Z; Lu, Y; Yu, Z; Zhuang, H L

    2002-01-01

    A full-scale prototype of the e.m. calorimeter for the AMS-02 experiment was tested at CERN in October 2001 using 100 GeV pion and electron beams with energy ranging from 3 to 100 GeV. The detector, a lead-scintillating fiber sampling calorimeter about 17 radiation lengths deep, is read out by an array of multianode photomultipliers. The calorimeter's high granularity allows to image the longitudinal and lateral showers development, a key issue to provide high electron /hadron discrimination. From the test beam data, linearity and energy resolution were measured as well as the effective sampling thickness. The latter was extracted from the data by fitting the longitudinal e.m. shower profiles at different energies. (9 refs).

  7. Calibration systems of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Lundberg, O; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    TileCal is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. This sampling calorimeter uses iron plates as absorber and plastic scintillating tiles as the active material. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from the over 10000 PMTs are measured and digitized before being transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. A multi-faceted calibration system allows to monitor and equalize the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scintillation light to digitization. This calibration system is based on signal generation from different sources: a Cs radioactive source, laser light, charge injection and minimum bias events produced in proton-proton collisions. This talk presents a brief description of the different TileCal calibration systems and presents the latest results on their performance in terms of calibration factors...

  8. Update on the Hadron calorimeter of the CMS Experiment at CERN.

    CERN Document Server

    Hagopian, Vasken

    2008-01-01

    The construction and assembly of the Hadron Calorimeter is now complete and commissioning is almost done. The hadron calorimeter inside the CMS detector is made of scintillator and copper absorber covering the |η| range of 0.0 to 3.0. The forward calorimeter, made of quartz fibers and iron absorber, covers the |η| range of 3.0 to 5.0. Recent test beam effort is aimed at understanding of the performance of the Hadron Calorimeter in conjunction with the lead tungstate crystal Electromagnetic Calorimeter. Recent test beam results using production modules help us improve resolution. Work has started on several upgrade fronts for the high luminosity LHC.

  9. Readiness of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter for LHC Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V.V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D.C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, M.D.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S.P.; Baranov, S.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baron, S.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Barros, N.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bastos, J.; Bates, R.L.; Bathe, S.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Becerici, N.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G.A.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Bedajanek, I.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednár, P.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benincasa, G.P.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanchard, J-B; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bocci, A.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A.; Bondarenko, V.G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, J.R.A.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bosteels, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I.R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G.W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.E.; Braun, H.M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Brett, N.D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F.M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T.J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W.K.; Brown, G.; Brubaker, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A.G.; Budagov, I.A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C.P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J.M.; Buttar, C.M.; Butterworth, J.M.; Byatt, T.; Caballero, J.; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L.P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Campabadal-Segura, F.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans-Garrido, M.D.M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caracinha, D.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G D; Carron Montero, S; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M.P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernadez, A M; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V; Castro, N.; Cataldi, G.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J.R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A.S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S.A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapman, J.D.; Chapman, J.W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D.G.; Chavda, V.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V.F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R; Tcherniatine, V.; Chesneanu, D.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S.L.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chiarella, V.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J.T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, M.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Chren, D.; Christidi, I.A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M.L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A.K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M.D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J.C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Clements, D.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coelli, S.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C.D.; Colas, J.; Cole, B.; Colijn, A.P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N.J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Coluccia, R.; Conde Muiño, P; Coniavitis, E.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B.D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Cooper-Smith, N.J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M.J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Côté, D.; Coura Torres, R; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B.E.; Cranmer, K.; Cranshaw, J.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C.J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; Da Silva, P V M; Da Via, C; Dabrowski, W.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallison, S.J.; Daly, C.H.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H.O.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G.L.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davison, A.R.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J.W.; Daya, R.K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R; De Castro, S; De Castro Faria Salgado, P E; De Cecco, S; de Graat, J; De Groot, N; de Jong, P; De La Cruz Burelo, E; De La Taille, C; De Mora, L; De Oliveira Branco, M; De Pedis, D; De Salvo, A; De Sanctis, U; De Santo, A; De Vivie De Regie, J B; De Zorzi, G; Dean, S.; Deberg, H.; Dedes, G.; Dedovich, D.V.; Defay, P.O.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Del Papa, C; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M; della Volpe, D; Delmastro, M.; Delruelle, N.; Delsart, P.A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Deng, W.; Denisov, S.P.; Dennis, C.; Derkaoui, J.E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deviveiros, P.O.; Dewhurst, A.; DeWilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Domenico, A; Di Girolamo, A; Di Girolamo, B; Di Luise, S; Di Mattia, A; Di Nardo, R; Di Simone, A; Di Sipio, R; Diaz, M.A.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E.B.; Dietrich, J.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K; Dingfelder, D.J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djilkibaev, R.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M A B; Do Valle Wemans, A; Dobbs, M.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Dodd, J.; Dogan, O.B.; Doherty, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Dohmae, T.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A; Dotti, A.; Dova, M.T.; Doxiadis, A.; Doyle, A.T.; Drasal, Z.; Driouichi, C.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Dührssen ,.M.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M-A; Dunford, M.; Duperrin, A.; Duran-Yildiz, H.; Dushkin, A.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Düren, M.; Ebenstein, W.L.; Ebke, J.; Eckert, S.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edwards, C.A.; Eerola, P.; Egorov, K.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Ehrich, T.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, K.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Ely, R.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engl, A.; Epp, B.; Eppig, A.; Epshteyn, V.S.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ermoline, I.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X; Esposito, B.; Etienne, F.; Etienvre, A.I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Fabre, C.; Faccioli, P.; Facius, K.; Fakhrutdinov, R.M.; Falciano, S.; Falou, A.C.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farley, J.; Farooque, T.; Farrington, S.M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fatholahzadeh, B.; 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Nemethy, P.; Nepomuceno, A.A.; Nessi, M.; Neubauer, M.S.; Neusiedl, A.; Neves, R.N.; Nevski, P.; Newcomer, F.M.; Nicholson, C.; Nickerson, R.B.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nicolas, L.; Nicoletti, G.; Niedercorn, F.; Nielsen, J.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikolaev, K.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Nilsen, H.; Nilsson, P.; Nisati, A.; Nishiyama, T.; Nisius, R.; Nodulman, L.; Nomachi, M.; Nomidis, I.; Nomoto, H.; Nordberg, M.; Nordkvist, B.; Notz, D.; Novakova, J.; Nozaki, M.; Nozicka, M.; Nugent, I.M.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A-E; Nunes Hanninger, G; Nunnemann, T.; Nurse, E.; O'Neil, D.C.; O'Shea, V.; Oakham, F.G.; Oberlack, H.; Ochi, A.; Oda, S.; Odaka, S.; Odier, J.; Odino, G.A.; Ogren, H.; Oh, S.H.; Ohm, C.C.; Ohshima, T.; Ohshita, H.; Ohsugi, T.; Okada, S.; Okawa, H.; Okumura, Y.; Olcese, M.; Olchevski, A.G.; Oliveira, M.; Oliveira Damazio, D; Oliver, J.; Oliver Garcia, E; Olivito, D.; Olszewski, A.; Olszowska, J.; Omachi, C.; Onofre, A.; Onyisi, P.U.E.; Oram, C.J.; Ordonez, G.; Oreglia, M.J.; Oren, Y.; Orestano, D.; Orlov, I.; Oropeza Barrera, C; Orr, R.S.; Ortega, E.O.; Osculati, B.; Osuna, C.; Otec, R.; Ottersbach, J.P.; Ould-Saada, F.; Ouraou, A.; Ouyang, Q.; Owen, M.; Owen, S.; Ozcan, V.E.; Ozone, K.; Ozturk, N.; Pacheco Pages, A; Padhi, S.; Padilla Aranda, C; Paganis, E.; Pahl, C.; Paige, F.; Pajchel, K.; Pal, A.; Palestini, S.; Pallin, D.; Palma, A.; Palmer, J.D.; Pan, Y.B.; Panagiotopoulou, E.; Panes, B.; Panikashvili, N.; Panitkin, S.; Pantea, D.; Panuskova, M.; Paolone, V.; Papadopoulou, Th D; Park, S.J.; Park, W.; Parker, M.A.; Parker, S.I.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J.A.; Parzefall, U.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passardi, G.; Passeri, A.; Pastore, F.; Pastore, Fr; Pásztor, G.; Pataraia, S.; Pater, J.R.; Patricelli, S.; Patwa, A.; Pauly, T.; Peak, L.S.; Pecsy, M.; Pedraza Morales, M I; Peleganchuk, S.V.; Peng, H.; Penson, A.; Penwell, J.; Perantoni, M.; Perez, K.; Perez Codina, E; Pérez García-Estañ, M T; Perez Reale, V; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrino, R.; Perrodo, P.; Persembe, S.; Perus, P.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Petersen, B.A.; Petersen, J.; Petersen, T.C.; Petit, E.; Petridou, C.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, F.; Petschull, D.; Petteni, M.; Pezoa, R.; Pfeifer, B.; Phan, A.; Phillips, A.W.; Piacquadio, G.; Piccinini, M.; Piegaia, R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pilkington, A.D.; Pina, J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J.L.; Ping, J.; Pinto, B.; Pirotte, O.; Pizio, C.; Placakyte, R.; Plamondon, M.; Plano, W.G.; Pleier, M-A; Poblaguev, A.; Poddar, S.; Podlyski, F.; Poffenberger, P.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, M.; Polci, F.; Polesello, G.; Policicchio, A.; Polini, A.; Poll, J.; Polychronakos, V.; Pomarede, D.M.; Pomeroy, D.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B.G.; Popovic, D.S.; Poppleton, A.; Popule, J.; Portell Bueso, X; Porter, R.; Pospelov, G.E.; Pospichal, P.; Pospisil, S.; Potekhin, M.; Potrap, I.N.; Potter, C.J.; Potter, C.T.; Potter, K.P.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Prabhu, R.; Pralavorio, P.; Prasad, S.; Pravahan, R.; Preda, T.; Pretzl, K.; Pribyl, L.; Price, D.; Price, L.E.; Prichard, P.M.; Prieur, D.; Primavera, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Prudent, X.; Przysiezniak, H.; Psoroulas, S.; Ptacek, E.; Puigdengoles, C.; Purdham, J.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Qi, M.; Qian, J.; Qian, W.; Qian, Z.; Qin, Z.; Qing, D.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D.R.; Quayle, W.B.; Quinonez, F.; Raas, M.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radics, B.; Rador, T.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rahimi, A.M.; Rahm, D.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammes, M.; Ratoff, P.N.; Rauscher, F.; Rauter, E.; Raymond, M.; Read, A.L.; Rebuzzi, D.M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Reinsch, A.; Reisinger, I.; Reljic, D.; Rembser, C.; Ren, Z.L.; Renkel, P.; Rescia, S.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Resende, B.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richards, A.; Richards, R.A.; Richter, D.; Richter, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Ridel, M.; Rieke, S.; Rijpstra, M.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Rios, R.R.; Riu, I.; Rivoltella, G.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.R.; Roa-Romero, D.A.; Robertson, S.H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, M.; Robson, A.; Rocha de Lima, J G; Roda, C.; Rodriguez, D.; Rodriguez Garcia, Y; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rojo, V.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romanov, V.M.; Romeo, G.; Romero-Maltrana, D.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosenbaum, G.A.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Rosselet, L.; Rossi, L.P.; Rotaru, M.; Rothberg, J.; Rottländer, I.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C.R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Ruckert, B.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rud, V.I.; Rudolph, G.; Rühr, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rumyantsev, L.; Rusakovich, N.A.; Rutherfoord, J.P.; Ruwiedel, C.; Ruzicka, P.; Ryabov, Y.F.; Ryadovikov, V.; Ryan, P.; Rybkin, G.; Rzaeva, S.; Saavedra, A.F.; Sadrozinski, H.F-W.; Sadykov, R.; Sakamoto, H.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua-Ferrando, B.M.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B.H.; Sanchis Lozano, M A; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H.G.; Sanders, M.P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandstroem, R.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sanny, B.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C; Santi, L.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, D.; Santos, J.; Saraiva, J.G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, T.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Savard, P.; Savine, A.Y.; Savinov, V.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D.H.; Says, L.P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scannicchio, D.A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schäfer, U.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A.C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schamov, A.G.; Schegelsky, V.A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M.I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schlereth, J.L.; Schmid, P.; Schmidt, M.P.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitz, M.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schreiner, A.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schroers, M.; Schuler, G.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Schumacher, J.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B.A.; Schune, Ph; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Scott, W.G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S.C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J.M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D.M.; Sellden, B.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M.E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L.Y.; Shank, J.T.; Shao, Q.T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P.B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, C.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M.J.; Shupe, M.A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siebel, A.; Siegert, F.; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S.B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N.B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Sivoklokov, S.Yu.; Sjoelin, J.; Sjursen, T.B.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloper, J.; Sluka, T.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S.Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L.N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B.C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K.M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A.A.; Snow, S.W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C.A.; Solar, M.; Solfaroli-Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A.A.; Solovyanov, O.V.; Soluk, R.; Sondericker, J.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sosebee, M.; Sosnovtsev, V.V.; Sospedra-Suay, L.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Speckmayer, P.; Spencer, E.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St Denis, R D; Stahl, T.; Stamen, R.; Stancu, S.N.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R.W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E.A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stastny, J.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H.J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G.; Stockton, M.C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D.M.; Strong, J.A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Soh, D.A.; Su, D.; Suchkov, S.I.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V.V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J.E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M.R.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Sviridov, Yu M; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szymocha, T.; Sánchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M.C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tappern, G.P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F.E.; Taylor, G.N.; Taylor, R.P.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Ten Kate, H; Teng, P.K.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R.J.; Tevlin, C.M.; Thadome, J.; Thananuwong, R.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Thomas, T.L.; Thompson, E.N.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, R.J.; Thompson, A.S.; Thomson, E.; Thun, R.P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V.O.; Tikhonov, Y.A.; Timmermans, C.J.W.P.; Tipton, P.; Tique-Aires-Viegas, F.J.; Tisserant, S.; Tobias, J.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Tomasz, F.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, D.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N.D.; Torrence, E.; Torró Pastor, E; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D.R.; Tovey, S.N.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T.N.; Tripiana, M.F.; Triplett, N.; Trivedi, A.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J.C-L.; Tsiafis, I.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P.V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E.G.; Tsukerman, I.I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J-W; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P.M.; Twomey, M.S.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D.G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J A; Van Berg, R; van der Graaf, H; van der Kraaij, E; van der Poel, E; Van Der Ster, D; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; van Kesteren, Z; van Vulpen, I; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F; Vari, R.; Varnes, E.W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K.E.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vassilakopoulos, V.I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J.J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vetterli, M.C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G.H.A.; Villa, M.; Villani, E.G.; Villaplana Perez, M; Villate, J.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M.G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.V.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaques, F; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogt, H.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H; von Loeben, J; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A.P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T.T.; Vossebeld, J.H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T; Vudragovic, D.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Walbersloh, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.C.; Wang, S.M.; Ward, C.P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, M.F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A.T.; Waugh, B.M.; Webel, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.D.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P.S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Werthenbach, U.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S.J.; Whitaker, S.P.; White, A.; White, M.J.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F.J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L.A.M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M.A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H.G.; Williams, E.; Williams, H.H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J.A.; Wilson, M.G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M.W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B.K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M.J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S.L.; Wu, X.; Wulf, E.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, N.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W-M; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, M.; Yu, X.; Yuan, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zambrano, V.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zema, P.F.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C.G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zilka, B.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Zivkovic, L.; Zmouchko, V.V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M; Zutshi, V.

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter has been operating continuously since August 2006. At this time, only part of the calorimeter was readout, but since the beginning of 2008, all calorimeter cells have been connected to the ATLAS readout system in preparation for LHC collisions. This paper gives an overview of the liquid argon calorimeter performance measured in situ with random triggers, calibration data, cosmic muons, and LHC beam splash events. Results on the detector operation, timing performance, electronics noise, and gain stability are presented. High energy deposits from radiative cosmic muons and beam splash events allow to check the intrinsic constant term of the energy resolution. The uniformity of the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter response along eta (averaged over phi) is measured at the percent level using minimum ionizing cosmic muons. Finally, studies of electromagnetic showers from radiative muons have been used to cross-check the Monte Carlo simulation. The performance results obtained u...

  10. Tile/hadronic Calorimeter design viewed from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Santoni, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the barrel hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is a sampling calorimeter using plastic scintillator as the active material and iron as the absorber. In the barrel part of ATLAS, together with the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter, TileCal provides precise measurements of hadrons, jets, taus and the missing transverse energy. To understand the detail of the response of the detector, 11% of the 192 calorimeter modules were exposed to test beams of electrons, muons, and hadrons. Results were also obtained in the experimental hall using random triggers, calibration data and data from muons, isolated pions, and inclusive p-p events. This talk gives an overview of the TileCal performance.

  11. Commissioning of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The Liquid Argon calorimeter (LAr) is one of the main sub-detectors in the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. It provides precision measurements of electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy produced in the LHC pp collisions. The LAr calorimeter has been installed in the ATLAS cavern and filled with liquid argon since 2006. The electronic calibration of the readout system, a critical system for precision measurements, has been continuously exercised in the commissioning phase, resulting in a fully commissioned calorimeter with its readout and a small number of problematic channels. A total of only 0.02% of the read out channels are dead beyond repair and 0.4% need special treatment for calibration. Throughout the last two years a large amount of calibration data has been collected. Cosmic muon data, first triggered via specially developed trigger boards on the LVL1 output of the Tile calorimeter and later with the standard ATLAS LVL1 calorimeter trigger, have been recorded at various stages of commissio...

  12. LHCb Calorimeter modules arrive at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Two of the three components of the LHCb Calorimeter system have started to arrive from Russia. Members of the LHCb Calorimeter group with the ECAL and HCAL modules that have just arrived at CERN. The first two of the 56 Hadron Calorimeter (HCAL) modules and 1200 of the 3300 modules of the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) have reached CERN from Russia. The third part of the system, the Preshower detector, is still being prepared in Russia. The calorimeter system identifies and triggers on high-energy particles, namely electrons, hadrons and photons by measuring their positions and energies. The HCAL is going to be a pure trigger device. The ECAL will also be used in the triggering, but in addition it will reconstruct neutral pions and photons from B meson decays. One of the major aims of the LHCb experiment is to study CP violation through B meson decays including Bs mesons with high statistics in different decay modes. CP violation (violation of charge and parity) is necessary to explain why the Universe...

  13. OPAL Forward Calorimeter (half cylinder with lead scintillator)

    CERN Multimedia

    1 half cylinder piece is available for loan. The OPAL forward Detector Calorimeter was made in 4 half cylindrical pieces. Two full cylinders were placed round the LEP beam pipe about 3m downstream of the interaction point. The detector was used primarily to measure the luminosity of LEP (rate of interactions) and also to trigger on 2-photon events. In addition it formed an essential part of the detector coverage which OPAL needed to carry out searches for new particles such as the Higgs boson. The detector is made of scintillators sandwiched between lead sheets. The light from the scintillators passes via bars of wavelength shifter and light guides on its way to be measured by photomultipliers. There is a layer of gas filled tube chambers within the calorimeter. These provide a measure of the position of the particles interacting in the calorimeter.

  14. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Souza, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. Its main upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (phase 2) where the peak luminosity will increase 5-fold compared to the design luminosity (10exp34 cm−2s−1) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity leveling. This upgrade will probably happen around 2023. The upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals are directly digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. The smallest independent on-detector electronics module has been reduced from 45 channels to 6, greatly reducing the consequences of a failure in the on-detector electronics. The size of t...

  15. Geant4 simulations of the lead fluoride calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Savchenko, A A; Dabagov, S B; Anastasi, A; Venanzoni, G; Strikhanov, M N

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we simulate the emission by charged particles in complex structures with help of Geant4. We take into account Cherenkov radiation, transition radiation, bremsstrahlung, pair production and other accompanying processes. As an application we investigate the full size electromagnetic calorimeter for the muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab. A calorimeter module (24 are expected in the experiment) consists of a Delrin front panel for installation of the laser calibration system, 54 PbF2 Cherenkov crystals wrapped by the black Millipore paper, and silicon photo-multiplier sensors. We report here on a simulation of radiation from positrons passing through the calorimeter system. We carry out the simulation using Geant4 toolkit, which provides a complete set of tools for all areas of detector simulation: geometry, tracking, detector response, run, event and track management, and visualization. We consider Cherenkov photons expansion when a positron moves down through the calorimeter at the arbitrary angle o...

  16. Software studies of GLD calorimeter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The baseline design of the GLD calorimeter is scintillator-strip arrays interleaved with absorber plates. We present preliminary performance studies of the hit clustering with this calorimeter using a simulator. Also, simulation results of a `digital' calorimeter, which is an option of the GLD calorimeter, are presented.

  17. The interaction region of the large detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The recently optimised interaction region of the LDC detector is presented in this paper together with the requirements for the planned detector hall. Keywords. Interaction region; linear collider. PACS Nos 29.17.+w; 07.05. ... HCAL: hadronic calorimeter, LCAL: luminosity calorimeter, LHCAL: low an- gle hadronic calorimeter ...

  18. Precision calibration of the NuTeV calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. A.; Yu, J.; Adams, T.; Alton, A.; Avvakumov, S.; de Barbaro, L.; de Barbaro, P.; Bernstein, R. H.; Bodek, A.; Bolton, T.; Brau, J.; Buchholz, D.; Budd, H.; Bugel, L.; Conrad, J.; Drucker, R. B.; Fleming, B. T.; Frey, R.; Formaggio, J.; Goldman, J.; Goncharov, M.; Johnson, R. A.; Kim, J. H.; Koutsoliotas, S.; Krishnaswami, G.; Lamm, M. J.; Marsh, W.; Mason, D.; McNulty, C.; McFarland, K. S.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Romosan, A.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Schellman, H.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Spentzouris, P.; Stern, E. G.; Vaitaitis, A.; Vakili, M.; Van Ark, E.; Wu, V.; Yang, U. K.; Zeller, G. P.; NuTeV Collaboration

    2000-06-01

    NuTeV is a neutrino-nucleon deep-inelastic scattering experiment at Fermilab. The detector consists of an iron-scintillator sampling calorimeter interspersed with drift chambers, followed by a muon toroidal spectrometer. We present determinations of response and resolution functions of the NuTeV calorimeter for electrons, hadrons, and muons over an energy range from 4.8 to 190 GeV. The absolute hadronic energy scale is determined to an accuracy of 0.43%. We compare our measurements to predictions from calorimeter theory and GEANT3 simulations.

  19. Precision calibration of the NuTeV calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, D.A. E-mail: dharris@fnal.gov; Yu, J.; Adams, T.; Alton, A.; Avvakumov, S.; Barbaro, L. de; Barbaro, P. de; Bernstein, R.H.; Bodek, A.; Bolton, T.; Brau, J.; Buchholz, D.; Budd, H.; Bugel, L.; Conrad, J.; Drucker, R.B.; Fleming, B.T.; Frey, R.; Formaggio, J.; Goldman, J.; Goncharov, M.; Johnson, R.A.; Kim, J.H.; Koutsoliotas, S.; Krishnaswami, G.; Lamm, M.J.; Marsh, W.; Mason, D.; McNulty, C.; McFarland, K.S.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Romosan, A.; Sakumoto, W.K.; Schellman, H.; Shaevitz, M.H.; Spentzouris, P.; Stern, E.G.; Vaitaitis, A.; Vakili, M.; Ark, E. Van; Wu, V.; Yang, U.K.; Zeller, G.P

    2000-06-11

    NuTeV is a neutrino-nucleon deep-inelastic scattering experiment at Fermilab. The detector consists of an iron-scintillator sampling calorimeter interspersed with drift chambers, followed by a muon toroidal spectrometer. We present determinations of response and resolution functions of the NuTeV calorimeter for electrons, hadrons, and muons over an energy range from 4.8 to 190 GeV. The absolute hadronic energy scale is determined to an accuracy of 0.43%. We compare our measurements to predictions from calorimeter theory and GEANT3 simulations.

  20. Performance of CREAM Calorimeter Results of Beam Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, H S; Beatty, J J; Bigongiari, G; Castellina, A; Childers, J T; Conklin, N B; Coutu, S; Duvernois, M A; Ganel, O; Han, J H; Hyun, H J; Kang, T G; Kim, H J; Kim, K C; Kim, M Y; Kim, T; Kim, Y J; Lee, J K; Lee, M H; Lutz, L; Maestro, P; Malinine, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Mognet, S I; Nam, S W; Nutter, S; Park, N H; Park, H; Seo, E S; Sina, R; Syed, S; Song, C; Swordy, S; Wu, J; Yang, J; Zhang, H Q; Zei, R; Zinn, S Y

    2005-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM), a balloon-borne experiment, is under preparation for a flight in Antarctica at the end of 2004. CREAM is planned to measure the energy spectrum and composition of cosmic rays directly at energies between 1 TeV and 1000 TeV. Incident particle energies will be measured by a transition radiation detector and a sampling calorimeter. The calorimeter was constructed at the University of Maryland and tested at CERN in 2003. Performance of the calorimeter during the beam tests is reported.

  1. Simulation and validation of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter response

    CERN Document Server

    Karpov, S N; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is the central section of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter at the Large Hadron Collider. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from approximately 10000 PMTs are measured and digitized before being transferred to off-detector data acquisition systems. This contribution describes the detailed simulation of this large scale calorimeter from the implementation of the geometrical elements down to the realistic description of the electronics readout pulses, the special noise treatment and the signal reconstruction. The improved description of the optical and electronic signal propagation is highlighted and the validation with the real particle data is presented.

  2. Closing LHCb's calorimeter around the beam-pipe

    CERN Multimedia

    Kristic, R

    2008-01-01

    Photos 1 and 2 show the pre-shower, lead absorber and the scintillating pad detector layers moving in towards the beam-pipe. Photos 3,4 and 5 show the hadron calorimeter with both halves closed around the beam-pipe, to the left of the picture and, in the centre, half of the electromagnetic calorimeter closed in towards the beam-pipe.

  3. Study and testing of the photomultipliers of TILECAL calorimeter of ATLAS detector. Search for stop t-tilde{sub 1} with ATLAS detector; Etude et caracterisation des photomultiplicateurs du calorimetre a tuiles scintillantes d'atlas. Recherche du stop t-tilde{sub 1} avec le detecteur atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebrard, Ch

    1999-11-04

    The first part of this thesis presents the prospective study on the possibility that we observe an excess of event with four light quark jets, two b quark jets and missing transverse energy in comparison with the predictions of standard model. In the frame of the SUperGRAvity (SUGRA) these events are produced by the Stop decay. The results show that it will be possible to observe an excess of events if Stop mass is less than 600 GeV. The second part of this work turns on the design of the photomultipliers which will be used in ATLAS Tile Calorimeter. A huge work of development and optimisation has been done to make R7877 Hamamatsu photomultiplier fitting all the specifications dictating by the detector. The measurements developed to characterize the photomultipliers are discussed. An special effort has been done to understand and solve the problem of instability of R7877 photomultiplier. In the future, Tile calorimeter will be equipped with 10000 photomultipliers, so a test bench has been developed in order to characterize all these photomultipliers. The performances of this test bench are inspected for each type of measurement (amplification, quantum efficiency, collection efficiency, dark current, linearity and stability). The specifications and technical design of this test bench are summarized in annexes. (author)

  4. Detectors course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    This lecture series on detectors, will give a general, although somewhat compressed, introduction to particle interaction with matter and magnetic fields. Tracking detectors and calorimeters will also be covered as well as particle identification systems. The lectures will start out with a short review of particle interaction with fields and then we will discuss particle detection. At the end some common composite detection systems will be described.

  5. LHCb Level-0 Trigger Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Sarti, Alessio

    2006-01-01

    The calorimeter and muon systems are essential components to provide a trigger for the LHCb experiment. The calorimeter system comprises a scintillating pad detector and pre-shower, followed by electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters. The calorimeter system allows photons, electrons and hadrons to be identified, and their energy to be measured. The muon system consists of five measuring stations equipped with Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPCs) and triple-Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors, separated by iron filters. It allows the muons identification and transverse momentum measurement. The status of the two systems and their expected performance is presented.

  6. BGO* electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    1988-01-01

    * Short for Bismuth-Germanium-Oxyde, a scintillator of high atomic number Z used in electromagnetic crystal calorimeters. BGO is characterized by fast rise time (a few nanoseconds) and short radiation length (1.11 cm).

  7. GSPEL - Calorimeter Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Testing performance claims on heat transfer componentsThe Calorimeter Lab, located in the Ground Systems Power and Energy Lab (GSPEL), is one of the largest in the...

  8. Design, Construction and Installation of the ATLAS Hadronic Barrel Scintillator-Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Alexa, C; Alves, R; Amaral, P; Ananiev, A; Anderson, K; Andresen, X; Antonaki, A; Batusov, V; Bednar, P; Bergeaas, E; Biscarat, C; Blanch, O; Blanchot, G; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Bosi, F; Bosman, M; Bromberg, C; Budagov, Yu A; Calvet, D; Cardeira, C; Carli, T; Carvalho, J; Cascella, M; Castillo, M V; Costello, J; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Cerqueira, A S; Clément, C; Cobal, M; Cogswell, F; Constantinescu, S; Costanzo, D; Da Silva, P; Davidek, M; David, T; Dawson, J; De, K; Del Prete, T; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Dotti, A; Downing, R; Drake, G; Efthymiopoulos, I; Errede, D; Errede, S; Farbin, A; Fassouliotis, D; Feng, E; Fenyuk, A; Ferdi, C; Ferreira, B C; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, V; Flix, J; Francavilla, P; Fullana, E; Garde, V; Gellerstedt, K; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giangiobbe, V; Gildemeister, O; Gilewsky, V; Giokaris, N; Gollub, N; Gomes, A; González, V; Gouveia, J; Grenier, P; Gris, P; Guarino, V; Guicheney, C; Sen-Gupta, A; Hakobyan, H; Haney, M; Hellman, S; Henriques, A; Higón, E; Hill, N; Holmgren, S; Hruska, I; Hurwitz, M; Huston, J; Jen-La Plante, I; Jon-And, K; Junk, T; Karyukhin, A; Khubua, J; Klereborn, J; Kopikov, S; Korolkov, I; Krivkova, P; Kulchitsky, Y; Kurochkin, Yu; Kuzhir, P; Lapin, V; Le Compte, T; Lefèvre, R; Leitner, R; Li, J; Liablin, M; Lokajícek, M; Lomakin, Y; Lourtie, P; Lovas, L; Lupi, A; Maidantchik, C; Maio, A; Maliukov, S; Manousakis, A; Marques, C; Marroquim, F; Martin, F; Mazzoni, E; Merritt, F S; Myagkov, A; Miller, R; Minashvili, I; Miralles, L; Montarou, G; Némécek, S; Nessi, M; Nikitine, I; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Onofre, A; Oreglia, M; Palan, B; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Pereira, A; Pilcher, J E; Pina, J; Pinhão, J; Pod, E; Podlyski, F; Portell, X; Poveda, J; Pribyl, L; Price, L E; Proudfoot, J; Ramalho, M; Ramstedt, M; Raposeiro, L; Reis, J; Richards, R; Roda, C; Romanov, V; Rosnet, P; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Rumiantsau, V; Russakovich, N; Sada Costa, J; Salto, O; Salvachúa, B; Sanchis, E; Sanders, H; Santoni, C; Santos, J; Saraiva, J G; Sarri, F; Says, L P; Schlager, G; Schlereth, J L; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Shalanda, N; Shevtsov, P; Shochet, M; Simaitis, V; Simonyan, M; Sisakian, A; Sjölin, J; Solans, C; Solodkov, A; Solovianov, J; Silva, O; Sosebee, M; Spanó, F; Speckmeyer, P; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E; Starovoitov, P; Suk, M; Sykora, I; Tang, F; Tas, P; Teuscher, R; Tokar, S; Topilin, N; Torres, J; Underwood, D; Usai, G; Valero, A; Valkár, S; Valls, J A; Vartapetian, A; Vazeille, F; Vellidis, C; Ventura, F; Vichou, I; Vivarelli, I; Volpi, M; White, A; Zaitsev, A; Zenin, A; Zenis, T; Zenonos, Z; Zenz, S; Zilka, B

    2007-01-01

    The scintillator tile hadronic calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter using steel as the absorber structure and scintillator as the active medium. The scintillator is located in "pockets" in the steel structure and the wavelength-shifting fibers are contained in channels running radially within the absorber to photomultiplier tubes which are located in the outer support girders of the calorimeter structure. In addition, to its role as a detector for high energy particles, the tile calorimeter provides the direct support of the liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter in the barrel region, and the liquid argon electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters in the endcap region. Through these, it indirectly supports the inner tracking system and beam pipe. The steel absorber, and in particular the support girders, provide the flux return for the solenoidal field from the central solenoid. Finally, the end surfaces of the barrel calorimeter are used to mount services, power supplies and readout crates for the inner tr...

  9. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Hasib, Ahmed; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Producing the very large samples of simulated events required by many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Fast simulation tools are a useful way of reducing CPU requirements when detailed detector simulations are not needed. During the LHC Run-1, a fast calorimeter simulation (FastCaloSim) was successfully used in ATLAS. FastCaloSim provides a simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level, taking into account the detailed particle shower shapes and the correlations between the energy depositions in the various calorimeter layers. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software, and it can be tuned to data more easily than GEANT4. Now an improved version of FastCaloSim is in development, incorporating the experience with the version used during Run-1. The new FastCaloSim makes use of statistical techniques such as principal component analysis, and a neural n...

  10. The New ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Heath, Matthew Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Producing the large samples of simulated events required by many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Fast simulation tools are a useful way of reducing the CPU requirements when detailed detector simulations are not needed. During Run-1 of the LHC, a fast calorimeter simulation (FastCaloSim) was successfully used in ATLAS. FastCaloSim provides a simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level, taking into account the detailed particle shower shapes and the correlations between the energy depositions in the various calorimeter layers. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitisation and reconstruction software, and it can be tuned to data more easily than Geant4. Now an improved version of FastCaloSim is in development, incorporating the experience with the version used during Run-1. The new FastCaloSim aims to overcome some limitations of the first version by improving the description of...

  11. Search for Heavy Majorana Neutrinos in Pp Collisions at √S = 8 Tev with the CMS Detector & Photodetector and Calorimeter R&D for Particle Colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiras, Emrah

    This thesis contains both physics analysis and hardware studies. It consists of two primary sections: the results of a search for heavy Majorana mass neutrinos, using the event signature of same (like) sign charged electron pairs ( e+/-e+/-) and two jets, and the results of studies to upgrade the Hadronic Forward (HF) and Hadronic Endcap (HE) subdetectors in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector in response to the high intensity proton-proton collisions generated at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN, Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire). In this search for Majorana mass neutrinos, same sign dielectron ( e+/-e+/-) + dijet events in the final state have been considered as a signature for neutrino particles. The analyzed data corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1 of proton-proton collisions at a center of mass energy of √s = 8 TeV, collected using the CMS detector during the 2012 operation at the LHC. Monte Carlo simulations accounting for the theoretical expectations of the Standard Model (SM) and the detector limitations are used to prototype the experiment and to test proposed analysis steps. No excess of events is observed in the data beyond the expected SM background. Upper limits are set on the mixing element squared, ∥VeN∥ 2, of the heavy Majorana neutrino with standard model neutrinos, as a function of Majorana neutrino mass for masses in the range of 40-500 GeV/c2.. The detector upgrade search comprises three sections of this thesis. The first section describes the test results of 1785 multianode Hamamatsu R7600U-200-M4 photomultiplier tubes (PMT) in numerous parameters such as gain, dark current, and timing characteristics, which provide insights on the expected performance of the upgraded CMS-HF detector. These PMTs replaced the previous single anode R7525 PMTs because the glass windows of previous PMTs are the source of Cherenkov radiation, which causes a background noise in

  12. A detailed study of the performance of the uranium-gas sampling calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arefiev, A.; Burov, S.; Chumakov, M.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Gordeev, A.; Gorodkov, Yu.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Klimentov, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Kunin, A.; Malinin, A.; Morgunov, V.; Plyaskin, V.; Pojidaev, V.; Rozhkov, A.; Savin, A.; Shevchenko, S.; Shevchenko, V.; Shmakov, K.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Tarkovsky, E.; Tchoudakov, V.; Vorobiev, I. (Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental' noj Fiziki, Moscow (USSR)); Azemoon, T.; Bal, R.; Capell, M.; Goldfarb, S.; Jones, L.W.; Mills, G.B.; Roe, B.P. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (USA)); Chen, H.S.; Lu, Y.S.; Tung, K.L. (Academia Sinica, Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics); Chen, M.; Ting, S.C.C. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (USA)); Gong, Z.F. (CCAST World Lab., Beijing, BJ (China) China Univ. of Science and Technology, Hefei, AH); Lecomte, P.; LeCoultre, P.; Lettry, J.; Lin, Z.R.; Spiess, B. (Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)); Ulbricht, J. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Wuerenlingen (Switzerland)); L3 Collaboration

    1989-12-20

    Results of experimental studies of the performance of the uranium calorimeter with gas sampling detectors are presented. There is further evidence showing the importance of the contribution of the neutron component of a hadronic shower to the detected signal. The response and the resolution of the uranium calorimeter are measured in the momentum range 0.3-0.6 GeV/c for the different incident particles and different gases that are used in the detectors. For a calorimeter structure with double-gas-detector layers, the correlation between signals from two calorimeters formed by chambers filled with different gas mixtures is measured. The topics that are relevant to the performance of the L3 uranium-gas sampling calorimeter - such as its operation in the magnetic field, the energy dependence of muon response, the uranium noise, as well as the electronics optimization - are discussed. (orig.).

  13. ALICE electromagnetic calorimeter prototype test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awes, Terry; /Oak Ridge

    2005-09-01

    This Memorandum of Understanding between the Test Beam collaborators and Fermilab is for the use of beam time at Fermilab during the Fall, 2005 Meson Test Beam Run. The experimenters plan to measure the energy, position, and time resolution of prototype modules of a large electromagnetic calorimeter proposed to be installed in the ALICE experiment at the LHC. The ALICE experiment is one of the three large approved LHC experiments, with ALICE placing special emphasis on the LHC heavy-ion program. The large electromagnetic calorimeter (EMCal) is a US initiative that is endorsed by the ALICE collaboration and is currently in the early stages of review by the Nuclear Physics Division of the DOE. The installation in the test beam at FNAL and test beam measurements will be carried out by the US members of the ALICE collaboration (ALICE-USA). The overall design of the ALICE EMCal is heavily influenced by its location within the ALICE L3 magnet. The EMCal is to be located inside the large room temperature magnet within a cylindrical integration volume approximately l12cm deep, by 5.6m in length, sandwiched between the ALICE TPC space frame and the L3 magnet coils. The chosen technology is a layered Pb-scintillator sampling calorimeter with a longitudinal pitch of 1.6mm Pb and 1.6mm scintillator. The full detector spans {eta} = -0.7 to {eta} = 0.7 with an azimuthal acceptance of {Delta}{phi} = 120{sup o}. The EMCal readout is of a ''Shish-Kabob'' type similar to the PHENIX Pb-scintillator sampling calorimeter in which the scintillation light is collected via wavelength shifting fibers running through the Pb-scintillator tiles perpendicular to the front surface. The detector is segmented into {approx}14000 towers. The basic structural units of the calorimeter are supermodules, each subtending approximately {approx}20{sup o} in {Delta}{phi} and 0.7 units in {Delta}{eta}. Supermodules are assembled from individual modules. The modules are further segmented

  14. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00176100; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The physics and performance studies of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider re- quire a large number of simulated events. A GEANT4 based detailed simulation of the ATLAS calorimeter systems is highly CPU intensive and such resolution is often unnecessary. To reduce the calorimeter simulation time by a few orders of magnitude, fast simulation tools have been developed. The Fast Calorimeter Simulation (FastCaloSim) provides a parameterised simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level. In Run 1, about 13 billion events were simulated in ATLAS, out of which 50% were produced using fast simulation. For Run 2, a new parameterisation is being developed to improve the original version: it incorporates developments in geometry and physics lists during the last five years and benefits from the knowledge acquired from the Run 1 data. The algorithm uses machine learning techniques to improve the parameterisations and to optimise the amount of information to be stored in the...

  15. ATLAS calorimeters: Run-2 performances and Phase-II upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to $10^{34} cm^{-2} s^{-1}$. A Liquid Argon-lead sampling (LAr) calorimeter is employed as electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters, except in the barrel region, where a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter (TileCal) is used as hadronic calorimeter. This presentation gives first an overview of the detector operation and data quality, as well as of the achieved performances of the ATLAS calorimetry system. Additionally the upgrade projects of the ATLAS calorimeter system for the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) are presented. For the HL-LHC, the instantaneous luminosity is expected to increase up to $L \\simeq 7.5 × 10^{34} cm^{-2} s^{-1}$ and the average pile-up up to 200 interactions per bunch crossing. The major R&D item is the upgrade of the electronics for both LAr and Tile calorimeters in order to cope with longer latenc...

  16. Electromagnetic response of a highly granular hadronic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.J. [Savoie Univ., CNRS/IN2P3, Annecy-le-Vieux (FR). Lab. d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules] (and others)

    2010-12-15

    The CALICE collaboration is studying the design of high performance electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters for future International Linear Collider detectors. For the hadronic calorimeter, one option is a highly granular sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillator layers as active material. High granularity is obtained by segmenting the scintillator into small tiles individually read out via silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM). A prototype has been built, consisting of thirty-eight sensitive layers, segmented into about eight thousand channels. In 2007 the prototype was exposed to positrons and hadrons using the CERN SPS beam, covering a wide range of beam energies and incidence angles. The challenge of cell equalization and calibration of such a large number of channels is best validated using electromagnetic processes. The response of the prototype steel-scintillator calorimeter, including linearity and uniformity, to electrons is investigated and described. (orig.)

  17. Test beam results from the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Brunelière, R

    2004-01-01

    A precision lead tungstate crystal calorimeter is being constructed by the CMS collaboration. As a key part of the future CMS detector at the LHC, the electromagnetic calorimeter will play a major role in probing electroweak symmetry-breaking and searches for new physics. In order to check that the required performance of the electromagnetic calorimeter is attainable, every prototype is tested in real conditions within a beam of particles. In 2003 two modules of the electromagnetic calorimeter featuring the final mechanical design and electronic architecture have been tested with two different versions of the front-end electronics. In this paper a review of the main results of test beam campaigns in 2002 and 2003 are given. (7 refs).

  18. Electromagnetic response of a highly granular hadronic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C; Blaising, J-J; Drancourt, C; Espargilière, A; Gaglione, R; Geffroy, N; Karyotakis, Y; Prast, J; Vouters, G; Francis, K; Repond, J; Smith, J; Xia, L; Baldolemar, E; Li, J; Park, S T; Sosebee, M; White, A P; Yu, J; Mikami, Y; Goto, N K Watson T; Mavromanolakis, G; Thomson, M A; Yan, D R Ward W; Benyamna, M; Cârloganu, C; Fehr, F; Gay, P; Manen, S; Royer, L; Blazey, G C; Dyshkant, A; Lima, J G R; Zutshi, V; Hostachy, J-Y; Morin, L; Cornett, U; David, D; Fabbri, R; Falley, G; Gadow, K; Garutti, E; Göttlicher, P; Günter, C; Karstensen, S; Krivan, F; Lucaci-Timoce, A-I; Lu, S; Lutz, B; Marchesini, I; Meyer, N; Morozov, S; Morgunov, V; Reinecke, M; Sefkow, F; Smirnov, P; Terwort, M; Vargas-Trevino, A; Wattimena, N; Wendt, O; Feege, N; Haller, J; Richter, S; Eckert, J Samson P; Kaplan, A; Schultz-Coulon, H-Ch; Shen, W; Stamen, R; Tadday, A; Bilki, B; Norbeck, E; Onel, Y; Wilson, G W; Kawagoe, K; Uozumi, S; Ballin, J A; Dauncey, P D; Magnan, A -M; Yilmaz, H S; Zorba, O; Bartsch, V; Postranecky, M; Warren, M; Wing, M; Salvatore, F; Alamillo, E Calvo; Fouz, M -C; Puerta-Pelayo, J; Balagura, V; Bobchenko, B; Chadeeva, M; Danilov, M; Epifantsev, A; Markin, O; Mizuk, R; Novikov, E; Rusinov, V; Tarkovsky, E; Soloviev, Y; Kozlov, V; Buzhan, P; Dolgoshein, B; Ilyin, A; Kantserov, V; Kaplin, V; Karakash, A; Popova, E; Smirnov, S; Frey, A; Kiesling, C; Seidel, K; Simon, F; Soldner, C; Weuste, L; Bonis, J; Bouquet, B; Callier, S; Cornebise, P; Doublet, Ph; Dulucq, F; Faucci Giannelli, M; Fleury, J; Guilhem, G; Li, H; Martin-Chassard, G; Richard, F; de la Taille, Ch; Pöschl, R; Raux, L; Seguin-Moreau, N; Wicek, F; Anduze, M; Boudry, V; Brient, J-C; Jeans, D; Mora de Freitas, P; Musat, G; Reinhard, M; Ruan, M; Videau, H; Bulanek, B; Zacek, J; Cvach, J; Gallus, P; Havranek, M; Janata, M; Kvasnicka, J; Lednicky, D; Marcisovsky, M; Polak, I; Popule, J; Tomasek, L; Tomasek, M; Ruzicka, P; Sicho, P; Smolik, J; Vrba, V; Zalesak, J; Belhorma, B; Ghazlane, H; Kotera, K; Nishiyama, M; Takeshita, T; Tozuka, S

    2010-01-01

    The CALICE collaboration is studying the design of high performance electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters for future International Linear Collider detectors. For the hadronic calorimeter, one option is a highly granular sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillator layers as active material. High granularity is obtained by segmenting the scintillator into small tiles individually read out via silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM). A prototype has been built, consisting of thirty-eight sensitive layers, segmented into about eight thousand channels. In 2007 the prototype was exposed to positrons and hadrons using the CERN SPS beam, covering a wide range of beam energies and incidence angles. The challenge of cell equalization and calibration of such a large number of channels is best validated using electromagnetic processes. The response of the prototype steel-scintillator calorimeter, including linearity and uniformity, to electrons is investigated and described.

  19. Design, Performance and Calibration of the CMS Forward Calorimeter Wedges

    CERN Document Server

    Baiatian, G; Emeliantchik, Igor; Massolov, V; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Stefanovich, R; Damgov, Jordan; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Piperov, Stefan; Vankov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Bencze, Gyorgy; Laszlo, Andras; Pal, Andras; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zálán, Peter; Fenyvesi, Andras; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnager, V; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Arun; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Singh, Jas Bir; Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Dugad, Shashikant; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Katta, S; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L V; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Verma, Piyush; Hashemi, Majid; Mohammadi-Najafabadi, M; Paktinat, S; Babich, Kanstantsin; Golutvin, Igor; Kalagin, Vladimir; Kosarev, Ivan; Ladygin, Vladimir; Meshcheryakov, Gleb; Moissenz, P; Petrosian, A; Rogalev, Evgueni; Sergeyev, S; Smirnov, Vitaly; Vishnevski, A V; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Gershtein, Yuri; Ilyina, N P; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kisselevich, I; Kolossov, V; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kuleshov, Sergey; Litvintsev, Dmitri; Oulyanov, A; Safronov, S; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Gribushin, Andrey; Demianov, A; Kodolova, Olga; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Teplov, Konstantin; Vardanyan, Irina; Yershov, A A; Abramov, Victor; Goncharov, Petr; Kalinin, Alexey; Korablev, Andrey; Khmelnikov, V A; Korneev, Yury; Krinitsyn, Alexander; Kryshkin, V; Lukanin, Vladimir; Pikalov, Vladimir; Ryazanov, Anton; Talov, Vladimir; Turchanovich, L K; Volkov, Alexey; Camporesi, Tiziano; De Visser, Theo; Vlassov, E; Aydin, Sezgin; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Koylu, S; Kurt, Pelin; Kuzucu, A; Onengüt, G; Ozdes-Koca, N; Ozkurt, Halil; Sogut, Kenan; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Yetkin, Taylan; Cankocak, Kerem; Gamsizkan, Halil; Ozkan, Cigdem; Sekmen, Sezen; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Sever, Ramazan; Yazgan, Efe; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Dindar, Kamile; Gülmez, Erhan; Isiksal, Engin; Kaya, Mithat; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Grinev, B; Lubinsky, V; Senchyshyn, Vitaliy; Anderson, E Walter; Hauptman, John M; Elias, John E; Freeman, Jim; Green, Dan; Heering, Arjan Hendrix; Lazic, Dragoslav; Los, Serguei; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Suzuki, Ichiro; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Antchev, Georgy; Arcidy, M; Hazen, Eric; Lawlor, C; Machado, Emanuel; Posch, C; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Varela, F; Wu, Shouxiang; Adams, Mark Raymond; Burchesky, Kyle; Qiang, W; Abdullin, Salavat; Baden, Drew; Bard, Robert; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Grassi, Tullio; Jarvis, Chad; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunori, Shuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Skuja, Andris; Wang, Lei; Wetstein, Matthew; Ayan, S; Akgun, Ugur; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Miller, Michael; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Schmidt, Ianos; Akchurin, Nural; Carrell, Kenneth Wayne; Gumus, Kazim; Kim, Heejong; Spezziga, Mario; Thomas, Ray; Wigmans, Richard; Baarmand, Marc M; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Vodopyanov, I; Kramer, Laird; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martínez, German; Cushman, Priscilla; Ma, Yousi; Sherwood, Brian; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Reidy, Jim; Sanders, David A; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Tully, Christopher; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Barnes, Virgil E; Laasanen, Alvin T; Pompos, Arnold

    2008-01-01

    We report on the test beam results and calibration methods using charged particles of the CMS Forward Calorimeter (HF). The HF calorimeter covers a large pseudorapidity region (3\\l |\\eta| \\le 5), and is essential for large number of physics channels with missing transverse energy. It is also expected to play a prominent role in the measurement of forward tagging jets in weak boson fusion channels. The HF calorimeter is based on steel absorber with embedded fused-silica-core optical fibers where Cherenkov radiation forms the basis of signal generation. Thus, the detector is essentially sensitive only to the electromagnetic shower core and is highly non-compensating (e/h \\approx 5). This feature is also manifest in narrow and relatively short showers compared to similar calorimeters based on ionization. The choice of fused-silica optical fibers as active material is dictated by its exceptional radiation hardness. The electromagnetic energy resolution is dominated by photoelectron statistics and can be expressed...

  20. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter performance at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Calkins, R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal), the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment, is a key detector component to detect hadrons, jets and taus and to measure the missing transverse energy. Due to the very good muon signal to noise ratio it assists the spectrometer in the identification and reconstruction of muons. TileCal is built of steel and scintillating tiles coupled to optical fibers and read out by photo-multipliers. The calorimeter is equipped with systems that allow to monitor and to calibrate each stage of the readout system exploiting different signal sources: laser light, charge injection and a radioactive source. The performance of the calorimeter has been measured and monitored using calibration data, random triggered data, cosmic muons, splash events and more importantly LHC collision events. The results presented here assess the absolute energy scale calibration precision, the energy and timing uniformity and the synchronization precision. The ensemble of the results demo...

  1. High luminosity liquid-argon calorimeter test beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novgorodova, Olga; Straessner, Arno [TU Dresden, IKTP (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In the future HL-LHC the luminosity will increase by factor of 5-7 with respect to the original LHC design. The HiLum collaboration studied the impact on small-sized modules of the ATLAS electromagnetic, hadronic, and forward calorimeters also instrumented by various intensity and position detectors. The intensity of beam varied over a wide range (10{sup 6} to 10{sup 12} p/s) and beyond the maximum expected at HL-LHC for these calorimeters. Results from the last test beam campaign in 2013 on the signal shape analysis from the calorimeter modules are compared with MC simulations. The correlation between high-voltage return currents of the electromagnetic calorimeter and beam intensity is used to estimate critical parameters and compared with predictions.

  2. LHCb: First year of running for the LHCb calorimeter system

    CERN Multimedia

    Guz, Y

    2011-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is dedicated to precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of B hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva) [1, 2]. LHCb is a single-arm spectrometer with a forward angular coverage from approximately 10 mrad to 300 mrad. It comprises a calorimeter system composed of four subdetectors [3]. It selects transverse energy hadron, electron and photon candidates for the first trigger level (L0), which makes a decision 4µs after the interaction. It provides the identification of electrons, photons and hadrons as well as the measurement of their energies and positions. The set of constraints resulting from these functionalities defines the general structure and the main characteristics of the calorimeter system and its associated electronics. A classical structure of an electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) followed by a hadron calorimeter (HCAL) has been adopted. In addition the system includes in front of them the Scintillating Pad Detector (SPD) and Pre-Showe...

  3. Calorimeter Simulation with Hadrons in CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piperov, Stefan; /Sofiya, Inst. Nucl. Res. /Fermilab

    2008-11-01

    CMS is using Geant4 to simulate the detector setup for the forthcoming data from the LHC. Validation of physics processes inside Geant4 is a major concern in view of getting a proper description of jets and missing energy for signal and background events. This is done by carrying out an extensive studies with test beam using the prototypes or real detector modules of the CMS calorimeter. These data are matched with Geant4 predictions using the same framework that is used for the entire CMS detector. Tuning of the Geant4 models is carried out and steps to be used in reproducing detector signals are defined in view of measurements of energy response, energy resolution, transverse and longitudinal shower profiles for a variety of hadron beams over a broad energy spectrum between 2 to 300 GeV/c. The tuned Monte Carlo predictions match many of these measurements within systematic uncertainties.

  4. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Robert; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the main hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC operation (Phase 2 around 2023) where the peak luminosity will increase 5x compared to the design luminosity (10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). The TileCal upgrade aims to replace the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals can be digitized and directly sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. This will reduce pile-up problems and allow more complex trigger algorithms. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 Gbps optical links are used to read out all digitized data to t...

  5. The Zeus calorimeter first level trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, W.J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1989-04-01

    The design of the Zeus Detector Calorimeter Level Trigger is presented. The Zeus detector is being built for operation at HERA, a new storage ring that will provide collisions between 820 GeV protons and 30 GeV electrons in 1990. The calorimeter is made of depleted uranium plates and plastic scintillator read out by wavelength shifter bars into 12,864 photomultiplier tubes. These signals are combined into 974 trigger towers with separate electromagnetic and hadronic sums. The calorimeter first level trigger is pipelined with a decision provided 5 {mu}sec after each beam crossing, occurring every 96 nsec. The trigger determines the total energy, the total transverse energy, the missing energy, and the energy and number of isolated electrons and muons. It also provides information on the number and energy of clusters. The trigger rate needs to be held to 1 kHz against a rate of proton-beam gas interactions of approximately 500 kHz. The summed trigger tower pulseheights are digitized by flash ADC`s. The digital values are linearized, stored and used for sums and pattern tests.

  6. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. Its main upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (phase 2) where the luminosity will have increased 5-fold compared to the design luminosity (1034 cm−2s−1) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional luminosity increase by a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity leveling. This upgrade will probably happen around 2022. The upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off- detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals are directly digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. An ambitious upgrade development program is pursued studying different electronics options. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Which one to u...

  7. Fast Shower Simulation in the ATLAS Calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barberio, E.; /Melbourne U.; Boudreau, J.; /Pittsburgh U.; Butler, B.; /SLAC; Cheung, S.L.; /Toronto U.; Dell' Acqua, A.; /CERN; Di Simone, A.; /CERN; Ehrenfeld, W.; /Hamburg U. /DESY; Gallas, M.V.; /CERN; Glazov, A.; /DESY; Marshall, Z.; /Caltech /Nevis Labs, Columbia U.; Mueller, J.; /Pittsburgh U.; Placakyte, R.; /DESY; Rimoldi, A.; /Pavia U. /INFN, Pavia; Savard, P.; /Toronto U.; Tsulaia, V.; /Pittsburgh U.; Waugh, A.; /Sydney U.; Young, C.C.; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    The time to simulate pp collisions in the ATLAS detector is largely dominated by the showering of electromagnetic particles in the heavy parts of the detector, especially the electromagnetic barrel and endcap calorimeters. Two procedures have been developed to accelerate the processing time of electromagnetic particles in these regions: (1) a fast shower parameterisation and (2) a frozen shower library. Both work by generating the response of the calorimeter to electrons and positrons with Geant 4, and then reintroduce the response into the simulation at runtime. In the fast shower parameterisation technique, a parameterization is tuned to single electrons and used later by simulation. In the frozen shower technique, actual showers from low-energy particles are used in the simulation. Full Geant 4 simulation is used to develop showers down to {approx} 1 GeV, at which point the shower is terminated by substituting a frozen shower. Judicious use of both techniques over the entire electromagnetic portion of the ATLAS calorimeter produces an important improvement of CPU time. We discuss the algorithms and their performance in this paper.

  8. L3 experiment's detector : BGO assembly hall

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    1987-01-01

    The detector is a multi-layered cylindrical set of different devices, each of them measuring physical quantities relevant to the reconstruction of the collision under study. The three main outer layers are the electro-magnetic calorimeter (also called BGO because it's made of Bismuth Germanium Oxide), the hadronic calorimeter (HCAL) and the muon detector.

  9. Fiber and Crystals Dual Readout calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Cascella, Michele; Lee, Sehwook

    2016-01-01

    The RD52 (DREAM) collaboration is performing R\\&D on dual readout calorimetry techniques with the aim of improving hadronic energy resolution for future high energy physics experiments. The simultaneous detection of Cherenkov and scintillation light enables us to measure the electromagnetic fraction of hadron shower event-by-event. As a result, we could eliminate the main fluctuation which prevented from achieving precision energy measurement for hadrons. We have tested the performance of the lead and copper fiber prototypes calorimeters with various energies of electromagnetic particles and hadrons. During the beam test, we investigated the energy resolutions for electrons and pions as well as the identification of those particles in a longitudinally unsegmented calorimeter. Measurements were also performed on pure and doped PbWO$_{4}$ crystals, as well as BGO and BSO, with the aim of realising a crystal based dual readout detector. We will describe our results, focusing on the more promising properties ...

  10. Improving calorimeter resolution using temperature compensation calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiga, Joseph; Purschke, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The sPHENIX experiment is an upgrade of the existing PHENIX apparatus at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC). The new detector improves upon measurements of various physical processes, such as jets of particles created during heavy-ion collisions. Prototypes of various calorimeter components were tested at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility (FTBF). This analysis tries to compensate the effects of temperature drifts in the silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). Temperature data were used to calculate an appropriate compensation factor. This analysis will improve the achievable resolution and will also determine how accurately the temperature must be controlled in the final experiment. This will improve the performance of the calorimeters in the sPHENIX experiment. This project was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists (WDTS) under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships Program (SULI).

  11. The ATLAS Electromagnetic Calorimeter Calibration Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    Hong Ma; Isabelle Wingerter

    The ATLAS Electromagnetic Calorimeter Calibration Workshop took place at LAPP-Annecy from the 1st to the 3rd of October; 45 people attended the workshop. A detailed program was setup before the workshop. The agenda was organised around very focused presentations where questions were raised to allow arguments to be exchanged and answers to be proposed. The main topics were: Electronics calibration Handling of problematic channels Cluster level corrections for electrons and photons Absolute energy scale Streams for calibration samples Calibration constants processing Learning from commissioning Forty-five people attended the workshop. The workshop was on the whole lively and fruitful. Based on years of experience with test beam analysis and Monte Carlo simulation, and the recent operation of the detector in the commissioning, the methods to calibrate the electromagnetic calorimeter are well known. Some of the procedures are being exercised in the commisssioning, which have demonstrated the c...

  12. Calibration and monitoring of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). PMT signals are then digitized at 40~MHz and stored on detector and are only transferred off detector once the first level trigger acceptance has been confirmed. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements and an integrator b...

  13. Design, Construction and Testing of the Digital Hadron Calorimeter (DHCAL) Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, C; Bilki, B; Butler, J; Corriveau, F; Cundiff, T; Drake, G; Francis, K; Guarino, V; Haberichter, B; Hazen, E; Hoff, J; Holm, S; Kreps, A; DeLurgio, P; Monte, L Dal; Mucia, N; Norbeck, E; Northacker, D; Onel, Y; Pollack, B; Repond, J; Schlereth, J; Smith, J R; Trojand, D; Underwood, D; Velasco, M; Walendziak, J; Wood, K; Wu, S; Xia, L; Zhang, Q; Zhao, A

    2016-01-01

    A novel hadron calorimeter is being developed for future lepton colliding beam detectors. The calorimeter is optimized for the application of Particle Flow Algorithms (PFAs) to the measurement of hadronic jets and features a very finely segmented readout with 1 x 1 cm2 cells. The active media of the calorimeter are Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) with a digital, i.e. one-bit, readout. To first order the energy of incident particles in this calorimeter is reconstructed as being proportional to the number of pads with a signal over a given threshold. A large-scale prototype calorimeter with approximately 500,000 readout channels has been built and underwent extensive testing in the Fermilab and CERN test beams. This paper reports on the design, construction, and commissioning of the electronic readout system of this prototype calorimeter. The system is based on the DCAL front-end chip and a VME-based back-end.

  14. The LDC detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In preparation of the experimental program at the international linear collider. (ILC), the large detector concept (LDC) is being developed. The main points of the LDC are a large volume gaseous tracking system, combined with high precision vertex detector and an extremely granular calorimeter. The main design ...

  15. Calorimeter energy calibration using the energy conservation law

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new calorimeter energy calibration method was developed for the proposed ILC detectors. The method uses the center-of-mass energy of the accelerator as the reference. It has been shown that using the energy conservation law it is possible to make ECAL and HCAL cross calibration to reach a good energy resolution ...

  16. Feature-extraction algorithms for the PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavatsyuk, M.; Guliyev, E.; Lemmens, P. J. J.; Loehner, H.; Poelman, T. P.; Tambave, G.; Yu, B

    2009-01-01

    The feature-extraction algorithms are discussed which have been developed for the digital front-end electronics of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the PANDA detector at the future FAIR facility. Performance parameters have been derived in test measurements with cosmic rays, particle and photon

  17. Study of the interactions of pions in the CALICE silicon-tungsten calorimeter prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C; Repond, J; Yu, J; Eigen, G; Mikami, Y; Watson, N K; Wilson, J A; Goto, T; Mavromanolakis, G; Thomson, M A; Ward, D R; Yan, W; Benchekroun, D; Hoummada, A; Khoulaki, Y; Apostolakis, J; Ribon, A; Uzhinskiy, V; Benyamna, M; Carloganu, C; Fehr, F; Gay, P; Blazey, G C; Chakraborty, D; Dyshkant, A; Francis, K; Hedin, D; Lima, J G; Zutshi, V; Hostachy, J Y; Krastev, K; Morin, L; D'Ascenzo, N; Cornett, U; David, D; Fabbri, R; Falley, G; Gadow, K; Garutti, E; Gottlicher, P; Jung, T; Karstensen, S; Lucaci-Timoce, A I; Lutz, B; Meyer, N; Morgunov, V; Reinecke, M; Sefkow, F; Smirnov, P; Vargas-Trevino, A; Wattimena, N; Wendt, O; Feege, N; Groll, M; Haller, J; Heuer, R D; Morozov, S; Richter, S; Samson, J; Kaplan, A; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Shen, W; Tadday, A; Bilki, B; Norbeck, E; Onel, Y; Kim, E J; Kim, G; Kim, D W; Lee, K; Lee, S C; Kawagoe, K; Tamura, Y; Dauncey, P D; Magnan, A M; Yilmaz, H; Zorba, O; Bartsch, V; Postranecky, M; Warren, M; Wing, M; Green, M G; Salvatore, F; Bedjidian, M; Kieffer, R; Laktineh, I; Fouz, M C; Bailey, D S; Barlow, R J; Kelly, M; Thompson, R J; Danilov, M; Tarkovsky, E; Baranova, N; Karmanov, D; Korolev, M; Merkin, M; Voronin, A; Frey, A; Lu, S; Seidel, K; Simon, F; Soldner, C; Weuste, L; Bonis, J; Bouquet, B; Callier, S; Cornebise, P; Doublet, Ph; Faucci Giannelli, M; Fleury, J; Li, H; Martin-Chassard, G; Richard, F; de la Taille, Ch; Poeschl, R; Raux, L; Seguin-Moreau, N; Wicek, F; Anduze, M; Boudry, V; Brient, J C; Gaycken, G; Jeans, D; Mora de Freitas, P; Musat, G; Reinhard, M; Rouge, A; Ruan, M; Vanel, J C; Videau, H; Park, K H; Zacek, J; Cvach, J; Gallus, P; Havranek, M; Janata, M; Marcisovsky, M; Polak, I; Popule, J; Tomasek, L; Tomasek, M; Ruzicka, P; Sicho, P; Smolik, J; Vrba, V; Zalesak, J; Belhorma, B; Belmir, M; Nam, S W; Park, I H; Yang, J; Chai, J S; Kim, J T; Kim, G B; Kang, J; Kwon, Y J

    2010-01-01

    A prototype silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter for an ILC detector was tested in 2007 at the CERN SPS test beam. Data were collected with electron and hadron beams in the energy range 8 to 80 GeV. The analysis described here focuses on the interactions of pions in the calorimeter. One of the main objectives of the CALICE program is to validate the Monte Carlo tools available for the design of a full-sized detector. The interactions of pions in the Si-W calorimeter are therefore confronted with the predictions of various physical models implemented in the GEANT4 simulation framework.

  18. ATLAS Calorimeters: Run-2 performance and Phase-II upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 10^{34} cm^{−2} s^{−1}. A liquid argon (LAr)-lead sampling calorimeter is employed as electromagnetic calorimeter and hadronic calorimter, except in the barrel region, where a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter (TileCal) is used as hadronic calorimter. This presentation will give first an overview of the detector operation and data quality, as well as the achieved performance of the ATLAS calorimetry system. Additionally, the upgrade projects of the ATLAS calorimeter system for the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) will be presented. For the HL-LHC, the instantaneous luminosity is expected to increase up to L ≃ 7.5 × 10^{34} cm^{−2} s^{−1} and the average pile-up up to 200 interactions per bunch crossing. The major R&D item is the upgrade of the electronics for both LAr and Tile calorimeters in order to cope wit...

  19. L3 detector: BGO assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    1989-01-01

    Explanation and presentation of its construction ( Feb-March 1989). The detector is a multi-layered cylindrical set of different devices, each of them measuring physical quantities relevant to the reconstruction of the collision under study. The three main outer layers are the electro-magnetic calorimeter (also called BGO because it's made of Bismuth Germanium Oxide), the hadronic calorimeter (HCAL) and the muon detector.

  20. Calorimetry of the CMD-3 detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebalin, V. E.; Akhmetshin, R. R.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Bashtovoy, N. S.; Epifanov, D. A.; Epshteyn, L. B.; Erofeev, A. L.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Grigoriev, D. N.; Ignatov, F. V.; Kazanin, V. F.; Kovalenko, O. A.; Kozyrev, A. N.; Kuzmenko, A. E.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Logashenko, I. B.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Okhapkin, V. S.; Razuvaev, G. P.; Ruban, A. A.; Shwartz, B. A.; Titov, V. M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Yudin, Yu. V.

    2016-07-01

    CMD-3 is a general purpose detector designed to study e+e- annihilation into hadrons. It is mounted at VEPP-2000 collider which operates in the wide energy range, E c . m . s = 0.32 - 2 GeV. The calorimetry at the detector is based on three subsystems: closest to the beam pipe barrel Liquid Xenon calorimeter, outer barrel calorimeter based on CsI scintillation crystals and the endcap calorimeter made of BGO scintillation crystals. We describe the structure of the calorimeters, their electronics and the energy calibration procedures.

  1. Forward Instrumentation for ILC Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, Halina; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Aguilar, Jonathan; Ambalathankandy, Prasoon; Bambade, Philip; Bergholz, Matthias; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Castro, Elena; Chelkov, Georgy; Coca, Cornelia; Daniluk, Witold; Dragone, Angelo; Dumitru, Laurentiu; Elsener, Konrad; Emeliantchik, Igor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Gostkin, Mikhail; Grah, Christian; Grzelak, Grzegorz; Haller, Gunter; Henschel, Hans; Ignatenko, Alexandr; Idzik, Marek; Ito, Kazutoshi; Jovin, Tatjana; Kielar, Eryk; Kotula, Jerzy; Krumstein, Zinovi; Kulis, Szymon; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Levy, Aharon; Moszczynski, Arkadiusz; Nauenberg, Uriel; Novgorodova, Olga; Ohlerich, Marin; Orlandea, Marius; Oleinik, Gleb; Oliwa, Krzysztof; Olshevski, Alexander; Pandurovic, Mila; Pawlik, Bogdan; Przyborowski, Dominik; Sato, Yutaro; Sadeh, Iftach; Sailer, Andre; Schmidt, Ringo; Schumm, Bruce; Schuwalow, Sergey; Smiljanic, Ivan; Swientek, Krzysztof; Takubo, Yosuke; Teodorescu, Eliza; Wierba, Wojciech; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Zawiejski, Leszek; Zhang, Jinlong

    2010-01-01

    Two special calorimeters are foreseen for the instrumentation of the very forward region of the ILC detector, a luminometer designed to measure the rate of low angle Bhabha scattering events with a precision better than 10-3 and a low polar angle calorimeter, adjacent to the beam-pipe. The latter will be hit by a large amount of beamstrahlung remnants. The amount and shape of these depositions will allow a fast luminosity estimate and the determination of beam parameters. The sensors of this calorimeter must be radiation hard. Both devices will improve the hermeticity of the detector in the search for new particles. Finely segmented and very compact calorimeters will match the requirements. Due to the high occupancy fast front-end electronics is needed. The design of the calorimeters developed and optimised with Monte Carlo simulations is presented. Sensors and readout electronics ASICs have been designed and prototypes are available. Results on the performance of these major components are summarised.

  2. Physics with calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretzl, Klaus

    2009-04-01

    Calorimeters played an essential role in the discoveries of new physics, for example neutral currents (Gargamelle), quark and gluon jets (SPEAR, UA2, UA1 and PETRA), W and Z bosons (UA1, UA2), top quark (CDF, D0) and neutrino oscillations (SUPER-KAMIOKANDE, SNO). A large variety of different calorimeters have been developed covering an energy range between several and 1020 eV. This article tries to demonstrate on a few selected examples, such as the early jet searches in hadron-hadron collisions, direct dark matter searches, neutrino-less double beta decay and direct neutrino mass measurements, how the development of these devices has allowed to explore new frontiers in physics.

  3. A Customizable GeantV Calorimeter Application

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitz, Ryan; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Novak, Mihaly; CERN. Geneva. EP Department

    2017-01-01

    A customizable calorimeter application was written in GeantV. This application includes a GeantV-native detector construction file as well as GeantV-native physics models and new data collection structures. Including these features makes this one of the first examples of a completely standalone GeantV application. A comparison to Geant4 was made which showed the consistency of the GeantV-native physics models included in this example. Finally, the workflow improvements made by the creation of this application are described.

  4. Precision timing calorimeter for high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bornheim, Adolf, E-mail: bornheim@hep.caltech.edu [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Duarte, Javier; Peña, Cristián; Spiropulu, Maria; Trevor, Jason; Xie, Si [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ronzhin, Anatoly [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, PO Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510-5011 (United States)

    2016-07-11

    Scintillator based calorimeter technology is studied with the aim to achieve particle detection with a time resolution on the order of a few 10 ps for photons and electrons at energies of a few GeV and above. We present results from a prototype of a 1.4×1.4×11.4 cm{sup 3} sampling calorimeter cell consisting of tungsten absorber plates and Cerium-doped Lutetium Yttrium Orthosilicate (LYSO) crystal scintillator plates. The LYSO plates are read out with wave lengths shifting fibers which are optically coupled to fast photo detectors on both ends of the fibers. The measurements with electrons were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility (FTBF) and the CERN SPS H2 test beam. In addition to the baseline setup plastic scintillation counter and a MCP-PMT were used as trigger and as a reference for a time of flight measurement (TOF). We also present measurements with a fast laser to further characterize the response of the prototype and the photo sensors. All data were recorded using a DRS4 fast sampling digitizer. These measurements are part of an R&D program whose aim is to demonstrate the feasibility of building a large scale electromagnetic calorimeter with a time resolution on the order of 10 ps, to be used in high energy physics experiments.

  5. Precision timing calorimeter for high energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Duarte, Javier; Peña, Cristián; Spiropulu, Maria; Trevor, Jason; Xie, Si; Ronzhin, Anatoly

    2016-07-01

    Scintillator based calorimeter technology is studied with the aim to achieve particle detection with a time resolution on the order of a few 10 ps for photons and electrons at energies of a few GeV and above. We present results from a prototype of a 1.4×1.4×11.4 cm3 sampling calorimeter cell consisting of tungsten absorber plates and Cerium-doped Lutetium Yttrium Orthosilicate (LYSO) crystal scintillator plates. The LYSO plates are read out with wave lengths shifting fibers which are optically coupled to fast photo detectors on both ends of the fibers. The measurements with electrons were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility (FTBF) and the CERN SPS H2 test beam. In addition to the baseline setup plastic scintillation counter and a MCP-PMT were used as trigger and as a reference for a time of flight measurement (TOF). We also present measurements with a fast laser to further characterize the response of the prototype and the photo sensors. All data were recorded using a DRS4 fast sampling digitizer. These measurements are part of an R&D program whose aim is to demonstrate the feasibility of building a large scale electromagnetic calorimeter with a time resolution on the order of 10 ps, to be used in high energy physics experiments.

  6. A Silicon Hadron Calorimeter Module Operated in a Strong Magnetic Field with VLSI Readout for LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD35 \\\\ \\\\ On the basis of a cost optimized Silicon production technology we proposed to build a hadron calorimeter active plane. \\\\ \\\\The production of detectors is closely followed and final quality control is performed according to specifications. \\\\ \\\\The technology designed for the cheap pad detector production is applied for the coarse strip detector manufacturing. These strip detectors will be used in the preshower of the electromagnetic calorimeter of CMS. \\footnote{Research & Prod. Assoc. ELMA, RSFSR} \\footnote{Byelorussian State Univ. Minsk} \\footnote{Research & Prod. Comp. SIAPS, RSFSR} \\footnote{Joffe Physical-Technical Inst. RSFSR} \\footnote{Ansaldo Richerche spa, Genoa} \\footnote{SGS-THOMSON, Castelletto, Milan}

  7. Proton Collision Event with 2 Electrons & 2 Muons (Actual Event) An animation of an actual ATLAS proton collision event in 2011. The two muons are detailed as long blue tracks, the two electrons as short blue tracks matching green clusters of energy in the calorimeters which lie outside the inner tracking detector. source: http://www.atlas.ch/multimedia/2-electron-2-muon-event.html

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Experiment

    2011-01-01

    Proton Collision Event with 2 Electrons & 2 Muons (Actual Event) An animation of an actual ATLAS proton collision event in 2011. The two muons are detailed as long blue tracks, the two electrons as short blue tracks matching green clusters of energy in the calorimeters which lie outside the inner tracking detector. source: http://www.atlas.ch/multimedia/2-electron-2-muon-event.html

  8. Study of a Novel Concept for a Liquid Argon Calorimeter \

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD33 \\\\ \\\\ The development of a fast, highly granular and compact electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter prototype is proposed as a generic R\\&D project for a novel concept of calorimetry in proton-proton and electron-positron collider detectors: the $^{\\prime$Thin Gap Turbine$^{\\prime}$ (TGT). The TGT calorimeter has a modular construction, is flexible in its longitudinal and transverse granularity, and offers a uniform energy response and resolution, independent of the production angle of incident particles. An important aspect of the project is the development of fast, radiation-hard front-end electronics which is operating in the cold.

  9. An engineering prototype of the Imaging Calorimeter for ACCESS (ICA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rielage, K.; Christl, M.; Adams, J.; Binns, W. R.; Fountain, W.; Hink, P.; Howell, L.; Israel, M.; Kippen, R. M.; Lee, J.; Parnell, T.; Watts, J.

    2001-08-01

    The Imaging Calorimeter for ACCESS (Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for Space Station) is one of several proposed concepts for the ACCESS calorimeter instrument designed to measure the spectrum of protons, helium and heavier nuclei up to ~10 15 eV. This design utilizes a carbon target and high atomic number absorber sampled by thin layers of scintillating fibers. An engineering prototype detector was tested at CERN in August 2000 composed of 15 radiation lengths of interaction material with two types of readout: photomultiplier tubes and an image intensified CCD system. An overview of this prototype and its performance will be presented.

  10. Study of Silicon Photomultipliers for the GRIPS Calorimeter Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Ulyanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available GRIPS is a proposed gamma-ray (200 keV to 80 MeV astronomy mission, which incorporates a pair-creation and Compton scattering telescope, along with X-ray and infrared telescopes. It will carry out a sensitive all-sky scanning survey, investigating phenomena such as gamma-ray bursts, blazars and core collapse supernovae. The main telescope is composed of a Si strip detector surroundedby a calorimeter with a fast scintillator material. We present the initial results of a study which considers the potential use of silicon photomultipliers in conjunction with the scintillator in the GRIPS calorimeter module.

  11. Trigger processing using reconfigurable logic in the CMS calorimeter trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Brooke, J J; Heath, G P; Maddox, A J; Newbold, D; Rabbetts, P D

    2001-01-01

    We present the design of the Global Calorimeter Trigger processor for the CMS detector at LHC. This is a fully pipelined processor system which collects data from all the CMS calorimeters and produces summary information used in forming the Level-1 trigger decision for each event. The design in based on the use of state-of-the-art reconfigurable logic devices (FPGAs) and fast data links. We present the results of device testing using a low-latency pipelined sort algorithm, which demonstrate that an FPGA can be used to perform processing previously foreseen to require custom ASICs. Our design approach results in a powerful, flexible and compact processor system. (0 refs).

  12. Design and Prototyping of a High Granularity Scintillator Calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zutshi, Vishnu [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2016-03-27

    A novel approach for constructing fine-granularity scintillator calorimeters, based on the concept of an Integrated Readout Layer (IRL) was developed. The IRL consists of a printed circuit board inside the detector which supports the directly-coupled scintillator tiles, connects to the surface-mount SiPMs and carries the necessary front-end electronics and signal/bias traces. Prototype IRLs using this concept were designed, prototyped and successfully exposed to test beams. Concepts and implementations of an IRL carried out with funds associated with this contract promise to result in the next generation of scintillator calorimeters.

  13. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter: simulation and validation of the response

    CERN Document Server

    Faltova, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter at the Large Hadron Collider. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is readout by wavelength shifting fibers and transmitted to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from approximately 10000 PMTs are measured and digitized before being further transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. Detailed simulations are described in this contribution, ranging from the implementation of the geometrical elements to the realistic description of the electronics readout pulses, including specific noise treatment and the signal reconstruction. Special attention is given to the improved optical signal propagation and the validation with the real particle data.

  14. Readiness of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter for LHC collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Amorim, A.; Amoros, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Bach, A.M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, M.D.; Baker, S; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S.P.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bates, R.L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G.A.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Besana, M.I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanchard, J-B; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bocci, A.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Boser, S.; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bondarenko, V.G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I.R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.E.; Braun, H.M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F.M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodet, E.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W.K.; Brown, G.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A.G.; Budagov, I.A.; Budick, B.; Buscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C.P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J.M.; Buttar, C.M.; Butterworth, J.M.; Byatt, T.; Caballero, J.; Cabrera Urban, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L.P.; Calvet, D.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M.D.M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G.D.; Carron Montero, S.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M.P.; Cascella, M.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N.F.; Cataldi, G.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J.R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A.S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S.A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapman, J.D.; Chapman, J.W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D.G.; Chavda, V.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V.F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Tcherniatine, V.; Chesneanu, D.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S.L.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J.T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I.A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M.L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A.K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M.D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P.J.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J.C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Colijn, A.P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N.J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Conde Muino, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M.C.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B.D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Cooper-Smith, N.J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M.J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Cote, D.; Coura Torres, R.; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B.E.; Cranmer, K.; Cranshaw, J.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crepe-Renaudin, S.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C.J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; Da Via, C; Dabrowski, W.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallison, S.J.; Daly, C.H.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H.O.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G.L.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davies, M.; Davison, A.R.; Dawson, I.; Daya, R.K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Castro Faria Salgado, P.E.; De Cecco, S.; de Graat, J.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De Mora, L.; De Oliveira Branco, M.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J.B.; Dean, S.; Dedovich, D.V.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Del Papa, C.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P.A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Deng, W.; Denisov, S.P.; Derkaoui, J.E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deviveiros, P.O.; Dewhurst, A.; DeWilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Luise, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Diaz, M.A.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E.B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T.A.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K.; Dingfelder, J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djilkibaev, R.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M.A.B.; Do Valle Wemans, A.; Doan, T.K.O.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Dohmae, T.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M.T.; Doxiadis, A.; Doyle, A.T.; Drasal, Z.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Duhrssen, M.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M-A.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Duren, M.; Ebenstein, W.L.; Ebke, J.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edwards, C.A.; Egorov, K.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Ehrich, T.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, K.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engl, A.; Epp, B.; Eppig, A.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ermoline, I.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A.I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Fabre, C.; Facius, K.; Fakhrutdinov, R.M.; 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Onofre, A.; Onyisi, P.U.E.; Oram, C.J.; Oreglia, M.J.; Oren, Y.; Orestano, D.; Orlov, I.; Oropeza Barrera, C.; Orr, R.S.; Ortega, E.O.; Osculati, B.; Ospanov, R.; Osuna, C.; Ottersbach, J.P; Ould-Saada, F.; Ouraou, A.; Ouyang, Q.; Owen, M.; Owen, S.; Oyarzun, A; Ozcan, V.E.; Ozone, K.; Ozturk, N.; Pacheco Pages, A.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Paganis, E.; Pahl, C.; Paige, F.; Pajchel, K.; Palestini, S.; Pallin, D.; Palma, A.; Palmer, J.D.; Pan, Y.B.; Panagiotopoulou, E.; Panes, B.; Panikashvili, N.; Panitkin, S.; Pantea, D.; Panuskova, M.; Paolone, V.; Papadopoulou, Th.D.; Park, S.J.; Park, W.; Parker, M.A.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J.A.; Parzefall, U.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passeri, A.; Pastore, F.; Pastore, Fr.; Pasztor, G.; Pataraia, S.; Pater, J.R.; Patricelli, S.; Pauly, T.; Peak, L.S.; Pecsy, M.; Pedraza Morales, M.I.; Peleganchuk, S.V.; Peng, H.; Penson, A.; Penwell, J.; Perantoni, M.; Perez, K.; Perez Codina, E.; Perez Garcia-Estan, M.T.; Perez Reale, V.; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrino, R.; Persembe, S.; Perus, P.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Petersen, B.A.; Petersen, T.C.; Petit, E.; Petridou, C.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, F.; Petschull, D; Petteni, M.; Pezoa, R.; Phan, A.; Phillips, A.W.; Piacquadio, G.; Piccinini, M.; Piegaia, R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pilkington, A.D.; Pina, J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J.L.; Pinto, B.; Pizio, C.; Placakyte, R.; Plamondon, M.; Pleier, M.A.; Poblaguev, A.; Poddar, S.; Podlyski, F.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, M.; Polci, F.; Polesello, G.; Policicchio, A.; Polini, A.; Poll, J.; Polychronakos, V.; Pomeroy, D.; Pommes, K.; Ponsot, P.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B.G.; Popeneciu, G.A.; Popovic, D.S.; Poppleton, A.; Popule, J.; Portell Bueso, X.; Porter, R.; Pospelov, G.E.; Pospisil, S.; Potekhin, M.; Potrap, I.N.; Potter, C.J.; Potter, C.T.; Potter, K.P.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Prabhu, R.; Pralavorio, P.; Prasad, S.; Pravahan, R.; Pribyl, L.; Price, D.; Price, L.E.; Prichard, P.M.; Prieur, D.; Primavera, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Prudent, X.; Przysiezniak, H.; Psoroulas, S.; Ptacek, E.; Purdham, J.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Qi, M.; Qian, J.; Qian, W.; Qin, Z.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D.R.; Quayle, W.B.; Quinonez, F.; Raas, M.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radics, B.; Rador, T.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rahimi, A.M.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rammes, M.; Rauscher, F.; Rauter, E.; Raymond, M.; Read, A.L.; Rebuzzi, D.M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Reinsch, A; Reisinger, I.; Reljic, D.; Rembser, C.; Ren, Z.L.; Renkel, P.; Rescia, S.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Resende, B.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Ribeiro, N.; Richards, A.; Richter, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Ridel, M.; Rijpstra, M.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Rios, R.R.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Roa Romero, D.A.; Robertson, S.H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, JEM; Robinson, M.; Robson, A.; Rocha de Lima, J.G.; Roda, C.; Roda Dos Santos, D.; Rodriguez, D.; Rodriguez Garcia, Y.; Roe, S.; Rohne, O.; Rojo, V.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romanov, V.M.; Romeo, G.; Romero Maltrana, D.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosenbaum, G.A.; Rosselet, L.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, L.P.; Rotaru, M.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C.R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Ruckert, B.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rud, V.I.; Rudolph, G.; Ruhr, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rumyantsev, L.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N.A.; Rutherfoord, J.P.; Ruwiedel, C.; Ruzicka, P.; Ryabov, Y.F.; Ryan, P.; Rybkin, G.; Rzaeva, S.; Saavedra, A.F.; Sadrozinski, H.F-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Sakamoto, H.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.S.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua Ferrando, B.M.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B.H.; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H.G.; Sanders, M.P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandhu, P.; Sandstroem, R.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sanny, B.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Saraiva, J.G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sasaki, O.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Savard, P.; Savine, A.Y.; Savinov, V.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D.H.; Says, L.P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scannicchio, D.A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schafer, U.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A.C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schamov, A.G.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V.A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M.I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt, E.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitz, M.; Schonig, A.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schreiner, A.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schroers, M.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schumacher, J.W.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B.A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Scott, W.G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S.C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J.M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D.M.; Sellden, B.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M.E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L.Y.; Shank, J.T.; Shao, Q.T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P.B.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M.J.; Shupe, M.A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S.B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N.B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Sivoklokov, S.Yu.; Sjoelin, J.; Sjursen, T.B.; Skovpen, K.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloper, J.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S.Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L.N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B.C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K.M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A.A.; Snow, S.W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C.A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A.A.; Solovyanov, O.V.; Sondericker, J.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sosebee, M.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spano, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R.D.; Stahl, T.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stancu, S.N.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R.W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E.A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stastny, J.; Stavina, P.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H.J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G.A.; Stockton, M.C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A.R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Strohmer, R.; Strom, D.M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Sturm, P.; Soh, D.A.; Su, D.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V.V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.H.; Sundermann, J.E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M.R.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szymocha, T.; Sanchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M.C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F.E.; Taylor, G.N.; Taylor, R.P.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P.K.; Tennenbaum-Katan, Y.D.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R.J.; Therhaag, J.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Thompson, E.N.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, R.J.; Thompson, A.S.; Thomson, E.; Thun, R.P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V.O.; Tikhonov, Y.A.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F.J.; Tisserant, S.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokar, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N.D.; Torchiani, I.; Torrence, E.; Torro Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D.R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T.N.; Tripiana, M.F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocme, B.; Troncon, C.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J.C-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P.V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E.G.; Tsukerman, I.I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuggle, J.M.; Tunnell, C.D.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P.M.; Twomey, M.S.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J.A.; Van Berg, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vandelli, W.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E.W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K.E.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vassilakopoulos, V.I.; Vazeille, F.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vetterli, M.C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G.H.A.; Villa, M.; Villani, E.G.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M.G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T.T.; Vossebeld, J.H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vudragovic, D.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, P.; Walbersloh, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C.P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, M.F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A.T.; Waugh, B.M.; Weber, M.D.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P.S.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Werthenbach, U.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; White, A.; White, M.J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S.R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F.J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L.A.M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M.A.; Wilkens, H.G.; Williams, E.; Williams, H.H.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J.A.; Wilson, M.G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M.W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B.K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M.J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S.L.; Wu, X.; Wulf, E.; Wynne, B.M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, N.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W-M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zambrano, V.; Zanello, L.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C.G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zivkovic, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.

    2010-01-01

    The Tile hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS detector has undergone extensive testing in the experimental hall since its installation in late 2005. The readout, control and calibration systems have been fully operational since 2007 and the detector successfully collected data from the LHC single beams in 2008 and first collisions in 2009. This paper gives an overview of the Tile Calorimeter performance as measured using random triggers, calibration data, data from cosmic ray muons and single beam data. The detector operation status, noise characteristics and performance of the calibration systems are presented, as well as the validation of the timing and energy calibration carried out with minimum ionising cosmic ray muons data. The calibration systems' precision is well below the design of 1%. The determination of the global energy scale was performed with an uncertainty of 4%.

  15. Performance and Calibration of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Starovoitov, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter at the Large Hadron Collider. This detector is instrumental for the measurements of hadrons, jets, tau leptons and missing transverse energy. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from approximately 10000 PMTs are measured and digitized before being transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. After an initial setting of the absolute energy scale in test beams with particles of well-defined momentum, the calibrated scale is transferred to the rest of the detector via the response to radioactive sources. The calibrated scale is validated in situ with muons and single hadrons whereas the timing performance is checked with muons and jets. A brief description of the individual calibration systems (Cs radioactive source, laser, charge injection, minimum bias) is provided. Their combination allows to calibr...

  16. Calibration of the Electromagnetic Calorimeter of the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Argiro, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    The electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) of the CMS experiment is an homogeneous, hermetic detector with high granularity. Its potential performances are outstanding in terms of energy resolution, dynamic range and noise level. These characteristics make the calorimeter the most powerful device in the search of the decay in two photons of the Higgs particle. However, the energy resolution depends crucially on the channel to channel intercalibration precision. Therefore, great attention must be given to the calibration process. In this contribution we will describe the strategy that the ECAL group has devised to calibrate the detector. We will report on the pre-calibration processes that have already been performed, the strategies for intercalibration at startup and those foreseen when sufficient statistics will be accumulated to use W and Z events. For the normal data taking regime, an intercalibration precision of 0.5\\% should be reached, while the response of the detector will be monitored regularly.

  17. Proposal to assemble a high resolution-electron sensitive-energy flow calorimeter in the NEULAND spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    A ..gamma.. catcher and a liquid scintillation calorimeter module in a simple configuration that is well suited to the investigation of several different neutrino induced processes are described. The variety of neutrino beams now available at Fermilab and synchrotron intensity and energy together with the high resolution calorimeter allow a multiplicity of experiments to be carried out with a single detector configuration.

  18. The lead-glass electromagnetic calorimeter for the SELEX experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Y. Balatz et al.

    2004-07-19

    A large-acceptance, highly segmented electromagnetic lead glass calorimeter for Experiment E781 (SELEX) at Fermi National Acceleration Laboratory was designed and built. This detector has been used to reconstruct photons and electrons with energies ranging from few GeV up to 500 GeV in the collisions of the 650 GeV {Sigma}{sup -} hyperons and {pi}{sup -} mesons with the target nucleons. The design, calibration and performance of the calorimeter are described. Energy resolution and position resolution are assessed using both calibration electron beams and {pi}{sup 0} mesons reconstructed in 650 GeV hadron-hadron interactions. The performance of the calorimeter in selecting resonant states that involve photons is demonstrated.

  19. Prototype studies for a forward EM calorimeter in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Peitzmann, T

    2013-01-01

    A forward electromagnetic calorimeter (FoCal) based on SiW technology is being considered as a possible upgrade to the ALICE detector. This device should in particular feature an extremely high granularity allowing gamma/pi0 discrimination out to very high momenta. The main option considered for the high granularity layers is the use of CMOS pixel sensors. We will discuss the motivation and design principles of the proposed calorimeter and will then focus on the experience gained with a full CMOS-pixel calorimeter prototype. Preliminary results of this device show very good capabilities for shower profile measurements, and reasonable results for linearity and resolution, which are limited by the currently incomplete calibration.

  20. The ATLAS liquid Argon calorimeters read-out system

    CERN Document Server

    Blondel, A; Fayard, L; La Marra, D; Léger, A; Matricon, P; Perrot, G; Poggioli, L; Prast, J; Riu, I; Simion, S

    2004-01-01

    The calorimetry of the ATLAS experiment takes advantage of different detectors based on the liquid Argon (LAr) technology. Signals from the LAr calorimeters are processed by various stages before being delivered to the Data Acquisition system. The calorimeter cell signals are received by the front-end boards, which digitize a predetermined number of samples of the bipolar waveform and sends them to the Read-Out Driver (ROD) boards. The ROD board receives triggered data from 1028 calorimeter cells, and determines the precise energy and timing of the signals by processing the discrete samplings of the pulse. In addition, it formats the digital stream for the following elements of the DAQ chain, and performs monitoring. The architecture and functionality of the ATLAS LAr ROD board are discussed, along with the final design of the Processing Unit boards housing the Digital Signal Processors (DSP). (9 refs).

  1. R&D proposal the prism plastic calorimeter:PPC

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Marchand, P; Nédélec, P; Salin, P; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1990-01-01

    This proposal supports two goals: First Goal_Demonstrate that current, widely used plastic technologies allow to design Prism Plastic Calorimeter (PPC) towers with a new "liquid crystal" type plastic called Vectra. It will be shown that this technique meets the requirements for a LHC calorimeter with warm liquids: safety, hermeticity, hadronic compensation, resolution and time response. Second Goal_ Describe how one can design a warm liquid calorimeter integrated into a LHC detector,and list the advantages of the PPC: low price, minimum of mechanical structures, minimum amount of dead space, easiness of mechanical assembly, accessibility to the electronics, possibility to recirculate the liquid. The absorber and the electronics being outside the liquid and easily accessible, one has maximum flexibility to define them. The R&D program we define here aims at showing the feasibility of these new ideas by building nine towers of twenty gaps and exposing them to electron and hadron beams.

  2. The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters Read Out Driver (ROD) system

    CERN Document Server

    Henry-Coüannier, F

    2000-01-01

    The electronic Readout chain for the Liquid Argon calorimeters of the ATLAS detector is briefly presented. Special attention is given to the Read Out Drivers (ROD) which will receive the triggered data from approximately 200,000 calorimeter cells at a 100 kHz event rate. In the ROD boards the energy will be computed for each cell from discrete samples of the waveform using optimal filtering algorithms running in fast digital signal processors. The monitoring of the calorimeter data will also be performed at the ROD level. Performances expected in ATLAS which have been evaluated from simulation studies are presented. A demonstrator system currently under construction is described and performances of the Processing Units (DSP daughter boards) are presented. 4 Refs.

  3. COTS Analog Prototype for LHCb's Calorimeter Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Abellan Beteta, Carlos; Herms i Berenguer, Atilà

    The objective of this thesis is to present a proposal for the analogue signal processing chain needed for the LHCb calorimeter upgrade improving the design used originally. The design contains several novelties: the system was designed with low noise in mind from the beginning, it is made to have good immunity to interferences stressing the fact that the board will be shared with large digital circuits, differential operational amplifiers are used in a non-standard way as a mean to obtain opposite polarity signals for the signal treatment and a way to increase the available signal in the front end electronics is proposed. The thesis starts with a brief introduction to the detector and its environment. This is followed by an explanation of the use of shapers in high energy physics detectors and the constraints that the shaper must address in the LHCb calorimeter. This leads to a chapter where the circuit design is explained starting from the analysis of the original circuit and its flaws. Once the original cir...

  4. Hadronic vector boson decay and the art of calorimeter calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobban, Olga Barbara [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2002-12-01

    Presented here are several studies involving the energy measurement of particles using calorimeters. The first study involves the effects of radiation damage on the response of a prototype calorimeter for the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment. We found that the effects of radiation damage on the calorimeter·s response arc dose dependent and that most of the damage will occur in the first year of running at the Large Hadron Collider. Another study involved the assessment of the Energy Flow Method an algorithm which combines the information from the calorimeter system is combined with that from the tracking system in an attmpt to improve the energy resolution for jet measurements. Using the Energy Flow method an improvement of $\\sim30\\%$ is found but this impovement decreases at high energies when the hadronic calorimeter resolution dominates the quality of the jet energy measurements. Finally, we developed a new method to calibrate a longitudinally segnmented calorimeter. This method eliminates problems with the traditional method used for the calorimeters at the Collider Detector at Fermilab. We applied this new method in the search for hadrunic decays of the $W$ and $Z$ bosons in a sample of dijet data taken during Tevatron Run IC. A signal of 9873±3950(sys) ±1130 events was found when the new calibration method was used. This corresponds to a cross section $\\sigma(p\\bar{p} \\to W,Z) \\cdot B(W,Z \\to jets) = 35.6 \\pm 14.2 ({\\rm sys}) \\pm 4.1 (\\rm{stat})$ nb.

  5. Development of Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters for Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, Cameron Russell [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    Many nuclear safeguards applications could benefit from high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy achievable with metallic magnetic calorimeters. This dissertation covers the development of a system for these applications based on gamma-ray detectors developed at the University of Heidelberg. It demonstrates new calorimeters of this type, which achieved an energy resolution of 45.5 eV full-width at half-maximum at 59.54 keV, roughly ten times better than current state of the art high purity germanium detectors. This is the best energy resolution achieved with a gamma-ray metallic magnetic calorimeter at this energy to date. In addition to demonstrating a new benchmark in energy resolution, an experimental system for measuring samples with metallic magnetic calorimeters was constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This system achieved an energy resolution of 91.3 eV full-width at half-maximum at 59.54 keV under optimal conditions. Using this system it was possible to characterize the linearity of the response, the count-rate limitations, and the energy resolution as a function of temperature of the new calorimeter. With this characterization it was determined that it would be feasible to measure 242Pu in a mixed isotope plutonium sample. A measurement of a mixed isotope plutonium sample was performed over the course of 12 days with a single two-pixel metallic magnetic calorimeter. The relative concentration of 242Pu in comparison to other plutonium isotopes was determined by direct measurement to less than half a percent accuracy. This is comparable with the accuracy of the best-case scenario using traditional indirect methods. The ability to directly measure the relative concentration of 242Pu in a sample could enable more accurate accounting and detection of indications of undeclared activities in nuclear safeguards, a better constraint on source material in forensic samples containing plutonium, and improvements in verification in a future plutonium

  6. Calibration and Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter During the LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00221190; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) covers the central part of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for the reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling hadronic calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by charged particles in tiles is transmitted by wavelength-shifting fibres to photomultipliers, where it is converted to electric pulses and further processed by the on-detector electronics located in the outermost part of the calorimeter. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements and an integrator based readout system. Combined information from all systems allows to monitor and equalize the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scintillation light to digitisation. The performance of the calorimeter has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sample of the proton-proton col...

  7. The contribution to the the calibration of LAr calorimeters at the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Pecsy, Martin; Strizenec, Pavol

    The presented thesis brings various contributions to the testing and validation of the ATLAS detector calorimeter calibration. Since the ATLAS calorimeter is non-compensating, the sophisticated software calibration of the calorimeter response is needed. One of the ATLAS official calibration methods is the local hadron calibration. This method is based on detailed simulations providing information about the true deposited energy in calorimeter. Such calibration consists of several independent steps, starting with the basic electromagnetic scale signal calibration and proceeding to the particle energy calibration. Calibration starts from the topological clusters reconstruction and calibration at EM scale. These clusters are classified as EM or hadronic and the hadronic ones receive weights to correct for the invisible energy deposits of hadrons. To get the final reconstructed energy the out-of-cluster and dead material corrections are applied in next steps. The tests of calorimeter response with the first real ...

  8. Calibration and Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter during the LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Faltova, Jana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) covers the central part of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for the reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling hadronic calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by charged particles in tiles is transmitted by wavelength-shifting fibres to photomultipliers, where it is converted to electric pulses and further processed by the on-detector electronics located in the outermost part of the calorimeter. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements and an integrator based readout system. Combined information from all systems allows to monitor and equalize the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scintillation light to digitisation. The performance of the calorimeter is established with the large sample of the proton-proton collisions. Isolated hadrons a...

  9. The ATLAS Tile Hadronic Calorimeter performance at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Francavilla, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal), the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment, is a key detector component to detect hadrons, jets and taus and to measure the missing transverse energy. Due to the very good muon signal to noise ratio it assists the spectrometer in the identi cation and reconstruction of muons. TileCal is built of steel and scintillating tiles coupled to optical bers and read out by photomultipliers. The calorimeter is equipped with systems that allow to monitor and to calibrate each stage of the read-out system exploiting di erent signal sources: laser light, charge injection, a radioactive source and the signal produced by minimum bias events. The performance of the calorimeter has been measured and monitored using calibration data, random triggered data, cosmic muons, splash events and most importantly the large sample of pp collision events. Results are discussed that demonstrate how the calorimeter is operated, how is monitored and what performance has been obtai...

  10. The ATLAS Tile Hadronic Calorimeter performance at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Francavilla, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal), the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment, is a key detector component to detect hadrons, jets and taus and to measure the missing transverse energy. Due to the very good muon signal to noise ratio it assists the spectrometer in the identification and reconstruction of muons. TileCal is built of steel and scintillating tiles coupled to optical fibers and read out by photomultipliers. The calorimeter is equipped with systems that allow to monitor and to calibrate each stage of the read-out system exploiting different signal sources: laser light, charge injection, a radioactive source and the signal produced by minimum bias events. The performance of the calorimeter has been measured and monitored using calibration data, random triggered data, cosmic muons, splash events and most importantly the large sample of pp collision events. Results are discussed that demostrate how the calorimeter is operated, how is monitored and what performance has been ob...

  11. The PANDA backward calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, Heybat; Deiseroth, Malte; Khaneft, Dmitry; Noll, Oliver; Valente, Roserio; Zambrana, Manuel [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Ahmed, Samer [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Capozza, Luigi; Dbeyssi, Alaa; Froehlich, Bertold; Lin, Dexu; Maas, Frank; Mora Espi, Maria Carmen; Morales Morales, Cristina; Rodriguez Pineiro, David; Zimmermann, Iris [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The PANDA experiment at FAIR is being devised for a broad physics programme in hadron structure and spectroscopy. Full and accurate reconstruction of scattering events, reliable particle identification and an almost complete solid angle coverage are required. An important tool for meeting this requirements will be the electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC). It is required to measure particle energies ranging from some MeVs to several GeVs with a relative resolution of 1% + 2%/√(E/GeV), assuring a compact geometry and radiation hardness at the same time. For these reasons PbWO{sub 4} was chosen as scintillation material. The whole calorimeter has been designed in three sections: a forward end-cap, a central barrel and a backward end-cap (BWEC). The BWEC, under development at Mainz, will cover scattering polar angles between 140 and 170 and will be made of 524 PbWO{sub 4} crystals. The scintillation light will be detected by large area avalanche photodiodes which will be read out by customised front-end ASIC chips. A status report on the development of the BWEC will be given in this contribution.

  12. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Hadronic Calorimeter at LHC in Run 1 and planned upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Solovyanov, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter at the Large Hadron Collider, a key detector for the measurements of hadrons, jets, tau leptons and missing transverse energy. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from approximately 10000 PMTs are digitized before being transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. The data quality procedures used during the LHC data-taking and the evolution of the detector status are explained in the presentation. The energy and the time reconstruction performance of the digitized signals is presented and the noise behaviour and its improvement during the detector consolidation in maintenance periods are shown. A set of calibration systems allow monitoring and equalization of the calorimeter channels responses via signal sources that act at every stage of the signal path, from scintillation light to digitized signal...

  13. DIRAC v2 a DIgital Readout Asic for hadronic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Gaglione, R; Chefdeville, M; Drancourt, C; Vouters, G

    2009-01-01

    DIRAC is a 64 channel mixed-signal readout integrated circuit designed for Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MICROMEGAS, Gas Electron Multiplier) or Resistive Plate Chambers. These detectors are foreseen as the active part of a digital hadronic calorimeter for a high energy physics experiment at the International Linear Collider. Physic requirements lead to a highly granular hadronic calorimeter with up to thirty million channels with probably only hit information (digital calorimeter). The DIRAC ASIC has been especially designed for these constraints. Each channel of the DIRAC chip is made of a 4 gains charge preamplifier, a DC-servo loop, 3 switched comparators and a digital memory, thus providing additional energy information for a hit. A bulk MICROMEGAS detector with embedded DIRAC v1 ASIC has been built. The tests of this assembly, both in laboratory with X-Rays and in a beam at CERN are presented, demonstrating the feasibility of a bulk MICROMEGAS detector with embedded electronics. The second version of...

  14. Simulations of the electromagnetic calorimeter in the presence of magnetic eld for the FCChh

    CERN Document Server

    Matas, Marek

    2016-01-01

    This work was focused on studying the properties of the electromagnetic calorimeter for the Future Circular Collider (FCC) [1]. FCC is an accelerator that will possibly be built in the 2040s-2050s. Its circumference would be 100 km with the center of mass energy ps=100TeV in proton-proton collisions. Detectors used to record FCC collisions will consist of the tracker, cryostat, electromagnetic calorimeter (EMCal), hadronic calorimeter (HCal) and muon chambers. In this work, we shall study the EMCal and its properties. One of the properties of the environment that this particular detector will have to face is the presence of a strong magnetic eld in the volume of the calorimeter. Studies carried out in this work are preliminary studies focused on addressing the eects that the magnetic eld will have on the electromagnetic shower evolution.

  15. Developments for a scintillator tile sampling hadron calorimeter with 'longitudinal' tile configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Bosman, M; Teubert, F; Blaj, C; Boldea, V; Dita, S; Ajaltouni, Z; Badaud, F; Bouhemaid, N; Brette, P; Brossard, M; Chadelas, R; Chevaleyre, J C; Crouau, M; Daudon, F; Dugne, J J; Michel, B; Montarou, G; Muanza, G S; Pallin, D; Says, L P; Vazeille, F; Gildemeister, O; Nessi, M; Poggioli, L; Sonderegger, P; Amorin, A; Ferreira, P; Gomes, A; Henriques, A; Maio, A; Peralta, L; Leitner, M; Suk, M; Kostrikov, M; Kulagin, M; Lapin, V; Protopopov, Y; Solodkov, Alexander A; Zaitsev, A; Hakobian, H

    1993-01-01

    In a scintillation tile calorimeter with wavelength shifting fiber readout significant simplifications of the construction and the assembly are possible if the tiles are oriented "longitudinally", i.e. in r-phi plane for a barrel configuration. For a hybrid calorimeter consisting of a scintillator tile hadron compartment and a sufficiently containing LAr EM compartment, as proposed for the ATLAS detector, good jet resolution is predicted by simulations. The aim of the proposal is to construct a test module and to check the simulation results by test beam measurements. Several component tests and further simulations and engineering studies are needed to optimize the design of a large calorimeter structure.

  16. Performance of the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter with Cosmic Muons and LHC Single Beam Data

    CERN Document Server

    MANGEARD, PS

    2009-01-01

    The Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeter is a key detector component in the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, designed to provide precision measurements of electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy. The LAr calorimeter has been installed in the ATLAS cavern and filled with liquid argon since 2006. Cosmic muon data, first triggered via specially developed trigger boards on the LVL1 output of the Tile calorimeter and later with the standard ATLAS LVL1 calorimeter trigger, have been recorded at various stages of commissioning. In Sept 2008, with the first single beams circulating in the LHC ring and a near full readout of the calorimeter, events resulting from beam-gas interactions and beam-collimator splash were recorded. We present here the calorimeter performance study based on these cosmic muon and LHC beam events. With the reconstructed muon minimum ionizing signal in the calorimeter, the uniformity of the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter can be checked. The timing alignment as measured from the data ca...

  17. Performance of the NuTeV Fe-Scintillator Sampling Calorimeter and Implications for Thin Calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avvakumov, S.; Adams, T.; Alton, A.; de Barbaro, L.; de Barbaro, P.; Berlin, D.; Bernstein, R. H.; Bodek, A.; Bolton, T.; Brau, J.; Buchholz, D.; Budd, H.; Bugel, L.; Conrad, J.; Drucker, R. B.; Frey, R.; Formaggio, J.; Goldman, J.; Goncharov, M.; Harris, D. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Koutsoliotas, S.; Kim, J. H.; Krishnaswami, G. K.; Lamm, M. J.; Marsh, W.; Mason, D.; McNulty, C.; McFarland, K. S.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Romosan, A.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Schellman, H.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Spentzouris, P.; Stern, E. G.; Tamminga, B.; Vakili, M.; Vaitaitis, A.; Wu, V.; Yang, U. K.; Yu, J.; Zeller, G. P.

    1999-08-01

    NuTeV is a neutrino-nucleon deep inelastic scattering experiment at Fermilab. The NuTeV detector is a traditional heavy target neutrino detector which consists of an iron/liquid scintillator sampling calorimeter followed by a muon spectrometer. The calorimeter response to hadrons, muons and electrons has been measured in an in situ calibration beam over the energy range from 4.5 to 190 GeV. The small non-linearity of the response to hadrons is compared to the expectation from the measured ratio of responses between electrons and hadrons combined with the energy dependence of the fractional electromagnetic energy deposition in the form of neutral pions in hadronic showers fπ0( Eπ). The predictions use fπ0( Eπ) from the Monte Carlo simulations by GHEISHA, GFLUKA and GCALOR and also from the parameterizations of Wigmans and Groom. In addition, a study based on the NuTeV hadron calibration data of the effectiveness of a thin calorimeter is presented. The results of this study have important consequences for the energy resolution of calorimeters used in other applications; for example, measuring the cosmic ray flux in space or with balloon-based experiments.

  18. Performance of the NuTeV Fe-scintillator sampling calorimeter and implications for thin calorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avvakumov, S.; Adams, T.; Alton, A.; Barbaro, L. de; Barbaro, P. de; Berlin, D.; Bernstein, R.H.; Bodek, A.; Bolton, T.; Brau, J.; Buchholz, D.; Budd, H.; Bugel, L.; Conrad, J.; Drucker, R. B.; Frey, R.; Formaggio, J.; Goldman, J.; Goncharov, M.; Harris, D. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Koutsoliotas, S.; Kim, J. H.; Krishnaswami, G. K.; Lamm, M. J.; Marsh, W.; Mason, D.; McNulty, C.; McFarland, K. S.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Romosan, A.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Schellman, H.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Spentzouris, P.; Stern, E. G.; Tamminga, B.; Vakili, M.; Vaitaitis, A.; Wu, V.; Yang, U. K.; Yu, J.; Zeller, G. P

    1999-08-01

    NuTeV is a neutrino-nucleon deep inelastic scattering experiment at Fermilab. The NuTeV detector is a traditional heavy target neutrino detector which consists of an iron/liquid scintillator sampling calorimeter followed by a muon spectrometer. The calorimeter response to hadrons, muons and electrons has been measured in an in situ calibration beam over the energy range from 4.5 to 190 GeV. The small non-linearity of the response to hadrons is compared to the expectation from the measured ratio of responses between electrons and hadrons combined with the energy dependence of the fractional electromagnetic energy deposition in the form of neutral pions in hadronic showers f{sub {pi}{sup 0}}(E{sub {pi}}). The predictions use f{sub {pi}{sup 0}}(E{sub {pi}}) from the Monte Carlo simulations by GHEISHA, GFLUKA and GCALOR and also from the parameterizations of Wigmans and Groom. In addition, a study based on the NuTeV hadron calibration data of the effectiveness of a thin calorimeter is presented. The results of this study have important consequences for the energy resolution of calorimeters used in other applications; for example, measuring the cosmic ray flux in space or with balloon-based experiments.

  19. Devlopments of components for the detector driving system of the PANDA calorimeter and studies on the photoproduction of excited η mesons with the CB/ELSA experiment; Entwicklung von Komponenten fuer das Detektorsteuersystem des PANDA-Kalorimeters und Studien zur Photoproduktion angeregter η-Mesonen mit dem CB/ELSA-Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triffterer, Tobias

    2016-01-28

    This PhD thesis (written in German language) consists of two parts: The first part describes developments for the Detector Control System of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the PANDA detector. An alarm and current border regulation system has been developed for this to ensure the correct functioning of the detector and to prevent damages. In addition, a database system (endcap production database) has been created to accompany the construction of the forward endcap and archive the characteristics of the photodetectors. The second part deals with the investigation into excited η mesons using the data measured with the CB/ELSA experiment. The distribution of the η' production angle in the decay channel η'→ ηπ{sup 0}π{sup 0} has been calculated for the first time within the beam photo energy range of 2500 to 2950 MeV. Furthermore, the relative effective cross section of the η(1405) to the η' could be determined to 0.16±0.05 (3.2σ). This shows evidence for a more complex nature of the η(1405).

  20. Particle Showers in a Highly Granular Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The CALICE collaboration has constructed highly granular electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeter prototypes to evaluate technologies for the use in detector systems at a future Linear Collider. The hadron calorimeter uses small scintillator cells individually read out with silicon photomultipliers. The system with 7608 channels has been successfully operated in beam tests at DESY, CERN and Fermilab since 2006, and represents the first large scale tests of these devices in high energy physics experiments. The unprecedented granularity of the detector provides detailed information of the properties of hadronic showers, which helps to constrain hadronic shower models through comparisons with model calculations. We will discuss results on longitudinal and lateral shower profiles compared to a variety of different shower models, and present studies of the energy reconstruction of hadronic showers using software compensation techniques.

  1. The iMPACT project tracker and calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattiazzo, S., E-mail: serena.mattiazzo@pd.infn.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Università di Padova, Padova (Italy); Bisello, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Giubilato, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); CERN, Geneve (Switzerland); Pantano, D.; Pozzobon, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Snoeys, W. [CERN, Geneve (Switzerland)

    2017-02-11

    In recent years the use of hadrons for cancer radiation treatment has grown in importance, and many facilities are currently operational or under construction worldwide. To fully exploit the therapeutic advantages offered by hadron therapy, precise body imaging for accurate beam delivery is decisive. While traditional X-ray Computed Tomography (xCT) fails in providing 3D images with the precision required for hadrons treatment guidance, Proton Computer Tomography (pCT) scanners, currently in their R&D phase, can. A pCT scanner consists of a tracker system, to track protons, and of a calorimeter, to measure their residual energy. In this paper we will present the iMPACT project, which foresees a novel proton tracking detector with higher scanning speed, better spatial resolution and lower material budget with respect to present state-of-the-art detectors, leading to enhanced performances. The tracker will be matched to a fast, highly segmented proton range calorimeter.

  2. A Luminosity Calorimeter for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H; Kananov, S; Levy, A; Sadeh, I

    2009-01-01

    For the relative precision of the luminosity measurement at CLIC, a preliminary target value of 1% is being assumed. This may be accomplished by constructing a finely granulated calorimeter, which will measure Bhabha scattering at small angles. In order to achieve the design goal, the geometrical parameters of the calorimeter need to be defined. Several factors influence the design of the calorimeter; chief among these is the need to minimize the error on the luminosity measurement while avoiding the intense beam background at small angles. In this study the geometrical parameters are optimized for the best performance of the calorimeter. In addition, the suppression of physics background to Bhabha scattering is investigated and a set of selection cuts is introduced.

  3. The front-end electronics for LHCb calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Breton, D

    2002-01-01

    For the readout of the calorimeters of the LHCb experiment at CERN, specific front-end electronics have been designed. In particular, three different front-end analog chips were studied respectively for the ECAL/HCAL, preshower and scintillator pad detector. We will present the three front-end electronic chains, point out their specific requirements together with their common purpose, and describe the corresponding ASICs. (6 refs).

  4. The magnetized steel and scintillator calorimeters of the MINOS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael, : D.G.

    2008-05-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) experiment uses an accelerator-produced neutrino beam to perform precision measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters in the 'atmospheric neutrino' sector associated with muon neutrino disappearance. This long-baseline experiment measures neutrino interactions in Fermilab's NuMI neutrino beam with a near detector at Fermilab and again 735 km downstream with a far detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in northern Minnesota. The two detectors are magnetized steel-scintillator tracking calorimeters. They are designed to be as similar as possible in order to ensure that differences in detector response have minimal impact on the comparisons of event rates, energy spectra and topologies that are essential to MINOS measurements of oscillation parameters. The design, construction, calibration and performance of the far and near detectors are described in this paper.

  5. Development of the CsI Calorimeter Subsystem for AMEGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, J. Eric; Woolf, Richard; Johnson, W. Neil; Phlips, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    We report on the development of the thallium-doped cesium iodide (CsI:Tl) calorimeter subsystem for the All-Sky Medium-Energy Gamma-ray Observatory (AMEGO). The CsI calorimeter is one of the three main subsystems that comprise the AMEGO instrument suite; the others include the double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD) tracker/converter and a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) calorimeter. Similar to the LAT instrument on Fermi, the hodoscopic calorimeter consists of orthogonally layered CsI bars. Unlike the LAT, which uses PIN photodiodes, the scintillation light readout from each end of the CsI bar is done with recently developed large-area silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) arrays. We currently have an APRA program to develop the calorimeter technology for a larger, future space-based gamma-ray observatory. Under this program, we are building and testing a prototype calorimeter consisting of 24 CsI bars (16.7 mm x 16.7 mm x 100 mm) arranged in 4 layers with 6 bars per layer. The ends of each bar are read out with a 2 x 2 array of 6 mm x 6 mm SensL J series SiPMs. Signal readout and processing is done with the IDEAS SIPHRA (IDE3380) ASIC. Performance testing of this prototype will be done with laboratory sources, a beam test, and a balloon flight in conjunction with the other subsystems led by NASA GSFC. Additionally, we will test 16.7 mm x 16.7 mm x 450 mm CsI bars with SiPM readout to understand the performance of longer bars in advance of the developing the full instrument.Acknowledgement: This work was sponsored by the Chief of Naval Research (CNR) and NASA-APRA (NNH15ZDA001N-APRA).

  6. ATLAS LEVEL-1 CALORIMETER AND TOPOLOGICAL TRIGGER

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Sebastian Mario; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In Run 2 at CERN's Large Hadron Collider, the ATLAS detector uses a two-level trigger system to reduce the event rate from the nominal collision rate of 40 MHz to the event storage rate of 1 kHz, while preserving interesting physics events. The first step of the trigger system, Level-1, reduces the event rate to 100 kHz with a latency of less than 2.5 μs. One component of this system is the Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger (L1Calo), which uses coarse-granularity information from the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters to identify regions of interest corresponding to electrons, photons, taus, jets, and large amounts of transverse energy and missing transverse energy. In this talk, we will discuss the improved performance of the L1Calo system in the challenging, high-luminosity conditions provided by the LHC in Run 2. As the LHC exceeds its design luminosity, it is becoming even more critical to reduce event rates while preserving physics. A new feature of the ATLAS Run 2 trigger system is the Level-1 Topolog...

  7. The ATLAS tile calorimeter ROD injector and multiplexer board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero, A., E-mail: alberto.valero@cern.c [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Paterna, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Castillo, V.; Ferrer, A. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Paterna, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Gonzalez, V. [Departamento de Ingenieria electronica, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot, 46100 Valencia (Spain); Hernandez, Y.; Higon, E. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Paterna, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Sanchis, E. [Departamento de Ingenieria electronica, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot, 46100 Valencia (Spain); Solans, C. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Paterna, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Torres, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria electronica, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot, 46100 Valencia (Spain); Valls, J.A. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Paterna, 46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-02-11

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is a sampling detector composed by cells made of iron-scintillator tiles. The calorimeter cell signals are digitized in the front-end electronics and transmitted to the Read-Out Drivers (RODs) at the first level trigger rate. The ROD receives triggered data from up to 9856 channels and provides the energy, phase and quality factor of the signals to the second level trigger. The back-end electronics is divided into four partitions containing eight RODs each. Therefore, a total of 32 RODs are used to process and transmit the data of the TileCal detector. In order to emulate the detector signals in the production and commissioning of ROD modules a board called ROD Injector and Multiplexer Board (RIMBO) was designed. In this paper, the RIMBO main functional blocks, PCB design and the different operation modes are described. It is described the crucial role of the board within the TileCal ROD test-bench in order to emulate the front-end electronics during the validation of ROD boards as well as during the evaluation of the ROD signal reconstruction algorithms. Finally, qualification and performance results for the injection operation mode obtained during the Tile Calorimeter ROD production tests are presented.

  8. Optimization through neuron network of the potentiality of Higgs discovery in the CMS detector via H {yields} ZZ{sup *} {yields} 4e{sup {+-}}, and study of the triggering primitives of the electromagnetic calorimeter; Optimisation par reseaux de neurones du potentiel de decouverte du boson de Higgs dans le canal H {yields} ZZ{sup *} {yields} 4e{sup {+-}} sur le detecteur CMS, et etude des primitives de declenchement du calorimetre electromagnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bimbot, St

    2006-10-15

    The first chapter presents the theoretical background on which the Higgs mechanism is based within the framework of the standard model. The second chapter reviews the past and present attempts aiming at the discovery of the Higgs boson. The specific features of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and of one of its detector: the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) detector are given in the third chapter. The author details the track detector and the ECAL electronic calorimeter that are key components of CMS in the detection of the Higgs boson via the following decay channel: H {yields} ZZ{sup *} {yields} 2e{sup +}2e{sup -} (where Z and Z{sup *} represents the Z{sup O} boson in a real state and in a virtual state respectively). The chapters 4 and 5 are dedicated to the calibration of the ECAL calorimeter via the use of an electron beam and to the triggering system. The data analysis that will lead to the reconstruction of the events detected by CMS is presented in the chapter 6. The last chapter is devoted to the optimization of the extraction of the Higgs boson signal from an abundant background noise. (A.C.)

  9. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Spalding

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the entire proton-proton run of 2011, all HCAL calorimeters operated very efficiently. Over 99% of HCAL readout and trigger channels were alive. However, during the year we did face two hardware problems. One major operation problem was the occasional loss of data from a single RBX caused by single event upsets (SEUs). The rate of RBX data loss was on average one incident per 10 pb–1 of integrated luminosity. This led to approximately 1% of CMS data loss. In order to mitigate this problem, HCAL has introduced an automatic reset of the RBX. With this reset, full operation was restored within about one minute. The final hardware correction of the problem will be possible only during a long shutdown (LS1) in 2013-’14. Another hardware problem that developed in 2011 was the failure of QPLL (quartz phase lock loops) chips. This led to the loss of phase of the readout clock with respect to the LHC clock. As a consequence, in two sections in HCAL (10 degree in φ on HB and 1...

  10. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Skuja

    Since the beginning of 2007, HCAL has made significant progress in the installation and commissioning of both hardware and software. A large fraction of the physical Hadron Calorimeter modules have been installed in UX5. In fact, the only missing pieces are HE- and part of HO. The HB+/- were installed in the cryostat in March. HB scintillator layer-17 was installed above ground before the HB were lowered. The HB- scintillator layer-0 was installed immediately after completion of EB- installation. HF/HCAL Commissioning The commissioning and checkout of the HCAL readout electronics is also proceeding at a rapid pace in Bldg. 904 and USC55. All sixteen crates of HCAL VME readout electronics have been commissioned and certified for service. Fifteen are currently operating in the S2 level of USC55. The last crate is being used for firmware development in the Electronics Integration Facility in 904. All installed crates are interfaced to their VME computers and receive synchronous control from the fully-equipp...

  11. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Skuja

    HCAL installation and commissioning is approaching completion. Work continues on commissioning of HE-, HF- and the minus wheels of HO. We expect that all commissioning will be completed by mid-March. HCAL commissioning is interleaved with integration of HCAL and the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT). HCAL is attempting to take data using the HPD self-trigger as part of the GCT trigger path. Initial attempts in mid-February have not succeeded. Work continues on HCAL and the GCT. HPD lifetimes at 4 Tesla are being measured in Princeton. After more than a month of testing in a 4 Tesla field there are no sur¬prises. As the lifetime measurements proceed, the HPD response at intermediate fields of 1 Tesla will be verified and analyzed. Work also continues on HCAL calibration and DCS/DSS at Point 5. More details for some of the subsystems are presented in what follows. HE HE plus The cooling system of HE+ is functional now. The HE+ final connections to the LV system are complete. LV and HV tests to ev...

  12. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Green

    The organization of CMS HCAL contains four “geographic” efforts, HB, HO, HE and HF. In addition there are presently five “common” HCAL activities. These ef¬forts are concentrated on electronics, on controls (DCS), on physics objects (JetMet), on Installation and Commissioning (I&C), and on Test Beam (TB) and Cosmic Challenge (MTCC) data taking. HCAL has begun planning to re-organize to be synchronized with the overall CMS management structure. HF The full production of the wedges is completed for some time. The 2004 test beam work has established the radioactive source calibration system for HF works at the 5 % level or better and a note is completed. The calibration of the complete HF is complete. HF is now in the UX cavern and will be hooked up and read out as soon as the services are available. HE The two HE calorimeters are installed and an initial calibration has been established. In the MTCC the HE was read out and muon data was observed. Event b...

  13. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Bloch

    ECAL Barrel (EB) The cabling of the ECAL Barrel services on YB0 was completed early December 2007. The team has now commissioned the complete Barrel. To run all the supermodules in parallel, it is necessary to remove the heat from the service cables on YB0. The corresponding thermal screens are being installed and, for the time being, a max¬imum of 25 supermodules has been run concurrently. EB is read out regularly with a local DAQ as well as with the central DAQ and trigger. The calorimeter trigger has also been commissioned, allowing us to trigger on cosmic muons. ECAL Endcaps (EE) The Endcaps crystal production will be completed before the end of March 2008, as planned. The gluing of the VPTs (Vacuum Photo Triodes) on the crystals and the assembly of Supercrystals (sets of 25 crystals) are proceeding at the pace of 16 Supercrystals (400 channels) per week. Two thirds of the Supercrystals needed for the complete EE have been produced. Their mounting on the Dee backplates (including the connectio...

  14. Calorimetry at the CMD-3 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Razuvaev, G P; Anisenkov, A V; Aulchenko, V M; Bashtavoy, N S; Epifanov, D A; Epshteyn, L B; Erofeev, A L; Grebenuk, A A; Grigoriev, D N; Kazanin, V F; Kovalenko, O A; Kozyrev, A N; Kuzmenko, A E; Kuzmin, A S; Logashenko, I B; Mikhailov, K Yu; Okhapkin, V S; Ruban, A A; Shebalin, V E; Shwartz, B A; Talyshev, A A; Titov, V M; Yudin, Yu V

    2017-01-01

    The general purpose detector CMD-3 has been collecting data since 2010 in an energy range 0.32–2 GeV at the e+e- collider VEPP-2000 at the Budeker Institute of Nuclear Physics. The detector physics program includes the study of the e+e- annihilation into hadrons. To supply high registration efficiency for neutral particles the CMD-3 has an electromagnetic calorimeter consisted of three subsystems: BGO endcap calorimeter and barrel one with an inner part based on LXe and outer on CsI crystals. The main parameters of calorimeters, cluster reconstruction and calibration procedures with performance results are described.

  15. Upgrade of the ATLAS Calorimeters for Higher LHC Luminosities

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00424300; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHC will bring instantaneous and total luminosities which are a factor 5-7 beyond the original design of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) and Tile Calorimeters and their read-out systems. Due to radiation requirements and a new hardware trigger concept the read-out electronics will be improved in two phases. In Phase-I, a dedicated read-out of the LAr Calorimeters will provide higher granularity input to the trigger, in order to mitigate pile-up effects and to reduce the background rates. In Phase-II, completely new read-out electronics will allow a digital processing of all LAr and Tile Calorimeter channels at the full 40 MHz bunch-crossing frequency and a transfer of calibrated energy inputs to the trigger. Results from system design and performance of the developed read-out components, including fully functioning demonstrator systems already operated on the detector, will be reported. Furthermore, the current Forward Calorimeter (FCal) may suffer from signal degradation and argon bubble form...

  16. Testbeam Studies of Production Modules of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adragna, P; Anderson, K; Antonaki, A; Arabidze, A; Batkova, L; Batusov, V; Beck, H P; Bednar, P; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Biscarat, C; Blanchot, G; Bogush, A; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Bosman, M; Bromberg, C; Budagov, Yu A; Burckhart-Chromek, D; Caprini, M; Caloba, L; Calvet, D; Carli, T; Carvalho, J; Cascella, M; Castelo, J; Castillo, M V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Cerqueira, A S; Clément, C; Cobal, M; Cogswell, F; Constantinescu, S; Costanzo, D; Corso-Radu, A; Cuenca, C; Damazio, D O; David, M; Davidek, T; De, K; Del Prete, T; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Djobava, T; Dobson, M; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Dotti, A; Downing, R; Efthymiopoulos, I; Eriksson, D; Errede, D; Errede, S; Farbin, A; Fassouliotis, D; Febbraro, R; Fedorko, I; Fenyuk, A; Ferdi, C; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, V; Francis, D; Fullana, E; Gadomski, S; Gameiro, S; Garde, V; Gellerstedt, K; Giakoumopoulou, V; Gildemeister, O; Gilewsky, V; Giokaris, N; Gollub, N; Gomes, A; González, V; Gorini, B; Grenier, P; Gris, P; Gruwé, M; Guarino, V; Guicheney, C; Sen-Gupta, A; Haeberli, C; Hakobyan, H; Haney, M; Hellman, S; Henriques, A; Higón, E; Holmgren, S; Hurwitz, M; Huston, J; Iglesias, C; Isaev, A; Jen-La Plante, I; Jon-And, K; Joos, M; Junk, T; Karyukhin, A; Kazarov, A; Khandanyan, H; Khramov, J; Khubua, J; Kolos, S; Korolkov, I; Krivkova, P; Kulchitsky, Y; Kurochkin, Yu; Kuzhir, P; Le Compte, T; Lefèvre, R; Lehmann, G; Leitner, R; Lembesi, M; Lesser, J; Li, J; Liablin, M; Lokajícek, M; Lomakin, Y; Lupi, A; Maidantchik, C; Maio, A; Makouski, M; Maliukov, S; Manousakis, A; Mapelli, L; Marques, C; Marroquim, F; Martin, F; Mazzoni, E; Merritt, F S; Myagkov, A; Miller, R; Minashvili, I; Miralles, L; Montarou, G; Mosidze, M; Némécek, S; Nessi, M; Nodulman, L; Nordkvist, B; Norniella, O; Onofre, A; Oreglia, M; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Petersen, J; Pilcher, J E; Pina, J; Pinhão, J; Podlyski, F; Portell, X; Poveda, J; Pribyl, L; Price, L E; Proudfoot, J; Ramstedt, M; Richards, R; Roda, C; Romanov, V; Rosnet, P; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Rumiantsev, V; Russakovich, N; Salto, O; Salvachúa, B; Sanchis, E; Sanders, H; Santoni, C; Santos, J; Saraiva, J G; Sarri, F; Satsunkevitch, I; Says, L-P; Schlager, G; Schlereth, J L; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Shalanda, N; Shevtsov, P; Shochet, M; Silva, J; Da Silva, P; Simaitis, V; Simonyan, M; Sisakian, A; Sjölin, J; Solans, C; Solodkov, A; Soloviev, I; Solovyanov, O; Sosebee, M; Spanó, F; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E; Starovoitov, P; Stavina, P; Suk, M; Sykora, I; Tang, F; Tas, P; Teuscher, R; Tokar, S; Topilin, N; Torres, J; Tremblet, L; Tsiareshka, P; Tylmad, M; Underwood, D; Ünel, G; Usai, G; Valero, A; Valkár, S; Valls, J A; Vartapetian, A; Vazeille, F; Vichou, I; Vinogradov, V; Vivarelli, I; Volpi, M; White, A; Zaitsev, A; Zenine, A; Zenis, T

    2009-01-01

    We report test beam studies of {11\\,\\%} of the production ATLAS Tile Calorimeter modules. The modules were equipped with production front-end electronics and all the calibration systems planned for the final detector. The studies used muon, electron and hadron beams ranging in energy from 3~GeV to 350~GeV. Two independent studies showed that the light yield of the calorimeter was $\\sim 70$~pe/GeV, exceeding the design goal by {40\\,\\%}. Electron beams provided a calibration of the modules at the electromagnetic energy scale. Over 200~calorimeter cells the variation of the response was {2.4\\,\\%}. The linearity with energy was also measured. Muon beams provided an intercalibration of the response of all calorimeter cells. The response to muons entering in the ATLAS projective geometry showed an RMS variation of 2.5\\,\\% for 91~measurements over a range of rapidities and modules. The mean response to hadrons of fixed energy had an RMS variation of {1.4\\,\\%} for the modules and projective angles studied. The respon...

  17. The Energy Response of the ATLAS Calorimeter System

    CERN Document Server

    Schlager, G; Carli, T; Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang; Henriques, A

    2006-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) currently under construction at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva will collide two proton beams with a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. At this high energy frontier a new chapter of particle physics will be opened. The ATLAS experiment is a general-purpose LHC detector for proton-proton collisions. The electromagnetic liquid argon-lead sampling calorimeter (LAr Calorimeter) is designed to measure the energy and position of electrons and photons with high precision and the hadronic scintillator-iron sampling calorimeter (TileCal) complements the measurement of the energy and direction of jets. Both calorimeters are installed in the ATLAS experimental cavern and are presently being commissioned. To be able to start the commissioning of the TileCal in an early phase, even before the final electronic readout system was available, a mobile data acquisition system (MobiDAQ) was developed in the context of this PhD-thesis. It is capable of reading up to e...

  18. The Upgraded D0 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S.N.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J.T.; Anderson, S.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U.

    2005-07-01

    The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

  19. Performance of the Electronic Readout of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, H; Aleksa, M; Aperio Bella, L; Archambault, JP; Arfaoui, S; Arnaez, O; Auge, E; Aurousseau, M; Bahinipati, S; Ban, J; Banfi, D; Barajas, A; Barillari, T; Bazan, A; Bellachia, F; Beloborodova, O; Benchekroun, D; Benslama, K; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Bernat, P; Bernier, R; Besson, N; Binet, S; Blanchard, JB; Blondel, A; Bobrovnikov, V; Bohner, O; Boonekamp, M; Bordoni, S; Bouchel, M; Bourdarios, C; Bozzone, A; Braun, HM; Breton, D; Brettel, H; Brooijmans, G; Caputo, R; Carli, T; Carminati, L; Caughron, S; Cavalleri, P; Cavalli, D; Chareyre, E; Chase, RL; Chekulaev, SV; Chen, H; Cheplakov, A; Chiche, R; Citterio, M; Cojocaru, C; Colas, J; Collard, C; Collot, J; Consonni, M; Cooke, M; Copic, K; Costa, GC; Courneyea, L; Cuisy, D; Cwienk, WD; Damazio, D; Dannheim, D; De Cecco, S; De La Broise, X; De La Taille, C; de Vivie, JB; Debennerot, B; Delagnes, E; Delmastro, M; Derue, F; Dhaliwal, S; Di Ciaccio, L; Doan, O; Dudziak, F; Duflot, L; Dumont-Dayot, N; Dzahini, D; Elles, S; Ertel, E; Escalier, M; Etienvre, AI; Falleau, I; Fanti, M; Farooque, T; Favre, P; Fayard, Louis; Fent, J; Ferencei, J; Fischer, A; Fournier, D; Fournier, L; Fras, M; Froeschl, R; Gadfort, T; Gallin-Martel, ML; Gibson, A; Gillberg, D; Gingrich, DM; Göpfert, T; Goodson, J; Gouighri, M; Goy, C; Grassi, V; Gray, J; Guillemin, T; Guo, B; Habring, J; Handel, C; Heelan, L; Heintz, H; Helary, L; Henrot-Versille, S; Hervas, L; Hobbs, J; Hoffman, J; Hostachy, JY; Hoummada, A; Hrivnac, J; Hrynova, T; Hubaut, F; Huber, J; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Iengo, P; Imbert, P; Ishmukhametov, R; Jantsch, A; Javadov, N; Jezequel, S; Jimenez Belenguer, M; Ju, XY; Kado, M; Kalinowski, A; Kar, D; Karev, A; Katsanos, I; Kazarinov, M; Kerschen, N; Kierstead, J; Kim, MS; Kiryunin, A; Kladiva, E; Knecht, N; Kobel, M; Koletsou, I; König, S; Krieger, P; Kukhtin, V; Kuna, M; Kurchaninov, L; Labbe, J; Lacour, D; Ladygin, E; Lafaye, R; Laforge, B; Lamarra, D; Lampl, W; Lanni, F; Laplace, S; Laskus, H; Le Coguie, A; Le Dortz, O; Le Maner, C; Lechowski, M; Lee, SC; Lefebvre, M; Leonhardt, K; Lethiec, L; Leveque, J; Liang, Z; Liu, C; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Loch, P; Lu, J; Ma, H; Mader, W; Majewski, S; Makovec, N; Makowiecki, D; Mandelli, L; Mangeard, PS; Mansoulie, B; Marchand, JF; Marchiori, G; Martin, D; Martin-Chassard, G; Martin dit Latour, B; Marzin, A; Maslennikov, A; Massol, N; Matricon, P; Maximov, D; Mazzanti, M; McCarthy, T; McPherson, R; Menke, S; Meyer, JP; Ming, Y; Monnier, E; Mooshofer, P; Neganov, A; Niedercorn, F; Nikolic-Audit, I; Nugent, IM; Oakham, G; Oberlack, H; Ocariz, J; Odier, J; Oram, CJ; Orlov, I; Orr, R; Parsons, JA; Peleganchuk, S; Penson, A; Perini, L; Perrodo, P; Perrot, G; Perus, A; Petit, E; Pisarev, I; Plamondon, M; Poffenberger, P; Poggioli, L; Pospelov, G; Pralavorio, P; Prast, J; Prudent, X; Przysiezniak, H; Puzo, P; Quentin, M; Radeka, V; Rajagopalan, S; Rauter, E; Reimann, O; Rescia, S; Resende, B; Richer, JP; Ridel, M; Rios, R; Roos, L; Rosenbaum, G; Rosenzweig, H; Rossetto, O; Roudil, W; Rousseau, D; Ruan, X; Rudert, A; Rusakovich, N; Rusquart, P; Rutherfoord, J; Sauvage, G; Savine, A; Schaarschmidt, J; Schacht, P; Schaffer, A; Schram, M; Schwemling, P; Seguin Moreau, N; Seifert, F; Serin, L; Seuster, R; Shalyugin, A; Shupe, M; Simion, S; Sinervo, P; Sippach, W; Skovpen, K; Sliwa, R; Soukharev, A; Spano, F; Stavina, P; Straessner, A; Strizenec, P; Stroynowski, R; Talyshev, A; Tapprogge, S; Tarrade, F; Tartarelli, GF; Teuscher, R; Tikhonov, Yu; Tocut, V; Tompkins, D; Thompson, P; Tisserant, S; Todorov, T; Tomasz, F; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Trinh, Thi N; Trochet, S; Trocme, B; Tschann-Grimm, K; Tsionou, D; Ueno, R; Unal, G; Urbaniec, D; Usov, Y; Voss, K; Veillet, JJ; Vincter, M; Vogt, S; Weng, Z; Whalen, K; Wicek, F; Wilkens, H; Wingerter-Seez, I; Wulf, E; Yang, Z; Ye, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Zarzhitsky, P; Zerwas, D; Zhang, H; Zhang, L; Zhou, N; Zimmer, J; Zitoun, R; Zivkovic, L

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS detector has been designed for operation at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. ATLAS includes electromagnetic and hadronic liquid argon calorimeters, with almost 200,000 channels of data that must be sampled at the LHC bunch crossing frequency of 40 MHz. The calorimeter electronics calibration and readout are performed by custom electronics developed specifically for these purposes. This paper describes the system performance of the ATLAS liquid argon calibration and readout electronics, including noise, energy and time resolution, and long term stability, with data taken mainly from full-system calibration runs performed after installation of the system in the ATLAS detector hall at CERN.

  20. Construction and Performance of an Iron-Scintillator Hadron Calorimeter with Longitudinal Tile Configuration

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD34 \\\\ \\\\ In a scintillator tile calorimeter with wavelength shifting fiber readout significant simplifications of the construction and the assembly are possible if the tiles are oriented $^{\\prime\\prime}$longitudinally$^{\\prime\\prime}$, i.e.~in a r-$\\phi$ planes for a barrel configuration. For a hybrid calorimeter consisting of a scintillator tile hadron compartment and a sufficiently containing liquid argon electromagnetic (EM) compartment, as proposed for the ATLAS detector, good jet resolution is predicted by simulations, which is not affected by this particular orientation of the tiles. \\\\ \\\\The aim of the proposed development program is to construct a calorimeter test module with longitudinal tiles and to check the simulation results by test beam measurements. In addition several component tests and further simulations and engineering studies are needed to optimize the design of a large calorimeter structure to be used in collider experiments. The construction of a test module will also provide valua...

  1. Principal component analysis for neural electron/jet discrimination in highly segmented calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Vassali, M R

    2001-01-01

    A neural electron/jet discriminator based on calorimetry is developed for the second-level trigger system of the ATLAS detector. As preprocessing of the calorimeter information, a principal component analysis is performed on each segment of the two sections (electromagnetic and hadronic) of the calorimeter system, in order to reduce significantly the dimension of the input data space and fully explore the detailed energy deposition profile, which is provided by the highly-segmented calorimeter system. It is shown that projecting calorimeter data onto 33 segmented principal components, the discrimination efficiency of the neural classifier reaches 98.9% for electrons (with only 1% of false alarm probability). Furthermore, restricting data projection onto only 9 components, an electron efficiency of 99.1% is achieved (with 3% of false alarm), which confirms that a fast triggering system may be designed using few components. (6 refs).

  2. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter performance at LHC in pp collisions at 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolucci, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal), the central section of the % hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS % experiment, is a key detector component % to detect hadrons, jets and taus and to % measure the missing transverse energy. % Due to the very good muon signal to noise % ratio it assists the muon % spectrometer in the identification and reconstruction % of muons. ewline %%%% TileCal is built of steel and % scintillating tiles coupled to optical fibers % and read out by photomultipliers. The calorimeter % is equipped with systems that allow to % monitor and to calibrate each stage of the % read-out system exploiting different signal % sources: laser light, charge injection and a radioactive % source. It also uses the Minimum Bias % current integrated over thousands % of LHC collisions to monitor the response % stability and the LHC luminosity.\\ %%%%% The performance of the calorimeter has % been measured and monitored using % calibration data, random triggered data, cosmic % muons, splash events and more importantly...

  3. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter performance at LHC in pp collisions at 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolucci, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal), the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment, is a key detector component to detect hadrons, jets and taus and to measure the missing transverse energy. Due to the very good muon signal to noise ratio it assists the muon spectrometer in the identification and reconstruction of muons. TileCal is built of steel and scintillating tiles coupled to optical fibers and read out by photomultipliers. The calorimeter is equipped with systems that allow to monitor and to calibrate each stage of the read-out system exploiting different signal sources: laser light, charge injection and a radioactive source. It also uses the minimus bias current integrated over thousands of LHC collisions to monitor the response stability and the LHC luminosity. The performance of the calorimeter has been measured and monitored using calibration data, random triggered data, cosmic muons, splash events and more importantly LHC collision events. The results presented assess the absol...

  4. The CMS detector before closure

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2006-01-01

    The CMS detector before testing using muon cosmic rays that are produced as high-energy particles from space crash into the Earth's atmosphere generating a cascade of energetic particles. After closing CMS, the magnets, calorimeters, trackers and muon chambers were tested on a small section of the detector as part of the magnet test and cosmic challenge. This test checked the alignment and functionality of the detector systems, as well as the magnets.

  5. Polystyrene calorimeter for electron beam dose measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1995-01-01

    Calorimeters from polystrene have been constructed for dose measurement at 4-10 MeV electron accelerators. These calorimeters have been used successfully for a few years, and polystyrene calorimeters for use at energies down to 1 MeV and being tested. Advantage of polystyrene as the absorbing...

  6. Silicon photomultipliers. Properties and applications in a highly granular calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feege, Nils

    2008-12-15

    Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) are novel semiconductor-based photodetectors operated in Geiger mode. Their response is not linear, and both their gain and their photon detection efficiency depend on the applied bias voltage and on temperature. The CALICE collaboration investigates several technology options for highly granular calorimeters for the future ILC. The prototype of a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter with analogue readout for hadrons constructed at DESY and successfully operated in testbeam experiments at DESY, CERN and FNAL by this collaboration is the first large scale application for 7608 SiPMs developed by MEPhI. This thesis deals with properties of the SiPMs used in the calorimeter prototype. The effective numer of pixels of the SiPMs, which influences their saturation behaviour, is extracted from in situ measurements and compared to results obtained for the bare SiPMs. In addition, the effects of temperature and voltage changes on the parameters necessary for the calibration of the SiPMs and the detector are determined. Methods which allow for correcting or compensating these effects are evaluated. An approach to improve the absolute calibration of the temperature sensors in the prototype is described and temperature profiles are studied. Finally, a procedure to adjust the light yield of the cells of the prototype is presented. The results of the application of this procedure during the commissioning of the detector at FNAL are discussed. (orig.)

  7. The LHCb electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    This huge 6X7 square metre wall consists of 3300 blocks containing scintillator, fibre optics and lead, which took engineers on the LHCb experiment at CERN only one month to construct. It will measure the energy of particles produced in proton-proton collisions at the LHC when it is started in 2008. Photons, electrons and positrons will pass through the layers of material in these modules and deposit their energy in the detector through a shower of particles.

  8. The CLAS forward electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Amarian, M; Beard, K; Brooks, W; Burkert, V; Carstens, T; Coleman, A; Demirchyan, R; Efremenko, Yu V; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K; Funsten, H; Gavrilov, V; Giovanetti, K; Marshall, R M; Mecking, B; Minehart, R C; Mkrtchan, H; Ohandjanyan, M; Sharabyan, Yu G; Smith, L C; Stepanyan, S; Stephens, W A; Tung, T Y; Zorn, C

    2001-01-01

    The CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab utilizes six iron-free superconducting coils to provide an approximately toroidal magnetic field. The six sectors are instrumented individually to form six independent spectrometers. The forward region (8 deg. < 45 deg.) of each sector is equipped with a lead-scintillator electromagnetic sampling calorimeter (EC), 16 radiation lengths thick, using a novel triangular geometry with stereo readout. With its good energy and position resolution, the EC is used to provide the primary electron trigger for CLAS. It is also used to reject pions, reconstruct pi deg. and eta decays and detect neutrons. This paper treats the design, construction and performance of the calorimeter.

  9. Upgrade of the ATLAS Hadronic Tile Calorimeter for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Hildebrand, Kevin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. It is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter read out via wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The PMT signals are digitized and stored on detector until a trigger is received. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has envisaged a series of upgrades towards a High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) delivering five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity. The ATLAS Phase II upgrade (2024-2025) will accommodate the upgrade of the detector and data acquisition system for the HL-LHC. In particular, TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics. In the new architecture, all signals will be digitized and then transferred directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals will be reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of trigger at the rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision of the calorimeter signals...

  10. The CMS High Granularity Calorimeter for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mastrolorenzo, Luca

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will integrate 10 times more luminosity than the LHC, posing significant challenges for radiation tolerance and event pileup on detectors, especially for forward calorimetry, and hallmarks the issue for future colliders. As part of its HL-LHC upgrade program, the CMS collaboration is designing a High Granularity Calorimeter to replace the existing endcap calorimeters. It features unprecedented transverse and longitudinal segmentation for both electromagnetic (ECAL) and hadronic (HCAL) compartments. This will facilitate particle-flow calorimetry, where the fine structure of showers can be measured and used to enhance pileup rejection and particle identification, whilst still achieving good energy resolution. The ECAL and a large fraction of HCAL will be based on hexagonal silicon sensors of 0.5 - 1 cm$^2$ cell size, with the remainder of the HCAL based on highly-segmented scintillators with SiPM readout. The intrinsic high-precision timing capabilities of the silicon sensors wi...

  11. The CMS High Granularity Calorimeter for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Sauvan, Jean-baptiste

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will integrate 10 times more luminosity than the LHC, posing significant challenges for radiation tolerance and event pileup on detectors, especially for forward calorimetry, and hallmarks the issue for future colliders. As part of its HL-LHC upgrade program, the CMS collaboration is designing a High Granularity Calorimeter to replace the existing endcap calorimeters. It features unprecedented transverse and longitudinal segmentation for both electromagnetic (ECAL) and hadronic (HCAL) compartments. This will facilitate particle-flow calorimetry, where the fine structure of showers can be measured and used to enhance pileup rejection and particle identification, whilst still achieving good energy resolution. The ECAL and a large fraction of HCAL will be based on hexagonal silicon sensors of 0.5 - 1 cm$^2$ cell size, with the remainder of the HCAL based on highly-segmented scintillators with silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) readout. The intrinsic high-precision timing capabilities...

  12. The readout driver (ROD) for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Efthymiopoulos, I

    2001-01-01

    The Readout Driver (ROD) for the Liquid Argon calorimeter of the ATLAS detector is described. Each ROD module receives triggered data from 256 calorimeter cells via two fiber-optics 1.28 Gbit/s links with a 100 kHz event rate (25 kbit/event). Its principal function is to determine the precise energy and timing of the signal from discrete samples of the waveform, taken each period of the LHC clock (25 ns). In addition, it checks, histograms, and formats the digital data stream. A demonstrator system, consisting of a motherboard and several daughter-board processing units (PUs) was constructed and is currently used for tests in the lab. The design of this prototype board is presented here. The board offers maximum modularity and allows the development and testing of different PU designs based on today's leading integer and floating point DSPs. (3 refs).

  13. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter: simulation and validation of the response

    CERN Document Server

    Davidek, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central secti1 on of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter at the Large Hadron Collider. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is readout by wavelength shifting fibers and transmitted to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from approximately 10000 PMTs are measured and digitized before being further transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. Detailed simulations are described in this contribution, ranging from the implementation of the geometrical elements to the realistic description of the electronics readout pulses, including specific noise treatment and the signal reconstruction. Special attention is given to the improved optical signal propagation and the validation with the real particle data.

  14. Energy Measurement of Hadrons with the CERN ATLAS Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Speckmayer, Peter; Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS detector is a multi-purpose detector measuring the energy and direction of particles produced in proton-proton collisions at a center of mass energy of 14 TeV provided by the Large Hadron Collider at the European center of particle physics, CERN. The main aim of this thesis is to assess the precision of the present understanding of the interactions of hadrons with matter (as implemented in Monte Carlo (MC) simulations) to describe the response of the ATLAS calorimeter and to predict the correction necessary to measure the full energy of pions. The simulations are compared to testbeam data. The present description of the response of the ATLAS central calorimeter is able to predict the energy corrections, as verified by using testbeam data. For the Combined Testbeam 2004 (CTB) a full slice of the central region of the ATLAS detector including all sub-detectors has been installed in the H8 beam line of the CERN SPS accelerator. Pions and electrons with the energies ranging from 1 to 350 GeV have been m...

  15. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaarschmidt, J.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    Current and future need for large scale simulated samples motivate the development of reliable fast simulation techniques. The new Fast Calorimeter Simulation is an improved parameterized response of single particles in the ATLAS calorimeter that aims to accurately emulate the key features of the detailed calorimeter response as simulated with Geant4, yet approximately ten times faster. Principal component analysis and machine learning techniques are used to improve the performance and decrease the memory need compared to the current version of the ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation. A prototype of this new Fast Calorimeter Simulation is in development and its integration into the ATLAS simulation infrastructure is ongoing.

  16. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00223142; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Current and future need for large scale simulated samples motivate the development of reliable fast simulation techniques. The new Fast Calorimeter Simulation is an improved parameterized response of single particles in the ATLAS calorimeter that aims to accurately emulate the key features of the detailed calorimeter response as simulated with Geant4, yet approximately ten times faster. Principal component analysis and machine learning techniques are used to improve the performance and decrease the memory need compared to the current version of the ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation. A prototype of this new Fast Calorimeter Simulation is in development and its integration into the ATLAS simulation infrastructure is ongoing.

  17. Detector simulation needs for detector designers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, G.G.

    1987-11-01

    Computer simulation of the components of SSC detectors and of the complete detectors will be very important for the designs of the detectors. The ratio of events from interesting physics to events from background processes is very low, so detailed understanding of detector response to the backgrounds is needed. Any large detector for the SSC will be very complex and expensive and every effort must be made to design detectors which will have excellent performance and will not have to undergo major rebuilding. Some areas in which computer simulation is particularly needed are pattern recognition in tracking detectors and development of shower simulation code which can be trusted as an aid in the design and optimization of calorimeters, including their electron identification performance. Existing codes require too much computer time to be practical and need to be compared with test beam data at energies of several hundred GeV. Computer simulation of the processing of the data, including electronics response to the signals from the detector components, processing of the data by microprocessors on the detector, the trigger, and data acquisition will be required. In this report we discuss the detector simulation needs for detector designers.

  18. Monitoring and data quality assessment of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Branchini, Paolo; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christidi, Ilektra-Athanasia; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliot, Frederic; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; 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Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Matthew; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Giunta, Michele; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Grybel, Kai; Guan, Liang; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageboeck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Heisterkamp, Simon; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le, Bao Tran; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Losty, Michael; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Moeller, Victoria; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petteni, Michele; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pizio, Caterina; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaelicke, Andreas; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherwood, Peter; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tamsett, Matthew; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watanabe, Ippei; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wright, Michael; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    The liquid argon calorimeter is a key component of the ATLAS detector installed at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The primary purpose of this calorimeter is the measurement of electrons and photons. It also provides a crucial input for measuring jets and missing transverse momentum. An advanced data monitoring procedure was designed to quickly identify issues that would affect detector performance and ensure that only the best quality data are used for physics analysis. This article presents the validation procedure developed during the 2011 and 2012 LHC data-taking periods, in which more than 98% of the proton–proton luminosity recorded by ATLAS at a centre-of-mass energy of 7–8 TeV had calorimeter data quality suitable for physics analysis.

  19. Software studies of GLD calorimeter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ECAL ... lent performance with the particle flow algorithm (PFA). We attempt to implement a reconstruction code in ... this simulation, the calorimeter has a tower structure, and the lateral segmentation size of the scintillator is 4 × 4 cm2 for ECAL, ...

  20. COE1 Calorimeter Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santi, Peter Angelo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this manual is to describe the operations of the COE1 calorimeter which is used to measure the thermal power generated by the radioactive decay of plutonium-bearing materials for the purposes of assaying the amount of plutonium within the material.

  1. New crystal technologies for novel calorimeter concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Present calorimetric systems give a global information on the total energy deposit at a given time in large detector cells but provide no details on the cascade mechanism of this energy deposition in space and time, as well as on the physics of the signal generation. In the domain of High Energy Physics (HEP) high-precision measurement of hadrons and jets is one of the detector challenges at future high energy colliders. It has been shown that higher segmentation of the calorimter and/or the simultaneous recording of the scintillation light produced in an active medium, which is proportional to the total energy deposited by the shower particles, and the Cherenkov light, which is only produced by the charged, relativistic shower particles, can significantly improve the performance of present hadron calorimeters. At low energy, for instance for medical imaging devices, the detailed recording of the whole Compton-photoelectric interaction chain would have a strong impact on the spatial resolution, energy resolut...

  2. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Document Server

    Andris Skuja

    During the last 3 months HCAL has concentrated on ensuring that as many channels are operational as possible for the CRAFT startup. The Data Concentrator Cards (DCCs) for the entire readout path are in the process of being replaced.  HCAL has participated in all midweek global runs during the present startup and is ready to participate in CRAFT during July. Operations and Online The baseline goals of the first mid-week global runs after the winter shutdown were to re-establish the ability to take data in global running, to verify that the detector noise level was comparable to that measured at end of CRAFT 2008, and to finalize the HV settings for data taking. Commissioning of pedestal and laser data taking in orbit gaps started very soon thereafter. Now the orbit gap data are one of the main tools HCAL shifters use to verify that the detector is properly configured and is taking quality data. In March, a new zero suppression (ZS) scheme was deployed in the HTR firmware and commissioned in local ...

  3. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Bloch

    Crystals and Bare Supermodules The last Barrel crystal was delivered on March 9th and the last (36th) Bare Supermodule was completed by April 20th. Endcaps crystal production is ramping up at both producers and the delivery rate exceeds already 1050 crystals per month. The quality of the Endcaps crystals is similar to that of the Barrel. Electronics The production of the on-detector electronics (Barrel + Endcaps) is complete. Already 10 out of the 12 crates of the Barrel Off-detector modules have been commissioned and installed in the CMS service cavern, and the integration with the global DAQ is progressing fast. The last 2 crates will be completed in August, after reception of the last Trigger Modules TCC68. The installation of the High Voltage is also progressing well, taking into account that some HV supplies are still used in the various assembly and test centres of ECAL. A large fraction of the low voltage supplies has been delivered and tested. Electronics integration As explained in the Febru...

  4. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Skuja

    The highlight of HCAL operations during the last three months was the CRAFT run. In addition to understanding better the overall HCAL detector operations, we also measured the HPD (Hybrid Photo Detector) response in a magnetic field. In particular, at fields of 0.5T to 3.0T the HPDs exhibit large discharge pulses. Such behaviour is not observed above 3.5T. We determined that about 8 HPDs were not suitable for magnetic field operation in HB and HE. For HO it was found that all HPDs were OK in Ring 0 but an additional 20 (or so) HPDs were marginal for Rings 1 and Rings 2. In addition, the HV of the HPDs for Rings 1 and Rings 2 had to be lowered to 6.5KV (from 8KV) for stable operation. DPG and CRAFT During CRAFT the HCAL DPG focused on developing and testing the tools needed for fast data validation and run certification, and for full integration of all configurations needed to initialize zero suppression (ZS), LUT, etc., .using central run Keys. The display of alarms to HCAL shifters was expanded to inc...

  5. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    P. De Barbaro and J. Mans.

    2013-01-01

      After the successful operation of the HCAL sub-detector during the proton-proton run in 2012 and heavy-ion run at the beginning of 2013, the group is now focusing on the following four LS1 tasks: ·       Replacement of present, thick-window, single-anode photomultipliers on HF with new, thin-window, multi-anode PMTs. The replacement of photomultipliers will reduce rate of punch-through window hits. All needed PMTs and baseboards have been delivered to CERN. A quality control station has been set up in B904. ·       Replacement of boards responsible for clock distribution in all HBHE and HO Clock and Control Modules (CCMs).  CCMs reside in each Readout Box and are only accessible when the CMS detector is open.  The installation of new CCMs will allow us to eliminate data loss caused by single-event upsets (SEUs) experienced during the 2011&ndash...

  6. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Mans and P. De Barbaro

    2012-01-01

      During first three months of LHC operation in 2012 (April-June 2012), HCAL performed well.  Out of a total of 6.15 fb–1 recorded by CMS, 230 pb–1 had to be declared as ‘bad’ during certification process due to HCAL-related problems. There were two major sources of ‘bad’ data coming from HCAL. Firstly, RBX data losses resulted in approximately 90 pb–1 declared as ‘bad’. The RBX data loss problems are caused by Single Event Upsets (SEU) in Clock and Control Modules (CCMs). As CCMs are not accessible with the CMS detector closed, this problem can be only fixed during LS1. The second major source of  ‘bad’ data was a failure of TTCrx chip (installed on HF detector), which resulted in a loss of almost 80 pb–1. The intervention required access to the cavern, and so the unit could only be replaced during the inter-fill period. In 2011 and early 2012, we have...

  7. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefel, John P.; Guzik, T. Gregory

    2001-01-01

    During grant NAG5-5064, Louisiana State University (LSU) led the ATIC team in the development, construction, testing, accelerator validation, pre-deployment integration and flight operations of the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment. This involved interfacing among the ATIC collaborators (UMD, NRL/MSFC, SU, MSU, WI, SNU) to develop a new balloon payload based upon a fully active calorimeter, a carbon target, a scintillator strip hodoscope and a pixilated silicon solid state detector for a detailed investigation of the very high energy cosmic rays to energies beyond 10(exp 14) eV/nucleus. It is in this very high energy region that theory predicts changes in composition and energy spectra related to the Supernova Remnant Acceleration model for cosmic rays below the "knee" in the all-particle spectrum. This report provides a documentation list, details the anticipated ATIC science return, describes the particle detection principles on which the experiment is based, summarizes the simulation results for the system, describes the validation work at the CERN SPS accelerator and details the balloon flight configuration. The ATIC experiment had a very successful LDB flight from McMurdo, Antarctica in 12/00 - 1/01. The instrument performed well for the entire 15 days. Preliminary data analysis shows acceptable charge resolution and an all-particle power law energy deposition distribution not inconsistent with previous measurements. Detailed analysis is underway and will result in new data on the cosmic ray charge and energy spectra in the GeV - TeV energy range. ATIC is currently being refurbished in anticipation of another LDB flight in the 2002-03 period.

  8. GEANT SIMULATIONS OF PRESHOWER CALORIMETER FOR CLAS12 UPGRADE OF THE FORWARD ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitlow, K.; Stepanyan, S.

    2007-01-01

    Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility uses the CEBAF (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility) Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) to study the structure of the nucleon. An upgrade from a 6 GeV beam to a 12GeV beam is currently planned. With the beam energy upgrade, more high-energy pions will be created from the interaction of the beam and the target. Above 6GeV, the angle between the two-decay photons of high-energy pions becomes too small for the current electromagnetic calorimeter (EC) of CLAS to differentiate between two photon clusters and single photon events. Thus, a preshower calorimeter will be added in front of the EC to enable fi ner granularity and ensure better cluster separation for all CLAS experiments at higher energies. In order to optimize cost without compromising the calorimeter’s performance, three versions of the preshower, varying in number of scintillator and lead layers, were compared by their resolution and effi ciency. Using GSIM, a GEANT detector simulation program for CLAS, the passage of neutral pions and single photons through CLAS and the new preshower calorimeter (CLAS12 EC) was studied. The resolution of the CLAS12 EC was calculated from the Gaussian fi t of the sampling fraction, the energy CLAS12 EC detected over the Monte Carlo simulated energy. The single photon detection effi ciency was determined from the energy and position of the photon hits. The fractional energy resolution measured was ΔE/E = 0.0972 in the fi ve-module version, 0.111 in the four-module version, and 0.149 in the three-module version. Both the fi ve- and four-module versions had 99% single photon detection effi ciency above 0.5GeV while the 3 module version had 99% effi ciency above 1.5GeV. Based on these results, the suggested preshower confi guration is the four-module version containing twelve layers of scintillator and fi fteen layers of lead. This version provides a reasonable balance of resolution, effi ciency, and

  9. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Bloch

    Crystals and Bare Supermodules Thanks to an unprecedented delivery rate, in excess of 1200 crystals per month during the last three months, the last Barrel crystals will be delivered at the end of February. The penultimate bare supermodule is under assembly; the last should be assembled in April. The first batch of Endcap crystals from the mass production has been received from China as well as two pre-series of 100 crystals from Russia. Electronics The assembly and test of off-detector electronics crates (each crate containing three triplets, each triplet comprising Data Concentrator Cards (DCC), Clock & Control System card (CCS) and Trigger & Clock Controllers (TCCs) module – i.e. enough to serve three supermodules) is progressing fast. Several crates have already been installed in the USC at point 5. The production of the specific Endcap electronics is also well advanced. For example, the test of the Front-End cards was recently completed. Electronics integration In early Autu...

  10. Performance of the TilePPr demonstrator for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase II Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio Argos, Fernando; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter Pre-processor (TilePPr) demonstrator is a high performance double AMC board based on FPGA resources and QSFP modules. This board has been designed in the framework of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) Demonstrator Project for the Phase II Upgrade as the first stage of the off-detector electronics. The TilePPr demonstrator has been conceived for receiving and processing the data coming from the on-detector electronics of the TileCal Demonstrator module, as well as for configuring it. Moreover, the TilePPr demonstrator handles the communication with the Detector Control System to monitor and control the on-detector electronics.

  11. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Hadronic Calorimeter at LHC in Run I and planned upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Solovyanov, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter at the Large Hadron Collider, a key detector for the measurements of hadrons, jets tau leptons and missing transverse energy. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from approximately 10000 PMTs are measured and digitized before being transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. After an initial setting of the absolute energy scale in test beams with particles of well-defined momentum, the calibrated scale was transferred to the rest of the detector via the response to radioactive sources. The calibrated scale was validated in situ with muons and single hadrons and the timing performance with muons and jets as detailed in this contribution. The data quality procedures used during the LHC data-taking and the evolution of the detector status are exposed. The energy and the time reconstruction performance...

  12. Irradiation of a very forward calorimeter in the LHC environment: Some consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Malinin, A.; Martinez-Laso, L.; Pojidaev, V.; Salicio, J. M.

    1994-07-01

    We have computed the level of irradiation in the very forward region (2.5 < | {eta} | < 4.7) 4.7) of an LHC experiment, using the proposed CMS (Compact Solenoidal Detector for LHC) setup. Information about the induced radioactivity in the absorber of a proposed iron/gas Very Forward Calorimeter has been extracted. (Author) 11 refs.

  13. Readout Electronics for the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter at HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the two general-purpose detectors designed to study proton-proton collisions (14 TeV in the center of mass) produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and to explore the full physics potential of the LHC machine at CERN. The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters are high precision, high sensitivity and high granularity detectors designed to provide precision measurements of electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy. ATLAS (and its LAr Calorimeters) has been operating and collecting p-p collisions at LHC since 2009. The on-detector electronics (front-end) part of the current readout electronics of the calorimeters measures the ionization current signals by means of preamplifiers, shapers and digitizers and then transfers the data to the off-detector electronics (back-end) for further elaboration, via optical links. Only the data selected by the level-1 calorimeter trigger system are transferred, achieving a bandwidth reduction to 1.6 Gbps. The analog trigger sum sig...

  14. VHDL Implementation of Feature-Extraction Algorithm for the PANDA Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavatsyuk, M.; Guliyev, E.; Lemmens, P. J. J.; Löhner, H.; Tambave, G.

    2010-01-01

    The feature-extraction algorithm, developed for the digital front-end electronics of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the PANDA detector at the future FAIR facility, is implemented in VHDL for a commercial 16 bit 100 MHz sampling ADC. The use of modified firmware with the running on-line

  15. Particlc detectors. Foundations and applications; Teilchendetektoren. Grundlagen und Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolanoski, Hermann; Wermes, Norbert

    2016-08-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Interaction of particles with matter, motion of charge carriers in electric and magnetic fields, signal generation by moving charges, non-electronic detectors, gas-filled detectors, semiconductor detectors, track reconstruction and momentum measurement, photodetectors, Cherenkov detectors, transition-radiation detectors, scintillation detectors, particle identification, calorimeters, detection of cosmic particles, signal processing and noise, trigger and data acquisition systems. (HSI)

  16. Energy reconstruction and calibration algorithms for the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Delmastro, M

    2003-01-01

    The work of this thesis is devoted to the study, development and optimization of the algorithms of energy reconstruction and calibration for the electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) of the ATLAS experiment, presently under installation and commissioning at the CERN Large Hadron Collider in Geneva (Switzerland). A deep study of the electrical characteristics of the detector and of the signals formation and propagation is conduced: an electrical model of the detector is developed and analyzed through simulations; a hardware model (mock-up) of a group of the EMC readout cells has been built, allowing the direct collection and properties study of the signals emerging from the EMC cells. We analyze the existing multiple-sampled signal reconstruction strategy, showing the need of an improvement in order to reach the advertised performances of the detector. The optimal filtering reconstruction technique is studied and implemented, taking into account the differences between the ionization and calibration waveforms as e...

  17. Investigations of Calorimeter Clustering in ATLAS using Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2153685

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is designed to search for new physics by colliding protons with a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The ATLAS detector is a multipurpose particle detector built to record these proton-proton collisions. In order to improve sensitivity to new physics at the LHC, luminosity increases are planned for 2018 and beyond. With this greater luminosity comes an increase in the number of simultaneous proton-proton collisions per bunch crossing (pile-up). This extra pile- up has adverse effects on algorithms for clustering the ATLAS detector's calorimeter cells. These adverse effects stem from overlapping energy deposits originating from distinct particles and could lead to diffculties in accurately reconstructing events. Machine learning algorithms provide a new tool that has potential to clustering per- formance. Recent developments in computer science have given rise to new set of machine learning algorithms that, in many circumstances, out-perform more conven- tional algorithms....

  18. Insertion of the first half-barrel of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter into its cryostat

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    The first cylinder of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel and the presampler have been inserted in the cryostat.The ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter is intended to detect electrons, positrons and photons by measuring the energy they deposit on being absorbed. The cylinder of the calorimeter is in two halves, that will be sunk in a liquid-argon bath cooled to 90 kelvin (-180°C). Each half-barrel is 3.2 metres long, 53 cm thick and formed by assembling 16 modules. Each module is made up of alternate lead absorbers and electrodes pressed into 64 layers folded accordion-fashion. The presampler, set up inside the cylinder, is an integral part of the calorimeter system: It measures the energy lost by a particle before it reaches the calorimeter. To ensure an ultra-clean environment, a tent (visible here) was erected round the calorimeter and entry point to the cryostat. The detector and presampler, fitted together, could then be slid gradually into the cryostat like a drawer. To do so, the insertion team...

  19. Insertion of the first half-barrel of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter into its cryostat

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    The first cylinder of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel and the presampler have been inserted in the cryostat. The ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter is intended to detect electrons, positrons and photons by measuring the energy they deposit on being absorbed. The cylinder of the calorimeter is in two halves, that will be sunk in a liquid-argon bath cooled to 90 kelvin (-180°C). Each half-barrel is 3.2 metres long, 53 cm thick and formed by assembling 16 modules. Each module is made up of alternate lead absorbers and electrodes pressed into 64 layers folded accordion-fashion. The presampler, set up inside the cylinder, is an integral part of the calorimeter system: It measures the energy lost by a particle before it reaches the calorimeter. To ensure an ultra-clean environment, a tent was erected round the calorimeter and entry point to the cryostat. The detector and presampler, fitted together, could then be slid gradually into the cryostat like a drawer. To do so, the insertion team had to fine-t...

  20. CMS Technical Design Report for the Phase 1 Upgrade of the Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067097; Anderson, J; Dahmes, B; de Barbaro, P; Freeman, J; Grassi, T; Hazen, E; Mans, J; Ruchti, R; Schimdt, I; Shaw, T; Tully, C; Whitmore, J; Yetkin, T

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the technical design and outlines the expected performance of the Phase 1 Upgrade of the CMS Hadron Calorimeters. The upgrade is designed to improve the performance of the calorimeters at high luminosity with large numbers of pileup events by increasing the depth-segmentation of the calorimeter and providing new capabilities for anomalous background rejection. The photodetectors of the CMS Barrel and Endcap Hadron Calorimeters, currently hybrid photodiodes (HPDs), will be replaced by silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) devices. The single-channel phototubes of the Forward Hadron Calorimeter will be replaced by multi-anode phototubes operated in a dual-anode configuration. The readout electronics for all three calorimeter systems will also be replaced. A new charge-integrating ADC, the QIE10, with an integrated TDC will be used along with a 4.8 Gbps data-link. The off-detector electronics will also be substantially upgraded to handle higher data volumes and improve the information sent to the ...

  1. Computer Simulation of the Cool Down of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Barrel Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Korperud, N; Fabre, C; Owren, G; Passardi, Giorgio

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS electromagnetic barrel calorimeter consists of a liquid argon detector with a total mass of 120 tonnes. This highly complicated structure, fabricated from copper, lead, stainless steel and glass-fiber reinforced epoxy will be placed in an aluminum cryostat. The cool down process of the detector will be limited by the maximum temperature differences accepted by the composite structure so as to avoid critical mechanical stresses. A computer program simulating the cool down of the detector by calculating the local heat transfer throughout a simplified model has been developed. The program evaluates the cool down time as a function of different contact gasses filling the spaces within the detector.

  2. Response of the D0 calorimeter to cosmic ray muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotcher, Jonathan [New York Univ., NY (United States)

    1992-10-01

    The D0 Detector at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is a large multipurpose detector facility designed for the study of proton-antiproton collision products at the center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV. It consists of an inner tracking volume, hermetic uranium/liquid argon sampling calorimetry, and an outer 47π muon detector. In preparation for our first collider run, the collaboration organized a Cosmic Ray Commissioning Run, which took place from February--May of 1991. This thesis is a detailed study of the response of the central calorimeter to cosmic ray muons as extracted from data collected during this run. We have compared the shapes of the experimentally-obtained pulse height spectra to the Landau prediction for the ionization loss in a continuous thin absorber in the four electromagnetic and four hadronic layers of the calorimeter, and find good agreement after experimental effects are folded in. We have also determined an absolute energy calibration using two independent methods: one which measures the response of the electronics to a known amount of charge injected at the preamplifiers, and one which uses a carry-over of the calibration from a beam test of central calorimeter modules. Both absolute energy conversion factors agree with one another, within their errors. The calibration determined from the test beam carryover, relevant for use with collider physics data, has an error of 2.3%. We believe that, with further study, a final error of ~1% will be achieved. The theory-to-experiment comparison of the peaks (or most probable values) of the muon spectra was used to determine the layer-to-layer consistency of the muon signal. We find that the mean response in the 3 fine hadronic layers is (12 ± 2%) higher than that in the 4 electromagnetic layers. These same comparisons have been used to verify the absolute energy conversion factors. The conversion factors work well for the electromagnetic sections.

  3. Cryogenic Tests of the Atlas Liquid Argon Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Fabre, C; Chalifour, M; Gonidec, A; Passardi, Giorgio

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter consists of the barrel and two end-cap detectors housed in three independent cryostats filled with a total volume of 78 m3 of liquid argon. During cool-down the temperature differences in the composite structure of the detectors must be kept within strict limits to avoid excessive mechanical stresses and relative displacements. During normal operation the formation of gas bubbles, which are detrimental to the functioning of the detector, must be prevented and temperature gradients of less than 0.7 K across the argon bath are mandatory due to the temperature dependence of the energy measurements. Between April 2004 and May 2005 the barrel (120 t) and one end-cap (219 t) underwent qualification tests at the operating temperature of 87.3 K using a dedicated test facility at ground level. These tests provided a validation of the cooling methods to be adopted in the final underground configuration. In total 6.9 GJ and 15.7 GJ were extracted from the calorimeters and a temperature...

  4. Electronics and triggering challenges for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Lobanov, Artur

    2017-01-01

    The High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL), presently being designed by the CMS collaboration to replace the CMS endcap calorimeters for the High Luminosity phase of LHC, will feature six million channels distributed over 52 longitudinal layers. The requirements for the front-end electronics are extremely challenging, including high dynamic range (0-10 pC), low noise (~2000e- to be able to calibrate on single minimum ionising particles throughout the detector lifetime) and low power consumption (~10mW/channel), as well as the need to select and transmit trigger information with a high granularity. Exploiting the intrinsic precision-timing capabilities of silicon sensors also requires careful design of the front-end electronics as well as the whole system, particularly clock distribution. The harsh radiation environment and requirement to keep the whole detector as dense as possible will require novel solutions to the on-detector electronics layout. Processing all the data from the HGCAL imposes equally large ch...

  5. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Spalding.

    Following the shutdown activities (see previous Bulletin), the HCAL detectors were commissioned with extensive global and cosmic running. All of the 2592, 2592, and 1728 channels of HB, HE and HF, respectively, are operational. The campaign for replacing those HPDs that showed increased noise level or other anomalies in CRAFT08 was completed during last spring. So far none of the HPDs in HB and HE have shown any sign of deterioration of noise level. Only one HO HPD in one of the outer wheels (YB-1), where problems with noise discharge in magnetic field were expected, started discharging a few months ago, and its high voltage was turned off. Two other HPDs in HO YB-1 had the HV turned off due to over-current. The total number of non-functional HO channels is 83, seven of which located in YB0. Similarly ZDC is fully functional. CASTOR was installed in June, and initial commissioning carried out with the magnetic field and with first circulating beam. On the jet trigger side, we observe perfec...

  6. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Barney

    2013-01-01

    The CMS ECAL, comprising barrel (EB), endcaps (EE) and preshower (ES) detectors, operated reliably throughout the 2012 (proton-proton) and early 2013 (proton-lead) running periods. The data quality was excellent, with more than 98% of the delivered luminosity declared good for physics in 2012, and close to 100% in 2013. The number of active channels – ~99% in the EB/EE and ~97% in the ES – was stable during 2012-’13. The ECAL performance, as measured by the electron energy scale and resolution and Z→ee mass resolution in both barrel and endcaps, is excellent and very stable in time (see Figure 1 for an example, and CMS-DP-2013-007: https://cds.cern.ch/record/1528235) following a dedicated calibration using the full 2012 CMS dataset. Figure 1 (a) and (b): The mass resolution of the Z peak, reconstructed from its di-electron decay mode, as a function of time for the barrel (a) and endcaps (b). The sample is inclusive (no cut on the amount of bremsstrahlung undergone...

  7. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    Dave Barney

    2010-01-01

    The operation of ECAL during the whole proton-proton period was very successful, with little down time. During this period we witnessed the first expected signs of radiation damage, both in the preshower detector, where we measured a small but clear increase in the current drawn by the silicon sensors (due to bulk damage) and in the endcap crystals, with the first evidence of a decreasing crystal transparency. The extent of the damage is in general as expected from simulations. However, a small fraction of the preshower sensors also show signs of unexpected surface damage. This is under investigation.
 The running period was very smooth overall but not without glitches. Among these occurrences we had a few high voltage problems in the endcaps, a low voltage connector at the preshower failed, a few unnoticed DCS alarms and our fair share of DAQ "out-of-sync". All problems were followed-up and mitigated where possible. Lessons learnt will be very useful for the long running period ahead of ...

  8. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Mans and P. De Barbaro

    2012-01-01

      During the year-end technical stop, HCAL has successfully undertaken a number of efforts in the detector and calibration areas. The full online software suite has been modernised to the next generation of Scientific Linux and 64-bit computing. In HF, a full set of 24 thin-window phototubes from the production set has been installed to allow further study of background rates as well as to evaluate the behaviour of the tubes under irradiation. The optical data fibres from two wedges of HB and an equivalent portion of HE and HF have been split, allowing the parallel operation of upgrade backend electronics without affecting the ongoing operations of the VME electronics. The HCAL DPG group has prepared the software and calibration for the restart at 8 TeV. The reconstruction and noise rejection have been tuned for higher pile-up conditions, while the final calibrations for HF will be used for a final re-reconstruction of the 2011 data as well as for the 2012 start-up. The DPG group is prepared for ...

  9. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    Andris Skuja

    HCAL finished commissioning the central and forward detectors during the summer of 2008. HCAL was able to participate in all global runs. In particular, we were anxious to determine the performance of all of the HCAL HPDs at 3.8T. At this point in time this study still has not been completed because of various difficulties CMS has encountered to reach 3.8T. HF Commissioning The HF produces the raw data for the CMS Luminosity determination. It is also an important part of the min-bias trigger and forward jet triggers and physics. In June 2008 the HFs were out of their garages and being worked upon for Castor/Collar platform installation. The HFs were back in the garage position in July and were subject to a series of checks (mainly LED and laser) before starting the CRUZET3 global runs. As part of this sequence, calibration constants were checked via single photo-electrons, the HV choice was finalized and the relative timing was fixed. During CRUZET3 tests of LUMI were performed, and muon signals were measure...

  10. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Bloch

    ECAL Barrel The integration of the last Supermodule was completed early July. The insertion of the second half Barrel (EB+) was performed in the second half of July. The Barrel ECAL (36 Supermodules comprising 61200 channels) is now complete, and its cabling campaign has just started. Each Supermodule has been tested after insertion. The number of dead or partially-dead channels amounts to only 28 (0.05% of the total), a performance showing the excellence of the quality control during the whole construction process. The Barrel Off-detector electronics is installed in the CMS Service cavern (with the exception of a few Trigger modules), ready to be connected to the Supermodules after cabling. The ECAL DAQ has been integrated with the CMS DAQ system: at the end of August one supermodule was included in a CMS global run, allowing us to record cosmic muons in both ECAL and DTs. ECAL Endcaps The Endcaps crystal production is proceeding at full speed, and the delivery rate (summing both producers) exceeds ...

  11. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Petyt

    2013-01-01

    In a break with tradition, the ECAL general meetings during the April CMS Week were devoted to a series of brainstorming sessions, focusing on a small number of hot-topic items. These included sessions on ECAL upgrades, analysis of 2012 detector performance and resolution, software development plans and a review of the ECAL calibration sequence. These sessions were well attended and extremely productive, and have helped to define and guide the direction of the ECAL effort planned for LS1. The area of ECAL upgrades has been particularly active over the past several months. A note summarising the test-beam performance of crystal matrices, irradiated with proton fluences representative of the end of Phase 1 LHC running, has been prepared and is being reviewed by ECAL. This important note provides data to tune and validate the simulation of ECAL ageing that has been implemented in CMSSW. This simulation is being used by the ECAL group and others to evaluate the physics performance of the ECAL at the end of Pha...

  12. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    Philippe Bloch

    ECAL Barrel (EB) As already mentioned in June, the Barrel ECAL is fully commissioned and routinely used during CRUZET runs.  Good progress has been made in the last months to ensure a stable and fully reliable operation, in particular for the Trigger path. More details can be found in the DPG report in this bulletin.     ECAL Endcaps (EE) In the June CMS bulletin, it had been announced that the Dee’s mechanical assembly had been finished end of May. However the electronics integration was still going on for the first Dee. The Summer has seen a spectacular breakthrough of the Endcap project. The electronics integration of Dee1 was completed early July, and this first Dee was transported to point 5 on July 8th. The completion of the three other Dees followed at a pace of one per week. In all cases the quality of the detector as measured in the assembly center was excellent, with all channels active and  the expected noise performance (see for example the reports pr...

  13. Calorimetry of the CMD-3 detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetshin, R. R.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Bashtovoy, N. S.; Epifanov, D. A.; Epshteyn, L. B.; Erofeev, A. L.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Grigoriev, D. N.; Kazanin, V. F.; Kovalenko, O. A.; Kozyrev, A. N.; Kuzmenko, A. E.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Logashenko, I. B.; Mikhailov, K. Yu; Okhapkin, V. S.; Razuvaev, G. P.; Ruban, A. A.; Shebalin, V. E.; Shwartz, B. A.; Titov, V. M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Yudin, Yu V.

    2017-11-01

    The CMD-3 detector has been collecting data since 2010 at the e + e ‑ collider VEPP-2000 in the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics. VEPP-2000 uses the novel round beam technique and provides high luminosity in a wide c.m.energy range from 0.32 to 2 GeV. The physics goal of the CMD-3 experiment is a study of the e + e ‑ annihilation into hadrons. CMD-3 is a general-purpose detector, which provides high efficiency for both charged and neutral particles. The electromagnetic calorimeter consists of the barrel calorimeter based on liquid xenon and CsI crystals, and the endcap calorimeter based on BGO crystals. The main parameters of the calorimeters are presented.

  14. Tile Calorimeter Muon Trigger Signal

    CERN Document Server

    Cerqueira, A S; Usai, G L

    2002-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter contributes to the first level trigger with the fast analog signal coming from the trigger summing boards, so-called analog adder. The adders provide two kinds of output: the total energy sum in a trigger tower and the signal from the respective cell of the last radial calorimeter layer, which can be used for identifying muons, thus making the muon first level trigger more robust. This note reviews the adder specifications and laboratory tests, whereas the main focus is put on the data analysis from the testbeam periods in~2001. Several improvements achieved by tuning the read-out are described. Using the testbeam results, the ability to identify muons in the last radial Tilecal layer is discussed. The experimental results obtained at the testbeams are completed with the Monte Carlo simulations.

  15. The CLAS Forward Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Amarian; Geram Asryan; Kevin Beard; Will Brooks; Volker Burkert; Tom Carstens; Alan Coleman; Raphael Demirchyan; Yuri Efremenko; Hovanes Egiyan; Kim Egiyan; Herb Funsten; Vladimir Gavrilov; Kevin L. Giovanetti; R.M. Marshall; Berhard Mecking; R.C. Minehart; H. Mkrtchan; Mavrik Ohandjanyan; Youri Sharabian; L.C. Smith; Stepan Stepanyan; W.A. Stephens; T.Y. Tung; Carl Zorn

    2001-05-01

    The CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab utilizes six iron-free superconducting coils to provide an approximately toroidal magnetic field. The six sectors are instrumented individually to form six independent spectrometers. The forward region (8deg < (theta) < 45deg) of each sector is equipped with a lead-scintillator electromagnetic sampling calorimeter (EC), 16 radiation lengths thick, using a novel triangular geometry with stereo readout. With its good energy and position resolution, the EC is used to provide the primary electron trigger for CLAS. It is also used to reject pions, reconstruct pi-0 and eta decays and detect neutrons, This paper treats the design, construction and performance of the calorimeter.

  16. ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger Upgrade for Phase-I

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, W; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Trigger requires several upgrades to maintain physics sensitivity as the LHC luminosity is raised. One of the most challenging is the electron trigger, with a major development planned for installation in 2018. New on-detector electronics will be installed to digitize electromagnetic calorimetry signals, providing trigger access to shower profile information. The trigger processing will be ATCA-based, with each multi-FPGA module processing ~1 Tbit/s of calorimeter digits within the current 2.5 microseconds Level-1 Trigger latency limit. This paper will address the system architecture and design, and give the status of a current technology demonstrator.

  17. The CDF calorimeter upgrade for RunIIb

    CERN Document Server

    Huston, J; Kuhlmann, S; Lami, S; Miller, R; Paoletti, R; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F

    2004-01-01

    The physics program at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider will continue to explore the high energy elementary particle physics until the LHC commissioning. The upgrade of the CDF calorimeter opens a new window for improving the jet energy resolution, important in finding various signals such as Higgs by correcting the energy loss in the dead material and adding information in the jet algorithms using charged particles. It plays an important role in soft electron tagging of b- jets and photon identification in SUSY. The upgrade of the CDF calorimeter includes: a) the replacement of slow gas detector on the front face of the Central Calorimeter with Preshower (CPR) based on 2cm thick scintillator tiles segmented in eta and Phi and read out by WLS fibers running into a groove on the surface of each tiles. The WLS fibers are placed to clear fibers after leaving the tiles; b) the replacement of the Central Crack Chamber (CCR) with 5mm thick scintillator tiles read with the same technique: To finalize the design parame...

  18. The backward end-cap for the PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capozza, Luigi; Maas, Frank; Rodriguez Pineiro, David; Valente, Roserio [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz - Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Lin, Dexu; Noll, Oliver [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz - Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The PANDA experiment at the new FAIR facility will cover a broad experimental programme in hadron structure and spectroscopy. As a multipurpose detector, the PANDA spectrometer needs to ensure almost 4π coverage of the scattering solid angle, full and accurate multiple-particle event reconstruction and very good particle identification capabilities. % The electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) will be a key item for many of these aspects. Particle energies ranging from some MeVs to several GeVs have to be measured with a relative resolution of 1% + 2%/√(E/ GeV). % It will be a homogeneous calorimeter made of PbWO{sub 4} crystals and will be operated at -25 {sup circle} C, in order to improve the scintillation light yield. With the exception of the very forward section, the light will be detected by large area avalanche photodiodes. % The whole calorimeter has been designed in three sections: a forward end-cap, a central barrel and a backward end-cap (BWEC). % In this contribution, a status report on the development of the BWEC is given.

  19. The Phase II Upgrade of the ATLAS Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will show the status of the upgrade projects of the ATLAS calorimeter system for the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC). For the HL-LHC, the instantaneous luminosity is expected to increase up to L ≃ 7.5 × 1034 cm−2 s−1 and the average pile-up up to 200 interactions per bunch crossing. The Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeter electronics will need to be replaced to cope with these challenging conditions: the expected radiation doses will indeed exceed the qualification range of the current readout system, and the upgraded trigger system will require much longer data storage in the electronics (up to 60 us), that the current system cannot sustain. The status of the R&D of the low-power ASICs (pre-amplifier, shaper, ADC, serializer and transmitters) and of the readout electronics design will be discussed. Moreover, a High Granularity Timing Detector (HGTD) is proposed to be added in front of the LAr calorimeters in the end-cap region (2.4 <|eta|< 4.2) for pile-up mitigation a...

  20. Electromagnetic Calorimeter for HADES Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Ramos P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL is being developed to complement dilepton spectrometer HADES. ECAL will enable the HADES@FAIR experiment to measure data on neutral meson production in heavy ion collisions at the energy range of 2-10 AGeV on the beam of future accelerator SIS100@FAIR. We will report results of the last beam test with quasi-monoenergetic photons carried out in MAMI facility at Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz.

  1. The 4th concept detector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pixel vertex detector, a high-resolution TPC, a new multiple-readout fiber calorimeter and a new dual-solenoid iron-free muon system. We discuss the design of a comprehensive facility that measures and identifies all partons of the standard ...

  2. Construction and testing of a large scale prototype of a silicon tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter for a future lepton collider

    CERN Document Server

    Rouëné,J

    2013-01-01

    The CALICE collaboration is preparing large scale prototypes of highly granular calorimeters for detectors to be operated at a future linear electron positron collider. After several beam campaigns at DESY, CERN and FNAL, the CALICE collaboration has demonstrated the principle of highly granular electromagnetic calorimeters with a first prototype called physics prototype. The next prototype, called technological prototype, addresses the engineering challenges which come along with the realisation of highly granular calorimeters. This prototype will comprise 30 layers where each layer is composed of four 9_9 cm2 silicon wafers. The front end electronics is integrated into the detector layers. The size of each pixel is 5_5 mm2. This prototype enter sits construction phase. We present results of the first layers of the technological prototype obtained during beam test campaigns in spring and summer 2012. According to these results the signal over noise ratio of the detector exceeds the R&D goal of10:1.

  3. Low-energetic hadron interactions in a highly granular calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feege, Nils

    2011-12-15

    The CALICE collaboration develops imaging calorimeters for precision measurements at a future electron-positron linear collider. These calorimeters feature a fine granularity in both longitudinal and transverse direction, which is needed to fulfill the shower separation requirement of Particle Flow reconstruction algorithms. CALICE has constructed prototypes for several design options for electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters and has successfully operated these detectors during combined test-beam programs at DESY, CERN, and Fermilab since 2005. The focus of this dissertation is on the prototype for a hadron calorimeter with analog readout (AHCAL), which is a 1m{sup 3} scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter with 38 sensitive layers and a depth of 5.3 nuclear interaction lengths. Each scintillator layer is pieced together from separate tiles with embedded silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) for measuring the scintillation light. With a total of 7608 readout channels, the AHCAL prototype represents the first large-scale application of SiPMs. This thesis covers the commissioning and operation of the AHCAL and other detectors for several months at the Fermilab Test-beam Facility in 2008 and 2009 and the analysis of electron and pion data collected during these measurements. The analysis covers energies from 1 GeV to 30 GeV and is the first analysis of AHCAL data at energies below 8 GeV. Because the purity of the recorded data is not sufficient for analysis, event selection procedures for electrons and pions at these energies and a method to estimate the purities of these data samples are developed. The calibration of detectors employing SiPMs requires parameters that change with operating voltage and temperature. The correction of these parameters for the effects of temperature variations during data collection and their portability to different operating conditions are evaluated using the AHCAL as an example. This is important for the use of this technology in a

  4. High precision, low disturbance calibration of the High Voltage system of the CMS Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Fasanella, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter utilizes scintillating lead tungstate crystals, with avalanche photodiodes (APD) as photo-detectors in the barrel part. 1224 HV channels bias groups of 50 APD pairs, each at a voltage of about 380 V. The APD gain dependence on the voltage is 3pct/V. A stability of better than 60 mV is needed to have negligible impact on the calorimeter energy resolution. Until 2015 manual calibrations were performed yearly. A new calibration system was deployed recently, which satisfies the requirement of low disturbance and high precision. The system is discussed in detail and first operational experience is presented.

  5. Development of ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Front-end Electronics for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00219286; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider will provide 5-7 times greater luminosities than assumed in the original detector design. An improved trigger system requires an upgrade of the readout electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter. Concepts for the future readout of the 182,500 calorimeter channels at 40-80 MHz and 16-bit dynamic range and the developments of radiation-tolerant, low-noise, low-power, and high-bandwidth front-end electronic components, including preamplifiers and shapers, 14-bit ADCs, and 10-Gb/s laser diode array drivers, are presented.

  6. Radiation Hardness Study of CsI(Tl) Crystals for Belle II Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Matvienko, D V; Sedov, E V; Shwartz, B A

    2017-01-01

    The Belle II calorimeter (at least, its barrel part) consists of CsI(Tl) scintillation crystals which have been used at the Belle experiment. We perform the radiation hardness study of some typical Belle crystals and conclude their light output reductions are acceptable for Belle II experiment where the absorption dose can reach 10 krad during the detector operation. CsI(Tl) crystals have high stablity and low maintenance cost and are considered as possible option for the calorimeter of the future Super-Charm-Tau factory (SCT) in Novosibirsk. Our study demonstrates sufficiently high radiation hardness of CsI(Tl) crystals for SCT conditions.

  7. Calibration Techniques and Strategies for the Present and Future LHC Electromagnetic Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksa, Martin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    This document summarizes an invited talk on ``Calibration Techniques and Strategies for the Present and Future LHC Electromagnetic Calorimeters'' at the Calorimetry for the High Energy Frontier (CHEF) Conference in Lyon, France in October 2017. It describes the different calibration strategies and techniques applied by the two big experiments at the LHC, ATLAS and CMS and discusses them underlining their respective strengths and weaknesses from the view of the author. The resulting performances of both calorimeters are described and compared on the basis of selected physics results. Future upgrade plans for High Luminosity (HL) LHC are briefly introduced and planned calibration strategies for those new detectors are shown.

  8. High precision, low disturbance calibration of the High Voltage system of the CMS Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Marzocchi, Badder

    2017-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter is made of scintillating lead tungstate crystals, using avalanche photodiodes (APD) as photo-detectors in the barrel part. The high voltage system, consisting of 1224 channels, biases groups of 50 APD pairs, each at a voltage of about 380 V. The APD gain dependence on the voltage is 3pct/V. A stability of better than 60 mV is needed to have negligible impact on the calorimeter energy resolution. Until 2015 manual calibrations were performed yearly. A new calibration system was deployed recently, which satisfies the requirement of low disturbance and high precision. The system is discussed in detail and first operational experience is presented.

  9. Track segments in hadronic showers in a highly granular scintillator-steel hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Chefdeville, M.; Drancourt, C.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Karyotakis, Y.; Koletsou, I.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Francis, K.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Smith, J.; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S.T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A.P.; Yu, J.; Eigen, G.; Mikami, Y.; Watson, N.K.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Yan, W.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Dannheim, D.; Dotti, A.; Folger, G.; Ivantchenko, V.; Klempt, W.; Kraaij, E.van der; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I; Ribon, A.; Schlatter, D.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Cârloganu, C.; Gay, P.; Manen, S.; Royer, L.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Blazey, G.C.; Dyshkant, A.; Lima, J.G.R.; Zutshi, V.; Hostachy, J.-Y; Morin, L.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Lu, S.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Feege, N.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Marchesini, I.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Wilson, G.W.; Kawagoe, K.; Sudo, Y.; Yoshioka, T.; Dauncey, P.D.; Magnan, A.-M; Bartsch, V.; Wing, M.; Salvatore, F.; Gil, E.Cortina; Mannai, S.; Baulieu, G.; Calabria, P.; Caponetto, L.; Combaret, C.; Negra, R.Della; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J-C; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Steen, A.; Tromeur, W.; Donckt, M.Vander; Zoccarato, Y.; Alamillo, E.Calvo; Fouz, M.-C; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Corriveau, F.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Popov, V.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kirikova, N.; Kozlov, V.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Buzhan, P.; Ilyin, A.; Kantserov, V.; Kaplin, V.; Karakash, A.; Popova, E.; Tikhomirov, V.; Kiesling, C.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Szalay, M.; Tesar, M.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M.S.; Bonis, J.; Callier, S.; Lorenzo, S.Conforti di; Cornebise, P.; Doublet, Ph; Dulucq, F.; Fleury, J.; Frisson, T.; der Kolk, N.van; Li, H.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Richard, F.; Taille, Ch de la; Pöschl, R.; Raux, L.; Rouëné, J.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J-C; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Guliyev, E.; Haddad, Y.; Magniette, F.; Musat, G.; Ruan, M.; Tran, T.H.; Videau, H.; Bulanek, B.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Ghazlane, H.; Kotera, K.; Takeshita, T.; Uozumi, S.; Jeans, D.; Götze, M.; Sauer, J.; Weber, S.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the three dimensional substructure of hadronic showers in the CALICE scintillator-steel hadronic calorimeter. The high granularity of the detector is used to find track segments of minimum ionising particles within hadronic showers, providing sensitivity to the spatial structure and the details of secondary particle production in hadronic cascades. The multiplicity, length and angular distribution of identified track segments are compared to GEANT4 simulations with several different shower models. Track segments also provide the possibility for in-situ calibration of highly granular calorimeters.

  10. Design studies of the PWO Forward End-cap calorimeter for P¯ANDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeini, H.; Al-Turany, M.; Babai, M.; Biegun, A.; Bondarenko, O.; Götzen, K.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Lindemulder, M. F.; Löhner, H.; Melnychuk, D.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Smit, H. A. J.; Spataro, S.; Veenstra, R.

    2013-11-01

    The P¯ANDA detection system at FAIR, Germany, is designed to study antiproton-proton annihilations, in order to investigate, among others, the realm of charm-meson states and glueballs, which has still much to reveal. The yet unknown properties of this field are to be unraveled through studying QCD phenomena in the non-perturbative regime. The multipurpose P¯ANDA detector will be capable of tracking, calorimetry, and particle identification, and is planned to run at high luminosities providing average reaction rates up to 2 · 107 interactions/s. The envisaged physics program requires measurements of photons and charged particles with excellent energy, position, and time resolutions. The electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) will serve as one of the basic components of the detector setup and comprises cooled lead-tungstate (PbWO4) crystals. This paper presents the mechanical design of the Forward End-cap calorimeter and analyzes the response of the Forward End-cap calorimeter in conjunction with the full EMC and the complete P¯ANDA detector. The simulation studies are focused on the performance of the planned EMC with respect to the energy and spatial resolution of the reconstructed photons. Results of the Monte Carlo simulations, excluding very low-energy photons, have been validated by data obtained from a prototype calorimeter and shown to fulfil the requirements imposed by the P¯ANDA physics program.

  11. Upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter for the High luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez Bosca, Sergi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. It is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter read out via wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The PMT signals are digitized and stored on detector until a trigger is received. The High-Luminosity phase of LHC (HL-LHC)expected to begin in year 2026 requires new electronics to meet the requirements of a 1 MHz trigger, higher ambient radiation, and for better performance under higher pileup. All the TileCal on- and off-detector electronics will be replaced during the shutdown of 2024-2025. PMT signals from every TileCal cell will be digitized and sent directly to the back-end electronics, where the signals are reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow the development of more complex trigger algorithms. Changes...

  12. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Fukun; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS cover-ing the central region of the ATLAS experiment. TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics in 2024 for the high luminosity program of the LHC. The calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals are reconstructed and shipped to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide a better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow the development of more complex trigger algorithms. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies are being employed to determine which option will be selected. The off-detector electronic is based on the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard and is equipped with high performance optical connectors. The system is designed to operate in a high radiation environmen...

  13. Upgrade of the ATLAS Hadronic Tile Calorimeter for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Hildebrand, Kevin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. It is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter read out via wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). . The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has envisaged a series of upgrades towards a High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) delivering five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity. The ATLAS Phase II upgrade (2024-2025) will accommodate the upgrade of the detector and data acquisition system for the HL-LHC. In particular, TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics. In the new architecture, all signals will be digitized and sent to the first level of trigger at the rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow the development of more complex trigger algorithms. Changes to the electronics will also contribute to the reliability and redundancy of the system. ...

  14. Upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter for the High luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez Bosca, Sergi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. It is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter read out via wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The PMT signals are digitized and stored on detector until a trigger is received. The High-Luminosity phase of LHC (HL-LHC) expected to begin in year 2026 requires new electronics to meet the requirements of a 1 MHz trigger, higher ambient radiation, and for better performance under higher pileup. All the TileCal on- and off-detector electronics will be replaced during the shutdown of 2024-2025. PMT signals from every TileCal cell will be digitized and sent directly to the back-end electronics, where the signals are reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow the development of more complex trigger algorithms. Change...

  15. Energy Measurement with the ATLAS Electromagnetic Calorimeter at the Per Mill Accuracy Level

    CERN Document Server

    Teischinger, Florian; Fabjan, Christian

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It is made up of various sub-detectors to measure the properties of all the particles produced at the proton-proton collision. Over the last three years of running around 20 x 10^14 collisions of proton data have been recorded. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry and for hadronic calorimetry in the end-caps. The Inner Detector, on the other hand, measures the transverse momentum of charged particles down to a momentum of 0.5 GeV. This thesis deals with the absolute measurement of the energy in the electromagnetic calorimeter and the improvement of the systematic uncertainties. A method using the ratio of the energy E in the calorimeter and the momentum measurement p in the Inner Detector (E/p) was used to extract the energy scale of the electromagnetic LAr calorimeter for electrons and positrons. To investigate and further reduce the syst...

  16. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Fukun; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment. TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics in 2024 for the high luminosity program of the LHC. The calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals are reconstructed and transmitted to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide a better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow the development of more complex trigger algorithms. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies are being employed to determine which option will be selected. The off-detector electronics are based on the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard and are equipped with high performance optical connectors. The system is designed to operate in a high radiation envi...

  17. Summary of activity. Topic I: detectors and experiments. [High-energy detectors for use at ISABELLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, J; Ozaki, S

    1978-01-01

    Results of a workshop studying detectors for Isabelle experimental halls are described. The detectors must be very reliable. Spatial resolution of the tracking detectors must be high to provide accurate measurements of angle and momentum, retain a short resolving time, and show excellent multiparticle handling capability. Included in the study were hodoscopes, drift chambers, proportional chambers, time projection chambers, Cherenkov counters, electromagnetic shower detectors, and hadron calorimeters. Data handling methods were also included in the studies. (FS)

  18. Bon voyage to the hadronic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    It was a grand entourage for the first half of the CMS hadronic forward calorimeter (HF) that was escorted to Cessy, France by the police on 11 July. The impressive trailer carrying the 7-m-long and 4-m-wide element was pushed and pulled by two specially designed trucks. It took the 64-m-long convoy around 5 hours to travel the 15 km to its final destination. The days leading up to this operation involved intensive checks to the balance and pressure of the hydraulic system of the trailer's wheels. As one side of the HF is slightly heavier than the other, it is crucial to take this into account when transporting such a massive object (each half of the HF weighs 260 tonnes). However, once these checks were complete, the transport was safely underway. The second half of the HF also received a police escort on 18 July as it made its way to the assembly hall at Point 5. The HF will be the first major detector to be lowered into the CMS cavern via the gantry crane in the coming months.

  19. Important ATLAS Forward Calorimeter Milestone Reached

    CERN Document Server

    Loch, P.

    The ATLAS Forward Calorimeter working group has reached an important milestone in the production of their detectors. The mechanical assembly of the first electromagnetic module (FCal1C) has been completed at the University of Arizona on February 25, 2002, only ten days after the originally scheduled date. The photo shows the University of Arizona FCal group in the clean room, together with the assembled FCal1C module. The module consists of a stack of 18 round copper plates, each about one inch thick. Each plate is about 90 cm in diameter, and has 12260 precision-drilled holes in it, to accommodate the tube/rod electrode assembly. The machining of the plates, which was done at the Science Technology Center (STC) at Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, required high precision to allow for easy insertion of the electrode copper tube. The plates have been carefully cleaned at the University of Arizona, to remove any machining residue and metal flakes. This process alone took about eleven weeks. Exactly 122...

  20. Upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter for the High luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00236332; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS detector at the LHC. It is a sampling calorimeter consisting of alternating thin steel plates and scintillating tiles. Wavelength shifting fibers coupled to the tiles collect the produced light and are read out by photomultiplier tubes. An analog sum of the processed signal of several photomultipliers serves as input to the first level of trigger. Photomultiplier signals are then digitized and stored on detector and are only transferred off detector once the first trigger acceptance has been confirmed. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has envisaged a series of upgrades towards a High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) delivering five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity. The ATLAS Phase II upgrade, in 2024, will accommodate the detector and data acquisition system for the HL-LHC. In particular, TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics. All signals will be digitized and then...

  1. Upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter for the High luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mlynarikova, Michaela; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS detector at the LHC. It is a sampling calorimeter consisting of alternating thin steel plates and scintillating tiles. Wavelength shifting fibers coupled to the tiles collect the produced light and are read out by photomultiplier tubes. Currently, an analog sum of the processed signal of several photomultipliers serves as input to the first level of trigger. Photomultiplier signals are then digitized and stored on detector and are only transferred off detector once the first trigger acceptance has been confirmed. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has envisaged a series of upgrades towards a High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) delivering five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity. The ATLAS Phase II upgrade, in 2024, will accommodate the detector and data acquisition system for the HL-LHC. In particular, TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics. All signals will be digitiz...

  2. A Study of Hadronic Calibration Schemes for Pion Test Beam Data in the ATLAS Forward Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    McCarthy, Thomas G

    The ATLAS forward calorimeters constitute a small though important fraction of the detector's calorimeter system, designed in part to accurately and precisely measure the energy of particles and jets of particles originating from the collisions of high-energy protons at the detector's centre. The application of hadronic weights, a practice common in high-energy calorimetry, provides a means of compensation for the fraction of energy which is deposited by particles in the detector, but which is invisible to the detector due to the nature of hadronic showers. Explored here are various schemes of extracting hadronic weights, as well as the application of such weights, based on pion data from the 2003 ATLAS forward calorimeter test beam. During the collection of test beam data, beams of both pions and electrons of known energy, ranging from 10 to 200 GeV, were fired at specific points of an isolated detector in order to understand its response. The improvement in noise-subtracted energy resolution with respect to...

  3. Intelligent Detector Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, N.; Cassell, R.; Johnson, T.; McCormick, J.; /SLAC; Magill, S.; Kuhlmann, S.; /Argonne

    2007-02-13

    At a future e+e- linear collider, precision measurements of jets will be required in order to understand physics at and beyond the electroweak scale. Calorimetry will be used with other detectors in an optimal way to reconstruct particle 4-vectors with unprecedented precision. This Particle Flow Algorithm (PFA) approach is seen as the best way to achieve particle mass resolutions from dijet measurements in the range of {approx} 30%/{radical}E, resulting in innovative methods for choosing the calorimeter technology and optimizing the detector design.

  4. Use of the calorimeter in the dosimetry for electron accelerators; Uso del calorimetro en la dosimetria para aceleradores de electrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez B, A

    1991-02-15

    The measure of different radiation types, with specific dosemeters, requires that the absorbed dose should be measured with accuracy by some common standard. The existent problem around the dosimetry of accelerated electrons has forced to the development of diverse detector types that after having analyzed the characteristics; dependability and reproducibility are used as dosemeters. Recently the calorimeters have been developed, with the purpose of carrying out dosimetry for electron accelerators. The RISO laboratory in Denmark, in it 10 MeV accelerator had been used for the dosimetry those water calorimeters, later on, using the principle of the water calorimeter, it was designing one similar, for the accelerator of 400 keV. Recently manufactured simple calorimeters of graphite have been used, which can be used in both accelerators of 10 MeV and 400 keV. (Author)

  5. The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter high-voltage system: commissioning, optimisation, and LHC relative luminosity measurement.

    CERN Document Server

    Arfaoui, Samir; Monnier, E

    2011-01-01

    The main goals of the ATLAS scientific programme are the observation or exclusion of physics beyond the Standard Model (SM), as well as the measurement of production cross-sections of SM processes. In oder to do so,it is important to measure the luminosity at the interaction point with great precision. The ATLAS luminosity is extracted using several detectors with varying efficiencies and acceptances. Different methods, such as inclusive - or coincidence - event counting and calorimeter integrated current measurements, are calibrated and cross-compared to provide the most accurate luminosity determination. In order to provide more cross-checks and a better control on the systematic uncertainties, an independent measurement using the liquid argon (LAr) forward calorimeter (FCal), based on the readout current of its high-voltage system, has been developed. This document describes how the LAr calorimeter high-voltage system has been installed and commissioned, as well as its application to a relative luminosity ...

  6. Optimization of Energy Resolution in the Digital Hadron Calorimeter using Longitudinal Weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. R.; Bilki, B.; Francis, K.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Xia, L.

    2013-04-01

    Physics at a future lepton collider requires unprecedented jet energy and dijet mass resolutions. Particle Flow Algorithms (PFAs) have been proposed to achieve these. PFAs measure particles in a jet individually with the detector subsystem providing the best resolution. For this to work a calorimeter system with very high granularity is required. A prototype Digital Hadron Calorimeter (the DHCAL) based on the Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) technology with a record count of readout channels has been developed, constructed, and exposed to particle beams. In this context, we report on a technique to improve the single hadron energy resolution by applying a set of calibration weights to the individual layers of the calorimeter. This weighting procedure was applied to approximately 1 million events in the energy range up to 60 GeV and shows an improvement in the pion energy resolution. Simulated data is used to verify particle identification techniques and to compare with the data.

  7. Test and characterization of a prototype silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Muhuri, Sanjib; Chandratre, Vinay B.; Sukhwani, Menka; Jena, Satyajit; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Nayak, Tapan K.; Saini, Jogender; Singaraju, Rama Narayana

    2014-11-11

    New generation high-energy physics experiments demand high precision tracking and accurate measurements of a large number of particles produced in the collisions of lementary particles and heavy-ions. Silicon-tungsten (Si-W) calorimeters provide the most viable technological option to meet the requirements of particle detection in high multiplicity environments. We report a novel Si-W calorimeter design, which is optimized for $\\gamma/\\pi^0$ discrimination up to high momenta. In order to test the feasibility of the calorimeter, a prototype mini-tower was constructed using silicon pad detector arrays and tungsten layers. The performance of the mini-tower was tested using pion and electron beams at the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS). The experimental results are compared with the results from a detailed GEANT-4 simulation. A linear relationship between the observed energy deposition and simulated response of the mini-tower has been obtained, in line with our expectations.

  8. Commissioning of the Laser II of the TileCal Calorimeter CERN summer student report

    CERN Document Server

    Calvetti, Milene

    2014-01-01

    The Tile calorimeter is the central hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS. It is a sampling calorimeter allowing the detections of hadrons, jets and hadronic decays of tau leptons contributing also to the missing transverse energy determination. It includes about 10k PhotoMultipliers (PMT’s) to detect the light produced by particles showering in the detector. The role of the Laser II system is to control the stability of the gains of such PMT’s. Before the installation of the laser in the pit to replace the old system a long commissioning phase has been done. My task was to participate to the measurements and to the analysis of the collected data.

  9. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter, its performance with pp collisions and its upgrades for high luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Davidek, Tomas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Jointly with the other calorimeters it is designed for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. It also assists in the muon identification.  A summary of the upgrades and performance results for TileCal using pp collisions from the initial LHC Run II at 13 TeV will be presented. For the high luminosity era a major upgrade of the TileCal electronics is planned, and the ongoing developments for on- and off-detector systems, together with expected performance characteristics and recent beam tests of prototypes, will be described.

  10. Performance of the ATLAS Hadronic Tile Calorimeter in Run-2 and its Upgrade for the High Luminosity LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovyanov, Oleg

    2017-10-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tauparticles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudo-rapidity up to 1.7, with almost 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ˜30 MeV to ˜2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production, from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction, is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the Tile calorimeter has been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions, acquired during the operations of the LHC. Prompt isolated muons of high momentum from electroweak bosons decays are employed to study the energy response of the calorimeter at the electromagnetic scale. The calorimeter response to hadronic particles is evaluated with a sample of isolated hadrons. The modelling of the response by the Monte Carlo simulation is discussed. The calorimeter timing calibration and resolutions are studied with a sample of multijets events. Results on the calorimeter operation and performance are presented, including the calibration, stability, absolute energy scale, uniformity and time resolution. TileCal performance satisfies the design requirements and has provided an essential contribution to physics results in ATLAS. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has envisaged a series of upgrades towards a High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), delivering five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity. The ATLAS Phase II upgrade, in 2024, will accommodate the detector and data acquisition system for the HL-LHC. In particular, the Tile Calorimeter will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics. All signals will be digitised and then transferred directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals will be reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz

  11. Understanding the performance of CMS calorimeter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The performance of the CMS hadron calorimeter is studied using test beam facilities at CERN. Two wedges of brass-scintillator calorimeter are exposed to negative and positive beams with momenta between 3 and 300 GeV/c. Light produced in the scintillators are collected using wavelength shifting fibres and read out ...

  12. Cone calorimeter tests of wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Kuma Sumathipala

    2013-01-01

    The cone calorimeter is widely used for the determination of the heat release rate (HRR) of building products and other materials. As part of an effort to increase the availability of cone calorimeter data on wood products, the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory and the American Wood Council conducted this study on composite wood products in cooperation with the Composite...

  13. A high precision calorimeter for the SOX experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, L.; Agostini, M.; Altenmüller, K.; Appel, S.; Caminata, A.; Cereseto, R.; Di Noto, L.; Farinon, S.; Musenich, R.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Schönert, S.; Testera, G.; Zavatarelli, S.

    2016-07-01

    The SOX (Short distance neutrino Oscillations with BoreXino) experiment is being built to discover or reject eV-scale sterile neutrinos by observing short baseline oscillations of active-to-sterile neutrinos [1]. For this purpose, a 100 kCi 144Ce-144Pr antineutrino generator (CeSOX) will be placed under the BOREXINO detector at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. Thanks to its large size and very low background, BOREXINO is an ideal detector to discover or reject eV-scale sterile neutrinos. To reach the maximal sensitivity, we aim at determining the neutrino flux emitted by the antineutrino generator with a < 1 % accuracy. With this goal, TU München and INFN Genova are developing a vacuum calorimeter, which is designed to measure the source-generated heat with high accuracy.

  14. Cosmic muon tomography of pure cesium iodide calorimeter crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Frlez, E; Assamagan, Ketevi A; Brönnimann, C; Flügel, T; Krause, B; Lawrence, D W; Mzhavia, D A; Pocanic, D; Renker, D; Ritt, S; Slocum, P L; Soic, N; Br"onnimann, Ch.; Fl"ugel, Th.

    2000-01-01

    Scintillation properties of pure CsI crystals used in the shower calorimeter being built for precise determination of the pi+ -> pi0 e+ nu decay rate are reported. Seventy-four individual crystals, polished and wrapped in Teflon foil, were examined in a multiwire drift chamber system specially designed for transmission cosmic muon tomography. Critical elements of the apparatus and reconstruction algorithms enabling measurement of spatial detector optical nonuniformities are described. Results are compared with a Monte Carlo simulation of the light response of an ideal detector. The deduced optical nonuniformity contributions to the FWHM energy resolution of the PIBETA CsI calorimeter for the pi+ -> e+ nu 69.8 MeV positrons and the monoenergetic 70.8 MeV photons were 2.7% and 3.7%, respectively. The upper limit of optical nonuniformity correction to the 69.8 MeV positron low-energy tail between 5 MeV and 55 MeV was +0.2%, as opposed to the +0.3% tail contribution for the photon of the equivalent total energy. ...

  15. Simulation of the CLAS12 Forward Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musalo, C. J.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Carbonneau, J.

    2010-11-01

    The primary mission of Jefferson Lab (JLab) is to reveal the quark and gluon structure of nucleons and nuclei and to deepen our understanding of matter and quark confinement. At JLab there is a need for high-performance computing for data analysis and simulations. The precision of many future experiments will be limited by systematic uncertainties and not statistical ones; making accurate simulations vital. A physics-based simulation of a new detector (CLAS12) is currently being developed called gemc. This new program uses the package Geant4 to calculate the interactions of particles with matter in the components of CLAS12. We have added the electromagnetic calorimeter (EC) detector to the gemc simulation. The EC is a sampling electromagnetic calorimeter made up of alternating layers of lead and plastic scintillator used to detect electrons, photons, and neutrons. The mathematical model of the EC geometry was streamlined to make the code more robust. This geometry is stored in a mysql database on a server at JLab and it was modified using Perl scripts. The new geometry was tested by sending straight tracks (no magnetic field) through the edges of specific layers using the geantino, a Geant4 virtual particle that does not interact with materials. Work supported by US Department of Energy contract DE-FG02-96ER40980.

  16. Multi-Anode Photomultplier (MAPMT) readout for High Granularity Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Mkrtchyan, Tigran; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Hadron calorimeter high performance in jet sub-structure measurements can be achieved for objects with $p_{T}$ greater than 1 TeV if the readout geometry is finely segmented in $\\Delta\\eta \\times \\Delta\\phi$. A feasibility study to increase the readout granularity of TileCal, the central hadron calorimeter of the ATLAS detector, is presented. We show a preliminary study exploring the possibility to increase by a factor 4 the present readout granularity of the inner layer cells of TileCal (0.1->0.025 in $\\Delta\\eta$) and to split into two layers the intermediate section of TileCal. The proposed solution is designed to cope with mechanical and readout bandwidth and power constraints. Assuming that the mechanics of the Tile modules cannot be changed, Multi-Anode PMTs with same boundary geometry of the present single-anode PMTs are considered to readout WLS bers, ideally one per pixel, carrying the signals from the individual scintillating tiles of each detector cells. The discussed challenges of the design are: ...

  17. The CMS calorimeter trigger upgrade for the LHC Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Zabi, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    The CMS experiment implements a sophisticated two-level online selection system that achieves a rejection factor of nearly 10e5. The first level (L1) is based on coarse information coming from the calorimeters and the muon detectors while the High-Level Trigger combines fine-grain information from all sub-detectors. During Run II, the LHC will increase its centre of mass energy up to 13 TeV and progressively reach an instantaneous luminosity of 2e34 cm-2s-1. In order to guarantee a successful and ambitious physics program under this intense environment, the CMS Trigger and Data acquisition system must be consolidated. In particular the L1 calorimeter Trigger hardware and architecture will be modified. The goal is to maintain the current thresholds (e.g., for electrons and photons) and improve the performance for the selection of tau leptons. This can only be achieved by designing an updated trigger architecture based on the recent microTCA technology. Racks can be equipped with fast optical links and latest...

  18. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes, located in the outer part of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two photomultiplier in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements and an integrator based readout system. Combined information from all systems allows to monitor and equalise the calorimeter r...

  19. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chomont, Arthur Rene; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), located on the outside of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser and charge injection elements and it allows to monitor and equalize the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scin...

  20. The CLIC Detector Concept

    CERN Document Server

    Pitters, Florian Michael

    2016-01-01

    CLIC is a concept for a future linear collider that would provide e+e- collisions at up to 3 TeV. The physics aims require a detector system with excellent jet energy and track momentum resolution, highly efficient flavour-tagging and lepton identification capabilities, full geometrical coverage extending to low polar angles and timing information in the order of nanoseconds to reject beam-induced background. To deal with those requirements, an extensive R&D programme is in place to overcome current technological limits. The CLIC detector concept includes a low-mass all-silicon vertex and tracking detector system and fine-grained calorimeters designed for particle flow analysis techniques, surrounded by a 4 T solenoid magnet. An overview of the requirements and design optimisations for the CLIC detector concept is presented.

  1. SUITABILITY OF A NEW CALORIMETER FOR EXOTIC MESON SEARCHES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bookwalter, C.; Ostrovidov, A.; Eugenio, P.

    2007-01-01

    Exotic mesons, particles that have quantum numbers that are inaccessible to conventional quark-model mesons, are predicted by quantum chromodynamics (QCD), but past experiments seeking to identify exotic candidates have produced controversial results. The HyCLAS experiment (E04005) at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) proposes the use of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) in Hall B to study the photoproduction of exotic mesons. However, the base detector package at CLAS is not ideal for observing and measuring neutral particles, particularly at forward angles. The Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) experiment at TJNAF has commissioned a new calorimeter for detecting small-angle photons, but studies must be performed to determine its suitability for a meson spectroscopy experiment. The ηπ system has been under especial scrutiny in the community as a source for potential exotics, so the new calorimeter’s ability at reconstructing these resonances must be evaluated. To achieve this, the invariant mass of showers in the calorimeter are reconstructed. Also, two electroproduction reaction channels analogous to photoproduction channels of interest to HyCLAS are examined in DVCS data. It is found that, while not ideal, the new calorimeter will allow access to additional reaction channels, and its inclusion in HyCLAS is warranted. Results in basic shower reconstruction show that the calorimeter has good effi ciency in resolving π° decays, but its η reconstruction is not as strong. When examining ep → epπ°η, preliminary reconstruction of the ηπ° system shows faint signals in the a0(980) region. In the ep → e n π+ η channel, preliminary reconstruction of the ηπ+ system gave good signals in the a0(980) and a2(1320) regions, but statistics were poor. While more analyses are necessary to improve statistics and remove background, these preliminary results support the claim

  2. Upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter for the High luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Asensi Tortajada, Ignacio; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS detector at the LHC. It is a sampling calorimeter consisting of alternating thin steel plates and scintillating tiles. Wavelength shifting fibers coupled to the tiles collect the produced light and are read out by photomultiplier tubes. An analog sum of the processed signal of several photomultipliers serves as input to the first level of trigger. Photomultiplier signals are then digitized at 40 MHz and stored on detector and are only transferred off detector once the first level trigger acceptance has been confirmed (at a rate of maximum 100 kHz). The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has envisaged a series of upgrades towards a High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) delivering five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity. The ATLAS Phase II upgrade, in 2024, will accommodate the upgrade of the detector and data acquisition system for the HL-LHC. In particular, TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and of...

  3. Upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter for the High luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Solodkov, Alexander; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment. TileCal is a sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillators as active medium. The scintillators are read-out by wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) will have a peak luminosity of 5x10ˆ34 cm-2s-1, five times higher than the design luminosity of the LHC. TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics for the high luminosity programme of the LHC starting in 2026. All signals will be digitized and then transferred directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals will be reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will a...

  4. Upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter for the High luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00127668; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment. TileCal is a sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillators as active medium. The scintillators are read-out by wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) will have a peak luminosity of 5 1034cm2s1, five times higher than the design luminosity of the LHC. TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics for the high luminosity programme of the LHC starting in 2026. All signals will be digitized and then transferred directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals will be reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow ...

  5. CrossRef Energy Reconstruction in a High Granularity Semi-Digital Hadronic Calorimeter for ILC Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Mannai, S; Cortina, E; Laktineh, I

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The Semi-Digital Hadronic CALorimeter (SDHCAL) is one of the two hadronic calorimeter options proposed by the International Large Detector (ILD) project for the future International Linear Collider (ILC) experiments. It is a sampling calorimeter with 48 active layers made of Glass Resistive Plate Chambers (GRPCs) and their embedded electronics. A fine lateral segmentation is obtained thanks to pickup pads of 1 cm2. This ensures the high granularity required for the application of the Particle Flow Algorithm (PFA) in order to improve the jet energy resolution in the ILC experiments. The performance of the SDHCAL technological prototype was tested successfully in several beam tests at CERN. The main point to be discussed here concerns the energy reconstruction in SDHCAL. Based on Monte Carlo simulation of the SDHCAL prototype using the GEANT4 package, we present different energy reconstruction methods to study the energy linearity and resolution of the detector response to single hadrons. In particula...

  6. ALICE Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC), General Pictures.

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The ZDC Calorimeter for spectator neutrons is made by 44 slabs of W-alloy; each slab has 44 grooves where quartz fibres are placed. The charged particles of the hadronic shower generated by the neutrons make Cerenkov light in the fibres and the light is collected by photomultipliers. Photos from 1 to 9 show the front-face of the calorimeter. Photo n. 10 shows the rear of the calorimeter where the fibres are divided in several groups to go to the different PMs.

  7. Tritium calorimeter setup and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Rodgers, D E

    2002-01-01

    The LBNL tritium calorimeter is a stable instrument capable of measuring tritium with a sensitivity of 25 Ci. Measurement times range from 8-hr to 7-days depending on the thermal conductivity and mass of the material being measured. The instrument allows accurate tritium measurements without requiring that the sample be opened and subsampled, thus reducing personnel exposure and radioactive waste generation. The sensitivity limit is primarily due to response shifts caused by temperature fluctuation in the water bath. The fluctuations are most likely a combination of insufficient insulation from ambient air and precision limitations in the temperature controller. The sensitivity could probably be reduced to below 5 Ci if the following improvements were made: (1) Extend the external insulation to cover the entire bath and increase the top insulation. (2) Improve the seal between the air space above the bath and the outside air to reduce evaporation. This will limit the response drift as the water level drops. (...

  8. Detector Systems at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider CLIC is designed to deliver e+e- collisions at a center of mass energy of up to 3 TeV. The detector systems at this collider have to provide highly efficient tracking and excellent jet energy resolution and hermeticity for multi-TeV final states with multiple jets and leptons. In addition, the detector systems have to be capable of distinguishing physics events from large beam-induced background at a crossing frequency of 2 GHz. Like for the detector concepts at the ILC, CLIC detectors are based on event reconstruction using particle flow algorithms. The two detector concepts for the ILC, ILD and SID, were adapted for CLIC using calorimeters with dense absorbers limiting leakage through increased compactness, as well as modified forward and vertex detector geometries and precise time stamping to cope with increased background levels. The overall detector concepts for CLIC are presented, with particular emphasis on the main detector and engineering challenges, such as: the ultra-thi...

  9. Performance of the Tile PreProcessor Demonstrator for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase II Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio Argos, Fernando; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter PreProcessor (TilePPr) demonstrator is a high performance double AMC board based on FPGA resources and QSFP modules. This board has been designed in the framework of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) Demonstrator Project for the Phase II Upgrade as the first stage of the back-end electronics. The TilePPr demonstrator has been conceived for receiving and processing the data coming from the front-end electronics of the TileCal Demonstrator module, as well as for configuring it. Moreover, the TilePPr demonstrator handles the communication with the Detector Control System to monitor and control the front-end electronics. The TilePPr demonstrator represents 1/8 of the final TilePPr that will be designed and installed into the detector for the ATLAS Phase II Upgrade.

  10. Calibrating the PHENIX Muon Piston Calorimeter Using Fits to ADC Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, James; Phenix Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The PHENIX Muon Piston Calorimeter (MPC), a homogeneous electromagnetic calorimeter located in the forward and backward directions (3.1 < η < 3.9) is being used to measure transverse energy from RHIC Au+Au collisions obtained in 2010. While the detector has been partially calibrated using the reconstruction of neutral pions in an iterative procedure, the calibration constants for some areas of the detector are not converging. In order to improve the initial set of calibration constants, a parameterization of the energy distributions as a function of distance from the beamline (obtained using well calibrated towers) is used to provide initial values to problem towers in the iterative procedure. The work done to produce this parameterization and its effects on the calibration process will be described. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1507841.

  11. Electronics and triggering challenges for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Borg, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL) is presently being designedto replace the CMS endcap calorimeters for the HighLuminosity phase at LHC. It will feature six million silicon sensor channelsand 52 longitudinal layers. The requirements for the frontendelectronics include a 0.3 fC-10 pC dynamic range, low noise (2000 e-) and low power consumption (10 mW /channel).In addition, the HGCAL will perform 50 ps resolution time of arrivalmeasurements to combat the effect of the large number of interactions taking placeat each bunch crossing, and will transmit both triggered readoutfrom on-detector buffer memory and reduced resolution real-time trigger data.We present the challenges related to the frontend electronics, data transmissionand off-detector trigger preprocessing that must be overcome, and the designconcepts currently being pursued.

  12. The ATLAS/TILECAL Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    Tilecal, the barrel hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS, is a sampling calorimeter where scintillating tiles are embedded in an iron matrix. The tiles are optically coupled to wavelength shifting fibers that carry the optical signal to photo-multipliers. It has a cylindrical shape and is made out of 3 cylinders, the Long Barrel with the LBA and LBC partitions, and the two Extended Barrel with the EBA and EBC partitions. The main task of the Tile calorimeter Detector Control System (DCS) is to enable the coherent and safe operation of the calorimeter. All actions initiated by the operator, as well as all errors, warnings and alarms concerning the hardware of the detector are handled by DCS. The Tile calorimeter DCS controls and monitors mainly the low voltage and high voltage power supply systems, but it is also interfaced with the infrastructure (cooling system and racks), the laser and cesium calibration systems, the data acquisition system, configuration and conditions databases and the detector safety system. In...

  13. Central electromagnetic calorimeter of UA1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochet, C.; DeBeer, M.; Fournier, J.P.; Givernaud, A.; Laugier, J.P.; Leveque, A.; Locci, E.; Loret, M.; Malosse, J.J.; Micolon, P.

    1986-02-01

    We describe the construction, calibration and performance of the central electromagnetic calorimeter of the UA1 experiment at the CERN proton-antiproton collider. The calorimeter is of the lead-scintillator sandwich type. It is 26.4 radiation lengths thick and covers a surface of about 50 m/sup 2/. We estimate the resolution of the calorimeter for electrons of energy greater than 1 GeV to be the sum in quadrature of 15%/..sqrt..E (E in GeV) and a constant 3%. The first term comes from the inherent resolution of the calorimeter due to sampling fluctuations and photostatistics. The second term comes from uncertainties in the calibration procedure and dominates the resolution for electrons from W and Z/sup 0/ decay. The uncertainty in the overall energy scale also reflects the uncertainties in the calibration procedure and is estimated to be 3%. (orig.).

  14. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00304670; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. Results on the calorimeter operation and performance are presented, including the calibration, stability, absolute energy scale, uniformity and time resolution. These results show that the TileCal performance is within the design requirements and has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results.

  15. Performance of the ATLAS Zero Degree Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Leite, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a set of two sampling calorimeters modules symmetrically located at 140m from the ATLAS interaction point. The ZDC covers a pseudorapidity range of |eta| > 8.3 and it is both longitudinally and transversely segmented, thus providing energy and position information of the incident particles. The ZDC is installed between the two LHC beam pipes, in a configuration such that only the neutral particles produced at the interaction region can reach this calorimeter. The ZDC uses Tungsten plates as absorber material and rods made of quartz interspersed in the absorber as active media. The energetic charged particles crossing the quartz rods produces Cherenkov light which is then detected by photomultipliers and sent to the front end electronics for processing, in a total of 120 individual electronic channels. The Tungsten plates and quartz rods are arranged in a way to segment the calorimeters in 4 longitudinal sections. The first section (...

  16. The CMS central hadron calorimeter: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, J.

    1998-06-01

    The CMS central hadron calorimeter is a brass absorber/ scintillator sampling structure. We describe details of the mechanical and optical structure. We also discuss calibration techniques, and finally the anticipated construction schedule.

  17. The CMS forward calorimeter with quartz fibres

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    Part of the forward hadron calorimeter for the CMS experiment at the LHC is seen here. The calorimeter will be placed at the ends of the experiment barrel to measure the energy of particles produced in the 14 TeV proton-proton collisions. In consists of an iron absorber and specially designed radiation-hard quartz so that it survives the high radiation levels produced by collisions.

  18. The Mu2e Undoped CsI Crystal Calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanov, N.; et al.

    2018-01-07

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab will search for Charged Lepton Flavor Violating conversion of a muon to an electron in an atomic field. The Mu2e detector is composed of a tracker, an electromagnetic calorimeter and an external system, surrounding the solenoid, to veto cosmic rays. The calorimeter plays an important role to provide: a) excellent particle identification capabilities; b) a fast trigger filter; c) an easier tracker track reconstruction. Two disks, located downstream of the tracker, contain 674 pure CsI crystals each. Each crystal is read out by two arrays of UV-extended SiPMs. The choice of the crystals and SiPMs has been finalized after a thorough test campaign. A first small scale prototype consisting of 51 crystals and 102 SiPM arrays has been exposed to an electron beam at the BTF (Beam Test Facility) in Frascati. Although the readout electronics were not the final, results show that the current design is able to meet the timing and energy resolution required by the Mu2e experiment.

  19. First data with the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Achenbach, R; Aharrouche, M; Andrei, V; Åsman, B; Barnett, BM; Bauss, B; Bendel, M; Bohm, C; Booth, JRA; Bracinik, J; Brawn, IP; Charlton, DG; Childers, JT; Collins, NC; Curtis, CJ; Davis, AO; Eckweiler, S; Eisenhandler, E F; Faulkner, PJW; Fleckner, J; Föhlisch, F; Gee, CNP; Gillman, AR; Goeringer, C; Groll, M; Hadley, DR; Hanke, P; Hellman, S; Hidvegi, A; Hillier, SJ; Johansen, M; Kluge, E-E; Kühl, T; Landon, M; Lendermann, V; Lilley, JN; Mahboubi, K; Mahout, G; Meier, K; Middleton, RP; Moa, T; Morris, JD; Müller, F; Neusiedl, A; Ohm, C; Oltmann, B; Perera, VJO; Prieur, D; Qian, W; Rieke, S; Rühr, F; Sankey, DPC; Schäfer, U; Schmitt, K; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Seidler, P; Silverstein, S; Sjölin, J; Staley, RJ; Stamen, R; Stockton, MC; Tan, CLA; Tapprogge, S; Thomas, JP; Thompson, PD; Watkins, PM; Watson, A; Weber, P; Wessels, M; Wildt, M

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger is one of the main elements of the first stage of event selection for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The input stage consists of a mixed analogue/digital component taking trigger sums from the ATLAS calorimeters. The trigger logic is performed in a digital, pipelined system with several stages of processing, largely based on FPGAs, which perform programmable algorithms in parallel with a fixed latency to process about 300 Gbyte/s of input data. The real-time output consists of counts of different types of physics objects, and energy sums. The final system consists of over 300 custom-built VME modules, of several different types. The installation at ATLAS of these modules, and the necessary infrastructure, was completed at the end of 2007. The system has since undergone intensive testing, both in standalone mode, and in conjunction with the whole of the ATLAS detector in combined running. The final steps of commissioning, and experience with running the full-scale system...

  20. First Wheel of the Hadronic EndCap Calorimeter Completed

    CERN Document Server

    Oram, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    With the LAr calorimeters well advanced in module production, the attention is turning to Batiment 180 where the calorimeter modules are formed into complete detectors and inserted into their respective cryostats. For the Hadronic End Cap (HEC) Group the task in B180 is to assemble the wheels, rotate them into their final orientation, and put them onto the cradle in front of the End Cap Cryostat. These tasks have been completed for the first HEC wheel in the B180 End Cap Clean Room. Given that this wheel weighs 70 tons the group is very relieved to have established that these gymnastics with the wheel proceed in a routine fashion. To assemble a wheel we take modules that have already been cold tested, do the final electrical testing and locate them onto the HEC wheel assembly table. Four wheels are required in total, each consisting of 32 modules. Wheel assembly is done in the horizontal position, creating a doughnut-like object sitting on the HEC table. The first picture shows the last module being added ...

  1. SIGNAL RECONSTRUCTION PERFORMANCE OF THE ATLAS HADRONIC TILE CALORIMETER

    CERN Document Server

    Do Amaral Coutinho, Y; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    "The Tile Calorimeter for the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillators as active medium. The scintillators are readout by wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal front-end electronics allows to read out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. The read-out system is responsible for reconstructing the data in real-time fulfilling the tight time constraint imposed by the ATLAS first level trigger rate (100 kHz). The main component of the read-out system is the Digital Signal Processor (DSP) which, using an Optimal Filtering reconstruction algorithm, allows to compute for each channel the signal amplitude, time and quality factor at the required high rate. Currently the ATLAS detector and the LHC are undergoing an upgrade program tha...

  2. The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter: upgrade plans for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Novgorodova, O; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 1034cm-2s-1. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudorapidity region |η|<3.2, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from |η|=1.5 to |η|=4.9. Although the nominal LHC experimental programme is still in progress, plans for a High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) are already being developed for operation of the collider and associated detectors at luminosities of up to (5-7)×1034 cm-2s-1, with the goal of accumulating an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1. The proposed instantaneous and integrated luminosities are both well beyond the values for which the detectors were designed. The electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters will be able to tolerate the increased particle flux, but the performance of the forward calorimeter (FCal) will be affected. Two solutions for this are un...

  3. Electron and photon energy reconstruction in the electromagnetic calorimeter of ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2075753; Mandelli, Luciano

    2007-01-01

    The Atlas LAr electromagnetic calorimeter is designed to provide a precise measurement of electrons and photons energies, in order to meet the requirements coming from the LHC physics program. This request of precision makes important to understand the behavior of the detector in all its aspect. Of fundamental importance to achieve the best possible performances is the calibration of the EM calorimeter, and this is the topic of this thesis. With detailed Monte Carlo simulations of single electrons and photons in the Atlas detector, we find a method to calibrate the electromagnetic calorimeter, based only on the informations that come from it. All the informations needed to develop a calibration method come from the simulations made with the technique of the Calibration Hits, that allows to know the en- ergy deposited in all the materials inside the detector volume, and not only in the active layer of each subdetector as possible in the standard simulations. This technique required a big effort for the develop...

  4. Construction and test of a tungsten/Sci-Fi imaging calorimeter for the CREAM experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Marrocchesi, P S; Bagliesi, M G; Basti, A; Bigongiari, G; Castellina, A; Ganel, O; Lee, M H; Lomtadze, T A; Lutz, L; Maestro, P; Malinine, A; Meucci, M; Millucci, V; Morsani, F; Seo, E S; Zinn, S Y

    2004-01-01

    Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) is a balloon-borne experiment designed to perform direct measurements of cosmic ray composition over the elemental range from proton to iron to the supernova energy scale of 10 **1**5eV in a series of balloon flights using the new Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) capability under development by NASA. The first flight of CREAM will take place at the end of 2004 from Antarctica. The instrument includes a sampling tungsten /scintillating fiber calorimeter preceded by a graphite target with scintillating fiber hodoscopes, a pixelated silicon charge detector, a transition radiation detector and a segmented timing-based particle-charge detector. The thin ionization calorimeter has been designed to operate in the range of energies from a few hundred GeV to 1 PeV providing imaging capability in the reconstruction of the showers originating from the interaction of primary nuclei in the carbon target. A twin calorimeter for the second CREAM payload has been built and tested at C...

  5. Metallic magnetic calorimeters for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krantz, M.; Hengstler, D.; Geist, J.; Schoetz, C.; Hassel, K.; Hendricks, S.; Keller, M.; Kempf, S.; Gastaldo, L.; Fleischmann, A.; Enss, C. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). KIP

    2015-07-01

    We develop microfabricated, energy dispersive particle detector arrays based on metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs) for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy to challenge bound-state QED calculations. Our MMCs are operated at about T=30 mK and use a paramagnetic temperature sensor, read-out by a SQUID, to measure the energy deposited by single X-ray photons. We discuss the physics of MMCs, the detector performance and the cryogenic setups for two different detector arrays. We present their microfabrication layouts with focus on challenges like the heatsinking of each pixel of the detector and the overhanging absorbers. The maXs-20 detector is a linear 1x8-pixel array with excellent linearity in its designated energy range up to 20 keV and unsurpassed energy resolution of 1.6 eV for 6 keV x-rays. MaXs-20 operated in a highly portable pulse tube cooled ADR setup has already been used at the EBIT facilities of the MPI-K for new reference measurements of V-like and Ti-like tungsten. The maXs-30 detector currently in development is a 8x8-pixel 2d-array with an active detection area of 16 mm{sup 2} and is designed to detect X-rays up to 50 keV with a designated energy resolution below 5 eV. MaXs-30 will be operated in a cryogen free 3He/4He-dilution refrigerator at the tip of a 40 cm long cold finger at T=20 mK.

  6. Testbeam results for a Shashlik calorimeter with longitudinal segmentation

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    In the frame of R & D for electromagnetic calorimetry at future e+ e- linear colliders different techniques have been studied to implement longitudinal segmentation in Shashlik calorimeters. Two prototypes with 5 multiplied by 5 cm2 lead/scintillator towers and WLS readout have been built. The longitudinal segmentation of the shower is achieved by modifying the front part of the detector. In one prototype vacuum photodiodes are inserted laterally for the first 8 radiation lengths, while in the second one fast scintillator is used in the first 5 radiation lengths. Both the prototypes have been exposed to beam at the CERN West Area, and the performance in term of energy resolution, uniformity, spatial resolution and electron/pion separation are described. The preliminary results of the exposure to the same beam of a third prototype, with a 3 multiplied by 3 cm2 lateral granularity are also presented.

  7. Single-Particle Response in the CMS Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The single-particle response in the prototype CMS calorimeters has been measured in a test beam environment using hadron beams over a large range of energy and the data were used to tune the CMS simulation software. Strategies for measuring single-particle response from collision data at the Large Hadron Collider have been developed using isolated charged hadrons. The criteria to select isolated charged particles are optimized in order to maximize the signal containment, while minimizing contamination from other sources. Response functions are determined for the final detector configuration, which includes effects from additional dead material not present in the test beam environment, using collision data with the center of mass energy of 7 TeV. These measurements are compared with Monte Carlo predictions tuned to the test beam data.

  8. Test of interaction models with the KASCADE hadron calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milkea, J. E-mail: jens.milke@ik.fzk.de; Antonib, T.; Apel, W.D.; Badea, F.; Bekk, K.; Bercuci, A.; Bluemer, H.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I.M.; Buettner, C.; Chilingarian, A.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.; Engler, J.; Fessler, F.; Gils, H.J.; Glasstetter, R.; Haeusler, R.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hoerandel, J.R.; Iwan, A.; Kampert, K.-H.; Klages, H.O.; Maier, G.; Mathes, H.J.; Mayer, H.J.; Mueller, M.; Obenland, R.; Oehlschlaegera, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Petcu, M.; Rebel, H.; Risse, M.; Roth, M.; Schatz, G.; Schieler, H.; Scholz, J.; Thouw, T.; Ulrich, H.; Weber, J.H.; Weindl, A.; Wentz, J.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J

    2003-07-01

    The interpretation of extensive air shower measurements often requires the comparison with EAS simulations. These calculations rely on hadronic interaction models which have to extrapolate into kinematical and energy regions not covered by present-day collider experiments. The KASCADE experiment with its large hadron calorimeter and its detectors for the electromagnetic and muonic components provides experimental data to check hadronic interaction models. For the EAS simulations the program CORSIKA with several hadronic event generators embedded is used. Different hadronic observables are investigated as well as their correlations with the electromagnetic and muonic components. Comparing the interaction models QGSJET 98, NEXUS II, and DPMJET 11.5, it is found, that QGSJET describes the data best.

  9. Data Quality Monitoring for the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Della Ricca, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    One of the CMS design objectives is to construct and operate a very high quality electromagnetic calorimeter. The detector performance will be monitored using applications based on the CMS Data Quality Monitoring (DQM) framework and running on the High-Level Trigger Farm as well as on local DAQ systems. The monitorable quantities are organized into hierarchical structures based on the physics content. The information produced is delivered to client applications according to their subscription requests. The client applications process the received quantities, according to pre-defined analyses, making the results immediately available, and store the results in a database, and in the form of static web pages, for subsequent studies. We describe here the functionalities of the CMS ECAL DQM applications and report about their use in a real environment.

  10. The Data Quality Monitoring for the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gobbo, Benigno

    2008-01-01

    The detector performance of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter is monitored using applications based on the CMS Data Quality Monitoring (DQM) framework and running on the High-Level Trigger Farm as well as on local DAQ systems. The monitorable quantities are organized into hierarchical structures based on the physics content. The information produced is accessible by client applications according to their subscription requests. The client applications process the received quantities, according to pre-defined analyses, making the results immediately available, while also storing the results in a database, and in the form of static web pages, for subsequent studies. We describe here the functionalities of the CMS ECAL DQM applications and report about their use in real environments.

  11. Consolidation and upgrades of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Cerda Alberich, Leonor; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This is a presentation of the status of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter during the EYETS and before starting 2017 data-taking. Updates on the upgrade of the readout system such as doubling the RODs output links and the number of processing units (PUs) are being worked on at the moment as well as items concerning the maintenance of the detector which involves issues such as cooling leaks and consolidation of the Low Voltage Power Supplies, which are being replaced if necessary. Other updates include works on the Tile calibration, in particular on the Cesium system. In addition, the whole Tile readout electronics is being replaced for Phase-II and it is being tested in Test Beam area.

  12. Calibration and signal reconstruction in the ATLAS Tile Hadronic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Febbraro, R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    Tilecal is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS detector which is one of the four experiment installed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) collider at CERN. In order to calibrate the full read-out path in the TileCal are present different calibration systems. As the final digital signal is the result of successive conversions the signal needs to be calibrated at each stage. The full calibration process relies on three subsystems: the Charge Injection System (CIS), the Laser System, and the Cesium. Once the digital signal is calibrated, it needs to reconstructed in order to determine the amplitude and the time of the deposited energy. In TileCal the Optimal Filter (OF) algorithm is used for this purpose; in particular the signal is reconstructed in the Read-Out Drivers (ROD) using the Digital Signal processor (DSP).

  13. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters At The Dawn Of LHC Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Camincher, Clement; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Liquid Argon Calorimeters are key sub-detectors of ATLAS. They are essential to detect and measure the properties of electrons, photons and are also crucial for jets and missing transverse energy measurements. During the LHC shutdown in 2013-2014, the hardware and the software have been optimized to improve their reliability. The first collisions allows to assess the performance of the detector in the LHC Run-2 real conditions. In view of the next LHC Run in 2020, an upgrade of the level-1 trigger system is also under test. A status at the restart of the LHC Run-2 is presented in this document.

  14. The front-end electronics system for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Pastrone, Nadia

    2004-01-01

    The CMS electromagnetic calorimeter at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been designed to measure the energy of electrons and photons with high resolution over a wide dynamic range, using lead tungstate scintillating crystals. To minimize external noise most of the readout chain must be placed within the detector in a high radiation environment, inside the 4 T magnetic field. To cope with these demanding constraints innovative solutions have been adopted since most of the common technologies are excluded. The basic architecture and the first prototype tests of the on-detector readout chain are described. (12 refs).

  15. Development of Readout Interconnections for the Si-W Calorimeter of SiD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, M.; Fields, R.G.; Holbrook, B.; Lander, R.L.; Moskaleva, A.; Neher, C.; Pasner, J.; Tripathi, M.; /UC, Davis; Brau, J.E.; Frey, R.E.; Strom, D.; /Oregon U.; Breidenbach, M.; Freytag, D.; Haller, G.; Herbst, R.; Nelson, T.; /SLAC; Schier, S.; Schumm, B.; /UC, Santa Cruz

    2012-09-14

    The SiD collaboration is developing a Si-W sampling electromagnetic calorimeter, with anticipated application for the International Linear Collider. Assembling the modules for such a detector will involve special bonding technologies for the interconnections, especially for attaching a silicon detector wafer to a flex cable readout bus. We review the interconnect technologies involved, including oxidation removal processes, pad surface preparation, solder ball selection and placement, and bond quality assurance. Our results show that solder ball bonding is a promising technique for the Si-W ECAL, and unresolved issues are being addressed.

  16. Low voltage control for the liquid argon hadronic end-cap calorimeter of ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Brettel, H; Habring, J; Oberlack, H; Schacht, P

    2002-01-01

    At the ATLAS detector a SCADA system surveys and controls the sub- detectors. The link is realized by PVSS2 software and a CanBus hardware system. The low voltages for the Hadronic Endcaps of the liquid argon calorimeter are produced by DC/DC-converters in the power boxes and split into 320 channels corresponding to the pre- amplifier and summing boards in the cryostat. Six units of a prototype distribution board are currently under test. Each of it contains 2 ELMBs as CanBus interface, a FPGA of type QL3012 for digital control and 30 low voltage regulators for the individual fine adjustments of the outputs.

  17. Integrated test environment for a part of the LHCb calorimeter - TWEPP09

    CERN Document Server

    Abellan, C; Gaspar de Valenzuela, A; RieraBaburés, J; Gascón, D; Picatoste, E; Comerma, A; VilasísCardona, X

    2009-01-01

    An integrated test environment for the data acquisition electronics of the Scintillator Pad Detector (SPD) from the calorimeter of the LHCb experiment is presented. It allows to test separately every single board or to perform global system tests, while being able to emulate every part of the system and debug it. This environment is foreseen to test the production of spare electronic boards and help the maintenance of the SPD electronics along the life of the detector. The heart of the system is an Altera Stratix II FPGA while the main board can be controlled over USB, Ethernet or WiFi.

  18. Preparing the hardware of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter control and safety systems for LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068025; Di Calafiori, D.; Cirkovic, P.; Dissertori, G.; Djambazov, L.; Jovanovic, D.; Lustermann, W.; Zelepoukine, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Detector Control System of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter has undergone significant improvements during the first LHC Long Shutdown. Based on the experience acquired during the first period of physics data taking of the LHC, several hardware projects were carried out to improve data accuracy, to minimise the impact of failures and to extend remote control possibilities in order to accelerate recovery from problematic situations. This paper outlines the hardware of the detector control and safety systems and explains in detail the requirements, design and commissioning of the new hardware projects.

  19. Development of readout interconnections for the Si-W calorimeter of SiD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, M.; Fields, R. G.; Holbrook, B.; Lander, R. L.; Moskaleva, A.; Neher, C.; Pasner, J.; Tripathi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Frey, R. E.; Strom, D.; Breidenbach, M.; Freytag, D.; Haller, G.; Herbst, R.; Nelson, T.; Schier, S.; Schumm, B.

    2011-12-01

    The SiD collaboration is developing a Si-W sampling electromagnetic calorimeter, with anticipated application for the International Linear Collider. Assembling the modules for such a detector will involve special bonding technologies for the interconnections, especially for attaching a silicon detector wafer to a flex cable readout bus. We review the interconnect technologies involved, including oxidation removal processes, pad surface preparation, solder ball selection and placement, and bond quality assurance. Our results show that solder ball bonding is a promising technique for the Si-W ECAL, and unresolved issues are being addressed.

  20. Scintillator calorimeters for a future linear collider experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartbrich, Oskar

    2016-07-15

    This thesis presents the first analysis of a full calorimeter system based on the scintillator-SiPM technology. In the testbeam campaign at the Fermilab testbeam facility in May 2009, the combined scintillator-SiPM prototype calorimeter system consisting of the CALICE Scintillator Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ScECAL), the CALICE Analogue Hadronic Calorimeter (AHCAL) and the CALICE Tail Catcher and Muon Tracker (TCMT) were operated in particle beams of electrons, pions and muons in the energy range up to 32 GeV. The absorber material and sampling fraction of the ScECAL is different from the AHCAL and TCMT, which complicates the reconstruction of shower energies and potentially impacts the achievable energy resolution of showers extending through the whole calorimeter system. A clean selection of single particle events of a given particle type is obtained using the information from the beam instrumentation installed in the beam line and from the reconstruction of features of the shower topology to identify additional particles entering the detectors. The remaining contaminations are found to be small enough to not significantly bias the results. Possible selection biases on the energy response or resolution are found to be negligible in simulation studies. A detailed validation of the ScECAL model is performed with electromagnetic showers and interactions, ranging from the single cell spectra of MIP particles up to full electromagnetic shower profile and their response and resolution. Adapting the geometry of the ScECAL simulation model can reduce the observed discrepancies, however not within reasonable ranges of modification. The analysis of pion data recorded with the combined scintillator-SiPM system aims to extract the energy resolution for single, contained pion showers, both in comparison to different simulations and to the resolutions obtained from a similar setup without the ScECAL. In the ScECAL the longitudinal shower profile as a function of distance to

  1. Prescise measurement of jet energies with the ZEUS detector

    OpenAIRE

    Wing, Matthew

    2000-01-01

    A method to correct the jet transverse energy has been developed for the ZEUS detector which attains an uncertainty better than 3%. The procedure is based on a combination of tracking and calorimeter information that optimises the resolution of reconstructed kinematic variables. The selected calorimeter clusters and tracks are referred to as Energy Flow Objects (EFOs). The conservation of energy and momentum in neutral current deep inelastic $e^+p$ scattering events is exploited to determine ...

  2. GEANT Simulation of the ATLAS Zero Degree Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Joseph

    2017-09-01

    The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) in collaboration with the ATLAS group at CERN is developing an improved Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC) to replace the current ZDC in the ATLAS experiment. The prototype ZDC is a four module detector each made up of 11 alternating layers of tungsten and a liquid active region filled with quantum dots as wavelength shifter and mineral oil solution. When neutrons from the beam collide with the ZDC, the charged hadrons that result from the particle showers produce Cherenkov radiation. This Cherenkov radiation is absorbed and reemitted in a longer wavelength. The re-emitted light is then re-absorbed by second stage wavelength shifters inside hollow quartz rods. The radiation reemitted in the quartz rods is read out through silicon photomultipliers. As a part of ongoing changes to the LHC, the space available between beam pipes is being reduced from 100 mm to 60 mm. Due to this space restriction's effect on the width of the ZDC, there are concerns about the detector's ability to measure the full transverse profile of the particle showers it is designed to contain. The paper will present the results of computer simulations and analysis that were carried out to study the ZDC performance with reduced detector width.

  3. In-situ probe of the response of the Tile Calorimeter to isolated hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Jennens, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Tile calorimeter is the hadronic central barrel of the calorimeter system of the ATLAS experiment for the LHC at CERN. It is based on a sampling technique where scintillating tiles are embedded in iron absorber plates. The tiles are grouped together in cells which are disposed in three different layers. The cells from the two innermost layers cover a $\\Delta\\eta \\times \\Delta\\phi $ range of 0.1 $\\times$ 0.1, while the outermost layer covers 0.2 $\\times$ 0.1. An in-situ method to probe the calorimeter response to single charged hadrons can be established by using the ratio of energy measured in the calorimeter cells over the momentum measured by the inner tracking system. This measurement can be used to place constraints on the systematic uncertainty for the jet and tau energy scales. Results from pp collision data from 2010 and 2011 will be shown and discussed as a function of different layer and barrel section. Finally, comparison to MC simulation will prove the good performance of the detector.

  4. In-situ probe of the response of the Tile Calorimeter to isolated hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Jennens, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile calorimeter is the hadronic central barrel of the calorimeter system of the ATLAS experiment for the LHC at CERN. It is based on a sampling technique where scintillating tiles are embedded in iron absorber plates. The tiles are grouped together in cells which are disposed in three different layers. The cells from the two innermost layers cover a ∆η×∆φ range of 0.1×0.1, while the outermost layer covers 0.2×0.1. An in-situ method to probe the calorimeter response to single charged hadrons can be established by using the ratio of energy measured in the calorimeter cells over the momentum measured by the inner tracking system. This measurement can be used to place constraints on the systematic uncertainty for the jet and tau energy scales. Results from pp collision data from 2010 and 2011 will be shown and discussed as a function of different layer and barrel section. Finally, comparison to MC simulation will prove the good performance of the detector.

  5. Readout Electronics for the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter at HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, H

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters are high precision, high sensitivity and high granularity detectors designed to provide precision measurements of electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy. ATLAS and its LAr calorimeters have been operating and collecting proton-proton collisions at LHC since 2009. The current front-end electronics of the LAr calorimeters need to be upgraded to sustain the higher radiation levels and data rates expected at the upgraded high luminosity LHC machine (HL-LHC), which will have 5 times more luminosity than the LHC in its ultimate configuration. The complexity of the present electronics and the obsolescence of some of components of which it is made, will not allow a partial replacement of the system. A completely new readout architecture scheme is under study and many components are being developed in various R&D programs of the LAr Calorimeter Group. The new front-end readout electronics will send data continuously at each bunch crossing through high speed...

  6. Electron identification with an upgraded VENUS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, A. (Dept. of Physics, Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan)); Haba, J. (Dept. of Physics, Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan)); Kanda, N. (Dept. of Physics, Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan)); Nagashima, Y. (Dept. of Physics, Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan)); Tatsumi, D. (Dept. of Physics, Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan)); Ogawa, K. (National Lab. for High Energy Physics (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan)); Sakuda, M. (National Lab. for High Energy Physics (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan)); Sumiyoshi, T. (National Lab. for High Energy Physics (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan))

    1994-03-08

    We describe a new method of electron identification using a large cylindrical transition radiation detector together with the central drift chamber and lead glass calorimeter in the VENUS detector system. With this method we have obtained pion suppression factor of 3600 and an electron efficiency of about 70% for isolated tracks. For pions in hadronic jets the suppression factor is 135-700 with an electron efficiency of about 60%. (orig.)

  7. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bartos, Pavol; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter have been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations o...

  8. Calibrating and preserving the energy scale of the Tile Calorimeter cells during four years of LHC data-taking

    CERN Document Server

    Dubreuil, E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    TileCal is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of ATLAS experiment at the LHC. This sampling calorimeter uses iron plates as absorber and plastic scintillating tiles as the active material. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultipliers tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from the approximatively 10000 PMTs are measured and digitized every 25 ns before being transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. A set of calibration systems allow to monitor and equalize the calorimeter at each stage of the signal production, from scintillation light to digitization. This calibration suite is based on signal generation from different sources: A Cs radioactive source, laser light, charge injection and charge integration over thousands of bunch crossings of minimum bias events produced in proton-proton collisions. This contribution presents a brief description of the different TileCal calibration systems and their perform...

  9. The Monitoring and Calibration Web Systems for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Data Quality Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sivolella, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Ferreira, F

    2012-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal), one of the ATLAS detectors, has four partitions, where each one contains 64 modules and each module has up to 48 PhotoMulTipliers (PMTs), totalizing more than 10,000 electronic channels. The Monitoring and Calibration Web System (MCWS) supports data quality analyses at channels level. This application was developed to assess the detector status and verify its performance, presenting the problematic known channels list from the official database that stores the detector conditions data (COOL). The bad channels list guides the data quality validator during analyses in order to identify new problematic channels. Through the system, it is also possible to update the channels list directly in the COOL database. MCWS generates results, as eta-phi plots and comparative tables with masked channels percentage, which concerns TileCal status, and it is accessible by all ATLAS collaboration. Annually, there is an intervention on LHC (Large Hadronic Collider) when the detector equipments (P...

  10. Temperature Effects in the ATIC BGO Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbert, J.; Wefel, J. P.; Atic Team

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter ATIC Balloon Experiment contains a segmented calorimeter composed of 320 individual BGO crystals 18 radiation lengths deep to determine the particle energy Like all inorganic scintillation crystals the light output of BGO depends not only on the energy deposited by particles but also on the temperature of the crystal ATIC had successful flights in 2000 2001 and 2002 2003 from McMurdo Antarctica The temperature of balloon instruments varies during their flights at altitude due to sun angle variations and differences in albedo from the ground and is monitored and recorded In order to determine the temperature sensitivity of the ATIC calorimeter the instrument was temperature cycled in the thermal vacuum chamber at the CSBF in Palestine TX The temperature dependence derived from the pulse height response to cosmic ray muons at various temperatures is discussed and compared to values in the literature

  11. Laser calibration of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Di Gregorio, Giulia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    High performance stability of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter is achieved with a set of calibration procedures. One step of the calibrtion procedure is based on measurements of the response stability to laser excitation of the photomultipliers (PMTs) that are used to readout the calorimeter cells. A facility to study in lab the PMT stability response is operating in the PISA-INFN laboratories since 2015. Goals of the test in lab are to study the time evolution of the PMT response to reproduce and to understand the origin of the resonse drifts seen with the PMT mounted on the Tile calorimeter in its normal operation during LHC run I and run II. A new statistical approach was developed to measure the drift of the absolute gain. This approach was applied to both the ATLAS laser calibration data and to the data collected in the Pisa local laboratory. The preliminary results from these two studies are shown.