WorldWideScience

Sample records for calorie dietary intervention

  1. Reduced skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration and improved glucose metabolism in nondiabetic obese women during a very low calorie dietary intervention leading to rapid weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabøl, Rasmus; Svendsen, Pernille F; Skovbro, Mette;

    2009-01-01

    Reduced oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle has been proposed to lead to accumulation of intramyocellular triglyceride (IMTG) and insulin resistance. We have measured mitochondrial respiration before and after a 10% low-calorie-induced weight loss in young obese women to examine the relationship.......79 (SE, 0.02) (P oxidation. Markers of insulin sensitivity improved after the very low calorie diet; but mitochondrial function decreased, and IMTG remained unchanged. Our results do not support a direct relationship between mitochondrial function and insulin...

  2. Dietary fat, calories, and mammary gland tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, C W

    1992-01-01

    In this communication, a vast array of studies designed to examine the relationship between dietary fat and experimental mammary gland tumorigenesis was reviewed and critiqued. It is clear, as reported by many laboratories, that as the fat content of the diet is increased from a low or standard level to a high level, a consistent and substantial increase in the development of rodent mammary gland tumors is observed. The longer the duration the high-fat diet is fed, the greater the enhancing effect on tumorigenesis. Furthermore, the stimulatory effect of a high-fat diet is observed even when fed commencing late in an animal's life. A multitude of studies also have provided evidence that the type of fat can markedly influence the development of rodent mammary gland tumors. In general, high dietary levels of unsaturated fats (e.g., corn oil, sunflower-seed oil) stimulate this tumorigenic process more than high levels of saturated fats (e.g., beef tallow, coconut oil); diets rich in certain fish oils (e.g., Menhaden oil, Max EPA) are often the most inhibitory to this tumorigenic process. Importantly, however, supplementation of saturated fat or fish oil diets with modest amounts of unsaturated fats, e.g., corn oil, often negates the mammary tumor inhibitory activities of these fats. Thus, rather extreme differences in the types of fat are required for a differential in mammary gland tumorigenesis; common proportionate blends of different fats of animal, plant, and/or fish origin are often unable to differentially influence this tumorigenic process. Diets rich in monoenoic fatty acids, e.g., those containing high levels of olive oil, have been examined in a number of studies; results from these studies have been inconsistent. A number of reports suggest that the increase in development of mammary tumors in rodents fed a high-fat diet, compared with those fed a low-fat diet, is due to specific metabolic activities of the fat per se, activities independent of a caloric

  3. Effects of dietary fat and calorie on immunologic function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of dietary fat and calories on immunologic function in specific pathogen-free inbred DBA/2 and CBA/J mice was studied. Three diets were modified from control, the AIN-76 purified diet. The high saturated fat diet contained 22.5% coconut oil and 2.5% safflower oil. The high unsaturated fat diet contained 25% safflower oil. Fat was substituted isoclorically for carbohydrate in these two diets. The low calorie diet contained 40% less protein, carbohydrate and fat than control diet; fiber was substituted for these ingredients. Female weanling mice were on the diets for more than 35 days before testing. The natural killer (NK) activity of spleen cells was determined by in vitro cytolysis of 51Cr-labeled YAC-1 cells. The spleen cells response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) or allogeneic tumor EL-4 cells was measured after immunizing the mice with SRBC or EL-4 cells for 4 or 11 days, respectively. The results showed no significant effect of the low calorie diet on NK activity, anti-SRBC or anti-EL-4 response compared to normal diet. Anti-SRBC plaque response was significantly enhanced (27% higher), while anti-EL-4 response was significantly suppressed (15% less) with high saturated fat diet. NK activity was normal. Mice on high unsaturated fat diet showed suppressed anti-SRBC response (16% less) and anti-EL-4 response (17% less), while NK activity was significantly enhanced (70% higher)

  4. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with excessive calorie intake rather than a distinctive dietary pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehmeyer, Malte H.; Zyriax, Birgit-Christiane; Jagemann, Bettina; Roth, Ewgenia; Windler, Eberhard; Schulze zur Wiesch, Julian; Lohse, Ansgar W.; Kluwe, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to assess the dietary patterns associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the efficacy of dietary interventions in a real-life setting at a tertiary medical center in Northern Germany. Clinical and laboratory data as well as data obtained by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire of 55 consecutive patients diagnosed with NAFLD were compared to an age and gender-matched cohort of 88 healthy individuals by univariate analysis. The efficacy of the dietary intervention was assessed in a subgroup of 24 NAFLD patients 6 months after receiving dietary advice. Macronutritional components of the diet were normalized for absolute daily energy intake. NAFLD patients consumed more calories per day as compared with healthy controls (P <0.001). The absolute amounts of most nutritional components ingested by NAFLD patients were higher than those of the controls. However, there were no significant differences with regards to the relative consumption of carbohydrates (P = 0.359), fat (P = 0.416), and fructose (P = 0.353) per 1000 kcal energy intake. NAFLD patients displayed a higher intake of glucose/1000 kcal (P = 0.041) and protein/1000 kcal (P = 0.009) but a lower intake of fibers/1000 kcal (P < 0.001) and mineral nutrients/1000 kcal (P = 0.001) than healthy controls. In the longitudinal analysis patients significantly reduced their caloric intake and their ALT levels improved 6 months after the dietary counselling (P < 0.001). Our data from a German real-life cohort demonstrate that dietary patterns of patients with NAFLD display great variability and little disease specificity, while the most distinctive feature compared with healthy controls was higher energy intake in NAFLD patients. PMID:27281105

  5. New challenges in dietary pattern analysis: combined dietary patterns and calorie adjusted factor analysis in type 2 diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Larijani, Bagher; Qorbani, Mostafa; Nikoo, Mohsen Khoshniat

    2014-01-01

    Background Some variability for dietary pattern analysis due to subjective procedures (e.g. arbitrary food categorization and number of factors extraction) was reported. The aim of this study was to present or design a new approach to challenge the conventional dietary pattern analysis through new classification of dietary patterns according to the possibility of the high adherence to more than one dietary pattern and calorie adjusted factor extracting. Methods This cross-sectional study cond...

  6. Dietary intervention in acne

    OpenAIRE

    Melnik, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the endocrine signaling of Western diet, a fundamental environmental factor involved in the pathogenesis of epidemic acne. Western nutrition is characterized by high calorie uptake, high glycemic load, high fat and meat intake, as well as increased consumption of insulin- and IGF-1-level elevating dairy proteins. Metabolic signals of Western diet are sensed by the nutrient-sensitive kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which integ...

  7. Dietary intervention in rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Jamison, Jennifer R.

    1987-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a disabling disease prevalent in modern society. Dietary prevention may be possible in a subgroup of individuals who appear to suffer food intolerance; dietary intervention, as an adjunct to other management strategies, may be useful in modifying the inflammatory response. The former suggestion is supported by anecdotal evidence; the latter by some in vitro experimentation which implicates arachidonic acid metabolism in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid tissue inflammatio...

  8. Dietary Lysine: Calorie Ratios and Their Influence on Nitrogen Metabolism and Digestibility in Moderately Obese Mature Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Reeder

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A goal during weight loss is to reduce body fat while maintaining body protein. We hypothesized that an increased dietary lysine: calorie might be beneficial during periods of caloric restriction. Approach: Two experiments were conducted to determine if changing the ratio of lysine: calories (lysine g/kg: Mcal ME/kg while maintaining an ideal profile of amino acids will change nitrogen metabolism and weight loss in obese mature dogs. Results: The results of these experiments imply that if all essential amino acids are in adequate supply in the food, foods with an optimal balance of nutrients can reduce muscle degradation during periods of caloric restriction. Conclusion: Our optimum food for decreasing protein degradation was the food containing 3.0 lysine: calorie. However, the present experiments were relatively short and these results may not be sustained over longer periods of restriction.

  9. Calorie for calorie, dietary fat restriction results in more body fat loss than carbohydrate restriction in people with obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kevin D.; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y.; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J.; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D.; Miller, Bernard V.; Prado, Carla M.; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C.; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J.; Yannai, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5 day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53±6 g/d of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction leading to 89±6 g/d of fat loss and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p=0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat. PMID:26278052

  10. Hip Hop HEALS: Pilot Study of a Culturally Targeted Calorie Label Intervention to Improve Food Purchases of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Olajide; DeSorbo, Alexandra; Sawyer, Vanessa; Apakama, Donald; Shaffer, Michele; Gerin, William; Noble, James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We explored the effect of a culturally targeted calorie label intervention on food purchasing behavior of elementary school students. Method: We used a quasi-experimental design with two intervention schools and one control school to assess food purchases of third through fifth graders at standardized school food sales before and after…

  11. Effects of Dietary Intervention on Hyperlipidemia in Eight Communities of Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING XIAO; ZHEN-TAO ZHANG; JUN-BO WANG; WEN-LI ZHU; YAO ZHAO; SHAO-FANG YAN; YONG LI

    2003-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of community-based dietary intervention on hyperlipidemia.Methods A total of 180 hyperlipidemia individuals with TG>2.26 mmol@L-1 ( 200 mg@dL-1 ) and/orTC>5.72 mmol@L-1 (220 mg@dL-1) were selected from 428 eligible subjects in eight communities ofBeijing. They were randomly divided into intervention group (n=108) and control group (n=72).Dietary intervention was provided for the intervention group for 6 months. Information on dietaryintakes, physical examinations and blood samples was collected. Serum lipids were assayed atbaseline and endpoint of the study period. Results Respective decrease in dietary intake of totalcalories, fat, cholesterol and cooking oil by 13.62%, 24.75%, 24.40%, and 22.43%, in the interventiongroup was observed. The percentages of total calories from fat, carbohydrate and protein appeared tobe desirable after study. Reduced body weight and BMI were also observed. There was a respective5.61% and 7.06 % decrease in total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in theintervention group, while no significant changes were found in the control group. ConclusionsCommunity-based dietary intervention can effectively improve dietary patterns, control body weight,and decrease the levels of total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

  12. Effects of chronic calorie restriction or dietary resveratrol supplementation on insulin sensitivity markers in a primate, Microcebus murinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Marchal

    Full Text Available The prevalence of diabetes and hyperinsulinemia increases with age, inducing metabolic failure and limiting lifespan. Calorie restriction (CR without malnutrition delays the aging process, but its long-term application to humans seems difficult. Resveratrol (RSV, a dietary polyphenol, appears to be a promising CR mimetic that can be easily administered in humans. In this work, we hypothesized that both CR and RSV impact insulin sensitivity in a non-human primate compared to standard-fed control (CTL animals. Four- to five-year-old male grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus were assigned to three dietary groups: a CTL group, a CR group receiving 30% fewer calories than the CTL and a RSV group receiving the CTL diet supplemented with RSV (200 mg·day(-1·kg(-1. Insulin sensitivity and glycemia were assessed using an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index evaluation after 21 or 33 months of chronic treatment. Resting metabolic rate was also measured to assess the potential relationships between this energy expenditure parameter and insulin sensitivity markers. No differences were found after a 21-month period of treatment, except for lower glucose levels 30 min after glucose loading in CR animals. After 33 months, CR and RSV decreased glycemia after the oral glucose loading without decreasing fasting blood insulin. A general effect of treatment was observed on the HOMA-IR index, with an 81% reduction in CR animals and 53% in RSV animals after 33 months of treatment compared to CTL. Chronic CR and dietary supplementation with RSV affected insulin sensitivity by improving the glucose tolerance of animals without disturbing their baseline insulin secretion. These results suggest that both CR and RSV have beneficial effects on metabolic alterations, although these effects are different in amplitude between the two anti-aging treatments and potentially rely on different metabolic

  13. Age- and calorie-independent life span extension from dietary restriction by bacterial deprivation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sager Jennifer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary restriction (DR increases life span and delays age-associated disease in many organisms. The mechanism by which DR enhances longevity is not well understood. Results Using bacterial food deprivation as a means of DR in C. elegans, we show that transient DR confers long-term benefits including stress resistance and increased longevity. Consistent with studies in the fruit fly and in mice, we demonstrate that DR also enhances survival when initiated late in life. DR by bacterial food deprivation significantly increases life span in worms when initiated as late as 24 days of adulthood, an age at which greater than 50% of the cohort have died. These survival benefits are, at least partially, independent of food consumption, as control fed animals are no longer consuming bacterial food at this advanced age. Animals separated from the bacterial lawn by a barrier of solid agar have a life span intermediate between control fed and food restricted animals. Thus, we find that life span extension from bacterial deprivation can be partially suppressed by a diffusible component of the bacterial food source, suggesting a calorie-independent mechanism for life span extension by dietary restriction. Conclusion Based on these findings, we propose that dietary restriction by bacterial deprivation increases longevity in C. elegans by a combination of reduced food consumption and decreased food sensing.

  14. Dietary fibre added to very low calorie diet reduces hunger and alleviates constipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Vrist, E; Quaade, F

    1990-01-01

    ), and dietary fibre did not improve this result. During VLCD with fibre hunger ratings were significantly lower than during VLCD without fibre (fibre effect, ANOVA; P less than 0.01). Bowel movements decreased from 1.9/day on habitual diet to 0.7/day on VLCD without fibre, but increased to 1.0/day by fibre...... supplement (fibre effect, P less than 0.01). No effect of fibre supplementation to VLCD was found on satiety, consistency of faeces and flatulence. The supplement of dietary fibre did not influence plasma concentrations of divalent cations as calcium, iron or magnesium, nor did it add any lowering effect...... on plasma glucose, cholesterol or triglyceride to that of VLCD. In conclusion, the supplement of dietary fibre to VLCD may improve compliance by reducing hunger and increasing the number of bowel movements, without impairment of absorption of divalent cations....

  15. The effect of complex workplace dietary interventions on employees dietary behaviours, nutrition knowledge and health status

    OpenAIRE

    Geaney, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Background The growing prevalence and associated burden of diet-related non-communicable diseases is a global public health concern. The environments in which people live and work influences their dietary behaviours. Aim The focus of this thesis was on the effectiveness of complex workplace dietary interventions. The comparative effectiveness of a complex workplace environmental dietary modification intervention and an educational intervention were assessed both alone and in combination relat...

  16. Effects of calorie restriction and ω-3 dietary fat on aging in short-and long-lived rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Troyer, Dean A; Venkatraman, Jaya T.; Fernandes, Gabriel

    1998-01-01

    Aging is accompanied by a steady increase in the incidence of spontaneous tumors and a decline in immune function. Calorie restriction (CR) or supplementation with ω-3 fats prolongs life span, suppresses tumorigenesis, and ameliorates immune function in a variety of experimental models. We suggest that decreased oxidant stress and upregulation of apoptosis mediate the effects of calorie restriction on immunity and longevity. CR prolongs life span in several animal models and our studies have ...

  17. Meta-analysis of variance: an illustration comparing the effects of two dietary interventions on variability in weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Alistair M; Gosby, Alison K; Lu, Jing; Simpson, Stephen J; Raubenheimer, David

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analysis, which drives evidence-based practice, typically focuses on the average response of subjects to a treatment. For instance in nutritional research the difference in average weight of participants on different diets is typically used to draw conclusions about the relative efficacy of interventions. As a result of their focus on the mean, meta-analyses largely overlook the effects of treatments on inter-subject variability. Recent tools from the study of biological evolution, where inter-individual variability is one of the key ingredients for evolution by natural selection, now allow us to study inter-subject variability using established meta-analytic models. Here we use meta-analysis to study how low carbohydrate (LC) ad libitum diets and calorie restricted diets affect variance in mass. We find that LC ad libitum diets may have a more variable outcome than diets that prescribe a reduced calorie intake. Our results suggest that whilst LC diets are effective in a large proportion of the population, for a subset of individuals, calorie restricted diets may be more effective. There is evidence that LC ad libitum diets rely on appetite suppression to drive weight loss. Extending this hypothesis, we suggest that between-individual variability in protein appetite may drive the trends that we report. A priori identification of an individual's target intake for protein may help define the most effective dietary intervention to prescribe for weight loss. PMID:27491895

  18. Meta-analysis of variance: an illustration comparing the effects of two dietary interventions on variability in weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Alistair M; Gosby, Alison K; Lu, Jing; Simpson, Stephen J; Raubenheimer, David

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analysis, which drives evidence-based practice, typically focuses on the average response of subjects to a treatment. For instance in nutritional research the difference in average weight of participants on different diets is typically used to draw conclusions about the relative efficacy of interventions. As a result of their focus on the mean, meta-analyses largely overlook the effects of treatments on inter-subject variability. Recent tools from the study of biological evolution, where inter-individual variability is one of the key ingredients for evolution by natural selection, now allow us to study inter-subject variability using established meta-analytic models. Here we use meta-analysis to study how low carbohydrate (LC) ad libitum diets and calorie restricted diets affect variance in mass. We find that LC ad libitum diets may have a more variable outcome than diets that prescribe a reduced calorie intake. Our results suggest that whilst LC diets are effective in a large proportion of the population, for a subset of individuals, calorie restricted diets may be more effective. There is evidence that LC ad libitum diets rely on appetite suppression to drive weight loss. Extending this hypothesis, we suggest that between-individual variability in protein appetite may drive the trends that we report. A priori identification of an individual's target intake for protein may help define the most effective dietary intervention to prescribe for weight loss.

  19. Does shelf space management intervention have an effect on calorie turnover at supermarkets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Abdulfatah; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Sommer, Iben;

    2016-01-01

    . An experimental controlled trial has been conducted using 10 supermarkets in Denmark. The study looked specifically into the possible effect of shelf space management intervention at supermarkets. The study found a significant intervention effect for individual products targeted by the project. But overall, care...

  20. Calorie restriction: A new therapeutic intervention for age-related dry eye disease in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A decrease in lacrimal gland secretory function is closely related to aging and leads to an increased prevalence of dry eye syndrome. Since calorie restriction (CR) is considered to prevent functional decline of various organs due to aging, we hypothesized that CR could prevent age-related lacrimal dysfunction. Six-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were randomly divided into ad libitum (AL) and CR (-35%) groups. After 6 months of CR, tear function was examined under conscious state. After euthanasia, lacrimal glands were subjected to histological examination, tear protein secretion stimulation test with Carbachol, and assessment of oxidative stress with 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) antibodies. CR significantly improved tear volume and tended to increase tear protein secretion volume after stimulation with Carbachol compared to AL. The acinar unit density was significantly higher in the CR rats compared to AL rats. Lacrimal glands in the CR rats showed a lesser degree of interstitial fibrosis. CR reduced the concentration of 8-OHdG and the extent of staining with HNE in the lacrimal gland, compared to AL. Furthermore, our electron microscopic observations showed that mitochondrial structure of the lacrimal gland obtained from the middle-aged CR rats was preserved in comparison to the AL rats. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time that CR may attenuate oxidative stress related damage in the lacrimal gland with preservation of lacrimal gland functions. Although molecular mechanism(s) by which CR maintains lacrimal gland function remains to be resolved, CR might provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treating dry eye syndrome.

  1. Calorie restriction: A new therapeutic intervention for age-related dry eye disease in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Okada, Naoko; Ogawa, Yoko [Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Murat, Dogru [Department of Ocular Surface and Visual Optics, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nakamura, Shigeru; Nakashima, Hideo [Research Center, Ophtecs Corporation, Hyogo (Japan); Shimmura, Shigeto [Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Shinmura, Ken [Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Tsubota, Kazuo, E-mail: tsubota@sc.itc.keio.ac.jp [Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-07-09

    A decrease in lacrimal gland secretory function is closely related to aging and leads to an increased prevalence of dry eye syndrome. Since calorie restriction (CR) is considered to prevent functional decline of various organs due to aging, we hypothesized that CR could prevent age-related lacrimal dysfunction. Six-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were randomly divided into ad libitum (AL) and CR (-35%) groups. After 6 months of CR, tear function was examined under conscious state. After euthanasia, lacrimal glands were subjected to histological examination, tear protein secretion stimulation test with Carbachol, and assessment of oxidative stress with 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) antibodies. CR significantly improved tear volume and tended to increase tear protein secretion volume after stimulation with Carbachol compared to AL. The acinar unit density was significantly higher in the CR rats compared to AL rats. Lacrimal glands in the CR rats showed a lesser degree of interstitial fibrosis. CR reduced the concentration of 8-OHdG and the extent of staining with HNE in the lacrimal gland, compared to AL. Furthermore, our electron microscopic observations showed that mitochondrial structure of the lacrimal gland obtained from the middle-aged CR rats was preserved in comparison to the AL rats. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time that CR may attenuate oxidative stress related damage in the lacrimal gland with preservation of lacrimal gland functions. Although molecular mechanism(s) by which CR maintains lacrimal gland function remains to be resolved, CR might provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treating dry eye syndrome.

  2. Potential Benefits of Dietary Fibre Intervention in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Celestine; Harris, Philip J; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis is thought to be an important cause of disease progression and the gastrointestinal symptoms experienced in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Inflammation appears to be a major contributor in perpetuating a dysregulated gut microbiota. Although current drug therapies can significantly induce and maintain disease remission, there is no cure for these diseases. Nevertheless, ongoing human studies investigating dietary fibre interventions may potentially prove to exert beneficial outcomes for IBD. Postulated mechanisms include direct interactions with the gut mucosa through immunomodulation, or indirectly through the microbiome. Component species of the microbiome may degrade dietary-fibre polysaccharides and ferment the products to form short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate. Prebiotic dietary fibres may also act more directly by altering the composition of the microbiome. Longer term benefits in reducing the risk of more aggressive disease or colorectal cancer may require other dietary fibre sources such as wheat bran or psyllium. By critically examining clinical trials that have used dietary fibre supplements or dietary patterns containing specific types or amounts of dietary fibres, it may be possible to assess whether varying the intake of specific dietary fibres may offer an efficient treatment for IBD patients. PMID:27314323

  3. Potential Benefits of Dietary Fibre Intervention in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestine Wong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal dysbiosis is thought to be an important cause of disease progression and the gastrointestinal symptoms experienced in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Inflammation appears to be a major contributor in perpetuating a dysregulated gut microbiota. Although current drug therapies can significantly induce and maintain disease remission, there is no cure for these diseases. Nevertheless, ongoing human studies investigating dietary fibre interventions may potentially prove to exert beneficial outcomes for IBD. Postulated mechanisms include direct interactions with the gut mucosa through immunomodulation, or indirectly through the microbiome. Component species of the microbiome may degrade dietary-fibre polysaccharides and ferment the products to form short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate. Prebiotic dietary fibres may also act more directly by altering the composition of the microbiome. Longer term benefits in reducing the risk of more aggressive disease or colorectal cancer may require other dietary fibre sources such as wheat bran or psyllium. By critically examining clinical trials that have used dietary fibre supplements or dietary patterns containing specific types or amounts of dietary fibres, it may be possible to assess whether varying the intake of specific dietary fibres may offer an efficient treatment for IBD patients.

  4. Potential Benefits of Dietary Fibre Intervention in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Celestine; Harris, Philip J.; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis is thought to be an important cause of disease progression and the gastrointestinal symptoms experienced in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Inflammation appears to be a major contributor in perpetuating a dysregulated gut microbiota. Although current drug therapies can significantly induce and maintain disease remission, there is no cure for these diseases. Nevertheless, ongoing human studies investigating dietary fibre interventions may potentially prove to exert beneficial outcomes for IBD. Postulated mechanisms include direct interactions with the gut mucosa through immunomodulation, or indirectly through the microbiome. Component species of the microbiome may degrade dietary-fibre polysaccharides and ferment the products to form short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate. Prebiotic dietary fibres may also act more directly by altering the composition of the microbiome. Longer term benefits in reducing the risk of more aggressive disease or colorectal cancer may require other dietary fibre sources such as wheat bran or psyllium. By critically examining clinical trials that have used dietary fibre supplements or dietary patterns containing specific types or amounts of dietary fibres, it may be possible to assess whether varying the intake of specific dietary fibres may offer an efficient treatment for IBD patients. PMID:27314323

  5. Effects of dietary interventions on incidence and progression of CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Nishank; Reilly, Robert F

    2014-12-01

    Traditional strategies for management of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have not resulted in any change in the growing prevalence of CKD worldwide. A historic belief that eating healthily might ameliorate kidney disease still holds credibility in the 21(st) century. Dietary sodium restriction to diet rich in fruits and vegetables and increased water consumption corresponding to a urine output of 3-4 l daily might slow the progression of early CKD, polycystic kidney disease or recurrent kidney stones. Current evidence suggests that a reduction in dietary net acid load could be beneficial in patients with CKD, but the supremacy of any particular diet has yet to be established. More trials of dietary interventions are needed, especially in diabetic nephropathy, before evidence-based recommendations can be made. In the meantime, nephrologists should discuss healthy dietary habits with their patients and provide individualized care aimed at maximizing the potential benefits of dietary intervention, reducing the incidence of CKD and delaying its progression to end-stage renal disease. Keeping in mind the lack of data on hard outcomes, dietary recommendations should take into account barriers to adherence and be tailored to different cultures, ethnicities and geographical locations. PMID:25331786

  6. EFFECT OF A DIETARY INTERVENTION ON GROWTH AND ENERGY EXPENDITURE IN CHILDREN WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groleau, Veronique; Schall, Joan I.; Dougherty, Kelly A.; Latham, Norma E.; Maqbool, Asim; Mascarenhas, Maria R.; Stallings, Virginia A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The study aim was to determine the effect of a dietary intervention on growth, body composition and resting energy expenditure (REE) in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial. METHODS Subjects (5 to 17 yrs) participated in a 12-month trial of the organized lipid matrix LYM-X-SORB™ (LXS) vs. placebo dietary supplements with similar calories, total fat and fatty acids. Dietary intake was assessed using 3-day weighed food records. Height (HAZ), weight (WAZ), BMI (BMIZ), mid-upper arm muscle (UAMAZ) and fat area (UAFAZ) Z-scores were calculated. Fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM) were obtained by whole body DXA. REE (kcal/d) was evaluated by indirect calorimetry at baseline, 3 and 12 months and %REE calculated using Schofield equations. No growth or REE differences were observed between LXS and placebo groups so data were pooled for analysis. RESULTS 63 children (57% males, age 10.6±2.9 yr, 43% receiving LXS) completed REE measurements. Caloric intake increased from a median of 2502 [1478, 4909] to 2616 [1660, 4125] kcal/d at 12 months. HAZ, WAZ and UAMAZ increased (p < 0.05) over 12 months. Mean REE was 109±8% predicted at baseline and 107±9% at 12 months (p < 0.05). REE (kcal/d) adjusted for FFM and FM decreased over 12 months ([mean±SE] −31±12 kcals, p < 0.01), significant only in males (−49±16 kcals, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Over a 12 month nutrition intervention with either LXS or placebo, the growth status, muscle stores and REE improved. Sustained increased energy intake improved energy metabolism, growth and nutritional status in school age children with CF, PI and mild lung disease. PMID:24518280

  7. Long-term dietary intervention trials: critical issues and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crichton Georgina E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are many challenges involved in running randomised controlled dietary intervention trials that investigate health outcomes. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the recruitment process, retention of participants and challenges faced in our dairy intervention trial, and to provide strategies to combat the difficulties of running long-term dietary intervention trials. Methods A 12-month, randomised, two-way crossover study was conducted in overweight adults with habitually low dairy food consumption to assess the effects of a high dairy intake (4 servings of reduced-fat dairy per day compared with a low dairy intake (1 serving of reduced-fat dairy per day on measures of cardiometabolic and cognitive health. On completion of the high dairy intake phase, each participant was interviewed about their experience in the trial and responses were used to evaluate the key issues for study participants. Results Although the recruitment target was achieved, high rates of attrition (49.3% and difficulties maintaining participant compliance (reported by 37.8% of participants were major threats to the viability of the study. Factors that contributed to the high attrition included inability to comply with the dietary requirements of the study protocol (27.0%, health problems or medication changes (24.3% and time commitment (10.8%. Conclusion Attrition and adherence to study requirements present challenges to trials requiring longer-term dietary change. Including a run-in period to further assess the motivation, commitment and availability of participants, maintaining regular contact with participants during control phases, minimising time commitment, providing flexibility with dietary requirements, facilitating positive experiences, and stringent monitoring of diet are some key recommendations for future dietary intervention trials. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN 12608000538347

  8. Metabolomics Insights into the Modulatory Effects of Long-Term Low Calorie Intake in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junfang; Yang, Liu; Li, Shoufeng; Huang, Ping; Liu, Yong; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2016-07-01

    There is increasing evidence that calorie restriction without malnutrition can extend longevity and delay the onset of age-associated disorders. Identifying the biochemical perturbations associated with different dietary habits would provide valuable insights into associations between metabolism and longevity. To reveal the effects of long-term dietary interventions on metabolic perturbations, we investigated serum and urinary metabolic changes induced by interactive high/low fat diet in combination with/without reduced caloric intake over a life span in mice using NMR-based metabonomics. We found that the high calorie dietary regime disturbed lipid metabolism, suppressed glycolysis and TCA cycles, stimulated oxidative stress, promoted nucleotide metabolism and gluconeogenesis, and perturbed gut microbiota-host interactions. Such changes could be modified by long-term low calorie intake. Most importantly, we found that the calorie intake index exerts a dominant effect on metabolic perturbations irrespective of dietary regime. Our investigation provides a holistic view of the metabolic impact of long-term dietary interventions, which are important for detecting physiological changes and dietary effects on mammalian metabolism. PMID:27267303

  9. Beverages contribute extra calories to meals and daily energy intake in overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Bleil, Maria E; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Nackers, Lisa M; Busch, Andrew M; Whited, Matthew C; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2013-10-01

    Caloric beverages may promote obesity by yielding energy without producing satiety, but prior laboratory and intervention studies are inconclusive. This study examined whether the diets of free-living overweight and obese women show evidence that calories from beverages are offset by reductions in solid food within individual eating occasions and across entire days. Eighty-two women weighed and recorded all consumed foods and beverages for seven days. Beverages were coded as high-calorie (≥ 0.165 kcal/g) or low-calorie (food were calculated for each eating occasion and day. In covariate-adjusted models, energy intake from solid food did not differ between eating occasions that included high-calorie or low-calorie beverages and those with no reported beverage. Energy intake from solid food was also unrelated to the number of high-calorie or low-calorie beverages consumed per day. On average, eating occasions that included a high-calorie beverage were 169 kcal higher in total energy than those with no reported beverage, and 195 kcal higher in total energy than those that included a low-calorie beverage. Each high-calorie beverage consumed per day contributed an additional 147 kcal to women's daily energy intake, whereas low-calorie beverage intake was unrelated to daily energy intake. Beverages contributed to total energy intake in a near-additive fashion among free-living overweight and obese women, suggesting a need to develop more effective interventions to reduce caloric beverage intake in the context of weight management, and to potentially reexamine dietary guidelines.

  10. Systematic Review of School-based Interventions to Modify Dietary Behavior: Does Intervention Intensity Impact Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racey, Megan; O'Brien, Charlene; Douglas, Sabrina; Marquez, Olivia; Hendrie, Gilly; Newton, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    Background: Owing to the associations between diet and health, it is important that effective health promotion strategies establish healthful eating behaviors from an early age. We reviewed the intensity of school-based interventions aimed to modify dietary behavior in preadolescent and adolescents and related intervention characteristics to…

  11. Dietary interventions in overweight and obese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, Angela C; Dalrymple, Kathryn; Barr, Suzanne;

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Interventions targeting maternal obesity are a healthcare and public health priority. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to evaluate the adequacy and effectiveness of the methodological designs implemented in dietary intervention trials for obesity in pregnancy. DATA SOURCES......: A systematic review of the literature, consistent with PRISMA guidelines, was performed as part of the International Weight Management in Pregnancy collaboration. STUDY SELECTION: Thirteen randomized controlled trials, which aimed to modify diet and physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women...... gestational weight gain. CONCLUSION: This review reveals large methodological variability in dietary interventions to control gestational weight gain and improve clinical outcomes in overweight and obese pregnant women. This lack of consensus limits the ability to develop clinical guidelines and apply...

  12. Prolonged Calorie Restriction Downregulates Skeletal Muscle mTORC1 Signaling Independent of Dietary Protein Intake and Associated microRNA Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Lee M.; Rivas, Donato A.; Berrone, Maria; Ezzyat, Yassine; Young, Andrew J.; McClung, James P.; Fielding, Roger A.; Pasiakos, Stefan M.

    2016-01-01

    Short-term (5–10 days) calorie restriction (CR) downregulates muscle protein synthesis, with consumption of a high protein-based diet attenuating this decline. Benefit of increase protein intake is believed to be due to maintenance of amino acid-mediated anabolic signaling through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), however, there is limited evidence to support this contention. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of prolonged CR and high protein diets on skeletal muscle mTORC1 signaling and expression of associated microRNA (miR). Twelve-week old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL) or calorie restricted (CR; 40%) adequate (10%, AIN-93M) or high (32%) protein milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Body composition was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle protein content was calculated from muscle homogenate protein concentrations expressed relative to fat-free mass to estimate protein content. Western blot and RT-qPCR were used to determine mTORC1 signaling and mRNA and miR expression in fasted mixed gastrocnemius. Independent of dietary protein intake, muscle protein content was 38% lower (P protein content (r = 0.64, r2 = 0.36). Skeletal muscle miR expression was not altered by either energy or protein intake. This study provides evidence that chronic CR attenuates muscle protein content by downregulating mTORC1 signaling. This response is independent of skeletal muscle miR and dietary protein. PMID:27761114

  13. A metabolomics study on human dietary intervention with apples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, L. O.; Kristensen, M.; Ravn-Haren, Gitte;

    2009-01-01

    Metabolomics is a promising tool for searching out new biomarkers and the development of hypotheses in nutrition research. This chapter will describe the design of human dietary intervention studies where samples are collected for metabolomics analyses as well as the analytical issues and data...... interpretation. Design considerations for metabolomic studies include the overall structure of the study as well as the control group, sample collection and handling, sample storage, sample analysis, quality control measures and plans for data analyses. Suggestions for designing feasible and ethical dietary...

  14. Skeletal muscle structural lipids improve during weight-maintenance after a very low calorie dietary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Vaag, Allan; Mu, Huiling;

    2009-01-01

    -maintenance program five subjects received the pancreas lipase inhibitor Orlistat 120 mg t.i.d. versus placebo. RESULTS: HOMA-IR and HbA1c stabilized and SMPL total omega-3 FA, docosahexaenoic acid and ratio of n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated FA increased by 24% (P

  15. Potential Benefits of Dietary Fibre Intervention in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Celestine Wong; Harris, Philip J.; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis is thought to be an important cause of disease progression and the gastrointestinal symptoms experienced in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Inflammation appears to be a major contributor in perpetuating a dysregulated gut microbiota. Although current drug therapies can significantly induce and maintain disease remission, there is no cure for these diseases. Nevertheless, ongoing human studies investigating dietary fibre interventions may potentially prove ...

  16. Do Overweight Adolescents Adhere to Dietary Intervention Messages? Twelve-Month Detailed Dietary Outcomes from Curtin University’s Activity, Food and Attitudes Program

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kyla L.; Kerr, Deborah A; Howie, Erin K.; Straker, Leon M

    2015-01-01

    Dietary components of adolescent obesity interventions are rarely evaluated with comprehensive reporting of dietary change. The objective was to assess dietary change in overweight adolescents, including adherence to dietary intervention. The dietary intervention was part of a multi-component intervention (CAFAP) targeting the physical activity, sedentary and healthy eating behaviors of overweight adolescents (n = 69). CAFAP was a staggered entry, within-subject, waitlist controlled clinical ...

  17. Reduction in neural activation to high-calorie food cues in obese endometrial cancer survivors after a behavioral lifestyle intervention: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nock Nora L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity increases the risk of endometrial cancer (EC and obese EC patients have the highest risk of death among all obesity-associated cancers. However, only two lifestyle interventions targeting this high-risk population have been conducted. In one trial, food disinhibition, as determined by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, decreased post-intervention compared to baseline, suggesting an increase in emotional eating and, potentially, an increase in food related reward. Therefore, we evaluated appetitive behavior using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and a visual food task in 8 obese, Stage I/II EC patients before and after a lifestyle intervention (Survivors in Uterine Cancer Empowered by Exercise and a Healthy Diet, SUCCEED, which aimed to improve nutritional and exercise behaviors over 16 group sessions in 6 months using social cognitive theory. Results Congruent to findings in the general obese population, we found that obese EC patients, at baseline, had increased activation in response to high- vs. low-calorie food cues after eating a meal in brain regions associated with food reward (insula, cingulate gyrus; precentral gyrus; whole brain cluster corrected, p  Conclusions Our preliminary results suggest behavioral lifestyle interventions may help to reduce high-calorie food reward in obese EC survivors who are at a high-risk of death. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate such changes.

  18. Pharmacological Intervention through Dietary Nutraceuticals in Gastrointestinal Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Mohammad F; Bhat, Showket H; Husain, Eram; Abu-Duhier, Faisel; Hadi, S M; Sarkar, Fazlul H; Ahmad, Aamir

    2016-07-01

    Neoplastic conditions associated with gastrointestinal (GI) tract are common worldwide with colorectal cancer alone accounting for the third leading rate of cancer incidence. Other GI malignancies such as esophageal carcinoma have shown an increasing trend in the last few years. The poor survival statistics of these fatal cancer diseases highlight the need for multiple alternative treatment options along with effective prophylactic strategies. Worldwide geographical variation in cancer incidence indicates a correlation between dietary habits and cancer risk. Epidemiological studies have suggested that populations with high intake of certain dietary agents in their regular meals have lower cancer rates. Thus, an impressive embodiment of evidence supports the concept that dietary factors are key modulators of cancer including those of GI origin. Preclinical studies on animal models of carcinogenesis have reflected the pharmacological significance of certain dietary agents called as nutraceuticals in the chemoprevention of GI neoplasia. These include stilbenes (from red grapes and red wine), isoflavones (from soy), carotenoids (from tomatoes), curcuminoids (from spice turmeric), catechins (from green tea), and various other small plant metabolites (from fruits, vegetables, and cereals). Pleiotropic action mechanisms have been reported for these diet-derived chemopreventive agents to retard, block, or reverse carcinogenesis. This review presents a prophylactic approach to primary prevention of GI cancers by highlighting the translational potential of plant-derived nutraceuticals from epidemiological, laboratory, and clinical studies, for the better management of these cancers through consumption of nutraceutical rich diets and their intervention in cancer therapeutics. PMID:25365584

  19. Use of a Computerized Tracking System to Monitor and Provide Feedback on Dietary Goals for Calorie-Restricted Diets: The POUNDS LOST Study

    OpenAIRE

    Anton, Stephen D.; LeBlanc, Eric; Allen, H Raymond; Karabetian, Christy; Sacks, Frank; Bray, George; Donald A. Williamson

    2012-01-01

    The use of self-monitoring as a tool to facilitate behavioral modification is common in many lifestyle-based weight loss interventions. Electronic tracking programs, including computer-based systems and smart phone applications, have been developed to allow individuals to self-monitor their behavior digitally. These programs offer an advantage over traditional self-report modalities in that they can provide users with direct feedback about dietary and/or physical activity adherence levels and...

  20. Early Leptin Intervention Reverses Perturbed Energy Balance Regulating Hypothalamic Neuropeptides in the Pre- and Postnatal Calorie Restricted Female Rat Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, Leena Caroline; Shin, Bo-Chul; Dai, Yun; Freije, William; Kositamongkol, Sudatip; Cho, John; Devaskar, Sherin U.

    2015-01-01

    Pre- and postnatal calorie restriction is associated with postnatal growth restriction, reduced circulating leptin concentrations and perturbed energy balance. Hypothalamic regulation of energy balance demonstrates enhanced orexigenic (NPY, AgRP) and diminished anorexigenic (POMC, CART) neuropeptide expression (PN21) setting the stage for subsequent development of obesity in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Leptin replenishment during the early postnatal period (PN2-PN8) led to reversing the hypot...

  1. Macrophages and Adipocytes in Human Obesity Adipose Tissue Gene Expression and Insulin Sensitivity During Calorie Restriction and Weight Stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capel, F.; Klimcakova, E.; Viguerie, N.;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-We investigated the regulation of adipose tissue gene expression during different phases of a dietary weight loss program and its relation with insulin sensitivity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-Twenty-two obese women followed a dietary intervention program composed of an energy restriction...... phase with a 4-week very-low-calorie diet and a weight stabilization period composed of a 2-month low-calorie diet followed by 3-4 months of a weight maintenance diet. At each time point, a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were performed. Adipose tissue gene...... during the dietary intervention program. Transcriptome profiling revealed two main patterns of variations. The first involved 464 mostly adipocyte genes involved in metabolism that were downregulated during energy restriction, upregulated during weight stabilization, and unchanged during the dietary...

  2. Fruit and Vegetable Dietary Behavior in Response to a Low-Intensity Dietary Intervention: The Rural Physician Cancer Prevention Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcaise-Edinboro, Patricia; McClish, Donna; Kracen, Amanda C.; Bowen, Deborah; Fries, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Context: Increased fruit and vegetable intake can reduce cancer risk. Information from this study contributes to research exploring health disparities in high-risk dietary behavior. Purpose: Changes in fruit and vegetable behavior were evaluated to assess the effects of a low-intensity, physician-endorsed dietary intervention in a rural…

  3. Dietary intervention in acne: Attenuation of increased mTORC1 signaling promoted by Western diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the endocrine signaling of Western diet, a fundamental environmental factor involved in the pathogenesis of epidemic acne. Western nutrition is characterized by high calorie uptake, high glycemic load, high fat and meat intake, as well as increased consumption of insulin- and IGF-1-level elevating dairy proteins. Metabolic signals of Western diet are sensed by the nutrient-sensitive kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which integrates signals of cellular energy, growth factors (insulin, IGF-1) and protein-derived signals, predominantly leucine, provided in high amounts by milk proteins and meat. mTORC1 activates SREBP, the master transcription factor of lipogenesis. Leucine stimulates mTORC1-SREBP signaling and leucine is directly converted by sebocytes into fatty acids and sterols for sebaceous lipid synthesis. Over-activated mTORC1 increases androgen hormone secretion and most likely amplifies androgen-driven mTORC1 signaling of sebaceous follicles. Testosterone directly activates mTORC1. Future research should investigate the effects of isotretinoin on sebocyte mTORC1 activity. It is conceivable that isotretinoin may downregulate mTORC1 in sebocytes by upregulation of nuclear levels of FoxO1. The role of Western diet in acne can only be fully appreciated when all stimulatory inputs for maximal mTORC1 activation, i.e., glucose, insulin, IGF-1 and leucine, are adequately considered. Epidemic acne has to be recognized as an mTORC1-driven disease of civilization like obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. These new insights into Western diet-mediated mTORC1-hyperactivity provide a rational basis for dietary intervention in acne by attenuating mTORC1 signaling by reducing (1) total energy intake, (2) hyperglycemic carbohydrates, (3) insulinotropic dairy proteins and (4) leucine-rich meat and dairy proteins. The necessary dietary changes are opposed to the evolution of

  4. Does a population-based multi-factorial lifestyle intervention increase social inequality in dietary habits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Ulla; Jakobsen, Iris Marie; Aadahl, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether the effect of an individualised multi-factorial lifestyle intervention on dietary habits differs across socioeconomic groups.......To investigate whether the effect of an individualised multi-factorial lifestyle intervention on dietary habits differs across socioeconomic groups....

  5. Calorie restriction and stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzanero Silvia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stroke, a major cause of disability and mortality in the elderly, occurs when a cerebral blood vessel is occluded or ruptured, resulting in ischemic damage and death of brain cells. The injury mechanism involves metabolic and oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, apoptosis and inflammatory processes, including activation of glial cells and infiltration of leukocytes. In animal models, dietary energy restriction, by daily calorie reduction (CR or intermittent fasting (IF, extends lifespan and decreases the development of age-related diseases. Dietary energy restriction may also benefit neurons, as suggested by experimental evidence showing that CR and IF protect neurons against degeneration in animal models. Recent findings by our group and others suggest the possibility that dietary energy restriction may protect against stroke induced brain injury, in part by inducing the expression of neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF; protein chaperones, including heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 and glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78; antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases (SOD and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1, uncoupling proteins and anti-inflammatory cytokines. This article discusses the protective mechanisms activated by dietary energy restriction in ischemic stroke.

  6. Lifestyle Intervention Involving Calorie Restriction with or without Aerobic Exercise Training Improves Liver Fat in Adults with Visceral Adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi Yoshimura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect of calorie restriction-induced weight loss with or without aerobic exercise on liver fat. Methods. Thirty-three adults with visceral adiposity were divided into calorie restriction (CR; n = 18 or CR and aerobic exercise (CR + Ex; n = 15 groups. Target energy intake was 25 kcal/kg of ideal body weight. The CR + Ex group had a targeted exercise time of 300 min/wk or more at lactate threshold intensity for 12 weeks. Results. Reductions in body weight (CR, -5.3 ± 0.8 kg; CR + Ex, -5.1 ± 0.7 kg, fat mass (CR, -4.9± 0.9 kg; CR + Ex, -4.4 ± 0.6 kg, and visceral fat (CR, -24 ± 5 cm2; CR + Ex, -37 ± 5 cm2 were not statistically different between groups. Liver fat decreased significantly in both groups, with no difference between groups. Change in maximal oxygen uptake was significantly greater in the CR + Ex group than in the CR group (CR, -0.7 ± 0.7 mL/kg/min; CR + Ex, 2.9 ± 1.0 mL/kg/min. Conclusion. Both CR and CR + Ex resulted in an improved reduction in liver fat; however, there was no additive effect of exercise training.

  7. Dietary Adherence During Weight Loss Predicts Weight Regain

    OpenAIRE

    Corral, Pedro Del; Bryan, David R.; Garvey, W. Timothy; Gower, Barbara A.; Gary R. Hunter

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between previous dietary adherence during a low-calorie diet weight loss intervention and subsequent weight change during a 2-year follow-up for weight maintenance. One hundred and sixteen healthy, recently weight reduced (lost ~12 kg, BMI 22–25 kg/m2) premenopausal women were studied. Dietary adherence was assessed by doubly labeled water (DLW) and body composition change. Comparisons were made between the upper and lower tertiles for previous dietary adh...

  8. Use of a computerized tracking system to monitor and provide feedback on dietary goals for calorie-restricted diets: the POUNDS LOST study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D; LeBlanc, Eric; Allen, H Raymond; Karabetian, Christy; Sacks, Frank; Bray, George; Williamson, Donald A

    2012-09-01

    The use of self-monitoring as a tool to facilitate behavioral modification is common in many lifestyle-based weight loss interventions. Electronic tracking programs, including computer-based systems and smart phone applications, have been developed to allow individuals to self-monitor their behavior digitally. These programs offer an advantage over traditional self-report modalities in that they can provide users with direct feedback about dietary and/or physical activity adherence levels and thereby assist them in real-time decision making. This article describes the use of an Internet-based computerized tracking system (CTS) that was developed specifically for the POUNDS LOST study, a 2-year randomized controlled trial designed to test the efficacy of four macronutrient diets for weight and fat reduction in healthy, overweight men and women (body mass index range = 25.0-39.9 kg/m(2)). The CTS served many functions in this study, including data collection, dietary and exercise assessment and feedback, messaging system, and report generation. Across all groups, participants with high usage of the CTS during the initial 8 weeks lost greater amounts of weight than participants with low usage (8.7% versus 5.5% of initial body weight, respectively; p smart phone applications, offer significant potential to improve the user's self-monitoring experience and adherence to health promotion programs designed specifically for individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:23063049

  9. The food choice at work study: effectiveness of complex workplace dietary interventions on dietary behaviours and diet-related disease risk - study protocol for a clustered controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Geaney, Fiona; Scotto Di Marrazzo, Jessica; Kelly, Clare; Fitzgerald, Anthony P.; Harrington, Janas M.; Kirby, Ann; McKenzie, Ken; Greiner, Birgit; Perry, Ivan J

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary behaviour interventions have the potential to reduce diet-related disease. Ample opportunity exists to implement these interventions in the workplace. The overall aim is to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of complex dietary interventions focused on environmental dietary modification alone or in combination with nutrition education in large manufacturing workplace settings. Methods/design A clustered controlled trial involving four large multinational manufac...

  10. Testing theories of dietary behavior change in youth using the mediating variable model with intervention programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our purpose was to review and critique current experimentally based evidence of theoretical mechanisms of dietary behavior change in youth, and provide recommendations on ways to enhance theory evaluation. Interventions that examined mediators of dietary behavior change in youth (age 5-18 years) wer...

  11. Study on the Dietary Intervention of Wushu Sanda Athletes' After the Period of Recovering Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As for the symptom of the fatigue of Wushu Sanda Athletes' appeared after the competition, it must provide nutritional dietary intervention with the aid of scientific measures. In this study, it takes the characteristics of Sanda as the breakthrough point, analyzing the reasons and the physiological mechanism of generating the Wushu Sanda Athletes' fatigue as well as the area of fatigue and then it discusses the dietary intervention measures for the recovery of Wushu Sanda Athletes' fatigue.

  12. Proteomic analysis in type 2 diabetes patients before and after a very low calorie diet reveals potential disease state and intervention specific biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Sleddering

    Full Text Available Very low calorie diets (VLCD with and without exercise programs lead to major metabolic improvements in obese type 2 diabetes patients. The mechanisms underlying these improvements have so far not been elucidated fully. To further investigate the mechanisms of a VLCD with or without exercise and to uncover possible biomarkers associated with these interventions, blood samples were collected from 27 obese type 2 diabetes patients before and after a 16-week VLCD (Modifast ∼ 450 kcal/day. Thirteen of these patients followed an exercise program in addition to the VCLD. Plasma was obtained from 27 lean and 27 obese controls as well. Proteomic analysis was performed using mass spectrometry (MS and targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM and a large scale isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ approach. After the 16-week VLCD, there was a significant decrease in body weight and HbA1c in all patients, without differences between the two intervention groups. Targeted MRM analysis revealed differences in several proteins, which could be divided in diabetes-associated (fibrinogen, transthyretin, obesity-associated (complement C3, and diet-associated markers (apolipoproteins, especially apolipoprotein A-IV. To further investigate the effects of exercise, large scale iTRAQ analysis was performed. However, no proteins were found showing an exercise effect. Thus, in this study, specific proteins were found to be differentially expressed in type 2 diabetes patients versus controls and before and after a VLCD. These proteins are potential disease state and intervention specific biomarkers.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN76920690.

  13. How can self-efficacy be increased? Meta-analysis of dietary interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestwich, Andrew; Kellar, Ian; Parker, Richard; MacRae, Siobhan; Learmonth, Matthew; Sykes, Bianca; Taylor, Natalie; Castle, Holly

    2014-01-01

    Targeting individuals' beliefs that they are able to eat healthily can improve dietary-related behaviours. However, the most effective behaviour change techniques (BCTs) to promote dietary self-efficacy have not been systematically reviewed. This research addressed this gap. Studies testing the effect of interventions on healthy eating and underlying dietary-related self-efficacy, within randomised controlled trials, were systematically reviewed in MEDLINE, EMBASE and PSYCINFO. Two reviewers independently coded intervention content in both intervention and comparison groups. Data pertaining to study quality were also extracted. Random effects meta-analysis was used to calculate an overall effect size on dietary self-efficacy for each study. The associations between 26 BCTs and self-efficacy effects were calculated using meta-regression. In some of the analyses, interventions that incorporated self-monitoring (tracking one's own food-related behaviour), provided feedback on performance, prompted review of behavioural goals, provided contingent rewards (rewarding diet success), or planned for social support/social change increased dietary self-efficacy significantly more than interventions that did not. Stress management was consistently associated with self-efficacy effects across all analyses. There was strong evidence for stress management and weaker evidence for a number of other BCTs. The findings can be used to develop more effective, theory- and evidence-based behavioural interventions.

  14. How can self-efficacy be increased? Meta-analysis of dietary interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestwich, Andrew; Kellar, Ian; Parker, Richard; MacRae, Siobhan; Learmonth, Matthew; Sykes, Bianca; Taylor, Natalie; Castle, Holly

    2014-01-01

    Targeting individuals' beliefs that they are able to eat healthily can improve dietary-related behaviours. However, the most effective behaviour change techniques (BCTs) to promote dietary self-efficacy have not been systematically reviewed. This research addressed this gap. Studies testing the effect of interventions on healthy eating and underlying dietary-related self-efficacy, within randomised controlled trials, were systematically reviewed in MEDLINE, EMBASE and PSYCINFO. Two reviewers independently coded intervention content in both intervention and comparison groups. Data pertaining to study quality were also extracted. Random effects meta-analysis was used to calculate an overall effect size on dietary self-efficacy for each study. The associations between 26 BCTs and self-efficacy effects were calculated using meta-regression. In some of the analyses, interventions that incorporated self-monitoring (tracking one's own food-related behaviour), provided feedback on performance, prompted review of behavioural goals, provided contingent rewards (rewarding diet success), or planned for social support/social change increased dietary self-efficacy significantly more than interventions that did not. Stress management was consistently associated with self-efficacy effects across all analyses. There was strong evidence for stress management and weaker evidence for a number of other BCTs. The findings can be used to develop more effective, theory- and evidence-based behavioural interventions. PMID:25053214

  15. Barriers to and facilitators of implementing complex workplace dietary interventions: process evaluation results of a cluster controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Sarah; Geaney, Fiona; Kelly, Clare; McHugh, Sheena; Perry, Ivan J

    2016-01-01

    Background Ambiguity exists regarding the effectiveness of workplace dietary interventions. Rigorous process evaluation is vital to understand this uncertainty. This study was conducted as part of the Food Choice at Work trial which assessed the comparative effectiveness of a workplace environmental dietary modification intervention and an educational intervention both alone and in combination versus a control workplace. Effectiveness was assessed in terms of employees’ dietary intakes, nutri...

  16. Gluten- and casein-free dietary intervention for autism spectrum conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eWhiteley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intervention as a tool for maintaining and improving physical health and wellbeing is a widely researched and discussed topic. Speculation that diet may similarly affect mental health and wellbeing particularly in cases of psychiatric and behavioural symptomatology opens up various avenues for potentially improving quality of life. We examine evidence suggestive that a gluten-free, casein-free or combined gluten- and casein-free diet can ameliorate core and peripheral symptoms and improve developmental outcome in some cases of autism spectrum conditions. Although not wholly affirmative, the majority of published studies indicate statistically significant positive changes to symptom presentation following dietary intervention. In particular, changes to areas of communication, attention and hyperactivity are detailed, despite the presence of various methodological shortcomings. Specific characteristics of best- and non-responders to intervention have not been fully elucidated; neither has the precise mode of action for any universal effect outside of known individual cases of food-related co-morbidity. With the publication of controlled medium- and long-term group studies of a gluten- and casein-free diet alongside more consolidated biological findings potentially linked to intervention, the appearance of a possible diet-related autism phenotype seems to be emerging supportive of a positive dietary effect in some cases. Further debate on whether such dietary intervention should form part of best practice guidelines for autism spectrum conditions and onward representative of an autism dietary-sensitive enteropathy is warranted.

  17. Diet and Dermatology: The Role of Dietary Intervention in Skin Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Katta, Rajani; Desai, Samir P.

    2014-01-01

    For decades, it was thought that many common dermatological conditions had no relationship to diet. Studies from recent years, however, have made it clear that diet may influence outcome. In this review, the authors focus on conditions for which the role of diet has traditionally been an underappreciated aspect of therapy. In some cases, dietary interventions may influence the course of the skin disease, as in acne. In others, dietary change may serve as one aspect of prevention, such as in s...

  18. Clinical correlates of weight loss and attrition during a 10-week dietary intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Holst, Claus; Grau, Katrine;

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the pre-treatment subject characteristics and weight loss changes as determinants of weight loss and attrition during a 10-week dietary intervention study. Methods: A total of 771 obese subjects (BMI 35.6 kg/m(2)) of both genders were included from 8...... clinical centres in 7 European countries, who underwent a 10-week dietary intervention study comparing two hypo-energetic (-600 kcal/day) diets varying in fat content. Results: The multiple regression model showed that weight loss at week 10 was predicted by: 6.55 + 1.27 × early weight loss (kg) at week 1...

  19. Eating extra calories when sick - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting more calories - adults; Chemotherapy - calories; Transplant - calories; Cancer treatment - calories ... eating pleasant. Use soft lighting and play relaxing music. Eat with family or friends. Listen to the ...

  20. Effect of dietary intervention on serum lignan levels in pregnant women - a controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäkelä Sari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mother's diet during pregnancy is important, since plant lignans and their metabolites, converted by the intestinal microflora to enterolignans, are proposed to possess multiple health benefits. Aim of our study was to investigate whether a dietary intervention affects lignan concentrations in the serum of pregnant women. Methods A controlled dietary intervention trial including 105 first-time pregnant women was conducted in three intervention and three control maternity health clinics. The intervention included individual counseling on diet and on physical activity, while the controls received conventional care. Blood samples were collected on gestation weeks 8-9 (baseline and 36-37 (end of intervention. The serum levels of the plant lignans 7-hydroxymatairesinol, secoisolariciresinol, matairesinol, lariciresinol, cyclolariciresinol, and pinoresinol, and of the enterolignans 7-hydroxyenterolactone, enterodiol, and enterolactone, were measured using a validated method. Results The baseline levels of enterolactone, enterodiol and the sum of lignans were higher in the control group, whereas at the end of the trial their levels were higher in the intervention group. The adjusted mean differences between the baseline and end of the intervention for enterolactone and the total lignan intake were 1.6 ng/ml (p = 0.018, 95% CI 1.1-2.3 and 1.4 ng/mg (p = 0.08, 95% CI 1.0-1.9 higher in the intervention group than in the controls. Further adjustment for dietary components did not change these associations. Conclusion The dietary intervention was successful in increasing the intake of lignan-rich food products, the fiber consumption and consequently the plasma levels of lignans in pregnant women. Trial registration ISRCTN21512277, http://www.isrctn.org

  1. Dietary intervention impact on gut microbial gene richness

    OpenAIRE

    Cotillard, Aurélie; Kennedy, Sean P.; Kong, Ling Chun; Prifti, Edi; Pons, Nicolas; Le Chatelier, Emmanuelle; Almeida, Mathieu; Quinquis, Benoit; Levenez, Florence; Galleron, Nathalie; Gougis, Sophie; Rizkalla, Salwa; Batto, Jean-Michel; Renault, Pierre; consortium, ANR MicroObes

    2013-01-01

    Complex gene-environment interactions are considered important in the development of obesity(1). The composition of the gut microbiota can determine the efficacy of energy harvest from food(2-4) and changes in dietary composition have been associated with changes in the composition of gut microbial populations(5,6). The capacity to explore microbiota composition was markedly improved by the development of metagenomic approaches(7,8), which have already allowed production of the first human gu...

  2. Is a Calorie Really a Calorie? Metabolic Advantage of Low-Carbohydrate Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Anssi H

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The first law of thermodynamics dictates that body mass remains constant when caloric intake equals caloric expenditure. It should be noted, however, that different diets lead to different biochemical pathways that are not equivalent when correctly compared through the laws of thermodynamics. It is inappropriate to assume that the only thing that counts in terms of food consumption and energy balance is the intake of dietary calories and weight storage. Well-controlled studies suggest that calorie content may not be as predictive of fat loss as is reduced carbohydrate consumption. Biologically speaking, a calorie is certainly not a calorie. The ideal weight loss diet, if it even exists, remains to be determined, but a high-carbohydrate/low-protein diet may be unsatisfactory for many obese individuals.

  3. Diet and dermatology: the role of dietary intervention in skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katta, Rajani; Desai, Samir P

    2014-07-01

    For decades, it was thought that many common dermatological conditions had no relationship to diet. Studies from recent years, however, have made it clear that diet may influence outcome. In this review, the authors focus on conditions for which the role of diet has traditionally been an underappreciated aspect of therapy. In some cases, dietary interventions may influence the course of the skin disease, as in acne. In others, dietary change may serve as one aspect of prevention, such as in skin cancer and aging of the skin. In others, dermatological disease may be linked to systemic disease, and dietary changes may affect health outcomes, as in psoriasis. Lastly, systemic medications prescribed for dermatological disease, such as steroids, are known to raise the risk of other diseases, and dietary change may reduce this risk. PMID:25053983

  4. Proteomic Analysis in Type 2 Diabetes Patients before and after a Very Low Calorie Diet Reveals Potential Disease State and Intervention Specific Biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleddering, M.A.; Markvoort, A.J.; Dharuri, H.K.; Jeyakar, S.; Snel, M; Juhasz, P.; Lynch, M.; Hines, W.; Li, X.; Jazet, I.M.; Adourian, A.; Hilbers, P.A.; Smit, J.W.A.; Dijk, K.W. van

    2014-01-01

    Very low calorie diets (VLCD) with and without exercise programs lead to major metabolic improvements in obese type 2 diabetes patients. The mechanisms underlying these improvements have so far not been elucidated fully. To further investigate the mechanisms of a VLCD with or without exercise and to

  5. Combined dietary and exercise intervention for control of serum cholesterol in the workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angotti, C. M.; Chan, W. T.; Sample, C. J.; Levine, M. S.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To elucidate a potential combined dietary and exercise intervention affect on cardiovascular risk reduction of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Headquarters employees. DESIGN: A nonexperimental, longitudinal, clinical-chart review study (1987 to 1996) of an identified intervention group and a reference (not a control) group. SETTING: The study group worked in an office environment and participated in the annual medical examinations. SUBJECTS: An intervention group of 858 people with initially elevated serum cholesterol, and a reference group of 963 people randomly sampled from 10% of the study group. MEASURES: Serum cholesterol data were obtained for both groups, respectively, from pre- and postintervention and annual examinations. The reference group was adjusted by statistical exclusion of potential intervention participants. Regression equations (cholesterol vs. study years) for the unadjusted/adjusted reference groups were tested for statistical significance. INTERVENTION: An 8-week individualized, combined dietary and exercise program was instituted with annual follow-ups and was repeated where warranted. RESULTS: Only the unadjusted (but not the adjusted) reference group with initial mean total serum cholesterol levels above 200 mg/dL shows a significant 9-year decline trend and significant beta coefficient tests. An intervention effect is suggested. Mean high density lipoprotein cholesterol rose slightly in the intervention group but was maintained in the reference group. CONCLUSION: With potential design limitations, the NASA intervention program focusing on a high risk group may be associated to some degree, if not fully, with an overall cardiovascular risk profile improvement.

  6. Infantile colic: Is there a role for dietary interventions?

    OpenAIRE

    Critch, JN

    2011-01-01

    Infantile colic is a behavioural syndrome of early childhood that is associated with irritability and crying. It self-resolves, but may lead to significant parental strife. The etiology is unknown; however, several investigators have examined the effect of nutrition on infantile colic. For the majority of infants, nutritional interventions appear to have no benefit on infantile colic. However, a minority of infants may display symptoms of infantile colic secondary to a cow’s milk protein alle...

  7. Impact of Casein and Gluten Free Dietary Intervention on Selected Autistic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerappan Nishadevi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Autism is a life long developmental disorder that emerges in early childhood and results in significant lifelong disability. The goal of treatment is to promote the childs social and language development and minimize behaviors that interfere with the childs functioning and learning. This study evaluated the impact of casein and gluten free diet among selected autistic children. Methods: Three private special schools in Salem District, Tamilnadu, India were selected. A total number of 50 autistic children 10 from SIMEC, 10 from MMIC and 30 from CSI comprised the study sample. Background information, clinical history and nutritional status, dietary pattern were collected from the 50 selected autistic children. Out of 50 autistic children 30 autistic children were selected for the dietary intervention. Diet counseling regarding casein free diet was imparted to Group I (n=10, gluten free diet to Group II (n=10 and both casein and gluten free diet for Group III (n=10. The diet was followed for a period of 2 months. The efficacy of the dietary exclusion of casein and gluten was evaluated using a food and behavior diary on a day to day basis, using observation method. Findings: Results about Group I autistic children who followed dietary exclusion of casein free diet showed that the mean scores before and after casein free dietary intervention depiticted these improvements as, 1 to 1.2 for attention, 2.8 to 2.9 for sleep, 1.1 to 1.3 for hyperactivity, 1.1 to 1.2 for anxiety/compulsion. For Group II autistic children who followed dietary exclusion of gluten free diet showed the improvements as 1.1 to 1.4 for attention 2.5 to 3 for sleep, 1.7 to 1.9 for hyperactivity, 1.1 to 1.2 for anxiety/compulsion. About Group III autistic children who followed dietary exclusion of both casein and gluten free diet showed the improvements as 1.1 to 1.3 for attention, 2.5 to 2.7 for sleep, 1.3 to 1.7 for hyperactivity, and 1.1 to 1.2 for anxiety

  8. A multicentre weight loss study using a low-calorie diet over 8 weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Linardakis, Manolis; Plada, Maria;

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of low-calorie diets (LCDs) has not been investigated in large-scale studies or among people from different regions, who are perhaps unaccustomed to such methods of losing weight. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in obesity measures among overweight/obese adults...... from eight European cities (from Northern, Central and Southern Europe) during the 8-week LCD phase of the DiOGenes study (2006-2007), a family-based, randomised, controlled dietary intervention....

  9. Embodied crop calories in animal products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Prajal; Lüdeke, Matthias K. B.; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-12-01

    Increases in animal products consumption and the associated environmental consequences have been a matter of scientific debate for decades. Consequences of such increases include rises in greenhouse gas emissions, growth of consumptive water use, and perturbation of global nutrients cycles. These consequences vary spatially depending on livestock types, their densities and their production system. In this letter, we investigate the spatial distribution of embodied crop calories in animal products. On a global scale, about 40% of the global crop calories are used as livestock feed (we refer to this ratio as crop balance for livestock) and about 4 kcal of crop products are used to generate 1 kcal of animal products (embodied crop calories of around 4). However, these values vary greatly around the world. In some regions, more than 100% of the crops produced is required to feed livestock requiring national or international trade to meet the deficit in livestock feed. Embodied crop calories vary between less than 1 for 20% of the livestock raising areas worldwide and greater than 10 for another 20% of the regions. Low values of embodied crop calories are related to production systems for ruminants based on fodder and forage, while large values are usually associated with production systems for non-ruminants fed on crop products. Additionally, we project the future feed demand considering three scenarios: (a) population growth, (b) population growth and changes in human dietary patterns and (c) changes in population, dietary patterns and feed conversion efficiency. When considering dietary changes, we project the global feed demand to be almost doubled (1.8-2.3 times) by 2050 compared to 2000, which would force us to produce almost equal or even more crops to raise our livestock than to directly nourish ourselves in the future. Feed demand is expected to increase over proportionally in Africa, South-Eastern Asia and Southern Asia, putting additional stress on these

  10. Embodied crop calories in animal products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increases in animal products consumption and the associated environmental consequences have been a matter of scientific debate for decades. Consequences of such increases include rises in greenhouse gas emissions, growth of consumptive water use, and perturbation of global nutrients cycles. These consequences vary spatially depending on livestock types, their densities and their production system. In this letter, we investigate the spatial distribution of embodied crop calories in animal products. On a global scale, about 40% of the global crop calories are used as livestock feed (we refer to this ratio as crop balance for livestock) and about 4 kcal of crop products are used to generate 1 kcal of animal products (embodied crop calories of around 4). However, these values vary greatly around the world. In some regions, more than 100% of the crops produced is required to feed livestock requiring national or international trade to meet the deficit in livestock feed. Embodied crop calories vary between less than 1 for 20% of the livestock raising areas worldwide and greater than 10 for another 20% of the regions. Low values of embodied crop calories are related to production systems for ruminants based on fodder and forage, while large values are usually associated with production systems for non-ruminants fed on crop products. Additionally, we project the future feed demand considering three scenarios: (a) population growth, (b) population growth and changes in human dietary patterns and (c) changes in population, dietary patterns and feed conversion efficiency. When considering dietary changes, we project the global feed demand to be almost doubled (1.8–2.3 times) by 2050 compared to 2000, which would force us to produce almost equal or even more crops to raise our livestock than to directly nourish ourselves in the future. Feed demand is expected to increase over proportionally in Africa, South-Eastern Asia and Southern Asia, putting additional stress on

  11. Dietary Interventions and Blood Pressure in Latin America - Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzaro, Caroline Cantalejo; Klostermann, Flávia Caroline; Erbano, Bruna Olandoski [Faculdade Evangélica do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Schio, Nicolle Amboni; Guarita-Souza, Luiz César; Olandoski, Marcia; Faria-Neto, José Rocha, E-mail: jrochafaria@cardiol.br; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino [Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná (PUC-PR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2014-04-15

    High blood pressure is the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Low blood pressure control rates in Latin American populations emphasize the need for gathering evidence on effective therapies. To evaluate the effects of dietary interventions on blood pressure in Latin American populations. Systematic review. Electronic databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS and VHL) were searched and manual search for studies published up to April 2013 was performed. Parallel studies about dietary interventions in Latin American adult populations assessing arterial blood pressure (mm Hg) before and after intervention were included. Of the 405 studies identified, 10 randomized controlled trials were included and divided into 3 subgroups according to the proposed dietary intervention. There was a non-significant reduction in systolic blood pressure in the subgroups of mineral replacement (-4.82; 95% CI: -11.36 to 1.73) and complex pattern diets (-3.17; 95% CI: -7.62 to 1.28). Regarding diastolic blood pressure, except for the hyperproteic diet subgroup, all subgroups showed a significant reduction in blood pressure: -4.66 mmHg (95% CI: -9.21 to -0.12) and -4.55 mmHg (95% CI: -7.04 to -2.06) for mineral replacement and complex pattern diets, respectively. Available evidence on the effects of dietary changes on blood pressure in Latin American populations indicates a homogeneous effect of those interventions, although not significant for systolic blood pressure. Samples were small and the quality of the studies was generally low. Larger studies are required to build robust evidence.

  12. Dietary Interventions and Blood Pressure in Latin America - Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High blood pressure is the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Low blood pressure control rates in Latin American populations emphasize the need for gathering evidence on effective therapies. To evaluate the effects of dietary interventions on blood pressure in Latin American populations. Systematic review. Electronic databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS and VHL) were searched and manual search for studies published up to April 2013 was performed. Parallel studies about dietary interventions in Latin American adult populations assessing arterial blood pressure (mm Hg) before and after intervention were included. Of the 405 studies identified, 10 randomized controlled trials were included and divided into 3 subgroups according to the proposed dietary intervention. There was a non-significant reduction in systolic blood pressure in the subgroups of mineral replacement (-4.82; 95% CI: -11.36 to 1.73) and complex pattern diets (-3.17; 95% CI: -7.62 to 1.28). Regarding diastolic blood pressure, except for the hyperproteic diet subgroup, all subgroups showed a significant reduction in blood pressure: -4.66 mmHg (95% CI: -9.21 to -0.12) and -4.55 mmHg (95% CI: -7.04 to -2.06) for mineral replacement and complex pattern diets, respectively. Available evidence on the effects of dietary changes on blood pressure in Latin American populations indicates a homogeneous effect of those interventions, although not significant for systolic blood pressure. Samples were small and the quality of the studies was generally low. Larger studies are required to build robust evidence

  13. Calorie count - Alcoholic beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you drink. Cocktails mixed with soda, cream, or ice cream can have especially high calorie counts. If you ... A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among ...

  14. Intervention Engagement Moderates the Dose–Response Relationships in a Dietary Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Lippke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral interventions could lead to changes in behavior through changes in a mediator. This dose–response relationship might only hold true for those participants who are actively engaged in interventions. This Internet study investigated the role of engagement in a planning intervention to promote fruit and vegetable consumption in addition to testing the intervention effect on planning and behavior. A sample of 701 adults (mean = 38.71 years, 81% women were randomly assigned either to a planning intervention (experimental group or to one of 2 control conditions (untreated waiting list control group or placebo active control group. Moderated mediation analyses were carried out. Significant changes over time and time × group effects revealed the effectiveness of the intervention. The effect of the intervention (time 1 on changes in behavior (time 3; 1 month after the personal deadline study participants set for themselves to start implementing their plans was mediated by changes in planning (time 2; 1 week the personal deadline. Effects of planning on behavior were documented only at a moderate level of intervention engagement. This indicates an inverse U-shaped dose–response effect. Thus, examining participants’ intervention engagement allows for a more careful evaluation of why some interventions work and others do not.

  15. The effects of the HEALTHY study intervention on middle school student dietary intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volpe Stella L

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HEALTHY study was designed to respond to the alarming trends in increasing rates of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in youth. The objective of this analysis was to examine the effects of the HEALTHY study on student self-reported dietary intakes (energy, macronutrients and grams consumed of selected food groups. Methods HEALTHY was a cluster-randomized study in 42 public middle schools. Students, n = 3908, self-reported dietary intake using the Block Kids Questionnaire. General linear mixed models were used to analyze differences in dietary intake at the end of the study between intervention and control schools. Results The reported average daily fruit consumption was 10% higher at the end of the study in the intervention schools than in the control schools (138 g or approximately 2 servings versus 122 g, respectively, p = 0.0016. The reported water intake was approximately 2 fluid ounces higher in the intervention schools than in the control (483 g versus 429 g respectively; p = 0.008. There were no significant differences between intervention and control for mean intakes of energy, macronutrients, fiber, grains, vegetables, legumes, sweets, sweetened beverages, and higher- or lower-fat milk consumption. Conclusion The HEALTHY study, a five-semester middle school-based intervention program that integrated multiple components in nutrition, physical education, behavior change, and social marketing-based communications, resulted in significant changes to student's reported fruit and water intake. Subsequent interventions need to go beyond the school environment to change diet behaviors that may affect weight status of children. Clinical Trials Registration NCT00458029

  16. Effect of dietary intervention on the performance and biochemical indices of broilers challenged with Aspergillus flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Bolu,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary interventions of vitamins A, C, methionine and lysine singly and their combination on broilers challenged with Aspergillus flavus. The interventions were Vitamins A and C (A+C, methionine and lysine (METH+LYS and their combination (A+C+METH+LYS. The experiment which was conducted for 8 weeks employed a completely randomized design. Feed intake, weight gain, nutrient retention and feed conversion efficiency were significantly influenced (P<0.05 by dietary supplementation of the Aspergillus challenged birds. Highest feed intake (42.81 g/bird/day was observe for Aspergillus challenged birds supplemented with A+C+METH+LYS which compared favourably with the positive control birds (42.48 g/bird/day. The lowest feed intake was observed for the negative control birds (Aspergillus challenged without dietary intervention. Weight gain was highest for the positive control bird (20.14 g/bird/day. This value was similar to the value obtained for Aspergillus challenged birds supplemented with A+C+METH+LYS. Lowest weight gain was observed in the negative control birds (12.44 g/bird/day. These birds also recorded significantly (P<0.05 lowest feed conversion efficiency (3.09. Haematological and serum indices showed no significant differences, however, higher lymphocytes values were observed in challenged birds with dietary intervention. As a general immune modulator, vitamins A and C with lysine and methionine may be an attractive alternative to the on-farm use of vaccines in poultry in the management of aspergillosis.

  17. Dietary Interventions for Type 2 Diabetes: How Millet Comes to Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Jason; Puranik, Swati; Yadav, Rama; Manwaring, Hanna R.; Pierre, Sandra; Srivastava, Rakesh K.; Yadav, Rattan S.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes has become a highly problematic and increasingly prevalent disease world-wide. It has contributed toward 1.5 million deaths in 2012. Management techniques for diabetes prevention in high-risk as well as in affected individuals, beside medication, are mainly through changes in lifestyle and dietary regulation. Particularly, diet can have a great influence on life quality for those that suffer from, as well as those at risk of, diabetes. As such, considerations on nutritional aspects are required to be made to include in dietary intervention. This review aims to give an overview on the general consensus of current dietary and nutritional recommendation for diabetics. In light of such recommendation, the use of plant breeding, conventional as well as more recently developed molecular marker-based breeding and biofortification, are discussed in designing crops with desired characteristics. While there are various recommendations available, dietary choices are restricted by availability due to geo-, political-, or economical- considerations. This particularly holds true for countries such as India, where 65 million people (up from 50 million in 2010) are currently diabetic and their numbers are rising at an alarming rate. Millets are one of the most abundant crops grown in India as well as in Africa, providing a staple food source for many poorest of the poor communities in these countries. The potentials of millets as a dietary component to combat the increasing prevalence of global diabetes are highlighted in this review. PMID:27729921

  18. Interventions to enhance adherence to dietary advice for preventing and managing chronic diseases in adults: a study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Gravel Karine; Ratté Stéphane; Lapointe Annie; Desroches Sophie; Légaré France; Thirsk Jayne

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Adoption of a healthy diet has been identified as the cornerstone in the prevention and management of chronic diseases. However, non-adherence to lifestyle changes raises an important issue since adherence level to dietary advice is a key determinant of the effectiveness of dietary treatment. Therefore, based on the results of a Cochrane systematic review on interventions for enhancing adherence to dietary advice for preventing and managing chronic diseases in adults, the ...

  19. Identification of biomarkers for intake of protein from meat, dairy products and grains : a controlled dietary intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf-van der Kuil, Wieke; Brink, Elizabeth J.; Boetje, Martine; Siebelink, Els; Bijlsma, Sabina; Engberink, Marielle F.; van 't Veer, Pieter; Tome, Daniel; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; van Baak, Marleen A.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.

    2013-01-01

    In the present controlled, randomised, multiple cross-over dietary intervention study, we aimed to identify potential biomarkers for dietary protein from dairy products, meat and grain, which could be useful to estimate intake of these protein types in epidemiological studies. After 9 d run-in, thir

  20. Identification of biomarkers for intake of protein from meat, dairy products and grains: A controlled dietary intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf-van der Kuil, W.; Brink, E.J.; Boetje, M.; Siebelink, E.; Bijlsma, S.; Engberink, M.F.; Veer, P.V.'.; Tomé, D.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Baak, M.A. van; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the present controlled, randomised, multiple cross-over dietary intervention study, we aimed to identify potential biomarkers for dietary protein from dairy products, meat and grain, which could be useful to estimate intake of these protein types in epidemiological studies. After 9 d run-in, thir

  1. Identification of biomarkers for intake of protein from meat, dairy products and grains: a controlled dietary intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf-van der Kuil, W.; Brink, E.J.; Boetje, M.; Siebelink, E.; Bijlsma, S.; Engberink, M.F.; Tome, D.; Bakker, S.J.; Baak, van M.A.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Veer, van 't P.

    2013-01-01

    In the present controlled, randomised, multiple cross-over dietary intervention study, we aimed to identify potential biomarkers for dietary protein from dairy products, meat and grain, which could be useful to estimate intake of these protein types in epidemiological studies. After 9 d run-in, thir

  2. COMT Val158Met polymorphism modulates cognitive effects of dietary intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Veronica eWitte

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A common single nucleotide polymorphism in the gene encoding catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT, Val158Met, is thought to influence cognitive performance due to differences in prefrontal dopaminergic neurotransmission. Previous studies lend support for the hypothesis that the at-risk genotype comprising two Val-alleles (low dopamine might benefit more from plasticity-enhancing interventions than carriers of one or two Met-allele. This study aimed to determine whether the response to dietary interventions, known to modulate cognition, is dependent on COMT genotype. Blood samples of 35 healthy elderly subjects (61.3 years +/- 8 SD; 19 women, 16 men, BMI: 28.2 kg/m² +/- 4 SD were genotyped for COMT Val158Met by standard procedures (Val/Val = 6; Val/Met = 20; Met/Met = 9. Subjects had previously completed a randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of caloric restriction (CR or enhancement of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA on immediate and delayed verbal recognition memory. Homozygous Val/Val-carriers had significantly lower memory scores than Met-carriers at baseline (p < 0.001. Significant interactions of genotype and dietary intervention with regard to cognition were found: CR- and UFA enhancement-induced memory improvements of Val/Val-carriers were considerably greater than those of Met-carriers (ANOVA p’s < 0.02. The current study shows for the first time that cognitive effects of dietary interventions are dependent on COMT Val158Met genotype. Our findings lend further support to the hypothesis that an at risk-genotype might benefit more from plasticity-enhancing interventions than the not at risk-genotype. This might help to develop individualized therapies in future research based on genetic background.

  3. Short-term safety, tolerability and efficacy of a very low-calorie-ketogenic diet interventional weight loss program versus hypocaloric diet in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goday, A; Bellido, D; Sajoux, I; Crujeiras, A B; Burguera, B; García-Luna, P P; Oleaga, A; Moreno, B; Casanueva, F F

    2016-01-01

    Brackground: The safety and tolerability of very low-calorie-ketogenic (VLCK) diets are a current concern in the treatment of obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Objective: Evaluating the short-term safety and tolerability of a VLCK diet (<50 g of carbohydrate daily) in an interventional weight loss program including lifestyle and behavioral modification support (Diaprokal Method) in subjects with T2DM. Methods: Eighty-nine men and women, aged between 30 and 65 years, with T2DM and body mass index between 30 and 35 kg m−2 participated in this prospective, open-label, multi-centric randomized clinical trial with a duration of 4 months. Forty-five subjects were randomly assigned to the interventional weight loss (VLCK diet), and 44 to the standard low-calorie diet. Results: No significant differences in the laboratory safety parameters were found between the two study groups. Changes in the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio in VLCK diet were not significant and were comparable to control group. Creatinine and blood urea nitrogen did not change significantly relative to baseline nor between groups. Weight loss and reduction in waist circumference in the VLCK diet group were significantly larger than in control subjects (both P<0.001). The decline in HbA1c and glycemic control was larger in the VLCK diet group (P<0.05). No serious adverse events were reported and mild AE in the VLCK diet group declined at last follow-up. Conclusions: The interventional weight loss program based on a VLCK diet is most effective in reducing body weight and improvement of glycemic control than a standard hypocaloric diet with safety and good tolerance for T2DM patients. PMID:27643725

  4. Intervention effects on dietary intake among children by maternal education level: results of the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt W.; von Kappelgaard, Lene M.; Nielsen, Birgit M.;

    2015-01-01

    Dietary intake among Danish children, in general, does not comply with the official recommendations. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the 3-year effect of a multi-component school-based intervention on nutrient intake in children, and to examine whether an intervention effect ...

  5. Dietary Behaviors among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanuar Primanda

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe dietary behaviors and examine relationships between selected factors and dietary behaviors among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients in Yogyakarta, Indonesia.Method: Seventy T2DM patients from a hospital in Yogyakarta who met the inclusion criteria were recruited. Patient’s dietary behaviors were measured by the Dietary Behaviors Questionnaire developed for this study with adequate reliability. The questionnaire comprised of four dimensions: recognizing the amount of calorie needs, selecting healthy diet, arranging a meal plan, and managing dietary behaviors challenges. Higher scores indicate better dietary behaviors.Result: More than half of the patients were women (54.3% with an average age of 56.8 years and diabetes duration of 9.7 years. The results revealed a moderate level of the total score of dietary behaviors. Considering each dimension, the results showed a moderate level of recognizing the amount of calorie needs, selecting healthy diet, and managing dietary behaviors challenges. The patients reported a high level of arranging meal plans. Pearson’s correlation was used to examine the relationships between selected factors and dietary behaviors. There was a positive significant relationship between the knowledge regarding diabetic diet and the total dietary behaviors scores (r = .36, p< .01. There were positive significant relationships between the knowledge regarding diabetic diet and the dimensions of recognizing the amount of calorie needs (r = .27, p< .05, selecting healthy diet (r = .35, p< .01, and managing dietary behaviors challenges (r = .28, p< .05. In contrast, the findings indicated no significant relationship between knowledge regarding diabetic diet and arranging a meal plan dimension. Furthermore, there was no significant relationship between the diabetes duration and dietary behaviors.Conclusion: Dietary behaviors among T2DM patients in Yogyakarta were at a moderate level. Knowledge

  6. Health and economic impacts of eight different dietary salt reduction interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhung Nghiem

    Full Text Available Given the high importance of dietary sodium (salt as a global disease risk factor, our objective was to compare the impact of eight sodium reduction interventions, including feasible and more theoretical ones, to assist prioritisation.Epidemiological modelling and cost-utility analysis were performed using a Markov macro-simulation model. The setting was New Zealand (NZ (2.3 million citizens, aged 35+ years which has detailed individual-level administrative cost data.Of the most feasible interventions, the largest health gains were from (in descending order: (i mandatory 25% reduction in sodium levels in all processed foods; (ii the package of interventions performed in the United Kingdom (UK; (iii mandatory 25% reduction in sodium levels in bread, processed meats and sauces; (iv media campaign (as per a previous UK one; (v voluntary food labelling as currently used in NZ; (vi dietary counselling as currently used in NZ. Even larger health gains came from the more theoretical options of a "sinking lid" on the amount of food salt released to the national market to achieve an average adult intake of 2300 mg sodium/day (211,000 QALYs gained, 95% uncertainty interval: 170,000-255,000, and from a salt tax. All the interventions produced net cost savings (except counseling--albeit still cost-effective. Cost savings were especially large with the sinking lid (NZ$ 1.1 billion, US$ 0.7 billion. Also the salt tax would raise revenue (up to NZ$ 452 million/year. Health gain per person was greater for Māori (indigenous population men and women compared to non-Māori.This study substantially expands on the range of previously modelled salt reduction interventions and suggests that some of these might achieve major health gains and major cost savings (particularly the regulatory interventions. They could also reduce ethnic inequalities in health.

  7. Eating extra calories when sick - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting more calories - children; Chemotherapy - calories; Transplant - calories; Cancer treatment - calories ... When children are sick or undergoing cancer treatment, they may not feel like eating. But your child needs to ...

  8. Trial Protocol: Randomised controlled trial of the effects of very low calorie diet, modest dietary restriction, and sequential behavioural programme on hunger, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers stopping smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajek Peter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight gain accompanies smoking cessation, but dieting during quitting is controversial as hunger may increase urges to smoke. This is a feasibility trial for the investigation of a very low calorie diet (VLCD, individual modest energy restriction, and usual advice on hunger, ketosis, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers trying to quit. Methods This is a 3 armed, unblinded, randomized controlled trial in overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2, daily smokers (CO > 10 ppm; with at least 30 participants in each group. Each group receives identical behavioural support and NRT patches (25 mg(8 weeks,15 mg(2 weeks,10 mg(2 weeks. The VLCD group receive a 429-559 kcal/day liquid formula beginning 1 week before quitting and continuing for 4 weeks afterwards. The modest energy restricted group (termed individual dietary and activity planning(IDAP engage in goal-setting and receive an energy prescription based on individual basal metabolic rate(BMR aiming for daily reduction of 600 kcal. The control group receive usual dietary advice that accompanies smoking cessation i.e. avoiding feeling hungry but eating healthy snacks. After this, the VLCD participants receive IDAP to provide support for changing eating habits in the longer term; the IDAP group continues receiving this support. The control group receive IDAP 8 weeks after quitting. This allows us to compare IDAP following a successful quit attempt with dieting concurrently during quitting. It also aims to prevent attrition in the unblinded, control group by meeting their need for weight management. Follow-up occurs at 6 and 12 months. Outcome measures include participant acceptability, measured qualitatively by semi-structured interviewing and quantitatively by recruitment and attrition rates. Feasibility of running the trial within primary care is measured by interview and questionnaire of the treatment providers. Adherence to the VLCD is verified by the presence of

  9. Calorie Posting in Chain Restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan Bollinger; Phillip Leslie; Alan Sorensen

    2011-01-01

    We study the impact of mandatory calorie posting on consumers' purchase decisions using detailed data from Starbucks. We find that average calories per transaction fall by 6 percent. The effect is almost entirely related to changes in consumers' food choices—there is almost no change in purchases of beverage calories. There is no impact on Starbucks profit on average, and for the subset of stores located close to their competitor Dunkin Donuts, the effect of calorie posting is actually to inc...

  10. A model of phone call intervention in sensitizing the change of dietary pattern

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    Eliane Corrêa Chaves

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To propose a model of phone call intervention for changing dietary patterns and to assess its effectiveness. Method: A study carried out at the Health Promotion School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, with 27 subjects, 3-5 phone calls contacts per user, by means of which were given orientations and interventions on the principles of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and the Transtheoretical Model on healthy eating. We analyzed the variables weight and body mass index, dietary patterns and overall stage of motivation to change. The data were submitted to analysis of variance with repeated measures at different stages of evaluation: pre-contact, 3rd and 5th phone calls. Results: After intervention, users showed a change in eating behavior in the third contact, and change occurred in weight and BMI in one patient. All findings were not statistically significant. There was improvement in the motivation to acquire new eating habits, also not significant. Conclusion: There was a slight change in feeding behavior, the motivation to change improved for all participants, without, however, have been effective in this type of approach.

  11. Lifestyle and Dietary Interventions in the Management of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, William N; Harrison, Stephen A

    2016-05-01

    NAFLD is the leading cause of chronic liver disease in the Western world with an estimated prevalence of 20-30 %. Lifestyle interventions targeted at weight loss through dietary interventions and exercise are the most effective treatment, but only a minority of patients are able to achieve and sustain the necessary intervention targets. Weight loss of 3-5 % has been associated with a reduction of hepatic steatosis while weight loss of ≥5-7 % has correlated with resolution of NASH in some studies. Greater reductions in weight loss (≥10 %) may improve hepatic fibrosis. In the absence of weight loss, no specific diet has demonstrated superiority. Physical activity can improve hepatic steatosis and metabolic indices even without weight loss. Diet coupled with exercise can produce significant weight loss and may improve histologic components of the NAFLD activity score. While formal guidelines for diet and exercise in NAFLD are lacking, adherence to diet and exercise recommendations similar to those from the American Diabetes Association for diabetic care seems reasonable. Dietary supplementation with vitamin E in non-diabetics with biopsy-proven NASH has been shown to improve NAFLD activity score. The role for other macronutrients, micronutrients, antioxidants, and probiotics in the treatment of NAFLD remains limited. PMID:27052013

  12. The Impact of Dietary Interventions on the Symptoms of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlebois, Ashley; Rosenfeld, Greg; Bressler, Brian

    2016-06-10

    Diet may be a successful part of the treatment plan for improving outcome in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study aimed to systematically review all published clinical trials evaluating the effects of a regular diet on symptoms of IBD. Three medical databases were searched for clinical trials evaluating an intervention that involved dietary manipulation using a regular diet on adults with IBD whose symptoms were objectively measured before and after the intervention. The most common types of regular diet interventions that we observed in the literature fell into the following three categories: low residue/low fiber diets, exclusion diets, or other specific diets. Of all included studies, the few that were of higher quality and that observed a statistically significant improvement in symptoms in the diet group compared to the control group fell under the exclusion diet group or the other specific diet group. We were able to identify several high quality clinical trials evaluating dietary manipulations on symptoms of IBD. Exclusion diets and the low FODMAP diet are two areas identified in this review that show promise for having therapeutic benefits for patients with IBD. PMID:25569442

  13. Randomized controlled trial of dietary intervention: association between level of urinary phenolics and anti-mutagenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaveille, Christian; Fiorini, Laura; Bianchini, Monica; Davico, Laura; Bertinetti, Sabrina; Allegro, Giovanni; Hautefeuille, Agnès; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Vineis, Paolo

    2004-07-11

    We have undertaken a randomized trial to confirm the ability of a class of phenolics, flavonoids, to increase urinary anti-mutagenicity in smokers. Ninety heavy smokers were recruited and randomly assigned to three groups, who were given three different diets. One diet was rich in flavonoids, but not based on supplementation ('flavonoid'), one was a normal iso-caloric diet with an adequate administration of fruit and vegetables ('normal'), and one was based on supplementation of flavonoids in the form of green tea and soy products ('supplement'). The urinary anti-mutagenicity-as inhibiting effect of the urinary extracts on the mutations induced by MeIQx-was measured in Salmonella typhimurium YG1024 in the presence of liver S9 from male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with Aroclor 1254. The amount of total phenolics in the urinary extracts was measured by use of spectrometric analysis. We found that important dietary modifications can be achieved through special recipes and instructions given by a cook during an intensive course. The intervention was focused on increasing the flavonoid intake, and it was successful in that respect. In fact, differences in flavonoid intake were appreciated mainly between the first group (normal diet) and the other two (flavonoid-rich and supplemented diet), suggesting that dietary modification can be as effective as supplementation. However, both urinary anti-mutagenicity and the amounts of urinary phenolics did not change as a consequence of the trial. These results suggest that only a small fraction of urinary phenolics is influenced by dietary changes in the intake of flavonoids, and that most urinary anti-mutagens and phenolics are metabolites of dietary flavonoids, whose formation is more affected by the activity and diversity of bacterial flora in the colon than by the quantity and type of intake. A strong correlation was found between urinary phenolics and anti-mutagenicity in all the groups involved in the trial. Such correlation

  14. Nutrition support and dietary interventions for patients with lung cancer: current insights

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    Kiss N

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicole Kiss1,2 1Nutrition and Speech Pathology Department, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Department of Cancer Experiences Research, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Malnutrition and weight loss are prevalent in patients with lung cancer. The impact of malnutrition on patients with cancer, and specifically in patients with lung cancer, has been demonstrated in a large number of studies. Malnutrition has been shown to negatively affect treatment completion, survival, quality of life, physical function, and health care costs. Emerging evidence is providing some insight into which lung cancer patients are at higher nutritional risk. In lung cancer patients treated with radiotherapy, stage III or more disease, treatment with concurrent chemotherapy and the extent of radiotherapy delivered to the esophagus appear to confer a higher risk of weight loss during and post-treatment. Studies investigating nutrition interventions for lung cancer patients have examined intensive dietary counseling, supplementation with fish oils, and interdisciplinary models of nutrition and exercise interventions and show promise for improved outcomes from these interventions. However, further research utilizing these interventions in large clinical trials is required to definitively establish effective interventions in this patient group. Keywords: lung cancer, nutrition, malnutrition

  15. 76 FR 19237 - Food Labeling; Calorie Labeling of Articles of Food in Vending Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... following nutrients: Total calories, calories from fat (unless the product contains less than 0.5 g of fat), total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrate, dietary fiber, sugars... regulations establishing nutrition labeling requirements were published in 1993 (58 FR 2079, January 6,...

  16. A 10-Week Multimodal Nutrition Education Intervention Improves Dietary Intake among University Students: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

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    Mohd Razif Shahril

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing multimodal nutrition education intervention (NEI to improve dietary intake among university students. The design of study used was cluster randomised controlled design at four public universities in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 417 university students participated in the study. They were randomly selected and assigned into two arms, that is, intervention group (IG or control group (CG according to their cluster. The IG received 10-week multimodal intervention using three modes (conventional lecture, brochures, and text messages while CG did not receive any intervention. Dietary intake was assessed before and after intervention and outcomes reported as nutrient intakes as well as average daily servings of food intake. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA and adjusted effect size were used to determine difference in dietary changes between groups and time. Results showed that, compared to CG, participants in IG significantly improved their dietary intake by increasing their energy intake, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin C and thiamine, fruits and 100% fruit juice, fish, egg, milk, and dairy products while at the same time significantly decreased their processed food intake. In conclusion, multimodal NEI focusing on healthy eating promotion is an effective approach to improve dietary intakes among university students.

  17. A gut microbiota-targeted dietary intervention for amelioration of chronic inflammation underlying metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shuiming; Fei, Na; Pang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Jian; Wang, Linghua; Zhang, Baorang; Zhang, Menghui; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Chenhong; Li, Min; Sun, Lifeng; Xue, Zhengsheng; Wang, Jingjing; Feng, Jie; Yan, Feiyan; Zhao, Naisi; Liu, Jiaqi; Long, Wenmin; Zhao, Liping

    2014-02-01

    Chronic inflammation induced by endotoxin from a dysbiotic gut microbiota contributes to the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. Modification of gut microbiota by a diet to balance its composition becomes a promising strategy to help manage obesity. A dietary scheme based on whole grains, traditional Chinese medicinal foods, and prebiotics (WTP diet) was designed to meet human nutritional needs as well as balance the gut microbiota. Ninety-three of 123 central obese volunteers (BMI ≥ 28 kg m(-2) ) completed a self-controlled clinical trial consisting of 9-week intervention on WTP diet followed by a 14-week maintenance period. The average weight loss reached 5.79 ± 4.64 kg (6.62 ± 4.94%), in addition to improvement in insulin sensitivity, lipid profiles, and blood pressure. Pyrosequencing of fecal samples showed that phylotypes related to endotoxin-producing opportunistic pathogens of Enterobacteriaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae were reduced significantly, while those related to gut barrier-protecting bacteria of Bifidobacteriaceae increased. Gut permeability, measured as lactulose/mannitol ratio, was decreased compared with the baseline. Plasma endotoxin load as lipopolysaccharide-binding protein was also significantly reduced, with concomitant decrease in tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and an increase in adiponectin. These results suggest that modulation of the gut microbiota via dietary intervention may enhance the intestinal barrier integrity, reduce circulating antigen load, and ultimately ameliorate the inflammation and metabolic phenotypes.

  18. Dietary components and risk of total, cancer and cardiovascular disease mortality in the Linxian Nutrition Intervention Trials cohort in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-Bing Wang; Jin-Hu Fan; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Rashmi Sinha; Freedman, Neal D.; Taylor, Philip R.; You-Lin Qiao; Abnet, Christian C.

    2016-01-01

    Although previous studies have shown that dietary consumption of certain food groups is associated with a lower risk of cancer, heart disease and stroke mortality in western populations, limited prospective data are available from China. We prospectively examined the association between dietary intake of different food groups at baseline and risk of total, cancer, heart disease and stroke mortality outcomes in the Linxian Nutrition Intervention Trials(NIT) cohort. In 1984–1991, 2445 subjects ...

  19. Orientale and Caloris

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    Applications of experimental explosion-crater data to Orientale and recent geologic mapping of the basin have produced a new stratigraphy and genetic model for Orientale that are also applicable to Caloris. The inner-basin scarp of Orientale is thought to be a bench separating the upper parts of the basin from its deep bowl-shaped interior. The elongated and complexly fractured domes of the basin floor formed by inward compression in the terminal stages of the cratering sequence. The Inner Montes Rook are considered a central peak ring. The Montes Rook and the nonlineated knobby and associated smoother materials that overlie the Cordillera scarp around much of its circumference are the uppermost parts of the overturned rim flap which formed early in the cratering event. The knobs and smaller massifs are probably coherent blocks quarried from deep within the moon. They were among the last materials to leave the basin and had little radial momentum unlike the lineated Hevelius which formed earlier by disaggregation of the rim flap, secondary cratering, and the ground surge. The Cordillera scarp, best seen on the east side of the basin but poorly developed and discontinuous on the west, is a primary feature formed early in the crater excavation process by basinward motions of the walls and the fractured zone beyond the rim of the expanding cavity. The Cordillera scarp is overlain by ejecta over most of its extent, and post-basin internal slumping, previously thought to be important, must be a subordinate process in development of the scarp. The basin fill in Caloris has no counterpart in Orientale but the materials between the most prominent scarp and the weakly developed outer scarp appear to be the degraded and possibly mantled equivalents of the massifs and knobs associated with the Montes Rook. The radially lineated terrain that generally lies beyond the outer scarp of Caloris is considered the subdued counterpart of the Hevelius Formation, which generally shows

  20. Dietary and behavioral interventions protect against age related activation of caspase cascades in the canine brain.

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    Shikha Snigdha

    Full Text Available Lifestyle interventions such as diet, exercise, and cognitive training represent a quietly emerging revolution in the modern approach to counteracting age-related declines in brain health. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that long-term dietary supplementation with antioxidants and mitochondrial cofactors (AOX or behavioral enrichment with social, cognitive, and exercise components (ENR, can effectively improve cognitive performance and reduce brain pathology of aged canines, including oxidative damage and Aβ accumulation. In this study, we build on and extend our previous findings by investigating if the interventions reduce caspase activation and ceramide accumulation in the aged frontal cortex, since caspase activation and ceramide accumulation are common convergence points for oxidative damage and Aβ, among other factors associated with the aged and AD brain. Aged beagles were placed into one of four treatment groups: CON--control environment/control diet, AOX--control environment/antioxidant diet, ENR--enriched environment/control diet, AOX/ENR--enriched environment/antioxidant diet for 2.8 years. Following behavioral testing, brains were removed and frontal cortices were analyzed to monitor levels of active caspase 3, active caspase 9 and their respective cleavage products such as tau and semaphorin7a, and ceramides. Our results show that levels of activated caspase-3 were reduced by ENR and AOX interventions with the largest reduction occurring with combined AOX/ENR group. Further, reductions in caspase-3 correlated with reduced errors in a reversal learning task, which depends on frontal cortex function. In addition, animals treated with an AOX arm showed reduced numbers of cells expressing active caspase 9 or its cleavage product semaphorin 7A, while ENR (but not AOX reduced ceramide levels. Overall, these data demonstrate that lifestyle interventions curtail activation of pro-degenerative pathways to improve cellular

  1. Dietary and behavioral interventions protect against age related activation of caspase cascades in the canine brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snigdha, Shikha; Berchtold, Nicole; Astarita, Giuseppe; Saing, Tommy; Piomelli, Daniele; Cotman, Carl W

    2011-01-01

    Lifestyle interventions such as diet, exercise, and cognitive training represent a quietly emerging revolution in the modern approach to counteracting age-related declines in brain health. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that long-term dietary supplementation with antioxidants and mitochondrial cofactors (AOX) or behavioral enrichment with social, cognitive, and exercise components (ENR), can effectively improve cognitive performance and reduce brain pathology of aged canines, including oxidative damage and Aβ accumulation. In this study, we build on and extend our previous findings by investigating if the interventions reduce caspase activation and ceramide accumulation in the aged frontal cortex, since caspase activation and ceramide accumulation are common convergence points for oxidative damage and Aβ, among other factors associated with the aged and AD brain. Aged beagles were placed into one of four treatment groups: CON--control environment/control diet, AOX--control environment/antioxidant diet, ENR--enriched environment/control diet, AOX/ENR--enriched environment/antioxidant diet for 2.8 years. Following behavioral testing, brains were removed and frontal cortices were analyzed to monitor levels of active caspase 3, active caspase 9 and their respective cleavage products such as tau and semaphorin7a, and ceramides. Our results show that levels of activated caspase-3 were reduced by ENR and AOX interventions with the largest reduction occurring with combined AOX/ENR group. Further, reductions in caspase-3 correlated with reduced errors in a reversal learning task, which depends on frontal cortex function. In addition, animals treated with an AOX arm showed reduced numbers of cells expressing active caspase 9 or its cleavage product semaphorin 7A, while ENR (but not AOX) reduced ceramide levels. Overall, these data demonstrate that lifestyle interventions curtail activation of pro-degenerative pathways to improve cellular health and are the

  2. Healthy dietary interventions and lipoprotein (a plasma levels: results from the Omni Heart Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Haring

    Full Text Available Increased lipoprotein(a [Lp(a] levels are associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Studies of dietary interventions on changes in Lp(a are sparse. We aimed to compare the effects of three healthy dietary interventions differing in macronutrient content on Lp(a concentration.Secondary analysis of a randomized, 3-period crossover feeding study including 155 (89 blacks; 66 whites individuals. Participants were given DASH-type healthy diets rich in carbohydrates [Carb], in protein [Prot] or in unsaturated fat [Unsat Fat] for 6 weeks each. Plasma Lp(a concentration was assessed at baseline and after each diet.Compared to baseline, all interventional diets increased mean Lp(a by 2 to 5 mg/dl. Unsat Fat increased Lp(a less than Prot with a difference of 1.0 mg/dl (95% CI, -0.5, 2.5; p = 0.196 in whites and 3.7 mg/dl (95% CI, 2.4, 5.0; p < 0.001 in blacks (p-value between races = 0.008; Unsat Fat increased Lp(a less than Carb with a difference of -0.6 mg/dl, 95% CI, -2.1, 0.9; p = 0.441 in whites and -1.5 mg/dl (95% CI, -0.2, -2.8; p = 0.021 in blacks (p-value between races = 0.354. Prot increased Lp(a more than Carb with a difference of 0.4 mg/dl (95% CI, -1.1, 1.9; p = 0.597 in whites and 2.2 mg/dl (95%CI, 0.9, 3.5; p = 0.001 in blacks (p-value between races = 0.082.Diets high in unsaturated fat increased Lp(a levels less than diets rich in carbohydrate or protein with greater changes in blacks than whites. Our results suggest that substitutions with dietary mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids in healthy diets may be preferable over protein or carbohydrates with regards to Lp(a.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00051350.

  3. Interventions to enhance adherence to dietary advice for preventing and managing chronic diseases in adults: a study protocol

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    Gravel Karine

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adoption of a healthy diet has been identified as the cornerstone in the prevention and management of chronic diseases. However, non-adherence to lifestyle changes raises an important issue since adherence level to dietary advice is a key determinant of the effectiveness of dietary treatment. Therefore, based on the results of a Cochrane systematic review on interventions for enhancing adherence to dietary advice for preventing and managing chronic diseases in adults, the aim of this study is to assess the importance and applicability of interventions enhancing adherence to dietary advice in the Canadian context. Methods/Design In phase 1, dietitians' opinion will be assessed through a Delphi study regarding the importance and the applicability in the Canadian context of the interventions found the most effective to enhance adherence to dietary advice through a Cochrane systematic review. In phase 2, findings of the Cochrane systematic review assessing the effects of interventions for enhancing adherence to dietary advice will be reported in a practical format on an online knowledge translation tool for dietitians and other health professionals. Discussion In recent years, there has been an increasing recognition of the failure to translate research findings into clinical practice. Therefore, knowledge translation efforts need to prioritize effective interventions that will be the most relevant for practice and end-users by adapting them to the local context. Our study will provide decision makers in the field of dietetic practice with essential knowledge on adherence for elaborating educational activities for academic or professional settings that will respond to dietitians' priorities in terms of importance and applicability to day-to-day practice.

  4. A 10-Week Multimodal Nutrition Education Intervention Improves Dietary Intake among University Students: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Razif Shahril; Wan Putri Elena Wan Dali; Pei Lin Lua

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing multimodal nutrition education intervention (NEI) to improve dietary intake among university students. The design of study used was cluster randomised controlled design at four public universities in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 417 university students participated in the study. They were randomly selected and assigned into two arms, that is, intervention group (IG) or control group (CG) according to their cluster. T...

  5. Low-calorie marmalades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Saša R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of people suffering from insulin-dependent (Diabetes Melitus type I and insulin-independent (Diabetes Melitus type II is huge, and the number of potential diseased is in permanent rise. For that reason products with reduced amount of sugar have become very popular. Factory "Srbijanka" Valjevo manufactures reduced–sugar marmalades from apricot peach, strawberry, apple and orange. Low–metoxyl pectins and high-grade locust bean gum were used as gelation agents. Sensory evaluation and energy value of these marmalades were determined and all samples were highly graded. All marmalades belonged to the group of low-calorie (dietetic products.

  6. Efficacy of dietary interventions in end-stage renal disease patients; a systematic review

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    Nazar Chaudhary Muhamamd Juniad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD and chronic kidney disease (CKD are common comorbid conditions. Life style, particularly diet is a critical component of treatment for these conditions. Register dietitians play a key role in bridging the gap between the science of nutrition and the empowerment of individuals to alter their lifestyles in a healthy manner. A range of dietary manipulations has been reported to reduce risk factors and decrease risk of CVD and CKD outcomes. However, many studies provided food to participants or were limited to adjustment of few specific nutrients. Diet intervention in relation with end-stage renal disease (ESRD is really complicated topic. As multiple co morbid conditions such as hypertension, CVD, CKD, and diabetes mellitus (DM are associated with ESRD, which made the scenario really worse while fixing the dose of any diet. Still a lot of research work is required to understand this topic.

  7. Dietary Intervention for Overweight and Obese Adults: Comparison of Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diets. A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sackner-Bernstein

    Full Text Available Reduced calorie, low fat diet is currently recommended diet for overweight and obese adults. Prior data suggest that low carbohydrate diets may also be a viable option for those who are overweight and obese.Compare the effects of low carbohydrate versus low fats diet on weight and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in overweight and obese patients.Systematic literature review via PubMed (1966-2014.Randomized controlled trials with ≥8 weeks follow up, comparing low carbohydrate (≤120gm carbohydrates/day and low fat diet (≤30% energy from fat/day.Data were extracted and prepared for analysis using double data entry. Prior to identification of candidate publications, the outcomes of change in weight and metabolic factors were selected as defined by Cochrane Collaboration. Assessment of the effects of diets on predicted risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk was added during the data collection phase.1797 patients were included from 17 trials with 99% while the reduction in predicted risk favoring low carbohydrate was >98%.Lack of patient-level data and heterogeneity in dropout rates and outcomes reported.This trial-level meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing LoCHO diets with LoFAT diets in strictly adherent populations demonstrates that each diet was associated with significant weight loss and reduction in predicted risk of ASCVD events. However, LoCHO diet was associated with modest but significantly greater improvements in weight loss and predicted ASCVD risk in studies from 8 weeks to 24 months in duration. These results suggest that future evaluations of dietary guidelines should consider low carbohydrate diets as effective and safe intervention for weight management in the overweight and obese, although long-term effects require further investigation.

  8. The Effect of a Summer Camp Intervention on the Nutrition Knowledge and Dietary Behavior of Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Leah; Nepocatych, Svetlana; Ketcham, Caroline; Duffy, Diane

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to design a rewards-based nutrition intervention program to improve knowledge and dietary behaviors of adolescent girls. Our participants consisted of eight girls ages 11 to 13 years. Nutritional knowledge was assessed before and after intervention program through a "Jeopardy" style quiz game and posttest questionnaires. Participants were also interviewed throughout the week about typical dietary behaviors, daily physical activity, and self-esteem. Educational activities took place for 2 to 3 hours each day and included a grocery store scavenger hunt, healthy baking demonstrations, and relay races. Participants received bracelets and charms as rewards for participation in activities. Nutritional knowledge increased for six out of eight participants, although the overall increase was not found to be statistically significant (p = .20). Significant correlations were found between measures including dietary behavior (soda consumption per week and perceived importance of body weight: r = -.827, p = .01), self-esteem (weight and endurance: r = .801, p = .03), and fitness levels (weight and curl-ups completed in 30 seconds: r = -.729, p = .04). This study shows promising evidence that this nutrition education intervention could be effective at increasing nutrition knowledge, thus potentially affecting future dietary behaviors of adolescent girls. PMID:27044609

  9. Dietary PUFA Intervention Affects Fatty Acid- and Micronutrient Profiles of Beef and Related Beef Products

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    Dirk Dannenberger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the dietary impact of 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 on fatty acid- and micronutrient concentration of beef muscle and the extent of diet- and processing-induced changes of lipid- and micronutrient concentrations of beef products made thereof (German Corned beef (GCB, tea sausage spread (TSS, scalded sausage (SS. Beef and beef products were obtained from German Holstein bulls which either received a control diet consisting of maize silage and concentrate with soybean meal (41%, or an experimental diet of grass silage and concentrate plus rapeseed cake (12% and linseed oil (3%. The study revealed that upon an 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 intervention the amounts of 18:3n-3, EPA and Σn-3 LC-PUFA were significantly increased by 2.6, 2.3 and 1.7 fold, respectively. Experimental diet significantly increased β-carotene contents, and the γ-tocopherol contents were decreased. During beef processing, n-3 PUFA from beef were found to be product-specifically transferred into the corresponding beef products. 18:3n-3 and Σn-3 LC-PUFA contents were found to be 1.4 and 1.5 times higher in GCB from grass silage- than maize silage-fed bulls. The trace element contents in GCB (iron, copper, zinc, selenium were not affected by the diet; however γ-tocopherol contents were decreased by experimental diet. In conclusion, dietary n-3 PUFA were completely transferred into beef products unaffected by beef processing conditions.

  10. Genetic variants in adiponectin and blood pressure responses to dietary sodium or potassium interventions: a family-based association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C; Wang, Y; Ren, K-Y; Yan, D-Y; Guo, T-S; Zheng, W-L; Yuan, Z-Y; Mu, J-J

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that genetic factors might have an important role in blood pressure (BP) responses to dietary salt or potassium intake. The aim of this study was to assess the association of common genetic variants of the adiponectin gene with BP responses to controlled dietary sodium or potassium interventions. Subjects (n=334) from 124 families in rural areas of Northern China were recruited. After a 3-day baseline observation, participants sequentially maintained a 7-day low-sodium diet (NaCl, 3 g per day; or sodium, 51.3 mmol per day), followed by a 7-day high-sodium diet (NaCl, 18 g per day; or sodium, 307.8 mmol per day) and a 7-day high-sodium plus potassium supplementation intervention (KCl, 4.5 g per day; or potassium, 60 mmol per day). A total of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the adiponectin gene were selected as the study sites. After adjustment for multiple testing, the adiponectin SNP rs16861205 was significantly associated with the diastolic BP (DBP) response to low-salt intervention, and the DBP and mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses to high-salt intervention (P=0.028, 0.023 and 0.027, respectively). SNP rs822394 was associated with the DBP and MAP responses to low-salt intervention and the DBP response to high-salt intervention (P=0.023, 0.030 and 0.033 respectively). Meanwhile, significant association also existed between SNP rs16861194 and the systolic BP response to potassium supplementation intervention (P=0.026). In addition, SNP rs822394 was significantly associated with basal DBP after adjustment for multiple testing (P=0.033). Our study indicated that the genetic polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene are significantly associated with BP responses to dietary sodium and potassium intake. PMID:27011258

  11. Genetic variants in adiponectin and blood pressure responses to dietary sodium or potassium interventions: a family-based association study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C; Wang, Y; Ren, K-y; Yan, D-y; Guo, T-s; Zheng, W-l; Yuan, Z-y; Mu, J-j

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that genetic factors might have an important role in blood pressure (BP) responses to dietary salt or potassium intake. The aim of this study was to assess the association of common genetic variants of the adiponectin gene with BP responses to controlled dietary sodium or potassium interventions. Subjects (n=334) from 124 families in rural areas of Northern China were recruited. After a 3-day baseline observation, participants sequentially maintained a 7-day low-sodium diet (NaCl, 3 g per day; or sodium, 51.3 mmol per day), followed by a 7-day high-sodium diet (NaCl, 18 g per day; or sodium, 307.8 mmol per day) and a 7-day high-sodium plus potassium supplementation intervention (KCl, 4.5 g per day; or potassium, 60 mmol per day). A total of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the adiponectin gene were selected as the study sites. After adjustment for multiple testing, the adiponectin SNP rs16861205 was significantly associated with the diastolic BP (DBP) response to low-salt intervention, and the DBP and mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses to high-salt intervention (P=0.028, 0.023 and 0.027, respectively). SNP rs822394 was associated with the DBP and MAP responses to low-salt intervention and the DBP response to high-salt intervention (P=0.023, 0.030 and 0.033 respectively). Meanwhile, significant association also existed between SNP rs16861194 and the systolic BP response to potassium supplementation intervention (P=0.026). In addition, SNP rs822394 was significantly associated with basal DBP after adjustment for multiple testing (P=0.033). Our study indicated that the genetic polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene are significantly associated with BP responses to dietary sodium and potassium intake. PMID:27011258

  12. Figuring Out Fat and Calories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For instance, a ½-cup serving of vanilla ice cream contains: 178 total calories 2 grams of protein ( ... choose a heaping bowl of cooked carrots over ice cream on a hot summer day? It all comes ...

  13. The effect of depression and adherence in a dietary and physical activity intervention for overweight and obese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Abascal, Liana B.

    2008-01-01

    Overweight and obesity result in serious medical, economic, and psychological consequences. A better understanding of factors that lead to successful weight loss treatment is needed, including mediators and moderators of treatment effects. This study investigated the effect of depression on adherence to a dietary and physical activity behavior change intervention in a sample of overweight and obese men and women. The PACEi Men in Motion (n=441) and Women in Balance (n=401) on-line interventio...

  14. The Correlation Study of Race Results of University High Level Middle-distance Runners with Dietary Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Tiehan Li

    2015-01-01

    The increasing improvement of university high level sports team’s technology and achievement, scientific and effective training have become the primary means of development. Author through studying the Correlation of race results of university high level middle distance runners with dietary intervention, concludes that the middle-distance runners during the training in addition to need an effective and highly targeted load and intensity arrangement, conditioning, simulation game training, sci...

  15. Dietary Interventions in Multiple Sclerosis: Development and Pilot-Testing of an Evidence Based Patient Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann-Lorenz, Karin; Eilers, Marlene; von Geldern, Gloria; Schulz, Karl-Heinz; Köpke, Sascha; Heesen, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Background Dietary factors have been discussed to influence risk or disease course of multiple sclerosis (MS). Specific diets are widely used among patients with MS. Objective To design and pilot-test an evidence based patient education program on dietary factors in MS. Methods We performed a systematic literature search on the effectiveness of dietary interventions in MS. A web-based survey among 337 patients with MS and 136 healthy controls assessed knowledge, dietary habits and information needs. An interactive group education program was developed and pilot-tested. Results Fifteen randomised-controlled trials (RCTs) were included in the systematic review. Quality of evidence was low and no clear benefit could be seen. Patients with MS significantly more often adhered to a `Mediterranean Diet`(29.7% versus 14.0%, pnutrition and MS (43%). A pilot test of our newly developed patient education program with 13 participants showed excellent comprehensibility and the MS-specific content was judged as very important. However, the poor evidence base for dietary approaches in MS was perceived disappointing. Conclusions Development and pilot-testing of an evidence-based patient education program on nutrition and MS is feasible. Patient satisfaction with the program suffers from the lack of evidence. Further research should focus on generating evidence for the potential influence of lifestyle habits (diet, physical activity) on MS disease course thus meeting the needs of patients with MS. PMID:27764237

  16. Restrained eating: an experimental disentanglement of the disinhibiting variables of perceived calories and food type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, L J; Boland, F J

    1989-11-01

    The influence of food type on the restrained eating pattern was examined. In Study 1, subjects rated the degree to which each of 149 foods were dietary permissable or dietary forbidden. The number of avoided foods correlated positively with restraint score. Study 2 compared Herman and Mack's (1975) 1- and 2-milk shake preloads to two nonforbidden preloads of equivalent calories. Food type, and not perceived calories, was found to be the element of the preload required to cause disinhibition among restrained eaters, both within the experiment and outside the experimental setting. Study 3 examined the effects of anticipated consumption (varying food type and calories) on the restrained eating pattern. Only restrained eaters anticipating a forbidden food (whether high or low in calories) were disinhibited. The restrained literature was reconsidered in light of the forbidden food hypothesis.

  17. Review of 5 years of a combined dietary and physical fitness intervention for control of serum cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angotti, C. M.; Levine, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    A chart review covering the first 5 years of clinical experience with a combined dietary and exercise intervention program for the reduction of hypercholesterolemia at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration headquarters demonstrated the program's success in maintaining high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels while significantly lowering total serum cholesterol levels. This combined program also resulted in improved ratios of total serum cholesterol to HDL-C and lowered levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, thus further reducing the risk for cardiovascular disease. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Program was developed after it was determined that although dietary intervention alone improved total cholesterol levels, it often resulted in a more than proportionate decrease in HDL-C and a worsening of the ratio of cholesterol to HDL-C. An approach was needed that would positively affect all factors of the lipid profile. The findings from the program indicate that reduction of cardiovascular risk can be accomplished easily and effectively at the worksite through dietary intervention, personal monitoring, and a reasonable exercise program.

  18. Community-based fortified dietary intervention improved health outcomes among low-income African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, Hamisu M; Adegoke, Korede K; Das, Rachita; Wilson, Ronee E; Mazza, Jessica; Okoh, Jennifer O; Naik, Eknath; Berry, Estrellita Lo

    2016-08-01

    Poor dietary exposure disproportionately affects African-Americans and contributes to the persistence of disparities in health outcomes. In this study, we hypothesized that fortified dietary intervention (FDI) will improve measured dietary and related health outcomes and will be acceptable among low-income African-American women living in Tampa, FL. These objectives were tested using a prospective experimental study using pretest and posttest design with a control group, using a community-based participatory research approach. The intervention (FDI) was designed by the community through structural modification of a preexisting, diet-based program by the addition of a physical and mental health component. Paired sample t tests were used to examine preintervention and postintervention changes in study outcomes. A total of 49 women participated in the study, 26 in the FDI group and 23 controls. Two weeks postintervention, there were significant improvements in waist circumference and health-related quality of life related to physical health (Preengineering of a nutritional intervention coupled with community-based approach will enhance health outcomes of low-income women. PMID:27440531

  19. Effects of a dietary intervention on gastrointestinal symptoms after prostate cancer radiotherapy: Long-term results from a randomized controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To evaluate the long-term effects of dietary intervention on gastrointestinal symptoms after highly dose-escalated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer, using boost with protons or high-dose-rate brachytherapy. Materials and methods: Patients were randomized to an intervention group (n = 64) advised to reduce insoluble dietary fiber and lactose intake, or to a standard care group (n = 66) advised to continue their usual diet. Gastrointestinal symptoms, other domains of health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and dietary intake were evaluated for ⩽24 months post-radiotherapy with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality-of-life questionnaires QLQ-C30 and QLQ-PR25, Gastrointestinal Side Effects Questionnaire, and Food Frequency Questionnaire. The effect of the intervention on gastrointestinal symptoms was evaluated using generalized estimating equations. Results: Dietary intervention had no obvious effect on long-term gastrointestinal symptoms or HRQOL. The intervention group markedly reduced their dietary fiber and lactose intake during radiotherapy, but adherence tended to decline over time. The vast majority of long-term gastrointestinal symptoms were reported as ‘a little’, with a noticeable difference from pre-treatment only for unintentional stool leakage, limitations on daily activities, and mucus discharge. Conclusion: Long-term gastrointestinal symptoms were predominantly mild, and dietary intervention was not superior to a usual diet in preventing these symptoms

  20. Prevention of cardiovascular diseases: Role of exercise, dietary interventions, obesity and smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttar, Harpal S; Li, Timao; Ravi, Nivedita

    2005-01-01

    Hypertension, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, arrhythmias and valvular heart disease, coagulopathies and stroke, collectively known as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), contribute greatly to the mortality, morbidity and economic burden of illness in Canada and in other countries. It has been estimated that over four million Canadians have high blood pressure, a comorbid condition that doubles or triples the risk of CVD. According to the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, CVDs caused 36% of deaths in 2001 and were responsible for 18% of the total hospital costs in Canada. The majority of Canadians exhibit at least one CVD-related risk factor, such as tobacco smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, a lack of daily fruit and vegetable consumption, and psychosocial factors, making these people more prone to developing a serious CVD-related illness in the future. It is therefore important that CVD-related causes and concerns be addressed. Given the scope and prevalence of CVDs, it is obvious that a population health approach - 'prevention is better than cure' - would be the most appropriate model to adopt to deal with this ubiquitous health problem and to reduce the costs of hospitalization, long-term medication and rehabilitation. The focus of the present review is to evaluate and compare the results of epidemiological, experimental and clinical studies, reporting on the influence of physical activity, dietary intervention, obesity and cigarette smoking on cardiovascular health and the prevention of CVDs. The prophylactic measures must be dealt with collectively because there is overwhelming evidence that the occurrence of CVDs can be reduced by approximately 80% by making lifestyle modifications. The preventive strategies against CVDs must be targeted at a primary health promotion level before some of the important underlying causes of CVD seriously afflict a person or a population at large. Such preventive approaches would help in

  1. Community-based intervention to improve dietary habits and promote physical activity among older adults: a cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura Mika

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fastest growing age group globally is older adults, and preventing the need for long-term nursing care in this group is important for social and financial reasons. A population approach to diet and physical activity through the use of social services can play an important role in prevention. This study examined the effectiveness of a social health program for community-dwelling older adults aimed at introducing and promoting physical activity in the home at each individual’s pace, helping participants maintain good dietary habits by keeping self-check sheets, and determining whether long-standing unhealthy or less-than-ideal physical and dietary habits can be changed. Method This cluster randomized trial conducted at 6 community centers in an urban community involved 92 community-dwelling older adults aged 65–90 years. The intervention group (3 community centers; n = 57 participated in the social health program “Sumida TAKE10!” which is an educational program incorporating the “TAKE10!® for Older Adults” program, once every 2 weeks for 3 months. The control group (3 community centers; n=35 was subsequently provided with the same program as a crossover intervention group. The main outcome measures were changes in food intake frequency, food frequency score (FFS, dietary variety score (DVS, and frequency of walking and exercise. The secondary outcome measures were changes in self-rated health, appetite, and the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology (TMIG Index of Competence score. Results Compared to baseline, post-intervention food intake frequency for 6 of 10 food groups (meat, fish/shellfish, eggs, potatoes, fruits, and seaweed, FFS, and DVS were significantly increased in the intervention group, and interaction effects of FFS and DVS were seen between the two groups. No significant differences were observed between baseline and post-intervention in the control group. Frequency of walking and

  2. Clues to maintaining calorie restriction? Psychosocial profiles of successful long-term restrictors

    OpenAIRE

    Belsky, ACI; Epel, ES; Tomiyama, AJ

    2014-01-01

    To combat the obesity epidemic, interventions and treatments often recommend low-calorie dieting. Calorie restriction (CR) as a weight intervention, however, is often unsuccessful, as most people cannot sustain the behavior. Yet one small group has maintained extreme CR over years - members of the CR Society and followers of The CR Way. This study examined stable psychosocial characteristics of these individuals to identify traits that may promote success at long-term CR. In 65 participants, ...

  3. Calorie Underestimation When Buying High-Calorie Beverages in Fast-Food Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franckle, Rebecca L; Block, Jason P; Roberto, Christina A

    2016-07-01

    We asked 1877 adults and 1178 adolescents visiting 89 fast-food restaurants in New England in 2010 and 2011 to estimate calories purchased. Calorie underestimation was greater among those purchasing a high-calorie beverage than among those who did not (adults: 324 ±698 vs 102 ±591 calories; adolescents: 360 ±602 vs 198 ±509 calories). This difference remained significant for adults but not adolescents after adjusting for total calories purchased. Purchasing high-calorie beverages may uniquely contribute to calorie underestimation among adults. PMID:27196648

  4. A nutrition intervention is effective in improving dietary components linked to cardiometabolic risk in youth with first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasdale, Scott B; Ward, Philip B; Rosenbaum, Simon; Watkins, Andrew; Curtis, Jackie; Kalucy, Megan; Samaras, Katherine

    2016-06-01

    Severe mental illness is characterised by a 20-year mortality gap due to cardiometabolic disease. Poor diet in those with severe mental illness is an important and modifiable risk factor. The present study aimed to (i) examine baseline nutritional intake in youth with first-episode psychosis (FEP), (ii) evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of nutritional intervention early in FEP and (iii) to evaluate the effectiveness of early dietary intervention on key nutritional end points. Participants were recruited over a 12-month period from a community-based programme specifically targeting young people aged 15-25 years with newly diagnosed FEP. Individual dietetic consultations and practical group sessions were offered as part of a broader lifestyle programme. Dietary assessments were conducted before and at the end of the 12-week intervention. Participants exceeded recommended energy and Na intakes at baseline. Retention within the nutrition intervention was 67 %, consistent with other interventions offered to FEP clients. There was a 47 % reduction in discretionary food intake (-94 g/d, P<0·001) and reductions in daily energy (-24 %, P<0·001) and Na (-26 %, P<0·001) intakes. Diet quality significantly improved, and the mean change was 3·6 (95 % CI 0·2, 6·9, P<0·05), although this finding was not significant after Bonferroni's correction. Increased vegetable intake was the main factor contributing to improved diet quality. Nutrition intervention delivered shortly after initiation of antipsychotic medication is feasible, acceptable and effective in youth with FEP. Strategies to prevent weight gain and metabolic decline will contribute to prevent premature cardiometabolic disease in this vulnerable population. PMID:27153205

  5. The Role of Steroid Hormones in the Modulation of Neuroinflammation by Dietary Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Andrea Rodrigues; Cabral-Costa, João Victor; Mazucanti, Caio Henrique; Scavone, Cristoforo; Kawamoto, Elisa Mitiko

    2016-01-01

    Steroid hormones, such as sex hormones and glucocorticoids, have been demonstrated to play a role in different cellular processes in the central nervous system, ranging from neurodevelopment to neurodegeneration. Environmental factors, such as calorie intake or fasting frequency, may also impact on such processes, indicating the importance of external factors in the development and preservation of a healthy brain. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and glucocorticoid activity play a role in neurodegenerative processes, including in disorders such as in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Sex hormones have also been shown to modulate cognitive functioning. Inflammation is a common feature in neurodegenerative disorders, and sex hormones/glucocorticoids can act to regulate inflammatory processes. Intermittent fasting can protect the brain against cognitive decline that is induced by an inflammatory stimulus. On the other hand, obesity increases susceptibility to inflammation, while metabolic syndromes, such as diabetes, are associated with neurodegeneration. Consequently, given that gonadal and/or adrenal steroids may significantly impact the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration, via their effect on inflammatory processes, this review focuses on how environmental factors, such as calorie intake and intermittent fasting, acting through their modulation of steroid hormones, impact on inflammation that contributes to cognitive and neurodegenerative processes. PMID:26869995

  6. The Role of Steroid Hormones on the Modulation of Neuroinflammation by Dietary Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rodrigues Vasconcelos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones, such as sex hormones and glucocorticoids, have been demonstrated to play a role in different cellular processes in the central nervous system, ranging from neurodevelopment to neurodegeneration. Environmental factors, such as calorie intake or fasting frequency, may also impact on such processes, indicating the importance of external factors in the development and preservation of a healthy brain.The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and glucocorticoid activity play a role in neurodegenerative processes, including in disorders such as in Alzheimer´s and Parkinson´s diseases. Sex hormones have also been shown to modulate cognitive functioning. Inflammation is a common feature in neurodegenerative disorders, and sex hormones/glucocorticoids can act to regulate inflammatory processes. Intermittent fasting can protect the brain against cognitive decline that is induced by an inflammatory stimulus. On the other hand, obesity increases susceptibility to inflammation, whilst metabolic syndromes, like diabetes, are associated with neurodegeneration. Consequently, given that gonadal and/or adrenal steroids may significantly impact on the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration, via their effect on inflammatory processes, this review focuses on how environmental factors, like calorie intake and intermittent fasting, acting through their modulation of steroid hormones, impact on inflammation that contributes to cognitive and neurodegenerative processes.

  7. Bifidogenic effect of whole-grain wheat during a 12-week energy-restricted dietary intervention in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Licht, Tine Rask; Kristensen, M.;

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives:Consumption of whole-grain products is known to have beneficial effects on human health. The effects of whole-grain products on the intestinal microbiota and intestinal integrity have, however, only been studied limitedly. We investigate changes of the human gut microbiota...... composition after consumption of whole-grain (WW) or refined wheat (RW) and further study effects on gut wall integrity.Subjects/Methods:Quantitative PCR was used to determine changes in the gut bacterial composition in postmenopausal women following a 12-week energy-restricted dietary intervention with WW (N......=38) or RW (N=34). Intestinal integrity was determined by measuring trans-epithelial resistance (TER) across a Caco-2 cell monolayer, following exposure to faecal water.Results:No significant differences in microbiota composition were observed between the two dietary groups; however, the whole...

  8. Dietary Interventions for Heart Failure in Older Adults: Re-emergence of the Hedonic Shift

    OpenAIRE

    Wessler, Jeffrey D.; Hummel, Scott L.; Maurer, Mathew S.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary non-adherence to sodium restriction is an important contribution to heart failure (HF) symptom burden, particularly in older adults. While knowledge, skills, and attitudes towards sodium restriction are important, sodium intake is closely linked to the ability to taste salt. The ‘hedonic shift’ occurs when sodium restriction induces changes in an individual’s salt taste that lower subsequent salt affinity. Older adults often have compromised salt taste and higher dietary salt affinity...

  9. Community-based fortified dietary intervention improved health outcomes among low-income African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, Hamisu M; Adegoke, Korede K; Das, Rachita; Wilson, Ronee E; Mazza, Jessica; Okoh, Jennifer O; Naik, Eknath; Berry, Estrellita Lo

    2016-08-01

    Poor dietary exposure disproportionately affects African-Americans and contributes to the persistence of disparities in health outcomes. In this study, we hypothesized that fortified dietary intervention (FDI) will improve measured dietary and related health outcomes and will be acceptable among low-income African-American women living in Tampa, FL. These objectives were tested using a prospective experimental study using pretest and posttest design with a control group, using a community-based participatory research approach. The intervention (FDI) was designed by the community through structural modification of a preexisting, diet-based program by the addition of a physical and mental health component. Paired sample t tests were used to examine preintervention and postintervention changes in study outcomes. A total of 49 women participated in the study, 26 in the FDI group and 23 controls. Two weeks postintervention, there were significant improvements in waist circumference and health-related quality of life related to physical health (PFDI group. Among overweight/obese women, improvement in health-related quality of life related to physical health, a significant decrease in depressive score, and a reduction in waist circumference were noted. In the control group, a decrease in waist circumference was observed. Implementation of the FDI through a community-based participatory research approach is feasible and effective among low-income African-American women in general and overweight/obese women in particular. Social reengineering of a nutritional intervention coupled with community-based approach will enhance health outcomes of low-income women.

  10. Dietary Guidelines 2010: selected messages for consumers

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    1 page This one-page document breaks down the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans into three categories: balancing calories, foods to increase, and foods to reduce. Two simple recommendations are made in each category.

  11. Nutritional support and dietary interventions for patients with ulcerative colitis: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill RJ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca J Hill Children's Nutrition Research Centre, Child Health Research Centre, The University of Queensland, South Brisbane, Australia Abstract: Ulcerative colitis (UC demonstrates a remitting and relapsing course, and patients have long believed diet plays a role in their symptoms. Ad hoc removal of foods and food groups from the diet without strong evidence for therapeutic benefit places patients at risk for nutritional deficiencies. This review discusses the need for nutritional support in UC and the role of dietary modification in its management in humans. Current evidence suggests patients with UC are not nutritionally compromised during remission, but with increasing disease activity, nutritional status is worth monitoring, in particular through body composition assessment and investigation for anemia. There is no clear evidence for dietary modulation to relieve symptoms in UC. Neither enteral nutrition nor parenteral nutrition is efficacious for symptom control or mucosal healing. While early studies suggested avoidance of dairy foods, no recent work has replicated these results. A low intake of insoluble fiber is recommended during acute disease flares; however, the role of fiber in modulating the gut microbiota and their metabolites warrants further attention. Several studies have investigated polyunsaturated fatty acids for UC; however, current evidence is not supportive for either inactive or active disease. There is emerging evidence that curcumin supplementation may be a new dietary treatment option. Often, evidence for therapeutic diets is difficult to interpret due to the reporting of combined results for both Crohn's disease and UC. In general, there is no evidenced specific dietary advice for patients with UC other than to follow healthy eating guidelines. Further work should determine if diet as treatment efficacy lies in modification of dietary patterns, thereby investigating the synergistic relationship between foods and

  12. The impact of a population-based multi-factorial lifestyle intervention on changes in long-term dietary habits The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, U.; Kristoffersen, L.; Ladelund, S.;

    2008-01-01

    group (n=3 324) was followed by questionnaires. Dietary habits were measured by a validated 48-item food frequency questionnaire and changes were analyzed by multilevel analyses. RESULTS: At the 5-year follow-up the intervention group compared to the control group had significantly increased......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a population-based multi-factorial lifestyle intervention on long-term changes in dietary habits compared to a non-intervention control group. METHODS: The study was a randomized controlled lifestyle intervention study, Inter99 (1999-2006), Copenhagen......, Denmark, using a high-risk strategy. Participants in the intervention group (n=6 091) had at baseline a medical health-examination and a face-to-face lifestyle counselling. Individuals at high risk of ischemic heart disease were repeatedly offered both individual and group-based counselling. The control...

  13. Dietary interactions and interventions affecting Escherichia coli 0157 colonization and shedding in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli O157 is an important foodborne pathogen affecting human health and the beef cattle industry. Contamination of carcasses at slaughter is correlated to the prevalence of E. coli O157 in cattle feces. Many associations have been made between dietary factors and E. coli O157 prevalenc...

  14. Calorie restriction and prevention of age-associated chronic disease

    OpenAIRE

    Omodei, Daniela; Fontana, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Life expectancy in the world has increased dramatically during the last century; the number of older adults is expected to rise while the number of youths will decline in the near future. This demographic shift has considerable public health and economic implications since aging is associated with the development of serious chronic diseases. Calorie restriction (CR) is the most effective nutritional intervention for slowing aging and preventing chronic disease in rodents. In non-human and hum...

  15. Beverages contribute extra calories to meals and daily energy intake in overweight and obese women

    OpenAIRE

    Appelhans, Bradley M.; Bleil, Maria E.; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L.; Nackers, Lisa M.; Busch, Andrew M.; Whited, Matthew C.; Pagoto, Sherry L.

    2013-01-01

    Caloric beverages may promote obesity by yielding energy without producing satiety, but prior laboratory and intervention studies are inconclusive. This study examined whether the diets of free-living overweight and obese women show evidence that calories from beverages are offset by reductions in solid food within individual eating occasions and across entire days. Eighty-two women weighed and recorded all consumed foods and beverages for seven days. Beverages were coded as high-calorie (≥0....

  16. The use of low-calorie sweeteners by children: Implications for weight management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rise in pediatric obesity since the 1970s has been well established in the United States and is becoming a major concern worldwide. As a potential means to help slow the obesity epidemic, low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) have gained attention as dietary tools to assist in adherence to weight loss pl...

  17. The use of low-calorie sweeteners by adults: Impact on weight management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application of low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) in foods and beverages has increased over the past 35 years. At the same time, many characteristics of the American diet have changed, including variations in fat and carbohydrate content and composition, increased nutrient additions, and new dietary p...

  18. Effects of trans- and n-3 unsaturated fatty acids on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy males. An 8 weeks dietary intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyerberg, J; Eskesen, D C; Andersen, P W;

    2004-01-01

    of dietary enrichment with TFA or n-3 PUFA. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, parallel intervention trial. SETTING: Department of Human Nutrition, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University. SUBJECTS: In all, 87 healthy males included, 79 completed. INTERVENTION: Subjects were randomly assigned to 8...... pressure, heart rate variability (HRV), arterial dilatory capacity, compliance, and distensibility were recorded before and after intervention and at follow-up 12 weeks after the intervention. RESULTS: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased in the TFA group and triglycerides and mean...

  19. Intervention in the aging immune system: Influence of dietary restriction, dehydroepiandrosterone, melatonin, and exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Pahlavani, Mohammad A.

    1998-01-01

    The decline in immunologic function with age is associated with an increase in susceptibility to infections and the occurrence of autoimmune diseases and cancers. Hence, the restoration of immunologic function is expected to have a beneficial effect in reducing pathology and maintaining a healthy condition in advanced age. A number of therapeutic strategies have been employed to intervene in the aging immune system. This article reviews the effect of dietary restriction (DR), dehydroepiandros...

  20. The experiences of women with polycystic ovary syndrome on a very low-calorie diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, John G; McKenzie, John S; Nikokavoura, Efsevia A; Broom, John; Rolland, Catherine; Johnston, Kelly L

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is variously reported to affect between 5% and 26% of reproductive age women in the UK and accounts for up to 75% of women attending fertility clinics due to anovulation. The first-line treatment option for overweight/obese women with PCOS is diet and lifestyle interventions. However, optimal dietary guidelines are missing, with very little research having been done in this area. This paper presents the findings from a qualitative study (using semistructured interviews) of ten obese women who had PCOS and who had used LighterLife Total (LLT), a commercial weight loss program which utilizes a very low-calorie diet in conjunction with behavioral change therapy underpinned by group support. We investigated the women’s history of obesity, their experiences of other diets compared with LLT, and the on-going impact that this has had on their lives. Findings show that most women reported greater success using this weight loss program in terms of achieving and maintaining weight loss when compared with other diets. Furthermore, all the women nominated LLT as their model weight loss intervention with only a few modifications. PMID:27499648

  1. The Effect on Selenium Concentrations of a Randomized Intervention with Fish and Mussels in a Population with Relatively Low Habitual Dietary Selenium Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Outzen, Malene; Tjønneland, Anne; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt;

    2015-01-01

    on selenium blood concentrations in a population with relatively low habitual dietary selenium intake. We randomly assigned 102 healthy men and women (all non-smokers) aged 48-76 years to an intervention group (n = 51) or a control group (n = 51). Intervention participants received 1000 g fish and mussels......Selenium status of the Danish population is below that assumed optimal for the suggested protective effects against chronic diseases, including certain cancers. Fish and shellfish are important dietary sources of selenium in Denmark. We investigated the effect of increased fish and mussel intake...... chromatography coupled to ICP-MS. All available observations were included in linear multiple regression analysis to evaluate the effect of the intervention. The difference in mean change for intervention compared with control persons was 14.9 ng/mL (95% CI: 10.2, 19.7) for whole blood selenium, and 7.0 ng...

  2. Tulimbe Nutrition Project: a community-based dietary intervention to combat micronutrient malnutrition in rural southern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhe, G

    1997-12-01

    This article describes the community-based nutrition intervention in rural southern Malawi. The program aims to reverse micronutrient deficiencies in vitamin A, iron, and zinc in a society where staple diets are plant-based and contain high levels of anti-nutrients. Anti-nutrients, such as polyphenols, dietary fiber, and phytates, inhibit absorption of iron and zinc. This population's diet was also low in dairy and meat products. The Tulimbe Nutrition Project aimed to modify and diversify diets rather than to supplement or fortify diets. This approach was more culturally acceptable and economically feasible. The approach required changing food selection patterns and methods of preparing and processing indigenous foods. The new diets aimed to enhance the availability, access, and use of micronutrient-rich foods throughout the year. The project was initiated in 1995 in two communities among 300 families with children ranging in age from 3 to 7 years. A baseline assessment with interviews and focus groups was conducted. The assessment for children included a 24-hour dietary recall, anthropometric measurement, and other clinical measurement. Anthropometric and dietary assessments were repeated at 6 and 12 months. New cultivars and technologies were introduced, such as soybeans, short-duration pigeon peas, groundnuts, sunflower seeds, and papaya seedlings. The Malawi Industrial Research and Technology Development Center built and installed solar dryers, seed oil presses, and ovens in each community. People were encouraged to include soaked and fermented maize flour and germinated cereal flours in infant and child porridges. Parents were educated about micronutrient-rich foods, meal frequencies, portion sizes, and food combinations. Information was provided through demonstrations, home visits, plays, songs, and booklets. The program evaluation is in progress.

  3. Sustaining Effect of Intensive Nutritional Intervention Combined with Health Education on Dietary Behavior and Plasma Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Fan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is very common in elderly Chinese individuals. Although nutritional intervention can provide a balanced diet, the sustaining effect on at-home dietary behavior and long-term plasma glucose control is not clear. Consequently, we conducted a long-term survey following one month of experiential nutritional intervention combined with health education. Based on the Dietary Guidelines for a Chinese Resident, we found that the food items met the recommended values, the percentages of energy provided from fat, protein, and carbohydrate were more reasonable after one year. The newly formed dietary patterns were “Healthy”, “Monotonous”, “Vegetarian”, “Japanese”, “Low energy”, and “Traditional” diets. The 2h-PG of female participants as well as those favoring the “Japanese diet” decreased above 12 mmol/L. Participants who selected “Japanese” and “Healthy” diets showed an obvious reduction in FPG while the FPG of participants from Group A declined slightly. “Japanese” and “Healthy” diets also obtained the highest DDP scores, and thus can be considered suitable for T2DM treatment in China. The results of the newly formed dietary patterns, “Japanese” and “Healthy” diets, confirmed the profound efficacy of nutritional intervention combined with health education for improving dietary behavior and glycemic control although health education played a more important role. The present study is encouraging with regard to further exploration of comprehensive diabetes care.

  4. Sustaining Effect of Intensive Nutritional Intervention Combined with Health Education on Dietary Behavior and Plasma Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rui; Xu, Meihong; Wang, Junbo; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Chen, Qihe; Li, Ye; Gu, Jiaojiao; Cai, Xiaxia; Guo, Qianying; Bao, Lei; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is very common in elderly Chinese individuals. Although nutritional intervention can provide a balanced diet, the sustaining effect on at-home dietary behavior and long-term plasma glucose control is not clear. Consequently, we conducted a long-term survey following one month of experiential nutritional intervention combined with health education. Based on the Dietary Guidelines for a Chinese Resident, we found that the food items met the recommended values, the percentages of energy provided from fat, protein, and carbohydrate were more reasonable after one year. The newly formed dietary patterns were "Healthy", "Monotonous", "Vegetarian", "Japanese", "Low energy", and "Traditional" diets. The 2h-PG of female participants as well as those favoring the "Japanese diet" decreased above 12 mmol/L. Participants who selected "Japanese" and "Healthy" diets showed an obvious reduction in FPG while the FPG of participants from Group A declined slightly. "Japanese" and "Healthy" diets also obtained the highest DDP scores, and thus can be considered suitable for T2DM treatment in China. The results of the newly formed dietary patterns, "Japanese" and "Healthy" diets, confirmed the profound efficacy of nutritional intervention combined with health education for improving dietary behavior and glycemic control although health education played a more important role. The present study is encouraging with regard to further exploration of comprehensive diabetes care. PMID:27649232

  5. Sustaining Effect of Intensive Nutritional Intervention Combined with Health Education on Dietary Behavior and Plasma Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rui; Xu, Meihong; Wang, Junbo; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Chen, Qihe; Li, Ye; Gu, Jiaojiao; Cai, Xiaxia; Guo, Qianying; Bao, Lei; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is very common in elderly Chinese individuals. Although nutritional intervention can provide a balanced diet, the sustaining effect on at-home dietary behavior and long-term plasma glucose control is not clear. Consequently, we conducted a long-term survey following one month of experiential nutritional intervention combined with health education. Based on the Dietary Guidelines for a Chinese Resident, we found that the food items met the recommended values, the percentages of energy provided from fat, protein, and carbohydrate were more reasonable after one year. The newly formed dietary patterns were “Healthy”, “Monotonous”, “Vegetarian”, “Japanese”, “Low energy”, and “Traditional” diets. The 2h-PG of female participants as well as those favoring the “Japanese diet” decreased above 12 mmol/L. Participants who selected “Japanese” and “Healthy” diets showed an obvious reduction in FPG while the FPG of participants from Group A declined slightly. “Japanese” and “Healthy” diets also obtained the highest DDP scores, and thus can be considered suitable for T2DM treatment in China. The results of the newly formed dietary patterns, “Japanese” and “Healthy” diets, confirmed the profound efficacy of nutritional intervention combined with health education for improving dietary behavior and glycemic control although health education played a more important role. The present study is encouraging with regard to further exploration of comprehensive diabetes care. PMID:27649232

  6. Adolescents Who Visit the Emergency Department Are More Likely to Make Unhealthy Dietary Choices: An Opportunity for Behavioral Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Iris; Rosenthal, Lisa; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M; McCaslin, Catherine; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2015-08-01

    To identify health behaviors that may be amenable to brief screening and intervention among children in the emergency department (ED), we described the prevalence of health behaviors known to contribute to childhood obesity among middle school students who used the ED recently. Participants included 1590 5th, 7th, and 8th grade students who completed health surveys in 2011. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between health behaviors and ED use. Children who used the ED reported more unhealthy dietary behaviors, including greater consumption of energy-dense foods such as fried chicken, french fries, and ice cream (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.06-1.37), fast food (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.00-1.14) and sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.14-1.35). There was no association with fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, or screen time. Unhealthy dietary behaviors are associated with ED use in a low-resource urban population of middle school students. PMID:26320906

  7. Effect of a low fat versus a low carbohydrate weight loss dietary intervention on biomarkers of long term survival in breast cancer patients ('CHOICE': study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daeninck Elizabeth A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight loss in overweight or obese breast cancer patients is associated with an improved prognosis for long term survival. However, it is not clear whether the macronutrient composition of the chosen weight loss dietary plan imparts further prognostic benefit. A study protocol is presented for a dietary intervention to investigate the effects of weight loss dietary patterns that vary markedly in fat and carbohydrate contents on biomarkers of exposure to metabolic processes that may promote tumorigenesis and that are predictive of long term survival. The study will also determine how much weight must be lost for biomarkers to change in a favorable direction. Methods/Design Approximately 370 overweight or obese postmenopausal breast cancer survivors (body mass index: 25.0 to 34.9 kg/m2 will be accrued and assigned to one of two weight loss intervention programs or a non-intervention control group. The dietary intervention is implemented in a free living population to test the two extremes of popular weight loss dietary patterns: a high carbohydrate, low fat diet versus a low carbohydrate, high fat diet. The effects of these dietary patterns on biomarkers for glucose homeostasis, chronic inflammation, cellular oxidation, and steroid sex hormone metabolism will be measured. Participants will attend 3 screening and dietary education visits, and 7 monthly one-on-one dietary counseling and clinical data measurement visits in addition to 5 group visits in the intervention arms. Participants in the control arm will attend two clinical data measurement visits at baseline and 6 months. The primary outcome is high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Secondary outcomes include interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF, IGF binding protein-3, 8-isoprostane-F2-alpha, estrone, estradiol, progesterone, sex hormone binding globulin, adiponectin, and leptin. Discussion While clinical data indicate that excess weight

  8. Situation of Iron Deficiency and Its Management Prioritizing Dietary Intervention in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikari, BK; Koirala, U; Lama, STA;

    2012-01-01

    the extent of iron deficiency anemia and intake of dietary iron among the general population in Nepal. Materials and methods Published research articles, books, bulletins, and online materials regarding iron deficiency were studied in both national and international scenarios. Results Nearly 46 percent......Background Control of iron deficiency disorders is prioritized in the nutrition policies of Nepal. The situation is still threatening the public health in both rural and urban areas. Objective There are limited reviews on the iron deficiency situation in Nepal. This study was undertaken to find out...

  9. Acceptance and satisfaction of parents and students about a school-based dietary intervention in Isfahan, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Lajevardi, Bahareh; Bahreynian, Maryam; Omid-Ghaemi, Vahid; Movahedian, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Snacks play an important role in child health and nutritional status. Schools are considered as the preferred place to encourage healthy eating among children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of buffet school-based intervention on acceptance and satisfaction of parents and students in Iran. Materials and Methods: Primary school students (n = 1120, 68.83% girls) from first to third grade, with one of their parents, participated in this prospective field trial study conducted in Isfahan, Iran. The study was consisted of three phases; schools selection, kitchen selection, implementation including two different parts, getting order and distribution. We provided hot snacks as traditional and healthy fast food according to taste and food preferences of children. Acceptance and satisfaction of parents and students were evaluated via a researcher made questionnaire before and after the intervention in one-third of participants as a representative sample of students who ordered the snacks. Results: Most of the students usually ate snack in the break-time at school, the eagerness of provided snacks was 98.8% and 63.6% in girls and boys, respectively. The most interesting tastes were Ashe Reshteh and Tahchin, (45.1% girls vs. 36.8% boys), while bean (among girls) and Ashe Jo (among boys) were ranked as the lowest. More than half of parents (66.7%) evaluated the price of snacks as “acceptable,” showing their satisfaction. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that school-based interventions accompanied with parental and principals’ support is considered as a practical approach to promote healthful eating at an early age. Developing effective interventions for youth might, therefore, help to prevent unhealthy dietary choices becoming habitual. PMID:27500169

  10. Combined intervention of dietary soybean proteins and swim training: effects on bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figard, Hélène; Mougin, Fabienne; Gaume, Vincent; Berthelot, Alain

    2006-01-01

    Soybean proteins, a rich source of isoflavones, taken immediately after an ovariectomy prevent bone loss in rats. Exercise-induced stimuli are essential for bone growth. Few studies exist about the combined effects of swim training and soybean protein supplementation on bone metabolism. So, the purpose of this study was to investigate, in 48 female Sprague-Dawley rats (12 weeks old) the effects of an 8-week swim-training regimen (1 h/day, 5 days/week) and dietary soybean proteins (200 g/kg diet) on bone metabolism. Rats were randomly assigned to four groups: (1) ovariectomized fed with a semisynthetic control diet; (2) ovariectomized fed with a soybean protein-enriched semisynthetic diet; (3) ovariectomized trained to exercise and fed with control diet; (4) ovariectomized trained to exercise and fed with a soybean protein diet. Following the treatment period, body weight gain was identical in the four groups. Soybean protein supplementation increased bone calcium content, and reduced plasma osteocalcin values, without significant modification of calcium balance and net calcium absorption. Swim training enhanced plasma and bone calcium content and calcium balance and net calcium absorption. It did not modify either plasma osteocalcin values or urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion. Both exercise and soybean protein intake increased plasma on bone calcium without modifying net calcium absorption or bone markers. In conclusion, we demonstrated, in ovariectomized rats, that swimming exercise and dietary supplementation with soy proteins do not have synergistic effects on calcium metabolism and bone markers.

  11. Reduced foodborne toxin exposure is a benefit of improving dietary diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Felicia; Mitchell, Nicole J; Male, Denis; Kensler, Thomas W

    2014-10-01

    Naturally occurring foodborne toxins are common in subsistence diets of low-income human populations worldwide. Often, these populations rely on one or two staple foods for the bulk of their calories, making them more susceptible to chronic intake of certain toxins. Exposure to common foodborne toxins is associated with diverse conditions such as cancer, immunotoxicity, growth impairment, and neurological deficits. Interventions focused solely on reducing toxin levels have proven difficult to sustain. Using case studies of two foodborne toxins, aflatoxin and cassava cyanide, this article addresses the heightened risk of particular diseases from eating monotonous diets based in maize, groundnuts, and cassava: common in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of Asia. We also discuss the potential role of increased dietary diversity in counteracting these diseases. Increased dietary diversity can reduce consumption of toxins and increase intake of nutrients that could counteract the toxicity of such chemicals. In Qidong, China, a population that previously consumed a monotonous maize-based diet and increased dietary diversity since the 1980s has experienced a dramatic reduction in liver cancer mortalities. That liver cancer decreased as dietary diversity increased is the catalyst for the hypothesis that dietary diversity could have a direct impact on reducing health effects of foodborne toxins. Future research, agricultural development, and food policy reforms should take into consideration the multifaceted benefits associated with improved dietary diversity. Collaborations between toxicologists, nutritionists, and policymakers are important to development of sustainable interventions to reduce foodborne toxin exposure and promote health through increased dietary diversity. PMID:25015663

  12. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric subjects with urea cycle disorders participating in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Debra; Diaz, George A.; Lee, Brendan; Bartley, James; Longo, Nicola; Berquist, William; Le Mons, Cynthia; Rudolph-Angelich, Ingrid; Porter, Marty; Scharschmidt, Bruce F.; Mokhtarani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Little prospectively collected data are available comparing the dietary intake of urea cycle disorder (UCD) patients to UCD treatment guidelines or to healthy individuals. Objective To examine the protein and calorie intakes of UCD subjects who participated in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB) and compare these data to published UCD dietary guidelines and nutritional surveys. Design Dietary data were recorded for 45 adult and 49 pediatric UCD subjects in metabolic control during participation in clinical trials of GPB. Protein and calorie intakes were compared to UCD treatment guidelines, average nutrient intakes of a healthy US population based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA). Results In adults, mean protein intake was higher than UCD recommendations but lower than RDA and NHANES values, while calorie intake was lower than UCD recommendations, RDA and NHANES. In pediatric subjects, prescribed protein intake was higher than UCD guidelines, similar to RDA, and lower than NHANES data for all age groups, while calorie intake was at the lower end of the recommended UCD range and close to RDA and NHANES data. In pediatric subjects height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) Z-scores were within normal range (− 2 to 2). Conclusions Pediatric patients treated with phenylbutyrate derivatives exhibited normal height and weight. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric UCD subjects differed from UCD dietary guidelines, suggesting that these guidelines may need to be reconsidered. PMID:27014577

  13. Pilot Dietary Intervention with Heat-Stabilized Rice Bran Modulates Stool Microbiota and Metabolites in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Sheflin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Heat-stabilized rice bran (SRB has been shown to regulate blood lipids and glucose, modulate gut mucosal immunity and inhibit colorectal cancer in animal and human studies. However, SRB’s effects on gut microbial composition and metabolism and the resulting implications for health remain largely unknown. A pilot, randomized-controlled trial was developed to investigate the effects of eating 30 g/day SRB on the stool microbiome and metabolome. Seven healthy participants consumed a study meal and snack daily for 28 days. The microbiome and metabolome were characterized using 454 pyrosequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS at baseline, two and four weeks post-intervention. Increases in eight operational taxonomic units (OTUs, including three from Bifidobacterium and Ruminococcus genera, were observed after two and four weeks of SRB consumption (p < 0.01. Branched chain fatty acids, secondary bile acids and eleven other putative microbial metabolites were significantly elevated in the SRB group after four weeks. The largest metabolite change was a rice bran component, indole-2-carboxylic acid, which showed a mean 12% increase with SRB consumption. These data support the feasibility of dietary SRB intervention in adults and support that SRB consumption can affect gut microbial metabolism. These findings warrant future investigations of larger cohorts evaluating SRB’s effects on intestinal health.

  14. The effect of dietary intervention on serum lipid levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Nilo B; Garg, Abhimanyu

    2002-06-01

    Dietary therapy is the cornerstone of lipid management in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The key strategies are the reduction of intake of saturated fat, trans unsaturated fat and cholesterol, and the reduction of energy intake to promote weight loss. This approach will produce significant improvements in the serum levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. According to both the American Diabetes Association and the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP), the primary target of therapy is the serum LDL cholesterol level, with the secondary targets being non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol. The recently updated guidelines of the NCEP place new emphasis on increasing soluble fiber intake to 10 to 25 g/d and adding foods fortified with plant stanols/sterols (2 g/d) as options to enhance the LDL cholesterol-lowering effect of diet.

  15. Identification of those most likely to benefit from a low-glycaemic index dietary intervention in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Jennifer M

    2014-08-28

    The present study is a secondary analysis of the ROLO study, a randomised control trial of a low-glycaemic index (GI) diet in pregnancy to prevent the recurrence of fetal macrosomia. The objectives of the present study were to identify which women are most likely to respond to a low-GI dietary intervention in pregnancy with respect to three outcome measures: birth weight; maternal glucose intolerance; gestational weight gain (GWG). In early pregnancy, 372 women had their mid-upper arm circumference recorded and BMI calculated. Concentrations of glucose, insulin and leptin were measured in early pregnancy and at 28 weeks. At delivery, infant birth weight was recorded and fetal glucose, C-peptide and leptin concentrations were measured in the cord blood. Women who benefited in terms of infant birth weight were shorter, with a lower education level. Those who maintained weight gain within the GWG guidelines were less overweight in both their first and second pregnancies, with no difference being observed in maternal height. Women who at 28 weeks of gestation developed glucose intolerance, despite the low-GI diet, had a higher BMI and higher glucose concentrations in early pregnancy with more insulin resistance. They also had significantly higher-interval pregnancy weight gain. For each analysis, women who responded to the intervention had lower leptin concentrations in early pregnancy than those who did not. These findings suggest that the maternal metabolic environment in early pregnancy is important in determining later risks of excessive weight gain and metabolic disturbance, whereas birth weight is mediated more by genetic factors. It highlights key areas, which warrant further interrogation before future pregnancy intervention studies, in particular, maternal education level and inter-pregnancy weight gain.

  16. Phenolic metabolites of anthocyanins following a dietary intervention study in post-menopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    de Ferrars, Rachel M; Cassidy, Aedín; Curtis, Peter; Kay, Colin D.

    2014-01-01

    Scope Numerous studies feeding anthocyanin-rich foods report limited bioavailability of the parent anthocyanins. The present study explores the identity and concentration of the phenolic metabolites of anthocyanins in humans. Methods and results Anthocyanin metabolites were quantified in samples collected from a previously conducted 12-wk elderberry intervention study in healthy post-menopausal women. Individual 1-, 2- and 3-h post-bolus urine samples and pooled plasma samples following acute...

  17. Relevant Aspects of Nutritional and Dietary Interventions in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Catalina Hernandez-Rodas; Rodrigo Valenzuela; Videla, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the main cause of liver disease worldwide. NAFLD is linked to circumstances such as type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Since the obesity figures and related comorbidities are increasing, NAFLD has turned into a liver problem that has become progressively more common. Currently, there is no effective drug therapy for NAFLD; therefore, interventions in lifestyles remain the first line of treatment. Bearing...

  18. Relevant Aspects of Nutritional and Dietary Interventions in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Catalina Hernandez-Rodas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the main cause of liver disease worldwide. NAFLD is linked to circumstances such as type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Since the obesity figures and related comorbidities are increasing, NAFLD has turned into a liver problem that has become progressively more common. Currently, there is no effective drug therapy for NAFLD; therefore, interventions in lifestyles remain the first line of treatment. Bearing in mind that adherence rates to this type of treatment are poor, great efforts are currently focused on finding novel therapeutic agents for the prevention in the development of hepatic steatosis and its progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. This review presents a compilation of the scientific evidence found in the last years showing the results of interventions in lifestyle, diet, and behavioral therapies and research results in human, animal and cell models. Possible therapeutic agents ranging from supplementation with vitamins, amino acids, prebiotics, probiotics, symbiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols to interventions with medicinal plants are analyzed.

  19. Relevant Aspects of Nutritional and Dietary Interventions in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Rodas, Maria Catalina; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Videla, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the main cause of liver disease worldwide. NAFLD is linked to circumstances such as type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Since the obesity figures and related comorbidities are increasing, NAFLD has turned into a liver problem that has become progressively more common. Currently, there is no effective drug therapy for NAFLD; therefore, interventions in lifestyles remain the first line of treatment. Bearing in mind that adherence rates to this type of treatment are poor, great efforts are currently focused on finding novel therapeutic agents for the prevention in the development of hepatic steatosis and its progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. This review presents a compilation of the scientific evidence found in the last years showing the results of interventions in lifestyle, diet, and behavioral therapies and research results in human, animal and cell models. Possible therapeutic agents ranging from supplementation with vitamins, amino acids, prebiotics, probiotics, symbiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols to interventions with medicinal plants are analyzed. PMID:26512643

  20. Effects of lysine:calorie ratio on growth performance of 10- to 25-kilogram pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J W; Tokach, M D; Nelssen, J L; Goodband, R D

    1999-11-01

    Crossbred barrows (n = 336 Newsham Hybrids) initially 9.9 kg and 31+/-2 d of age were used to evaluate the effects of energy density and lysine:calorie ratio on growth performance. Pigs were allotted by initial weight in a 3 x 4 factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design with six replicate pens per treatment. Each pen had four or five pigs with an equal number of pigs per pen within replicate. Pigs were fed increasing dietary energy densities (3.25, 3.38, and 3.51 Mcal ME/kg) and lysine:calorie ratios (3.00, 3.45, 3.90, and 4.35 g lysine/Mcal ME). Energy density was changed by levels of choice white grease (0, 3, and 6%), and lysine:calorie ratio was changed by altering the corn:soybean meal ratio. Over the 21-d trial, an energy density x lysine:calorie ratio interaction was observed for ADG (P < .05). Pigs fed diets containing 3.25 or 3.51 Mcal ME/kg had increasing ADG with increasing lysine:calorie ratio, whereas ADG of pigs fed 3.38 Mcal ME/kg was not affected by lysine:calorie ratio. Feed efficiency (gain:feed ratio) increased and ADFI decreased as lysine:calorie ratio increased (linear, P < .01) and as energy density increased (quadratic, P < .01 and .10, respectively). On d 21, two pigs per pen were scanned ultrasonically for backfat depth. An energy density x lysine:calorie ratio interaction (P < .06) was observed. Pigs fed diets containing 3.25 and 3.38 Mcal ME/kg had decreasing fat depth as lysine:calorie ratio increased; however, backfat depth was not affected by lysine:calorie ratio and was greatest for pigs fed 3.51 Mcal ME/kg. These results suggest that 10- to 25-kg pigs fed diets containing 3.38 Mcal ME/kg had maximum feed efficiency and that they required at least 4.35 g lysine/Mcal ME. However, pigs fed 3.51 Mcal ME/kg had increased fat depth regardless of calorie:lysine ratio.

  1. Taste sensitivity, nutritional status and metabolic syndrome: Implication in weight loss dietary interventions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simona; Bertoli; Monica; Laureati; Alberto; Battezzati; Valentina; Bergamaschi; Emanuele; Cereda; Angela; Spadafranca; Laila; Vignati; Ella; Pagliarini

    2014-01-01

    AIM: We investigated the relationship between taste sensitivity, nutritional status and metabolic syndrome and possible implications on weight loss dietary program. METHODS: Sensitivity for bitter, sweet, salty and sour tastes was assessed by the three-Alternative-Forced-Choice method in 41 overweight(OW), 52 obese(OB) patients and 56 normal-weight matched controls. OW and OB were assessed also for body composition(by impedence), resting energy expenditure(by indirect calorimetry) and presence of metabolic syndrome(MetS) and were prescribed a weight loss diet. Compliance to the weight loss dietary program was defined as adherence to control visits and weight loss ≥ 5% in 3 mo. RESULTS: Sex and age-adjusted multiple regression models revealed a significant association between body mass index(BMI) and both sour taste(P < 0.05) and global taste acuity score(GTAS)(P < 0.05), with lower sensitivity with increasing BMI. This trend in sensitivity for sour taste was also confirmed by the model refitted on the OW/OB group while the association with GTAS was marginally significant(P = 0.06). MetS+ subjects presented higher thresholds for salty taste when compared to MetS- patients while no significant difference was detected for the other tastes and GTAS. As assessed by multiple regression model, the association between salty taste and MetS appeared to be independent of sex, age and BMI. Patients continuing the program(n = 37) did not show any difference in baseline taste sensitivity when compared to drop-outs(n = 29). Similarly, no significant difference was detected between patients reporting and not reporting a weight loss ≥ 5% of the initial body weight. No significant dif-ference in taste sensitivity was detected even after dividing patients on the basis of nutritional(OW and OB) or metabolic status(MetS+ and MetS-). CONCLUSION: There is no cause-effect relationship between overweight and metabolic derangements. Taste thresholds assessment is not useful in

  2. Predictors and change in dietary behaviours among young men : an intervention in the military

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Young men are difficult to reach with conventional nutrition information and they have a low intake of vegetables and fruits and whole grain cereals. The low intake of these foods gives rise to concern about their future health. Few intervention studies have focused on improving young men’s consumption of vegetables, fruits and whole grain cereals and few studies have explored important correlates of young men’s intake of vegetables. This study is a part of a larger project with the aim t...

  3. Weight Gain, Metabolic Syndrome, and Breast Cancer Recurrence: Are Dietary Recommendations Supported by the Data?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin E. Champ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome, which can include weight gain and central obesity, elevated serum insulin and glucose, and insulin resistance, has been strongly associated with breast cancer recurrence and worse outcomes after treatment. Epidemiologic and prospective data do not show conclusive evidence as to which dietary factors may be responsible for these results. Current strategies employ low-fat diets which emphasize supplementing calories with increased intake of fruit, grain, and vegetable carbohydrate sources. Although results thus far have been inconclusive, recent randomized trials employing markedly different dietary strategies in noncancer patients may hold the key to reducing multiple risk factors in metabolic syndrome simultaneously which may prove to increase the long-term outcome of breast cancer patients and decrease recurrences. Since weight gain after breast cancer treatment confers a poor prognosis and may increase recurrence rates, large-scale randomized trials are needed to evaluate appropriate dietary interventions for our breast cancer patients.

  4. Skeletal muscle transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α mediates mitochondrial, but not metabolic, changes during calorie restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Lydia W S; Lee, Jaewon; Souza, Amanda; Desquiret-Dumas, Valérie; Bullock, Kevin; Rowe, Glenn C; Procaccio, Vincent; Clish, Clary B; Arany, Zoltan; Haigis, Marcia C

    2012-02-21

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a dietary intervention that extends lifespan and healthspan in a variety of organisms. CR improves mitochondrial energy production, fuel oxidation, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging in skeletal muscle and other tissues, and these processes are thought to be critical to the benefits of CR. PGC-1α is a transcriptional coactivator that regulates mitochondrial function and is induced by CR. Consequently, many of the mitochondrial and metabolic benefits of CR are attributed to increased PGC-1α activity. To test this model, we examined the metabolic and mitochondrial response to CR in mice lacking skeletal muscle PGC-1α (MKO). Surprisingly, MKO mice demonstrated a normal improvement in glucose homeostasis in response to CR, indicating that skeletal muscle PGC-1α is dispensable for the whole-body benefits of CR. In contrast, gene expression profiling and electron microscopy (EM) demonstrated that PGC-1α is required for the full CR-induced increases in mitochondrial gene expression and mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle. These results demonstrate that PGC-1α is a major regulator of the mitochondrial response to CR in skeletal muscle, but surprisingly show that neither PGC-1α nor mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle are required for the whole-body metabolic benefits of CR.

  5. DOES ORGANIC FOOD INTERVENTION IN SCHOOL LEAD TO CHANGED DIETARY PATTERNS?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    During adolescence food habits, physical activity, and life style of young people are easily influenced by a number of actors and phenomena in the environment including parents, friends, advertisements and all of the changes occurring in society. The meal patterns formed during adolescence...... will be continuously influenced into their adulthood even following generations in the future. Since school increasingly is taking a role in both food provision and in health, environment and nutrition education of young people by implementing healthy and environmental friendly policies, it is relevant to investigate...... the relation between the different components of such interventions. In other words it is relevant to ask the question: does organic food supply police go hand in hand with healthy eating policies. This study that has been made possible through the iPOPY project looks at the relationship in Danish...

  6. Does organic food intervention in the Danish schools lead to change dietary patterns?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2010-01-01

    Now, more than ever, there are serious health concerns for the growing prevalence of obese and overweight children. Schools are well suited setting for the learning of children and young people, and this influence has the potential to play an important role in preventing children from becoming...... obese and overweight. The school at the same time is the focus of public organic food supply strategies as well as the focus of innovation strategies that can increase the availability of healthier food options. These strategies in some cases go hand in hand. The purpose of this research was to examine...... provision. Results indicate that organic food intervention strategies can be supportive for strategies that increase the healthiness of school eating environments. This eventually might play a positive role in the efforts done to counteract the development of obesity and overweight issues among the children...

  7. Antioxidant and Anticoagulant Status Were Improved by Personalized Dietary Intervention Based on Biochemical and Clinical Parameters in Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ga-Yi; Lee, Jong Jyun; Lee, Seung-Min

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether personalized dietary intervention could improve clinical measurements such as immune cell-mediated cytotoxicity, serum albumin, derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (D-ROMS), D-dimer, and fibrinogen. Cancer patients received either a treatment support diet (TD, for those with chemotherapy), or a remission support diet (RD; for those in remission) for at least 3 wk (21-61 days). Both diets were low glycemic, low fat, and high plant protein diets; the diet for the TD group contained an additional 0.5 servings of protein. Based on clinical values, additional amounts of garlic, onion, tomato, shiitake, rice bran, kale, blueberry, pineapples, and/or turmeric powder were provided in regular meals. Estimated daily intake of protein, plant fat, garlic, onion, allicin, and quercetin was greater in the TD compared to the RD. An increased intake of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E and selenium and a reduction in D-dimer were noted compared to baseline diets in both groups. A decrease in D-ROMS in the RD and an increase in albumin and an increased tendency in cytotoxicity in the TD were observed. In conclusion, personalized diets with supplemented functional ingredients improved antioxidant status and/or anticoagulant activity in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and in remission. PMID:26333154

  8. Impact of dietary intervention with a functional food supplement to combat anemia - the blood iron metabolic disorder among the coffee plantation laborers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasantha Esther Rani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTObjective: To assess the nutritional status and other nutrition related problems of the workers. To design, implement and evaluate the impact of dietary intervention for the nutritional metabolic disorder which is directly related to productivity.Background: Indian economy greatly relies on agriculture. Agriculture is set to play a more dynamic role in the economy. The present study focuses on the nutritional status with special reference to the blood iron profile of manual coffee plantation laborers belonging to Kodaikannal, Tamil Nadu, India. The outcome of this study on the dietary intervention, based on nutritional picture of coffee plantation laborers, will have a nationwide application because of the simplified, stable coffee plantation operations throughout India.Method: Experiments were carried out in three phases. In the first phase, the personal background of the laborers was assessed. In the second phase, the nutritional and health status of the laborers, through dietary survey comprising 24 Hour Food Recall record and weighment of cooked food consumed for three consecutive days, clinical and biochemical profile were studied. The serum iron was measured with the total iron binding capacity, from which the transferrin saturation was calculated. In the third phase, dietary intervention was implemented with a nutrient rich nutraceutical food supplement - spirulina incorporated soup. The supplementation was extended for a period of 120 days. The subjects were grouped into control and the experimental group. The control group was given plain soup and the experimental group was administered with soup incorporated with spirulina. The impact of intervention on the biochemical and nutritional profile of the laborers was reassessed in similar working conditions.Results: A deficit of 0.1 mg to 0.3 mg of iron intake per kg body weight in the male and female laborers was observed when compared to their RDA The clinical pictures reveal that

  9. Theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior-based dietary interventions in adolescents and young adults: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Hackman CL; Knowlden AP

    2014-01-01

    Christine L Hackman, Adam P KnowldenDepartment of Health Science, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USABackground: Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many nations around the world. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the theory of reasoned action (TRA) have been used to successfully plan and evaluate numerous interventions for many different behaviors. The aim of this study was to systematically review and synthesize TPB and TRA-based dietary behavior interven...

  10. Reshaping the gut microbiota: Impact of low calorie sweeteners and the link to insulin resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettleton, Jodi E; Reimer, Raylene A; Shearer, Jane

    2016-10-01

    Disruption in the gut microbiota is now recognized as an active contributor towards the development of obesity and insulin resistance. This review considers one class of dietary additives known to influence the gut microbiota that may predispose susceptible individuals to insulin resistance - the regular, long-term consumption of low-dose, low calorie sweeteners. While the data are controversial, mounting evidence suggests that low calorie sweeteners should not be dismissed as inert in the gut environment. Sucralose, aspartame and saccharin, all widely used to reduce energy content in foods and beverages to promote satiety and encourage weight loss, have been shown to disrupt the balance and diversity of gut microbiota. Fecal transplant experiments, wherein microbiota from low calorie sweetener consuming hosts are transferred into germ-free mice, show that this disruption is transferable and results in impaired glucose tolerance, a well-known risk factor towards the development of a number of metabolic disease states. As our understanding of the importance of the gut microbiota in metabolic health continues to grow, it will be increasingly important to consider the impact of all dietary components, including low calorie sweeteners, on gut microbiota and metabolic health. PMID:27090230

  11. Dietary interventions for primary allergy prevention--what is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Berg, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Allergen exposure in the early postnatal life of an infant with a genetic predisposition for allergy is regarded as at least one essential risk factor for later development of allergic diseases. The most important allergen exposure in early life derives from the early nutrition of the baby. Thus, intervention based on the concept of reducing the allergen load in the diet is one approach for primary allergy prevention in children at risk. This includes breastfeeding, allergen-reduced diet of the pregnant and lactating mother, cow milk protein hydrolysate infant formulas (= hypoallergenic infant formula or HA formulas) and time of introduction of complementary food. Data on breastfeeding regarding allergy prevention are inconsistent: preventive with regard to atopic eczema and cow milk allergy in the first 2 years, but contradictory regarding wheezing beyond the first years of life. Allergen-reduced diet of the pregnant mother is not recommended because there is no evidence for a preventive benefit, but instead for unwanted effects on the child's intrauterine development. Data on a restrictive diet during lactation are also inconsistent. If breastfeeding is insufficient in the first 4-6 months, both partially and extensively hydrolyzed formulas have been successfully used to reduce the risk for atopic eczema, but not for asthma or allergic rhinitis, until school age. However, from the available data it is suggested that the preventive potential of a formula is not only dependent on the degree of hydrolyzation and the protein source, but also from other factors like the process of manufacturing the formula. Recommendations for a certain formula should therefore be based on its proven efficacy in controlled clinical trials. For all healthy children with and without risk for allergy, more recent findings support complementary food introduction in the 5th and 6th months--independent of the kind of milk feeding--according to the nutritional needs and abilities of a baby

  12. Effects of sodium and potassium supplementation on endothelial function: a fully controlled dietary intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijsbers, Lieke; Dower, James I; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Kusters, Yvo H A M; Bakker, Stephan J L; Hollman, Peter C H; Geleijnse, Johanna M

    2015-11-14

    High Na and low K intakes have adverse effects on blood pressure, which increases the risk for CVD. The role of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in this pathophysiological process is not yet clear. In a randomised placebo-controlled cross-over study in untreated (pre)hypertensives, we examined the effects of Na and K supplementation on endothelial function and inflammation. During the study period, subjects were provided with a diet that contained 2·4 g/d of Na and 2·3 g/d of K for a 10 460 kJ (2500 kcal) intake. After 1-week run-in, subjects received capsules with supplemental Na (3·0 g/d), supplemental K (2·8 g/d) or placebo, for 4 weeks each, in random order. After each intervention, circulating biomarkers of endothelial function and inflammation were measured. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and skin microvascular vasomotion were assessed in sub-groups of twenty-two to twenty-four subjects. Of thirty-seven randomised subjects, thirty-six completed the study. Following Na supplementation, serum endothelin-1 was increased by 0·24 pg/ml (95 % CI 0·03, 0·45), but no change was seen in other endothelial or inflammatory biomarkers. FMD and microvascular vasomotion were unaffected by Na supplementation. K supplementation reduced IL-8 levels by 0·28 pg/ml (95 % CI 0·03, 0·53), without affecting other circulating biomarkers. FMD was 1·16 % (95% CI 0·37, 1·96) higher after K supplementation than after placebo. Microvascular vasomotion was unaffected. In conclusion, a 4-week increase in Na intake increased endothelin-1, but had no effect on other endothelial or inflammatory markers. Increased K intake had a beneficial effect on FMD and possibly IL-8, without affecting other circulating endothelial or inflammatory biomarkers.

  13. Influence of dietary nutrition intervention on patients with psoriasis%膳食营养干预对银屑病患者的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉芳; 覃桂玲; 黎玉芬

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨膳食营养干预对银屑病患者膳食营养知识和饮食依从性的影响.方法 选择40例住院治疗的银屑病患者,应用平衡膳食宝塔+食物交换份法为患者制订个体化简明饮食处方,并配合银屑病饮食营养相关知识宣教进行膳食营养干预,干预前与干预后分别对患者进行营养相关知识和饮食依从性比较.结果 干预前患者营养相关知识得分<60分为31例占77.5%,饮食依从性好9例占22.5%,干预后营养相关知识得分<60分18例占45.0%,饮食依从性好22例占55.5%,较干预前提高,差异有统计学意义.结论 银屑病患者膳食营养知识水平普遍较低,饮食依从性差.对患者进行膳食营养干预,能够提高患者营养知识水平,提高饮食依从性,改善患者膳食营养结构,促进疾病快速恢复.%Objective To study on the effect of dietary nutrition intervention in community on nutrition knowledge and dietary compliance in patients with psoriasis.Methods 40 patients with psoriasis were given a balanced diet pagoda and food exchange method,along with psoriasis nutrition knowledge manual to make individual and concise diet prescription.The nutrition knowledge and dietary compliance of patients before and after the intervention were compared.Results In a nutrition knowledge test,before the intervention,31 patients obtained a score below 60 which accounted for 77.5%,and 9 patients got higher score which meant 22.5% patients had a good dietary compliance.After the intervention,18 patients (45.0%) got a score below 60,while 22 (55.5%) patients got a good score,the results after the intervention were statistically higher than those before the intervention.Conclusions Patients with psoriasis have poor cognitions and bad dietary compliance.After dietary nutrition intervention,the nutrition knowledge is enhanced and the dietary compliance gets higher,the dietary structure is improved,and consequently accelerate the

  14. Restaurants With Calories Displayed On Menus Had Lower Calorie Counts Compared To Restaurants Without Such Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Wolfson, Julia A; Jarlenski, Marian P; Block, Jason P

    2015-11-01

    Beginning in December 2016, calorie labeling on menus will be mandatory for US chain restaurants and many other establishments that serve food, such as ice cream shops and movie theaters. But before the federal mandate kicks in, several large chain restaurants have begun to voluntarily display information about the calories in the items on their menus. This increased transparency may be associated with lower overall calorie content of offered items. This study used data for the period 2012-14 from the MenuStat project, a data set of menu items at sixty-six of the largest US restaurant chains. We compared differences in calorie counts of food items between restaurants that voluntarily implemented national menu labeling and those that did not. We found that the mean per item calorie content in all years was lower for restaurants that voluntarily posted information about calories (the differences were 139 calories in 2012, 136 in 2013, and 139 in 2014). New menu items introduced in 2013 and 2014 showed a similar pattern. Calorie labeling may have important effects on the food served in restaurants by compelling the introduction of lower-calorie items. PMID:26526245

  15. Impact of dietary vitamin A interventions on total body stores in Thai lactating women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is increasingly being recognized as a public health problem among pregnant and lactating women in developing countries. This proposed study will be a randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of consuming provitamin A-rich foods in one prepared, on-site meal per weekday for 3 months on total body vitamin A stores and other aspects of vitamin A status in marginally nourished lactating women in rural Northeast Thailand. Approximately 400 lactating women, 2-18 months post-partum, will be screened in the population for marginal vitamin A status by a tier of indicators beginning from low intake or history of night blindness or impaired dark adaptability followed by low serum retinol. Assuming a prevalence of low serum retinol of ∼20%, 90 women will be identified and recruited, matched by serum retinol and month post-partum and randomized in a block fashion into three groups to receive daily cooked (fat-added) meal and snack with (1) dark green leafy and yellow/orange vegetables and fruits, (2) beta-carotene- enriched rice chips and (3) non-enriched rice chips. Groups 1 and 2 will receive ∼3.6 mg of beta-carotene per day. Prior to and following the intervention hepatic vitamin A reserves will be estimated by isotopic dilution techniques and other indicators of vitamin A status. In addition, serum C-reactive protein and maternal anthropometry will be measured. Food consumption data based on 24-hour recall for 3 randomized days will be collected every 2 weeks to assess routine intakes of vitamin A, fat and other nutrients. Morbidity will be monitored on a weekly basis throughout the study. Between-group comparisons will provide a basis for (1) estimating the adequacy of local diets to improve or maintain total body stores of vitamin A in women during lactation and (2) assessing the validity and responsiveness of widely used measures of vitamin A status in this high-risk group

  16. Study protocol of a parent-focused child feeding and dietary intake intervention: the feeding healthy food to kids randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncanson Kerith

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor childhood nutrition is a more pervasive and insidious risk factor for lifestyle-related chronic disease than childhood obesity. Parents find it difficult to address the reported barriers to optimal child feeding, and to improve child dietary patterns. To impact at the population level, nutrition interventions need to be easy to disseminate, have a broad reach and appeal to parents while overcoming the barriers parents face when trying to improve child feeding behaviours. The Feeding Healthy Food to Kids (FHFK Randomised Control Trial (RCT examines the impact of providing low cost, self-directed nutrition and parenting resources to rural parents, on child dietary intake and parent–child feeding practices. Methods/Design Up to 150 parents of two-to-five year old children will be recruited in five rural Australian towns. Eligible, consenting parents will be randomly allocated to intervention or 12-month wait-list control groups. Intervention group parents will receive an interactive nutrition CD and parenting DVD, and be provided with instructions for optimal resource utilisation. Intervention and control group participants will also receive a generic nutrition and physical activity brochure and a physical activity resource to blind participants to group allocation. Primary outcome measures are dietary intake of vegetables (serves/day, fruit and energy dense nutrient poor foods (serves/day and %Energy. Secondary outcome measures are total energy (kCal, other food groups (serves/day and %Energy, key nutrients (mg/day, child feeding domains and parenting style domains. Analysis of dietary outcome measures, child feeding and parenting domains will be conducted on an intention-to-treat basis and compared at baseline, three and 12 months using the random effects model, using STATA software. Details of the methodological aspects of recruitment, inclusion criteria, randomisation and statistical analysis are described

  17. Chronic calorie restriction attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Piccio, Laura; Stark, Jennifer L.; Cross, Anne H.

    2008-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) prevents many age-associated diseases and prolongs the lifespan. CR induces multiple metabolic and physiologic modifications, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effects that may be beneficial in multiple sclerosis (MS). The present studies sought to determine whether CR or increased calorie intake alters the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the leading animal model for MS. SJL and C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 40% ...

  18. Long-Term Effect of Mediterranean-Style Diet and Calorie Restriction on Biomarkers of Longevity and Oxidative Stress in Overweight Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Esposito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the effects of a Mediterranean-style diet, with or without calorie restriction, on biomarkers of aging and oxidative stress in overweight men. 192 men were randomly assigned to either a Mediterranean-style diet or a conventional diet. The intervention program was based on implementation of a Mediterranean dietary pattern in the overweight group (MED diet group, associated with calorie restriction and increased physical activity in the obese group (lifestyle group. Both groups were compared with participants in two matched control groups (advice groups. After 2 years, there was a significant difference in weight loss between groups, which was −14 kg (95% CI −20 to −8 in lifestyle groups and −2.0 kg (−4.4 to 0 in the advice groups, with a difference of −11.9 kg (CI −19 to −4.7 kg, <.001; moreover, there was a significant difference between groups at 2 years for insulin (=.04, 8-iso-PGF2α (=.037, glucose (=.04, and adiponectin (=.01. Prolonged adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet, with or without caloric restriction, in overweight or obese men is associated with significant amelioration of multiple risk factors, including a better cardiovascular risk profile, reduced oxidative stress, and improved insulin sensitivity.

  19. THE PRICE OF ONE SWEET CALORIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Buttet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new measure for food prices to further examine the impact of changes in food prices and real income on individuals’ eating decisions and weight. We calculate price per calorie for food consumed away from home and food consumed at home as the dollar amount spent by households on each food category divided by the number of calories consumed. We use our newly constructed time series for price per calorie as an input into a neoclassical model of eating decisions and weight. Our goal is to propose a quantitative explanation for the increase in calories consumed away from home as well as changes in weight for men and women 1971 and 2006. We find that prices determine the allocation of calories across food types, while income determines the total number of calories consumed and thus individuals' weight. Based on our results, we share the view that taxes on food will impact what people eat but will have limited effect on reducing the population body-mass index or the obesity prevalence

  20. Theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior-based dietary interventions in adolescents and young adults: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hackman CL

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Christine L Hackman, Adam P KnowldenDepartment of Health Science, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USABackground: Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many nations around the world. The theory of planned behavior (TPB and the theory of reasoned action (TRA have been used to successfully plan and evaluate numerous interventions for many different behaviors. The aim of this study was to systematically review and synthesize TPB and TRA-based dietary behavior interventions targeting adolescents and young adults.Methods: The following databases were systematically searched to find articles for this review: Academic Search Premier; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL; Education Resources Information Center (ERIC; Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; and MEDLINE. Inclusion criteria for articles were: 1 primary or secondary interventions, 2 with any quantitative design, 3 published in the English language, 4 between January 2003 and March 2014, 5 that targeted adolescents or young adults, 6 which included dietary change behavior as the outcome, and 7 utilized TPB or TRA.Results: Of the eleven intervention studies evaluated, nine resulted in dietary behavior change that was attributed to the treatment. Additionally, all but one study found there to be a change in at least one construct of TRA or TPB, while one study did not measure constructs. All of the studies utilized some type of quantitative design, with two employing quasi-experimental, and eight employing randomized control trial design. Among the studies, four utilized technology including emails, social media posts, information on school websites, web-based activities, audio messages in classrooms, interactive DVDs, and health-related websites. Two studies incorporated goal setting and four employed persuasive communication.Conclusion: Interventions directed toward changing dietary behaviors

  1. Dietary weight loss and exercise interventions effects on quality of life in overweight/obese postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ching-Yun

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although lifestyle interventions targeting multiple lifestyle behaviors are more effective in preventing unhealthy weight gain and chronic diseases than intervening on a single behavior, few studies have compared individual and combined effects of diet and/or exercise interventions on health-related quality of life (HRQOL. In addition, the mechanisms of how these lifestyle interventions affect HRQOL are unknown. The primary aim of this study was to examine the individual and combined effects of dietary weight loss and/or exercise interventions on HRQOL and psychosocial factors (depression, anxiety, stress, social support. The secondary aim was to investigate predictors of changes in HRQOL. Methods This study was a randomized controlled trial. Overweight/obese postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to 12 months of dietary weight loss (n = 118, moderate-to-vigorous aerobic exercise (225 minutes/week, n = 117, combined diet and exercise (n = 117, or control (n = 87. Demographic, health and anthropometric information, aerobic fitness, HRQOL (SF-36, stress (Perceived Stress Scale, depression [Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-18], anxiety (BSI-18 and social support (Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey were assessed at baseline and 12 months. The 12-month changes in HRQOL and psychosocial factors were compared using analysis of covariance, adjusting for baseline scores. Multiple regression was used to assess predictors of changes in HRQOL. Results Twelve-month changes in HRQOL and psychosocial factors differed by intervention group. The combined diet + exercise group improved 4 aspects of HRQOL (physical functioning, role-physical, vitality, and mental health, and stress (p ≤ 0.01 vs. controls. The diet group increased vitality score (p Conclusions A combined diet and exercise intervention has positive effects on HRQOL and psychological health, which may be greater than that from exercise or diet alone. Improvements in

  2. The experiences of women with polycystic ovary syndrome on a very low-calorie diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Love JG

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available John G Love,1 John S McKenzie,2 Efsevia A Nikokavoura,3 John Broom,3 Catherine Rolland,3 Kelly L Johnston4,5 1School of Applied Social Studies, Faculty of Health & Social Care, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, UK; 2Rowett Institute of Health & Nutrition, University of Aberdeen, St Mary’s, Kings College, Aberdeen, UK; 3Centre for Obesity Research, Faculty of Health & Social Care, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, UK; 4LighterLife, Harlow, Essex, UK; 5Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences Division, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Kings College London, London, UK Abstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is variously reported to affect between 5% and 26% of reproductive age women in the UK and accounts for up to 75% of women attending fertility clinics due to anovulation. The first-line treatment option for overweight/obese women with PCOS is diet and lifestyle interventions. However, optimal dietary guidelines are missing, with very little research having been done in this area. This paper presents the findings from a qualitative study (using semistructured interviews of ten obese women who had PCOS and who had used LighterLife Total (LLT, a commercial weight loss program which utilizes a very low-calorie diet in conjunction with behavioral change therapy underpinned by group support. We investigated the women’s history of obesity, their experiences of other diets compared with LLT, and the on-going impact that this has had on their lives. Findings show that most women reported greater success using this weight loss program in terms of achieving and maintaining weight loss when compared with other diets. Furthermore, all the women nominated LLT as their model weight loss intervention with only a few modifications. Keywords: PCOS, obesity, weight loss, diet

  3. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    of the complexity in child nutrition both in observational and intervention designs as well as for investigating development of dietary patterns over time. Explorative analyses of indicators for dietary patterns showed that parental, household and child characteristics are associated with dietary patterns in early...

  4. Application of the BRAFO tiered approach for benefit–risk assessment to case studies on dietary interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhagen, Hans; Andersen, Rikke; Antoine, Jean-Michel;

    2011-01-01

    for the individual effects done by others; no new risk or benefit evaluations were made. The following case studies were thoroughly analysed: an example of food fortification, folic acid fortification of flour, macronutrient replacement/food substitution; the isocaloric replacement of saturated fatty acids...... with carbohydrates; the replacement of saturated fatty acids with monounsaturated fatty acids; the replacement of sugar-sweetened beverages containing mono- and disaccharides with low calorie sweeteners and an example of addition of specific ingredients to food: chlorination of drinking water....

  5. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids in multiple sclerosis patients and hot-nature dietary intervention with co-supplemented hemp-seed and evening-primrose oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezapour-Firouzi, Soheila; Arefhosseini, Seyed Rafie; Ebrahimi-Mamaghani, Mehrangiz; Farhoudi, Mehdi; Baradaran, Behzad; Ali, Torbati Mohammad; Zamani, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    The risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with increased dietary intake of saturated fatty acids. For many years it has been suspected that this disease might be associated with an imbalance between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids. We determined erythrocyte membrane fatty acids levels in Hot nature dietary intervention with co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils in multiple sclerosis patients. To determine the erythrocyte membrane fatty acids levels and correlate it with expanded disability status scale (EDSS) at baseline after 6 months intervention in MS patients by gas chromatography, in this double blind, randomized trial, 100 RRMS patients with EDSShemp seed and evening primrose oils with advised Hot nature diet. "Group B" received olive oil and "Group C" received the co-supplemented oils. The results showed that the mean follow-up was 180 ± 2.9SD days (N=65, 23 M and 42 F aged 34.25 ± 8.07 years with disease duration of 6.80 ± 4.33 years). There was no significant difference in the study parameters at baseline. After 6 months, EDSS, Immunological parameters and the erythrocyte cell membrane with regard to specific fatty acids showed improvement in the group A and C, whereas there was worsening condition for the group B after the intervention. We concluded that Hot-nature dietary intervention with co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils caused an increase PUFAs in MS patients and improvement in the erythrocyte membrane fatty acids composition. This could be an indication of restored plasma stores, and a reflection of disease severity reduction.

  6. A randomised control trial of low glycaemic index carbohydrate diet versus no dietary intervention in the prevention of recurrence of fetal macrosomia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Jennifer

    2010-04-23

    Abstract Background Maternal weight and maternal weight gain during pregnancy exert a significant influence on infant birth weight and the incidence of macrosomia. Fetal macrosomia is associated with an increase in both adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome, and also confers a future risk of childhood obesity. Studies have shown that a low glycaemic diet is associated with lower birth weights, however these studies have been small and not randomised 1 2 . Fetal macrosomia recurs in a second pregnancy in one third of women, and maternal weight influences this recurrence risk 3 . Methods\\/Design We propose a randomised control trial of low glycaemic index carbohydrate diet vs. no dietary intervention in the prevention of recurrence of fetal macrosomia. Secundigravid women whose first baby was macrosomic, defined as a birth weight greater than 4000 g will be recruited at their first antenatal visit. Patients will be randomised into two arms, a control arm which will receive no dietary intervention and a diet arm which will be commenced on a low glycaemic index diet. The primary outcome measure will be the mean birth weight centiles and ponderal indices in each group. Discussion Altering the source of maternal dietary carbohydrate may prove to be valuable in the management of pregnancies where there has been a history of fetal macrosomia. Fetal macrosomia recurs in a second pregnancy in one third of women. This randomised control trial will investigate whether or not a low glycaemic index diet can affect this recurrence risk. Current Controlled Trials Registration Number ISRCTN54392969

  7. By Ounce or By Calorie: The Differential Effects of Alternative Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Tax Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen, Chen; Brissette, Ian F.; Ryan R. Ruff

    2014-01-01

    The obesity epidemic and excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages have led to proposals of economics-based interventions to promote healthy eating in the United States. Targeted food and beverage taxes and subsidies are prominent examples of such potential intervention strategies. This paper examines the differential effects of taxing sugar-sweetened beverages by calories and by ounces on beverage demand. To properly measure the extent of substitution and complementarity between bev...

  8. The effect of current and anticipated body pride and shame on dietary restraint and caloric intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troop, Nicholas A

    2016-01-01

    Studies have established a link between body shame and eating disorder symptoms and behaviours. However, few have differentiated current feelings of body shame from those anticipated with weight change and none has examined the effects of these on subsequent eating behaviour. In this paper, a measure of body pride and shame was developed (Study 1) for the purposes of using it in a subsequent longitudinal study (Study 2). Two hundred and forty two women were recruited from a university and the general population and participated in Study 1, completing the Body Pride and Shame (BPS) scale either online or offline, as well as a number of validating measures. In Study 2, 40 female students completed the BPS, as well as a measure of dietary restraint, and subsequently recorded their dietary intake everyday for the next seven days. Study 1 identified and validated subscales of current body pride/shame as well as pride/shame that is anticipated were the individual to gain weight or lose weight. In Study 2, over and above levels of dietary restraint, current feelings of body shame predicted eating more calories over the next 7 days while the anticipation of shame with weight gain predicted eating fewer calories. Although previous research has only measured current feelings of body shame, the present studies showed that anticipated shame also impacts on subsequent behaviour. Interventions that regulate anticipated as well as current emotions, and that do not merely challenge cognitions, may be important in changing eating behaviour. PMID:26456412

  9. Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in skeletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Implications for insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, S.B.; Madsbad, S.; Høy, Carl-Erik;

    2006-01-01

    analysis that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R-2 = 0.33, P ...Objective Cross-sectional studies suggest that the fatty acid (FA) composition of phospholipids in skeletal muscle cell membrane may modulate insulin sensitivity in humans. We examined the impact of a hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention on membrane FA composition and insulin sensitivity....... Design Muscle membrane FA profiles were determined in muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies from 21 obese subjects before and after 6 months of dietary restriction. Diet instructions emphasized low intake of FA of marine origin by recommending lean fish and prohibiting fatty fish and fish oil supplements...

  10. Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in sceletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Inplications for insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Madsbad, Sten; Høy, C-E;

    2006-01-01

    that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R(2)=0.33, P...OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectional studies suggest that the fatty acid (FA) composition of phospholipids in skeletal muscle cell membrane may modulate insulin sensitivity in humans. We examined the impact of a hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention on membrane FA composition and insulin sensitivity....... DESIGN Muscle membrane FA profiles were determined in muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies from 21 obese subjects before and after 6 months of dietary restriction. Diet instructions emphasized low intake of FA of marine origin by recommending lean fish and prohibiting fatty fish and fish oil supplements...

  11. A model of phone call intervention in sensitizing the change of dietary pattern - doi:10.5020/18061230.2010.p136

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Corrêa Chaves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To propose a model of phone call intervention for changing dietary patterns and to assess its effectiveness. Method: A study carried out at the Health Promotion School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, with 27 subjects, 3-5 phone calls contacts per user, by means of which were given orientations and interventions on the principles of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and the Transtheoretical Model on healthy eating. We analyzed the variables weight and body mass index, dietary patterns and overall stage of motivation to change. The data were submitted to analysis of variance with repeated measures at different stages of evaluation: pre-contact, 3rd and 5th phone calls. Results: After intervention, users showed a change in eating behavior in the third contact, and change occurred in weight and BMI in one patient. All findings were not statistically significant. There was improvement in the motivation to acquire new eating habits, also not significant. Conclusion: There was a slight change in feeding behavior, the motivation to change improved for all participants, without, however, have been effective in this type of approach.

  12. Research on the Relationship between Dietary Intervention and Game Performance of Middle-and-long Distance Race Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Tingjun Wang

    2015-01-01

    The supply of dietary nutrition is an important guarantee for athletes to deliver a good performance in training and games and a foundation to maintain a good economic status and it plays a vital promoting role in eliminating post-training and post-game fatigue. Currently constant improvements are witnessed in skills and achievements of middle and long distance running and one of the measures is the employment of science in athlete training. Then a question arises whether a rational dietary i...

  13. Systematic review of clinical trials on dietary interventions to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy among normal weight, overweight and obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanentsapf, Ida; Heitmann, Berit L; Adegboye, Amanda R A

    2011-01-01

    Excessive weight gain during pregnancy and subsequent postpartum weight retention may contribute to the epidemic of obesity among women of childbearing age. Preventing excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) to optimize maternal, fetal and infant wellbeing is therefore of great importance. A number...... of dietary interventions in this area has been conducted with inconsistent results, which has made it difficult to identify effective strategies to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy among normal weight, overweight and obese women. The primary objective of this review was to evaluate the effect...

  14. Metabolic and Neuropsychiatric Effects of Calorie Restriction and Sirtuins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libert, Sergiy; Guarente, Lenny

    2012-01-01

    Most living organisms, including humans, age. Over time the ability to do physical and intellectual work deteriorates, and susceptibility to infectious, metabolic, and neurodegenerative diseases increases, which leads to general fitness decline and ultimately to death. Work in model organisms has demonstrated that genetic and environmental manipulations can prevent numerous age-associated diseases, improve health at advanced age, and increase life span. Calorie restriction (CR) (consumption of a diet with fewer calories but containing all the essential nutrients) is the most robust manipulation, genetic or environmental, to extend longevity and improve health parameters in laboratory animals. However, outside of the protected laboratory environment, the effects of CR are much less certain. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of CR may lead to the development of novel therapies to combat diseases of aging and to improve the quality of life. Sirtuins, a family of NAD+-dependent enzymes, mediate a number of metabolic and behavioral responses to CR and are intriguing targets for pharmaceutical interventions. We review the molecular understanding of CR; the role of sirtuins in CR; and the effects of sirtuins on physiology, mood, and behavior. PMID:23043250

  15. Clues to maintaining calorie restriction? Psychosocial profiles of successful long-term restrictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incollingo Belsky, Angela C; Epel, Elissa S; Tomiyama, A Janet

    2014-08-01

    To combat the obesity epidemic, interventions and treatments often recommend low-calorie dieting. Calorie restriction (CR) as a weight intervention, however, is often unsuccessful, as most people cannot sustain the behavior. Yet one small group has maintained extreme CR over years - members of the CR Society and followers of The CR Way. This study examined stable psychosocial characteristics of these individuals to identify traits that may promote success at long-term CR. In 65 participants, we measured diet, eating behaviors, and personality traits comparing calorie restrictors with two age-, gender-, ethnicity-, and education-matched comparison groups (normal weight and overweight/obese). We first tested whether the CR group restricted calories without indications of eating disorder pathology, and second, what crystallized psychosocial characteristics set them apart from their nonrestricting comparisons. Results indicated the CR group averaged 10 years of CR but scored lower than comparison groups on measures of disordered eating (p disordered eating. Since modifying trait factors may be unrealistic, there may be psychosocial boundaries to the capacity for sustaining CR. Paralleling a movement toward personalized medicine, this study points toward a personalized behavioral medicine model in behavioral nutrition and treatment of overweight/obesity. PMID:24747211

  16. A healthy school start - Parental support to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity in children: Design and evaluation of a cluster-randomised intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinder Liselotte

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is multi-factorial and determined to a large extent by dietary habits, physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Previous research has shown that school-based programmes are effective but that their effectiveness can be improved by including a parental component. At present, there is a lack of effective parental support programmes for improvement of diet and physical activity and prevention of obesity in children. Methods/Design This paper describes the rationale and design of a parental support programme to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity in six-year-old children starting school. The study is performed in close collaboration with the school health care and is designed as a cluster-randomised controlled trial with a mixed methods approach. In total, 14 pre-school classes are included from a municipality in Stockholm county where there is large variation in socio-economic status between the families. The school classes are randomised to intervention (n = 7 and control (n = 7 groups including a total of 242 children. The intervention is based on social cognitive theory and consists of three main components: 1 a health information brochure; 2 two motivational interviewing sessions with the parents; and 3 teacher-led classroom activities with the children. The primary outcomes are physical activity in the children measured objectively by accelerometry, children's dietary and physical activity habits measured with a parent-proxy questionnaire and parents' self-efficacy measured by a questionnaire. Secondary outcomes are height, weight and waist circumference in the children. The duration of the intervention is six months and includes baseline, post intervention and six months follow-up measurements. Linear and logistic regression models will be used to analyse differences between intervention and control groups in the outcome variables. Mediator and moderator analysis will be performed

  17. Nutrient adequacy during weight loss interventions: a randomized study in women comparing the dietary intake in a meal replacement group with a traditional food group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovee Vicki

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safe and effective weight control strategies are needed to stem the current obesity epidemic. The objective of this one-year study was to document and compare the macronutrient and micronutrient levels in the foods chosen by women following two different weight reduction interventions. Methods Ninety-six generally healthy overweight or obese women (ages 25–50 years; BMI 25–35 kg/m2 were randomized into a Traditional Food group (TFG or a Meal Replacement Group (MRG incorporating 1–2 meal replacement drinks or bars per day. Both groups had an energy-restricted goal of 5400 kJ/day. Dietary intake data was obtained using 3-Day Food records kept by the subjects at baseline, 6 months and one-year. For more uniform comparisons between groups, each diet intervention consisted of 18 small group sessions led by the same Registered Dietitian. Results Weight loss for the 73% (n = 70 completing this one-year study was not significantly different between the groups, but was significantly different (p ≤ .05 within each group with a mean (± standard deviation weight loss of -6.1 ± 6.7 kg (TFG, n = 35 vs -5.0 ± 4.9 kg (MRG, n = 35. Both groups had macronutrient (Carbohydrate:Protein:Fat ratios that were within the ranges recommended (50:19:31, TFG vs 55:16:29, MRG. Their reported reduced energy intake was similar (5729 ± 1424 kJ, TFG vs 5993 ± 2016 kJ, MRG. There was an improved dietary intake pattern in both groups as indicated by decreased intake of saturated fat (≤ 10%, cholesterol ( Conclusion In this one-year university-based intervention, both dietitian-led groups successfully lost weight while improving overall dietary adequacy. The group incorporating fortified meal replacements tended to have a more adequate essential nutrient intake compared to the group following a more traditional food group diet. This study supports the need to incorporate fortified foods and/or dietary supplements while following an energy

  18. Reduction of high levels of internal radio-contamination by dietary intervention in residents of areas affected by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant disaster: a case series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Tsubokura

    Full Text Available Maintaining low levels of chronic internal contamination among residents in radiation-contaminated areas after a nuclear disaster is a great public health concern. However, the efficacy of reduction measures for individual internal contamination remains unknown. To reduce high levels of internal radiation exposure in a group of individuals exposed through environmental sources, we performed careful dietary intervention with identification of suspected contaminated foods, as part of mass voluntary radiation contamination screenings and counseling program in Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital and Hirata Central Hospital. From a total of 30,622 study participants, only 9 residents displayed internal cesium-137 (Cs-137 levels of more than 50 Bq/kg. The median level of internal Cs-137 contamination in these residents at the initial screening was 4,830 Bq/body (range: 2,130-15,918 Bq/body and 69.6 Bq/kg (range: 50.7-216.3 Bq/kg. All these residents with high levels of internal contamination consumed homegrown produce without radiation inspection, and often collected mushrooms in the wild or cultivated them on bed-logs in their homes. They were advised to consume distributed food mainly and to refrain from consuming potentially contaminated foods without radiation inspection and local produces under shipment restrictions such as mushrooms, mountain vegetables, and meat of wild life. A few months after the intervention, re-examination of Cs levels revealed remarkable reduction of internal contamination in all residents. Although the levels of internal radiation exposure appear to be minimal amongst most residents in Fukushima, a subset of the population, who unknowingly consumed highly contaminated foodstuffs, experienced high levels of internal contamination. There seem to be similarities in dietary preferences amongst residents with high internal contamination levels, and intervention based on pre- and post-test counseling and dietary advice from

  19. Early dietary intervention with structured triacylglycerols containing docosahexaenoic acid. Effect on brain, liver, and adipose tissue lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Merete Myrup; Høy, Carl-Erik

    1997-01-01

    and received ordinary rat chow at weaning. In general no significant differences between the two dietary treatments wereobserved in the tissues examined except for adipose tissue. The levels of 22:6n-3 were significantly increased in brain phosphatidylcholines (PC) andphosphatidylserines (PS) of both...... in the experimental groups than in the reference group. In adipose tissue, 22:6n-3increased in the experimental groups during the study period, but decreased in the reference group, suggesting that a surplus of dietary 22:6n-3 wasstored....

  20. Chronic dietary n-3 PUFA intervention improves dyslipidaemia and subsequent cardiovascular complications in the JCR:LA- cp rat model of the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Borthwick, Faye; Hassanali, Zahra; Wang, Ye; Mangat, Rabban; Ruth, Megan; Shi, Danni; Jaeschke, Anja; Russell, James C; Field, Catherine J; Proctor, Spencer D; Vine, Donna F

    2011-06-01

    There is increasing interest in the potential chronic beneficial effects of dietary n-3 PUFA on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and associated cardiovascular complications. We have recently established that increased dietary n-3 PUFA has a profound acute benefit on fasting lipids and the postprandial pro-inflammatory response in the JCR:LA-cp rat, a model of the MetS. However, it is unclear to what extent chronic dietary n-3 PUFA intervention can modulate the progression of end-stage metabolic and vascular complications. The present study aimed to determine the chronic effects of dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation on fasting and non-fasting dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance and vascular complications in the JCR:LA-cp rodent model. JCR:LA-cp rats were fed an isoenergetic lipid-balanced diet supplemented with 5 % n-3 PUFA (w/w) of the total fat (fish oil-derived EPA/DHA) for 16 weeks. Fasting and non-fasting (postprandial) plasma lipid profile was assessed. Hepatic and adipose tissue was probed for the expression of lipogenic proteins (acyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1)), while the activity of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was assessed via Western blot to target phosphorylated JNK protein in primary enterocytes. The frequency of myocardial lesions was assessed by haematoxylin and eosin staining. Increased dietary n-3 PUFA improved both the fasting and postprandial lipid profiles (TAG, cholesterol and apoB48) in the JCR:LA-cp rat, potentially via the down-regulation of the hepatic or adipose tissue expression of lipogenic enzymes (ACC, FAS and SREBP-1). Rats fed the 5 % n-3 PUFA diet had lower (58·2 %; P < 0·01) enterocytic phosphorylated JNK protein and secreted less cholesterol (30 %; P < 0·05) into mesenteric lymph compared with the control. The chronic metabolic benefits of dietary n-3 PUFA may underlie the potential to reduce vascular complications during the MetS, including the observed

  1. Evidence supporting a promotora-delivered entertainment education intervention for improving mothers' dietary intake: the Entre Familia: Reflejos de Salud Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Guadalupe X; Ibarra, Leticia; Horton, Lucy; Arredondo, Elva M; Slymen, Donald J; Engelberg, Moshe; Rock, Cheryl L; Hernandez, Erika; Parada, Humberto; Elder, John P

    2015-01-01

    Entertainment education and the promotora model are 2 evidence-based health communication strategies. This study examined their combined effect on promoting healthy eating among mothers in a family-based intervention. Participants were 361 Mexican-origin families living in Imperial County, California, who were randomly assigned to an intervention or delayed treatment condition. The intervention involved promotoras (community health workers) who delivered 11 home visits and 4 telephone calls. Home visits included a 12-minute episode of a 9-part situation comedy depicting a family struggling with making healthy eating choices; an accompanying family workbook was reviewed to build skills and left with the family. Baseline and immediate postintervention data were collected from the mothers, including the primary outcome of daily servings of fruits and vegetables. Other dietary and psychosocial factors related to healthy eating were examined. At postintervention, mothers in the intervention reported increases in daily vegetable servings (p ≤ .05); however, no changes were observed in fruit consumption. Improvements were observed in behavioral strategies to increase fiber (p ≤ .001) and to decrease fat intake (p ≤ .001), unhealthy eating behaviors (p ≤ .001), and individual (p ≤ .05) and family-related (p ≤ .01) perceived barriers to healthy eating. Entertainment education and promotoras engaged families and improved mothers' diets. Further research should examine the dose needed for greater changes.

  2. Effects of a dietary intervention on acute gastrointestinal side effects and other aspects of health-related quality of life: A randomized controlled trial in prostate cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study the effect of a dietary intervention on acute gastrointestinal side effects and other aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in prostate cancer patients referred to radiotherapy. Materials and methods: A total of 130 patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: an intervention group (IG, n = 64), instructed to reduce their intake of insoluble dietary fibres and lactose, a standard care group (SC, n = 66), instructed to continue their normal diet. Gastrointestinal side effects and other aspects of HRQOL were evaluated from baseline up to 2 months after completed radiotherapy, using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-PR25 and the study-specific Gastrointestinal Side Effects Questionnaire (GISEQ). A scale indicating adherence to dietary instructions was developed from a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), with lower scores representing better compliance. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were conducted. Results: There was an interaction effect between randomization and time in the FFQ Scores (p < 0.001), indicating that both groups followed their assigned dietary instructions. The dietary intervention had no effect on gastrointestinal side effects or other aspects of HRQOL. During radiotherapy, the percentage of patients with bowel symptoms and bloated abdomen was lower in IG compared to SC, but the between-group differences were not statistically significant. During radiotherapy, the percentage of patients with bowel symptoms, urinary symptoms, pain, fatigue and diminished physical and role functioning increased in both groups. Conclusions: The dietary intervention had no effect on gastrointestinal side effects or other aspects of HRQOL. The tendency towards lower prevalence of bowel symptoms in IG may indicate some positive effect of the dietary intervention, but methodological refinements, clearer results and longer follow-up are needed before the value of diet change can be established with certainty.

  3. Low omega-6 vs. low omega-6 plus high omega-3 dietary intervention for Chronic Daily Headache: Protocol for a randomized clinical trial

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    Smith Sunyata

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeted analgesic dietary interventions are a promising strategy for alleviating pain and improving quality of life in patients with persistent pain syndromes, such as chronic daily headache (CDH. High intakes of the omega-6 (n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA and arachidonic acid (AA may promote physical pain by increasing the abundance, and subsequent metabolism, of LA and AA in immune and nervous system tissues. Here we describe methodology for an ongoing randomized clinical trial comparing the metabolic and clinical effects of a low n-6, average n-3 PUFA diet, to the effects of a low n-6 plus high n-3 PUFA diet, in patients with CDH. Our primary aim is to determine if: A both diets reduce n-6 PUFAs in plasma and erythrocyte lipid pools, compared to baseline; and B the low n-6 plus high n-3 diet produces a greater decline in n-6 PUFAs, compared to the low n-6 diet alone. Secondary clinical outcomes include headache-specific quality-of-life, and headache frequency and intensity. Methods Adults meeting the International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria for CDH are included. After a 6-week baseline phase, participants are randomized to a low n-6 diet, or a low n-6 plus high n-3 diet, for 12 weeks. Foods meeting nutrient intake targets are provided for 2 meals and 2 snacks per day. A research dietitian provides intensive dietary counseling at 2-week intervals. Web-based intervention materials complement dietitian advice. Blood and clinical outcome data are collected every 4 weeks. Results Subject recruitment and retention has been excellent; 35 of 40 randomized participants completed the 12-week intervention. Preliminary blinded analysis of composite data from the first 20 participants found significant reductions in erythrocyte n-6 LA, AA and %n-6 in HUFA, and increases in n-3 EPA, DHA and the omega-3 index, indicating adherence. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01157208

  4. Comparing the sustainability of an Islamic dietary intervention to maintain weight loss 6 months after Ramadan between intervention and control groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriani Ismail

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining weight loss after the initial phases of any weight loss intervention is a challenge. Rationally, it depends on how well the adherence is to the prescribed treatment. This study is to test the sustainability of an intervention in maintaining weight lost during Ramadan by using voluntary fasting. Methods: Two groups of respondents (Muslim women with body mass index (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2 were randomly recruited from two states in Malaysia. One group received the Islamic based intervention (Group A and the other received the standard intervention (Group B. The intervention consisted of three phases. The first phase was the intensive phase which was the control of food quantity intake during the fasting month of Ramadan. The second phase was the maintenance phase where the respondents were assisted to continue monitoring their food consumption using the food diary for 3 months and the third phase was the following 3 months without any assistance. The variables studied were BMI, blood pressure (systolic and diastolic pressure and selected blood biochemical (i.e. total cholesterol (TC and high density lipoprotein (HDL-C. Variables were measured at baseline, at the end of Ramadan and at 6 months post Ramadan. Results: At 6 months post Ramadan the BMI, diastolic pressure, TC, HDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratio changes were different between the two groups (except for BMI changes where P=0.02, all others P

  5. 肿瘤患者高血糖水平的饮食干预%Dietary Interventions of High Blood Sugar Levels with Tumors Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 杨荣

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study dietary intervention ef ect of high blood sugar levels on the tumor patients. Methods 120 patients with tumor combined high blood sugar were was divided into the treatment group and the control group (n=60), both groups choose aspart 30 subcutaneous injection treatment, give low-glycemic load diet intervention treatment group at the same time, the control group was given conventional diet intervention. Results After the intervention, fasting blood glucose and postprandial 2 h blood glucose of two groups were significantly lower than before the intervention ( <0.05), and after the intervention treatment group at the same time of fasting blood glucose and postprandial 2 h blood glucose significantly lower than the control group ( <0.05). The hypoglycemia of two groups during the intervention is no happen, and there is no obvious blood sugar related complications. Conclusion Tumor patients with high blood sugar level of diet intervention can ef ectively reduce the blood sugar, and can avoid the happening of hypoglycemia.%目的探讨肿瘤患者高血糖水平的饮食干预效果。方法肿瘤合并高血糖患者120例,分治疗组与对照组各60例,两组都选择诺和锐30皮下注射治疗,同时治疗组给予低糖饮食干预,对照组给予常规饮食干预。结果两组干预后空腹血糖与餐后2h血糖明显低于干预前(<0.05),同时干预后治疗组的空腹血糖与餐后2h血糖明显低于对照组(<0.05)。两组在干预期间都无出现低血糖情况,也无明显血糖相关并发症发生。结论肿瘤患者高血糖水平的饮食干预能有效降低血糖,且能避免低血糖的发生。

  6. Short-term role of the dietary total antioxidant capacity in two hypocaloric regimes on obese with metabolic syndrome symptoms: the RESMENA randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez-Legarrea Patricia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary strategies seem to be the most prescribed therapy in order to counteract obesity regarding not only calorie restriction, but also bioactive ingredients and the composition of the consumed foods. Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC is gaining importance in order to assess the quality of the diet. Methods Ninety-six obese adults presenting metabolic syndrome (MetS symptoms completed an 8-week intervention trial to evaluate the effects of a novel dietary program with changes in the nutrient distribution and meal frequency and to compare it with a dietary pattern based on the American Heart Association (AHA guidelines. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline and at the endpoint of the study, in addition to 48-hours food dietary records. Results Both diets equally (p > 0.05 improved MetS manifestations. Dietary TAC was the component which showed the major influence on body weight (p = 0.034, body mass index (p = 0.026, waist circumference (p = 0.083 and fat mass (p = 0.015 reductions. Transaminases (ALT and AST levels (p = 0.062 and p = 0.004, respectively were associated with lower TAC values. Conclusion RESMENA diet was as effective as AHA pattern for reducing MetS features. Dietary TAC was the most contributing factor involved in body weight and obesity related markers reduction. Trial registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01087086

  7. The Impact of Nutrition Education Interventions on the Dietary Habits of College Students in Developed Nations: A Brief Review

    OpenAIRE

    Lua, Pei Lin; Wan Putri Elena, Wan Dali

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of studies on the effectiveness nutrition education interventions used by college students. Electronic databases such as Medline, Science Direct, CINAHL (EBSCOhost), and Google Scholar were explored for articles that involved nutrition education interventions for college students and that were published between 1990 and 2011. Fourteen studies, which involved a total of 1668 college students as respondents, were identified an...

  8. The use of rabbits in atherosclerosis research. Diet and drug intervention in different rabbit models exposed to selected dietary fats and the calcium antagonist (-)-anipamil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja

    Laboratory animal models play an important role in atherosclerosis research. One of the most popular laboratory animal species in this field of research is the rabbit. The rabbit fulfils most of the criteria for an animal model for human atherosclerosis. Three rabbit models were established and...... used for dietary or drug intervention: 1) the cholesterol-fed normolipidemic rabbit, 2) the 1% cholesterol- fed heterozygous Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit and 3) the homozygous WHHL rabbit. The reproductive performance and physiological blood lipid levels in growing and adult...... heterozygous and homozygous WHHL and normolipidemic rabbit were characterized. The position of the rabbit models in atherosclerosis research was discussed. The characteristic features of cholesterolfed and WHHL rabbis were compared....

  9. Potential Effect of Physical Activity Calorie Equivalent (PACE) Labeling on Adult Fast Food Ordering and Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Ray Antonelli; Viera, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Numeric calorie content labels show limited efficacy in reducing the number of calories ordered from fast food meals. Physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) labels are an alternative that may reduce the number of calories ordered in fast food meals while encouraging patrons to exercise. Methods A total of 1000 adults from 47 US states were randomly assigned via internet survey to one of four generic fast food menus: no label, calories only, calories + minutes, or calories + ...

  10. Effect of a low fat versus a low carbohydrate weight loss dietary intervention on biomarkers of long term survival in breast cancer patients ('CHOICE'): study protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weight loss in overweight or obese breast cancer patients is associated with an improved prognosis for long term survival. However, it is not clear whether the macronutrient composition of the chosen weight loss dietary plan imparts further prognostic benefit. A study protocol is presented for a dietary intervention to investigate the effects of weight loss dietary patterns that vary markedly in fat and carbohydrate contents on biomarkers of exposure to metabolic processes that may promote tumorigenesis and that are predictive of long term survival. The study will also determine how much weight must be lost for biomarkers to change in a favorable direction. Approximately 370 overweight or obese postmenopausal breast cancer survivors (body mass index: 25.0 to 34.9 kg/m2) will be accrued and assigned to one of two weight loss intervention programs or a non-intervention control group. The dietary intervention is implemented in a free living population to test the two extremes of popular weight loss dietary patterns: a high carbohydrate, low fat diet versus a low carbohydrate, high fat diet. The effects of these dietary patterns on biomarkers for glucose homeostasis, chronic inflammation, cellular oxidation, and steroid sex hormone metabolism will be measured. Participants will attend 3 screening and dietary education visits, and 7 monthly one-on-one dietary counseling and clinical data measurement visits in addition to 5 group visits in the intervention arms. Participants in the control arm will attend two clinical data measurement visits at baseline and 6 months. The primary outcome is high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Secondary outcomes include interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF), IGF binding protein-3, 8-isoprostane-F2-alpha, estrone, estradiol, progesterone, sex hormone binding globulin, adiponectin, and leptin. While clinical data indicate that excess weight for height is associated with poor prognosis for long term

  11. Defining metabolically healthy obesity: role of dietary and lifestyle factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M Phillips

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a current lack of consensus on defining metabolically healthy obesity (MHO. Limited data on dietary and lifestyle factors and MHO exist. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence, dietary factors and lifestyle behaviours of metabolically healthy and unhealthy obese and non-obese subjects according to different metabolic health criteria. METHOD: Cross-sectional sample of 1,008 men and 1,039 women aged 45-74 years participated in the study. Participants were classified as obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2 and non-obese (BMI < 30 kg/m(2. Metabolic health status was defined using five existing MH definitions based on a range of cardiometabolic abnormalities. Dietary composition and quality, food pyramid servings, physical activity, alcohol and smoking behaviours were examined. RESULTS: The prevalence of MHO varied considerably between definitions (2.2% to 11.9%, was higher among females and generally increased with age. Agreement between MHO classifications was poor. Among the obese, prevalence of MH was 6.8% to 36.6%. Among the non-obese, prevalence of metabolically unhealthy subjects was 21.8% to 87%. Calorie intake, dietary macronutrient composition, physical activity, alcohol and smoking behaviours were similar between the metabolically healthy and unhealthy regardless of BMI. Greater compliance with food pyramid recommendations and higher dietary quality were positively associated with metabolic health in obese (OR 1.45-1.53 unadjusted model and non-obese subjects (OR 1.37-1.39 unadjusted model, respectively. Physical activity was associated with MHO defined by insulin resistance (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.19-2.92, p = 0.006. CONCLUSION: A standard MHO definition is required. Moderate and high levels of physical activity and compliance with food pyramid recommendations increase the likelihood of MHO. Stratification of obese individuals based on their metabolic health phenotype may be important in ascertaining the appropriate

  12. Long-term safety and efficacy of a cholesterol-lowering diet in children with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol : Seven-year results of the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obarzanek, E; Kimm, SYS; Barton, BA; Van Horn, L; Kwiterovich, PO; Simons-Morton, DG; Hunsberger, SA; Lasser, NL; Robson, AM; Franklin, FA; Lauer, RM; Stevens, VJ; Friedman, LA; Dorgan, JF; Greenlick, MR

    2001-01-01

    Objective. Diets reduced in fat and cholesterol are recommended for children over 2 years of age, yet long-term safety and efficacy are unknown. This study tests the long-term efficacy and safety of a cholesterol-lowering dietary intervention in children. Methods. Six hundred sixty-three children 8

  13. A pilot, short-term dietary manipulation of branched chain amino acids has modest influence on fasting levels of branched chain amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Landa Cavallaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elevated fasting levels of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs: valine, isoleucine, leucine in venous blood are associated with a variety of metabolic impairments, including increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D. Fasting BCAA levels are influenced by non-dietary factors. However, it is unknown whether fasting BCAAs can be altered through manipulation of dietary intake alone. Objective: To test whether a specific dietary intervention, using differences in BCAA intake, alters fasting BCAA levels independent of other factors. Design: Five healthy male volunteers underwent 4 days of a low and 4 days of a high BCAA content dietary intervention (ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT02110602]. All food and supplements were provided. Fasting BCAAs were measured from venous blood samples by mass spectrometry at baseline and after each intervention. Results: Diets were isocaloric; contained equal percentages of calories from carbohydrate, fats, and protein; and differed from each other in BCAA content (1.5±0.1 vs. 14.0±0.6 g for valine; 4.5±0.9 g vs. 13.8±0.5 g for isoleucine; 2.1±0.2 g vs. 27.1±1.0 g for leucine; p<0.0001 for all. Fasting valine was significantly lower (p=0.02 and fasting isoleucine and leucine were numerically lower following the low BCAA content vs. the high BCAA content diet levels. The inter-individual response to the dietary interventions was variable and not explained by adherence. Conclusion: Short-term dietary manipulation of BCAA intake led to modest changes in fasting levels of BCAAs. The approach from our pilot study can be expanded to test the metabolic implications of dietary BCAA manipulation.

  14. Differences between men and women in dietary intakes and metabolic profile in response to a 12-week nutritional intervention promoting the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Vicky; Hudon, Anne-Marie; Royer, Marie-Michelle; Corneau, Louise; Dodin, Sylvie; Bégin, Catherine; Lemieux, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have compared men and women in response to nutritional interventions but none has assessed differences between men and women in the response to a nutritional intervention programme based on the self-determination theory (SDT) and using the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) as a model of healthy eating, in a context of CVD prevention and within a non-Mediterranean population. The present study aimed to document differences between men and women in changes in dietary, anthropometric and metabolic variables, in response to a nutritional intervention programme promoting the adoption of the MedDiet and based on the SDT. A total of sixty-four men and fifty-nine premenopausal women presenting risk factors for CVD were recruited through different media advertisements in the Québec City Metropolitan area (Canada). The 12-week nutritional programme used a motivational interviewing approach and included individual and group sessions. A validated FFQ was administered to evaluate dietary intakes from which a Mediterranean score (Medscore) was derived. Both men and women significantly increased their Medscore in response to the intervention (P < 0·0001). Men showed a significantly greater decrease in red and processed meat (-0·4 (95 % CI -0·7, -0·1) portions per d) and a greater increase in fruit (0·9 (95 % CI 0·2, 1·6) portions per d) intakes than women. Significant decreases were observed for BMI and waist circumference in both men and women (P ≤ 0·04). Significant greater decreases were found for total cholesterol (total-C):HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) (-0·2; 95 % CI -0·4, -0·03) and TAG:HDL-C (-0·2; 95 % CI -0·4, -0·04) ratios in men than in women. When adjusting for the baseline value of the response variable, differences between men and women became non-significant for red and processed meat and fruit intakes whereas significant differences between men and women (i.e. larger increases in men than women) were observed for legumes, nuts and seeds (0·6

  15. 饮食行为干预对2型糖尿病患者的效果评价%Effect evaluation of dietary behavior intervention on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓军; 章西萍; 王慧琴; 王爱华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of dietary behavior intervention on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods 80 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly divided into the control group and the intervention group. Control group was conducted with general stochastic dietary nursing, while intervention group was conducted with dietary behavior intervention (individual dietary program) on the basis of control group. Effect of dietary behavior intervention was assessed through comparisons of awareness rate of diabetic diet knowledge and condition of behavior change between twogroups. Results Two days later, diabetic diet knowledge and condition of behavior change in intervention group were better than control group, there were significant differences between two groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion Dietary behavior intervention for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus can help them? understand diabetic diet knowledge and establish scientific dietary behaviors. These measures play an important role in controlling diabetic conditions, deferring incidence of complications and improving life quality of patients.%目的 探讨饮食行为干预对2型糖尿病患者的影响.方法 将80例2型糖尿病患者随机均分成对照组和干预组,对照组采用一般性随机饮食护理,干预组在一般饮食护理的基础上进行饮食行为干预,制定个性化饮食方案,通过比较2组患者糖尿病饮食知识的知晓率、行为变化情况来评估饮食行为干预的效果.结果 2d后干预组患者糖尿病饮食知识知晓率和行为改变率较对照组有显著差异(P<0.05).结论 对2型糖尿病患者进行饮食行为干预,可使其掌握糖尿病饮食知识并建立科学的饮食行为,这对控制糖尿病病情、延缓并发症发生、提高患者生活质量具有积极意义.

  16. Dietary approaches that delay age-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everitt, Arthur V; Hilmer, Sarah N; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Jamieson, Hamish A; Truswell, A Stewart; Sharma, Anita P; Mason, Rebecca S; Morris, Brian J; Le Couteur, David G

    2006-01-01

    Reducing food intake in lower animals such as the rat decreases body weight, retards many aging processes, delays the onset of most diseases of old age, and prolongs life. A number of clinical trials of food restriction in healthy adult human subjects running over 2-15 years show significant reductions in body weight, blood cholesterol, blood glucose, and blood pressure, which are risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Lifestyle interventions that lower energy balance by reducing body weight such as physical exercise can also delay the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In general, clinical trials are suggesting that diets high in calories or fat along with overweight are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, some cancers, and dementia. There is a growing literature indicating that specific dietary constituents are able to influence the development of age-related diseases, including certain fats (trans fatty acids, saturated, and polyunsaturated fats) and cholesterol for cardiovascular disease, glycemic index and fiber for diabetes, fruits and vegetables for cardiovascular disease, and calcium and vitamin D for osteoporosis and bone fracture. In addition, there are dietary compounds from different functional foods, herbs, and neutraceuticals such as ginseng, nuts, grains, and polyphenols that may affect the development of age-related diseases. Long-term prospective clinical trials will be needed to confirm these diet-disease relationships. On the basis of current research, the best diet to delay age-related disease onset is one low in calories and saturated fat and high in wholegrain cereals, legumes, fruits and vegetables, and which maintains a lean body weight. Such a diet should become a key component of healthy aging, delaying age-related diseases and perhaps intervening in the aging process itself. Furthermore, there are studies suggesting that nutrition in childhood and

  17. Sweet proteins – Potential replacement for artificial low calorie sweeteners

    OpenAIRE

    Kant Ravi

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Exponential growth in the number of patients suffering from diseases caused by the consumption of sugar has become a threat to mankind's health. Artificial low calorie sweeteners available in the market may have severe side effects. It takes time to figure out the long term side effects and by the time these are established, they are replaced by a new low calorie sweetener. Saccharine has been used for centuries to sweeten foods and beverages without calories or carbohydrate. It was ...

  18. Mediators and Moderators of the Effectiveness of a Community Health Worker Intervention That Improved Dietary Outcomes in Pregnant Latino Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Megha K.; Kieffer, Edith C.; Choi, Hwajung; Schumann, Christina; Heisler, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Background. Pregnancy is an opportune time to initiate diabetes prevention strategies for minority and underserved women, using culturally tailored interventions delivered by community health workers. A community-partnered randomized controlled trial (RCT) with pregnant Latino women resulted in significantly improved vegetable, fiber, added sugar,…

  19. Internet-Based Interventions Have Potential to Affect Short-Term Mediators and Indicators of Dietary Behavior of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Amanda; Nitzke, Susan; Kritsch, Karen; Kattelmann, Kendra; White, Adrienne; Boeckner, Linda; Lohse, Barbara; Hoerr, Sharon; Greene, Geoffrey; Zhang, Zhumin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate a theory-based, Internet-delivered nutrition education module. Design: Randomized, treatment-control design with pre-post intervention assessments. Setting and Participants: Convenience sample of 160 young adults (aged 18-24) recruited by community educators in 4 states. Study completers (n = 96) included a mix of…

  20. Reduced-calorie avocado paste attenuates metabolic factors associated with a hypercholesterolemic-high fructose diet in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahua-Ramos, María Elena; Garduño-Siciliano, Leticia; Dorantes-Alvarez, Lidia; Chamorro-Cevallos, German; Herrera-Martínez, Julieta; Osorio-Esquivel, Obed; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of reduced-calorie avocado paste on lipid serum profile, insulin sensitivity, and hepatic steatosis in rats fed a hypercholesterolemic-high fructose diet. Thirty five male Wistar rats were randomly separated in five groups: Control group (ground commercial diet); hypercholesterolemic diet plus 60% fructose solution (HHF group); hypercholesterolemic diet plus 60% fructose solution supplemented with avocado pulp (HHF+A group); hypercholesterolemic diet plus 60% fructose solution supplemented with reduced-calorie avocado paste (HHF+P group); and hypercholesterolemic diet plus 60% fructose solution supplemented with a reduced-calorie avocado paste plus fiber (HHF+FP group). The A, P, and FP were supplemented at 2 g/kg/d. The study was carried out for seven weeks. Rats belonging to the HHF group exhibited significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin levels in serum as well as lower insulin sensitivity than the control group. Supplementation with reduced-calorie avocado paste showed a significant (P ≤ 0.05) decrease in total cholesterol (43.1%), low-density lipoprotein (45.4%), and triglycerides (32.8%) in plasma as well as elevated insulin sensitivity compared to the HHF group. Additionally, the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase decreased significantly in the HHF-P group (39.8 and 35.1%, respectively). These results are likely due to biocompounds present in the reduced-calorie avocado paste, such as polyphenols, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and dietary fibre, which are capable of reducing oxidative stress. Therefore, reduced-calorie avocado paste attenuates the effects of a hypercholesterolemic-high fructose diet in rats.

  1. The effect of the addition of resistance training to a dietary education intervention on apolipoproteins and diet quality in overweight and obese older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente EA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth A Valente1, Megan E Sheehy1, Joshua J Avila2, Julie A Gutierres2, Matthew J Delmonico2, Ingrid E Lofgren11Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, 2Department of Kinesiology, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USAObjectives: The aim of the study was to examine the additive effect of resistance training (RT to a dietary education (DE intervention on emerging coronary heart disease (CHD risk factors, concentration of apolipoproteins B (apoB and A-I (apoA-I, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH Diet Index scores in overweight and obese older adults.Patients and methods: This was an ancillary study of a randomized clinical trial held in the Fall of 2008 at the University of Rhode Island. Participants were overweight or obese subjects (mean body mass index [BMI] of 31.7 kg/m2 randomized into two groups, one participating in DE only (n = 12 and the other participating in DE plus RT (DERT (n = 15. The intervention involved all subjects participating in 30 minutes of DE per week for 10 weeks. Subjects in the DERT group participated in an additional 40 minutes of RT three times per week for 10 weeks. Measurements taken were anthropometric (height, weight, waist circumference, and body composition using the BOD POD® [Body Composition System, v 2.14; Life Measurement Instruments, Concord, CA], clinical (blood pressure, and biochemical (lipid profile and apoB and apoA-I concentrations, and the DASH Diet Index was used to measure diet quality.Results: 27 subjects (11 males, 16 females, with a mean age of 66.6 ± 4.3 years, were included in analyses. The DERT subjects had significantly better triacylglycerol and apoB concentrations and DASH Diet Index scores than the DE subjects post-intervention. Improvements were seen within the DE group in energy intake, fat-free mass, and systolic blood pressure and within the DERT group in body weight, percentage of body fat, BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and oxidized low

  2. 婴儿饮食及生活习惯的干预效果分析%Effects of Intervention on Dietary and Living Habits of Infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文静; 李开平; 黄健; 樊欣; 赵妍; 王念蓉

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To discuss the effects of child health care outpatient on dietary and living habits of infants.Methods Infants selected randomly from urban area in Chongqing aged up to 3 months were recruited. In the intervention group, infants were accepted all of the designed intervention and guidance, while those infants in the control group received usual health care without changes of the dietary and living habits of infants. Both of the two groups of infants were detected regular the index including breast feeding rate, introduction of food, the frequency of adding complementary food and sleep situation. Results It shows the breast feeding rate of 4 months old infants and the rate of adding food supplement from 4 to 6 months old infants were higher in the intervention group (P<0.05). The frequency of without taking meat, vegetable and fruits everyday were higher in the control group (P<0.01). By 12 months of age,the day time sleep time was longer and the night sleep time was shorter than the control group (P<0.01), but there was no difference between the two groups of the whole day sleep time.Conclusions The intervention from the child health care outpatient can improve dietary and living habits of the infants partly such as enhancing breast feeding rate of the 4 months old infants, and promoting adding food supplement more regularly. However, how to cultivate ifne sleep habits remains further study.%目的:研究儿保门诊对婴儿饮食及生活习惯的干预效果。方法在重庆市城区随机抽取0~3个月龄婴儿为研究对象,干预组接受本研究的所有干预措施,对照组按常规保健服务,定期监测两组婴儿的母乳喂养率、辅食添加时间及添加频次、睡眠状况等指标。结果干预组婴儿4个月内母乳喂养率、4~6个月龄辅食添加率较高(P<0.05),而对照组没有每天进食肉类、蔬菜、水果的频率较高(P<0.01);12个月龄时干预组婴儿

  3. Lifestyle modification interventions differing in intensity and dietary stringency improve insulin resistance through changes in lipoprotein profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, N. S.; Blackburn, H. L.; Engler, R. J. M.; Kashani, M.; Vernalis, M. N.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective Metabolic dysfunction characterized by insulin resistance (IR) is an important risk factor for type‐2 diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to determine if clinical lifestyle interventions differing in scope and intensity improve IR, defined by the lipoprotein IR (LPIR) score, in individuals differing in the severity of metabolic dysfunction. Methods Subjects with diagnosed type‐2 diabetes, CAD or significant risk factors participated in one of two clinical lifestyle modification interventions: (i) intensive non‐randomized programme with a strict vegetarian diet (n = 90 participants, 90 matched controls) or (ii) moderate randomized trial following a Mediterranean‐style diet (n = 89 subjects, 58 controls). On‐treatment and intention‐to‐treat analyses assessed changes over 1 year in LPIR, lipoprotein profiles and metabolic risk factors in intervention participants and controls in both programmes. Results In the on‐treatment analysis, both interventions led to weight loss: [−8.9% (95% CI, −10.3 to −7.4), intensive programme; −2.8% (95% CI, −3.8 to −1.9), moderate programme; adjusted P < 0.001] and a decrease in the LPIR score [−13.3% (95% CI, −18.2 to −8.3), intensive; −8.8% (95% CI, −12.9 to −4.7), moderate; adjusted P < 0.01] compared with respective controls. Of the six lipoprotein parameters comprising LPIR, only large very‐low‐density lipoprotein particle concentrations decreased significantly in participants compared with controls in both programmes [−26.3% (95% CI, −43.0 to −9.6), intensive; −14.2% (95% CI, −27.4 to −1.0), moderate; P < 0.05]. Intention‐to‐treat analysis confirmed and strengthened the primary results. Conclusion A stringent lifestyle modification intervention with a vegetarian diet and a moderate lifestyle modification intervention following a Mediterranean diet were both effective for improving IR defined by the

  4. Genotoxicity testing of low-calorie sweeteners: aspartame, acesulfame-K, and saccharin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Atrayee; Ghoshal, Sarbani; Mukherjee, Anita

    2008-01-01

    Low-calorie sweeteners are chemicals that offer the sweetness of sugar without the calories. Consumers are increasingly concerned about the quality and safety of many products present in the diet, in particular, the use of low-calorie sweeteners, flavorings, colorings, preservatives, and dietary supplements. In the present study, we evaluated the mutagenicity of the three low-calorie sweeteners in the Ames/Salmonella/microsome test and their genotoxic potential by comet assay in the bone marrow cells of mice. Swiss albino mice, Mus musculus, were orally administered with different concentrations of aspartame (ASP; 7, 14, 28, and 35 mg/kg body weight), acesulfame-K (ASK; 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg body weight), and saccharin (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight) individually. Concurrently negative and positive control sets were maintained. The animals were sacrificed and the bone marrow cells were processed for comet assay. The standard plate-incorporation assay was carried with the three sweeteners in Salmonella typhimurium TA 97a and TA 100 strains both in the absence and presence of the S9 mix. The comet parameters of DNA were increased in the bone marrow cells due to the sweetener-induced DNA strand breaks, as revealed by increased comet-tail extent and percent DNA in the tail. ASK and saccharin were found to induce greater DNA damage than ASP. However, none could act as a potential mutagen in the Ames/Salmonella /microsome test. These findings are important, since they represent a potential health risk associated with the exposure to these agents.

  5. Genotoxicity testing of low-calorie sweeteners: aspartame, acesulfame-K, and saccharin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Atrayee; Ghoshal, Sarbani; Mukherjee, Anita

    2008-01-01

    Low-calorie sweeteners are chemicals that offer the sweetness of sugar without the calories. Consumers are increasingly concerned about the quality and safety of many products present in the diet, in particular, the use of low-calorie sweeteners, flavorings, colorings, preservatives, and dietary supplements. In the present study, we evaluated the mutagenicity of the three low-calorie sweeteners in the Ames/Salmonella/microsome test and their genotoxic potential by comet assay in the bone marrow cells of mice. Swiss albino mice, Mus musculus, were orally administered with different concentrations of aspartame (ASP; 7, 14, 28, and 35 mg/kg body weight), acesulfame-K (ASK; 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg body weight), and saccharin (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight) individually. Concurrently negative and positive control sets were maintained. The animals were sacrificed and the bone marrow cells were processed for comet assay. The standard plate-incorporation assay was carried with the three sweeteners in Salmonella typhimurium TA 97a and TA 100 strains both in the absence and presence of the S9 mix. The comet parameters of DNA were increased in the bone marrow cells due to the sweetener-induced DNA strand breaks, as revealed by increased comet-tail extent and percent DNA in the tail. ASK and saccharin were found to induce greater DNA damage than ASP. However, none could act as a potential mutagen in the Ames/Salmonella /microsome test. These findings are important, since they represent a potential health risk associated with the exposure to these agents. PMID:18850355

  6. Dietary intake patterns of low-income urban african-american adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Jahns, Lisa; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa; Xie, Bin; Rockett, Helaine; Liang, Huifang; Johnson, Luann

    2010-09-01

    Unhealthy eating increases risks for chronic disease. Few studies have examined the multifaceted aspects of dietary intake of low-income, urban African-American adolescents. This study aimed to describe dietary patterns including energy, nutrients, food groups, and diet quality and to identify areas to guide future interventions. Baseline data for a school-based obesity prevention study were collected from 382 African-American adolescents (10- to 14-year-olds) from four Chicago, IL, public schools in 2003. Diet was assessed using a 152-item food frequency questionnaire. Diet quality was measured using a modified version of the US Department of Agriculture Healthy Eating Index (HEI) and compared to published estimates for a nationwide sample. Participants reported high energy intakes and several unhealthy eating patterns: 58.6% consumed one or more servings of sweetened beverages per day and 15.7% consumed three or more servings per day; average fried food consumption was high (1.4 servings/day), 58.4% consumed one or more serving per day; and 75% consumed three or more three snacks per day. Only 49% of participants met the recommended three servings of dairy foods per day. Compared to a national, mostly white sample, participants had lower HEI scores (P80 ("good"). This study reveals key areas of problematic dietary patterns for future interventions targeting low-income African-American adolescents, including frequent intakes of calorie-dense, low nutrient-rich foods, such as fried foods, snacks, and sweetened beverages. PMID:20800126

  7. Acceptance and satisfaction of parents and students about a school-based dietary intervention in Isfahan, 2012–2013

    OpenAIRE

    Kelishadi, Roya; Lajevardi, Bahareh; Bahreynian, Maryam; Omid-Ghaemi, Vahid; Movahedian, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Snacks play an important role in child health and nutritional status. Schools are considered as the preferred place to encourage healthy eating among children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of buffet school-based intervention on acceptance and satisfaction of parents and students in Iran. Materials and Methods: Primary school students (n = 1120, 68.83% girls) from first to third grade, with one of their parents, participated in this prospective field trial study ...

  8. Effect of Exercise and Calorie Restriction on Tissue Acylcarnitines, Tissue Desaturase Indices, and Fat Accumulation in Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Venkatesh; Michael, Navin; Ishino, Seigo; Lee, Swee Shean; Yang, Adonsia Yating; Bhanu Prakash, K N; Yaligar, Jadegoud; Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Kaneko, Manami; Zhou, Zhihong; Satomi, Yoshinori; Hirayama, Megumi; Kamiguchi, Hidenori; Zhu, Bin; Horiguchi, Takashi; Nishimoto, Tomoyuki; Velan, S Sendhil

    2016-01-01

    Both exercise and calorie restriction interventions have been recommended for inducing weight-loss in obese states. However, there is conflicting evidence on their relative benefits for metabolic health and insulin sensitivity. This study seeks to evaluate the differential effects of the two interventions on fat mobilization, fat metabolism, and insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese animal models. After 4 months of ad libitum high fat diet feeding, 35 male Fischer F344 rats were grouped (n = 7 per cohort) into sedentary control (CON), exercise once a day (EX1), exercise twice a day (EX2), 15% calorie restriction (CR1) and 30% calorie restriction (CR2) cohorts. Interventions were carried out over a 4-week period. We found elevated hepatic and muscle long chain acylcarnitines with both exercise and calorie restriction, and a positive association between hepatic long chain acylcarnitines and insulin sensitivity in the pooled cohort. Our result suggests that long chain acylcarnitines may not indicate incomplete fat oxidation in weight loss interventions. Calorie restriction was found to be more effective than exercise in reducing body weight. Exercise, on the other hand, was more effective in reducing adipose depots and muscle triglycerides, favorably altering muscle/liver desaturase activity and improving insulin sensitivity. PMID:27197769

  9. Effect of low calorie diet with rice bran oil on cardiovascular risk factors in hyperlipidemic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Zavoshy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death and disability in industrialized and developing countries. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of rice bran oil, with a low-calorie diet, on lipid profiles, in hyperlipidemic patients. Materials and Methods: This study was a parallel groups′ randomized clinical trial with a pre- and post-test design. Fifty hyperlipidemic patients of both sexes and age range of 25 - 65 years had participated. The patients received a low-calorie diet based on 1400 kcal energy, 17% protein, 26% fat, and 57% carbohydrate per day for four weeks. The treatment group received a low-calorie diet including rice bran oil (30 g / day. Blood samples were obtained after an overnight (12 hours fasting period before the study and on the last day of the intervention period. Anthropometric indices and levels of serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein were measured before and after the intervention. Results: In both groups, weight, body mass index, waist, and hip circumferences were significantly reduced (P < 0.05 after four weeks. In comparison with the control group, the results of treatment with rice bran oil, with a low-calorie diet, showed that at the end of the fourth week, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and atherogenic ratio of total cholesterol / high-density lipoprotein were significantly decreased (P < 0.05. Conclusions: The results confirm that rice bran oil, when consumed as part of a healthy diet, is effective in improving risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  10. Modulation of DNA-induced damage and repair capacity in humans after dietary intervention with lutein-enriched fermented milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Herrero-Barbudo

    Full Text Available Dietary factors provide protection against several forms of DNA damage. Additionally, consumer demand for natural products favours the development of bioactive food ingredients with health benefits. Lutein is a promising biologically active component in the food industry. The EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies considers that protection from oxidative damage may be a beneficial physiological effect but that a cause and effect relationship has not been established. Thus, our aim was to evaluate the safety and potential functional effect of a lutein-enriched milk product using the Comet Assay in order to analyze the baseline, the induced DNA-damage and the repair capacity in the lymphocytes of 10 healthy donors before and after the intake of the mentioned product. Our data suggest that the regular consumption of lutein-enriched fermented milk results in a significant increase in serum lutein levels and this change is associated with an improvement in the resistance of DNA to damage and the capacity of DNA repair in lymphocytes. Our results also support the lack of a genotoxic effect at the doses supplied as well as the absence of interactions and side effects on other nutritional and biochemicals markers.

  11. Modulation of DNA-induced damage and repair capacity in humans after dietary intervention with lutein-enriched fermented milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Barbudo, Carmen; Soldevilla, Beatriz; Pérez-Sacristán, Belén; Blanco-Navarro, Inmaculada; Herrera, Mercedes; Granado-Lorencio, Fernando; Domínguez, Gemma

    2013-01-01

    Dietary factors provide protection against several forms of DNA damage. Additionally, consumer demand for natural products favours the development of bioactive food ingredients with health benefits. Lutein is a promising biologically active component in the food industry. The EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies considers that protection from oxidative damage may be a beneficial physiological effect but that a cause and effect relationship has not been established. Thus, our aim was to evaluate the safety and potential functional effect of a lutein-enriched milk product using the Comet Assay in order to analyze the baseline, the induced DNA-damage and the repair capacity in the lymphocytes of 10 healthy donors before and after the intake of the mentioned product. Our data suggest that the regular consumption of lutein-enriched fermented milk results in a significant increase in serum lutein levels and this change is associated with an improvement in the resistance of DNA to damage and the capacity of DNA repair in lymphocytes. Our results also support the lack of a genotoxic effect at the doses supplied as well as the absence of interactions and side effects on other nutritional and biochemicals markers. PMID:24040187

  12. Advantages of dietary, exercise-related, and therapeutic interventions to prevent and treat sarcopenia in adult patients: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, D L; Baumgartner, R N; Garry, P J; Vellas, B

    2010-01-01

    Sarcopenia is the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function with aging. Although the term sarcopenia was first coined in 1989, its etiology is still poorly understood. Moreover, a consensus for defining sarcopenia continues to elude us. Sarcopenic changes in the muscle include losses in muscle fiber quantity and quality, alpha-motor neurons, protein synthesis rates, and anabolic and sex hormone production. Other factors include basal metabolic rate, increased protein dietary requirements, and chronic inflammation secondary to age-related changes in cytokines and oxidative stress. These changes lead to decreased overall physical functioning, increased frailty, falls risk, and ultimately the loss of independent living. Because the intertwining relationships of these factors are complex, effective treatment options are still under investigation. The published data on sarcopenia are vast, and this review is not intended to be exhaustive. The aim of this review is to provide an update on the current knowledge of the definition, etiology, consequences, and current clinical trials that may help address this pressing public health problem for our aging populations. PMID:20852673

  13. Validation of the MEDFICTS dietary questionnaire: A clinical tool to assess adherence to American Heart Association dietary fat intake guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindeman Jody

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary assessment tools are often too long, difficult to quantify, expensive to process, and largely used for research purposes. A rapid and accurate assessment of dietary fat intake is critically important in clinical decision-making regarding dietary advice for coronary risk reduction. We assessed the validity of the MEDFICTS (MF questionnaire, a brief instrument developed to assess fat intake according to the American Heart Association (AHA dietary "steps". Methods We surveyed 164 active-duty US Army personnel without known coronary artery disease at their intake interview for a primary prevention cardiac intervention trial using the Block food frequency (FFQ and MF questionnaires. Both surveys were completed on the same intake visit and independently scored. Correlations between each tools' assessment of fat intake, the agreement in AHA step categorization of dietary quality with each tool, and the test characteristics of the MF using the FFQ as the gold standard were assessed. Results Subjects consumed a mean of 36.0 ± 13.0% of their total calories as fat, which included saturated fat consumption of 13.0 ± 0.4%. The majority of subjects (125/164; 76.2% had a high fat (worse than AHA Step 1 diet. There were significant correlations between the MF and the FFQ for the intake of total fat (r = 0.52, P 70 [high fat diet] was negligible (kappa statistic = 0.036. The MF was accurate at the extremes of fat intake, but could not reliably identify the 3 AHA dietary classifications. Alternative MF cutpoints of 50 (high fat diet were highly sensitive (96%, but had low specificity (46% for a high fat diet. ROC curve analysis identified that a MF score cutoff of 38 provided optimal sensitivity 75% and specificity 72%, and had modest agreement (kappa = 0.39, P Conclusions The MEDFICTS questionnaire is most suitable as a tool to identify high fat diets, rather than discriminate AHA Step 1 and Step 2 diets. Currently recommended

  14. Calorie Labeling, Fast Food Purchasing and Restaurant Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbel, Brian; Mijanovich, Tod; Dixon, Beth; Abrams, Courtney; Weitzman, Beth; Kersh, Rogan; Auchincloss, Amy H.; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity is a pressing public health problem without proven population-wide solutions. Researchers sought to determine whether a city-mandated policy requiring calorie labeling at fast food restaurants was associated with consumer awareness of labels, calories purchased and fast food restaurant visits. Design and Methods Difference-in-differences design, with data collected from consumers outside fast food restaurants and via a random digit dial telephone survey, before (December 2009) and after (June 2010) labeling in Philadelphia (which implemented mandatory labeling) and Baltimore (matched comparison city). Measures included: self-reported use of calorie information, calories purchased determined via fast food receipts, and self-reported weekly fast-food visits. Results The consumer sample was predominantly Black (71%), and high school educated (62%). Post-labeling, 38% of Philadelphia consumers noticed the calorie labels for a 33 percentage point (p<.001) increase relative to Baltimore. Calories purchased and number of fast food visits did not change in either city over time. Conclusions While some consumer reports noticing and using calorie information, no population level changes were noted in calories purchased or fast food visits. Other controlled studies are needed to examine the longer term impact of labeling as it becomes national law. PMID:24136905

  15. Major food sources of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat and their contribution to essential nutrient intakes in the U.S. diet: data from the national health and nutrition examination survey (2003–2006)

    OpenAIRE

    Huth, Peter J.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R; Park, Keigan; Auestad, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Background The risk of chronic disease cannot be predicted simply by the content of a single nutrient in a food or food group in the diet. The contribution of food sources of calories, added sugars and saturated fat (SFA) to intakes of dietary fiber and micronutrients of public health importance is also relevant to understanding the overall dietary impact of these foods. Objective Identify the top food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA in the U.S. diet and quantify their contribution ...

  16. Advantages of dietary, exercise-related, and therapeutic interventions to prevent and treat sarcopenia in adult patients: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DL Waters

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available DL Waters1, RN Baumgartner2, PJ Garry3, B Vellas41Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; 2Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, USA; 3Department of Pathology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA; 4Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatric Medicine, University Hospital Center of Toulouse, Gerontopole, Toulouse, FranceAbstract: Sarcopenia is the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function with aging. Although the term sarcopenia was first coined in 1989, its etiology is still poorly understood. Moreover, a consensus for defining sarcopenia continues to elude us. Sarcopenic changes in the muscle include losses in muscle fiber quantity and quality, alpha-motor neurons, protein synthesis rates, and anabolic and sex hormone production. Other factors include basal metabolic rate, increased protein dietary requirements, and chronic inflammation secondary to age-related changes in cytokines and oxidative stress. These changes lead to decreased overall physical functioning, increased frailty, falls risk, and ultimately the loss of independent living. Because the intertwining relationships of these factors are complex, effective treatment options are still under investigation. The published data on sarcopenia are vast, and this review is not intended to be exhaustive. The aim of this review is to provide an update on the current knowledge of the definition, etiology, consequences, and current clinical trials that may help address this pressing public health problem for our aging populations.Keywords: aging, muscle loss, nutrition, physical activity

  17. A Systems Approach to Reverse Engineer Lifespan Extension by Dietary Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lei; Wang, Dan; Chen, Di; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Yue; Cheng, Hao; Xu, Chi; Sun, Na; McDermott, Joseph; Mair, William B; Han, Jing-Dong J

    2016-03-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) is the most powerful natural means to extend lifespan. Although several genes can mediate responses to alternate DR regimens, no single genetic intervention has recapitulated the full effects of DR, and no unified system is known for different DR regimens. Here we obtain temporally resolved transcriptomes during calorie restriction and intermittent fasting in Caenorhabditis elegans and find that early and late responses involve metabolism and cell cycle/DNA damage, respectively. We uncover three network modules of DR regulators by their target specificity. By genetic manipulations of nodes representing discrete modules, we induce transcriptomes that progressively resemble DR as multiple nodes are perturbed. Targeting all three nodes simultaneously results in extremely long-lived animals that are refractory to DR. These results and dynamic simulations demonstrate that extensive feedback controls among regulators may be leveraged to drive the regulatory circuitry to a younger steady state, recapitulating the full effect of DR. PMID:26959186

  18. Dietary Interventions and Changes in Cardio-Metabolic Parameters in Metabolically Healthy Obese Subjects: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Stelmach-Mardas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effect of diet on changes in parameters describing the body size phenotype of metabolically healthy obese subjects. The databases Medline, Scopus, Web of Knowledge and Embase were searched for clinical studies carried out between 1958 and June 2016 that reported the effect of dietary intervention on BMI, blood pressure, concentration of fasting triglyceride (TG, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, fasting glucose level, the homoeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and high sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP in metabolically healthy, obese subjects. Twelve clinical studies met inclusion criteria. The combined analyzed population consists of 1827 subjects aged 34.4 to 61.1 with a BMI > 30 kg/m2. Time of intervention ranged from eight to 104 weeks. The baseline characteristics related to lipid profile were more favorable for metabolically healthy obese than for metabolically unhealthy obese. The meta-analyses revealed a significant associations between restricted energy diet and BMI (95% confidence interval (CI: −0.88, −0.19, blood pressure (systolic blood pressure (SBP: −4.73 mmHg; 95% CI: −7.12, −2.33; and diastolic blood pressure (DBP: −2.75 mmHg; 95% CI: −4.30, −1.21 and TG (−0.11 mmol/l; 95% CI: −0.16, −0.06. Changes in fasting glucose, HOMA-IR and hsCRP did not show significant changes. Sufficient evidence was not found to support the use of specific diets in metabolically healthy obese subjects. This analysis suggests that the effect of caloric restriction exerts its effects through a reduction in BMI, blood pressure and triglycerides in metabolically healthy obese (MHO patients.

  19. Changes in sensory characteristics and their relation with consumers' liking, wanting and sensory satisfaction: Using dietary fibre and lime flavour in Stevia rebaudiana sweetened fruit beverages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Line H.; Andersen, Barbara Vad; Jensen, Sidsel;

    2016-01-01

    The beverage industry has long revolved around sugar reduction as a response to heightened calorie and health awareness. More recently dietary fibre has also garnered attention to meet the consumer's demands for low calorie and yet more satiating food and beverages. From a health perspective...

  20. The use of rabbits in atherosclerosis research. Diet and drug intervention in different rabbit models exposed to selected dietary fats and the calcium antagonist (-)-anipamil : evaluation and comparison of rabbit models

    OpenAIRE

    Mortensen, Alicja

    1995-01-01

    Laboratory animal models play an important role in atherosclerosis research. One of the most popular laboratory animal species in this field of research is the rabbit. The rabbit fulfils most of the criteria for an animal model for human atherosclerosis. Three rabbit models were established and used for dietary or drug intervention: 1) the cholesterol-fed normolipidemic rabbit, 2) the 1% cholesterol- fed heterozygous Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit and ...

  1. Low glycemic index vegan or low-calorie weight loss diets for women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Davidson, Charis R; Wingard, Ellen E; Billings, Deborah L

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this randomized pilot was to assess the feasibility of a dietary intervention among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) comparing a vegan to a low-calorie (low-cal) diet. Overweight (body mass index, 39.9 ± 6.1 kg/m(2)) women with PCOS (n = 18; age, 27.8 ± 4.5 years; 39% black) who were experiencing infertility were recruited to participate in a 6-month randomized weight loss study delivered through nutrition counseling, e-mail, and Facebook. Body weight and dietary intake were assessed at 0, 3, and 6 months. We hypothesized that weight loss would be greater in the vegan group. Attrition was high at 3 (39%) and 6 months (67%). All analyses were conducted as intention-to-treat and presented as median (interquartile range). Vegan participants lost significantly more weight at 3 months (-1.8% [-5.0%, -0.9%] vegan, 0.0 [-1.2%, 0.3%] low-cal; P = .04), but there was no difference between groups at 6 months (P = .39). Use of Facebook groups was significantly related to percent weight loss at 3 (P Vegan participants had a greater decrease in energy (-265 [-439, 0] kcal/d) and fat intake (-7.4% [-9.2%, 0] energy) at 6 months compared with low-cal participants (0 [0, 112] kcal/d, P = .02; 0 [0, 3.0%] energy, P = .02). These preliminary results suggest that engagement with social media and adoption of a vegan diet may be effective for promoting short-term weight loss among women with PCOS; however, a larger trial that addresses potential high attrition rates is needed to confirm these results. PMID:25026923

  2. Low glycemic index vegan or low-calorie weight loss diets for women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Davidson, Charis R; Wingard, Ellen E; Billings, Deborah L

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this randomized pilot was to assess the feasibility of a dietary intervention among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) comparing a vegan to a low-calorie (low-cal) diet. Overweight (body mass index, 39.9 ± 6.1 kg/m(2)) women with PCOS (n = 18; age, 27.8 ± 4.5 years; 39% black) who were experiencing infertility were recruited to participate in a 6-month randomized weight loss study delivered through nutrition counseling, e-mail, and Facebook. Body weight and dietary intake were assessed at 0, 3, and 6 months. We hypothesized that weight loss would be greater in the vegan group. Attrition was high at 3 (39%) and 6 months (67%). All analyses were conducted as intention-to-treat and presented as median (interquartile range). Vegan participants lost significantly more weight at 3 months (-1.8% [-5.0%, -0.9%] vegan, 0.0 [-1.2%, 0.3%] low-cal; P = .04), but there was no difference between groups at 6 months (P = .39). Use of Facebook groups was significantly related to percent weight loss at 3 (P Vegan participants had a greater decrease in energy (-265 [-439, 0] kcal/d) and fat intake (-7.4% [-9.2%, 0] energy) at 6 months compared with low-cal participants (0 [0, 112] kcal/d, P = .02; 0 [0, 3.0%] energy, P = .02). These preliminary results suggest that engagement with social media and adoption of a vegan diet may be effective for promoting short-term weight loss among women with PCOS; however, a larger trial that addresses potential high attrition rates is needed to confirm these results.

  3. Dietary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program's goals in Dietary Assessment are to increase the precision of dietary intake estimates by improving self-report of dietary intake and the analytic procedures for processing reported information.

  4. Baseline Depressive Symptoms, Completion of Study Assessments, and Behavior Change in a Long-Term Dietary Intervention Among Breast Cancer Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Julie B; Pierce, John P.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Cadmus-Bertram, Lisa A.; Flatt, Shirley W.; Madanat, Hala; Newman, Vicky A.; Nichols, Jeanne F.; Natarajan, Loki

    2015-01-01

    Background Depressive symptoms can lower adherence and change in dietary studies. Behavioral activation may reduce these effects. Purpose This study aims to assess relationships among depressive symptoms on adherence and dietary change in the Women’s Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study Methods Secondary analyses from the WHEL Study, which achieved major dietary change in breast cancer survivors (N = 2817), were conducted. Logistic regressions were undertaken of baseline depressive symptoms...

  5. Potential Effect of Physical Activity Calorie Equivalent (PACE Labeling on Adult Fast Food Ordering and Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Antonelli

    Full Text Available Numeric calorie content labels show limited efficacy in reducing the number of calories ordered from fast food meals. Physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE labels are an alternative that may reduce the number of calories ordered in fast food meals while encouraging patrons to exercise.A total of 1000 adults from 47 US states were randomly assigned via internet survey to one of four generic fast food menus: no label, calories only, calories + minutes, or calories + miles necessary to walk to burn off the calories. After completing hypothetical orders participants were asked to rate the likelihood of calorie-only and PACE labels to influence (1 food choice and (2 physical activity.Respondents (n = 823 ordered a median of 1580 calories from the no-label menu, 1200 from the calories-only menu, 1140 from the calories + minutes menu, and 1210 from the calories + miles menu (p = 0.0001. 40% of respondents reported that PACE labels were "very likely" to influence food item choice vs. 28% for calorie-only labels (p<0.0001. 64% of participants reported that PACE labels were "somewhat likely" or "very likely" to influence their level of physical activity vs. 49% for calorie-only labels (p<0.0001.PACE labels may be helpful in reducing the number of calories ordered in fast food meals and may have the added benefit of encouraging exercise.

  6. The effect of massage therapy on weight gain and calories intake in premature neonates: a brief report

    OpenAIRE

    Elaheh Amini; Bita Ebrahim; Paideh Dehghan; Mohadeseh Fallahi; Samaneh Sedghi; Fereshteh Amini; Mamak Shariat

    2014-01-01

    Background: Improvement of growth, nutrition and calories intake in neonates is derived by massage. Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trials settled in Vali-e-Asr Hospital Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) ward in 2012. The control group consisted of 19 infants who were not massaged on them. 15 infants in the intervention group received massage therapy for 10 days, three times a day by trained massage theurapist. Massage last 15 minutes and was done one hour after feeding. Ma...

  7. Sweet proteins – Potential replacement for artificial low calorie sweeteners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kant Ravi

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exponential growth in the number of patients suffering from diseases caused by the consumption of sugar has become a threat to mankind's health. Artificial low calorie sweeteners available in the market may have severe side effects. It takes time to figure out the long term side effects and by the time these are established, they are replaced by a new low calorie sweetener. Saccharine has been used for centuries to sweeten foods and beverages without calories or carbohydrate. It was also used on a large scale during the sugar shortage of the two world wars but was abandoned as soon as it was linked with development of bladder cancer. Naturally occurring sweet and taste modifying proteins are being seen as potential replacements for the currently available artificial low calorie sweeteners. Interaction aspects of sweet proteins and the human sweet taste receptor are being investigated.

  8. A Geologic Map of the Caloris Basin, Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, D. L.; Goosmann, E.; Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Fasset, C. I.; Byrne, P. K.

    2016-06-01

    We present a geologic map of the Caloris basin, which will serve to synthesize the results of previous studies into a contextual framework for quickly viewing the thematic research that has been performed on this interesting region.

  9. Immunosuppressive mechanisms in protein-calorie malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) induces immunosuppression leading to increased mortality rates. Impaired macrophage respiratory burst activity (superoxide anion [O2-] generation) occurs in PCM, but cellular mechanisms are unclear. The major pathway resulting in O2- production involves inositol lipid-dependent signal transduction. This study examined the effect of mild versus severe PCM on macrophage O2- generating signal transduction pathways specific for responses to Candida albicans. Mice (CFW/Swiss Webster: n = 300) were randomized to either control or low protein diets for 3 or 8 weeks. Peritoneal macrophages were harvested for O2- production, mannose-fucose receptor (MFR) expression, membrane phospholipid analysis, arachidonic acid (AA) content, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, and protein kinase C levels. O2- release was impaired in both mild and severe PCM. MFR expression was also decreased at these time points. Inositol lipid content was significantly lower at the 8-week time point only, although PGE2 and AA were significantly higher in the low protein diet group at 3 weeks. Protein kinase C levels were unchanged by PCM. Thus, mild PCM significantly increases macrophage-PGE2 production secondary to increased AA phospholipid content, with subsequent inhibition of O2- and MFR expression. Severe PCM inhibits macrophage (O2-) through depletion of critical membrane phospholipid components with subsequent impairment in signal transduction

  10. Oral protein calorie supplementation for children with chronic disease

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Damian K.; Smith, Joanne; Saljuqi, Tawab; Watling, Ruth M

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor growth and nutritional status are common in children with chronic diseases. Oral protein calorie supplements are used to improve nutritional status in these children. These expensive products may be associated with some adverse effects, e.g. the development of inappropriate eating behaviour patterns. This is a new update of a Cochrane review last updated in 2009. Objectives To examine evidence that in children with chronic disease, oral protein calorie supplements alter daily ...

  11. The Calorie Consumption Puzzle in India: An Empirical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Deepankar; Basole, Amit

    2012-01-01

    Over the past four decades, India has witnessed a paradoxical trend: average per capita calorie intake has declined even as real per capita monthly expenditure has increased over time. Since cross sectional evidence suggests a robust positive relationship between the two variables, the trend emerges as a major puzzle. The main explanations that have been offered in the literature to address the puzzle are: rural impoverishment, relative price changes, decline in calorie needs, diversification...

  12. Calorie Labeling, Fast Food Purchasing and Restaurant Visits

    OpenAIRE

    Elbel, Brian; Mijanovich, Tod; Dixon, Beth; Abrams, Courtney; Weitzman, Beth; Kersh, Rogan; Auchincloss, Amy H.; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity is a pressing public health problem without proven population-wide solutions. Researchers sought to determine whether a city-mandated policy requiring calorie labeling at fast food restaurants was associated with consumer awareness of labels, calories purchased and fast food restaurant visits. Design and Methods Difference-in-differences design, with data collected from consumers outside fast food restaurants and via a random digit dial telephone survey, before (December 200...

  13. Impact of dietary intervention in nutritional conditions of lymphoma patients undergoing chemotherapy%饮食干预对淋巴瘤化疗患者营养状态的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏春芳

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨饮食干预对淋巴瘤化疗患者营养状态的影响.方法 将80例淋巴瘤患者随机分为干预组和对照组,每组各40例,对照组患者给予常规饮食护理,干预组在常规护理基础上实施饮食干预(包括饮食宣教和食谱制订).比较化疗前及化疗后第1周期与第2周期两组患者营养状况及血清白蛋白和总淋巴细胞计数情况.结果 化疗后第1周期与第2周期干预组患者营养状况及血清白蛋白明显优于对照组,两组比较,差异具有统计学意义(均P<0.05),但总淋巴细胞计数情况无明显变化,两组比较,差异无统计学意义(均P> 0.05).结论 对淋巴瘤患者化疗期间实施饮食干预,可有效改善患者的营养状态,值得临床推广应用.%Objective To explore the impact of dietary intervention in nutritional condition for lymphoma patients undergoing chemotherapy. Methods 80 lymphoma patients were randomly divided into the intervention group (n = 40) and the control group (n = 40). The patients in the intervention group were given dietary intervention on the base of traditional nursing, which included dietary teaching and recipe making. The patients in the control group were only given traditional nursing. Nutritional conditions of the patients was evaluated before chemotherapy, the first week and the second week after chemotherapy, including upper arm and calf circumferences, weight, height, lymphocyte counting and albumin. Result The nutritional condition was better in the intervention group than that in the control group in the 1st and 2nd week after chemotherapy (P < 0.05). Conclusion Dietary intervention can effectively improve the nutritional conditions and life quality in the lymphoma patients undergoing chemotherapy.

  14. 饮食干预对肥胖型多囊卵巢综合征患者受孕率的影响%Effect of dietary intervention on the pregnancy rate of obesity-type polycytic ovary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周燕

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究低血糖负荷饮食营养干预对肥胖型多囊卵巢综合征( PCOS)患者受孕率的影响。方法随机选取郑州市第二人民医院减肥门诊经低血糖负荷饮食干预的肥胖型多囊卵巢综合征患者50例为营养干预组,另选50例未经饮食干预的患者为对照组。1个疗程后将两组临床指标用SPSS 16.0经秩和检验和卡方检验统计分析。结果营养干预组,干预后体质量指数(BMI)下降显著(P﹤0.01);营养干预后,营养干预组与对照组间BMI值及受孕率比较差异有统计学意义( P﹤0.01)。结论营养干预用于治疗肥胖型PCOS后可明显减轻患者的体质量,并有助于治疗PCOS伴肥胖导致的不孕症。%Objective To investigate the effect of dietary intervention on the pregnancy rate of o-besity-type polycystic ovary syndrome( PCOS). Methods Fifty patients with obesity-type PCOS who ac-cepted low glucose load dietary intervention in the weight loss outpatient of the second people’s hospital of Zhengzhou were randomly selected as the nutrition intervention group. Fifty patients without dietary in-tervention were selected as control group. The clinical indexes of the two groups were analyzed by Rank-sum test or chi-square test through SPSS 16. 0 . Results The BMI of nutrition intervention group de-creased obviously after intervention(P﹤0. 01). After nutrition intervention,there were significant differ-ences in the BMI values and conception rates between the two groups( P﹤0. 01 ). Conclusions The nu-trition intervention can reduce weight of patients with obesity-type PCOS effectively,and is helpful for treatment of infertility caused by obesity-type PCOS.

  15. Calorie restriction and methionine restriction in control of endogenous hydrogen sulfide production by the transsulfuration pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hine, Christopher; Mitchell, James R

    2015-08-01

    H2S is a gas easily identified by its distinctive odor. Although environmental exposure to H2S has been viewed alternately as therapeutic or toxic through the centuries, H2S has recently regained recognition for its numerous beneficial biological effects. Most experiments documenting such benefits, including improved glucose tolerance, increased stress resistance, and even lifespan extension, are based on exposure of experimental organisms to exogenous sources of H2S. However, appreciation is growing for the importance of H2S produced endogenously by the evolutionary conserved transsulfuration pathway (TSP) in health and longevity. Recent data implicate H2S produced by the TSP in pleiotropic benefits of dietary restriction (DR), or reduced nutrient/energy intake without malnutrition. DR, best known as the most reliable way to extend lifespan in a wide range of experimental organisms, includes various regimens aimed at either reducing overall calorie intake (calorie restriction, intermittent/every-other-day fasting) or reducing particular nutrients such as protein or the essential amino acid, methionine (methionine restriction), with overlapping functional benefits on stress resistance, metabolic fitness and lifespan. Here we will review the small but growing body of literature linking the TSP to the functional benefits of DR in part through the production of endogenous H2S, with an emphasis on regulation of the TSP and H2S production by diet and mechanisms of beneficial H2S action.

  16. Promoting the avoidance of high-calorie snacks: priming autonomy moderates message framing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavey, Louisa; Churchill, Sue

    2014-01-01

    The beneficial effects of gain-framed vs. loss-framed messages promoting health protective behaviors have been found to be inconsistent, and consideration of potential moderating variables is essential if framed health promotion messages are to be effective. This research aimed to determine the influence of highlighting autonomy (choice and freedom) and heteronomy (coercion) on the avoidance of high-calorie snacks following reading gain-framed or loss-framed health messages. In Study 1 (N = 152) participants completed an autonomy, neutral, or heteronomy priming task, and read a gain-framed or loss-framed health message. In Study 2 (N = 242) participants read a gain-framed or loss-framed health message with embedded autonomy or heteronomy primes. In both studies, snacking intentions and behavior were recorded after seven days. In both studies, when autonomy was highlighted, the gain-framed message (compared to the loss-framed message) resulted in stronger intentions to avoid high-calorie snacks, and lower self-reported snack consumption after seven days. Study 2 demonstrated this effect occurred only for participants to whom the information was most relevant (BMI>25). The results suggest that messages promoting healthy dietary behavior may be more persuasive if the autonomy-supportive vs. coercive nature of the health information is matched to the message frame. Further research is needed to examine potential mediating processes. PMID:25078965

  17. Calorie restriction and methionine restriction in control of endogenous hydrogen sulfide production by the transsulfuration pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hine, Christopher; Mitchell, James R

    2015-08-01

    H2S is a gas easily identified by its distinctive odor. Although environmental exposure to H2S has been viewed alternately as therapeutic or toxic through the centuries, H2S has recently regained recognition for its numerous beneficial biological effects. Most experiments documenting such benefits, including improved glucose tolerance, increased stress resistance, and even lifespan extension, are based on exposure of experimental organisms to exogenous sources of H2S. However, appreciation is growing for the importance of H2S produced endogenously by the evolutionary conserved transsulfuration pathway (TSP) in health and longevity. Recent data implicate H2S produced by the TSP in pleiotropic benefits of dietary restriction (DR), or reduced nutrient/energy intake without malnutrition. DR, best known as the most reliable way to extend lifespan in a wide range of experimental organisms, includes various regimens aimed at either reducing overall calorie intake (calorie restriction, intermittent/every-other-day fasting) or reducing particular nutrients such as protein or the essential amino acid, methionine (methionine restriction), with overlapping functional benefits on stress resistance, metabolic fitness and lifespan. Here we will review the small but growing body of literature linking the TSP to the functional benefits of DR in part through the production of endogenous H2S, with an emphasis on regulation of the TSP and H2S production by diet and mechanisms of beneficial H2S action. PMID:25523462

  18. By Ounce or By Calorie: The Differential Effects of Alternative Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Tax Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Chen; Brissette, Ian F; Ruff, Ryan R

    2014-07-01

    The obesity epidemic and excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages have led to proposals of economics-based interventions to promote healthy eating in the United States. Targeted food and beverage taxes and subsidies are prominent examples of such potential intervention strategies. This paper examines the differential effects of taxing sugar-sweetened beverages by calories and by ounces on beverage demand. To properly measure the extent of substitution and complementarity between beverage products, we developed a fully modified distance metric model of differentiated product demand that endogenizes the cross-price effects. We illustrated the proposed methodology in a linear approximate almost ideal demand system, although other flexible demand systems can also be used. In the empirical application using supermarket scanner data, the product-level demand model consists of 178 beverage products with combined market share of over 90%. The novel demand model outperformed the conventional distance metric model in non-nested model comparison tests and in terms of the economic significance of model predictions. In the fully modified model, a calorie-based beverage tax was estimated to cost $1.40 less in compensating variation than an ounce-based tax per 3,500 beverage calories reduced. This difference in welfare cost estimates between two tax strategies is more than three times as much as the difference estimated by the conventional distance metric model. If applied to products purchased from all sources, a 0.04-cent per kcal tax on sugar-sweetened beverages is predicted to reduce annual per capita beverage intake by 5,800 kcal. PMID:25414517

  19. Influence of ovarian and non-ovarian estrogens on weight gain in response to disruption of sweet taste – calorie relations in female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Swithers, Susan E.; Sample, Camille H.; Katz, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of energy balance in female rats is known to differ along a number of dimensions compared to male rats. Previous work from our lab has demonstrated that in female rats fed dietary supplements containing high-intensity sweeteners that may disrupt a predictive relation between sweet tastes and calories, excess weight gain is demonstrated only when females are also fed a diet high in fat and sugar, and is evidenced primarily in animals already prone to gain excess weight. In contrast,...

  20. HPA and sympathoadrenal activity of adult rats perinatally exposed to maternal mild calorie restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levay, Elizabeth A; Paolini, Antonio G; Govic, Antonina; Hazi, Agnes; Penman, Jim; Kent, Stephen

    2010-03-17

    Developmental programming of neuroendocrine systems is profoundly influenced by environmental cues such as caloric availability. The focus of investigations in this area has been on the effects of under- and malnutrition while there is a paucity of research examining the effects of more mild levels of calorie restriction (CR). Rat dams and their offspring were subjected to one of five dietary regimens: control, CR50% for 3 days preconception, CR25% during gestation, CR25% during lactation, and CR25% during gestation, lactation, and post-weaning (lifelong). Adult male offspring were decapitated and trunk blood collected to assay for basal concentrations of serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT), as well as plasma concentrations of adrenalin (A) and noradrenalin (NA). Basal serum ACTH was reduced by 35-43% in all dietary regimens except the lifelong group. Although a similar trend was observed in the concentrations of serum CORT, only the decrease in the lactation group attained statistical significance. A was reduced by 33-49% as a result of all dietary regimens and NA was reduced in the gestation and lifelong groups by 51% and 39%, respectively. The potential mechanisms underlying these neuroendocrine alterations are discussed.

  1. Soft Drink “Pouring Rights”: Marketing Empty Calories to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, Marion

    2000-01-01

    Healthy People 2010 objectives call for meals and snacks served in schools to contribute to overall diets that meet federal dietary guidelines. Sales in schools of foods and drinks high in calories and low in nutrients undermine this health objective, as well as participation in the more nutritious, federally sponsored, school lunch programs. Competitive foods also undermine nutrition information taught in the classroom. Lucrative contracts between school districts and soft drink companies for exclusive rights to sell one brand are the latest development in the increasing commercialization of school food. These contracts, intended to elicit brand loyalty among young children who have a lifetime of purchases ahead of them, are especially questionable because they place schools in the position of “pushing” soft drink consumption. “Pouring rights” contracts deserve attention from public health professionals concerned about the nutritional quality of children's diets. Imagesp308-ap313-a PMID:11059423

  2. Calorie restriction and endurance exercise share potent anti-inflammatory function in adipose tissues in ameliorating diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Zhen; Li Wenjun; Mao Ting; You Jia; Zhao Feng; Qi Qibin; Shao Mengle; Li Shoufeng; Huang Ping; Liu Yong

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Calorie restriction (CR) and endurance exercise are known to attenuate obesity and improve the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of CR and endurance exercise in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Methods Adult male C57BL/6N mice were randomly assigned and subjected to one of the six interventions for 8 weeks: low-fat diet (LC, 10% fat), low-fat diet with 30% calorie restriction (LR), high-fat diet (HC, ...

  3. A role for neuronal cAMP responsive-element binding (CREB)-1 in brain responses to calorie restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Salvatore; Ripoli, Cristian; Podda, Maria Vittoria; Ranieri, Sofia Chiatamone; Leone, Lucia; Toietta, Gabriele; McBurney, Michael W; Schütz, Günther; Riccio, Antonella; Grassi, Claudio; Galeotti, Tommaso; Pani, Giovambattista

    2012-01-10

    Calorie restriction delays brain senescence and prevents neurodegeneration, but critical regulators of these beneficial responses other than the NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase Sirtuin-1 (Sirt-1) are unknown. We report that effects of calorie restriction on neuronal plasticity, memory and social behavior are abolished in mice lacking cAMP responsive-element binding (CREB)-1 in the forebrain. Moreover, CREB deficiency drastically reduces the expression of Sirt-1 and the induction of genes relevant to neuronal metabolism and survival in the cortex and hippocampus of dietary-restricted animals. Biochemical studies reveal a complex interplay between CREB and Sirt-1: CREB directly regulates the transcription of the sirtuin in neuronal cells by binding to Sirt-1 chromatin; Sirt-1, in turn, is recruited by CREB to DNA and promotes CREB-dependent expression of target gene peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α and neuronal NO Synthase. Accordingly, expression of these CREB targets is markedly reduced in the brain of Sirt KO mice that are, like CREB-deficient mice, poorly responsive to calorie restriction. Thus, the above circuitry, modulated by nutrient availability, links energy metabolism with neurotrophin signaling, participates in brain adaptation to nutrient restriction, and is potentially relevant to accelerated brain aging by overnutrition and diabetes. PMID:22190495

  4. AN ANALYSIS OF PROTEIN AND CALORIE CONSUMPTION IN CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Widarjono

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study analyses calorie and protein consumption in Central Java Province. The calorie and protein elasticity are derived from demand elasticity of the ten food groups encompassing cereals, fish, meats, eggs and milk, vegetables, fruits, oil and fats, prepared foods and drinks, other foods and tobacco products. Most of calorie and protein-price elasticity of the ten food group are negative. Consumption of calorie and protein are most responsive to prices of eggs and milk. Protein -price elasticities are less elastic than calorie-price elasticities. Calorie and protein-income elasticity are positive and become lesselastic in moving from lower to higher income households but protein is less responsive to income change than calorie. Keywords: QUAIDS, demand elasticity, nutrient elasticity, Central Java ProvinceJEL Classification numbers: D12, O12AbstrakStudi ini menganlisis konsumsi kalori dan protein di Jawa Tengah. Elastisitas kalori dan protein dihitung dari elastisitas permintaan dari 10 kelompok komoditi makanan yang terdiri dari padi-padian, ikan, daging, telur dan susu, sayur-sayuran, buah-buahan, minyak dan lemak, makanan dan minumun jadi, makanan lainnya dan tembakau dan hasilnya. Sebagian besar elastisitas harga kalori dan protein adalah negatif. Konsumsi kalori dan protein adalah kelompok makanan yang paling responsif terhadap perubahan harga telur dan susu. Elastisitas pendapatan kalori dan protein adalah positif tetapi menjadi lebih elastis untuk rumah tangga berpenghasilan lebih tinggi tetapi protein kurang responsif terhadap perubahan pendapatan daripada kalori.Keywords: QUAIDS, elastisitas permintaan, elastisitas nutrisi, Jawa TengahJEL Classification numbers: D12, O12

  5. Interactions between Obesity Status and Dietary Intake of Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Oils on Human Gut Microbiome Profiles in the Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Shuaihua; Khazanehei, Hamidreza; Jones, Peter J.; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Long-term dietary fatty acid intake is believed to induce changes in the human gut microbiome which might be associated with human health or obesity status; however, considerable debate remains regarding the most favorable ratios of fatty acids to optimize these processes. The objective of this sub-study of a double-blinded randomized crossover clinical study, the canola oil multi-center intervention trial, was to investigate effects of five different novel oil blends fed for 30 days each on the intestinal microbiota in 25 volunteers with risk of metabolic syndrome. The 60 g treatments included three MUFA-rich diets: (1) conventional canola oil (Canola); (2) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (CanolaDHA); (3) high oleic canola oil (CanolaOleic); and two PUFA-rich diets: (4) a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75) (CornSaff); and (5) a blend of flax/safflower oil (60:40) (FlaxSaff). Stool samples were collected at the end of each period. DNA was extracted and amplified for 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. A total of 17 phyla and 187 genera were identified. While five novel oil treatments failed to alter bacterial phyla composition, obese participants resulted in a higher proportion of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes than overweight or normal weight groups (P = 0.01). Similarly at the genus level, overall bacterial distribution was highly associated with subjects’ body mass index (BMI). Treatment effects were observed between MUFA- and PUFA-rich diets, with the three MUFA diets elevating Parabacteroides, Prevotella, Turicibacter, and Enterobacteriaceae’s populations, while the two PUFA-rich diets favored the higher abundance of Isobaculum. High MUFA content feedings also resulted in an increase of Parabacteroides and a decrease of Isobaculum in obese, but not overweight subjects. Data suggest that BMI is a predominant factor in characterization of human gut microbiota profile, and that MUFA-rich and PUFA-rich diets impact the composition of gut microbiota at lower

  6. Late-onset intermittent fasting dietary restriction as a potential intervention to retard age-associated brain function impairments in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Rumani; Lakhanpal, Dinesh; Kumar, Sushil; Sharma, Sandeep; Kataria, Hardeep; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2011-01-01

    Lifelong dietary restriction (DR) is known to have many potential beneficial effects on brain function as well as delaying the onset of neurological diseases. In the present investigation, the effect of late-onset short-term intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR) regimen was studied on motor coordination and cognitive ability of ageing male rats. These animals were further used to estimate protein carbonyl content and mitochondrial complex I–IV activity in different regions of brain...

  7. Calorie restriction and endurance exercise share potent anti-inflammatory function in adipose tissues in ameliorating diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calorie restriction (CR and endurance exercise are known to attenuate obesity and improve the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of CR and endurance exercise in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Methods Adult male C57BL/6N mice were randomly assigned and subjected to one of the six interventions for 8 weeks: low-fat diet (LC, 10% fat, low-fat diet with 30% calorie restriction (LR, high-fat diet (HC, 60% fat, high-fat diet with 30% calorie restriction (HR, high-fat diet with voluntary running exercise (HE, and high-fat diet with a combination of 30% calorie restriction and exercise (HRE. The impacts of the interventions were assessed by comprehensive metabolic analyses and pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression. Results Endurance exercise significantly attenuated high-fat diet-induced obesity. CR dramatically prevented high-fat diet-induced metabolic abnormalities. A combination of CR and endurance exercise further reduced obesity and insulin resistance under the condition of high-fat diet. CR and endurance exercise each potently suppressed the expression of inflammatory cytokines in white adipose tissues with additive effects when combined, but the effects of diet and exercise interventions in the liver were moderate to minimal. Conclusions CR and endurance exercise share a potent anti-inflammatory function in adipose tissues in ameliorating diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.

  8. FOODS FOR KIDS: A WEB-BASED INTERVENTION PILOT STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Krohn, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The Food for Kids (FFK) website was created as a novel tool for children to compare differences for total calories, total fat, sugar and dietary fiber in foods. The feasibility of using the tool was tested in 7-11 year old children (n=25). FFK is a visual display using Dust and Magnet (DnM) technology, which "pulls" food towards the constituent (in this case total calories, total fat, sugar and dietary fiber) each in one corner of a square by the foods concentration of these items...

  9. Effects of intensive intervention with dietary fiber intake in metabolic syndrome%代谢综合征膳食纤维强化干预效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧; 郭亚芳; 邱服斌

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of intensive intervention with dietary fiber intake in women with metabolic syndrome on the basis of exercise and diet therapy. Methods Sixty-seven women with metabolic syn-drome who had not received drug therapy were selected. All the subjects were urban light manual laborers. The con-trol group received exercise and diet intervention, while the experimental group was given 30g dietary fiber daily as an intensive intervention on the basis of exercise and diet therapy for 4 months. The clinical effects after intervention of both groups were observed and compared. Results The body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, postprandial blood glucose and visceral fat index in the experiment group decreased more significantly than the those in the control group after intervention. And the differences were statistically signifi-cant (P<0.05). Conclusion Intensive intervention with dietary fiber intake on the basis of exercise and diet therapy could improve patients' body composition, blood glucose and blood lipids.%目的:研究运动、饮食治疗基础上进行膳食纤维强化干预代谢综合征女性患者的效果。方法选择未采用药物治疗的女性代谢综合征患者67例,所有受试者均为城市轻体力劳动者,对照组接受运动和饮食干预,实验组在运动、饮食治疗的基础上给予30 g/d的膳食纤维强化干预,持续4个月。观察并比较2组患者干预后的临床效果。结果干预后实验组体质指数、腰臀比、总胆固醇、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇、餐后血糖、内脏脂肪指数降低幅度较对照组显著,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论患者在饮食、运动治疗的基础上进行强化膳食纤维治疗可改善患者体成分、血糖、血脂。

  10. Proposal for a dietary "phytochemical index".

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2004-01-01

    There is ample reason to believe that diets rich in phytochemicals provide protection from vascular diseases and many cancers; direct antioxidant activity as well as modulation of enzyme expression or hormone activity contribute to this effect. Phytochemicals derived from diverse foods presumably can interact additively and (possibly) synergistically; thus, the total dietary load of phytochemicals may have important implications for health. As a means of very roughly quantifying this load, a "phytochemical index" (PI) is proposed, defined as the percent of dietary calories derived from foods rich in phytochemicals. Calories derived from fruits, vegetables (excluding potatoes), legumes, whole grains, nuts, seeds, fruit/vegetable juices, soy products, wine, beer, and cider - and foods compounded therefrom - would be counted in this index. Partial credit could be given for antioxidant-rich extra virgin olive oil. Other added oils, refined sugars, refined grains, potato products, hard liquors, and animal products - regrettably, the chief sources of calories in typical Western diets - would be excluded. Although the PI would provide only a very rough approximation of the quantity or quality of phytochemical nutrition, it nonetheless could aid epidemiologists in exploring the health consequences of diets high in phytochemical-rich plant foods, and could also help clinical nutritionists in their efforts to improve the phytochemical nutrition of their clients. PMID:15488652

  11. Calorie Restriction in Mammals and Simple Model Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giusi Taormina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Calorie restriction (CR, which usually refers to a 20–40% reduction in calorie intake, can effectively prolong lifespan preventing most age-associated diseases in several species. However, recent data from both human and nonhumans point to the ratio of macronutrients rather than the caloric intake as a major regulator of both lifespan and health-span. In addition, specific components of the diet have recently been identified as regulators of some age-associated intracellular signaling pathways in simple model systems. The comprehension of the mechanisms underpinning these findings is crucial since it may increase the beneficial effects of calorie restriction making it accessible to a broader population as well.

  12. Calorie restriction in mammals and simple model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taormina, Giusi; Mirisola, Mario G

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR), which usually refers to a 20-40% reduction in calorie intake, can effectively prolong lifespan preventing most age-associated diseases in several species. However, recent data from both human and nonhumans point to the ratio of macronutrients rather than the caloric intake as a major regulator of both lifespan and health-span. In addition, specific components of the diet have recently been identified as regulators of some age-associated intracellular signaling pathways in simple model systems. The comprehension of the mechanisms underpinning these findings is crucial since it may increase the beneficial effects of calorie restriction making it accessible to a broader population as well. PMID:24883306

  13. Nutritional deficiencies in German middle-class male alcohol consumers: relation to dietary intake and severity of liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergheim, I.; Parlesak, Alexandr; Dierks, C.;

    2003-01-01

    and urine. RESULTS: When compared with controls, alcohol consumers had significantly higher intakes of total calories, but intake of non-alcoholic calories did not differ between groups (P... increase in carbohydrates (Pdrinking patients were lower...... than those of non-drinkers. CONCLUSION: From the results of this study it is concluded that in German middle-class male alcohol consumers the status of several micronutrients is disturbed, although dietary intake hardly differs from that in non-alcoholic controls....

  14. 军队住院2型糖尿病老年患者饮食干预的效果分析%Effect Analysis of Dietary Intervention for Army Elderly Inpatients with Type 2 Diabeties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀丽; 马静; 樊小培; 赵晶晶

    2011-01-01

    目的 改善老年2型糖尿病患者的能量摄入和饮食结构,从而实现对患者良好的代谢控制.方法 采用北京协和医院研制的糖尿病食物交换份法,对80例老年2型糖尿病患者的实施为期1个月的饮食干预.结果 干预后,2型糖尿病患者的空腹血糖均显著降低(P<0.01);第30天时血清胆固醇和三酰甘油均降到正常范围,与干预前相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 运用饮食循证营养学知识可以使老年患者更乐于接受和坚持饮食治疗.%Objective To improve the energy intake and dietary structure of elderly patients with type 2 diabeties so as to achieve good metabolic control for them. Methods Dietary intervention was conducted in 80 elderly patients with type 2 diabetes using diabetic food exchange method of Beijing Xiehe hospital.Results After the intervention,the fasting blood glucose were significantly lowered in the elderly patients with type 2 diabeties(P<0.01). The serum cholesterol and triglycerides were reduced to normal range at the 30th day,and the result has significant differences compared with those of the pre-test(P<0.05). Conclusion The evidence-based nutritional knowledge can make elderly patients more willing to accept and adhere to dietary therapy.

  15. The potential application of a biomarker approach for the investigation of low-calorie sweetener exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, C; Dowey, L C; Strain, J J; Verhagen, H; Gallagher, A M

    2016-05-01

    Low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) are commonly used as sugar substitutes in the diet to provide a desired sweet taste without increased energy intake. The number of LCS available on the market has increased considerably over the years and despite extensive evaluation of their safety prior to approval, debate continues around the effects of consumption on health. In Europe, Member States are obligated to monitor exposure to LCS and methods currently used tend to rely on self-reported dietary intake data alongside LCS concentrations in products. However, the acquisition of accurate data can be costly in terms of resources and time and are inherently imprecise. Although LCS are intensely sweet, they are chemically diverse and a limitation of many studies investigating the health effects of consumption is that they often fail to discern intakes of individual LCS. An approach which objectively assesses intakes of individual LCS would therefore allow robust investigations of their possible effects on health. Biomarker approaches have been utilised for the objective investigation of intakes of a range of dietary components and the feasibility of any such approach depends upon its validity as well as its applicability within the target population. This review aims to provide an overview of current understanding of LCS intake and explore the possibility of implementing a biomarker approach to enhance such understanding. Several commonly used LCS, once absorbed into the body, are excreted via the kidneys; therefore a urinary biomarker approach may be possible for the investigation of short-term exposure to these compounds. PMID:26763132

  16. Consumers’ estimation of calorie content at fast food restaurants: cross sectional observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Suzanne K; Kleinman, Ken; Mullen, Jewel; Linakis, Stephanie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl; Gillman, Matthew W

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate estimation of calorie (energy) content of meals from fast food restaurants in adults, adolescents, and school age children. Design Cross sectional study of repeated visits to fast food restaurant chains. Setting 89 fast food restaurants in four cities in New England, United States: McDonald’s, Burger King, Subway, Wendy’s, KFC, Dunkin’ Donuts. Participants 1877 adults and 330 school age children visiting restaurants at dinnertime (evening meal) in 2010 and 2011; 1178 adolescents visiting restaurants after school or at lunchtime in 2010 and 2011. Main outcome measure Estimated calorie content of purchased meals. Results Among adults, adolescents, and school age children, the mean actual calorie content of meals was 836 calories (SD 465), 756 calories (SD 455), and 733 calories (SD 359), respectively. A calorie is equivalent to 4.18 kJ. Compared with the actual figures, participants underestimated calorie content by means of 175 calories (95% confidence interval 145 to 205), 259 calories (227 to 291), and 175 calories (108 to 242), respectively. In multivariable linear regression models, underestimation of calorie content increased substantially as the actual meal calorie content increased. Adults and adolescents eating at Subway estimated 20% and 25% lower calorie content than McDonald’s diners (relative change 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.96; 0.75, 0.57 to 0.99). Conclusions People eating at fast food restaurants underestimate the calorie content of meals, especially large meals. Education of consumers through calorie menu labeling and other outreach efforts might reduce the large degree of underestimation. PMID:23704170

  17. Calorie labeling and fast food choices in surveys and actual markets: some new behavioral results

    OpenAIRE

    Maria L Loureiro; Rahmani, Djamal

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a survey and a randomized natural experiment with the same subjects to investigate the effect of information about calorie intake on fast food choices. This combined approach allows us to maximize both internal and external research validity and test consistency of findings. We find that providing information about calories in a survey context for fast food menus has a moderate effect on calorie consumption, decreasing on average by 2.96 percent the amount of calories of the sele...

  18. Dietary intervention with green dwarf banana flour (Musa sp AAA) prevents intestinal inflammation in a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid model of rat colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarminio, Viviane; Fruet, Andrea C; Witaicenis, Aline; Rall, Vera L M; Di Stasi, Luiz C

    2012-03-01

    Dietary products are among the therapeutic approaches used to modify intestinal microflora and to promote protective effects during the intestinal inflammatory process. Because the banana plant is rich in resistant starch, which is used by colonic microbiota for the anaerobic production of the short-chain fatty acids that serve as a major fuel source for colonocytes: first, green dwarf banana flour produces protective effects on the intestinal inflammation acting as a prebiotic and, second, combination of this dietary supplementation with prednisolone presents synergistic effects. For this, we used the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis. Our results revealed that the protective effect produced by a combination of 10% green dwarf banana flour with prednisolone was more pronounced than those promoted by a single administration of prednisolone or a diet containing 10% or 20% banana flour. This beneficial effect was associated with an improvement in the colonic oxidative status because the banana flour diet prevented the glutathione depletion and inhibited myeloperoxidase activity and lipid peroxidation. In addition, the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity was associated with an inhibition of alkaline phosphatase activity, a reduction in macroscopic and microscopic scores, and an extension of the lesions. In conclusion, the dietary use of the green dwarf banana flour constitutes an important dietary supplement and complementary medicine product to prevention and treatment of human inflammatory bowel disease.

  19. Consumer preferences for front-of-pack calories labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Paeps, F.; Fernández-Celemín, L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective In light of the emerging obesity pandemic, front-of-pack calories labels may be an important tool to assist consumers in making informed healthier food choices. However, there is little prior research to guide key decisions on whether caloric content should be expressed in absolute terms o

  20. 运动和膳食干预对儿童代谢综合征的影响%Physical activities and dietary intervention on metabolic syndrome in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林深婷; 许志远; 王晶晶; 李百惠; 裴正存; 王海俊; 马军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of physical activities and dietary intervention on metabolic syndrome (MS) in primary school students.Methods Either one-year physical activities (PA) or dietary intervention was conducted in Grade 1-5 children from eight primary schools in Haidian district,Beijing.A ‘happy 10 minutes' program was held in the PA group,while the dietary group receiving nutrition lectures.Baseline and post-intervention data on height,weight,waist circumference,serum lipids,glucose,and blood pressure were collected.Results The prevalence of MS at baseline was 9.0%.After intervention programs were carried out,improvements on triglyceride,high density lipoprotein,fasting blood glucose,diastolic blood pressure and waist circumference in the dietary group or PA group were seen,with the dietary group showed better effects than the PA group.The prevalence of MS decreased from 10.4% to 4.6% in the dietary group with statistically significant difference,while it increased in both the PA group and the control group.Girls showed better effects in the dietary group.Older students showed better effects than the younger students in the PA group.In non-overweight and overweight students of the dietary intervention group,the MS related components were significantly improved.Conclusion The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was relatively high in the primary school students in Beijing.Education on nutrition could reduce the prevalence and improve the related components,which seemed to be more effective than in the PA intervention.Sex,age and nutritional status were the confounding factors for intervention programs.%目的 研究运动和膳食干预对小学生代谢综合征(MS)的影响.方法 对北京市海淀区8所小学1~5年级1564名学生,进行为期1年的运动或膳食干预,运动组主要采取“快乐10分钟”方法,膳食组采取营养健康教育方法,分别于基线和干预后检测全体学生的身高、体重、腰围、

  1. Weight loss for women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome following a very low-calorie diet in a community-based setting with trained facilitators for 12 weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikokavoura EA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Efsevia A Nikokavoura,1 Kelly L Johnston,2 John Broom,1 Wendy L Wrieden,1 Catherine Rolland1 1Centre for Obesity Research and Epidemiology, Institute for Health & Wellbeing Research (IHWR, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, 2LighterLife UK Limited, Harlow, Essex, UK Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS affects between 2% and 26% of reproductive-age women in the UK, and accounts for up to 75% of anovulatory infertility. The major symptoms include ovarian disruption, hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and polycystic ovaries. Interestingly, at least half of the women with PCOS are obese, with the excess weight playing a pathogenic role in the development and progress of the syndrome. The first-line treatment option for overweight/obese women with PCOS is diet and lifestyle interventions; however, optimal dietary guidelines are missing. Although many different dietary approaches have been investigated, data on the effectiveness of very low-calorie diets on PCOS are very limited. Materials and methods: The aim of this paper was to investigate how overweight/obese women with PCOS responded to LighterLife Total, a commercial very low-calorie diet, in conjunction with group behavioral change sessions when compared to women without PCOS (non-PCOS. Results: PCOS (n=508 and non-PCOS (n=508 participants were matched for age (age ±1 unit and body mass index (body mass index ±1 unit. A 12-week completers analysis showed that the total weight loss did not differ significantly between PCOS (n=137 and non-PCOS participants (n=137 (–18.5±6.6 kg vs –19.4±5.7 kg, P=0.190. Similarly, the percentage of weight loss achieved by both groups was not significantly different (PCOS 17.1%±5.6% vs non-PCOS 18.2%±4.4%, P=0.08. Conclusion: Overall, LighterLife Total could be an effective weight-loss strategy in overweight/obese women with PCOS. However, further investigations are needed to achieve a thorough way of understanding the physiology of weight

  2. Lack of Benefit of Early Intervention with Dietary Flax and Fish Oil and Soy Protein in Orthologous Rodent Models of Human Hereditary Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monirujjaman, Md; Gabbs, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Rationale for dietary advice in polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is based in part on animal studies that have examined non-orthologous models with progressive development of cystic disease. Since no model completely mimics human PKD, the purpose of the current studies was to examine the effects of dietary soy protein (compared to casein) or oils enriched in omega-3 fatty acids (fish or flax oil compared to soy oil) on early disease progression in two orthologous models of PKD. The models studied were Pkd2WS25/- mice as a model of autosomal dominant PKD, and PCK rats as a model of autosomal recessive PKD. After 13 weeks of feeding, dietary fish (but not flax) oil resulted in larger kidneys and greater kidney water content in female Pkd2WS25/- compared to control mice. After 12 weeks of feeding male PCK compared to control rats, both fish and flax compared to soy oil resulted in enlarged kidneys and livers, greater kidney water content and higher kidney cyst area in diseased rats. Dietary soy protein compared to casein had no effects in Pkd2WS25/- compared to control mice. In PCK rats, kidney and liver histology were not improved, but lower proteinuria and higher urine pH suggest that soy protein could be beneficial in the long term. Therefore, in contrast to studies in non-orthologous models during the progressive development phase, these studies in orthologous PKD models do not support dietary advice to increase soy protein or oils enriched in omega-3 oils in early PKD. PMID:27213553

  3. The Effects of Varying Concentrations of Dietary Protein and Fat on Blood Gas, Hematologic Serum Chemistry, and Body Temperature Before and After Exercise in Labrador Retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, John; Gillette, Robert L; Angle, Thomas Craig; Haney, Pamela; Fletcher, Daniel J; Wakshlag, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Optimal dietary protocols for the athletic canine are often defined by requirements for endurance athletes that do not always translate into optimal dietary interventions for all canine athletes. Prior research studying detection dogs suggests that dietary fat sources can influence olfaction; however, as fat is added to the diet the protein calories can be diminished potentially resulting in decreased red blood cell counts or albumin status. Optimal macronutrient profile for detection dogs may be different considering the unique work they engage in. To study a calorically low protein: high fat (18:57% ME), high protein: high fat (27:57% ME), and high protein: low fat (27:32% ME) approach to feeding, 17 dogs were provided various diets in a 3 × 3 cross over design. Dogs were exercised on a treadmill and blood was taken pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise, 10- and 20-min post-exercise to assess complete blood count, serum chemistry, blood gases, and cortisol; as well as rectal and core body temperature. Exercise induced a decrease in serum phosphorus, potassium, and increases in non-esterified fatty acids and cortisol typical of moderate exercise bouts. A complete and balanced high protein: high-fat diet (27:57% ME) induced decreases in serum cortisol and alkaline phosphatase. Corn oil top dressed low protein: high-fat diet (18:57% ME) induced a slightly better thermal recovery than a complete and balanced high protein: high fat diet and a high protein: low fat (27%:32% ME) diet suggesting some mild advantages when using the low protein: high fat diet that warrant further investigation regarding optimal protein and fat calories and thermal recovery. PMID:27532039

  4. The Effects of Varying Concentrations of Dietary Protein and Fat on Blood Gas, Hematologic Serum Chemistry, and Body Temperature Before and After Exercise in Labrador Retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, John; Gillette, Robert L; Angle, Thomas Craig; Haney, Pamela; Fletcher, Daniel J; Wakshlag, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Optimal dietary protocols for the athletic canine are often defined by requirements for endurance athletes that do not always translate into optimal dietary interventions for all canine athletes. Prior research studying detection dogs suggests that dietary fat sources can influence olfaction; however, as fat is added to the diet the protein calories can be diminished potentially resulting in decreased red blood cell counts or albumin status. Optimal macronutrient profile for detection dogs may be different considering the unique work they engage in. To study a calorically low protein: high fat (18:57% ME), high protein: high fat (27:57% ME), and high protein: low fat (27:32% ME) approach to feeding, 17 dogs were provided various diets in a 3 × 3 cross over design. Dogs were exercised on a treadmill and blood was taken pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise, 10- and 20-min post-exercise to assess complete blood count, serum chemistry, blood gases, and cortisol; as well as rectal and core body temperature. Exercise induced a decrease in serum phosphorus, potassium, and increases in non-esterified fatty acids and cortisol typical of moderate exercise bouts. A complete and balanced high protein: high-fat diet (27:57% ME) induced decreases in serum cortisol and alkaline phosphatase. Corn oil top dressed low protein: high-fat diet (18:57% ME) induced a slightly better thermal recovery than a complete and balanced high protein: high fat diet and a high protein: low fat (27%:32% ME) diet suggesting some mild advantages when using the low protein: high fat diet that warrant further investigation regarding optimal protein and fat calories and thermal recovery.

  5. Impact of dietary intervention on esophageal and variceal bleeding pa-tients with cirrhosis%饮食干预对肝硬化合并食管胃底静脉曲张出血患者的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桂娟; 王金华; 杨爽; 王莉莉

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨饮食干预对肝硬化合并食管胃底静脉曲张消化道出血的影响。方法选择2011年1月~2013年6月我科收治的肝硬化合并食管胃底静脉曲张出血患者90例,按住院时间先后分为对照组45例和干预组45例。对照组按常规方法护理;干预组在积极治疗原发病基础上,从人院评估、一对一指导、饮食干预、自我管理、随访制度化等方面进行饮食干预。比较两组患者的初次出血率、再次出血率、死亡率。结果干预组患者初次出血率为28.9%,低于对照组的33.3%,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。干预组患者再次出血率为31.1%,明显低于对照组的64.4%,差异有统计学意义(P﹤0.05)。干预组死亡率为4.4%,明显低于对照组的15.6%,差异有统计学意义(P﹤0.05)。结论在原发病积极规范治疗基础上,进行合理的饮食干预,可预防肝硬化合并食管胃底静脉曲张出血患者再出血,降低死亡率。%Objective To explore the effects of esophageal varices patients with dietary intervention on gastrointestinal bleeding. Methods 90 patients with cirrhosis complicated by esophageal and gastric varices bleeding from January 2011 to June 2013 of our department were selected,and were divided into contrast group (n=45) and intervention group (n=45) according to hospital chronologically.The contrast group was cared by conventional methods.The intervention group was on the basis of the active treatment original disease.From the enter hospital assessment,one guidance,dietary intervention, self-management, and other aspects of comprehensive follow-up of institutionalized dietary intervention. The initial bleeding rebleeding rate and mortality between two group was compared. Results The initial bleeding rate of the patients in intervention group was 28.9%,which was lower than that of the contrast group,which rate was 33.3%, there was no significant difference

  6. Impact of breakfast on daily energy intake - an analysis of absolute versus relative breakfast calories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagenpfeil Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The role of breakfast energy in total daily energy intake is a matter of debate. Acute feeding experiments demonstrated that high breakfast energy leads to greater overall intake supported by cross-sectional data of a free-living population. On the other hand, a large intraindividual analysis has indicated that a high proportion of breakfast to overall intake is associated with lower daily energy intake. To evaluate these apparently contradictory results in greater detail both ways of analysis were applied to the same data set of dietary records. Methods On an intraindividual basis total daily energy intake was related to the absolute values of breakfast energy intake or to the ratio of breakfast to overall intake, respectively. Food intake of 280 obese and 100 normal weight subjects was analyzed who recorded over 10 (obese or 14 (normal weight consecutive days, respectively. Results Increasing breakfast energy was associated with greater overall intake in normal weight and obese subjects. The increasing ratio of breakfast to total daily energy intake was associated with a significant reduction of overall intake on days where post-breakfast energy was significantly reduced. Correlational and multiple regression analysis support the concept that absolute breakfast calories have the strongest influence on daily energy intake. Conclusion Reduced breakfast energy intake is associated with lower total daily intake. The influence of the ratio of breakfast to overall energy intake largely depends on the post-breakfast rather than breakfast intake pattern. Therefore, overweight and obese subjects should consider the reduction of breakfast calories as a simple option to improve their daily energy balance.

  7. Short term low-calorie diet improves insulin sensitivity and metabolic parameters in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielle Vilas Bôas Huguenin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with an increase of cardiovascular risk factors, including adipocytokines. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-calorie diet on serum lipids, adipokines, insulin resistance and body composition in obese women. It was a clinical trial with class I obese women aged 30-45 years submitted to hypocaloric diet for 90 days. Dietary intake, anthropometric parameters, body composition, serum lipids, glucose, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, HOMA-IR and QUICKI indexes were evaluated at the baseline, 30, 60 and 90 days. There was 30% significant decrease in energy intake, and also decrease in body weight, body mass index and waist circumference (p < 0.01 throughout the treatment period. Despite the amount of lean body mass (kg reduced in average, it was observed that lean body mass (% had increased (p < 0.01 and that the amount of fat body mass (kg had decreased significantly in the third month (p < 0.05. Systolic blood pressure reduced up to -5mmHg (p < 0.05 after 90 days. Was observed a decrease (p < 0.05 on serum insulin and HOMA-IR until the 60th day, while the serum adiponectin increased (p < 0.01 during treatment. Corroborating with the reduction of fat body mass and weight, serum leptin also reduced (p < 0.01. These results suggest that the short-term low-calorie diet reduces total body fat, mainly found in the abdominal region, and efficiently improve insulin sensitivity decreasing cardiovascular risk in obese women.

  8. Does basing an intervention on behavioral theory enhance the efficacy/effectiveness on dietary change for obesity prevention among children? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our purpose was to test whether interventions based on theory, multiple theories, or a formal planning process were more effective in changing fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption among children than interventions with no behavioral theoretical foundation or no formal planning. The authors conducted...

  9. Small molecule activators of SIRT1 replicate signaling pathways triggered by calorie restriction in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavu Siva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calorie restriction (CR produces a number of health benefits and ameliorates diseases of aging such as type 2 diabetes. The components of the pathways downstream of CR may provide intervention points for developing therapeutics for treating diseases of aging. The NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase SIRT1 has been implicated as one of the key downstream regulators of CR in yeast, rodents, and humans. Small molecule activators of SIRT1 have been identified that exhibit efficacy in animal models of diseases typically associated with aging including type 2 diabetes. To identify molecular processes induced in the liver of mice treated with two structurally distinct SIRT1 activators, SIRT501 (formulated resveratrol and SRT1720, for three days, we utilized a systems biology approach and applied Causal Network Modeling (CNM on gene expression data to elucidate downstream effects of SIRT1 activation. Results Here we demonstrate that SIRT1 activators recapitulate many of the molecular events downstream of CR in vivo, such as enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis, improving metabolic signaling pathways, and blunting pro-inflammatory pathways in mice fed a high fat, high calorie diet. Conclusion CNM of gene expression data from mice treated with SRT501 or SRT1720 in combination with supporting in vitro and in vivo data demonstrates that SRT501 and SRT1720 produce a signaling profile that mirrors CR, improves glucose and insulin homeostasis, and acts via SIRT1 activation in vivo. Taken together these results are encouraging regarding the use of small molecule activators of SIRT1 for therapeutic intervention into type 2 diabetes, a strategy which is currently being investigated in multiple clinical trials.

  10. Lack of Efficacy of a Salience Nudge for Substituting Selection of Lower-Calorie for Higher-Calorie Milk in the Work Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Wilson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major burden on healthcare systems. Simple, cost effective interventions that encourage healthier behaviours are required. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a salience nudge for promoting a change in milk selection from full-cream to low-fat (lower calorie in the kitchen of a university-based research institute that provided full-cream and low-fat milk free of charge. Milk selection was recorded for 12 weeks (baseline. A sign with the message “Pick me! I am low calorie” was then placed on the low-fat milk and consumption was recorded for a further 12 weeks. During baseline, selection of low-fat milk was greater than selection of full-cream milk (p = 0.001 with no significant milk-type × time interaction (p = 0.12. During the intervention period overall milk selection was not different from baseline (p = 0.22, with low-fat milk consumption remaining greater than full-cream milk selection (p < 0.001 and no significant milk-type × time interaction (p = 0.41. However, sub-analysis of the first two weeks of the intervention period indicated an increase in selection of both milk types (p = 0.03, but with a greater increase in low-fat milk selection (p = 0.01, milk-type × time interaction. However, milk selection then returned towards baseline during the rest of the intervention period. Thus, in the present setting, salience nudging promoted a transient increase in low-fat milk consumption, but also increased selection of full-cream milk, indicating that nudging was not effective in promoting healthier milk choices.

  11. A practical approach to dietary interventions for nondialysis-dependent CKD patients: the experience of a reference nephrology center in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuppari, Lilian; Nerbass, Fabiana Baggio; Avesani, Carla Maria; Kamimura, Maria Ayako

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the 30-year experience on nutritional management of non-dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients in a public outpatient clinic located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. A team of specialized dietitians in renal nutrition is responsible to provide individual dietary counseling for patients on stages 3 to 5 of CKD. Two different types of nutrition care protocols are employed depending on the level of renal function. For patients with CKD stage 3 a simplified nutritional assessment is performed and the main dietary focus is on the control of protein intake particularly from animal sources. A more complete nutritional assessment as well as a detailed dietary plan focusing not only on the control of protein but also on energy supply and on specific micronutrients is provided for patients on stages 4 or 5 of CKD. Practical approaches and tools used by the dietitians in our clinic for improving patient´s adherence to protein, sodium and potassium restriction while maintaining a healthy diet are described in detail in the sections of the article. PMID:27423180

  12. VIP in construction: systematic development and evaluation of a multifaceted health programme aiming to improve physical activity levels and dietary patterns among construction workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viester Laura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of both overweight and musculoskeletal disorders (MSD in the construction industry is high. Many interventions in the occupational setting aim at the prevention and reduction of these health problems, but it is still unclear how these programmes should be designed. To determine the effectiveness of interventions on these health outcomes randomised controlled trials (RCTs are needed. The aim of this study is to systematically develop a tailored intervention for prevention and reduction of overweight and MSD among construction workers and to describe the evaluation study regarding its (cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design The Intervention Mapping (IM protocol was applied to develop and implement a tailored programme aimed at the prevention and reduction of overweight and MSD. The (cost- effectiveness of the intervention programme will be evaluated using an RCT. Furthermore, a process evaluation will be conducted. The research population will consist of blue collar workers of a large construction company in the Netherlands. Intervention The intervention programme will be aimed at improving (vigorous physical activity levels and healthy dietary behaviour and will consist of tailored information, face-to-face and telephone counselling, training instruction (a fitness "card" to be used for exercises, and materials designed for the intervention (overview of the company health promoting facilities, waist circumference measuring tape, pedometer, BMI card, calorie guide, recipes, and knowledge test. Main study parameters/endpoints The intervention effect on body weight and waist circumference (primary outcome measures, as well as on lifestyle behaviour, MSD, fitness, CVD risk indicators, and work-related outcomes (i.e. productivity, sick leave (secondary outcome measures will be assessed. Discussion The development of the VIP in construction intervention led to a health programme tailored to the needs of construction

  13. Anti-inflammatory nutritional intervention in patients with relapsing-remitting and primary-progressive multiple sclerosis: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossano, Rocco; Larocca, Marilena; Trotta, Vincenzo; Mennella, Ilario; Vitaglione, Paola; Ettorre, Michele; Graverini, Antonio; De Santis, Alessandro; Di Monte, Elisabetta; Coniglio, Maria Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the influence of nutritional intervention on inflammatory status and wellness in people with multiple sclerosis. To this end, in a seven-month pilot study we investigated the effects of a calorie-restricted, semi-vegetarian diet and administration of vitamin D and other dietary supplements (fish oil, lipoic acid, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, resveratrol and multivitamin complex) in 33 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 10 patients with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis. At 0/3/6 months, patients had neurological examination, filled questionnaires and underwent anthropometric measurements and biochemical analyses. Serum fatty acids and vitamin D levels were measured as markers of dietary compliance and nutritional efficacy of treatment, whereas serum gelatinase levels were analyzed as markers of inflammatory status. All patients had insufficient levels of vitamin D at baseline, but their values did not ameliorate following a weekly administration of 5000  IU, and rather decreased over time. Conversely, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increased already after three months, even under dietary restriction only. Co-treatment with interferon-beta in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis was irrelevant to vitamin D levels. After six months nutritional treatment, no significant changes in neurological signs were observed in any group. However, serum levels of the activated isoforms of gelatinase matrix metalloproteinase-9 decreased by 59% in primary-progressive multiple sclerosis and by 51% in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients under nutritional intervention, including dietary supplements. This study indicates that a healthy nutritional intervention is well accepted by people with multiple sclerosis and may ameliorate their physical and inflammatory status. PMID:26785711

  14. Anti-inflammatory nutritional intervention in patients with relapsing-remitting and primary-progressive multiple sclerosis: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, Paolo; Rossano, Rocco; Larocca, Marilena; Trotta, Vincenzo; Mennella, Ilario; Vitaglione, Paola; Ettorre, Michele; Graverini, Antonio; De Santis, Alessandro; Di Monte, Elisabetta; Coniglio, Maria Gabriella

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the influence of nutritional intervention on inflammatory status and wellness in people with multiple sclerosis. To this end, in a seven-month pilot study we investigated the effects of a calorie-restricted, semi-vegetarian diet and administration of vitamin D and other dietary supplements (fish oil, lipoic acid, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, resveratrol and multivitamin complex) in 33 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 10 patients with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis. At 0/3/6 months, patients had neurological examination, filled questionnaires and underwent anthropometric measurements and biochemical analyses. Serum fatty acids and vitamin D levels were measured as markers of dietary compliance and nutritional efficacy of treatment, whereas serum gelatinase levels were analyzed as markers of inflammatory status. All patients had insufficient levels of vitamin D at baseline, but their values did not ameliorate following a weekly administration of 5000  IU, and rather decreased over time. Conversely, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increased already after three months, even under dietary restriction only. Co-treatment with interferon-beta in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis was irrelevant to vitamin D levels. After six months nutritional treatment, no significant changes in neurological signs were observed in any group. However, serum levels of the activated isoforms of gelatinase matrix metalloproteinase-9 decreased by 59% in primary-progressive multiple sclerosis and by 51% in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients under nutritional intervention, including dietary supplements. This study indicates that a healthy nutritional intervention is well accepted by people with multiple sclerosis and may ameliorate their physical and inflammatory status.

  15. Anti-inflammatory nutritional intervention in patients with relapsing-remitting and primary-progressive multiple sclerosis: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, Paolo; Rossano, Rocco; Larocca, Marilena; Trotta, Vincenzo; Mennella, Ilario; Vitaglione, Paola; Ettorre, Michele; Graverini, Antonio; De Santis, Alessandro; Di Monte, Elisabetta; Coniglio, Maria Gabriella

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the influence of nutritional intervention on inflammatory status and wellness in people with multiple sclerosis. To this end, in a seven-month pilot study we investigated the effects of a calorie-restricted, semi-vegetarian diet and administration of vitamin D and other dietary supplements (fish oil, lipoic acid, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, resveratrol and multivitamin complex) in 33 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 10 patients with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis. At 0/3/6 months, patients had neurological examination, filled questionnaires and underwent anthropometric measurements and biochemical analyses. Serum fatty acids and vitamin D levels were measured as markers of dietary compliance and nutritional efficacy of treatment, whereas serum gelatinase levels were analyzed as markers of inflammatory status. All patients had insufficient levels of vitamin D at baseline, but their values did not ameliorate following a weekly administration of 5000  IU, and rather decreased over time. Conversely, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increased already after three months, even under dietary restriction only. Co-treatment with interferon-beta in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis was irrelevant to vitamin D levels. After six months nutritional treatment, no significant changes in neurological signs were observed in any group. However, serum levels of the activated isoforms of gelatinase matrix metalloproteinase-9 decreased by 59% in primary-progressive multiple sclerosis and by 51% in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients under nutritional intervention, including dietary supplements. This study indicates that a healthy nutritional intervention is well accepted by people with multiple sclerosis and may ameliorate their physical and inflammatory status. PMID:26785711

  16. Federal Communication about Obesity in the Dietary Guidelines and Checkoff Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Wilde, Parke E.

    2005-01-01

    The most striking feature of the revised Dietary Guidelines for Americans, released this past January, is the publication s increased emphasis on obesity prevention: To reverse the trend toward obesity, most Americans need to eat fewer calories, be more active, and make wiser food choices (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2005). The Dietary Guidelines, which are released every 5 years and are now in their sixth edition, are intended as the Feder...

  17. Participant adherence indicators predict changes in dietary, physical activity, and clinical outcomes in church-based, diet and supervised physical activity intervention: Delta Body and Soul III

    Science.gov (United States)

    This secondary analysis evaluated the utility of several participant adherence indicators for predicting health outcome changes in a 6-month, church-based, controlled, lifestyle intervention previously proven effective for improving diet quality, physical activity, and blood lipids. Descriptive ind...

  18. Benefits of short-term dietary restriction in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Lauren T.; Mitchell, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary or calorie restriction (DR, CR), defined as reduced food intake without malnutrition, imparts many benefits in model organisms. Extended longevity is the most popularized benefit but the least clinically relevant due to the requirement for long-term food restriction. DR also promotes stress resistance and metabolic fitness. Emerging data in experimental models and in humans indicate that these benefits occur rapidly upon initiation of DR, suggesting potential clinical relevance. Here ...

  19. Biotechnological production of natural zero-calorie sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Ryan N; De Mey, Marjan; Anderson, Jeff; Ajikumar, Parayil Kumaran

    2014-04-01

    The increasing public awareness of adverse health impacts from excessive sugar consumption has created increasing interest in plant-derived, natural low-calorie or zero-calorie sweeteners. Two plant species which contain natural sweeteners, Stevia rebaudiana and Siraitia grosvenorii, have been extensively profiled to identify molecules with high intensity sweetening properties. However, sweetening ability does not necessarily make a product viable for commercial applications. Some criteria for product success are proposed to identify which targets are likely to be accepted by consumers. Limitations of plant-based production are discussed, and a case is put forward for the necessity of biotechnological production methods such as plant cell culture or microbial fermentation to meet needs for commercial-scale production of natural sweeteners. PMID:24503452

  20. Evaluation of several Quality Criteria of Low Calorie Pumpkin Dessert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Ece TAMER

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to decrease the sugar concentration of the pumpkin dessert which is a Turkish traditional food using artificial sweeteners. Therefore, its energy content was reduced. As a result it was expected that this product can be consumed by diabetics and overweight people who do not prefer high calorie products. The design included constraints to permit sweetener addition according to the limits of Turkish food legislation. Physical and chemical properties of pumpkin desserts and the effects of sweeteners on sensory properties were investigated. According to the physical, chemical and sensory analyses it can be seen, by using aspartame and acesulfame K additives, low calorie pumpkin dessert could be produced.

  1. Geology of the Caloris basin, Mercury: a view from MESSENGER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchie, Scott L; Watters, Thomas R; Robinson, Mark S; Head, James W; Strom, Robert G; Chapman, Clark R; Solomon, Sean C; McClintock, William E; Prockter, Louise M; Domingue, Deborah L; Blewett, David T

    2008-07-01

    The Caloris basin, the youngest known large impact basin on Mercury, is revealed in MESSENGER images to be modified by volcanism and deformation in a manner distinct from that of lunar impact basins. The morphology and spatial distribution of basin materials themselves closely match lunar counterparts. Evidence for a volcanic origin of the basin's interior plains includes embayed craters on the basin floor and diffuse deposits surrounding rimless depressions interpreted to be of pyroclastic origin. Unlike lunar maria, the volcanic plains in Caloris are higher in albedo than surrounding basin materials and lack spectral evidence for ferrous iron-bearing silicates. Tectonic landforms, contractional wrinkle ridges and extensional troughs, have distributions and age relations different from their counterparts in and around lunar basins, indicating a different stress history. PMID:18599772

  2. Dietary Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble fiber or insoluble fiber. Both types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts ...

  3. Development of low calorie snack food based on intense sweeteners

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Swapna; Ravi, R.; Saraswathi, G; Prakash, Maya

    2012-01-01

    Intense sweeteners namely Aspartame, Acesulfame K and Sucralose were used in the preparation of sugar substitute sprinklers and these were used in snack food, replacing sugar. Study was conducted with an objective to develop low calorie snack food. The psychometric study showed that the threshold values for Acesulfame K, Aspartame and Sucralose were 0.012, 0.030 and 0.005 g respectively. The time intensity study revealed that among three sweeteners Aspartame had more lingering sweetness (at 6...

  4. Calorie increase and water savings of redistributing global crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, K. F.; Seveso, A.; Rulli, M. C.; D'Odorico, P.

    2015-12-01

    Human demand for crop production is expected to increase substantially in the coming decades as a result of population growth, richer diets and biofuel use. In order for food production to keep pace, unprecedented amounts of resources - water, fertilizers, energy - will be required. This has led to calls for 'sustainable intensification' in which yields are increased on existing croplands while seeking to minimize impacts on water and other agricultural resources. Recent studies have quantified aspects of this, showing that there is a large potential to improve crop yields and increase harvest frequencies to better meet human demand. Though promising, both solutions would necessitate large additional inputs of water and fertilizer in order to be achieved under current technologies. However, the question of whether the current distribution of crops is, in fact, the best for realizing maximized production has not been considered to date. To this end, we ask: Is it possible to increase calorie production and minimize water demand by simply growing crops where soil and climate conditions are best suited? Here we use maps of agro-ecological suitability - a measure of physical and chemical soil fertility - for 15 major food crops to identify differences between current crop distributions and where they can most suitably be planted. By redistributing crops across currently cultivated lands, we determine the potential improvement in calorie production as well as the associated change in water demand. We also consider what distribution of crops would maintain current calorie production while minimizing crop water demand. In doing all of this, our study provides a novel tool for improving crop calorie production without necessarily increasing resource demands.

  5. Evaluation of several Quality Criteria of Low Calorie Pumpkin Dessert

    OpenAIRE

    Canan Ece TAMER; Bige İNCEDAYI; Sibel PARSEKER YÖNEL; Senem YONAK; Ömer Utku ÇOPUR

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to decrease the sugar concentration of the pumpkin dessert which is a Turkish traditional food using artificial sweeteners. Therefore, its energy content was reduced. As a result it was expected that this product can be consumed by diabetics and overweight people who do not prefer high calorie products. The design included constraints to permit sweetener addition according to the limits of Turkish food legislation. Physical and chemical properties of pumpkin desserts...

  6. Do low-calorie sweeteners promote weight gain in rodents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendinning, John I

    2016-10-01

    Low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) are used globally to increase the palatability of foods and beverages, without the calories of sugar. Recently, however, there have been claims that LCSs promote obesity. Here, I review the literature linking LCS consumption to elevated body weight in rodents. A recent systematic review found when the LCSs were presented in water or chow, only a minority of the studies reported elevated weight gain. In contrast, when the LCSs were presented in yogurt, the majority of the studies reported elevated weight gain. This review focuses on this latter subset of studies, and asks why the combination of LCSs and yogurt promoted weight gain. First, LCSs have been hypothesized to induce metabolic derangement because they uncouple sweet taste and calories. However, the available evidence indicates that the LCS-treated yogurts did not actually taste sweet to rats in the published studies. Without a sweet taste, the concerns about uncoupling sweet taste and calories would not be relevant. Second, in several studies, the LCS-treated yogurt increased weight gain without increasing caloric intake. This indicates that caloric intake alone cannot explain the elevated weight gain. Third, there is evidence that LCSs and yogurt can each alter the gut microbiota of rodents. Given recent work indicating that changes in gut microbiota can modulate body weight, it is possible that the combination of LCS and yogurt alters the gut microbiota in ways that promote weight gain. While this hypothesis remains speculative, it is consistent with the observed rodent data. In human studies, LCSs are usually presented in beverages. Based on the rodent work, it might be worthwhile to evaluate the impact of LCS-treated yogurt in humans.

  7. Stevia, Nature’s Zero-Calorie Sustainable Sweetener

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwell, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Stevia is a plant native to South America that has been used as a sweetener for hundreds of years. Today, zero-calorie stevia, as high-purity stevia leaf extract, is being used globally to reduce energy and added sugar content in foods and beverages. This article introduces stevia, explaining its sustainable production, metabolism in the body, safety assessment, and use in foods and drinks to assist with energy reduction. The article also summarizes current thinking of the evidence for the ro...

  8. Metabolic and Neuropsychiatric Effects of Calorie Restriction and Sirtuins

    OpenAIRE

    Libert, Sergiy; Guarente, Lenny

    2014-01-01

    Most living organisms, including humans, age. Over time the ability to do physical and intellectual work deteriorates, and susceptibility to infectious, metabolic, and neurodegenerative diseases increases, which leads to general fitness decline and ultimately to death. Work in model organisms has demonstrated that genetic and environmental manipulations can prevent numerous age-associated diseases, improve health at advanced age, and increase life span. Calorie restriction (CR) (consumption o...

  9. Where are kids getting their empty calories? Stores, schools, and fast food restaurants each play an important role in empty calorie intake among US children in 2009-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Poti, Jennifer M.; Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M; Kenan, W.R.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of empty calories, the sum of energy from added sugar and solid fat, exceeds recommendations, but little is known about where US children obtain these empty calories. The objectives of this study were to compare children's empty calorie consumption from retail food stores, schools, and fast food restaurants; to identify food groups that were top contributors of empty calories from each location; and to determine the location providing the majority of calories for these key food gr...

  10. Effects of a dietary modification intervention model applied by ward nurse on dietary behavior in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus%床旁饮食查房行为训练模式对2型糖尿病患者饮食行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹卫; 李志娟; 龚红燕; 步红兵

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨床旁饮食查房行为训练模式对2型糖尿病(T2DM)患者饮食行为的影响.方法 选取我院住院T2DM患者80例,采用随机数字表法分为对照组和实验组,每组各40例.对照组接受传统的糖尿病健康知识讲座,实验组在此基础上同时还接受为期2周的床旁饮食查房行为训练.观察2组入院时、干预后6个月的体质量指数(BMI)、腰臀比、空腹血糖、餐后2h血糖、糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c)变化及糖尿病饮食自我管理行为的变化.结果 干预后6个月实验组与对照组比较,BMI、腰臀比、空腹血糖、餐后2h血糖、HbA1c 5项指标显著下降,差异有统计学意义,P<0.01或0.05.与自身干预前比较,2组空腹血糖、餐后2h血糖、HbA1c显著下降,差异有统计学意义,P<0.01.实验组糖尿病饮食自我管理行为情况显著提升,差异有统计学意义,P<0.05.与干预前比较,2组糖尿病饮食自我管理行为情况显著提升,差异有统计学意义,P<0.01.结论 床旁饮食查房行为训练模式能更有效改善T2DM患者的饮食行为.%Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a dietary modification intervention model applied by ward nurse on change of dietary behavior among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Methods A total of 80 participants were divided into intervention patients (n=40) and control subjects (n=40) by random number table.Except lecture-based diabetes educational which was applied for control subjects,a dietary modification intervention model was conducted in intervention patients for a period of two weeks.The intervention program consisted of evaluating an individual's stage of change after being provided dietary information regarding kind of food and portions,discussion with a role model,and keeping a food diary record.Body mass index (BMI),waist-hip ratio (WHR),fasting plasma glucose (FPG),postprandial 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG),glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb

  11. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation and dietary interventions to reduce oxidative stress in a secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patient leads to marked gains in function: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, David; Shivapour, Ezzatolah T; Wahls, Terry L; Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna D; Shields, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation has been used to aid musculoskeletal recovery. Excessive oxidative stress and excitoxicity are implicated in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. A 52-year-old white female with SPMS had been scooter- and cane-dependent for 4 years. She requested and received a trial of neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Two months after initiating NMES the patient adopted several nutritional interventions to lower oxidative stress and excito-toxicity. During the first 2 months of neuromuscular electrical stimulation, the therapist observed modest gait improvements. Following the addition of nutritional interventions, more rapids gains in strength and endurance, including muscle groups not receiving neuromuscular electrical stimulation were observed by both the therapist and the patient. After 8 months of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (6 months of nutritional intervention) the patient's function had improved sufficiently that she no longer used a scooter or cane and rode her bicycle routinely 8 miles, including hills. PMID:19918474

  12. Effect of dietary intervention on preoperative patients by operating room nurses%手术室护士对术前患者实施饮食护理干预的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽芳; 别逢贵; 王慕华; 李柳英

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨手术室护士对术前患者实施饮食护理干预的方法与效果.方法 根据手术的先后顺序和手术时间的长短,预计手术开始时间,对手术患者进行饮食护理干预.结果 患者术前禁食、禁饮时间与我国手术患者术前禁食、禁饮标准接近;患者的基础血糖与术前血糖差异无统计学意义(P﹥0.05);未出现因术前禁食、禁饮时间过短而引起的手术改期及胃内容物的返流;患者饥饿、口渴能耐受,满意度较好.结论 手术室护士参与术前患者的饮食护理和指导,可缩短患者术前不必要的禁食、禁饮时间,提高手术患者满意度和手术的安全性,而且切实可行.%Objective To explore the methods and effects of dietary intervention on preoperative patients by operating room nurses. Methods According to the order, the length of time and the estimated onset time of surgery, the specific dietary intervention was implemented on the preoperative patients.Results The results showed that the fasting time before operation was close to the national standards of China. There was no significant difference between the basis of blood glucose and preoperative blood glucose ( P > 0.05 ). There was not an operation rescheduled or not a case of gastric content back flow because of too short fasting time before operation. Patients could be tolerated toward hungry and thirst, and their satisfaction was improved. Conclusion The preoperative dietary nursing and guidelines by operating room nurses can reduce the preoperative fasting time and improve patients satisfaction and surgical safety.

  13. Availability of and ease of access to calorie information on restaurant websites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary G Bennett

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Offering calories on restaurant websites might be particularly important for consumer meal planning, but the availability of and ease of accessing this information are unknown. METHODS: We assessed websites for the top 100 U.S. chain restaurants to determine the availability of and ease of access to calorie information as well as website design characteristics. We also examined potential predictors of calorie availability and ease of access. RESULTS: Eighty-two percent of restaurants provided calorie information on their websites; 25% presented calories on a mobile-formatted website. On average, calories could be accessed in 2.35±0.99 clicks. About half of sites (51.2% linked to calorie information via the homepage. Fewer than half had a separate section identifying healthful options (46.3%, or utilized interactive meal planning tools (35.4%. Quick service/fast casual, larger restaurants, and those with less expensive entrées and lower revenue were more likely to make calorie information available. There were no predictors of ease of access. CONCLUSION: Calorie information is both available and largely accessible on the websites of America's leading restaurants. It is unclear whether consumer behavior is affected by the variability in the presentation of calorie information.

  14. Availability of and Ease of Access to Calorie Information on Restaurant Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gary G.; Steinberg, Dori M.; Lanpher, Michele G.; Askew, Sandy; Lane, Ilana B.; Levine, Erica L.; Goodman, Melody S.; Foley, Perry B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Offering calories on restaurant websites might be particularly important for consumer meal planning, but the availability of and ease of accessing this information are unknown. Methods We assessed websites for the top 100 U.S. chain restaurants to determine the availability of and ease of access to calorie information as well as website design characteristics. We also examined potential predictors of calorie availability and ease of access. Results Eighty-two percent of restaurants provided calorie information on their websites; 25% presented calories on a mobile-formatted website. On average, calories could be accessed in 2.35±0.99 clicks. About half of sites (51.2%) linked to calorie information via the homepage. Fewer than half had a separate section identifying healthful options (46.3%), or utilized interactive meal planning tools (35.4%). Quick service/fast casual, larger restaurants, and those with less expensive entrées and lower revenue were more likely to make calorie information available. There were no predictors of ease of access. Conclusion Calorie information is both available and largely accessible on the websites of America’s leading restaurants. It is unclear whether consumer behavior is affected by the variability in the presentation of calorie information. PMID:23977193

  15. Did HealthKick, a randomised controlled trial primary school nutrition intervention improve dietary quality of children in low-income settings in South Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Steyn, Nelia P; de Villiers, Anniza; Gwebushe, Nomonde; Draper, Catherine E.; Hill, Jillian; de Waal, Marina; Dalais, Lucinda; Abrahams, Zulfa; Lombard, Carl; Lambert, Estelle V

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous studies in schools in the Western Cape Province, South Africa have shown that children have an unhealthy diet with poor diversity and which is high in sugar and fat. HealthKick (HK) was a three-year randomised controlled trial aimed at promoting healthy eating habits. Methods Sixteen schools were selected from two low-income school districts and randomly allocated to intervention (n = 8) or control school (n = 8) status. The HK intervention comprised numerous activities to...

  16. [The use of total enteral formula with enriched nutrient in home Low Calorie Diet(LCD)therapy based on regular meal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Akiko; Ibata, Takeshi; Shinoki, Keiji; Ando, Yukiko; Hirata, Takahiro; Kojima, Atsuko; Nishijima, Ritsuko; Doi, Seiko; Komuro, Ryutaro; Iijima, Shohei

    2010-12-01

    We made a low calorie diet(LCD)menu which added two commercial supporting nutritional supplements to a meal. Because a conventional formula food is very expensive, the patient was not able to afford it at home. Those supplements are a total enteral formula with enriched nutrient(ACURE EN800)and vitamin-mineral rich drink(V CRESC). The contents of vitamin and mineral in this menu satisfied the dietary reference intakes, though protein was a little low. However, we could keep the price low compared to the formula food. The patient was able to switch over to home LCD therapy with the menu.

  17. Dietary and medical management of recurrent nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Silvi; Calle, Juan Camilo

    2016-06-01

    Dietary approaches and medical treatment can prevent recurrence of urinary stones. Some interventions are appropriate for all types of stones, but there are particular risk factors that may need directed therapy. PMID:27281259

  18. Lentil and Kale: Complementary Nutrient-Rich Whole Food Sources to Combat Micronutrient and Calorie Malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Migliozzi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. is a nutritious food and a staple for millions of people. Not only are lentils a good source of energy, they also contain a range of micronutrients and prebiotic carbohydrates. Kale (Brassica oleracea v. acephala has been considered as a health food, but its full range of benefits and composition has not been extensively studied. Recent studies suggest that foods are enrich in prebiotic carbohydrates and dietary fiber that can potentially reduce risks of non-communicable diseases, including obesity, cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Lentil and kale added to a cereal-based diet would enhance intakes of essential minerals and vitamins to combat micronutrient malnutrition. This review provides an overview of lentil and kale as a complementary nutrient-rich whole food source to combat global malnutrition and calorie issues. In addition, prebiotic carbohydrate profiles and the genetic potential of these crops for further micronutrient enrichment are briefly discussed with respect to developing sustainable and nutritious food systems.

  19. Nutrition and Healthy Ageing: Calorie Restriction or Polyphenol-Rich “MediterrAsian” Diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Pallauf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet plays an important role in mammalian health and the prevention of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD. Incidence of CVD is low in many parts of Asia (e.g., Japan and the Mediterranean area (e.g., Italy, Spain, Greece, and Turkey. The Asian and the Mediterranean diets are rich in fruit and vegetables, thereby providing high amounts of plant bioactives including polyphenols, glucosinolates, and antioxidant vitamins. Furthermore, oily fish which is rich in omega-3 fatty acids is an important part of the Asian (e.g., Japanese and also of the Mediterranean diets. There are specific plant bioactives which predominantly occur in the Mediterranean (e.g., resveratrol from red wine, hydroxytyrosol, and oleuropein from olive oil and in the Asian diets (e.g., isoflavones from soybean and epigallocatechin gallate from green tea. Interestingly, when compared to calorie restriction which has been repeatedly shown to increase healthspan, these polyphenols activate similar molecular targets such as Sirt1. We suggest that a so-called “MediterrAsian” diet combining sirtuin-activating foods (= sirtfoods of the Asian as well as Mediterranean diet may be a promising dietary strategy in preventing chronic diseases, thereby ensuring health and healthy ageing. Future (human studies are needed which take the concept suggested here of the MediterrAsian diet into account.

  20. Lentil and Kale: Complementary Nutrient-Rich Whole Food Sources to Combat Micronutrient and Calorie Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliozzi, Megan; Thavarajah, Dil; Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Smith, Powell

    2015-11-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is a nutritious food and a staple for millions of people. Not only are lentils a good source of energy, they also contain a range of micronutrients and prebiotic carbohydrates. Kale (Brassica oleracea v. acephala) has been considered as a health food, but its full range of benefits and composition has not been extensively studied. Recent studies suggest that foods are enrich in prebiotic carbohydrates and dietary fiber that can potentially reduce risks of non-communicable diseases, including obesity, cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Lentil and kale added to a cereal-based diet would enhance intakes of essential minerals and vitamins to combat micronutrient malnutrition. This review provides an overview of lentil and kale as a complementary nutrient-rich whole food source to combat global malnutrition and calorie issues. In addition, prebiotic carbohydrate profiles and the genetic potential of these crops for further micronutrient enrichment are briefly discussed with respect to developing sustainable and nutritious food systems. PMID:26569296

  1. Effects of adult-onset calorie restriction on anxiety-like behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levay, Elizabeth A; Govic, Antonina; Penman, Jim; Paolini, Antonio G; Kent, Stephen

    2007-12-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) has consistently been shown to increase lifespan and ameliorate disease outcomes. Its effects on behavior are less clear, although anxiolytic-like effects have been observed. Rats were subjected to 1 of 4 dietary regimens: control, CR25%, CR50% and, an acute episode of CR and tested in 3 tests of anxiety: the open field test, the elevated plus maze, and the modified open field test. In the open field test, the CR25% and CR50% groups made more central zone entries than the control and Acute groups, which was primarily due to differences in the initial 5 min of the test. Moreover, both CR groups engaged in greater exploration of the central zone than the control group in the initial 5 min of the test. The Acute group also exhibited significantly longer latencies to leave the central zone at test onset than the control and CR50% group. In the elevated plus maze, the Acute group also displayed longer latencies to open arm entry as compared to the control and CR50% group and showed a lower ratio of open to total arm entries compared to all other groups. There were no effects of CR on any variable of the modified open field test. Possible neurochemical mechanisms underlying the anxiolytic-like effect of CR are discussed.

  2. Dietary Intervention Restored Menses in Female Athletes with Exercise-Associated Menstrual Dysfunction with Limited Impact on Bone and Muscle Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Cialdella-Kam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-related menstrual dysfunction (ExMD is associated with low energy availability (EA, decreased bone mineral density (BMD, and increased risk of musculoskeletal injury. We investigated whether a 6-month carbohydrate-protein (CHO-PRO supplement (360 kcal/day, 54 g CHO/day, 20 g PRO/day intervention would improve energy status and musculoskeletal health and restore menses in female athletes (n = 8 with ExMD. At pre/post-intervention, reproductive and thyroid hormones, bone health (BMD, bone mineral content, bone markers, muscle strength/power and protein metabolism markers, profile of mood state (POMS, and energy intake (EI/energy expenditure (7 day food/activity records were measured. Eumenorrheic athlete controls with normal menses (Eumen; n = 10 were measured at baseline. Multiple linear regressions were used to evaluate differences between groups and pre/post-intervention blocking on participants. Improvements in EI (+382 kcal/day; p = 0.12, EA (+417 kcal/day; p = 0.17 and energy balance (EB; +466 kcal/day; p = 0.14 were observed with the intervention but were not statistically significant. ExMD resumed menses (2.6 ± 2.2-months to first menses; 3.5 ± 1.9 cycles; one remaining anovulatory with menses. Female athletes with ExMD for >8 months took longer to resume menses/ovulation and had lower BMD (low spine (ExMD = 3; Eumen = 1; low hip (ExMD = 2 than those with ExMD for <8 months; for 2 ExMD the intervention improved spinal BMD. POMS fatigue scores were 15% lower in ExMD vs. Eumen (p = 0.17; POMS depression scores improved by 8% in ExMD (p = 0.12. EI, EA, and EB were similar between groups, but the intervention (+360 kcal/day improved energy status enough to reverse ExMD despite no statistically significant changes in EI. Similar baseline EA and EB between groups suggests that some ExMD athletes are more sensitive to EA and EB fluctuations.

  3. Dietary treatments of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, W

    1987-01-01

    Dietary treatment of obesity is based on one or another of two premises: that the obese eat too much or that they eat the wrong things. The first is a tautology lacking explanatory power. The second is a meaningful and promising hypothesis but has yet to be effectively applied. At present, virtually all outpatient treatments of obesity, including behavior modification, are based on the first premise and consist of strategies for reducing the subject's caloric intake. Most such interventions produce short-term weight loss. Regain after the end of treatment remains the usual outcome. A survey of studies published in the period 1977-1986 and reporting on dietary or behavioral treatment of obesity reveals that the maximum percentage of body weight lost is, on average, 8.5 percent--no different from the value, 8.9%, in similar studies from 1966-1976, as reviewed by Wing and Jeffery. The principal determinant of success in such programs appears to be the intake weight of the subjects: the higher the intake weight, the more successful the intervention will appear to be. The goals and research methods of studies on dietary treatments for obesity are overdue for ethical as well as scientific reevaluation. The same may be said for the numerous programs providing such treatment outside the context of research.

  4. Calories From Beverages Purchased at 2 Major Coffee Chains in New York City, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Christina; Dumanovsky, Tamara; Silver, Lynn D; Nonas, Cathy; Bassett, Mary T

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Calorie intake from beverages has increased in the past decades, which most likely contributes to higher obesity rates. Although coffee chains have grown in popularity in recent years, few data examine the calorie contribution of these drinks. We examined afternoon beverage purchases in New York City at 2 major coffee chains and estimated the mean calorie content of these beverages. Methods We collected purchase receipts and brief surveys from adult customers at 42 Starbucks and ...

  5. Does the history of food energy units suggest a solution to "Calorie confusion"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hargrove James L

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Calorie (kcal of present U.S. food labels is similar to the original French definition of 1825. The original published source (now available on the internet defined the Calorie as the quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water from 0 to 1°C. The Calorie originated in studies concerning fuel efficiency for the steam engine and had entered dictionaries by 1840. It was the only energy unit in English dictionaries available to W.O. Atwater in 1887 for his popular articles on food and tables of food composition. Therefore, the Calorie became the preferred unit of potential energy in nutrition science and dietetics, but was displaced when the joule, g-calorie and kcal were introduced. This article will explain the context in which Nicolas Clément-Desormes defined the original Calorie and the depth of his collaboration with Sadi Carnot. It will review the history of other energy units and show how the original Calorie was usurped during the period of international standardization. As a result, no form of the Calorie is recognized as an SI unit. It is untenable to continue to use the same word for different thermal units (g-calorie and kg-calorie and to use different words for the same unit (Calorie and kcal. The only valid use of the Calorie is in common speech and public nutrition education. To avoid ongoing confusion, scientists should complete the transition to the joule and cease using kcal in any context.

  6. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation and dietary interventions to reduce oxidative stress in a secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patient leads to marked gains in function: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Reese, David; Shivapour, Ezzatolah T; Wahls, Terry L.; Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna D; Shields, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation has been used to aid musculoskeletal recovery. Excessive oxidative stress and excitoxicity are implicated in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. A 52-year-old white female with SPMS had been scooter- and cane-dependent for 4 years. She requested and received a trial of neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Two months after initiating NMES the patient adopted several nutritional interventions to lower oxidative stress and excito-toxicity. During the f...

  7. Noni-based nutritional supplementation and exercise interventions influence body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afa K Palu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of obesity and overweight in the Unites States has reached unprecedented levels, and so has the need for effective exercise and nutritional programs for prevention of unhealthy weight gain or safe weight loss. Aims: The present study was conducted in overweight men and women to assess the impact of noni-based nutritional supplementation and exercise interventions on body composition. Materials and Methods: Twenty two participants (16 women and 6 men, ages 18-65, were enrolled in a 12-week, open-label trial of a weight-loss program involving noni-based dietary supplements, gender-specific daily calorie restriction, and exercise interventions. Weight, percent body fat, and body mass index were measured before and after the trial. Results: All participants experienced weight loss. The average decrease in fat mass was highly significant (P < 0.0001, as were decreases in percent body fat and body mass index. Individual weight and fat mass losses were 17.55 ± 9.73 and 21.78 ± 8.34 lbs., respectively, and individual percent body fat and body mass index decreases were 8.91 ± 3.58 % and 2.6 ± 1.32, respectively. Conclusion: The nutritional and exercise interventions significantly influenced body composition among participants.

  8. 老年食管癌化疗患者营养状况评价及饮食干预%Assessment of Nutritional Status and Dietary Intervention Strategies in Elderly Patients with Esophageal Cancer Treated by Chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍启德; 刘敏; 孙李凌; 周利霞; 张海鹏; 刘军清

    2015-01-01

    目的:利用微型营养评定表(MNA)对老年食管癌化疗患者营养状况进行评价,并进行早期营养干预,评价其临床效果。方法采用 MNA 问卷对90例老年食管癌化疗患者进行评价,根据评价结果将患者分为2组:营养良好组、营养风险组及营养不良组,并对后2组患者进行针对性营养干预,分别在干预后第2、4周进行营养评价。结果不同时间3组指标比较差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05)。营养干预后,营养风险组和营养不良组 MNA 评分较入院时明显提高(P <0.05)。结论采用 MNA 评估老年食管癌化疗患者的营养状况并采取针对性饮食干预可明显改善其营养状况。%Objective To explore and utilize the mini nutritional assessment(MNA)scale to screen the nutri-tional status of elderly patients with esophageal cancer treated by chemotherapy and implement the early nutritional intervention,to evaluate the clinical effectiveness. Methods MNA questionnaire was used to screen 90 elderly pa-tients with esophageal cancer treated by chemotherapy and the patients were divided into three groups:the good nu-trition group,the nutritional risk group and the malnutrition group according to the screening results. The patients in the nutritional risk group and the malnutrition group were given targeted nutritional intervention,nutritional status of the patients was evaluated respectively in 2 and 4 weeks after nutritional intervention. Results The differences in the indicators of the different admission time among the three groups were statistically significant(P < 0. 05);the MNA scores in the nutritional risk group and the malnutrition group were significantly increased in 2 and 4 weeks after intervention,compared with those on admission(P <0. 05). Conclusion MNA and targeted dietary intervention can significantly improve the nutritional status of elderly patients with esophageal cancer treated by chemotherapy.

  9. Calorie menu labeling on quick-service restaurant menus: an updated systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swartz Jonas J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nutrition labels are one strategy being used to combat the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 mandates that calorie labels be added to menu boards of chain restaurants with 20 or more locations. This systematic review includes seven studies published since the last review on the topic in 2008. Authors searched for peer-reviewed studies using PUBMED and Google Scholar. Included studies used an experimental or quasi-experimental design comparing a calorie-labeled menu with a no-calorie menu and were conducted in laboratories, college cafeterias, and fast food restaurants. Two of the included studies were judged to be of good quality, and five of were judged to be of fair quality. Observational studies conducted in cities after implementation of calorie labeling were imprecise in their measure of the isolated effects of calorie labels. Experimental studies conducted in laboratory settings were difficult to generalize to real world behavior. Only two of the seven studies reported a statistically significant reduction in calories purchased among consumers using calorie-labeled menus. The current evidence suggests that calorie labeling does not have the intended effect of decreasing calorie purchasing or consumption.

  10. Calorie menu labeling on quick-service restaurant menus: an updated systematic review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition labels are one strategy being used to combat the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 mandates that calorie labels be added to menu boards of chain restaurants with 20 or more locations. This systematic review includes seven studies published since the last review on the topic in 2008. Authors searched for peer-reviewed studies using PUBMED and Google Scholar. Included studies used an experimental or quasi-experimental design comparing a calorie-labeled menu with a no-calorie menu and were conducted in laboratories, college cafeterias, and fast food restaurants. Two of the included studies were judged to be of good quality, and five of were judged to be of fair quality. Observational studies conducted in cities after implementation of calorie labeling were imprecise in their measure of the isolated effects of calorie labels. Experimental studies conducted in laboratory settings were difficult to generalize to real world behavior. Only two of the seven studies reported a statistically significant reduction in calories purchased among consumers using calorie-labeled menus. The current evidence suggests that calorie labeling does not have the intended effect of decreasing calorie purchasing or consumption. PMID:22152038

  11. Trends in the consumption of low-calorie sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvetsky, Allison C; Rother, Kristina I

    2016-10-01

    Low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) offer a palatable alternative to caloric sugars such as sucrose (table sugar) and high fructose corn syrup and are commonly found in soft drinks, sweetener packets, grains, snack foods, dairy products, hygiene products, and medications. Consumption of LCS has increased significantly in recent years and while this trend is expected to continue, controversy exists surrounding their use. The purpose of this article is to review trends in the consumption of LCS, to summarize differences in LCS consumption across socio-demographic subgroups and subtypes of LCS-containing products, and to highlight important challenges in the accurate assessment of LCS consumption. PMID:27039282

  12. Stevia, Nature’s Zero-Calorie Sustainable Sweetener

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Stevia is a plant native to South America that has been used as a sweetener for hundreds of years. Today, zero-calorie stevia, as high-purity stevia leaf extract, is being used globally to reduce energy and added sugar content in foods and beverages. This article introduces stevia, explaining its sustainable production, metabolism in the body, safety assessment, and use in foods and drinks to assist with energy reduction. The article also summarizes current thinking of the evidence for the role of nonnutritive sweeteners in energy reduction. Overall, stevia shows promise as a new tool to help achieve weight management goals. PMID:27471327

  13. The clinical effect of dietary intervention on pregnancy complicating iron deficiency anaemia%饮食干预治疗妊娠合并缺铁性贫血的临床效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨跃冬

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the methods and effect of dietary intervention on pregnancy complicating iron deficiency anaemia. Methods:Choosed 130 pregnant women complicating iron deficiency anaemia from Jan. 2011 to Jun. 2012 to divide into study group and controlled group. Controlled group were treated with common medicine, and study group were added dietary intervention on based treatment. Compared RBC, Hb, SI, SF and sTFR before and after treatment. Results:All the indexes in these two groups were improved(p<0.05), and the effect rate in study group was higher than controlled group(p<0.05). Conclusion:The effect of dietary intervention on pregnancy complicating iron deficiency anaemia is significant to extend in clinic.%目的:研究分析饮食干预治疗妊娠合并缺铁性贫血的临床治疗方式和治疗效果。方法:回顾性分析2011年1月-2012年6月期间,我院门诊治疗的130例妊娠合并缺铁性贫血患者的临床资料。按照患者治疗期间所接受的治疗方式不同,将130例患者随机分为两组:对照组66例,采用常规药物治疗;观察组64例,在常规治疗的基础上采用饮食干预治疗。比较两组患者治疗30天后的RBC、Hb、SI、SF和sTfR水平和治疗效果。结果:治疗30天后两组患者的上述指标水平均发生明显变化,与治疗前比较差异明显,具有统计学意义,(P<0.05),但观察组患者的水平变化优于对照组,(P<0.05),且治疗后观察组患者的治疗总有效率明显高于对照组,两组比较具有统计学意义,(P<0.05)。结论:在药物治疗妊娠合并缺铁性贫血的同时联合饮食干预疗效显著,值得临床推广。

  14. Nutrient adequacy during weight loss interventions: a randomized study in women comparing the dietary intake in a meal replacement group with a traditional food group

    OpenAIRE

    Bovee Vicki; Clodfelter Sharon; Herzog Holly; Ashley Judith M; Schrage Jon; Pritsos Chris

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Safe and effective weight control strategies are needed to stem the current obesity epidemic. The objective of this one-year study was to document and compare the macronutrient and micronutrient levels in the foods chosen by women following two different weight reduction interventions. Methods Ninety-six generally healthy overweight or obese women (ages 25–50 years; BMI 25–35 kg/m2) were randomized into a Traditional Food group (TFG) or a Meal Replacement Group (MRG) incor...

  15. A Dynamic Panel Model of the Associations of Sweetened Beverage Purchases With Dietary Quality and Food-Purchasing Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Piernas, Carmen; Ng, Shu Wen; Mendez, Michelle A.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-01-01

    Investigating the association between consumption of sweetened beverages and dietary quality is challenging because issues such as reverse causality and unmeasured confounding might result in biased and inconsistent estimates. Using a dynamic panel model with instrumental variables to address those issues, we examined the independent associations of beverages sweetened with caloric and low-calorie sweeteners with dietary quality and food-purchasing patterns. We analyzed purchase data from the...

  16. When less is more: the P13K pathway as a determinant of tumor response to dietary restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul J Coffer

    2009-01-01

    @@ For centuries, either due to the scar-city of food or for religious reasons, the beneficial effects of dietary restriction on health and well-being have been appreciated.Reduced calorie intake has been observed to be the most ef-fective way of extending the life-span of mammals without genetically alter-ing them.

  17. [Meeting of calory and protein requirements in developing countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, H D

    1976-03-01

    While we have definite ideas regarding the requirements for energy and proteins, we have to rely on statistical data whether these requirements are actually met. In spite of the common unreliability of these data, they serve as an useful indicator of the general situation. The supply of nutritional energy represents the average energy requirement for the populations of most developing countries. However, the insufficient supply of high grade protein remains the main nutritional problem of most of these countries. To solve these problems, the following possibilities exist: --Ensuring a sufficient calorie supply so that valuable protein is not wasted for the production of energy --Improving the supply of protein-rich staple food --Supplementing of food with local protien-rich products --Introducing lifestock only when the foodstuff available cannot be used directly for human consumption -- Improving the staple food, introducing higher grade strains of cereals --Producing protein-rich vegetable mixture from local foodstuff --Utilization of synthetic amino acids and of new protein sources. To meet the requirements for calories, and especially for hgih grade protein, is possible only by international and interdisciplinary efforts of all experts concerned with nutrition in any way.

  18. Effects of dietary intervention on diabetic patients and high-risk populations in community%社区糖尿病及其高危人群饮食干预效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐幽琼; 郑高; 王春兰; 郑能雄; 许榕仙

    2013-01-01

    料的摄入量则显著下降(t=8.376、2.702、4.155、3.121、8.494、6.702、10.854,均P<0.01).结论 饮食干预可有效改善社区人群的膳食和营养结构,促进健康.其中糖尿病患者及高危人群的干预效果优于一般人群.但部分干预对象的饮食结构仍不合乎标准,因此社区饮食干预仍需长期开展,并强调控制豆类、油盐摄入量,提高果蔬及乳类摄入量.%Objective To evaluate the effects of comprehensive dietary interventions on diabetes in community populations.Methods Two communities in Drum-tower District of Fuzhou were randomly selected as the intervention community (Antai community) and control community (Wenquan community)respectively.Comprehensive dietary interventions were provided to the intervention community from October 2009 to October 2011,while no interventions to the control community.Two years after interventions,30 groups with 100 families each were randomly selected according to the actual household distributions in the two communities.A total of 3702 and 3666 people in the intervention community and the control community were investigated with questionnaires on their food frequency.Physical examination (including height,weight,blood sugar,blood pressure,etc) was also conducted.There were 980,2070 and 652 peoples in the general population,high-risk population and the diabetic population,respectively,in the intervention community; and 898,2016 and 692 people in the 3 populations in the control community.Data were analyzed with Chi-square test on the rate check and t test on the means comparison.Results There was a significant difference in archiving rate between the two communities (76.7% and 71.2% for intervention and control community respectively,x2 =294.69,P < 0.01).Compared with the control community,fasting blood glucose of the 3 populations were significant decreased; so were the body mass index and systolic blood pressure of the high-risk or the diabetic population

  19. Short-Term Preoperative Calorie and Protein Restriction Is Feasible in Healthy Kidney Donors and Morbidly Obese Patients Scheduled for Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongbloed, Franny; de Bruin, Ron W. F.; Klaassen, René A.; Beekhof, Piet; van Steeg, Harry; Dor, Frank J. M. F.; van der Harst, Erwin; Dollé, Martijn E. T.; IJzermans, Jan N. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Surgery-induced oxidative stress increases the risk of perioperative complications and delay in postoperative recovery. In mice, short-term preoperative dietary and protein restriction protect against oxidative stress. We investigated the feasibility of a calorie- and protein-restricted diet in two patient populations. Methods. In this pilot study, 30 live kidney donors and 38 morbidly obese patients awaiting surgery were randomized into three groups: a restricted diet group, who received a synthetic liquid diet with 30% fewer calories and 80% less protein for five consecutive days; a group who received a synthetic diet containing the daily energy requirements (DER); and a control group. Feasibility was assessed using self-reported discomfort, body weight changes, and metabolic parameters in blood samples. Results. Twenty patients (71%) complied with the restricted and 13 (65%) with the DER-diet. In total, 68% of the patients reported minor discomfort that resolved after normal eating resumed. The mean weight loss on the restricted diet was significantly greater (2.4 kg) than in the control group (0 kg, p = 0.002), but not in the DER-diet (1.5 kg). The restricted diet significantly reduced levels of serum urea and plasma prealbumin (PAB) and retinol binding protein (RBP). Conclusions. A short-term preoperative calorie- and protein-restricted diet is feasible in kidney donors and morbidly obese patients. Compliance is high and can be objectively measured via changes in urea, PAB, and RBP levels. These results demonstrate that this diet can be used to study the effects of dietary restriction on surgery-induced oxidative stress in a clinical setting. PMID:27213441

  20. Short-Term Preoperative Calorie and Protein Restriction Is Feasible in Healthy Kidney Donors and Morbidly Obese Patients Scheduled for Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franny Jongbloed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Surgery-induced oxidative stress increases the risk of perioperative complications and delay in postoperative recovery. In mice, short-term preoperative dietary and protein restriction protect against oxidative stress. We investigated the feasibility of a calorie- and protein-restricted diet in two patient populations. Methods. In this pilot study, 30 live kidney donors and 38 morbidly obese patients awaiting surgery were randomized into three groups: a restricted diet group, who received a synthetic liquid diet with 30% fewer calories and 80% less protein for five consecutive days; a group who received a synthetic diet containing the daily energy requirements (DER; and a control group. Feasibility was assessed using self-reported discomfort, body weight changes, and metabolic parameters in blood samples. Results. Twenty patients (71% complied with the restricted and 13 (65% with the DER-diet. In total, 68% of the patients reported minor discomfort that resolved after normal eating resumed. The mean weight loss on the restricted diet was significantly greater (2.4 kg than in the control group (0 kg, p = 0.002, but not in the DER-diet (1.5 kg. The restricted diet significantly reduced levels of serum urea and plasma prealbumin (PAB and retinol binding protein (RBP. Conclusions. A short-term preoperative calorie- and protein-restricted diet is feasible in kidney donors and morbidly obese patients. Compliance is high and can be objectively measured via changes in urea, PAB, and RBP levels. These results demonstrate that this diet can be used to study the effects of dietary restriction on surgery-induced oxidative stress in a clinical setting.

  1. Improved metabolic response after 16 weeks of calorie-restricted low-glycaemic index diet and metformin in impaired glucose tolerance subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Helena Macedo da Costa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study analyzed the metabolic effects of dietary advice to follow calorie-restricted low-glycaemic index diet with metformin in overweight / obese impaired glucose tolerance subjects. Methods: Sixteen subjects with body mass index between 27-38 kg/m² were followed monthly for 16 weeks and treated with metformin (1 g/day and dietary prescription for low-glycaemic index diet with energy reduction of 25-30% their total energy expenditure. Glucose metabolism, lipid profile, anthropometric and body composition, and food intake parameters were measured before and after the treatment. Paired t-tests/Wilcoxon tests were used to compare differences from baseline, with a statistical significance criterion of p < 0.05. Results: There were significant reductions in anthropometric and body composition parameters, decrease in HOMA2-%β and triglycerides concentrations, and increase in Cederholm index. These results show enhanced peripheral insulin sensitivity and preservation of pancreatic beta-cell function. Conclusion: Calorie-restricted low-glycaemic index diet and metformin was benefit to metabolic and anthropometric parameters in overweight/obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

  2. Dietary protein intake in community-dwelling, frail, and institutionalized elderly people: scope for improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieland, C.A.B.; Borgonjen-van den Berg, K.J.; Loon, van L.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Adequate dietary protein intake is required to postpone and treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Insight into dietary protein intake in this heterogeneous population segment is needed to locate dietary inadequacies and to identify target populations and feeding strategies for dietary interventions. T

  3. Five Years Later: Awareness Of New York City's Calorie Labels Declined, With No Changes In Calories Purchased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Jonathan; Torres, Alejandro; Abrams, Courtney; Elbel, Brian

    2015-11-01

    To follow up on a previous study that examined how the mandated displaying of calorie information on menu boards in fast-food restaurants in New York City influenced consumers' behavior, we analyzed itemized cash register receipts and survey responses from 7,699 consumers at four fast-food chains. Using a difference-in-differences study design, we found that consumers exposed to menu labeling immediately after the mandate took effect in 2008 and at three points in 2013-14 reported seeing and using the information more often than their counterparts at fast-food restaurants without menu labeling. In each successive period of data collection, the percentage of respondents noticing and using the information declined, while remaining above the prelabeling baseline. There were no statistically significant changes over time in levels of calories or other nutrients purchased or in the frequency of visits to fast-food restaurants. Menu labeling at fast-food chain restaurants, which the Affordable Care Act requires to be implemented nationwide in 2016, remains an unproven strategy for improving the nutritional quality of consumer food choices at the population level. Additional policy efforts that go beyond labeling and possibly alter labeling to increase its impact must be considered. PMID:26526247

  4. Effects of Dietary Strawberry Supplementation on Antioxidant Biomarkers in Obese Adults with Above Optimal Serum Lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Basu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Berries have shown several cardiovascular health benefits and have been associated with antioxidant functions in experimental models. Clinical studies are limited. We examined the antioxidant effects of freeze-dried strawberries (FDS in adults [n=60; age: 49±10 years; BMI: 36±5 kg/m2 (mean ± SD] with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. Participants were randomized to one of the following arms: low dose strawberry (25 g/day FDS, low dose control beverage (LD-C, high dose strawberry (50 g/d FDS, and high dose control beverage (HD-C for 12 weeks. Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Plasma antioxidant capacity, trace elements (copper, iron, selenium, and zinc, whole blood glutathione (GSH, and enzyme activity (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were examined at screening (0 week and after 12 weeks’ intervention. At 12 weeks, plasma antioxidant capacity and glutathione levels were higher in the strawberry versus control groups (low and high dose FDS: 45% and 42% for plasma antioxidant capacity and 28% and 36% for glutathione, resp.; glutathione was higher in the high versus low dose strawberry group (all p<0.05. Serum catalase activity was higher in the low dose strawberry (43% versus control group (p<0.01. No differences were noted in plasma trace elements and glutathione enzyme activity. Dietary strawberries may selectively increase plasma antioxidant biomarkers in obese adults with elevated lipids.

  5. [Effects of low calorie sweeteners based on data from clinical trials, in vitro and animal studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szűcs, Zsuzsanna; Ábel, Tatjána; Lengyel, Gabriella

    2016-04-01

    Low calorie sweeteners are used by many consumers as they can provide the sweet taste without calories and, therefore, they may have a beneficial effect on weight management. These positive outcomes are often questioned and accused of keeping up or increasing a liking for sweetness and leading to overconsumption of sugar containing food and beverages. The most recent studies failed to find any positive correlation between usage of low calorie sweeteners and craving for sweet taste. In randomized controlled trials consumption of low calorie sweeteners have accompanied with lower intake of sugar containing food, higher healthy eating index and better weight management. Several laboratory trials on cell cultures and animal studies found a link between the usage of low calorie sweeteners and positive metabolic effects, e.g. smaller ectopic fat deposits in the fat and liver tissue versus controll group. In addition, increased adipogenesis and reduction of lipolysis were also observed. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(Suppl. 1), 3-7. PMID:27088713

  6. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN BLOOD PRESSURE AND BODY WEIGHT, SERUM LEPTIN IN HIGH CALORIE DIET-INDUCED OBESE RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Zhi; Ma Aiqun; Yang Chun; Tian Hongyan

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine the change of body weight (BW) and blood pressure (BP) in obese rats, clarify relationships between BP and BW and other factors. Methods Male Spraque-Dawley rats were fed either with normal diet (ND) or high calorie diet (HC) for 20 weeks. BW and BP of tail artery were observed biweekly and tetraweekly respectively; serum leptin and fasting insulin (FINS) were detected by enzyme-linked immunoadsordent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) respectively. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and free fatty acid(FFA) were measured by conventional means. Results BW, abdominal fat weight (AFW), ratio of abdominal fat weight to body weight (RF/W), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), serum levels of leptin and FINS, FPG, FFA increased in the HD group after 20 weeks diet intervention (P<0.05 or P<0.01). SBP was strongly correlated with BW, leptin, FINS and FFA (P<0.05), DBP was correlated with FFA (r=0.47, P<0.05). In addition, leptin was positively correlated with BW, AFW, RF/W, FINS and FFA (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion In this study of high calorie-diet induced rats, the gain of BW is accompanied by increased BP. The obese rats have hyperleptinemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia which may have important effects on the development of obesity-related hypertension. RF/W is the key factor in which affect serum leptin level.

  7. Individualized Tailor-Made Dietetic Intervention Program at Schools Enhances Eating Behaviors and Dietary Habits in Obese Hispanic Children of Low Socioeconomic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Elizondo-Montemayor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hispanic children and those from low-socioeconomic status are predisposed to unhealthy eating habits and obesity. Aim. to implement an individualized, face-to-face, parent supported, and school-partnership dietetic intervention to promote healthy eating habits and decrease body mass index. Prospective school year dietetic intervention of 101 obese, Hispanic, low-socioeconomic school-age children representative of Monterrey, Mexico, consisted of anthropometrics, dietetic assessment, energy-restriction tailor-made daily menus, and parental education every three weeks. Student’s t-test was used for means comparison. A significant decrease was found in body mass index percentile (96.43±3.32 to 93.42±8.12/P=0.00 and energy intake/day of −755.7 kcal/day (P=0.00. Among other energy dense foods with significant decline in servings/day and servings/week were processed meats (3.13 ± 1.43 to 2.19 ± 1.04/P=0.00 and 5.60 ± 1.75 to 4.37 ± 2.10/P=0.00, resp., saturated fat (1.47 ± 1.08 to 0.78 ± 0.79/P=0.00 and 2.19±2.18 to 1.1±1.36/P=0.00, sweetened beverages (2.79±1.99 to 1.42±1.21 and 6.21±1.72 to 3.89±2.80/P=0.00, and desserts and refined-grain bakery (1.99±1.54 to 1.32±1.59 and 2.85 ± 2.54 to 1.57 ± 2.20/P=0.00. There was a significant increase in servings/day and servings/week of water (2.98 ± 2.02 to 4.91 ± 2.37 and 6.62 ± 2.03 to 6.87 ± 0.91/P=0.00, resp. and nutrient dense foods such as fruits (1.31 ± 0.89 to 1.66 ± 0.96 and 3.34 ± 2.24 to 4.28 ± 2.43/P=0.00 and fish and poultry (3.76 ± 2.15 to 4.54 ± 2.25/P=0.00. This intervention created healthy eating habits and decreased body mass index in a high risk population. Trial registration number: NCT01925976.

  8. Low Calorie Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality in British Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid A. Gibson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS (2008–2011; n = 1590, classified into: (a non-consumers of soft drinks (NC; (b LCB consumers; (c sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumers; or (d consumers of both beverages (BB, based on 4-day dietary records. Within-person data on beverage consumption on different days assessed the impact on energy intake. LCB consumers and NC consumed less energy and non-milk extrinsic sugars than other groups. Micronutrient intakes and food choices suggested higher dietary quality in NC/LCB consumers compared with SSB/BB consumers. Within individuals on different days, consumption of SSB, milk, juice, and alcohol were all associated with increased energy intake, while LCB and tea, coffee or water were associated with no change; or reduced energy intake when substituted for caloric beverages. Results indicate that NC and LCB consumers tend to have higher quality diets compared with SSB or BB consumers and do not compensate for sugar or energy deficits by consuming more sugary foods.

  9. Low Calorie Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality in British Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sigrid A; Horgan, Graham W; Francis, Lucy E; Gibson, Amelia A; Stephen, Alison M

    2016-01-02

    It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB) leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) (2008-2011; n = 1590), classified into: (a) non-consumers of soft drinks (NC); (b) LCB consumers; (c) sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers; or (d) consumers of both beverages (BB), based on 4-day dietary records. Within-person data on beverage consumption on different days assessed the impact on energy intake. LCB consumers and NC consumed less energy and non-milk extrinsic sugars than other groups. Micronutrient intakes and food choices suggested higher dietary quality in NC/LCB consumers compared with SSB/BB consumers. Within individuals on different days, consumption of SSB, milk, juice, and alcohol were all associated with increased energy intake, while LCB and tea, coffee or water were associated with no change; or reduced energy intake when substituted for caloric beverages. Results indicate that NC and LCB consumers tend to have higher quality diets compared with SSB or BB consumers and do not compensate for sugar or energy deficits by consuming more sugary foods.

  10. Low Calorie Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality in British Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sigrid A; Horgan, Graham W; Francis, Lucy E; Gibson, Amelia A; Stephen, Alison M

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB) leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) (2008-2011; n = 1590), classified into: (a) non-consumers of soft drinks (NC); (b) LCB consumers; (c) sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers; or (d) consumers of both beverages (BB), based on 4-day dietary records. Within-person data on beverage consumption on different days assessed the impact on energy intake. LCB consumers and NC consumed less energy and non-milk extrinsic sugars than other groups. Micronutrient intakes and food choices suggested higher dietary quality in NC/LCB consumers compared with SSB/BB consumers. Within individuals on different days, consumption of SSB, milk, juice, and alcohol were all associated with increased energy intake, while LCB and tea, coffee or water were associated with no change; or reduced energy intake when substituted for caloric beverages. Results indicate that NC and LCB consumers tend to have higher quality diets compared with SSB or BB consumers and do not compensate for sugar or energy deficits by consuming more sugary foods. PMID:26729159

  11. Dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madar, Z; Thorne, R

    1987-01-01

    Studies done on dietary fiber (DF) over the past five years are presented in this Review. The involvement of dietary fiber in the control of plasma glucose and lipid levels is now established. Two dietary fiber sources (soybean and fenugreek) were studied in our laboratory and are discussed herein. These sources were found to be potentially beneficial in the reduction of plasma glucose in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus subjects. They are shown to be acceptable by human subjects and are easy to use either in a mixture of milk products and in cooking. The mechanism by which dietary fiber alters the nutrient absorption is also discussed. The effect of DF on gastric emptying, transit time, adsorption and glucose transport may contribute to reducing plasma glucose and lipid levels. DF was found to be effective in controlling blood glucose and lipid levels of pregnant diabetic women. Dietary fiber may also be potentially beneficial in the reduction of exogenous insulin requirements in these subjects. However, increased consumption of DF may cause adverse side effects; the binding capabilities of fiber may affect nutrient availability, particularly that of minerals and prolonged and high DF dosage supplementation must be regarded cautiously. This is particularly true when recommending such a diet for pregnant or lactating women, children or subjects with nutritional disorders. Physiological effects of DF appear to depend heavily on the source and composition of fiber. Using a combination of DF from a variety of sources may reduce the actual mass of fiber required to obtain the desired metabolic effects and will result in a more palatable diet. Previously observed problems, such as excess flatus, diarrhea and mineral malabsorption would also be minimized.

  12. Compliance, Palatability and Feasibility of PALEOLITHIC and Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets in Healthy Women: A 4-Week Dietary Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Genoni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background/Objectives: The Paleolithic diet has been receiving media coverage in Australia and claims to improve overall health. The diet removes grains and dairy, whilst encouraging consumption of fruits, vegetables, meat, eggs and nuts. Our aim was to compare the diet to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE in terms of compliance, palatability and feasibility; (2 Subjects/Methods: 39 healthy women (age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m2 were randomised to an ad-libitum Paleolithic (n = 22 or AGHE diet (n = 17 for 4-weeks. A food checklist was completed daily, with mean discretionary consumption (serves/day calculated to assess compliance. A 12-item questionnaire was administered post intervention to assess palatability and feasibility; (3 Results: The AGHE group reported greater daily consumption of discretionary items (1.0 + 0.6 vs. 0.57 + 0.6 serves/day, p = 0.03. Compared to the AGHE group, the Paleolithic group reported a significantly greater number of events of diarrhoea (23%, 0%, p = 0.046, costs associated with grocery shopping (69%, 6% p < 0.01 and belief that the diet was not healthy (43%, 0% p < 0.01; (4 Conclusions: Compliance to both diets was high but the potential side effects and increased cost suggest that the Paleolithic diet may not be practical in clinical/public health settings. Further studies are required to assess longer term feasibility.

  13. Compliance, Palatability and Feasibility of PALEOLITHIC and Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets in Healthy Women: A 4-Week Dietary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genoni, Angela; Lo, Johnny; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Devine, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    (1) BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The Paleolithic diet has been receiving media coverage in Australia and claims to improve overall health. The diet removes grains and dairy, whilst encouraging consumption of fruits, vegetables, meat, eggs and nuts. Our aim was to compare the diet to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of compliance, palatability and feasibility; (2) SUBJECTS/METHODS: 39 healthy women (age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m²) were randomised to an ad-libitum Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for 4-weeks. A food checklist was completed daily, with mean discretionary consumption (serves/day) calculated to assess compliance. A 12-item questionnaire was administered post intervention to assess palatability and feasibility; (3) RESULTS: The AGHE group reported greater daily consumption of discretionary items (1.0 + 0.6 vs. 0.57 + 0.6 serves/day, p = 0.03). Compared to the AGHE group, the Paleolithic group reported a significantly greater number of events of diarrhoea (23%, 0%, p = 0.046), costs associated with grocery shopping (69%, 6% p < 0.01) and belief that the diet was not healthy (43%, 0% p < 0.01); (4) CONCLUSIONS: Compliance to both diets was high but the potential side effects and increased cost suggest that the Paleolithic diet may not be practical in clinical/public health settings. Further studies are required to assess longer term feasibility. PMID:27509519

  14. Effects of dietary vitamin C and E supplementation on exercise-induced muscle damage among young Kelantan weightlifters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawash M. Mohammed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that markers of oxidative stress and muscle damage induced by weightlifting training could be decreased by supplementing subjects with dietary vitamin C and E. Hence, this study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin C and E supplementation on oxidative stress and muscle damage markers among male and female weight- lifters in Kelantan State, Malaysia. For this purpose, thirty two trained weightlifters were recruited and randomly assigned into two groups. The supplement group (n=16, 16.5± 2.2 years of age, 162.2 ± 10.4 cm of height, 65.7 ± 26.1 kg of body weight was given 500 mg of vitamin C and 400 IU of vitamin E per day, while the placebo group (n=16, 15 ± 1.7, 162.2 ± 10.4 cm, 61.5 ± 13.9 kg accordingly was given maltodextrine, zero calorie per day for 6 weeks. The following parameters were measured before and after intervention to detect the effects of supplementation: muscle circumference of mid-upper arm and calf, serum creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and urinary thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS. Data was expressed as median and interquartile at p 0.05 of dietary vitamin c and e supple- mentation on the muscle damage markers, CK and LDH, as well as on oxidative stress markers through urinary TBARS analysis, when the two study groups were compared. These results indicated that vitamin c and e were not effective in ameliorating markers of muscle damage and oxidative stress induced by weightlifting training. It might be possible that these weightlifters already have acquired protection, both structurally and biochemically, resulting from chronic exposure to weightlifting training.

  15. 对高血压患者实施终止高血压膳食疗法的干预性研究%Intervention study of dietary approaches to stop hypertension on patients with hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽丹; 刘玉; 田凤美

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过对Ⅰ级高血压病患者实施终止高血压膳食疗法(DASH)模式干预来控制高血压病患者的血压,延缓高血压的不可逆性发展.方法 按照DASH模式原则,对33例高血压病患者在不改变其他生活方式的前提下实施干预,根据研究对象身高、体重、日常活动量,为其制定个性化食谱,比较干预前和干预6个月后血压变化,比较服药组和未服药组患者血压变化.结果 干预6个月后,33例患者血压下降幅度差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);干预前和干预6个月后,服药组和未服药组患者血压差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 DASH模式可以有效降低血压,早期轻度高血压病患者可以通过调整饮食来控制血压.%Objective To control blood pressure of patients with hypertension grade Ⅰ and to improve life quality by implementing dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) model on them. Methods 33 patients were divided into medication group and control group. In terms of patients' height, weight and daily activities, personal daily menus were designed according to the DASH principle without changing their life styles. BP was recorded before and 6 months after the intervention and compared between the two groups.Results All the 33 patients had significantly lower BP 6 month after the intervention (P < 0. 05). There was no difference of BP between medication group and control group before and 6 months after the intervention(P >0. 05). Conclusions DASH model can reduce BP effectively. BP can be controlled by daily diet regulating in patients with mild hypertension.

  16. Annual Fasting; the Early Calories Restriction for Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solat Eslami

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Essentially, people’s diet and nutritional status has been changed substantially worldwide and several lines of evidence suggest that these changes are to the detriment of their health. Additionally, it has been well documented that unhealthy diet especially the fast foods, untraditional foods or bad-eating-habits influence the human gut microbiome. The gut microbiota shapes immune responses during human life and affects his/her metabolomic profiles. Furthermore, many studies highlight the molecular pathways that mediate host and symbiont interactions that regulate proper immune function and prevention of cancer in the body. Intriguingly, if cancer forms in a human body due to the weakness of immune system in detriment of microbiome, the removal of cancer stem cells can be carried out through early Calories Restriction with Annual Fasting (AF before tumor development or progress. Besides, fasting can b balance the gut microbiome for enhancement of immune system against cancer formation.

  17. Very low calorie diets--history, safety and recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertes, V

    1984-01-01

    Poor results from orthodox diets for the obese have emphasized the need for suitable alternatives such as very low calorie diets (VLCD). These have now been in use for some ten years and their advantages and pitfalls are well known. Initial investigations were based on the use of total fasting and examining the significance of protein supplementation during therapeutic starvation. Subsequent studies employed ordinary food stuffs as the protein source but included no carbohydrate. Others developed formula diets which involved the use of both protein and carbohydrate. In the U.S.A. diets such as these are either monitored by the medical profession or in some instances sold directly to the public. In these connections two areas of concern have emerged. One is the ability of patients to maintain weight loss and most importantly, the safety of the programme itself. It is now well established that unless some follow-up support is made available patients will not be stabilized at the reduced weight level. The use of behaviour modification, increased physical activity and the concept of free and fixed calories offers the hope of a more complete answer to weight control. The safety of VLCD became a cause for concern when liquid protein sold over the counter was associated with a number of deaths for which other causes could not be determined. Subsequent monitoring has indicated that where patients are maintained on high quality protein supplement the potentially lethal arrhythmias associated with liquid protein are not seen. On the basis of clinical experience in over 4000 patients it is felt that three factors are necessary for any programme to be maximally safe and efficient. These elements are proper patient selection, high quality supplement and proper patient monitoring. PMID:6514655

  18. The Effect of a Phaseolus vulgaris and Dietary Fiber Based Supplement on Advanced Glycation End Products: An Open-label Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett J. West

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Elevated Advanced Glycation End product (AGE levels are associated with certain impaired health states. As these are disruptive to the function of healthy tissues, due to their protein cross-linking ability, AGEs are significant contributors to the aging process. In fact, population studies have revealed that AGE levels tend to increase as we get older. Certain lifestyle and dietary factors may accelerate AGE accumulation. Therefore, strategies intended to modify these factors, or mitigate their effects, may be useful in controlling the aging process. In an 11 week open-label clinical trial, 30 adult volunteers consumed daily a commercially available combination of white kidney bean extract, dietary fibers, &beta-carotene and noni (Morinda citrifolia fruit pulp, in combination with calorie restriction and exercise. During the course of the trial, participants experienced significant weekly declines in average body weight and fat mass. The average AGE score, as measured by skin auto-fluorescence, had also decreased significantly. In terms of AGE associated years, the change in AGE scores corresponded to an average decrease of 8.83 years. The results indicate that the intervention contributed to improved health and exhibited anti-aging properties.

  19. Increased bile acids in enterohepatic circulation by short-term calorie restriction in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zidong Donna; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2013-12-15

    Previous studies showed glucose and insulin signaling can regulate bile acid (BA) metabolism during fasting or feeding. However, limited knowledge is available on the effect of calorie restriction (CR), a well-known anti-aging intervention, on BA homeostasis. To address this, the present study utilized a "dose-response" model of CR, where male C57BL/6 mice were fed 0, 15, 30, or 40% CR diets for one month, followed by BA profiling in various compartments of the enterohepatic circulation by UPLC-MS/MS technique. This study showed that 40% CR increased the BA pool size (162%) as well as total BAs in serum, gallbladder, and small intestinal contents. In addition, CR "dose-dependently" increased the concentrations of tauro-cholic acid (TCA) and many secondary BAs (produced by intestinal bacteria) in serum, such as tauro-deoxycholic acid (TDCA), DCA, lithocholic acid, ω-muricholic acid (ωMCA), and hyodeoxycholic acid. Notably, 40% CR increased TDCA by over 1000% (serum, liver, and gallbladder). Interestingly, 40% CR increased the proportion of 12α-hydroxylated BAs (CA and DCA), which correlated with improved glucose tolerance and lipid parameters. The CR-induced increase in BAs correlated with increased expression of BA-synthetic (Cyp7a1) and conjugating enzymes (BAL), and the ileal BA-binding protein (Ibabp). These results suggest that CR increases BAs in male mice possibly through orchestrated increases in BA synthesis and conjugation in liver as well as intracellular transport in ileum.

  20. Long-Term Calorie Restriction Enhances Cellular Quality-Control Processes in Human Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Calorie restriction (CR retards aging, acts as a hormetic intervention, and increases serum corticosterone and HSP70 expression in rodents. However, less is known regarding the effects of CR on these factors in humans. Serum cortisol and molecular chaperones and autophagic proteins were measured in the skeletal muscle of subjects on CR diets for 3–15 years and in control volunteers. Serum cortisol was higher in the CR group than in age-matched sedentary and endurance athlete groups (15.6 ± 4.6 ng/dl versus 12.3 ± 3.9 ng/dl and 11.2 ± 2.7 ng/dl, respectively; p ≤ 0.001. HSP70, Grp78, beclin-1, and LC3 mRNA and/or protein levels were higher in the skeletal muscle of the CR group compared to controls. Our data indicate that CR in humans is associated with sustained rises in serum cortisol, reduced inflammation, and increases in key molecular chaperones and autophagic mediators involved in cellular protein quality control and removal of dysfunctional proteins and organelles.

  1. Effectiveness of a Low-Calorie Weight Loss Program in Moderately and Severely Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia K. Winkler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare effectiveness of a 1-year weight loss program in moderately and severely obese patients. Methods: The study sample included 311 obese patients participating in a weight loss program, which comprised a 12-week weight reduction phase (low-calorie formula diet and a 40-week weight maintenance phase. Body weight and glucose and lipid values were determined at the beginning of the program as well as after the weight reduction and the weight maintenance phase. Participants were analyzed according to their BMI class at baseline (30-34.9 kg/m2; 35-39.9 kg/m2; 40-44.9 kg/m2; 45-49.9 kg/m2; ≥50 kg/m2. Furthermore, moderately obese patients (BMI 2 were compared to severely obese participants (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2. Results: Out of 311 participants, 217 individuals completed the program. Their mean baseline BMI was 41.8 ± 0.5 kg/m2. Average weight loss was 17.9 ± 0.6%, resulting in a BMI of 34.3 ± 0.4 kg/m2 after 1 year (p Conclusion: 1-year weight loss intervention improves body weight as well as lipid and glucose metabolism not only in moderately, but also in severely obese individuals.

  2. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population......-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease...... Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium....

  3. Consumer Estimation of Recommended and Actual Calories at Fast Food Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbel, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Recently, localities across the United States have passed laws requiring the mandatory labeling of calories in all chain restaurants, including fast food restaurants. This policy is set to be implemented at the federal level. Early studies have found these policies to be at best minimally effective in altering food choice at a population level. This paper uses receipt and survey data collected from consumers outside fast food restaurants in low-income communities in New York City (NYC) (which implemented labeling) and a comparison community (which did not) to examine two fundamental assumptions necessary (though not sufficient) for calorie labeling to be effective: that consumers know how many calories they should be eating throughout the course of a day and that currently customers improperly estimate the number of calories in their fast food order. Then, we examine whether mandatory menu labeling influences either of these assumptions. We find that approximately one-third of consumers properly estimate that the number of calories an adult should consume daily. Few (8% on average) believe adults should be eating over 2,500 calories daily, and approximately one-third believe adults should eat lesser than 1,500 calories daily. Mandatory labeling in NYC did not change these findings. However, labeling did increase the number of low-income consumers who correctly estimated (within 100 calories) the number of calories in their fast food meal, from 15% before labeling in NYC increasing to 24% after labeling. Overall knowledge remains low even with labeling. Additional public policies likely need to be considered to influence obesity on a large scale. PMID:21779085

  4. Physical exercise and brain responses to images of high-calorie food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D S; Kipman, Maia; Schwab, Zachary J; Tkachenko, Olga; Preer, Lily; Gogel, Hannah; Bark, John S; Mundy, Elizabeth A; Olson, Elizabeth A; Weber, Mareen

    2013-12-01

    Physical exercise has many health benefits, including improved cardiovascular fitness, lean muscle development, increased metabolism, and weight loss, as well as positive effects on brain functioning and cognition. Recent evidence suggests that regular physical exercise may also affect the responsiveness of reward regions of the brain to food stimuli. We examined whether the total number of minutes of self-reported weekly physical exercise was related to the responsiveness of appetite and food reward-related brain regions to visual presentations of high-calorie and low-calorie food images during functional MRI. Second, we examined whether such responses would correlate with self-reported food preferences. While undergoing scanning, 37 healthy adults (22 men) viewed images of high-calorie and low-calorie foods and provided desirability ratings for each food image. The correlation between exercise minutes per week and brain responses to the primary condition contrast (high-calorie>low-calorie) was evaluated within the amygdala, insula, and medial orbitofrontal cortex, brain regions previously implicated in responses to food images. Higher levels of exercise were significantly correlated with lower responsiveness within the medial orbitofrontal cortex and left insula to high-calorie foods. Furthermore, activation of these regions was positively correlated with preference ratings for high-calorie foods, particularly those with a savory flavor. These findings suggest that physical exercise may be associated with reduced activation in food-responsive reward regions, which are in turn associated with reduced preferences for unhealthy high-calorie foods. Physical exercise may confer secondary health benefits beyond its primary effects on cardiovascular fitness and energy expenditure.

  5. Caffeine Treatment Prevented from Weight Regain after Calorie Shifting Diet Induced Weight Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Davoodi, Sayed Hossein; Hajimiresmaiel, Seyed Javad; Ajami, Marjan; Mohseni-Bandpei, Anoushiravan; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Abdulmajid; Dowlatshahi, Kamran; Javedan, Gholamali; Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Low calorie diets are always difficult for obese subjects to follow and lead to metabolic and behavioral adaptation. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of caffeine treatment with calorie shifting diet (CSD) on weight loss. Female subjects (n=60; BMI≥25) completed 4-weeks control diet, 6-weeks CSD (3 repeated phases; each 2-weeks) and 4-weeks follow-up diet, with or without caffeine treatment (5 mg/Kg/day). The first 11 days of each phase included calorie restriction with four meals every day ...

  6. Integration of taste and calorie sensing in Drosophila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stafford, J.W.; Lynd, K.M.; Jung, A.Y.; Gordon, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    Animals use gustatory information to assess the suitability of potential food sources and make critical decisions on what to consume. For example, the taste of sugar generally signals a potent dietary source of carbohydrates. However, the intensity of the sensory response to a particular sugar, or "

  7. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Pregnancy Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuyang Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy will affect the outcomes for the mother and the baby. Many analyses of the relationship between diet and outcome are often based on a single or a few food items or nutrients. However, foods are not consumed in isolation and dietary patterns can be used to assess the whole diet consumed. The use of dietary pattern analysis to understand nutritional intake and pregnancy outcome is becoming more and more popular. Many published studies have showed the association between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. This review examined articles about the relationship between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. As a modifiable factor, dietary patterns may be more applicable to clinical and pregnant health interventions.

  8. Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Diabetes and Dietary Supplements: In Depth Share: On This ... health product or practice. Are dietary supplements for diabetes safe? Some dietary supplements may have side effects, ...

  9. Dietary Patterns and Non-communicable Diseases in Selected Latin American Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla-Chacín, María Eugenia; Marcano Vázquez, Luis T.; Sierra, Ricardo; Aldana, Úrsula

    2013-01-01

    To raise awareness among policymakers and health practitioners about unhealthy diets, this document examines dietary patterns in selected Latin American countries using household surveys. The analysis shows that a large percentage of households in the countries examined have inadequate diets. Not only are calorie intakes higher than recommended to maintain a healthy weight, but the diets are also rich in fats, particularly saturated fats, sugars and sodium, and poor in fruits and vegetables. ...

  10. Weight Gain, Metabolic Syndrome, and Breast Cancer Recurrence: Are Dietary Recommendations Supported by the Data?

    OpenAIRE

    Champ, Colin E.; Volek, Jeff S.; Joshua Siglin; Lianjin Jin; Simone, Nicole L.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome, which can include weight gain and central obesity, elevated serum insulin and glucose, and insulin resistance, has been strongly associated with breast cancer recurrence and worse outcomes after treatment. Epidemiologic and prospective data do not show conclusive evidence as to which dietary factors may be responsible for these results. Current strategies employ low-fat diets which emphasize supplementing calories with increased intake of fruit, grain, and vegetable carboh...

  11. Dietary Aspects of Weight Management in Cats and Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Deborah E; Parker, Valerie J

    2016-09-01

    The optimal weight loss diet for cats and dogs is best determined by obtaining a full dietary history and performing a detailed assessment of the pet, pet owner, and environment in which the pet lives. Incorporating information about pet and owner preferences allows for individualization of the weight management plan and has the potential to increase adherence. Calorie density, macronutrients, and micronutrient concentrations should be considered as part of a weight management plan. Owners should play an active role in the weight loss plan to have the best outcome. PMID:27289252

  12. Dietary fat and obesity: lack of an important role*

    OpenAIRE

    Willett, Walter C.

    2003-01-01

    The percentage of dietary energy from fat has been suggested to be an important determinant of body fat, and this presumed effect has been used to promote low-fat diets. In short-term randomized trials, a small reduction in body weight is typically seen in individuals randomized to diets with a lower percentage of calories from fat. However, in trials lasting for 1 year or longer, fat consumption within the range of 18-40% of energy had consistently had little if any effect on body fatness. T...

  13. Selected Intakes of Energy from Empty Calories, U.S. Population, 2001-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    This section provides information on population distributions of energy intakes from solid fats, alcoholic beverages and added sugars. These sources of energy comprise a major portion of the discretionary calories consumed by the US population.

  14. Positive affect modulates activity in the visual cortex to images of high calorie foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D S; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A

    2007-05-01

    Activity within the visual cortex can be influenced by the emotional salience of a stimulus, but it is not clear whether such cortical activity is modulated by the affective status of the individual. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the relationship between affect ratings on the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and activity within the occipital cortex of 13 normal-weight women while viewing images of high calorie and low calorie foods. Regression analyses revealed that when participants viewed high calorie foods, Positive Affect correlated significantly with activity within the lingual gyrus and calcarine cortex, whereas Negative Affect was unrelated to visual cortex activity. In contrast, during presentations of low calorie foods, affect ratings, regardless of valence, were unrelated to occipital cortex activity. These findings suggest a mechanism whereby positive affective state may affect the early stages of sensory processing, possibly influencing subsequent perceptual experience of a stimulus. PMID:17464782

  15. THE MEXICAN CALORIE ALLOCATION AMONG THE WORKING CLASS IN THE AMERICAN WEST, 1870-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Alan Carson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When measures for material conditions are sparse or unreliable, height and weight measurements are now widely accepted proxies that reflect changing economic conditions. This study uses two biological measurements related to height and weight: the basal metabolic rate (BMR and calorie accounting. BMRs and calories of Mexicans in the American West remained constant, indicating that their diets did not vary with United States economic development, but Mexican BMRs and diets varied with occupations. Farmers and unskilled workers had greater BMRs and received more calories per day than workers in other occupations. During much of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Mexicans born in Mexico received fewer calories in the US than Mexicans born in the West. Mexican nutrition and diets also did not vary by residence within the US, indicating that Mexican diets were similar across western states.

  16. Development of low calorie snack food based on intense sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Swapna; Ravi, R; Saraswathi, G; Prakash, Maya

    2014-12-01

    Intense sweeteners namely Aspartame, Acesulfame K and Sucralose were used in the preparation of sugar substitute sprinklers and these were used in snack food, replacing sugar. Study was conducted with an objective to develop low calorie snack food. The psychometric study showed that the threshold values for Acesulfame K, Aspartame and Sucralose were 0.012, 0.030 and 0.005 g respectively. The time intensity study revealed that among three sweeteners Aspartame had more lingering sweetness (at 60 s). The sensory evaluation of Shankarpoli prepared using refined wheat flour revealed that there was no significant difference in typical attributes of the snack; Aspartame and Acesulfame K had same sweetness intensity where as Sucralose had higher intensity of sweetness. Consumer acceptance study revealed that 53 % of the consumers liked the snack with Sucralose, which is highest compared to other two sweeteners namely Aspartame and Acesulfame K (47 %). Thus sweeteners can be used as sweetening agents in traditional food preparations. PMID:25477687

  17. Providing Calorie Information on Fast-Food Restaurant Menu Boards: Consumer Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Rebecca C.; Harnack, Lisa J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R.; Story, Mary T.; French, Simone A.; Oakes, J. Michael; Rydell, Sarah A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To gather consumer input about approaches to providing energy composition information for foods on fast-food restaurant menus. Design We asked a subset of individuals (n = 150) in an experimental study about the influence of nutrition labeling on fast-food meal choices to evaluate calorie information on mock fast-food menus in various formats. Setting Three community sites in the Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, metropolitan area. Subjects Adolescents and adults who ate fast food at least once per week were recruited. Measures Via a series of open- and close-ended questions, participants gave feedback about several formats for providing energy composition information for foods on fast-food restaurant menus. Analysis Means and frequencies were calculated, and χ2 tests were conducted. Results When asked to compare a menu that provided calorie information for each menu item with a menu that provided the number of minutes of running that would be required to burn the calories contained in each menu item, 71.0% of participants preferred the calorie information over the physical activity information. Participants also compared two approaches to providing caloric reference information on the menu (average daily calorie needs per day vs. per meal), and 61.3% preferred the calorie needs–per-meal format. Conclusion Our results may be useful in designing approaches to providing energy composition information for foods on fast-food restaurant menus. PMID:19928485

  18. BMI modulates calorie-dependent dopamine changes in accumbens from glucose intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene-Jack Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Dopamine mediates the rewarding effects of food that can lead to overeating and obesity, which then trigger metabolic neuroadaptations that further perpetuate excessive food consumption. We tested the hypothesis that the dopamine response to calorie intake (independent of palatability in striatal brain regions is attenuated with increases in weight. METHOD: We used positron emission tomography with [11C]raclopride to measure dopamine changes triggered by calorie intake by contrasting the effects of an artificial sweetener (sucralose devoid of calories to that of glucose to assess their association with body mass index (BMI in nineteen healthy participants (BMI range 21-35. RESULTS: Neither the measured blood glucose concentrations prior to the sucralose and the glucose challenge days, nor the glucose concentrations following the glucose challenge vary as a function of BMI. In contrast the dopamine changes in ventral striatum (assessed as changes in non-displaceable binding potential of [11C]raclopride triggered by calorie intake (contrast glucose - sucralose were significantly correlated with BMI (r = 0.68 indicating opposite responses in lean than in obese individuals. Specifically whereas in normal weight individuals (BMI <25 consumption of calories was associated with increases in dopamine in the ventral striatum in obese individuals it was associated with decreases in dopamine. CONCLUSION: These findings show reduced dopamine release in ventral striatum with calorie consumption in obese subjects, which might contribute to their excessive food intake to compensate for the deficit between the expected and the actual response to food consumption.

  19. Dietary Fat and Sugar Induce Obesity and Impair Glucose Tolerance in Prepubertal Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    van Eyk, Gregory Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Dietary Fat and Sugar Induce Obesity and Impair Glucose Tolerance in Prepubertal Pigs Abstract A pig model of childhood obesity was used to study the effects of dietary energy on body adiposity, and blood parameters associated with impaired glucose clearance. Prepubertal female pigs weaned at 21 d of age were fed control (CON), refined sugar (SUG), fat (FAT), and sugar-fat (SUGFAT) diets in a completely randomized arrangement for 16 wk. Calories from fat were 8.9% for CON, 5.6% for SU...

  20. Use of nutrigenomics endpoints in dietary interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the nutrigenomics approach is discussed as a research tool to study the physiological effects of nutrition and consequently how nutrition affects health and disease (endpoints). Nutrigenomics is the study of the effects of foods and food constituents on gene expression; the analyses i

  1. Dietary guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling

    2015-01-01

    in a number of countries have addressed the issue of making dietary guidelines that integrate health and sustainability, but in all cases they have been met with different kinds of resistance. This article reviews the development towards an integrated understanding of health and sustainability in...... relation to food and eating and the emergence of proposals for integrated guidelines. It explores the conflicts and controversies that have arisen in the wake of the various proposals and identifies a number of different types of conflicts. These relate to conflicts of interests between the various actors...... involved and political resistance against initiatives that are perceived as being in conflict with the values of a market economy and free trade. Furthermore, there are controversies that can be broadly characterised as relating to the politics of knowledge and have to do with the differentiation of...

  2. Dietary guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling

    2015-01-01

    in a number of countries have addressed the issue of making dietary guidelines that integrate health and sustainability, but in all cases they have been met with different kinds of resistance. This article reviews the development towards an integrated understanding of health and sustainability in relation...... to food and eating and the emergence of proposals for integrated guidelines. It explores the conflicts and controversies that have arisen in the wake of the various proposals and identifies a number of different types of conflicts. These relate to conflicts of interests between the various actors involved...... and political resistance against initiatives that are perceived as being in conflict with the values of a market economy and free trade. Furthermore, there are controversies that can be broadly characterised as relating to the politics of knowledge and have to do with the differentiation of expertise...

  3. MTOR signaling and ubiquitin-proteosome gene expression in the preservation of fat free mass following high protein, calorie restricted weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIver Cassandra M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Caloric restriction is one of the most efficient ways to promote weight loss and is known to activate protective metabolic pathways. Frequently reported with weight loss is the undesirable consequence of fat free (lean muscle mass loss. Weight loss diets with increased dietary protein intake are popular and may provide additional benefits through preservation of fat free mass compared to a standard protein, high carbohydrate diet. However, the precise mechanism by which a high protein diet may mitigate dietary weight loss induced reductions in fat free mass has not been fully elucidated. Maintenance of fat free mass is dependent upon nutrient stimulation of protein synthesis via the mTOR complex, although during caloric restriction a decrease (atrophy in skeletal muscle may be driven by a homeostatic shift favouring protein catabolism. This review evaluates the relationship between the macronutrient composition of calorie restricted diets and weight loss using metabolic indicators. Specifically we evaluate the effect of increased dietary protein intake and caloric restricted diets on gene expression in skeletal muscle, particularly focusing on biosynthesis, degradation and the expression of genes in the ubiquitin-proteosome (UPP and mTOR signaling pathways, including MuRF-1, MAFbx/atrogin-1, mTORC1, and S6K1.

  4. Disruption of growth hormone receptor prevents calorie restriction from improving insulin action and longevity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Bonkowski

    Full Text Available Most mutations that delay aging and prolong lifespan in the mouse are related to somatotropic and/or insulin signaling. Calorie restriction (CR is the only intervention that reliably increases mouse longevity. There is considerable phenotypic overlap between long-lived mutant mice and normal mice on chronic CR. Therefore, we investigated the interactive effects of CR and targeted disruption or knock out of the growth hormone receptor (GHRKO in mice on longevity and the insulin signaling cascade. Every other day feeding corresponds to a mild (i.e. 15% CR which increased median lifespan in normal mice but not in GHRKO mice corroborating our previous findings on the effects of moderate (30% CR on the longevity of these animals. To determine why insulin sensitivity improves in normal but not GHRKO mice in response to 30% CR, we conducted insulin stimulation experiments after one year of CR. In normal mice, CR increased the insulin stimulated activation of the insulin signaling cascade (IR/IRS/PI3K/AKT in liver and muscle. Livers of GHRKO mice responded to insulin by increased activation of the early steps of insulin signaling, which was dissipated by altered PI3K subunit abundance which putatively inhibited AKT activation. In the muscle of GHRKO mice, there was elevated downstream activation of the insulin signaling cascade (IRS/PI3K/AKT in the absence of elevated IR activation. Further, we found a major reduction of inhibitory Ser phosphorylation of IRS-1 seen exclusively in GHRKO muscle which may underpin their elevated insulin sensitivity. Chronic CR failed to further modify the alterations in insulin signaling in GHRKO mice as compared to normal mice, likely explaining or contributing to the absence of CR effects on insulin sensitivity and longevity in these long-lived mice.

  5. Increased bile acids in enterohepatic circulation by short-term calorie restriction in male mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Zidong Donna [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, 66160 (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, 66160 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Previous studies showed glucose and insulin signaling can regulate bile acid (BA) metabolism during fasting or feeding. However, limited knowledge is available on the effect of calorie restriction (CR), a well-known anti-aging intervention, on BA homeostasis. To address this, the present study utilized a “dose–response” model of CR, where male C57BL/6 mice were fed 0, 15, 30, or 40% CR diets for one month, followed by BA profiling in various compartments of the enterohepatic circulation by UPLC-MS/MS technique. This study showed that 40% CR increased the BA pool size (162%) as well as total BAs in serum, gallbladder, and small intestinal contents. In addition, CR “dose-dependently” increased the concentrations of tauro-cholic acid (TCA) and many secondary BAs (produced by intestinal bacteria) in serum, such as tauro-deoxycholic acid (TDCA), DCA, lithocholic acid, ω-muricholic acid (ωMCA), and hyodeoxycholic acid. Notably, 40% CR increased TDCA by over 1000% (serum, liver, and gallbladder). Interestingly, 40% CR increased the proportion of 12α-hydroxylated BAs (CA and DCA), which correlated with improved glucose tolerance and lipid parameters. The CR-induced increase in BAs correlated with increased expression of BA-synthetic (Cyp7a1) and conjugating enzymes (BAL), and the ileal BA-binding protein (Ibabp). These results suggest that CR increases BAs in male mice possibly through orchestrated increases in BA synthesis and conjugation in liver as well as intracellular transport in ileum. - Highlights: • Dose response effects of short-term CR on BA homeostasis in male mice. • CR increased the BA pool size and many individual BAs. • CR altered BA composition (increased proportion of 12α-hydroxylated BAs). • Increased mRNAs of BA enzymes in liver (Cyp7a1 and BAL) and ileal BA binding protein.

  6. Calorie Restriction Suppresses Age-Dependent Hippocampal Transcriptional Signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa J Schafer

    Full Text Available Calorie restriction (CR enhances longevity and mitigates aging phenotypes in numerous species. Physiological responses to CR are cell-type specific and variable throughout the lifespan. However, the mosaic of molecular changes responsible for CR benefits remains unclear, particularly in brain regions susceptible to deterioration during aging. We examined the influence of long-term CR on the CA1 hippocampal region, a key learning and memory brain area that is vulnerable to age-related pathologies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD. Through mRNA sequencing and NanoString nCounter analysis, we demonstrate that one year of CR feeding suppresses age-dependent signatures of 882 genes functionally associated with synaptic transmission-related pathways, including calcium signaling, long-term potentiation (LTP, and Creb signaling in wild-type mice. By comparing the influence of CR on hippocampal CA1 region transcriptional profiles at younger-adult (5 months, 2.5 months of feeding and older-adult (15 months, 12.5 months of feeding timepoints, we identify conserved upregulation of proteome quality control and calcium buffering genes, including heat shock 70 kDa protein 1b (Hspa1b and heat shock 70 kDa protein 5 (Hspa5, protein disulfide isomerase family A member 4 (Pdia4 and protein disulfide isomerase family A member 6 (Pdia6, and calreticulin (Calr. Expression levels of putative neuroprotective factors, klotho (Kl and transthyretin (Ttr, are also elevated by CR in adulthood, although the global CR-specific expression profiles at younger and older timepoints are highly divergent. At a previously unachieved resolution, our results demonstrate conserved activation of neuroprotective gene signatures and broad CR-suppression of age-dependent hippocampal CA1 region expression changes, indicating that CR functionally maintains a more youthful transcriptional state within the hippocampal CA1 sector.

  7. Low Calorie Sweetener (LCS) use and energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, John C; Beck, Jimikaye

    2016-10-01

    For thirty years there has been a debate about whether low calorie sweeteners (LCS) provide a benefit for body weight management. Early studies showed that when consumed alone in a beverage appetite and food intake were increased. Some, observational longitudinal cohort studies reported an association between LCS usage and increasing BMI, suggesting that LCS may actually promote weight gain. In the ensuing decades numerous additional observational and experimental trials have been conducted with the experimental trials nearly uniformly showing a benefit for LCS, either in weight loss or weight gain prevention. The observational trials have been more inconsistent with two recent meta-analyses indicating either a small positive association between LCS usage and BMI (weighted group mean correlation, p=0.03) or an inverse association with body weight change (-1.35 kg, p=.004). Numerous potential mechanisms have been explored, mostly in animal models, in an attempt to explain this association but none have yet been proven in humans. It is also possible that the association between LCS and BMI increase in the observational studies may be due to reverse causality or residual confounding. Randomized controlled trials are consistent in showing a benefit of LCS which suggests that simple behavioral engagement by individuals attempting to control their weight is a sufficiently strong signal to overcome any potential mechanism that might act to promote energy intake and weight gain. Based on existing evidence, LCS can be a useful tool for people actively engaged in managing their body weight for weight loss and maintenance. PMID:27061939

  8. Dietary Risk Factors and Their Modification in Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    Provides an overview of dietary risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including diet sodium intake for hypertension and dietary fat and cholesterol for hypercholesterolemia, exacerbation of these conditions by obesity, and intervention strategies for their modification. Describes clinical strategies for modifying diet: education, skills…

  9. 终止高血压膳食疗法对社区高血压前期人群干预效果研究%Intervention Effects of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension on Patients With Prehypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春利

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨终止高血压膳食疗法( DASH)对社区高血压前期人群的干预效果。方法于2013年6—11月对吉林市某社区卫生服务中心所辖区居民进行健康体检,选取社区高血压前期人群351例。采用随机数字表法将受试者分为对照组,传统组和DASH组,各117例。对照组不进行任何干预,传统组在研究开始时进行1次传统的低盐低脂饮食健康宣教, DASH膳食组进行具体的健康干预,包括健康宣教以及上门随访。3组干预期均为6个月,记录干预前及干预后1、3、6个月时血压变化情况。结果3组不同时间收缩压( SBP)、舒张压( DBP)比较,差异均有统计学意义( P<0.05);组内比较结果显示:在干预后1、3、6个月,3组SBP、 DBP与基线水平比较,差异均有统计学意义( P<0.05);组间比较结果显示:在干预后1、3、6个月,3组SBP、 DBP比较,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。干预6个月后,3组血压转归情况比较,差异有统计学意义(χ2=23.25, P<0.01)。结论对于高血压前期人群,采用DASH膳食进行干预能够明显降低血压,并且其效果优于传统的低盐低脂饮食健康宣教, DASH膳食能在一定程度上预防高血压的发生。%Objective To investigate the effects of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension ( DASH) on patients with prehypertension .Methods A total of 351 patients with prehypertension who received physical examination in a community health center in Jilin from June to November in 2013 were enrolled and were divided into a DASH group , a traditional group and a control group using random number table with each group 117 patients.The control group didn′t receive any intervention , the traditional group received traditional health education about low -salt and low-fat diet at the beginning of the research , and the DASH group received specific health interventions including health

  10. Calorie restriction at increasing levels leads to augmented concentrations of corticosterone and decreasing concentrations of testosterone in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levay, Elizabeth A; Tammer, Amanda H; Penman, Jim; Kent, Stephen; Paolini, Antonio G

    2010-05-01

    The influence of calorie restriction (CR) on increasing life span, enhancing immunocompetence, and reducing the incidence of age-related diseases is well established. Evidence points to the involvement of neuroendocrine alterations in these beneficial effects. Accordingly, we hypothesized that CR will result in significant alterations to the hormones investigated. Little attention has been directed toward ascertaining the doses of CR required to obtain such alterations and, indeed, whether a dose-response exists. Adult rats were subjected to 1 of 5 dietary regimens: control, CR12.5%, CR25%, CR37.5%, or CR50%. Rats were decapitated 3 weeks following the onset of restriction; and trunk blood was collected and assayed for concentrations of serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone, and testosterone, as well as plasma concentrations of noradrenalin and adrenalin. No effect was found as a result of dietary manipulation for serum concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone. However, all doses of CR resulted in increased serum corticosterone in a dose-response trend. A dose-response was also observed for serum testosterone, with higher doses of CR associated with lower testosterone. Concentrations of noradrenalin were not found to be altered by any CR dose, although a trend toward a down-regulation at CR50% was observed. Plasma adrenalin displayed a biphasic distribution with reductions observed at CR25% and CR50%, although the down-regulations only attained statistical significance relative to the CR37.5% and not the control group. As well as reporting the effect of CR on multiple hormones within individual animals, these results go some way in determining the optimal levels of CR needed to induce neuroendocrinologic alterations.

  11. A Moderate Low-Carbohydrate Low-Calorie Diet Improves Lipid Profile, Insulin Sensitivity and Adiponectin Expression in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Hua Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Calorie restriction (CR via manipulating dietary carbohydrates has attracted increasing interest in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. There is little consensus about the extent of carbohydrate restriction to elicit optimal results in controlling metabolic parameters. Our study will identify a better carbohydrate-restricted diet using rat models. Rats were fed with one of the following diets for 12 weeks: Control diet, 80% energy (34% carbohydrate-reduced and 60% energy (68% carbohydrate-reduced of the control diet. Changes in metabolic parameters and expressions of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activator receptor γ (PPARγ were identified. Compared to the control diet, 68% carbohydrate-reduced diet led to a decrease in serum triglyceride and increases inlow density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and total cholesterol; a 34% carbohydrate-reduced diet resulted in a decrease in triglycerides and an increase in HDL-cholesterol, no changes however, were shown in LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol; reductions in HOMA-IR were observed in both CR groups. Gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ in adipose tissues were found proportionally elevated with an increased degree of energy restriction. Our study for the first time ever identified that a moderate-carbohydrate restricted diet is not only effective in raising gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ which potentially lead to better metabolic conditions but is better at improving lipid profiles than a low-carbohydrate diet in rats.

  12. A Moderate Low-Carbohydrate Low-Calorie Diet Improves Lipid Profile, Insulin Sensitivity and Adiponectin Expression in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie-Hua; Ouyang, Caiqun; Ding, Qiang; Song, Jia; Cao, Wenhong; Mao, Limei

    2015-06-11

    Calorie restriction (CR) via manipulating dietary carbohydrates has attracted increasing interest in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. There is little consensus about the extent of carbohydrate restriction to elicit optimal results in controlling metabolic parameters. Our study will identify a better carbohydrate-restricted diet using rat models. Rats were fed with one of the following diets for 12 weeks: Control diet, 80% energy (34% carbohydrate-reduced) and 60% energy (68% carbohydrate-reduced) of the control diet. Changes in metabolic parameters and expressions of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activator receptor γ (PPARγ) were identified. Compared to the control diet, 68% carbohydrate-reduced diet led to a decrease in serum triglyceride and increases inlow density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol; a 34% carbohydrate-reduced diet resulted in a decrease in triglycerides and an increase in HDL-cholesterol, no changes however, were shown in LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol; reductions in HOMA-IR were observed in both CR groups. Gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ in adipose tissues were found proportionally elevated with an increased degree of energy restriction. Our study for the first time ever identified that a moderate-carbohydrate restricted diet is not only effective in raising gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ which potentially lead to better metabolic conditions but is better at improving lipid profiles than a low-carbohydrate diet in rats.

  13. Dietary restriction: could it be considered as speed bump on tumor progression road?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangemi, Antonina; Fanale, Daniele; Rinaldi, Gaetana; Bazan, Viviana; Galvano, Antonio; Perez, Alessandro; Barraco, Nadia; Massihnia, Daniela; Castiglia, Marta; Vieni, Salvatore; Bronte, Giuseppe; Mirisola, Mario; Russo, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Dietary restrictions, including fasting (or long-term starvation), calorie restriction (CR), and short-term starvation (STS), are considered a strong rationale that may protect against various diseases, including age-related diseases and cancer. Among dietary approaches, STS, in which food is not consumed during designed fasting periods but is typically not restricted during designated feeding periods, seems to be more suitable, because other dietary regimens involving prolonged fasting periods could worsen the health conditions of cancer patients, being they already naturally prone to weight loss. Until now, the limited amount of available data does not point to a single gene, pathway, or molecular mechanism underlying the benefits to the different dietary approaches. It is well known that the healthy effect is mediated in part by the reduction of nutrient-related pathways. The calorie restriction and starvation (long- and short-term) also suppress the inflammatory response reducing the expression, for example, of IL-10 and TNF-α, mitigating pro-inflammatory gene expression and increasing anti-inflammatory gene expression. The dietary restriction may regulate both genes involved in cellular proliferation and factors associated to apoptosis in normal and cancer cells. Finally, dietary restriction is an important tool that may influence the response to chemotherapy in preclinical models. However, further data are needed to correlate dietary approaches with chemotherapeutic treatments in human models. The aim of this review is to discuss the effects of various dietary approaches on the cancer progression and therapy response, mainly in preclinical models, describing some signaling pathways involved in these processes. PMID:27043958

  14. Dietary restriction: could it be considered as speed bump on tumor progression road?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangemi, Antonina; Fanale, Daniele; Rinaldi, Gaetana; Bazan, Viviana; Galvano, Antonio; Perez, Alessandro; Barraco, Nadia; Massihnia, Daniela; Castiglia, Marta; Vieni, Salvatore; Bronte, Giuseppe; Mirisola, Mario; Russo, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Dietary restrictions, including fasting (or long-term starvation), calorie restriction (CR), and short-term starvation (STS), are considered a strong rationale that may protect against various diseases, including age-related diseases and cancer. Among dietary approaches, STS, in which food is not consumed during designed fasting periods but is typically not restricted during designated feeding periods, seems to be more suitable, because other dietary regimens involving prolonged fasting periods could worsen the health conditions of cancer patients, being they already naturally prone to weight loss. Until now, the limited amount of available data does not point to a single gene, pathway, or molecular mechanism underlying the benefits to the different dietary approaches. It is well known that the healthy effect is mediated in part by the reduction of nutrient-related pathways. The calorie restriction and starvation (long- and short-term) also suppress the inflammatory response reducing the expression, for example, of IL-10 and TNF-α, mitigating pro-inflammatory gene expression and increasing anti-inflammatory gene expression. The dietary restriction may regulate both genes involved in cellular proliferation and factors associated to apoptosis in normal and cancer cells. Finally, dietary restriction is an important tool that may influence the response to chemotherapy in preclinical models. However, further data are needed to correlate dietary approaches with chemotherapeutic treatments in human models. The aim of this review is to discuss the effects of various dietary approaches on the cancer progression and therapy response, mainly in preclinical models, describing some signaling pathways involved in these processes.

  15. Use of Desirable Dietary Pattern (DDP) for Study of Dietary Pattern in Urban and Rural Residents of Jiangsu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王灿楠; 刘沛; 韦平; 胥占中

    2001-01-01

    Objective To make retrospective assessment of the quality of diet in the urban and rural residents of Jiangsu province, China, during the 1990′s and a prospective study of the dietary pattern in the year of 2010 with desirable dietary pattern (DDP). Methods The calorie intake was calculated according to the method of balanced diet and the dietary pattern was assessed in terms of DDP score. Results Retrospective study revealed that the DDP score of cereals was decreased and that of animal foods increased remarkably in both the urban and rural residents during the decade. Prospective study showed that the readjustment of dietary structure for the urban residents should be focused on preventing the drop of cereal consumption and further lowering the intake of pork. Promotion of soybean and milk consumption to great extents will be needed to improve the quality of diet for both urban and rural residents of Jiangsu in the future. Conclusion It was illustrated that DDP is feasible for retrospective and prospective studies on dietary pattern as it is simple in calculation, its results are easy to understand and of practical significance to the masses and health workers.

  16. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake in Danish adults

    OpenAIRE

    Vuholm, Stine; Lorenzen, Janne K.; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Background: Differences in habitual dietary fiber intake may modify effects of dietary fiber interventions, thus measurement of habitual dietary fiber intake is relevant to apply in intervention studies on fiber-rich foods, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is a commonly used method. Rye bread is the major contributor of dietary fiber in the Danish population, and a nation-specific FFQ is therefore needed.Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the relative validity and reproducib...

  17. Detailed Analysis of the Intra-Ejecta Dark Plains of Caloris Basin, Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, Debra L.; Seelos, K. S.

    2010-01-01

    The Caloris basin on Mercury is floored by light-toned plains and surrounded by an annulus of dark-toned material interpreted to be ejecta blocks and smooth, dark, ridged plains. Strangely, preliminary crater counts indicate that these intra-ejecta dark plains are younger than the light-toned plains within the Caloris basin. This would imply a second, younger plains emplacement event, possibly involving lower albedo material volcanics, which resurfaced the original ejecta deposit. On the other hand, the dark plains may be pre-Caloris light plains covered by a thin layer of dark ejecta. Another alternative to the hypothesis of young, dark volcanism is the possibility that previous crater counts have not thoroughly distinguished between superposed craters (fresh) and partly-buried craters (old) and therefore have not accurately determined the ages of the Caloris units. This abstract outlines the tasks associated with a new mapping project of the Caloris basin, intended to improve our knowledge of the geology and geologic history of the basin, and thus facilitate an understanding of the thermal evolution of this region of Mercury.

  18. Social determinants of dietary habits in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Margit Velsing; Fagt, Sisse; Brøndsted, L.

    2001-01-01

    in Denmark, 1995. Subjects: Random sample from the civil registration system. A total of 852 men and 870 women aged 18-80y participated, a response rate of 58%. Interventions: A 7 day estimated dietary record was used to obtain information about the diet. Information about social background was gained...... significantly associated with the intake of fruit and vegetables. Conclusions: Education seems to be the most important social variable to explain social differences in dietary habits. Additional variables are needed to explain dietary habits of women. Differences are seen for both foods and nutrients....... Sponsorship: The data analysis was financially supported by the Health Insurance Fund. Descriptors: socioeconomic status; education; dietary habits; diet surveys, E%; fat, fruit and vegetables....

  19. Nutritional intervention on gestational diabetes mellitus improves lipid metabolism%妊娠糖尿病孕期营养干预及对脂代谢的改善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕萍; 李珊珊; 包媛媛; 何书励; 马良坤; 李伟

    2014-01-01

    provided by carbohydrates were limited to no more than 50%; oats and other coarse grains accounted for 50% of the staple food to improve intake of dietary ifbre;saturated fats were restricted and olive oil was recommended. Body weight of the patients were monitored during the intervention, and lipid metabolism indicators (energy, percentage of energy from fat, percentage of various fatty acids, insoluble dietary ifber, etc.) were calculated according to the dietary records. Changes in serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were recorded, and their correlation with diet lipid metabolism indicators were analyzed. Result 37 cases of the 127 pregnant women submitted effective dietary records. According to these records, total calorie during intervention was (7980±1785) kJ/d, calorie from fat accounted for (29.9±5.3)%, saturated fatty acids accounted for (29.13±3.95)%and monounsaturated fatty acids accounted for (41.44±2.78)% of total fatty acids, intake of insoluble dietary ifber was (24.34±11.65) g/d. TC, HDL, LDL showed no signiifcant difference before and after intervention. TG was (2.92±1.39) mmol/L before intervention and (3.27±1.33) mmol/L (P < 0.05) after intervention (P<0.05). Content of insoluble dietary ifber was signiifcantly correlated with serum LDL-Cafter intervention (R = 0.28, P < 0.05). Conclusion The nutritional intervention for GDM patients in the second or third trimester satisifed the requirements for lipid metabolism management, beneifted prevention of abnormal lipid metabolism in the third trimester, such effect may be the combined results of multiple factors.

  20. Poverty, inequality, and increased consumption of high calorie food: Experimental evidence for a causal link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratanova, Boyka; Loughnan, Steve; Klein, Olivier; Claassen, Almudena; Wood, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Rising obesity represents a serious, global problem. It is now well established that obesity is associated with poverty and wealth inequality, suggesting that these factors may promote caloric intake. Whereas previous work has examined these links from an epidemiological perspective, the current paper examined them experimentally. In Study 1 we found that people experimentally induced to view themselves as poor (v. wealthy) exhibited increased calorie intake. In Study 2, participants who believed that they were poorer or wealthier than their interaction partners exhibited higher levels of anxiety compared to those in an equal partners condition; this anxiety in turn led to increased calorie consumption for people who had a strong need to belong. The findings provide causal evidence for the poverty-intake and inequality-intake links. Further, we identify social anxiety and a strong need to belong as important social psychological factors linking inequality to increased calorie intake. PMID:26809142

  1. 行为转变理论在糖尿病合并血脂异常患者饮食干预中的应用及效果评价%Application and effect assessment of trans-theoretical model of behavior for dietary intervention for patients with diabetes combined with blood-lipid disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱思兰; 梅洵; 黄北南; 李淑玲

    2015-01-01

    目的 采用行为转变理论对2型糖尿病合并血脂异常患者进行饮食干预 ,并观察其效果 ,为探索开展糖尿病患者饮食干预的有效途径提供参考.方法 选择2型糖尿病合并血脂异常、饮食行为处于前意向阶段和意向阶段的的门诊患者68例 ,随机分为观察组和对照组 ,对照组进行常规糖尿病知识教育 ,观察组接受行为转变理论匹配的饮食行为干预 ,比较两组患者干预前后饮食行为所处阶段、血糖、血脂、月人均医疗费用情况.结果 干预后观察组患者饮食行为所处阶段、血糖、血脂、月人均医疗费用情况与对照组比较 ,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01 ).结论 采用行为转变理论对2型糖尿病合并血脂异常患者进行饮食干预 ,能提高患者饮食行为所处阶段 ,控制糖脂代谢水平 ,降低医疗费用.%Objective To observed the effect of trans-theoretical model of behavior intervention on the diet for pa-tients with type 2 diabetes complicated with blood-lipid disorder ,and to provide a reference for study an effectively dietary intervention way to diabetes mellitus .Method 68 patients with type 2 diabetes combined by blood-lipid disor-der and stage of pre-intention or intention dietary behaviors were selected and divided randomly into observation and control group .Patients in control group was educated with knowledge of conventional diabetes .Patients in observa-tion group accepted dietary behaviors intervention matched trans-theoretical model of behavior .Stages of dietary be-haviors before and after intervention ,blood sugar ,blood fat and monthly medical expense per capita was observed and compared between the two groups .Result There was significant difference in stages of dietary behaviors ,blood sugar ,blood fat and monthly medical expense per capita in observation group compared with control group (P<0 .01) .Conclusion The trans-theoretical model of behavior intervening in the diet for

  2. Consumer purchasing patterns in response to calorie labeling legislation in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbel Brian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a major public health threat and policies aimed at curbing this epidemic are emerging. National calorie labeling legislation is forthcoming and requires rigorous evaluation to examine its impact on consumers. The purpose of this study was to examine whether point-of-purchase calorie labels in New York City (NYC chain restaurants affected food purchasing patterns in a sample of lower income adults in NYC and Newark, NJ. Methods This study utilized a difference-in-difference design to survey 1,170 adult patrons of four popular chain restaurants in NYC and Newark, NJ (which did not introduce labeling before and after calorie labeling was implemented in NYC. Receipt data were collected and analyzed to examine food and beverage purchases and frequency of fast food consumption. Descriptive statistics were generated, and linear and logistic regression, difference-in-difference analysis, and predicted probabilities were used to analyze the data. Results A difference-in-difference analysis revealed no significant favorable differences and some unfavorable differences in food purchasing patterns and frequency of fast food consumption between adult patrons of fast food restaurants in NYC and Newark, NJ. Adults in NYC who reported noticing and using the calorie labels consumed fast food less frequently compared to adults who did not notice the labels (4.9 vs. 6.6 meals per week, p Conclusion While no favorable differences in purchasing as a result of labeling were noted, self-reported use of calorie labels was associated with some favorable behavioral patterns in a subset of adults in NYC. However, overall impact of the legislation may be limited. More research is needed to understand the most effective way to deliver calorie information to consumers.

  3. Comparative transcriptional pathway bioinformatic analysis of dietary restriction, Sir2, p53 and resveratrol life span extension in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Antosh, Michael; Whitaker, Rachel; Kroll, Adam; Hosier, Suzanne; Chang, Chengyi; Bauer, Johannes; Cooper, Leon; Neretti, Nicola; HELFAND, STEPHEN L.

    2011-01-01

    A multiple comparison approach using whole genome transcriptional arrays was used to identify genes and pathways involved in calorie restriction/dietary restriction (DR) life span extension in Drosophila. Starting with a gene centric analysis comparing the changes in common between DR and two DR related molecular genetic life span extending manipulations, Sir2 and p53, lead to a molecular confirmation of Sir2 and p53's similarity with DR and the identification of a small set of commonly regul...

  4. High-calorie diet partially ameliorates dysregulation of intrarenal lipid metabolism in remnant kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun Ju; Yuan, Jun; Norris, Keith; Vaziri, Nosratola D.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with malnutrition and renal tissue accumulation of lipids, which can contribute to progression of renal disease. This study was designed to explore the effect of a high-calorie diet on pathways involved in lipid metabolism in the remnant kidney of rats with CRF. 5/6 nephrectomized rats were randomized to receive a regular diet (3.0 kcal/g) or a high-calorie diet (4.5 kcal/g) for 12 weeks. Renal lipid contents and abundance of molecules involved in cho...

  5. Dietary recommendations for patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitetta L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Luis Vitetta,1 Samantha Coulson,1 Janet Schloss,1 Shoshannah L Beck,1 Robert Allen,2 Avni Sali21Centre for Integrative Clinical and Molecular Medicine, The University of Queensland School of Medicine, Brisbane, 2National Institute of Integrative Medicine, Melbourne, AustraliaAbstract: Dietary interventions can assist with the management of disease symptoms that accompany rheumatoid arthritis (RA, such as pain, tender swollen joints, stiffness, and associated disability and disease progression. Dietary interventions have gained widespread appeal for both clinicians and RA patients. Interventions that promote self-help through education can have significant benefits for patients as they negotiate pain and musculoskeletal disability. There is substantial scientific evidence that demonstrates patients diagnosed with RA may benefit from dietary interventions; however, recent systematic reviews remain uncertain about the therapeutic efficacy of dietary manipulation for RA due to clinical trials with a high risk of bias. However, dietary interventions with plausible therapeutic activity may be indicated for reducing RA-associated symptoms, including elimination of foods that may trigger an allergic or intolerant response, introduction of known anti-inflammatory dietary compounds and correction of food, or drug-induced gastrointestinal tract microbiota abnormalities and permeability.Keywords: diet, rheumatoid arthritis, vegetarian, vegan, Mediterranean, fish oils, probiotics

  6. Community assessment of availability, consumption, and cultural acceptability of food sources of (pro)vitamin A: Toward the development of a dietary intervention among preschool children in rural Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nana, C.P.; Brouwer, I.D.; Zagré, N.M.; Kok, F.J.; Traoré, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency remains a public health problem in Burkina Faso and elsewhere in the developing world. Dietary diversification is a promising strategy that needs to be explored to strengthen the country's ongoing supplementation program. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify loca

  7. Assessment of Dietary Intake Patterns among University Students in Lebanon: a focus on gender differences and overweight correlation

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    Pascale eSalameh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Unhealthy dietary habits are a major risk factor for chronic diseases, particularly if adopted during early adulthood. In a study conducted on a large sample of university students from both public and private universities in Lebanon, we observed differences in obesity prevalence between males and females. Given this difference, the objective of this analysis was to define the different dietary patterns among university students, focusing on correlation with gender and body mass index (BMI. Methods : A cross-sectional study was carried out on 3384 students, using a proportionate cluster sample of Lebanese students from both public and private universities. Results : Three dietary patterns were identified among university youth namely, vegetarian/low calorie diet (mainly plant food while avoiding ‘western’ food, composite dishes, and bread; mixed diet (high consumption of plant food, followed by composite dishes, bread, and a low consumption of western type food, and finally the westernized diet (high consumption of white bread and western food, and a strong avoidance of plant food and composite dishes. We observed significant differences between males and females in terms of their reported food intake and dietary patterns. Females were particularly more prone to adopt the vegetarian/low calorie diet than males (ORa=1.69; p<0.001, while males were more likely to adopt a westernized diet (ORa=1.51; p<0.001, seemingly in private universities (p=0.053. Students with high income and obese students (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 were more likely to consume vegetarian/low calorie diets (P<0.05. Conclusion: Male university students, despite having a higher BMI, reported a higher consumption of food according to a westernized dietary pattern as compared to female university students in Lebanon, while the latter reported a higher adoption of a vegetarian diet. Health promotion programs are needed among university youth in Lebanon to address their

  8. The tempting effect of forbidden foods. High calorie content evokes conflicting implicit and explicit evaluations in restrained eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefling, Atilla; Strack, Fritz

    2008-11-01

    In this study, restrained and unrestrained eaters' immediate evaluations of high calorie content and low calorie content were measured, both when being deprived of food and when satiated. As an indirect measure, the Extrinsic Affective Simon Task (EAST) [De Houwer, J. (2003). The Extrinsic Affective Simon Task. Experimental Psychology, 50, 77-85.] was used. Explicit attitudes towards high calorie content and low calorie content were also assessed. Food deprivation was found to boost the value of food for all subjects on an impulsive level of information processing. More importantly, it was also found that restrained eaters exhibit a dissociative pattern of positive implicit and negative explicit attitudes towards high calorie content, but not towards low calorie content. Furthermore, restrained eaters evaluated high calorie content more negative than unrestrained eaters on an explicit level, but more positive on an implicit level. Results from this study are twofold. First, they suggest that conflicting evaluative reactions from two systems of information processing may play a central role in the restrained eater's dilemma. Second, individual differences between restrained and unrestrained eaters' attitudes towards high calorie content should further be investigated.

  9. College Students' Intentions to Use Calorie Information on a Restaurant Menu: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stran, Kimberly A.; Knol, Linda L.; Severt, Kimberly; Lawrence, Jeannine C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity continues to be an epidemic in the United States and is associated with multiple chronic diseases. Greater numbers of people eat in restaurants and select high calorie foods. Labeling laws require calorie information on menus in some restaurants. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of intention to…

  10. Study protocol to investigate the effect of a lifestyle intervention on body weight, psychological health status and risk factors associated with disease recurrence in women recovering from breast cancer treatment [ISRCTN08045231

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutrie Nanette

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer survivors often encounter physiological and psychological problems related to their diagnosis and treatment that can influence long-term prognosis. The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of a lifestyle intervention on body weight and psychological well-being in women recovering from breast cancer treatment, and to determine the relationship between changes in these variables and biomarkers associated with disease recurrence and survival. Methods/design Following ethical approval, a total of 100 patients will be randomly assigned to a lifestyle intervention (incorporating dietary energy restriction in conjunction with aerobic exercise training or normal care control group. Patients randomised to the dietary and exercise intervention will be given individualised healthy eating dietary advice and written information and attend moderate intensity aerobic exercise sessions on three to five days per week for a period of 24 weeks. The aim of this strategy is to induce a steady weight loss of up to 0.5 Kg each week. In addition, the overall quality of the diet will be examined with a view to (i reducing the dietary intake of fat to ~25% of the total calories, (ii eating at least 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day, (iii increasing the intake of fibre and reducing refined carbohydrates, and (iv taking moderate amounts of alcohol. Outcome measures will include body weight and body composition, psychological health status (stress and depression, cardiorespiratory fitness and quality of life. In addition, biomarkers associated with disease recurrence, including stress hormones, estrogen status, inflammatory markers and indices of innate and adaptive immune function will be monitored. Discussion This research will provide valuable information on the effectiveness of a practical, easily implemented lifestyle intervention for evoking positive effects on body weight and psychological well-being, two

  11. An observational study of sequential protein-sparing, very low-calorie ketogenic diet (Oloproteic diet) and hypocaloric Mediterranean-like diet for the treatment of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldo, Giuseppe; Monaco, Luigi; Castaldo, Laura; Galdo, Giovanna; Cereda, Emanuele

    2016-09-01

    The impact of a rehabilitative multi-step dietary program consisting in different diets has been scantily investigated. In an open-label study, 73 obese patients underwent a two-phase weight loss (WL) program: a 3-week protein-sparing, very low-calorie, ketogenic diet (Diet) and a 6-week hypocaloric (25-30 kcal/kg of ideal body weight/day), low glycemic index, Mediterranean-like diet (hypo-MD). Both phases improved visceral adiposity, liver enzymes, GH levels, blood pressure and glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the hypo-MD was responsible for a re-increase in blood lipids and glucose tolerance parameters. Changes in visceral adiposity and glucose control-related variables were more consistent in patients with metabolic syndrome. However, in these patients the hypo-MD did not result in a consistent re-increase in glucose control-related variables. A dietary program consisting in a ketogenic regimen followed by a balanced MD appeared to be feasible and efficacious in reducing cardiovascular risk, particularly in patients with metabolic syndrome. PMID:27193396

  12. Heterozygous Hfe gene deletion leads to impaired glucose homeostasis, but not liver injury in mice fed a high-calorie diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Laurence; Jaskowski, Lesley; Bridle, Kim; Santrampurwala, Nishreen; Reiling, Janske; Musgrave, Nick; Subramaniam, V Nathan; Crawford, Darrell

    2016-06-01

    Heterozygous mutations of the Hfe gene have been proposed as cofactors in the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Homozygous Hfe deletion previously has been shown to lead to dysregulated hepatic lipid metabolism and accentuated liver injury in a dietary mouse model of NAFLD We sought to establish whether heterozygous deletion of Hfe is sufficient to promote liver injury when mice are exposed to a high-calorie diet (HCD). Eight-week-old wild-type and Hfe(+/-) mice received 8 weeks of a control diet or HCD Liver histology and pathways of lipid and iron metabolism were analyzed. Liver histology demonstrated that mice fed a HCD had increased NAFLD activity score (NAS), steatosis, and hepatocyte ballooning. However, liver injury was unaffected by Hfe genotype. Hepatic iron concentration (HIC) was increased in Hfe(+/-) mice of both dietary groups. HCD resulted in a hepcidin-independent reduction in HIC Hfe(+/-) mice demonstrated raised fasting serum glucose concentrations and HOMA-IR score, despite unaltered serum adiponectin concentrations. Downstream regulators of hepatic de novo lipogenesis (pAKT, SREBP-1, Fas, Scd1) and fatty acid oxidation (AdipoR2, Pparα, Cpt1) were largely unaffected by genotype. In summary, heterozygous Hfe gene deletion is associated with impaired iron and glucose metabolism. However, unlike homozygous Hfe deletion, heterozygous gene deletion did not affect lipid metabolism pathways or liver injury in this model. PMID:27354540

  13. Feasibility and validity of mobile phones to assess dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Darren B; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Current limitations of conventional dietary assessment methods restrict the establishment of diet-disease relationships and efficacy of dietary interventions. Technology, in particular the use of mobile phones, may help resolve methodologic limitations, in turn improving the validity of dietary assessment and research and associated findings. This review aims to evaluate the validity, feasibility, and acceptability of dietary assessment methods that have been deployed on mobile phone platforms. In August 2013, electronic databases for health sciences were searched for English, peer-reviewed, full-text articles, published from January 1, 2001 onward; and accompanied by a hand search of available relevant publications from universities and government bodies. Studies were not limited by design, length, setting, or population group. Of 194 articles, 12 met eligibility criteria: mobile phone as the dietary recording platform and validation of energy and/or macronutrient intake against another dietary or biological reference method. Four dietary recoding methods had been validated on mobile phone platforms: electronic food diary, food photograph-assisted self-administered, 24 h recall, food photograph analysis by trained dietitians, and automated food photograph analysis. All mobile phone dietary assessment methods showed similar, but not superior, validity or reliability when compared with conventional methods. Participants' satisfaction and preferences for mobile phone dietary assessment methods were higher than those for conventional methods, indicating the need for further research. Validity testing in larger and more diverse populations, over longer durations is required to evaluate the efficacy of these methods in dietary research. PMID:24976425

  14. Merging dietary assessment with the adolescent lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schap, T E; Zhu, F; Delp, E J; Boushey, C J

    2014-01-01

    The use of image-based dietary assessment methods shows promise for improving dietary self-report among children. The Technology Assisted Dietary Assessment (TADA) food record application is a self-administered food record specifically designed to address the burden and human error associated with conventional methods of dietary assessment. Users would take images of foods and beverages at all eating occasions using a mobile telephone or mobile device with an integrated camera [e.g. Apple iPhone, Apple iPod Touch (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA, USA); Nexus One (Google, Mountain View, CA, USA)]. Once the images are taken, the images are transferred to a back-end server for automated analysis. The first step in this process is image analysis (i.e. segmentation, feature extraction and classification), which allows for automated food identification. Portion size estimation is also automated via segmentation and geometric shape template modeling. The results of the automated food identification and volume estimation can be indexed with the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies to provide a detailed diet analysis for use in epidemiological or intervention studies. Data collected during controlled feeding studies in a camp-like setting have allowed for formative evaluation and validation of the TADA food record application. This review summarises the system design and the evidence-based development of image-based methods for dietary assessment among children. PMID:23489518

  15. Do Lower Calorie or Lower Fat Foods Have More Sodium Than Their Regular Counterparts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Katherine A; Maalouf, Joyce; B Barsness, Christina; Yuan, Keming; Cogswell, Mary E; Gunn, Janelle P

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the sodium content of a regular food and its lower calorie/fat counterpart. Four food categories, among the top 20 contributing the most sodium to the US diet, met the criteria of having the most matches between regular foods and their lower calorie/fat counterparts. A protocol was used to search websites to create a list of "matches", a regular and comparable lower calorie/fat food(s) under each brand. Nutrient information was recorded and analyzed for matches. In total, 283 matches were identified across four food categories: savory snacks (N = 44), cheese (N = 105), salad dressings (N = 90), and soups (N = 44). As expected, foods modified from their regular versions had significantly reduced average fat (total fat and saturated fat) and caloric profiles. Mean sodium content among modified salad dressings and cheeses was on average 8%-12% higher, while sodium content did not change with modification of savory snacks. Modified soups had significantly lower mean sodium content than their regular versions (28%-38%). Consumers trying to maintain a healthy diet should consider that sodium content may vary in foods modified to be lower in calories/fat.

  16. Calorie restriction causes healthy life span extension in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeningen, van A.D.; Maas, M.F.P.M.; Huberts, D.H.E.W.; Goedbloed, D.J.; Engelmoer, D.J.P.; Slakhorst, S.M.; Koopmanschap, A.B.; Krause, F.; Dencher, N.A.; Sellem, C.H.; Sainsard-Chanet, A.; Hoekstra, R.F.; Debets, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although most fungi appear to be immortal, some show systemic senescence within a distinct time frame. Podospora anserina for example shows an irreversible growth arrest within weeks of culturing associated with a destabilization of the mitochondrial genome. Here, we show that calorie restriction (C

  17. Do Lower Calorie or Lower Fat Foods Have More Sodium Than Their Regular Counterparts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Katherine A.; Maalouf, Joyce; B. Barsness, Christina; Yuan, Keming; Cogswell, Mary E.; Gunn, Janelle P.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the sodium content of a regular food and its lower calorie/fat counterpart. Four food categories, among the top 20 contributing the most sodium to the US diet, met the criteria of having the most matches between regular foods and their lower calorie/fat counterparts. A protocol was used to search websites to create a list of “matches”, a regular and comparable lower calorie/fat food(s) under each brand. Nutrient information was recorded and analyzed for matches. In total, 283 matches were identified across four food categories: savory snacks (N = 44), cheese (N = 105), salad dressings (N = 90), and soups (N = 44). As expected, foods modified from their regular versions had significantly reduced average fat (total fat and saturated fat) and caloric profiles. Mean sodium content among modified salad dressings and cheeses was on average 8%–12% higher, while sodium content did not change with modification of savory snacks. Modified soups had significantly lower mean sodium content than their regular versions (28%–38%). Consumers trying to maintain a healthy diet should consider that sodium content may vary in foods modified to be lower in calories/fat. PMID:27548218

  18. Adolescent eating in the absence of hunger and relation to discretionary calorie allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Tanja V E; Moore, Reneé H; Stunkard, Albert J; Berkowitz, Robert I; Stettler, Nicolas; Stallings, Virginia A; Tanaka, Leeann M; Kabay, April C; Faith, Myles S

    2010-12-01

    Eating in the absence of hunger is a risk factor for overeating during childhood. The objective of this study was to examine eating in the absence of hunger in adolescents based on their familial predisposition to obesity and current weight status. Thirty-one subjects (16 male, 15 female), who were 13 years of age and born at low risk or high risk for obesity, consumed lunch to fullness. After lunch, subjects had access to different snacks for 15 minutes. Eating in the absence of hunger referred to energy intake from the snacks. Low-risk females consumed two and a half times more calories from snacks than high-risk females and twice as many calories as low-risk and high-risk males when expressed as an individualized percentage of daily allowance for discretionary calories. Normal-weight females consumed two and a half times more calories from snacks than obese females and normal-weight males. The association between eating in the absence of hunger and weight and obesity risk status depended on adolescents' sex and could reflect emerging developmental differences, such as dieting or social desirability. PMID:21111097

  19. High-calorie diet exacerbates prostate neoplasia in mice with haploinsufficiency of Pten tumor suppressor gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehnan Liu

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: High-calorie diet promotes prostate cancer progression in the genetically susceptible Pten haploinsufficient mouse while preserving insulin sensitivity. This appears to be partly due to increased inflammatory response to high-caloric intake in addition to increased ability of insulin to promote lipogenesis.

  20. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior. Interacting sources of influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Junilla K; Hermans, Roel C J; Sleddens, Ester F C; Engels, Rutger C M E; Fisher, Jennifer O; Kremers, Stef P J

    2015-06-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children's food intake. In this narrative review, we provide a conceptual model that bridges the gap between both literatures and consists of three main hypotheses. First, parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices are important interactive sources of influence on children's dietary behavior and Body Mass Index (BMI). Second, parental influences are importantly mediated by changes in the child's home food environment. Third, parenting context (i.e., parenting styles and differential parental treatment) moderates effects of food parenting practices, whereas child characteristics (i.e., temperament and appetitive traits) mainly moderate effects of the home food environment. Future studies testing (parts of) this conceptual model are needed to inform effective parent-child overweight preventive interventions.

  1. Gastric Bypass Promotes More Lipid Mobilization Than a Similar Weight Loss Induced by Low-Calorie Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Kullberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recently, we found large reductions in visceral and subcutaneous fat one month after gastric bypass (GBP, without any change in liver fat content. Purpose. Firstly to characterize weight loss-induced lipid mobilization after one month with preoperative low-calorie diet (LCD and a subsequent month following GBP, and secondly, to discuss the observations with reference to our previous published findings after GBP intervention alone. Methods. 15 morbidly obese women were studied prior to LCD, at GBP, and one month after GBP. Effects on metabolism were measured by magnetic resonance techniques and blood tests. Results. Body weight was similarly reduced after both months (mean: −8.0 kg, n=13. Relative body fat changes were smaller after LCD than after GBP (−7.1±3.6% versus −10±3.2%, P=.029, n=13. Liver fat fell during the LCD month (−41%, P=.001, n=13 but was unaltered one month after GBP (+12%. Conclusion. Gastric bypass seems to cause a greater lipid mobilization than a comparable LCD-induced weight loss. One may speculate that GBP-altered gastrointestinal signalling sensitizes adipose tissue to lipolysis, promoting the changes observed.

  2. Influence of Dietary Interventions on Gastric Cancer Patients' Quality of Life and Complications after Billroth Ⅱ Gastrectomy%饮食干预对胃癌毕Ⅱ式根治术后患者生活质量及并发症的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周桂兰; 洪菁; 方登

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of dietary interventions on the gastric cancer patients' quality of life after Billroth II gastrectomy. Methods From June 2009 to December 2010,60 patients undergoing Billroth TJ gastrectomy in the hospital were randomly divided into interventional group(n = 30) and control group(n = 30). The patients of the control group received conventional dietary guidance,and the interventional group used the project of individual dietary guidance in accordance with the principle of gradual and orderly progress at the suggestion of nutritionists. The patients'quality of life and the incidences of complications were evaluated at six months and one year after gastrectomy separately using quality of life questionnaire of stomach 22(QLQ-STO22). Results The patients' overall QLQ-STO22 level in the interventional group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0. 01). The patients in both groups suffered from bloating after meals,gastro-esophageal reflux,dumping syndrome and other complications. The incidence of complications in 6 months after operation was significantly lower in the observational group than that in the control group (P<0. 05). Conclusion Individual dietary interventions can change patients' unhealthy lifestyle,reduce the complication rate and improve their quality of life after gastrectomy.%目的 探讨饮食干预对毕Ⅱ式胃癌根治术后患者生活质量的影响.方法 便利抽样法选取2009年6月至2010年12月在桂林医学院附属医院行胃癌毕Ⅱ式根治术的患者60例为研究对象,按随机数字表法将其分为观察组和对照组,每组30例.对照组患者根据胃癌毕Ⅱ式根治术后饮食原则给予常规饮食指导,观察组在此基础上根据患者的个体情况,与营养师合作按照循序渐进原则进行个体化指导及跟踪督查、指导.分别于术后6个月、1年采用胃癌患者生活质量问卷(quality of life questionnaire of stomach 22,QLQ

  3. 饮食干预对2型糖尿病患者自我效能及代谢控制的效果研究%Research of dietary intervention on self-efficacy and metabolic control of patients with type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭鑫; 李燕; 崔焱; 李群; 蔡娅; 马向华

    2010-01-01

    目的 评价饮食干预对于门诊2型糖尿病患者自我效能和代谢控制的效果.方法 采用自身对照研究,对70例门诊2型糖尿病患者进行饮食干预.比较干预前后患者体重、腰围、血脂、尿酸、糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c)变化,评价患者自我效能.结果 干预后患者的体质指数、腰围、血脂、HbA1c较干预前下降,干预后自我效能总分、饮食、自我监测、医疗等维度的自我效能提高.结论 饮食干预有利于提高患者的自我效能,改善代谢控制.%Objective To evaluate effects of dietary intervention on self-efficacy and metabolic control of patient with type 2 diabetes. Methods A self-control designed research was conducted to 70 patients with type 2 diabetes at clinic receiving diet intervention. Before intervention and 1 month after, body mass index,waist, total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins and uric acid were tested to evaluate the metabolic control. After 3 month, HbA1c was monitored to evaluate glycemic control. Meanwhile,before intervention and 1,3 month after, self-efficacy was investigated. Results One month later, body mass index, waist, blood lipid were lower than before, HbA1c was reduced 0.78%, the total score of self-efficacy and the dimension of nutrition, monitoring and medical were improved. Conclusions The dietary intervention was beneficial for improving metobolic control and self-efficacy of patients.

  4. Affect of Low Glycemic-load Dietary Intervention On the Pregnancy Rate of Obesity-type Polycytic Ovary Syndrome%低血糖负荷饮食对肥胖型多囊卵巢综合征患者受孕率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蓉; 姬旭慧; 管一春

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨低血糖负荷饮食营养干预肥胖型多囊卵巢综合征患者受孕率的效果观察。方法随机选取该院营养咨询门诊经低血糖负荷饮食干预的肥胖型多囊卵巢综合征患者75例为试验组,1:1匹配未经饮食干预的该病患者为对照组。1个疗程后收集整理两组指标,并作统计学分析。结果试验组患者干预后BMI下降显著高于对照组(P<0.01);饮食干预后,试验组受孕人数增多,与对照组差异显著(P<0.01)。结论饮食干预可有效降低肥胖型多囊卵巢综合征患者的体重,并有助于患者受孕率。%Objective To observe the impact of nurse with the low glycemic-load dietary intervention on the pregnancy rate of obesity-type PCOS. Method 75 patients with obesity-type PCOS who took the Low-GL treatment from the weight loss outpatient service were randomly selected as the treatment group. 75 patients without dietary intervention were selected as control. Clinical indicators from the both groups were collected analysed after one periad of treatment. Results The BMI decreased degree of treatment group was significantly higher than the control group. The proportion of pregnant people were significant increased from the cases in treatment group ( P<0 . 01 ) . Conclusion The low glycemic-load dietary in-tervention can lose weight of obesity-type PCOS effectively,while it can help obesity-type PCOS to preg-nant.

  5. 低血糖负荷饮食对肥胖型多囊卵巢综合征患者受孕率的影响%Affect of Low Glycemic-load Dietary Intervention On the Pregnancy Rate of Obesity-type Polycytic Ovary Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蓉; 姬旭慧; 管一春

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨低血糖负荷饮食营养干预肥胖型多囊卵巢综合征患者受孕率的效果观察。方法随机选取该院营养咨询门诊经低血糖负荷饮食干预的肥胖型多囊卵巢综合征患者75例为试验组,1:1匹配未经饮食干预的该病患者为对照组。1个疗程后收集整理两组指标,并作统计学分析。结果试验组患者干预后BMI下降显著高于对照组(P<0.01);饮食干预后,试验组受孕人数增多,与对照组差异显著(P<0.01)。结论饮食干预可有效降低肥胖型多囊卵巢综合征患者的体重,并有助于患者受孕率。%Objective To observe the impact of nurse with the low glycemic-load dietary intervention on the pregnancy rate of obesity-type PCOS. Method 75 patients with obesity-type PCOS who took the Low-GL treatment from the weight loss outpatient service were randomly selected as the treatment group. 75 patients without dietary intervention were selected as control. Clinical indicators from the both groups were collected analysed after one periad of treatment. Results The BMI decreased degree of treatment group was significantly higher than the control group. The proportion of pregnant people were significant increased from the cases in treatment group ( P<0 . 01 ) . Conclusion The low glycemic-load dietary in-tervention can lose weight of obesity-type PCOS effectively,while it can help obesity-type PCOS to preg-nant.

  6. Where are kids getting their empty calories? Stores, schools, and fast food restaurants each play an important role in empty calorie intake among US children in 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poti, Jennifer M.; Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.; Kenan, W.R.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of empty calories, the sum of energy from added sugar and solid fat, exceeds recommendations, but little is known about where US children obtain these empty calories. The objectives of this study were to compare children's empty calorie consumption from retail food stores, schools, and fast food restaurants; to identify food groups that were top contributors of empty calories from each location; and to determine the location providing the majority of calories for these key food groups. This cross-sectional analysis used data from 3,077 US children aged 2-18 years participating in the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The empty calorie content of children's intake from stores (33%), schools (32%), and fast food restaurants (35%) was not significantly different in 2009-2010. In absolute terms, stores provided the majority of empty calorie intake (436 kcal). The top contributors of added sugar and solid fat from each location were similar: sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs), grain desserts, and high-fat milk from stores; high-fat milk, grain desserts, and pizza from schools; and SSBs, dairy desserts, french fries, and pizza from fast food restaurants. Schools contributed about 20% of children's intake of high-fat milk and pizza. In conclusion, these findings support the need for continued efforts to reduce empty calorie intake among US children aimed not just at fast food restaurants, but also at stores and schools. The importance of reformed school nutrition standards was suggested, as prior to their implementation, schools resembled fast food restaurants in their contributions to empty calorie intake. PMID:24200654

  7. Where are kids getting their empty calories? Stores, schools, and fast-food restaurants each played an important role in empty calorie intake among US children during 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poti, Jennifer M; Slining, Meghan M; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-06-01

    Consumption of empty calories, the sum of energy from added sugar and solid fat, exceeds recommendations, but little is known about where US children obtain these empty calories. The objectives of this study were to compare children's empty calorie consumption from retail food stores, schools, and fast-food restaurants; to identify food groups that were top contributors of empty calories from each location; and to determine the location providing the majority of calories for these key food groups. This cross-sectional analysis used data from 3,077 US children aged 2 to 18 years participating in the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The empty calorie content of children's intake from stores (33%), schools (32%), and fast-food restaurants (35%) was not significantly different in 2009-2010. In absolute terms, stores provided the majority of empty calorie intake (436 kcal). The top contributors of added sugar and solid fat from each location were similar: sugar-sweetened beverages, grain desserts, and high-fat milk∗ from stores; high-fat milk, grain desserts, and pizza from schools; and sugar-sweetened beverages, dairy desserts, french fries, and pizza from fast-food restaurants. Schools contributed about 20% of children's intake of high-fat milk and pizza. These findings support the need for continued efforts to reduce empty calorie intake among US children aimed not just at fast-food restaurants, but also at stores and schools. The importance of reformed school nutrition standards was suggested, as prior to implementation of these changes, schools resembled fast-food restaurants in their contributions to empty calorie intake.

  8. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group

    OpenAIRE

    Domenico Prezioso; Pasquale Strazzullo; Tullio Lotti; Giampaolo Bianchi; Loris Borghi; Paolo Caione; Marco Carini; Renata Caudarella; Giovanni Gambaro; Marco Gelosa; Andrea Guttilla; Ester Illiano; Marangella Martino; Tiziana Meschi; Piergiorgio Messa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Diet interventions may reduce the risk of urinary stone formation and its recurrence, but there is no conclusive consensus in the literature regarding the effectiveness of dietary interventions and recommendations about specific diets for patients with urinary calculi. The aim of this study was to review the studies reporting the effects of different dietary interventions for the modification of urinary risk factors in patients with urinary stone disease. Materials and Methods: A s...

  9. Pathogenesis of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases: Are Fructose-Containing Sugars More Involved Than Other Dietary Calories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosset, Robin; Surowska, Anna; Tappy, Luc

    2016-06-01

    There is increasing concern that sugar consumption may be linked to the development of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. There is indeed strong evidence that consumption of energy-dense sugary beverages and foods is associated with increased energy intake and body weight gain over time. It is further proposed that the fructose component of sugars may exert specific deleterious effects due to its propension to stimulate hepatic glucose production and de novo lipogenesis. Excess fructose and energy intake may be associated with visceral obesity, intrahepatic fat accumulation, and high fasting and postprandial blood triglyceride concentrations. Additional effects of fructose on blood uric acid and sympathetic nervous system activity have also been reported, but their link with metabolic and cardiovascular diseases remains hypothetical. There is growing evidence that fructose at physiologically consumed doses may exert important effects on kidney function. Whether this is related to the development of high blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases remains to be further assessed. PMID:27125390

  10. 21 CFR 101.60 - Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... used on labels or in labeling of dietary supplements of vitamins or minerals that are intended... defined in § 101.13(m), and dietary supplements of vitamins or minerals, provided that: (i) The...

  11. Dietary medium chain fatty acid supplementation leads to reduced VLDL lipolysis and uptake rates in comparison to linoleic acid supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalkwijk, D.B. van; Pasman, W.J.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Verheij, E.R.; Rubingh, C.M.; Bochove, K. van; Vaes, W.H.J.; Adiels, M.; Freidig, A.P.; Graaf, A.A. de

    2014-01-01

    Dietary medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and linoleic acid follow different metabolic routes, and linoleic acid activates PPAR receptors. Both these mechanisms may modify lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism after dietary intervention. Our objective was to investigate how dietary MCFA and linoleic a

  12. Dietary fructose intolerance, fructan intolerance and FODMAPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Amy; Rao, Satish S C

    2014-01-01

    Dietary intolerances to fructose, fructans and FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) are common, yet poorly recognized and managed. Over the last decade, they have come to the forefront because of new knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Patients with these problems often present with unexplained bloating, belching, distension, gas, abdominal pain, or diarrhea. Here, we have examined the most up-to-date research on these food-related intolerances, discussed controversies, and have provided some guidelines for the dietary management of these conditions. Breath testing for carbohydrate intolerance appears to be standardized and essential for the diagnosis and management of these conditions, especially in the Western population. While current research shows that the FODMAP diet may be effective in treating some patients with irritable bowel syndrome, additional research is needed to identify more foods items that are high in FODMAPs, and to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of dietary interventions.

  13. A 2-Week Course of Enteral Treatment with a Very Low-Calorie Protein-Based Formula for the Management of Severe Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Castaldo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Multiple weight loss failures among obese patients suggest the design of new therapeutic strategies. We investigated the role of 2-week course of enteral treatment with a very low-calorie protein-based formula in the management of severe obesity. Methods. We evaluated the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of 2-week continuous administration of a protein-based formula (1.2 g/kg of ideal body weight/day by nasogastric tube in severely obese adults (body mass index (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2. Results. In total, 364 patients (59% women; BMI = 46.6±7.2 kg/m2 were recruited. The intervention was discontinued within 48 hours in 26 patients, due to nasogastric tube intolerance. No serious adverse events occurred. During the first and the second week, 65% and 80% patients, respectively, reported no side effects. All biochemical safety parameters were affected by the intervention, particularly uric acid (+45% and aminotransferases (+48%. In the other cases the change was negligible. We observed significant weight loss (5.7±2.3% and improvement in blood pressure and glucose and lipid metabolism parameters (P<0.001. Conclusions. A 2-week course of enteral treatment with a very low-calorie protein-based formula appeared a feasible, likely safe, and efficacious therapeutic option to be considered for inclusion into a composite weight loss program for the management of severe obesity. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01965990.

  14. The effects of a low-calorie diet or an isocaloric diet combined with metformin on sex hormones In obese women of child-bearing age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Swora-Cwynar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The influence of weight loss treatment on sex hormones profile has been studied mainly in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, but in obese premenopausal women without PCOS it still remains unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of two approaches to obesity treatment on the serum level of sex hormones in obese women of child-bearing age without PCOS. Material and methods. 77 obese Caucasian women (aged 31.2 ±8.3 years were randomized into two groups: 39 women received a low-calorie diet (LC and 38 received an isocaloric diet plus metformin (IM, for 12 weeks. Anthropometric parameters, body composition and serum concentrations of estradiol (E2, testosterone (T, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA-S sulfate were evaluated at baseline and after the study. Results. Reductions in body weight, body mass index (BMI, waist and body fat content with an increase  in lean body percent were significant and comparable between the LC and IM group after the trial. The con- centrations of serum FSH, LH, E2, DHEA and T did not change in either group after treatment. A tendency towards an increase in the E2 concentration in both groups and a decrease in the T level in the LC group  was observed. The correlations between a change in BMI, fat content, waist-hip ratio and a change in T were documented in the LC group. Conclusion. A 12-week low-calorie diet and an isocaloric diet combined with metformin produced comparable and significant weight loss with improvements in body composition. Both interventions did not significantly affect FSH, LH and DHEA sulfate serum concentrations, only a trend towards an E2 increase and a T decrease was observed, stronger in LC group. The significant correlations shown between the changes in anthropometric and body composition parameters and T serum levels in women treated with a low-calorie diet alone show the beneficial e

  15. 饮食和运动干预对减少孕期超重、剖宫产、巨大儿效果的Meta分析%Effect of dietary and physical activity interventions on reducing excessive weight gain during pregnancy, cesarean section and macrosomia :A Meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云; 陈晓莉; 花芸

    2014-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the effect of dietary and physical activity interventions on weight management during pregnancy.Methods The PubMed (from Jan.1990 to Sep.2013),Springer (from Jan.1960 to Sep.2013),Willy (from Jan.1990 to Sep.2013),Web of Science (from Jan.1990 to Sep.2013),Wanfang data (from Jan.1995 to Sep.2013),China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (from Jan.1995 to Sep.2013)were searched for relevant articles.All published randomized controlled trails (RCT) on dietary and physical activity interventions during pregnancy were considered.The quality of RCTs was appraised and data were extracted by 3 reviewers independently.Meta-analysis were conducted by RevMan 5.2 software.Results In total,eleven RCTs were included in this review.Meta-analysis revealed that dietary and physical activity intervention significantly reduced incidence of cesarean section and macrosomia;However,there were no statistically significant differences in the total gestational weight gain.Conclusions Interventions based on dietary and physical activity during pregnancy appears effective in reducing incidence of cesarean section and macrosomia.However,there are many limitation of the Meta analysis,therefore more multi-center,large sample with high quality RCTs are required for future verification.%目的 系统评价膳食和运动对孕期体质量管理的效果.方法 计算机检索PubMed (1990年1月至2013年9月)、Springer(1960年1月至2013年9月)、Willy(1990年1月至2013年9月)、Web of Science(1990年1月至2013年9月)、万方数据库(Wanfang Data)(1995年1月至2013年9月)、中国知网(CNKI)(1995年1月至2013年9月)中有关饮食和运动对控制孕期体质量影响的随机对照实验.由3名研究人员对纳入的文献进行分析评价,对符合质量标准的随机对照实验(RCT)进行Meta分析.统计学分析采用RevMan5.2软件.结果 共纳入11项RCT研究.Meta分析主要结局指标,2组在降低剖宫产率、巨大儿

  16. Design and methods for testing a simple dietary message to improve weight loss and dietary quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ockene Ira S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current food pyramid guidelines have been criticized because of their complexity and the knowledge required for users to understand the recommendations. Simplification of a dietary message to focus on a single key aspect of dietary quality, e.g., fiber intake, may make the message much easier to comprehend and adhere, such that respondents can achieve greater weight loss, better dietary quality and overall metabolic health. Methods and design This is a randomized controlled clinical trial with two equal sized arms. In total, 240 obese adults who meet diagnostic criteria for the metabolic syndrome will be randomized to one of the two conditions: 1 a high fiber diet and 2 the American Heart Association (AHA diet. In the high fiber diet condition, patients will be given instruction only on achieving daily dietary fiber intake of 30 g or more. In the AHA diet condition, patients will be instructed to make the several dietary changes recommended by the AHA 2006 guidelines. The trial examines participant weight loss and dietary quality as well as changes in components of the metabolic syndrome, inflammatory biomarkers, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, insulin levels, and glycosolated hemoglobin. Potential mediators, i.e., diet adherence and perceived ease of the diet, and the intervention effect on weight change will also be examined. Discussions The purpose of this paper is to outline the study design and methods for testing the simple message of increasing dietary fiber. If the simple dietary approach is found efficacious for weight loss; and, improves dietary quality, metabolic health, and adherence, it might then be used to develop a simple public health message. Trial registration NCT00911885

  17. Neural processing of calories in brain reward areas can be modulated by reward sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge eVan Rijn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A food’s reward value is dependent on its caloric content. Furthermore, a food’s acute reward value also depends on hunger state. The drive to obtain rewards (reward sensitivity, however, differs between individuals. Here, we assessed the association between brain responses to calories in the mouth and trait reward sensitivity in different hunger states. Firstly, we assessed this in data from a functional neuroimaging study (van Rijn et al., 2015, in which participants (n=30 tasted simple solutions of a non-caloric sweetener with or without a non-sweet carbohydrate (maltodextrin during hunger and satiety. Secondly, we expanded these analyses to regular drinks by assessing the same relationship in data from a study in which soft drinks sweetened with either sucrose or a non-caloric sweetener were administered during hunger (n=18 (Griffioen-Roose et al., 2013. First, taste activation by the non-caloric solution/soft drink was subtracted from that by the caloric solution/soft drink to eliminate sweetness effects and retain activation induced by calories. Subsequently, this difference in taste activation was correlated with reward sensitivity as measured with the BAS drive subscale of the Behavioral Activation System (BAS questionnaire.When participants were hungry and tasted calories from the simple solution, brain activation in the right ventral striatum (caudate, right amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (bilaterally correlated negatively with BAS drive scores. In contrast, when participants were satiated, taste responses correlated positively with BAS drive scores in the left caudate. These results were not replicated for soft drinks. Thus, neural responses to oral calories from maltodextrin were modulated by reward sensitivity in reward-related brain areas. This was not the case for sucrose. This may be due to the direct detection of maltodextrin, but not sucrose in the oral cavity. Also, in a familiar beverage, detection of calories per

  18. 个体化饮食干预对妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)孕产妇围生期结局的影响%Effect of individualized dietary intervention on perinatal outcome of pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴福仁; 赵新新

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To explore the effect of individualized dietary intervention on perinatal outcome of pregnant women with ges-tational diabetes mellitus (CDM) . Methods: A total of 156 pregnant women with GDM who received perinatal examination and deliveried in the hospital were selected, then they were divided into individualized diet group and routine diet group randomly, 78 women in each group. The women in individualized diet group were treated with individualized dietary control, while the women in routine diet group were treated with routine dietary guidance, the complications of pregnant women and perinatal infants in the two groups were observed. Results; The incidences of polyhydramnios, premature rupture of membrane, premature delivery, ketosis, and fetal distress in individualized diet group were significantly lower than those in routine diet group (P <0. 05) . The incidences of macrosomia, neonatal asphyxia, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), hypoglycemia, fetal growth restriction (FDR) in individualized diet group were significantly lower than those in routine diet group (P <0. 05) . Conclusion; Individualized dietary therapy can relieve the maternal and infantile complications among the patients with GDM, and it can achieve good pregnancy outcome.%目的:探讨个体化饮食干预对妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)孕产妇围生期结局的影响.方法:选择在该院进行围产检查并分娩GDM孕产妇156例,随机分为个体化饮食组和常规饮食组,每组78例,个体化饮食组予个体化饮食控制,常规饮食组予常规饮食指导,观察两组孕产妇和围生儿并发症发生情况.结果:个体化饮食组孕产妇中羊水过多、胎膜早破、早产、酮症、胎儿窘迫的发生率低于常规饮食组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).围生儿中巨大儿、新生窒息、呼吸窘迫综合征(RDS)、低血糖、胎儿生长受限(FDR)发生率明显低于常规饮食组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:个体化饮

  19. Effect of food processing on the physicochemical properties of dietary fibre.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasfi ye Hazal Ozyurt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Products derived from the manufacturing or processing of plant based foods: cereals, fruits, vegetables, as well as algae, are sources of abundant dietary fi bre. Diets high in dietary fi bre have been associated with the reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and gastrointestinal disorders. These fibre-rich products and byproducts can also fortify foods, increase their dietary fibre content and result in healthy products, low in calories, cholesterol and fat. Traditionally, consumers have chosen foods such as whole grains, fruits and vegetables as sources of dietary fibre. Recently, food manufacturers have responded to consumer demand for foods with a higher fibre content by developing products in which highfibre ingredients are used. Diff erent food processing methods also increase the dietary fiber content of food. Moreover, its chemical and physical properties may be aff ected by food processing. Some of them might even improve the functionality of fibre. Therefore, they may also be applied as functional ingredients to improve physical properties like the physical and structural properties of hydration, oil-holding capacity, viscosity. This study was conducted to examine the eff ect of diff erent food processing methods on the physicochemical properties of dietary fibre.

  20. The Effect of a Mindful Restaurant Eating Intervention on Weight Management in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Gayle M.; Brown, Adama

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of a Mindful Restaurant Eating intervention on weight management. Design Random control trial. Setting Greater metropolitan area of Austin, Texas. Participants Women (n = 35) 40-59 years old who eat out at least 3 times per week. Intervention The intervention, using 6 weekly 2 hour small group sessions, focused on reducing calorie and fat intake when eating out through education, behavior change strategies, and mindful eating meditations. Main Outcome Measures Weight, waist circumference, self-reported daily calorie and fat intake, self-reported calories and fat consumed when eating out, emotional eating, diet related self-efficacy, and barriers to weight management when eating out. Analysis General linear models examined change from baseline to final endpoint to determine differences in outcomes between the intervention and control group. Results Participants in the intervention group lost significantly more weight (P =.03), had lower average daily caloric (P =.002) and fat intake (P =.001), had increased diet related self-efficacy (P =.02), and had fewer barriers to weight management when eating out (P =.001). Conclusions and Implications Mindful Restaurant Eating intervention was effective in promoting weight management in perimenopausal women. PMID:22243980

  1. Lifestyle and dietary factors determine age at natural menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapre, Shilpa; Thakur, Ratna

    2014-01-01

    A literature search was done using PubMed. The age at natural menopause (ANM) depends on various factors like genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle of which some like nulliparity, vegetarian diet, smoking, high fat intake, cholesterol, and caffeine accelerates; while others like parity, prior use of oral contraceptive pills, and Japanese ethnicity delays the ANM. ANM is an important risk factor for long-term morbidity and mortality; and hence, the need to identify the modifiable risk factors like diet and lifestyle changes. Delayed menopause is associated with increased risk of endometrial and breast cancer, while early ANM enhances the risk for cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The correlation between diet and ANM has not been extensively studied; however, whatever studies have been done till now point towards role of high intake of total calories, fruits, and proteins in delaying the ANM, while high polyunsaturated fat intake accelerates it. The role of dietary soy, total fat, saturated fat, red meat, and dietary fiber in determining the ANM has been controversial and needs further studies to substantiate it. The lifestyle factors like current smoking and vigorous exercise have been significantly associated with early menopause, while moderate alcohol consumption delays the ANM. Large prospective studies are needed to study the association of ANM and other modifiable factors like passive smoking fish consumption, soy, and various types of tea. The knowledge of modifiable determinants of ANM can help in setting up menopausal clinics and initiating health programs specially in developing countries. PMID:24672198

  2. Lifestyle and dietary factors determine age at natural menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapre, Shilpa; Thakur, Ratna

    2014-01-01

    A literature search was done using PubMed. The age at natural menopause (ANM) depends on various factors like genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle of which some like nulliparity, vegetarian diet, smoking, high fat intake, cholesterol, and caffeine accelerates; while others like parity, prior use of oral contraceptive pills, and Japanese ethnicity delays the ANM. ANM is an important risk factor for long-term morbidity and mortality; and hence, the need to identify the modifiable risk factors like diet and lifestyle changes. Delayed menopause is associated with increased risk of endometrial and breast cancer, while early ANM enhances the risk for cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The correlation between diet and ANM has not been extensively studied; however, whatever studies have been done till now point towards role of high intake of total calories, fruits, and proteins in delaying the ANM, while high polyunsaturated fat intake accelerates it. The role of dietary soy, total fat, saturated fat, red meat, and dietary fiber in determining the ANM has been controversial and needs further studies to substantiate it. The lifestyle factors like current smoking and vigorous exercise have been significantly associated with early menopause, while moderate alcohol consumption delays the ANM. Large prospective studies are needed to study the association of ANM and other modifiable factors like passive smoking fish consumption, soy, and various types of tea. The knowledge of modifiable determinants of ANM can help in setting up menopausal clinics and initiating health programs specially in developing countries.

  3. Measuring weight outcomes for obesity intervention strategies: the case of a sugar-sweetened beverage tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Biing-Hwan; Smith, Travis A; Lee, Jonq-Ying; Hall, Kevin D

    2011-12-01

    Taxing unhealthy foods has been proposed as a means to improve diet and health by reducing calorie intake and raising funds to combat obesity, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). A growing number of studies have examined the effects of such food taxes, but few have estimated the weight-loss effects. Typically, a static model of 3500 calories for one pound of body weight is used, and the main objective of the study is to demonstrate its bias. To accomplish the objective, we estimate income-segmented beverage demand systems to examine the potential effects of a SSB tax. Elasticity estimates and a hypothetical 20 percent effective tax rate (or about 0.5 cent per ounce) are applied to beverage intake data from a nationally representative survey, and we find an average daily reduction of 34-47 calories among adults and 40-51 calories among children. The tax-induced energy reductions are translated into weight loss using both static and dynamic calorie-to-weight models. Results demonstrate that the static model significantly overestimates the weight loss from reduced energy intake by 63 percent in year one, 346 percent in year five, and 764 percent in year 10, which leads to unrealistic expectations for obesity intervention strategies. The tax is estimated to generate $5.8 billion a year in revenue and is found to be regressive, although it represents about 1 percent of household food and beverage spending. PMID:21940223

  4. Measuring weight outcomes for obesity intervention strategies: the case of a sugar-sweetened beverage tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Biing-Hwan; Smith, Travis A; Lee, Jonq-Ying; Hall, Kevin D

    2011-12-01

    Taxing unhealthy foods has been proposed as a means to improve diet and health by reducing calorie intake and raising funds to combat obesity, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). A growing number of studies have examined the effects of such food taxes, but few have estimated the weight-loss effects. Typically, a static model of 3500 calories for one pound of body weight is used, and the main objective of the study is to demonstrate its bias. To accomplish the objective, we estimate income-segmented beverage demand systems to examine the potential effects of a SSB tax. Elasticity estimates and a hypothetical 20 percent effective tax rate (or about 0.5 cent per ounce) are applied to beverage intake data from a nationally representative survey, and we find an average daily reduction of 34-47 calories among adults and 40-51 calories among children. The tax-induced energy reductions are translated into weight loss using both static and dynamic calorie-to-weight models. Results demonstrate that the static model significantly overestimates the weight loss from reduced energy intake by 63 percent in year one, 346 percent in year five, and 764 percent in year 10, which leads to unrealistic expectations for obesity intervention strategies. The tax is estimated to generate $5.8 billion a year in revenue and is found to be regressive, although it represents about 1 percent of household food and beverage spending.

  5. Diet quality, nutrient intake, weight status, and feeding environments of girls meeting or exceeding the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations for total dietary fat

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Y.; Birch, L. L.

    2002-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that children consume no more than 30% but no less than 20% of energy as dietary fat intake, and tills recommendation, is accompanied by suggestions that fat calories should be replaced by eating more grain products, fruits, vegetables, low fat datiy products, beans, lean meat, poultry, fish, and other protein rich foods. In comparing diets of girls meeting this AAP recommendation with girls who consumed diets higher in fat, we noted that gi...

  6. Dietary guidelines in singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Benjamin Lc

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 Dietary Guidelines were developed with the aim of providing guidance on what dietary strategies can best address increasing rates of obesity and non-communicable chronic disease in Singapore. This set of dietary guidelines was developed with a local expert committee based on a review of scientific literature and data on current dietary patterns from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey. Projected nutrient intakes from a diet adhering to the 2011 Dietary Guidelines were calculated using a local food composition database (FOCOS) and validated against nutrient recommendations. Acknowledging that dietary requirements differ between age groups, different sets of dietary guidelines have been developed and customised for different segments of the population. To date, Singapore has produced dietary guidelines for children and adolescents (focusing on establishing healthy lifelong eating patterns), adults (focusing on preventing obesity and reinforcing healthy eating patterns), and most recently, guidelines for older adults (>50 years of age) that address the issue of potential dietary insufficiency caused by age-related increases in nutrient requirements combined with a reduction in energy requirements. In Singapore, dietary guidelines have been used to inform and direct public policy and promote dietary patterns that meet nutrient requirements while reducing the risk of non-communicable chronic diseases. Examples of public policy include: national guidelines on food advertising and standards for food served in nursing homes; examples of public health promotion programmes include: the Healthier Choice Symbol Programme for packaged food products and programmes encouraging provision of healthier meals in hawker centres, restaurants, and school or workplace canteens. PMID:21859669

  7. Consumers’ estimation of calorie content at fast food restaurants: cross sectional observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Block, Jason Perry; Condon, Suzanne K.; Kleinman, Ken Paul; Mullen, Jewel; Linakis, Stephanie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl Lynn; Gillman, Matthew William

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate estimation of calorie (energy) content of meals from fast food restaurants in adults, adolescents, and school age children. Design: Cross sectional study of repeated visits to fast food restaurant chains. Setting: 89 fast food restaurants in four cities in New England, United States: McDonald’s, Burger King, Subway, Wendy’s, KFC, Dunkin’ Donuts. Participants: 1877 adults and 330 school age children visiting restaurants at dinnertime (evening meal) in 2010 and 2011; 1...

  8. Calorie restriction and SIRT3 trigger global reprogramming of the mitochondrial protein acetylome

    OpenAIRE

    Hebert, Alexander S.; Dittenhafer-Reed, Kristin E.; Yu, Wei; Bailey, Derek J.; Selen, Ebru Selin; Boersma, Melissa D.; Carson, Joshua J.; Tonelli, Marco; Balloon, Allison; Higbee, Alan J.; Westphall, Michael S; Pagliarini, David J.; Prolla, Tomas A.; Assadi-Porter, Fariba; Roy, Sushmita

    2012-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) extends lifespan in diverse species. Mitochondria play a key role in CR adaptation, however, the molecular details remain elusive. We developed and applied a quantitative mass spectrometry method to probe the liver mitochondrial acetyl-proteome during CR vs. control diet in mice that were wild-type or lacked the protein deacetylase SIRT3. Quantification of 3,285 acetylation sites −2,193 from mitochondrial proteins rendered a comprehensive atlas of the acetyl-proteome ...

  9. Neural Processing of Calories in Brain Reward Areas Can be Modulated by Reward Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    van Rijn, Inge; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Paul A.M. Smeets

    2016-01-01

    A food's reward value is dependent on its caloric content. Furthermore, a food's acute reward value also depends on hunger state. The drive to obtain rewards (reward sensitivity), however, differs between individuals. Here, we assessed the association between brain responses to calories in the mouth and trait reward sensitivity in different hunger states. Firstly, we assessed this in data from a functional neuroimaging study (van Rijn et al., 2015), in which participants (n = 30) tasted simpl...

  10. Neural processing of calories in brain reward areas can be modulated by reward sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Inge eVan Rijn; Sanne eGriffioen-Roose; Cees ede Graaf; Paul A.M. Smeets

    2016-01-01

    A food’s reward value is dependent on its caloric content. Furthermore, a food’s acute reward value also depends on hunger state. The drive to obtain rewards (reward sensitivity), however, differs between individuals. Here, we assessed the association between brain responses to calories in the mouth and trait reward sensitivity in different hunger states. Firstly, we assessed this in data from a functional neuroimaging study (van Rijn et al., 2015), in which participants (n=30) tasted simple ...

  11. Effect of low calorie diet with rice bran oil on cardiovascular risk factors in hyperlipidemic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Zavoshy; Mostafa Noroozi; Hassan Jahanihashemi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death and disability in industrialized and developing countries. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of rice bran oil, with a low-calorie diet, on lipid profiles, in hyperlipidemic patients. Materials and Methods: This study was a parallel groups′ randomized clinical trial with a pre- and post-test design. Fifty hyperlipidemic patients of both sexes and age range of 25 - 65 years had participated. The patients re...

  12. Very low calorie diet without aspartame in obese subjects: improved metabolic control after 4 weeks treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Norén, Erik; Forssell, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Background Very low calorie diet (VLCD) is routinely used in programs for treatment of obesity and before bariatric surgery in order to reduce risk of postoperative complications. Aspartame, an artificial sweetener, is commonly used in VLCD and is well approved as a food additive without any adverse effects. The development of a new fructose containing VLCD formula without aspartame raises questions as to effects on glucose and lipid control. Methods As part of an ongoing study of a novel bar...

  13. Partial rescue of memory deficits induced by calorie restriction in a mouse model of tau deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlow, Milene L; Joly-Amado, Aurelie; Azam, Sana; Elza, Mike; Selenica, Maj-Linda; Pappas, Colleen; Small, Brent; Engelman, Robert; Gordon, Marcia N; Morgan, Dave

    2014-09-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) was shown previously to improve cognition and decrease pathology in transgenic mouse models with Alzheimer-like amyloid deposition. In the present study, we investigated the effects of CR on the Tg4510 model of tau deposition. Mice in the calorie restriction group had food intake gradually decreased until they reached an average of 35% body weight reduction. Body weight and food intake were monitored throughout the study. After being on their respective diets for 3 months, all animals were submitted to behavioral testing. Tg4510 mice fed ad libitum showed lower body weight than nontransgenic littermates despite their increased food intake. Additionally, Tg4510 showed increased locomotor activity in the open field regardless of diet. Calorie restricted Tg4510 mice performed significantly better than ad libitum fed mice in the novel object recognition test, suggesting improved short-term memory. CR Tg4510 mice also performed significantly better in contextual fear conditioning than mice fed ad libitum. However, in a modified version of the novelty test that allows for interaction with other mice instead of inanimate objects, CR was not able to rescue the deficit found in Tg4510 mice in this ethologically more salient version of the task. No treatment differences in motor performance or spatial memory were observed in the rotarod or radial arm water maze tests, respectively. Histopathological and biochemical assessments showed no diet-induced changes in total or phospho-tau levels. Moreover, increased activation of both astrocytes and microglia in Tg4510 mice was not rescued by calorie restriction. Taken together, our data suggests that, despite an apparent rescue of associative memory, CR had no consistent effects on pathological outcomes of a mouse model of tau deposition.

  14. Calorie restriction increases muscle mitochondrial biogenesis in healthy humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony E Civitarese

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Caloric restriction without malnutrition extends life span in a range of organisms including insects and mammals and lowers free radical production by the mitochondria. However, the mechanism responsible for this adaptation are poorly understood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The current study was undertaken to examine muscle mitochondrial bioenergetics in response to caloric restriction alone or in combination with exercise in 36 young (36.8 +/- 1.0 y, overweight (body mass index, 27.8 +/- 0.7 kg/m(2 individuals randomized into one of three groups for a 6-mo intervention: Control, 100% of energy requirements; CR, 25% caloric restriction; and CREX, caloric restriction with exercise (CREX, 12.5% CR + 12.5% increased energy expenditure (EE. In the controls, 24-h EE was unchanged, but in CR and CREX it was significantly reduced from baseline even after adjustment for the loss of metabolic mass (CR, -135 +/- 42 kcal/d, p = 0.002 and CREX, -117 +/- 52 kcal/d, p = 0.008. Participants in the CR and CREX groups had increased expression of genes encoding proteins involved in mitochondrial function such as PPARGC1A, TFAM, eNOS, SIRT1, and PARL (all, p < 0.05. In parallel, mitochondrial DNA content increased by 35% +/- 5% in the CR group (p = 0.005 and 21% +/- 4% in the CREX group (p < 0.004, with no change in the control group (2% +/- 2%. However, the activity of key mitochondrial enzymes of the TCA (tricarboxylic acid cycle (citrate synthase, beta-oxidation (beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and electron transport chain (cytochrome C oxidase II was unchanged. DNA damage was reduced from baseline in the CR (-0.56 +/- 0.11 arbitrary units, p = 0.003 and CREX (-0.45 +/- 0.12 arbitrary units, p = 0.011, but not in the controls. In primary cultures of human myotubes, a nitric oxide donor (mimicking eNOS signaling induced mitochondrial biogenesis but failed to induce SIRT1 protein expression, suggesting that additional factors may regulate SIRT1 content

  15. Hepatic effects of dietary weight loss in morbidly obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Gluud, C; Franzmann, Magnus;

    1991-01-01

    This prospective study was carried out in order to evaluate the influence on liver morphology and function of a very-low-calorie formula diet. Fourty-one morbidly obese, non-alcoholic subjects had liver biopsy performed before and after a median weight loss of 34 kg. Fatty change improved (p less...... than 0.001), but 24% of the patients developed slight portal inflammation (p = 0.039) or slight portal fibrosis (p = 0.063). Patients developing portal fibrosis had a higher degree of fatty change at entry (p = 0.029), a more pronounced reduction of fatty change (p = 0.014) and a faster weight loss (p...... = 0.026). Liver biochemistry, which was of no individual diagnostic value, improved. It is concluded that morbidly obese subjects with a high degree of hepatic fatty change are at risk of developing portal inflammation and fibrosis when undergoing very fast dietary weight reductions....

  16. Changes in energy content of lunchtime purchases from fast food restaurants after introduction of calorie labelling: cross sectional customer surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Christina Y; Nonas, Cathy A; Matte, Thomas D; Bassett, Mary T; Silver, Lynn D

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of fast food restaurants adding calorie labelling to menu items on the energy content of individual purchases. Design Cross sectional surveys in spring 2007 and spring 2009 (one year before and nine months after full implementation of regulation requiring chain restaurants’ menus to contain details of the energy content of all menu items). Setting 168 randomly selected locations of the top 11 fast food chains in New York City during lunchtime hours. Participants 7309 adult customers interviewed in 2007 and 8489 in 2009. Main outcome measures Energy content of individual purchases, based on customers’ register receipts and on calorie information provided for all items in menus. Results For the full sample, mean calories purchased did not change from before to after regulation (828 v 846 kcal, P=0.22), though a modest decrease was shown in a regression model adjusted for restaurant chain, poverty level for the store location, sex of customers, type of purchase, and inflation adjusted cost (847 v 827 kcal, P=0.01). Three major chains, which accounted for 42% of customers surveyed, showed significant reductions in mean energy per purchase (McDonald’s 829 v 785 kcal, P=0.02; Au Bon Pain 555 v 475 kcal, P<0.001; KFC 927 v 868 kcal, P<0.01), while mean energy content increased for one chain (Subway 749 v 882 kcal, P<0.001). In the 2009 survey, 15% (1288/8489) of customers reported using the calorie information, and these customers purchased 106 fewer kilocalories than customers who did not see or use the calorie information (757 v 863 kcal, P<0.001). Conclusion Although no overall decline in calories purchased was observed for the full sample, several major chains saw significant reductions. After regulation, one in six lunchtime customers used the calorie information provided, and these customers made lower calorie choices. PMID:21791497

  17. Effect of point-of-purchase calorie labeling on restaurant and cafeteria food choices: A review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    French Simone A; Harnack Lisa J

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Eating away from home has increased in prevalence among US adults and now comprises about 50% of food expenditures. Calorie labeling on chain restaurant menus is one specific policy that has been proposed to help consumers make better food choices at restaurants. The present review evaluates the available empirical literature on the effects of calorie information on food choices in restaurant and cafeteria settings. Methods Computer-assisted searches were conducted using t...

  18. A role for neuronal cAMP responsive-element binding (CREB)-1 in brain responses to calorie restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Fusco, Salvatore; Ripoli, Cristian; Podda, Maria Vittoria; Ranieri, Sofia Chiatamone; Leone, Lucia; Toietta, Gabriele; McBurney, Michael W.; Schütz, Günther; Riccio, Antonella; Grassi, Claudio; Galeotti, Tommaso; Pani, Giovambattista

    2011-01-01

    Calorie restriction delays brain senescence and prevents neurodegeneration, but critical regulators of these beneficial responses other than the NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase Sirtuin-1 (Sirt-1) are unknown. We report that effects of calorie restriction on neuronal plasticity, memory and social behavior are abolished in mice lacking cAMP responsive-element binding (CREB)-1 in the forebrain. Moreover, CREB deficiency drastically reduces the expression of Sirt-1 and the induction of genes r...

  19. Effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices: Results from an experimental trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffery Robert W; Story Mary T; Oakes J Michael; French Simone A; Harnack Lisa J; Rydell Sarah A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Although point-of-purchase calorie labeling at restaurants has been proposed as a strategy for improving consumer food choices, a limited number of studies have evaluated this approach. Likewise, little research has been conducted to evaluate the influence of value size pricing on restaurant meal choices. Methods To examine the effect of point-of-purchase calorie information and value size pricing on fast food meal choices a randomized 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conduc...

  20. Do Ames dwarf and calorie-restricted mice share common effects on age-related pathology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Ikeno

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 1996, aging studies using several strains of long-lived mutant mice have been conducted. Among these studies, Ames dwarf mice have been extensively examined to seek clues regarding the role of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis in the aging process. Interestingly, these projects demonstrate that Ames dwarf mice have physiological characteristics that are similar to those seen with calorie restriction, which has been the most effective experimental manipulation capable of extending lifespan in various species. However, this introduces the question of whether Ames dwarf and calorie-restricted (CR mice have an extended lifespan through common or independent pathways. To answer this question, we compared the disease profiles of Ames dwarf mice to their normal siblings fed either ad libitum (AL or a CR diet. Our findings show that the changes in age-related diseases between AL-fed Ames dwarf mice and CR wild-type siblings were similar but not identical. Moreover, the effects of CR on age-related pathology showed similarities and differences between Ames dwarf mice and their normal siblings, indicating that calorie restriction and Ames dwarf mice exhibit their anti-aging effects through both independent and common mechanisms.

  1. Technological and functional applications of low-calorie sweeteners from lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, F; Tomar, S K; Arora, S

    2009-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been extensively used for centuries as starter cultures to carry out food fermentations and are looked upon as burgeoning "cell factories" for production of host of functional biomolecules and food ingredients. Low-calorie sugars have been a recent addition and have attracted a great deal of interest of researchers, manufacturers, and consumers for varied reasons. These sweeteners also getting popularized as low-carb sugars have been granted generally recommended as safe (GRAS) status by the U.S. Federal Drug Administration (USFDA) and include both sugars and sugar alcohols (polyols) which in addition to their technological attributes (sugar replacer, bulking agent, texturiser, humectant, cryoprotectant) have been observed to exert a number of health benefits (low calories, low glycemic index, anticariogenic, osmotic diuretics, obesity control, prebiotic). Some of these sweeteners successfully produced by lactic acid bacteria include mannitol, sorbitol, tagatose, and trehalose and there is a potential to further enhance their production with the help of metabolic engineering. These safe sweeteners can be exploited as vital food ingredients for development of low-calorie foods with added functional values especially for children, diabetic patients, and weight watchers. PMID:19200114

  2. [Development of a gummy candy reduced in calories by sugar substitution with Stevia rebaudiana B].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda-González, Irma; Tamayo-Dzul, Óscar; Barbosa-Martín, Enrique; Segura-Campos, Maira; Moguel-Ordoñez, Yolanda; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of gummy candy is widespread among people of different ages but mainly by children. The formulation of this product requires sugar that contributes to their flavor and consistency, but with the undesirable effect of increase its glycemic index and its calories from simple sugars; it is known that consumption of products with these last two characteristics are related to childhood obesity, which is a worldwide growing disease. Stevia rebaudiana is a plant that naturally contains glycosides with high sweetening power and it is considered safe for consumption. Therefore the aim of this work was to develop a gummy candy reduced in calories by replacing sugar with Stevia rebaudiana B., and analyzes its texture and acceptability. Gummy candy were prepared with different percentage of sugar reduction (-20, -40, -60, -80 and -100%) and a product control (100% sugar); gummy elasticity was assess by displacement and maximum deformation, whereas resistance was evaluated by breaking strength; those gummies with better elasticity and resistance parameters underwent proximate analysis and sensory evaluations with a unstructured scale applied to 90 school children aged between 6 and 10 years old. A gummy candy reduced in calories with 60% sugar substitution with S. rebaudiana was developed; the level of satisfaction in school children was statistically the same respect to the gummy made of 100% sugar (p <0.05). PMID:25561127

  3. Metabolic acidosis mimicking diabetic ketoacidosis after use of calorie-free mineral water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Gry T; Woldseth, Berit; Lindemann, Rolf

    2012-09-01

    A previously healthy boy was admitted with fever, tachycardia, dyspnea, and was vomiting. A blood test showed a severe metabolic acidosis with pH 7.08 and an anion gap of 36 mmol/L. His urine had an odor of acetone. The serum glucose was 5.6 mmol/L, and no glucosuria was found. Diabetic ketoacidosis could therefore be eliminated. Lactate level was normal. Tests for the most common metabolic diseases were negative. Because of herpes stomatitis, the boy had lost appetite and only been drinking Diet Coke and water the last days. Diet Coke or Coca-Cola Light is sweetened with a blend containing cyclamates, aspartame, and acesulfame potassium, all free of calories. The etiology of the metabolic acidosis appeared to be a catabolic situation exaggerated by fasting with no intake of calories. The elevated anion gap was due to a severe starvation ketoacidosis, mimicking a diabetic ketoacidosis. Pediatricians should recommend carbohydrate/calorie-containing fluids for rehydration of children with acute fever, diarrhea, or illness. PMID:22457081

  4. Dietary determinants of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly summarize

  5. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The predominan

  6. Use of calorie information at fast food and chain restaurants among US youth aged 9–18 years, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wethington, H.; Maynard, L.M.; Blanck, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background To examine whether youth use calorie information when it is available at fast food/chain restaurants and what factors are associated with using this information to make their food selection. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on a sample of 721 youth (9–18 years) using the 2010 YouthStyles and HealthStyles surveys. The outcome measure was reported use of calorie information at fast food/chain restaurants. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the associations between sociodemographic variables and the use of calorie information at fast food/chain restaurants. Results Of those who visited fast food/chain restaurants, 42.4% reported using calorie information at least sometimes. Girls were more likely than boys (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2–2.5) and youth who were obese were more likely than those at a healthy weight (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.04–2.9) to use calorie information, and youth eating at a fast food/chain restaurant twice a week or more versus once a week or less were half as likely to report using calorie information (aOR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.4–0.8). Conclusion Public health education efforts can benefit from research to determine how to increase usage among youth so that their food choices are appropriate for their caloric needs. PMID:23697388

  7. Higher Calorie Diets Increase Rate of Weight Gain and Shorten Hospital Stay in Hospitalized Adolescents With Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Andrea K.; Mauldin, Kasuen; Michihata, Nobuaki; Buckelew, Sara M.; Shafer, Mary-Ann; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Current recommendations for refeeding in anorexia nervosa (AN) are conservative, beginning around 1,200 calories to avoid refeeding syndrome. We previously showed poor weight gain and long hospital stay using this approach and hypothesized that a higher calorie approach would improve outcomes. Methods Adolescents hospitalized for malnutrition due to AN were included in this quasi-experimental study comparing lower and higher calories during refeeding. Participants enrolled between 2002 and 2012; higher calories were prescribed starting around 2008. Daily prospective measures included weight, heart rate, temperature, hydration markers and serum phosphorus. Participants received formula only to replace refused food. Percent Median Body Mass Index (% MBMI) was calculated using 50th percentile body mass index for age and sex. Unpaired t-tests compared two groups split at 1,200 calories. Results Fifty-six adolescents with mean (±SEM) age 16.2 (±.3) years and admit %MBMI 79.2% (±1.5%) were hospitalized for 14.9 (±.9) days. The only significant difference between groups (N = 28 each) at baseline was starting calories (1,764 [±60] vs. 1,093 [±28], p refeeding syndrome were seen using phosphate supplementation. These findings lend further support to the move toward more aggressive refeeding in AN. PMID:24054812

  8. Half-size me? How calorie and price information influence ordering on restaurant menus with both half and full entrée portion sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haws, Kelly L; Liu, Peggy J

    2016-02-01

    Many restaurants are increasingly required to display calorie information on their menus. We present a study examining how consumers' food choices are affected by the presence of calorie information on restaurant menus. However, unlike prior research on this topic, we focus on the effect of calorie information on food choices made from a menu that contains both full size portions and half size portions of entrées. This different focus is important because many restaurants increasingly provide more than one portion size option per entrée. Additionally, we examine whether the impact of calorie information differs depending on whether full portions are cheaper per unit than half portions (non-linear pricing) or whether they have a similar per unit price (linear pricing). We find that when linear pricing is used, calorie information leads people to order fewer calories. This decrease occurs as people switch from unhealthy full sized portions to healthy full sized portions, not to unhealthy half sized portions. In contrast, when non-linear pricing is used, calorie information has no impact on calories selected. Considering the impact of calorie information on consumers' choices from menus with more than one entrée portion size option is increasingly important given restaurant and legislative trends, and the present research demonstrates that calorie information and pricing scheme may interact to affect choices from such menus. PMID:26654889

  9. Stratigraphy of the Caloris Basin, Mercury: Implications for Volcanic History and Basin Impact Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Carolyn M.; Denevi, Brett W.; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Klimczak, Christian; Chabot, Nancy L.; Head, James W.; Murchie, Scott L.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Prockter, Louis M.; Robinson, Mark S.; Solomon, Sean C.; Watters, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Caloris basin, Mercury's youngest large impact basin, is filled by volcanic plains that are spectrally distinct from surrounding material. Post-plains impact craters of a variety of sizes populate the basin interior, and the spectra of the material they have excavated enable the thickness of the volcanic fill to be estimated and reveal the nature of the subsurface. The thickness of the interior volcanic plains is consistently at least 2.5 km, reaching 3.5 km in places, with thinner fill toward the edge of the basin. No systematic variations in fill thickness are observed with long-wavelength topography or azimuth. The lack of correlation between plains thickness and variations in elevation at large horizontal scales within the basin indicates that plains emplacement must have predated most, if not all, of the changes in long-wavelength topography that affected the basin. There are no embayed or unambiguously buried (ghost) craters with diameters greater than 10 km in the Caloris interior plains. The absence of such ghost craters indicates that one or more of the following scenarios must hold: the plains are sufficiently thick to have buried all evidence of craters that formed between the Caloris impact event and the emplacement of the plains; the plains were emplaced soon after basin formation; or the complex tectonic deformation of the basin interior has disguised wrinkle-ridge rings localized by buried craters. That low-reflectance material (LRM) was exposed by every impact that penetrated through the surface volcanic plains provides a means to explore near-surface stratigraphy. If all occurrences of LRM are derived from a single layer, the subsurface LRM deposit is at least 7.5-8.5 km thick and its top likely once made up the Caloris basin floor. The Caloris-forming impact would have generated a layer of impact melt 3-15 km thick; such a layer could account for the entire thickness of LRM. This material would have been derived from a combination of lower crust

  10. Consumer acceptance of population-level intervention strategies for healthy food choices : The role of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Colin; Van Der Lans, Ivo; Van Rijnsoever, Frank; Van Trijp, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers’ freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of per

  11. Consumer Acceptance of Population-Level Intervention Strategies for Healthy Food Choices: The Role of Perceived Effectiveness and Perceived Fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, C.; Lans, van der I.A.; Rijnsoever, F.J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers’ freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of per

  12. Evaluation of a Community-Based Aging Intervention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Wang, Chun-Hou; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chang, Ming-Chen; Wang, Jean

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the outcome and process of a community-based aging intervention program for the elderly in Taiwan. The program included education on nutrition and dietary behavior and on physical activities. Outcome and process evaluations were conducted. The program may have had some effects on decreasing some dietary behavioral problems and…

  13. Nutrition intervention in scholars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Anzolin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the effectiveness of nutrition intervention in changing dietary intake among school children aged 6 to 10 years old in private school, in the city of Itajaí - SC, Brazil. Methods: A non-randomized and uncontrolled intervention study, carried through four educational activities in the period from August to November, 2008 and food intake reassessed at the end. We evaluated the nutritional status by means of body mass index for age and sex, and waist circumference. The frequency of consumption before and after intervention was compared using the paired Student t test. Results: Joined in the survey 93 students (69.92% of whom 48 children (54.5% were normal weight, while 36 (40.9% were overweight or presented obesity. The most consumed food groups, before and after intervention were: crackers and pasta; rice and fruit juice. The average frequency of sweets intake decreased after the intervention (0.54 to 0.24 times per day, p <0.001, however increased the intake of fried potatoes (0.25 to 0.65, p <0.001, pizza and hamburger (0.30 to 0.46, p = 0.028. Among girls, the intake of sweets decreased after the educational activities (0.58 to 0.12, p <0.001. Conclusions: Nutritional interventions, despite the short period of time, were effective in changing the consumption of certain foods / food groups. The results reinforce the need to carry out interventions more often and for longer periods, to promote effective changes in food consumption.

  14. Effects of lifestyle interventions on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussell, Michael A; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2007-03-01

    This review summarizes intervention studies that evaluated the effects of lifestyle behaviors on high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Current diet and lifestyle recommendations beneficially affect HDL-C. Individual lifestyle interventions that increase HDL-C include: a healthful diet that is low (7-10% of calories) in saturated fat and sufficient in unsaturated fat (15-20% of calories), regular physical activity, attaining a healthy weight, with moderate alcohol consumption, and cessation of cigarette smoking. Combining a healthy diet with weight loss and physical activity can increase HDL-C 10% to 13%. When combined with interventions that beneficially affect other cardiovascular disease risk factors, this increase in HDL-C is expected to contribute to a overall reduction in cardiovascular disease risk.

  15. 饮食-运动干预改善超重/肥胖打工者子女饮食-运动自我效能及行为的效果%Effect of an Exercise-Dietary Intervention on Self-efficacy and Behavior among Migrant Children with Obesity and Overweight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖春丽; 陈京立; 李英娟; 王聪

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨饮食和运动干预改善超重/肥胖打工者子女饮食-运动自我效能及行为的效果.方法 采用自身前后对照的类实验性研究,以目的 抽样法选取北京市某2所打工者子弟小学3~6年级的30名超重/肥胖儿童,对其进行为期12周的饮食和运动干预,比较干预前、干预后1周及干预后2、3、6个月研究对象的饮食-运动自我效能及行为.结果 研究对象的饮食-运动自我效能及行为得分在干预前后差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).干预后1周的自我效能得分高于干预前,而干预后2个月低于干预后1周,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.005);干预后1周及3个月的行为得分高于干预前,而干预后2、6个月低于干预后1周,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.005).结论 饮食和运动干预能改善超重/肥胖儿童的饮食-运动自我效能和行为,且能维持行为至少3个月,但对自我效能维持时间较短,其长期效果需要进一步探讨;饮食-运动行为的维持是一个长期性的过程,需要得到家庭的共同监督和参与才能获得较好的效果.%Objective To determine the effect of an exercise-dietary intervention on exercise-dietary self-efficacy and behavior among migrant children aged 9-12 with obesity and overweight in Beijing Method: Thirty migrant obesity and overweight children in two schools aged 9-12 were recruited by convenience sampling method. They completed the study by the method of self-control before and after the treatment. The self-efficacy and behavior of diet and exercise are measured by self designed questionnaire. Data were obtained at five time points: baseline,one week,two months,three months and six months after the intervention. Results (1)Self-efficacy in taking healthy food and exercising improved significantly one week after the intervention (P<0. 01), but there was a significant decrease two months after intervention compared with the data of one week after intervention (P <0

  16. Towards healthy diets for parents: effectiveness of a counselling intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Hooft Van Huysduynen, E.J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Towards Healthy Diets for parents: efectiveness of a counselling intervention Eveline J.C. Hooft van Huysduynen Abstract Introduction and Objective: As parents’ modelling of dietary behaviour is one of the factors influencing children’s diets, improving parents’ diets is expected to result in improved dietary intake of their children. This thesis describes research that was conducted to develop and evaluate a counselling intervention to improve parental adherence to the Dutc...

  17. Interventional nutrition for gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, M A

    1998-11-01

    Nutritional intervention plays a key role in the successful management of gastrointestinal disease. This article focuses on several novel areas of nutritional intervention that are becoming increasingly important in gastrointestinal disease, including short-chain fatty acids, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and glutamine. Short-chain fatty acids are the principal end-products of bacterial fermentation of dietary fibers and have profound effects on normal intestinal cell metabolism and proliferation. Short-chain fatty acids have the potential to improve overall intestinal health, stimulate intestinal healing, and decrease intestinal inflammation. Omega-3 fatty acids, from dietary sources or supplements, may also be useful in decreasing intestinal inflammation and in preventing intestinal cancer. Finally, glutamine also may play an important role in the nutritional management of gastrointestinal disease. PMID:9842113

  18. Calorie Restriction with a High-Fat Diet Effectively Attenuated Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress-Related Markers in Obese Tissues of the High Diet Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungae Park

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity characterized by increased mass of adipose tissue leads to systemic inflammation. Calorie restriction (CR improves parameters associated with immune response and antioxidant defense. We hypothesized that CR with a high fat diet (HFCR regulates local and systemic inflammation and oxidative stress damage in a high fat diet induced obesity (HF group. We investigated effect of HFCR on inflammation and oxidative stress-related markers in liver and adipose tissues as well as adipokines in plasma. HFCR lowered liver triglyceride levels, total cholesterol levels, and the plasma leptin/adiponectin ratio to normal levels and improved glucose tolerance. HFCR also improved fatty liver and normalized adipocyte size and morphology. HFCR reduced lipid peroxidation and decreased the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthetase, cyclooxygenase-2, NF-E2-related factor, and heme oxygenase-1 in the liver. Moreover, HFCR suppressed the expression levels of C- reactive protein and manganese superoxide dismutase in the adipose tissue in the HF group. These results suggest that HFCR may have beneficial effects on inflammation and oxidative stress as well as lipid profiles in the HF diet induced obesity. Moreover, HFCR may be a good way to increase compliance in obese patients and to prevent obesity induced complications without changes in dietary pattern.

  19. Maternal Dietary Counseling Reduces Consumption of Energy-Dense Foods among Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitolo, Marcia Regina; Bortolini, Gisele Ane; Campagnolo, Paula Dal Bo; Hoffman, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of a dietary counseling in reducing the intake of energy-dense foods by infants. Design: A randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: Sao Leopoldo, Brazil. Mothers and infants of a low-income-group population were randomized into intervention (n = 163) and received dietary counseling during 10 home…

  20. Effect of point-of-purchase calorie labeling on restaurant and cafeteria food choices: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    French Simone A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eating away from home has increased in prevalence among US adults and now comprises about 50% of food expenditures. Calorie labeling on chain restaurant menus is one specific policy that has been proposed to help consumers make better food choices at restaurants. The present review evaluates the available empirical literature on the effects of calorie information on food choices in restaurant and cafeteria settings. Methods Computer-assisted searches were conducted using the PUBMED database and the Google Scholar world wide web search engine to identify studies published in peer-review journals that evaluated calorie labeling of cafeteria or restaurant menu items. Studies that evaluated labeling only some menu items (e.g. low calorie foods only were excluded from the review since the influence of selective labeling may be different from that which may be expected from comprehensive labeling. Results Six studies were identified that met the selection criteria for this review. Results from five of these studies provide some evidence consistent with the hypothesis that calorie information may influence food choices in a cafeteria or restaurant setting. However, results from most of these studies suggest the effect may be weak or inconsistent. One study found no evidence of an effect of calorie labeling on food choices. Each of the studies had at least one major methodological shortcoming, pointing toward the need for better designed studies to more rigorously evaluate the influence of point-of-purchase calorie labeling on food choices. Conclusion More research is needed that meets minimum standards of methodological quality. Studies need to include behavioral outcomes such as food purchase and eating behaviors. Also, studies need to be implemented in realistic settings such as restaurants and cafeterias.

  1. Effect of point-of-purchase calorie labeling on restaurant and cafeteria food choices: A review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnack, Lisa J; French, Simone A

    2008-01-01

    Background Eating away from home has increased in prevalence among US adults and now comprises about 50% of food expenditures. Calorie labeling on chain restaurant menus is one specific policy that has been proposed to help consumers make better food choices at restaurants. The present review evaluates the available empirical literature on the effects of calorie information on food choices in restaurant and cafeteria settings. Methods Computer-assisted searches were conducted using the PUBMED database and the Google Scholar world wide web search engine to identify studies published in peer-review journals that evaluated calorie labeling of cafeteria or restaurant menu items. Studies that evaluated labeling only some menu items (e.g. low calorie foods only) were excluded from the review since the influence of selective labeling may be different from that which may be expected from comprehensive labeling. Results Six studies were identified that met the selection criteria for this review. Results from five of these studies provide some evidence consistent with the hypothesis that calorie information may influence food choices in a cafeteria or restaurant setting. However, results from most of these studies suggest the effect may be weak or inconsistent. One study found no evidence of an effect of calorie labeling on food choices. Each of the studies had at least one major methodological shortcoming, pointing toward the need for better designed studies to more rigorously evaluate the influence of point-of-purchase calorie labeling on food choices. Conclusion More research is needed that meets minimum standards of methodological quality. Studies need to include behavioral outcomes such as food purchase and eating behaviors. Also, studies need to be implemented in realistic settings such as restaurants and cafeterias. PMID:18950529

  2. A paleolithic diet is more satiating per calorie than a mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischemic heart disease

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    Ahrén Bo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We found marked improvement of glucose tolerance and lower dietary energy intake in ischemic heart disease (IHD patients after advice to follow a Paleolithic diet, as compared to a Mediterranean-like diet. We now report findings on subjective ratings of satiety at meals and data on the satiety hormone leptin and the soluble leptin receptor from the same study. Methods Twenty-nine male IHD patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes type 2, and waist circumference > 94 cm, were randomized to ad libitum consumption of a Paleolithic diet (n = 14 based on lean meat, fish, fruit, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs, and nuts, or a Mediterranean-like diet (n = 15 based on whole grains, low-fat dairy products, vegetables, fruit, fish, and oils and margarines during 12 weeks. In parallel with a four day weighed food record the participants recorded their subjective rating of satiety. Satiety Quotients were calculated, as the intra-meal quotient of change in satiety during meal and consumed energy or weight of food and drink for that specific meal. Leptin and leptin receptor was measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 weeks. Free leptin index was calculated as the ratio leptin/leptin receptor. Results The Paleolithic group were as satiated as the Mediterranean group but consumed less energy per day (5.8 MJ/day vs. 7.6 MJ/day, Paleolithic vs. Mediterranean, p = 0.04. Consequently, the quotients of mean change in satiety during meal and mean consumed energy from food and drink were higher in the Paleolithic group (p = 0.03. Also, there was a strong trend for greater Satiety Quotient for energy in the Paleolithic group (p = 0.057. Leptin decreased by 31% in the Paleolithic group and by 18% in the Mediterranean group with a trend for greater relative decrease of leptin in the Paleolithic group. Relative changes in leptin and changes in weight and waist circumference correlated significantly in the Paleolithic group (p Conclusions A

  3. 运动饮食干预配合胰岛素与沙格列汀治疗2型糖尿病对患者生活质量的影响%The clinical effect observation of sports dietary intervention,insulin and saxagliptin in the life quality of patients with ;type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解梦英; 张东超; 赵爱军; 谢少霞

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effect of sports dietary intervention ,insulin and saxagliptin in the life quality of patients with type 2 diabetes.Methods 200 cases patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly divided into test group and control group ,each of 100 cases.All patents were treated by insulin and saxagliptin .Experimental group with specific dietary intervention and exercise therapy .After treatment, compared the glucose levels , life quality and clinical effec of 2 groups.Results The total efficacy of test group and life quality were higher than that of control group ,the difference was sta-tistically significant(P0.05).The level of FPG,2hPG and highest postprandial glucose levels after treatment of 2 group were lower than that before treatment ,and the level of FPG,2hPG and highest postprandial glucose levels of test group were lower than that of control group ,the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion Sports dietary intervention,insulin and saxagliptin in the life quality of patients with type 2 diabetes has an good effect ,can improve the life quality.%目的:探讨运动饮食干预配合胰岛素与沙格列汀治疗2型糖尿病对患者生活质量的影响。方法将200例2型糖尿病患者随机分为试验组和对照组各100例。所有患者均给予胰岛素、沙格列汀等糖尿病常规治疗药物。试验组患者根据其身体条件、病情程度额外给予针对性饮食干预和运动锻炼措施,对照组不给予。2组连续治疗3个月,比较2组临床疗效、血糖控制水平,并评价生活质量。结果试验组总有效率为96.00%明显高于对照组的83.00%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。治疗前2组FPG,2hPG和餐后最高血糖水平差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。治疗后2组患者各项血糖指标均有所降低,且试验组患者降低幅度大于对照组,差异均有统计学意义( P<0.05)。试验组生活质量水

  4. Self-regulation interventions to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Susan L; Wurpts, Ingrid C; Pike, James R; MacKinnon, David P; Reynolds, Kim R; Stacy, Alan W

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of self-regulation interventions through the use of drink-specific implementation intentions and drink-specific Go/No-Go training tasks as compensatory strategies to modify inhibitory control to reduce intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). In a between-subjects randomized manipulation of implementation intentions and Go/No-Go training to learn to inhibit sugary drink consumption, 168 adolescents reporting inhibitory control problems over sugary drinks and foods were recruited from high schools in southern California to participate. Analysis of covariance overall test of effects revealed no significant differences between the groups regarding calories consumed, calories from SSBs, grams of sugar consumed from drinks, or the number of unhealthy drinks chosen. However, subsequent contrasts revealed SSB implementation intentions significantly reduced SSB consumption following intervention while controlling for inhibitory control failure and general SSB consumption during observation in a lab setting that provided SSBs and healthy drinks, as well as healthy and unhealthy snacks. Specifically, during post-intervention observation, participants in the sugar-sweetened beverage implementation intentions (SSB-II) conditions consumed significantly fewer calories overall, fewer calories from drinks, and fewer grams of sugar. No effects were found for the drink-specific Go/No-Go training on SSB or calorie consumption. However, participants in SSB-II with an added SSB Go/No-Go training made fewer unhealthy drink choices than those in the other conditions. Implementation intentions may aid individuals with inhibitory (executive control) difficulties by intervening on pre-potent behavioral tendencies, like SSB consumption.

  5. Self-regulation interventions to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Susan L; Wurpts, Ingrid C; Pike, James R; MacKinnon, David P; Reynolds, Kim R; Stacy, Alan W

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of self-regulation interventions through the use of drink-specific implementation intentions and drink-specific Go/No-Go training tasks as compensatory strategies to modify inhibitory control to reduce intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). In a between-subjects randomized manipulation of implementation intentions and Go/No-Go training to learn to inhibit sugary drink consumption, 168 adolescents reporting inhibitory control problems over sugary drinks and foods were recruited from high schools in southern California to participate. Analysis of covariance overall test of effects revealed no significant differences between the groups regarding calories consumed, calories from SSBs, grams of sugar consumed from drinks, or the number of unhealthy drinks chosen. However, subsequent contrasts revealed SSB implementation intentions significantly reduced SSB consumption following intervention while controlling for inhibitory control failure and general SSB consumption during observation in a lab setting that provided SSBs and healthy drinks, as well as healthy and unhealthy snacks. Specifically, during post-intervention observation, participants in the sugar-sweetened beverage implementation intentions (SSB-II) conditions consumed significantly fewer calories overall, fewer calories from drinks, and fewer grams of sugar. No effects were found for the drink-specific Go/No-Go training on SSB or calorie consumption. However, participants in SSB-II with an added SSB Go/No-Go training made fewer unhealthy drink choices than those in the other conditions. Implementation intentions may aid individuals with inhibitory (executive control) difficulties by intervening on pre-potent behavioral tendencies, like SSB consumption. PMID:27374899

  6. Using Two Different Approaches to Assess Dietary Patterns: Hypothesis-Driven and Data-Driven Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágatha Nogueira Previdelli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of dietary patterns to assess dietary intake has become increasingly common in nutritional epidemiology studies due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the diet. Currently, two main approaches have been widely used to assess dietary patterns: data-driven and hypothesis-driven analysis. Since the methods explore different angles of dietary intake, using both approaches simultaneously might yield complementary and useful information; thus, we aimed to use both approaches to gain knowledge of adolescents’ dietary patterns. Food intake from a cross-sectional survey with 295 adolescents was assessed by 24 h dietary recall (24HR. In hypothesis-driven analysis, based on the American National Cancer Institute method, the usual intake of Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised components were estimated. In the data-driven approach, the usual intake of foods/food groups was estimated by the Multiple Source Method. In the results, hypothesis-driven analysis showed low scores for Whole grains, Total vegetables, Total fruit and Whole fruits, while, in data-driven analysis, fruits and whole grains were not presented in any pattern. High intakes of sodium, fats and sugars were observed in hypothesis-driven analysis with low total scores for Sodium, Saturated fat and SoFAA (calories from solid fat, alcohol and added sugar components in agreement, while the data-driven approach showed the intake of several foods/food groups rich in these nutrients, such as butter/margarine, cookies, chocolate powder, whole milk, cheese, processed meat/cold cuts and candies. In this study, using both approaches at the same time provided consistent and complementary information with regard to assessing the overall dietary habits that will be important in order to drive public health programs, and improve their efficiency to monitor and evaluate the dietary patterns of populations.

  7. SY 16-1 DIETARY APPROACHES TO PREVENT AND CONTROL ELEVATED BLOOD PRESSURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongsoon

    2016-09-01

    A healthy lifestyle is important in CVD prevention and treatment through effects on modifiable CVD risk factors, particularly blood pressure. Although the major drawback is the low level of adherence over time, appropriate lifestyle changes may safely and effectively prevent and treat hypertension. The recommended dietary approaches that have been shown to be capable of reducing blood pressure are: salt restriction, moderation of alcohol consumption, high consumption of vegetables and fruits and low-fat and other types of diet, and weight reduction. There is strong and consistent clinical trial evidence that reducing salt intake to about 5 g/day has a modest (1-2 mmHg) SBP-lowering effect in normotensive individuals and a somewhat more pronounced effect (4-5 mmHg) in hypertensive individuals. Compared with salt restriction alone, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet resulted in the greater reduction in blood pressure. The dietary pattern's effect on blood pressure is independent of changes in weight and sodium intake.Dietary pattern such as the DASH dietary pattern, the USDA Food Pattern, or the AHA Diet are higher in fruits (particularly fresh), vegetables (emphasizing root and green varieties), whole grains (cereals, breads, rice, or pasta), and fatty fish (rich in omega-3 fatty acids); lower in red meat (and emphasizing lean meats); substituted lower-fat or fat-free dairy products for higher-fat dairy foods; and used oils (olive or canola), nuts (walnuts, almonds, or hazelnuts) or margarines blended with rapeseed or flaxseed oils in lieu of butter and other fats. This dietary pattern should be adopted to appropriate calorie requirements, personal and cultural food preferences, and nutrition therapy for other medical conditions (including diabetes mellitus). In conclusion, most recent dietary approach to prevent and control elevated blood pressure is combination the DASH dietary pattern with lower sodium intake. PMID:27643264

  8. Using Two Different Approaches to Assess Dietary Patterns: Hypothesis-Driven and Data-Driven Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previdelli, Ágatha Nogueira; de Andrade, Samantha Caesar; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Marchioni, Dirce Maria

    2016-01-01

    The use of dietary patterns to assess dietary intake has become increasingly common in nutritional epidemiology studies due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the diet. Currently, two main approaches have been widely used to assess dietary patterns: data-driven and hypothesis-driven analysis. Since the methods explore different angles of dietary intake, using both approaches simultaneously might yield complementary and useful information; thus, we aimed to use both approaches to gain knowledge of adolescents' dietary patterns. Food intake from a cross-sectional survey with 295 adolescents was assessed by 24 h dietary recall (24HR). In hypothesis-driven analysis, based on the American National Cancer Institute method, the usual intake of Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised components were estimated. In the data-driven approach, the usual intake of foods/food groups was estimated by the Multiple Source Method. In the results, hypothesis-driven analysis showed low scores for Whole grains, Total vegetables, Total fruit and Whole fruits), while, in data-driven analysis, fruits and whole grains were not presented in any pattern. High intakes of sodium, fats and sugars were observed in hypothesis-driven analysis with low total scores for Sodium, Saturated fat and SoFAA (calories from solid fat, alcohol and added sugar) components in agreement, while the data-driven approach showed the intake of several foods/food groups rich in these nutrients, such as butter/margarine, cookies, chocolate powder, whole milk, cheese, processed meat/cold cuts and candies. In this study, using both approaches at the same time provided consistent and complementary information with regard to assessing the overall dietary habits that will be important in order to drive public health programs, and improve their efficiency to monitor and evaluate the dietary patterns of populations. PMID:27669289

  9. Using Two Different Approaches to Assess Dietary Patterns: Hypothesis-Driven and Data-Driven Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previdelli, Ágatha Nogueira; de Andrade, Samantha Caesar; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Marchioni, Dirce Maria

    2016-09-23

    The use of dietary patterns to assess dietary intake has become increasingly common in nutritional epidemiology studies due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the diet. Currently, two main approaches have been widely used to assess dietary patterns: data-driven and hypothesis-driven analysis. Since the methods explore different angles of dietary intake, using both approaches simultaneously might yield complementary and useful information; thus, we aimed to use both approaches to gain knowledge of adolescents' dietary patterns. Food intake from a cross-sectional survey with 295 adolescents was assessed by 24 h dietary recall (24HR). In hypothesis-driven analysis, based on the American National Cancer Institute method, the usual intake of Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised components were estimated. In the data-driven approach, the usual intake of foods/food groups was estimated by the Multiple Source Method. In the results, hypothesis-driven analysis showed low scores for Whole grains, Total vegetables, Total fruit and Whole fruits), while, in data-driven analysis, fruits and whole grains were not presented in any pattern. High intakes of sodium, fats and sugars were observed in hypothesis-driven analysis with low total scores for Sodium, Saturated fat and SoFAA (calories from solid fat, alcohol and added sugar) components in agreement, while the data-driven approach showed the intake of several foods/food groups rich in these nutrients, such as butter/margarine, cookies, chocolate powder, whole milk, cheese, processed meat/cold cuts and candies. In this study, using both approaches at the same time provided consistent and complementary information with regard to assessing the overall dietary habits that will be important in order to drive public health programs, and improve their efficiency to monitor and evaluate the dietary patterns of populations.

  10. Food environments are relevant to recruitment and adherence in dietary modification trials

    OpenAIRE

    Feathers, Alexandra; Aycinena, Ana C.; Lovasi, Gina S.; Rundle, Andrew; Gaffney, Ann Ogden; Richardson, John; Hershman, Dawn; Koch, Pam; Contento, Isobel; Greenlee, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the built environment's role in recruitment to and adherence in dietary intervention trials. Using data from a randomized dietary modification trial of urban Latina breast cancer survivors, we tested the hypotheses that neighborhood produce access could act as a potential barrier and/or facilitator to recruitment, and that a participant's produce availability would be associated with increased fruit/vegetable intake, one of the intervention's targets. Eligible women ...

  11. Dietary Supplements for Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Dietary Supplements for Toddlers Page Content Article Body If you ... a diet recommended for children), she may need supplements of vitamins B12 and D as well as ...

  12. Incontinence Treatment: Dietary Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sorbitol, commonly used as a sweetener in many dietetic foods, candies, and gums; and fructose, also used ... everyone. A physician can take a brief dietary history and with a 2–3 week diary of ...

  13. Dietary treatment of nephrolithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Meschi, Tiziana; Guerra, Angela; Allegri, Franca; Prati, Beatrice; Borghi, Loris

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of idiopathic nephrolithiasis is increasing in rich countries. Dietary manipulation could contribute to the prevention of both its first appearance and the recurrence of the disease. The target of dietary treatment is to decrease the “urinary lithogenic risk factors” such as low urine volume, hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, hyperphosphaturia, hypocitraturia, hypomagnesuria and excessively alkaline or acid urinary pH. Due to the lack of randomized controlled tria...

  14. The GOAT-ghrelin system is not essential for hypoglycemia prevention during prolonged calorie restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Xia Yi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Ghrelin acylation by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT has recently been reported to be essential for the prevention of hypoglycemia during prolonged negative energy balance. Using a unique set of four different genetic loss-of-function models for the GOAT/ghrelin/growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR system, we thoroughly tested the hypothesis that lack-of-ghrelin activation or signaling would lead to hypoglycemia during caloric deprivation. METHODOLOGY: Male and female knockout (KO mice for GOAT, ghrelin, GHSR, or both ghrelin and GHSR (dKO were subjected to prolonged calorie restriction (40% of ad libitum chow intake. Body weight, fat mass, and glucose levels were recorded daily and compared to wildtype (WT controls. Forty-eight hour blood glucose profiles were generated for each individual mouse when 2% or less body fat mass was reached. Blood samples were obtained for analysis of circulating levels of acyl- and desacyl-ghrelin, IGF-1, and insulin. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Chronic calorie restriction progressively decreased body weight and body fat mass in all mice regardless of genotype. When fat mass was depleted to 2% or less of body weight for 2 consecutive days, random hypoglycemic events occurred in some mice across all genotypes. There was no increase in the incidence of hypoglycemia in any of the four loss-of-function models for ghrelin signaling including GOAT KO mice. Furthermore, no differences in insulin or IGF-1 levels were observed between genotypes. CONCLUSION: The endogenous GOAT-ghrelin-GHSR system is not essential for the maintenance of euglycemia during prolonged calorie restriction.

  15. Calorie Restricted High Protein Diets Downregulate Lipogenesis and Lower Intrahepatic Triglyceride Concentrations in Male Rats

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    Lee M. Margolis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of calorie restriction (CR alone, higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake alone, and combined CR higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake on glucose homeostasis, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL, and intrahepatic triglycerides. Twelve-week old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL or CR (40% restriction, adequate (10%, or high (32% protein (PRO milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Metabolic profiles were assessed in serum, and intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations and molecular markers of de novo lipogenesis were determined in liver. Independent of calorie intake, 32% PRO tended to result in lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR values compared to 10% PRO, while insulin and homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β values were lower in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations were 27.4 ± 4.5 and 11.7 ± 4.5 µmol·g−1 lower (p < 0.05 in CR and 32% PRO compared to AL and 10% PRO, respectively. Gene expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN, stearoyl-CoA destaurase-1 (SCD1 and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 (PDK4 were 45% ± 1%, 23% ± 1%, and 57% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05, respectively, in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Total protein of FASN and SCD were 50% ± 1% and 26% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05 in 32% PRO compared to 10% PRO, independent of calorie intake. Results from this investigation provide evidence that the metabolic health benefits associated with CR—specifically reduction in intrahepatic triglyceride content—may be enhanced by consuming a higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate diet.

  16. Influence of calorie source on the physiological response to parenteral nutrition in malnourished rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Domingo, M; Lladó, L; Guirao, X; Franch, G; Oliva, A; Muñoz, A; Salas, E; Sancho, J J; Sitges-Serra, A

    1994-02-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether calorie source influences sodium and water metabolism and sympathetic activity during parenteral nutrition (PN). 20 New Zealand rabbits were starved until a mean weight loss of 18% was achieved and then re-fed for 6 days with 2 formulae of PN with different glucose-fat proportions. In the Glucose group (n = 9), 70% of non-protein calories were given as glucose while in the Lipid group (n = 11), 70% of non-protein calories were administered as lipids. Rabbits with a high glucose intake showed significantly higher weight gain (151 +/- 87 vs. 52 +/- 7 g, P = 0.01), water cumulative balance (542 +/- 132 vs. 411 +/- 87 ml; P = 0.02) and urinary metanephrine excretion (0.42 +/- 0.12 vs. 0.30 +/- 0.1 mumol/d, P = .03). Only in this group, urinary metanephrines correlated positively with water and sodium balances (r2 = 0.6; P = 0.02 and r2 = 0.7; P = 0.009 respectively). The Glucose group showed 2 different responses and in a second experiment 10 additional rabbits were added to this group to allow a statistical analysis of the response pattern: half of the animals increased their extracellular water (ECW) compartment while the remaining animals did not. The former group had higher sodium balance (13.9 +/- 8 vs. 4.3 +/- 5; P = 0.004) and wet lung weight (8.9 +/- 0.9 vs. 7.9 +/- 0.8; P wate and sodium balances. Plasma aldosterone concentration at the end of starvation period influences sodium retention and ECW expansion during high glucose re-feeding.

  17. Calorie Restriction-Mediated Replicative Lifespan Extension in Yeast Is Non-Cell Autonomous

    OpenAIRE

    Szu-Chieh Mei; Charles Brenner

    2015-01-01

    In laboratory yeast strains with Sir2 and Fob1 function, wild-type NAD+ salvage is required for calorie restriction (CR) to extend replicative lifespan. CR does not significantly alter steady state levels of intracellular NAD+ metabolites. However, levels of Sir2 and Pnc1, two enzymes that sequentially convert NAD+ to nicotinic acid (NA), are up-regulated during CR. To test whether factors such as NA might be exported by glucose-restricted mother cells to survive later generations, we develop...

  18. GROWTH HORMONE ABOLISHES BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF CALORIE RESTRICTION IN LONG-LIVED AMES DWARF MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Gesing, Adam; Al-Regaiey, Khalid A.; Bartke, Andrzej; Masternak, Michal M.

    2014-01-01

    Disruption of the growth hormone (GH) axis promotes longevity and delays aging. In contrast, GH over-expression may lead to accelerated aging and shorter life. Calorie restriction (CR) improves insulin sensitivity and may extend lifespan. Long-lived Ames dwarf (df/df) mice have additional extension of longevity when subjected to 30% CR. The aim of the study was to assess effects of CR or GH replacement therapy separately and as a combined (CR+GH) treatment in GH-deficient df/df and normal mic...

  19. The Research on the High-Protein Low-Calorie Food Recipe for Teenager Gymnastics Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cong

    2015-01-01

    In order to prevent teenager gymnastics athletes getting fat deposition, weight gain, they should supply a rational food. This paper considers the normal growth and development of athletes, body fat deposition proteins and hunger feel, configured high-protein low-calorie food recipe. Then analysis the composition and the essential amino acids of the recipe. In the final choiced 18 adolescent gymnastics athletes as subjects, to verify the validity of the formula. And analysis the experimental results. The experimental results analysis shows that this recipe basically meets the design requirements. PMID:26628935

  20. The effect of menu labeling with calories and exercise equivalents on food selection and consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Platkin, Charles; Yeh, Ming-Chin; Hirsch, Kimberly; Wiewel, Ellen Weiss; Lin, Chang-Yun; Tung, Ho-Jui; Castellanos, Victoria H

    2014-01-01

    Background Better techniques are needed to help consumers make lower calorie food choices. This pilot study examined the effect of menu labeling with caloric information and exercise equivalents (EE) on food selection. Participants, 62 females, ages 18-34, recruited for this study, ordered a fast food meal with menus that contained the names of the food (Lunch 1 (L1), control meal). One week later (Lunch 2 (L2), experiment meal), participants ordered a meal from one of three menus with the sa...