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Sample records for caloric restriction shortens

  1. Caloric restriction shortens lifespan through an increase in lipid peroxidation, inflammation and apoptosis in the G93A mouse, an animal model of ALS.

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    Barkha P Patel

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction (CR extends lifespan through a reduction in oxidative stress, delays the onset of morbidity and prolongs lifespan. We previously reported that long-term CR hastened clinical onset, disease progression and shortened lifespan, while transiently improving motor performance in G93A mice, a model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS that shows increased free radical production. To investigate the long-term CR-induced pathology in G93A mice, we assessed the mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency and oxidative capacity (CS--citrate synthase content and activity, cytochrome c oxidase--COX activity and protein content of COX subunit-I and IV and UCP3-uncoupling protein 3, oxidative damage (MDA--malondialdehyde and PC--protein carbonyls, antioxidant enzyme capacity (Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD and catalase, inflammation (TNF-alpha, stress response (Hsp70 and markers of apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2, caspase 9, cleaved caspase 9 in their skeletal muscle. At age 40 days, G93A mice were divided into two groups: Ad libitum (AL; n = 14; 7 females or CR (n = 13; 6 females, with a diet equal to 60% of AL. COX/CS enzyme activity was lower in CR vs. AL male quadriceps (35%, despite a 2.3-fold higher COX-IV/CS protein content. UCP3 was higher in CR vs. AL females only. MnSOD and Cu/Zn-SOD were higher in CR vs. AL mice and CR vs. AL females. MDA was higher (83% in CR vs. AL red gastrocnemius. Conversely, PC was lower in CR vs. AL red (62% and white (30% gastrocnemius. TNF-alpha was higher (52% in CR vs. AL mice and Hsp70 was lower (62% in CR vs. AL quadriceps. Bax was higher in CR vs. AL mice (41% and CR vs. AL females (52%. Catalase, Bcl-2 and caspases did not differ. We conclude that CR increases lipid peroxidation, inflammation and apoptosis, while decreasing mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency, protein oxidation and stress response in G93A mice.

  2. Epigenetic regulation of caloric restriction in aging

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    Daniel Michael

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The molecular mechanisms of aging are the subject of much research and have facilitated potential interventions to delay aging and aging-related degenerative diseases in humans. The aging process is frequently affected by environmental factors, and caloric restriction is by far the most effective and established environmental manipulation for extending lifespan in various animal models. However, the precise mechanisms by which caloric restriction affects lifespan are still not clear. Epigenetic mechanisms have recently been recognized as major contributors to nutrition-related longevity and aging control. Two primary epigenetic codes, DNA methylation and histone modification, are believed to dynamically influence chromatin structure, resulting in expression changes of relevant genes. In this review, we assess the current advances in epigenetic regulation in response to caloric restriction and how this affects cellular senescence, aging and potential extension of a healthy lifespan in humans. Enhanced understanding of the important role of epigenetics in the control of the aging process through caloric restriction may lead to clinical advances in the prevention and therapy of human aging-associated diseases.

  3. Caloric Restriction Mimetics Enhance Anticancer Immunosurveillance.

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    Pietrocola, Federico; Pol, Jonathan; Vacchelli, Erika; Rao, Shuan; Enot, David P; Baracco, Elisa E; Levesque, Sarah; Castoldi, Francesca; Jacquelot, Nicolas; Yamazaki, Takahiro; Senovilla, Laura; Marino, Guillermo; Aranda, Fernando; Durand, Sylvère; Sica, Valentina; Chery, Alexis; Lachkar, Sylvie; Sigl, Verena; Bloy, Norma; Buque, Aitziber; Falzoni, Simonetta; Ryffel, Bernhard; Apetoh, Lionel; Di Virgilio, Francesco; Madeo, Frank; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Zitvogel, Laurence; Levine, Beth; Penninger, Josef M; Kroemer, Guido

    2016-07-11

    Caloric restriction mimetics (CRMs) mimic the biochemical effects of nutrient deprivation by reducing lysine acetylation of cellular proteins, thus triggering autophagy. Treatment with the CRM hydroxycitrate, an inhibitor of ATP citrate lyase, induced the depletion of regulatory T cells (which dampen anticancer immunity) from autophagy-competent, but not autophagy-deficient, mutant KRAS-induced lung cancers in mice, thereby improving anticancer immunosurveillance and reducing tumor mass. Short-term fasting or treatment with several chemically unrelated autophagy-inducing CRMs, including hydroxycitrate and spermidine, improved the inhibition of tumor growth by chemotherapy in vivo. This effect was only observed for autophagy-competent tumors, depended on the presence of T lymphocytes, and was accompanied by the depletion of regulatory T cells from the tumor bed. PMID:27411589

  4. Caloric restriction and Metabolism in Lean and Obese rats.

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    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data related to obese and lean strains of rat commonly used in the laboratory that are calorically restricted and its effects on physiologic parameters (Body...

  5. Status of selected nutrients in obese dogs undergoing caloric restriction

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    Linder, Deborah E; Freeman, Lisa M.; Holden, Shelley L; Biourge, Vincent; German, Alexander J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that dog plasma concentrations of selected nutrients decrease after undergoing caloric restriction for weight loss. Thirty-one overweight dogs that had successfully lost at least 15% of initial body weight were included in the study. Nutrients that had been previously identified to be at potential risk of deficiency during caloric restriction were measured in plasma (choline, amino acids) and urine (selenium) at the initiation an...

  6. Development of adherence metrics for caloric restriction interventions

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    Objective measures are needed to quantify dietary adherence during caloric restriction (CR) while participants are freeliving. One method to monitor adherence is to compare observed weight loss to the expected weight loss during a prescribed level of CR. Normograms (graphs)of expected weight loss ca...

  7. Development of adherence metrics for caloric restriction interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective measures are needed to quantify dietary adherence during caloric restriction (CR) while participants are freeliving. One method to monitor adherence is to compare observed weight loss to the expected weight loss during a prescribed level of CR. Normograms (graphs) of expected weight loss c...

  8. Caloric Restriction Enhances Fear Extinction Learning in Mice

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    Riddle, Megan C; McKenna, Morgan C.; Yoon, Yone J; Pattwell, Siobhan S.; Santos, Patricia Mae G; Casey, B. J.; Glatt, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    Fear extinction learning, the ability to reassess a learned cue of danger as safe when it no longer predicts aversive events, is often dysregulated in anxiety disorders. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI's) enhance neural plasticity and their ability to enhance fear extinction learning may explain their anxiolytic properties. Caloric restriction (CR) has SSRI-like effects on neural plasticity and anxiety-related behavior. We implemented CR in mice to determine its effects on condi...

  9. Perspective food addiction, caloric restriction, and dopaminergic neurotransmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stankowska, Arwen Urrsula Malgorzata; Gjedde, Albert

    2013-01-01

    for a reduced cognitive reward condition. The combination of caloric restriction and food addiction imparts a high risk of relapse as a result of further reduction of dopaminergic neurotransmission and the subsequent loss of reward. As with drugs of abuse, ingestion of large quantities of sugar in circumstances......, and reduced activity in prefrontal regions of the cerebral cortex. The neurobiological characteristics suggest that obese people also have a pathological dependence in common with addicts, in the form of food addiction. Malnutrition and dieting both relate to binge eating, possibly as a compensation...

  10. Caloric restriction: beneficial effects on brain aging and Alzheimer's disease.

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    Van Cauwenberghe, Caroline; Vandendriessche, Charysse; Libert, Claude; Vandenbroucke, Roosmarijn E

    2016-08-01

    Dietary interventions such as caloric restriction (CR) extend lifespan and health span. Recent data from animal and human studies indicate that CR slows down the aging process, benefits general health, and improves memory performance. Caloric restriction also retards and slows down the progression of different age-related diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. However, the specific molecular basis of these effects remains unclear. A better understanding of the pathways underlying these effects could pave the way to novel preventive or therapeutic strategies. In this review, we will discuss the mechanisms and effects of CR on aging and Alzheimer's disease. A potential alternative to CR as a lifestyle modification is the use of CR mimetics. These compounds mimic the biochemical and functional effects of CR without the need to reduce energy intake. We discuss the effect of two of the most investigated mimetics, resveratrol and rapamycin, on aging and their potential as Alzheimer's disease therapeutics. However, additional research will be needed to determine the safety, efficacy, and usability of CR and its mimetics before a general recommendation can be proposed to implement them. PMID:27240590

  11. Lifelong caloric restriction increases working memory in mice.

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    Angela Kuhla

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction (CR is argued to positively affect general health, longevity and the normally occurring age-related reduction of cognition. This issue is well examined, but most studies investigated the effect of short-term periods of CR. Herein, 4 weeks old female mice were fed caloric restricted for 4, 20 and especially for 74 weeks. CR mice received 60% of food eaten by their ad libitum (AL fed littermates, and all age-matched groups were behaviorally analyzed. The motor coordination, which was tested by rotarod/accelerod, decreased age-related, but was not influenced by the different periods of CR. In contrast, the age-related impairment of spontaneous locomotor activity and anxiety, both being evaluated by open field and by elevated plus maze test, was found aggravated by a lifelong CR. Measurement of cognitive performance with morris water maze showed that the working memory decreased age-related in AL mice, while a lifelong CR caused a better cognitive performance and resulted in a significantly better spatial memory upon 74 weeks CR feeding. However, a late-onset CR feeding in 66 weeks old mice did not ameliorate the working memory. Therefore, a lifelong CR seems to be necessary to improve working memory.

  12. Lifelong caloric restriction increases working memory in mice.

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    Kuhla, Angela; Lange, Sophie; Holzmann, Carsten; Maass, Fabian; Petersen, Jana; Vollmar, Brigitte; Wree, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) is argued to positively affect general health, longevity and the normally occurring age-related reduction of cognition. This issue is well examined, but most studies investigated the effect of short-term periods of CR. Herein, 4 weeks old female mice were fed caloric restricted for 4, 20 and especially for 74 weeks. CR mice received 60% of food eaten by their ad libitum (AL) fed littermates, and all age-matched groups were behaviorally analyzed. The motor coordination, which was tested by rotarod/accelerod, decreased age-related, but was not influenced by the different periods of CR. In contrast, the age-related impairment of spontaneous locomotor activity and anxiety, both being evaluated by open field and by elevated plus maze test, was found aggravated by a lifelong CR. Measurement of cognitive performance with morris water maze showed that the working memory decreased age-related in AL mice, while a lifelong CR caused a better cognitive performance and resulted in a significantly better spatial memory upon 74 weeks CR feeding. However, a late-onset CR feeding in 66 weeks old mice did not ameliorate the working memory. Therefore, a lifelong CR seems to be necessary to improve working memory.

  13. Fasting and Caloric Restriction in Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

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    Brandhorst, Sebastian; Longo, Valter D

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA and among the leading major diseases in the world. It is anticipated to continue to increase because of the growth of the aging population and prevalence of risk factors such as obesity, smoking, and/or poor dietary habits. Cancer treatment has remained relatively similar during the past 30 years with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in combination with surgery remaining the standard therapies although novel therapies are slowly replacing or complementing the standard ones. According to the American Cancer Society, the dietary recommendation for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy is to increase calorie and protein intake. In addition, there are no clear guidelines on the type of nutrition that could have a major impact on cancer incidence. Yet, various forms of reduced caloric intake such as calorie restriction (CR) or fasting demonstrate a wide range of beneficial effects able to help prevent malignancies and increase the efficacy of cancer therapies. Whereas chronic CR provides both beneficial and detrimental effects as well as major compliance challenges, periodic fasting (PF), fasting-mimicking diets (FMDs), and dietary restriction (DR) without a reduction in calories are emerging as interventions with the potential to be widely used to prevent and treat cancer. Here, we review preclinical and preliminary clinical studies on dietary restriction and fasting and their role in inducing cellular protection and chemotherapy resistance.

  14. Fasting and Caloric Restriction in Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

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    Brandhorst, Sebastian; Longo, Valter D

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA and among the leading major diseases in the world. It is anticipated to continue to increase because of the growth of the aging population and prevalence of risk factors such as obesity, smoking, and/or poor dietary habits. Cancer treatment has remained relatively similar during the past 30 years with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in combination with surgery remaining the standard therapies although novel therapies are slowly replacing or complementing the standard ones. According to the American Cancer Society, the dietary recommendation for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy is to increase calorie and protein intake. In addition, there are no clear guidelines on the type of nutrition that could have a major impact on cancer incidence. Yet, various forms of reduced caloric intake such as calorie restriction (CR) or fasting demonstrate a wide range of beneficial effects able to help prevent malignancies and increase the efficacy of cancer therapies. Whereas chronic CR provides both beneficial and detrimental effects as well as major compliance challenges, periodic fasting (PF), fasting-mimicking diets (FMDs), and dietary restriction (DR) without a reduction in calories are emerging as interventions with the potential to be widely used to prevent and treat cancer. Here, we review preclinical and preliminary clinical studies on dietary restriction and fasting and their role in inducing cellular protection and chemotherapy resistance. PMID:27557543

  15. Cardioprotective Signature of Short-Term Caloric Restriction.

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    Hossein Noyan

    Full Text Available To understand the molecular pathways underlying the cardiac preconditioning effect of short-term caloric restriction (CR.Lifelong CR has been suggested to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease through a variety of mechanisms. However, prolonged adherence to a CR life-style is difficult. Here we reveal the pathways that are modulated by short-term CR, which are associated with protection of the mouse heart from ischemia.Male 10-12 wk old C57bl/6 mice were randomly assigned to an ad libitum (AL diet with free access to regular chow, or CR, receiving 30% less food for 7 days (d, prior to myocardial infarction (MI via permanent coronary ligation. At d8, the left ventricles (LV of AL and CR mice were collected for Western blot, mRNA and microRNA (miR analyses to identify cardioprotective gene expression signatures. In separate groups, infarct size, cardiac hemodynamics and protein abundance of caspase 3 was measured at d2 post-MI.This short-term model of CR was associated with cardio-protection, as evidenced by decreased infarct size (18.5±2.4% vs. 26.6±1.7%, N=10/group; P=0.01. mRNA and miR profiles pre-MI (N=5/group identified genes modulated by short-term CR to be associated with circadian clock, oxidative stress, immune function, apoptosis, metabolism, angiogenesis, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM. Western blots pre-MI revealed CR-associated increases in phosphorylated Akt and GSK3ß, reduced levels of phosphorylated AMPK and mitochondrial related proteins PGC-1α, cytochrome C and cyclooxygenase (COX IV, with no differences in the levels of phosphorylated eNOS or MAPK (ERK1/2; p38. CR regimen was also associated with reduced protein abundance of cleaved caspase 3 in the infarcted heart and improved cardiac function.

  16. Repletion of TNFα or leptin in calorically restricted mice suppresses post-restriction hyperphagia

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    Hambly, Catherine; Duncan, Jacqueline S.; Archer, Zoë A.; Moar, Kim M.; Mercer, Julian G.; Speakman, John R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The causes of post-restriction hyperphagia (PRH) represent a target for drug-based therapies to prevent obesity. However, the factors causing PRH are poorly understood. We show that, in mice, the extent of PRH was independent of the time under restriction, but depended on its severity, suggesting that PRH was driven by signals from altered body composition. Signals related to fat mass were important drivers. Circulating levels of leptin and TNFα were significantly depleted following caloric restriction (CR). We experimentally repleted their levels to match those of controls, and found that in both treatment groups the level of PRH was significantly blunted. These data establish a role for TNFα and leptin in the non-pathological regulation of energy homeostasis. Signals from adipose tissue, including but not limited to leptin and TNFα, regulate PRH and might be targets for therapies that support people engaged in CR to reduce obesity. PMID:21954068

  17. Early postnatal caloric restriction protects adult male intrauterine growth-restricted offspring from obesity.

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    Garg, Meena; Thamotharan, Manikkavasagar; Dai, Yun; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Shin, Bo-Chul; Stout, David; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2012-06-01

    Postnatal ad libitum caloric intake superimposed on intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with adult-onset obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We hypothesized that this paradigm of prenatal nutrient deprivation-induced programming can be reversed with the introduction of early postnatal calorie restriction. Ten-month-old male rats exposed to either prenatal nutrient restriction with ad libitum postnatal intake (IUGR), pre- and postnatal nutrient restriction (IPGR), or postnatal nutrient restriction limited to the suckling phase (50% from postnatal [PN]1 to PN21) (PNGR) were compared with age-matched controls (CON). Visceral adiposity, metabolic profile, and insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were examined. The 10-month-old male IUGR group had a 1.5- to 2.0-fold increase in subcutaneous and visceral fat (P metabolic inflexibility (Vo(2)) versus CON. The IPGR group remained lean, euglycemic, insulin sensitive, and active while maintaining metabolic flexibility. The PNGR group was insulin sensitive, similar to IPGR, but less active while maintaining metabolic flexibility. We conclude that IUGR resulted in obesity without insulin resistance and energy metabolic perturbations prior to development of glucose intolerance and T2DM. Postnatal nutrient restriction superimposed on IUGR was protective, restoring metabolic normalcy to a lean and active phenotype. PMID:22461568

  18. Moderate exercise training and chronic caloric restriction modulate redox status in rat hippocampus.

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    Santin, Katiane; da Rocha, Ricardo Fagundes; Cechetti, Fernanda; Quincozes-Santos, André; de Souza, Daniela Fraga; Nardin, Patrícia; Rodrigues, Letícia; Leite, Marina Concli; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Salbego, Christianne Gazzana; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto

    2011-11-01

    Physical activity has been related to antioxidant adaptations, which is associated with health benefits, including those to the nervous system. Additionally, available data suggest exercise and a caloric restriction regimen may reduce both the incidence and severity of neurological disorders. Therefore, our aim was to compare hippocampal redox status and glial parameters among sedentary, trained, caloric-restricted sedentary and caloric-restricted trained rats. Forty male adult rats were divided into 4 groups: ad libitum-fed sedentary (AS), ad libitum-fed exercise training (AE), calorie-restricted sedentary (RS) and calorie-restricted exercise training (RE). The caloric restriction (decrease of 30% in food intake) and exercise training (moderate in a treadmill) were carried out for 3 months. Thereafter hippocampus was surgically removed, and then redox and glial parameters were assessed. Increases in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and total antioxidant reactivity (TAR) were observed in AE, RS and RE. The nitrite/nitrate levels decreased only in RE. We found a decrease in carbonyl content in AE, RS and RE, while no modifications were detected in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, S100B and glial fibrilary acid protein (GFAP) content did not change, but caloric restriction was able to increase glutamine synthetase (GS) activity in RS and glutamate uptake in RS and RE. Exercise training, caloric restriction and both combined can decrease oxidative damage in the hippocampus, possibly involving modulation of astroglial function, and could be used as a strategy for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21974860

  19. Caloric restriction and exercise “mimetics”: ready for prime time?

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    Handschin, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Exercise and diet are powerful interventions to prevent and ameliorate various pathologies. The development of pharmacological agents that confer exercise- or caloric restriction-like phenotypic effects is thus an appealing therapeutic strategy in diseases or even when used as life-style and longevity drugs. Such so-called exercise or caloric restriction “mimetics” have so far mostly been described in pre-clinical, experimental settings with limited translation into humans. Interestingly, many of these compounds activate related signaling pathways, most often postulated to act on the common downstream effector peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in skeletal muscle. In this review, resveratrol and other exercise- and caloric restriction “mimetics” are discussed with a special focus on feasibility, chances and limitations of using such compounds in patients as well as in healthy individuals. PMID:26658171

  20. Effects of Caloric Restriction on Cardiac Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Bioenergetics: Potential Role of Cardiac Sirtuins

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    Ken Shinmura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The biology of aging has not been fully clarified, but the free radical theory of aging is one of the strongest aging theories proposed to date. The free radical theory has been expanded to the oxidative stress theory, in which mitochondria play a central role in the development of the aging process because of their critical roles in bioenergetics, oxidant production, and regulation of cell death. A decline in cardiac mitochondrial function associated with the accumulation of oxidative damage might be responsible, at least in part, for the decline in cardiac performance with age. In contrast, lifelong caloric restriction can attenuate functional decline with age, delay the onset of morbidity, and extend lifespan in various species. The effect of caloric restriction appears to be related to a reduction in cellular damage induced by reactive oxygen species. There is increasing evidence that sirtuins play an essential role in the reduction of mitochondrial oxidative stress during caloric restriction. We speculate that cardiac sirtuins attenuate the accumulation of oxidative damage associated with age by modifying specific mitochondrial proteins posttranscriptionally. Therefore, the distinct role of each sirtuin in the heart subjected to caloric restriction should be clarified to translate sirtuin biology into clinical practice.

  1. Impact of Six-Month Caloric Restriction on Autonomic Nervous System Activity in Healthy, Overweight, Individuals

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    de Jonge, Lillian; Moreira, Emilia AM; Martin, Corby K.; Ravussin, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) increases maximum lifespan but the mechanisms are unclear. Dominance of the sympathetic nervous System (SNS) over the Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS) has been shown to be a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Obesity and aging are associated with increased SNS activity and weight loss and/or exercise seem to have positive effects on this balance. We therefore evaluated the effect of different approaches of CR on autonomic function in 48 overweight indi...

  2. Attenuation of age-related changes in mouse neuromuscular synapses by caloric restriction and exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Valdez, G; Tapia, J; Kang, H; Clemenson, G.D.; Gage, F.H.; Lichtman, Jeff; Sanes, Joshua R.

    2010-01-01

    The cellular basis of age-related behavioral decline remains obscure but alterations in synapses are likely candidates. Accordingly, the beneficial effects on neural function of caloric restriction and exercise, which are among the most effective anti-aging treatments known, might also be mediated by synapses. As a starting point in testing these ideas, we studied the skeletal neuromuscular junction (NMJ), a large, accessible peripheral synapse. Comparison of NMJs in young adult and aged mice...

  3. Feed restriction and a diet's caloric value: The influence on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity of rats

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    Moura Leandro; Kalva-Filho Carlos; Loures João; de Sousa Silva Maria; Zorzetto Lucas; Junior Marcelo; de Araújo Michel; Dalia Rodrigo; de Mello Maria

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The influence of feed restriction and different diet's caloric value on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity is unclear in the literature. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the possible influences of two diets with different caloric values and the influence of feed restriction on the aerobic (anaerobic threshold: AT) and anaerobic (time to exhaustion: Tlim) variables measured by a lactate minimum test (LM) in rats. Methods We used 40 adult Wistar rats. The...

  4. The calorically restricted ketogenic diet, an effective alternative therapy for malignant brain cancer

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    Zhou Weihua

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant brain cancer persists as a major disease of morbidity and mortality in adults and is the second leading cause of cancer death in children. Many current therapies for malignant brain tumors fail to provide long-term management because they ineffectively target tumor cells while negatively impacting the health and vitality of normal brain cells. In contrast to brain tumor cells, which lack metabolic flexibility and are largely dependent on glucose for growth and survival, normal brain cells can metabolize both glucose and ketone bodies for energy. This study evaluated the efficacy of KetoCal®, a new nutritionally balanced high fat/low carbohydrate ketogenic diet for children with epilepsy, on the growth and vascularity of a malignant mouse astrocytoma (CT-2A and a human malignant glioma (U87-MG. Methods Adult mice were implanted orthotopically with the malignant brain tumors and KetoCal® was administered to the mice in either unrestricted amounts or in restricted amounts to reduce total caloric intake according to the manufacturers recommendation for children with refractory epilepsy. The effects KetoCal® on tumor growth, vascularity, and mouse survival were compared with that of an unrestricted high carbohydrate standard diet. Results KetoCal® administered in restricted amounts significantly decreased the intracerebral growth of the CT-2A and U87-MG tumors by about 65% and 35%, respectively, and significantly enhanced health and survival relative to that of the control groups receiving the standard low fat/high carbohydrate diet. The restricted KetoCal® diet reduced plasma glucose levels while elevating plasma ketone body (β-hydroxybutyrate levels. Tumor microvessel density was less in the calorically restricted KetoCal® groups than in the calorically unrestricted control groups. Moreover, gene expression for the mitochondrial enzymes, β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase and succinyl-CoA: 3-ketoacid Co

  5. Caloric Restriction Effect on Proinflammatory Cytokines, Growth Hormone, and Steroid Hormone Concentrations during Exercise in Judokas

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    Salma Abedelmalek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caloric restriction on the immune and hormonal responses during exercise in judo athletes. In a randomised order, 11 male judokas (age: 20.45 ± 0.51; height: 1.71 ± 0.3 m; and body weight: 75.9 ± 3.1 kg participate in this study during a period of weight maintenance (baseline and after 7 days of caloric restriction (CR. All subjects performed the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT during the two conditions. Values for nutrient intakes were obtained from a 7 d food record kept during a period of weight maintenance and after a 7-day food restriction (−5~6 MJ/day. Our results showed that CR resulted in significant decreases in body weight (P<0.05 and performance (P<0.05. However, heart rate and SJFT index (P<0.05 increase significantly during CR in comparison to baseline. Moreover, exercise leads to a significant increase in testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone (GH, leukocytes, neutrophils, TNF-α, and IL-6, in both CR and baseline conditions. Compared to baseline, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly higher during CR condition (P<0.05. Additionally, CR leads to an increase in cortisol and GH (P<0.05 and a decrease in testosterone concentrations (P<0.05.

  6. Caloric restriction and the precision-control of autophagy: A strategy for delaying neurodegenerative disease progression.

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    Ntsapi, C; Loos, B

    2016-10-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) is known to extend lifespan in most organisms, indicating that nutrient and energy regulatory mechanisms impact aging. The greatest risk factor for neurodegeneration is age; thus, the antiaging effects of CR might attenuate progressive cell death and avert the aggregation of abnormal proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases. CR is a potent inducer of autophagy, a tightly regulated intracellular process that facilitates recycling of abnormal protein aggregates and damaged organelles into bioenergetic and biosynthetic materials to maintain homeostasis. Thus, dysregulated autophagy can lead to cellular dysfunction, abnormal protein accumulation, proteotoxicity and subsequently the onset of several neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, the targeted and precision-controlled activation of autophagy represents a promising therapeutic strategy. Non-pharmacological therapeutic interventions that delay aging by modulating specific stages of autophagy might be beneficial against premature aging, neurodegeneration and its associated ailments. However, the dynamic and often compensatory cross-talk that exists between the protein degradation pathways makes clinical translational approaches challenging. Here we review the primary autophagy pathways in the context of age-related neurodegenerative diseases, focusing on compensatory mechanisms and pathway failure. By critically assessing each underlying molecular machinery, we reveal their impact on aging and unmask the role of caloric restriction in changing cellular fate by delayed aging through stimulation of autophagy. This may point towards novel and better targeted interventions that exploit the autophagic machinery in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27473756

  7. Protective effects of estrogens and caloric restriction during aging on various rat testis parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khaled Hamden; Dorothee Silandre; Christelle Delalande; Abdelfattah ElFek; Serge Carreau

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2), Peganum harmala extract (PHE) and caloric restriction (CR) on various testis parameters during aging. Methods: Twelve-month-old male rats were treated for 6 months with either E2 or PHE, or submitted to CR (40%). Results: Our results show that estrogens and CR are able to protect the male gonad by preventing the decrease of testosterone and E2 levels as well as the decrease of aromatase and estrogen receptor gene expressions. Indeed, E2, PHE and CR treatments induced an increase in the superoxide dismutase activities and decreased the activity of testicular enzymes: gamma-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate deshydrogenase as well as the aspartate and lactate transaminases in aged animals. In addition, the testicular catalase and gluthatione peroxidase activities were enhanced in E2, PHE and CR-treated rats compared to untreated animals at 18 months of age. Moreover, the positive effects of estradiol, PHE and CR were further supported by a lower level of lipid peroxidation. Recovery of spermatogenesis was recorded in treated rats. Conclusion: Besides a low caloric diet which is beneficial for spermatogenesis, a protective antioxydant role of estrogens is suggested. Estrogens delay testicular cell damage, which leads to functional senescence and, therefore, estrogens are helpful in protecting the reproductive functions from the adverse effects exerted by reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in large quanti-ties in the aged testis.

  8. A two year randomized controlled trial of human caloric restriction: feasibility and effects on predictors of health span and longevity

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    Background: Caloric restriction (CR), energy intake reduced below ad libitum (AL) intake, increases life span in many species. The implications for humans can be clarified by randomized controlled trials of CR. Methods: To determine CRs feasibility, safety, and effects on predictors of longevity, di...

  9. Behavioural changes are a major contributing factor in the reduction of sarcopenia in caloric-restricted ageing mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norren, van K.; Rusli, F.; Dijk, van M.; Lute, C.; Nagel, J.C.; Dijk, F.J.; Dwarkasing, J.T.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Luiking, Y.; Witkamp, R.F.; Müller, M.R.; Steegenga, W.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background - In rodent models, caloric restriction (CR) with maintenance of adequate micronutrient supply has been reported to increase lifespan and to reduce age-induced muscle loss (sarcopenia) during ageing. In the present study, we further investigated effects of CR on the onset and severity of

  10. Caloric Restriction in Lean and Obese Strains of Laboratory Rat: Effects on Body Composition, Metabolism, Growth, and Overall Health

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    NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? How do lean and obese rats respond physiologically to caloric restriction? What is the main finding and its importance? Obese rats show marked benefits compared with lean animals. Reduced body fat is associated with improv...

  11. Higher Caloric Refeeding Is Safe in Hospitalised Adolescent Patients with Restrictive Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth K. Parker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study examines weight gain and assesses complications associated with refeeding hospitalised adolescents with restrictive eating disorders (EDs prescribed initial calories above current recommendations. Methods. Patients admitted to an adolescent ED structured “rapid refeeding” program for >48 hours and receiving ≥2400 kcal/day were included in a 3-year retrospective chart review. Results. The mean (SD age of the 162 adolescents was 16.7 years (0.9, admission % median BMI was 80.1% (10.2, and discharge % median BMI was 93.1% (7.0. The mean (SD starting caloric intake was 2611.7 kcal/day (261.5 equating to 58.4 kcal/kg (10.2. Most patients (92.6% were treated with nasogastric tube feeding. The mean (SD length of stay was 3.6 weeks (1.9, and average weekly weight gain was 2.1 kg (0.8. No patients developed cardiac signs of RFS or delirium; complications included 4% peripheral oedema, 1% hypophosphatemia (<0.75 mmol/L, 7% hypomagnesaemia (<0.70 mmol/L, and 2% hypokalaemia (<3.2 mmol/L. Caloric prescription on admission was associated with developing oedema (95% CI 1.001 to 1.047; p=0.039. No statistical significance was found between electrolytes and calories provided during refeeding. Conclusion. A rapid refeeding protocol with the inclusion of phosphate supplementation can safely achieve rapid weight restoration without increased complications associated with refeeding syndrome.

  12. Metabolic and behavioral compensations in response to caloric restriction: implications for the maintenance of weight loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne M Redman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic and behavioral adaptations to caloric restriction (CR in free-living conditions have not yet been objectively measured. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Forty-eight (36.8+/-1.0 y, overweight (BMI 27.8+/-0.7 kg/m(2 participants were randomized to four groups for 6-months; CONTROL: energy intake at 100% of energy requirements; CR: 25% calorie restriction; CR+EX: 12.5% CR plus 12.5% increase in energy expenditure by structured exercise; LCD: low calorie diet (890 kcal/d until 15% weight reduction followed by weight maintenance. Body composition (DXA and total daily energy expenditure (TDEE over 14-days by doubly labeled water (DLW and activity related energy activity (AREE were measured after 3 (M3 and 6 (M6 months of intervention. Weight changes at M6 were -1.0+/-1.1% (CONTROL, -10.4+/-0.9% (CR, -10.0+/-0.8% (CR+EX and -13.9+/-0.8% (LCD. At M3, absolute TDEE was significantly reduced in CR (-454+/-76 kcal/d and LCD (-633+/-66 kcal/d but not in CR+EX or controls. At M6 the reduction in TDEE remained lower than baseline in CR (-316+/-118 kcal/d and LCD (-389+/-124 kcal/d but reached significance only when CR and LCD were combined (-351+/-83 kcal/d. In response to caloric restriction (CR/LCD combined, TDEE adjusted for body composition, was significantly lower by -431+/-51 and -240+/-83 kcal/d at M3 and M6, respectively, indicating a metabolic adaptation. Likewise, physical activity (TDEE adjusted for sleeping metabolic rate was significantly reduced from baseline at both time points. For control and CR+EX, adjusted TDEE (body composition or sleeping metabolic rate was not changed at either M3 or M6. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time we show that in free-living conditions, CR results in a metabolic adaptation and a behavioral adaptation with decreased physical activity levels. These data also suggest potential mechanisms by which CR causes large inter-individual variability in the rates of weight loss and how exercise may

  13. Maintenance of cellular ATP level by caloric restriction correlates chronological survival of budding yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Joon-Seok; Lee, Cheol-Koo, E-mail: cklee2005@korea.ac.kr

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •CR decreases total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide during the chronological aging. •CR does not affect the levels of oxidative damage on protein and DNA. •CR contributes extension of chronological lifespan by maintenance of ATP level -- Abstract: The free radical theory of aging emphasizes cumulative oxidative damage in the genome and intracellular proteins due to reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is a major cause for aging. Caloric restriction (CR) has been known as a representative treatment that prevents aging; however, its mechanism of action remains elusive. Here, we show that CR extends the chronological lifespan (CLS) of budding yeast by maintaining cellular energy levels. CR reduced the generation of total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide; however, CR did not reduce the oxidative damage in proteins and DNA. Subsequently, calorie-restricted yeast had higher mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and it sustained consistent ATP levels during the process of chronological aging. Our results suggest that CR extends the survival of the chronologically aged cells by improving the efficiency of energy metabolism for the maintenance of the ATP level rather than reducing the global oxidative damage of proteins and DNA.

  14. Entropy Generation and Human Aging: Lifespan Entropy and Effect of Diet Composition and Caloric Restriction Diets

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    Carlos A. Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The first and second laws of thermodynamic were applied to statistical databases on nutrition and human growth in order to estimate the entropy generation over the human lifespan. The calculations were performed for the cases of variation in the diet composition and calorie restriction diets; and results were compared to a base case in which lifespan entropy generation was found to be 11 404 kJ/K per kg of body mass, predicting a lifespan of 73.78 and 81.61 years for the average male and female individuals respectively. From the analysis of the results, it was found that changes of diet % of fat and carbohydrates do not have a significant impact on predicted lifespan, while the diet % of proteins has an important effect. Reduction of diet protein % to the minimum recommended in nutrition literature yields an average increase of 3.3 years on the predicted lifespan. Changes in the calorie content of the diet also have an important effect, yielding a % increase in lifespan equal or higher than the % reduction in the diet caloric content. This correlates well experimental data on small mammal and insects, in which lifespan has been increased by diet restriction.

  15. Maintenance of cellular ATP level by caloric restriction correlates chronological survival of budding yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •CR decreases total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide during the chronological aging. •CR does not affect the levels of oxidative damage on protein and DNA. •CR contributes extension of chronological lifespan by maintenance of ATP level -- Abstract: The free radical theory of aging emphasizes cumulative oxidative damage in the genome and intracellular proteins due to reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is a major cause for aging. Caloric restriction (CR) has been known as a representative treatment that prevents aging; however, its mechanism of action remains elusive. Here, we show that CR extends the chronological lifespan (CLS) of budding yeast by maintaining cellular energy levels. CR reduced the generation of total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide; however, CR did not reduce the oxidative damage in proteins and DNA. Subsequently, calorie-restricted yeast had higher mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and it sustained consistent ATP levels during the process of chronological aging. Our results suggest that CR extends the survival of the chronologically aged cells by improving the efficiency of energy metabolism for the maintenance of the ATP level rather than reducing the global oxidative damage of proteins and DNA

  16. Accumulation of long-chain glycosphingolipids during aging is prevented by caloric restriction.

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    María José Hernández-Corbacho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease are major causes of morbidity and mortality that are seen far more commonly in the aged population. Interestingly, kidney function declines during aging even in the absence of underlying renal disease. Declining renal function has been associated with age-related cellular damage and dysfunction with reports of increased levels of apoptosis, necrosis, and inflammation in the aged kidney. Bioactive sphingolipids have been shown to regulate these same cellular processes, and have also been suggested to play a role in aging and cellular senescence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We hypothesized that alterations in kidney sphingolipids play a role in the declining kidney function that occurs during aging. To begin to address this, the sphingolipid profile was measured in young (3 mo, middle aged (9 mo and old (17 mo C57BL/6 male mice. Interestingly, while modest changes in ceramides and sphingoid bases were evident in kidneys from older mice, the most dramatic elevations were seen in long-chain hexosylceramides (HexCer and lactosylceramides (LacCer, with C14- and C16-lactosylceramides elevated as much as 8 and 12-fold, respectively. Increases in long-chain LacCers during aging are not exclusive to the kidney, as they also occur in the liver and brain. Importantly, caloric restriction, previously shown to prevent the declining kidney function seen in aging, inhibits accumulation of long-chain HexCer/LacCers and prevents the age-associated elevation of enzymes involved in their synthesis. Additionally, long-chain LacCers are also significantly elevated in human fibroblasts isolated from elderly individuals. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates accumulation of the glycosphingolipids HexCer and LacCer in several different organs in rodents and humans during aging. In addition, data demonstrate that HexCer and LacCer metabolism is regulated by caloric restriction. Taken together

  17. Sexually dimorphic responses to fat loss after caloric restriction or surgical lipectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haifei; Strader, April D; Woods, Stephen C; Seeley, Randy J

    2007-07-01

    White adipose tissue is the principal site for lipid accumulation. Males and females maintain distinctive white adipose tissue distribution patterns. Specifically, males tend to accumulate relatively more visceral fat, whereas females accumulate relatively more subcutaneous fat. The phenomenon of maintaining typical sex-specific fat distributions suggests sex-specific mechanisms that regulate energy balance and adiposity. We used two distinct approaches to reduce fat mass, caloric restriction (CR), and surgical fat removal (termed lipectomy) and assessed parameters involved in the regulation of energy balance. We found that male and female mice responded differentially to CR- and to lipectomy-induced fat loss. Females decreased energy expenditure during CR or after lipectomy. In contrast, males responded by eating more food during food return after CR or after lipectomy. Female CR mice conserved subcutaneous fat, whereas male CR mice lost adiposity equally in the subcutaneous and visceral depots. In addition, female mice had a reduced capability to restore visceral fat after fat loss. After CR, plasma leptin levels decreased in male but not in female mice. The failure to increase food intake after returning to ad libitum intake in females could be due to the relatively stable levels of leptin. In summary, we have found sexual dimorphisms in the response to fat loss that point to important underlying differences in the strategies by which male and female mice regulate body weight. PMID:17426110

  18. Manipulation of health span and function by dietary caloric restriction mimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, George S; Ingram, Donald K

    2016-01-01

    After nearly a century of rigorous investigation and testing, dietary caloric restriction (CR) remains the most robust and reproducible method for slowing aging and maintaining health, function, and vitality. This intervention has been applied to species across the evolutionary spectrum, but for a number of reasons, practical applicability to humans has been questioned. To overcome these issues, we initiated the field of CR mimetics in 1998 and have observed its development into a full-fledged antiaging industry. Basically, strategies that enable individuals to obtain the biological benefits of CR without reducing actual food intake can be considered CR mimetics, whether functional, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, or other. Some of the best known candidates include resveratrol and related agents, the antidiabetic drug metformin, and rapamycin and other mTOR regulators. While the mechanisms of action vary, these and essentially all CR mimetic candidates work through at least some of the same pathways as actual CR. While the entire field continues to evolve rapidly, the current status will be reviewed here, with particular focus on recent developments, the most practical relevance and applicability for potential consumers, and new strategies for the future. PMID:26214681

  19. Whole-transcriptome analysis of mouse adipose tissue in response to short-term caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Soo; Choi, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Soyoung; Park, Taesun; Cho, In-Cheol; Lee, Jae-Won; Lee, Cheol-Koo

    2016-04-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to extend the lifespan of many species by improving cellular function and organismal health. Additionally, fat reduction by CR may play an important role in lengthening lifespan and preventing severe age-related diseases. Interestingly, CR induced the greatest transcriptome change in the epididymal fat of mice in our study. In this transcriptome analysis, we identified and categorized 446 genes that correlated with CR level. We observed down-regulation of several signaling pathways, including insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (insulin/IGF-1), epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), and canonical wingless-type mouse mammary tumor virus integration site (Wnt). Many genes related to structural features, including extracellular matrix structure, cell adhesion, and the cytoskeleton, were down-regulated, with a strong correlation to the degree of CR. Furthermore, genes related to the cell cycle and adipogenesis were down-regulated. These biological processes are well-identified targets of insulin/IGF-1, EGF, TGF-β, and Wnt signaling. In contrast, genes involved in specific metabolic processes, including the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the electron transport chain were up-regulated. We performed in silico analysis of the promoter sequences of CR-responsive genes and identified two associated transcription factors, Paired-like homeodomain 2 (Pitx2) and Paired box gene 6 (Pax6). Our results suggest that strict regulation of signaling pathways is critical for creating the optimal energy homeostasis to extend lifespan.

  20. Measuring aging rates of mice subjected to caloric restriction and genetic disruption of growth hormone signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Jacob J.E.; van Heemst, Diana; van Bodegom, David; Bonkowski, Michael S.; Sun, Liou Y.; Bartke, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction and genetic disruption of growth hormone signaling have been shown to counteract aging in mice. The effects of these interventions on aging are examined through age-dependent survival or through the increase in age-dependent mortality rates on a logarithmic scale fitted to the Gompertz model. However, these methods have limitations that impede a fully comprehensive disclosure of these effects. Here we examine the effects of these interventions on murine aging through the increase in age-dependent mortality rates on a linear scale without fitting them to a model like the Gompertz model. Whereas these interventions negligibly and non-consistently affected the aging rates when examined through the age-dependent mortality rates on a logarithmic scale, they caused the aging rates to increase at higher ages and to higher levels when examined through the age-dependent mortality rates on a linear scale. These results add to the debate whether these interventions postpone or slow aging and to the understanding of the mechanisms by which they affect aging. Since different methods yield different results, it is worthwhile to compare their results in future research to obtain further insights into the effects of dietary, genetic, and other interventions on the aging of mice and other species. PMID:26959761

  1. Higher Caloric Refeeding Is Safe in Hospitalised Adolescent Patients with Restrictive Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth K.; Faruquie, Sahrish S.; Anderson, Gail; Gomes, Linette; Kennedy, Andrew; Wearne, Christine M.; Kohn, Michael R.; Clarke, Simon D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. This study examines weight gain and assesses complications associated with refeeding hospitalised adolescents with restrictive eating disorders (EDs) prescribed initial calories above current recommendations. Methods. Patients admitted to an adolescent ED structured “rapid refeeding” program for >48 hours and receiving ≥2400 kcal/day were included in a 3-year retrospective chart review. Results. The mean (SD) age of the 162 adolescents was 16.7 years (0.9), admission % median BMI was 80.1% (10.2), and discharge % median BMI was 93.1% (7.0). The mean (SD) starting caloric intake was 2611.7 kcal/day (261.5) equating to 58.4 kcal/kg (10.2). Most patients (92.6%) were treated with nasogastric tube feeding. The mean (SD) length of stay was 3.6 weeks (1.9), and average weekly weight gain was 2.1 kg (0.8). No patients developed cardiac signs of RFS or delirium; complications included 4% peripheral oedema, 1% hypophosphatemia (refeeding syndrome. PMID:27293884

  2. Better Living through Chemistry: Caloric Restriction (CR) and CR Mimetics Alter Genome Function to Promote Increased Health and Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Zoe E; Pickering, Joshua; Eskiw, Christopher H

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR), defined as decreased nutrient intake without causing malnutrition, has been documented to increase both health and lifespan across numerous organisms, including humans. Many drugs and other compounds naturally occurring in our diet (nutraceuticals) have been postulated to act as mimetics of caloric restriction, leading to a wave of research investigating the efficacy of these compounds in preventing age-related diseases and promoting healthier, longer lifespans. Although well studied at the biochemical level, there are still many unanswered questions about how CR and CR mimetics impact genome function and structure. Here we discuss how genome function and structure are influenced by CR and potential CR mimetics, including changes in gene expression profiles and epigenetic modifications and their potential to identify the genetic fountain of youth. PMID:27588026

  3. Better Living through Chemistry: Caloric Restriction (CR) and CR Mimetics Alter Genome Function to Promote Increased Health and Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Zoe E.; Pickering, Joshua; Eskiw, Christopher H.

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR), defined as decreased nutrient intake without causing malnutrition, has been documented to increase both health and lifespan across numerous organisms, including humans. Many drugs and other compounds naturally occurring in our diet (nutraceuticals) have been postulated to act as mimetics of caloric restriction, leading to a wave of research investigating the efficacy of these compounds in preventing age-related diseases and promoting healthier, longer lifespans. Although well studied at the biochemical level, there are still many unanswered questions about how CR and CR mimetics impact genome function and structure. Here we discuss how genome function and structure are influenced by CR and potential CR mimetics, including changes in gene expression profiles and epigenetic modifications and their potential to identify the genetic fountain of youth. PMID:27588026

  4. Early Shifts of Brain Metabolism by Caloric Restriction Preserve White Matter Integrity and Long-Term Memory in Aging Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Janet eGuo; Vikas eBakshi; Ai-Ling eLin

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of brain integrity with age is highly associated with lifespan determination. Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to increase longevity and healthspan in various species; however, its effects on preserving living brain functions in aging remain largely unexplored. In the study, we used multimodal, non-invasive neuroimaging (PET/MRI/MRS) to determine in vivo brain glucose metabolism, energy metabolites, and white matter structural integrity in young and old mice fed with eithe...

  5. Mild caloric restriction up-regulates the expression of prohibitin: A proteome study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Shoko; Masuda, Junko; Shimagami, Hiroshi [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Ohta, Yutaka; Kanda, Tomomasa [Research Laboratories for Health and Gustatory Science, Asahi Breweries Limited, Ibaraki (Japan); Saito, Kenji [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Corporate Sponsored Research Program ' Food for Life' , The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Kato, Hisanori, E-mail: akatoq@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Corporate Sponsored Research Program ' Food for Life' , The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-02-18

    Research highlights: {yields} Proteomic analysis was performed to elucidate physiological alterations induced by mild CR. {yields} The results suggest good reproducibility and possibility to grasp the important response of CR. {yields} The increase in prohibitin abundance was observed in CR groups by proteomic analysis. {yields} We hypothesize that prohibitin might be involved in the longevity induced by CR. -- Abstract: Caloric restriction (CR) is well known to expand lifespan in a variety of species and to retard many age-related diseases. The effects of relatively mild CR on the proteome profile in relation to lifespan have not yet been reported, despite the more extensive studies of the stricter CR conditions. Thus, the present study was conducted to elucidate the protein profiles in rat livers after mild CR for a relatively short time. Young growing rats were fed CR diets (10% and 30% CR) for 1 month. We performed the differential proteomic analysis of the rat livers using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The most remarkable protein among the differentially expressed proteins was found to be prohibitin, the abundance of which was increased by 30% CR. Prohibitin is a ubiquitously expressed protein shown to suppress cell proliferation and to be related to longevity. The increase in prohibitin was observed both in 10% and 30% CR by Western blot analysis. Furthermore, induction of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) protein, related to the actions of prohibitin in promoting longevity, was observed. The increased prohibitin level in response to subtle CR suggests that this increase may be one of the early events leading to the expansion of lifespan in response to CR.

  6. Caloric Restriction Eliminates the Aging-related Declines of NMDA and AMPA Receptor Subunits in the Rat Hippocampus and Induces Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Lei; Adams, Michelle M.; Linville, M. Constance; Newton, Isabel G.; Forbes, M. Elizabeth; Long, Ashley; Riddle, David R.; Brunso-Bechtold, Judy K.

    2007-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) extends lifespan and ameliorates the aging-related decline in hippocampal-dependent cognitive function. In the present study, we compared subunit levels of NMDA and AMPA types of the glutamate receptor and quantified total synapses and multiple spine bouton (MSB) synapses in hippocampal CA1 from young (10 months), middle-aged (18 months), and old (29 months) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats that were ad libitum (AL) fed or caloric restricted (CR) from 4 months of age. ...

  7. Insights Into The Beneficial Effect Of Caloric/ Dietary Restriction For A Healthy And Prolonged Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani ePallavi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last several years, new evidence has kept pouring in about the remarkable effect of caloric restriction (CR on the conspicuous bedfellows- aging and cancer. Through the use of various animal models, it is now well established that by reducing calorie intake one can not only increase life span but, also, lower the risk of various age related diseases such as cancer. Cancer cells are believed to be more dependent on glycolysis for their energy requirements than normal cells and, therefore, can be easily targeted by alteration in the energy-metabolic pathways, a hallmark of CR. Apart from inhibiting the growth of transplantable tumors, CR has been also shown to inhibit the development of spontaneous, radiation and chemically induced tumors. The question regarding the potentiality of the anti-tumor effect of CR in humans has been in part answered by the resistance of a cohort of women, who had suffered from anorexia in their early life, to breast cancer. However, human research on the beneficial effect of CR is still at an early stage and needs further validation. Though the complete mechanism of the anti-tumor effect of CR is far from clear, the plausible involvement of nutrient sensing pathways or IGF-1 pathways proposed for its anti-aging action cannot be overruled. In fact, cancer cell lines, mutant for proteins involved in IGF-1 pathways, failed to respond to CR. In addition, CR decreases the levels of many growth factors, anabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines and oxidative markers that are deregulated in several cancers.In this review, we discuss the anti-tumor effect of CR, describing experiments done in vitro in tumor models and in vivo in mouse models in which the tumor was induced by means of radiation or chemical exposure, expressing oncogenes or deleting tumor suppression genes. We also discuss the proposed mechanisms of CR anti-tumor action. Lastly, we argue the necessity of gene expression studies in cancerous versus

  8. Feed restriction and a diet's caloric value: The influence on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity of rats

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    de Moura Leandro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of feed restriction and different diet's caloric value on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity is unclear in the literature. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the possible influences of two diets with different caloric values and the influence of feed restriction on the aerobic (anaerobic threshold: AT and anaerobic (time to exhaustion: Tlim variables measured by a lactate minimum test (LM in rats. Methods We used 40 adult Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: ad libitum commercial Purina® diet (3028.0 Kcal/kg (ALP, restricted commercial Purina® diet (RAP, ad libitum semi-purified AIN-93 diet (3802.7 Kcal/kg (ALD and restricted semi-purified AIN-93 diet (RAD. The animals performed LM at the end of the experiment, 48 h before euthanasia. Comparisons between groups were performed by analysis of variance (p Results At the end of the experiment, the weights of the rats in the groups with the restricted diets were significantly lower than those in the groups with ad libitum diet intakes. In addition, the ALD group had higher amounts of adipose tissue. With respect to energetic substrates, the groups subjected to diet restriction had significantly higher levels of liver and muscle glycogen. There were no differences between the groups with respect to AT; however, the ALD group had lower lactatemia at the AT intensity and higher Tlim than the other groups. Conclusions We conclude that dietary restriction induces changes in energetic substrates and that ad libitum intake of a semi-purified AIN-93 diet results in an increase in adipose tissue, likely reducing the density of the animals in water and favouring their performance during the swimming exercises.

  9. Auditory Function in Rhesus Monkeys: Effects of Aging and Caloric Restriction in the Wisconsin Monkeys Five Years Later

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler, Cynthia G.; Chiasson, Kirstin Beach; Leslie, Tami Hanson; Thomas, Denise; Beasley, T. Mark; Kemnitz, Joseph W; Weindruch, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) slows aging in many species and protects some animals from age-related hearing loss (ARHL), but the effect on humans is not yet known. Because rhesus monkeys are long-lived primates that are phylogenically closer to humans than other research animals are, they provide a better model for studying the effects of CR in aging and ARHL. Subjects were from the pool of 55 rhesus monkeys aged 15–28 years who had been in the Wisconsin study on CR and aging for 8–13.5 years. Di...

  10. Effects of immobilisation and caloric restriction on antioxidant parameters and T-cell apoptosis in healthy young men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellinger, S.; Arendt, B. M.; Boese, A.; Juschus, M.; Schaefer, S.; Stoffel-Wagner, B.; Goerlich, R.

    Background: Astronauts are exposed to oxidative stress due to radiation and microgravity, which might impair immune functions. Effects of hypocaloric nutrition as often observed in astronauts on oxidative stress and immune functions are not clear. We investigated, if microgravity, simulated by 6 Head-down tilt (HDT) and caloric restriction (-25%, fat reduced) with adequate supply of micronutrients affect DNA-damage in peripheral leukocytes, antioxidant parameters in plasma, and T-cell apoptosis. Material & Methods: 10 healthy male non-smokers were subjected to 4 different interventions (normocaloric diet or caloric restriction (CR) in upright position (UP) or HDT) for 14 days each (cross-over). DNA-damage in peripheral leukocytes (Comet Assay), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and uric acid in plasma were measured before, after 5, 10, and 13 days of intervention, and after 2 days recovery. T-cell apoptosis (Annexin V binding test) was assessed before and after intervention. Results: Preliminary results show that only endogenous, but not ex vivo H2O2-induced DNA strand breaks were reduced by CR compared to normocaloric diet. In upright position, endogenous DNA strand breaks decreased continuously during CR, reaching significance after recovery. During HDT, caloric restriction seems to counteract a temporary increase in DNA strand breaks observed in subjects receiving normocaloric diet. TEAC was reduced during HDT compared to UP in subjects under caloric restriction. An increase in plasma uric acid related to intervention occurred only after 5 days HDT in CR vs. normocaloric diet. T-cell apoptosis was not affected by any kind of intervention. Conclusion: Neither HDT nor CR with sufficient supply of micronutrients seem to induce oxidative stress or T-cell apoptosis in healthy young men. In contrast, CR might prevent endogenous DNA-damage in peripheral leukocytes. As DNA-damage is a risk factor for carcinogenesis, protective effects of energy reduction are

  11. Effects of adiposity and 30 days of caloric restriction upon protein metabolism in moderately versus severely obese women

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, G. C.; Nadeau, D; Horton, E.S.; Nair, K. S.

    2010-01-01

    Protein metabolism adapts during caloric restriction (CR) to minimize protein loss, and it is unclear if greater fat stores favorably affect this response. We sought to determine if protein metabolism is related to degree of obesity and if the response to CR is impacted by pre-CR adiposity level. Whole body protein metabolism was studied in 12 obese women over a wide range of body mass index (BMI) (30-53kg/m2) as inpatients using [1-13C]leucine as a tracer following 5 days of a weight maintai...

  12. Chronic Caloric Restriction and Exercise Improve Metabolic Conditions of Dietary-Induced Obese Mice in Autophagy Correlated Manner without Involving AMPK

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    Mingxia Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the role of AMPK activation and autophagy in mediating the beneficial effects of exercise and caloric restriction in obesity. Methods. Dietary-induced obesity mice were made and divided into 5 groups; one additional group of normal mice serves as control. Mice in each group received different combinations of interventions including low fat diet, caloric restriction, and exercise. Then their metabolic conditions were assessed by measuring serum glucose and insulin, serum lipids, and liver function. AMPK phosphorylation and autophagy activity were detected by western blotting. Results. Obese mice models were successfully induced by high fat diet. Caloric restriction consistently improved the metabolic conditions of the obese mice, and the effects are more prominent than the mice that received only exercise. Also, caloric restriction, exercise, and low fat diet showed a synergistic effect in the improvement of metabolic conditions. Western blotting results showed that this improvement was not related with the activation of AMPK in liver, skeletal muscle, or heart but correlates well with the autophagy activity. Conclusion. Caloric restriction has more prominent beneficial effects than exercise in dietary-induced obese mice. These effects are correlated with the autophagy activity and may be independent of AMPK activation.

  13. Effect of Resveratrol as Caloric Restriction Mimetic and Environmental Enrichment on Neurobehavioural Responses in Young Healthy Mice

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    Mustapha Shehu Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction and environmental enrichment have been separately reported to possess health benefits such as improvement in motor and cognitive functions. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound, has been reported to be caloric restriction mimetic. This study therefore aims to investigate the potential benefit of the combination of resveratrol as CR and EE on learning and memory, motor coordination, and motor endurance in young healthy mice. Fifty mice of both sexes were randomly divided into five groups of 10 animals each: group I animals received carboxymethylcellulose (CMC orally per kg/day (control, group II animals were maintained on every other day feeding, group III animals received resveratrol 50 mg/kg, suspended in 10 g/L of (CMC orally per kg/day, group IV animals received CMC and were kept in an enriched environment, and group V animals received resveratrol 50 mg/kg and were kept in EE. The treatment lasted for four weeks. On days 26, 27, and 28 of the study period, the animals were subjected to neurobehavioural evaluation. The results obtained showed that there was no significant change (P>0.05 in neurobehavioural responses in all the groups when compared to the control which indicates that 50 mg/kg of resveratrol administration and EE have no significant effects on neurobehavioural responses in young healthy mice over a period of four weeks.

  14. Effects of caloric restriction on learning and recovery of a spatial task in rats exposed to acute stress

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    Lamprea Rodríguez, Marisol

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to describe the effects of caloric restriction on spatial learning and recovery in the Barnes maze in animals experimentally stressed before recovery of the spatial task. Male Wistar rats were exposed for two months to one of two conditions: ad libitum (AL or intermittent fasting (IF. Both groups were exposed then to an experimental form of acute stress, induced by movement restriction for 4 hours. IF subjects had better performance in learning tasks during the acquisition trials but required more time to complete the task after the stressor was applied. These results are discussed in light of previous data reported in the literature emphasizing differences in the instruments used to evaluate spatial learning and its interaction with experimentally induced stress.

  15. Roles of caloric restriction, ketogenic diet and intermittent fasting during initiation, progression and metastasis of cancer in animal models: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Lv

    Full Text Available The role of dietary restriction regimens such as caloric restriction, ketogenic diet and intermittent fasting in development of cancers has been detected via abundant preclinical experiments. However, the conclusions are controversial. We aim to review the relevant animal studies systematically and provide assistance for further clinical studies.Literatures on associations between dietary restriction and cancer published in PubMed in recent twenty years were comprehensively searched. Animal model, tumor type, feeding regimen, study length, sample size, major outcome, conclusion, quality assessment score and the interferential step of cancer were extracted from each eligible study. We analyzed the tumor incidence rates from 21 studies about caloric restriction.Fifty-nine studies were involved in our system review. The involved studies explored roles of dietary restriction during initiation, progression and metastasis of cancer. About 90.9% of the relevant studies showed that caloric restriction plays an anti-cancer role, with the pooled OR (95%CI of 0.20 (0.12, 0.34 relative to controls. Ketogenic diet was also positively associated with cancer, which was indicated by eight of the nine studies. However, 37.5% of the related studies obtained a negative conclusion that intermittent fasting was not significantly preventive against cancer.Caloric restriction and ketogenic diet are effective against cancer in animal experiments while the role of intermittent fasting is doubtful and still needs exploration. More clinical experiments are needed and more suitable patterns for humans should be investigated.

  16. Caloric restriction and intermittent fasting alter hepatic lipid droplet proteome and diacylglycerol species and prevent diabetes in NZO mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeier, Christian; Kaiser, Daniel; Heeren, Jörg; Scheja, Ludger; John, Clara; Weise, Christoph; Eravci, Murat; Lagerpusch, Merit; Schulze, Gunnar; Joost, Hans-Georg; Schwenk, Robert Wolfgang; Schürmann, Annette

    2015-05-01

    Caloric restriction and intermittent fasting are known to improve glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance in several species including humans. The aim of this study was to unravel potential mechanisms by which these interventions improve insulin sensitivity and protect from type 2 diabetes. Diabetes-susceptible New Zealand Obese mice were either 10% calorie restricted (CR) or fasted every other day (IF), and compared to ad libitum (AL) fed control mice. AL mice showed a diabetes prevalence of 43%, whereas mice under CR and IF were completely protected against hyperglycemia. Proteomic analysis of hepatic lipid droplets revealed significantly higher levels of PSMD9 (co-activator Bridge-1), MIF (macrophage migration inhibitor factor), TCEB2 (transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 2), ACY1 (aminoacylase 1) and FABP5 (fatty acid binding protein 5), and a marked reduction of GSTA3 (glutathione S-transferase alpha 3) in samples of CR and IF mice. In addition, accumulation of diacylglycerols (DAGs) was significantly reduced in livers of IF mice (P=0.045) while CR mice showed a similar tendency (P=0.062). In particular, 9 DAG species were significantly reduced in response to IF, of which DAG-40:4 and DAG-40:7 also showed significant effects after CR. This was associated with a decreased PKCε activation and might explain the improved insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, our data indicate that protection against diabetes upon caloric restriction and intermittent fasting associates with a modulation of lipid droplet protein composition and reduction of intracellular DAG species. PMID:25645620

  17. Effects of 12 weeks of combined training without caloric restriction on inflammatory markers in overweight girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Wendell Arthur; Leite, Neiva; da Silva, Larissa Rosa; Brunelli, Diego Trevisan; Gáspari, Arthur Fernandes; Radominski, Rosana Bento; Chacon-Mikahil, Mara Patrícia Traina; Cavaglieri, Cláudia Regina

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of combined training without caloric restriction on inflammatory markers in overweight girls. Thirty-three girls (13-17 years) were assigned into overweight training (n = 17) or overweight control (n = 16) groups. Additionally, a normal-weight group (n = 15) was used as control for the baseline values. The combined training programme consisted of six resistance exercises (three sets of 6-10 repetitions at 60-70% 1 RM) followed by 30 min of aerobic exercise (walking/running) at 50-80% VO2peak, performed in the same 60 min session, 3 days/weeks, for 12 weeks. Body composition, dietary intake, aerobic fitness (VO2peak), muscular strength (1 RM), glycaemia, insulinemia, lipid profile and inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-10, leptin, resistin and adiponectin) were measured before and after intervention. There was a significant decrease in body fat (P < 0.01) and increase in fat-free mass (P < 0.01), VO2peak (P < 0.01), 1 RM for leg press (P < 0.01) and bench press (P < 0.01) in the overweight training group. Concomitantly, this group presented significant decreases in serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (P < 0.05) and leptin (P < 0.05), as well as in insulin resistance (P < 0.05) after the experimental period. In conclusion, 12 weeks of combined training without caloric restriction reduced inflammatory markers associated with obesity in overweight girls. PMID:26852885

  18. Effects of 12 weeks of combined training without caloric restriction on inflammatory markers in overweight girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Wendell Arthur; Leite, Neiva; da Silva, Larissa Rosa; Brunelli, Diego Trevisan; Gáspari, Arthur Fernandes; Radominski, Rosana Bento; Chacon-Mikahil, Mara Patrícia Traina; Cavaglieri, Cláudia Regina

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of combined training without caloric restriction on inflammatory markers in overweight girls. Thirty-three girls (13-17 years) were assigned into overweight training (n = 17) or overweight control (n = 16) groups. Additionally, a normal-weight group (n = 15) was used as control for the baseline values. The combined training programme consisted of six resistance exercises (three sets of 6-10 repetitions at 60-70% 1 RM) followed by 30 min of aerobic exercise (walking/running) at 50-80% VO2peak, performed in the same 60 min session, 3 days/weeks, for 12 weeks. Body composition, dietary intake, aerobic fitness (VO2peak), muscular strength (1 RM), glycaemia, insulinemia, lipid profile and inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-10, leptin, resistin and adiponectin) were measured before and after intervention. There was a significant decrease in body fat (P < 0.01) and increase in fat-free mass (P < 0.01), VO2peak (P < 0.01), 1 RM for leg press (P < 0.01) and bench press (P < 0.01) in the overweight training group. Concomitantly, this group presented significant decreases in serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (P < 0.05) and leptin (P < 0.05), as well as in insulin resistance (P < 0.05) after the experimental period. In conclusion, 12 weeks of combined training without caloric restriction reduced inflammatory markers associated with obesity in overweight girls.

  19. Influence of aging and long-term caloric restriction on oxygen radical generation and oxidative DNA damage in rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Torres, Mónica; Gredilla, Ricardo; Sanz, Alberto; Barja, Gustavo

    2002-05-01

    The effect of long-term caloric restriction and aging on the rates of mitochondrial H2O2 production and oxygen consumption as well as on oxidative damage to nuclear (nDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was studied in rat liver tissue. Long-term caloric restriction significantly decreased H2O2 production of rat liver mitochondria (47% reduction) and significantly reduced oxidative damage to mtDNA (46% reduction) with no changes in nDNA. The decrease in ROS production was located at complex I because it only took place with complex I-linked substrates (pyruvate/malate) but not with complex II-linked substrates (succinate). The mechanism responsible for that decrease in ROS production was not a decrease in mitochondrial oxygen consumption because it did not change after long-term restriction. Instead, the caloric restricted mitochondria released less ROS per unit electron flow, due to a decrease in the reduction degree of the complex I generator. On the other hand, increased ROS production with aging in state 3 was observed in succinate-supplemented mitochondria because old control animals were unable to suppress H2O2 production during the energy transition from state 4 to state 3. The levels of 8-oxodG in mtDNA increased with age in old animals and this increase was abolished by caloric restriction. These results support the idea that caloric restriction reduces the aging rate at least in part by decreasing the rate of mitochondrial ROS production and so, the rate of oxidative attack to biological macromolecules like mtDNA. PMID:11978489

  20. Long-term Effects of High and Low Glycemic Load Diets at Different Levels of Caloric Restriction on Dietary Adherence, Body Composition and Metabolism in CALERIE, a One Year Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Context The effects of dietary macronutrient composition and level of energy intake on adherence to a calorically-restricted diet remain uncertain. Objective To examine the effects of dietary macronutrients, and level of caloric restriction (CR), for 12 months, on adherence to the prescribed regim...

  1. Caloric Restriction reduces inflammation and improves T cell-mediated immune response in obese mice but concomitant consumption of curcumin/piperine adds no further benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation and impaired immune response. Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to inhibit inflammatory response and enhance cell-mediated immune function. Curcumin, the bioactive phenolic component of turmeric spice, is proposed to have anti-obesity and anti-...

  2. A Multi-stage Carcinogenesis Model to Investigate Caloric Restriction as a Potential Tool for Post-irradiation Mitigation of Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Shusuke; Blyth, Benjamin John; Shang, Yi; Morioka, Takamitsu; Kakinuma, Shizuko; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2016-01-01

    The risk of radiation-induced cancer adds to anxiety in low-dose exposed populations. Safe and effective lifestyle changes which can help mitigate excess cancer risk might provide exposed individuals the opportunity to pro-actively reduce their cancer risk, and improve mental health and well-being. Here, we applied a mathematical multi-stage carcinogenesis model to the mouse lifespan data using adult-onset caloric restriction following irradiation in early life. We re-evaluated autopsy records with a veterinary pathologist to determine which tumors were the probable causes of death in order to calculate age-specific mortality. The model revealed that in both irradiated and unirradiated mice, caloric restriction reduced the age-specific mortality of all solid tumors and hepatocellular carcinomas across most of the lifespan, with the mortality rate dependent more on age owing to an increase in the number of predicted rate-limiting steps. Conversely, irradiation did not significantly alter the number of steps, but did increase the overall transition rate between the steps. We show that the extent of the protective effect of caloric restriction is independent of the induction of cancer from radiation exposure, and discuss future avenues of research to explore the utility of caloric restriction as an example of a potential post-irradiation mitigation strategy. PMID:27390741

  3. Sex-Dependent Cognitive Performance in Baboon Offspring Following Maternal Caloric Restriction in Pregnancy and Lactation

    OpenAIRE

    RODRIGUEZ, Jesse S.; Bartlett, Thad Q; Keenan, Kathryn E.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Nijland, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    In humans a suboptimal diet during development has negative outcomes in offspring. We investigated the behavioral outcomes in baboons born to mothers undergoing moderate maternal nutrient restriction (MNR). Maternal nutrient restriction mothers (n = 7) were fed 70% of food eaten by controls (CTR, n = 12) fed ad libitum throughout gestation and lactation. At 3.3 ± 0.2 (mean ± standard error of the mean [SEM]) years of age offspring (controls: female [FC, n = 8], male [MC, n = 4]; nutrient rest...

  4. Cardiac Sirt1 mediates the cardioprotective effect of caloric restriction by suppressing local complement system activation after ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tsunehisa; Tamaki, Kayoko; Shirakawa, Kohsuke; Ito, Kentaro; Yan, Xiaoxiang; Katsumata, Yoshinori; Anzai, Atsushi; Matsuhashi, Tomohiro; Endo, Jin; Inaba, Takaaki; Tsubota, Kazuo; Sano, Motoaki; Fukuda, Keiichi; Shinmura, Ken

    2016-04-15

    Caloric restriction (CR) confers cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. We previously found the essential roles of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the development of CR-induced cardioprotection and Sirt1 activation during CR (Shinmura K, Tamaki K, Ito K, Yan X, Yamamoto T, Katsumata Y, Matsuhashi T, Sano M, Fukuda K, Suematsu M, Ishii I. Indispensable role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in caloric restriction-induced cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury.Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol308: H894-H903, 2015). However, the exact mechanism by which Sirt1 in cardiomyocytes mediates the cardioprotective effect of CR remains undetermined. We subjected cardiomyocyte-specificSirt1knockout (CM-Sirt1(-/-)) mice and the corresponding control mice to either 3-mo ad libitum feeding or CR (-40%). Isolated perfused hearts were subjected to 25-min global ischemia, followed by 60-min reperfusion. The recovery of left ventricle function after I/R was improved, and total lactate dehydrogenase release into the perfusate during reperfusion was attenuated in the control mice treated with CR, but a similar cardioprotective effect of CR was not observed in the CM-Sirt1(-/-)mice. The expression levels of cardiac complement component 3 (C3) at baseline and the accumulation of C3 and its fragments in the ischemia-reperfused myocardium were attenuated by CR in the control mice, but not in the CM-Sirt1(-/-)mice. Resveratrol treatment also attenuated the expression levels of C3 protein in cultured neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Moreover, the degree of myocardial I/R injury in conventionalC3knockout (C3(-/-)) mice treated with CR was similar to that in the ad libitum-fedC3(-/-)mice, although the expression levels of Sirt1 were enhanced by CR. These results demonstrate that cardiac Sirt1 plays an essential role in CR-induced cardioprotection against I/R injury by suppressing cardiac C3 expression. This is the first report suggesting that

  5. Entropy Generation and Human Aging: Lifespan Entropy and Effect of Diet Composition and Caloric Restriction Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos A. Silva; Kalyan Annamalai

    2009-01-01

    The first and second laws of thermodynamic were applied to statistical databases on nutrition and human growth in order to estimate the entropy generation over the human lifespan. The calculations were performed for the cases of variation in the diet composition and calorie restriction diets; and results were compared to a base case in which lifespan entropy generation was found to be 11 404 kJ/K per kg of body mass, predicting a lifespan of 73.78 and 81.61 years for the average male and fema...

  6. Effects of Caloric Restriction and Exercise Training on Skeletal Muscle Histochemistry in Aging Fischer 344 Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T. Lowenthal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of calorie restriction and exercise on hindlimb histochemistry and fiber type in Fischer 344 rats as they advanced from adulthood through senescence. At 10 months of age, animals were divided into sedentary fed ad libitum, exercise (18 m/min, 8% grade, 20 min/day, 5 days/week fed ad libitum, and calorie restricted by alternate days of feeding. Succinic dehydrogenase, myosin adenosine triphosphatase (mATPase at pH 9.4, nicotine adenonine dinucleotide reductase, and Periodic Acid Shiff histochemical stains were performed on plantaris and soleus muscles. The results indicated that aging resulted in a progressive decline in plantaris Type I muscle fiber in sedentary animals, while exercise resulted in maintenance of these fibers. The percent of plantaris Type II fibers increased between 10 and 24 months of age. Exercise also resulted in a small, but significant, increase in the percentage of plantaris Type IIa fibers at 24 months of age. The soleus fiber distribution for Type I fibers was unaffected by increasing age in all groups of animals. The implications of these results suggest the implementation of exercise as a lifestyle modification as early as possible.

  7. Caloric restriction of db/db mice reverts hepatic steatosis and body weight with divergent hepatic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Eun; Jung, Youngae; Min, Soonki; Nam, Miso; Heo, Rok Won; Jeon, Byeong Tak; Song, Dae Hyun; Yi, Chin-Ok; Jeong, Eun Ae; Kim, Hwajin; Kim, Jeonghyun; Jeong, Seon-Yong; Kwak, Woori; Ryu, Do Hyun; Horvath, Tamas L; Roh, Gu Seob; Hwang, Geum-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most frequent causes of liver disease and its prevalence is a serious and growing clinical problem. Caloric restriction (CR) is commonly recommended for improvement of obesity-related diseases such as NAFLD. However, the effects of CR on hepatic metabolism remain unknown. We investigated the effects of CR on metabolic dysfunction in the liver of obese diabetic db/db mice. We found that CR of db/db mice reverted insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, body weight and adiposity to those of db/m mice. (1)H-NMR- and UPLC-QTOF-MS-based metabolite profiling data showed significant metabolic alterations related to lipogenesis, ketogenesis, and inflammation in db/db mice. Moreover, western blot analysis showed that lipogenesis pathway enzymes in the liver of db/db mice were reduced by CR. In addition, CR reversed ketogenesis pathway enzymes and the enhanced autophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis, collagen deposition and endoplasmic reticulum stress in db/db mice. In particular, hepatic inflammation-related proteins including lipocalin-2 in db/db mice were attenuated by CR. Hepatic metabolomic studies yielded multiple pathological mechanisms of NAFLD. Also, these findings showed that CR has a therapeutic effect by attenuating the deleterious effects of obesity and diabetes-induced multiple complications. PMID:27439777

  8. A meta-analysis of caloric restriction gene expression profiles to infer common signatures and regulatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Michael; Wuttke, Daniel; van Dam, Sipko; Clarke, Susan A; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2012-04-01

    Caloric restriction, a reduction in calorie intake without malnutrition, retards age-related degeneration and extends lifespan in several organisms. CR induces multiple changes, yet its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this work, we first performed a meta-analysis of microarray CR studies in mammals and identified genes and processes robustly altered due to CR. Our results reveal a complex array of CR-induced changes and we re-identified several genes and processes previously associated with CR, such as growth hormone signalling, lipid metabolism and immune response. Moreover, our results highlight novel associations with CR, such as retinol metabolism and copper ion detoxification, as well as hint of a strong effect of CR on circadian rhythms that in turn may contribute to metabolic changes. Analyses of our signatures by integrating co-expression data, information on genetic mutants, and transcription factor binding site analysis revealed candidate regulators of transcriptional modules in CR. Our results hint at a transcriptional module involved in sterol metabolism regulated by Srebf1. A putative regulatory role of Ppara was also identified. Overall, our conserved molecular signatures of CR provide a comprehensive picture of CR-induced changes and help understand its regulatory mechanisms.

  9. Caloric Restriction and the Nutrient-Sensing PGC-1α in Mitochondrial Homeostasis: New Perspectives in Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Lettieri Barbato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial activity progressively declines during ageing and in many neurodegenerative diseases. Caloric restriction (CR has been suggested as a dietary intervention that is able to postpone the detrimental aspects of aging as it ameliorates mitochondrial performance. This effect is partially due to increased mitochondrial biogenesis. The nutrient-sensing PGC-1α is a transcriptional coactivator that promotes the expression of mitochondrial genes and is induced by CR. It is believed that many of the mitochondrial and metabolic benefits of CR are due to increased PGC-1α activity. The increase of PGC-1α is also positively linked to neuroprotection and its decrement has been involved in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases. This paper aims to summarize the current knowledge about the role of PGC-1α in neuronal homeostasis and the beneficial effects of CR on mitochondrial biogenesis and function. We also discuss how PGC-1α-governed pathways could be used as target for nutritional intervention to prevent neurodegeneration.

  10. Caloric restriction protects against electrical kindling of the amygdala by inhibiting the mTOR signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Farfán, Bryan V; Rubio Osornio, María Del Carmen; Custodio Ramírez, Verónica; Paz Tres, Carlos; Carvajal Aguilera, Karla G

    2015-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to possess antiepileptic properties; however its mechanism of action is poorly understood. CR might inhibit the activity of the mammalian or mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling cascade, which seems to participate crucially in the generation of epilepsy. Thus, we investigated the effect of CR on the mTOR pathway and whether CR modified epilepsy generation due to electrical amygdala kindling. The former was studied by analyzing the phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, protein kinase B and the ribosomal protein S6. The mTOR cascade is regulated by energy and by insulin levels, both of which may be changed by CR; thus we investigated if CR altered the levels of energy substrates in the blood or the level of insulin in plasma. Finally, we studied if CR modified the expression of genes that encode proteins participating in the mTOR pathway. CR increased the after-discharge threshold and tended to reduce the after-discharge duration, indicating an anti-convulsive action. CR diminished the phosphorylation of protein kinase B and ribosomal protein S6, suggesting an inhibition of the mTOR cascade. However, CR did not change glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate or insulin levels; thus the effects of CR were independent from them. Interestingly, CR also did not modify the expression of any investigated gene. The results suggest that the anti-epileptic effect of CR may be partly due to inhibition of the mTOR pathway.

  11. Caloric restriction increases internal iliac artery and penil nitric oxide synthase expression in rat: Comparison of aged and adult rats

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    Emin Ozbek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of the positive corelation between healthy cardiovascular system and sexual life we aimed to evaluate the effect of caloric restriction (CR on endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, nNOS expression in cavernousal tissues and eNOS expression in the internal iliac artery in young and aged rats. Young (3 mo, n = 7 and aged (24 mo, n = 7 male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 40% CR and were allowed free access to water for 3 months. Control rats (n = 14 fed ad libitum had free access to food and water at all times. On day 90, rats were sacrified and internal iliac arteries and penis were removed and parafinized, eNOS and nNOS expression evaluated with immunohistochemistry. Results were evaluated semiquantitatively. eNOS and nNOS expression in cavernousal tis- sue in CR rats were more strong than in control group in both young and old rats. eNOS expression was also higher in the internal iliac arteries of CR rats than in control in young and old rats. As a result of our study we can say that there is a positive link between CR and neurotransmitter of erection in cavernousal tissues and internal iliac arteries. CR has beneficial effect to prevent sexual dysfunction in young and old animals and possible humans.

  12. Reversibility of β-Cell-Specific Transcript Factors Expression by Long-Term Caloric Restriction in db/db Mouse

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    Chunjun Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is characterized by β-cell dedifferentiation, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The purpose of the current study was to explore the mechanisms of β-cell dedifferentiation with and without long-term control of calorie intake. We used a diabetes mouse model (db/db to analyze the changes in the expression levels of β-cell-specific transcription factors (TFs and functional factors with long-term caloric restriction (CR. Our results showed that chronic euglycemia was maintained in the db/db mice with long-term CR intervention, and β-cell dedifferentiation was significantly reduced. The expression of Glut2, Pdx1, and Nkx6.1 was reversed, while MafA expression was significantly increased with long-term CR. GLP-1 pathway was reactivated with long-term CR. Our work showed that the course of β-cell dedifferentiation can intervene by long-term control of calorie intake. Key β-cell-specific TFs and functional factors play important roles in maintaining β-cell differentiation. Targeting these factors could optimize T2D therapies.

  13. Reducing Liver Fat by Low Carbohydrate Caloric Restriction Targets Hepatic Glucose Production in Non-Diabetic Obese Adults with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyong Yu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD impairs liver functions, the organ responsible for the regulation of endogenous glucose production and thus plays a key role in glycemic homeostasis. Therefore, interventions designed to normalize liver fat content are needed to improve glucose metabolism in patients affected by NAFLD such as obesity. Objective: this investigation is designed to determine the effects of caloric restriction on hepatic and peripheral glucose metabolism in obese humans with NAFLD. Methods: eight non-diabetic obese adults were restricted for daily energy intake (800 kcal and low carbohydrate (<10% for 8 weeks. Body compositions, liver fat and hepatic glucose production (HGP and peripheral glucose disposal before and after the intervention were determined. Results: the caloric restriction reduced liver fat content by 2/3 (p = 0.004. Abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat, body weight, BMI, waist circumference and fasting plasma triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations all significantly decreased (p < 0.05. The suppression of post-load HGP was improved by 22% (p = 0.002 whereas glucose disposal was not affected (p = 0.3. Fasting glucose remained unchanged and the changes in the 2-hour plasma glucose and insulin concentration were modest and statistically insignificant (p > 0.05. Liver fat is the only independent variable highly correlated to HGP after the removal of confounders. Conclusion: NAFLD impairs HGP but not peripheral glucose disposal; low carbohydrate caloric restriction effectively lowers liver fat which appears to directly correct the HGP impairment.

  14. 限食疗法与体重控制%Caloric restriction and control of body weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国芳; 刘超

    2014-01-01

    控制体重一直是热门话题,减重所带来的血糖、血脂、血压、胰岛素敏感性等多方面的获益,奠定了其在防治肥胖、2型糖尿病等代谢性疾病中的不可撼动的地位.获得减重的途径主要有饮食调整、运动干预、药物治疗或外科手术,本文主要讨论限食减重的问题,包括限食的减重程度,限食后的体重维持,影响减重的因素以及特殊人群的减重问题.%Control of body weight is a hot topic.It is considered as the cornerstone for the management of patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes based on the effect of improving blood glucose,lipid profile,blood pressure,and insulin sensitivity.The strategies for weight loss include diet restriction,exercise,medicine,and bariatric surgery.In the present article the relationship between caloric restriction and weight loss was reviewed,focusing on the hot topics as to what extent weight loss could be achieved,the maintenance of ideal body weight,the risk factor of weight regain,and weight loss in particulas populations like obese children,adolescents,and older adults.

  15. Long-term hyperphagia and caloric restriction caused by low- or high-density husbandry have differential effects on zebrafish postembryonic development, somatic growth, fat accumulation and reproduction.

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    Sandra Leibold

    Full Text Available In recent years, the zebrafish (Danio rerio has emerged as an alternative vertebrate model for energy homeostasis and metabolic diseases, including obesity and anorexia. It has been shown that diet-induced obesity (DIO in zebrafish shares multiple pathophysiological features with obesity in mammals. However, a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the different pathways of energy expenditure in obese and starved fish had been missing thus far. Here, we carry out long-term ad libitum feeding (hyperphagia and caloric restriction studies induced by low- or high-density husbandry, respectively, to investigate the impact of caloric intake on the timing of scale formation, a crucial step of postembryonic development and metamorphosis, and on somatic growth, body weight, fat storage and female reproduction. We show that all of them are positively affected by increased caloric intake, that middle-aged fish develop severe DIO, and that the body mass index (BMI displays a strict linear correlation with whole-body triglyceride levels in adult zebrafish. Interestingly, juvenile fish are largely resistant to DIO, while BMI and triglyceride values drop in aged fish, pointing to aging-associated anorexic effects. Histological analyses further indicate that increased fat storage in white adipose tissue involves both hyperplasia and hypertrophy of adipocytes. Furthermore, in ovaries, caloric intake primarily affects the rate of oocyte growth, rather than total oocyte numbers. Finally, comparing the different pathways of energy expenditure with each other, we demonstrate that they are differentially affected by caloric restriction / high-density husbandry. In juvenile fish, scale formation is prioritized over somatic growth, while in sexually mature adults, female reproduction is prioritized over somatic growth, and somatic growth over fat storage. Our data will serve as a template for future functional studies to dissect the neuroendocrine regulators of

  16. Reducing Liver Fat by Low Carbohydrate Caloric Restriction Targets Hepatic Glucose Production in Non-Diabetic Obese Adults with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Haoyong Yu; Weiping Jia; ZengKui Guo

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) impairs liver functions, the organ responsible for the regulation of endogenous glucose production and thus plays a key role in glycemic homeostasis. Therefore, interventions designed to normalize liver fat content are needed to improve glucose metabolism in patients affected by NAFLD such as obesity. Objective: this investigation is designed to determine the effects of caloric restriction on hepatic and peripheral glucose metabolism in obese humans w...

  17. Prolonged Caloric Restriction in Obese Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Decreases Plasma CETP and Increases Apolipoprotein AI Levels Without Improving the Cholesterol Efflux Properties of HDL

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yanan; Snel, Marieke; Jonker, Jacqueline T; Hammer, Sebastiaan; Lamb, Hildo J.; de Roos, Albert; Meinders, A. Edo; Pijl, Hanno; Romijn, Johannes A.; Johannes W A Smit; Jazet, Ingrid M.; Rensen, Patrick C N

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Using a mouse model for human-like lipoprotein metabolism, we observed previously that reduction of the hepatic triglyceride (TG) content resulted in a decrease in plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and an increase in HDL levels. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of prolonged caloric restriction in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, resulting in a major reduction in hepatic TG content, on plasma CETP and HDL levels. RESEARCH DESIGN ...

  18. Caloric restriction induces energy-sparing alterations in skeletal muscle contraction, fiber composition and local thyroid hormone metabolism that persist during catch-up fat upon refeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Bresciani M. De Andrade

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Weight regain after caloric restriction results in accelerated fat storage in adipose tissue. This catch-up fat phenomenon is postulated to result partly from suppressed skeletal muscle thermogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated whether the reduced rate of skeletal muscle contraction-relaxation cycle that occurs after caloric restriction persists during weight recovery and could contribute to catch-up fat. Using a rat model of semistarvation-refeeding, in which fat recovery is driven by suppressed thermogenesis, we show that contraction and relaxation of leg muscles are slower after both semistarvation and refeeding. These effects are associated with (i higher expression of muscle deiodinase type 3 (DIO3 which inactivates tri-iodothyronine (T3, and lower expression of T3-activating enzyme, deiodinase type 2 (DIO2, (ii slower net formation of T3 from its T4 precursor in muscles, and (iii accumulation of slow fibers at the expense of fast fibers. These semistarvation-induced changes persisted during recovery and correlated with impaired expression of transcription factors involved in slow-twitch muscle development.We conclude that diminished muscle thermogenesis following caloric restriction results from reduced muscle T3 levels, alteration in muscle-specific transcription factors, and fast-to-slow fiber shift causing slower contractility. Energy-sparing effects persist during weight recovery and likely contribute to catch-up fat.

  19. Effects of Intermittent Fasting, Caloric Restriction, and Ramadan Intermittent Fasting on Cognitive Performance at Rest and During Exercise in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Anissa; Roelands, Bart; Meeusen, Romain; Chamari, Karim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to highlight the potent effects of intermittent fasting on the cognitive performance of athletes at rest and during exercise. Exercise interacts with dietary factors and has a positive effect on brain functioning. Furthermore, physical activity and exercise can favorably influence brain plasticity. Mounting evidence indicates that exercise, in combination with diet, affects the management of energy metabolism and synaptic plasticity by affecting molecular mechanisms through brain-derived neurotrophic factor, an essential neurotrophin that acts at the interface of metabolism and plasticity. The literature has also shown that certain aspects of physical performance and mental health, such as coping and decision-making strategies, can be negatively affected by daylight fasting. However, there are several types of intermittent fasting. These include caloric restriction, which is distinct from fasting and allows subjects to drink water ad libitum while consuming a very low-calorie food intake. Another type is Ramadan intermittent fasting, which is a religious practice of Islam, where healthy adult Muslims do not eat or drink during daylight hours for 1 month. Other religious practices in Islam (Sunna) also encourage Muslims to practice intermittent fasting outside the month of Ramadan. Several cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have shown that intermittent fasting has crucial effects on physical and intellectual performance by affecting various aspects of bodily physiology and biochemistry that could be important for athletic success. Moreover, recent findings revealed that immunological variables are also involved in cognitive functioning and that intermittent fasting might impact the relationship between cytokine expression in the brain and cognitive deficits, including memory deficits. PMID:26438184

  20. Caloric restriction alters the metabolic response to a mixed-meal: results from a randomized, controlled trial.

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    Kim M Huffman

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine if caloric restriction (CR would cause changes in plasma metabolic intermediates in response to a mixed meal, suggestive of changes in the capacity to adapt fuel oxidation to fuel availability or metabolic flexibility, and to determine how any such changes relate to insulin sensitivity (S(I. METHODS: Forty-six volunteers were randomized to a weight maintenance diet (Control, 25% CR, or 12.5% CR plus 12.5% energy deficit from structured aerobic exercise (CR+EX, or a liquid calorie diet (890 kcal/d until 15% reduction in body weightfor six months. Fasting and postprandial plasma samples were obtained at baseline, three, and six months. A targeted mass spectrometry-based platform was used to measure concentrations of individual free fatty acids (FFA, amino acids (AA, and acylcarnitines (AC. S(I was measured with an intravenous glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: Over three and six months, there were significantly larger differences in fasting-to-postprandial (FPP concentrations of medium and long chain AC (byproducts of FA oxidation in the CR relative to Control and a tendency for the same in CR+EX (CR-3 month P = 0.02; CR-6 month P = 0.002; CR+EX-3 month P = 0.09; CR+EX-6 month P = 0.08. After three months of CR, there was a trend towards a larger difference in FPP FFA concentrations (P = 0.07; CR-3 month P = 0.08. Time-varying differences in FPP concentrations of AC and AA were independently related to time-varying S(I (P<0.05 for both. CONCLUSIONS: Based on changes in intermediates of FA oxidation following a food challenge, CR imparted improvements in metabolic flexibility that correlated with improvements in S(I. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00099151.

  1. The effect of aging and caloric restriction on murine CD8+ T cell chemokine receptor gene expression

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    Mo RuRan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanism explaining the increased disease susceptibility in aging is not well understood. CD8+ T cells are crucial in anti-viral and anti-tumor responses. Although the chemokine system plays a critical role in CD8+ T cell function, very little is known about the relationship between aging and the T cell chemokine system. Results In this study we have examined the effect of aging on murine CD8+ T cell chemokine receptor gene expression. Freshly isolated splenic CD8+ T cells from old C57BL/6 mice were found to have higher CCR1, CCR2, CCR4, CCR5 and CXCR5, and lower CCR7 gene expression compared to their younger cohort. Anti-CD3/anti-CD28 stimulation elicited a similar robust chemokine receptor response from young and old CD8+ T cells. Western blot analyses confirmed elevated protein level of CCR4 and CCR5 in aged CD8+ T cells. Increases in T cell CCR1 and CCR5 expression also correlate to increased in vitro chemotaxis response to macrophage-inflammatory protein-1 α(MIP-1α. Finally, caloric restriction selectively prevents the loss of CD8+ T cell CCR7 gene expression in aging to the level that is seen in young CD8+ T cells. Conclusion These findings are consistent with the notion that aging exists in a state of low grade pro-inflammatory environment. In addition, our results provide a potential mechanism for the reported aging-associated impaired T cell lymphoid homing and allograft response, and reduced survival in sepsis.

  2. Caloric restriction protects against electrical kindling of the amygdala by inhibiting the mTOR signaling pathway

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    Bryan Victor Phillips-Farfan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction (CR has been shown to possess antiepileptic properties; however its mechanism of action is poorly understood. CR might inhibit the activity of the mammalian or mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling cascade, which seems to participate crucially in the generation of epilepsy. Thus, we investigated the effect of CR on the mTOR pathway and whether CR modified epilepsy generation due to electrical amygdala kindling. The former was studied by analyzing the phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, protein kinase B and the ribosomal protein S6. The mTOR cascade is regulated by energy and by insulin levels, both of which may be changed by CR; thus we investigated if CR altered the levels of energy substrates in the blood or the level of insulin in plasma. Finally, we studied if CR modified the expression of genes that encode proteins participating in the mTOR pathway. CR increased the after-discharge threshold and tended to reduce the after-discharge duration, indicating an anti-convulsive action. CR diminished the phosphorylation of protein kinase B and ribosomal protein S6, suggesting an inhibition of the mTOR cascade. However, CR did not change glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate or insulin levels; thus the effects of CR were independent from them. Interestingly, CR also did not modify the expression of any investigated gene. The results suggest that the anti-epileptic effect of CR may be partly due to inhibition of the mTOR pathway.

  3. Sexual dimorphism in the lasting effects of moderate caloric restriction during gestation on energy homeostasis in rats is related with fetal programming of insulin and leptin resistance

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    Palou Mariona

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim We aimed to characterize the lasting effect of moderate caloric restriction during early pregnancy on offspring energy homeostasis, by focusing on the effects on food intake and body weight as well as on the insulin and leptin systems. Methods Male and female offspring of 20% caloric restricted dams (from 1 to 12 days of pregnancy (CR and from control dams were studied. These animals were fed after weaning with a normal-fat (NF diet until the age of 4 months, and then moved to a high-fat (HF diet. Blood parameters were measured under fed and 14-h fasting conditions at different ages (2, 4 and 5 months. Food preferences were also assessed in adult animals. Results Accumulated caloric intake from weaning to the age of 5 months was higher in CR animals compared with their controls, and this resulted in higher body weight in adulthood in males, but not in females. Both male and female CR animals already showed higher insulin levels at the age of 2 months, under fed conditions, and higher HOMA-IR from the age of 4 months, compared with their controls. CR male animals, but not females, displayed higher preference for fat-rich food than their controls in adulthood and higher circulating leptin levels when they were under HF diet. Conclusion It is suggested that hyperinsulinemia may play a role in the etiology of hyperphagia in the offspring of caloric restricted animals during gestation, with different outcomes on body weight depending on the gender, which could be associated with different programming effects on later leptin resistance.

  4. Toxicokinetics of chloral hydrate in ad libitum-fed, dietary-controlled, and calorically restricted male B6C3F1 mice following short-term exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chloral hydrate is widely used as a sedative in pediatric medicine and is a by-product of water chlorination and a metabolic intermediate in the biotransformation of trichloroethylene. Chloral hydrate and its major metabolite, trichloroacetic acid, induce liver tumors in B6C3F1 mice, a strain that can exhibit high rates of background liver tumor incidence, which is associated with increased body weight. This report describes the influence of diet and body weight on the acute toxicity, hepatic enzyme response, and toxickinetics of chloral hydrate as part of a larger study investigating the carcinogenicity of chloral hydrate in ad libitum-fed and dietary controlled mice. Dietary control involves moderate food restriction to maintain the test animals at an idealized body weight. Mice were dosed with chloral hydrate at 0, 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg daily, 5 days/week, by aqueous gavage for 2 weekly dosing cycles. Three diet groups were used: ad libitum, dietary control, and 40% caloric restriction. Both dietary control and caloric restriction slightly reduced acute toxicity of high doses of chloral hydrate and potentiated the induction of hepatic enzymes associated with peroxisome proliferation. Chloral hydrate toxicokinetics were investigated using blood samples obtained by sequential tail clipping and a microscale gas chromatography technique. It was rapidly cleared from serum within 3 h of dosing. Trichloroacetate was the major metabolite in serum in all three diet groups. Although the area under the curve values for serum trichloroacetate were slightly greater in the dietary controlled and calorically restricted groups than in the ad libitum-fed groups, this increase did not appear to completely account for the potentiation of hepatic enzyme induction by dietary restriction

  5. Influence of caloric restriction on constitutive expression of NF-κB in an experimental mouse astrocytoma.

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    Tiernan J Mulrooney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many of the current standard therapies employed for the management of primary malignant brain cancers are largely viewed as palliative, ultimately because these conventional strategies have been shown, in many instances, to decrease patient quality of life while only offering a modest increase in the length of survival. We propose that caloric restriction (CR is an alternative metabolic therapy for brain cancer management that will not only improve survival but also reduce the morbidity associated with disease. Although we have shown that CR manages tumor growth and improves survival through multiple molecular and biochemical mechanisms, little information is known about the role that CR plays in modulating inflammation in brain tumor tissue. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Phosphorylation and activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB results in the transactivation of many genes including those encoding cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2 and allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1, both of which are proteins that are primarily expressed by inflammatory and malignant cancer cells. COX-2 has been shown to enhance inflammation and promote tumor cell survival in both in vitro and in vivo studies. In the current report, we demonstrate that the p65 subunit of NF-κB was expressed constitutively in the CT-2A tumor compared with contra-lateral normal brain tissue, and we also show that CR reduces (i the phosphorylation and degree of transcriptional activation of the NF-κB-dependent genes COX-2 and AIF-1 in tumor tissue, as well as (ii the expression of proinflammatory markers lying downstream of NF-κB in the CT-2A malignant mouse astrocytoma, [e.g. macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2]. On the whole, our date indicate that the NF-κB inflammatory pathway is constitutively activated in the CT-2A astrocytoma and that CR targets this pathway and inflammation. CONCLUSION: CR could be effective in reducing malignant brain tumor growth in part by

  6. Short-term caloric restriction normalizes hypothalamic neuronal responsiveness to glucose ingestion in patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeuwisse, W.M.; Widya, R.L.; Paulides, M.; Lamb, H.J.; Smit, J.W.A.; Roos, A. de; Buchem, M.A. van; Pijl, H.; Grond, J. van der

    2012-01-01

    The hypothalamus is critically involved in the regulation of feeding. Previous studies have shown that glucose ingestion inhibits hypothalamic neuronal activity. However, this was not observed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Restoring energy balance by reducing caloric intake and losing weight are

  7. Glucocorticoid antagonism limits adiposity rebound and glucose intolerance in young male rats following the cessation of daily exercise and caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Trevor; Dunford, Emily C; Porras, Deanna P; Pivovarov, Jacklyn A; Beaudry, Jacqueline L; Hunt, Hazel; Belanoff, Joseph K; Riddell, Michael C

    2016-07-01

    Severe caloric restriction (CR), in a setting of regular physical exercise, may be a stress that sets the stage for adiposity rebound and insulin resistance when the food restriction and exercise stop. In this study, we examined the effect of mifepristone, a glucocorticoid (GC) receptor antagonist, on limiting adipose tissue mass gain and preserving whole body insulin sensitivity following the cessation of daily running and CR. We calorically restricted male Sprague-Dawley rats and provided access to voluntary running wheels for 3 wk followed by locking of the wheels and reintroduction to ad libitum feeding with or without mifepristone (80 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 1 wk. Cessation of daily running and CR increased HOMA-IR and visceral adipose mass as well as glucose and insulin area under the curve during an oral glucose tolerance test vs. pre-wheel lock exercised rats and sedentary rats (all P exercise and CR there are GC-induced mechanisms that promote adipose tissue mass gain and impaired metabolic control in healthy organisms and that this phenomenon can be inhibited by the GC receptor antagonist mifepristone. PMID:27143556

  8. Prevention of Neuromusculoskeletal Frailty in Slow-Aging Ames Dwarf Mice: Longitudinal Investigation of Interaction of Longevity Genes and Caloric Restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Arum, Oge; Rasche, Zachary Andrew; Rickman, Dustin John; Bartke, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Ames dwarf (Prop1 df/df ) mice are remarkably long-lived and exhibit many characteristics of delayed aging and extended healthspan. Caloric restriction (CR) has similar effects on healthspan and lifespan, and causes an extension of longevity in Ames dwarf mice. Our study objective was to determine whether Ames dwarfism or CR influence neuromusculoskeletal function in middle-aged (82 ± 12 weeks old) or old (128 ± 14 w.o.) mice. At the examined ages, strength was improved by dwarfism, CR, and d...

  9. Effects of caloric restriction on O-GlcNAcylation, Ca(2+) signaling, and learning impairment in the hippocampus of ob/ob mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Byeong Tak; Heo, Rok Won; Jeong, Eun Ae; Yi, Chin-Ok; Lee, Jong Youl; Kim, Kyung Eun; Kim, Hwajin; Roh, Gu Seob

    2016-08-01

    Diabetes may adversely affect cognitive function and, conversely, caloric restriction (CR) increases longevity and improves memory. To shed light on the unknown underlying mechanisms involved in these observations, we examined the effects of CR on serum metabolic parameters and hippocampal protein expression in the ob/ob mice model of obesity-induced diabetes. We found that CR reduced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in ob/ob mice. In addition, CR increased the levels of hippocampal O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) and GlcNAc transferase and decreased the expression of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, lipocalin-2, and phosphorylated tau. Furthermore, CR lessened the learning deficits that are typically seen in ob/ob mice. These findings indicate that CR may reverse obesity-related brain glucose impairment and intracellular Ca(2+) dysfunction and relieve learning impairment associated with diabetes. PMID:27318140

  10. Immune potentiation after fractionated exposure to very low doses of ionizing radiation and/or caloric restriction in autoimmune-prone and normal C57Bl/6 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very low doses of ionizing radiation can enhance immune responsiveness and extend life span in normal mice. Total lymphoid irradiation at relatively high doses of radiation can retard autoimmune disease in genetically susceptible mice, but may impair immune function. In order to determine whether fractionated low dose exposure would enhance immune response and retard lymphadenopathy in autoimmune-prone mice, groups of C57B1/6 lpr/lpr mice were sham irradiated, exposed 5 days/week for 4 weeks to 0.04 Gy/day, or to 0.1 Gy/day. After the radiation protocol, the mice were evaluated for splenic T cell proliferative capacity, T cell subset distribution, and total spleen cell numbers. The independent and additive effect of caloric restriction was additionally assessed since this intervention has been shown to increase immune responsiveness and retard disease progression in autoimmune-prone mice. The congenic C57B1/6 +/+ immunologically normal strain was evaluated in parallel as congenic control. The results indicated that mitogen-stimulated proliferation was up-regulated in both strains of mice after exposure to 0.04 Gy/day. The proliferative capacity was additively enhanced when radiation at this dose level was combined with caloric restriction. Exposure to 0.1 Gy/day resulted in further augmentation of proliferative response in the lpr/lpr mice, but was depressive in the +/+ mice. Although the proportions of the various T cell subpopulations were altered in both strains after exposure to LDR, the specific subset alterations were different within each strain. Additional experiments were subsequently performed to assess whether the thymus is required for LDR-induced immune potentiation. Thymectomy completely abrogated the LDR effect in the +/+ mice, suggesting that thymic processing and/or trafficking is adaptively altered with LDR in this strain

  11. Management of multifactorial idiopathic epilepsy in EL mice with caloric restriction and the ketogenic diet: role of glucose and ketone bodies

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    Mantis John G

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high fat, low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD was developed as an alternative to fasting for seizure management. While the mechanisms by which fasting and the KD inhibit seizures remain speculative, alterations in brain energy metabolism are likely involved. We previously showed that caloric restriction (CR inhibits seizure susceptibility by reducing blood glucose in the epileptic EL mouse, a natural model for human multifactorial idiopathic epilepsy. In this study, we compared the antiepileptic and anticonvulsant efficacy of the KD with that of CR in adult EL mice with active epilepsy. EL mice that experienced at least 15 recurrent complex partial seizures were fed either a standard diet unrestricted (SD-UR or restricted (SD-R, and either a KD unrestricted (KD-UR or restricted (KD-R. All mice were fasted for 14 hrs prior to diet initiation. A new experimental design was used where each mouse in the diet-restricted groups served as its own control to achieve a 20–23% body weight reduction. Seizure susceptibility, body weights, and the levels of plasma glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate were measured once/week over a nine-week treatment period. Results Body weights and blood glucose levels remained high over the testing period in the SD-UR and the KD-UR groups, but were significantly (p Conclusions The results indicate that seizure susceptibility in EL mice is dependent on plasma glucose levels and that seizure control is more associated with the amount than with the origin of dietary calories. Also, CR underlies the antiepileptic and anticonvulsant action of the KD in EL mice. A transition from glucose to ketone bodies for energy is predicted to manage EL epileptic seizures through multiple integrated changes of inhibitory and excitatory neural systems.

  12. T cell potentiation in normal and autoimmune-prone mice after extended exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation and/or caloric restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to better understand the apparent physiologic up-regulation in response to low levels of potentially lethal insults, murine T lymphocytes were analysed for functional and phenotypic alterations after exposure to 0.005 Gy/day, 0.01 Gy/day and 0.04 Gy/day in groups of ad-libitum-fed and calorie-restricted mice. Studies were conducted in two strains of mice: long-lived and immunologically normal C57B1/6 +/+ and congenic short-lived immunologically depressed C57B1/6 1pr/1pr. Whole-body exposure to 0.01 Gy/day and 0.04 Gy/day for an extended period of 20 days was associated with an increase in splenic proliferative response and shifts in proportions of T cell subpopulations in the thymus and spleen of both strains. Caloric restriction independently altered functional activity and T cell subpopulations in the same direction as low dose rates of ionizing radiation. Although dose-response augmentation in proliferative activity was similar in the strains, observed alterations in thymic and splenic T cell subpopulations were clearly different, suggesting different mechanisms were responsible for immune enhancement in each strain. (author)

  13. How much should we weigh for a long and healthy life span?The need to reconcile caloric restriction versus longevity with body mass index versus mortality data.

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    Antonello eLorenzini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Total caloric restriction (CR without malnutrition is a well-established experimental approach to extend life span in laboratory animals. Although CR in humans is capable of shifting several endocrinological parameters it is not clear where the minimum inflection point of the U shaped curve linking body mass index (BMI with all-cause mortality lies. The exact trend of this curve, when used for planning preventive strategies for public health is of extreme importance. Normal BMI ranges from 18.5 to 24.9; many epidemiological studies show an inverse relationship between mortality and BMI inside the normal BMI range. Other studies show that the lowest mortality in the entire range of BMI is obtained in the overweight range (25 to 29.9. Reconciling the extension of life span in laboratory animals by experimental CR with the BMI-mortality curve of human epidemiology is not trivial. In fact, one interpretation is that the CR data are identifying a known: excess fat is deleterious for health; although a second interpretation may be that: additional leanness from a normal body weight may add health and life span delaying the process of aging. This short review hope to start a discussion aimed at finding the widest consensus on which weight range should be consider the healthiest for our species, contributing in this way to the picture of what is the correct life style for a long and healthy life span.

  14. Prevention of neuromusculoskeletal frailty in slow-aging ames dwarf mice: longitudinal investigation of interaction of longevity genes and caloric restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oge Arum

    Full Text Available Ames dwarf (Prop1 (df/df mice are remarkably long-lived and exhibit many characteristics of delayed aging and extended healthspan. Caloric restriction (CR has similar effects on healthspan and lifespan, and causes an extension of longevity in Ames dwarf mice. Our study objective was to determine whether Ames dwarfism or CR influence neuromusculoskeletal function in middle-aged (82 ± 12 weeks old or old (128 ± 14 w.o. mice. At the examined ages, strength was improved by dwarfism, CR, and dwarfism plus CR in male mice; balance/ motor coordination was improved by CR in old animals and in middle-aged females; and agility/ motor coordination was improved by a combination of dwarfism and CR in both genders of middle-aged mice and in old females. Therefore, extension of longevity by congenital hypopituitarism is associated with improved maintenance of the examined measures of strength, agility, and motor coordination, key elements of frailty during human aging, into advanced age. This study serves as a particularly important example of knowledge related to addressing aging-associated diseases and disorders that results from studies in long-lived mammals.

  15. Lactobacillus fermentum CRL1446 Ameliorates Oxidative and Metabolic Parameters by Increasing Intestinal Feruloyl Esterase Activity and Modulating Microbiota in Caloric-Restricted Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Matias; Fabersani, Emanuel; Abeijón-Mukdsi, María C.; Ross, Romina; Fontana, Cecilia; Benítez-Páez, Alfonso; Gauffin-Cano, Paola; Medina, Roxana B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the administration of the feruloyl esterase (FE)-producing strain Lactobacillus fermentum CRL1446 enhances metabolic and oxidative parameters in caloric-restricted (CR) mice. Balb/c male mice were divided into ad libitum fed Group (ALF Group), CR diet Group (CR Group) and CR diet plus L. fermentum Group (CR-Lf Group). CR diet was administered during 45 days and CRL1446 strain was given in the dose of 108 cells/mL/day/mouse. FE activity was determined in intestinal mucosa and content at Day 1, 20 and 45. Triglyceride, total cholesterol, glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels and glutathione reductase activity were determined in plasma. Gut microbiota was evaluated by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. At Day 45, total intestinal FE activity in CR-Lf Group was higher (p = 0.020) than in CR and ALF groups and an improvement in both metabolic (reductions in triglyceride (p = 0.0025), total cholesterol (p = 0.005) and glucose (p < 0.0001) levels) and oxidative (decrease of TBARS levels and increase of plasmatic glutathione reductase activity (p = 0.006)) parameters was observed, compared to ALF Group. CR diet increased abundance of Bacteroidetes and CRL1446 administration increased abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus genus. L. fermentun CRL1446 exerted a bifidogenic effect under CR conditions. PMID:27399766

  16. Lactobacillus fermentum CRL1446 Ameliorates Oxidative and Metabolic Parameters by Increasing Intestinal Feruloyl Esterase Activity and Modulating Microbiota in Caloric-Restricted Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Matias; Fabersani, Emanuel; Abeijón-Mukdsi, María C; Ross, Romina; Fontana, Cecilia; Benítez-Páez, Alfonso; Gauffin-Cano, Paola; Medina, Roxana B

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the administration of the feruloyl esterase (FE)-producing strain Lactobacillus fermentum CRL1446 enhances metabolic and oxidative parameters in caloric-restricted (CR) mice. Balb/c male mice were divided into ad libitum fed Group (ALF Group), CR diet Group (CR Group) and CR diet plus L. fermentum Group (CR-Lf Group). CR diet was administered during 45 days and CRL1446 strain was given in the dose of 10⁸ cells/mL/day/mouse. FE activity was determined in intestinal mucosa and content at Day 1, 20 and 45. Triglyceride, total cholesterol, glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels and glutathione reductase activity were determined in plasma. Gut microbiota was evaluated by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. At Day 45, total intestinal FE activity in CR-Lf Group was higher (p = 0.020) than in CR and ALF groups and an improvement in both metabolic (reductions in triglyceride (p = 0.0025), total cholesterol (p = 0.005) and glucose (p < 0.0001) levels) and oxidative (decrease of TBARS levels and increase of plasmatic glutathione reductase activity (p = 0.006)) parameters was observed, compared to ALF Group. CR diet increased abundance of Bacteroidetes and CRL1446 administration increased abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus genus. L. fermentun CRL1446 exerted a bifidogenic effect under CR conditions. PMID:27399766

  17. Green tea supplementation benefits body composition and improves bone properties in obese female rats fed with high-fat diet and caloric restricted diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Han, Jia; Wang, Shu; Chung, Eunhee; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Cao, Jay J

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) supplementation on body composition, bone properties, and serum markers in obese rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a caloric restricted diet (CRD). Forty-eight female rats were fed an HFD ad libitum for 4 months, and then either continued on the HFD or the CRD with or without 0.5% GTP in water. Body composition, bone efficacy, and serum markers were measured. We hypothesized that GTP supplementation would improve body composition, mitigate bone loss, and restore bone microstructure in obese animals fed either HFD or CRD. CRD lowered percent fat mass; bone mass and trabecular number of tibia, femur and lumbar vertebrae; femoral strength; trabecular and cortical thickness of tibia; insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. CRD also increased percent fat-free mass; trabecular separation of tibia and femur; eroded surface of tibia; bone formation rate and erosion rate at tibia shaft; and adiponectin. GTP supplementation increased femoral mass and strength (P = .026), trabecular thickness (P = .012) and number (P = .019), and cortical thickness of tibia (P obese rats fed with HFD or HFD followed by CRD diet. PMID:26525915

  18. Differential Development of Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Different Adipose Tissue Depots Along Aging in Wistar Rats: Effects of Caloric Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra Rojas, Johanna X; García-San Frutos, Miriam; Horrillo, Daniel; Lauzurica, Nuria; Oliveros, Eva; Carrascosa, Jose María; Fernández-Agulló, Teresa; Ros, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes increases with aging and these disorders are associated with inflammation. Insulin resistance and inflammation do not develop at the same time in all tissues. Adipose tissue is one of the tissues where inflammation and insulin resistance are established earlier during aging. Nevertheless, the existence of different fat depots states the possibility of differential roles for these depots in the development of age-associated inflammation and insulin resistance. To explore this, we analyzed insulin signaling and inflammation in epididymal, perirenal, subcutaneous, and brown adipose tissues during aging in Wistar rats. Although all tissues showed signs of inflammation and insulin resistance with aging, epididymal fat was the first to develop signs of inflammation and insulin resistance along aging among white fat tissues. Subcutaneous adipose tissue presented the lowest degree of inflammation and insulin resistance that developed latter with age. Brown adipose tissue also presented latter insulin resistance and inflammation but with lower signs of macrophage infiltration. Caloric restriction ameliorated insulin resistance and inflammation in all tissues, being more effective in subcutaneous and brown adipose tissues. These data demonstrate differential susceptibility of the different adipose depots to the development of age-associated insulin resistance and inflammation.

  19. 热量限制在卵巢功能保护中的作用及其机制%Protective effects of caloric restriction on ovarian function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石良艳; 罗爱月; 田勇; 赖志文; 张金金; 王世宣

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the protective effects on ovarian function by caloric restriction (CR) and its mechanism.Methods Thirty female C57BL/6 mice of 8 weeks old were randomly divided into two groups,including ad libitum (AL) group and caloric restriction (CR) group.The general situation and ovarian function of those mice were compared and evaluated.Ovarian follicles were counted by hematoxylin-eosin staining.Anti-Miillerian Hormone(AMH) mRNA expression of the ovary were detected by using real-time PCR.The concentrations of serum estradiol,progesterone of the mice were measured by ELISA.And the fertility of mice by mating trials were evaluated,SIRT3,Hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and catalase (CAT) mRNA expression of the mice ovaries were detected by Real-Time PCR.Results The total follicles were 546 in CR mice and 286 in AL mice.The proportion of primordial follicles were 38.6% (211/546)in ovaries of CR mice and 29.4% (84/286)in ovaries of AL mice,which reached statistical difference.The proportion of atretic follicles 5.3% (29/546) in ovaries of CR mice,compared with 16.8% (48/286) in AL mice,was significantly decreased (P < 0.05).The AMH mRNA expression in CR mice ovaries was 3.37 times of that of AL mice (P < 0.05).The serum concentration of estradiol in CR mice was up to (5.3 ± 1.6) pmol/L,which was much higher than (3.6 ± 1.6) pmol/L in AL mice.While,the progesterone concentration of (0.4 ±0.3) nmol/L in CR mice was lower than (1.4 ± 0.8) nmol/L in AL mice (P < 0.05).Fertility and survival of offsprings were both improved in CR mice.The expression level of SIRT3 mRNA in CR mice ovary was 1.39 times,CAT was 1.55 times and HIF-1 α was 0.31 times of those in AL mice (P < 0.05).Conclusions Caloric restriction can delay the ovary aging process through reduce follicle depletion by suppressing follicle recruitment and ovulation.The function of ovarian reserve and reproductive endocrine was effectively protected.Caloric restriction can reduce

  20. Protein-Pacing Caloric-Restriction Enhances Body Composition Similarly in Obese Men and Women during Weight Loss and Sustains Efficacy during Long-Term Weight Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciero, Paul J; Edmonds, Rohan; He, Feng; Ward, Emery; Gumpricht, Eric; Mohr, Alex; Ormsbee, Michael J; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Short-Term protein-pacing (P; ~6 meals/day, >30% protein/day) and caloric restriction (CR, ~25% energy deficit) improves total (TBF), abdominal (ABF) and visceral (VAT) fat loss, energy expenditure, and biomarkers compared to heart healthy (HH) recommendations (3 meals/day, 15% protein/day) in obese adults. Less is known whether obese men and women respond similarly to P-CR during weight loss (WL) and whether a modified P-CR (mP-CR) is more efficacious than a HH diet during long-term (52 week) weight maintenance (WM). The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of: (1) P-CR on TBF, ABF, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and biomarkers between obese men and women during WL (weeks 0-12); and (2) mP-CR compared to a HH diet during WM (weeks 13-64). During WL, men (n = 21) and women (n = 19) were assessed for TBF, ABF, VAT, RMR, and biomarkers at weeks 0 (pre) and 12 (post). Men and women had similar reductions (p 50%) and increase in % lean body mass (9%). RMR (kcals/kg bodyweight) was unchanged and respiratory quotient decreased 9%. Twenty-four subjects (mP-CR, n = 10; HH, n = 14) completed WM. mP-CR regained significantly less body weight (6%), TBF (12%), and ABF (17%) compared to HH (p < 0.05). Our results demonstrate P-CR enhances weight loss, body composition and biomarkers, and maintains these changes for 52-weeks compared to a traditional HH diet. PMID:27483317

  1. Caloric restriction-associated remodeling of rat white adipose tissue: effects on the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1, and macrophage infiltration

    OpenAIRE

    Chujo, Yoshikazu; Fujii, Namiki; Okita, Naoyuki; Konishi, Tomokazu; Narita, Takumi; Yamada, Atsushi; Haruyama, Yushi; Tashiro, Kosuke; Chiba, Takuya; Shimokawa, Isao; Higami, Yoshikazu

    2012-01-01

    The role of the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis in the lifelong caloric restriction (CR)-associated remodeling of white adipose tissue (WAT), adipocyte size, and gene expression profiles was explored in this study. We analyzed the WAT morphology of 6–7-month-old wild-type Wistar rats fed ad libitum (WdAL) or subjected to CR (WdCR), and of heterozygous transgenic dwarf rats bearing an anti-sense GH transgene fed ad libitum (TgAL) or subjected to CR (TgCR). Although ...

  2. Interaction of growth hormone receptor/binding protein gene disruption and caloric restriction for insulin sensitivity and attenuated aging [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5a7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oge Arum

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The correlation of physiological sensitivity to insulin (vis-à-vis glycemic regulation and longevity is extensively established, creating a justifiable gerontological interest on whether insulin sensitivity is causative, or even predictive, of some or all phenotypes of slowed senescence (including longevity. The growth hormone receptor/ binding protein gene-disrupted (GHR-KO mouse is the most extensively investigated insulin-sensitive, attenuated aging model. It was reported that, in a manner divergent from similar mutants, GHR-KO mice fail to respond to caloric restriction (CR by altering their insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that maximized insulin responsiveness is what causes GHR-KO mice to exhibit a suppressed survivorship response to dietary (including caloric restriction; and attempted to refute this hypothesis by assessing the effects of CR on GHR-KO mice for varied slow-aging-associated phenotypes. In contrast to previous reports, we found GHR-KO mice on CR to be less responsive than their ad libitum (A.L. counterparts to the hypoglycemia-inducing effects of insulin. Further, CR had negligible effects on the metabolism or cognition of GHR-KO mice. Therefore, our data suggest that the effects of CR on the insulin sensitivity of GHR-KO mice do not concur with the effects of CR on the aging of GHR-KO mice.

  3. Interaction of growth hormone receptor/binding protein gene disruption and caloric restriction for insulin sensitivity and attenuated aging [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4fk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oge Arum

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The correlation of physiological sensitivity to insulin (vis-à-vis glycemic regulation and longevity is extensively established, creating a justifiable gerontological interest on whether insulin sensitivity is causative, or even predictive, of some or all phenotypes of slowed senescence (including longevity. The growth hormone receptor/ binding protein gene-disrupted (GHR-KO mouse is the most extensively investigated insulin-sensitive, attenuated aging model. It was reported that, in a manner divergent from similar mutants, GHR-KO mice fail to respond to caloric restriction (CR by altering their insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that maximized insulin responsiveness is what causes GHR-KO mice to exhibit a suppressed survivorship response to dietary (including caloric restriction; and attempted to refute this hypothesis by assessing the effects of CR on GHR-KO mice for varied slow-aging-associated phenotypes. In contrast to previous reports, we found GHR-KO mice on CR to be less responsive than their ad libitum (A.L. counterparts to the hypoglycemia-inducing effects of insulin. Further, CR had negligible effects on the metabolism or cognition of GHR-KO mice. Therefore, our data suggest that the effects of CR on the insulin sensitivity of GHR-KO mice do not concur with the effects of CR on the aging of GHR-KO mice.

  4. A weekly alternating diet between caloric restriction and medium-fat protects the liver from fatty liver development in middle-aged C57BL/6J mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusli, F.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Zubia, A.A.; Lute, C.; Müller, M.R.; Steegenga, W.T.

    2015-01-01

    Scope : We aimed to investigate whether a novel dietary intervention consisting of an every-other-week calorie restricted diet could prevent non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development induced by a medium-fat diet. Methods and results : Nine week-old male C57BL/6J mice received either a 1)

  5. Combination of recreational soccer and caloric restricted diet reduces markers of protein catabolism and cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Sousa, M Vieira; Fukui, R; Krustrup, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    D) patients. Objective: We compared the effects of acute and chronic soccer training plus calorie-restricted diet on protein catabolism and cardiovascular risk markers in T2D. Design, setting and subjects: Fifty-one T2D patients (61.1±6.4 years, 29 females: 22 males) were randomly allocated...... levels were suggestive of lower muscle protein catabolism. Conclusions: Recreational soccer training was popular and safe, and was associated with decreased plasma glucose and IGFBP-3 levels, decreased ammoniagenesis, and increased lipolytic activity and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio, all indicative of attenuated...... catabolism....

  6. Effects of caloric restriction therapy on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease%限食疗法对非酒精性脂肪性肝病的治疗作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春睿; 陈国芳; 刘超; 蔡可英

    2013-01-01

    作为一种代谢性疾病,非酒精性脂肪性肝病的治疗主要是生活方式干预.限食疗法作为生活方式干预的一种,已被证实可减轻患者的体重、减少肝脏内脂肪含量、减轻胰岛素抵抗,改善其他代谢异常.而且,有研究认为,不同方式的限食对该病的治疗效果存在差异,低脂及低碳水化合物限食对其治疗效果优于低热量限食,这值得进一步研究探索.%As a type of metabolic disease,the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)mainly depends on lifestyle intervention.Caloric restriction therapy (CR) is one kind of lifestyle intervention,which is reported to be effective to reduce the patients'weight,decrease intrahepatic triglyceride,alleviate insulin resistance,and improve other metabolic disorders.Moreover,some researches have shown the different effect on NAFLD among different CR.Low-fat diet and low-carbohydrate diet have shown better effect than low-calorie diet,but it needs more studies.

  7. Relationship of adipokine to insulin sensitivity and glycemic regulation in obese women: The effect of body weight reduction by caloric restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velojić-Golubović Milena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Visceral fat is highly active metabolic and endocrine tissue which secretes many adipokines that act both on local and systemic level. It is believed that adipokines and "low-grade inflammatory state" represent a potential link between obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Leptin and adiponectin are considered to be the most important adipokines with the potential metabolic and cardiovascular effects. Body weight loss improves insulin sensitivity and decreases risk for most complications associated with obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of moderate loss of body weight on the level of leptin and adiponectin, insulin sensitivity and abnormalities of glycoregulation in obese women, to determine whether and to what extent the secretory products of adipose tissue, leptin and adiponectin contribute to insulin sensitivity, as well as to assess their relationship and influence on glycemia and insulinemia during the period of losing body weight using a calorie restricted diet. Methods. The study involved 90 obese female subjects (BMI

  8. The curve shortening problem

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Kai-Seng

    2001-01-01

    Although research in curve shortening flow has been very active for nearly 20 years, the results of those efforts have remained scattered throughout the literature. For the first time, The Curve Shortening Problem collects and illuminates those results in a comprehensive, rigorous, and self-contained account of the fundamental results.The authors present a complete treatment of the Gage-Hamilton theorem, a clear, detailed exposition of Grayson''s convexity theorem, a systematic discussion of invariant solutions, applications to the existence of simple closed geodesics on a surface, and a new, almost convexity theorem for the generalized curve shortening problem.Many questions regarding curve shortening remain outstanding. With its careful exposition and complete guide to the literature, The Curve Shortening Problem provides not only an outstanding starting point for graduate students and new investigations, but a superb reference that presents intriguing new results for those already active in the field.

  9. The Comparative Study of Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Oxidation and Antioxidant Levels in Aged Rats by Endurance Training and Caloric Restriction%耐力训练及限食对老龄大鼠骨骼肌线粒体氧化及抗氧化水平影响的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾正中; 文立; 郝俊琴; 吴志义; 张勇

    2014-01-01

    Objective:We observed in aged rats with long -term endurance training and caloric restriction on skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidation and antioxidant levels , and compare their individual and synergy effect , to provide certain theoretical basis for the theory “mitochondrial aging”.Methods:32 adult male 17month old SD rats were divided into 4 equal groups:control, caloric-restricted, exercise, exercise and caloric-restricted.Ex-ercise and caloric-restricted groups were trained for 12 months by running on a treadmill (64%VO2max;15 m/min, 60 min/day;5 days/week), while caloric-restricted group were maintained on 60%caloric intake of nor-mal caloric intake for 12 months.Measuring mitochondrial oxidative damage and antioxidant levels in rat skeletal muscle after the last training of 12 weeks.Results:the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in decreased significant-ly (P<0.05), Manganese superoxide dismutase (manganese -containing superoxide dismutase , MnSOD) ac-tivity increased significantly(P<0.05) and glutathione peroxidase (glutathion peroxidase, gsh-px) activity in-creased significantly(P<0.05) in CR group,E and CR +E group skeletal muscle mitochondria.The hydrogen peroxide enzyme (catalase, CAT) activity increased significantly (P<0.05) in E and CR +E group skeletal muscle mitochondria .Conclusions:On the one hand, endurance training improves the body ’ s antioxidant ability , on the other hand , endurance training saves cell function and declines oxygen consumption relatively and reduces the production of free radicals .CR weakens the oxidative stress and reduces the production of free radicals and prevents the lipid peroxidation .while CR mobilizes a series of adaptive network defense mechanism and increases antioxidant levels and strengthens the defense .Endurance exercise is significant stronger than the effect of caloric restriction on the antioxidant ability .The synergy of endurance training and CR is stronger than the effect of their individual effects

  10. Influence of caloric intake on experimental carcinogenesis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritchevsky, D; Klurfeld, D M

    1986-01-01

    The effect of caloric intake on tumor growth has been recognized for over 70 years. Inhibition of tumor growth depends primarily on the extent of caloric restriction, but tumor type, animal strain, and dietary composition all exert some influence. Caloric restriction is most effective when maintained during both initiation and promotion, but if limited to one of these phases, restriction during promotion appears to be the more effective modality. The types of tumor that have been studied include spontaneous mammary and lung tumors as well as tumors induced by organ-specific carcinogens or irradiation with ultraviolet light. Numerous investigators have studied the effects of fat, and a diet low in calories but high in fat is generally significantly more effective in inhibiting carcinogenesis than is a diet high in calories but low in fat. Mice fed high fat, low calorie diets exhibited 48% fewer chemically induced skin tumors and 61% fewer tumors induced by ultraviolet irradiation than did mice fed low fat, high calorie diets. Mice fed a diet containing 2% fat exhibited a 66% incidence of skin tumors, whereas mice fed an isocaloric diet containing 61% fat showed a 78% incidence. Rats whose diet was restricted in calories by 40% exhibited no mammary tumors (coconut oil as primary dietary fat) or 75% fewer tumors (corn oil as dietary fat) compared to ad libitum-fed controls; they also exhibited 47% fewer colonic tumors. The mechanism by which caloric restriction exerts its tumor-inhibiting effects remains to be elucidated.

  11. The caloric cost of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-06-01

    To determine the amount of extra calories a pregnant woman needs to ensure normal growth of her fetus, a study was conducted using 11 normal women who were willing to spend 1 week in the hospital during the last half of pregnancy. The women were given a constant diet of known composition which closely approximated their normal diet at home. Data on fasting weight and fluid balance, nitrogen excretion (from urine samples), 24-hour oxygen consumption and CO2 production were recorded daily. The diet consisted of 80 gm. or more of high-quality protein and supplementary vitamins and iron. 7 women were in positive caloric balance eating 1600 to 2000 Kcal/day; their mean weight gain was 6.8 kg. The other 4, who were obese or who were prone to obesity, were on a lower caloric intake of 1200 to 1600 Kcal/day; despite this, their average gestational weight gain was 10.0 kg. All babies, except for 1 (the mother had placental insufficiency due to low implantation, premature separation, and antepartum hemorrhage; her baby weighed 2.58 kg. at 38 weeks), were born at term with a birthweight of more than 3 kg. The authors concluded that pregnancy hardly imposes any increase in physical activity on the women, and whatever physical effort is exerted is offset by a reduction in physical activity. A pregnant woman requires approximately 600 Kcal. daily for her activities; this amounts to total caloric requirements of 2100, 2200 and 2300 Kcal/day in each of the 3 trimesters. 12 oz. of homogenized milk per day is adequate to meet the extra caloric requirements of a well-nourished woman during her pregnancy. The findings suggest that a normal woman need not overeat to ensure normal growth of her fetus. PMID:4581116

  12. Caloric beverage consumption patterns in Mexican children

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera Juan A; Hernández-Barrera Lucia; Bonvecchio Anabelle; Campirano Fabricio; Barquera Simon; Popkin Barry M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Mexico has seen a very steep increase in child obesity level. Little is known about caloric beverage intake in this country as well as all other countries outside a few high income countries. This study examines overall patterns and trends in all caloric beverages from two nationally representative surveys from Mexico. Methods The two nationally representative dietary intake surveys (1999 and 2006) from Mexico are used to study caloric beverage intake in 17, 215 children. ...

  13. Oleoyl-estrone metabolic effects in relation with caloric restriction in inbred Beta rats with spontaneous obesity and type 2 diabetes Efectos metabólicos de la oleoil-estrona en relación con la restricción calórica en ratas Beta endocriadas, con obesidad espontánea y diabetes tipo II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta D. Posadas

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneously hypertriacylglycerolemic obese and diabetic inbred IIM Beta rats were treated with oleoyl- estrone for 10 days. Pair-feeding was performed to determine some oleoyl-estrone effects dependent on the caloric restriction it promotes. Twenty-five 200 day-old Beta males receiving a daily gavage of 0.2 ml sunflower oil were divided into the following groups: 1 daily dose of 10 nmol/g oleoyl-estrone; 2 pair-fed; 3 control. The variables measured were: whole body protein, water and lipid; retroperitoneal and epididymal fat depot weights; plasma urea, glucose, insulin, triacylglycerols and cholesterol. Biomass and food intake were assessed daily. Oleoyl-estrone and pair-fed groups expressed similar variations in body composition and significant body weight losses due to reduction in food intake. Oleoyl-estrone and pair-fed treatments significantly reduced retroperitoneal fat depot weights, but not epididymal ones. In oleoyl-estrone and pair-fed groups hyperglycemia decreased and insulinemia lowered significantly. Plasma normal total cholesterolemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia values typical of Beta rats decreased strongly compared to controls, though attaining significantly different values between oleoyl-estrone and pair-fed groups. Plasma total cholesterol appeared as more sensitive to caloric restriction than triacylglycerols through a specific oleoyl-estrone- mediated effect.Ratas endocriadas de la línea IIMBeta con obesidad, hipertriacilglicerolemia y diabetes espontáneas fueron tratadas con oleoil-estrona durante 10 días. Un grupo con restricción alimentaria fue incluido en el estudio a fin de aislar algunos efectos de la oleoil-estrona dependientes de la restricción calórica que ésta promueve. Veinticinco ratas Beta macho de 200 días de edad a los que se suministró 0.2 ml de aceite de girasol por día se dividieron en los siguientes grupos: (1 dosis diaria de 10 nmol/g de oleoil-estrona; (2 restringido; (3 control. Las

  14. Carnot to Clausius: Caloric to Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newburgh, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how the Carnot engine led to the formulation of the second law of thermodynamics and entropy. The operation of the engine is analysed both in terms of heat as the caloric fluid and heat as a form of energy. A keystone of Carnot's thinking was the absolute conservation of caloric. Although the Carnot analysis was partly…

  15. Impairment of Caloric Function after Cochlear Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Heide; Haversat, Heather H.; Michaelides, Elias M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article seeks to review current literature on caloric function following cochlear implantation while analyzing any correlations of caloric function changes with vestibular symptoms. Method: This article is a systematic review of evidence-based literature. English language articles published between 1980 and 2014 that presented some…

  16. Caloric beverage consumption patterns in Mexican children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera Juan A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mexico has seen a very steep increase in child obesity level. Little is known about caloric beverage intake in this country as well as all other countries outside a few high income countries. This study examines overall patterns and trends in all caloric beverages from two nationally representative surveys from Mexico. Methods The two nationally representative dietary intake surveys (1999 and 2006 from Mexico are used to study caloric beverage intake in 17, 215 children. The volume (ml and caloric energy (kcal contributed by all beverages consumed by the sample subjects were measured. Results are weighted to be nationally representative. Results The trends from the dietary intake surveys showed very large increases in caloric beverages among pre-school and school children. The contribution of whole milk and sugar-sweetened juices was an important finding. Mexican pre-school children consumed 27.8% of their energy from caloric beverages in 2006 and school children consumed 20.7% of their energy from caloric beverages during the same time. The three major categories of beverage intake are whole milk, fruit juice with various sugar and water combinations and carbonated and noncarbonated sugared-beverages. Conclusion The Mexican government, greatly concerned about obesity, has identified the large increase in caloric beverages from whole milk, juices and soft drinks as a key target and is initiating major changes to address this problem. They have already used the data to shift 20 million persons in their welfare and feeding programs from whole to 1.5% fat milk and in a year will shift to nonfat milk. They are using these data to revise school beverage policies and national regulations and taxation policies related to an array of less healthful caloric beverages.

  17. Drunkorexia: Calorie Restriction Prior to Alcohol Consumption among College Freshman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sloane C.; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen; Woolsey, Conrad

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 692 freshmen at a southeastern university, this study examined caloric restriction among students prior to planned alcohol consumption. Participants were surveyed for self-reported alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and caloric intake habits prior to drinking episodes. Results indicated that 99 of 695 (14%) of first year…

  18. Atomistic simulations of caloric effects in ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisenkov, Sergey; Ponomareva, Inna

    2013-03-01

    The materials that exhibit large caloric effects have emerged as promising candidates for solid-state refrigeration which is an energy-efficient and environmentally friendly alternative to the conventional refrigeration technology. However, despite recent ground breaking discoveries of giant caloric effects in some materials they appear to remain one of nature's rarities. Here we use atomistic simulations to study electrocaloric and elastocaloric effects in Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 and PbTiO3 ferroelectrics. Our study reveals the intrinsic features of such caloric effects in ferroelectrics and their potential to exhibit giant caloric effects. Some of the findings include the coexistence of negative and positive electrocaloric effects in one material and an unusual field-driven transition between them as well as the coexistence of multiple giant caloric effects in Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 alloys. These findings could potentially lead to new paradigms for cooling devices. This work is partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under award DE-SC0005245.

  19. Telomere shortening may be associated with human keloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Robert R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Keloids are benign skin tumors that are the effect of a dysregulated wound-healing process in genetically predisposed patients. They are inherited with an autosomal dominant mode with incomplete clinical penetrance and variable expression. Keloids are characterized by formation of excess scar tissue beyond the boundaries of the wound. The exact etiology is still unknown and there is currently no appropriate treatment for keloid disease. Methods We analyzed sample tissues were obtained from 20 patients with keloid skin lesions and normal skin was obtained from 20 healthy donors. The telomeres were measured by Terminal Restriction Fragment (TRF analysis and Real-Time PCR assay. Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR analysis of hTERT gene expression was performed and intracellular ROS generation was measured. Results In this study, we determined whether telomeric shortening and the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT occurs in keloid patients. Using Terminal Restriction Fragment (TRF analysis and Real-Time PCR assay, we detected a significant telomere shortening of 30% in keloid specimens compared to normal skin. Using quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR, telomerase activity was found absent in the keloid tissues. Moreover, an increase in ROS generation was detected in fibroblasts cell cultures from keloid specimens as more time elapsed compared to fibroblasts from normal skin. Conclusion Telomere shortening has been reported in several metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We found that telomere shortening can also be associated with human keloids. Chronic oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathophysiology of several chronic inflammatory diseases. Here we found increased ROS generation in fibroblasts from keloid fibroblasts cell cultures when compared to normal skin fibroblasts. Hence we conclude that oxidative stress might be an important modulator of telomere loss in keloid because of the absence of active

  20. Use of caloric and non-caloric sweeteners in US consumer packaged foods, 2005–9

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Shu Wen; Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the use of caloric (CS) and non-caloric sweeteners (NCS) in the US food supply is limited. This study utilizes full ingredient list and nutrition facts panel (NFP) data from Gladson Nutrition Database, and nationally representative purchases of consumer packaged foods from Nielsen Homescan in 2005 through 2009 to understand the use of CS (including FJC) and NCS in CPG foods.

  1. Conservación por calor

    OpenAIRE

    Cobos García, Angel; Díaz Rubio, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Esta unidade didáctica denominada Conservación por calor forma parte da materia «Tecnoloxía do procesado de alimentos» que se impartirá no primeiro semestre do 2º curso do Grao en Nutrición Humana e Dietética. A materia estrutúrase en diferentes unidades didácticas, tratando cada unha delas as diferentes tecnoloxías de procesado dos alimentos, tanto de conservación coma de transformación. A presente unidade didáctica aborda a conservación dos alimentos por calor. Este método permite destruír ...

  2. Child Abuse May Shorten Some Women's Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160478.html Child Abuse May Shorten Some Women's Lives Extreme stress may ... 300 middle-aged U.S. adults, female survivors of child abuse were more likely to die over the next ...

  3. Femoral neck shortening after internal fixation

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, YUE; AI, Zi Sheng; Shao, Jin; Yang, Tieyi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the factors affecting femoral neck shortening after internal fixation of femoral neck fractures. Methods: Eighty-six patients with femoral neck fractures were treated using three parallel cannulated screws between May 2004 and January 2011. The shortening of the femoral neck in the horizontal (X), vertical (Y), and along the resultant along the (Z) vector (XÆ, YÆ, ZÆ) was measured on anteroposterior radiographs corrected by screw diameter and ...

  4. Use of non-caloric edulcorants in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calzada León Raúl

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the health normativity for the denomination of non caloric edulcorants in Mexico, and the authorization for the use of natural and synthetic non caloric edulcorants in newborn and until puberty. Special emphasis was given to the consecutive points of safety required in order to assure that they are free of secondary effects. For each non caloric edulcorant available in Mexico, we looked into the studies which mention their side effects in terms of growth and overall.

  5. "Land Productivity and Economic Development: Caloric Suitability vs. Agricultural Suitability"

    OpenAIRE

    Oded Galor; Omer Ozak

    2015-01-01

    This paper establishes that the Caloric Suitability Index (CSI) dominates the commonly used measure of agricultural suitability in the examination of the effect of land productivity on comparative economic development. The analysis demonstrates that the agricultural suitability index does not capture the large variation in the potential caloric yield across equally suitable land, reflecting the fact that land suitable for agriculture is not necessarily suitable for the most caloric-intensive ...

  6. Progressive telomere shortening and telomerase reactivation during hepatocellular carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, N; Horikawa, I; Nishimoto, A; Ohmura, H; Ito, H; Hirohashi, S; Shay, J W; Oshimura, M

    1997-01-01

    Telomeres shorten progressively with age in normal somatic cells in culture and in vivo. The maintenance of telomere length is assumed to be an obligatory step in the progression and immortalization of most human tumor cells. To understand the role of telomere dynamics in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we examined the length of terminal restriction fragment (TRF), as an indicator for telomere length, in HCC and surrounding tissues with chronic active hepatitis (CAH) or liver cirrhosis (LC). The study was performed in 12 hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody-positive, 12 hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigen-positive tissues, and 4 tissue samples from virus-negative patients with HCC. The peak TRFs in all 3 types of HCC were significantly shorter than those of the surrounding tissues (i.e., LC or CAH). TRFs examined in one patient with atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) also was shortened. Thus, progressive TRF shortening occurs from normal to CAH to LC to HCC(AAH). Telomerase, an enzyme that adds repeated telomere sequences onto the chromosome ends and stabilizes telomere length in immortal cells, also was examined in tissues and detected in high levels almost exclusively in HCCs. Interestingly, the intensity of telomerase activity in the AAH case was similar to that of HCC. In addition, the telomerase activity of biopsy samples with a fine 21-gauge needle also was examined in 10 HCCs, 2 adenomatous hyperplasias (AHs), 2 LCs, and 2 CAHs. We found strong telomerase activity in all the HCCs and surprisingly in the 2 cases that were pathologically diagnosed as AH. Thus, the findings strongly suggest that persistent cell proliferation or rapid cell turnover through damage of hepatic cells result in a process of multistep hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Thus, progressive shortening of telomeres and the activation of telomerase may be a useful marker for the early detection of malignant progression in liver disease. PMID:9062581

  7. Modeling microscale heat transfer using Calore.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallis, Michail A.; Rader, Daniel John; Wong, Chung-Nin Channy; Bainbridge, Bruce L.; Torczynski, John Robert; Piekos, Edward Stanley

    2005-09-01

    Modeling microscale heat transfer with the computational-heat-transfer code Calore is discussed. Microscale heat transfer problems differ from their macroscopic counterparts in that conductive heat transfer in both solid and gaseous materials may have important noncontinuum effects. In a solid material, three noncontinuum effects are considered: ballistic transport of phonons across a thin film, scattering of phonons from surface roughness at a gas-solid interface, and scattering of phonons from grain boundaries within the solid material. These processes are modeled for polycrystalline silicon, and the thermal-conductivity values predicted by these models are compared to experimental data. In a gaseous material, two noncontinuum effects are considered: ballistic transport of gas molecules across a thin gap and accommodation of gas molecules to solid conditions when reflecting from a solid surface. These processes are modeled for arbitrary gases by allowing the gas and solid temperatures across a gas-solid interface to differ: a finite heat transfer coefficient (contact conductance) is imposed at the gas-solid interface so that the temperature difference is proportional to the normal heat flux. In this approach, the behavior of gas in the bulk is not changed from behavior observed under macroscopic conditions. These models are implemented in Calore as user subroutines. The user subroutines reside within Sandia's Source Forge server, where they undergo version control and regression testing and are available to analysts needing these capabilities. A Calore simulation is presented that exercises these models for a heated microbeam separated from an ambient-temperature substrate by a thin gas-filled gap. Failure to use the noncontinuum heat transfer models for the solid and the gas causes the maximum temperature of the microbeam to be significantly underpredicted.

  8. A Dissociation Between Recognition and Hedonic Value in Caloric and Non-caloric Carbonated Soft Drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delogu, Franco; Huddas, Claire; Steven, Katelyn; Hachem, Souheila; Lodhia, Luv; Fernandez, Ryan; Logerstedt, Macee

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is considered to be a contributor to diabetes and the epidemic of obesity in many countries. The popularity of non-caloric carbonated soft drinks as an alternative to SSBs may be a factor in reducing the health risks associated with SSBs consumption. This study focuses on the perceptual discrimination of SSBs from artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs). Fifty-five college students rated 14 commercially available carbonated soft drinks in terms of sweetness and likeability. They were also asked to recognize, if the drinks contained sugar or a non-caloric artificial sweetener. Overall, participants showed poor accuracy in discriminating drinks' sweeteners, with significantly lower accuracy for SSBs than ASBs. Interestingly, we found a dissociation between sweetener recognition and drink pleasantness. In fact, in spite of a chance-level discrimination accuracy of SSBs, their taste was systematically preferred to the taste of non-caloric beverages. Our findings support the idea that hedonic value of carbonated soft drinks is dissociable from its identification and that the activation of the pleasure system seems not to require explicit recognition of the sweetener contained in the soft drink. We hypothesize that preference for carbonated soft drinks containing sugar over non-caloric alternatives might be modulated by metabolic factors that are independent from conscious and rational consumers' choices. PMID:26858681

  9. A Dissociation Between Recognition and Hedonic Value in Caloric and Non-caloric Carbonated Soft Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delogu, Franco; Huddas, Claire; Steven, Katelyn; Hachem, Souheila; Lodhia, Luv; Fernandez, Ryan; Logerstedt, Macee

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is considered to be a contributor to diabetes and the epidemic of obesity in many countries. The popularity of non-caloric carbonated soft drinks as an alternative to SSBs may be a factor in reducing the health risks associated with SSBs consumption. This study focuses on the perceptual discrimination of SSBs from artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs). Fifty-five college students rated 14 commercially available carbonated soft drinks in terms of sweetness and likeability. They were also asked to recognize, if the drinks contained sugar or a non-caloric artificial sweetener. Overall, participants showed poor accuracy in discriminating drinks’ sweeteners, with significantly lower accuracy for SSBs than ASBs. Interestingly, we found a dissociation between sweetener recognition and drink pleasantness. In fact, in spite of a chance-level discrimination accuracy of SSBs, their taste was systematically preferred to the taste of non-caloric beverages. Our findings support the idea that hedonic value of carbonated soft drinks is dissociable from its identification and that the activation of the pleasure system seems not to require explicit recognition of the sweetener contained in the soft drink. We hypothesize that preference for carbonated soft drinks containing sugar over non-caloric alternatives might be modulated by metabolic factors that are independent from conscious and rational consumers’ choices. PMID:26858681

  10. A Dissociation between Recognition and Hedonic Value in Caloric and Non-caloric Carbonated Soft Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco eDelogu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs is considered to be a contributor to diabetes and the epidemic of obesity in many countries. The popularity of non-caloric carbonated soft drinks as an alternative to SSBs may be a factor in reducing the health risks associated with SSBs consumption. This study focuses on the perceptual discrimination of SSBs from artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs. 55 college students rated 14 commercially available carbonated soft drinks in terms of sweetness and likeability. They were also asked to recognize if the drinks contained sugar or a non-caloric artificial sweetener. Overall, participants showed poor accuracy in discriminating drinks’ sweeteners, with significantly lower accuracy for SSBs than ASBs. Interestingly, we found a dissociation between sweetener recognition and drink pleasantness. In fact, in spite of a chance-level discrimination accuracy of SSBs, their taste was systematically preferred to the taste of non-caloric beverages. Our findings support the idea that hedonic value of carbonated soft drinks is dissociable from its identification and that the activation of the pleasure system seems not to require explicit recognition of the sweetener contained in the soft drink. We hypothesize that preference for carbonated soft drinks containing sugar over non-caloric alternatives might be modulated by metabolic factors that are independent from conscious and rational consumers’ choices.

  11. Caloric versus low-caloric sweeteners: Can the body be fooled?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Low-caloric artificial sweeteners have been around for several decades now. Still, the debate over their usefulness in decreasing energy intake is ongoing. In principle, replacing sugar-containing foods with 'light' versions will lead to decreased energy intake. However, the reality of food intake b

  12. Studies on flagellar shortening in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flagellar shortening of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was promoted by sodium chloride, pyrophosphate (sodium, potassium and ammonium salts), EDTA and EGTA, succinate, citrate and oxalate (sodium salts), caffeine and aminophylline. Removal of calcium from the medium potentiated the effects of these agents in inducing shortening. Investigations of the release of phosphorylated compounds to the medium during pyrophosphate-induced flagellar shortening of cells pre-labelled with 32P, revealed an as yet unidentified 32P-labelled compound with distinct chromatographic properties. Chromatography and electrophoresis indicates that it is a small, highly polar molecule with a high charge to mass ratio, containing thermo- and acid-labile phosphate linkages. Investigations showed of the release of 35S-labelled protein to the medium from cells pre-labelled with 35S-sulfate showed that flagellated cells released two prominent polypeptides which comigrated with α- and β-flagellar tubulin on SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, while deflagellated cells did not

  13. Numerical Simulation of Pulse Shortening in RBWOs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yu-bin; ZHANG Zhang; WANG Wen-xiang; MENG Fan-bao; FAN Zhi-kai; HUANG Min-zhi

    2005-01-01

    Pulse shortening hinders improvement of microwave output energy for high power microwave tubes. So far, it is also an unresolved problem in the field of high power microwave devices. In this paper, relativistic backward wave tube (RBWO) is treated as an example to study the pulse shortening phenomena. The influences of gas existing in the tube and explosive emission in inner surface of RBWO are all investigated by means of the particle-in-cell method. Through the simulation results, it can be predicted that the background gas in the tube is one but not the most important factor resulting in pulse shortening, in order to broaden the pulse width of gas-filled RBWO, the pressure of the filled gas must be controlled in a proper value. The explosive emission in the surface of slow wave structure due to intense electric field is one of the most important factors causing pulse shortening in high power microwave tube.Some methods to overcome this find of explosive emission are also given.

  14. 18 CFR 286.105 - Shortened procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shortened procedure. 286.105 Section 286.105 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... facts and applicable law that support the position or positions taken regarding the matters at...

  15. Abdominal obesity, independent from caloric intake, accounts for the development of intestinal tumors in Apc(1638N/+) female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Derek M; Augenlicht, Leonard H; Zhang, Xueying; Lofrese, John J; Atzmon, Gil; Chamberland, John P; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2013-03-01

    To determine whether visceral fat (VF), independent of other confounders, is causally linked to intestinal tumorigenesis, we surgically removed visceral fat in Apc(1638/N+) mice. At 15 weeks of age, male and female Apc(1638/N+) mice were randomized to one of three groups: ad libitum, visceral fat removal (VF-) and ad libitum fed, or caloric restriction, and were studied for effects on tumorigenesis and survival. As compared with ad libitum, VF- and caloric restriction reduced macroadenomas to a similar extent (P visceral fat to intestinal cancer risk, and suggest that factors, other than known metabolic mediators, may impact tumor development. Furthermore, these data emphasize that strategies designed to deplete visceral fat stores in humans should be considered in the prevention of intestinal cancer. Cancer Prev Res; 6(3); 177-87. ©2012 AACR. PMID:23466815

  16. Impact of time since last caloric intake on blood glucose levels

    OpenAIRE

    Moebus, Susanne; Göres, Laura; Lösch, Christian; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Blood glucose (BG) is usually measured after a caloric restriction of at least 8 h; however evidence-based recommendations for the duration of a fasting status are missing. Here we analyze the effect of fasting duration on levels of BG to determine the minimal fasting duration to achieve comparable BG levels to conventional fasting measurements. We used data of a cross-sectional study on primary care patients, performed in October 2005. We included 28,024 individuals (age-range 18–99 years; 6...

  17. Caloric vestibular stimulation in aphasic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eWilkinson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS is commonly used to diagnose brainstem disorder but its therapeutic application is much less established. Based on the finding that CVS increases blood flow to brain structures associated with language and communication, we assessed whether the procedure has potential to relieve symptoms of post-stroke aphasia. Three participants, each presenting with chronic, unilateral lesions to the left hemisphere, were administered daily CVS for 4 consecutive weeks. Relative to their pre-treatment baseline scores, two of the three participants showed significant improvement on both picture and responsive naming at immediate and one-week follow-up. One of these participants also showed improved sentence repetition, and another showed improved auditory word discrimination. No adverse reactions were reported. These data provide the first, albeit tentative, evidence that CVS may relieve expressive and receptive symptoms of aphasia. A larger, sham-controlled study is now needed to further assess efficacy.

  18. A Dissociation Between Recognition and Hedonic Value in Caloric and Non-caloric Carbonated Soft Drinks

    OpenAIRE

    Delogu, Franco; Huddas, Claire; Steven, Katelyn; Hachem, Souheila; Lodhia, Luv; Fernandez, Ryan; Logerstedt, Macee

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is considered to be a contributor to diabetes and the epidemic of obesity in many countries. The popularity of non-caloric carbonated soft drinks as an alternative to SSBs may be a factor in reducing the health risks associated with SSBs consumption. This study focuses on the perceptual discrimination of SSBs from artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs). Fifty-five college students rated 14 commercially available carbonated soft drinks in terms ...

  19. A Dissociation between Recognition and Hedonic Value in Caloric and Non-caloric Carbonated Soft Drinks

    OpenAIRE

    Franco eDelogu; Claire eHuddas; Katelyn eSteven; Souheila eHachem; Luv eLodhia; Ryan eFernandez; Macee eLogerstedt

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is considered to be a contributor to diabetes and the epidemic of obesity in many countries. The popularity of non-caloric carbonated soft drinks as an alternative to SSBs may be a factor in reducing the health risks associated with SSBs consumption. This study focuses on the perceptual discrimination of SSBs from artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs). 55 college students rated 14 commercially available carbonated soft drinks in terms of sweet...

  20. Abdominal obesity, independently from caloric intake, accounts for the development of intestinal tumors in Apc1638N/+ female mice

    OpenAIRE

    Huffman, Derek M.; Augenlicht, Leonard H.; Zhang, Xueying; Lofrese, John J.; Atzmon, Gil; Chamberland, John P.; Mantzoros, Christos S.

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether visceral fat (VF), independent of other confounders, is causally linked to intestinal tumorigenesis, we surgically removed VF in Apc1638/N+ mice. At 15 wks of age, male and female Apc1638/N+ mice were randomized to one of three groups: sham operated (AL), VF removal (VF-), or sham operated and caloric restricted (CR), and were studied for effects on tumorigenesis and survival. As compared to AL, VF removal and CR reduced macroadenomas to a similar extent (P

  1. 9 CFR 319.701 - Mixed fat shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed fat shortening. 319.701 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Fats, Oils, Shortenings § 319.701 Mixed fat shortening. Shortening prepared with a mixture of meat fats and vegetable oils...

  2. Normal Caloric Responses during Acute Phase of Vestibular Neuritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Uk; Park, Seong-Ho; Kim, Hyo-Jung; Koo, Ja-Won

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose We report a novel finding of caloric conversion from normal responses into unilateral paresis during the acute phase of vestibular neuritis (VN). Methods We recruited 893 patients with a diagnosis of VN at Dizziness Clinic of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital from 2003 to 2014 after excluding 28 patients with isolated inferior divisional VN (n=14) and those without follow-up tests despite normal caloric responses initially (n=14). We retrospectively analyzed the neurotological findings in four (0.5%) of the patients who showed a conversion from initially normal caloric responses into unilateral paresis during the acute phase. Results In those four patients, the initial caloric tests were performed within 2 days of symptom onset, and conversion into unilateral caloric paresis was documented 1–4 days later. The clinical and laboratory findings during the initial evaluation were consistent with VN in all four patients except for normal findings in bedside head impulse tests in one of them. Conclusions Normal findings in caloric tests should be interpreted with caution during the acute phase of suspected VN. Follow-up evaluation should be considered when the findings of the initial caloric test are normal, but VN remains the most plausible diagnosis. PMID:26932259

  3. Unix version of CALOR89 for calorimeter applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CALOR89 is a system of coupled Monte Carlo particle transport computer codes which has been successfully employed for the estimation of calorimeter parameters in High Energy Physics. In the past CALOR89 has been running on various IBM machines and on CRAY X-MP at Lawrence Livermore Lab. These machines had non-unix operating systems. In this report we present a UNIX version of CALOR89, which is especially suited for the UNIX work stations. Moreover CALOR89 is also been supplemented with two new program packages which makes it more user friendly. CALPREP is a program for the preparation of the input files for CALOR89 in general geometry and ANALYZ is an analysis package to extract the final results from CALOR89 relevant to calorimeters. This report also provides two script files LCALOR and PCALOR. LCALOR runs CALOR89 sequences of programs and EGS4 for a given configuration sequentially on a single processor and PCALOR concurrently on a multiprocessor unix workstation

  4. Some strategies for improving caloric responses with ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Scott, James F.; Dkhil, Brahim

    2016-06-01

    Many important breakthroughs and significant engineering developments have been achieved during the past two decades in the field of caloric materials. In this review, we address ferroelectrics emerging as ideal materials which permit both giant elastocaloric and/or electrocaloric responses near room temperature. We summarize recent strategies for improving caloric responses using geometrical optimization, maximizing the number of coexisting phases, combining positive and negative caloric responses, introducing extra degree of freedom like mechanical stress/pressure, and multicaloric effect driven by either single stimulus or multiple stimuli. This review highlights the promising perspective of ferroelectrics for developing next-generation solid-state refrigeration.

  5. Mechanism of Shortened Bones in Mucopolysaccharidosis VII

    OpenAIRE

    Jason A. Metcalf; Zhang, Yanming(Institute of Theoretical Physics, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, 453007, China); Matthew J. Hilton; Long, Fanxin; Ponder, Katherine P.

    2009-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII) is a lysosomal storage disease in which deficiency in β-glucuronidase results in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulation in and around cells, causing shortened long bones through mechanisms that remain largely unclear. We demonstrate here that MPS VII mice accumulate massive amounts of the GAG chondroitin-4-sulfate (C4S) in their growth plates, the cartilaginous region near the ends of long bones responsible for growth. MPS VII mice also have only 60% of the n...

  6. Characteristics of non caloric dulcorants and their use in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calzada León Raúl

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This is a descriptive review of the elaboration routes, the physical and chemical characteristics, metabolism and clearance, sweetener level, residual flavor, maximal recommended ingestion, security levels and the assessment of growth and development problems in children (from newborns, including prematures, to the end of puberty, of the main no caloric edulcorants used in Mexico. The no caloric edulcorants included in this review are: aspartame, acesulfame-K, sucralose, sacarin, ciclamates, thaumatin, D- tagatose, estevia and alitame.

  7. Role of caloric homeostasis and reward in alcohol intake in Syrian golden hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    Gulick, Danielle; Green, Alan I.

    2010-01-01

    The Syrian golden hamster drinks alcohol readily, but only achieves moderate blood alcohol levels, and does not go through withdrawal from alcohol. Because the hamster is a model of caloric homeostasis, both caloric content and reward value may contribute to the hamster’s alcohol consumption. The current study examines alcohol consumption in the hamster when a caloric or non-caloric sweet solution is concurrently available and caloric intake in the hamster before, during, and after exposure t...

  8. Restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiomyopathy - restrictive; Infiltrative cardiomyopathy ... In a case of restrictive cardiomyopathy, the heart muscle is normal size or slightly enlarged. Most of the time, it also pumps normally. However, it does not ...

  9. Renal failure induces telomere shortening in the rat heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, L. S.; Windt, W. A.; Roks, A. J.; van Dokkum, R. P.; Schoemaker, R. G.; de Zeeuw, D.; Henning, R. H.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Renal failure aggravates pathological cardiac remodelling induced by myocardial infarction (MI). Cardiac remodelling is associated with telomere shortening, a marker for biological ageing. We investigated whether mild and severe renal failure shorten cardiac telomeres and excessively sho

  10. Changes of ampulla pressure in the semicircular canal of pigeons by caloric stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshiro; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Satoru

    Still now several hypotheses about the mechanisms of the caloric nystagmus have been in conclusive. In this study we confirmed the convection effect and the volume change effect of the endolymph in horizontal semicircular canal following the caloric stimulation using pigeons ( Columba livia). Although the direction of the caloric nystagmus depended on the head position and the stimulus site of calorization, the caloric nystagmus disappeared after plugging of horizontal semicircular canal. On the other hand, the ampulla pressure increased by cold calorization and decreased by hot calorization and these pressure changes had no relation to the head position. These results show that the main role of the mechanisms of the caloric nystagmus under 1G is the convection effect but the volume change effect may act on the caloric nystagmus not only under 1G but also under microgravity.

  11. Calor de respiración de frutas y vegetales

    OpenAIRE

    Orrego Alzate, Carlos Eduardo

    2001-01-01

    El enfriamiento y la refrigeración de frutas y vegetales recién cosechados se complica debido a la generación de calor de estos materiales originada en su actividad respiratoria. El artículo que se presenta ilustra dos sistemas de cálculo para estimar el calor de respiración con propósitos de diseño de sistemas de almacenamiento refrigerado y reúne abundante información experimental sobre este tema, tomada de diversas fuentes bibliográficas, incluyendo datos sobre especies tropicales / ...

  12. Systematic effects in CALOR simulation code to model experimental configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CALOR89 code system is being used to simulate test beam results and the design parameters of several calorimeter configurations. It has been bench-marked against the ZEUS, Dθ and HELIOS data. This study identifies the systematic effects in CALOR simulation to model the experimental configurations. Five major systematic effects are identified. These are the choice of high energy nuclear collision model, material composition, scintillator saturation, shower integration time, and the shower containment. Quantitative estimates of these systematic effects are presented. 23 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Constrained caloric curves and phase transition for hot nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Borderie, Bernard; Rivet, M F; Raduta, Ad R; Ademard, G; Bonnet, E; Bougault, R; Chbihi, A; Frankland, J D; Galichet, E; Gruyer, D; Guinet, D; Lautesse, P; Neindre, N Le; Lopez, O; Marini, P; Parlog, M; Pawlowski, P; Rosato, E; Roy, R; Vigilante, M

    2013-01-01

    Simulations based on experimental data obtained from multifragmenting quasi-fused nuclei produced in central $^{129}$Xe + $^{nat}$Sn collisions have been used to deduce event by event freeze-out properties in the thermal excitation energy range 4-12 AMeV [Nucl. Phys. A809 (2008) 111]. From these properties and the temperatures deduced from proton transverse momentum fluctuations, constrained caloric curves have been built. At constant average volumes caloric curves exhibit a monotonic behaviour whereas for constrained pressures a backbending is observed. Such results support the existence of a first order phase transition for hot nuclei.

  14. Shortening of construction period of nuclear power plant. Activities of construction industry on construction period shortening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total construction period could be shorten by prefabricating structures efficiently in another yard and reducing working hours on site, which would reduce work at height or congestion work and also upgrade safety at work. Construction period shortening would surely reduce expenses during work and advance operation start of electric utilities. Construction of reactor building, turbine building, water intake and drainage canal was performed on a relatively large scale and a big share of whole schedule. This article summarized basic technologies to shorten construction period for reactor building/turbine building and water intake and drainage canal. Advanced methods of reactor building/turbine building; (1) modularization of equipment and skeleton, (2) utilization of concrete mold, reinforcing bar and steel frame, (3) precedent steel frame method and (4) steel plate reinforced concrete (SC) method, were outlined and their application examples were shown to reduce work on site and improve work efficiency. As for water intake and drainage canal construction, (1) precast concrete method, (2) SC method and (3) steel plate shell method were described with application examples. Construction procedures and problems using mega block method for water intake and drainage canal were also introduced. (T. Tanaka)

  15. Extension of Drosophila Lifespan by Rhodiola rosea Depends on Dietary Carbohydrate and Caloric Content in a Simplified Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriner, Samuel E; Coskun, Volkan; Hogan, Sean P; Nguyen, Cindy T; Lopez, Terry E; Jafari, Mahtab

    2016-03-01

    The root and rhizome extract of Rhodiola rosea has been extensively used in traditional medicine to improve physical and mental performance and to protect against stress. We, and others, have reported that R. rosea can extend lifespan in flies, worms, and yeast. We also previously found that the extract can act independently of dietary restriction (DR), a treatment that can extend lifespan in a range of model organisms. In flies, DR is implemented through a reduction in dietary yeast content. Here, we report that the ability of R. rosea extract to extend lifespan in flies is dependent on the carbohydrate and caloric content when supplemented with a simplified diet composed of yeast and sucrose. R. rosea extract elevated the sugar content in flies and down-regulated hexokinase expression, suggesting that it perturbs carbohydrate metabolism in flies. In our previous studies, bananas, barley malt, and corn syrup provided dietary carbohydrates, and R. rosea extract could extend lifespan with a range of caloric levels. We conclude that the lifespan-extending effect of R. rosea extract in flies is dependent on dietary carbohydrate and caloric contents coupled with an interaction with complex dietary components present in bananas, barley, or corn. PMID:26987024

  16. Cupula dynamics under caloric stimulation of the semicircular canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrachuk, A. V.; Sirenko, S. P.

    Caloric stimulation of the semicircular canal SC is widely applied in studies of vestibular impairments Barany 1906 suggested that caloric response of SC results from mechanism of endolymph convection due to density changes of endolymph and therefore depends on the action of gravity forces However the Skylab experiments 1983 showed that the caloric reaction of SC can take place even under microgravity The studies of Scherer Clarke 1985 Harada Ariki 1985 Baumgarten et al 1985 considered the thermal expansion of endolymph to be a concurrent mechanism The model of caloric response based on the buoyancy force due to density change in the endolymph induced by thermal stimulation was proposed by Gentine et al 1990 1991 It should be noted that the first qualitative model that took into account the effect of endolymph thermal expansion under local heating to analyze the properties of primary afferents was proposed by Gusev Orlov 1977 However these models failed to answer the question which of the mentioned effects will be dominant under certain conditions The purpose of present study was to account for the expansion and convection of endolymph and to determine under which conditions one mechanism dominates over the other The consideration is based on the following model of SC Kondrachuk Sirenko 1990 an isolated torus filled by a compressible viscous Newton liquid endolymph the torus interior is plugged by an elastic body cupula the cupula surface in contact with endolymph is supposed to be stretched along the

  17. CALOR87: HETC87, MICAP, EGS4, and SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, T.A.; Alsmiller, F.S.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Bishop, B.L.; Hermann, O.W.; Johnson, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    A brief history of CALOR (HETC, EGS, MICAP, SPECT) is presented to indicate the evolution of this code system. Details concerning the current modifications and additions to the high-energy transport code, HETC, are also presented and new comparisons with experimental data are included to verify the new physics improvements. 27 refs., 5 figs.

  18. The caloric vestibular nystagmus during short lasting microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterveld, W. J.; de Jong, H. A. A.; Kortschot, H. W.

    In human subjects the caloric vestibular test was conducted during parabolic flight. The ear irrigation was performed from 35 secs. till 5 secs. before the onset of microgravity. Nystagmography covered a 10-minutes period, including three parabolic manoeuvres of the aircraft. a. The slow phase velocity (SPV) of the caloric nystagmus increased proportionally with the value of the g-force. Introduction of microgravity induced an exponential decrease of the SPV decay. b. The nystagmus disappeared completely in microgravity, but SPV decay showed a specific time constant. c. The averaged time constant values of the caloric nystagmus SPV decay after sudden onset of microgravity and the averaged time constant of the SPV decay following a sudden stop after sustained rotation during 0-g appeared to be on the same level (10.2 s. and 10.6 s.). d. These two averaged time constant values obtained during shortlasting microgravity proved to be on a lower level than those time constants (15.5 secs.; 15.9 secs.) found in ground-based conditions. e. Because of the similarities in the characteristics of both SPV decay's and their accompanying time constants, a common working mechanism of cupular stimulation is likely. Most probably a fluid movement (or pressure) provokes a cupula deflexion followed by a cupula reflexion, either caused by a sudden stop after a sustained rotation or by a sudden onset of microgravity after g-load calorization. The present results support the Bárány convection theory with regard the endolymph stimulatory properties following the caloric test.

  19. Restricted Airspace

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Redstone Technical Test Center has restricted airspace up to 30,000 feet ASL. Airspace encompasses R-2104 (Redstone). Airspace is used extensively for airborne/UAV...

  20. Trans Fatty Acid content in Danish margarines and shortenings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Bysted, Anette; Hansen, Kirsten;

    2003-01-01

    Margarines and shortenings have been major contributors to the intake by humans of the probably atherogenic trans FA (TFA). In 1999, all 73 brands of margarines and shortenings on the Danish market were analyzed by GLC on a 50-m highly polar capillary column, and the results were compared with si...

  1. Does a detection team shorten duration of untreated psychosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Thorup, Anne; Petersen, Lone;

    2008-01-01

    Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is shown to be associated with poor outcome in many domains. It has been shown that it is possible to shorten DUP when combining a detection team and an information campaign. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether DUP was shortened during the first 3 y...

  2. Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W.

    2016-01-01

    While telomerase is expressed in ~90% of primary human tumors, most somatic tissue cells except transiently proliferating stem-like cells do not have detectable telomerase activity (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Telomeres progressively shorten with each cell division in normal cells, including proliferating stem-like cells, due to the end replication (lagging strand synthesis) problem and other causes such as oxidative damage, therefore all somatic cells have limited cell proliferation capacity (Hayflick limit) (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The progressive telomere shortening eventually leads to growth arrest in normal cells, which is known as replicative senescence (Shay et al., 1991). Once telomerase is activated in cancer cells, telomere length is stabilized by the addition of TTAGGG repeats to the end of chromosomes, thus enabling the limitless continuation of cell division (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Therefore, the link between aging and cancer can be partially explained by telomere biology. There are many rapid and convenient methods to study telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) (Mender and Shay, 2015b) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this protocol paper we describe Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) analysis to determine average telomeric length of cells. Telomeric length can be indirectly measured by a technique called Telomere Restriction Fragment analysis (TRF). This technique is a modified Southern blot, which measures the heterogeneous range of telomere lengths in a cell population using the length distribution of the terminal restriction fragments (Harley et al., 1990; Ouellette et al., 2000). This method can be used in eukaryotic cells. The description below focuses on the measurement of human cancer cells telomere length. The principle of this method relies on the lack of

  3. Urinary endogenous sex hormone levels in postmenopausal women after caloric restriction in young adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elias, SG; Onland-Moret, NC; Peeters, PHM; Rinaldi, S; Kaaks, R; Grobbee, DE; van Noord, PAH

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether the 1944-1945 Dutch famine has affected postmenopausal sex hormone concentrations with data from 163 women (young adults during the famine). Urinary sex hormone concentrations showed modest elevations with increasing famine exposure. Effects were absent in parous women, but m

  4. Caloric restriction and exercise increase plasma ANGPTL4 levels in humans via elevated free fatty acids.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, S.; Lichtenstein, L.; Steenbergen, E.; Mudde, K.; Hendriks, H.F.; Hesselink, M.K.; Schrauwen, P.; Muller, M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma lipoprotein levels are determined by the balance between lipoprotein production and clearance. Recently, angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) was uncovered as a novel endocrine factor that potently raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting triglyceride clearance. However, ve

  5. Caloric restriction and exercise increase plasma ANGPTL4 levels in humans via elevated free fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, S.; Lichtenstein, L.; Steenbergen, E.; Mudde, K.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Hesselink, M.K.; Schrauwen, P.; Müller, M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-: Plasma lipoprotein levels are determined by the balance between lipoprotein production and clearance. Recently, angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) was uncovered as a novel endocrine factor that potently raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting triglyceride clearance. However, v

  6. Bacillus subtilis at near-zero specific growth rates : Adaptations to extreme caloric restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overkamp, Wout

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is an important soil-dwelling bacteria species that is used for the production of e.g. vitamins, enzymes and medicines. In both the natural and industrial environment the availability of energy sources can be limited. In contrary to a situation of complete ‘nutrient depletion’, man

  7. Controlled meal frequency without caloric restriction alters peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytokine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longo Dan L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent fasting (IF improves healthy lifespan in animals by a mechanism involving reduced oxidative damage and increased resistance to stress. However, no studies have evaluated the impact of controlled meal frequency on immune responses in human subjects. Objective A study was conducted to establish the effects of controlled diets with different meal frequencies, but similar daily energy intakes, on cytokine production in healthy male and female subjects. Design In a crossover study design with an intervening washout period, healthy normal weight middle-age male and female subjects (n = 15 were maintained for 2 months on controlled on-site one meal per day (OMD or three meals per day (TMD isocaloric diets. Serum samples and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs culture supernatants from subjects were analyzed for the presence of inflammatory markers using a multiplex assay. Results There were no significant differences in the inflammatory markers in the serum of subjects on the OMD or TMD diets. There was an increase in the capacity of PBMCs to produce cytokines in subjects during the first month on the OMD or TMD diets. Lower levels of TNF-α, IL-17, MCP-1 and MIP-1β were produced by PBMCs from subjects on the OMD versus TMD diet. Conclusions PBMCs of subjects on controlled diets exhibit hypersensitivities to cellular stimulation suggesting that stress associated with altered eating behavior might affect cytokine production by immune cells upon stimulation. Moreover, stimulated PBMCs derived from healthy individuals on a reduced meal frequency diet respond with a reduced capability to produce cytokines.

  8. Caloric values for young sprouts of nine hardwood species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neenan, M. (An Foras Taluntais, Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland); Steinbeck, K.

    1979-09-01

    Caloric content, specific gravity, and ash content of 6- to 15-year-old sprouts of nine hardwood species were determined in midsummer. Energy values for wood, bark, first order branches, twigs, and leaves were determined with an adiabatic bomb calorimeter. The values found for coppice material averaged 4791 cal/g and were comparable to published values for older wood. Intraspecific differences among tissues were greater than the relatively small but significant differences among species. Differences in yield potential are therefore likely to outweigh variations in caloric content among species where total energy production per unit of land area is concerned. Ash content varied from 0.65 percent for wood to 5.88 percent for bark.

  9. The effect of prolonged physical activity performed during extreme caloric deprivation on cardiac function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Planer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endurance exercise may induce transient cardiac dysfunction. Data regarding the effect of caloric restriction on cardiac function is limited. We studied the effect of physical activity performed during extreme caloric deprivation on cardiac function. METHODS: Thirty-nine healthy male soldiers (mean age 20 ± 0.3 years were studied during a field training exercise lasted 85-103 hours, with negligible food intake and unlimited water supply. Anthropometric measurements, echocardiographic examinations and blood and urine tests were performed before and after the training exercise. RESULTS: Baseline VO(2 max was 59 ± 5.5 ml/kg/min. Participants' mean weight reduction was 5.7 ± 0.9 kg. There was an increase in plasma urea (11.6 ± 2.6 to 15.8 ± 3.8 mmol/L, p<0.001 and urine osmolarity (692 ± 212 to 1094 ± 140 mmol/kg, p<0.001 and a decrease in sodium levels (140.5 ± 1.0 to 136.6 ± 2.1 mmol/L, p<0.001 at the end of the study. Significant alterations in diastolic parameters included a decrease in mitral E wave (93.6 to 83.5 cm/s; p = 0.003, without change in E/A and E/E' ratios, and an increase in iso-volumic relaxation time (73.9 to 82.9 ms, p = 0.006. There was no change in left or right ventricular systolic function, or pulmonary arterial pressure. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP levels were significantly reduced post-training (median 9 to 0 pg/ml, p<0.001. There was no elevation in Troponin T or CRP levels. On multivariate analysis, BNP reduction correlated with sodium levels and weight reduction (R = 0.8, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to prolonged physical activity performed under caloric deprivation resulted in minor alterations of left ventricular diastolic function. BNP levels were significantly reduced due to negative water and sodium balance.

  10. Age-related decrease in aromatase and estrogen receptor(ERαand ERβ) expression in rat testes: protective effect of low caloric diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khaled Hamden; Dorothee Silandre; Christelle Delalande; Abdefattah El Feki; Serge Carreau

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To examine the effects on rat aging of caloric restriction (CR1) and undernutrition (CR2) on the body and on testicular weights, on two enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and catalase), on lipid peroxidation and on the expression of testicular aromatase and estrogen receptors (ER). Methods: CR was initiated in 1-month-old rats and carried on until the age of 18 months. Results: In control and CR2 rats an age-related decrease of the aromatase and of ER (α and β) gene expression was observed; in parallel a diminution of testicular weights, and of the total number and motility of epididymal spermatozo was recorded. In addition, aging in control and CR2 rats was accom-panied by a significant decrease in testicular superoxide dismutase, catalase activities, and an increase in lipid peroxidation level (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance), associated with alterations of spermatogenesis. Conversely, caloric restriction-treatment exerted a protective effect and all the parameters were less affected by aging. Conclusion:These results indicate that during aging, a low caloric diet (not undernutrition) is beneficial for spermatogenesis and likely improves the protection of the cells via an increase of the cellular antioxidant defense system in which aromatase/ER could play a role.

  11. Consequences of crown shortening canine teeth in Greenland sled dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortegaard, H E; Anthony Knudsen, T; Dahl, S;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the consequences of crown shortening, focusing on the prevalence of pulp exposure and periapical pathology in Greenland sled dogs that had had their canine crowns shortened at an early age. METHODS: Five cadaver heads and 54 sled dogs underwent an oral examination for dental...... fractures and pulp exposure of canines. All canines were radiographed and evaluated for periapical pathology. RESULTS: The prevalence of canine pulp exposure in 12 (5 heads and 7 dogs) crown shortened dogs was 91 · 7%, and 21 · 3% in 47 not-crown shortened dogs. A significant (P ... exposure of the canines in the crown shortened group compared to the not-crown shortened group was seen with a relative risk of 4 · 3 on a dog basis and a relative risk of 12 · 2 on a tooth basis. In dogs with pulp exposure of canines (n = 51) the prevalence of periapical pathology was 82 · 4%, but only 0...

  12. The Lexicocalorimeter: Gauging public health through caloric input and output on social media

    CERN Document Server

    Alajajian, S E; Reagan, A J; Alajajian, S C; Frank, M R; Mitchell, L; Lahne, J; Danforth, C M; Dodds, P S

    2015-01-01

    We propose and develop a Lexicocalorimeter: an online, interactive instrument for measuring the "caloric content" of social media and other large-scale texts. We do so by constructing extensive yet improvable tables of food and activity related phrases, and respectively assigning them with sourced estimates of caloric intake and expenditure. We show that for Twitter, our naive measures of "caloric input", "caloric output", and the ratio of these measures---"caloric balance"---are all strong correlates with health and well-being demographics for the contiguous United States. Our caloric balance measure outperforms both its constituent quantities, is tunable to specific demographic measures such as diabetes rates, provides a real-time signal reflecting a population's health, and has the potential to be used alongside traditional survey data in the development of public policy and collective self-awareness. Because our Lexicocalorimeter is a linear superposition of principled phrase scores, we also show we can m...

  13. La isla de calor estival en Temuco, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Capelli de Steffens

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Temuco es una ciudad localizada en el centro sur de Chile (38º 45’ S y 72º 40’ W. Morfológicamente, el sitio de la ciudad corresponde a las terrazas fluviales del río Cautín que se desarrollan en forma encajonada entre los cerros Ñielol (350 m y Conunhueno (360 m. Esta ciudad se ha desarrollado rápidamente en las últimas décadas, por lo tanto es necesario conocer el efecto antrópico en la misma. Para evaluar parte de ese efecto se analiza la isla de calor urbana estival en la ciudad de Temuco, Chile. Se efectuaron mediciones de temperatura del aire y humedad a través de la ciudad para determinar la forma y la intensidad de la isla de calor urbano. Se utilizaron estaciones móviles e información de una estación meteorológica fija. La ciudad presenta un comportamiento térmico diferente a lo largo del día. Durante el día genera una isla de calor que responde en líneas generales al modelo ideal de calentamiento urbano. La intensidad de la isla calórica (∆Tu-r fue 6.3ºC y 1.2ºC durante el día y la noche, respectivamente. La influencia de los cerros que limitan la ciudad es importante. El estudio confirma la idea que el clima urbano de una ciudad es un mosaico de microclimas que interactuan continuamente.

  14. Calorie restriction increases muscle mitochondrial biogenesis in healthy humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony E Civitarese

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Caloric restriction without malnutrition extends life span in a range of organisms including insects and mammals and lowers free radical production by the mitochondria. However, the mechanism responsible for this adaptation are poorly understood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The current study was undertaken to examine muscle mitochondrial bioenergetics in response to caloric restriction alone or in combination with exercise in 36 young (36.8 +/- 1.0 y, overweight (body mass index, 27.8 +/- 0.7 kg/m(2 individuals randomized into one of three groups for a 6-mo intervention: Control, 100% of energy requirements; CR, 25% caloric restriction; and CREX, caloric restriction with exercise (CREX, 12.5% CR + 12.5% increased energy expenditure (EE. In the controls, 24-h EE was unchanged, but in CR and CREX it was significantly reduced from baseline even after adjustment for the loss of metabolic mass (CR, -135 +/- 42 kcal/d, p = 0.002 and CREX, -117 +/- 52 kcal/d, p = 0.008. Participants in the CR and CREX groups had increased expression of genes encoding proteins involved in mitochondrial function such as PPARGC1A, TFAM, eNOS, SIRT1, and PARL (all, p < 0.05. In parallel, mitochondrial DNA content increased by 35% +/- 5% in the CR group (p = 0.005 and 21% +/- 4% in the CREX group (p < 0.004, with no change in the control group (2% +/- 2%. However, the activity of key mitochondrial enzymes of the TCA (tricarboxylic acid cycle (citrate synthase, beta-oxidation (beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and electron transport chain (cytochrome C oxidase II was unchanged. DNA damage was reduced from baseline in the CR (-0.56 +/- 0.11 arbitrary units, p = 0.003 and CREX (-0.45 +/- 0.12 arbitrary units, p = 0.011, but not in the controls. In primary cultures of human myotubes, a nitric oxide donor (mimicking eNOS signaling induced mitochondrial biogenesis but failed to induce SIRT1 protein expression, suggesting that additional factors may regulate SIRT1 content

  15. Metformin prevents aggressive ovarian cancer growth driven by high-energy diet: similarity with calorie restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Wahab, Zaid; Mert, Ismail; Tebbe, Calvin; Chhina, Jasdeep; Hijaz, Miriana; Morris, Robert T.; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Giri, Shailendra; Munkarah, Adnan R.; Rattan, Ramandeep

    2015-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) was recently demonstrated by us to restrict ovarian cancer growth in vivo. CR resulted in activation of energy regulating enzymes adenosine monophosphate activated kinase (AMPK) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) followed by downstream inhibition of Akt-mTOR. In the present study, we investigated the effects of metformin on ovarian cancer growth in mice fed a high energy diet (HED) and regular diet (RD) and compared them to those seen with CR in an immunocompetent isogeneic mouse ...

  16. Comparing the effects of food restriction and overeating on brain reward systems

    OpenAIRE

    Avena, Nicole M.; Murray, Susan; Gold, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Both caloric restriction and overeating have been shown to affect neural processes associated with reinforcement. Both preclinical and some clinical studies have provided evidence that food restriction may increase reward sensitivity, and while there are mixed findings regarding the effects of overeating on reward sensitivity, there is strong evidence linking this behavior with changes in reward-related brain regions. Evidence of these changes comes in part from findings that show that such e...

  17. The zoo of solitons for curve shortening in Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We provide a detailed description and classification of solutions to the curve shortening equation in Rn that are invariant under one-parameter symmetry groups of the equation. We pay particular attention to geometric properties of the curves and asymptotic properties of their ends. We find generalized helices, and a connection with curve shortening on the unit sphere Sn-1. Expanding–rotating solitons turn out to be asymptotic to generalized logarithmic spirals and the rotating–shrinking solitons are most complicated in terms of asymptotic properties of their ends. We find that almost all of the rotating–shrinking solitons are asymptotic to circles. Many of the curve shortening solitons we classify are either space curves, or evolving space curves. In addition to the figures in this paper, we have prepared a number of animations of the solitons, which can be viewed in the online supplementary data (stacks.iop.org/Non/26/1189/mmedia). (paper)

  18. Isla de calor en Toluca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Constantino Morales Méndez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El clima de la ciudad de Toluca y del mundo ha sido modificado como consecuencia del crecimiento de su población y el aumento de las dimensiones de su distribución territorial. Las variaciones atmosféricas son más acusadas entre los espacios urbanos y rurales a medida que las ciudades son más grandes y su mancha urbana es más extensa,así como de la reducción de la vegetación, el aumento en la calefacción en casas y edificios y por la contaminación del aire. Para identificar los espacios con calor más intenso por la infraestructura urbana, se propone una metodología que consiste en la determinación de los valores de temperatura que se registraron en dos días típicos de invierno y verano, durante el día y la noche,mostrando la distribución de la isla de calor en la zona de estudio, a partir de los datos delas estaciones de la Red Automática de Monitoreo Ambiental (RAMA. Asimismo, se considera el comportamiento y variación de algunas variables atmosféricas como humedad relativa, precipitación y viento, para mostrar su comportamiento relativamente anómalo en la zona urbana.

  19. Methods for Shortening and Extending the Carbon Chain in Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Rune Nygaard

    2008-01-01

    Carbohydrates play a central role in a variety of physiological and pathological processes such as HIV, cancer and diabetes. The understanding of these processes and the development of specific therapeutic agents is relying on the ability to chemically synthesize unnatural sugars, glycoconjugates...... in this thesis focuses on the development and application of transition metal mediated methods for shortening and extending the carbon chain in carbohydrates thereby providing access to lower and higher sugars.A new catalytic procedure for shortening unprotected sugars by one carbon atom has been developed...

  20. Telomere shortening reduces Alzheimer's disease amyloid pathology in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolyan, Harshvardhan; Scheffold, Annika; Heinrich, Annette; Begus-Nahrmann, Yvonne; Langkopf, Britta Heike; Hoelter, Sabine M.; Vogt-Weisenhorn, Daniela M.; Liss, Birgit; Wurst, Wolfgang; Lie, Dieter Chichung; Thal, Dietmar Rudolf; Biber, Knut; Rudolph, Karl Lenhard

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder of the elderly and advancing age is the major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease development. Telomere shortening represents one of the molecular causes of ageing that limits the proliferative capacity of cells, including neural stem cells. Studie

  1. Challenges in Shortening New Product Introduction in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Reinholdt Nyhuus; Grunow, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Drug developing companies are forced to utilize the effective protection of the patent by focusing on shortening the new product introduction [NPI] process measured as Time-to-Market [TTM]. Here the NPI process is considered and the trade-offs, which have to be address in the future are identified...

  2. Swallowing threshold parameters of subjects with shortened dental arches.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreulen, C.M.; Witter, D.J.; Tekamp, F.A.; Slagter, A.P.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To quantify swallowing threshold parameters of subjects with a moderate shortened dental arch dentition (SDA: missing molar teeth, but premolar teeth in occluding position and uninterrupted anterior regions) compared to subjects with a complete dental arch dentition (CDA). METHODS: Fourt

  3. Smog May Shorten Lives of Lung Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_160280.html Smog May Shorten Lives of Lung Cancer Patients Large review in California finds lower survival rates among those with most exposure to dirty air To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. (*this news item will not ...

  4. Residual force enhancement following shortening is speed-dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Rafael; Power, Geoffrey A.; Mende, Esther; Seiberl, Wolfgang; Herzog, Walter

    2016-01-01

    The steady-state isometric force following active muscle shortening or lengthening is smaller (force depression; FD) or greater (residual force enhancement; RFE) than a purely isometric contraction at the corresponding length. The mechanisms underlying these phenomena are not explained within the context of the cross-bridge theory and are rarely studied in concert. Previous studies have shown RFE to be speed-independent. In the present study, we investigated if RFE preceded by active shortening is time-dependent by electrically evoking RFE in the human adductor pollicis muscle. The results shown that a slow stretch following FD fully re-established RFE compared to higher speeds of stretch. The mechanism(s) responsible for the recovery of RFE following a preceding shortening contraction (FD) might be associated with the recovery of cross-bridge based force and/or the re-engagement of a passive structural element (titin). Voluntary interaction with one’s environment involves highly coordinated shortening and lengthening muscle contractions. Therefore comprehending these history-dependent muscle properties in the context of movement control is paramount in understanding the behavior of in vivo motor control. PMID:26869508

  5. Calorie restriction reduces the incidence of myeloid leukemia induced by a single whole-body radiation in C3H/He mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, K; Inoue, T; Nojima, K; Hirabayashi, Y; Sado, T

    1997-03-18

    Dietary restriction, especially caloric restriction, is a major modifier in experimental carcinogenesis and is known to decrease significantly the incidence of neoplasms. Gross and Dreyfuss [Gross, L. & Dreyfuss, Y. (1984) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81, 7596-7598; Gross, L. & Dreyfuss, Y. (1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 7928-7931] reported that a 36% restriction in caloric intake dramatically decreased the radiation-induced solid tumors and/or leukemias. Their protocol predominantly produced lymphatic neoplasms. It is of interest to observe the effect of caloric restriction on radiation-induced myeloid leukemia, because the disease was observed to have been increased in the survivors of the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The spontaneous incidence of myeloid leukemia in C3H/He male mice is 1%, and the incidence increased to 23.3% when 3 Gy of whole-body x-ray irradiation was given. However, the incidence of myeloid leukemia was found to be significantly decreased by caloric restriction; it was reduced to 7.9% and 10.7% when restriction was started before (6 weeks old) and after (10 weeks old) irradiation, respectively. In addition, the onset of the myeloid leukemia in both restricted groups was prolonged to a greater extent as compared with the control diet group. Caloric restriction demonstrated a significant prolongation of the life span in the groups on a restricted diet after having been exposed to irradiation, either before or after dietary restriction, in comparison with mice that were only irradiated. PMID:9122244

  6. Low Caloric Sweeteners for Diabetes and Obesity Care and Their

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asif

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and obesity are two common human disorders that affecting human health and invite various diseases and disorders in normal body functions. These diseases are very common worldwide. Diabetes occurs when high blood sugar levels develop. This happens when body can’t make and use all of the insulin it needs to blood sugar normally to keep blood sugar levels as normal as possible to control diabetes. Diabetic patients will need to follow a diet plan, do exercise and possibly take insulin injections. As part of eating plan, health care provider, and dietitian may ask to limit the amount of carbohydrates eat each day. Low-calorie sweeteners are one easy tool to help for follow eating plan. Obesity is more susceptible and often been associated with frequent ingestion of high energy food in high amount and high intake of sugars such as fermentable sugars such as sucrose, fructose, glucose, and maltose. Both diseases are may be genetically or due to hormonal imbalances. High energy sweeteners may causes caries in the teeth particularly susceptible to the children. Increased calorie intake associated with sugars and carbohydrates, especially when associated with physical inactivity, has been implicated in obesity. Fortunately, low calorie artificial and natural alternatives of sugars have been developed as alternatives to fermentable sugars and have shown promise in these health issues. Although there are only few artificial sweeteners (saccharin, aspartame, acesulfam potassium, sucralose, cyclamate that have been approved as food additives by the Food and Drug Administration and additional other low-caloric sweeteners (sugar alcohols, neotame, stevia, erythritol, xylitol, tagatose that have FDA-generally recognized as safe. Given the health impact of sugars and other carbohydrates, professionals should be aware of the marketed available low caloric sweeteners and both their benefits and potential risks.

  7. Cost and Quality Consequences of Shortening the Project Life Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Rasta, Mohammadreza

    2013-01-01

    Shortening duration of project is a challenging task. If time is reduced with no attention is paid to additional risk, not only no time reduction is achieved but also it can exert counter effect by increasing the time, imposing more expenses, and causing quality loss due to lack of meeting the customer expectations. Two methods were approved by PMI and they have been extensively discussed in literature, they are Fast Tracking and Critical Chain methods. Fast tracking performs two sequential a...

  8. The Randomized Shortened Dental Arch Study: Tooth Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, M H; Weber, A; Marré, B; Gitt, I.; Gerß, J.; Hannak, W.; Hartmann, S.; Heydecke, G; Huppertz, J.; Jahn, F; Ludwig, A.; Mundt, T.; Kern, M; Klein, V; Pospiech, P.

    2010-01-01

    The evidence concerning the management of shortened dental arch (SDA) cases is sparse. This multi-center study was aimed at generating data on outcomes and survival rates for two common treatments, removable dental prostheses (RDP) for molar replacement or no replacement (SDA). The hypothesis was that the treatments lead to different incidences of tooth loss. We included 215 patients with complete molar loss in one jaw. Molars were either replaced by RDP or not replaced, according to the SDA ...

  9. Evaluación de una bomba de calor de Carnot operando en tiempo finito

    OpenAIRE

    José Alfredo Jiménez Bernal; Claudia del Carmen Gutiérrez Torres; Juan Gabriel Barbosa Saldaña; Pedro Quinto Diez

    2006-01-01

    El desarrollo de un nuevo modelo matemático para la evaluación del coeficiente de operación de una bomba de calor de Carnot que opera en tiempo finito (COPBCTF) se presenta en este trabajo. Se asume que el ciclo en el que opera esta bomba de calor es internamente reversible y externamente irreversible. Las irreversibilidades que ocurren debido a la duración finita de tiempo del ciclo se incluyen en los dos procesos de trasferencia de calor que forman parte del ciclo. Por otra parte, la contri...

  10. Estimation of circumferential fiber shortening velocity by echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschhaupt, D G; Sodt, P C; Hutcheon, N A; Arcilla, R A

    1983-07-01

    The M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiograms of 40 young patients were analyzed to compare the mean circumferential fiber shortening velocity (Vcf) of the left ventricle calculated separately by two methods. The mean circumferential fiber shortening velocity was derived from the M-mode echocardiogram as minor axis shortening/ejection time and derived from the two-dimensional echocardiogram as actual circumference change/ejection time. With computer assistance, circumference was determined from the short-axis two-dimensional echocardiographic images during end-diastole and end-systole. Good correlations were obtained between the left ventricular diameter derived by M-mode echocardiography and the vertical axis during end-diastole (r = 0.79) and end-systole (r = 0.88) derived by two-dimensional echocardiography. Likewise, high correlations were noted between diameter and circumference in end-diastole (r = 0.89) and end-systole (r = 0.88). However, comparison of Vcf obtained by M-mode echocardiography with that obtained by two-dimensional echocardiography showed only fair correlation (r = 0.68). Moreover, the diameter/circumference ratio determined in end-diastole and end-systole differed significantly (p less than 0.001), possibly owing to the change in geometry of the ventricular sector image during systole. Although Vcf derived by M-mode echocardiography is a useful index of left ventricular performance, it does not truly reflect the circumference change during systole.

  11. Meat toughening does not occur when rigor shortening is prevented.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohmaraie, M; Doumit, M E; Wheeler, T L

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that meat toughening during the first 24 h postmortem results from sarcomere shortening during rigor mortis development. Eleven market-weight lambs were used to measure changes in shear force of clamped longissimus during rigor development. Within 15 min of exsanguination, while attached at both ends, each longissimus was separated from the vertebrae body and clamped between three sets of metal plates to prevent muscle shortening (six clamped sections per lamb). Five of the clamped sections were placed at -1.1 degrees C for 0, 3, 6, 12, or 24 h. After storage at their respective times at -1.1 degrees C, the samples were placed at -30 degrees C for 90 min and then at -5 degrees C for 8 d. The sixth section (168-h section) was stored at -1.1 degrees C for the first 24 h, at 4 degrees C for 144 h, and then treated the same as other sampling times. Sections were sampled for pH, sarcomere length, shear force, and Western blot analyses before and after storage at -5 degrees C. Shear force values were the same (P > .05) from 0 to 24 h (4.5 kg at 0 h to 4.9 kg at 24 h) then declined (P slaughter is most likely due to sarcomere shortening.

  12. Sleep Restriction Worsens Mood and Emotion Regulation in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Katherine T.; Desai, Anjali; Field, Julie; Miller, Lauren E.; Rausch, Joseph; Beebe, Dean W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The relationship between inadequate sleep and mood has been well-established in adults and is supported primarily by correlational data in younger populations. Given that adolescents often experience shortened sleep on school nights, we sought to better understand the effect of experimentally induced chronic sleep restriction on…

  13. Conjugate heat transfer analysis using the Calore and Fuego codes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, Nicholas Donald, Jr.

    2007-09-01

    Full coupling of the Calore and Fuego codes has been exercised in this report. This is done to allow solution of general conjugate heat transfer applications that require more than a fluid flow analysis with a very simple conduction region (solved using Fuego alone) or more than a complex conduction/radiation analysis using a simple Newton's law of cooling boundary condition (solved using Calore alone). Code coupling allows for solution of both complex fluid and solid regions, with or without thermal radiation, either participating or non-participating. A coupled physics model is developed to compare to data taken from a horizontal concentric cylinder arrangement using the Penlight heating apparatus located at the thermal test complex (TTC) at Sandia National Laboratories. The experimental set-up requires use of a conjugate heat transfer analysis including conduction, nonparticipating thermal radiation, and internal natural convection. The fluids domain in the model is complex and can be characterized by stagnant fluid regions, laminar circulation, a transition regime, and low-level turbulent regions, all in the same domain. Subsequently, the fluids region requires a refined mesh near the wall so that numerical resolution is achieved. Near the wall, buoyancy exhibits its strongest influence on turbulence (i.e., where turbulence conditions exist). Because low-Reynolds number effects are important in anisotropic natural convective flows of this type, the {ovr {nu}{sup 2}}-f turbulence model in Fuego is selected and compared to results of laminar flow only. Coupled code predictions are compared to temperature measurements made both in the solid regions and a fluid region. Turbulent and laminar flow predictions are nearly identical for both regions. Predicted temperatures in the solid regions compare well to data. The largest discrepancies occur at the bottom of the annulus. Predicted temperatures in the fluid region, for the most part, compare well to data. As

  14. DETERMINACIÓN DEL CALOR DE FRAGUADO DE CEMENTO POR MICROCALORIMETRIA DE CONDUCCIÓN DE CALOR: Efecto de glucosa y sacarosa como aditivos retardantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Giraldo G.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se determina el calor de fraguado del cemento Río Claro tipo III (Río Claro, Antioquia, Colombia por microcalorimetría de conducción de calor; así como también los efectos de la glucosa y de la sacarosa en el proceso de fraguado de este material. Al emplear 0,15 y 0,05% ( % en peso de estos aditivos en la preparación de las pastas, se observan retardos considerables en el fraguado de las mismas. Los aditivos también modifican el calor de fraguado: la pasta libre de estos presenta un valor de 38,03 J/g en tanto que la adición de glucosa y sacarosa producen valores menores, excepto en el caso de la sacarosa al 0,05% donde se observa un efecto térmico de 55.80 J/s,

  15. Use of caloric and noncaloric sweeteners in US consumer packaged foods, 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shu Wen; Slining, Meghan M; Popkin, Barry M

    2012-11-01

    Our understanding of the use of caloric and noncaloric sweeteners in the US food supply is limited. This study uses full ingredient list and Nutrition Facts label data from Gladson Nutrition Database and nationally representative purchases of consumer packaged foods from Nielsen Homescan in 2005 through 2009 to understand the use of caloric sweeteners (including fruit juice concentrate) and noncaloric sweeteners in consumer packaged foods. Of the 85,451 uniquely formulated foods purchased during 2005 through 2009, 75% contain sweeteners (68% with caloric sweetener only, 1% with noncaloric sweetener only, 6% with both caloric and noncaloric sweeteners). Caloric sweetener are in >95% of cakes/cookies/pies, granola/protein/energy bars, ready-to-eat cereals, sweet snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Noncaloric sweetener are in >33% of yogurts and sport/energy drinks, 42% of waters (plain or flavored), and most dietetic sweetened beverages. Across unique products, corn syrup is the most commonly listed sweetener, followed by sorghum, cane sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, and fruit juice concentrate. Also, 77% of all calories purchased in the United States in 2005-2009 contained caloric sweeteners and 3% contained noncaloric sweeteners, and 73% of the volume of foods purchased contained caloric sweetener and 15% contained noncaloric sweetener. Trends during this period suggest a shift toward the purchase of noncaloric sweetener-containing products. Our study poses a challenge toward monitoring sweetener consumption in the United States by discussing the need and options available to improve measures of caloric sweetener and noncaloric sweetener and additional requirements on Nutrition Facts labels on consumer packaged foods. PMID:23102182

  16. Impact of time since last caloric intake on blood glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moebus, Susanne; Göres, Laura; Lösch, Christian; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz

    2011-09-01

    Blood glucose (BG) is usually measured after a caloric restriction of at least 8 h; however evidence-based recommendations for the duration of a fasting status are missing. Here we analyze the effect of fasting duration on levels of BG to determine the minimal fasting duration to achieve comparable BG levels to conventional fasting measurements. We used data of a cross-sectional study on primary care patients, performed in October 2005. We included 28,024 individuals (age-range 18-99 years; 63% women) without known diabetes mellitus and without missing data for BG and fasting status. We computed general linear models, adjusting for age, sex, time of blood withdrawal, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, total- and HDL-cholesterol, physical activity, smoking, intake of beta-blocker and alcohol. We tested the intra-individual variability with respect to fasting status. Overall, the mean BG differed only slightly between individuals fasting ≥ 8 h and those fasting fasting differences of BG diminished in men to -0.08 mmol/L (95%-CI: -0.15; -0.01 mmol/L), in women to -0.07 mmol/L (-0.12; -0.03 mmol/L) compared to individuals fasting ≥ 8 h. Noteworthy, age, time of day of blood withdrawal, physical activity, and intake of hard liquor influenced BG levels considerably. Our data challenge the necessity for a fasting duration of ≥ 8 h when measuring blood glucose, suggesting a random sampling or a fasting duration of 3 h as sufficient. Rather, our study indicates that essentially more effort on the assessment of additional external/internal factors on BG levels is necessary. PMID:21822717

  17. Herdabilidade da necessidade de calor para a antese e brotação em pessegueiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citadin Idemir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A herdabilidade da necessidade de calor para antese e brotação em pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] foi estudada em ramos de 16 cultivares e seleções de baixa, média e alta necessidade de calor e 11 progênies oriundas de hibridações entre elas. Os ramos foram submetidos, previamente, a 2 ºC por 500 horas para satisfazer a necessidade de frio. O valor estimado da herdabilidade média para a necessidade de calor em gemas florais foi de 45% e 57%, em 1999 e 2000, respectivamente. Para gemas vegetativas, o valor estimado foi de 30%, em 1999. 'BR-1', 'Barbosa', 'Chula', 'Chinoca' e 'Eldorado' transmitem melhor o caráter necessidade de calor para as progênies do que os demais genótipos estudados. Os registros observados suportam um modelo de herança quantitativa com genes de maior efeito para menor necessidade de calor. A seleção de indivíduos com maior necessidade de calor para floração tende a retardar a floração sem, contudo, retardar com a mesma intensidade a época de brotação.

  18. Caloric compensation for sugar-sweetened beverages in meals: A population-based study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombi-Vaca, Maria Fernanda; Sichieri, Rosely; Verly-Jr, Eliseu

    2016-03-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption can cause positive energy balance, therefore leading to weight gain. A plausible biological mechanism to explain this association is through weak caloric compensation for liquid calories. However, there is an ongoing debate surrounding SSB calorie compensation. The body of evidence comes from a diversity of study designs and highly controlled settings assessing food and beverage intake. Our study aimed to test for caloric compensation of SSB in the free-living setting of daily meals. We analyzed two food records of participants (age 10 years or older) from the 2008-2009 National Dietary Survey (Brazil, N = 34,003). We used multilevel analyses to estimate the within-subject effects of SSB on food intake. Sugar-sweetened beverage calories were not compensated for when comparing daily energy intake over two days for each individual. When comparing meals, we found 42% of caloric compensation for breakfast, no caloric compensation for lunch and zero to 22% of caloric compensation for dinner, differing by household per capita income. In conclusion, SSB consumption contributed to higher energy intake due to weak caloric compensation. Discouraging the intake of SSB especially during lunch and dinner may help reduce excessive energy intake and lead to better weight management. PMID:26708263

  19. Caloric stimulation with near infrared radiation does not induce paradoxical nystagmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, L E; Asenov, D R; Di Martino, E

    2011-04-01

    Near infrared radiation can be used for warm stimulation in caloric irrigation of the equilibrium organ. Aim of this study was to determine whether near infrared radiation offers effective stimulation of the vestibular organ, whether it is well tolerated by the patients and especially whether it is a viable alternative to warm air stimulation in patients with defects of the tympanic membrane and radical mastoid cavities. Patients with perforations of the tympanic membrane (n = 15) and with radical mastoid cavities (n = 13) were tested both with near infrared radiation and warm dry air. A caloric-induced nystagmus could be seen equally effectively and rapidly in all patients. Contrary to stimulation with warm dry air, no paradoxical nystagmus was observed following caloric irrigation with a warm stimulus (near infrared radiation). Results of a questionnaire showed excellent patient acceptance of near infrared stimulation with no arousal effects or unpleasant feeling. In conclusion, near infrared radiation proved to be an alternative method of caloric irrigation to warm dry air in patients with tympanic membrane defects and radical mastoid cavities. Near infrared radiation is pleasant, quick, contact free, sterile and quiet. With this method an effective caloric warm stimulus is available. If near infrared radiation is used for caloric stimulus no evaporative heat loss occurs.

  20. Influence on longevity of blueberry, cinnamon, green and black tea, pomegranate, sesame, curcumin, morin, pycnogenol, quercetin, and taxifolin fed iso-calorically to long-lived, F1 hybrid mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindler, Stephen R; Mote, Patricia L; Flegal, James M; Teter, Bruce

    2013-04-01

    Phytonutrients reportedly extend the life span of Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, and mice. We tested extracts of blueberry, pomegranate, green and black tea, cinnamon, sesame, and French maritime pine bark (Pycnogenol and taxifolin), as well as curcumin, morin, and quercetin for their effects on the life span of mice. While many of these phytonutrients reportedly extend the life span of model organisms, we found no significant effect on the life span of male F1 hybrid mice, even though the dosages used reportedly produce defined therapeutic end points in mice. The compounds were fed beginning at 12 months of age. The control and treatment groups were iso-caloric with respect to one another. A 40% calorically restricted and other groups not reported here did experience life span extension. Body weights were un-changed relative to controls for all but two supplemented groups, indicating most supplements did not change energy absorption or utilization. Tea extracts with morin decreased weight, whereas quercetin, taxifolin, and Pycnogenol together increased weight. These changes may be due to altered locomotion or fatty acid biosynthesis. Published reports of murine life span extension using curcumin or tea components may have resulted from induced caloric restriction. Together, our results do not support the idea that isolated phytonutrient anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatories are potential longevity therapeutics, even though consumption of whole fruits and vegetables is associated with enhanced health span and life span. PMID:23432089

  1. Sex-Dependent Metabolic, Neuroendocrine, and Cognitive Responses to Dietary Energy Restriction and Excess

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Bronwen; Pearson, Michele; Kebejian, Lisa; Golden, Erin; Keselman, Alex; Bender, Meredith; Carlson, Olga; Egan, Josephine; Ladenheim, Bruce; Cadet, Jean-Lud; Kevin G Becker; Wood, William; Duffy, Kara; Vinayakumar, Prabhu; Maudsley, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    Females and males typically play different roles in survival of the species and would be expected to respond differently to food scarcity or excess. To elucidate the physiological basis of sex differences in responses to energy intake, we maintained groups of male and female rats for 6 months on diets with usual, reduced [20% and 40% caloric restriction (CR), and intermittent fasting (IF)], or elevated (high-fat/high-glucose) energy levels and measured multiple physiological variables related...

  2. Simulation studies of circular muscle contraction, longitudinal muscle shortening, and their coordination in esophageal transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Wenjun; Pandolfino, John E; Kahrilas, Peter J; Patankar, Neelesh A

    2015-08-15

    On the basis of a fully coupled active musculomechanical model for esophageal transport, we aimed to find the roles of circular muscle (CM) contraction and longitudinal muscle (LM) shortening in esophageal transport, and the influence of their coordination. Two groups of studies were conducted using a computational model. In the first group, bolus transport with only CM contraction, only LM shortening, or both was simulated. Overall features and detailed information on pressure and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of mucosal and the two muscle layers were analyzed. In the second group, bolus transport with varying delay in CM contraction or LM shortening was simulated. The effect of delay on esophageal transport was studied. For cases showing abnormal transport, pressure and CSA were further analyzed. CM contraction by itself was sufficient to transport bolus, but LM shortening by itself was not. CM contraction decreased the CSA and the radius of the muscle layer locally, but LM shortening increased the CSA. Synchronized CM contraction and LM shortening led to overlapping of muscle CSA and pressure peaks. Advancing LM shortening adversely influenced bolus transport, whereas lagging LM shortening was irrelevant to bolus transport. In conclusion, CM contraction generates high squeezing pressure, which plays a primary role in esophageal transport. LM shortening increases muscle CSA, which helps to strengthen CM contraction. Advancing LM shortening decreases esophageal distensibility in the bolus region. Lagging LM shortening no longer helps esophageal transport. Synchronized CM contraction and LM shortening seems to be most effective for esophageal transport.

  3. AN IMPROVED OPTIMAL CHANNEL SHORTENING ALGORITHM FOR DMT MODULATION SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In Discrete Multi-Tone (DMT) modulation systems, the well-known technique to overcome the Inter-Carrier Interference (ICI)/Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI) caused by the inadequate Cyclic Prefix (CP) length is to use a Time-Domain Equalizer (TDE) at the receiver front-end. An algorithm used to calculate the coefficients of the optimal shortening Time Domain Equalizer (TDE) was given by Melsa. However, this al gorithm requires that the length of the TDE must be smaller than or equal to the memory length of the target impulse response. This paper modifies this algorithm and makes it not only fit for calculating the coefficients of the TDE with arbitrary length, but also have a much less computational time.

  4. The randomized shortened dental arch study: tooth loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, M H; Weber, A; Marré, B; Gitt, I; Gerss, J; Hannak, W; Hartmann, S; Heydecke, G; Huppertz, J; Jahn, F; Ludwig, A; Mundt, T; Kern, M; Klein, V; Pospiech, P; Stumbaum, M; Wolfart, S; Wöstmann, B; Busche, E; Böning, K; Luthardt, R G

    2010-08-01

    The evidence concerning the management of shortened dental arch (SDA) cases is sparse. This multi-center study was aimed at generating data on outcomes and survival rates for two common treatments, removable dental prostheses (RDP) for molar replacement or no replacement (SDA). The hypothesis was that the treatments lead to different incidences of tooth loss. We included 215 patients with complete molar loss in one jaw. Molars were either replaced by RDP or not replaced, according to the SDA concept. First tooth loss after treatment was the primary outcome measure. This event occurred in 13 patients in the RDP group and nine patients in the SDA group. The respective Kaplan-Meier survival rates at 38 months were 0.83 (95% CI: 0.74-0.91) in the RDP group and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.78-0.95) in the SDA group, the difference being non-significant. PMID:20400723

  5. Effects of caloric vestibular stimulation on serotoninergic system in the media vestibular nuclei of guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Fu-rong; LIU Jun-xiu; LI Xue-pei; MAO Jian-jun; ZHANG Qun-dan; JIA Hong-bo; MAO Lan-quan; ZHAO Rui

    2007-01-01

    Background Anatomic and electrophysiological studies have revealed that the neurons located in the media vestibular nuclei (MVN) receive most of the sensory vestibular input coming from the ipsilateral labyrinth and the responses of MVN neurons to caloric stimulation directly reflect changes in primary vestibular afferent activity. The aim of this study was to clarify the intrinsic characteristics of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) release in the MVN during the period of vertigo induced by caloric stimulation.Methods We used an in vivo microdialysis technique to examine the effects of caloric stimulation on the serotoninergic system in MVN. Twenty four guinea pigs were randomly divided into the groups of irrigation of the ear canal with hot water (n=6), ice water (n=6) and 37℃ water (n=4), and the groups of irrigation of the auricle with hot water (n=4) and ice water (n=4), according to different caloric vestibular stimulation. We examined the animal's caloric nystagmus with a two-channel electronystagmographic recorder (ENG), and meanwhile examine serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) level in the MVN with microdialysis technique after caloric stimulation. Results In the caloric test the hot water (44℃) irrigation of the right external auditory canal induced horizontal nystagmus towards the right side lasting about 60 seconds and the ice water irrigation of the right external auditory canal induced it towards the left side lasting for about 90 seconds. No nystagmus was induced by 37℃ water irrigation of the external ear canal. Therefore, it was used as a negative control stimulation to the middle ear. The MVN 5-HT levels significantly increased in the first 5-minute collecting interval and increased to 254% and 189% of the control group in the second collecting interval in response to caloric vestibular stimulation with ice water and hot water respectively. The serotonin release was not distinctly changed by the irrigation of the auricle with ice water

  6. A Biomechanical Model of the Inner Ear: Numerical Simulation of the Caloric Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Whether two vertical semicircular canals can receive thermal stimuli remains controversial. This study examined the caloric response in the three semicircular canals to the clinical hot caloric test using the finite element method. The results of the developed model showed the horizontal canal (HC cupula maximally deflected to the utricle side by approximately 3 μm during the hot supine test. The anterior canal cupula began to receive the caloric stimuli about 20 s after the HC cupula, and it maximally deflected to the canal side by 0.55 μm. The posterior canal cupula did not receive caloric stimuli until approximately 40 s after the HC cupula, and it maximally deflected to the canal side by 0.34 μm. Although the endolymph flow and the cupular deformation change with respect to the head position during the test, the supine test ensures the maximal caloric response in the HC, but no substantial improvement for the responses of the two vertical canals was observed. In conclusion, while the usual supine test is the optimum test for evaluating the functions of the inner ear, more irrigation time is needed in order to effectively clinically examine the vertical canals.

  7. A biomechanical model of the inner ear: numerical simulation of the caloric test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shuang; Liu, Yingxi; Sun, Xiuzhen; Zhao, Wei; Su, Yingfeng; Yu, Shen; Liu, Wenlong

    2013-01-01

    Whether two vertical semicircular canals can receive thermal stimuli remains controversial. This study examined the caloric response in the three semicircular canals to the clinical hot caloric test using the finite element method. The results of the developed model showed the horizontal canal (HC) cupula maximally deflected to the utricle side by approximately 3 μm during the hot supine test. The anterior canal cupula began to receive the caloric stimuli about 20 s after the HC cupula, and it maximally deflected to the canal side by 0.55 μm. The posterior canal cupula did not receive caloric stimuli until approximately 40 s after the HC cupula, and it maximally deflected to the canal side by 0.34 μm. Although the endolymph flow and the cupular deformation change with respect to the head position during the test, the supine test ensures the maximal caloric response in the HC, but no substantial improvement for the responses of the two vertical canals was observed. In conclusion, while the usual supine test is the optimum test for evaluating the functions of the inner ear, more irrigation time is needed in order to effectively clinically examine the vertical canals.

  8. Efecto del calor aportado en recargues nanoestructurados base hierro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Gualco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se han desarrollado consumibles de soldadura que depositan recubrimientos duros de aleaciones base hierro nanoestructuradas de gran resistencia al desgaste abrasivo. Las resistencias al desgaste erosivo y abrasivo están controladas principalmente por la composición química y la microestructura. A su vez, la microestructura del metal depositado puede presentar variaciones con el procedimiento de soldadura empleado, especialmente en relación al aporte térmico. Los parámetros operativos que definen el aporte térmico (tensión, corriente y velocidad de soldadura afectan aspectos como la geometría del cordón (ancho, penetración y sobremonta y la dilución con el material base. El propósito de este trabajo fue estudiar el efecto del calor aportado sobre las características geométricas del cordón, la dilución y la evolución microestructural de una aleación nanoestructurada base hierro, depositada por FCAW. Se soldaron muestras con aportes térmicos de entre 0,5 y 3,5 kJ/mm. Sobre cada cupón soldado se realizó un relevamiento dimensional, se analizó la composición química y se caracterizó la microestructura usando microscopías óptica y electrónica de barrido y difracción de rayos X. También se midieron la microdureza del depósito, el tamaño de cristalita y el grado de dilución. Se observó una gran influencia de las condiciones de proceso sobre la geometría del cordón. La dilución varió entre un 30 y un 40%, la microdureza del depósito se encontró entre 800 y 870 HV1 y el tamaño de cristalita osciló entre 105 y 130 nm, en función de las variables de proceso empleadas. Las mayores durezas y los menores tamaños de cristalita se obtuvieron con el menor aporte térmico, asociado a una menor dilución.

  9. Calorie Restriction in Mammals and Simple Model Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giusi Taormina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Calorie restriction (CR, which usually refers to a 20–40% reduction in calorie intake, can effectively prolong lifespan preventing most age-associated diseases in several species. However, recent data from both human and nonhumans point to the ratio of macronutrients rather than the caloric intake as a major regulator of both lifespan and health-span. In addition, specific components of the diet have recently been identified as regulators of some age-associated intracellular signaling pathways in simple model systems. The comprehension of the mechanisms underpinning these findings is crucial since it may increase the beneficial effects of calorie restriction making it accessible to a broader population as well.

  10. Calorie restriction in mammals and simple model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taormina, Giusi; Mirisola, Mario G

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR), which usually refers to a 20-40% reduction in calorie intake, can effectively prolong lifespan preventing most age-associated diseases in several species. However, recent data from both human and nonhumans point to the ratio of macronutrients rather than the caloric intake as a major regulator of both lifespan and health-span. In addition, specific components of the diet have recently been identified as regulators of some age-associated intracellular signaling pathways in simple model systems. The comprehension of the mechanisms underpinning these findings is crucial since it may increase the beneficial effects of calorie restriction making it accessible to a broader population as well. PMID:24883306

  11. Normal physical activity obliterates the deleterious effects of high-caloric intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Pedersen, Maria; Solomon, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    A high-caloric intake combined with a sedentary lifestyle is an important player in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study was undertaken to examine if the level of physical activity has impact on the metabolic effects of a high-caloric (+2,000 kcal/day) intake...... visceral fat compared to the active group. Following the two-week period, the inactive group also experienced a poorer glycaemic control, increased endogenous glucose production, decreased hepatic insulin extraction, increased baseline plasma levels of total cholesterol and LDL, and a decreased cognitive....... Therefore, healthy individuals on a high caloric intake were randomized to either 10,000 or 1,500 steps per day for 14 days. Step-number, total energy expenditure, dietary records, neuropsychological tests, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)- and abdominal...

  12. Determinación del calor de fraguado de cemento por icrocalorimetría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Girlado G.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Se determina el calor de fraguado del cemento Río Claro tipo III (Río Claro, Antioquia, Colombia por microcalorimetría de conducción de calor; así como también los efectos de la glucosa y de la sacarosa en el proceso de fraguado de este material. Al emplear 0,15 y 0,05% ( % en peso de estos aditivos en la preparación de las pastas, se observan retardos considerables en el fraguado de las mismas. Los aditivos también modifican el calor de fraguado: la pasta libre de estos presenta un valor de 38,03 J/g en tanto que la adición de glucosa y sacarosa producen valores menores, excepto en el caso de la sacarosa al 0,05% donde se observa un efecto térmico de 55.80 J/s,

  13. A distinct adipose tissue gene expression response to caloric restriction predicts 6-mo weight maintenance in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutch, David M.; Pers, Tune Hannes; Temanni, M. Ramzi;

    2011-01-01

    Weight loss has been shown to reduce risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes; however, successful maintenance of weight loss continues to pose a challenge.......Weight loss has been shown to reduce risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes; however, successful maintenance of weight loss continues to pose a challenge....

  14. A distinct adipose tissue gene expression response to caloric restriction predicts 6-mo weight maintenance in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutch, D. M.; Pers, Tune Hannes; Temanni, M. R.;

    2011-01-01

    Background: Weight loss has been shown to reduce risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes; however, successful maintenance of weight loss continues to pose a challenge. Objective: The present study was designed to assess whether changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue (sc......AT) gene expression during a low-calorie diet (LCD) could be used to differentiate and predict subjects who experience successful short-term weight maintenance from subjects who experience weight regain. Design: Forty white women followed a dietary protocol consisting of an 8-wk LCD phase followed by a 6...

  15. Caloric restriction induces changes in insulin and body weight measurements that are inversely associated with subsequent weight regain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Monica H T; Holst, Claus; Astrup, Arne;

    2012-01-01

    Successful weight maintenance following weight loss is challenging for many people. Identifying predictors of longer-term success will help target clinical resources more effectively. To date, focus has been predominantly on the identification of predictors of weight loss. The goal of the current...

  16. Influence of personal and lesson factors on caloric expenditure in physical education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ang; Chen; Haichun; Sun; Xihe; Zhu; Catherine; D.Ennis

    2012-01-01

    <正>Background:Increasing caloric expenditure in physical education is considered an effective school-based approach to addressing the child obesity epidemic.This study was designed to determine synergistic influences of student characteristics and lesson factors on caloric expenditure in elementary and middle school physical education. Methods:The study used a multi-level design.Level-1 factors included personal characteristics:age,gender,and body mass index.Level-2 factors included lesson length,content,and school level.Based on the Center for Disease Control and Prevention age—gender adjusted growth chart,students in 87 classes from 14 elementary and 15 middle schools were pre-screened into "Overweight","Healthy weight",or "Thin" groups.One boy and one girl were randomly selected from each group in each class as data providers(264 elementary and 294 middle school students).Caloric expenditure was measured in 243 physical education lessons using accelerometers. Results:Analysis of variance revealed and hierarchical linear modeling confirmed separate age by body mass index,age by gender,and content by lesson—length interaction effects,suggesting that the personal and lesson factors influenced caloric expenditure independently.Older male and heavier students burned more calories in all lessons.Students burned more calories in 45—60 min sport skill or fitness lessons than in shorter (30 min) or longer(75—90 min) game or multi-activity lessons. Conclusions:The hypothesized cross-level interaction was not observed in the data.Caloric expenditure can be optimized in 45—60 min sport skill or fitness development lessons.It can be recommended that schools adopt 45—60 min lesson length and provide skill and fitness development tasks in physical education to maximize caloric expenditure.

  17. Caloric Intake From Fast Food Among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikraman, Sundeep; Fryar, Cheryl D; Ogden, Cynthia L

    2015-09-01

    Consumption of fast food has been linked to weight gain in adults (1). Fast food has also been associated with higher caloric intake and poorer diet quality in children and adolescents (2). From 1994 through 2006, caloric intake from fast food increased from 10% to 13% among children aged 2-18 years (3). This report presents the most recent data on the percentage of calories consumed from fast food among U.S. children by sex, age group, race and Hispanic origin, poverty status, and weight status. PMID:26375457

  18. Absence of rotation perception during warm water caloric irrigation in some seniors with postural instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie eChiarovano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Falls in seniors are a major public health problem. Falls lead to fear of falling, reduced mobility and decreased quality of life. Vestibular dysfunction is one of the fall risk factors. The relationship between objective measures of vestibular responses and age has been studied. However, the effects of age on vestibular perception during caloric stimulation have not been studied.Twenty senior subjects were included in the study separated in two groups: 10 seniors reporting postural instability (PI and exhibiting absence of vestibular perception when they tested with caloric stimulation and 10 sex and age-matched seniors with no such problems (controls. We assessed vestibular perception on a binary rating scale during the warm irrigation of the caloric test. The function of the various vestibular receptors was assessed using video-head impulse test (vHIT, caloric tests, and cervical and ocular VEMPs. The Equitest was used to evaluate balance. No horizontal canal dysfunction assessed using both caloric test and vHIT was detected in either group. No significant difference was detected between PI and control groups for the peak SPV of caloric induced ocular nystagmus or for the HVOR gain. All of the controls perceived rotation when the maximal SPV during warm irrigation was equal to or greater than 15°/s. None of the subjects in the PI group perceived rotation even while the peak SPV exceeded 15°/s, providing objective evidence of normal peripheral horizontal canal function. All of the PI group had abnormal Equitest results, particularly in the two last conditions.These investigations show for the first time that vestibular perception can be absent during a caloric test despite normal horizontal canal function. We call this dissociation vestibular neglect. Patients with poor vestibular perception may not be aware of postural perturbations and so will not correct for them. Thus, falls in the elderly may result, amongst other factors, from a

  19. Absence of Rotation Perception during Warm Water Caloric Irrigation in Some Seniors with Postural Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarovano, Elodie; Vidal, Pierre-Paul; Magnani, Christophe; Lamas, Georges; Curthoys, Ian S; de Waele, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Falls in seniors are a major public health problem. Falls lead to fear of falling, reduced mobility, and decreased quality of life. Vestibular dysfunction is one of the fall risk factors. The relationship between objective measures of vestibular responses and age has been studied. However, the effects of age on vestibular perception during caloric stimulation have not been studied. Twenty senior subjects were included in the study, and separated in two groups: 10 seniors reporting postural instability (PI) and exhibiting absence of vestibular perception when they tested with caloric stimulation and 10 sex- and age-matched seniors with no such problems (controls). We assessed vestibular perception on a binary rating scale during the warm irrigation of the caloric test. The function of the various vestibular receptors was assessed using video head impulse test (vHIT), caloric tests, and cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials. The Equitest was used to evaluate balance. No horizontal canal dysfunction assessed using both caloric test and vHIT was detected in either group. No significant difference was detected between PI and control groups for the peak SPV of caloric-induced ocular nystagmus or for the HVOR gain. All the controls perceived rotation when the maximal SPV during warm irrigation was equal to or ≥15°/s. None of the subjects in the PI group perceived rotation even while the peak SPV exceeded 15°/s, providing objective evidence of normal peripheral horizontal canal function. All the PI group had abnormal Equitest results, particularly in the two last conditions. These investigations show for the first time that vestibular perception can be absent during a caloric test despite normal horizontal canal function. We call this as dissociation vestibular neglect. Patients with poor vestibular perception may not be aware of postural perturbations and so will not correct for them. Thus, falls in the elderly may result, among other factors, from

  20. The behaviour of constrained caloric curves as ultimate signature of a phase transition for hot nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Borderie, B; Rivet, M F; Raduta, Ad R; Bonnet, E; Bougault, R; Chbihi, A; Galichet, E; Guinet, D; Lautesse, Ph; Neindre, N Le; Lopez, O; Parlog, M; Rosato, E; Roy, R; Spadaccini, G; Vient, E; Vigilante, M

    2012-01-01

    Simulations based on experimental data obtained from multifragmenting quasifused nuclei produced in central 129Xe + natSn collisions have been used to deduce event by event freeze-out properties on the thermal excitation energy range 4-12 AMeV. From these properties and temperatures deduced from proton transverse momentum fluctuations constrained caloric curves have been built. At constant average volumes caloric curves exhibit a monotonous behaviour whereas for constrained pressures a backbending is observed. Such results support the existence of a first order phase transition for hot nuclei.

  1. ILHA DE CALOR: REFLEXÕES ACERCA DE UM CONCEITO (Heat island: reflections on a concept)

    OpenAIRE

    FIALHO, Edson Soares

    2012-01-01

    O conceito de ilha de calor está relacionado às atividades humanas sobre a superfície e sua repercussão na troposfera inferior, ainda assim, não está claro, na literatura, em que momento ou qual diferença de temperatura do ar se pode atestar a existência do fenômeno em questão. Além dessa vulnerabilidade conceitual, hoje existem novas possibilidades de identificar a ilha de calor, tais como: registradores contínuos de temperatura do ar e umidade relativa (data-loggers), balões meteorológicos ...

  2. Changes of endolymphatic pressure in the semicircular canal of pigeon by caloric stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Watanabe, S.

    1994-08-01

    It gets into difficult to explain the mechanism of caloric nystagmus only by convection theory from results of microgravity experiments. One of the other theories is an occurrence of a relative volume change due to a temperature change. Since the volume change must lead to a pressure change after caloric stimulation, we tried to measure the ampulla pressure of the horizontal semicircular canal in pigeons (Columba livia) using an improved servo micropipette system. The main result was that the ampulla pressure increased by cooling and decreased by heating. The changes of the ampulla pressure depended on the temperature change but were not influenced by the pigeon's head position.

  3. Genetic Heterogeneity of HER2 Amplification and Telomere Shortening in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Caria

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research is dedicated to understanding if sporadic and familial papillary thyroid carcinoma are distinct biological entities. We have previously demonstrated that familial papillary thyroid cancer (fPTC cells exhibit short relative telomere length (RTL in both blood and tissues and that these features may be associated with chromosome instability. Here, we investigated the frequency of HER2 (Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 amplification, and other recently reported genetic alterations in sporadic PTC (sPTC and fPTC, and assessed correlations with RTL and BRAF mutational status. We analyzed HER2 gene amplification and the integrity of ALK, ETV6, RET, and BRAF genes by fluorescence in situ hybridization in isolated nuclei and paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed sections of 13 fPTC and 18 sPTC patients. We analyzed BRAFV600E mutation and RTL by qRT-PCR. Significant HER2 amplification (p = 0.0076, which was restricted to scattered groups of cells, was found in fPTC samples. HER2 amplification in fPTCs was invariably associated with BRAFV600E mutation. RTL was shorter in fPTCs than sPTCs (p < 0.001. No rearrangements of other tested genes were observed. These findings suggest that the association of HER2 amplification with BRAFV600E mutation and telomere shortening may represent a marker of tumor aggressiveness, and, in refractory thyroid cancer, may warrant exploration as a site for targeted therapy.

  4. Contraction-specific differences in maximal muscle power during stretch-shortening cycle movements in elderly males and females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caserotti, Paolo; Aagaard, Per; Simonsen, Erik Bruun;

    2001-01-01

    Aging, muscle power, stretch-shortening cycle, eccentric muscle actions, concentric contractions......Aging, muscle power, stretch-shortening cycle, eccentric muscle actions, concentric contractions...

  5. Chemical Sharpening, Shortening, and Unzipping of Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yunlong; Chen, Zhongfang; Connell, John W.; Fay, Catharine C.; Park, Cheol; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lin, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), the one-dimensional member of the boron nitride nanostructure family, are generally accepted to be highly inert to oxidative treatments and can only be covalently modifi ed by highly reactive species. Conversely, it is discovered that the BNNTs can be chemically dispersed and their morphology modifi ed by a relatively mild method: simply sonicating the nanotubes in aqueous ammonia solution. The dispersed nanotubes are significantly corroded, with end-caps removed, tips sharpened, and walls thinned. The sonication treatment in aqueous ammonia solution also removes amorphous BN impurities and shortened BNNTs, resembling various oxidative treatments of carbon nanotubes. Importantly, the majority of BNNTs are at least partially longitudinally cut, or "unzipped". Entangled and freestanding BN nanoribbons (BNNRs), resulting from the unzipping, are found to be approximately 5-20 nm in width and up to a few hundred nanometers in length. This is the fi rst chemical method to obtain BNNRs from BNNT unzipping. This method is not derived from known carbon nanotube unzipping strategies, but is unique to BNNTs because the use of aqueous ammonia solutions specifi cally targets the B-N bond network. This study may pave the way for convenient processing of BNNTs, previously thought to be highly inert, toward controlling their dispersion, purity, lengths, and electronic properties.

  6. Shortening a Patient Experiences Survey for Medical Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy H. Ng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems—Patient-Centered Medical Home (CAHPS PCMH Survey assesses patient experiences reflecting domains of care related to general patient experience (access to care, communication with providers, office staff interaction, provider rating and PCMH-specific aspects of patient care (comprehensiveness of care, self-management support, shared decision making. The current work compares psychometric properties of the current survey and a proposed shortened version of the survey (from 52 to 26 adult survey items, from 66 to 31 child survey items. The revisions were based on initial psychometric analysis and stakeholder input regarding survey length concerns. A total of 268 practices voluntarily submitted adult surveys and 58 submitted child survey data to the National Committee for Quality Assurance in 2013. Mean unadjusted scores, practice-level item and composite reliability, and item-to-scale correlations were calculated. Results show that the shorter adult survey has lower reliability, but still it still meets general definitions of a sound survey for the adult version, and resulted in few changes to mean scores. The impact was more problematic for the pediatric version. Further testing is needed to investigate approaches to improving survey response and the relevance of survey items in informing quality improvement.

  7. Prenatal Caloric Intake and the Development of Academic Achievement among U.S. Children from Ages 5 to 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Eric J.; Beaver, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relation between maternal caloric intake during pregnancy and growth in child academic achievement while controlling for important confounding influences. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the current study examined the effects of reduced prenatal caloric intake on growth in scores on the…

  8. Effect of Replacing Sugar with Non-Caloric Sweeteners in Beverages on the Reward Value after Repeated Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen-Roose, S.; Smeets, P.A.M.; Weijzen, P.L.G.; Rijn, van I.; Bosch, van den I.; Graaf, de C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The reward value of food is partly dependent on learned associations. It is not yet known whether replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in food is affecting long-term acceptance. Objective: To determine the effect of replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in a nutrient-empty d

  9. Weight loss by calorie restriction versus bariatric surgery differentially regulates the HPA axis in male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Bernadette E.; Hakala-Finch, Andrew P.; Kekulawala, Melani; Laub, Holly; Egan, Ann E.; Ressler, Ilana B.; Woods, Stephen C.; Herman, James P.; Seeley, Randy J.; Benoit, Stephen C.; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral modifications for the treatment of obesity, including caloric restriction, have notoriously low long-term success rates relative to bariatric weight-loss surgery. The reasons for the difference in sustained weight loss are not clear. One possibility is that caloric restriction alone activates the stress-responsive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, undermining the long-term maintenance of weight loss, and that this is abrogated after bariatric surgery. Accordingly, we compared the HPA response to weight loss in 5 groups of male rats: (1) high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) rats treated with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB, n=7), (2) DIO rats treated with vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG, n=11), (3) DIO rats given sham surgery and subsequently restricted to the food intake of the VSG/RYGB groups (Pair-fed, n=11), (4) ad libitum-fed DIO rats given sham surgery (Obese, n=11) and (5) ad libitum chow-fed rats given sham surgery (Lean, n=12). Compared to Lean controls, food-restricted rats exhibited elevated morning (nadir) non-stress plasma corticosterone concentrations and increased hypothalamic corticotropin releasing hormone and vasopressin mRNA expression, indicative of basal HPA activation. This was largely prevented when weight loss was achieved by bariatric surgery. DIO increased HPA activation by acute (novel environment) stress and this was diminished by bariatric surgery-, but not pair-feeding-, induced weight loss. These results suggest that the HPA axis is differentially affected by weight loss from caloric restriction versus bariatric surgery, and this may contribute to the differing long-term effectiveness of these two weight-loss approaches. PMID:25238021

  10. Circular smooth muscle contributes to esophageal shortening during peristalsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anil K Vegesna; Keng-Yu Chuang; Ramashesai Besetty; Steven J Phillips; Alan S Braverman; Mary F Barbe; Michael R Ruggieri

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To study the angle between the circular smooth muscle (CSM) and longitudinal smooth muscle (LSM) fibers in the distal esophagus.METHODS:In order to identify possible mechanisms for greater shortening in the distal compared to proximal esophagus during peristalsis,the angles between the LSM and CSM layers were measured in 9 cadavers.The outer longitudinal layer of the muscularis propria was exposed after stripping the outer serosa.The inner circular layer of the muscularis propria was then revealed after dissection of the esophageal mucosa and the underlying muscularis mucosa.Photographs of each specimen were taken with half of the open esophagus folded back showing both the outer longitudinal and inner circular muscle layers.Angles were measured every one cm for 10 cm proximal to the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) by two independent investigators.Two human esophagi were obtained from organ transplant donors and the angles between the circular and longitudinal smooth muscle layers were measured using micro-computed tomography (micro CT) and Image J software.RESULTS:All data are presented as mean ± SE.The CSM to LSM angle at the SCJ and 1 cm proximal to SCJ on the autopsy specimens was 69.3 ± 4.62 degrees vs 74.9 ± 3.09 degrees,P =0.32.The CSM to LSM angle at SCJ were statistically significantly lower than at 2,3,4 and 5 cm proximal to the SCJ,69.3 ± 4.62 degrees vs 82.58 ± 1.34 degrees,84.04 ± 1.64 degrees,84.87 ± 1.04 degrees and 83.72 ± 1.42 degrees,P =0.013,P =0.008,P =0.004,P =0.009 respectively.The CSM to LSM angle at SCJ was also statistically significantly lower than the angles at 6,7 and 8 cm proximal to the SCJ,69.3 ± 4.62 degrees vs 80.18 ± 2.09 degrees,81.81 ± 1.75 degrees and 80.96 ± 2.04 degrees,P =0.05,P =0.02,P =0.03 respectively.The CSM to LSM angle at 1 cm proximal to SCJ was statistically significantly lower than at 3,4 and 5 cm proximal to the SCJ,74.94 ± 3.09 degrees vs 84.04 ± 1.64 degrees,84.87± 1.04 degrees and 83.72 ± 1

  11. Cardiac Frequency and Caloric Cost of Aerobic Dancing in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Deborah J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A study of cardiac frequency during aerobic dancing indicated that it can sustain an elevated cardiac frequency in most cases. The caloric cost of aerobic dancing is approximately 50 percent greater than an equal duration of barre and center-floor exercise by elite ballet dancers. (JD)

  12. A critique of Sadi Carnot's work and a mathematical theory of the caloric

    CERN Document Server

    Dass, N D Hari

    2013-01-01

    In this work, Sadi Carnot;s fundamental work is critically examined, and contrasted with modern thermodynamics. A mathematical theory of his work is given on the basis of the observation that in caloric theory dQ is a perfect differential.

  13. The shortened KK spectrum of IIB supergravity on Y^{p,q}

    CERN Document Server

    Ardehali, Arash Arabi; Szepietowski, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    We present the shortened KK spectrum of IIB supergravity compactified on Y^{p,q}. The (untwisted) shortened spectrum on S^5/Z_{2p} and T^{1,1}/Z_p are obtained as special cases when p=q and q=0, respectively. Knowledge of the shortened spectrum allows us to compute the superconformal index of these theories and to find agreement with earlier calculations from the dual field theories. We also employ the shortened spectrum to perform a 1/N^2 test of AdS/CFT by holographically reproducing the difference of the central charges, c-a=p/8, of the dual CFTs.

  14. Estimating Trade Restrictiveness Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Kee, Hiau Looi; Nicita, Alessandro; Olarreaga, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the impact of trade restrictiveness on growth, poverty, or unemployment are frequent in the academic literature. Few authors, however, provide a precise definition of what they mean by trade restrictiveness. When they do, the definition is unlikely to have tight links with trade theory. The objective of this article is to fill this gap by providing for 78 developing and developed countries clearly defined indicators of trade restrictiveness that are well grounded in trade theory. R...

  15. Restrictions and Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses three central aspects of the freedoms under European Community law, namely 1) the prohibition against restrictions as an important extension of the prohibition against discrimination, 2) a prohibition against exit restrictions which is just as important as the prohibition...... against host country restrictions, but which is often not recognised to the same extent by national law, and 3) the importance of also identifying and recognising an exit restriction, so that it is possible to achieve the required test of appropriateness and proportionality in relation to the rule...

  16. Limb shortening in the course of solitary bone cyst treatment - a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacki, Maciej [Karol Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences, Department of Paediatric Orthopaedics, Poznan (Poland); Ignys-O' Byrne, Anna [J. Strus City Hospital, Department of Radiology, Poznan (Poland); Ignys, Iwona [Karol Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences, Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Metabolic Diseases, Poznan (Poland); Wroblewska, Katarzyna [Karol Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Poznan (Poland)

    2011-02-15

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the frequency of limb shortening in the course of solitary bone cyst treatment. The correlation between the mode of treatment as well as the occurrence of pathological fracture, cyst location, volume, and locularity were examined. A retrospective analysis was carried out on 135 patients where 80 underwent curettage and bone grafting and 55 were administered methylprednisolone injection with a mean time to follow-up of 12 years. Based on clinical and radiological evaluation, limb shortening was found in ten patients when the data before and after treatment was compared. Limb shortening ranging from 1 to 5 cm during the course of the treatment was observed: six in humerus, two in femur, two in tibia. Those with epiphyseal changes, magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate the degree of growth plate damage was performed. Patients with and without limb shortening did not differ statistically regarding the applied method of treatment. The cyst volume was significantly larger in the group of patients with limb shortening when compared to the group of patients with no limb shortening. In patients treated with curettage and bone grafting, the mode of treatment does not increase the frequency of occurrence of iatrogenic limb shortening. In patients with limb shortening, a statistically significant larger volume of the cyst was observed. (orig.)

  17. The Shortened Raven Standard Progressive Matrices: Item Response Theory-Based Psychometric Analyses and Normative Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Elst, Wim; Ouwehand, Carolijn; van Rijn, Peter; Lee, Nikki; Van Boxtel, Martin; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a shortened version of the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) under an item response theory framework (the one- and two-parameter logistic models). The shortened Raven SPM was administered to N = 453 cognitively healthy adults aged between 24 and 83 years. The…

  18. Automobilismo: no calor da competição Automovilismo: en el calor de la competición Car racing: in the heat of competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Oswaldo Carneiro Rodrigues

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo questiona o papel do calor como um fator de risco adicional para o acidente que vitimou Ayrton Senna. O automobilismo de competição constitui um desafio biológico, uma situação estressante do ponto de vista mental e físico. A manutenção da performance depende da disponibilidade de carboidratos e oxigênio, hidratação adequada e temperatura interna constante entre 37 e 38 graus centígrados. A dissipação do calor produzido pelo metabolismo ocorre através do aumento do fluxo de sangue para pele e produção de suor e manter a temperatura cerebral constante se constitui num problema permanente. Verificou-se experimentalmente que a energia necessária para dirigir um automóvel de corrida é comparável a um esporte como o voleibol. Durante uma corrida, o indivíduo está exposto a um microambiente quente na cabina, que pode atingir 50ºC, gerado por fontes de calor mecânicas e ambientais. O bloqueio da evaporação do suor pelo macacão resulta em umidade e desconforto pessoal, o que implica maior esforço mental para dirigir o carro. As medidas contra o calor começam antes da corrida, cuidando-se do estado nutricional, da hidratação e principalmente do condicionamento físico através de exercícios aeróbios regulares e adequados, que permitem aumentar a capacidade de trabalho e a tolerância ao calor, o que resulta em menor fadiga durante a corrida. Outro procedimento importante deveria ser a aclimatação prévia dos pilotos aos ambientes quentes e úmidos. Deve-se fazer o possível para reduzir o aquecimento do veículo e respeitar o sistema de bandeiras de advertência para os riscos de hipertermia. Em conclusão, embora Ayrton Senna fosse um indivíduo com maior risco de desenvolver hipertermia, independentemente de outras causas, não parece ter havido tempo de corrida suficiente para haver produção de calor metabólico capaz de aumentar excessivamente a temperatura interna do piloto nas condi

  19. Coeficientes de transferencia de calor y pérdida de eficiencia en intercambiadores de calor de placas durante el enfriamiento del licor amoniacal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Torres-Tamayo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available En la planta de Recuperación de Amoniaco de la empresa niquelera Ernesto Che Guevara la pérdida de eficiencia del proceso de enfriamiento del licor amoniacal, mediante el uso de intercambiadores de calor de placas, se asocia a la incorrecta estimación de los coeficientes de transferencia de calor y la acumulación de incrustaciones en la superficie de intercambio; lo anterior incrementa el consumo de agua, la energía disponible en el sistema y los costos de mantenimiento. Se realizó una investigación en un intercambiador de calor de placas, con el objetivo de determinar los coeficientes de transferencia y la influencia de las incrustaciones en la pérdida de eficiencia de la instalación. Mediante un procedimiento iterativo se determinó la ecuación del número de Nusselt y su dependencia con el Reynolds y Prandtl, para ello se utilizó un diseño experimental multifactorial y mediciones de los parámetros de trabajo de la instalación en función del tiempo. Los resultados predicen el conocimiento de los coeficientes para el cálculo del número de Nusselt, con los valores de Reynolds y Prandtl, para ambos fluidos (licor amoniacal y agua. Los valores de los coeficientes del licor son inferiores, ello se debe a la presencia de componentes gaseosos. La comparación con resultados de otros autores muestra correspondencia con los de Thonon. Se recomienda la limpieza y mantenimiento de la instalación en un período de 27 días debido a la reducción de la eficiencia térmica hasta valores inferiores al 70 %.

  20. Research on heat pumps in Mexico operating with geothermal energy and waste heat; Investigacion sobre bombas de calor en Mexico operando con energia geotermica y calor de desecho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, A; Barragan-Reyes, R.M; Arellano-Gomez, V [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: aggarcia@iie.org.mx

    2008-01-15

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas and the Comision Federal de Electricidad have done research and development (R&D) on heat pumps (HP) in past years. Tested systems include mechanical compression, absorption and heat-transformers. The main R&D aspects on HP are briefly described, and also a more detailed description about three of the main studies is presented: (a) a mechanical compression HP of the water-water type operated with low-pressure geothermal steam at the Los Azufres; Mich., geothermal field, and designed for purification of brine; (b) an absorption HP for cooling and refrigeration operating with ammonia-water and low-enthalpy geothermal energy, which was tested in the Los Azufres and Cerro Prieto, BC, geothermal fields; and (c) a heat-transformer by absorption-Absorption Heat Pump Type II-tested to assess the performance of several ternary solutions as work fluids. Plans exist to install and test a geothermal heat pump at Cerro Prieto or Mexicali, BC. [Spanish] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas y la Comision Federal de Electricidad han realizado trabajo de investigacion y desarrollo (I&D) sobre bombas de calor (BC) en el pasado. Los sistemas probados incluyen compresion mecanica, absorcion y transformadores termicos. Este trabajo describe brevemente los principales aspectos de I&D sobre bombas de calor en forma general, y se da una descripcion mas detallada de tres de los principales estudios: (a) una BC por compresion mecanica tipo agua-agua disenada para purificacion de salmueras operando con vapor geotermico de baja presion en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.; (b) una BC por absorcion para enfriamiento y refrigeracion operando con amoniaco-agua y energia geotermica de baja entalpia, la cual fue probada en los campos geotermicos de Los Azufres y Cerro Prieto, BC; y (c) un transformador termico por absorcion -llamado Bomba de Calor por Absorcion Tipo II--, el cual fue probado para evaluar el comportamiento de diversas

  1. Evaluation of canola oil oleogels with candelilla wax as an alternative to shortening in baked goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Areum; Bae, Woosung; Hwang, Hong-Sik; Lee, Hyeon Gyu; Lee, Suyong

    2015-11-15

    The oleogels of canola oil with candelilla wax were prepared and utilized as a shortening replacer to produce cookies with a high level of unsaturated fatty acids. The incorporation of candelilla wax (3% and 6% by weight) to canola oil produced the oleogels with solid-like properties. The firmness of the oleogels was lower than that of the shortening at room temperature. A more rapid change in the viscosity with temperature was observed with increasing levels of candelilla wax in the steady shear measurements. The replacement of shortening with oleogels in the cookie formulation reduced both viscoelastic parameters (G' and G") of the cookie doughs. The level of unsaturated fatty acids in the oleogel cookies was distinctly increased up to around 92%, compared to the shortening cookies (47.2%). The cookies with the oleogels showed desirable spreadable property and the replacement of shortening with the oleogels produced cookies with soft eating characteristics.

  2. Shortening treatment time in robotic radiosurgery using a novel node reduction technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Water, Steven van de; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Heijmen, Ben J. M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Groene Hilledijk 301, 3075 EA Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: The fraction duration of robotic radiosurgery treatments can be reduced by generating more time-efficient treatment plans with a reduced number of node positions, beams, and monitor units (MUs). Node positions are preprogramed locations where the robot can position the focal spot of the x-ray beam. As the time needed for the robot to travel between node positions takes up a large part of the treatment time, the aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a node reduction technique in order to reduce the treatment time per fraction for robotic radiosurgery. Methods: Node reduction was integrated into the inverse planning algorithm, developed in-house for the robotic radiosurgery modality. It involved repeated inverse optimization, each iteration excluding low-contribution node positions from the planning and resampling new candidate beams from the remaining node positions. Node reduction was performed until the exclusion of a single node position caused a constraint violation, after which the shortest treatment plan was selected retrospectively. Treatment plans were generated with and without node reduction for two lung cases of different complexity, one oropharyngeal case and one prostate case. Plan quality was assessed using the number of node positions, beams and MUs, and the estimated treatment time per fraction. All treatment plans had to fulfill all clinical dose constraints. Extra constraints were added to maintain the low-dose conformality and restrict skin doses during node reduction. Results: Node reduction resulted in 12 residual node positions, on average (reduction by 77%), at the cost of an increase in the number of beams and total MUs of 28% and 9%, respectively. Overall fraction durations (excluding patient setup) were shortened by 25% (range of 18%-40%), on average. Dose distributions changed only little and dose in low-dose regions was effectively restricted by the additional constraints. Conclusions: The fraction duration of robotic

  3. Telomere shortening in the colonial coral Acropora digitifera during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuta, Hiroki; Shinzato, Chuya; Satoh, Nori; Hidaka, Michio

    2014-03-01

    To test whether telomere length can be used in estimating the age of colonial corals, we used terminal restriction fragment (TRF) length analysis to compare the telomere lengths of the coral Acropora digitifera at three developmental stages: sperm, planula larvae, and polyps of adult colonies. We also compared the mean TRF lengths between branches at the center and periphery of tabular colonies of A. digitifera. A significant difference was observed in the mean TRF lengths in sperm, planulae, and polyps. The mean TRF length was longest in sperm and shortest in polyps from adult colonies. These results suggest that telomere length decreases during coral development and may be useful for estimating coral age. However, the mean TRF length of branches at the center of a table-form colony tended to be longer than that of peripheral branches, although this difference was not statistically significant. This suggests that both the chronological age of polyps and cell proliferation rate influence telomere length in polyps, and that estimating coral age based on telomere length is not a simple endeavor. PMID:24601774

  4. DISEÑO Y CONSTRUCCIÓN DE PROTOTIPO PARA MEDICIÓN DE FLUJO DE CALOR APLICANDO CALORIMETRÍA DIRECTA: SENSADO POR FLUJO DE CALOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OSCAR CADENA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo describe el diseño de un prototipo inalámbrico para la medición de flujo de calor, que permita a futuro aplicar el método de calorimetría directa por gradiente de flujo de calor en el área de la electrónica médica. Esta técnica se desarrolla gracias al avance y creación de sensores que permiten medir este tipo de variables, y se postula como una alternativa a las formas de medición utilizadas actualmente, presentando mejoras en su desempeño y costo. Los resultados obtenidos luego de efectuar la calibración del equipo permiten inferir que la técnica propuesta se adapta de forma eficiente y puede utilizarse como un sustituto significativamente más ventajoso comparado con los métodos existentes en la actualidad y aplicados en el seguimiento metabólico de personas.

  5. Caloric test results in Paget ́s disease of bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De la Fuente-Cañibano R

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Paget's disease, the most common neurological complication relates to the temporal bone involvement intrapetrous level. Vestibular symptoms are common in Paget's disease, but you can pass easily overlooked for its mild intensity. The literature is not clear regarding the result of caloric testing.Methods: The study comprised 50 patient s, 30 patients with PD without skull involvement, 13 patients with skull involvement and without temporal involvement and 7 patients with PD with skull and temporal involvement in scintigraphy. Results: 22% of patient s in the sample had history crises dizzying and yet 46% had deficits in vestibular caloric test result.Conclusions: We found no statistically significant differences between the groups in the analysis of EP vestibular deficit.

  6. (Magneto)caloric refrigeration: is there light at the end of the tunnel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecharsky, Vitalij K; Cui, Jun; Johnson, Duane D

    2016-08-13

    Caloric cooling and heat pumping rely on reversible thermal effects triggered in solids by magnetic, electric or stress fields. In the recent past, there have been several successful demonstrations of using first-order phase transition materials in laboratory cooling devices based on both the giant magnetocaloric and elastocaloric effects. All such materials exhibit non-equilibrium behaviours when driven through phase transformations by corresponding fields. Common wisdom is that non-equilibrium states should be avoided; yet, as we show using a model material exhibiting a giant magnetocaloric effect, non-equilibrium phase-separated states offer a unique opportunity to achieve uncommonly large caloric effects by very small perturbations of the driving field(s).This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'. PMID:27402923

  7. Control de l'escintil·lador SPD del calorímetre d'LHCb

    OpenAIRE

    Roselló Canal, Maria del Mar

    2009-01-01

    En aquesta tesi es descriu l'electrònica i la gestió de la placa de control de l'SPD. SPD són les sigles corresponents a Scintillator Pad Detector, part del calorímetre d'LHCb de l'accelerador LHC.L'LHC és un accelerador orientat a estudiar els constituents de la matèria on LHCb n'és un dels detectors. El calorímetre és aquella part del detector destinada a mesurar l'energia de les partícules que el travessen. En el nostre cas l'SPD discrimina entre partícules carregades i no carregades contr...

  8. Heat pump for purification of geothermal brines; Bomba de calor para purificacion de salmuera geotermica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoyo-Gutierrez, S; Barragan-Reyes, R.M; Holland, F.A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmb@iie.org.mx

    2007-01-15

    Integrated use of geothermal resources is one of the most important goals for the future. Presently geothermal heat pumps offer two benefits: using heat from residual brines and converting these brines into very pure water. Designs and descriptions are presented of an experimental system to purify geothermal brines integrated to an adsorption heat-pump. The system was constructed and tested in the IIE (Institute for Electrical Research) facilities. During the experimental stage, pure water was obtained. Maximum capacity for pure water was 4.3 kg per hour, presenting an Actual Coefficient of Performance (COP)A of 1.4. The results are encouraging to project units at an industrial level for operating with geothermal and/or solar heat. [Spanish] El aprovechamiento integral de los recursos geotermicos en todas sus formas es una de las metas importantes a lograr en los proximos anos. Hoy en dia, el uso de las bombas de calor en la geotermia ofrece un doble beneficio: aprovechan el calor de los fluidos de desecho y tienen la capacidad de transformar la salmuera geotermica en agua de alta pureza. Se presenta el diseno y descripcion de un sistema experimental para purificacion de salmuera geotermica integrado a una bomba de calor por absorcion, el cual fue construido y probado en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas. En toda la etapa de experimentacion se obtuvo agua pura. La capacidad maxima alcanzada de produccion de agua pura de este sistema fue de 4.3 kg por hora, mostrando un rendimiento en terminos del Coeficiente Real de Rendimiento (COP)A de 1.4. Estos resultados se consideran alentadores para la proyeccion de unidades a escala industrial que puedan ser operadas con calor geotermico y/o solar.

  9. Vestibular Function Tests for Vestibular Migraine: Clinical Implication of Video Head Impulse and Caloric Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Woo Seok; Lee, Sang Hun; Yang, Chan Joo; Ahn, Joong Ho; Chung, Jong Woo; Park, Hong Ju

    2016-01-01

    Vestibular migraine (VM) is one of the most common causes of episodic vertigo. We reviewed the results of multiple vestibular function tests in a cohort of VM patients who were diagnosed with VM according to the diagnostic criteria of the Barany Society and the International Headache Society and assessed the efficacy of each for predicting the prognosis in VM patients. A retrospective chart analysis was performed on 81 VM patients at a tertiary care center from June 2014 to July 2015. Patients were assessed by the video head impulse test (vHIT), caloric test, vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs), and sensory organization test (SOT) at the initial visit and then evaluated for symptomatic improvement after 6 months. Complete response (CR) was defined as no need for continued medication, partial response (PR) as improved symptoms but need for continued medication, and no response (NR) as no symptomatic improvement and requiring increased dosage or change in medications. At the initial evaluation, 9 of 81 patients (11%) exhibited abnormal vHIT results, 14 of 73 (19%) exhibited abnormal caloric test results, 25 of 65 (38%) exhibited abnormal SOT results, 8 of 75 (11%) exhibited abnormal cervical VEMP results, and 20 of 75 (27%) exhibited abnormal ocular VEMP results. Six months later, 63 of 81 patients (78%) no longer required medication (CR), while 18 (22%) still required medication, including 7 PR and 11 NR patients. Abnormal vHIT gain and abnormal caloric results were significantly related to the necessity for continued medication at 6-month follow-up (OR = 5.67 and 4.36, respectively). Abnormal vHIT and caloric test results revealed semicircular canal dysfunction in VM patients and predicted prolonged preventive medication requirement. These results suggest that peripheral vestibular abnormalities are closely related to the development of vertigo in VM patients.

  10. Restrictions of stable bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Balaji, V

    2011-01-01

    The Mehta-Ramanathan theorem ensures that the restriction of a stable vector bundle to a sufficiently high degree complete intersection curve is again stable. We improve the bounds for the "sufficiently high degree" and propose a possibly optimal conjecture.

  11. Multiple causes of fatigue during shortening contractions in rat slow twitch skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Halvorsen Hortemo

    Full Text Available Fatigue in muscles that shorten might have other causes than fatigue during isometric contractions, since both cross-bridge cycling and energy demand are different in the two exercise modes. While isometric contractions are extensively studied, the causes of fatigue in shortening contractions are poorly mapped. Here, we investigate fatigue mechanisms during shortening contractions in slow twitch skeletal muscle in near physiological conditions. Fatigue was induced in rat soleus muscles with maintained blood supply by in situ shortening contractions at 37°C. Muscles were stimulated repeatedly (1 s on/off at 30 Hz for 15 min against a constant load, allowing the muscle to shorten and perform work. Fatigue and subsequent recovery was examined at 20 s, 100 s and 15 min exercise. The effects of prior exercise were investigated in a second exercise bout. Fatigue developed in three distinct phases. During the first 20 s the regulatory protein Myosin Light Chain-2 (slow isoform, MLC-2s was rapidly dephosphorylated in parallel with reduced rate of force development and reduced shortening. In the second phase there was degradation of high-energy phosphates and accumulation of lactate, and these changes were related to slowing of muscle relengthening and relaxation, culminating at 100 s exercise. Slowing of relaxation was also associated with increased leak of calcium from the SR. During the third phase of exercise there was restoration of high-energy phosphates and elimination of lactate, and the slowing of relaxation disappeared, whereas dephosphorylation of MLC-2s and reduced shortening prevailed. Prior exercise improved relaxation parameters in a subsequent exercise bout, and we propose that this effect is a result of less accumulation of lactate due to more rapid onset of oxidative metabolism. The correlation between dephosphorylation of MLC-2s and reduced shortening was confirmed in various experimental settings, and we suggest MLC-2s as an

  12. General and persistent effects of high-intensity sweeteners on body weight gain and caloric compensation in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Swithers, Susan E.; Baker, Chelsea R.; Davidson, T.L.

    2009-01-01

    In four experiments, we assessed the generality of previous findings (Swithers & Davidson, 2008) that increased caloric intake, body weight gain, and reduced caloric compensation are exhibited by rats that consume a diet containing a nonnutritive, high intensity sweetener. In this earlier work, rats consumed a diet in which saccharin was mixed in low-fat yogurt, and animals were provided with a fixed amount of the yogurt. The present experiments showed that the effects of saccharin on energy ...

  13. Fluid-structural dynamics of ground-based and microgravity caloric tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassemi, M.; Oas, J. G.; Deserranno, Dimitri

    2005-01-01

    Microgravity caloric tests aboard the 1983 SpaceLab1 mission produced nystagmus results with an intensity comparable to those elicited during post- and pre- flight tests, thus contradicting the basic premise of Barany's convection hypothesis for caloric stimulation. In this work, we present a dynamic fluid structural analysis of the caloric stimulation of the lateral semicircular canal based on two simultaneous driving forces for the endolymphatic flow: natural convection driven by the temperature-dependent density variation in the bulk fluid and expansive convection caused by direct volumetric displacement of the endolymph during the thermal irrigation. Direct numerical simulations indicate that on earth, the natural convection mechanism is dominant. But in the microgravity environment of orbiting spacecraft, where buoyancy effects are mitigated, expansive convection becomes the sole mechanism for producing cupular displacement. A series of transient 1 g and microgravity case studies are presented to delineate the differences between the dynamics of the 1 g and microgravity endolymphatic flows. The impact of these different flow dynamics on the endolymph-cupula fluid-structural interactions is also analyzed based on the time evolutions of cupular displacement and velocity and the transcupular pressure differences.

  14. Importance of silvopastoral systems on caloric stress reduction in tropical livestock productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Navas Panadero

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock systems in Colombia have been developed taking concepts and technologies from the green revolution, where gramineous monocrop is privileged over arboreal cover in grazing lands. This model has not taken into account the climatic conditions of the different tropical ecosystems, in which variables as temperature, relative humidity and evaporation can limit the animal´s productive and reproductive efficiency, besides being a risk factor for illness occurrence in the herd. Bos Taurus and Bos Indicus breeds show termoneutral ranges where its genetic potential can be express. However, out of this comfort area animals can enter in caloric stress which in consequence reduces its performance and sometimes can end up causing death. Silvopastoral systems comprise several functions; it contributes to lessen caloric stress since temperature under the tree canopy can reach between 2 and 9°C lower in comparison to open pastures. Differences in temperature reduction have been found among silvopastoral systems and species, being the tree group arrangements and the species with high density canopy, those with superior effect. Interactions among components should be analyzed in order to design systems that incorporate enough arboreal cover to achieve caloric stress reductions, but without affecting forage production in pastures. Silvopastoral systems contribute to improve animal welfare.

  15. Effects of caloric deprivation and satiety on sensitivity of the gustatory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zverev Yuriy P

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sensitivity of the gustatory system could be modulated by a number of short-term and long-term factors such as body mass, gender, age, local and systemic diseases and pathological processes, excessive alcohol drinking, drug dependence, smoking, composition of oral fluid, state of oral hygiene, consumption of some foods among many others. A few studies have demonstrated the effects of hunger and caloric satiety on sensitivity of the gustatory system in obese humans and animals. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of short-term caloric deprivation and satiety on recognition taste thresholds of healthy, non-smoking, non-drinking, non-obese young male subjects. The two-alternative forced-choice technique was used to measure taste threshold. Results Recognition thresholds for sucrose and salt were significantly lower during fasting state than after a meal (t = 2.23, P Conclusions Short-term caloric deprivation in our study model was associated with increased taste sensitivity to sweet and salty substances compared to satiated state while taste sensitivity to bitter substances was not affected by the conditions of measurements. Selective modulation of sensitivity of the gustatory system might reflect the different biological importance of salty, sweet and bitter qualities of taste.

  16. Methionine restriction restores a younger metabolic phenotype in adult mice with alterations in fibroblast growth factor 21

    OpenAIRE

    Lees, Emma K.; Król, Elżbieta; Grant, Louise; Shearer, Kirsty; Wyse, Cathy; Moncur, Eleanor; Bykowska, Aleksandra S; Mody, Nimesh; Gettys, Thomas W.; Delibegovic, Mirela

    2014-01-01

    Methionine restriction (MR) decreases body weight and adiposity and improves glucose homeostasis in rodents. Similar to caloric restriction, MR extends lifespan, but is accompanied by increased food intake and energy expenditure. Most studies have examined MR in young animals; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the ability of MR to reverse age-induced obesity and insulin resistance in adult animals. Male C57BL/6J mice aged 2 and 12 months old were fed MR (0.172% methionine) o...

  17. Economic management of vertigo/dizziness disease in a county hospital: video-head-impulse test vs. caloric irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambold, Holger A

    2015-10-01

    The video-head-impulse test (vHIT) is an important test for examining unilateral vestibular hypofunction. Alternatively, one can test for vestibular hypofunction with the caloric irrigation test. Various studies have shown that both tests may not always identify vestibular hypofunction; instead, the results of the tests might be contradictory. This retrospective study reproduces those finding in a much larger group of patients at a county hospital. 1063 patients were examined with the vHIT and bithermal caloric irrigation on the same day and analyzed with respect to side differences. Of those patients 13.3% had pathological vHIT and a caloric irrigation test, 4.6% a pathological vHIT only and 24.1% a pathologic caloric test only. As both tests might be necessary, we calculated the optimal sequence of the two examinations based on savings in time for the different disease groups. Especially in vestibular failure using the vHIT first and only applying the caloric irrigation in case of an unremarkable vHIT saves time and optimizes the diagnostic work up. In contrast, in Menière's disease and vestibular migraine testing caloric irrigation first might be more efficient.

  18. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved.

  19. Food restriction and refeeding induces changes in lipid pathways and fat deposition in the adipose and hepatic tissues in rats with diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Fernanda Oliveira; Sene-Fiorese, Marcela; Cheik, Nadia Carla; Maria, Adriana Simone Lopes Santa; de Aquino, Antônio Eduardo; Oishi, Jorge Camargo; Rossi, Elizeu Antônio; Garcia de Oliveira Duarte, Ana Cláudia; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of successive cycles of a moderately restrictive diet and refeeding with a high-fat diet on the metabolism of the adipose and hepatic tissues of obese rats. Rats were assigned to the following groups: a chow diet; a high-fat diet; a moderate caloric restriction; or a moderate caloric restriction plus refeeding. Some animals in each group were given [1-(14)C]triolein intragastrically, while others received an intraperitoneal injection of 3 mCi (3)H(2)O. All animals were killed by decapitation. The retroperitoneal, visceral epididymal and omental white adipose tissues, brown adipose tissue, liver and blood were immediately removed. The lipid uptake from the diet, in vivo rate of lipogenesis, percentage of fat, lipid profile and leptin concentration were analysed. The high-fat diet promoted an increase in fatty liver (P ≤ 0.05), adiposity mass (P ≤ 0.05) and the plasma concentration of leptin (P ≤ 0.05) and a decreased lipid uptake in white adipose tissue depots (P ≤ 0.05) in relation to the chow diet. The moderate caloric restriction did not reverse the changes promoted by the high-fat diet but induced a small decrease in adiposity, which was reversed after refeeding, and the animals maintained a dyslipidaemic profile and high fat deposition in the liver. We can conclude that the high-fat diet and subsequent moderate caloric restriction plus refeeding increased the risks of developing visceral obesity, dyslipidaemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which suggests that this type of experimental protocol can be used to study mechanisms related to the metabolic syndrome.

  20. MTOR signaling and ubiquitin-proteosome gene expression in the preservation of fat free mass following high protein, calorie restricted weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIver Cassandra M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Caloric restriction is one of the most efficient ways to promote weight loss and is known to activate protective metabolic pathways. Frequently reported with weight loss is the undesirable consequence of fat free (lean muscle mass loss. Weight loss diets with increased dietary protein intake are popular and may provide additional benefits through preservation of fat free mass compared to a standard protein, high carbohydrate diet. However, the precise mechanism by which a high protein diet may mitigate dietary weight loss induced reductions in fat free mass has not been fully elucidated. Maintenance of fat free mass is dependent upon nutrient stimulation of protein synthesis via the mTOR complex, although during caloric restriction a decrease (atrophy in skeletal muscle may be driven by a homeostatic shift favouring protein catabolism. This review evaluates the relationship between the macronutrient composition of calorie restricted diets and weight loss using metabolic indicators. Specifically we evaluate the effect of increased dietary protein intake and caloric restricted diets on gene expression in skeletal muscle, particularly focusing on biosynthesis, degradation and the expression of genes in the ubiquitin-proteosome (UPP and mTOR signaling pathways, including MuRF-1, MAFbx/atrogin-1, mTORC1, and S6K1.

  1. Blood glucose regulation during fasting in rats under food restriction since birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Souza Vitoriano

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of severe food restriction since birth on regulation of fasting glycemia in male Wistar rats was investigated. The control group (CG had free supply of chow, while the restriction group (RG received 50% of the amount ingested by the CG. The experiments were done in adult (60 days overnight fasted rats in which glycemia, liver free glucose levels and hepatic glycogen concentration were measured. In part of the experiments in situ liver perfusion was done. The results showed that livers from the RG had higher glycogenolysis rates but lower gluconeogenesis rates from L-alanine (10 mM. Since RG showed maintained glycemia during fasting, it could be concluded that livers from RG produced glucose preferentially from glycogenolysis in detriment of gluconeogenesis. These findings demonstrated that in spite of severe caloric restriction, the metabolic adaptations of the liver did exist to assure the maintenance of blood glucose for brain supply during fasting.

  2. The shortened KK spectrum of IIB supergravity on Y{sup p,q}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardehali, Arash Arabi; Liu, James T. [Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, Randall Laboratory of Physics, University of Michigan,Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States); Szepietowski, Phillip [Department of Physics, University of Virginia,Box 400714, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2014-02-17

    We examine the shortened KK spectrum of IIB supergravity compactified on Y{sup p,q} and conjecture that the spectrum we have obtained is complete. The (untwisted) shortened spectrum on S{sup 5}/ℤ{sub 2p} and on T{sup 1,1}/ℤ{sub p} are obtained as special cases when p=q and q=0, respectively. Knowledge of the shortened spectrum allows us to compute the superconformal index of these theories and to find agreement with earlier calculations from the dual field theories. We also employ the shortened spectrum to perform a 1/N{sup 2} test of AdS/CFT by holographically reproducing the difference of the central charges, c−a=p/8, of the dual CFTs.

  3. The shortened KK spectrum of IIB supergravity on Yp,q

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the shortened KK spectrum of IIB supergravity compactified on Yp,q and conjecture that the spectrum we have obtained is complete. The (untwisted) shortened spectrum on S5/ℤ2p and on T1,1/ℤp are obtained as special cases when p=q and q=0, respectively. Knowledge of the shortened spectrum allows us to compute the superconformal index of these theories and to find agreement with earlier calculations from the dual field theories. We also employ the shortened spectrum to perform a 1/N2 test of AdS/CFT by holographically reproducing the difference of the central charges, c−a=p/8, of the dual CFTs

  4. The low-methionine content of vegan diets may make methionine restriction feasible as a life extension strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F; Barroso-Aranda, Jorge; Contreras, Francisco

    2009-02-01

    Recent studies confirm that dietary methionine restriction increases both mean and maximal lifespan in rats and mice, achieving "aging retardant" effects very similar to those of caloric restriction, including a suppression of mitochondrial superoxide generation. Although voluntary caloric restriction is never likely to gain much popularity as a pro-longevity strategy for humans, it may be more feasible to achieve moderate methionine restriction, in light of the fact that vegan diets tend to be relatively low in this amino acid. Plant proteins - especially those derived from legumes or nuts - tend to be lower in methionine than animal proteins. Furthermore, the total protein content of vegan diets, as a function of calorie content, tends to be lower than that of omnivore diets, and plant protein has somewhat lower bioavailability than animal protein. Whole-food vegan diets that moderate bean and soy intake, while including ample amounts of fruit and wine or beer, can be quite low in methionine, while supplying abundant nutrition for health (assuming concurrent B12 supplementation). Furthermore, low-fat vegan diets, coupled with exercise training, can be expected to promote longevity by decreasing systemic levels of insulin and free IGF-I; the latter effect would be amplified by methionine restriction - though it is not clear whether IGF-I down-regulation is the sole basis for the impact of low-methionine diets on longevity in rodents.

  5. Shortening and Thickening of Metropolitan Los Angeles Measured and Inferred Using Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, D.; Heflin, M.; Donnellan, A.; Webb, F.; Dong, D.; Hurst, K.; Jefferson, D.; Lyzenga, G.; Watkins, M.; Zumberge, J.

    1999-01-01

    Geodetic measurements using the Global Positioning System and other techniques show north-south shortening near Los Angeles to be fastest across the northern part of the metropolitan area, where an ESE-striking, 5- to 40-km-wide belt lying to the south of San Gabriel Mountains and to the north of downtown and West Los Angeles is shortening at 5 mm/yr.

  6. Weight loss by calorie restriction versus bariatric surgery differentially regulates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Bernadette E; Hakala-Finch, Andrew P; Kekulawala, Melani; Laub, Holly; Egan, Ann E; Ressler, Ilana B; Woods, Stephen C; Herman, James P; Seeley, Randy J; Benoit, Stephen C; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M

    2014-12-01

    Behavioral modifications for the treatment of obesity, including caloric restriction, have notoriously low long-term success rates relative to bariatric weight-loss surgery. The reasons for the difference in sustained weight loss are not clear. One possibility is that caloric restriction alone activates the stress-responsive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, undermining the long-term maintenance of weight loss, and that this is abrogated after bariatric surgery. Accordingly, we compared the HPA response to weight loss in five groups of male rats: (1) high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) rats treated with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB, n = 7), (2) DIO rats treated with vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG, n = 11), (3) DIO rats given sham surgery and subsequently restricted to the food intake of the VSG/RYGB groups (Pair-fed, n = 11), (4) ad libitum-fed DIO rats given sham surgery (Obese, n = 11) and (5) ad libitum chow-fed rats given sham surgery (Lean, n = 12). Compared with Lean controls, food-restricted rats exhibited elevated morning (nadir) non-stress plasma corticosterone concentration and increased hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin mRNA expression, indicative of basal HPA activation. This was largely prevented when weight loss was achieved by bariatric surgery. DIO increased HPA activation by acute (novel environment) stress and this was diminished by bariatric surgery-, but not pair-feeding-, induced weight loss. These results indicate that the HPA axis is differentially affected by weight loss from caloric restriction versus bariatric surgery, and this may contribute to the differing long-term effectiveness of these two weight-loss approaches. PMID:25238021

  7. Compression and Combining Based on Channel Shortening and Rank Reduction Technique for Cooperative Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan

    2013-12-18

    This paper investigates and compares the performance of wireless sensor networks where sensors operate on the principles of cooperative communications. We consider a scenario where the source transmits signals to the destination with the help of L sensors. As the destination has the capacity of processing only U out of these L signals, the strongest U signals are selected while the remaining (L?U) signals are suppressed. A preprocessing block similar to channel-shortening is proposed in this contribution. However, this preprocessing block employs a rank-reduction technique instead of channel-shortening. By employing this preprocessing, we are able to decrease the computational complexity of the system without affecting the bit error rate (BER) performance. From our simulations, it can be shown that these schemes outperform the channel-shortening schemes in terms of computational complexity. In addition, the proposed schemes have a superior BER performance as compared to channel-shortening schemes when sensors employ fixed gain amplification. However, for sensors which employ variable gain amplification, a tradeoff exists in terms of BER performance between the channel-shortening and these schemes. These schemes outperform channel-shortening scheme for lower signal-to-noise ratio.

  8. Nonlinear multichannel shortening line using ferrite coils with nonrectangular hysteresis loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To control intensive electron beams a design of a new low-impedance nonlinear multichannel shortening line with ferrite coils with a nonrectangular hysteresis loop is described. Results of tests and investigations of the line are presented. An outer conductor is made in the form of cylindrical cavities evenly placed in circumference where nonlinear shortening channels are located. The cylindrical cavities are formed with casings of ten one-and-a-half meter sections of brass tubes placed around a central body. Inner conductors of shortening lines in each channel are made up of a central axis in the form of pin with thread all over the length of 1700 mm and 165 ferrite rings of 12x5x5.5 mm strung on this axis. Characteristics of the investigated set of shortening lines are given: dependences of durations of front and front delay of shock wave on current amplitude, length of shortening line and demagnetization current. It is shown that parallel connection of nonlinear shortening channels in the aggregate coaxial outer conductor permits to reach limiting duration of stationary shock wave front of 0.5 ns

  9. Code Shortening and Performance Analysis for RAID6 Codes%RAID6编码的扩展算法及性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金超; 冯丹; 刘景宁; 田磊

    2012-01-01

    There ate generally two categories of RAID6 codes in their code structures,horizontal codes and vertical codes. Horizontal codes are very easy to be extended to an arbitrary length, while the lengths of vertical codes are usually restricted. We propose a novel and efficient code shortening algorithm for vertical codes, by which the length of a vertical code can be extended to an arbitrary given one.The shortening algorithm maintains the MDS (Maximum Distance Separable) property of the vertical codes. In the context of our shortening algorithm for vertical codes, we conduct an performance analysis on the representative vertical and horizontal RAID6 codes at all code lengths, and reveal the impacts of the code shortening algorithms on the performance of the RAID6 codes in various performance metrics.%RAID6编码根据其码字结构可以分为水平码和垂直码两大类.RAID6水平码可以很容易的扩展至任意码长,而RAID6垂直码通常具有码长的限制.本文提出一种针对RAID6垂直码的码长扩展算法,该算法通过校验块变更的方法,可以将RAID6垂直码扩展至任意码长.该算法可以保持RAID6垂直码的MDS特性.本文研究了RAID6编码的扩展算法在应用于各种RAID6编码时对其性能的影响,揭示出RAID6编码在进行扩展时的性能变化规律.

  10. Telomeres shorten more slowly in slow-aging wild animals than in fast-aging ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzer, Ben; Fletcher, Quinn E

    2015-11-01

    Research on the physiological causes of senescence aim to identify common physiological mechanisms that explain age-related declines in fitness across taxonomic groups. Telomeres are repetitive nucleotide sequences found on the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. Past research indicates that telomere attrition is strongly correlated with inter-specific rates of aging, though these studies cannot distinguish whether telomere attrition is a cause or consequence of the aging process. We extend previous research on this topic by incorporating recent studies to test the hypothesis that telomeres shorten more slowly with age in slow-aging animals than in fast-aging ones. We assembled all studies that have quantified cross-sectional (i.e. between-individual) telomere rates of change (TROC) over the lifespans of wild animals. This included 22 estimates reflecting absolute TROC (TROCabs, bp/yr, primarily measured using the terminal restriction fragment length method), and 10 estimates reflecting relative TROC (TROCrel, relative telomere length/yr, measured using qPCR), from five classes (Aves, Mammalia, Bivalvia, Reptilia, and Actinopterygii). In 14 bird species, we correlated between-individual (i.e. cross-sectional) TROCabs estimates with both maximum lifespan and a phylogenetically-corrected principle component axis (pcPC1) that reflected the slow-fast axis of life-history variation. Bird species characterized by faster life-histories and shorter maximum lifespans had faster TROCabs. In nine studies, both between-individual and within-individual TROC estimates were available (n=8 for TROCabs, n=1 for TROCrel). Within-individual TROC estimates were generally greater than between-individual TROC estimates, which is indicative of selective disappearance of individuals with shorter telomeres. However, the difference between within- and between-individual TROC estimates was only significant in two out of nine studies. The relationship between within-individual TROCabs and maximum

  11. Intake of High-intensity Sweeteners alters the Ability of Sweet Taste to Signal Caloric Consequences: Implications for the Learned Control of Energy and Body Weight Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Terry L.; Martin, Ashley A.; Clark, Kiely; Swithers, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    Recent results from both human epidemiological and experimental studies with animals suggest that intake of non-caloric sweeteners may promote, rather than protect against, weight gain and other disturbances of energy regulation. However, without a viable mechanism to explain how consumption of non-caloric sweeteners can increase energy intake and body weight, the persuasiveness of such results has been limited. Using a rat model, the present research showed that intake of non-caloric sweeten...

  12. Neuroaesthetics: range and restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Anjan

    2013-04-01

    Bullot & Reber (B&R) should be commended for highlighting tensions between scientific aesthetics and art history. The question of how each tradition can learn from the other is timely. While I am sympathetic to their views, their diagnosis of the problem appears exaggerated and their solution partial. They underestimate the reach of scientific aesthetics while failing to identify its inherent restrictions. PMID:23507092

  13. Training Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Asja

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) are probabilistic graphical models that can also be interpreted as stochastic neural networks. Training RBMs is known to be challenging. Computing the likelihood of the model parameters or its gradient is in general computationally intensive. Thus, training...

  14. Calorie restriction and stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzanero Silvia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stroke, a major cause of disability and mortality in the elderly, occurs when a cerebral blood vessel is occluded or ruptured, resulting in ischemic damage and death of brain cells. The injury mechanism involves metabolic and oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, apoptosis and inflammatory processes, including activation of glial cells and infiltration of leukocytes. In animal models, dietary energy restriction, by daily calorie reduction (CR or intermittent fasting (IF, extends lifespan and decreases the development of age-related diseases. Dietary energy restriction may also benefit neurons, as suggested by experimental evidence showing that CR and IF protect neurons against degeneration in animal models. Recent findings by our group and others suggest the possibility that dietary energy restriction may protect against stroke induced brain injury, in part by inducing the expression of neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF; protein chaperones, including heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 and glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78; antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases (SOD and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1, uncoupling proteins and anti-inflammatory cytokines. This article discusses the protective mechanisms activated by dietary energy restriction in ischemic stroke.

  15. Bilinear Fourier restriction theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Demeter, Ciprian

    2012-01-01

    We provide a general scheme for proving $L^p$ estimates for certain bilinear Fourier restrictions outside the locally $L^2$ setting. As an application, we show how such estimates follow for the lacunary polygon. In contrast with prior approaches, our argument avoids any use of the Rubio de Francia Littlewood--Paley inequality.

  16. Longitudinal Relationships between Caloric Expenditure and Gray Matter in the Cardiovascular Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raji, Cyrus A.; Merrill, David A.; Eyre, Harris; Mallam, Sravya; Torosyan, Nare; Erickson, Kirk I.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Becker, James T.; Carmichael, Owen T.; Gach, H. Michael; Thompson, Paul M.; Longstreth, W.T.; Kuller, Lewis H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) can be neuroprotective and reduce the risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In assessing physical activity, caloric expenditure is a proxy marker reflecting the sum total of multiple physical activity types conducted by an individual. Objective:To assess caloric expenditure, as a proxy marker of PA, as a predictive measure of gray matter (GM) volumes in the normal and cognitively impaired elderly persons. Methods: All subjects in this study were recruited from the Institutional Review Board approved Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a multisite population-based longitudinal study in persons aged 65 and older. We analyzed a sub-sample of CHS participants 876 subjects (mean age 78.3, 57.5% F, 42.5% M) who had i) energy output assessed as kilocalories (kcal) per week using the standardized Minnesota Leisure-Time Activities questionnaire, ii) cognitive assessments for clinical classification of normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD, and iii) volumetric MR imaging of the brain. Voxel-based morphometry modeled the relationship between kcal/week and GM volumes while accounting for standard covariates including head size, age, sex, white matter hyperintensity lesions, MCI or AD status, and site. Multiple comparisons were controlled using a False Discovery Rate of 5 percent. Results: Higher energy output, from a variety of physical activity types, was associated with larger GM volumes in frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes, as well as hippocampus, thalamus, and basal ganglia. High levels of caloric expenditure moderated neurodegeneration-associated volume loss in the precuneus, posterior cingulate, and cerebellar vermis. Conclusion:Increasing energy output from a variety of physical activities is related to larger gray matter volumes in the elderly, regardless of cognitive status. PMID:26967227

  17. Effects of emodin on treating murine nonalcoholic fatty liver induced by high caloric laboratory chaw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Dong; Fu-Er Lu; Zhi-Qiang Gao; Li-Jun Xu; Kai-Fu Wang; Xin Zou

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of emodin on the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver in rats induced by high caloric laboratory chaw.METHODS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver model was successfully established by feeding with high caloric laboratory chaw for 12 wk. Then the model rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, namely model control group, emodin group and dietary treatment group. The rats in emodin group in othergroups were given distilled water of the same volume. The rats in model control group were fed with high caloric laboratory chaw while animals in other groups were fed with normal diet. Four weeks later, liver index (liver/body weight ratio), serum activities of liver-associated enzymes, blood lipid, fasting blood glucose, fasting plasma insulin, HOMA insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), hepatic triglyceride content and histology features of all groups were assayed. The expression of hepatic peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) gamma was determined by RT-PCR.RESULTS: The body weight, liver index, serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood lipid, hepatic triglyceride content of model control group were significantly elevated, with moderate to severe hepatocyte steatosis.The expression of hepatic PPAR gamma mRNA was obviously reduced in model control group. Compared with model control group, the body weight, liver index, serum activities of ALT, blood lipids and hepatic triglyceride of emodin group significantly decreased and hepatic histology display was also greatly improved. Meanwhile, the expression of hepatic PPAR gamma mRNA was elevated.However, high serum activities of ALT and hyperlipidemia were persisted in dietary treatment group although liver index was decreased and liver histology was somewhat improved.CONCLUSION: It is suggested that emodin might be effective in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver in rats. Its therapeutic mechanism could be associated with increasing the expression of hepatic PPAR gamma mRNA.

  18. Olas de calor e influencia urbana en Madrid y su área metropolitana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández García, F.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and duration of the warmest temperature episodes, a common phenomenon under the continental Mediterranean conditions of the Spanish Southern Meseta, has increased in the Madrid area since the 80´s, although their magnitude remains unchanged. The effect of the urban environment on those extreme events has exacerbated the heat load due to the persistence of the high temperatures along the night time hours. Nevertheless, the diversity of the urban morphology introduces a spatial variability on the strength of this nocturnal heat load, aggravating it in the densely urbanized areas and mitigating it in the vicinities of the green areas.

    La frecuencia y duración de los episodios cálidos extremos, un fenómeno habitual en el clima mediterráneo continental de la Meseta Meridional, ha aumentado en el área de Madrid desde los años noventa, aunque su magnitud permanece constante. En el interior de la aglomeración urbana, el efecto general de la ciudad sobre estos eventos climáticos extremos ha supuesto una exacerbación del calor, no tanto por un aumento de la temperatura máxima, como por una persistencia del calor en las horas nocturnas. No obstante, la diversidad de la morfología urbana introduce variaciones espaciales en la intensidad de este calor nocturno, agravando sus efectos en las áreas densamente urbanizadas y mitigándolos en las proximidades de las áreas verdes.

  19. MTOR signaling and ubiquitin-proteosome gene expression in the preservation of fat free mass following high protein, calorie restricted weight loss

    OpenAIRE

    McIver Cassandra M; Wycherley Thomas P; Clifton Peter M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Caloric restriction is one of the most efficient ways to promote weight loss and is known to activate protective metabolic pathways. Frequently reported with weight loss is the undesirable consequence of fat free (lean muscle) mass loss. Weight loss diets with increased dietary protein intake are popular and may provide additional benefits through preservation of fat free mass compared to a standard protein, high carbohydrate diet. However, the precise mechanism by which a high prote...

  20. Rapid relief of thalamic pain syndrome induced by vestibular caloric stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Vilayanur S; McGeoch, Paul D; Williams, Lisa; Arcilla, Gerard

    2007-06-01

    Central post-stroke pain syndrome develops in a minority of patients following a stroke. The most usual causative lesion involves the lateral thalamus. The classic presentation is of severe, unrelenting pain that involves the entire contralateral half of the body. It is largely refractory to current treatments. We found that in two patients with this condition their pain was substantially improved by vestibular caloric stimulation, whereas placebo procedures had no effect. We proposed that this is because vestibular stimulation activates the posterior insula, which in turn inhibits the generation of pain in the anterior cingulate.

  1. Evaluation of a direct contact heat exchanger; Evaluacion de un intercambiador de calor de contacto directo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueiros, J.; Bonilla, O. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper the application areas of the direct contact heat exchangers is discussed, as well as its main characteristics. A description is made of the experimental equipment designed and built at pilot scale including the instrumentation employed. The methodology employed as well as the analysis and the discussion of the results are also presented. [Espanol] Se mencionan las areas de aplicacion de los intercambiadores de calor de contacto directo, asi como sus caracteristicas principales. Se describe el equipo experimental a nivel piloto disenado y construido incluyendo la instrumentacion utilizada. Se presenta la metodologia empleada asi como el analisis y discusion de los resultados.

  2. Identificación de incrustaciones en ciclones recuperadores de calor de hornos DOPOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triviño Vázquez, Fernando

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available Not avaible

    En un ciclón recuperador de calor, situado a la entrada del horno de clinquerización tipo DOPOL, se producían unas incrustaciones sedimentarias que terminaban produciendo la obstrucción del ciclón. Simultáneamente aparecían dificultades de marcha durante el crecimiento, por sedimentación- fusión, de dichas incrustaciones. Finalmente era necesaria la parada del horno para la limpieza del ciclón.

  3. Dimensionamiento de intercambiadores de calor de coraza y tubos, con ayuda de computador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Eduardo Rocha Camino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se plantea el problema de optimizar el diseño de un intercambiador de calor del tipo coraza y tubos, y se propone un método para resolverlo, con base en la técnica del "estudio paramétrico de la respuesta". Además, se muestra la necesidad de utilizar el computador como herramienta para Implementar dicho método, y se describe un programa escrito con tal fin.

  4. [Effects of removable partial dentures on the quality of life in people with shortened dental arches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armellini, D B; Heydecke, G; Witter, D J; Creugers, N H J

    2009-12-01

    In order to assess the enhanced value of removable partial dentures on the quality of life, patients at 2 university clinics were screened for the presence of complete or shortened dental arches. Those selected were assigned to 1 of 5 subgroups: 1) a shortened dental arch with all frontal teeth, 2) a shortened dental arch with one or more frontal diastemas, 3) a shortened dental arch with all frontal teeth, restored by a removable partial denture, 4) a shortened dental arch and several diastemas, restored by a removable partial denture, 5) a complete dental arch. The participants completed the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-49) and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Clinical data recorded were: whether any teeth were missing and if so which, whether or not these had been replaced by a removable partial denture, and the number of occluding pairs of (pre)molars. The results revealed that a shortenend dental arch has a certain impact on the quality of life. However, the participants only experienced benefits from a removable partial denture if the denture also replaced frontal teeth. PMID:20101937

  5. Spine biomechanics associated with the shortened, modern one-plane golf swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, R Barry; Brumitt, Jason

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare kinetic, kinematic, and performance variables associated with full and shortened modern backswings in a skilled group of modern swing (one-plane) golfers. Shortening the modern golf backswing is proposed to reduce vertebral spine stress, but supporting evidence is lacking and performance implications are unknown. Thirteen male golfers performed ten swings of each swing type using their own 7-iron club. Biomechanical-dependent variables included the X-Factor kinematic data and spine kinetics. Performance-related dependent variables included club head velocity (CHV), shot distance, and accuracy (distance from the target line). Data were analysed with repeated measures ANOVA with an a priori alpha of 0.05 (SPSS 22.0, IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). We found significant reductions for the X-Factor (p < 0.05) between the full and shortened swings. The shortened swing condition ameliorated vertebral compression force from 7.6 ± 1.4 to 7.0 ± 1.7 N (normalised to body weight, p = 0.01) and significantly reduced CHV (p < 0.05) by ~2 m/s with concomitant shot distance diminution by ~10 m (p < 0.05). Further research is necessary to examine the applicability of a shortened swing for golfers with low back pain. PMID:27064175

  6. Telomere shortening correlates with increasing aneuploidy of chromosome 8 in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plentz, Ruben R; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Flemming, Peer; Gebel, Michael; Kreipe, Hans; Manns, Michael P; Rudolph, K Lenhard; Wilkens, Ludwig

    2005-09-01

    Chromosomal instability (CIN) leads to an increase in aneuploidy and chromosomal aberrations in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Telomere shortening appears as one mechanism fostering the development of CIN. Whether telomere shortening correlates to specific genetic changes that characterize a certain type of cancer has yet to be established. In our recent study, we combined on a cellular level the analysis of hepatocellular telomere fluorescent intensity (TFI) and copy number of chromosome 8-one of the hallmark chromosomal alterations in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated 15 cytological fine-needle biopsies of aneuploid HCC and 5 touch prints of cadaver livers without cancer. Hepatocyte-specific TFI and the measurement of centromere-specific probe for chromosome 8 were both performed by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (qFISH) or FISH. Combined analysis of both methods (coFISH) allowed measurement of telomere length and chromosome 8 copy number on a single cell level. We observed that telomere shortening correlates significantly with increasing copy number of chromosome 8 in HCC on the cellular level. Above the level of 5 copies of chromosome 8 per nucleus, no further shortening of telomeres was found, indicating that telomeres had reached a critically short length at this stage of aneuploidy. In conclusion, our study gives direct evidence that telomere shortening is linked to a specific genetic alteration characteristic for human HCC. PMID:16116624

  7. Caloric stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be done to diagnose or rule out: Acoustic neuroma Benign positional vertigo Labyrinthitis Meniere disease Risks Too ... Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 37. Read More Acoustic neuroma Alertness - decreased Anemia Benign ear cyst or tumor ...

  8. Restriction of Helmholtz Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Polunin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of the experimental studies of physical mechanisms of energy dissipation in the oscillating system in which air cavity held by the forces of magnetic levitation is used as the elastic element, and magnetic fluid prepared on the basis of dispersing media with different viscosity level is used as the inertial element are considered in the article. Based on the obtained results the conclusion on the restriction of the applicability of Helmholtz equation, caused by boundary effects is made.

  9. Late gestational nutrient restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Nørgaard, Peder;

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 50% nutrient restriction during the last 6 weeks of gestation on twin-pregnant ewes' plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acid, ß-hydroxybutyrate, insulin, IGF-1 and leptin concentrations and the effects on lamb birth weight and ewes' lactation performance. Plasma...... changes in feed intake and energy balance. It is concluded that severely reduced nutrient availability in late gestation affects fetal growth in utero and has a prolonged negative effect on lactation performance....

  10. License restrictions at Barnwell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autry, V.R. [S.C. Dept. of Health and Environmental Control, Columbia, SC (United States). Bureau of Radiological Health

    1991-12-31

    The State of South Carolina was delegated the authority by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to regulate the receipt, possession, use and disposal of radioactive material as an Agreement State. Since 1970, the state has been the principal regulatory authority for the Barnwell Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility operated by Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. The radioactive material license issued authorizing the receipt and disposal of low-level waste contains numerous restrictions to ensure environmental protection and compliance with shallow land disposal performance criteria. Low-level waste has evolved from minimally contaminated items to complex waste streams containing high concentrations of radionuclides and processing chemicals which necessitated these restrictions. Additionally, some waste with their specific radionuclides and concentration levels, many classified as low-level radioactive waste, are not appropriate for shallow land disposal unless additional precautions are taken. This paper will represent a number of these restrictions, the rationale for them, and how they are being dealt with at the Barnwell disposal facility.

  11. Telomere shortening: a new prognostic factor for cardiovascular disease post-radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telomere length has been proposed as a marker of mitotic cell age and as a general index of human organism aging. Telomere shortening in peripheral blood lymphocytes has been linked to cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. The authors investigated the potential correlation of conventional risk factors, radiation dose and telomere shortening with the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) following radiation therapy in a large cohort of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that hypertension and telomere length were the only independent risk factors. This is the first study in a large cohort of patients that demonstrates significant telomere shortening in patients treated by radiation therapy who developed cardiovascular disease. Telomere length appears to be an independent prognostic factor that could help determine patients at high risk of developing CAD after exposure in order to implement early detection and prevention. (authors)

  12. Early roentgenological grading of femoral shortening is correlated to the late outcome after femoral neck fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using orthoradiography, the distance between the centre of the femoral head and the intercondylar notch was assessed at regular intervals in 144 patients who were followed for a 2-year period after osteosynthesis of a femoral neck fracture. Late complications, such as segmental collapse and non-union, occurred in 27% of the patients. The degree of femoral shortening was significantly correlated to the incidence of late complications. At 1 month, femoral shortening of more than 5 mm was observed in 85% of patients who developed late complications, and in only 5% of patients without such complications. Thus, the observation of a shortening of more than 5 mm predicted a greater than 6-fold increase of the incidence of late complications. The prognostic accuracy of this observation 1 month after treatment was 92%. (orig.)

  13. Load-shortening behavior of an initially curved eccentrically loaded column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichter, W. B.; Pinson, Mark W.

    1989-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of using buckled columns to provide a soft support system for simulating a free-free boundary condition in dynamic testing, the nonlinear load-shortening behavior of initially imperfect, eccentrically loaded slender columns is analyzed. Load-shortening curves are obtained for various combinations of load eccentricity and uniform initial curvature and are compared, for reference purposes, with the limiting case of the classical elastica. Results for numerous combinations of initial curvature and load eccentricity show that, over a wide range of shortening, an axially loaded slender column exhibits load-deflection compliance which is of the same order as that of a straight but otherwise identical cantilever beam under lateral tip loading.

  14. Effect of carbon ions on life span shortening and tumorigenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinuma, Shizuko; Kubo, Ayumi; Amasaki, Yoshiko; Nohima, Kumie; Imaoka, Tatsuhiko; Nishimura, Mayumi; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2004-11-01

    One of the important concerns for astronauts in space is cancer risk associated with cosmic radiation, including heavy particle ions. But little information on cancer risk is available. We investigated the effect of carbon ions on life span shortening and tumor induction in B6C3F1 mice. The mice were exposed weekly to 0.4 and 2.0 Gy whole-body carbon-ion- or X-ray-irradiation for 4 consecutive weeks. The spectrum of induced tumors varied depending on the dose. The cause of death was thymic lymphomas and liver tumors at high and low dose, respectively. The life span shortening by X-rays was proportional to dose, while carbon ions produced a convex upward relationship. The relative biological effectiveness for the 50% life span shortening was about 1.4. The large effect of carbon ions encourages the study on tumor induction at low doses in the space. PMID:15900637

  15. Transferencia de calor en la colada continua de aceros. I parte. El molde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicutti, C.

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The continuous casting mold plays the important role of receiving the liquid steel and allowing an uniform and defect free solidified skin to be developed. In this work, the different heat transfer mechanisms which are present from the liquid steel to the mold cooling water are reviewed. The effect of operating variables on heat extraction and the relationship between global and distributed heat flux are also analyzed.

    El molde de colada continua cumple la importante función de recibir el acero líquido y permitir que se desarrolle una capa solidificada uniforme y libre de defectos. En este trabajo se revisan los distintos mecanismos implicados en el proceso de transferencia de calor, desde el acero líquido hasta el agua de refrigeración del molde. Se analiza también el efecto de las distintas variables de funcionamiento en la extracción calórica producida y la relación entre el flujo global de calor y su distribución a lo largo del molde.

  16. Spatio-temporal pattern of vestibular information processing after brief caloric stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcelli, Vincenzo [Department of Neuroscience, University of Naples ' Federico II' , Naples (Italy); Esposito, Fabrizio [Department of Neuroscience, University of Naples ' Federico II' , Naples (Italy); Department of Cognitive Neurosciences, University of Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands)], E-mail: fabrizio.esposito@unina.it; Aragri, Adriana [Department of Neurological Sciences, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Furia, Teresa; Riccardi, Pasquale [Department of Neuroscience, University of Naples ' Federico II' , Naples (Italy); Tosetti, Michela; Biagi, Laura [I.R.C.S.S. ' Stella Maris' , Pisa (Italy); Marciano, Elio [Department of Neuroscience, University of Naples ' Federico II' , Naples (Italy); Di Salle, Francesco [Department of Cognitive Neurosciences, University of Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); I.R.C.S.S. ' Stella Maris' , Pisa (Italy); Department of Neurosciences, University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    Processing of vestibular information at the cortical and subcortical level is essential for head and body orientation in space and self-motion perception, but little is known about the neural dynamics of the brain regions of the vestibular system involved in this task. Neuroimaging studies using both galvanic and caloric stimulation have shown that several distinct cortical and subcortical structures can be activated during vestibular information processing. The insular cortex has been often targeted and presented as the central hub of the vestibular cortical system. Since very short pulses of cold water ear irrigation can generate a strong and prolonged vestibular response and a nystagmus, we explored the effects of this type of caloric stimulation for assessing the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) dynamics of neural vestibular processing in a whole-brain event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment. We evaluated the spatial layout and the temporal dynamics of the activated cortical and subcortical regions in time-locking with the instant of injection and were able to extract a robust pattern of neural activity involving the contra-lateral insular cortex, the thalamus, the brainstem and the cerebellum. No significant correlation with the temporal envelope of the nystagmus was found. The temporal analysis of the activation profiles highlighted a significantly longer duration of the evoked BOLD activity in the brainstem compared to the insular cortex suggesting a functional de-coupling between cortical and subcortical activity during the vestibular response.

  17. Spatio-temporal pattern of vestibular information processing after brief caloric stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Processing of vestibular information at the cortical and subcortical level is essential for head and body orientation in space and self-motion perception, but little is known about the neural dynamics of the brain regions of the vestibular system involved in this task. Neuroimaging studies using both galvanic and caloric stimulation have shown that several distinct cortical and subcortical structures can be activated during vestibular information processing. The insular cortex has been often targeted and presented as the central hub of the vestibular cortical system. Since very short pulses of cold water ear irrigation can generate a strong and prolonged vestibular response and a nystagmus, we explored the effects of this type of caloric stimulation for assessing the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) dynamics of neural vestibular processing in a whole-brain event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment. We evaluated the spatial layout and the temporal dynamics of the activated cortical and subcortical regions in time-locking with the instant of injection and were able to extract a robust pattern of neural activity involving the contra-lateral insular cortex, the thalamus, the brainstem and the cerebellum. No significant correlation with the temporal envelope of the nystagmus was found. The temporal analysis of the activation profiles highlighted a significantly longer duration of the evoked BOLD activity in the brainstem compared to the insular cortex suggesting a functional de-coupling between cortical and subcortical activity during the vestibular response.

  18. Caloric vestibular stimulation as a treatment for conversion disorder: A case report and medical hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eNoll-Hussong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Conversion disorder is a medical condition in which a person has paralysis, blindness, or other neurological symptoms that cannot be clearly explained physiologically. To date, there is neither specific nor conclusive treatment. In this paper, we draw together a number of disparate pieces of knowledge to propose a novel intervention to provide transient alleviation for this condition. As caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS has been demonstrated to modulate transiently a variety of cognitive functions associated with brain activations, especially in the temporal-parietal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and insular cortex, there is evidence to assume an effect in specific mental disorders. Therefore, we go on to hypothesize that lateralized cold vestibular caloric stimulation will be effective in treating conversion disorder and we present provisional evidence from one patient that supports this conclusion. If our hypothesis is correct, this will be the first time in psychiatry and neurology that a clinically well-known mental disorder, long considered difficult to understand and to treat, is relieved by a simple or common, non-invasive medical procedure.

  19. Edentulism and shortened dental arch in Brazilian elderly from the National Survey of Oral Health 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Túlio Freitas Ribeiro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the distribution of edentulism and estimate the prevalence of functional dentition and shortened dental arch among elderly population. METHODS: A population-based epidemiological study was carried out with a sample of 5,349 respondents aged 65 to 74 years obtained from the 2002 and 2003 Brazilian Ministry of Health/Division of Oral Health survey database. The following variables were studied: gender; macroregion of residence; missing teeth; percentage that met the World Health Organization goal for oral health in the age group 65 to 74 years (50% having at least 20 natural teeth; presence of shortened dental arch; number of posterior occluding pairs of teeth. The Chi-square test assessed the association between categorical variables. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to assess differences of mean between number of posterior occluding pairs teeth, macro-region and gender. RESULTS: The elderly population had an average of 5.49 teeth (SD: 7.93 with a median of 0. The proportion of completely edentulous respondents was 54.7%. Complete edentulism was 18.2% in the upper arch and 1.9% in the lower arch. The World Health Organization goal was achieved in 10% of all respondents studied. However, only 2.7% had acceptable masticatory function and aesthetics (having at least shortened dental arch and a mean number of posterior occluding pairs of 6.94 (SD=2.97. There were significant differences of the percentage of respondents that met the World Health Organization goal and presence of shortened dental arch between men and women. There were differences in shortened dental arch between macroregions. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian epidemiological oral health survey showed high rate of edentulism and low rate of shortened dental arch in the elderly population studied, thus suggesting significant functional and aesthetic impairment in all Brazilian macroregions especially among women.

  20. Superimposed folding and thrusting by two phases of mutually orthogonal or oblique shortening in analogue models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongling; Koyi, Hemin A.; Nilfouroushan, Faramarz

    2016-02-01

    Orogens may suffer more than one phase shortening resulting in superposition of structures of different generations. Superimposition of orthogonal or oblique shortening is studied using sandbox and centrifuge modelling. Results of sand models show that in orthogonal superimposition, the two resulting structural trends are approximately orthogonal to each other. In oblique superimposition, structures trend obliquely to each other in the relatively thin areas of the model (foreland), and mutually orthogonal in areas where the model is thickened during the first phase of shortening (i.e. the hinterland). Thrusts formed during the first shortening phase may be reactivated during the later shortening phase. Spacing of the later phase structures is not as wide as expected, considering they across the pre-existing thickened wedge. Superposition of structures results in formation of type 1 fold interference pattern. Bedding is curved outwards both in the dome and basin structures. Folded layers are dipping and plunging outwards in a dome, while they are dipping and plunging inwards in a basin. In the areas between two adjacent domes or basins (i.e. where an anticline is superimposed by a syncline or a syncline is superimposed by an anticline), bedding is curved inwards, and the anticlines plunge inwards and the synclines outwards. The latter feature could be helpful to determine the age relationship for type 2 fold interference pattern. In tectonic regions where multiple phases of shortening have occurred, the orogenic-scale dome-and-basin and arrowhead-shaped interference patterns are commonly formed, as in the models. However, in some areas, the fold interference pattern might be modified by a later phase of thrusting. Similar to models results, superimposition of two and/or even more deformation phases may not be recorded by structures all over the tectonic area.

  1. Force depression following muscle shortening in sub-maximal voluntary contractions of human adductor pollicis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousanoglou, Elissavet N; Oskouei, Ali E; Herzog, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical properties of skeletal muscles are often studied for controlled, electrically induced, maximal, or supra-maximal contractions. However, many mechanical properties, such as the force-length relationship and force enhancement following active muscle stretching, are quite different for maximal and sub-maximal, or electrically induced and voluntary contractions. Force depression, the loss of force observed following active muscle shortening, has been observed and is well documented for electrically induced and maximal voluntary contractions. Since sub-maximal voluntary contractions are arguably the most important for everyday movement analysis and for biomechanical models of skeletal muscle function, it is important to study force depression properties under these conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine force depression following sub-maximal, voluntary contractions. Sets of isometric reference and isometric-shortening-isometric test contractions at 30% of maximal voluntary effort were performed with the adductor pollicis muscle. All reference and test contractions were executed by controlling force or activation using a feedback system. Test contractions included adductor pollicis shortening over 10 degrees, 20 degrees, and 30 degrees of thumb adduction. Force depression was assessed by comparing the steady-state isometric forces (activation control) or average electromyograms (EMGs) (force control) following active muscle shortening with those obtained in the corresponding isometric reference contractions. Force was decreased by 20% and average EMG was increased by 18% in the shortening test contractions compared to the isometric reference contractions. Furthermore, force depression was increased with increasing shortening amplitudes, and the relative magnitudes of force depression were similar to those found in electrically stimulated and maximal contractions. We conclude from these results that force depression occurs in sub

  2. Transferencia de calor en el secado solar a la intemperie de menas lateríticas ferroniquelíferas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoalbys Retirado-Mediaceja

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available En Moa, las menas lateríticas son sometidas a secado solar a la intemperie para reducirles el contenido de humedad antes de incorporarlas al proceso de secado térmico convencional. Este artículo evalúa los procesos de transferencia de calor fundamentales que tienen lugar durante el secado natural con el propósito de determinar el modo predominante de transferencia de calor. En dos pilas de menas lateríticas expuestas a secado solar natural se midieron las variables climatológicas y termodinámicas que influyen en la transferencia de calor por convección y radiación durante el secado y se calcularon, además, los criterios adimensionales para determinar el tipo predominante de convección. Se comprobó que durante el secado solar a la intemperie predomina la convección y que en las condiciones de experimentación analizadas la radiación tuvo una incidencia secundaria. Los resultados evidenciaron que el calor se transfiere por convección libre, forzada y mixta, predominando la forzada, para la cual los coeficientes de transferencia de calor mínimos y máximos mostraron pequeñas variaciones entre ambas pilas. Los flujos de calor por convección promedios fueron 978,74 y 1 156,58 W/m2 , mientras que los flujos por radiación ascendieron a 324,71 y 355,36 W/m2 para las pilas #1 y #2, respectivamente.

  3. Bilateral Serous Retinal Detachment Associated with Inferior Posterior Staphyloma Treated with Scleral Shortening and Vitrectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Kasai, Akihito; Kanda, Naotaka; Sekiryu, Tetsuju

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We report a case of bilateral serous retinal detachment (SRD) associated with inferior posterior staphyloma (IPS) treated successfully with scleral shortening. Patient and Methods A 63-year-old woman presented with bilateral visual loss due to an SRD with IPS. The best-corrected visual acuity levels were 0.6 (20/30) and 0.5 (20/40) in the right and left eye, respectively. The patient underwent vitrectomy and scleral shortening in the right eye. The lamellar scleral crescent was resect...

  4. Markers of cellular senescence. Telomere shortening as a marker of cellular senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernadotte, Alexandra; Mikhelson, Victor M; Spivak, Irina M

    2016-01-01

    The cellular senescence definition comes to the fact of cells irreversible proliferation disability. Besides the cell cycle arrest, senescent cells go through some morphological, biochemical, and functional changes which are the signs of cellular senescence. The senescent cells (including replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence) of all the tissues look alike. They are metabolically active and possess the set of characteristics in vitro and in vivo, which are known as biomarkers of aging and cellular senescence. Among biomarkers of cellular senescence telomere shortening is a rather elegant frequently used biomarker. Validity of telomere shortening as a marker for cellular senescence is based on theoretical and experimental data. PMID:26805432

  5. Therapeutic potential of ghrelin in restricting-type anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Mari; Ohwada, Rina; Akamizu, Takashi; Shibasaki, Tamotsu; Kangawa, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by a decrease in caloric intake and malnutrition. It is associated with a variety of medical morbidities as well as significant mortality. Nutritional support is of paramount importance to prevent impaired quality of life later in life in affected patients. Some patients with restricting-type AN who are fully motivated to gain body weight cannot increase their food intake because of malnutrition-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction. Chronicity of AN prevents participation in social activities and leads to increased medical expenses. Therefore, there is a pressing need for effective appetite-stimulating therapies for patients with AN. Ghrelin is the only orexigenic hormone that can be given intravenously. Intravenous infusion of ghrelin is reported to increase food intake and body weight in healthy subjects as well as in patients with poor nutritional status. Here, we introduce the results of a pilot study that investigated the effects of ghrelin on appetite, energy intake, and nutritional parameters in five patients with restricting-type AN, who are fully motivated to gain body weight but could not increase their food intake because of malnutrition-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction. PMID:22975066

  6. Comparison of different cooling regimes within a shortened liquid cooling/warming garment on physiological and psychological comfort during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Gloria R.; Koscheyev, Victor S.; Coca, Aitor; List, Nathan

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of different cooling regime intensities to maintain physiological and subjective comfort during physical exertion levels comparable to that engaged in during extravehicular activities (EVA) in space. We studied eight subjects (six males, two females) donned in our newly developed physiologically based shortened liquid cooling/warming garment (SLCWG). Rigorous (condition 1) and mild (condition 2) water temperature cooling regimes were compared at physical exertion levels comparable to that performed during EVA to ascertain the effectiveness of a lesser intensity of cooling in maintaining thermal comfort, thus reducing energy consumption in the portable life support system. Exercise intensity was varied across stages of the session. Finger temperature, rectal temperature, and subjective perception of overall body and hand comfort were assessed. Finger temperature was significantly higher in the rigorous cooling condition and showed a consistent increase across exercise stages, likely due to the restriction of heat extraction because of the intensive cold. In the mild cooling condition, finger temperature exhibited an overall decline with cooling, indicating greater heat extraction from the body. Rectal temperature was not significantly different between conditions, and showed a steady increase over exercise stages in both rigorous and mild cooling conditions. Ratings of overall comfort were 30% higher (more positive) and more stable in mild cooling (p<0.001). The mild cooling regime was more effective than rigorous cooling in allowing the process of heat exchange to occur, thus maintaining thermal homeostasis and subjective comfort during physical exertion.

  7. Bedside Calculation of Energy Expenditure Does Not Guarantee Adequate Caloric Prescription in Long-Term Mechanically Ventilated Critically Ill Patients: A Quality Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. De Waele

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is essential in critically ill patients, but translating caloric prescriptions into adequate caloric intake remains challenging. Caloric prescriptions (P, effective intake (I, and caloric needs (N, calculated with modified Harris-Benedict formulas, were recorded during seven consecutive days in ventilated patients. Adequacy of prescription was estimated by P/N ratio. I/P ratio assessed accuracy of translating a prescription into administered feeding. I/N ratio compared delivered calories with theoretical caloric needs. Fifty patients were prospectively studied in a mixed medicosurgical ICU in a teaching hospital. Basal and total energy expenditure were, respectively, 1361±171 kcal/d and 1649±233 kcal/d. P and I attained 1536±602 kcal/d and 1424±572 kcal/d, respectively. 24.6% prescriptions were accurate, and 24.3% calories were correctly administered. Excessive calories were prescribed in 35.4% of patients, 27.4% being overfed. Caloric needs were underestimated in 40% prescriptions, with 48.3% patients underfed. Calculating caloric requirements by a modified standard formula covered energy needs in only 25% of long-term mechanically ventilated patients, leaving many over- or underfed. Nutritional imbalance mainly resulted from incorrect prescription. Failure of “simple” calculations to direct caloric prescription in these patients suggests systematic use of more reliable methods, for example, indirect calorimetry.

  8. Caloric Intake from Fast Food among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2011-2012. NCHS Data Brief. Number 213

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikraman, Sundeep; Fryar, Cheryl D.; Ogden, Cynthia L.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of fast food has been linked to weight gain in adults. Fast food has also been associated with higher caloric intake and poorer diet quality in children and adolescents. From 1994 through 2006, caloric intake from fast food increased from 10% to 13% among children aged 2-18 years. This report presents the most recent data on the…

  9. Intake of High-intensity Sweeteners alters the Ability of Sweet Taste to Signal Caloric Consequences: Implications for the Learned Control of Energy and Body Weight Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Terry L.; Martin, Ashley A.; Clark, Kiely; Swithers, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent results from both human epidemiological and experimental studies with animals suggest that intake of non-caloric sweeteners may promote, rather than protect against, weight gain and other disturbances of energy regulation. However, without a viable mechanism to explain how consumption of non-caloric sweeteners can increase energy intake and body weight, the persuasiveness of such results has been limited. Using a rat model, the present research showed that intake of non-caloric sweeteners reduces the effectiveness of learned associations between sweet tastes and postingestive caloric outcomes (Experiment 1) and that interfering with this association may impair the ability of rats to regulate their intake of sweet, but not nonsweet, high-fat and high-calorie food (Experiment 2). The results support the hypothesis that consuming noncaloric sweeteners may promote excessive intake and body weight gain by weakening a predictive relationship between sweet taste and the caloric consequences of eating. PMID:21424985

  10. Development of a Shortened Form of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhern, Fiona; Rae, Gordon

    1998-01-01

    Data from 196 Irish school children were analyzed and used to develop a shortened version of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales (E. Fennema and J. Sherman, 1976). Internal consistency estimates of the reliability of scores on the whole scale and each of the subscales of the original and short form were favorable. (SLD)

  11. Changing Quality Controls: The Effects of Increasing Product Variety and Shortening Product Life Cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. van Iwaarden (Jos)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn many industries (e.g. cars, electronics, clothing) manufacturing complexity and unpredictability have increased in recent years because of increasing product variety and shortening product life cycles. At the same time, manufacturers in these industries appear to have more problems wi

  12. The Shortened Visuospatial Questionnaire for Children: A Useful Tool to Identify Students with Low Visuospatial Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastame, Maria Chiara; Cherchi, Rossella; Penna, Maria Pietronilla

    2015-01-01

    The current research was aimed mainly at exploring the reliability of a short-screening tool developed to self-evaluate visuospatial abilities in children. We presented 290 Italian third, fourth, and fifth graders with the 16-item Shortened Visuospatial questionnaire and several objective measures of intellectual efficiency, such as Raven's…

  13. Interlayer material transport during layer-normal shortening. Part I. The model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, I. van der

    1985-01-01

    To analyse mass-transfer during deformation, the case is considered of a multilayer experiencing a layer-normal shortening that is volume constant on the scale of many layers. Strain rate is homogeneously distributed on the layer-scale if diffusion is absent; when transport of matter between the lay

  14. Differential Telomere Shortening in Blood versus Arteries in an Animal Model of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Tajbakhsh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular dysfunction is an early feature of diabetic vascular disease, due to increased oxidative stress and reduced nitric oxide (NO bioavailability. This can lead to endothelial cell senescence and clinical complications such as stroke. Cells can become senescent by shortened telomeres and oxidative stress is known to accelerate telomere attrition. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 has been linked to vascular health by upregulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, suppressing oxidative stress, and attenuating telomere shortening. Accelerated leukocyte telomere attrition appears to be a feature of clinical type 2 diabetes (T2D and therefore the telomere system may be a potential therapeutic target in preventing vascular complications of T2D. However the effect of T2D on vascular telomere length is currently unknown. We hypothesized that T2D gives rise to shortened leukocyte and vascular telomeres alongside reduced vascular SIRT1 expression and increased oxidative stress. Accelerated telomere attrition was observed in circulating leukocytes, but not arteries, in T2D compared to control rats. T2D rats had blunted arterial SIRT1 and eNOS protein expression levels which were associated with reduced antioxidant defense capacity. Our findings suggest that hyperglycemia and a deficit in vascular SIRT1 per se are not sufficient to prematurely shorten vascular telomeres.

  15. Contribution of NHE-1 to cell length cardiac shortening of normal and failing rabbit myocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.G.J. van Borren; J.G. Zegers; A. Baartscheer; J.H. Ravesloot

    2006-01-01

    At the same intracellular pH (pH(i)) Na+/H+ exchange (NHE-1) fluxes of ventricular myocytes of hypertrophied failing hearts (HFH) are increased. We assessed how NHE-1 affected cell length shortening. pH(i) was measured fluorimetrically in resting and twitching (1 - 3 Hz)normal and HFH rabbit myocyte

  16. Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy After Distal Radius Fracture Malunion: Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaric, Katarina; Rujevcan, Gordan; Labas, Marko; Delimar, Domagoj; Bicanic, Goran

    2015-01-01

    Malunion of distal radius fracture is often complicated with shortening of the radius with disturbed radio- ulnar variance, frequently associated with lesions of triangular fibrocartilage complex and instability of the distal radioulnar joint. Positive ulnar variance may result in wrist pain located in ulnar part of the joint, limited ulnar deviation and forearm rotation with development of degenerative changes due to the overloading that occurs between the ulnar head and corresponding carpus. Ulnar shortening osteotomy (USO) is the standard procedure for correcting positive ulnar variance. Goal of this procedure is to minimize the symptoms by restoring the neutral radio - ulnar variance. In this paper we present a variety of surgical techniques available for ulnar shorthening osteotomy, their advantages and drawbacks. Methods of ulnar shortening osteotomies are divided into intraarticular and extraarticular. Intraarticular method of ulnar shortening can be performed arthroscopically or through open approach. Extraarticular methods include subcapital osteotomy and osteotomy of ulnar diaphysis, which depending on shape can be transverse, oblique, and step cut. All of those osteotomies can be performed along wrist arthroscopy in order to dispose and treat possibly existing triangular fibrocartilage complex injuries. At the end we described surgical procedures that can be done in case of ulnar shorthening osteotomy failure. PMID:26157524

  17. The addition of lidocaine to bupivacaine does not shorten the duration of spinal anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jon; Husum, Bent; Staffeldt, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    The duration of spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine is often too long for day surgery. A recent study of patients presenting for transurethral surgery suggested that the addition of a small amount of lidocaine to intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine could shorten the duration of the sensory and motor...

  18. Design real-time reversal of tumor multidrug resistance cleverly with shortened carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu P

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pingping Wu,1 Shang Li,2 Haijun Zhang2 1Jiangsu Cancer Hospital, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Oncology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Multidrug resistance (MDR in tumors renders many currently available chemotherapeutic drugs ineffective. Research in nanobiotechnology-based therapeutic alternatives has provided innovative and promising strategies to overcome MDR. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the new strategy of a co-loaded reversal agent and chemotherapeutic drug with shortened carbon nanotubes (CNTs would show useful effects on the real-time reversal of tumor MDR. CNTs were cut and purified via ultrasonication and oxidative acid treatment to optimize their length for drug-delivery vehicles, then verapamil (Ver and doxorubicin (Dox were co-loaded on shortened CNTs (denoted as Ver/Dox/shortened CNTs, which acted as a drug delivery system. The multidrug resistant leukemia K562/A02 cells were treated with the denoted Ver/Dox/shortened CNTs. The real-time reversal of tumor MDR were evaluated by flow cytometer, 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, and Western blot analysis. In the same MDR tumor cells the new strategy of a co-loaded reversal agent and chemotherapeutic drug with CNTs could inhibit the function of P-glycoprotein in real-time by Ver as reversal agent, significantly increase the uptake of Dox, enhance the sensitivity of the MDR cancer cells to the chemotherapeutic agent, and induce apoptosis. It was therefore concluded that a co-loaded reversal agent and chemotherapeutic drug with shortened CNTs could have real-time reversal ability of MDR in tumors, which could represent a promising approach in cancer therapy.Keywords: multidrug resistance, carbon nanotubes, drug delivery system, tumor

  19. A method for measuring mean circumferential fiber shortening rate from gated blood pool scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejection fraction and ejection rate are easily obtained from gated cardiac images, but no method is available for calculating mean circumferential fiber shortening rate. We assumed that the cube root of left ventricular end-diastolic volume or counts is proportional to the minor axis of the left ventricle at end-diastole or end-systole. Mean circumferential fiber shortening rate is then equal to the [cube root of the end-diastolic volume (count) minus cube root of end-systolic volume (count)] divided by [cube root of end-diastolic volume (count) multiplied by the ejection time]. In 250 contrast ventriculograms, the standard mean circumferential fiber shortening rate (MCFSR) and that derived by the cube root method correlated well (r = 0.94). The mean value of MCFSR (0.85 +- 0.35) was greater than the cube root value (0.75 +- 0.35) (P < 0.001). The regression equation was y = 0.86x + 0.02. Similar correlations were obtained from gated radionuclide images using a semiautomated program (r = 0.93) in 24 subjects or completely automated program (r = 0.85) in 28 patients. The regression equation between MCFSR and that derived from the cube root of counts for the semiautomated program was y = 0.82x + 0.04 and for the automated program was y = 0.84x + 0.004. Similar correlations, slopes, and intercepts were seen using circumferential fractional shortening for angiographic data when correlated with both the semiautomated and automated gated blood pool scan programs. These data indicate that MCFSR and circumferential fractional shortening may be obtained from gated blood pool images using cube root estimates of end-diastolic and end-systolic radii with a high degree of correlation with the standard contrast ventriculographic technique. (orig.)

  20. Oxidative Stress-induced Telomere Length Shortening of Circulating Leukocyte in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Soo; Kwak, Jin Wook; Lim, Su Jin; Park, Yong Kyun; Yang, Hoon Shik; Kim, Hyun Jik

    2016-01-01

    The main mechanism of pathogenesis which causes systemic complications in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients is believed to be intermittent hypoxia-induced intermediary effect and it depends on the burden of oxidative stress during sleep. We aimed to search the predictive markers which reflect the burden of systemic oxidative stress in patients with OSA and whether excessive telomere length shortening is a characteristic feature that can assess oxidative stress levels. We used quantitative PCR to measure telomere length using peripheral blood genomic DNA. Telomere lengths were compared in an age- and body mass index (BMI)-dependent manner in 34 healthy volunteers and 43 OSA subjects. We also performed reactive oxygen species assay to measure the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers and OSA subjects. We found that the serum concentration of hydrogen peroxide was considerably higher in OSA patients, and that this was closely related with the severity of OSA. Significantly shortened telomere length was observed in the circulating leukocytes of the peripheral blood of OSA patients, and telomere length shortening was aggravated more acutely in an age- and BMI-dependent manner. An inverse correlation was observed between the concentration of hydrogen peroxide and the telomere length of OSA patients and excessive telomere length shortening was also linked to severity of OSA. The results provided evidence that telomere length shortening or excessive cellular aging might be distinctive in circulating leukocyte of OSA patients and may be an predictive biomarker for reflect the burden of oxidative stress in the peripheral blood of OSA patients. PMID:27699083

  1. Two-Stage Surgical Treatment for Non-Union of a Shortened Osteoporotic Femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galal Zaki Said

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We report a case of non-union with severe shortening of the femur following diaphysectomy for chronic osteomyelitis.Case Presentation: A boy, aged 16 years presented with a dangling and excessively short left lower limb. He was using an elbow crutch in his right hand to help him walk. He had a history of diaphysectomy for chronic osteomyelitis at the age of 9. Examination revealed a freely mobile non-union of the left femur. The femur was the seat of an 18 cm shortening and a 4 cm defect at the non-union site; the knee joint was ankylosed in extension. The tibia and fibula were 10 cm short. Considering the extensive shortening in the femur and tibia in addition to osteoporosis, he was treated in two stages. In stage I, the femoral non-union was treated by open reduction, internal fixation and iliac bone grafting. The patient was then allowed to walk with full weight bearing in an extension brace for 7 months. In Stage II, equalization of leg length discrepancy (LLD was achieved by simultaneous distraction of the femur and tibia by unilateral frames. At the 6 month follow- up, he was fully weight bearing without any walking aid, with a heel lift to compensate the 1.5 cm shortening. Three years later he reported that he was satisfied with the result of treatment and was leading a normal life as a university student.Conclusions: Two-stage treatment succeeded to restore about 20 cm of the femoral shortening in a severely osteoporotic bone. It has also succeeded in reducing the treatment time of the external fixator.

  2. Comparison of Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential and Caloric Tests Findings in Noise Induced Hearing Loss-Affected and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farinoosh Fakharnia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Balance disturbance is one of the non-auditory effects of noisy industrial environments that is usually neglected. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of occupational noise on vestibular system among workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL, based on both vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP and caloric tests.Methods: Thirty male workers with noise-induced hearing loss and thirty male matched controls were examined by VEMP and caloric tests. Study parameters included unilateral weakness, p13 and n23 latencies, and p13-n23 amplitude. Caloric test was performed only for 20 patients.Results: No significant difference was observed in unilateral weakness between the two groups. On the other hand, the difference in mean latencies of p13 in the right ear (p=0.003 and left ear (p=0.01 was significant between the two groups. However, the difference in n23 latency was significant only in the right ear (p=0.03. There was no significant difference between groups in p13-n23 amplitude.Conclusion: It seems that pars inferior of vestibule is the susceptible part in individuals with NIHL. In general, abnormal findings in both VEMP and caloric tests were more common compared to functional symptoms such as vertigo, which may be due to central compensation and the symmetry of the disorder.

  3. Caloric content of leaves of five tree species from the riparian vegetation in a forest fragment from South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Fabrício Fiori

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: The measurement of the caloric content evidences the amount of energy that remains in the leaf and that can be released to the aquatic trophic chain. We assessed the energy content of leaves from five riparian tree species of a forest fragment in south Brazil and analyzed whether leaf caloric content varied between leaf species and between seasons (dry and wet. The studied sites are located in Northwest of Paraná State, inside a Semi-Deciduous Forest fragment beside two headwater streams. Methods Sampling sites were located along the riparian vegetation of these two water bodies, and due to its proximity and absence of statistical differences of caloric values, analyzed as one compartment. Results Caloric content varied significantly among species and among all pairs of species, with exception of Nectandra cuspidata Ness and Calophyllum brasiliensis Cambess. Two species presented significant differences between seasons, Sloanea guianensis (Aubl. Ben and Calophyllum brasiliensis Cambess. Conclusions The absence of significant seasonal differences of energy content for some species may be due to the characteristics of the tropical forest, in which temperature did not varied dramatically between seasons. However, the energy differed between species and seasons for some species, emphasizing the necessity of a preliminary inspection of energy content, before tracing energy fluxes instead of using a single value to all species from riparian vegetation.

  4. Using Light Charged Particles to Probe the Asymmetry Dependence of the Nuclear Caloric Curve

    CERN Document Server

    McIntosh, Alan B; Kohley, Zachary; Cammarata, Paul J; Hagel, Kris; Heilborn, Lauren; Mabiala, Justin; May, Larry W; Marini, Paola; Raphelt, Andrew; Souliotis, George A; Wuenschel, Sara; Zarrella, Andrew; Yennello, Sherry J

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we observed a clear dependence of the nuclear caloric curve on neutron-proton asymmetry $\\frac{N-Z}{A}$ through examination of fully reconstructed equilibrated quasi-projectile sources produced in heavy ion collisions at E/A = 35 MeV. In the present work, we extend our analysis using multiple light charged particle probes of the temperature. Temperatures are extracted with five distinct probes using a kinetic thermometer approach. Additionally, temperatures are extracted using two probes within a chemical thermometer approach (Albergo method). All seven measurements show a significant linear dependence of the source temperature on the source asymmetry. For the kinetic thermometer, the strength of the asymmetry dependence varies with the probe particle species in a way which is consistent with an average emission-time ordering.

  5. Very strict selectional restrictions

    CERN Document Server

    Laporte, Eric; Dias, Maria Carmelita P

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the characteristics and behaviour of two parallel classes of verbs in two Romance languages, French and Portuguese. Examples of these verbs are Port. abater [gado] and Fr. abattre [b\\'etail], both meaning "slaughter [cattle]". In both languages, the definition of the class of verbs includes several features: - They have only one essential complement, which is a direct object. - The nominal distribution of the complement is very limited, i.e., few nouns can be selected as head nouns of the complement. However, this selection is not restricted to a single noun, as would be the case for verbal idioms such as Fr. monter la garde "mount guard". - We excluded from the class constructions which are reductions of more complex constructions, e.g. Port. afinar [instrumento] com "tune [instrument] with".

  6. [Carbohydrate restriction in the larval diet causes oxidative stress in adult insects of Drosophila melanogaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovenko, B M; Lushchak, V I; Lushchak, O V

    2013-01-01

    The influence of 20 and 1% glucose and fructose, which were components of larval diet, on the level of oxidized proteins and lipids, low molecular mass antioxidant content as well as activities of antioxidant and associated enzymes in adult fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster were investigated. The restriction of carbohydrates in larval diet leads to oxidative stress in adult insects. It is supported by 40-50% increased content of protein carbonyl groups and by 60-70% decreased level of protein thiol groups as well as by a 4-fold increase of lipid peroxide content in 2-day-old flies of both sexes, developed on the diet with 1% carbohydrates. Oxidative stress, induced by carbohydrate restriction of the larval diet, caused the activation of antioxidant defence, differently exhibited in male and female fruit flies. Caloric restriction increased activity of superoxide dismutase and thioredoxin reductase associating only in males with 2-fold higher activity of NADPH-producing enzymes--glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase. Carbohydrate restriction in the larval diet caused the increase of uric acid content, but the decrease in catalase activity in males. In females the values of these parameters were changed in opposite direction compared with males. The obtained results let us conclude the different involvement of low molecular mass antioxidants, glutathione and uric acid, and antioxidant enzyme catalase in the protection of male and female fruit fly macromolecules against oxidative damages, caused by calorie restriction of larval diet.

  7. Role for Sit4p-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction in mediating the shortened chronological lifespan and oxidative stress sensitivity of Isc1p-deficient cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, António Daniel; Osório, Hugo; Sims, Kellie J; Almeida, Teresa; Alves, Mariana; Bielawski, Jacek; Amorim, Maria Amélia; Moradas-Ferreira, Pedro; Hannun, Yusuf A; Costa, Vítor

    2011-07-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking Isc1p, an orthologue of mammalian neutral sphingomyelinase 2, display a shortened lifespan and an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. A lipidomic analysis revealed specific changes in sphingolipids that accompanied the premature ageing of Isc1p-deficient cells under severe calorie restriction conditions, including a decrease of dihydrosphingosine levels and an increase of dihydro-C(26) -ceramide and phyto-C(26) -ceramide levels, the latter raising the possibility of activation of ceramide-dependent protein phosphatases. Consequently, deletion of the SIT4 gene, which encodes for the catalytic subunit of type 2A ceramide-activated protein phosphatase in yeast, abolished the premature ageing and hydrogen peroxide sensitivity of isc1Δ cells. SIT4 deletion also abolished the respiratory defects and catalase A deficiency exhibited by isc1Δ mutants. These results are consistent with catabolic derepression associated with the loss of Sit4p. The overall results show that Isc1p is an upstream regulator of Sit4p and implicate Sit4p activation in mitochondrial dysfunction leading to the shortened chronological lifespan and oxidative stress sensitivity of isc1Δ mutants. PMID:21707788

  8. Serotonin in the solitary tract nucleus shortens the laryngeal chemoreflex in anaesthetized neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, William T; Bartlett, Donald; Leiter, J C

    2016-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Failure to terminate apnoea and arouse is likely to contribute to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Serotonin is deficient in the brainstems of babies who died of SIDS. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that serotonin in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) would shorten reflex apnoea. What is the main finding and its importance? Serotonin microinjected into the NTS shortened the apnoea and respiratory inhibition associated with the laryngeal chemoreflex. Moreover, this effect was achieved through a 5-HT3 receptor. This is a new insight that is likely to be relevant to the pathogenesis of SIDS. The laryngeal chemoreflex (LCR), an airway-protective reflex that causes apnoea and bradycardia, has long been suspected as an initiating event in the sudden infant death syndrome. Serotonin (5-HT) and 5-HT receptors may be deficient in the brainstems of babies who die of sudden infant death syndrome, and 5-HT seems to be important in terminating apnoeas directly or in causing arousals or as part of the process of autoresuscitation. We hypothesized that 5-HT in the brainstem would limit the duration of the LCR. We studied anaesthetized rat pups between 7 and 21 days of age and made microinjections into the cisterna magna or into the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Focal, bilateral microinjections of 5-HT into the caudal NTS significantly shortened the LCR. The 5-HT1a receptor antagonist, WAY 100635, did not affect the LCR consistently, nor did a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, ketanserin, alter the duration of the LCR. The 5-HT3 specific agonist, 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-biguanide, microinjected bilaterally into the caudal NTS significantly shortened the LCR. Thus, endogenous 5-HT released within the NTS may curtail the respiratory depression that is part of the LCR, and serotonergic shortening of the LCR may be attributed to activation of 5-HT3 receptors within the NTS. 5-HT3 receptors are expressed presynaptically on C

  9. Serotonin in the solitary tract nucleus shortens the laryngeal chemoreflex in anaesthetized neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, William T; Bartlett, Donald; Leiter, J C

    2016-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Failure to terminate apnoea and arouse is likely to contribute to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Serotonin is deficient in the brainstems of babies who died of SIDS. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that serotonin in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) would shorten reflex apnoea. What is the main finding and its importance? Serotonin microinjected into the NTS shortened the apnoea and respiratory inhibition associated with the laryngeal chemoreflex. Moreover, this effect was achieved through a 5-HT3 receptor. This is a new insight that is likely to be relevant to the pathogenesis of SIDS. The laryngeal chemoreflex (LCR), an airway-protective reflex that causes apnoea and bradycardia, has long been suspected as an initiating event in the sudden infant death syndrome. Serotonin (5-HT) and 5-HT receptors may be deficient in the brainstems of babies who die of sudden infant death syndrome, and 5-HT seems to be important in terminating apnoeas directly or in causing arousals or as part of the process of autoresuscitation. We hypothesized that 5-HT in the brainstem would limit the duration of the LCR. We studied anaesthetized rat pups between 7 and 21 days of age and made microinjections into the cisterna magna or into the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Focal, bilateral microinjections of 5-HT into the caudal NTS significantly shortened the LCR. The 5-HT1a receptor antagonist, WAY 100635, did not affect the LCR consistently, nor did a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, ketanserin, alter the duration of the LCR. The 5-HT3 specific agonist, 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-biguanide, microinjected bilaterally into the caudal NTS significantly shortened the LCR. Thus, endogenous 5-HT released within the NTS may curtail the respiratory depression that is part of the LCR, and serotonergic shortening of the LCR may be attributed to activation of 5-HT3 receptors within the NTS. 5-HT3 receptors are expressed presynaptically on C

  10. Hypothalamic neuropeptide gene expression during recovery from food restriction superimposed on short-day photoperiod-induced weight loss in the Siberian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Zoë A; Moar, Kim M; Logie, Tracy J; Reilly, Laura; Stevens, Valerie; Morgan, Peter J; Mercer, Julian G

    2007-09-01

    Previously, 40% food restriction of male Siberian hamsters over 21 days in short-day (SD) photoperiod induced characteristic changes in expression of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus energy balance genes; mRNAs for neuropeptide Y, agouti-related peptide, and leptin receptor were upregulated, and those of proopiomelanocortin and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript were depressed. The present study examined the effect of refeeding hamsters for 6 days (approximately 50% recovery of weight differential) or 19 days (resumption of appropriate weight trajectory). Hyperphagia continued throughout refeeding, but differences in fat pad weights and leptin levels had disappeared after 19 days. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript gene expression was depressed by prior restriction in both refed groups. The depressive effect of prior restriction on proopiomelanocortin gene expression had disappeared after 19 days of refeeding. There was no effect of prior food restriction on neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide gene expression. Expression of the anorexigenic brain-derived neurotrophic factor was downregulated in the ventromedial nucleus after SD exposure for 12 wk. In the SD food restriction study, there were effects of photoperiod on brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression but not of prior food restriction. Hypothalamic energy balance genes in the hamster respond asynchronously to return to a seasonally appropriate body weight. The achievement of this weight rather than the weight at which caloric restriction was imposed is the critical factor. The differential responses of hypothalamic energy balance genes to food restriction and refeeding are poorly characterized in any species, a critical issue given their potential relevance to human weight loss strategies that involve caloric restriction.

  11. Does postsystolic motion or shortening predict recovery of myocardial function after primary percutanous coronary intervention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, Christian Juhl; Poulsen, Steen Hvitfeldt; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde;

    2007-01-01

    or shortening appears more frequently in the acute phase in myocardial segments with impaired systolic function compared with normally functioning segments. However, presence of postsystolic contraction is not associated with improvement in strain or wall-motion score at follow-up, and does not seem......OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether presence of postsystolic motion or shortening defined by Doppler tissue imaging may predict recovery of regional myocardial function in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction. METHODS: Echocardiography was performed a few hours......); and normal myocardial function in the acute phase (type E, n = 759). RESULTS: There were no differences among type A, B, C, and D segments with regard to the proportion presenting postsystolic tissue velocity equal to or greater than 1.0 cm/s (0.52, 0.54, 0.60, and 0.47, respectively, P = .20...

  12. Telomeric noncoding RNA TERRA is induced by telomere shortening to nucleate telomerase molecules at short telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusanelli, Emilio; Romero, Carmina Angelica Perez; Chartrand, Pascal

    2013-09-26

    Elongation of a short telomere depends on the action of multiple telomerase molecules, which are visible as telomerase RNA foci or clusters associated with telomeres in yeast and mammalian cells. How several telomerase molecules act on a single short telomere is unknown. Herein, we report that the telomeric noncoding RNA TERRA is involved in the nucleation of telomerase molecules into clusters prior to their recruitment at a short telomere. We find that telomere shortening induces TERRA expression, leading to the accumulation of TERRA molecules into a nuclear focus. Simultaneous time-lapse imaging of telomerase RNA and TERRA reveals spontaneous events of telomerase nucleation on TERRA foci in early S phase, generating TERRA-telomerase clusters. This cluster is subsequently recruited to the short telomere from which TERRA transcripts originate during S phase. We propose that telomere shortening induces noncoding RNA expression to coordinate the recruitment and activity of telomerase molecules at short telomeres.

  13. Surveying of the deformed terraces and crust shortening rate in the northwestern Tarim Basin: Comment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ The paper of Shen et al., entitled "Surveying of the deformed terraces and crust shortening rate in the northwest Tarim Basin", was published in Chinese Science Bulletin (Vol. 46, No. 12)[1]. Shen et al. found the deformation of Late Pleistocene to Holocene terraces of the Boguzi River across the Artushi Anticline in the northwest Tarim Basin close to the Pamir, and made level survey and differential GPS measurement, which is of great importance to geodynamics for research on the coupling of Tianshan Mountains uplifting and Tarim Basin depression. But their understanding to the deformation mechanics of terraces and the calculation methods of crustal shortening are open to discussion. Therefore, we discuss it with Shen Jun et al.

  14. A critical examination of the maximum velocity of shortening used in simulation models of human movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domire, Zachary J; Challis, John H

    2010-12-01

    The maximum velocity of shortening of a muscle is an important parameter in musculoskeletal models. The most commonly used values are derived from animal studies; however, these values are well above the values that have been reported for human muscle. The purpose of this study was to examine the sensitivity of simulations of maximum vertical jumping performance to the parameters describing the force-velocity properties of muscle. Simulations performed with parameters derived from animal studies were similar to measured jump heights from previous experimental studies. While simulations performed with parameters derived from human muscle were much lower than previously measured jump heights. If current measurements of maximum shortening velocity in human muscle are correct, a compensating error must exist. Of the possible compensating errors that could produce this discrepancy, it was concluded that reduced muscle fibre excursion is the most likely candidate.

  15. A near-term ion-beam experiment to demonstrate pulse shortening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, K., E-mail: kaishihchi@gmail.com [Physics Department, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Woo, K.M. [Physics Department, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Physics Department, University of Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Yu, S.S. [Physics Department, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-04-21

    Short beam pulse at a target is essential for High Energy Density Physics and Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF). A technique for ion-beam pulse shortening by the reduction of longitudinal emittance has recently been developed. An experimental demonstration of this technique would be important not only for the long-term design of HIF and HEDP targets, but would have immediate applications for near-term target experiments as well. To this end, using 3D PIC simulation code WARP, we have designed an experiment based on beam parameters of the existing NDCX-II machine at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The proposed experiment only requires non-invasive beam current measurements at two existing diagnostic stations and the implementation of two induction cells with special voltage waveforms, one for energy correction and a second one for final pulse compression. We show that the final pulse length in the NDCX-II experiment can be shortened by 46%.

  16. Telomere shortening leads to earlier age of onset in ALS mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkus, Birgit; Wiesner, Diana; MeΔner, Martina; Karabatsiakis, Alexander; Scheffold, Annika; Rudolph, K. Lenhard; Thal, Dietmar R.; Weishaupt, Jochen H.; Ludolph, Albert C.; Danzer, Karin M.

    2016-01-01

    Telomere shortening has been linked to a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Recent evidence suggests that reduced telomerase expression results in shorter telomeres in leukocytes from sporadic patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) compared with healthy controls. Here, we have characterized telomere length in microglia, astroglia and neurons in human post mortem brain tissue from ALS patients and healthy controls. Moreover, we studied the consequences of telomerase deletion in a genetic mouse model for ALS. We found a trend towards longer telomeres in microglia in the brains of ALS patients compared to non-neurologic controls. Knockout of telomerase leading to telomere shortening accelerated the ALS phenotype in SOD1G93A–transgenic mice. Our results suggest that telomerase dysfunction might contribute to the age-related risk for ALS. PMID:26978042

  17. Development of advanced concept for shortening construction period of ABWR plant (Part 3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reinforced concrete containment vessel (RCCV) is the most critical part in construction of an ABWR plant. Use of steel plate reinforced concrete (SC) and a large modular construction method are effective in shortening the construction period (Ijichi et al., 2004)1). This research is aimed at a remarkable shortening of the construction period of an ABWR plant (period from 1st concrete placement to Fuel/Loading is less than 22 months). Conceptual design of a steel plate reinforced concrete containment vessel (SCCV) using an SC structure is carried out and structural experiments are conducted. It is thus confirmed that SCCV shows outstanding structural performance, compared with RCCV. This paper outlines the study results. (authors)

  18. Telomere shortening correlates to dysplasia but not to DNA aneuploidy in longstanding ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Ottessen, Mariann; Bendix, Laila; Kølvraa, Steen;

    2014-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic, inflammatory bowel disease which may lead to dysplasia and adenocarcinoma in patients when long-lasting. Short telomeres have been reported in mucosal cells of UC patients. Telomeres are repetitive base sequences capping the ends of linear chromosomes, and pr...... shortening of one or more telomeres to a critical length, rather than bulk shortening of telomeres, seems to be associated with chromosomal instability.......Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic, inflammatory bowel disease which may lead to dysplasia and adenocarcinoma in patients when long-lasting. Short telomeres have been reported in mucosal cells of UC patients. Telomeres are repetitive base sequences capping the ends of linear chromosomes......, and protect them from erosion and subsequent wrongful recombination and end-to-end joining during cell division. Short telomeres are associated with the development of chromosomal instability and aneuploidy, the latter being risk factors for development of dysplasia and cancer. Specifically, the abrupt...

  19. Signs and symptoms related to temporomandibular disorders--Follow-up of subjects with shortened and complete dental arches.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, D.J.; Kreulen, C.M.; Mulder, J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess prevalence of cardinal signs and symptoms related to temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in subjects with shortened dental arches and to clarify the individual course of these signs and symptoms. METHODS: In this 9-year follow-up study, subjects with shortened dental arches (n=74)

  20. Restricting retrotransposons: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodier, John L

    2016-01-01

    Retrotransposons have generated about 40 % of the human genome. This review examines the strategies the cell has evolved to coexist with these genomic "parasites", focussing on the non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons of humans and mice. Some of the restriction factors for retrotransposition, including the APOBECs, MOV10, RNASEL, SAMHD1, TREX1, and ZAP, also limit replication of retroviruses, including HIV, and are part of the intrinsic immune system of the cell. Many of these proteins act in the cytoplasm to degrade retroelement RNA or inhibit its translation. Some factors act in the nucleus and involve DNA repair enzymes or epigenetic processes of DNA methylation and histone modification. RISC and piRNA pathway proteins protect the germline. Retrotransposon control is relaxed in some cell types, such as neurons in the brain, stem cells, and in certain types of disease and cancer, with implications for human health and disease. This review also considers potential pitfalls in interpreting retrotransposon-related data, as well as issues to consider for future research. PMID:27525044

  1. Diaphragm muscle shortening modulates kinematics of lower rib cage in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Iris; Fernandez, Cristina; Rodowicz, Kathleen Allen; Lopez, Michael A.; Lu, Raymond; Hubmayr, Rolf D.; Boriek, Aladin M.

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that diaphragm muscle shortening modulates volume displacement and kinematics of the lower rib cage in dogs and that posture and mode of ventilation affect such modulation. Radiopaque markers were surgically attached to the lower three ribs of the rib cage and to the midcostal region of the diaphragm in six dogs of ∼8 kg body masses, and the locations of these markers were determined by a biplane fluoroscopy system. Three-dimensional software modeling techniques were ...

  2. Effect of Preactivation on Torque Enhancement by the Stretch-Shortening Cycle in Knee Extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutani, Atsuki; Misaki, Jun; Isaka, Tadao

    2016-01-01

    The stretch-shortening cycle is one of the most interesting topics in the field of sport sciences, because the performance of human movement is enhanced by the stretch-shortening cycle (eccentric contraction). The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the influence of preactivation on the torque enhancement by stretch-shortening cycle in knee extensors. Twelve men participated in this study. The following three conditions were conducted for knee extensors: (1) concentric contraction without preactivation (CON), (2) concentric contraction with eccentric preactivation (ECC), and (3) concentric contraction with isometric preactivation (ISO). Muscle contractions were evoked by electrical stimulation to discard the influence of neural activity. The range of motion of the knee joint was set from 80 to 140 degrees (full extension = 180 degrees). Angular velocities of the concentric and eccentric contractions were set at 180 and 90 degrees/s, respectively. In the concentric contraction phase, joint torques were recorded at 85, 95, and 105 degrees, and they were compared among the three conditions. In the early phase (85 degrees) of concentric contraction, the joint torque was larger in the ECC and ISO conditions than in the CON condition. However, these clear differences disappeared in the later phase (105 degrees) of concentric contraction. The results showed that joint torque was clearly different among the three conditions in the early phase whereas this difference disappeared in the later phase. Thus, preactivation, which is prominent in the early phase of contractions, plays an important role in torque enhancement by the stretch-shortening cycle in knee extensors.

  3. Foreland shortening and crustal balancing in the Andes at 30°S latitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allmendinger, R. W.; Figueroa, D.; Synder, D.; Beer, J.; Mpodozis, C.; Isaacks, B. L.

    1990-08-01

    Excellent surface exposures, known Benioff zone geometry, a dynamic morphology, and the availability of industry seismic reflection data all make the Andes at 30°S an excellent transect for investigating crustal-scale balanced sections. 150-170 km of horizontal shortening has occurred in three major belts located between the trench and the foreland. The thin-skinned, east-verging Precordillera of western Argentina accounts for 60-75% of the total shortening and formed mostly since major volcanism ceased at ˜10 Ma. Industry seismic reflection data show that the décollement of the Precordillera belt is located anomalously deep at ˜15 km. The belt is dominated by fault propagation folds and contains several prominent out-of-sequence thrust faults. Seismic stratigraphie analysis shows that Miocene strata in the Iglesia Valley, located between the Precordillera and the crest of the Andes, accumulated in a piggy-back basin. Onlap relations on the western side indicate that the High Cordillera was uplifted as a major fault bend fold over a buried ramp. Thrusting in the two western belts, both in the High Cordillera of Chile, formed during the waning stages of arc volcanism, 11-16 Ma. and account for 25-40% of the shortening. The observed shortening is probably greater than can be accounted for with reasonable crustal thicknesses, indicating the possibility of continental truncation or erosion along the plate margin or an anomalously thick root held down by the nearly flat subducted Nazca Plate. Our preferred crustal geometry puts the ramp between upper and lower crustal deformation west of the high topography, requiring crustal scale tectonic wedging to thicken the crust beneath the crest of the Andes. This non-unique model provides a simple explanation of the first order morphology of the Andes at this latitude.

  4. Assessment of plantarflexor function during a stretch-shortening cycle task

    OpenAIRE

    Furlong, Laura-Anne M

    2014-01-01

    peer-reviewed The plantarflexors are important due to their role in locomotion and stiffness control, high prevalence of injury, link to knee stability and anterior cruciate ligament injury. Current methods of assessing the plantarflexors are limited primarily by issues of validity and reliability. The aims of this thesis were to develop a method of measuring plantarflexor function in a dynamic yet controlled stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) task and to assess plantarflexor muscle-tendon uni...

  5. Lengthening of the first metatarsal bone. A case of congenital shortening

    OpenAIRE

    Amillo, S.; Gil-Albarova, J. (Jorge); Pampliega, T. (Tomás)

    1991-01-01

    A 14-year-old boy had a congenital shortening of the first right metatarsal bone, with overloading of the central metatarsals and medial deviation of the second toe. A percutaneous osteotomy and slow distraction by an external fixator for 10 weeks lengthened the bone from 32 mm to 60 mm. After the distraction, a bone graft was performed, and tenotomies and a capsulotomy corrected a threatening subluxation. Consolidation of the lengthening focus required 16 weeks.

  6. Shortened Length of Stay Improves Financial Outcomes in Living Donor Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Manuel; Siskind, Eric; Sameyah, Emil; Alex, Asha; Blum, Mark; Tyrell, Richard; Fana, Melissa; Mishler, Marni; Godwin, Andrew; Kuncewitch, Michael; Alexander, Mohini; Israel, Ezra; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Calderon, Kellie; Jhaveri, Kenar D.; Sachdeva, Mala; Bellucci, Alessandro; Mattana, Joseph; Fishbane, Steven; Coppa, Gene; Molmenti, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the preferred clinical and most cost-effective option for end-stage renal disease. Significant advances have taken place in the care of the transplant patients with improvements in clinical outcomes. The optimization of the costs of transplantation has been a constant goal as well. We present herein the impact in financial outcomes of a shortened length of stay after kidney transplant. PMID:24436592

  7. A shortened version of the basic IY Program : effects four years after parent training

    OpenAIRE

    Vik, Heidi Haukebøe; Heggelund, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    Background: To test whether the effects of a shortened version of the Basic Incredible Years program, aimed at preventing child behavior problems, were sustained 4 years after the initial intervention. Method: Data were obtained from parents in a randomized controlled trial for children aged 6 to 12 (N = 117). Results: Significant increases on positive parenting and parents’ sense of competence, and significant decreases of harsh parenting were observed. No significant difference between g...

  8. A TIN2 dyskeratosis congenita mutation causes telomerase-independent telomere shortening in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Frescas, David; de Lange, Titia

    2014-01-01

    The progressive bone marrow failure syndrome dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is often caused by mutations in telomerase or factors involved in telomerase biogenesis and trafficking. However, a subset of DC patients is heterozygous for mutations in the shelterin component TIN2. Here, heterozygous TIN2-DC mice showed a telomere-shortening phenotype in both telomerase-proficient and telomerase-deficient backgrounds. This study raises the possibility that some of the TIN2-DC mutations may affect telo...

  9. Diabetes mellitus as a cause of life span shortening in locally exposed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of the development of remote radiation pathology of pancreas in male rats after local irradiation of abdomen with doses of 5, 10 (two fractions of 5 Gy at a 30-day interval) and 15 Gy (three fractions of 5 Gy at a 30-day interval). The clinical and morphological estimates show the dose-dependent development of diabetes mellitus and 1.8-fold shortening of the life span, as compared to biological control

  10. Mitochondrial genome instability resulting from SUV3 haploinsufficiency leads to tumorigenesis and shortened lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Phang-Lang; Chen, Chi-Fen; Chen, Yumay; Guo, Xuning Emily; Huang, Chun-Kai; Shew, Jin-Yuh; Reddick, Robert L.; Wallace, Douglas C.; Lee, Wen-Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been a hallmark of cancer. However, whether it plays a causive role awaits to be elucidated. Here, using an animal model derived from inactivation of SUV3, a mitochondrial helicase, we demonstrated that mSuv3+/− mice harbored increased mtDNA mutations and decreased mtDNA copy numbers, leading to tumor development in various sites and shortened lifespan. These phenotypes were transmitted maternally, indicating the etiological role of the mitochondria. Importantly,...

  11. Effect of Preactivation on Torque Enhancement by the Stretch-Shortening Cycle in Knee Extensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuki Fukutani

    Full Text Available The stretch-shortening cycle is one of the most interesting topics in the field of sport sciences, because the performance of human movement is enhanced by the stretch-shortening cycle (eccentric contraction. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the influence of preactivation on the torque enhancement by stretch-shortening cycle in knee extensors. Twelve men participated in this study. The following three conditions were conducted for knee extensors: (1 concentric contraction without preactivation (CON, (2 concentric contraction with eccentric preactivation (ECC, and (3 concentric contraction with isometric preactivation (ISO. Muscle contractions were evoked by electrical stimulation to discard the influence of neural activity. The range of motion of the knee joint was set from 80 to 140 degrees (full extension = 180 degrees. Angular velocities of the concentric and eccentric contractions were set at 180 and 90 degrees/s, respectively. In the concentric contraction phase, joint torques were recorded at 85, 95, and 105 degrees, and they were compared among the three conditions. In the early phase (85 degrees of concentric contraction, the joint torque was larger in the ECC and ISO conditions than in the CON condition. However, these clear differences disappeared in the later phase (105 degrees of concentric contraction. The results showed that joint torque was clearly different among the three conditions in the early phase whereas this difference disappeared in the later phase. Thus, preactivation, which is prominent in the early phase of contractions, plays an important role in torque enhancement by the stretch-shortening cycle in knee extensors.

  12. Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy After Distal Radius Fracture Malunion: Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Barbaric, Katarina; Rujevcan, Gordan; Labas, Marko; Delimar, Domagoj; Bicanic, Goran

    2015-01-01

    Malunion of distal radius fracture is often complicated with shortening of the radius with disturbed radio- ulnar variance, frequently associated with lesions of triangular fibrocartilage complex and instability of the distal radioulnar joint. Positive ulnar variance may result in wrist pain located in ulnar part of the joint, limited ulnar deviation and forearm rotation with development of degenerative changes due to the overloading that occurs between the ulnar head and corresponding carpus...

  13. Edentulism and shortened dental arch in Brazilian elderly from the National Survey of Oral Health 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Túlio de Freitas Ribeiro; Marco Aurélio Camargo da Rosa; Rosa Maria Natal de Lima; Andréa Maria Duarte Vargas; João Paulo Amaral Haddad; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira e

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the distribution of edentulism and estimate the prevalence of functional dentition and shortened dental arch among elderly population. METHODS: A population-based epidemiological study was carried out with a sample of 5,349 respondents aged 65 to 74 years obtained from the 2002 and 2003 Brazilian Ministry of Health/Division of Oral Health survey database. The following variables were studied: gender; macroregion of residence; missing teeth; percentage that met the World...

  14. The randomized shortened dental arch study (RaSDA): design and protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Kern Matthias; Jahn Florentine; Heydecke Guido; Hartmann Sinsa; Hannak Wolfgang; Gitt Ingrid; Dressler Paul; Busche Eckhard; Aggstaller Hans; Heinecke Achim; Gerss Joachim; Marré Birgit; Luthardt Ralph G; Mundt Torsten; Pospiech Peter

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Various treatment options for the prosthetic treatment of jaws where all molars are lost are under discussion. Besides the placement of implants, two main treatment types can be distinguished: replacement of the missing molars with removable dental prostheses and non-replacement of the molars, i.e. preservation of the shortened dental arch. Evidence is lacking regarding the long-term outcome and the clinical performance of these approaches. High treatment costs and the lon...

  15. Interpretação e utilidade da prova calórica Interpretation and use of caloric testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Utsch Gonçalves

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A prova calórica é o teste da avaliação otoneurológica que verifica a integridade do reflexo vestíbulo-ocular e possibilita avaliar cada labirinto separadamente. Os principais aspectos relacionados à realização, interpretação e utilidade da prova calórica foram revistos. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se revisão sistemática sobre as publicações ocorridas nos últimos cem anos sobre o assunto. Incluíram-se artigos originais transversais e longitudinais, de revisão e meta-análise. Excluíram-se revisões de papeleta, relatos de caso e editoriais. Os descritores utilizados foram: prova calórica, nistagmo, sistema vestibular, preponderância direcional, predomínio labiríntico, teste calórico monotermal, teste calórico com água gelada, fenômeno de Bell. Pesquisou-se as bases de dados COCHRAINE, MEDLINE, LILACS, CAPES. RESULTADOS: De 818 resumos de artigos, selecionou-se inicialmente 93 que preenchiam os critérios de inclusão. A leitura dos artigos resultou na seleção final de 55. Na análise dos artigos, enfatizou-se na discussão fundamentos da prova calórica, tipos de estimulação utilizados, prova calórica monotermal e com água gelada, questões relacionadas à interpretação dos resultados, variáveis e artefatos. COMENTÁRIOS FINAIS: os valores de referência utilizados na prova calórica podem variar de serviço para serviço, com ponto de corte definido a partir de estudos locais. Semiotécnica cuidadosa é fundamental para elevar a sensibilidade do exame.Caloric testing is an otoneurologic evaluation of the status of the vestibular-ocular reflex; it allows an evaluation of each labyrinth separately. The main aspects on the use and interpretation of caloric testing are reviewed. METHOD: A systematic review of papers published in the past one hundred years on caloric testing was undertaken. The inclusion criteria were: cross-sectional, longitudinal, original articles, reviews and meta-analyses. Reviews of patient charts

  16. Property Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    Land Administration Systems are the basis for conceptualizing rights, restrictions and responsibilities related to people, policies and places. Property rights are normally concerned with ownership and tenure whereas restrictions usually control use and activities on land. Responsibilities relate...... more to a social, ethical commitment or attitude to environmental sustainability and good husbandry. This paper provides an overall understanding of the concept of land administration systems for dealing with rights, restrictions and responsibilities in future spatially enabled government. Finally...

  17. INFLUENCE OF SHORTENED AND LENGTHENED IMMOBILIZATION ON RAT SOLEUS MUSCLE ATROPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢国刚; 樊小力; 吴苏娣; 宋新爱; 朱保恭; 唐斌

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the possible mechanism and prevention of disuse muscle atrophy. Methods: The shortened immobilization (plaster fixation) of rat' s soleus muscle (SOL) was used as the model of muscle and the lengthened immobilization of rat' s SOL muscle as "passive stretch" method. Types of skeletal muscle fibers were differentiated with m - ATPase staining technique. The changes of rat' s SOL muscle weight (wet weight) as well as the types and the mean cross - sectional area (CSA) of muscle fibers were examined respectively on day 2, 4,7, 14 and 21 under both shortened and lengthened immobilization and then the effect of passive stretch on soleus muscle atrophy in immobilized rats was observed. Results: When shortened immobilization was applied for 4 days, SOL muscle weight (wet weight) became lighter; the fiber crosssectional area (CSA) shrank and type Ⅰ muscle fibers started transforming into type Ⅱ, which all indicated immobilized muscles began to atrophy and as immobilization proceeded, muscle atrophy proceeded toward higher level. In contrast to that, when lengthened immobilization was applied, SOL muscle didn' t show any sign of atrophy until 7th day, and reached its highest level on day 14 and maintained that level even though immobilization continued. Conclusion: From the results, we conclude that passive stretch can either relieve or defer disuse muscle atrophy.

  18. Field Monitoring of Column Shortenings in a High-Rise Building during Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Seon Park

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The automatic monitoring of shortenings of vertical members in high-rise buildings under construction is a challenging issue in the high-rise building construction field. In this study, a practical system for monitoring column shortening in a high-rise building under construction is presented. The proposed monitoring system comprises the following components: (1 a wireless sensing system and (2 the corresponding monitoring software. The wireless sensing system comprises the sensors and energy-efficient wireless sensing units (sensor nodes, master nodes, and repeater nodes, which automate the processes for measuring the strains of vertical members and transmitting the measured data to the remote server. The monitoring software enables construction administrators to monitor real-time data collected by the server via an Internet connection. The proposed monitoring system is applied to actual 66-floor and 72-floor high-rise buildings under construction. The system enables automatic and real-time measurements of the shortening of vertical members, which can result in more precise construction.

  19. Shortened Lifespan and Lethal Hemorrhage in a Hemophilia A Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice M Staber

    Full Text Available Hemophilia A animal models have helped advance our understanding of factor VIII deficiency. Previously, factor VIII deficient mouse models were reported to have a normal life span without spontaneous bleeds. However, the bleeding frequency and survival in these animals has not been thoroughly evaluated.To investigate the survival and lethal bleeding frequency in two strains of E-16 hemophilia A mice.We prospectively studied factor VIII deficient hemizygous affected males (n = 83 and homozygous affected females (n = 55 for survival and bleeding frequency. Animals were evaluated for presence and location of bleeds as potential cause of death.Hemophilia A mice had a median survival of 254 days, which is significantly shortened compared to wild type controls (p < 0.0001. In addition, the hemophilia A mice experienced hemorrhage in several tissues. This previously-underappreciated shortened survival in the hemophilia A murine model provides new outcomes for investigation of therapeutics and also reflects the shortened lifespan of patients if left untreated.

  20. Decreasing initial telomere length in humans intergenerationally understates age-associated telomere shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holohan, Brody; De Meyer, Tim; Batten, Kimberly; Mangino, Massimo; Hunt, Steven C; Bekaert, Sofie; De Buyzere, Marc L; Rietzschel, Ernst R; Spector, Tim D; Wright, Woodring E; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-08-01

    Telomere length shortens with aging, and short telomeres have been linked to a wide variety of pathologies. Previous studies suggested a discrepancy in age-associated telomere shortening rate estimated by cross-sectional studies versus the rate measured in longitudinal studies, indicating a potential bias in cross-sectional estimates. Intergenerational changes in initial telomere length, such as that predicted by the previously described effect of a father's age at birth of his offspring (FAB), could explain the discrepancy in shortening rate measurements. We evaluated whether changes occur in initial telomere length over multiple generations in three large datasets and identified paternal birth year (PBY) as a variable that reconciles the difference between longitudinal and cross-sectional measurements. We also clarify the association between FAB and offspring telomere length, demonstrating that this effect is substantially larger than reported in the past. These results indicate the presence of a downward secular trend in telomere length at birth over generational time with potential public health implications.

  1. Microstructures of bread dough and the effects of shortening on frozen dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibara, Shigeo; Ogawa, Noriko; Hirose, Masaaki

    2005-02-01

    Three types of straight doughs different in combination of yeast and shortenings (RLS20, FTS20, and FTS80) were prepared, and the structure of the frozen doughs was examined under a microscope after staining protein or lipid droplets. Even after 2 months of frozen storage, distinct changes were not found in the gluten network of FTS80, although significant damages in the dough structures of FTS20 and RLS20 appeared after only one month of frozen storage. These results suggest that the gluten networks loosen and decrease in the water retention ability, and it may be concluded that the lipid is removed from the gluten protein due to the decrease in water in the continuous protein phase. The resulting product from the damage to the gluten matrix gave rise to fusion of lipid droplets and an increase in their size. Because of the difference in fatty acid composition, the lipids of shortening S80 are presumed to interact more strongly with gluten proteins and to keep the gluten matrix from damage in comparison with the lipids of shortening S20. PMID:15725667

  2. Parallel telomere shortening in multiple body tissues owing to malaria infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Muhammad; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Zaghdoudi-Allan, Nadège; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Mukhin, Andrey; Platonova, Elena; Färnert, Anna; Bensch, Staffan; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2016-08-17

    Several studies have shown associations between shorter telomere length in blood and weakened immune function, susceptibility to infections, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Recently, we have shown that malaria accelerates telomere attrition in blood cells and shortens lifespan in birds. However, the impact of infections on telomere attrition in different body tissues within an individual is unknown. Here, we tested whether malarial infection leads to parallel telomere shortening in blood and tissue samples from different organs. We experimentally infected siskins (Spinus spinus) with the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium ashfordi, and used real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to measure telomere length in control and experimentally infected siskins. We found that experimentally infected birds showed faster telomere attrition in blood over the course of infection compared with control individuals (repeatedly measured over 105 days post-infection (DPI)). Shorter telomeres were also found in the tissue of all six major organs investigated (liver, lungs, spleen, heart, kidney, and brain) in infected birds compared with controls at 105 DPI. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing that an infectious disease results in synchronous telomere shortening in the blood and tissue cells of internal organs within individuals, implying that the infection induces systemic stress. Our results have far-reaching implications for understanding how the short-term effects of an infection can translate into long-term costs, such as organ dysfunction, degenerative diseases, and ageing. PMID:27488651

  3. Hepatocellular telomere shortening correlates with chromosomal instability and the development of human hepatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plentz, Ruben R; Caselitz, Martin; Bleck, Joerg S; Gebel, Michael; Flemming, Peer; Kubicka, Stefan; Manns, Michael P; Rudolph, K Lenhard

    2004-07-01

    The telomere hypothesis of cancer initiation indicates that telomere shortening initiates cancer by induction of chromosomal instability. To test whether this hypothesis applies to human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we analyzed the telomere length of hepatocytes in cytological smears of fine-needle biopsies of liver tumors from patients with cirrhosis (n = 39). The tumors consisted of 24 HCC and 15 regenerative nodules as diagnosed by combined histological and cytological diagnostics. In addition, we analyzed the telomere length of hepatocytes in HCC and surrounding noncancerous liver tissue within individual patients in another cohort of 10 patients with cirrhosis. Telomere length analysis of hepatocytes was correlated with tumor pathology and ploidy grade of the tumors, which was analyzed by cytophotometry. Telomeres were significantly shortened in hepatocytes of HCC compared to hepatocytes in regenerative nodules or surrounding noncancerous liver tissue. Hepatocyte telomere shortening in HCC was independent of the patient's age. There was no overlap in mean telomere lengths of individual samples when comparing HCC with regenerative nodules or noncancerous surrounding liver. Within the HCC group, telomeres were significantly shorter in hepatocytes of aneuploid tumors compared to diploid tumors. In conclusion, our data suggest that the telomere hypothesis of cancer initiation applies to human HCC and that cell type-specific telomere length analysis might indicate the risk of HCC development. PMID:15239089

  4. Estudios sobre el calor de hidratación desarrollado en morteros con materiales puzolánicos: naturales y subproductos industriales

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez de Rojas, María Isabel; Frías Rojas, Moisés; Rivera, J

    2000-01-01

    [ES] Con la incorporación de materiales con características puzolánicas en morteros y hormigones se puede rebajar el calor desarrollado en las reacciones de hidratación. Sin embargo, la disminución en el calor de hidratación no es directamente proporcional a la cantidad de cemento sustituido, esto es debido al aporte de calor generado en la reacción puzolánica, de forma que con materiales muy activos, como el humo de sílice o las rocas opalinas, incluso se incr...

  5. Transferencia de calor incrementada en espacios anulares con elementos helicoidales insertados//Review of augmentation techniques for heat transfer coefficient in annular spaces using helical elements

    OpenAIRE

    Josué Imbert‐González; Octavio García‐Valladares; Viedma, A.; Reinaldo Guillen‐Gordín

    2014-01-01

    La transferencia de calor incrementada por métodos pasivos se emplea en diversosintercambiadores de calor de alta efectividad. El objetivo del trabajo presentado fue la evaluación del estado de las investigaciones en el campo de la transferencia de calor mejorada en espacios anulares, a partir del empleo de elementos turbulizadores helicoidales como técnicas pasivas. La revisión se centró en el empleo de láminas helicoidales y espirales, la obtención de ecuaciones de correlación del coeficien...

  6. Dyslipidemia and chronic inflammation markers are correlated with telomere length shortening in Cushing's syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Aulinas

    Full Text Available Cushing's syndrome (CS increases cardiovascular risk (CVR and adipocytokine imbalance, associated with an increased inflammatory state. Telomere length (TL shortening is a novel CVR marker, associated with inflammation biomarkers. We hypothesized that inflammatory state and higher CVR in CS might be related to TL shortening, as observed in premature aging.To evaluate relationships between TL, CVR and inflammation markers in CS.In a cross-sectional study, 77 patients with CS (14 males, 59 pituitary-, 17 adrenal- and 1 ectopic-origin; 21 active disease and 77 age-, gender-, smoking-matched controls were included. Total white blood cell TL was measured by TRF-Southern technique. Clinical data and blood samples were collected (lipids, adrenal function, glucose. Adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL6 and C-reactive protein (CRP were available in a subgroup of patients (n=32. Correlations between TL and clinical features were examined and multiple linear regression analysis was performed to investigate potential predictors of TL.Dyslipidemic CS had shorter TL than non-dyslipidemic subjects (7328±1274 vs 7957±1137 bp, p<0.05. After adjustment for age and body mass index, cured and active CS dyslipidemic patients had shorter TL than non-dyslipidemic CS (cured: 7187±1309 vs 7868±1104; active: 7203±1262 vs 8615±1056, respectively, p<0.05. Total cholesterol and triglycerides negatively correlated with TL (r-0.279 and -0.259, respectively, p<0.05, as well as CRP and IL6 (r-0.412 and -0.441, respectively, p<0.05. No difference in TL according the presence of other individual CVR factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity were observed in CS or in the control group. Additional TL shortening was observed in dyslipidemic obese patients who were also hypertensive, compared to those with two or less CVR factors (6956±1280 vs 7860±1180, respectively, p<0.001. Age and dyslipidemia were independent negative predictors of TL.TL is shortened in dyslipidemic CS

  7. High Caloric Diet for ALS Patients: High Fat, High Carbohydrate or High Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvin Sanaie

    2015-01-01

    . They showed that patients in the highcarbohydrate/high-calorie groups gained 0.39 kg more weight per month, compared with 0.11kg per month in the control group, and there was an average weight loss of 0.46 kg per month in the high-fat/high-calorie group. However, there are some concerns that highcarbohydrate low-fat diets might increase the risk of ALS and these findings should be interpreted with caution (4. Furthermore, according to Wills et al. high fat-high caloric diets could not be ideal regimens for these patients due to the associated gastrointestinal complications (3. Dorst and associates, in their study, showed that high caloric food supplement with high fat is suitable to establish body weight compared to high carbohydrate formula. Hence, it seems that high protein-high caloric diets could be more appropriate options for both improving negative nitrogen balance and decreasing muscle atrophy in patients with ALS based on the pathophysiology of proteinenergy malnutrition and hypermetabolism which is thought to be due to mitochondria problem. The multifactorial pathophysiology of ALS has resulted in hypotheses that there may be subgroups of patients, eventually defined by a specific underlying etiology or clinical presentation, which selectively respond to a particular regimen. Consequently, further RCTs with larger sample size are required to clarify the best regimen for weight gain and improved survival in ALS patients and it seems that personalized nutritional support or combined regimens might be the best way and could improve the quality of life considering the complex pathophysiology of malnutrition.

  8. Tolerancia al calor y humedad atmosférica de diferentes grupos raciales de ganado bovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Guillén T

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Comparar algunas respuestas fisiológicas al calor y humedad atmosférica entre bovinos Chinampos (Bos taurus; Ch, ½ Charolais ½ Brahman (CB, Holstein (H y Jersey (J. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio en La Paz, México. Se utilizaron 12 vacas H, 10 J, 15 Ch y 8 CB. Durante el verano se midieron cada semana (a las 0600 y 1600 horas la frecuencia respiratoria (FR y temperatura rectal (TR. Se registraron las variables climáticas para calcular el índice de temperatura-humedad (ITH. Resultados. Durante todo el verano, la FR en los cuatro grupos estuvo por encima de los valores fisiológicos para el ganado bovino, siendo superior en H y J que en Ch y CB (p<0.01. En todos los grupos, la TR estuvo dentro de los límites fisiológicos de la especie estudiada. El grupo racial más afectado fue H (p<0.05. Cuando las constantes fisiológicas fueron analizadas dentro de cada una de tres categorías de ITH (<72, ≥72<78, y ≥78, las vacas H y J mostraron FR superior a las Ch y CB (p<0.01. La TR aumentó conforme se elevó el ITH siendo más marcado en J y H. El incremento de la FR entre la mañana y la tarde de cada día de medición fue mayor en H y J que en Ch y CB (p<0.05. La TR se incrementó más en H que en Ch (p<0.05. Conclusiones. Los grupos raciales más tolerantes al estrés por calor, determinado con base en FR y TR fueron Ch y CB.

  9. Heat transfer in simple houses; Transferencia de calor en casas habitacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porta, Miguel Angel; Rubio, Eduardo; Fernandez, Jose Luis [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, Baja California Sur, (Mexico); Gomez Munoz, Victor [Centro Interdiciplinario de Ciencias Marinas, Baja California Sur (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    A lumped parameter model is used to represent, with a high degree of precision, the temperature and comfort evolution with the time of a simple house, under any hot, extreme weather variation. Results are validated by experimental work in physical models, built to scale 1:2, with materials and building techniques typical of social interest housing in Baja California, Mexico. With the mathematical model properly calibrated, adequately validated heat transfer coefficients between walls, ceiling and windows are calculated. Sensitivity analyses lead to values of heat loads in simple houses with varying shapes, orientation, shading devices, and construction materials and techniques. Energy balance in the present work is achieved by means of three simultaneous equations, each depicting energy equilibrium in one of the basic building elements: the window glazing, the building materials, and inside air. Simultaneous solution of the equations is accomplished with of the Kutta method, which yields the representative temperature along the day of each of the components, while heat flow among them is calculated, together with thermal exchange with the environment. Comfort levels, energy consumption and saving are hence easily derived, and the economical pertinence of passive elements can be evaluated. [Spanish] Este trabajo presenta un modelo matematico de parametros concentrados que representa, de manera apropiada, el comportamiento de una casa habitacion tipica a lo largo de un dia cualquiera. Los resultados se validan mediante la experimentacion en modelo fisico, donde se ensayan casetas de material y dimensiones similares a las casas de interes social, a escala 1:2. Una vez que se ha calibrado el modelo, se pueden determinar, mediante corridas apropiadas en computadora, los coeficientes especificos de transferencia de calor en muros, ventanas y techo. Los analisis subsecuentes de sensibilidad producen informacion util para conocer los requerimientos energeticos de cada casa

  10. From yeast to human: exploring the comparative biology of methionine restriction in extending eukaryotic life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, R Scott; Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Gibney, Patrick A; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    Methionine restriction is a widely reported intervention for increasing life span in several model organisms. Low circulating levels of methionine are evident in the long-lived naked mole-rat, suggesting that it naturally presents with a life-extending phenotype akin to that observed in methionine-restricted animals. Similarly, long-lived dwarf mice also appear to have altered methionine metabolism. The mechanisms underlying methionine-restriction effects on life-span extension, however, remain unknown, as do their potential connections with caloric restriction, another well-established intervention for prolonging life span. Paradoxically, methionine is enriched in proteins expressed in mitochondria and may itself serve an important role in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species and may thereby contribute to delayed aging. Collectively, we highlight the evidence that modulation of the methionine metabolic network can extend life span-from yeast to humans-and explore the evidence that sulfur amino acids and the concomitant transsulfuration pathway play a privileged role in this regard. However, systematic studies in single organisms (particularly those that exhibit extreme longevity) are still required to distinguish the fundamental principles concerning the role of methionine and other amino acids in regulating life span.

  11. Estimativa do fluxo de calor latente pelo balanço de energia em cultivo protegido de pimentão

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha Antonio Ribeiro da; Escobedo João Francisco; Klosowski Elcio Silvério

    2002-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar e relacionar a radiação líquida com o calor latente equivalente, em mm de água, nos cultivos protegido e de campo, na cultura de pimentão. O experimento foi feito em Botucatu, SP. A estimativa do fluxo de calor latente foi feita pelo método do balanço de energia, por meio da razão de Bowen. Foram feitas medidas instantâneas da radiação líquida (Rn), dos fluxos convectivos de calor latente (LE) e sensível (H), do fluxo de calor no solo (G), e dos grad...

  12. Absorption heat pump integrated in an effluent purification system; Bomba de calor por absorcion integrada a un sistema de purificacion de efluentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoyo, Socrates; Siqueiros, Javier; Heard, Christopher; Santoyo, Edgar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The results derived of the integration of an absorption heat pump to an industrial effluents purification system, are presented. The advantages of these heat pumps with respect to heat pumps by mechanical compression of vapor, as well as the advantages in using absorption heat pumps in simple distillation systems, are mentioned. Finally, a description is made of the equipment designed and built, as well as the results obtained in a preliminary test. [Espanol] Se presentan los resultados derivados de la integracion de una bomba de calor por absorcion a un sistema de purificacion de efluentes industriales. Se mencionan las ventajas de este tipo de bombas de calor con respecto a las de calor por compresion mecanica de vapor, asi como las ventajas de usar bombas de calor en sistemas de destilacion simple. Finalmente, se describe el equipo disenado y construido, asi como los resultados obtenidos de una prueba preliminar.

  13. The effect of brand and caloric information on flavor perception and food consumption in restrained and unrestrained eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Kevin V; Kruja, Blina; Forestell, Catherine A

    2014-11-01

    The goal of the current study was to determine whether provision of brand and caloric information affects sensory perception and consumption of a food in restrained (n=84) and unrestrained eaters (n=104). Using a between-subjects 2 × 2 × 3 design, female restrained and unrestrained eaters were asked to taste and rate a cookie that was labeled with a brand associated with healthful eating (Kashi(®)) or one associated with unhealthful eating (Nabisco(®)). Additionally, some participants were presented with a nutrition label alongside the brand name indicating that one serving contained 130 calories (Low-Calorie Condition), or 260 calories (High-Calorie Condition). The remaining participants were not shown a nutrition label (No Label Condition). Results indicated that those in the No Label or the High-Calorie Condition perceived the healthful branded cookie to have a better flavor than those who received the unhealthful branded cookie regardless of their restraint status. However, restrained eaters in the No Label Condition consumed more of the healthful than the unhealthful branded cookie, whereas those in the Low-Calorie Condition consumed more of the unhealthful than the healthful branded cookie. In contrast, unrestrained eaters ate more of the healthful branded cookie regardless of the caloric information provided. Thus, although restrained and unrestrained eaters' perceptions are similarly affected by branding and caloric information, brands and caloric information interact to affect restrained eaters' consumption. This study reveals that labeling foods as low calorie may create a halo effect which may lead to over-consumption of these foods in restrained eaters.

  14. Effect of replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in beverages on the reward value after repeated exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Griffioen-Roose

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The reward value of food is partly dependent on learned associations. It is not yet known whether replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in food is affecting long-term acceptance. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in a nutrient-empty drink (soft drink versus nutrient-rich drink (yoghurt drink on reward value after repeated exposure. DESIGN: We used a randomized crossover design whereby forty subjects (15 men, 25 women with a mean ± SD age of 21 ± 2 y and BMI of 21.5 ± 1.7 kg/m(2 consumed a fixed portion of a non-caloric sweetened (NS and sugar sweetened (SS versions of either a soft drink or a yoghurt drink (counterbalanced for breakfast which were distinguishable by means of colored labels. Each version of a drink was offered 10 times in semi-random order. Before and after conditioning the reward value of the drinks was assessed using behavioral tasks on wanting, liking, and expected satiety. In a subgroup (n=18 fMRI was performed to assess brain reward responses to the drinks. RESULTS: Outcomes of both the behavioral tasks and fMRI showed that conditioning did not affect the reward value of the NS and SS versions of the drinks significantly. Overall, subjects preferred the yoghurt drinks to the soft drinks and the ss drinks to the NS drinks. In addition, they expected the yoghurt drinks to be more satiating, they reduced hunger more, and delayed the first eating episode more. Conditioning did not influence these effects. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that repeated consumption of a non-caloric sweetened beverage, instead of a sugar sweetened version, appears not to result in changes in the reward value. It cannot be ruled out that learned associations between sensory attributes and food satiating capacity which developed preceding the conditioning period, during lifetime, affected the reward value of the drinks.

  15. Protein-pacing caloric-restriction enhances body composition similarly in obese men and women during weight loss and sustains efficacy during long-term weight maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arciero, Paul J; Edmonds, Rohan; He, Feng;

    2016-01-01

    -CR on TBF, ABF, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and biomarkers between obese men and women during WL (weeks 0-12); and (2) mP-CR compared to a HH diet during WM (weeks 13-64). During WL, men (n = 21) and women (n = 19) were assessed for TBF, ABF, VAT, RMR, and biomarkers at weeks 0 (pre) and 12 (post). Men...

  16. Eliminación del Biofouling en intercambiadores de calor-condensadores que minimicen el impacto ambiental en el medio marino

    OpenAIRE

    Río Calonge, Belén

    2011-01-01

    RESUMEN: La presente tesis doctoral tiene por objeto tratar de eliminar el fenómeno no deseable de formación de biofouling en diferentes superficies tubulares de intercambiadores de calor, mediante tratamientos físicos y químicos, intentando minimizar el impacto ambiental creado en los efluentes de las instalaciones industriales. El equipo experimental está compuesto por una planta piloto de intercambiadores de calor condensadores dotada de ocho tubos que funcionan como sistemas independie...

  17. Transferencia de calor en la colada continua de aceros. II parte. Enfriamiento secundario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicutti, C.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Once the strand leaves the mold, the solidification of steel progresses due to the heat extracted in the secondary cooling zone of the continuous casting machine. In this zone, heat is extracted mainly by: the incidence of water from sprays, radiation to surroundings contact with rolls and run out water accumulated between rolls and strand. In this work, all these mechanisms are evaluated and, when it is possible, they are quantified. Methods which are usually employed to measure solidification profiles in the continuous casting machine are also reviewed. Finally, the incidence of secondary cooling on the quality of cast products is discussed.

    La solidificación del acero iniciada en el molde continúa en la zona de enfriamiento secundario de la máquina donde el calor es extraído, principalmente por la incidencia del agua de los rociadores, la radiación al medio ambiente, el contacto con los rodillos y el agua acumulada en ellos. En este trabajo se revisa cada uno de estos mecanismos determinando, en los casos en que es posible, valores cuantitativos de los mismos. Además, se analizan los distintos métodos empleados para medir el avance del espesor solidificado en la máquina de colada continua. Por último, se discute la incidencia del enfriamiento secundario en la calidad final de los productos colados.

  18. Calor: Una Propuesta Didáctica Constructivista con Enfoque de Ciencia Integrada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Alberto de L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizamos un estudio comparativo entre dos diseños didácticos constructivistas para la enseñanza del tema Calor en estudiantes de carreras en ciencias naturales. Uno con un enfoque de ciencia integrada y el otro con un enfoque no integrador. En el primer diseño el alumno construye su propio conocimiento resolviendo situaciones problemáticas relacionadas a la biología y el medio-ambiente, que le permite analizar y relacionar los conceptos involucrados, mientras que en el segundo construye su conocimiento a través de la resolución de situaciones problemáicas físicas pero no biológicas. Concluimos que el primer diseño favorece en los alumnos la construcción de una estructura cognitiva del tipo integrada, que les facilita internalizar y transferir los conceptos físicos a problemas concretos de su especialidad.

  19. Evaluation of dysphagia risk, nutritional status and caloric intake in elderly patients with Alzheimer's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Fernanda Goes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the risk of dysphagia and its relationship with the stage of Alzheimer's Disease, as well as the relationship between the risk of dysphagia and nutritional status and caloric intake in elderly people with Alzheimer's disease.METHODS: the sample consisted of 30 subjects of both genders with probable Alzheimer's disease. The stage of the disease, nutritional status, energy intake, and risk of dysphagia were assessed.RESULTS: it was found that increased risk of dysphagia is associated with the advance in the stages of Alzheimer's disease and that even patients in the early stages of disease have a slight risk of developing dysphagia. No association was found between nutritional status and the risk of dysphagia. High levels of inadequate intake of micronutrients were also verified in the patients.CONCLUSION: an association between dysphagia and the development of Alzheimer's disease was found. The results indicate the need to monitor the presence of dysphagia and the micronutrient intake in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Absorption refrigeration using waste heat; Refrigeracion por absorcion utilizando calor de desecho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heard, Christopher; Ayala, Ramon; Best, Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1994-07-01

    In this article a detailed analysis is made of the absorption refrigeration system that uses waste heat and because of being of low temperature, can make the processes more efficient being at the same time an important factor in the country`s energy resources saving, since the system permits to increase the availability of electricity and fuel`s energy. The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) absorption refrigeration experience is described and the economic aspects related with this system are analyzed. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta un analisis detallado del sistema de refrigeracion por absorcion que utiliza calor de desecho y que, siendo de baja temperatura, puede hacer mas eficientes los procesos y ser a la vez un factor importante en el ahorro de los recursos energeticos del pais, pues el sistema permite aumentar la disponibilidad energetica de electricidad y combustibles. Se describe la experiencia del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) en refrigeracion por absorcion y la de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), y se analizan los aspectos economicos relacionados con este sistema.

  1. Efficient gasification of wet biomass residue to produce middle caloric gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangwen Xu; Takahiro Murakami; Toshiyuki Suda; Hidehisa Tani; Yutaka Mito

    2008-01-01

    Various process residues represent a kind of biomass resource already concentrated but containing water as much as 60 wt.%.These materials are generally treated as waste or simply combusted directly to generate heat.Recently,we attempted to convert them into middle caloric gas to substitute for natural gas,as a chemical or a high-rank gaseous fuel for advanced combustion utilities.Such conversion is implemented through dual fluidized bed gasification (DFBG).Concerning the high water content of the fuels,DFBG was suggested to accomplish either with high-efficiency fuel drying in advance or direct decoupling of fuel drying/pyrolysis from char gasification and tar/hydrocarbon reforming.Along with fuel drying,calcium-based catalyst can be impregnated into the fuel,without much additional cost,to increase the fuel's gasification reactivity and to reduce tar formation.This article reports the Ca impregnation method and its resulting effects on gasification reactivity and tar suppression ability.Meanwhile,the principle of directly gasifying wet fuel with decoupled dual fluidized bed gasification (D-DFBG) is also highlighted.

  2. The 'balance intervention' for promoting caloric compensatory behaviours in response to overeating: a formative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wammes, Birgitte; Breedveld, Boudewijn; Kremers, Stef; Brug, Johannes

    2006-08-01

    To help people prevent weight gain, the Netherlands Nutrition Centre initiated the 'balance intervention', which promotes moderation of food intake and/or increased physical activity in response to occasions of overeating. The aim of this study was to determine whether intervention materials were appreciated, encouraged information seeking and increased motivation and caloric compensatory behaviours. A three-group randomized trial with pre-intervention measures (n = 963, response 86%) and post-intervention measures (n = 857) using electronic questionnaires was conducted among participants aged 25-40 years, recruited from an Internet research panel. The first group received a printed brochure and electronic newsletters (print group), the second group was exposed to radio advertisements (radio group) and the third group was the control group. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the impact of the materials on self-reported prevalence of overeating, attitudes, perceived behavioural control, intentions and compensatory behaviours. At follow-up, we found significantly more positive attitudes, intentions and dietary action in the print and radio groups. However, participants who received the radio advertisement had a significantly lower perceived behavioural control. No effects were found on the prevalence of overeating. The results indicate that the intervention materials have potential for increasing people's attitudes, motivation and self-reported behaviour actions, with a possible negative side-effect on perceived behavioural control. PMID:16606638

  3. Non-Invasive Neuromodulation Using Time-Varying Caloric Vestibular Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Lesco L.; Ade, Kristen K.; Nicoletto, Heather A.; Adkins, Heather D.; Laskowitz, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS) to elicit the vestibulo-ocular reflex has long been used in clinical settings to aid in the diagnosis of balance disorders and to confirm the absence of brainstem function. While a number of studies have hinted at the potential therapeutic applications of CVS, the limitations of existing devices have frustrated that potential. Current CVS irrigators use water or air during short-duration applications; however, this approach is not tenable for longer duration therapeutic protocols or home use. Here, we describe a solid-state CVS device we developed in order to address these limitations. This device delivers tightly controlled time-varying thermal waveforms, which can be programmed through an external control unit. It contains several safety features, which limit patients to the prescribed waveform and prevent the potential for temperature extremes. In this paper, we provide evidence that CVS treatment with time-varying, but not constant temperature waveforms, elicits changes in cerebral blood flow physiology consistent with the neuromodulation of brainstem centers, and we present results from a small pilot study, which demonstrate that the CVS can safely and feasibly be used longitudinally in the home setting to treat episodic migraine. Together, these results indicate that this solid-state CVS device may be a viable tool for non-invasive neuromodulation. PMID:27777829

  4. Practical system for the direct measurement of magneto-caloric effect by micro-thermocouples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarád, J; Kaštil, J; Arnold, Z

    2012-08-01

    A system for direct measurements of the magneto-caloric effect (MCE) exploits a rapid transport of a sample into or from magnetic field in permanent Halbach-type (1 T) or superconducting (4.7 T) magnets. Time dependence of induced changes of the sample temperature, ΔT(t), is detected directly by the differential Cu-Constantan-Cu micro-thermocouples with time steps of 300 ms. A sample placed inside an evacuated simple LN(2) cryostat is either totally isolated (adiabatic conditions) or partly connected with the copper sample holder (non-adiabatic conditions). The last arrangement (a model of the Brayton cycle) is used to simulate an application of MCE in refrigeration techniques. The relations describing ΔT(t) that allow an analysis of MCE of the studied materials are based on the general cooling law. The effect of the first-order magnetic transition on MCE of selected sample is also demonstrated by non-standard ΔT(t) curves measured in the last mentioned experimental arrangements. PMID:22938309

  5. Trombose induzida pelo calor endovenoso: relato de dois casos tratados com rivaroxabana e revisão da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Junior Boim de Araujo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Define-se trombose induzida pelo calor endovenoso como a propagação do trombo a partir de uma veia superficial em direção a uma veia mais profunda. Em geral, é considerada clinicamente insignificante quando não há propagação do trombo para o sistema venoso profundo. Essa condição pode ser tratada com terapia anticoagulante, embora a observação pareça ser suficiente, principalmente para graus menores. Neste estudo, relatamos dois casos de trombose induzida pelo calor endovenoso que teriam indicação de heparina de baixo peso molecular até a resolução do quadro. Porém, optou-se pelo uso da rivaroxabana (15 mg de 12 em 12h, com resolução completa do trombo em 4 semanas (caso 1 e em 7 dias (caso 2. A rivaroxabana pode ser uma alternativa promissora no tratamento da trombose induzida pelo calor endovenoso avançada, pela simplicidade da posologia, sem comprometimento da eficácia ou da segurança. São necessários estudos prospectivos, randomizados e controlados que possibilitem melhor entendimento da condição e o desenvolvimento de recomendações mais definitivas sobre opções de prevenção e tratamento.

  6. Caloric Intake on the Sabbath: A Pilot Study of Contributing Factors to Obesity in the Orthodox Jewish Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Deborah A; Swencionis, Charles; Segal-Isaacson, C J

    2016-10-01

    The American Orthodox Jewish community has specific cultural factors that may contribute to overweight and obesity. This study aimed to look at caloric intake on the Sabbath and its contribution to overweight and obesity. Twelve married or previously married women who identify themselves as Orthodox Jews were recruited to do 24-h food recalls over the phone. The participants were divided into three weight groups (normal, overweight, and obese) based on their BMI. The overweight and obese participants' data were combined into one group for the purposes of statistical testing. Paired t tests looking at the data for all participants showed significantly great caloric intake during an average Sabbath day than an average weekday [t(4) = 7.58, p obese women compared to the normal weight women [F(1) = 7.83, p = 0.02]. No statistical difference was seen between the weekday energy intake of the normal weight women as compared to the combined group of overweight-obese women [F(1) = 0.501, p = 0.499]. These results support the hypotheses that all groups eat significantly more on the Sabbath than on weekdays, and overweight and obese individuals eat significantly more on the Sabbath than normal weight individuals. This supports the theory that caloric intake on the Sabbath is a contributing factor to overweight and obesity within the American Orthodox Jewish community. PMID:26613588

  7. Islas de calor urbano en Tampico, México. Impacto del microclima a la calidad del hábitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Fuentes Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available De todas las modificaciones climáticas por causa urbana, las térmicas son las más conocidas por los propios ciudadanos. La acción transformadora del espacio natural sobre el que se realiza el emplazamiento de la ciudad, llega a ser productora en gran medida de sus condiciones ambientales, incluida la climatología urbana. Todo proceso de urbanización sustituye los suelos y áreas naturales por superficies construidas, cuyos materiales se caracterizan por una baja reflectividad, con disminución de la capacidad de absorción de agua y un comportamiento térmico propicio para el almacenamiento y la emisión de calor. Estos elementos coadyuvan a realzar la temperatura atmosférica de la ciudad en relación con su entorno menos urbanizado a través de un fenómeno conocido como efecto de islas de calor urbano, produciendo un impacto del microclima a la calidad del hábitat. La presente investigación experimental aplicada tiene como objetivo, demostrar la metodología de investigación adoptada, para realizar las islas de calor urbanas en Tampico, México.

  8. Caloric Intake on the Sabbath: A Pilot Study of Contributing Factors to Obesity in the Orthodox Jewish Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Deborah A; Swencionis, Charles; Segal-Isaacson, C J

    2016-10-01

    The American Orthodox Jewish community has specific cultural factors that may contribute to overweight and obesity. This study aimed to look at caloric intake on the Sabbath and its contribution to overweight and obesity. Twelve married or previously married women who identify themselves as Orthodox Jews were recruited to do 24-h food recalls over the phone. The participants were divided into three weight groups (normal, overweight, and obese) based on their BMI. The overweight and obese participants' data were combined into one group for the purposes of statistical testing. Paired t tests looking at the data for all participants showed significantly great caloric intake during an average Sabbath day than an average weekday [t(4) = 7.58, p Sabbath for the overweight-obese women compared to the normal weight women [F(1) = 7.83, p = 0.02]. No statistical difference was seen between the weekday energy intake of the normal weight women as compared to the combined group of overweight-obese women [F(1) = 0.501, p = 0.499]. These results support the hypotheses that all groups eat significantly more on the Sabbath than on weekdays, and overweight and obese individuals eat significantly more on the Sabbath than normal weight individuals. This supports the theory that caloric intake on the Sabbath is a contributing factor to overweight and obesity within the American Orthodox Jewish community.

  9. Nonnutritive, Low Caloric Substitutes for Food Sugars: Clinical Implications for Addressing the Incidence of Dental Caries and Overweight/Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Roberts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caries and obesity are two common conditions affecting children in the United States and other developed countries. Caries in the teeth of susceptible children have often been associated with frequent ingestion of fermentable sugars such as sucrose, fructose, glucose, and maltose. Increased calorie intake associated with sugars and carbohydrates, especially when associated with physical inactivity, has been implicated in childhood obesity. Fortunately, nonnutritive artificial alternatives and non-/low-caloric natural sugars have been developed as alternatives to fermentable sugars and have shown promise in partially addressing these health issues. Diet counseling is an important adjunct to oral health instruction. Although there are only five artificial sweeteners that have been approved as food additives by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA, there are additional five non-/low caloric sweeteners that have FDA GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe designation. Given the health impact of sugars and other carbohydrates, dental professionals should be aware of the nonnutritive non-/low caloric sweeteners available on the market and both their benefits and potential risks. Dental health professionals should also be proactive in helping identify patients at risk for obesity and provide counseling and referral when appropriate.

  10. Varying mechanical coupling along the Andean margin: Implications for trench curvature, shortening and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaffaldano, G.; Di Giuseppe, E.; Corbi, F.; Funiciello, F.; Faccenna, C.; Bunge, H.-P.

    2012-03-01

    Convergent margins often exhibit spatial and temporal correlations between trench curvature, overriding plate shortening and topography uplift that provide insights into the dynamics of subduction. The Andean system, where the Nazca plate plunges beneath continental South America, is commonly regarded as the archetype of this class of tectonics systems. There is distinctive evidence that the degree of mechanical coupling between converging plates, i.e. the amount of resistive force mutually transmitted in the direction opposite to their motions, may be at the present-day significantly higher along the central Andean margin compared to the northern and southern limbs. However quantitative estimates of such resistance are still missing and would be desirable. Here we present laboratory models of subduction performed to investigate quantitatively how strong lateral coupling variations need to be to result in trench curvature, tectonic shortening and distribution of topography comparable to estimates from the Andean margin. The analogue of a two-layers Newtonian lithosphere/upper mantle system is established in a silicone putty/glucose syrup tank-model where lateral coupling variations along the interface between subducting and overriding plates are pre-imposed. Despite the simplicity of our setup, we estimate that coupling in the central margin as large as 20% of the driving force is sufficient to significantly inhibit the ability of the experimental overriding plate to slide above the subducting one. As a consequence, the central margin deforms and shortens more than elsewhere while the trench remains stationary, as opposed to the advancing lateral limbs. This causes the margin to evolve into a peculiar shape similar to the present-day trench of the Andean system.

  11. Mid-term clinical outcome of radial shortening for kienbock disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H Ebrahimzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the intermediate-term outcomes of radius shortening as a treatment for Kienbock′s disease. Materials and Methods: In a historical cohort, 16 skeletally mature patients (9 men and 7 women with Kienbock disease, who were treated with radial shortening osteotomy between 2002 and 2012, were reviewed in our study. The mean age of our patients was 30 (range 18-43 years old. According to Litchman staging, there were 7 wrists at stage II and 9 wrists at stage III (6 at stage IIIA and 3 at stage IIIB. The data of grip strength, pain (visual analog scale (VAS score, wrist range of motion (ROM, ulnar variance (according to Palmer method, and the Lichtman stage were gathered before and after surgery. We evaluated overall wrist function using the Mayo Wrist score and disabilities of the arm shoulder and hand (DASH score before surgery and at the last follow-up. Results: The average of follow-up was 7 years (range from 5 to 9 years. Preoperative ulnar variance was -1.3 mm (range from 2.5 to 1 preoperatively. The mean postoperative ulnar variance was 1 mm positive (range from 0.5 to 1.5. The VAS pain score, the mean arc of wrist flexion and extension, and grip strength improved significantly preoperatively compared to after recovery from surgery. The Lichtman stage was unchanged in nine patients, one grade worse in six patients, and one grade better in one patient. The mean DASH and Mayo scores improved significantly postoperatively compare with preoperation. Comparing preoperative positive, neuter, and negative ulnar variance, there was no significant difference in terms of VAS, DASH, and Mayo scores as well as ROM and grip strength. Conclusion: Our study shows that radius shortening surgery improves pain and disability regardless of ulnar variance.

  12. Incorporated fish oil fatty acids prevent action potential shortening induced by circulating fish oil fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester M Den Ruijter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (3-PUFAs reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long term 3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated 3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated 3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (3 or sunflower oil (9, as control for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered 3-PUFAs. Plasma of 3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and isolated myocytes of 3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, 3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than 9 myocytes. In the 9 myocytes, but not in the 3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA+DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated 3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered 3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac 3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term 3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy.

  13. Stretch-shortening cycle muscle power in women and men aged 18-81 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwén, C E; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Magnusson, Stig Peter;

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the age-related deterioration in stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) muscle power and concurrent force-velocity properties in women and men across the adult life span. A total of 315 participants (women: n = 188; men: n = 127) aged 18-81 years performed maximal countermovement jumps...... on an instrumented force plate. Maximal SSC leg extension power expressed per kg body mass (Ppeak) was greater in men than in women across the adult age span (P ...

  14. Lactose tolerance test shortened to 30 minutes: an exploratory study of its feasibility and impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Domínguez-Jiménez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lactose malabsorption (LM is a very common condition with a high prevalence in our setting. Lactose tolerance test (LTT is a basic, affordable test for diagnosis that requires no complex technology. It has been recently shown that this test can be shortened to 3 measurements (baseline, 30 min, 60 min with no impact on final results. The purpose of our study was to assess the feasibility and benefits of LTT simplification and shortening to 30 min, as well as the financial impact entailed. Material and methods: A multicenter, observational study of consecutive patients undergoing LTT for LM suspicion. Patients received 50 g of lactose following a fasting period of 12 h, and had blood collected from a vein at all 3 time points for the measurement of blood glucose (mg/dl. Differences between the shortened and complete test forms were analyzed using McNemar's test. A comparison of blood glucose levels between patients with normal and abnormal results was performed using Student's T-test for independent mean values. Consistency was assessed using the kappa index. A p < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: A total of 270 patients (69.6% females were included, with a mean age of 39.9 ± 16 years. LTT was abnormal for 151 patients (55.9%. We observed no statistically significant differences in baseline blood glucose levels between patients with normal and abnormal LTT results (p = 0.13; however, as was to be expected, such differences were obvious for the remaining time points (p < 0.01. Deleting blood glucose measurements at 60 minutes only led to overdiagnose LM (false positive results in 6 patients (2.22 %, with a kappa index of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.92-0.99 (p < 0.001 versus the complete test. Suppressing measurements at 60 min would have saved at least € 7,726. Conclusion: The shortening of LTT to only 2 measurements (baseline and 30-min hardly leads to any differences in final results, and would entail savings in

  15. Quantificação da ilha de calor de curitiba considerando aspectos de estabilidade atmosférica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Krüger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A relação entre crescimento urbano e o surgimento de ilhas de calor urbanas, ou seja, diferenças climáticas entre a área urbana e as áreas rurais no entorno, é demonstrada por diversos autores e em diferentes regiões climáticas. Em Curitiba, a população saltou de aproximadamente 600.000 habitantes para um milhão e meio em três décadas. O objetivo do presente trabalho é propor uma metodologia de análise da ilha de calor urbana de Curitiba (25º25'40"S, 49º16'23"W, 934m acima do nível do mar. A cidade está localizada em região de clima subtropical de altitude; o monitoramento climático foi conduzido segundo uma série anual, entre dezembro de 2011 e fevereiro de 2013, utilizando um par de estações meteorológicas dentro e fora (perifericamente da mancha urbana de Curitiba. De modo a minimizar possíveis influências atmosféricas na análise, foi feita a classificação dos dias de medição por classes de estabilidade atmosférica segundo o método de Pasquill-Gifford-Turner (PGT, procedendo-se à análise para dias com maior estabilidade atmosférica. Como complemento à análise, adota-se um modelo de conforto desenvolvido para Curitiba a partir de uma extensa pesquisa de sensação e percepção térmicas em espaços abertos, de modo a verificar o efeito integrado das diversas variáveis climáticas em termos de percentuais de horas em frio, conforto e calor e suas variações dentro e fora da área urbana. Em Curitiba, a ilha de calor urbana pode ser benéfica durante o inverno, porém trazendo consequências em termos de excesso de calor em ambientes internos no verão.

  16. Two-stage revision of infected hip arthroplasty using a shortened post-operative course of antibiotics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKenna, Paul B

    2009-04-01

    We present a series of 30 consecutive patients with 31 infected total hip arthroplasties treated by a single surgeon over a 4-year period in whom a shortened post-operative course of antimicrobial chemotherapy was used.

  17. Comprehensive stabilization mechanism of electron-beam irradiated polyacrylonitrile fibers to shorten the conventional thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sejoon; Yoo, Seung Hwa; Kang, Ha Ri; Jo, Seong Mu; Joh, Han-Ik; Lee, Sungho

    2016-01-01

    An electron beam was irradiated on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers prior to thermal stabilization. The electron-beam irradiation effectively shortened the thermal stabilization process by one fourth compared with the conventional thermal stabilization process. A comprehensive mechanistic study was conducted regarding this shortening of the thermal stabilization by electron-beam irradiation. Various species of chain radicals were produced in PAN fibers by electron-beam irradiation and existed for a relatively long duration, as observed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Subsequently, these radicals were gradually oxidized to peroxy radicals in the presence of oxygen under storage or heating. We found that these peroxy radicals (CO) enabled such an effective shortcut of thermal stabilization by acting as intermolecular cross-linking and partial aromatization points in the low temperature range (100-130 °C) and as earlier initiation seeds of successive cyclization reactions in the next temperature range (>130-140 °C) of thermal stabilization. Finally, even at a low irradiation dose (200 kGy), followed by a short heat treatment (230 °C for 30 min), the PAN fibers were sufficiently stabilized to produce carbon fibers with tensile strength and modulus of 2.3 and 216 GPa, respectively, after carbonization. PMID:27349719

  18. Mechanical versus kinematical shortening reconstructions of the Zagros High Folded Zone (Kurdistan region of Iraq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frehner, Marcel; Reif, Daniel; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2012-06-01

    This paper compares kinematical and mechanical techniques for the palinspastic reconstruction of folded cross sections in collision orogens. The studied area and the reconstructed NE-SW trending, 55.5 km long cross section is located in the High Folded Zone of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. The present-day geometry of the cross section has been constructed from field as well as remote sensing data. In a first step, the structures and the stratigraphy are simplified and summarized in eight units trying to identify the main geometric and mechanical parameters. In a second step, the shortening is kinematically estimated using the dip domain method to 11%-15%. Then the same cross section is used in a numerical finite element model to perform dynamical unfolding simulations taking various rheological parameters into account. The main factor allowing for an efficient dynamic unfolding is the presence of interfacial slip conditions between the mechanically strong units. Other factors, such as Newtonian versus power law viscous rheology or the presence of a basement, affect the numerical simulations much less strongly. If interfacial slip is accounted for, fold amplitudes are reduced efficiently during the dynamical unfolding simulations, while welded layer interfaces lead to unrealistic shortening estimates. It is suggested that interfacial slip and decoupling of the deformation along detachment horizons is an important mechanical parameter that controlled the folding processes in the Zagros High Folded Zone.

  19. Comprehensive stabilization mechanism of electron-beam irradiated polyacrylonitrile fibers to shorten the conventional thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sejoon; Yoo, Seung Hwa; Kang, Ha Ri; Jo, Seong Mu; Joh, Han-Ik; Lee, Sungho

    2016-06-01

    An electron beam was irradiated on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers prior to thermal stabilization. The electron-beam irradiation effectively shortened the thermal stabilization process by one fourth compared with the conventional thermal stabilization process. A comprehensive mechanistic study was conducted regarding this shortening of the thermal stabilization by electron-beam irradiation. Various species of chain radicals were produced in PAN fibers by electron-beam irradiation and existed for a relatively long duration, as observed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Subsequently, these radicals were gradually oxidized to peroxy radicals in the presence of oxygen under storage or heating. We found that these peroxy radicals (CO) enabled such an effective shortcut of thermal stabilization by acting as intermolecular cross-linking and partial aromatization points in the low temperature range (100–130 °C) and as earlier initiation seeds of successive cyclization reactions in the next temperature range (>130–140 °C) of thermal stabilization. Finally, even at a low irradiation dose (200 kGy), followed by a short heat treatment (230 °C for 30 min), the PAN fibers were sufficiently stabilized to produce carbon fibers with tensile strength and modulus of 2.3 and 216 GPa, respectively, after carbonization.

  20. Measurement of terrace deformation and crustal shortening of some renascent fold zones within Kalpin nappe structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XiaoPing; RAN YongKang; CHENG JianWu; CHEN LiChun; XU XiWei

    2007-01-01

    The Kalpin nappe structure is a strongest thrust and fold deformation belt in front of the Tianshan Mountains since the Cenozoic time. The tectonic deformation occurred in 5-6 striking Mesozoic-Cenozoic fold zones, and some renascent folds formed on the recent alluvial-proluvial fans in front of the folded mountains. We used the total station to measure gully terraces along the longitudinal topographic profile in the renascent fold zones and collected samples from terrace deposits for age determination. Using the obtained formation time and shortening amount of the deformed terraces, we calculated the shortening rate of 4 renascent folds to be 0.1±0.03 mm/a, 0.12±0.04 mm/a, 0.59±0.18 mm/a, and 0.26±0.08 mm/a, respectively. The formation time of the renascent folds is some later than the major tectonic uplift event of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau 0.14 Ma ago. It may be the long-distance effect of this tectonic event on the Tianshan piedmont fold belt.

  1. Leucocyte Telomere Shortening in relation to Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhelong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to investigate the association between oxidative stress and telomere length shortening in the comorbid depression and diabetes. Therefore, 71 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D and 52 subjects with normal glycemic level (control, Ctrl were enrolled. Depressive status was identified with the Depression Subscale of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D. Leukocyte telomere length ratio (T/S ratio was determined with quantitative PCR. Oxidative stress status was evaluated with 8-hydroxy-desoxyguanosine (8-OHdG assay kit. Some other biochemical blood testing was also performed. The data showed that T2D patients had higher proportion of depression evaluated by the HADS-D (x2=4.196, P=0.041. T/S ratio was significantly negatively correlated with 8-OHdG, HADS-D, age, HbA1c, FPG, and HOMA-IR. In addition, HADS-D was significantly positively correlated with HbA1c, FPG, HOMA-IR, and 8-OHdG. Both HADS-D and 8-OHdG were the major independent predictors for T/S ratio. This study indicates that oxidative stress contributes to both telomere length shortening and depression development in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients, while in depression status, some other mechanisms besides oxidative stress may also affect the telomere length.

  2. [Shortening undergraduate medical training: now and for all medical schools in Chile?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes B, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    In Chile, undergraduate medical education starts after High School, it lasts seven years, with the final two dedicated to a rotary internship, taking to an M.D. degree that allows the graduate to enter working activities. The country needs more M.D.s in primary care, but there is also a shortage of specialists, mainly out of the main cities. In recent decades, post graduate programs leading to specialty titles have become competitively adopted by a large proportion of medical graduates. This is the case at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, stimulating its faculties and medical students to develop a collaborative review of their teaching programs, leading to a curricular reform with a new graduate profile and a new curriculum oriented to learning objectives, that will allow to obtain the M.D. degree in six instead of seven years of undergraduate education. This new program awakened expectations in other universities in Chile, that will have to face the attraction of this shortened program for future candidates to enter medical schools. However, any shortening of medical school careers should first consider the local conditions in quality of applicants, number of accepted students, the training of teachers in integrated teaching programs, the availability of adequate campuses. Furthermore, for students with different academic backgrounds and diverse personal and familial interests, the seven years programs may still be necessary to gain the expertise required to become medical doctors. PMID:26998976

  3. How harmful are adaptation restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Bruin, de, B.; Dellink, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    The dominant assumption in economic models of climate policy remains that adaptation will be implemented in an optimal manner. There are, however, several reasons why optimal levels of adaptation may not be attainable. This paper investigates the effects of suboptimal levels of adaptation, i.e. adaptation restrictions, on the composition and level of climate change costs and on welfare. Several adaptation restrictions are identified and then simulated in a revised DICE model, extended with ad...

  4. Remarks on restricted Nevanlinna transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Jankowski, Lech

    2010-01-01

    The Nevanlinna transform K(z), of a measure and a real constant, plays an important role in the complex analysis and more recently in the free probability theory (boolean convolution). It is shown that its restriction k(it) (the restricted Nevanlinna transform) to the imaginary axis can be expressed as the Laplace transform of the Fourier transform (characteristic function) of the corresponding measure. Finally, a relation between the Voiculescu and the boolean convolution is indicated.

  5. Shortening spinal column reconstruction through posterior only approach for the treatment of unstable osteoporotic burst lumber fracture: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Shawky, Ahmed; Kroeber, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Study design Case report. Clinical question This study reports if shortening reconstruction procedure through posterior approach only can be used in osteoporotic unstable fracture as well as post-traumatic burst fracture. Methods An 80-year-old female patient with unstable burst osteoporotic fracture of L1 underwent posterior approach corpectomy and shortening reconstruction of the spinal column by non-expandable cages. Result The surgery was uneventful, with average blood loss. Using of smal...

  6. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, sensory, fatty acid and storage characteristics of cookies

    OpenAIRE

    Rangrej, V.; Shah, V; Patel, J.; Ganorkar, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid imparted good evidence of health benefits. Flaxseed oil, being the richest vegetarian source of alpha linolenic acid (omega-3 fatty acid), was incorporated in cookies by replacing shortening at level of 5 %, 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 % and 50 %. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, textural and sensory attributes were investigated. Spread ratio and breaking strength of cookies increased as flaxseed oil level increased. Sensory score was not significant...

  7. Variability in New Shortening Estimates from Southern Peru (12-14S); Implications for Mass Balance of the Andean Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotberg, N.; McQuarrie, N.

    2008-12-01

    One of the fundamental questions of interest with regards to the Andean Plateau is the mass balance of material needed to create and sustain a 3-4 km high plateau. Is crustal shortening sufficient to support an isostatically compensated crust of 60-70km? We present new estimates of shortening across the northern margin of the Andean Plateau. The cross section extent, from the eastern edge of the volcanic arc to foreland basin, is approximately one half of the physiographic width of the Andean Plateau in Peru. Cross sectional shortening estimates in southern Peru (12-14°S) provide a best estimate of 123 km or 40% shortening with an absolute minimum estimate of 86 km or 30% and absolute maximum estimate of 275 km or 60%. We determined the maximum and minimum shortening estimates using the cross sectional area and possible variations in assumptions made about the amount of erosion, detachment dip, involvement of basement thrusts and displacement along faults. The best estimate of shortening is well short of the required 240-300km of shortening needed in order to account for a 60-70km thick crust under the entire plateau. This suggests that for an isostatically equilibrated crust either 1) there is a significant amount of shortening (~150km) in the western half of the plateau which, is hidden by the volcanic arc or 2) crustal material is being added to the Peruvian section of the Andean Plateau either through lower crustal flow or a process of magmatic underplating followed by differentiation and delamination.

  8. In-treatment midwall and endocardial fractional shortening predict cardiovascular outcome in hypertensive patients with preserved baseline systolic ventricular function: the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, Kristian; Gerdts, Eva; Palmieri, Vittorio;

    2010-01-01

    Endocardial fractional shortening (EFS) and midwall shortening (MWS) are impaired in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. However, it remains unknown whether improvement of left ventricular systolic function during treatment reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive pa...

  9. PREFACE: 16th International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics (CALOR 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Rainer W.

    2015-02-01

    The XVIth International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics - CALOR 2014 - was held in Giessen, Germany from 6-11 April 2014 at the Science Campus of the University. It was hosted by the Justus-Liebig-University and the HIC for FAIR Helmholtz International Center. The series of conferences on calorimetry were started in 1990 at Fermilab and are focusing primarily on operating and future calorimeter systems within the Hadron and High-Energy Physics community without neglecting the impact on other fields such as Astrophysics or Medical Imaging. Confirmed by the impressive list of over 70 oral presentations, 5 posters and over 100 attendees, the field of calorimetry appears alive and attractive. The present volume contains the written contributions of almost all presentations which can be found at http://calor2014.de. Time slots of 15 or 30 minutes including discussion were allocated. The conference was accompanied by a small exhibition of several industrial companies related to the field. The day before the opening of the scientific program, Richard Wigmans gave an excellent and vivid tutorial on basic aspects on calorimetry meant as an introduction for students and conference attendees new in the field. The opening ceremony was used to give an impression of the present and future status and the scientific program of the new FAIR facility nearby at Darmstadt presented by Klaus Peters from GSI. The conference program of the first day was dedicated to the performance and required future upgrade of the LHC experiments, dominated by ATLAS, CMS and LHCb. The program of the next day contained specific aspects on electronics and readout as well as calorimetry in outer space. Several contributions discussed in detail new concepts for hadron calorimeters within the CALICE collaboration completed by a session on sampling calorimeters. The next sections were dedicated to operating and future calorimeters at various laboratories and covering a wide range of

  10. Telomere Shortening and Associated Chromosomal Instability in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes of Patients With Hodgkin's Lymphoma Prior to Any Treatment Are Predictive of Second Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate a potential link between telomere length, chromosomal instability, and the advent of a second cancer (SC) in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), who are known to be at risk for SCs. This study was premised on the finding that telomere dysfunction and DNA repair pathways were related to many pathologic conditions. Methods and Materials: Three cohorts of patients with HL were studied: 73 who were prospectively followed >5 years after diagnosis (prospective HL cohort), 28 who developed a SC (SC HL cohort), and 18 long-term survivors with no evidence of disease or complication since their initial treatment (NED HL cohort). Telomere length was analyzed by a telomeric restriction fragment assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Thirty healthy donors and 70 patients with a newly diagnosed solid tumor were the control population. Results: Compared with controls, patients from the prospective HL cohort, before any treatment, showed age-independent shorter telomeres (mean, 8.3 vs. 11.7 kb in healthy donors; -4 each). After treatment, telomere shortening was associated with cytogenetic profiles characterized by the persistence of complex chromosomal rearrangement and clonal aberrations. Moreover, the two cases of SC in the prospective HL patients had short telomeres and CCR initially. In addition, the SC HL cohort was characterized by markedly short telomeres (6.6 vs. 9.7 kb in the NED HL cohort), the presence of complex chromosome rearrangements, and increased in vitro radiation sensitivity. Conclusions: An intimate relationship between pre-treatment telomere shortening, chromosomal instability, radiation sensitivity and occurrence of SC was found in HL patients

  11. Leaf Caloric Value from Tropical to Cold-Temperate Forests: Latitudinal Patterns and Linkage to Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guangyan; Hou, Jihua; Li, Ying; Zhang, Jiahui; He, Nianpeng

    2016-01-01

    Leaf caloric value (LCV) reflects the capacity of a leaf to fix and accumulate solar energy through photosynthesis. We systematically investigated the LCV of 745 plant species in 9 forests, representing a range of tropical to cold-temperate forests along the 4700-km North-South Transect of Eastern China. The goals were to explore the latitudinal patterns of LCV at the levels of species, plant functional group, and community and to establish the relationship between LCV and gross primary productivity (GPP). Our results showed that LCV for all species ranged from 12.85 to 22.15 KJ g-1 with an average of 18.46 KJ g-1. Plant functional groups had a significant influence on LCV, with trees > shrubs > herbs, conifers > broadleaved trees, and evergreens > deciduous trees. The different values of LCV represented the long-term evolution and adaptation of plant species to different environments. Unexpectedly, no apparent latitudinal trends of LCV at community level were observed, although LCV at the species level clearly decreased with increasing latitude. Use efficiency of LCV (CUE, gC KJ-1), defined as the ratio of GPP to total LCV at the community level, varied quadratic with latitude and was lower in the middle latitudes. Climate (temperature and precipitation) may explain 52.9% of the variation in spatial patterns of CUE, which was positively correlated with aridity. Our findings are the first large-scale report of the latitudinal patterns of LCV in forests at the species, plant functional group, and community levels and provide new insights into the relationship between LCV and ecosystem functions in forest communities.

  12. Leaf Caloric Value from Tropical to Cold-Temperate Forests: Latitudinal Patterns and Linkage to Productivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyan Song

    Full Text Available Leaf caloric value (LCV reflects the capacity of a leaf to fix and accumulate solar energy through photosynthesis. We systematically investigated the LCV of 745 plant species in 9 forests, representing a range of tropical to cold-temperate forests along the 4700-km North-South Transect of Eastern China. The goals were to explore the latitudinal patterns of LCV at the levels of species, plant functional group, and community and to establish the relationship between LCV and gross primary productivity (GPP. Our results showed that LCV for all species ranged from 12.85 to 22.15 KJ g-1 with an average of 18.46 KJ g-1. Plant functional groups had a significant influence on LCV, with trees > shrubs > herbs, conifers > broadleaved trees, and evergreens > deciduous trees. The different values of LCV represented the long-term evolution and adaptation of plant species to different environments. Unexpectedly, no apparent latitudinal trends of LCV at community level were observed, although LCV at the species level clearly decreased with increasing latitude. Use efficiency of LCV (CUE, gC KJ-1, defined as the ratio of GPP to total LCV at the community level, varied quadratic with latitude and was lower in the middle latitudes. Climate (temperature and precipitation may explain 52.9% of the variation in spatial patterns of CUE, which was positively correlated with aridity. Our findings are the first large-scale report of the latitudinal patterns of LCV in forests at the species, plant functional group, and community levels and provide new insights into the relationship between LCV and ecosystem functions in forest communities.

  13. Magneto-caloric effect in the pseudo-binary intermetallic YPrFe{sub 17} compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Pablo [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo, s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Gorria, Pedro, E-mail: pgorria@uniovi.es [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo, s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Sanchez Llamazares, Jose L. [Division de Materiales Avanzados, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, CP 78216, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Perez, Maria J. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo, s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Franco, Victorino [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, ICMSE-CSIC, Universidad de Sevilla, P.O. Box 1065, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Reiffers, Marian; Kovac, Jozef [Institute of Experimental Physics, Watsonova 47, SK-04001 Kosice (Slovakia); Puente-Orench, Ines [Institute Laue Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Blanco, Jesus A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo, s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YPrFe{sub 17} exhibits a broad {Delta}S{sub M}(T) associated with the ferro-to-paramagnetic phase transition (T{sub C} Almost-Equal-To 290 K). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtain |{Delta}S{sub M}| Almost-Equal-To 2.3 J kg{sup -1} K{sup -1} and RCP Almost-Equal-To 100 J kg{sup -1}for a magnetic field change of 1.5 T. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A single master curve for {Delta}S{sub M} is found when compared with other isostructural R{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} binary alloys. - Abstract: We have synthesized the intermetallic YPrFe{sub 17} compound by arc-melting. X-ray and neutron powder diffraction show that the crystal structure is rhombohedral with R3{sup Macron }m space group (Th{sub 2}Zn{sub 17}-type). The investigated compound exhibits a broad isothermal magnetic entropy change {Delta}S{sub M}(T) associated with the ferro-to-paramagnetic phase transition (T{sub C} Almost-Equal-To 290 K). The |{Delta}S{sub M}| ( Almost-Equal-To 2.3 J kg{sup -1} K{sup -1}) and the relative cooling power ( Almost-Equal-To 100 J kg{sup -1}) have been calculated for applied magnetic field changes up to 1.5 T. A single master curve for {Delta}S{sub M} under different values of the magnetic field change can be obtained by a rescaling of the temperature axis. The results are compared and discussed in terms of the magneto-caloric effect in the isostructural R{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} (R = Y, Pr and Nd) binary intermetallic alloys.

  14. Tecnologías emergentes para la conservación de alimentos sin calor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Molina, Juan José

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    Se han investigado los principios básicos de tres tecnologías emergentes para pasteurizar y esterilizar alimentos sin empleo del calor Mediante numerosos estudios se ha comprobado la efectividad de los campos eléctricos pulsantes de alta intensidad (CEPAI, los pulsos de luz (PL y los campos magnéticos oscilantes (CMO en la destrucción de microorganismos y enzimas de sistemas alimentarios. En la inactivación microbiana por CEPA!, el blanco principal es la membrana celular que, al ser sometida a campos eléctricos de alta intensidad, se hace permeable formando huecos o poros cuyo tamaño se incrementa a medida que aumenta la intensidad del campo eléctrico o el tiempo de tratamiento o se reduce la resistencia iónica del medio de pulsación. Por otra parte, los PL inducen reacciones fotoquímicas y fototérmicas en los alimentos, causando la muerte de gran cantidad de microorganismos, especialmente en productos alimenticios envasados. Los CMO producen simulación o inhibición en el crecimiento y reproducción de los microorganismos, un simple pulso de intensidad de 5-10 teslas y frecuencias de 5-500 kHz es suficiente para reducir el número de microorganismos en un mínimo de 2 ciclos logarítmicos. Se ha comprobado que estas tecnologías alargan la vida de anaquel de diversos productos alimenticios y pueden ser consideradas como sustitutos parciales de los procesos convencionales de pasteurización y esterilización de alimentos por tratamientos térmicos.

  15. Leaf Caloric Value from Tropical to Cold-Temperate Forests: Latitudinal Patterns and Linkage to Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guangyan; Hou, Jihua; Li, Ying; Zhang, Jiahui; He, Nianpeng

    2016-01-01

    Leaf caloric value (LCV) reflects the capacity of a leaf to fix and accumulate solar energy through photosynthesis. We systematically investigated the LCV of 745 plant species in 9 forests, representing a range of tropical to cold-temperate forests along the 4700-km North-South Transect of Eastern China. The goals were to explore the latitudinal patterns of LCV at the levels of species, plant functional group, and community and to establish the relationship between LCV and gross primary productivity (GPP). Our results showed that LCV for all species ranged from 12.85 to 22.15 KJ g-1 with an average of 18.46 KJ g-1. Plant functional groups had a significant influence on LCV, with trees > shrubs > herbs, conifers > broadleaved trees, and evergreens > deciduous trees. The different values of LCV represented the long-term evolution and adaptation of plant species to different environments. Unexpectedly, no apparent latitudinal trends of LCV at community level were observed, although LCV at the species level clearly decreased with increasing latitude. Use efficiency of LCV (CUE, gC KJ-1), defined as the ratio of GPP to total LCV at the community level, varied quadratic with latitude and was lower in the middle latitudes. Climate (temperature and precipitation) may explain 52.9% of the variation in spatial patterns of CUE, which was positively correlated with aridity. Our findings are the first large-scale report of the latitudinal patterns of LCV in forests at the species, plant functional group, and community levels and provide new insights into the relationship between LCV and ecosystem functions in forest communities. PMID:27341474

  16. Thermal treatment of high-caloric waste in fluidized bed incineration plants in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of thermal treatment of waste and residues in Austria is expected to rise due to the current changes of the legal situation in waste management. Assessing the rank order of different thermal treatment processes for waste management it has been shown that - especially caused by the rising importance of the mechanical treatment step in the mechanical-biological residual waste treatment and the subsequent necessity of the thermal treatment of a high-caloric preprocessed waste stream - the importance of the fluidized bed technology will increase. The main advantages are the high existing capacities as well as the flexibility of this technology in regard of fuel properties and further on the fact of the lacking influence of the ash towards the quality of a product. This is true although the thermal treatment in fluidized bed incinerators requires some processing of the waste. This doctoral thesis also contains a thorough physical and chemical characterization of various waste fuels - especially those which have been used during full scale incineration experiments. This characterization includes a comparison with fossil fuel. The practical part contains the documentation and balancing of full scale incineration experiments. A comparison of a reference experiment with experiments when waste fuel has been thermally utilized showed that a significant increase of emissions to the atmosphere has not been observed. Based on the incineration experiments conclusions in regard of waste fuels as well as different categories of thermal treatment plants are being stated. Finally, a recommendation of the assignation of various waste streams to different categories of thermal treatment plants is being made. (author)

  17. PREFACE: XVth International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics (CALOR2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akchurin, Nural

    2012-12-01

    The XVth International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics, CALOR2012, was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico from 4-8 June 2012. The series of conferences on calorimetry started in 1990 at Fermilab, and they have been the premier event for calorimeter aficionados, a trend that CALOR2012 upheld. This year, several presentations focused on the status of the major calorimeter systems, especially at the LHC. Discussions on new and developing techniques in calorimetry took a full day. Excellent updates on uses of calorimeters or about ideas that are deeply rooted in particle physics calorimetry in astrophysics and neutrino physics were followed by talks on algorithms and special triggers that rely on calorimeters. Finally, discussions of promising current developments and ongoing R&D work for future calorimeters capped the conference. The field of calorimetry is alive and well, as evidenced by the more than 100 attendees and the excellent quality of over 80 presentations. You will find the written contributions in this volume. The presentations can be found at calor2012.ttu.edu. The first day of the conference was dedicated to the LHC. In two invited talks, Guillaume Unal (CERN) and Tommaso Tabarelli de Fatis (Universita' & INFN Milano Bicocca) discussed the critical role electromagnetic calorimeters play in the hunt for the Standard Model Higgs boson in ATLAS and CMS, respectively. The enhanced sensitivity for light Higgs in the two-gamma decay channel renders electromagnetic calorimeters indispensible. Much of the higher mass region was already excluded for the SM Higgs by the time of this conference, and after less than a month, on 4 July, CERN announced the discovery of a new boson at 125 GeV, a particle that seems consistent with the Higgs particle so far. Once again, without the electromagnetic calorimeters, this would not have been possible. Professor Geoffrey West from the Santa Fe Institute gave the keynote address. His talk, 'Universal Scaling Laws

  18. Shortened telomere length is associated with increased risk of cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomeres play a key role in the maintenance of chromosome integrity and stability, and telomere shortening is involved in initiation and progression of malignancies. A series of epidemiological studies have examined the association between shortened telomeres and risk of cancers, but the findings remain conflicting. METHODS: A dataset composed of 11,255 cases and 13,101 controls from 21 publications was included in a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between overall cancer risk or cancer-specific risk and the relative telomere length. Heterogeneity among studies and their publication bias were further assessed by the χ(2-based Q statistic test and Egger's test, respectively. RESULTS: The results showed that shorter telomeres were significantly associated with cancer risk (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.14-1.60, compared with longer telomeres. In the stratified analysis by tumor type, the association remained significant in subgroups of bladder cancer (OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.38-2.44, lung cancer (OR = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.18-4.88, smoking-related cancers (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.83-2.78, cancers in the digestive system (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.53-1.87 and the urogenital system (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.12-2.67. Furthermore, the results also indicated that the association between the relative telomere length and overall cancer risk was statistically significant in studies of Caucasian subjects, Asian subjects, retrospective designs, hospital-based controls and smaller sample sizes. Funnel plot and Egger's test suggested that there was no publication bias in the current meta-analysis (P = 0.532. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this meta-analysis suggest that the presence of shortened telomeres may be a marker for susceptibility to human cancer, but single larger, well-design prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: familial restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions familial restrictive cardiomyopathy familial restrictive cardiomyopathy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Open All Close All Description Familial restrictive cardiomyopathy is a genetic form of heart disease. For ...

  20. Shortened constraint-induced movement therapy in subacute stroke - no effect of using a restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogårdh, Christina; Vestling, Monika; Sjölund, Bengt H

    2009-01-01

    Scale, the Sollerman hand function test, the 2-Point Discrimination test and Motor Activity Log test. RESULTS: Patients in both groups showed significant improvements in arm and hand motor performance and on self-reported motor ability after 2 weeks of therapy and at 3 months follow-up. However......, no statistically significant differences between the groups were found in any measures at any point in time. CONCLUSION: In this study, no effect of using a restraint in patients with subacute stroke was found. Thus, this component in the constraint-induced therapy concept seems to be of minor importance......OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of using a mitt during shortened constraint-induced movement therapy for patients in the subacute phase after stroke. SUBJECTS: Twenty-four patients with stroke (mean age 57.6 (standard deviation (SD) 8.5) years; average 7 weeks post-stroke) with mild to moderate...

  1. To the problem of cross-bridge tension in steady muscle shortening and lengthening

    CERN Document Server

    Kokshenev, Valery B

    2009-01-01

    Despite the great success of the Huxley sliding filament model proposed half a century ago for actin-myosin linkages (cross-bridges), it fails to explain the force-velocity behavior of stretching skeletal muscles. Huxley's two-state kinetic equation for cross-bridge proportions is therefore reconsidered and a new solution to the problem of steady muscle eccentric and concentric contractions is reported. When the second law of statistical thermodynamics is applied to cross-bridge proportions, the weakly bound states appear to be correlated to the strongly bound states via structural and kinetic intrinsic muscle characteristics. The explicit force-velocity curve fits the empirical tension-velocity data on frog muscle shortening using only one adjustable parameter, while the Huxley model employed four parameters.

  2. Dynamic Route Shortening and Route Repairing Mechanism for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Rangaswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Ad hoc Networks are wireless networks without any fixed infrastructure. The network topology changes frequently and unpredictably due to the random movement of the nodes. The ad hoc on Demand Distant Vector Routing (AODV protocol works in a dynamic fashion, by establishing a route on demand and continues that route until it breaks. Due to the changing network topology of ad hoc networks, if other routes with less hop count become available, the network topology is not able to adapt until the route break occurs. Hence in the route shortening scheme is some redundant nodes in the active route is replaced with a node that is not on the active route. When there is any link failure between any two nodes, the alternative route with optimum route to be constructed and not sending RRER message to the source node to initiate the route discovery process again. Approach: This study proposes a new routing protocol called, Dynamic Route Shortening and Repairing mechanism (DRSR. The route shortening is incorporated with route repairing mechanism, to improve the performance of the AODV. The route shortening scheme works by replacing some redundant nodes in the active route, with a node that is not on the active route. If there is a link failure between the two nodes, the route repairing mechanism repairs the route, by using the nodes that are close enough to the route to overhear the message. Whenever the links go down, the DRSR replaces the failed links with the optimum route that is adjacent to the main route and not sending and RRER message to the source node to initiate the route discovery process again. The alternative route construction process could be initiated at any time, not just when a route has failed. The dynamically constructed alternative route’s information is passed on to the upstream nodes, which then determine by themselves when to direct their packets to the Normal 0 false false false EN-US X

  3. Prediction of peak forces for a shortening smooth muscle tissue subjected to vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidaparti, Ramana M; Dhanaraj, Nandhini; Meiss, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to investigate the peak forces for a tracheal smooth muscle tissue subjected to an applied longitudinal vibration following isotonic shortening. A non-linear finite element analysis was carried out to simulate the vibratory response under experimental conditions that corresponds to forced length oscillations at 33 Hz for 1 second. The stiffness change and hysteresis estimated from the experimental data was used in the analysis. The finite element results of peak forces are compared to the experimental data obtained. The comparison of results indicate that the approach and the vibratory response obtained may be useful for describing the cross-bridge de-attachments within the cells as well as connective tissue connections characteristic of tracheal smooth muscle tissue.

  4. Present-day shortening in Southern Haiti from GPS measurements and implications for seismic hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symithe, Steeve; Calais, Eric

    2016-06-01

    The ~ 3 M inhabitant capital region of Haiti, severely affected by the devastating January 12, 2010, M7.0 earthquake, continues to expand at a fast rate. Accurate characterization of regional earthquake sources is key to inform urban development and construction practices through improved regional seismic hazard estimates. Here we use a recently updated Global Positioning System (GPS) data set to show that seismogenic strain accumulation in southern Haiti involves an overlooked component of shortening on a south-dipping reverse fault along the southern edge of the Cul-de-Sac basin, in addition to the well-known component of left-lateral strike-slip motion. This tectonic model implies that ground shaking may be twice that expected if the major fault was purely strike-slip, as assumed in the current seismic hazard map for the region.

  5. Unloaded shortening velocity of voluntarily and electrically activated human dorsiflexor muscles in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazushige Sasaki

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that unloaded shortening velocity (V(0 of human plantar flexors can be determined in vivo, by applying the "slack test" to submaximal voluntary contractions (J Physiol 567:1047-1056, 2005. In the present study, to investigate the effect of motor unit recruitment pattern on V(0 of human muscle, we modified the slack test and applied this method to both voluntary and electrically elicited contractions of dorsiflexors. A series of quick releases (i.e., rapid ankle joint rotation driven by an electrical dynamometer was applied to voluntarily activated dorsiflexor muscles at three different contraction intensities (15, 50, and 85% of maximal voluntary contraction; MVC. The quick-release trials were also performed on electrically activated dorsiflexor muscles, in which three stimulus conditions were used: submaximal (equal to 15%MVC 50-Hz stimulation, supramaximal 50-Hz stimulation, and supramaximal 20-Hz stimulation. Modification of the slack test in vivo resulted in good reproducibility of V(0, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.95. Regression analysis showed that V(0 of voluntarily activated dorsiflexor muscles significantly increased with increasing contraction intensity (R(2 = 0.52, P<0.001. By contrast, V(0 of electrically activated dorsiflexor muscles remained unchanged (R(2<0.001, P = 0.98 among three different stimulus conditions showing a large variation of tetanic torque. These results suggest that the recruitment pattern of motor units, which is quite different between voluntary and electrically elicited contractions, plays an important role in determining shortening velocity of human skeletal muscle in vivo.

  6. Shortening Infusion Time for High-Dose Methotrexate Alters Antileukemic Effects: A Randomized Prospective Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Torben S.; Sparreboom, Alex; Cheng, Cheng; Zhou, Yinmei; Boyett, James M.; Raimondi, Susana C.; Panetta, John C.; Bowman, W. Paul; Sandlund, John T.; Pui, Ching-Hon; Relling, Mary V.; Evans, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether shortening the infusion duration of high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX; 1 g/m2) affects the in vivo accumulation of active methotrexate polyglutamates (MTXPG1-7) in leukemia cells and whether this differs among major acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) subtypes. Methods From June 2000 through October 2007, 356 children with ALL were randomly assigned to receive initial single-agent treatment with HDMTX (1 g/m2) as either a 24-hour infusion or a 4-hour infusion at two pediatric hospitals in the United States. The primary outcome measures were the accumulation of MTXPG1-7 in leukemia cells and the antileukemic effects (eg, inhibition of de novo purine synthesis in bone marrow ALL cells, and decrease in circulating ALL cells). Results The 24-hour infusion resulted in significantly higher amounts of MTXPG1-7 in bone marrow leukemia cells (median: 1,695 v 1,150 pmol/109 cells, P = .0059), and better antileukemic effects. The 24-hour infusion had the greatest effect on MTXPG1-7 accumulation in hyperdiploid ALL (median: 3,919 v 2,417 pmol/109 cells, P = .0038); T-cell ALL exhibited smaller differences in MTXPG1-7 but greater antileukemic effects with the longer infusion (median decrease in leukemia cells: 88.4% v 51.8%, P = .0075). In contrast, infusion duration had no significant impact on MTXPG1-7 accumulation or antileukemic effects in ALL with the t(12;21)/(ETV6-RUNX1) chromosomal translocation. Conclusion Shortening the infusion time of HDMTX reduces accumulation of active methotrexate in leukemia cells and decreases antileukemic effects, with differing consequences among major ALL subtypes. PMID:21444869

  7. A novel shortened electrospun nanofiber modified with a 'concentrated' polymer brush

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki Yoshikawa, Kun Zhang, Ewelina Zawadzak and Hisatoshi Kobayashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication of shortened electrospun polymer fibers with a well-defined concentrated polymer brush. We first prepared electrospun nanofibers from a random copolymer of styrene and 4-vinylbenzyl 2-bromopropionate, with number-average molecular weight Mn=105 200 and weight-average molecular weight Mw=296 700 (Mw/Mn=2.82. The fibers had a diameter of 593±74 nm and contained initiating sites for surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP. Then, SI-ATRP of hydrophilic styrene sodium sulfonate (SSNa was carried out in the presence of a free initiator and the hydrophobic fibers. Gel permeation chromatography confirmed that Mn and Mw/Mn values were almost the same for free polymers and graft polymers. Mn agreed well with the theoretical prediction, and Mw/Mn was relatively low (<1.3 in all the examined cases, indicating that this polymerization proceeded in a living manner. Using the values of the graft amount measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the surface area, and Mn, we calculated the graft density σ as 0.22 chains nm−2. This value was nearly equal to the density obtained on silicon wafers (σ=0.24 chains nm−2, which is categorized into the concentrated brush regime. Finally, we mechanically cut the fibers with a concentrated poly(SSNa brush by a homogenizer. With increasing cutting time, the fiber length became shorter and more homogenous (11±17 μm after 3 h. The shortened fibers exhibited excellent water dispersibility owing to the hydrophilic poly(SSNa brush layer.

  8. New reconstruction algorithm allows shortened acquisition time for myocardial perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shortening scan time and/or reducing radiation dose at maintained image quality are the main issues of the current research in radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). We aimed to validate a new iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithm for SPECT MPI allowing shortened acquisition time (HALF time) while maintaining image quality vs. standard full time acquisition (FULL time). In this study, 50 patients, referred for evaluation of known or suspected coronary artery disease by SPECT MPI using 99mTc-Tetrofosmin, underwent 1-day adenosine stress 300 MBq/rest 900 MBq protocol with standard (stress 15 min/rest 15 min FULL time) immediately followed by short emission scan (stress 9 min/rest 7 min HALF time) on a Ventri SPECT camera (GE Healthcare). FULL time scans were processed with IR, short scans were additionally processed with a recently developed software algorithm for HALF time emission scans. All reconstructions were subsequently analyzed using commercially available software (QPS/QGS, Cedars Medical Sinai) with/without X-ray based attenuation correction (AC). Uptake values (percent of maximum) were compared by regression and Bland-Altman (BA) analysis in a 20-segment model. HALF scans yielded a 96% readout and 100% clinical diagnosis concordance compared to FULL. Correlation for uptake in each segment (n = 1,000) was r = 0.87at stress (p < 0.001) and r = 0.89 at rest (p < 0.001) with respective BA limits of agreement of -11% to 10% and -12% to 11%. After AC similar correlation (r = 0.82, rest; r = 0.80, stress, both p < 0.001) and BA limits were found (-12% to 10%; -13% to 12%). With the new IR algorithm, SPECT MPI can be acquired at half of the scan time without compromising image quality, resulting in an excellent agreement with FULL time scans regarding to uptake and clinical conclusion. (orig.)

  9. Apoptosis and telomeres shortening related to HIV-1 induced oxidative stress in an astrocytoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollace Vincenzo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress plays a key role in the neuropathogenesis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1 infection causing apoptosis of astroglia cells and neurons. Recent data have shown that oxidative stress is also responsible for the acceleration of human fibroblast telomere shortening in vitro. In the present study we analyzed the potential relations occurring between free radicals formation and telomere length during HIV-1 mediated astroglial death. Results To this end, U373 human astrocytoma cells have been directly exposed to X4-using HIV-1IIIB strain, for 1, 3 or 5 days and treated (where requested with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a cysteine donor involved in the synthesis of glutathione (GSH, a cellular antioxidant and apoptosis has been evaluated by FACS analysis. Quantitative-FISH (Q-FISH has been employed for studying the telomere length while intracellular reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG ratio has been determined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Incubation of U373 with HIV-1IIIB led to significant induction of cellular apoptosis that was reduced in the presence of 1 mM NAC. Moreover, NAC improved the GSH/GSSG, a sensitive indicator of oxidative stress, that significantly decreased after HIV-1IIIB exposure in U373. Analysis of telomere length in HIV-1 exposed U373 showed a statistically significant telomere shortening, that was completely reverted in NAC-treated U373. Conclusion Our results support the role of HIV-1-mediated oxidative stress in astrocytic death and the importance of antioxidant compounds in preventing these cellular damages. Moreover, these data indicate that the telomere structure, target for oxidative damage, could be the key sensor of cell apoptosis induced by oxidative stress after HIV infection.

  10. HIV Infection Is Associated with Shortened Telomere Length in Ugandans with Suspected Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auld, Elizabeth; Lin, Jue; Chang, Emily; Byanyima, Patrick; Ayakaka, Irene; Musisi, Emmanuel; Worodria, William; Davis, J. Lucian; Segal, Mark; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Huang, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV infection is a risk factor for opportunistic pneumonias such as tuberculosis (TB) and for age-associated health complications. Short telomeres, markers of biological aging, are also associated with an increased risk of age-associated diseases and mortality. Our goals were to use a single cohort of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals hospitalized with pneumonia to assess whether shortened telomere length was associated with HIV infection, TB diagnosis, and 2-month mortality. Methods This was a sub-study of the IHOP Study, a prospective observational study. Participants consisted of 184 adults admitted to Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda who underwent evaluation for suspected TB and were followed for 2 months. Standardized questionnaires were administered to collect demographic and clinical data. PBMCs were isolated and analyzed using quantitative PCR to determine telomere length. The association between HIV infection, demographic and clinical characteristics, and telomere length was assessed, as were the associations between telomere length, TB diagnosis and 2-month mortality. Variables with a P≤0.2 in bivariate analysis were included in multivariate models. Results No significant demographic or clinical differences were observed between the HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected subjects. Older age (Ptelomere length in bivariate analysis. In multivariate analysis adjusting for these five variables, HIV-positive participants had significantly shorter telomeres than HIV-negative participants (β = -0.0621, 95% CI -0.113 to -0.011, P = 0.02). Shortened telomeres were not associated with TB or short-term mortality. Conclusions The association between HIV infection and shorter telomeres suggests that HIV may play a role in cellular senescence and biological aging and that shorter telomeres may be involved in age-associated health complications seen in this population. The findings indicate a need to further research the impact of HIV on aging. PMID

  11. Analysis of combination drug therapy to develop regimens with shortened duration of treatment for tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George L Drusano

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis remains a worldwide problem, particularly with the advent of multi-drug resistance. Shortening therapy duration for Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major goal, requiring generation of optimal kill rate and resistance-suppression. Combination therapy is required to attain the goal of shorter therapy.Our objective was to identify a method for identifying optimal combination chemotherapy. We developed a mathematical model for attaining this end. This is accomplished by identifying drug effect interaction (synergy, additivity, antagonism for susceptible organisms and subpopulations resistant to each drug in the combination.We studied the combination of linezolid plus rifampin in our hollow fiber infection model. We generated a fully parametric drug effect interaction mathematical model. The results were subjected to Monte Carlo simulation to extend the findings to a population of patients by accounting for between-patient variability in drug pharmacokinetics.All monotherapy allowed emergence of resistance over the first two weeks of the experiment. In combination, the interaction was additive for each population (susceptible and resistant. For a 600 mg/600 mg daily regimen of linezolid plus rifampin, we demonstrated that >50% of simulated subjects had eradicated the susceptible population by day 27 with the remaining organisms resistant to one or the other drug. Only 4% of patients had complete organism eradication by experiment end.These data strongly suggest that in order to achieve the goal of shortening therapy, the original regimen may need to be changed at one month to a regimen of two completely new agents with resistance mechanisms independent of the initial regimen. This hypothesis which arose from the analysis is immediately testable in a clinical trial.

  12. The urban climate: urban heat island of Salamanca El clima de las ciudades: isla de calor de Salamanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Salud Alonso García

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We have determined the existence of the urban heat island (UHI in a medium-sized city, with an extreme climate and few important foci of industrial pollution. It was seen that urban warming can arise in cities of these characteristics, being able to influence in the alive beings of the zone. By comparing the temperature series in an urban area and those from a nearby rural area, we studied the temporal evolution of the intensity of the UHI for the three-year period between 1996 and 1998. We detected two phenomenons: nocturnal heat island, when the difference of temperature between city and rural zone is positive, and diurnal heat island, when is negative. The most intense nocturnal heat island was seen in autumn, and the most intense diurnal heat island was seen in spring. Statistical study of the annual series corresponding to the night-time heat island permits a definition for Salamanca: a weak island, such as the one showing an intensity lower than 2.0 oC, a moderate island, if the intensity lies between 2.0 oC and 4.0 oC, and an intense island when a values greater than 4.0 oC is passed.En este trabajo se ha determinado la existencia de la isla de calor urbana (ICU, en una ciudad de tamaño medio, con un clima extremado y focos industriales de poca actividad. Con lo que se puede comprobar cómo afecta el calentamiento urbano a ciudades de estas características, pudiendo influir en los seres vivos de la zona. La existencia del fenómeno isla de calor, y su evolución en el tiempo, se han observado comparando los datos de temperatura registrados en una estación meteorológica situada en la ciudad, con los de otra estación fuera del radio de acción de la urbe, durante el período 1996-1998. Se han detectado dos fenómenos: la isla de calor nocturna, cuando la diferencia térmica entre la ciudad y la zona rural es positiva, que presenta sus valores más altos en otoño, y la isla de calor diurna, cuando la diferencia es negativa, que

  13. Molecular motion in restricted geometries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Siddharth Gautam; S Mitra; R Mukhopadhyay

    2008-10-01

    Molecular dynamics in restricted geometries is known to exhibit anomalous behaviour. Diffusion, translational or rotational, of molecules is altered significantly on confinement in restricted geometries. Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) offers a unique possibility of studying molecular motion in such systems. Both time scales involved in the motion and the geometry of motion can be studied using QENS. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation not only provides insight into the details of the different types of motion possible but also does not suffer limitations of the experimental set-up. Here we report the effect of confinement on molecular dynamics in various restricted geometries as studied by QENS and MD simulations: An example where the QENS technique provided direct evidence of phase transition associated with change in the dynamical behaviour of the molecules is also discussed.

  14. Nutrient and caloric dynamics in Avicennia marina leaves at different developmental and decay stages in Zhangjiang River Estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hai-Chao; Wei, Shu-Dong; Zeng, Qi; Zhang, Li-Hua; Tam, Nora Fung-yee; Lin, Yi-Ming

    2010-03-01

    Avicennia marina is a typical mangrove species in the subtropical coastlines of China. The main objective of this study was to assess nutrient and caloric dynamics in A. marina leaves at different developmental and decay stages. Decomposition studies using litter bags suggested that the time required for the loss of half of the initial dry weight ( t50) was 19 days. The extracts of A. marina leaves contained non-tannin phenolics and tannin phenolics (hydrolysable tannin), but no condensed tannin. Non-tannin phenolics and tannin phenolics contents did not differ significantly from each other at various developmental stages, but decreased rapidly during leaf decomposition. Avicennia marina leaves had high N levels, and both N and P concentrations decreased significantly during senescence. During decomposition, N concentration of the leaf litter increased gradually but the phosphorus concentration showed a decrease in the first week, and both N and P remained the same towards the end of the experiment. The gross caloric value (GCV) of mature leaves was significantly higher than those of young and senescent leaves, while ash-free caloric value (AFCV) did not change significantly during leaf development and senescence. During leaf decomposition, both GCV and AFCV increased gradually and remained the same at late stages. In subtropical Zhangjiang River Estuary, high N levels and lack of condensed tannins in A. marina leaves were responsible for the fast rate of decay. Non-tannin phenolics and tannin phenolics had no great effect on rate of decay. Nitrogen resorption during leaf senescence, and high litter decomposition followed by nitrogen immobilization are the important nutrient conservation strategy for A. marina.

  15. CDRL - company dose restriction level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a number of year's close constraints and controls have been used as effective measures in aiding restricting exposure to ionising radiation. Predecessor companies to British Energy Generation (BEG) originally established the Company Dose Restriction Level (CDRL) as a consequence of the revision of risk estimates, then with the revised Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 (IRR99) the CDRL for BEG was also revised. The background, influences and consequences of CDRL appliance in a commercial organisation in calendar year 2000/1 are presented below. (author)

  16. HFB in a restricted space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A restricted Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov method is developed with a restriction on the angular momenta of the Cooper pairs that conform the vacuum (SD or SDG). The method is applied to 176Yb. The quadrupole moment in the SD subspace is found to be 80% for neutrons and 91% for protons of its value in the full space. The inclusion of the G part of the Cooper pairs improves that agreement. The descriptions in terms of boson condensate and coherent states are discussed. (author)

  17. Effects of Caloric Intake on Intestinal Mucosal Morphology and Immune Cells in Rats Treated with 5-Fluorouracil

    OpenAIRE

    Murakami, Mariko; Sato, Norifumi; Tashiro, Katsufumi; Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Masunaga, Hiroaki

    2009-01-01

    Anticancer drugs have been reported to damage the intestinal mucosa. We evaluated the effects of caloric intake on the mucosal morphology and immune cells in rats treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Rats were received a liquid diet plus 5-FU treatment for 8 days as follows: Low calorie group (25 kcal/day with 5-FU), Normal calorie group (50 kcal/day with 5-FU), and Control group (50 kcal/day with saline). The mucosal morphology, cell numbers and phenotypes of spleen and intraepithelial lympho...

  18. Distúrbios causados pelo frio e pelo calor durante corridas de longa distância

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Muitos corredores amadores e de elite participam todos os anos de corridas de longa distância. Quando estes eventos ocorrem em temperaturas altas ou baixas, aumenta o risco de distúrbios térmicos. Contudo, a hipertermia induzida pelo exercício, a hipotermia, a desidratação e outros problemas relacionados podem ser minimizados através de esclarecimentos e um preparo antes do evento. Este documento fornece recomendações para o diretor médico e outras autoridades da organização das corridas nas seguintes áreas: planejamento, profissionais envolvidos na organização, instalações, suprimentos, equipamento e comunicação; fornecimento de esclarecimentos aos participantes; avaliação do estresse térmico; fornecimento de líquidos; e prevenção de questões legais em potencial. Este posicionamento oficial também descreve as condições predisponentes, as formas de diagnóstico e o tratamento dos quatro distúrbios ambientais mais comuns: exaustão pelo calor, colapso pelo calor, hipotermia e congelamento de extremidades. Os objetivos deste documento são: 1 Educar os organizadores e os participantes de corridas de longa distância a respeito das formas mais comuns de distúrbios térmicos incluindo as condições predisponentes, sinais de alerta, suscetibilidade e a redução de sua incidência; 2 Alertar os organizadores sobre as suas responsabilidades civis em potencial no que concerne à segurança do evento e à prevenção de lesões; 3 Recomendar que os organizadores consultem arquivos locais de meteorologia e planejem eventos em horas que provavelmente causem menos estresse térmico de modo a minimizar os efeitos deletérios sobre os participantes; 4 Estimular os organizadores a alertar os participantes sobre o estresse térmico no dia da corrida e as suas implicações no que tange aos distúrbios causados pelo frio e pelo calor; 5 Informar os organizadores sobre as ações preventivas que podem reduzir a incidência dos

  19. Modelo para estudios de estabilidad de calderas de recuperación de calor (HRSG) y turbina de vapor

    OpenAIRE

    Corasaniti, Víctor Fabián; Agüero, Jorge Luis; Bianchi Lastra, Raúl E.

    2013-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta la determinación y validación de los parámetros de un modelo digital para estudios de estabilidad que representa dos Calderas de Recuperación de Calor (HRSG, del inglés Heat Recovery Steam Generator), conjuntamente con la Turbina de Vapor a la cual suministran vapor. Los 2 HRSG producen vapor a partir de los gases de escape de 2 turbinas de gas. El modelo de simulación se implementa en el programa PSS/E (Power System Simulator), programa usado para estudios de est...

  20. Recuperación de calor de aire de ventilación en clima frío

    OpenAIRE

    Vakazova, Lilia

    2014-01-01

    El clima es factor determinante en las decisiones tomadas en proyecto de un edificio. Actualmente el ahorro de energía es un tema que cada dia adquiere mas importancia y valor. En los climas frios la demanda de energia depende mucho de demanda en calefacción y el factor cuya influencia es muy alta es ventilación. Las perdidas por ventilación pueden llegar a un porcentaje muy importante, por lo cual para reducir las perdidas se aprovecha el calor de aire de ventilación. En clima fria para v...

  1. Multiple tissue-specific isoforms of sulfatide activate CD1d-restricted type II NKT cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomqvist, Maria; Rhost, Sara; Teneberg, Susann;

    2009-01-01

    relevant isoforms C24:1 and C24:0, major constituents of the myelin sheet of the nervous system, and C16:0, prominent in the pancreatic islet beta-cells. The most potent sulfatide isoform was lysosulfatide (lacking a fatty acid). Shortened fatty acid chain length (C24:1 versus C18:1), or saturation...... isoforms by a CD1d-restricted NKT-cell clone, and suggest that sulfatide, a major component of the myelin sheet and pancreatic beta-cells, is one of several natural ligands for type II CD1d-restricted NKT cells....

  2. Cenozoic crustal shortening and thickening contributions to Andean orogenesis: Preliminary results from structural mapping in the southern Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, N.; Horton, B. K.

    2012-12-01

    Estimates of Cenozoic crustal shortening and thickening from the southern Peruvian Andes are necessary to address ongoing debates regarding growth of the Andes and Altiplano plateau. However, limited regional studies in southern Peru prevent accurate assessments of the structural contributions to high topography. This study provides new structural mapping along a >200 km transect spanning the northernmost Altiplano to Subandes at 13-15.5°S and fills the gap between existing central Peruvian and northern Bolivian studies. New stratigraphic data, fault relationships and fold orientations are used to create an updated geologic map and provide insights into the style, timing and magnitude of crustal deformation. Preliminary cross sections accompanying these map transects illustrate deformation style and provide first-order estimates of shortening. Further cross section analyses will be balanced and provide estimates of total crustal shortening and associated thickening in southern Peru. The study transect is subdivided into belts according to the age of exposed rocks and style of deformation. From west to east these belts include: Cretaceous strata dominated by tight folds, closely spaced faults and multiple detachments; Permo-Triassic strata dominated by thicker thrust sheets and fault-fold orientations departing from typical Andean trends; and Paleozoic rocks characterized by thick thrust sheets and deformation focused near major faults. The Cretaceous belt is composed of marine limestones and upward coarsening, siltstone to coarse sandstone progradational sequences. Disharmonic and detachment folds in the Cretaceous section demonstrate the importance of interbedded gypsum and mudstone layers. Fault relationships suggest local shortening during the Early Cretaceous. The Permo-Triassic belt is composed of thick Permian carbonates (Copacabana Formation) and interbedded sandstones, conglomerates and volcanics of the Mitu Formation. This study defines the orientation of

  3. Space-restricted attribute grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    1980-01-01

    Restricting the size of attribute values, relative to the length of the string under consideration, leads to a model of attribute grammars in which grammars with both inherited and synthesized attributes can be significantly more economical than grammars with synthesized attributes only....

  4. Alphavirus Restriction by IFITM Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Stuart; Czieso, Stephanie; White, Ian J; Smith, Sarah E; Wash, Rachael S; Diaz-Soria, Carmen; Kellam, Paul; Marsh, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Interferon inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) are broad-spectrum antiviral factors. In cell culture the entry of many enveloped viruses, including orthomyxo-, flavi-, and filoviruses, is inhibited by IFITMs, though the mechanism(s) involved remain unclear and may vary between viruses. We demonstrate that Sindbis and Semliki Forest virus (SFV), which both use endocytosis and acid-induced membrane fusion in early endosomes to infect cells, are restricted by the early endosomal IFITM3. The late endosomal IFITM2 is less restrictive and the plasma membrane IFITM1 does not inhibit normal infection by either virus. IFITM3 inhibits release of the SFV capsid into the cytosol, without inhibiting binding, internalization, trafficking to endosomes or low pH-induced conformational changes in the envelope glycoprotein. Infection by SFV fusion at the cell surface was inhibited by IFITM1, but was equally inhibited by IFITM3. Furthermore, an IFITM3 mutant (Y20A) that is localized to the plasma membrane inhibited infection by cell surface fusion more potently than IFITM1. Together, these results indicate that IFITMs, in particular IFITM3, can restrict alphavirus infection by inhibiting viral fusion with cellular membranes. That IFITM3 can restrict SFV infection by fusion at the cell surface equivalently to IFITM1 suggests that IFITM3 has greater antiviral potency against SFV. PMID:27219333

  5. Restricted Morgan’s problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈树中; 曹立

    1996-01-01

    A new list of regular feedback invariant integers called right independent orders is introduced.That the restricted Morgan’s problem is equivalent to a kind of nonlinear algebraic equations is proved and the condition that the nonlinear algebraic equations degenerate into linear algebraic equations is given.

  6. Restrictive dermopathy and fetal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, EJH; Beemer, FA; Stoutenbeek, P

    2001-01-01

    We report three siblings from consecutive pregnancies affected with restrictive dermopathy (RD). During the second pregnancy, fetal behavioural development and growth were studied extensively using ultrasound at 1-4 week intervals. Dramatic and sudden changes occurred in fetal body movements and gro

  7. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than...

  8. Quaternary N-S shortening across the Garlock fault in Pilot Knob Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittase, W. M.; Walker, J. D.; Kirby, E.; McDonald, E.; Gosse, J.; Spencer, J. Q.; Wan, E.; Herrs, A. J.

    2011-12-01

    New constraints on differential vertical motions along the Garlock fault (GF) in eastern Pilot Knob Valley (PKV) provide insight into the interactions between the Panamint Valley fault system (PVFS) and the GF. The nature of strain transfer between orthogonal active fault systems such as occurs where faults of the Eastern California Shear Zone apparently accommodate dextral shear both north and south of the sinistral GF is a question of first-order importance for both the dynamics of deforming lithosphere and hazard. New mapping (based on field as well as both airborne and ground-based LiDAR) and chronology of Quaternary deposits exposed along the GF place bounds on the vertical components of recent deformation and include: (1) 2 10Be depth profiles, (2) soil descriptions and (3) tephrochronologic correlation of Quaternary volcanic deposits. Here we focus on two terrace treads adjacent to the GF and one adjacent to the southern Slate Range (SSR), which are displaced vertically relative to base-level. Uplift of the two terraces adjacent to the GF are inferred from modern stream channel incisions. A ~46 ka 10Be profile age for a 16-m-high terrace tread adjacent to the GF suggests a minimum differential uplift rate of ~0.34 mm/yr. A ~56 ka 10Be profile age from a 12.5-m-high tread located 4.5 km west on the GF suggests a differential uplift rate of ~0.22 mm/yr. A 25.5-m-high terrace adjacent to the SSR was dated via TCN, OSL and PDI. Acquiring reliable TCN and OSL data were problematic here. However, a soil PDI age estimate of ~164 ka brackets the maximum age of uplift and thus a minimum uplift rate of ~0.16 mm/yr here. Tephrochronologic data bracket the minimum age of the PKV at ~0.7 Ma (new unit). These sediments sit up to 430 m above the modern PKV floor. If faults controlling ~430 m of uplifted PKV sediments dip 70-80°, 155-76 m of N-S shortening is expected between the GF and SSR. A long-term uplift rate of ~0.61 mm/yr and N-S shortening rate of 0.22-0.11 mm

  9. Modelo matemático de la transferencia de calor para predecir el perfil de durezas en probetas Jominy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López, E.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The heat transfer coefficient was estimated at the bottom surface at Jominy bar end quench specimen by solution of the heat inverse conduction problem. A mathematical model based on the finite-difference method was developed to predict thermal paths and volume fraction of transformed phases. The mathematical model was codified in the commercial package Microsoft Visual Basic v. 6. The calculated thermal path and final phase distribution were used to evaluate the hardness distribution along the AISI 4140 Jominy bar.En el presente trabajo se estimó el coeficiente de transferencia de calor en la superficie que se encuentra en contacto con el chorro de agua en la probeta Jominy mediante la solución del problema inverso de conducción de calor. Con el objetivo de predecir los perfiles térmicos y las fracciones de fase transformadas se formuló un modelo matemático con el método de diferencias finitas y se codificó en el software comercial Microsoft Visual Basic v. 6. Los perfiles térmicos y las fracciones de fase calculadas se utilizaron para predecir el perfil de durezas en una probeta Jominy de acero AISI 4140 mediante el uso de correlaciones empíricas.

  10. Caloric Vestibular Stimulation Reduces Pain and Somatoparaphrenia in a Severe Chronic Central Post-Stroke Pain Patient: A Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Fernanda Spitoni

    Full Text Available Central post-stroke pain is a neuropathic syndrome characterized by intolerable contralesional pain and, in rare cases, somatic delusions. To date, there is limited evidence for the effective treatments of this disease. Here we used caloric vestibular stimulation to reduce pain and somatoparaphrenia in a 57-year-old woman suffering from central post-stroke pain. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the neurological effects of this treatment. Following vestibular stimulation we observed impressive improvements in motor skills, pain, and somatic delusions. In the functional connectivity study before the vestibular stimulation, we observed differences in the patient's left thalamus functional connectivity, with respect to the thalamus connectivity of a control group (N = 20, in the bilateral cingulate cortex and left insula. After the caloric stimulation, the left thalamus functional connectivity with these regions, which are known to be involved in the cortical response to pain, disappeared as in the control group. The beneficial use of vestibular stimulation in the reduction of pain and somatic delusion in a CPSP patient is now documented by behavioral and imaging data. This evidence can be applied to theoretical models of pain and body delusions.

  11. Searching the conditions for a table-like shape of the magnetic entropy in magneto-caloric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Álvarez, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.alvarez@ehu.es [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48940 Leioa (Spain); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, c/ Calvo Sotelo, s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Gorria, Pedro, E-mail: pgorria@uniovi.es [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, c/ Calvo Sotelo, s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Sánchez Llamazares, José L. [División de Materiales Avanzados, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, Camino a la presa San José 2055, CP 78216 San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Blanco, Jesús A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, c/ Calvo Sotelo, s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: •The magnetic entropy change for two-ribbon (amorphous) composite materials is investigated. •The conditions to obtain a table-like shape of the magnetic entropy change are specified. •We give the essential ingredients to maximize the effective refrigerant capacity and the efficiency. •Our findings could be used in other magneto-caloric materials to tune the temperature range for the table-like behavior. -- Abstract: We show a systematic study of the magneto-caloric response carried out on a series of FeZrB(Cu) amorphous ribbons with different Curie temperature values in the 210–320 K interval. The main aim of the work is to investigate the conditions to obtain, from the isothermal magnetic entropy change vs. temperature curves, ΔS{sub M}(T), a table-like behavior of the entropy using two-ribbon composites. Even though the maximum value of ΔS{sub M} for the composite is lower than those of the single components, the existence of a table-like behavior maximizes the effective refrigerant capacity, reaching values around 80 J/kg for an applied magnetic field change of 2 T. Furthermore, we discuss how the temperature range for such a table-like behavior can be tuned and the refrigerant capacity enhanced in terms of energy efficiency.

  12. High-Caloric and Chocolate Stimuli Processing in Healthy Humans: An Integration of Functional Imaging and Electrophysiological Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyar Asmaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a great deal of interest in understanding how the human brain processes appetitive food cues, and knowing how such cues elicit craving responses is particularly relevant when current eating behavior trends within Westernized societies are considered. One substance that holds a special place with regard to food preference is chocolate, and studies that used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and event-related potentials (ERPs have identified neural regions and electrical signatures that are elicited by chocolate cue presentations. This review will examine fMRI and ERP findings from studies that used high-caloric food and chocolate cues as stimuli, with a focus on responses observed in samples of healthy participants, as opposed to those with eating-related pathology. The utility of using high-caloric and chocolate stimuli as a means of understanding the human reward system will also be highlighted, as these findings may be particularly important for understanding processes related to pathological overeating and addiction to illicit substances. Finally, research from our own lab that focused on chocolate stimulus processing in chocolate cravers and non-cravers will be discussed, as the approach used may help bridge fMRI and ERP findings so that a more complete understanding of appetitive stimulus processing in the temporal and spatial domains may be established.

  13. Influence of joint angular velocity on electrically evoked concentric force potentiation induced by stretch-shortening cycle in young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Fukutani, Atsuki; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Isaka, Tadao

    2015-01-01

    Background During a stretch- shortening cycle (SSC), muscle force attained during concentric contractions (shortening phase) is potentiated by the preceding eccentric contractions (lengthening phase). The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of joint angular velocity on force potentiation induced by SSC (SSC effect). Findings Twelve healthy men (age, 24.2 ± 3.2 years; height, 1.73 ± 0.05 m; body mass, 68.1 ± 11.0 kg) participated in this study. Ankle joint angle was passively mo...

  14. Desempenho energético de bombas de calor e sistemas solares térmicos considerando perfis de extração normalizados

    OpenAIRE

    David, João Pedro Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Tese de mestrado em Engenharia da Energia e do Ambiente, apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa, através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2014 Este trabalho tem como objetivo comparar o desempenho de sistemas solares térmicos e de bombas de calor para preparação de água quente sanitária, considerando os mesmos perfis de extração. Para o estudo dos sistemas solares efetuaram-se simulações numéricas em ambiente TRNSYS, enquanto para a análise da bomba de calor foi utilizado o método BIN modificado, p...

  15. Palliative sedation in advanced cancer patients: Does it shorten survival time? - A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Barathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with advanced cancer often suffer from multiple refractory symptoms in the terminal phase of their life. Palliative sedation is one of the few ways to relieve this refractory suffering. Objectives: This systematic review investigated the effect of palliative sedation on survival time in terminally ill cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Six electronic databases were searched for both prospective and retrospective studies which evaluated the effect of palliative sedation on survival time. Only those studies which had a comparison group that did not receive palliative sedation were selected for the review. Abstracts of all retrieved studies were screened to include the most relevant studies and only studies which met inclusion criteria were selected. References of all retrieved studies were also screened for relevant studies. Selected studies were assessed for quality and data extraction was done using the structured data extraction form. Results: Eleven studies including four prospective and seven retrospective studies were identified. Mean survival time (MST was measured as the time from last admission until death. A careful analysis of the results of all the 11 studies indicated that MST of sedated and non-sedated group was not statistically different in any of the studies. Conclusion: This systematic review supports the fact that palliative sedation does not shorten survival in terminally ill cancer patients. However, this conclusion needs to be taken with consideration of the methodology, study design, and the population studied of the included studies in this review.

  16. The implementation of an Intensive Care Information System allows shortening the ICU length of stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Eric; Hoti, Emir; Azoulay, Daniel; Ichai, Philippe; Samuel, Didier; Saliba, Faouzi

    2015-04-01

    Intensive care information systems (ICIS) implemented in intensive care unit (ICU) were shown to improve patient safety, reduce medical errors and increase the time devolved by medical/nursing staff to patients care. Data on the real impact of ICIS on patient outcome are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ICIS on the outcome of critically-ill patients. From January 2004 to August 2006, 1,397 patients admitted to our ICU were enrolled in this observational study. This period was divided in two phases: before the implementation of ICIS (BEFORE) and after implementation of ICIS (AFTER). We compared standard ICU patient's outcomes: mortality, length of stay in ICU, hospital stay, and the re-admission rate depending upon BEFORE and AFTER. Although patients admitted AFTER were more severely ill than those of BEFORE (SAPS II: 32.1±17.5 vs. 30.5±18.5, p=0.014, respectively), their ICU length of stay was significantly shorter (8.4±15.2 vs. 6.8±12.9 days; p=0.048) while the re-admission rate and mortality rate were similar (4.4 vs. 4.2%; p=0.86, and 9.6 vs 11.2% p=0.35, respectively) in patients admitted AFTER. We observed that the implementation of ICIS allowed shortening of ICU length of stay without altering other patient outcomes. PMID:24973014

  17. Accelerated Telomere Shortening and Replicative Senescence in Human Fibroblasts Overexpressing Mutant and Wild Type Lamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shurong; Risques, Rosa Ana; Martin, George M.; Rabinovitch, Peter S.; Oshima, Junko

    2008-01-01

    LMNA mutations are responsible for a variety of genetic disorders, including muscular dystrophy, lipodystrophy, and certain progeroid syndromes, notably Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria. Although a number of clinical features of these disorders are suggestive of accelerated aging, it is not known whether cells derived from these patients exhibit cellular phenotypes associated with accelerated aging. We examined a series of isogenic skin fibroblast lines transfected with LMNA constructs bearing known pathogenic point mutations or deletion mutations found in progeroid syndromes. Fibroblasts overexpressing mutant lamin A exhibited accelerated rates of loss of telomeres and shortened replicative lifespans, in addition to abnormal nuclear morphology. To our surprise, these abnormalities were also observed in lines overexpressing wild-type lamin A. Copy number variants are common in human populations; those involving LMNA, whether arising meiotically or mitotically, might lead to progeroid phenotypes. In an initial pilot study of 23 progeroid cases without detectible WRN or LMNA mutations, however, no cases of altered LMNA copy number were detected. Nevertheless, our findings raise a hypothesis that changes in lamina organization may cause accelerated telomere attrition, with different kinetics for overexpession of wild-type and mutant lamin A, which leads to rapid replicative senescence and progroid phenotypes. PMID:17870066

  18. Designing cobalt chromium removable partial dentures for patients with shortened dental arches: a pilot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassani, M Z; Devlin, H; Tarakji, B; McCord, J F

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this survey was to investigate the quality of prescription for the fabrication of cobalt chromium removable partial dentures (RPDs) that are used to extend the shortened dental arches (SDAs). A survey of four commercial dental laboratories located in northern England was conducted. The target of this survey was cobalt chromium RPDs that were requested to restore SDAs comprising the anterior teeth and 2-4 premolars. Dentists' prescriptions were scrutinised, and a special data collection form was completed accordingly. A total of 94 dentists' prescriptions and associated SDA casts were examined. Almost all the requested cobalt chromium RPDs were clasp-retained RPDs (97%). Scrutinising the 91 prescriptions for clasp-retained cobalt chromium RPDs showed that dentists' prescriptions did not have any instructions about the design of the partial denture in a considerable proportion of the cases (32%). Teeth to be clasped were identified clearly in 45% of the prescriptions. A majority of the dentists (64%) failed to provide any instructions about the design of the rests to be placed on the most posterior premolar abutment teeth. A considerable proportion of the dentists delegated the task of selecting the type of the major connector to the dental technician (41%). Only 21 (23%) of the examined casts had clearly defined rest seat preparation. The outcome of this pilot survey shows inadequate quality of prescription in designing RPDs for patients with SDAs. This finding has an ethical and clinical bearing and does not fit with current legal guidelines relevant to designing RPDs. PMID:21175736

  19. Update: Shortened Interval for Postvaccination Serologic Testing of Infants Born to Hepatitis B-Infected Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillie, Sarah; Murphy, Trudy V; Fenlon, Nancy; Ko, Stephen; Ward, John W

    2015-10-01

    Infants born to hepatitis B-infected mothers receive postexposure prophylaxis to reduce their risk for perinatal hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Postexposure prophylaxis consists of hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin administered within 12 hours of birth, followed by completion of the 3-dose or 4-dose HepB vaccine series. Postvaccination serologic testing (PVST) assesses an infant's response to HepB vaccination and has typically occurred at age 9-18 months. This report provides a CDC update recommending shortening the interval for PVST from age 9-18 months to age 9-12 months. Providers should order PVST (consisting of hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] and antibody to HBsAg [anti-HBs]) for infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers at age 9-12 months (or 1-2 months after the final dose of the vaccine series, if the series is delayed). This recommendation was prompted by the discontinuation of production of Hib/HepB vaccine (Comvax) and new data from the Enhanced Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention Program supporting PVST 1・2 months after receipt of the last HepB vaccine dose, and at age ≥9 months. PMID:26447601

  20. Stability of lower limb minimal perceptible difference in floor height during hopping stretch-shortening cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to investigate a novel proprioceptive test, the minimal perceptible difference (MPD) test, that assessed participants' ability to perceive floor height changes whilst hopping. Sixteen healthy volunteers performed multiple trials of five hops on a custom built sleigh apparatus that permitted a floor height change (range 3 –48 mm) or no change, as dictated by a structured searching algorithm. Minimum detected surface height change was recorded for eight different hopping conditions (factors–technique: alternate/bilateral hopping; side: dominant/non-dominant; direction of change: up/down) over two separate testing occasions. Within day and between day reliability were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and 95% confidence intervals. The only factor which significantly influenced the sensitivity of subjects to detect changes in floor height was the hopping technique (bilateral or alternate). The mean MPD was significantly lower (p < 0.0001) for the bilateral hopping technique (MPDmean = 15.7 mm) when compared to the alternate hopping technique (MPDmean = 26.6 mm). All bilateral hopping techniques yielded moderate to high ICC for within (0.60–0.79) and between day (0.67–0.88) reliability. The results suggest that the bilateral hopping MPD assessment is a reliable, functional assessment of proprioception sensitivity during repeated stretch-shortening cycles that may better reflect human gait than established static assessment. Increased sensitivity to detection during bilateral hopping may reflect strategy dependent utility of proprioceptive information. (paper)

  1. Tooth loss as a predictor of shortened longevity: exploring the hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Paula K; Lamster, Ira B

    2016-10-01

    Many factors contribute to human tooth loss, including oral hygiene practices, trauma, smoking, health status, socio-economic status and individual preferences. Loss of teeth impairs quality-of-life measures, including the eating of most foods that require full masticatory function. A recent study of centenarians found that at age 65-74 years, those who lived to be 100 had a lower rate of edentulism than did younger members of their birth cohort at ages 65-74 years. Oral health was consistent with compression of morbidity toward the end of life. This article explores the hypothesis that factors associated with oral disease and noncommunicable diseases may increase the risk of tooth loss and lead to diminished longevity as a result of multifactorial interactions. It specifically addresses two critical questions. The first is: 'Can we conclude that the number of teeth in aging humans can affect longevity and life expectancy?' The answer is yes. The second is: 'Is tooth loss a predictor of shortened longevity?' Again, the answer is yes. Edentulism and partial edentulism are discussed as a disability, and how the philosophy/belief systems of dental providers and patients toward retaining teeth influences the outcome of tooth loss is also examined. Osteoporosis and cognitive impairment provide examples of modifying risk factors. PMID:27501497

  2. A diversity compression and combining technique based on channel shortening for cooperative networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Syed Imtiaz

    2012-02-01

    The cooperative relaying process with multiple relays needs proper coordination among the communicating and the relaying nodes. This coordination and the required capabilities may not be available in some wireless systems where the nodes are equipped with very basic communication hardware. We consider a scenario where the source node transmits its signal to the destination through multiple relays in an uncoordinated fashion. The destination captures the multiple copies of the transmitted signal through a Rake receiver. We analyze a situation where the number of Rake fingers N is less than that of the relaying nodes L. In this case, the receiver can combine N strongest signals out of L. The remaining signals will be lost and act as interference to the desired signal components. To tackle this problem, we develop a novel signal combining technique based on channel shortening principles. This technique proposes a processing block before the Rake reception which compresses the energy of L signal components over N branches while keeping the noise level at its minimum. The proposed scheme saves the system resources and makes the received signal compatible to the available hardware. Simulation results show that it outperforms the selection combining scheme. © 2012 IEEE.

  3. A signal combining technique based on channel shortening for cooperative sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Syed Imtiaz

    2010-06-01

    The cooperative relaying process needs proper coordination among the communicating and the relaying nodes. This coordination and the required capabilities may not be available in some wireless systems, e.g. wireless sensor networks where the nodes are equipped with very basic communication hardware. In this paper, we consider a scenario where the source node transmits its signal to the destination through multiple relays in an uncoordinated fashion. The destination can capture the multiple copies of the transmitted signal through a Rake receiver. We analyze a situation where the number of Rake fingers N is less than that of the relaying nodes L. In this case, the receiver can combine N strongest signals out of L. The remaining signals will be lost and act as interference to the desired signal components. To tackle this problem, we develop a novel signal combining technique based on channel shortening. This technique proposes a processing block before the Rake reception which compresses the energy of L signal components over N branches while keeping the noise level at its minimum. The proposed scheme saves the system resources and makes the received signal compatible to the available hardware. Simulation results show that it outperforms the selection combining scheme. ©2010 IEEE.

  4. Relationships between muscle power output using the stretch-shortening cycle and eccentric maximum strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaguchi, Kazuyoshi; Demura, Shinichi

    2008-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationships between muscle power output using the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) and eccentric maximum strength under elbow flexion. Eighteen young adult males pulled up a constant light load (2 kg) by ballistic elbow flexion under the following two preliminary conditions: 1) the static relaxed muscle state (SR condition), and 2) using the SSC with countermovement (SSC condition).Muscle power was determined from the product of the pulling velocity and the load mass by a power measurement instrument that adopted the weight-loading method. We assumed the pulling velocity to be the subject's muscle power parameters as a matter of convenience, because we used a constant load. The following two parameters were selected in reference to a previous study: 1) peak velocity (m x s(-1)) (peak power) and 2) 0.1-second velocity during concentric contraction (m x s(-1)) (initial power). Eccentric maximum strength by elbow flexion was measured by a handheld dynamometer.Initial power produced in the SSC condition was significantly larger than that in the SR condition. Eccentric maximum strength showed a significant and high correlation (r = 0.70) with peak power in the SSC condition but not in the SR condition. Eccentric maximum strength showed insignificant correlations with initial power in both conditions. In conclusion, it was suggested that eccentric maximum strength is associated with peak power in the SSC condition, but the contribution of the eccentric maximum strength to the SSC potentiation (initial power) may be low.

  5. Deciphering oblique shortening of central Alborz in Iran using geodetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernant, Ph.; Nilforoushan, F.; Chéry, J.; Bayer, R.; Djamour, Y.; Masson, F.; Nankali, H.; Ritz, J.-F.; Sedighi, M.; Tavakoli, F.

    2004-06-01

    The Alborz is a narrow (100 km) and elevated (3000 m) mountain belt which accommodates the differential motion between the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone in central Iran and the South Caspian basin. GPS measurements of 12 geodetic sites in Central Alborz between 2000 and 2002 allow to constrain the motion of the belt with respect to western Eurasia. One site velocity on the Caspian shoreline suggests that the South Caspian basin moves northwest at a rate of 6±2 mm/year with respect to western Eurasia. North-South shortening across the Alborz occurs at 5±2 mm/year. To the South, deformation seems to extend beyond the piedmont area, probably due to active thrusting on the Pishva fault. We also observe a left-lateral shear of the overall belt at a rate of 4±2 mm/year, consistent with the geological motion observed along E-W active strike-slip faults inside the belt (e.g., the Mosha fault).

  6. Reliability and consistency of plantarflexor stretch-shortening cycle function using an adapted force sledge apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are various limitations to existing methods of studying plantarflexor stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) function and muscle-tendon unit (MTU) mechanics, predominantly related to measurement validity and reliability. This study utilizes an innovative adaptation to a force sledge which isolates the plantarflexors and ankle for analysis. The aim of this study was to determine the sledge loading protocol to be used, most appropriate method of data analysis and measurement reliability in a group of healthy, non-injured subjects. Twenty subjects (11 males, 9 females; age: 23.5 ±2.3 years; height: 1.73 ±0.08 m; mass: 74.2 ±11.3 kg) completed 11 impacts at five different loadings rated on a scale of perceived exertion from 1 to 5, where 5 is a loading that the subject could only complete the 11 impacts using the adapted sledge. Analysis of impacts 4–8 or 5–7 using loading 2 provided consistent results that were highly reliable (single intra-class correlation, ICC > 0.85, average ICC > 0.95) and replicated kinematics found in hopping and running. Results support use of an adapted force sledge apparatus as an ecologically valid, reliable method of investigating plantarflexor SSC function and MTU mechanics in a dynamic controlled environment. (paper)

  7. Active shortening within the Himalayan orogenic wedge implied by the 2015 Gorkha earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Kelin X.; Shirzaei, Manoochehr; Hodges, Kip V.; Ramon Arrowsmith, J.

    2016-09-01

    Models of Himalayan neotectonics generally attribute active mountain building to slip on the Himalayan Sole Thrust, also termed the Main Himalayan Thrust, which accommodates underthrusting of the Indian Plate beneath Tibet. However, the geometry of the Himalayan Sole Thrust and thus how slip along it causes uplift of the High Himalaya are unclear. We show that the geodetic record of the 2015 Gorkha earthquake sequence significantly clarifies the architecture of the Himalayan Sole Thrust and suggests the need for revision of the canonical view of how the Himalaya grow. Inversion of Gorkha surface deformation reveals that the Himalayan Sole Thrust extends as a planar gently dipping fault surface at least 20-30 km north of the topographic front of the High Himalaya. This geometry implies that building of the high range cannot be attributed solely to slip along the Himalayan Sole Thrust over a steep ramp; instead, shortening within the Himalayan wedge is required to support the topography and maintain rapid rock uplift. Indeed, the earthquake sequence may have included a moderate rupture (Mw 6.9) on an out-of-sequence thrust fault at the foot of the High Himalaya. Such internal deformation is an expected response to sustained, focused rapid erosion, and may be common to most compressional orogens.

  8. NEW INSIGHTS INTO THE THEORY OF CROSS-BRIDGE TENSION OF STEADILY SHORTENING AND STRETCHING MUSCLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOKSHENEV V.B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great success, seminal Huxley's sliding filament model broadly fails to explain the steady state behavior of stretched activated skeletal muscles. Here, a new self-consistent solution to the fundamental kinetic equation for the distribution of actin-myosin linkages (cross-bridges is proposed in light of the generalized thermodynamic theory of fluctuations, thus substituting the transition state theory traditionally used for the transition rates. The unified description for mechanism of the force output in both shortening and stretching regimes is attributed to the interplay between the uniformly-state distributed, thermodynamically equilibrated myosin heads attached to actin filaments and asymmetrically-state distributed, mechanically equilibrated rotating myosin heads. The crossover between two steady regimes is associated with a reconstruction of the cross-bridge domains and change their attach-detach rates, leaving unchanged basic mechanical characteristics. Theory suggests a unified generic force-velocity equation, using only a single combination of the cross-bridge parameters for each regime, while Huxley's approach (1957 as well as its subsequent modifications, requires four adjustable parameters to fit the same data.

  9. Urban environment shortens telomere length in nestling great tits, Parus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmón, P; Nilsson, J F; Nord, A; Bensch, S; Isaksson, C

    2016-06-01

    Urban environments are expanding rapidly, and with urbanization come both challenges and opportunities for wildlife. Challenges include combating the anthropogenic disturbances such as light, noise and air pollution and lower availability of natural food sources. The benefits are many, including the availability of anthropogenic food sources, breeding boxes and warmer temperatures. Thus, depending on the context, urbanization can have both positive and negative effects on fitness related traits. It is well known that early-life conditions can have lifelong implications on fitness; little is however known about development in urban environments. We reciprocally cross-fostered urban and rural nestling great tits (Parus major L.) to study how growing up in an urban versus rural habitat affected telomere length (TL)-a suggested biomarker of longevity. We show, for the first time, that growing up in an urban environment significantly shortens TL, independently of natal origin (i.e. urban or rural). This implies that the urban environment imposes a challenge to developing birds, with potentially irreversible effects on lifespan. PMID:27303051

  10. Tectonic shortening and coeval volcanism during the Quaternary, Northeast Japan arc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koji Umeda; Masao Ban; Shintaro Hayashi; Tomohiro Kusano

    2013-02-01

    The Northeast Japan arc, a mature volcanic arc with a back-arc marginal basin (Japan Sea), is located on a convergent plate boundary along the subducting Pacific plate and the overriding North American plate. From a compilation and analysis of stratigraphy, radiometric age and data on erupted magma volumes, 176 eruptive episodes identified from 69 volcanoes so far, indicate that notable changes in eruption style, magma discharge rates and distribution of eruptive centres occurred around 1.0 Ma. Before ca.1.0 Ma, large-volume felsic eruptions were dominant, forming large calderas in the frontal arc, a region of low crustal strain rate. After ca. 1.0 Ma to the present, the calc-alkaline andesite magma eruptions in the frontal and rear arcs, synchronous with crustal shortening characterized by reverse faulting, resulted in stratovolcano development along narrow uplifted zones. Although, it is widely assumed that magma cannot rise easily in a compressional setting, some of the magma stored within basal sills could be extruded where N–S-trending uplifted mountains bounded by reverse faults formed since about ca.1.0 Ma.

  11. Pinealectomy shortens resynchronisation times of house sparrow ( Passer domesticus) circadian rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Gwinner, Eberhard

    2005-09-01

    In many birds periodic melatonin secretion by the pineal organ is essential for the high-amplitude self-sustained output of the circadian pacemaker, and thus for the persistence of rhythmicity in 24 h oscillations controlled by it. The elimination of the pineal melatonin rhythm, or a reduction of its amplitude, renders the circadian pacemaker a less self-sustained, often highly damped, oscillatory system. A reduction in the degree of self-sustainment of a rhythm should not only increase its range of entrainment but also shorten the resynchronization times following phase-shifts of the zeitgeber. This hypothesis has not yet been directly tested. We therefore carried out the present study in which house sparrows (Passer domesticus) were subjected to both 6-h advance and 6-h delay phase-shifts of the light-dark cycle before and after the pinealectomy, and the rhythms in locomotion and feeding were recorded. The results indicate that following the delay, but not the advance, phase shift, resynchronization times were significantly shorter after pinealectomy. The dependence of resynchronization times on the presence or absence of the pineal organ is not only of theoretical interest but might also be of functional significance in the natural life of birds. A reduction or elimination of the amplitude of the melatonin secretion rhythm by the pineal organ might be responsible for faster adjustment to changes in zeitgeber conditions in nature.

  12. Fatigue and muscle-tendon stiffness after stretch-shortening cycle and isometric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumi, Hechmi; Poumarat, Georges; Best, Thomas M; Martin, Alain; Fairclough, John; Benjamin, Mike

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare vertical jump performance after 2 different fatigue protocols. In the first protocol, subjects performed consecutive sets of 10 repetitions of stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) contractions. In the second protocol, successive sets of 10 repetitions of isometric contractions were performed for 10 s with the knee at 90 degrees of flexion. The exercises were stopped when the subjects failed to reach 50% of their maximum voluntary isometric contractions. Maximal isometric force and maximal concentric power were assessed by performing supine leg presses, squat jumps, and drop jumps. Surface EMG was used to determine changes in muscle activation before and after fatigue. In both groups, the fatigue exercises reduced voluntary isometric force, maximal concentric power, and drop jump performance. Kinematic data showed a decrease in knee muscle-tendon stiffness accompanied by a lengthened ground contact time. EMG analysis showed that the squat and drop jumps were performed similarly before and after the fatigue exercise for both groups. Although it was expected that the stiffness would decrease more after SSC than after isometric fatigue (as a result of a greater alteration of the reflex sensitivity SSC), our results showed that both protocols had a similar effect on knee muscle stiffness during jumping exercises. Both fatigue protocols induced muscle fatigue, and the decrease in jump performance was linked to a decrease in the strength and stiffness of the knee extensor muscles. PMID:17111011

  13. Chemical protection against life shortening and radio-induced leukemias and cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantage gained on the long term survival and the induction of leukemias and cancers in mice exposed to a single dose of ionizing radiation by a combination of radiochemical protectors, are examined. The results show clearly that chemical protective compounds protect mice against radiation-induced life-shortening, They demonstrate also that the obtained protection was improved by combination of various protectors acting in a supplementary manner. The optimum dose reduction factor obtained was 1.5 for AET and about 2 for a mixture of 5 radioprotectors. These dose reduction factors are lower than those offered with these two treatments against the acute effects of ionizing radiation. In addition, the dose effect curve for the long term survival obtained for irradiated untreated mice and for mice treated with a mixture of radioprotectors are not parallel. Thus, the dose reduction factors vary with the X-ray dose administered. The best protection was achieved for X-ray doses from 500 to 1000 R. After an exposure to 100 R (BALB/c+ mice) and 350 R (C5781 mice) of X-rays, the total incidence of leukemias and cancers was significantly lower in treated irradiated mice than in non treated mice

  14. Telomere shortening and cell senescence induced by perylene derivatives in A549 human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taka, Thanachai; Huang, Liming; Wongnoppavich, Ariyaphong; Tam-Chang, Suk-Wah; Lee, T Randall; Tuntiwechapikul, Wirote

    2013-02-15

    Cancer cells evade replicative senescence by re-expressing telomerase, which maintains telomere length and hence chromosomal integrity. Telomerase inhibition would lead cancer cells to senesce and therefore prevent cancer cells from growing indefinitely. G-quadruplex ligands can attenuate telomerase activity by inducing G-quadruplex formation at the 3'-overhang of telomere and at the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter; the former prevents telomerase from accessing the telomere, and the latter acts as a transcriptional silencer. The present investigation found that perylene derivatives PM2 and PIPER induced G-quadruplex formation from both telomeric DNA and the hTERT promoter region in vitro. Further, TRAP assay showed that these compounds inhibited telomerase in a dose-dependent manner. When A549 human lung cancer cells were treated with these compounds, hTERT expression was down-regulated. Moreover, the crude protein extract from these treated cells exhibited less telomerase activity. In the long-term treatment of A549 lung cancer cells with sub-cytotoxic dose of these perylenes, telomere shortening, reduction of cell proliferation and tumorigenicity, and cell senescence were observed. The results of this study indicate that perylene derivatives warrant further consideration as effective agents for cancer therapy.

  15. Response of tibialis anterior tendon to a chronic exposure of stretch-shortening cycles: age effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker Brent B

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of aging on tendon response to repetitive exposures of stretch-shortening cycles (SSC's. Methods The left hind limb from young (3 mo, N = 4 and old (30 mo, N = 9 male Fisher 344 × Brown Norway rats were exposed to 80 maximal SSCs (60 deg/s, 50 deg range of motion 3x/week for 4.5 weeks in vivo. After the last exposure, tendons from the tibialis anterior muscle were isolated, stored at -80°C, and then tested using a micro-mechanical testing machine. Deformation of each tendon was evaluated using both relative grip-to-grip displacements and reference marks via a video system. Results At failure, the young control tendons had higher strain magnitude than the young exposed (p Conclusion The chronic protocol enhanced the elastic stiffness of young tendon and the loads in both the young and old tendons. The old exposed tendons were found to exhibit higher load capacity than their younger counterparts, which differed from our initial hypothesis.

  16. Effect of Antioxidants Supplementation or Restricted Diet on Oxidative Stress in a Rat Model of Diet-Induced Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Vahidinia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Obesity is independently associated with increased oxidative stress in men and women. Natural antioxidants showed substantial antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities in vivo. The aim of this study was to examine the preventive effect of antioxidant supplements and/or restricted diet on the stress oxidative index (8-Iso-PGF2α and total antioxidant capacity (TAC in obese rats induced by a high-fat (HF diet. Material and Methods: In this experimental study forty-eight male Wister rats were randomly assigned to HF purified diet (61% kcal from fat ad libitum, HF restricted (30%, HF supplemented with astaxanthin, vitamin E and C (HFS, HFS restricted (30% for 12 weeks. Their daily food intake and weekly body weight gain were measured. Serum 8-Iso-PGF2α and TAC measured by EIA methods. Results: Energy intake was not significant in HF with HFS (58.8 and 58.6 kcal/rat/d, respectively and in HF restricted with HFS restricted (41.7 and 41.6 kcal/rat/d, respectively. Serum 8-Iso-PGF2α in HF was 1416.2±443.5 and in HF restricted was 1209.4±424.4pg/ml (p>0.05 and equal for other groups. The lowest TAC was seen in HF and highest was in HFS (0.36±0.43 and 3.0±1.13 mM, respectively (p<0.001. Conclusions: These results suggest that antioxidant supplements and caloric restriction may improved TAC and partially suppress stress oxidative index in high fat diet induced obese rats. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2011;18(1:48-56

  17. DESHIDRATACION Y SOBREHIDRATACION VOLUNTARIAS DURANTE EL EJERCICIO EN EL CALOR: POSIBLES FACTORES RELACIONADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Solera Herrera

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Los efectos negativos de la deshidratación sobre la salud y el rendimiento han sido bien documentados. Recientemente, también se han documentado problemas por sobrehidratación. La presente investigación se hizo para estudiar los posibles factores que influyen sobre la ingesta voluntaria de líquido durante el ejercicio y determinar si existe relación entre el grado de deshidratación voluntaria y la creencia de que la ingesta de líquido provoca cólico. Para ello, se contó con 94 estudiantes universitarios jóvenes, varones, quienes se ejercitaron a un 60% de su FCmáx durante una hora, alternando cada 10 min. entre bicicleta estacionaria, subir y bajar un escalón, y una máquina simuladora de esquí. Esto se realizó en un laboratorio de ambiente controlado a 30úC, 70% humedad relativa. Durante el ejercicio se midió la ingesta voluntaria de una bebida deportiva, así como también las percepciones de calor ambiental, llenura estomacal, malestar gastrointestinal y palatabilidad de la bebida. Los sujetos fueron pesados desnudos y secos antes y después del ejercicio. Al final se les aplicó un cuestionario sobre la importancia de la hidratación, y sus creencias sobre el cólico. El equilibrio hídrico promedio fue de 0.14 ± 0.98% del peso corporal, con un rango entre -2.38% y 2.84%. La tasa de sudoración promedio fue de 1208.3 ± 381.7ml·h-1; y la ingesta de 1132 ± 610ml·h-1. Dos análisis de regresión múltiple determinaron que: (a los predictores más fuertes de la ingesta voluntaria de líquido fueron la importancia asignada a la hidratación durante el ejercicio (R2 = 0.13; p < 0.0005 y la percepción de llenura estomacal al minuto 25 (R2 = 0.08; p = 0.005; (b los predictores más fuertes del equilibrio hídrico fueron la ingesta voluntaria por kg de peso (R2 = 0.73; p < 0.0005, y la tasa de sudoración (R2 = 0.08; p = 0.006. No obstante, el equilibrio hídrico no estuvo asociado con ninguna de las percepciones, ni con las

  18. PREFACE: XVth International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics (CALOR2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akchurin, Nural

    2012-12-01

    The XVth International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics, CALOR2012, was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico from 4-8 June 2012. The series of conferences on calorimetry started in 1990 at Fermilab, and they have been the premier event for calorimeter aficionados, a trend that CALOR2012 upheld. This year, several presentations focused on the status of the major calorimeter systems, especially at the LHC. Discussions on new and developing techniques in calorimetry took a full day. Excellent updates on uses of calorimeters or about ideas that are deeply rooted in particle physics calorimetry in astrophysics and neutrino physics were followed by talks on algorithms and special triggers that rely on calorimeters. Finally, discussions of promising current developments and ongoing R&D work for future calorimeters capped the conference. The field of calorimetry is alive and well, as evidenced by the more than 100 attendees and the excellent quality of over 80 presentations. You will find the written contributions in this volume. The presentations can be found at calor2012.ttu.edu. The first day of the conference was dedicated to the LHC. In two invited talks, Guillaume Unal (CERN) and Tommaso Tabarelli de Fatis (Universita' & INFN Milano Bicocca) discussed the critical role electromagnetic calorimeters play in the hunt for the Standard Model Higgs boson in ATLAS and CMS, respectively. The enhanced sensitivity for light Higgs in the two-gamma decay channel renders electromagnetic calorimeters indispensible. Much of the higher mass region was already excluded for the SM Higgs by the time of this conference, and after less than a month, on 4 July, CERN announced the discovery of a new boson at 125 GeV, a particle that seems consistent with the Higgs particle so far. Once again, without the electromagnetic calorimeters, this would not have been possible. Professor Geoffrey West from the Santa Fe Institute gave the keynote address. His talk, 'Universal Scaling Laws

  19. Management of fetal growth restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Alberry, M; Soothill, P

    2007-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is challenging because of the difficulties in reaching a definitive diagnosis of the cause and planning management. FGR is associated not only with a marked increased risk in perinatal mortality and morbidity but also with long‐term outcome risks. Combinations of fetal biometry, amniotic fluid volume, heart rate patterns, arterial and venous Doppler, and biophysical variables allow a comprehensive fetal evaluation of FGR. However, no evidence supports that the u...

  20. Effects of protein-calorie restriction on mechanical function of hypertrophied cardiac muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Cicogna

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of food restriction (FR on hypertrophied cardiac muscle in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. METHODS: Isolated papillary muscle preparations of the left ventricle (LV of 60-day-old SHR and of normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rats were studied. The rats were fed either an unrestricted diet or FR diet (50% of the intake of the control diet for 30 days. The mechanical function of the muscles was evaluated through monitoring isometric and isotonic contractions. RESULTS: FR caused: 1 reduction in the body weight and LV weight of SHR and WKY rats; 2 increase in the time to peak shortening and the time to peak developed tension (DT in the hypertrophied myocardium of the SHR; 3 diverging changes in the mechanical function of the normal cardiac muscles of WKY rats with reduction in maximum velocity of isotonic shortening and of the time for DT to decrease 50% of its maximum value, and increase of the resting tension and of the rate of tension decline. CONCLUSION: Short-term FR causes prolongation of the contraction time of hypertrophied muscles and paradoxal changes in mechanical performance of normal cardiac fibers, with worsening of the shortening indices and of the resting tension, and improvement of the isometric relaxation.

  1. Cost effectiveness of shortening screening interval or extending age range of NHS breast screening programme: computer simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Boer (Rob); A. Threlfall; P. Warmerdam (Peter); A. Street (Andrew); E. Friedman (Eitan); C. Woodman; H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    1998-01-01

    markdownabstract__OBJECTIVE__: To compare the cost effectiveness of two possible modifications to the current UK screening programme: shortening the screening interval from three to two years and extending the age of invitation to a final screen from 64 to 69. __DESIG

  2. An Examination of the Stretch-Shortening Cycle of the Dorsiflexors and Evertors in Uninjured and Functionally Unstable Ankles

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Gary K.; Kaminski, Thomas W.; Hatzel, Brian; Powers, Michael E.; Horodyski, MaryBeth

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine if there were differences in concentric peak torque/body-weight (PT/BW) ratios and concentric time to peak torque (TPT) of the dorsiflexors and evertors in uninjured and functionally unstable ankles using a stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) protocol on an isokinetic dynamometer.

  3. 3'UTR Shortening Potentiates MicroRNA-Based Repression of Pro-differentiation Genes in Proliferating Human Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonit Hoffman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most mammalian genes often feature alternative polyadenylation (APA sites and hence diverse 3'UTR lengths. Proliferating cells were reported to favor APA sites that result in shorter 3'UTRs. One consequence of such shortening is escape of mRNAs from targeting by microRNAs (miRNAs whose binding sites are eliminated. Such a mechanism might provide proliferation-related genes with an expression gain during normal or cancerous proliferation. Notably, miRNA sites tend to be more active when located near both ends of the 3'UTR compared to those located more centrally. Accordingly, miRNA sites located near the center of the full 3'UTR might become more active upon 3'UTR shortening. To address this conjecture we performed 3' sequencing to determine the 3' ends of all human UTRs in several cell lines. Remarkably, we found that conserved miRNA binding sites are preferentially enriched immediately upstream to APA sites, and this enrichment is more prominent in pro-differentiation/anti-proliferative genes. Binding sites of the miR17-92 cluster, upregulated in rapidly proliferating cells, are particularly enriched just upstream to APA sites, presumably conferring stronger inhibitory activity upon shortening. Thus 3'UTR shortening appears not only to enable escape from inhibition of growth promoting genes but also to potentiate repression of anti-proliferative genes.

  4. Multi-carrier Equalization by Restoration of RedundancY (MERRY) for Adaptive Channel Shortening in Multi-carrier Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Samir Abd Elghafar; Salaheldin M. Diab; Sallam, Bassiouny M.; Moawad I. Dessouky; El-Sayed M. El-Rabaie; Fathi E. Abd El-Samie

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new blind adaptive channel shortening approach for multi-carrier systems. Theperformance of the discrete Fourier transform-DMT (DFT-DMT) system is investigated with the proposedDST-DMT system over the standard carrier serving area (CSA) loop1. Enhanced bit rates demonstratedand less complexity also involved by the simulationof the DST-DMT system.

  5. Micro-Sugar-Snap and -Wire-Cut Cookie Baking with Trans- and Zero-Trans-Fat Shortenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of trans- and zero-trans-fat shortenings on cookie-baking performance was evaluated, using the two AACC micro-cookie-baking methods. Regardless of fat type, sugar-snap cookies made with a given flour were larger in diameter, smaller in height, and greater in weight loss during baking tha...

  6. Item response theory was used to shorten EORTC QLQ-C30 scales for use in palliative care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Petersen; M. Groenvold; N. Aaronson; J. Blazeby; Y. Brandberg; A. de Graeff; P. Fayers; E. Hammerlid; M. Sprangers; G. Velikova; J.B. Bjorner

    2006-01-01

    Background and Objective: The goal was to develop a shortened version of the EORTC QLQ-C30 for use in palliative care. We wanted to keep as few items as possible in each scale while still being able to compare results with studies using the original scales. We examined the possibilities of shortenin

  7. Metformin prevents aggressive ovarian cancer growth driven by high-energy diet: similarity with calorie restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wahab, Zaid; Mert, Ismail; Tebbe, Calvin; Chhina, Jasdeep; Hijaz, Miriana; Morris, Robert T; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Giri, Shailendra; Munkarah, Adnan R; Rattan, Ramandeep

    2015-05-10

    Caloric restriction (CR) was recently demonstrated by us to restrict ovarian cancer growth in vivo. CR resulted in activation of energy regulating enzymes adenosine monophosphate activated kinase (AMPK) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) followed by downstream inhibition of Akt-mTOR. In the present study, we investigated the effects of metformin on ovarian cancer growth in mice fed a high energy diet (HED) and regular diet (RD) and compared them to those seen with CR in an immunocompetent isogeneic mouse model of ovarian cancer. Mice either on RD or HED diet bearing ovarian tumors were treated with 200 mg/kg metformin in drinking water. Metformin treatment in RD and HED mice resulted in a significant reduction in tumor burden in the peritoneum, liver, kidney, spleen and bowel accompanied by decreased levels of growth factors (IGF-1, insulin and leptin), inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IL-6) and VEGF in plasma and ascitic fluid, akin to the CR diet mice. Metformin resulted in activation of AMPK and SIRT1 and inhibition of pAkt and pmTOR, similar to CR. Thus metformin can closely mimic CR's tumor suppressing effects by inducing similar metabolic changes, providing further evidence of its potential not only as a therapeutic drug but also as a preventive agent. PMID:25895126

  8. Metformin prevents aggressive ovarian cancer growth driven by high-energy diet: similarity with calorie restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wahab, Zaid; Mert, Ismail; Tebbe, Calvin; Chhina, Jasdeep; Hijaz, Miriana; Morris, Robert T; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Giri, Shailendra; Munkarah, Adnan R; Rattan, Ramandeep

    2015-05-10

    Caloric restriction (CR) was recently demonstrated by us to restrict ovarian cancer growth in vivo. CR resulted in activation of energy regulating enzymes adenosine monophosphate activated kinase (AMPK) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) followed by downstream inhibition of Akt-mTOR. In the present study, we investigated the effects of metformin on ovarian cancer growth in mice fed a high energy diet (HED) and regular diet (RD) and compared them to those seen with CR in an immunocompetent isogeneic mouse model of ovarian cancer. Mice either on RD or HED diet bearing ovarian tumors were treated with 200 mg/kg metformin in drinking water. Metformin treatment in RD and HED mice resulted in a significant reduction in tumor burden in the peritoneum, liver, kidney, spleen and bowel accompanied by decreased levels of growth factors (IGF-1, insulin and leptin), inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IL-6) and VEGF in plasma and ascitic fluid, akin to the CR diet mice. Metformin resulted in activation of AMPK and SIRT1 and inhibition of pAkt and pmTOR, similar to CR. Thus metformin can closely mimic CR's tumor suppressing effects by inducing similar metabolic changes, providing further evidence of its potential not only as a therapeutic drug but also as a preventive agent.

  9. Effect of pinealectomy and prolonged melatonin administration on circadian testicular function in food restricted rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrowska, Z.; Zwirska-Korczala, K.; Kajdaniuk, D.; Gorski, J.; Buntner, B. [Slaska Akademia Medyczna, Katowice (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The effect of pinealectomy and exogenous melatonin on the circadian testosterone variations was investigated (using the radioimmunoassay method) after 3 weeks of 50% food restriction in sexually mature male Wistar rats at 3-h intervals under 12:12 light-dark cycle. The circadian periodicity of testosterone secretion was maintained after caloric deprivation, however its mean 24-h concentration was lower and rhythm disturbances appeared in the form of acrophase shifts from 18.00 to 0.50 h. In pinealectomized animals the mean 24-h testosterone level and amplitude values were significantly increased without the rhythm disturbances. As compared to the control animals, underfed pinealectomized rats had a partial recovery of reduced testosterone levels during the 24-h cycle and showed a normalization of the rhythm acrophase. Melatonin administration was found to inhibit the testosterone mesor value in pinealectomized rats with acrophase shifts from 16.58 to 14.51 h. In comparison with the pinealectomized ones the underfed pinealectomized rats had a greater reduction of the mesor and amplitude values after the melatonin administration. These findings indicate that long-term food restriction sensitizes the circadian testicular axis to antigonadotropic action of the pineal gland. (author). 42 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab.

  10. Effects of Restricted Fructose Access on Body Weight and Blood Pressure Circadian Rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Senador

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High-fructose diet is known to produce cardiovascular and metabolic pathologies. The objective was to determine whether the timing of high fructose (10% liquid solution intake affect the metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes. Male C57BL mice with radiotelemetric probes were divided into four groups: (1 24 h water (control; (2 24 h fructose (F24; (3 12 h fructose during the light phase (F12L; (4 12 h fructose during the dark phase (F12D. All fructose groups had higher fluid intake. Body weight was increased in mice on restricted access with no difference in total caloric intake. Fasting glycemia was higher in groups with restricted access. F24 mice showed a fructose-induced blood pressure increase during the dark period. Blood pressure circadian rhythms were absent in F12L mice. Results suggest that the timing of fructose intake is an important variable in the etiology of cardiovascular and metabolic pathologies produced by high fructose consumption.

  11. Caloric expenditure of aerobic, resistance, or combined high-intensity interval training using a hydraulic resistance system in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Paul H; Tai, Chih-Yin; Carson, Laura R; Joy, Jordan M; Mosman, Matt M; McCann, Tyler R; Crona, Kevin P; Kim, Michael P; Moon, Jordan R

    2015-03-01

    Although exercise regimens vary in content and duration, few studies have compared the caloric expenditure of multiple exercise modalities with the same duration. The purpose of this study was to compare the energy expenditure of single sessions of resistance, aerobic, and combined exercise with the same duration. Nine recreationally active men (age: 25 ± 7 years; height: 181.6 ± 7.6 cm; weight: 86.6 ± 7.5 kg) performed the following 4 exercises for 30 minutes: a resistance training session using 75% of their 1-repetition maximum (1RM), an endurance cycling session at 70% maximum heart rate (HRmax), an endurance treadmill session at 70% HRmax, and a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) session on a hydraulic resistance system (HRS) that included repeating intervals of 20 seconds at maximum effort followed by 40 seconds of rest. Total caloric expenditure, substrate use, heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. Caloric expenditure was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater when exercising with the HRS (12.62 ± 2.36 kcal·min), compared with when exercising with weights (8.83 ± 1.55 kcal·min), treadmill (9.48 ± 1.30 kcal·min), and cycling (9.23 ± 1.25 kcal·min). The average HR was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater with the HRS (156 ± 9 b·min), compared with that using weights (138 ± 16 b·min), treadmill (137 ± 5 b·min), and cycle (138 ± 6 b·min). Similarly, the average RPE was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher with the HRS (16 ± 2), compared with that using weights (13 ± 2), treadmill (10 ± 2), and cycle (11 ± 1). These data suggest that individuals can burn more calories performing an HIIT session with an HRS than spending the same amount of time performing a steady-state exercise session. This form of exercise intervention may be beneficial to individuals who want to gain the benefits of both resistance and cardiovascular training but have limited time to dedicate to exercise.

  12. Treatment of tibial defect and bone nonunion with limb shortening with external fixator and reconstituted bone xenograft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志刚; 刘建; 胡蕴玉; 孟国林; 金格勒; 袁志; 王海强; 戴先文

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of external fixator and reconstituted bone xenograft (RBX) in the treatment of tibial bone defect, tibial bone nonunion and congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia with limb shortening. Methods: Twenty patients ( 13 males and 7 females) with tibial bone defect, tibial bone nonunion or congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia with limb shortening were treated with external fixation. Two kinds of external fixators were used: a half ring sulcated external fixator used in 13 patients and a combined external fixator in 7 patients. Foot-drop was corrected at the same time with external fixation in 4 patients. The shortened length of the tibia was in the range of 2-9 cm, with an average of 4.8 cm. For bone grafting, RBX was used in 12 patients, autogenous ilium was used in 3 patients and autogenous fibula was implanted as a bone plug into the medullary canal in 1 case, and no bone graft was used in 4 patients. Results: All the 20 patients were followed-up for 8 months to 7 years, averaging 51 months. Satisfactory function of the affected extremities was obtained. All the shortened extremities were lengthened to the expected length. For all the lengthening area and the fracture sites, bone union was obtained at the last. The average healing time of 12 patients treated with RBX was 4.8 months. Conclusions: Both the half ring sulcated external fixator and the combined external fixator have the advantages of small trauma, simple operation, elastic fixation without stress shielding and non-limitation from local soft tissue conditions, and there is satisfactory functional recovery of affected extremities in the treatment of tibial bone defects, tibial bone nonunion and congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia combined with limb shortening. RBX has good biocompatibility and does not cause immunological rejections. It can also be safely used in treatment of bone nonunion and has reliable effect to promote bone healing.

  13. Development of Advanced Concept for Shortening Construction Period of ABWR Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction of a nuclear power plant (NPP) requires a very long period because of large amount of construction materials and many issues for negotiation among multiple sections. Shortening the construction period advances the date of return on an investment, and can also result in reduced construction cost. Therefore, the study of this subject has a very high priority for utilities. We achieved a construction period of 37 months from the first concrete work to fuel loading (F/L) (51.5 months from the inspection of the foundation (I/F) to the start of commercial operation (C/O)) at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPPs No. 6 and 7 (KK-6/7), which are the first ABWR plants in the world. At TEPCO's next plant, we think that a construction period of less than 36 months (45 months from I/F to C/O) can be realized based on conventional methods such as early start of equipment installation and blocking of equipment to be brought in advance. Furthermore, we are studying the feasibility of a 21.5-month construction period (30 months from I/F to C/O) with advanced ideas and methods. The important concepts for a 21.5-month construction period are adoption of a new building structure that is the steel plate reinforced concrete (SC) structure and promotion of extensive modularization of equipment and building structure. With introducing these new concepts, we are planning the master schedule (M/S) and finding solutions to conflicts in the schedule of area release from building construction work to equipment installation work (schedule-conflicts.) In this report, we present the shortest construction period and an effective method to put it into practice for the conventional general arrangement (GA) of ABWR. In the future, we will continue the study on the improvement of building configuration and arrangements, and make clear of the concept for large composite modules of building structures and equipment. (authors)

  14. Biophysical Mechanisms Underlying Hearing Loss Associated with a Shortened Tectorial Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oghalai, John S.; Xia, Anping; Liu, Christopher C.; Gao, Simon S.; Applegate, Brian E.; Puria, Sunil; Rousso, Itay; Steele, Charles

    2011-11-01

    The tectorial membrane (TM) connects to the stereociliary bundles of outer hair cells (OHCs). Herein, we summarize key experimental data and modeling analyses that describe how biophysical alterations to these connections underlie hearing loss. The heterozygous C1509G mutation in alpha tectorin produces partial congenital hearing loss that progresses in humans. We engineered this mutation in mice, and histology revealed that the TM was shortened. DIC imaging of freshly-dissected cochlea as well as imaging with optical coherence tomography indicated that the TM is malformed and only stimulates the first row of OHCs. Noise exposure produced acute threshold shifts that fully recovered in Tecta+/+ mice although there was some OHC loss within all three rows at the cochlear base. In contrast, threshold shifts only partially recovered in TectaC1509G/+ mice. This was associated with OHC loss more apically and nearly entirely within the first row. Young's modulus of the TM, measured using atomic force microscopy, was substantially reduced at the middle and basal regions. Both the wild-type and heterozygous conditions were simulated in a computational model. This demonstrated that the normalized stress distribution levels between the TM and the tall cilia were significantly elevated in the middle region of the heterozygous cochlea. Another feature of the TectaC1509G/+ mutation is higher prestin expression within all three rows of OHCs. This increased electricallyevoked movements of the reticular lamina and otoacoustic emissions. Furthermore, electrical stimulation was associated with an increased risk of OHC death as measured by vital dye staining. Together, these findings indicate that uncoupling of the TM from some OHCs not only leads to partial hearing loss, but also puts the OHCs that remain coupled at higher risk. Both the mechanics of the malformed TM and increased electromotility contribute to this higher risk profile.

  15. On the link between orogenic shortening and back-arc extensional collapse in low topography orogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matenco, L. C.

    2012-04-01

    Classical models of orogenic evolution assume that back arc basins form in the hinterland of orogens, collapsing the upper plate above oceanic subduction zones. This is a common characteristic commonly thought to apply to all low-topography orogens of Mediterranean type driven by the fast roll-back of subducted slabs, or other analogues such as the Miocene to recent evolution of the SE Asia subduction zones. This extension may take place far at the interior of the upper plate, as is the case in various segments of the Carpathians or in the core of the SE Asian domain, but in most cases of the Dinarides, Apennines or Hellenides it take place superposed or far into the foreland of oceanic suture zones. Therefore, the term back-arc extension in many cases is misleading, as exhumation along major detachment zones takes place in the core of the orogen (Rif, Betics), in the accreted crustal material of the lower plate (Apennines, Dinarides) or even in a presumed former fore-arc (Aegean, Sunda-Banda arc). In all these subduction zones, collision has largely duplicated crustal blocks from the lower plate and has gradually shifted subduction zone far towards the lower plate. As a result, crustal thickening takes place in the foreland of the orogen, in contrast with the typical crustal roots of the high convergence orogens, such as the Alps or Himalaya. This demonstrate an active shift of the main subduction zone, the position of slabs detected by teleseismic mantle tomography is displaced to the foreland and cannot be connected with the position of the lower plate crust beneath the orogen. This shift is associated with large scale magmatism with unusual large crustal signatures, atypical for subduction related magmas. These observations demonstrate the need for an active reconsideration of existing orogenic models which should include displacements of subduction zones during orogenic shortening and an active investigation of the role of continental subduction and associated

  16. Brain targeted transcranial administration of diazepam and shortening of sleep latency in healthy human volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Pathirana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of medicated oils on scalp had been practiced for centuries in the Ayurvedic system of medicine in diseases associated with the central nervous system. It is possible that the effectiveness of the therapy may be a result of targeted delivery of active compounds to the brain transcranially. Evidence also comes from two previous studies with positive results on brain targeted transcranial delivery of methadone base and diazepam on rat models. Possibility of transcranial drug delivery was investigated in healthy human volunteers using electroencephalography techniques by assessing the ability of transcranially administered diazepam in bringing about β activity in the electroencephalographic wave patterns and shortening of the sleep latency period. Non polar drug molecules dissolved in a non-aqueous sesame oil based vehicle is a significant feature in the transcranial dosage design. The study was under taken in two phases. In the Phase-I study scalp application of a single dose of 2 mg/3 ml of the oil was employed and in the Phase-II study repeat application of three doses 24 h apart were employed. Sleep latency changes were monitored with Multiple Sleep Latency Tests with 5 naps employing the standard electroencephalography, electroocculography and electromyography electrodes. Sleep onset was identified with the first epoch of any sleep stage non rapid eye movement 1, 2, 3, 4 or rapid eye movement using electroencephalography, electroocculography and electromyography criteria. In both phases of the study there was significant reduction in the sleep latencies. It was much more pronounced in the Phase-II study. None of the subjects however displayed beta activity in the electroencephalography. Sleep latency reduction following scalp application in both the phases are suggestive of transcranial migration of diazepam molecules to the receptor sites of the nerve tissue of the brain eliciting its pharmacological effect of sedation

  17. Effect of prosthetic restoration on masticatory function in patients with shortened dental arches: a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fueki, K; Igarashi, Y; Maeda, Y; Baba, K; Koyano, K; Sasaki, K; Akagawa, Y; Kuboki, T; Kasugai, S; Garrett, N R

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this multicentre study was to investigate the effect of prosthetic restoration for missing posterior teeth on mastication in patients with shortened dental arches (SDAs). Partially dentate patients who had an intact teeth in anterior region and missed distal molar(s) (2-12 missing occlusal units) classified as Kennedy Class I or Class II were recruited from seven university-based dental hospitals in Japan. Of the 125 subjects who underwent baseline (pre-treatment) and follow-up/post-treatment evaluation, 53 chose no replacement of missing teeth and 72 chose treatment with removable partial dentures (n = 53) or implant-supported fixed partial dentures (n = 19). Objective masticatory performance (MP) was evaluated using a gummy jelly test. Perception of chewing ability (CA) was rated using a food intake questionnaire. In the no-treatment group, mean MP and CA scores at baseline were similar to those at follow-up evaluation (P > 0·05). In the treatment group, mean MP after treatment was significantly greater than the pre-treatment mean MP (P 0·05). In a subgroup analysis of subjects in the treatment group, subjects with lower pre-treatment CA showed a significant CA increase after treatment (P = 0·004), but those with higher pre-treatment CA showed a significant decrease in CA (P = 0·001). These results suggest that prosthetic restoration for SDAs may benefit objective masticatory performance in patients needing replacement of missing posterior teeth, but the benefit in subjective chewing ability seems to be limited in subjects with perceived impairment in chewing ability before treatment. PMID:26854877

  18. Life shortening and carcinogenesis in mice irradiated at the perinatal period with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study elucidates the life-span radiation effects in mice irradiated at the perinatal period in comparison to mice irradiated at the young adult period. B6C3F1 female mice were irradiated at 17 days of prenatal age, at 0 days of postnatal age, or as young adults at 15 weeks of age with 190, 380, or 570 rads of 137Cs gamma rays. Mice irradiated at the late fetal period showed dose-dependent life shortening of somewhat lesser magnitude than that seen after neonatal or young adult irradiation. Mice exposed at the late fetal period were highly susceptible to induction of pituitary tumors for which the latent period was the longest of all induced neoplasms. Incidence of lung tumors in mice irradiated at the late fetal period with 190 and 380 rads was higher than in controls. Malignant lymphomas of the lymphocytic type developed in excess, after a short latent period, in mice irradiated fetally with the highest dose; susceptibility of prenatally exposed mice was lower than that of early postnatally exposed mice. Liver tumors developed more frequently in mice irradiated in utero than in controls; susceptibility to induction of this type of neoplasm was highest at the neonatal period. In general, carcinogenic response of mice exposed at the late fetal period resembled that of neonatally exposed mice but was quite different from that of young adult mice. Mice exposed as young adults have no, or low, susceptibility to induction of pituitary, lung, and liver tumors; and a higher susceptibility to induction of myeloid leukemias and Harderian gland tumors. 19 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Reduced stretch-reflex sensitivity after exhausting stretch-shortening cycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, C; Komi, P V; Horita, T; Kyröläinen, H; Takala, T E

    1996-01-01

    The stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) is an effective and natural form of muscle function but, when repeated with sufficient intensity or duration, it may lead to muscle damage and functional defects. A reduced tolerance to impact has been reported, which may be partly attributed to a reduced stretch-reflex potentiation. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of SSC-induced metabolic fatigue and muscle damage on the efficacy of stretch reflexes, as judged by the electromyograph (EMG) response of two shank muscles (lateral gastrocnemius LG, soleus SOL) to controlled ramp stretches. These EMG responses were recorded before and immediately after exhausting SSC-type leg exercise and 2 h, 2 days and 4 days later. Serum concentrations of creatine kinase ([CK]), myoglobin and lactate were measured repetitively along the protocol. Two maximal vertical drop jumps and counter-movement jumps were performed after each reflex test. The exhausting SSC-type exercise induced an immediate reduction (P drop jump performance remained slightly but significantly reduced (P drop jump height. Furthermore, a significant relationship (P < 0.05) was found between recovery of the stretch reflex in LG and the decrease of [CK] between the 2nd and the 4th day. These findings support the hypothesis of a reduced stretch-reflex sensitivity. While the exact mechanisms of the reflex inhibition remain unclear, it is emphasized that the delayed recovery of the reflex sensitivity could have resulted from the progressive inflammation that develops in cases of muscle damage. PMID:8925809

  20. Characteristics of myocardial postsystolic shortening in patients with coronary artery disease assessed by strain rate imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li; QIU Qiong; ZHANG Hui-zhong; XIA Jin-xi

    2007-01-01

    Background Postsystolic shortening (PSS) has been proposed as a marker of myocardial dysfunction. Strain rate imaging (SRI)is a novel ultrasonic technique, allowing reliable and noninvasive measurement of myocardial deformation.The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of myocardial longitudinal PSS by SRI in ischemic and infarct myocardium in patients with coronary artery disease, and to explore its clinical applicability.Methods Eleven patients with angina pectoris, 21 patients with myocardial infarction and 20 healthy subjects were included in the study. Apical four-, three- and two-chamber views were displayed; and septal, lateral, anteroseptal,posterior, anterior and inferior walls of the left ventricle were scanned, respectively. PSS strain (εpss), the ratio of εpss and systolic strain (εpss/εsys), the ratio of εpss and maximum strain (εpss/εmax) and the duration of PSS (Tpss) in ischemic, infarct and normal myocardium were analyzed.Results PSS was found more frequent in the ischemic and infarct segments compared with the normal segments (39%vs 22% and 56% vs 22%, respectively; both P<0.01). It was even more frequent in the infarct segments than in the ischemic segments (56% vs 39%, P<0.01). The absolute magnitude of εpss, εpss/εsys, εpss/εmax were significantly larger and Tpss significantly longer in the ischemic and infarct segments compared with that in the normal myocardium (P<0.01).εpss/εsys, εpss/εmax were even larger and Tpss even longer in the infarct than in the ischemic segments (P<0.01).Conclusions PSS is a common and important feature of the ischemic and infarct myocardium. εpss, εpss/εsys, εpss/εmax and Tpss as measured by SRI may be promising markers for the quantitative assessment of regional myocardial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. εpss/εsys, εpss/εmax and Tpss may be helpful in differentiating infarct from ischemic myocardium.