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Sample records for calophyllum pinetorum bisse

  1. Calophyllum inophyllum L

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Allen

    2002-01-01

    Calophyllum inophyllum is in a genus of about 110 species that are pantropical in distribution but most common in tropical Asia (Gentry 1993, Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium 1976, Wagner and others 1990). Native from east Africa to Australia and Malesia, C. inophyllum has been widely planted throughout the tropics, including many...

  2. Antiproliferative xanthone derivatives from Calophyllum inophyllum and Calophyllum soulattri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Siau Hui; Lian Ee, Gwendoline Cheng; Teh, Soek Sin; Sukari, Mohd Aspollah

    2015-03-01

    Structure-activity relationships of eleven xanthones were comparatively predicted for four cancer cell lines after the compounds were subjected to antiproliferative assay against B-lymphocyte cells (Raji), colon carcinoma cells (LS174T), human neuroblastoma cells (IMR-32) and skin carcinoma cells (SK-MEL-28). The eleven chemical constituents were obtained naturally from the stem bark of Calophyllum inophyllum and Calophyllum soulattri. Inophinnin (1) and inophinone (2) were isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum while soulattrin (3) and phylattrin (4) were found from Calophyllum soulattri. The other xanthones were from both Calophyllum sp. and they are pyranojacareubin (5), rheediaxanthone A (6), macluraxanthone (7), 4-hydroxyxanthone (8), caloxanthone C (9), brasixanthone B (10) and trapezifolixanthone (11). Compound 3 was found to be the most cytotoxic towards all the cancer cell lines with an IC50 value of 1.25μg/mL while the simplest xanthone, compound 8 was inactive.

  3. Antimicrobial Assessment of Resins from Calophyllum Antillanum and Calophyllum Inophyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Oubada, Ahmad; Bello, Adonis; Maes, Louis; Cos, Paul; Monzote, Lianet

    2015-12-01

    The Calophyllum genus is well-known for its antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities, and therefore, we analyzed these biological activities for resins of Calophyllum antillanum and Calophyllum inophyllum growing in Cuba. C. antillanum resins showed a potent activity against Plasmodium falciparum (IC50  = 0.3 ± 0.1 µg/mL), while its cytotoxicity against MRC-5 cells was much lower (IC50  = 21.6 ± 1.1 µg/mL). In contrary, the resin of C. inophyllum showed an unspecific activity. The presence of apetalic acid, isoapetalic acid, calolongic acid, pinetoric acid I, pinetoric acid II, isocalolongic acid, pinetoric acid III, and isopinetoric acid III in C. antillanum resins was also confirmed. These results demonstrated for the first time the potential activity of C. antillanum resins against P. falciparum. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Anti-HIV coumarins from Calophyllum seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spino, C; Dodier, M; Sotheeswaran, S

    1998-12-15

    The seeds of Calophyllum cerasiferum Vesque (Family-Clusiaceae), and Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. (Family-Clusiaceae) contain several known coumarins, among which were the potent HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors costatolide and inophyllum P. Calophyllum cerasiferum contained (-)-calanolide B as its major coumarin constituent in significant amount and thus constitute a renewable source of this compound.

  5. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents from Calophyllum inophyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimdjo, Marie C; Azebaze, Anatole G; Nkengfack, Augustin E; Meyer, A Michele; Bodo, Bernard; Fomum, Zacharias T

    2004-10-01

    The study of the chemical constituents of the root bark and the nut of Calophyllum inophyllum has resulted in the isolation and characterization of a xanthone derivative, named inoxanthone, 3, together with 12 known compounds: caloxanthones A, 4 and B, 5, macluraxanthone, 6, 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone, 7, calophynic acid, 8, brasiliensic acid, 9 inophylloidic acid, 10, friedelan-3-one, 11, calaustralin, 12, calophyllolide, 13, inophyllums C, 14 and E, 15. Their structures were established on the basis of spectral evidence. Their in vitro cytotoxicity against the KB cell line and their antibacterial activity and potency against a wide range of micro organisms were evaluated.

  6. [Xanthones from leaves of Calophyllum inophyllum Linn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Li, Zhan-Lin; Liu, Ming-Sheng; Li, Dan-Yi; Zhang, Hui; Hua, Hui-Ming

    2009-02-01

    To study the xanthones from the leaves of Calophyllum inophyllum Linn., several chromatography methods were employed to isolate the constituents. Investigation on the CHCl3 extract led to the isolation of a new xanthone named inophyxanthone A (1) and four known compounds, which were pancixanthone A (2), gerontoxanthone B (3), jacareubin (4) and pyranojacareubin (5). Among them, compound 2 was obtained from this plant firstly, and compound 3 was obtained for the first time from this genus. The structure of inophyxanthone A (1) was identified as 1, 3, 5-trihydroxy-2-(1, 1-dimethylallyl)xanthone by spectral analysis.

  7. Cytotoxic prenylated xanthones from Calophyllum inophyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qi; Zeng, Yan-Bo; Mei, Wen-Li; Zhao, You-Xing; Deng, Yuan-Yuan; Dai, Hao-Fu

    2008-01-01

    A new prenylated xanthone (1), named caloxanthone N, together with two known constituents, gerontoxanthone C (2) and 2-hydroxyxanthone (3), was isolated from the ethanolic extract of the twigs of Calophyllum inophyllum. Their structures were completely elucidated using a combination of 1D, 2D NMR techniques (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and ROESY) and HR-ESI-MS analyses. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited cytotoxicity against chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line (K562) with IC50 values of 7.2 and 6.3 microg ml(- 1), respectively.

  8. In vitro growth-inhibitory activity of Calophyllum inophyllum ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro growth-inhibitory activity of Calophyllum inophyllum ethanol leaf extract against diarrhoea-causing bacteria. Tomas Kudera, Johana Rondevaldova, Rashmi Kant, Mohammed Umar, Eva Skrivanova, Ladislav Kokoska ...

  9. Storage of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, F C; Prudente, D O; Alvarenga, A A; Paiva, R; Nery, M C

    2017-01-01

    Calophyllum brasiliense is a species native to Brazil and has potential for use in the timber industry, in the reforestation of degraded areas, besides having medicinal properties. Its propagation is mainly by seeds which, depending on their recalcitrant characteristics, leads to difficulty in conservation, due to changes in its physiological potential during storage. Aiming to contribute to the expansion of its cultivation, rational use and conservation, the objective of this study was to investigate the behavior of C. brasiliense seeds during storage. Different packings (paper, aluminum and polyethylene) and environmental conditions (room temperature and cold chamber) were quarterly tested over 12 months, by evaluating germination viability and vigor. Based on the results, it was concluded that packaging in polyethylene and freezer storage provided the best conditions for the conservation of seeds, keeping them viable for a period of nine months.

  10. A new prenylated xanthone from the branches of Calophyllum inophyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dai-Jing; Mei, Wen-Li; Zhong, Hui-Ming; Zeng, Yan-Bo; Wu, Xu-Dong; Dai, Hao-Fu

    2011-03-01

    The investigation of chemical constituents from the branches of Calophyllum inophyllum Linn led to the isolation of a new prenylated xanthone, named caloxanthone Q (1), together with three known compounds, 2-deprenylrheediaxanthone B (2), jacareubin (3), and 6-deoxyjacareubin (4). Their structures were completely elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D NMR, and 2D NMR).

  11. Tamanu (Calophyllum inophyllum) - the African, Asian, Polynesian and Pacific Panacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dweck, A C; Meadows, T

    2002-12-01

    Tamanu or Calophyllum inophyllum has been used traditionally as a local medicine for many different purposes. The oil has been proven to be vulnerary and cicatrising in its effects. The chemicals responsible for this action are calophyllolide and inophyllum in addition to other complex polyphenols.

  12. New dipyranocoumarin from the leaves of Calophyllum apetalum Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Swati P; Kulkarni, Smita R; Phalgune, Usha D; Puranik, Vedavati G

    2013-10-01

    A new dipyranocoumarin, α-hydroxytomentolide A (1) was isolated from the leaves of Calophyllum apetalum together with the known compounds friedelin (2), apetalactone (3), inophyllum C (4) and canophyllol (5). The structure of the new compound was established by spectroscopic studies which include (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, NOESY, HetCOSY, COLOC experiments and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.

  13. A new chromanone acid from the bark of Calophyllum dryobalanoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieu, Ly Ha; Hansen, Poul Erik; Duus, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    A new chromanone acid, calodryobalanoic acid, along with six known compounds, apetalic acid, isoblancoic acid, lupeol, 1-hydroxy-2-methoxyxanthone, 1,7-dihydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone, and 5,7,4′-trihydroxyflavanone, was isolated from the bark of Calophyllum dryobalanoides collected in Vietnam. The s...

  14. Calophyllum inophyllum L. of Clusiaceae is a handsome medium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Calophyllum inophyllum L. of Clusiaceae is a handsome medium-sized evergreen tree. The leaves are shiny with many fine parallel lateral veins. Flowers in clusters are white, fragrant and bear many stamens. Fruit is hard, subglobose and little smaller than a golf ball. Bark astringent, sweet and diuretic. Seed oil is used ...

  15. Phytopharmaceuticals and phytochemicals evaluation on leaves and bark of Calophyllum inophyllum and Calophyllum soulatri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI BUDI SULIANTI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytopharmaceuticals and phytochemicals evaluation on two species of Calophyllum (C. inophyllum and C. soulatri had been done. Phytopharmaceuticals had been carried out by macro- and microscopic observation and also phytochemical screening by Ciuley Method (1984. Macromorphology of two species of Calophyllum was quite different. Leaf surface of C. inophyllum were obovate lamina, entire margin, obtuse apex, symmetrically base, petiole 1.5-2.0 cm, upper surface were green, shine, glabrous, occurrence of oil gland, and lower surface were long (hirsute, midrib, pinnate venation. C. soulatri were ovate lamina, entire margin, acute apex, symmetrically base, petiole 1.5-2.0 cm, upper surface were green but not shine, glabrous, no occurrence of oil glands and lower surface were long (hirsute, midrib, pinnate venation, green, and glabrous. Leaf dimension of C. inophyllum (± 20x10 cm2 was wider than C. soulatri (± 10x5 cm2. Leaf micromorphology of two species was also different in stomata type, C. inophyllum was paracytic type while C. soulatri was anisocytic type. Oil glands in C. inophyllum were higher than C. soulatri. There were no hair glands that found in these species. Micromorphology bark identified of two species showed that the number of oil glands in C. inophyllum is more than C. Soulatri, Ca oxalate of C. inophyllum is in simple and twin forms which C. soulatri is loose aggregates of numerous prisms which have grown together to form a roughly spherical mass which has projecting points and angles all over surface. Phytochemical screening identified that these species contents are have similar chemical groups (volatile oil, fatty acids, steroids/ triterpenes, tannin, flavonoids and reducing sugar.

  16. [Studies on flavonoids from stems and leaves of Calophyllum inophyllum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-zhi; Li, Zhan-lin; Hua, Hui-ming; Li, Zheng-gang; Liu, Ming-sheng

    2007-04-01

    To study the chemical constituents from the stems and leaves of Calophyllum inophyllum. The compounds were isolated by column chromatography on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and preparative TLC. Their structures were elucidated by chemical methods and NMR, MS spectroscopic data. Nine compounds were identified as 2-hydroxyxanthone (1), 4-hydroxyxanthone (2), 1, 5-dihydroxyxanthone (3), 1, 7-dihydroxyxanthone (4), 1, 3, 5-trihydroxy-2-methoxyxanthone (5), 6-deoxyjacareubin (6), amentoflavone (7), kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (8) and quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (9). Compounds 8 and 9 were isolated from the genus Calophyllum and compounds 1, 2, 4-6 were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  17. A new furanoxanthone from the stem bark of Calophyllum inophyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Mah, Siau Hui; Rahmani, Mawardi; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Teh, Soek Sin; Lim, Yang Mooi

    2011-10-01

    The stem bark extracts of Calophyllum inophyllum furnished one new furanoxanthone, inophinnin (1), in addition to inophyllin A (2), macluraxanthone (3), pyranojacareubin (4), 4-hydroxyxanthone, friedelin, stigmasterol, and betulinic acid. The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectral data ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT, COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) while EI-MS gave the molecular mass. The new xanthone, inophinnin (1), exhibited some anti-inflammatory activity in nitric oxide assay.

  18. Phytostabilization of iron ore tailings through Calophyllum inophyllum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Nilima; Dhal, N K; Reddy, Palli Sita Rama

    2012-12-01

    The phytostabilization of waste material generated during mining and processing of iron ore through Calophyllum inophyllum L. have been investigated. Iron ore tailings and its varying composition with garden soil were taken to study plant growth, chlorophyll content and metal uptake pattern of Calophyllum inophyllum L. These studies indicate that 100% survival of plant species was noted in all the treatments without any toxicity symptoms. The increase in growth parameters and chlorophyll content along with the high metal accumulation in plant tissues suggests that Calophyllum inophyllum L. may be a potential tool for phytoremediation. The accumulation of Pb (1662 microgm/gm) and Fe (2313 microgm/gm) was observed to be maximum in the plant tissues followed by Cu, Zn, Cr, and Ni. The TF values for most of the heavy metals was observed to be > 1 which indicates that the plant can efficiently translocate these toxic metals to its above ground parts. Removal of more than 30% of the most of the heavy metal like Fe, Pb, and Cu & Zn has been observed in all the treatments during one year of observation. The overall study clearly suggests that the plant can be used as an efficient tool for restoration of mining wastes and other similarly contaminated sites.

  19. Calophyllum inophyllum L. as a future feedstock for bio-diesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atabania, A.E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Khartoum (Sudan)], email: a_atabani2@msn.com, email: ardinsu@yahoo.co.id; Silitonga, A.S.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjukia, H.H.; Badruddin, I.A. [University of Malaya (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01

    Due to the energy crisis and the concerns about climate change, the possibility of using biodiesel as an alternative energy resource has been examined. It has been found that biodiesel could be a solution for the future but the first generation of biodiesel, prepared from edible vegetable oils, has raised important concerns about food and environmental problems. The aim of this study is to assess if Calophyllum inophyllum, a non-edible oil, could be used for biodiesel production. Density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number, flashpoint and iodine value were determined on Calophyllum inophyllum trees from Cilacap, Indonesia and compared in light of ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards. It was found that Calophyllum inophyllum would be a satisfactory feedstock to produce biodiesel in the future. This study demonstrated that Calophyllum inophyllum has the potential to be a biodiesel feedstock and further research should be carried out on engine performance, combustion and emission performance of biodiesel produced from Calophyllum inophyllum.

  20. Calophyllum inophyllum and Calophyllum soulattri source of anti-proliferative xanthones and their structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Siau Hui; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Teh, Soek Sin; Sukari, Mohd Aspollah

    2015-01-01

    Extensive chromatographic isolation and purification of the extracts of the stem bark of Calophyllum inophyllum and Calophyllum soulattri have resulted in 11 xanthones. C. inophyllum gave inophinnin (1), inophinone (2), pyranojacareubin (5), rheediaxanthone A (6), macluraxanthone (7) and 4-hydroxyxanthone (8), while C. soulattri afforded soulattrin (3), phylattrin (4), caloxanthone C (9), brasixanthone B (10) and trapezifolixanthone (11). The structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses such as 1D and 2D NMR, GC-MS, IR and UV. Cytotoxicity screening (MTT assay) carried out in vitro on all the xanthones using five human cancer cell lines indicated good activities for some of these xanthones. The structure-activity relationship study revealed that the inhibitory activities exhibited by these xanthone derivatives to be closely related to the existence and nature of the pyrano and the prenyl substituent groups on their skeleton.

  1. Inophyllin A, a new pyranoxanthone from Calophyllum inophyllum (Guttiferae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ee, G C L; Kua, A S M; Lim, C K; Jong, V; Lee, H L

    2006-05-10

    In the authors' continuing search for new natural products, their recent studies on the roots of Calophyllum inophyllum (Guttiferae) have yielded a new prenylated pyranoxanthone, Inophyllin A together with the common triterpenes friedelin and stigmasterol. Structural elucidations of these compounds were achieved through (1)H, (13)C, DEPT, COSY, HSQC and HMBC experiments. The molecular mass was determined using MS techniques. The authors report here the isolation of and structural elucidation for Inophyllin A as well as its toxicity test result. The discovery of this new natural product from the unexploited Malaysian forest will certainly contribute to the search for potential natural larvicides.

  2. KARAKTERISTIK FISIKOKIMIA DAN ANTIBAKTERI HASIL PURIFIKASI MINYAK BIJI NYAMPLUNG (Calophyllum inophyllum L. Physicochemical and Antibacterial Properties of Degummed Calophyllum inophyllum L. Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawarni Hasibuan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The high solid fraction in Calophyllum seed oil causes Calophyllum biodiesel-oil produced has a high viscosity, high acid value, high cloud point, and other negative influences that is difficult to meet the biodiesel standard SNI 04-7182-2006. This underlies the need to increase the added value of solid fraction Calophyllum seed oil, such as healthy soap. This research was aimed to purification, fractionation, and characterization of fatty acid component as well as the antibacterial and antioxidant owned. So that Calophyllum seed oil may be considered for healthy soap application. The design used in the purification process is factorial completely randomized design, consisting of three factors, namely acid phosphate concentration, temperature and heating time. Based on the research, it resulted in the best treatment for Calophyllum seed oil’s purification was reached by using 0,2% H3PO4  20% at 80  C for 15 minutes. Major fatty acid component in Calophyllum seed oil purification results are palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid that reached 98,19 percent of the total fatty acids. The results showed that the Calophyllum oil contains components steroids, flavonoids, saponins, and triterpenoids and has an antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus but instead to Escherichia coli. Keywords: Calophyllum inophyllum,  purification, solid fraction, antibacterial, antioxidant Tingginya fraksi padat pada minyak biji nyamplung menyebabkan biodiesel nyamplung yang dihasilkan memiliki viskositas tinggi, bilangan asam tinggi, titik kabut tinggi, dan pengaruh buruk lainnya sehingga sulit memenuhi standar biodiesel SNI 04-7182-2006. Hal ini mendasari perlunya peningkatan nilai tambah fraksi padat minyak biji nyamplung. Tujuan penelitian adalah melakukan purifikasi, fraksinasi, dan karakterisasi minyak biji nyamplung. Karakterisasi dilakukan terhadap komponen asam lemak serta uji pengenalan bioantibakteri dan bioantioksidan

  3. Anti-obesity effect of phenylcoumarins from two Calophyllum spp in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-obesity effect of phenylcoumarins from two Calophyllum spp in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Siroshini Thiagarajan, Fui-Lu Yong, Hemaroopini Subramaniam, Vivien Yi- Mian Jong Jong, Chan-Kiang Lim, Yee-How Say ...

  4. Molluscicidal constituents of Calophyllum from Madagascar: activity of some natural and synthetic neoflavonoids and khellactones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelonjato, B; Libot, F; Ramiandrasoa, F; Kunesch, N; Gayral, P; Poisson, J

    1992-02-01

    Crude extracts of seeds, leaves and barks of four Madagascan Calophyllum species: C. inophyllum, C. recedens, C. chapelieri, and C. verticullatum, have been tested for molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata. All seed extracts showed significant activity. The major constituents of the most active Calophyllum species were examined. Some related coumarinic derivatives were synthesized in order to improve the biological activity. Among the compounds prepared, 5,7-dihydroxy-6-(2-methylbutyryl)-4-phenyl-coumarin presented an interesting molluscicidal activity.

  5. Microsatellite markers derived from Calophyllum inophyllum (Clusiaceae) expressed sequence tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setsuko, Suzuki; Uchiyama, Kentaro; Sugai, Kyoko; Hanaoka, So; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Robust markers are required (inter alia) for assessing origins of Calophyllum inophyllum populations on the Bonin Islands, Japan. Therefore, informative expressed sequence tag (EST)-based microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSRs) markers in the species were sought. Using 135378 ESTs derived from de novo pyrosequencing, primers for 475 EST-SSRs were developed, 48 of which were tested for PCR amplification. Thirty-six of the 48 primers showed clear amplification, with 23 displaying polymorphism in sampled populations. Expected heterozygosity in the samples from the Bonin Islands and Ryukyu Islands populations ranged from 0.041 to 0.697 and from 0.041 to 0.773, respectively. As EST-SSRs are potentially tightly linked with functional genes, and reportedly more transferable to related species than anonymous genomic SSRs, the developed primers have utility for future studies of the origins, genetic structure, and conservation of C. inophyllum and related species.

  6. Cancer chemopreventive agents, 4-phenylcoumarins from Calophyllum inophyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoigawa, M; Ito, C; Tan, H T; Kuchide, M; Tokuda, H; Nishino, H; Furukawa, H

    2001-08-10

    In a search for anti-tumor-promoting agents, we carried out a primary screening of ten 4-phenylcoumarins isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum L. (Guttiferae), by examining their possible inhibitory effects on Epstein--Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in Raji cells. All of the compounds tested in this study showed inhibitory activity against EBV, without showing any cytotoxicity. Calocoumarin-A (5) showed more potent activity than any of the other compounds tested. Furthermore, calocoumarin-A (5) exhibited a marked inhibitory effect on mouse skin tumor promotion in an in vivo two-stage carcinogenesis test. The results of the present investigation indicate that some of these 4-phenylcoumarins might be valuable as potential cancer chemopreventive agents (anti-tumor-promoters).

  7. Identifikasi kandungan Squalene dari Minyak Nyamplung (calophyllum inophyllum

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    Teguh Saputra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sebuah studi baru mencatat temuan yang mengkhawatirkan. Sekitar 100 juta ekor ikan hiu mati setiap tahunnya. Berbagai eksploitasi telah dilakukan untuk keperluan manusia, salah satunya dengan memperdagangkan minyak hati ikan hiu, yang disebut squalene. Squalene kini menjadi salah satu bahan mahal untuk pembuatan kosmetik dan pelembap, serta kerap dijual dalam bentuk pil sebagai suplemen dan mampu mengobati berbagai penyakit. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari indentifikasi kandungan squalene (senyawa non polar dari minyak nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum. Identifikasi dilakukan melalui hasil ekstraksi multi stage 8 kali dilanjutkan dengan metode stirred batch-wise. Ekstraksi dilakukan sebagai alternatif saponifikasi. Metode stirred batch-wise dilakukan pada suhu -6°C sebanyak 5 batch dan dicampur menjadi satu sampel. Setelah sampel diuji dengan TLC dan GC-MS, komponen squalene dapat teridentifikasi dan ter-recovery 100% dengan kadar 1,71 %.

  8. Composition of fatty acids triacylglycerols and unsaponifiable matter in Calophyllum calaba L. oil from Guadeloupe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Sylvie; Aurore, Guylène; Joseph, Henry; Mouloungui, Zéphirin; Bourgeois, Paul

    2005-08-01

    The composition of the kernel oils of two Calophyllum species (Calophyllum calaba L. and Calophyllum inophyllum L.) was investigated. The physico-chemical properties and fatty acid composition of the kernel oils were examined. In two species, oleic acid C18:1 (39.1-50%) is the dominating fatty acid followed by linoleic acid C18:2 (21.7-31.1%) as the second major fatty acid. Stearic C18:0 (13.4-14.3%) and palmitic C16:0 (11-13.7%) acids are the major saturates. The oils contains an appreciable amount of unsaturated fatty acids (70.8-73.10%). Most of the fatty acids are present as triacylglycerol (76.7-84%), twenty one triacylglycerols are detected with predominantly unsaturated triacylglycerols. The total unsaponifiable content, its general composition and the identity of the components of the sterol and tocopherol fractions are presented. In both species, analysis of the unsaponifiable fractions revealed the preponderance of phytosterols, mainly stigmasterol (35.8-45.1%) and beta-sitosterol (41.1-43.1%). Among the eight tocopherols and tocotrienols present in two species, variations exist; alpha-tocopherol (183 mg/kg) is the main tocopherol in Calophyllum calaba L. and Delta-tocotrienol (236 mg/kg) is the dominant tocotrienol in Calophyllum inophyllum L.

  9. Biodiesel synthesis from Calophyllum inophyllum oil with different supercritical fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Neha; Gupta, Kaveri; Modak, Jayant M; Madras, Giridhar

    2017-10-01

    Biodiesel or fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) is primarily synthesized using edible vegetable oils and methanol with a catalyst. However, in the present study, FAMEs were synthesized from a non-edible oil (Calophyllum inophyllum also called as sura honne, Punnagam, Alexandrian Laurel) in different supercritical fluids: methanol (MeOH), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), methyl acetate (MeOAc) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) non-catalytically. Reactions were performed from 523K to 673K at 30MPa with a molar ratio of 40:1 with times varying from 3min to 3h. Conversions higher than 80% were obtained within 30min for oil reaction with MeOH and DMC at 623K and conversions of 60% and 70% were obtained at 673K with MeOAc and MTBE, respectively. Pseudo first order kinetics was used to obtain the rate constants and the activation energies followed the order: EMeOH

  10. Thermal and catalytic slow pyrolysis of Calophyllum inophyllum fruit shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagu, R M; Sundaram, E Ganapathy; Natarajan, E

    2015-10-01

    Pyrolysis of Calophyllum inophyllum shell was performed in a fixed bed pyrolyser to produce pyrolytic oil. Both thermal (without catalysts) and catalytic pyrolysis process were conducted to investigate the effect of catalysts on pyrolysis yield and pyrolysis oil characteristics. The yield of pyrolytic oil through thermal pyrolysis was maximum (41% wt) at 425 °C for particle size of 1.18 mm and heating rate of 40 °C/min. In catalytic pyrolysis the pyrolytic oil yield was maximum (45% wt) with both zeolite and kaolin catalysts followed by Al2O3 catalyst (44% wt). The functional groups and chemical components present in the pyrolytic oil are identified by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. This study found that C. inophyllum shell is a potential new green energy source and that the catalytic pyrolysis process using zeolite catalyst improves the calorific value and acidity of the pyrolytic oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Micropropagation of Calophyllum brasiliense (Cambess. from nodal segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Silveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Micropropagation of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (Clusiaceae is a way to overcome difficulties in achieving large-scale plant production, given the recalcitrant nature of the seeds, irregular fructification and absence of natural vegetative propagation of the species. Cultures were established using nodal segments 2 cm in length, obtained from 1-2 year old seedlings, maintained in a greenhouse. Mercury chloride and Plant Preservative Mixture™ were used in the surface sterilizing stage, better results being achieved with Plant Preservative Mixture™ incorporation in culture medium, at any concentration. Polyvinylpyrrolidone, activated charcoal, cysteine, ascorbic acid or citric acid were added to the culture medium to avoid oxidation. After 30 days of culture, polyvinylpirrolidone and ascorbic acid gave better results, eliminating oxidation in most explants. For shoot multiplication, benzylaminopurine was used in concentrations of 4.4 and 8.8 µM in Woody Plant Medium, resulting in an average of 4.43 and 4.68 shoots per explant, respectively, after 90 days. Indole-3-butyric acid and α-naphthalene acetic acid were used to induce root formation, reaching a maximum rooting rate of 24% with 20µM α-naphthalene acetic acid. For acclimatization. the rooted plants were transferred to Plantmax® substrate and cultured in a greenhouse, reaching 79% of survival after 30 days and 60% after one year.

  12. Anti-obesity effect of phenylcoumarins from two Calophyllum spp in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To evaluate the anti-obesity effects of five compounds isolated from Calophyllum andersonnii ... In Malaysia, the seed oil is used as a remedy for ulcer and rheumatism ailments. Moreover, Dweck and Meadows [2] reported the wound-healing property of .... monitoring OD ratio increase at 570/610 using a.

  13. Endophytic synthesis of silver chloride nanoparticles from Penicillium sp. of Calophyllum apetalum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrappa, C. P.; Govindappa, M.; Chandrasekar, N.; Sarkar, Sonia; Ooha, Sepuri; Channabasava, R.

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, Penicillium species extract isolated from Calophyllum apetalum was used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and it was confirmed by changing the color of the silver nitrate UV-Vis spectrum. The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by biophysical techniques such as scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction.

  14. Antioxidant properties of xanthones from Calophyllum brasiliense: prevention of oxidative damage induced by FeSO4

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanco-Ayala, Tonali; Lugo-Huitrón, Rafael; Serrano-López, Elizabeth M; Reyes-Chilpa, Ricardo; Rangel-López, Edgar; Pineda, Benjamín; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Sánchez-Chapul, Laura; Pinzón, Enrique; Cristina, Trejo-Solis; Silva-Adaya, Daniela; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Ríos, Camilo; de la Cruz, Verónica Pérez; Torres-Ramos, Mónica

    2013-01-01

    ... and stimulate endogenous cytoprotective systems. The present study tested the protective effect of two xanthones isolated from the heartwood of Calophyllum brasilienses against FeSO4 -induced toxicity. Methods...

  15. Neurobehavioural activities of the ethanol leaf extract of calophyllum inophyllum in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibironke, G F; Ugege, O G

    2014-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the central nervous system activities of the ethanol leaf extract of Calophyllum inophyllum in rodents. The neurobehavioural tests used include the hole board, open field, elevated plus maze and the light/dark box tests. The animals were divided into the control (normal saline, 10 ml/kg) experimental (50-150 mg/kg) and the reference groups (indomethacin,10 mg/kg) after which they were subjected to the above tests. The results showed that in the hole board test, the 100 and 200 mg/kg doses resulted in a significant (p Calophyllum inophyllum contains some active principles which may be sedative/anxiogenic in nature.

  16. Phytochemical study and evaluation of the molluscicidal activity of Calophyllum brasiliense Camb (Clusiaceae); Estudo fitoquimico e avaliacao da atividade moluscicida do Calophyllum brasiliense Camb (Clusiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparotto Junior, Arquimedes; Brenzan, Mislaine Adriana; Piloto, Izabel Cristina; Cortez, Diogenes Aparicio Garcia [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia e Farmacologia]. E-mail: dagcortez@uem.br; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Analises Clinicas; Rodrigues Filho, Edson; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2005-07-15

    The bioassay-guided fractionation against Biomphalaria glabrata of hydroalcoholic extracts of Calophyllum brasiliense aerial parts led to the isolation of the coumarin, named (-) mammea A/BB. The compound had its structure determined by both spectroscopic techniques (NMR {sup 1}H, NMR {sup 13}C, gHSQC, gHMBC and MS) and some literature comparison data. The probit analysis of (-) mammea A/BB showed LD{sub 50} = 0.67 ppm and LD{sub 90} = 1.47 ppm. In addition, the dichloromethane extract obtained from C. brasiliense leaves with significant molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata was analyzed by HPLC-UV. (author)

  17. Structures of new secofriedelane and friedelane acids from Calophyllum inophyllum of French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laure, F; Herbette, G; Faure, R; Bianchini, J P; Raharivelomanana, P; Fogliani, B

    2005-01-01

    Three new friedelane-type triterpenoids, 3,4-secofriedelan-3,28-dioic acid (1), 27-hydroxyacetate canophyllic acid (2) and 3-oxo-27-hydroxyacetate friedelan-28-oic acid (3), were isolated from the leaves of Calophyllum inophyllum (Clusiaceae) grown in French Polynesia. Their structures were established by the concerted application of 2D NMR techniques including gs-COSY, gs-HMQC and gs-HMBC. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Biodiesel production and optimization from Calophyllum inophyllum linn oil (honne oil)--a three stage method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkanna, B K; Venkataramana Reddy, C

    2009-11-01

    The present work examines the production of a biodiesel from a non-edible oil namely honne oil (Calophyllum inophyllum linn). A three stage process viz., pre-treatment, alkali catalyzed transesterification and post treatment adopted for the production is discussed. The reaction parameters such as methanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, temperature and time have been optimized for the production of biodiesel. The yield of biodiesel from the honne oil under the optimized conditions is found to be 89%.

  19. Caloxanthones O and P: two new prenylated xanthones from Calophyllum inophyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hao-Fu; Zeng, Yan-Bo; Xiao, Qi; Han, Zhuang; Zhao, You-Xing; Mei, Wen-Li

    2010-01-27

    Chemical investigation of the EtOH extract of the twigs of Calophyllum inophyllum collected in Hainan Province of China resulted in the isolation of two new prenylated xanthones, caloxanthone O (1) and caloxanthone P (2). Their structures were elucidated by a study of their physical and spectral data. Compound 1 exhibited cytotoxicity against human gastric cancer cell line (SGC-7901),with an IC50 value of 22.4 microg mL-1.

  20. α-Glucosidase and 15-Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Activities of Phytochemicals from Calophyllum symingtonianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminudin, Nurul Iman; Ahmad, Farediah; Taher, Muhammad; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed

    2015-09-01

    A phytochemical investigation of the crude extracts of the bark and leaves of Calophyllum symingtonianum has resulted in the isolation of inophyllum D, inophyllum H, calanone, isocordato-oblongic acid, amentoflavone, carpachromene and lupenone. Their chemical structures were elucidated and confirmed by spectroscopic analysis. All flavonoids and coumarins showed significant α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, while amentoflavone gave a positive result against 15-lipoxygenase inhibition.

  1. Caloxanthones O and P: Two New Prenylated Xanthones from Calophyllum inophyllum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Li Mei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the EtOH extract of the twigs of Calophyllum inophyllum collected in Hainan Province of China resulted in the isolation of two new prenylated xanthones, caloxanthone O (1 and caloxanthone P (2. Their structures were elucidated by a study of their physical and spectral data. Compound 1 exhibited cytotoxicity against human gastric cancer cell line (SGC-7901,with an IC50 value of 22.4 μg mL-1.

  2. Physio-chemical assessment of beauty leaf (Calophyllum inophyllum) as second-generation biodiesel feedstock

    OpenAIRE

    M.I. Jahirul; R.J. Brown; W. Senadeera; N. Ashwath; M.G. Rasul; M.M. Rahman; Farhad M. Hossain; Lalehvash Moghaddam; M.A. Islam; I.M. O’Hara

    2015-01-01

    Recently, second-generation (non-vegetable oil) feedstocks for biodiesel production are receiving significant attention due to the cost and social effects connected with utilising food products for the production of energy products. The Beauty leaf tree (Calophyllum inophyllum) is a potential source of non-edible oil for producing second-generation biodiesel because of its suitability for production in an extensive variety of atmospheric condition, easy cultivation, high fruit production rate...

  3. Techno-economics Analysis of Biodiesel Production From Palm, Jatropha Curcas and Calophyllum Inophyllum as Biofuel

    OpenAIRE

    T.M.I. Mahlia; ong, H. C.; Masjuki, H.H.

    2012-01-01

    Transportation sector has a dominant role in global fuel consumption andgreenhouse gas emissions consequently. Biodiesel is a renewable energy that has great potential to serve as an alternative fuel to fossil diesel in diesel engine. Besides the technical barriers, there are several nontechnical limiting factors, which impede the development of biodiesel. Therefore, this study is focused on biodiesel production and techno-economic comparison among palm, jatropha curcas and calophyllum inophy...

  4. Chemical composition of the volatile oil of Cardiopetalum calophyllum collected in the Cerrado area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Nogueira Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Annonaceae family consists of ~135 genera with diverse species and a large number of chemical compounds arising from the secondary metabolism. However, the chemical composition of the essential oil of several species of the family such as Cardiopetalum calophyllum has not been completely determined. In this study, the essential oils extracted from the leaves, flowers, and fruits of C. calophyllum, collected in typical areas of the Cerrado of Goiás, were characterized. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation for 4h using a Clevenger apparatus. The chemical analysis was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, and the constituents were identified by comparing the spectra and retention index obtained with those available in the literature. Twenty three compounds were identified in the essential oil of leaves; the oxygenated sesquiterpene, spathulenol (28.78%, was the major compound. Twenty five compounds were identified in the flowers, mainly comprising sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, germacrene-D (37.03% and germacrene-B (13.72%. Seventeen compounds were reported in fruits, mainly comprising sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, germacrene-D (28.19% and germacrene-B (20.90%, and an oxygenated sesquiterpene, spathulenol (11.53%. This is the first report on the chemical composition of the essential oils from leaves, flowers, and fruits of C. calophyllum.

  5. Hydrocracking of Calophyllum inophyllum Oil With Non-sulfide CoMo Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rismawati Rasyid

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to convert Calophyllum inophyllum kernel oil into liquid fuel through hydro-cracking process using non-sulfide CoMo catalysts. The experiment was carried out in a pressurized re-actor operated at temperature and pressure up to 350 oC and 30 bar, respectively. The CoMo catalysts used in the experiment were prepared by 10 wt.% loading of cobalt and molybdenum solutions over various supports, i.e. γ-Al2O3, SiO2, and γ-Al2O3-SiO2 through impregnation method. It is figured out from the experiment that non-sulfide CoMo based catalysts have functioned well in the hydrocracking conversion of Calophyllum inophyllum kernel oil into fuels, such as gasoline, kerosene, and gasoil. The CoMo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst resulted higher conversion than CoMo/SiO2 and CoMo/γ-Al2O3-SiO2. The fuel yields were 25.63% gasoline, 17.31% kerosene, and 38.59% gasoil. The fuels obtained in this research do not contain sulfur compounds so that they can be categorized as environmentally friendly fuels. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 24th March 2014; Revised: 25th November 2014; Accepted: 26th November 2014How to Cite: Rasyid, R., Prihartantyo, A., Mahfud, M., Roesyadi, A. (2015. Hydrocracking of Calophyllum inophyllum Oil With Non-sulfide CoMo Catalysts. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (1: 61-69. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.1.6597.61-69Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.1.6597.61-69

  6. Triterpenoids from Calophyllum inophyllum and their growth inhibitory effects on human leukemia HL-60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Zhi; Li, Zhan-Lin; Yin, Shi-Liang; Shi, Guang; Liu, Ming-Sheng; Jing, Yong-Kui; Hua, Hui-Ming

    2010-09-01

    A new friedelane-type triterpene (1), along with seven known triterpenoids, was isolated from the stems and leaves of Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. Their structures were established as 3beta, 23-epoxy-friedelan-28-oic acid (1), friedelin (2), epifriedelanol (3), canophyllal (4), canophyllol (5), canophyllic acid (6), 3-oxo-friedelan-28-oic acid (7), and oleanolic acid (8) by spectroscopic methods (NMR, EI-MS). The growth inhibitory effects of these triterpenoids on human leukemia HL-60 cells were determined. Crown Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Inocalophyllins A, B and their methyl esters from the seeds of Calophyllum inophyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ya-Ching; Hung, Meng-Chieh; Wang, Li-Tang; Chen, Ching-Yu

    2003-07-01

    Fractionation of the ethanolic extract of the seeds of Calophyllum inophyllum L. has resulted in the isolation of four novel pyranocoumarin derivatives, designated as inocalophyllins A (1), B (2) and their methyl esters (3, 4) in addition to the known calophyllolide. The structures of these compounds have been determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis including MS, heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC), heteronuclear multiple bond connectivity (HMBC) and two dimensional incredible natural abundance double quantum transfer experiment (2D-INADEQUATE). Two new methylated products, 5 and 6 were also prepared by methylation of compounds 1 and 2, respectively.

  8. Antidyslipidemic and antioxidant activity of the constituents isolated from the leaves of Calophyllum inophyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Janki; Shrivastava, Atul; Khanna, A K; Bhatia, G; Awasthi, S K; Narender, T

    2012-11-15

    In continuation of our drug discovery program on Indian medicinal plants, we isolated bioactive compounds (1-5) from the leaves of Calophyllum inophyllum and evaluated their antidyslipidemic activity in triton induced hyperlipidemia model. The calophyllic acid (1A) and isocalophyllic acid (1B) mixture, canophyllic acid (4) and amentoflavone (5) showed dose dependent lipid lowering activity in in vivo experiments. The compounds 1A+1B mixture and 3 also showed good in vitro antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Gênero Calophyllum: importância química e farmacológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noldin Vânia Floriani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Calophyllum genus (Clusiaceae is composed of about 200 species, with a pantropical distribution. Some species are medicinal and are used against several diseases, including gastric ulcers, infectious pathologies, painful, inflammatory processes and as molluscicidal. A search in the literature regarding the chemical and biological aspects of these plants indicates cytotoxic activity against several cell lines, inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, antisecretory and cytoprotective properties, antinociceptive, molluscicidal and antimicrobial effects, among others, related particularly to the presence of coumarins, xanthones, flavonoids, and triterpenes.

  10. [Effects of fungal elicitor on inophyllums production in suspension cultured cells of Calophyllum inophyllum L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Huan-liang; Guo, Yong; Cui, Tang-bing; Dai, Jian-guo; Zhang, Jun-song; Xu, Bai-qiu

    2004-04-01

    To investigate the effects of fungal elicitors on inophyllums production in suspension cultured cell of Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. The pathogen of leaf spot disease of C. inophyllum L. was isolated and prepared as fungal elicitor. The fungal elicitor was added to the medium with different concentrations and culture period. Their effects on biomass and inophyllums content of the suspension of cultured cells were studied. The optimum effects of S-I fungal elicitor concentrations on inophyllums content was 60 mg GE x L(-1). Adding the fungi elicitor into the cell suspension culture system at stationary phase (being cultured for 18 days) resulted in a highest inophyllum content of 59.174 mg x L(-1) at the 3rd day with 27% higher than control. Fungal elicitor treatment promoted the inophyllums accumulation in medium. Adding the Stagonospora curtisii (Berk.) Sacc. to the medium was effective approaches to enhance inophyllums yield in the suspension of C. inophyllum L culture cell.

  11. Biological Activity of Polynesian Calophyllum inophyllum Oil Extract on Human Skin Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansel, Jean-Luc; Lupo, Elise; Mijouin, Lily; Guillot, Samuel; Butaud, Jean-François; Ho, Raimana; Lecellier, Gaël; Raharivelomanana, Phila; Pichon, Chantal

    2016-07-01

    Oil from the nuts of Calophyllum inophyllum, locally called "Tamanu oil" in French Polynesia, was traditionally used for wound healing and to cure various skin problems and ailments. The skin-active effect of "Tamanu oil emulsion" was investigated on human skin cells (keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts) and showed cell proliferation, glycosaminoglycan and collagen production, and wound healing activity. Transcriptomic analysis of the treated cells revealed gene expression modulation including genes involved in the metabolic process implied in O-glycan biosynthesis, cell adhesion, and cell proliferation. The presence of neoflavonoids as bioactive constituents in Tamanu oil emulsion may contribute to these biological activities. Altogether, consistent data related to targeted histological and cellular functions brought new highlights on the mechanisms involved in these biological processes induced by Tamanu oil effects in skin cells. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Synthesis of Trimethylolpropane Esters of Calophyllum Methyl Esters : Effect of Temperature and Molar Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeti Widyawati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trimethylolpropane esters were synthesized by transesterification of calophyllum methyl esters and trimethylolpropane using a calcium oxide as the catalyst. The results showed that the optimal reaction conditions (temperature: 130 0C, reaction time: 5 h, reactant molar ratio: 3.9:1, catalyst amount 3%w/w, and formed  trimethylolpropane ester of 79.0% were obtained. The basic physicochemical properties of the trimethylolpropane esters were the following : kinematic viscosities of 56.40 cSt and 8.8 cSt at 40 0C and 100 0C,  viscosity index 193, flash point 218 0C and pour point -3 0C. So Methyl esters of fatty acids of would callophylum  methyl ester is good raw material for the synthesis of lubricating oils.

  13. Caloxanthone C: a pyranoxanthone from the stem bark of Calophyllum soulattri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ibrahim Mohamed Tahir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: 5,10-dihydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-12-(2-methylbut-3-en-2-ylpyrano[3,2-b]xanthen-6(2H-one], C23H22O5, isolated from the stem bark of Calophyllum soulattri, consists of four six-membered rings and a 2-methylbut-3-en-2-yl side chain. The tricyclic xanthone ring system is almost planar [maximum deviation = 0.093 (2 Å], whereas the pyranoid ring is in a distorted boat conformation. The 2-methylbut-3-en-2-yl side chain is in a synperiplanar conformation. There are two intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds. In the crystal, molecules are linked by C—H...O interactions, forming a zigzag chain propagating in [010].

  14. Utilization of Calophyllum inophyllum shell and kernel oil cake for reducing sugar production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Shen; Wu, Jang-Hong; Yeh, Li-Hsien

    2016-07-01

    This study is aimed at fully utilizing fruit biomass of Calophyllum inophyllum for reducing sugar production. The effects of pretreatment conditions and post reaction wash on the lignin removal and enzymatic hydrolysis of shell were investigated. The oil cake was also subjected to solvent extraction followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The results showed that the sequential acid/alkaline pretreatment of C. inophyllum shell resulted in better delignification than alkaline or acid only pretreatment. The reducing sugar yields obtained from sequential acid/alkaline pretreated shell and solvent extracted oil cake were 0.24g/g and 0.66g/g, respectively. The results suggested that the shell and oil cake of C. inophyllum could also be feedstocks for reducing sugar production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical Properties of Nyamplung Oil (Calophyllum inophyllum L) for Biodiesel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewang, Syamsir; Suriani; Hadriani, Siti; Bannu; Abdullah, B.

    2017-05-01

    Worldwide energy crisis due to the too high of energy consumption causes the people trying to find alternative energy to support energy requirements. The use of energy from environmentally friendly plant-based materials into an effort to assist communities in sufficient of national energy needs. Some processing of Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum L) oil production is drying and pressing to produce crude oil. Degumming process is then performed to remove the sap contained in the oil. The next process is to remove free fatty acids (FFA) below 2% that can cause corrosion on the machine when in use. The results performed of the density properties quality to produce oil that appropriate with the international standards by time variation of catalyst. The result was obtained the density value of 0.92108 gr/cm3 at the time of 3 hours by trans-esterification process, and the best yield value was measured at 98.2% in 2 hours stirring of transesterification.

  16. Partial Hydrogenation of Calophyllum Inophyllum Methyl Esters to Increase the Oxidation Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelianingsih

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Calophyllum inophyllum methyl esters have a low oxidation stability value (5-6 h caused by high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters (FAME, especially methyl linoleate. Partial hydrogenation was done to reduce the number of polyunsaturated FAME to transform them into mono-unsaturated. This was performed at 6 bar and 900 rpm with Pd/Al2O3 solid catalyst in a reactor with a capacity of 1 liter. The research purpose was to learn the effects of reaction temperature (80; 100; 120°C and time (1; 1.5; 2 h on the FAME composition. The optimum condition of the experiment was obtained at 120°C for 1 h, with 15.47 h as the oxidation stability value, 17.8°C as the cloud point value, and 51.17 as the cetane number. Under this condition, the methyl linoleate content decreased by 59.89% w/w (from 21.869% to 8,770% w/w and methyl linoleate hydrogenated into methyl elaidate. Meanwhile, the methyl linolenate content decreased by 85,37% w/w (from 0.205% to 0.030% w/w and methyl linolenate hydrogenated into methyl linolelaidate. These results show that the research met the following standards: a minimum oxidation stability value of 10 h in accordance with the World Wide Fuel Charter (WWFC 2009, a maximum cloud point value of 18°C and a minimum cetane number 51 in accordance with SNI 7182-2012. The physical properties values of the Calophyllum inophyllum methyl esters were predicted using the empirical equations.

  17. A comparative analysis of physical and chemical properties of Jatropha Curcas. L, Calophyllum Inophyllum. L and Sterculia Feotida. L oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silitonga, A.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Medan State Polytechnic (Indonesia)], email: ardinsu@yahoo.co.id, email: a_atabani2@msn.com; Atabani, A.E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Khartoum (Sudan); Mahlia, T.M.I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Syiah Kuala University, (Indonesia); Masjuki, H.H.; Badruddin, I.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01

    Production of bio-diesel converted from edible oil has raised the issue of competition for resources between food production and fuel production, as well as other questions of environmental impact. It has been established that producing bio-diesel from non-edible vegetable oils was one of the effective ways to resolve these issues. Jatropha curcas L., Calophyllum inophyllum L., and Sterculia foetida L. are all non-edible oils and all can be potential sources for future energy supply. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the results of a comparative analysis of the physical and chemical properties of Jatropha curcas L., Calophyllum inophyllum L., and Sterculia foetida L. oils. Physical and chemical properties of these vegetable oils, such as density, iodine value, free fatty acid, etc. were investigated and measured. These properties were then compared with those of other non-edible vegetable oils in terms of potential. This paper finds that the results of analysis indicate that there is high potential for using Jatropha curcas L., Calophyllum inophyllum L., and Sterculia foetida L. crude oil as an alternative fuel.

  18. Calophyllolide Content in Calophyllum inophyllum at Different Stages of Maturity and Its Osteogenic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Hsien Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Calophyllum inophyllum is a coastal plant rich in natural substances. Its ingredients have been used for the development of an anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV drug. In this study, we collected C. inophyllum fruit, and the ethanol extract of the fruit was chromatographically separated using silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 columns to obtain the major compound, calophyllolide. The fruits were harvested from September to December in 2011; a quantitative analysis of the calophyllolide content was conducted using HPLC to explore the differences between the different parts of the fruit during the growing season. The results showed that in fruits of C. inophyllum, calophyllolide exists only in the nuts, and dried nuts contain approximately 2 mg·g−1 of calophyllolide. The calophyllolide levels in the nuts decreased during maturity. In addition, calophyllolide dose-dependently enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity in murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, without significant cytotoxicity. The expression of osteoblastic genes, ALP and osteocalcin (OCN, were increased by calophyllolide. Calophyllolide induced osteoblasts differentiation also evidenced by increasing mineralization and ALP staining.

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of Calophyllum inophyllum L. in RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shih-Chang; Liang, Yu-Hsin; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Liu, Fon-Chang; Lin, Wen-Hsin; Chang, Shu-Jen; Lin, Wei-Yu; Wu, Chieh-Hsi; Weng, Jing-Ru

    2012-09-01

    Calophyllum inophyllum L. has been used as folk medicine in the treatment of ocular burn and it has demonstrated potential to be an anti-inflammatory agent. The aim of this study was to explore the anti-inflammatory activities of an acetone extract of C. inophyllum L. leaves (CIL). The CIL extract was tested on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells to evaluate the effect of CIL extract on the expression of nitric oxide (NO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Results showed that the CIL extract markedly suppressed the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide, as well as the expression of iNOS, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) in a dose-dependent manner. LPS-induced microRNA (miR)-146a expression was inhibited by CIL extract, while miR-155 and miR-424 expression was not affected as demonstrated using quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Taken together, these observations show that CIL extract has anti-inflammatory effect, which extends the potential application for prevention of inflammatory diseases, and its mechanism may be partially associated with blocking COX-2 and iNOS of RAW 264.7 cells.

  20. VARIASI GENETIK PERTUMBUHAN SEMAI PADA UJI PROVENAN NYAMPLUNG (Calophyllum inophyllum DARI DELAPAN PULAU DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Maria Hasnah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum menjadi salah satu jenis HHBK yang berpotensi sebagai biofuel mulai banyak dikembangkan untuk mendukung kebijakan energi nasional pemerintah. Adanya sumber benih Nyamplung sebagai penyedia bahan baku menjadi kebutuhan mendesak. Peningkatan kualitas dan kuantitas sumber benih membutuhkan serangkaian uji-uji pemuliaan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui variasi genetik pertumbuhan semai Nyamplung dari 8 pulau di Indonesia sebagai informasi awal bagi seleksi dalam uji provenan/ras lahan yang akan dilakukan. Penelitian dilaksanakan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap Berblok (RCBD yang terdiri atas 8 provenan (@25 semai dengan 6 ulangan (blok, sehingga total ada 1200 semai. Provenan tersebut berasal dari Gunung Kidul (Jawa, Padang (Sumatera, Ketapang (Kalimantan, Madura (Madura, Dompu (Sumbawa, Selayar (Sulawesi, Bali (Bali, dan Yapen (Papua. Karakter yang diamati adalah tinggi, diameter, kekokohan semai dan persen hidup yang dilakukan setiap bulan hingga semai siap tanam (6 bulan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa persen jadi semai Nyamplung dari 8 pulau di Indonesia berbeda nyata antar provenan, dengan kisaran 56,00% (Bali - 96,67% (Padang pada umur 6 bulan. Masing-masing provenan membutuhkan waktu rata-rata 2 bulan untuk beradaptasi di persemaian (persen jadi semai stabil pada bulan ke-3. Pertumbuhan semai dari Provenan Ketapang menjadi yang terbaik dari 8 pulau di Indonesia (tinggi semai 50,16 cm, diameter semai 7,79 mm dan kekokohan semai 6,49 cm/mm.

  1. Calophyllolide content in Calophyllum inophyllum at different stages of maturity and its osteogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Hsien; Liu, Yen-Wenn; Chen, Zih-Fong; Chiou, Wen-Fei; Tsai, Ying-Chieh; Chen, Chien-Chih

    2015-07-07

    Calophyllum inophyllum is a coastal plant rich in natural substances. Its ingredients have been used for the development of an anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug. In this study, we collected C. inophyllum fruit, and the ethanol extract of the fruit was chromatographically separated using silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 columns to obtain the major compound, calophyllolide. The fruits were harvested from September to December in 2011; a quantitative analysis of the calophyllolide content was conducted using HPLC to explore the differences between the different parts of the fruit during the growing season. The results showed that in fruits of C. inophyllum, calophyllolide exists only in the nuts, and dried nuts contain approximately 2 mg·g-1 of calophyllolide. The calophyllolide levels in the nuts decreased during maturity. In addition, calophyllolide dose-dependently enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, without significant cytotoxicity. The expression of osteoblastic genes, ALP and osteocalcin (OCN), were increased by calophyllolide. Calophyllolide induced osteoblasts differentiation also evidenced by increasing mineralization and ALP staining.

  2. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of calophyllolide isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van-Linh; Truong, Cong-Tri; Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Vo, Thanh-Niem Van; Dao, Trong-Thuc; Nguyen, Van-Dan; Trinh, Dieu-Thuong Thi; Huynh, Hieu Kim; Bui, Chi-Bao

    2017-01-01

    Due to the high-cost and limitations of current wound healing treatments, the search for alternative approaches or drugs, particularly from medicinal plants, is of key importance. In this study, we report anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of the major calophyllolide (CP) compound isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. The results showed that CP had no effect on HaCaT cell viability over a range of concentrations. CP reduced fibrosis formation and effectively promoted wound closure in mouse model without causing body weight loss. The underlying molecular mechanisms of wound repair by CP was investigated. CP markedly reduced MPO activity, and increased M2 macrophage skewing, as shown by up-regulation of M2-related gene expression, which is beneficial to the wound healing process. CP treatment prevented a prolonged inflammatory process by down-regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines-IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, but up-regulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. This study is the first to indicate a plausible role for CP in accelerating the process of wound healing through anti-inflammatory activity mechanisms, namely, by regulation of inflammatory cytokines, reduction in MPO, and switching of macrophages to an M2 phenotype. These findings may enable the utilization of CP as a potent therapeutic for cutaneous wound healing.

  3. AKTIVITAS INSEKTISIDA BAGIAN TUMBUHAN CALOPHYLLUM SOULTTRI BURM.F. (CLU IACEAE TERHADAP LARVA LEPIDOPTERA

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    Edy Syahputra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this test was evaluate the insecticidal activity of ectract of some parts of Calophyllum soulattri (Clusiaceae against larvae of three species of Lepidoptera, i. e Crocidolomia pavonana, Plutella xylostela, and Pieris sp.. Extraction of plant materials was done by infusion method using ethanol. The bioassays were conducted by leaf-feeding method. Second-instar larvae were fed extract-treated broccoli leaves of 48 hours, then they were presented with untreated leaves until the surviving larvae larvae reached the fourth-instar stage. The number of dead larvae was recorded daily an larval mortality date were analyzed by probit method. The result showed the gummy bark exudates and bark extract of old and young C. soulattri plants were highly active against C. pavonana. The abrk extact of old C. soulattri plant was also effective against P. xilostella and Pieris sp. The gummy exudates possessed strong insecticidal activity against C. pavonana larvae with LC50 of 0.04% and prolonged the developmental time from second to fourth instar of C. soulattri 2.03-7.25 days compared with control. The bark excudate gave positive respon to alkaloid flavonoid, and tannin test. Futher studies are needed to identify insecticidal compound in those active extracts.

  4. Physiological Response of Crocidolomia pavonana to the Calophyllum soulattri Active Fraction

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    EDY SYAHPUTRA

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiological response of the cabbage head caterpillar Crocidolomia pavonana treated with an active fraction of Calophyllum soulattri bark extract. Extraction of the test plant materials were performed with maceration method using methanol, continued by counter-current distribution separation in ethylacetate and water. Methanol fractionation of C. soulattri was performed by vaccuum liquid chromatography and the bioassays were conducted by a leaf-feeding method. The results showed that the dichloromethane fraction of C. soulattri had strong insecticidal activity against C. pavonana larvae, with LC50 of 0.05%. Sublethal treatments with the active fraction at LC15, LC50, and LC85 reduced the relative growth rate of the fourth instars by 48.9-94.1%. The treatments with the fraction at LC15 and LC50 to the fourth instars reduced the activity of invertase and protease enzyme by 20.7-24.1 and 14.4-25.14%, respectively, but increased the activity of trehalase by 26.7-120% as compared with controls.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Ni/Hydrotalcite and Its Application in Hydrocracking Calophyllum Inophyllum Oil

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    Hafshah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to synthesize hydrotalcite as an alternatives of catalyst support of hydrocracking of vegetable oils. Hydrotalcite can be synthesized in several ways, the most common is coprecipitation method. Hydrotalcite was synthesized using Mg/Al mole ratio of 1: 1, NaOH and Na2CO3 as base solutions. Ni/hydrotalcite catalyst was synthesized by incipicient wetness impregnation method with Ni impregnation of 10% w/w. The characterization of the crystal structure was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The spesific surface area (SBET was determined by adsorption-desorption of nitrogen, it were obtained 201 m2/g after impregnation and 191 m2/g before impregntion. The test of performance of catalyst was conducted by hydrocracking reaction of Calophyllum inophyllum oil. The liquid products were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Hydrocracking process produced gasoline, kerosene, gas oil with yield of 0.36%, 2.45%, 54.88% respectively, conversion of 96.26% and selectivity of gas oil of 84.39%.

  6. PROPAGAÇÃO CLONAL DE GUANANDI (Calophyllum brasiliense POR MINIESTAQUIA

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    Rogério Luiz da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la eficiencia de la técnica de miniestaca para la propagación clonal de la especie forestal guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense. Para esto, se estableció un minijardín clonal en cajas de arena, del cual se obtuvo brotes para utilizar como miniestacas, buscando hacer 2 experimentos: en un ensayo se evaluó 2 tipos de miniestacas (apical e intermedia tratadas con diferentes dosis de acido indolbutírico (0, 2000, 4000 y 8000 mg.l-1; en el otro, las miniestacas fueros sembradas en 3 tipos de sustrato (vermiculita, cascarilla de arroz quemada y sustrato agrícola (corteza de pino compostada. Los índices de enraizamiento no variaron en el primer ensayo; en el segundo, hubo una reducción en el tiempo de permanencia en invernadero usando vermiculita como sustrato. De manera general, la técnica de miniestaca es una eficiente estrategia para la propagación clonal de guanandi.

  7. Synthesis of cracked Calophyllum inophyllum oil using fly ash catalyst for diesel engine application

    KAUST Repository

    Muthukumaran, N.

    2015-04-16

    In this study, production of hydrocarbon fuel from Calophyllum inophyllum oil has been characterized for diesel engine application, by appraising essential fuel processing parameters. As opposed to traditional trans-esterification process, the reported oil was cracked using a catalyst, as the latter improves the fuel properties better than the former. In a bid to make the production process economically viable, a waste and cheap catalyst, RFA (raw fly ash), has been capitalized for the cracking process as against the conventional zeolite catalyst. The fuel production process, which is performed in a fixed bed catalytic reactor, was done methodologically after comprehensively studying the characteristics of fly ash catalyst. Significantly, fly ash characterization was realized using SEM and EDS, which demarcated the surface and internal structures of fly ash particles before and after cracking. After the production of hydrocarbon fuel from C. inophyllum oil, the performed compositional analysis in GC-MS revealed the presence of esters, parfins and olefins. Followed by the characterization of catalytically cracked C. inophyllum oil, suitable blends of it with diesel were tested in a single cylinder diesel engine. From the engine experimental results, BTE (brake thermal efficiency) of the engine for B25 (25% cracked C. inophyllum oil and 75% diesel) was observed to be closer to diesel, while it decreased for higher blends. On the other hand, emissions such as HC (hydrocarbon), CO (carbon monoxide) and smoke were found to be comparable for B25 with diesel. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of calophyllolide isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum Linn.

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    Van-Linh Nguyen

    Full Text Available Due to the high-cost and limitations of current wound healing treatments, the search for alternative approaches or drugs, particularly from medicinal plants, is of key importance. In this study, we report anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of the major calophyllolide (CP compound isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. The results showed that CP had no effect on HaCaT cell viability over a range of concentrations. CP reduced fibrosis formation and effectively promoted wound closure in mouse model without causing body weight loss. The underlying molecular mechanisms of wound repair by CP was investigated. CP markedly reduced MPO activity, and increased M2 macrophage skewing, as shown by up-regulation of M2-related gene expression, which is beneficial to the wound healing process. CP treatment prevented a prolonged inflammatory process by down-regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines-IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, but up-regulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. This study is the first to indicate a plausible role for CP in accelerating the process of wound healing through anti-inflammatory activity mechanisms, namely, by regulation of inflammatory cytokines, reduction in MPO, and switching of macrophages to an M2 phenotype. These findings may enable the utilization of CP as a potent therapeutic for cutaneous wound healing.

  9. Hypoglycemic effect of formulation containing hydroethanolic extract of Calophyllum brasiliense in diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin

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    Helison de Oliveira Carvalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Diabetes mellitus is a chronic and severe metabolic dysfunction, it's slow and progressive evolution interferes directly in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins, causing hyperglycemia, glycosuria, polydipsia, hyperlipidaemia, among others. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of hydroethanolic extract and granulated of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess., Clusiaceae, species in diabetic rats as well as it's biochemical parameters. The results demonstrated that both the pharmaceutical forms, hydroethanolic extract and granulated, were able to reduce significantly (p < 0.001 hyperglycemia and glycosuria, in addition to improve polydipsia, polyuria, and weight loss. Treatments using hydroethanolic extract and granulated were also able to reduce significantly levels of triacylglycerides, cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, as well as the transaminases, urea and creatinine levels. Therefore, it is concluded that these pharmaceutical forms have anti-diabetic effect and act improving the biochemical parameters, this effect is probably due to the high content of polyphenolic compounds found in the formulations.

  10. Culturas anuais para sistemas agroflorestais com Calophyllum braziliense em várzea e terraço fluvial.

    OpenAIRE

    Devide, Antonio Carlos Pries

    2013-01-01

    A Mata Atlântica é um complexo de ecossistemas com elevada diversidade biológica; um dos biomas mais ameaçados do mundo pelas agressões às florestas; uma das cinco regiões do planeta de maior prioridade para a conservação. Em Pindamonhangaba, SP, vem sendo realizado experimentos de conversão agroflorestal de áreas de plantio de Guanandi (Calophyllum braziliense) em várzeas e terraços fluviais. O objetivo desse trabalho é buscar alternativas menos impactantes, rentáveis e com potencial de cont...

  11. Hydrotalcite Catalyst for Hydrocracking Calophyllum inophyllum Oil to Biofuel: A Comparative Study with and without Nickel Impregnation

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    Hafshah Hafshah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the effect of nickel impregnation into hydrotalcite catalyst that use to convert Calophyllum inophyllum oil into biofuel through hydrocracking process. Hydrocracking process was carried out under mild condition (350 °C and 20 bar for two hours in a slurry batch reactor. The adding nickel affected the reaction conversion, yield, and selectivity of gasoil. The process of oxygen removal from the compounds in the oil was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, and the compositions of the products were determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The results of the study successfully proved that nickel impregnated into hydrotalcite catalyst increased the conversion, yield, and selectivity of gasoil up to 98.57 %, 54.15 %, and 81.31 %, respectively. Copyright © 2017 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 15th November 2016; Revised: 22nd February 2017; Accepted: 22nd February 2017 How to Cite: Hafshah, H., Prajitno, D.H., Roesyadi, A. (2017. Hydrotalcite Catalyst for Hydrocracking Calophyllum inophyllum Oil to Biofuel: A Comparative Study with and without Nickel Impregnation. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (2: 273-280 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.2.776.273-280 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.12.2.776.273-280

  12. Pattern of anti-HIV dipyranocoumarin expression in callus cultures of Calophyllum inophyllum Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Kiran D; Joshi, Swati P; Bhide, Sunil R; Thengane, Shubhada R

    2007-07-15

    Callus cultures of Calophyllum inophyllum were established using seed, nodal/ internodal and leaf explants on WPM basal medium supplemented with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid), and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) in different combinations and concentrations with the view to study the influence of hormones on callus induction and the pattern of expression of dipyranocoumarins including anti-HIV, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors inophyllum B and P in callus cultures. 96.01% seed explants, 87.50% nodal/internodal explants and 86.66% leaf explants were converted into calluses when inoculated on WPM supplemented with IBA 4.0 mg l(-1) along with BAP 1.0 mg l(-1), IBA 4.0 mg l(-1), and picloram 6.0 mg l(-1) along with BAP 2.0 mg l(-1), respectively. Calluses induced from seed explants were white, friable and irregular whereas nodal/internodal and leaf explants induced dark brown, nodular and compact calluses. In order to facilitate the rapid quantitative analysis of dipyranocoumarins under study, a novel HPLC method capable of separating all six dipyranocoumarins in a single isocratic run has been optimized. Quantitative HPLC analysis of callus extracts revealed that highest inophyllum B (40.59 mg 100g callus(-1)) was expressed in callus induced from seed explant on medium containing 2.0 mg l(-1) indole-3-butyric acid, while highest inophyllum P (141.35 mg 100g callus(-1)) was estimated in seed callus induced on medium containing 2.0 mg l(-1) indole-3-butyric acid along with BAP 1.0 mg l(-1).

  13. Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity and cytotoxicity of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess (Clusiaceae

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    Claudia Terencio Agostinho Pires

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the in vitro anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity and the cytotoxicity of dichloromethane extract and pure compounds from the leaves of Calophyllum brasiliense. Purification of the dichloromethane extract yielded the pure compounds (- mammea A/BB (1, (- mammea B/BB (2 and amentoflavone (3. The compound structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and spectrometric data. The contents of bioactive compounds in the extracts were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an ultraviolet detector. The anti-M. tuberculosis activity of the extracts and the pure compounds was evaluated using a resazurin microtitre assay plate. The cytotoxicity assay was performed in J774G.8 macrophages using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide colourimetric method. The quantification of the dichloromethane extract showed (1 and (2 at concentrations of 31.86 ± 2.6 and 8.24 ± 1.1 µg/mg of extract, respectively. The dichloromethane and aqueous extracts showed anti-M. tuberculosis H37Rv activity of 62.5 and 125 µg/mL, respectively. Coumarins (1 and (2 showed minimal inhibitory concentration ranges of 31.2 and 62.5 µg/mL against M. tuberculosis H37Rv and clinical isolates. Compound (3 showed no activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. The selectivity index ranged from 0.59-1.06. We report the activity of the extracts and coumarins from the leaves of C. brasiliense against M. tuberculosis.

  14. Soulamarin Isolated from Calophyllum brasiliense (Clusiaceae) Induces Plasma Membrane Permeabilization of Trypanosoma cruzi and Mytochondrial Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Alexandre; Tempone, Andre G.; Pinto, Erika G.; Mesquita, Juliana T.; Rodrigues, Eliana; Silva, Luciana Grus M.; Sartorelli, Patricia; Lago, João Henrique G.

    2013-01-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. It has high mortality as well as morbidity rates and usually affects the poorer sections of the population. The development of new, less harmful and more effective drugs is a promising research target, since current standard treatments are highly toxic and administered for long periods. Fractioning of methanol (MeOH) extract of the stem bark of Calophyllum brasiliense (Clusiaceae) resulted in the isolation of the coumarin soulamarin, which was characterized by one- and two-dimensional 1H- and 13C NMR spectroscopy as well as ESI mass spectrometry. All data obtained were consistent with a structure of 6-hydroxy-4-propyl-5-(3-hydroxy-2-methyl-1-oxobutyl)-6″,6″-dimethylpyrane-[2″,3″:8,7]-benzopyran-2-one for soulamarin. Colorimetric MTT assays showed that soulamarin induces trypanocidal effects, and is also active against trypomastigotes. Hemolytic activity tests showed that soulamarin is unable to induce any observable damage to erythrocytes (cmax. = 1,300 µM). The lethal action of soulamarin against T. cruzi was investigated by using amino(4-(6-(amino(iminio)methyl)-1H-indol-2-yl)phenyl)methaniminium chloride (SYTOX Green and 1H,5H,11H,15H-Xantheno[2,3,4-ij:5,6,7-i′j′]diquinolizin-18-ium, 9-[4-(chloromethyl)phenyl]-2,3,6,7,12,13,16,17-octahydro-chloride (MitoTracker Red) as fluorimetric probes. With the former, soulamarin showed dose-dependent permeability of the plasma membrane, relative to fully permeable Triton X-100-treated parasites. Spectrofluorimetric and fluorescence microscopy with the latter revealed that soulamarin also induced a strong depolarization (ca. 97%) of the mitochondrial membrane potential. These data demonstrate that the lethal action of soulamarin towards T. cruzi involves damages to the plasma membrane of the parasite and mitochondrial dysfunction without the additional generation of reactive oxygen species, which may have also contributed to the death of

  15. Two-step biodiesel production from Calophyllum inophyllum oil: optimization of modified β-zeolite catalyzed pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SathyaSelvabala, Vasanthakumar; Selvaraj, Dinesh Kirupha; Kalimuthu, Jalagandeeswaran; Periyaraman, Premkumar Manickam; Subramanian, Sivanesan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a two-step process was developed to produce biodiesel from Calophyllum inophyllum oil. Pre-treatment with phosphoric acid modified β-zeolite in acid catalyzed esterification process preceded by transesterification which was done using conventional alkali catalyst potassium hydroxide (KOH). The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between the reaction temperatures, reaction time and methanol to oil molar ratio in the pre-treatment step. Central Composite Design (CCD) and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) were utilized to determine the best operating condition for the pre-treatment step. Biodiesel produced by this process was tested for its fuel properties. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Screening of anti-HIV-1 inophyllums by HPLC-DAD of Calophyllum inophyllum leaf extracts from French Polynesia Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laure, Frédéric; Raharivelomanana, Phila; Butaud, Jean-François; Bianchini, Jean-Pierre; Gaydou, Emile M

    2008-08-22

    Various pyranocoumarins, calophyllolide, inophyllums B, C, G(1), G(2) and P, from Calophyllum inophyllum (Clusiaceae) leaves of French Polynesia (Austral, Marquesas, Society and Tuamotu archipelagos) have been determined in 136 leaf extracts using a high pressure liquid chromatography-UV-diode array detection (HPLC-UV-DAD) technique. Results show a wide range in chemical composition within trees growing on eighteen islands. The use of multivariate statistical analyses (PCA) shows geographical distribution of inophyllums and indicate those rich in HIV-1 active (+)-inophyllums. Inophyllum B and P contents (0.0-39.0 and 0.0-21.8 mg kg(-1), respectively) confirm the chemodiversity of this species within the large area of French Polynesia. The study suggests the presence of interesting chemotypes which could be used as plant source for anti-HIV-1 drugs.

  17. Trial Germination of Coastal Vegetation (Terminalia catappa, Calophyllum inophylum L., and Barringtonia asiatica in the Kima Atas Permanent Nursery

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    Ady Suryawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It was estimated that North Sulawesi needs 9,870,093.33 coastal vegetation seeds to rehabilitate the damage of coastal ecosystems which reach 14,805.14 ha, where the largest area 13.884 ha located in other land use. This study aims to provide information of seed germination techniques in Permanent Nursery Kima Atas, Manado. Research was arranged in complete randomized design as factorial with three replications. Ketapang (Terminalia cattapa will obtain high viability in fluctuation of temperature and humidity, i.e used sand media, without wildlings and placed under 25% shade and rain. Keben (Baringtonia asiatica through the incision and decay that placed in the open location will obtain viability until 90% within 2 months. Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum requires shell splitting in order to improve the viability and it can be done by cracking and stripping.

  18. Inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, toxicological and chemical profile of Calophyllum brasiliense extracts from Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    César, García-Zebadúa Julio; Alfonso, Magos-Guerrero Gil; Marius, Mumbrú-Massip; Elizabeth, Estrada-Muñoz; Angel, Contreras-Barrios Miguel; Maira, Huerta-Reyes; Guadalupe, Campos-Lara María; Manuel, Jiménez-Estrada; Ricardo, Reyes-Chilpa

    2011-10-01

    Calophyllum species are sources of calanolides, which inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT). The hexane extract of the leaves from C. brasiliense collected in Soconusco, State of Chiapas, Mexico, analyzed by HPLC showed to contain apetalic acid, calanolides B, and C. It showed potent anti-HIV-1 RT inhibition (IC(50)=20.2 μg/ml), but was not toxic in mice (LD(50)=1.99 g/kg). The histological study of the mice treated at the highest dose revealed no alteration on hepatocytes, and an increase in the number of spleen megakaryocytes. These results suggest this extract is suitable to continue studies for developing a phytodrug against HIV-1. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Biodiesel Production from Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum Oil using Ionic Liquid as A Catalyst and Microwave Heating System

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    Prima Astuti Handayani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum is a typical Indonesian plant. Its seed contains abundant inedible oil, and therefore it is potential for biodiesel feedstock. The current issues of biodiesel are longer  reaction time of oil to biodiesel through transesterification reaction and lower biodiesel yield due to ineffective use of a homogenous catalyst. This work was aimed to use an ionic liquid as a catalyst and equipped with microwave heating as the heating system in order to increase the biodiesel yield and accelerate the process. Effects of the catalyst concentration and power of microwave irradiation to the biodiesel yield were studied. The ionic liquid of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate (BMIMHSO4 was used as a catalyst. The results showed that the highest biodiesel yield was achieved of 92.81% which was catalyzed by IL0.5NaOH0.5 (0.5 wt.% (BMIMHSO4 + 0.5 wt.% NaOH with a methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 9, a reaction time of 6 minutes, and the microwave temperature was 60 °C. Copyright © 2017 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 21st November 2016; Revised: 7th March 2017; Accepted: 9th March 2017 How to Cite: Handayani, P.A., Abdullah, A., Hadiyanto, H. (2017. Biodiesel Production from Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum Oil using Ionic Liquid as A Catalyst and Microwave Heating System. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (2: 293-298 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.2.807.293-298 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.12.2.807.293-298

  20. New tricyclic and tetracyclic pyranocoumarins with an unprecedented C-4 substituent. Structure elucidation of tamanolide, tamanolide D and tamanolide P from Calophyllum inophyllum of French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, T; Raharivelomanana, P; Soulet, S; Bianchini, J P; Herbette, G; Faure, R

    2009-11-01

    Three new pyranocoumarin derivatives, tamanolide (1), tamanolide D (2) and tamanolide P (3), were isolated from the almond seeds of Calophyllum inophyllum L. (Clusiaceae) grown in French Polynesia. These compounds, having an unprecedented C-4 isobutyl substituent, have been characterized as a new class of pyranocoumarins called tamanolides. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR techniques (COSY, NOESY, HSQC and HMBC) in association with MS (HR-ESI-MS) data analysis. 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. MODEL ARSITEKTUR POHON JENIS BINTANGUR (Calophyllum inophyllum L. DI TAMAN HUTAN RAKYAT (TAHURA SULTAN ADAM Arhitectural Model Trees type Bintangur (Calophyllum inophyllum l. In Grand Forest Park Sultan Adam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Naemah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dijumpai 23 model arsitektur yang meliputi berbagai jenis pohon dan tumbuhan hutan lainnya yang terdapat didaerah tropika. Berdasarkan pengetahuan ini dan pengenalan jenis-jenis pohon yang dijumpai di hutan Indonesia, maka dapat dinyatakan bahwa sekurang-kurangnya terapat 9 model arsitektur pohon di Indonesia yaitu model Attims, Aubreville, Koriba, Massart, Prevost, Rauh, Roux, Scarrone dan Troll. Tujuan dari penelitian ini diharapan akan diperoleh suatu informasi khusus kepada silvikulturis berupa alat pemberi diagnostik yang dapat dipercaya pada tingkat spesies dan nantinya untuk mengetahui profil ekologi dari jenis pohon tersebut. Penelitian yang telah di lakukan pada jenis pohon Bintangur dapat kita liat model arsitekturnya dari pola percabangannya. Diskripsi mengenai unit arsitektur pada gambar diatas yaitu tampak batang pokok tumbuh monopodial dan orthotropik. Percabangan tumbuh orthotropik. Buah terletak di samping batang atau di ketiak daun yang di sebut  bunga axial (flos axillaris atau flos lateralis. Bentuk daun pada pohon Bintangur  berbentuk jorong (ovalis atau elipticus. Pohon dengan sifat-sifat tumbuh seperti ini sama dengan kriteria dari model arsitektur Rauh. Terdapat di 2 (dua tempat sebaran pada pohon jenis Bintangur   yaitu pada daerah  kelerengan  yang  datar dan pada kelerengan yang curam. Kata Kunci : Model arsitektur, Bintangur, Taman Hutan, Calophyllum inophyllum

  2. Effects of Calophyllum inophyllum fruit extract on the proliferation and morphological characteristics of human breast cancer cells MCF-7

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    Shanmugapriya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antiproliferative activity of Calophyllum inophyllum (C. inophyllum fruit extract against human breast cancer cells MCF-7. Methods: The cytotoxic effect of C. inophyllum fruit extract against MCF-7 cancer cells was evaluated through MTT and CyQuant assays for 24 h and the morphological investigation of treated MCF-7 cells was observed under optical microscope using Giemsa staining. Results: The cytotoxic effect of C. inophyllum fruit extract against MCF-7 cancer cells was evaluated through MTT and CyQuant assays simultaneously for 24 h after treatment, which demonstrated the inhibition of cell viability with the IC50 values of 19.63 µg/mL and 27.54 µg/mL, respectively. The preliminary time-based morphological investigation of MCF-7 cells treated with the IC 50 value (23.59 µg/mL of C. inophyllum fruit extract was observed under an optical microscopy via Giemsa staining, which exhibited prominent histological characteristics of apoptosis. Conclusions: This study clearly proved that the proliferation of human breast cancer cell MCF-7 was inhibited by C. inophyllum fruit extract resulted from the induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 cells.

  3. Use of calophyllum inophyllum biofuel blended with diesel in DI diesel engine modified with nozzle holes and its size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairamuthu, G.; Sundarapandian, S.; Thangagiri, B.

    2016-05-01

    Improved thermal efficiency, reduction in fuel consumption and pollutant emissions from biodiesel fueled diesel engines are important issues in engine research. To achieve these, fast and perfect air-biodiesel mixing are the most important requirements. The mixing quality of biodiesel spray with air can be improved by better design of the injection system. The diesel engine tests were conducted on a 4-stroke tangentially vertical single cylinder (TV1) kirloskar 1500 rpm water cooled direct injection diesel engine with eddy current dynamometer. In this work, by varying different nozzles having spray holes of 3 (base, Ø = 0.280 mm), 4 (modified, Ø = 0.220 mm) and 5 (modified, Ø = 0.240 mm) holes, with standard static injection timing of 23° bTDC and nozzle opening pressure (NOP) of 250 bar maintained as constant throughout the experiment under steady state at full load condition of the engine. The effect of varying different nozzle configuration (number of holes), on the combustion, performance and exhaust emissions, using a blend of calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester by volume in diesel were evaluated. The test results showed that improvement in terms of brake thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption for 4 holes and 5 holes nozzle operated at NOP 250 bar. Substantial improvements in the reduction of emissions levels were also observed for 5 holes nozzle operated at NOP 250 bar.

  4. Anticancer Activity and Molecular Mechanism of Polyphenol Rich Calophyllum inophyllum Fruit Extract in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugapriya; Chen, Yeng; Kanwar, Jagat R; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2017-10-25

    This study was conducted to investigate the anticancer effects and mechanism of Calophyllum inophyllum fruit extract against MCF-7 cells. C. inophyllum fruit extract was found to have markedly cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner with the IC50 for 24 h of 23.59 µg/mL. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that C. inophyllum fruit extract mediated cell cycle at G0/G1 and G2/M phases, and MCF-7 cells entered the early phase of apoptosis. The expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 was decreased whereas the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, cytochrome C and p53 were increased after treatment. C. inophyllum fruit extract led to apoptosis in MCF-7 cells via the mitochondrial pathway in a dose dependent manner. This is evidenced by the elevation of intracellular ROS, the loss of mitochondria membrane potential (Δψm), and activation of caspase-3. Meanwhile, dose-dependent genomic DNA fragmentation was observed after C. inophyllum fruits extract treatment by comet assay. This study shows that C. inophyllum fruits extract-induced apoptosis is primarily p53 dependent and mediated through the activation of caspase-3. C. inophyllum fruit extract could be an excellent source of chemopreventive agent in the treatment of breast cancer and has potential to be explored as green anticancer agent.

  5. Biohydrogen and polyhydroxyalkanoate co-production by Enterobacter aerogenes and Rhodobacter sphaeroides from Calophyllum inophyllum oil cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, A; Sandhya, M; Ponnusami, V

    2014-07-01

    The feasibility of coupled biohydrogen and polyhydroxyalkanoate production by Enterobacter aerogenes and Rhodobacter sphaeroides using Calophyllum inophyllum oil cake was studied under dark and photo fermentation conditions. The utilization of a non-edible acidic oil cake (C. inophyllum), and exploitation of a modified minimal salt media led to reduction in the cost of media. Cost of fermentation is reduced by implementation of alternate dark-photo fermentative periods and through the use of a co-culture consisting of a dark fermentative (E. aerogenes) and a photo fermentative (R. sphaeroides) bacterium. The biohydrogen and polyhydroxyalkanoate produced were 7.95 L H2/L media and 10.73 g/L media, respectively, under alternate dark and photo fermentation and were 3.23 L H2/L media and 5.6g/L media, respectively under complete dark fermentation. The characteristics of the oil cake and alternate dark (16 h) and photo (8h) fermentative conditions were found to be supportive in producing high biohydrogen and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) yield. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Efeito do volume de tubetes na produção de mudas de Calophyllum brasiliense e Toona ciliata

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    Alysson Canabrava Lisboa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A demanda por informações silviculturais de espécies florestais alternativas para reflorestamentos com fins econômicos, entre as quais incluem os métodos de produção de mudas, tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a influência de volumes de tubetes, com dimensões de 115, 180 e de 280 cm³, no crescimento de mudas de guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. e cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata M. Roem. var. australis (F. Muell. Bahadur. O substrato utilizado foi composto por uma mistura de 80% de substrato comercial e 20% de argila. Foram avaliados o diâmetro de colo e a altura das mudas aos 60, 90, 120 e 150 dias após a repicagem. Nessa última ocasião, determinou-se também o peso de massa seca da parte aérea, do sistema radicular e total, bem como o Índice de Qualidade de Dickson. Houve efeito do volume do tubete sobre as características das mudas, sendo o cedro-australiano a espécie mais responsiva. Conclui-se que para o guanandi o tubete mais indicado é o de 180 cm³ e para o cedro-australiano, o de 280 cm³.

  7. The Wound Healing and Antibacterial Activity of Five Ethnomedical Calophyllum inophyllum Oils: An Alternative Therapeutic Strategy to Treat Infected Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léguillier, Teddy; Lecsö-Bornet, Marylin; Lémus, Christelle; Rousseau-Ralliard, Delphine; Lebouvier, Nicolas; Hnawia, Edouard; Nour, Mohammed; Aalbersberg, William; Ghazi, Kamelia; Raharivelomanana, Phila; Rat, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Background Calophyllum inophyllum L. (Calophyllaceae) is an evergreen tree ethno-medically used along the seashores and islands of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, especially in Polynesia. Oil extracted from the seeds is traditionally used topically to treat a wide range of skin injuries from burn, scar and infected wounds to skin diseases such as dermatosis, urticaria and eczema. However, very few scientific studies reported and quantified the therapeutic properties of Calophyllum inophyllum oil (CIO). In this work, five CIO from Indonesia (CIO1), Tahiti (CIO2, 3), Fiji islands (CIO4) and New Caledonia (CIO5) were studied and their cytotoxic, wound healing, and antibacterial properties were presented in order to provide a scientific support to their traditional use and verify their safety. Methods The safety of the five CIO was ascertained using the Alamar blue assay on human keratinocyte cells. CIO wound healing properties were determined using the scratch test assay on human keratinocyte cells. CIO-stimulated antibacterial innate immune response was evaluated using ELISA by measuring β defensin-2 release in human derivative macrophage cells. CIO antibacterial activity was tested using oilogramme against twenty aerobic Gram- bacteria species, twenty aerobic Gram+ bacteria species, including a multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain and two anaerobic Gram+ bacteria species e.g. Propionibacterium acnes and Propionibacterium granulosum. To detect polarity profile of the components responsible of the antibacterial activity, we performed bioautography against a Staphylococcus aureus strain. Results Based on Alamar Blue assay, we showed that CIO can be safely used on keratinocyte cells between 2.7% and 11.2% depending on CIO origin. Concerning the healing activity, all the CIO tested accelerated in vitro wound closure, the healing factor being 1.3 to 2.1 higher compared to control when keratinocytes were incubated after scratch with CIO at 0.1%. Furthermore

  8. The Wound Healing and Antibacterial Activity of Five Ethnomedical Calophyllum inophyllum Oils: An Alternative Therapeutic Strategy to Treat Infected Wounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teddy Léguillier

    Full Text Available Calophyllum inophyllum L. (Calophyllaceae is an evergreen tree ethno-medically used along the seashores and islands of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, especially in Polynesia. Oil extracted from the seeds is traditionally used topically to treat a wide range of skin injuries from burn, scar and infected wounds to skin diseases such as dermatosis, urticaria and eczema. However, very few scientific studies reported and quantified the therapeutic properties of Calophyllum inophyllum oil (CIO. In this work, five CIO from Indonesia (CIO1, Tahiti (CIO2, 3, Fiji islands (CIO4 and New Caledonia (CIO5 were studied and their cytotoxic, wound healing, and antibacterial properties were presented in order to provide a scientific support to their traditional use and verify their safety.The safety of the five CIO was ascertained using the Alamar blue assay on human keratinocyte cells. CIO wound healing properties were determined using the scratch test assay on human keratinocyte cells. CIO-stimulated antibacterial innate immune response was evaluated using ELISA by measuring β defensin-2 release in human derivative macrophage cells. CIO antibacterial activity was tested using oilogramme against twenty aerobic Gram- bacteria species, twenty aerobic Gram+ bacteria species, including a multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain and two anaerobic Gram+ bacteria species e.g. Propionibacterium acnes and Propionibacterium granulosum. To detect polarity profile of the components responsible of the antibacterial activity, we performed bioautography against a Staphylococcus aureus strain.Based on Alamar Blue assay, we showed that CIO can be safely used on keratinocyte cells between 2.7% and 11.2% depending on CIO origin. Concerning the healing activity, all the CIO tested accelerated in vitro wound closure, the healing factor being 1.3 to 2.1 higher compared to control when keratinocytes were incubated after scratch with CIO at 0.1%. Furthermore, our results

  9. The Wound Healing and Antibacterial Activity of Five Ethnomedical Calophyllum inophyllum Oils: An Alternative Therapeutic Strategy to Treat Infected Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léguillier, Teddy; Lecsö-Bornet, Marylin; Lémus, Christelle; Rousseau-Ralliard, Delphine; Lebouvier, Nicolas; Hnawia, Edouard; Nour, Mohammed; Aalbersberg, William; Ghazi, Kamelia; Raharivelomanana, Phila; Rat, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Calophyllum inophyllum L. (Calophyllaceae) is an evergreen tree ethno-medically used along the seashores and islands of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, especially in Polynesia. Oil extracted from the seeds is traditionally used topically to treat a wide range of skin injuries from burn, scar and infected wounds to skin diseases such as dermatosis, urticaria and eczema. However, very few scientific studies reported and quantified the therapeutic properties of Calophyllum inophyllum oil (CIO). In this work, five CIO from Indonesia (CIO1), Tahiti (CIO2, 3), Fiji islands (CIO4) and New Caledonia (CIO5) were studied and their cytotoxic, wound healing, and antibacterial properties were presented in order to provide a scientific support to their traditional use and verify their safety. The safety of the five CIO was ascertained using the Alamar blue assay on human keratinocyte cells. CIO wound healing properties were determined using the scratch test assay on human keratinocyte cells. CIO-stimulated antibacterial innate immune response was evaluated using ELISA by measuring β defensin-2 release in human derivative macrophage cells. CIO antibacterial activity was tested using oilogramme against twenty aerobic Gram- bacteria species, twenty aerobic Gram+ bacteria species, including a multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain and two anaerobic Gram+ bacteria species e.g. Propionibacterium acnes and Propionibacterium granulosum. To detect polarity profile of the components responsible of the antibacterial activity, we performed bioautography against a Staphylococcus aureus strain. Based on Alamar Blue assay, we showed that CIO can be safely used on keratinocyte cells between 2.7% and 11.2% depending on CIO origin. Concerning the healing activity, all the CIO tested accelerated in vitro wound closure, the healing factor being 1.3 to 2.1 higher compared to control when keratinocytes were incubated after scratch with CIO at 0.1%. Furthermore, our results showed that CIO

  10. The inophyllums, novel inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase isolated from the Malaysian tree, Calophyllum inophyllum Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, A D; Freyer, A J; Eggleston, D S; Haltiwanger, R C; Bean, M F; Taylor, P B; Caranfa, M J; Breen, A L; Bartus, H R; Johnson, R K

    1993-12-24

    As part of a search for novel inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, the acetone extract of the giant African snail, Achatina fulica, was shown to be active. Fractionation of the extract yielded inophyllums A, B, C, and E and calophyllolide (1a, 2a, 3a, 3b, and 6), previously isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum Linn., a known source of nutrition for A. fulica. From a methanol/methylene chloride extract of C. inophyllum, the same natural products in considerably greater yield were isolated in addition to a novel enantiomer of soulattrolide (4), inophyllum P (2b), and two other novel compounds, inophyllums G-1 (7) and G-2 (8). The absolute stereochemistry of inophyllum A (1a) was determined to be 10(R), 11(S), 12(S) from a single-crystal X-ray analysis of its 4-bromobenzoate derivative, and the relative stereochemistries of the other inophyllums isolated from C. inophyllum were established by a comparison of their 1H NMR NOE values and coupling constants to those of inophyllum A (1a). Inophyllums B and P (2a and 2b) inhibited HIV reverse transcriptase with IC50 values of 38 and 130 nM, respectively, and both were active against HIV-1 in cell culture (IC50 of 1.4 and 1.6 microM). Closely related inophyllums A, C, D, and E, including calophyllic acids, were significantly less active or totally inactive, indicating certain structural requirements in the chromanol ring. Altogether, 11 compounds of the inophyllum class were isolated from C. inophyllum and are described together with the SAR of these novel anti-HIV compounds.

  11. Repellency to Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) of plant essential oils alone or in combination with Calophyllum inophyllum nut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieu, Tran Trung; Kim, Soon-Il; Lee, Sang-Guei; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2010-07-01

    The repellency to female Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) of 21 essential oils (EOs) alone or in combination with Calophyllum inophyllum L. (Clusiaceae) nut oil (tamanu oil) was examined using an exposed human hand bioassay. Results were compared with those of commonly used repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). In tests with six human male volunteers at a dose of 0.5 mg/cm2, patchouli (protection time [PT], 3.67 h) was the most effective EO but less active than DEET (4.47 h), as judged by the PT to first bite. Very strong repellency also was produced by clove bud, lovage root, and clove leaf EOs (PT, 3.50-3.25 h), whereas strong repellency was obtained from thyme white EO (2.12 h). Thyme red, oregano, and geranium EOs exhibited moderate repellency (PT, 1.24-1.11 h). At 0.25 mg/cm2, protection time of clove bud, clove leaf, and lovage root EOs (PT, approximately equal to 1 h) was shorter than that of DEET (2.17 h). An increase in the protection time was produced by binary mixtures (PT, 2.68-2.04 h) of five EOs (clove bud, clove leaf, thyme white, patchouli, and savory) and tamanu oil (0.25:2.0 mg/cm2) compared with that of either the constituted essential oil or tamanu oil alone (PT, 0.56 h). The protection time of these binary mixtures was comparable with that of DEET. With the exception of savory EO, the other EOs, tamanu oil, and binary mixtures did not induce any adverse effects on the human volunteers at 0.5 mg/cm2. Thus, binary mixtures of essential oils and tamanu oil described merit further study as potential repellents for protection from humans and domestic animals from biting and nuisance caused by S. calcitrans.

  12. Biodiesel Production from Non-Edible Beauty Leaf (Calophyllum inophyllum Oil: Process Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad I. Jahirul

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the beauty leaf plant (Calophyllum Inophyllum is being considered as a potential 2nd generation biodiesel source due to high seed oil content, high fruit production rate, simple cultivation and ability to grow in a wide range of climate conditions. However, however, due to the high free fatty acid (FFA content in this oil, the potential of this biodiesel feedstock is still unrealized, and little research has been undertaken on it. In this study, transesterification of beauty leaf oil to produce biodiesel has been investigated. A two-step biodiesel conversion method consisting of acid catalysed pre-esterification and alkali catalysed transesterification has been utilized. The three main factors that drive the biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester (FAME conversion from vegetable oil (triglycerides were studied using response surface methodology (RSM based on a Box-Behnken experimental design. The factors considered in this study were catalyst concentration, methanol to oil molar ratio and reaction temperature. Linear and full quadratic regression models were developed to predict FFA and FAME concentration and to optimize the reaction conditions. The significance of these factors and their interaction in both stages was determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA. The reaction conditions for the largest reduction in FFA concentration for acid catalysed pre-esterification was 30:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 10% (w/w sulfuric acid catalyst loading and 75 °C reaction temperature. In the alkali catalysed transesterification process 7.5:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 1% (w/w sodium methoxide catalyst loading and 55 °C reaction temperature were found to result in the highest FAME conversion. The good agreement between model outputs and experimental results demonstrated that this methodology may be useful for industrial process optimization for biodiesel production from beauty leaf oil and possibly other industrial processes as well.

  13. Estudio de la germinación y la conservación de semillas de cedro maría (Calophyllum brasiliense)

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, Jorge; Lines, Kathya; Vásquez, William

    2006-01-01

    Semilla de cedro maría (Calophyllum brasiliense) se recolectó en Volcán de Buenos Aires, Puntarenas, con el fin de determinar el punto de madurez fisiológica, las mejores técnicas de procesamiento, el efecto de la humedad de la semilla, el sustrato, el fotoperíodo y la temperatura sobre la germinación y su almacenamiento. La madurez fisiológica se alcanzó 92 días después de la antesis. Se evaluaron cinco contenidos de humedad (4,8%, 10,5%, 21,3%, 26,3% y 40,3%). Se encontró que la semilla ger...

  14. SISTEMA AGROFORESTAL DE YUCA Y GUANANDI (Calophyllum braziliense) EN EL VALLE DE PARAÍBA, ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO, BRASIL

    OpenAIRE

    Devide, Antonio; Castro, Cristina; Ribeiro,Raul de Lucena Duarte; Abboud,Antônio Carlos de Souza; Pereira, Marcos Gervasio; Assumpção, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    La eliminación de vegetación ribereña y un uso intenso de terrazas en el Valle del Río Paraíba do Sul, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, han causado la degradación de la tierra y la lixiviación de nutrientes y sedimentos por la lluvia. En el año 2008, se introdujo el guanandi – Calophyllum braziliense (3x2m); árbol nativo resistente a inundaciones y productor de madera fina; después del corte de eucaliptos en las terrazas. En 2011 ha comenzado a conversión de agroforestería con un experimento en b...

  15. In vivo antiarthritic activity of the ethanol extracts of stem bark and seeds of Calophyllum inophyllum in Freund's complete adjuvant induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Senthamil Selvan; Ekambaram, Sanmuga Priya; Dhanam, T

    2017-12-01

    Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. (Clusiaceae) (CI) is traditionally used to treat pain, inflammation, eye disorders and rheumatism. The present study evaluates the antiarthritic activity of the ethanol extract of the stem bark (ESBCI) and seeds (ESCI) of Calophyllum inophyllum in Freund's adjuvant induced arthritic Wistar albino rat model. ESBCI and ESCI were screened for in vitro anti-inflammatory activity by proteinase inhibition and membrane stabilization assays. Acute oral toxicity studies were conducted according to OECD-425 guidelines. Antiarthritic activity of ESBCI and ESCI at the dose of 250 mg/kg/p.o. was evaluated by Freund's adjuvant induced arthritic rat model. ESBCI and ESCI have shown maximum inhibition at 250 μg/mL in proteinase inhibition and haemolysis assays. The LD50 of ESBCI and ESCI was found to be greater than 5000 and 2000 mg/kg/p.o., respectively. In Freund's adjuvant induced arthritic rat model ESBCI, ESCI and Diclofenac treatment have shown 28.57, 36.36, and 43.51% as maximum reduction in rat paw oedema volume respectively when compared with the arthritic control rats. ESBCI and ESCI treatment at the dose level of 250 mg/kg/p.o. normalized the altered haematological and biochemical parameters of arthritic control rats. Histological and radiological evaluation confirmed the antiarthritic effect of ESBCI and ESCI. ESBCI and ESCI were found to show significant antiarthritic activity evidenced with clinical, biochemical, histological and radiological evaluations. The present study indicates the antiarthritic activity of ESBCI and ESCI, however its mechanism of action has to be studied in the future.

  16. Germinação e crescimento de Calophyllum brasiliense (Clusiaceae, uma espécie típica de florestas inundadas Seed germination and growth of Calophyllum brasiliense (Clusiaceae, a typical species of flooded forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia C. M. Marques

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available A saturação hídrica do solo e a conseqüente diminuição na quantidade de oxigênio disponível para o sistema radicular selecionaram, ao longo do processo evolutivo, plantas capazes de sobreviverem à inundação sazonal ou permanente. Nas espécies neotropicais as adaptações que permitem suportar este estresse são bastante diversificadas. Neste trabalho foram estudados a germinação das sementes e o crescimento inicial das plantas de Calophyllum brasiliense, em condições de hipoxia. As sementes de C brasiliense não são fotoblásticas, sobrevivem ao menos três meses submersas, mas germinam apenas em solo bem drenado. A inundação não inibe o crescimento da planta. Não houve mudanças morfológicas na parte aérea das plantas, mas a substituição das raízes formadas no período pré-inundação por um sistema radicular eficiente talvez seja o principal motivo que permita o crescimento normal das plantas em áreas inundadas. Ao contrário de algumas espécies de locais sujeitos ao alagamento, cujas plantas têm o crescimento inibido pelo estresse, o ciclo de vida de C brasiliense está adaptado à inundação temporária ou permanente. A diversificação da forma de dispersão, a indiferença em relação à luz e a capacidade de sobreviver e crescer em solo inundado são características que contribuem para a ampla distribuição geográfica da espécie, sempre associada a áreas alagáveis.Soil waterlogging and the subsequent reduction in the amount of oxygen available for the respiration of the root system selected, along the evolutive process, plants able to thrive in seasonally or permanently flooded areas. In neotropical plants there are many types of adaptations to flooding. In this paper we present the results of the work carried out with seeds and seedlings of C brasiliense subjected to hypoxia during germination and early development. C brasiliense seeds are not photoblastic and survive up to three months burried in a

  17. Equilibrium, thermodynamic and kinetic studies for the biosorption of aqueous lead(II) ions onto the seed husk of Calophyllum inophyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, O S; Sanni, A R; Ajayi, I A; Rabiu, O O

    2010-05-15

    Biosorption of lead(II) ions from aqueous solution onto the seed husk of Calophyllum inophyllum was investigated in a batch system. Equilibrium, thermodynamics and kinetic studies were conducted by considering the effects of pH, initial metal ion concentration, contact time, and temperature. The results showed that the uptake of the metal ions increased with increase in initial metal ion concentration. The pH for optimum adsorption was 4 for the Pb(II) ions (q=4.86 mg/g and 97.2% adsorption). Langmuir isotherm described the biosorption of Pb(II) ions onto the biomass (R(2)=0.9531) better than the Freundlich model (R(2)=0.7984), and the Temkin model (R(2)=0.8761). Biosorption kinetics data obtained for the metal ions sorption were fitted using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order. It was found that the kinetics data fitted well into the pseudo-second-order kinetics. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy (DeltaG), standard enthalpy (DeltaH) and standard entropy (DeltaS) were evaluated. The result showed that biosorption of the metal ion onto C. inophyllum biomass was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The results of FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy) revealed that carboxyl, amine, and hydroxyl groups on the biomass surface were involved in the adsorption of Pb(II) ions. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Equilibrium, thermodynamic and kinetic studies for the biosorption of aqueous lead(II) ions onto the seed husk of Calophyllum inophyllum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawal, O.S., E-mail: laidelawal2@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Olabisi Onabanjo University, P.M.B 2002, Ago Iwoye, Ogun State (Nigeria); Sanni, A.R. [Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Olabisi Onabanjo University, P.M.B 2002, Ago Iwoye, Ogun State (Nigeria); Ajayi, I.A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Ibadan (Nigeria); Rabiu, O.O. [Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Olabisi Onabanjo University, P.M.B 2002, Ago Iwoye, Ogun State (Nigeria)

    2010-05-15

    Biosorption of lead(II) ions from aqueous solution onto the seed husk of Calophyllum inophyllum was investigated in a batch system. Equilibrium, thermodynamics and kinetic studies were conducted by considering the effects of pH, initial metal ion concentration, contact time, and temperature. The results showed that the uptake of the metal ions increased with increase in initial metal ion concentration. The pH for optimum adsorption was 4 for the Pb(II) ions (q = 4.86 mg/g and 97.2% adsorption). Langmuir isotherm described the biosorption of Pb(II) ions onto the biomass (R{sup 2} = 0.9531) better than the Freundlich model (R{sup 2} = 0.7984), and the Temkin model (R{sup 2} = 0.8761). Biosorption kinetics data obtained for the metal ions sorption were fitted using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order. It was found that the kinetics data fitted well into the pseudo-second-order kinetics. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy ({Delta}G), standard enthalpy ({Delta}H) and standard entropy ({Delta}S) were evaluated. The result showed that biosorption of the metal ion onto C. inophyllum biomass was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The results of FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy) revealed that carboxyl, amine, and hydroxyl groups on the biomass surface were involved in the adsorption of Pb(II) ions.

  19. Experimental and artificial neural network based prediction of performance and emission characteristics of DI diesel engine using Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester at different nozzle opening pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairamuthu, G.; Thangagiri, B.; Sundarapandian, S.

    2017-07-01

    The present work investigates the effect of varying Nozzle Opening Pressures (NOP) from 220 bar to 250 bar on performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of Calophyllum inophyllum Methyl Ester (CIME) in a constant speed, Direct Injection (DI) diesel engine using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach. An ANN model has been developed to predict a correlation between specific fuel consumption (SFC), brake thermal efficiency (BTE), exhaust gas temperature (EGT), Unburnt hydrocarbon (UBHC), CO, CO2, NOx and smoke density using load, blend (B0 and B100) and NOP as input data. A standard Back-Propagation Algorithm (BPA) for the engine is used in this model. A Multi Layer Perceptron network (MLP) is used for nonlinear mapping between the input and the output parameters. An ANN model can predict the performance of diesel engine and the exhaust emissions with correlation coefficient (R2) in the range of 0.98-1. Mean Relative Errors (MRE) values are in the range of 0.46-5.8%, while the Mean Square Errors (MSE) are found to be very low. It is evident that the ANN models are reliable tools for the prediction of DI diesel engine performance and emissions. The test results show that the optimum NOP is 250 bar with B100.

  20. Experimental and artificial neural network based prediction of performance and emission characteristics of DI diesel engine using Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester at different nozzle opening pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairamuthu, G.; Thangagiri, B.; Sundarapandian, S.

    2018-01-01

    The present work investigates the effect of varying Nozzle Opening Pressures (NOP) from 220 bar to 250 bar on performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of Calophyllum inophyllum Methyl Ester (CIME) in a constant speed, Direct Injection (DI) diesel engine using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach. An ANN model has been developed to predict a correlation between specific fuel consumption (SFC), brake thermal efficiency (BTE), exhaust gas temperature (EGT), Unburnt hydrocarbon (UBHC), CO, CO2, NOx and smoke density using load, blend (B0 and B100) and NOP as input data. A standard Back-Propagation Algorithm (BPA) for the engine is used in this model. A Multi Layer Perceptron network (MLP) is used for nonlinear mapping between the input and the output parameters. An ANN model can predict the performance of diesel engine and the exhaust emissions with correlation coefficient (R2) in the range of 0.98-1. Mean Relative Errors (MRE) values are in the range of 0.46-5.8%, while the Mean Square Errors (MSE) are found to be very low. It is evident that the ANN models are reliable tools for the prediction of DI diesel engine performance and emissions. The test results show that the optimum NOP is 250 bar with B100.

  1. Enhanced repellency of binary mixtures of Zanthoxylum piperitum pericarp steam distillate or Zanthoxylum armatum seed oil constituents and Calophyllum inophyllum nut oil and their aerosols to Stomoxys calcitrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieu, Tran Trung; Kim, Soon-Il; Kwon, Hyung Wook; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2010-11-01

    The repellency to stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), of Zanthoxylum piperitum (L.) DC pericarp steam distillate (ZP-SD), Zanthoxylum armatum DC seed oil (ZA-SO) and their constituents alone or in combination with Calophyllum inophyllum L. nut oil (CI-NO), as well as six aerosol formulations containing ZP-SD or ZP-SO and CI-NO, was compared with that of a synthetic repellent, DEET, using an exposed human hand bioassay. At 0.20 mg cm(-2), ZP-SD treatments resulted in 91 and 68% repellency following 30 and 60 min exposure respectively, while DEET gave 100 and 84% repellency. ZA-SO was less effective than ZP-SD. At 0.2 mg cm(-2), the most active constituents, cuminaldehyde, cuminyl alcohol, limonene and methyl cinnamate, gave 82, 74, 74 and 64% repellency at 30 min respectively, but DEET gave 100 and 87% repellency at 30 and 60 min. An increase in effectiveness and duration of repellency was produced by binary mixtures of ZP-SD, ZA-SO or bioactive constituents (each 0.01 mg cm(-2)) and CI-NO (0.99 mg cm(-2)). The repellency of aerosols containing 2.5% ZP-SD or 2.5% ZA-SO and 2.5% CI-NO was comparable with that of 5% DEET aerosol. Mixtures formulated from ZP-SD, ZA-SO or bioactive constituents and CI-NO could be useful as potential repellents for the control of stable fly populations in light of global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic repellents. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. EFFECT OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL COLONIZATION ON EARLY GROWTH AND NUTRIENT CONTENT OF TWO PEAT­ SWAMP FOREST TREE SPECIES SEEDLINGS, Calophyllum hosei AND Ploiarium alternifolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maman Turjaman

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Tropical peat-swamp forests are one of  the largest near-surface reserves of terrestrial organic carbon,  but rnany peat-swamp forest tree species decreased due over-exploitation, forest fire and conversion of natural forests into agricultural lands. Among those species are slow-growing Calophyllum  hoseiand Ploiarium  alternifolium, two species are good for construction of boats, furniture, house building and considerable attention from pharmacological viewpoint for human healthly. This study was aimed at understanding the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi on early growth of  C. hosei and P.alternifoliumunder greenhouse condition. Seedlings of C. hosei and P.alternifoliumwere inoculated with AM fungi: Glomus clarum and Glomus aggregatum ,or uninoculated under greenhouse condition during 6 months. AM colonization,   plant growth,  survival rate and  nutrient  content  (P, Zn  and B were measured. The percentage of C. hoseiand P.alternifolium ranged from 27-32% and 18-19%,  respectively. Both inoculated seedling species had greater plant  height, diameter, leaf number, shoot and root dry weight than control  seedlings.   Nutrient  content  of  inoculated  plants  were increased with AM colonization- Survival rates of  inoculated plants were higher (100%  than those of  control plants (67%. The results suggested that inoculation of AM fungi could improve the early growth of C. hoseiand P.alternifolium grown in tropical peat-swamp forest therefore  this finding has greater potential impact if this innovative technology applied in field scales which are socially acceptable, commercially profitable and environmentally friendly.

  3. Estudio de la germinación y la conservación de semillas de cedro maría (Calophyllum brasiliense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Semilla de cedro maría (Calophyllum brasiliense se recolectó en Volcán de Buenos Aires, Puntarenas, con el fin de determinar el punto de madurez fisiológica, las mejores técnicas de procesamiento, el efecto de la humedad de la semilla, el sustrato, el fotoperíodo y la temperatura sobre la germinación y su almacenamiento. La madurez fisiológica se alcanzó 92 días después de la antesis. Se evaluaron cinco contenidos de humedad (4,8%, 10,5%, 21,3%, 26,3% y 40,3%. Se encontró que la semilla germina en menor tiempo y mayor porcentaje con el contenido de humedad más elevado. De los sustratos de germinación evaluados (arena, vermiculita y suelo, el mejor fue arena. Con respecto a las temperaturas de germinación evaluadas (24, 28 y 32 °C, los mayores porcentajes de germinación se obtuvieron a 28 ºC. No se encontró efecto debido al fotoperíodo. La viabilidad de la semilla disminuyó rápidamente después de un mes de almacenamiento y esta disminución se intensificó conforme se redujo el contenido de humedad. La sensibilidad de semillas de C. brasiliense a las bajas temperaturas y contenidos de humedad, corroboraron su carácter recalcitrante.

  4. Allergien durch Stiche und Bisse von Insekten und Spinnentieren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, S; Schiener, M; Ollert, M.

    2016-01-01

    Allergic reactions due to stings of Hymenoptera species, such as honeybees or yellow jackets, are well known as severe allergies with potentially fatal outcome. Much less common is that also bites of blood-sucking insects (mosquitos, horseflies, flies, bugs, lice and fleas) and arachnids (ticks...

  5. Analytical characterization of products obtained from slow pyrolysis of Calophyllum inophyllum seed cake: study on performance and emission characteristics of direct injection diesel engine fuelled with bio-oil blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamohan, Sakthivel; Kasimani, Ramesh

    2018-01-21

    This paper aims to analyse the characteristics and properties of the fractions obtained from slow pyrolysis of non-edible seed cake of Calophyllum inophyllum (CI). The gas, bio-oil and biochar obtained from the pyrolysis carried out at 500 °C in a fixed bed batch type reactor at a heating rate of 30 °C/min were characterized by various analytical techniques. Owing to the high volatile content of CI biomass (72.61%), it was selected as the raw material in this present investigation. GC-MS and FT-IR analysis of bio-oil showed the presence of higher amount of oxygenated compounds, phenol derivatives, esters, acid and furans. The physicochemical properties of the bio-oil were tested as per ASTM norms which imply that bio-oil is a highly viscous liquid with lower heating value as compared to that of diesel fuel. The chemical composition of evolved gas was analysed by using GC testing which revealed the presence of combustible components. The FT-IR characterization of biochar showed the presence of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons whereas the elevated amount of carbon in biochar indicates its potential to be used as solid fuel. The performance and emission characteristics of CI engine were assessed with different CI bio-oil blends and compared with baseline diesel fuel. The results showed that addition of bio-oil leads to decreased brake thermal efficiency and increased brake specific energy consumption. Meanwhile, increase in blend ratio reduces harmful pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen and smoke in the exhaust. From the engine testing, it is suggested to employ 20% of CI bio-oil blends in CI engine to obtain better operation.

  6. 1,4-Bis{(+-(S-[1-(1-naphthylethyl]iminomethyl}benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Espinosa Leija

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C32H28N2, is a chiral bis-imine in which both imine groups display the common E configuration. The naphthyl groups present different orientations with respect to the central core, as reflected in the dihedral angles of 21.4 (2 and 78.83 (14° between the benzene and naphthyl mean planes, thus the highest possible C2 local molecular symmetry is not attained. This C1 molecular conformation allows multiple C—H...π intermolecular contacts involving all aromatic rings, while no π–π interactions are available for the stabilization of the crystal structure. The resulting packing structure is based on molecules stacked along [100].

  7. Crystal structure of bis{(S-1-[2-(diphenylphosphanylferrocenyl]-(R-ethyl}ammonium bromide dichloromethane monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrooz Zirakzadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available During the synthesis of an FeBr2 complex with the PNP ligand (R,R,SFc,SFc-[Fe2(C5H52(C38H35NP2] (1, single crystals of the dichloromethane monosolvate of the Br− salt of the protonated ligand 1H+ were obtained serendipitously, i.e. [Fe2(C5H52(C38H36NP2]Br·CH2Cl2. The crystal structure of 1H·Br·CH2Cl2 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The mean bond lengths in the ferrocene units are Fe—C = 2.049 (3 Å and C—C = 1.422 (4 Å within the cyclopentadienyl rings. The mean C—N bond length is 1.523 (4 Å. The interplanar angle between the two connected cyclopentadienyl rings is 49.2 (2°. One ferrocene moiety adopts a staggered conformation, whereas the other is between staggered and eclipsed. The Br− ions and the CH2Cl2 molecules are located in channels extending along . One ammonium H atom forms a hydrogen bond with the Br− ion [H...Br = 2.32 (4 Å and C—H...Br = 172 (3°]. The second ammonium H atom is not involved in hydrogen bonding.

  8. Identification of phytochemical compounds in Calophyllum inophyllum leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Febrilliant Susanto

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: C. inophyllum leaves may be used as a good source of fiber. It was found that C. inophyllum leaves have the potential as herbal drugs due to their phytochemical content. The separation, isolation, and purification of bioactive compounds from this methanolic crude extract and their biological activity are under further investigation.

  9. In vitro growth-inhibitory activity of Calophyllum inophyllum ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cordyline fruticosa,. Inocarpus fagifer,. Mussaenda raiateensis, Piper graeffei, Pometia pinnata, Premna serratifolia, Spondias dulcis,. Syzygium malaccense, Thespesia populnea, and. Trema cannabina against diarrhoea-causing bacteria. Among these species, the extract of leaves of C.inophyllum produced results worth.

  10. In vitro regeneration of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antonio Bernabe Antonio

    2015-10-07

    Oct 7, 2015 ... Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e Ingenierías, Universidad de. Guadalajara, Km. 15.5. Carretera Guadalajara-Nogales, Las Agujas, C.P. 45020, Zapopan, Jalisco, México. Tel.: +52. 3336 820110, ext. 202. 3Departamento de Biotecnología, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, San ...

  11. Acetyl-cholinesterase Enzyme Inhibitory Effect of Calophyllum species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme using Ellman's method. Results: Most of the extracts showed promising inhibitory activity against AChE at concentrations of. 100 µg/mL, with the methanol extract of C. inophyllum demonstrating the strongest inhibitory effect of. 81.28 % followed by the methanol extract of C. benjaminum ...

  12. Acetyl-cholinesterase Enzyme Inhibitory Effect of Calophyllum species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    : Most of the extracts showed promising inhibitory activity against AChE at concentrations of 100 μg/mL, with the methanol extract of C. inophyllum demonstrating the strongest inhibitory effect of 81.28 % followed by the methanol extract of C.

  13. trans-{1,8-Bis[(S-1-phenylethyl]-1,3,6,8,10,13-hexaazacyclotetradecane}bis(thiocyanato-κNcopper(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Won Shin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title thiocyanate-coordinated aza-macrocyclic copper(II complex, [Cu(NCS2(C24H38N6], the CuII atom is coordinated by the four secondary N atoms of the aza-macrocyclic ligand and by the two N atoms of the thiocyanate ions in a tetragonally distorted octahedral geometry. The average equatorial Cu—N bond length is shorter than the average axial Cu—N bond length [2.010 (2 and 2.528 (4 Å, respectively]. An N—H...N hydrogen-bonding interaction between the secondary amine N atom and the adjacent thiocyanate ion leads to a polymeric chain along the a axis.

  14. 1,3-Bis{(+)-(S)-[1-(1-naphth-yl)eth-yl]imino-meth-yl}benzene dichloro-methane solvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa Leija, Armando; Hernández, Guadalupe; Cruz, Sandra; Bernès, Sylvain; Gutiérrez, René

    2009-05-20

    In the title compound, C(32)H(28)N(2)·CH(2)Cl(2), the complete Schiff base and solvent molecules are both generated by crystallographic twofold axes, with the two C atoms of the former and the C atom of the latter lying on the rotation axis. The central benzene ring is substituted with two chiral groups including imine functionalities, with the common E configuration. The dihedral angle between the central benzene ring and the terminal naphthalene ring is 45.42 (9)° and that between the two naphthalene rings is 89.16 (8)°. The conformation of the Schiff base allows solvent mol-ecules to fill the voids in the crystal, affording a stable 1:1 solvate, but the solvent inter-acts poorly with the Schiff base, as reflected by its rather high displacement parameters.

  15. Chemical compositions and termiticidal activities of the heartwood from Calophyllum inophyllum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Roszaini; Awang, Khairul; Khamaruddin, Zaitihaiza; Soit, Zaini

    2015-01-01

    Wood extractives from heartwood of Callophylum inophyllum (bintangor) were obtained by shaker method and analyzed for their constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Ten compounds were identified by ethanol (EtOH) solvents, fourteen by methanol (MeOH) and only nine by petroleum ether (PETETHR). Major compounds were contributed by monoterpenes (75.11%, 53.75%) when extracted with EtOH and PETETHR solvents. The anti-termitic assay of the wood extracts was also investigated against Coptotermes curvignathus. The level of concentration for anti-termite activity may be an indication of the dose application of the wood extracts for new development of termiticide.

  16. IMPLEMENTATION OF DEMONSTRATION PLOTS DME NYAMPLUNG (Calophyllum inophyllum L IN BULUAGUNG AND PATUTREJO VILLAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Uripno

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   The purpose of this study were to evaluate the condition of the frist demplot DME nyamplung. Energy self sufficient village program aims to improve stock and diverse energy source and society economic opportunity. Nyamplung is very potential plant to be used as raw material of biofuel, because it has very high fat plant content and has not be used for food. The biofuel from nyamplung is a new innovation. Involvement of forest village community in biofuel industry development both as producers and as consumers is very important. Forestry Ministry has established demonstration plots in Buluagung and Patutrejo villages as a facilitation in developing biofuel nyamplung silvoindustry. Up to now, the demplots still faces some problems. The researh method was qualitatif analysis. Collecting data from 62 respondents using purposive sampling. Data were collected using questionnaires, field obsevation, and in-depth interview. Focus group discussion  was used to confirm the data from the respondents. Research results show that the demplots have not been developed through participatory approach. Involvement of community to demplots activity is low. Involvement of the village communities are significantly correlated to biofuel price, technology innovation, role of demplot and support from local leaders.  

  17. Kajian Keterlibatan Masyarakat Desa Hutan Mengembangkan Silvoindustri Biofuel Nyamplung (Calophyllum Inophyllum L Berkelanjutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Uripno

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Program Desa Mandiri Energi bertujuan untuk meningkatkan persediaan dan keragaman sumber energi dan peluang perekonomian masyarakat. Nyamplung merupakan tumbuhan yang potensial sebagai bahan baku biofuel atau bahan bakar nabati karena memiliki rendemen minyak tumbuhan yang sangat tinggi dan bukan untuk makanan manusia atau pakan ternak. Biofuel dari nyamplung merupakan inovasi yang perlu dimasyarakatkan. Keterlibatan masyarakat setempat dalam pengembangan silvoindustri biofuel nyamplung, baik sebagai produsen maupun konsumen biofuel, sangat penting. Badan Litbang Kehutanan membangun dua demplot di Desa Buluagung dan di Desa Paputrejo sebagai percontohan pembangunan silvoindustri biofuel nyamplung. Sampai sekarang perkembangan demplot masih menghadapi berbagai persoalan. Metode survei dipergunakan untuk mengumpulkan data dan informasi dari 62 (enam puluh dua orang responden, yang dipilih dengan purposive sampling. Pengumpulan data dan informasi menggunakan kuesioner, observasi lapangan, dan wawancara mendalam. Konfirmasi data dan informasi dilakukan melalui Forest Group Discussion tingkat desa. Analisis data menggunakan program statistik SPSS untuk mengetahui korelasi Rank-Spearman, dan dilengkapi dengan analisis secara kualitatif. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan bahwa pembangunan demplot tidak menggunakan pendekatan dan proses partisipatif. Keterlibatan masyarakat desa setempat dalam pengembangan silvoindustri biofuel nyamplung rendah; dan secara nyata dipengaruhi oleh harga biofuel, kematangan inovasi teknologi, peranan demplot dan pendampingan tokoh kunci

  18. The Effect of Weaning Tecnique to Survival Rate and Height Growth of Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ady Suryawan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Technical rehabilitation planning of BPDAS Tondano on coastal area has reached 10,000 hectares, thus require many seedlings. Nyamplung has potential as rehabilitation plant in coastal at the same time it can support national demand of biofuel. However the nurseries of nyamplung in North Sulawesi are not optimal and need appropriate information of weaning method. This research used completely randomized design with three treatment factors, namely 1 Cutting the leaves consist of two levels ie D1 (pair leaves and D2 (intact leaf; 2 Cutting intact seeds, consists of two levels i.e B1 (removed seed and B2 (intact seeds; and 3 Cutting the roots lenght consist of three levels i.e A1 (5 cm, A2 (10 cm and A3 (15 cm. There were 180 seedlings taken from seed that germinated using cocopeat media. Results of variance analysis showed that the applied treatment only affect the heigth growth. The survival rate is not affected by all treatments or in the other words survival rate reached 100 %. The treatments on leaves and seeds gave significant effect, on the contrary with root treatment. The treatment of intact leaf (D2 and intact seeds (B2 produced the best height growth responses i.e 4.60 cm and 4.63 cm.

  19. Characterization of Surface Active Shell Charcoal Nyamplung Seeds (Calophyllum inophyllum Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiyo Wibowo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and physical activation of nyamplung shell with 0%, 5%, and 10% H3PO4 for 60 and 120 minutes has been carried out to  prepare  activated  charcoal.  The  purpose  of this  experiment  was  to  look  into  the  characteristic  of  nyamplung shell activated  charcoal  surface.  Nyamplung  shell  was  carbonized  into charcoal,  then  activated  by  immersion  in  H3PO4 solution  using  0%, 5%  and  10%,  for  24  hours,  and  heated  in  retort at  two temperatures  (700 and 800 oC and two duration (60 and 120 minutes. The material were characterized by  fourier transform infra red (FTIR, scaning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The FTIR spectrum show that  activated charcoal has OH, C-H, C-O and  C=C bonds. The  bonds  of  OH  and  C-O  indicated  that  the  treatment  was produced  polar  activated  charcoal. The porous  texture  was  influenced by  H3PO4  concentration.  The  porous  with  dimension  <5 μ being predominant at low concentration of H3PO4 (0% and 5% but larger amount of H3PO4 (10% produced wide pore with dimension >5 μ.

  20. Chemical compositions and termiticidal activities of the heartwood from Calophyllum inophyllum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roszaini Kadir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wood extractives from heartwood of Callophylum inophyllum (bintangor were obtained by shaker method and analyzed for their constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Ten compounds were identified by ethanol (EtOH solvents, fourteen by methanol (MeOH and only nine by petroleum ether (PETETHR. Major compounds were contributed by monoterpenes (75.11%, 53.75% when extracted with EtOH and PETETHR solvents. The anti-termitic assay of the wood extracts was also investigated against Coptotermes curvignathus. The level of concentration for anti-termite activity may be an indication of the dose application of the wood extracts for new development of termiticide.

  1. Sintesis Biodiesel dari Minyak Biji Nyamplung (Calophyllum Inophyllum) Menggunakan Katalis Geopolimer Berbasis Kaolin

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Al Qarni; Saputra, Edy; Komalasari, Komalasari

    2017-01-01

    Biodiesel is one of alternative energy which replace the fossil fuel as the product of transesterification of vegetable plants. Whole this time, the process of making biodiesel using homogeous catalyst NaOH or KOH which produce soap and hard to separate biodiesel product using catalyst as its disadvantages. Therefore, by using heterogen catalyst, researcher start to develop it using catalyst geopolymer in the oil of calophylluminophyllum seed. The objective of this research is making biodiese...

  2. Archaeological Salvage Excavations at the Tibbee Creek Site (22Lo600) Lowndes County, Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    virginiana), paw paw (Asimina triloba), red mulberry (Morus rubra), crab apple ( Malus angustifolia), huckleberry (Vaccinium vacillans), blackberry (Rubus sp...squirrel Glaucomys volans flying squirrel Microtus pinetorum vole Siqmodon hispidus cotton rat Procyon lotor raccoon Canis familiaris domestic dog

  3. PRELIMINARY STUDIES OF SYNTHESIS POLYURETHANE MEMBRANE OF NYAMPLUNG SEED OIL (Calophyllum inophyllum WITH HEXAMETHILENE-1,6-DIISOCYANATE (HMDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutia Farida

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nyamplung oil originated from Ujong Pancu, Aceh Besar is one of the vegetable oil sources which is not fully utilized yet. The extraction of nyamplung oil is done using soxhletation with n-hexane solvent; during this process, the oils produced is at the 55.55% levels. The product is in the form of yellowish green liquid with the density of 0.88gr/ml. The nyamplung oil extract has the iodine number of iod 83.53 mg iod/g and hydroxyl number of  64.292 mg KOH/gram which can be utilized as the raw material in making polyurethane membrane. Polyurethane membrane is synthesized by reacting fatty acids from nyamplung seed oil with hexamethylene-1.6-diisocyanate (HDMI. The ration of the oil towards HDMI is variated as, 5:1;5:3;5:5;5:7;5:9 v/w. The membrane has a composition of  5:7 v/w  with 90-100 oC polymerization temperatures and  160oC curring temperature for 8 hours is hard, homogenous and quite elastic with a transparent brown colour.

  4. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SODIUM SOAP FROM NYAMPLUNG SEED OIL (Calophyllum inophyllum L. AND TEST ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST Staphilococus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Chasani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was used nyamplung seed oil as antibacterial soap material. The soap from nyamplung seed oil was performed by saponification reactions, characterization of soap based on SNI 06-3632-1994. The antibacterial activity was tested against bacteria Staphylococus aureus. The result of this research showed that soap had yellow color with weight 13,028 g from 10,028 g nyamplung seed oil. The characteristic of soap based on SNI were water content of 25,287%, fatty acid of 72,177%, free alkali 0,082%, unsoap fatty or free fatty 0,834%, and mineral oil was negative. Soap base on nyamplung seed oil have antibacterial activity against bacteria Staphylococus aureus with diameter of inhibition zone 14,701 mm.

  5. Academic Performance among Adolescents with Behaviorally Induced Insufficient Sleep Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Jin; Park, Juhyun; Kim, Soohyun; Cho, Seong-Jin; Kim, Seog Ju

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The present study investigated academic performance among adolescents with behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome (BISS) and attempted to identify independent predictors of academic performance among BISS-related factors. Methods: A total of 51 students with BISS and 50 without BISS were recruited from high schools in South Korea based on self-reported weekday sleep durations, weekend oversleep, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Participants reported their academic performance in the form of class quartile ranking. The Korean version of the Composite Scale (KtCS) for morningness/eveningness, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for depression, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-II (BIS-II) for impulsivity were administered. Results: Adolescents with BISS reported poorer academic performance than adolescents without BISS (p = 0.02). Adolescents with BISS also exhibited greater levels of eveningness (p academic performance among adolescents with BISS even after controlling for ESS, KtCS, BDI, and BIS-II (β = 0.42, p academic performance and that sleep debt, as represented by weekend oversleep, predicts poorer academic performance independent of depression, impulsiveness, weekday sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and morningness/eveningness among adolescents with BISS. Citation: Lee YJ, Park J, Kim S, Cho SJ, Kim SJ. Academic performance among adolescents with behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(1):61–68. PMID:25515277

  6. Academic performance among adolescents with behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Jin; Park, Juhyun; Kim, Soohyun; Cho, Seong-Jin; Kim, Seog Ju

    2015-01-15

    The present study investigated academic performance among adolescents with behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome (BISS) and attempted to identify independent predictors of academic performance among BISS-related factors. A total of 51 students with BISS and 50 without BISS were recruited from high schools in South Korea based on self-reported weekday sleep durations, weekend oversleep, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Participants reported their academic performance in the form of class quartile ranking. The Korean version of the Composite Scale (KtCS) for morningness/eveningness, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for depression, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-II (BIS-II) for impulsivity were administered. Adolescents with BISS reported poorer academic performance than adolescents without BISS (p = 0.02). Adolescents with BISS also exhibited greater levels of eveningness (p academic performance among adolescents with BISS even after controlling for ESS, KtCS, BDI, and BIS-II (β = 0.42, p academic performance and that sleep debt, as represented by weekend oversleep, predicts poorer academic performance independent of depression, impulsiveness, weekday sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and morningness/eveningness among adolescents with BISS. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  7. Enhanced repellency of binary mixtures of Calophyllum inophyllum nut oil fatty acids or their esters and three terpenoids to Stomoxys calcitrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieu, Tran Trung; Choi, Won Sil; Kim, Soon-Il; Wang, Mo; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2015-09-01

    An assessment was made of the repellency to female stable flies of tamanu nut oil fatty acids or their esters alone (each 0.5 mg cm(-2) ) or in combination with cuminyl alcohol, cuminaldehyde and α-phellandrene (each 0.25 mg cm(-2) ), using an exposed human hand bioassay. Results were compared with those of synthetic repellent DEET (0.25 mg cm(-2) ). Based upon protection time (PT) (time to first bite of stable fly), oleic acid, linoleic acid, methyl oleate or methyl linoleate synergised the repellency of each monoterpenoid and DEET. For example, the binary mixture of oleic acid and cuminyl alcohol (PT 2.05 h) resulted in significantly greater repellency than either oleic acid (0.55 h), cuminyl alcohol (0.70 h) or DEET alone (1.50 h). The binary mixtures of oleic acid and cuminyl alcohol or DEET (PT 2.10 h) did not differ significantly in repellency. The structure-activity relationship indicates that the degree of saturation, the side chain length and the functional group of fatty acids appear to play a role in determining the fatty acid repellency to stable flies. Mixtures formulated from fatty acid and monoterpenoid could be useful as potential repellents for protecting humans and possibly domestic animals from bites caused by stable fly. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Pembuatan Biodiesel dari Minyak Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum L dengan Reaksi Transesterifikasi Menggunakan Katalis K2O/H-Za Berbasis Zeolit Alam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archita Permatasari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Kebutuhan dunia akan minyak bumi telah mencapai 10.000 juta ton pertahun. Eksploitasi secara berlebihan dan berkepanjangan mengakibatkan cadangan minyak bumi terus berkurang, dimana hal tersebut dapat diatasi dengan sumber energi alternatif terbarukan seperti biodiesel. Katalis yang digunakan adalah K2O/H-Za dengan loading KI 1%, 2%, 4% dan 6%. Minyak nyamplung melalui proses esterifikasi kemudian dilakukan proses transesterifikasi dengan katalis K2O/H-Za dengan variabel berat terhadap minyak sebesar 5%, 10%, 15% dan 20% dan suhu 500C, 600C dan 700C. Dari penelitian ini didapatkan bahwa semakin tinggi % loading KI, % yield juga semakin tinggi, dimana % yield tertinggi sebesar 32,301% dengan loading KI 6%. Massa katalis terbaik didapatkan pada variabel 10% massa minyak dengan % yield 36,807%. Semakin tinggi suhu reaksi, % yield biodiesel yang dihasilkan semakin tinggi, dengan % yield tertinggi pada suhu reaksi 700C sebesar 36,807%. Kondisi reaksi transesterifikasi terbaik adalah katalis dengan loading KI 6%, massa katalis 10% massa minyak dan pada suhu 700C. Namun berdasarkan densitas dan viskositasnya, biodiesel minyak nyamplung dengan katalis K2O/H-Za tidak memenuhi SNI 04-7182-2006 karena % yield biodiesel yang dihasilkan kecil.

  9. Modeling of Near-Field Blast Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Army Research Laboratory Modeling of Near-Field Blast Performance by Barrie E. Homan , Matthew M. Biss, and Kevin L. McNesby ARL-TR-6711 November 2013...Laboratory Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5066 ARL-TR-6711 November 2013 Modeling of Near-Field Blast Performance Barrie E. Homan , Matthew M. Biss, and... Homan Matthew M. Biss Kevin L. McNesby U.S. Army Research Laboratory ATTN: RDRL-WMP-G Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5066 Two hydrocode packages

  10. Danske mejere - en fauna i vækst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik; Pedersen, Jan; Toft, Søren

    2014-01-01

    ramosus (Si mon, 1909) – 2007; Leiobunum »sp. A« – 2008; Paranemastoma quadripunctatum (Perty, 1833) – 2009; Nelima semproni Szalay, 1951 – 2012; Platybunus pinetorum (C.L. Koch, 1839) – 2013. Notes are given on the de cline of Opilio parietinus (De Geer, 1778), O. saxatilis C.L. Koch, 1839, and Leiobunum...

  11. Body Image as a Source of Shame: A New Measure for the Assessment of the Multifaceted Nature of Body Image Shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Cristiana; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Ferreira, Cláudia; Batista, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical accounts highlight the link between shame and body image difficulties, and disordered eating behaviours. Specifically, body image shame seems to play a particularly important role in this association. The current study aimed at developing and validating a new measure of body image shame and its phenomenology, the Body Image Shame Scale (BISS). Distinct samples of women from the general and student populations were used to test the BISS factorial structure using principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and to examine the psychometric properties of the BISS. Principal component analysis results indicated that the scale presents a two-factor structure assessing an externalized and an internalized dimension underlying body image shame, which explains a total of 62.41% of the variance. A confirmatory factor analysis further corroborated the adequacy of this structure, which revealed good global and local adjustment indices. The BISS also presented very good internal consistency, construct and discriminant validities and good test-retest reliability. The scale also showed good concurrent and divergent validities. Furthermore, the scale discriminates between women with higher or lower levels of disordered eating behaviours. Finally, a mediation analysis revealed that the BISS fully mediates the previously established association between external shame and eating psychopathology. The BISS is a psychometrically robust and short measure of body image shame and its external and internal dimensions. The BISS is a brief and reliable self-report instrument of body image-related shame. The BISS assesses the phenomenology of body image shame considering an externalized dimension and an internalized dimension, which may have important clinical implications. The BISS presents very good internal consistency, construct and discriminant validities, test-retest reliability, concurrent and divergent validities, and accurately

  12. Investigating symptom domains of bipolar disorder for Spanish-speakers using the Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jodi Gonzalez; Martinez, Cervando; Zavala, Juan; Prihoda, Thomas J; Escamilla, Michael; Singh, Vivek; Bazan, Melissa; Quiñones, Marlon; Bowden, Charles L

    2016-11-15

    A Spanish language rating scale which assesses the range of bipolar disorder symptoms is needed. There are rating scales commonly used, however they do not address commonly expressed symptoms associated with bipolar disorder and have varied rating systems. There are also few comparisons of symptom severity between Spanish and English speaking patients, due to limitations in available rating scales. We conducted psychometric assessment of the Spanish language Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale (BISS) (N=71) for persons with bipolar disorder, which assesses 5 domains: mania, depression, irritability, anxiety and psychosis. The Spanish BISS scores were then compared to the MADRS (Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale) and the YMRS (Young Mania Rating Scale) as well as to BISS scores in an English speaking sample (N=102) with bipolar disorder from the same geographic locations. Chronbach's alphas for the Spanish BISS ranged from 0.6 to 0.93, with the psychosis domain displaying lower reliability. Correlations with the MADRS and YMRS were good and ranged from 0.70 to 0.88. The BISS differentiated well across mood states in English and Spanish versions, with mood state differentiated well using subscales and domains. For the irritability and anxiety domains, Spanish speaking participants had higher scores than English speakers across mood states. Females showed differences in symptom profiles compared to males. The sample sizes in the Spanish speaking manic group were small. The Spanish BISS, tested here primarily in patients of Mexican ancestry, may require revision in other Spanish language populations. The Spanish BISS, a Spanish language symptom rating scale for bipolar disorder, demonstrates good reliability and validity. Clinical assessment in anxiety and irritability domains is particularly relevant in a Spanish speaking sample. Consistent with prior research, females report higher depression, irritability and anxiety scores irrespective of language spoken

  13. Synthesis of renewable diesel through hydrodeoxygenation reaction from nyamplung oil (Calophyllum Inophyllum oil) using NiMo/Z and NiMo/C catalysts with rapid heating and cooling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, B. H.; Prakasa, M. B.; Shahab, M. H.

    2016-11-01

    The synthesis of metal nanocrystal was conducted by modification preparation from simple heating method which heating and cooling process run rapidly. The result of NiMo/Z 575 °C characterizations are 33.73 m2/gram surface area and 31.80 nm crystal size. By used NiMo/C 700 °C catalyst for 30 minutes which had surface area of 263.21 m2/gram, had 31.77 nm crystal size, and good morphology, obtained catalyst with high activity, selectivity, and stability. After catalyst activated, synthesis of renewable diesel performed in hydrogenation reactor at 375 °C, 12 bar, and 800 rpm. The result of conversion was 81.99%, yield was 68.08%, and selectivity was 84.54%.

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF Pd IMPREGNATION INTO Al-MCM-41 ON THE CHARACTERS AND ACTIVITY FOR BIOGASOLINE PRODUCTION BY CATALYTIC HYDROCRACKING OF FAMEs FROM NYAMPLUNG SEED OIL (Calophyllum Inophyllum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendro Juwono

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Biogasoline have been synthesized through catalytic hydrocracking reaction against FAMEs compounds (fatty acid methyl esters obtained from the transesterification of Nyamplung seed oil. The performance of Al-MCM-41 and Pd/Al-MCM-41 as the catalytic hydrocracking was compared. In this research, the influence of Pd impregnation into Al-MCM-41 catalyst on the characters and catalytic activity has been evaluated. The characters determined were crystallinity by using X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD, Si/Al ratio by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP, the acidity by pyridine adsorption, the surface area and pore volume by surface area analyzer and the morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Catalytic activity was examined for hydrocracking of free fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs produced from the transesterification of Nyamplung seed oil, by Hydrogen flowing. The research result showed that impregnation of Pd into Al-MCM-41 has been successfully carried out, which did not destroy the structural morphology of the catalyst. It was also discovered that the Pd impregnation could increase Si/Al ratio and the acidity but it leads to decrease in the catalyst surface area and the volume. Furthermore, Pd impregnated Al-MCM-41 showed superior activity compared to Al-MCM-41 for FAMEs hydrocracking. The superiority was indicated by higher effectiveness and yields selectiveness, that were 100% hydrocarbon composed of C9-C18 that was dominated by C12 emerging the gasoline fraction, compared of that by the results used Al-MCM-41 catalyst that were 97% hydrocarbon consisted of C8-C20 with equal abundance.

  15. Influencia da intensidade luminosa e do substrato no crescimento, no conteudo de clorofila e na fotossintese de Cabralea canjerana (Vell.) Mart. Subsp. canjerana, Calophyllum brasiliense Camb. e centrolobium robustum (Vell.) Mart. Ex Benth., na fase ju

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Paulo Ernani Ramalho, 1946-

    2013-01-01

    Visando estudar a auto-ecologia de três espécies florestais brasileiras; Cabralea canjerana (Vell.) Mart. subsp. canjerana (canjarana); Callophyllum brasiliense Camb. (guanandi) e Centrolobium robustum (VelI.) Mart. ex Benth. (araribá-rosa), estudou-se o comportamento na fase juvenil de mudas envasadas em dois substratos (Colombo e Santa Helena) e sob intensidades luminosas de 10%, 30%, 50% e 100%. Para todas as espécies, foram estudados vários parâmetros ecofisiológicos: altura, diâmetro do ...

  16. An extension of the technology acceptance model for business intelligence systems: project management maturity perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Pejić Bach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Business intelligence systems (BISs refer to wide range of technologies and applications useful for retrieving and analyzing the large amount of information with the goal to generate knowledge useful for making effective business decision. In order to investigate adoption of BISs in companies, we propose a model based on the technology acceptance model (TAM that is expanded by variables representing the concept of a project management maturity (PMM. The survey on the sample of USA companies has been conducted with the chief information officer (CIO as the main informant. Structural equations model has been developed in order to test the research model. Results indicate that TAM expanded with the notion of PMM is useful in increasing understanding of BISs adoption in companies.

  17. Does short-term fasting promote changes in state body image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumberg, Katherine; Anderson, Drew A

    2014-03-01

    Fasting, or going a significant amount of time without food, is a predictor of eating pathology in at-risk samples. The current study examined whether acute changes in body image occur after an episode of fasting in college students. Furthermore, it evaluated whether individual difference variables might inform the relationship between fasting and shifts in body image. Participants (N=186) included male (44.7%) and female college students who completed the Body Image States Scale (BISS) and other eating-related measures before a 24-h fast. Participants completed the BISS again after fasting. While no overall changes in BISS scores emerged during the study, some individuals evidenced body image improvement. Baseline levels of disinhibition and self-reported fasting at least once per week uniquely predicted improvement in body image. Individual difference variables may play a role in how fasting could be reinforced by shifts in body image. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Test-retest reliability and responsiveness of the Barthel Index-based Supplementary Scales in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ya-Chen; Yu, Wan-Hui; Hsueh, I-Ping; Chen, Sheng-Shiung; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2017-10-01

    A lack of evidence on the test-retest reliability and responsiveness limits the utility of the BI-based Supplementary Scales (BI-SS) in both clinical and research settings. To examine the test-retest reliability and responsiveness of the BI-based Supplementary Scales (BI-SS) in patients with stroke. A repeated-assessments design (1 week apart) was used to examine the test-retest reliability of the BI-SS. For the responsiveness study, the participants were assessed with the BI-SS and BI (treated as an external criterion) at admission to and discharge from rehabilitation wards. Seven outpatient rehabilitation units and one inpatient rehabilitation unit. Outpatients with chronic stroke. Eighty-four outpatients with chronic stroke participated in the test-retest reliability study. Fifty-seven inpatients completed baseline and follow-up assessments in the responsiveness study. For the test-retest reliability study, the values of the intra-class correlation coefficient and the overall percentage of minimal detectable change for the Ability Scale and Self-perceived Difficulty Scale were 0.97, 12.8%, and 0.78, 35.8%, respectively. For the responsiveness study, the standardized effect size and standardized response mean (representing internal responsiveness) of the Ability Scale and Self-perceived Difficulty Scale were 1.17 and 1.56, and 0.78 and 0.89, respectively. Regarding external responsiveness, the change in score of the Ability Scale had significant and moderate association with that of the BI (r=0.61, Ptest-retest reliability and sufficient responsiveness for patients with stroke. However, the Self-perceived Difficulty Scale of the BI-SS has substantial random measurement error and insufficient external responsiveness, which may affect its utility in clinical settings. The findings of this study provide empirical evidence of psychometric properties of the BI-SS for assessing ability and self-perceived difficulty of ADL in patients with stroke.

  19. New Fellows and Honorary Fellow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Specialization: Materials & Structural Test Technology, Fatigue & Fracture Testing for Strength & Endurance, and Field Data Acquisition Address: Director, R&D, BISS, 41A, 1st A Cross, AECS, RMV Extension, Second Stage, Bengaluru 560 094, Karnataka Contact: Office: (080) 2836 0184. Residence: (080) 2341 4133

  20. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    previouslyr isolated from the leaves of Pithecellobium cubense Bisse and P. arbor-cum i... lLeguminosae) (5). Recently, Adewunmi et. cl. (6,?) reported on the effects of aridanin on Biomphalario globratc Say and Lymnaea columello. Say. In our preliminary investigation the stem bark of T. tetroptero showed a stronger ...

  1. Cytoprotective effect against UV-induced DNA damage and oxidative stress: role of new biological UV filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, T; Dutot, M; Martin, C; Beaudeux, J-L; Boucher, C; Enee, E; Baudouin, C; Warnet, J-M; Rat, P

    2007-03-01

    The majority of chemical solar filters are cytotoxic, particularly on sensitive ocular cells (corneal and conjunctival cells). Consequently, a non-cytotoxic UV filter would be interesting in dermatology, but more especially in ophthalmology. In fact, light damage to the eye can be avoided thanks to a very efficient ocular antioxidant system; indeed, the chromophores absorb light and dissipate its energy. After middle age, a decrease in the production of antioxidants and antioxidative enzymes appears with accumulation of endogenous molecules that are phototoxic. UV radiations can induce reactive oxygen species formation, leading to various ocular diseases. Because most UV filters are cytotoxic for the eye, we investigated the anti-UV properties of Calophyllum inophyllum oil in order to propose it as a potential vehicle, free of toxicity, with a natural UV filter action in ophthalmic formulation. Calophyllum inophyllum oil, even at low concentration (1/10,000, v/v), exhibited significant UV absorption properties (maximum at 300nm) and was associated with an important sun protection factor (18-22). Oil concentrations up to 1% were not cytotoxic on human conjunctival epithelial cells, and Calophyllum inophyllum oil appeared to act as a cytoprotective agent against oxidative stress and DNA damage (85% of the DNA damage induced by UV radiations were inhibited with 1% Calophyllum oil) and did not induce in vivo ocular irritation (Draize test on New Zealand rabbits). Calophyllum inophyllum oil thus exhibited antioxidant and cytoprotective properties, and therefore might serve, for the first time, as a natural UV filter in ophthalmic preparations.

  2. Rate heterogeneity across Squamata, misleading ancestral state reconstruction and the importance of proper null model specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, S; Reeder, T W

    2017-02-01

    The binary-state speciation and extinction (BiSSE) model has been used in many instances to identify state-dependent diversification and reconstruct ancestral states. However, recent studies have shown that the standard procedure of comparing the fit of the BiSSE model to constant-rate birth-death models often inappropriately favours the BiSSE model when diversification rates vary in a state-independent fashion. The newly developed HiSSE model enables researchers to identify state-dependent diversification rates while accounting for state-independent diversification at the same time. The HiSSE model also allows researchers to test state-dependent models against appropriate state-independent null models that have the same number of parameters as the state-dependent models being tested. We reanalyse two data sets that originally used BiSSE to reconstruct ancestral states within squamate reptiles and reached surprising conclusions regarding the evolution of toepads within Gekkota and viviparity across Squamata. We used this new method to demonstrate that there are many shifts in diversification rates across squamates. We then fit various HiSSE submodels and null models to the state and phylogenetic data and reconstructed states under these models. We found that there is no single, consistent signal for state-dependent diversification associated with toepads in gekkotans or viviparity across all squamates. Our reconstructions show limited support for the recently proposed hypotheses that toepads evolved multiple times independently in Gekkota and that transitions from viviparity to oviparity are common in Squamata. Our results highlight the importance of considering an adequate pool of models and null models when estimating diversification rate parameters and reconstructing ancestral states. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Color Imaging of Shock Front Emergence in TNT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    radiating spherical shock wave. Attempts to produce planar shock waves typically rely on flyer plates to initiate chemistry, or employ contoured and...sub-pixel output with the output from a calibrated photomultiplier tube for narrow bandwidth radiation over the full visible spectrum. Figure 4 shows...Densmore, John M.; Homan, Barrie E.; Biss, Matthew M.; McNesby, Kevin L. High-Speed Two-Camera Imaging Pyrometer for Mapping Fireball Temperatures, Appl

  4. Bioactivity of non-edible oil seed extracts and purified extracts against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Pushpa; Joseph, Mary; Tungikar, Vijay; Joshi, Swati

    2004-01-01

    Extracts and purified extracts of seeds of two plant species, Madhuca latifolia and Calophyllum inophyllum when evaluated against the 2nd instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera reared on synthetic diet, exhibited high larval mortality, prolongation of developmental period, morphological deformities and highly significant reduction in adult emergence. The reduction in larval weights in the treatments was also highly significant.

  5. 2504-IJBCS-Proof-Fabrice Boyom

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    The resistance to available antifungals highlights the urgent need for innovative drugs to treat yeasts infections. This study aimed at evaluating the activity of extracts and fractions from Uvariodendron calophyllum against pathogenic yeasts. The ethanolic and aqueous extracts obtained by maceration were liquid-.

  6. 479-IJBCS-Article-Dr Omotayo Dosumu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Farmacologia Vegetal, Burkill HM (ed). Escuela de Medicina Juan N. Corpa,. Fondo Editorial Universitario: Santa Fe de Bogota. Pretto JB, Cechinel-Filho V, Noldin VF,. Sartori MRK, Isaias DEB, Cruz AB. 2004. Antimicrobial Activity of Fractions and Compounds from Calophyllum brasiliense (Clusiaceae/Guttiferae). Z.

  7. Occurrence of biflavonoids in Clusiaceae: chemical and pharmacological aspects; Ocorrencia de biflavonoides em Clusiaceae: aspectos quimicos e farmacologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rafaela Oliveira [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Carvalho, Mario Geraldo de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (NPPN/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisa em Produtos Naturais; Silva, Tania Maria Sarmento da, E-mail: mgeraldo@ufrrj.br [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Moleculares

    2012-07-01

    This work describes the biflavonoids found in species of Clusiaceae, particularly the genera Garcinia and Calophyllum, emphasizing the importance of these metabolites as chemical markers of this family, their contribution to the pharmacological potential of these species, besides the promising potential of these compounds in the search for new drugs. (author)

  8. Anti-yeast activity of extracts and fractions from Uvariodendron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The resistance to available antifungals highlights the urgent need for innovative drugs to treat yeasts infections. This study aimed at evaluating the activity of extracts and fractions from Uvariodendron calophyllum against pathogenic yeasts. The ethanolic and aqueous extracts obtained by maceration were liquidliquid- ...

  9. Effect of adjunctive benzodiazepines on clinical outcomes in lithium- or quetiapine-treated outpatients with bipolar I or II disorder: results from the Bipolar CHOICE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, William V; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A; Ketter, Terence A; Brody, Benjamin D; Kinrys, Gustavo; Kemp, David E; Shelton, Richard C; McElroy, Susan L; Sylvia, Louisa G; Kocsis, James H; McInnis, Melvin G; Friedman, Edward S; Singh, Vivek; Tohen, Mauricio; Bowden, Charles L; Deckersbach, Thilo; Calabrese, Joseph R; Thase, Michael E; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Rabideau, Dustin J; Schoenfeld, David A; Faraone, Stephen V; Kamali, Masoud

    2014-06-01

    Little is known about the longer-term effects of adjunctive benzodiazepines on symptom response during treatment in patients with bipolar disorders. The study sample consisted of 482 patients with bipolar I or II disorder enrolled in a 6-month, randomized, multi-site comparison of lithium- and quetiapine-based treatment. Changes in clinical measures (BISS total and subscales, CGI-BP, and CGI-Efficacy Index) were compared between participants who did and did not receive benzodiazepine treatment at baseline or during follow-up. Selected outcomes were also compared between patients who did and did not initiate benzodiazepines during follow-up using stabilized inverse probability weighted analyses. Significant improvement in all outcome measures occurred within each benzodiazepine exposure group. Benzodiazepine users (at baseline or during follow-up) experienced significantly less improvement in BISS total, BISS irritability, and CGI-BP scores than did benzodiazepine non-users. There were no significant differences in these measures between patients who did and did not initiate benzodiazepines during follow-up in the weighted analyses. There was no significant effect of benzodiazepine use on any outcome measure in patients with comorbid anxiety or substance use disorders. This is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized effectiveness trial that was not designed to address differential treatment response according to benzodiazepine use. Adjunctive benzodiazepines may not significantly affect clinical outcome in lithium- or quetiapine-treated patients with bipolar I or II disorder over 6 months, after controlling for potential confounding factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Pengaruh Penambahan Spent Bleaching Earth Pada Minyak Nyamplung Untuk Gemuk Lumas

    OpenAIRE

    Widyawati, Yeti; Ufidian, Dziki

    2017-01-01

    Telah dikembangkan formula gemuk lumas dengan bahan dasar minyak nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum L.) di mana tribological performance dari minyak nyamplung tersebut ditingkatkan dengan penambahan pengental tanah pemucat bekas. Hasil uji nilai dropping point produk gemuk lumas ini didapat pada komposisi SBE : minyak nyampung (35:65) nilai NLGI 2, ini menunjukkan bahwa campuran tersebut berbentuk gemuk lumas pada umumnya. Formulasi gemuk lumas berbahan dasar minyak nyamplung, adalah suatu in...

  11. Influence of northeasterly trade winds on intensity of winter bloom in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dwivedi, R.M; Raman, M; Parab, S.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Nayak, S.

    , chemistry and activity. Heterocycles , 2000, 53 , 453 ? 474. 13. Dharmaratne, H. R. W., Tan, G. T., Marasinghe, G. P. K. and Pezzuto, J. M., Inhibition of HIV - 1 reverse transcriptase and HIV - 1 replication by Calophyllum coumarins and xa n.... Bruneton, J., Pharmacognosie ? Phytochime. Plantes Medic i nales , Technique and Documents Lavoisier, Paris, 1993, 2nd edn, p. 300. 8. Shetty, B. V., Kaveriappa, K. M. and Bhat, G. K., Plant Resources of Western Ghats and Lowlands of Da k shina K...

  12. BIODIESEL DARI MINYAK NYAMPLUNG TEROZONISASI MELALUI ESTERIFIKASI DAN TRANSESTERIFIKASI DENGAN BANTUAN GELOMBANG ULTRASONIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Haryono

    2016-10-01

      Fuel from petroleum is the most dominant source of energy used and is non-renewable. This causes the reduction in fossil fuel reserves. It encourages the development of alternative renewable fuels such as biodiesel. The purpose of this study was to synthesize biodiesel from Calophyllum inophyllum oil through esterification and transesterification process with the help of ozonation and ultrasonic waves. Ozonation is performed for 30 minutes, while the transesterification reaction is aided by ultrasonic wave frequency variation 28 and 35 kHz respectively for 30 minutes. The results showed that the use of ultrasonic waves with frequency of 35 kHz in the transesterification reaction to the ozonized Calophyllum inophyllum oil from esterification reaction produced biodiesel relatively accordance with the standards of biodiesel Indonesia. Biodiesel produced in these conditions have the acid value of 0.70 mgKOH/g biodiesel, iodine number 50.34 g I2/100 g, the flash point of 122.4°C, cetana numbers of 102.5, density of 0.9088 g/cm3, and a viscosity of 9.5 cSt. Biodiesel yield that obtained from the best synthesis condition is 77.0%.   Keywords:   biodiesel, Calophyllum inophyllum oil, ozonation, transesterification, ultrasonic.

  13. Objective and Comprehensive Evaluation of Bisulfite Short Read Mapping Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Tran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Large-scale bisulfite treatment and short reads sequencing technology allow comprehensive estimation of methylation states of Cs in the genomes of different tissues, cell types, and developmental stages. Accurate characterization of DNA methylation is essential for understanding genotype phenotype association, gene and environment interaction, diseases, and cancer. Aligning bisulfite short reads to a reference genome has been a challenging task. We compared five bisulfite short read mapping tools, BSMAP, Bismark, BS-Seeker, BiSS, and BRAT-BW, representing two classes of mapping algorithms (hash table and suffix/prefix tries. We examined their mapping efficiency (i.e., the percentage of reads that can be mapped to the genomes, usability, running time, and effects of changing default parameter settings using both real and simulated reads. We also investigated how preprocessing data might affect mapping efficiency. Conclusion. Among the five programs compared, in terms of mapping efficiency, Bismark performs the best on the real data, followed by BiSS, BSMAP, and finally BRAT-BW and BS-Seeker with very similar performance. If CPU time is not a constraint, Bismark is a good choice of program for mapping bisulfite treated short reads. Data quality impacts a great deal mapping efficiency. Although increasing the number of mismatches allowed can increase mapping efficiency, it not only significantly slows down the program, but also runs the risk of having increased false positives. Therefore, users should carefully set the related parameters depending on the quality of their sequencing data.

  14. Imagem corporal e características de personalidade de mulheres solicitantes de cirurgia plástica estética Body image and personality traits of women seeking aesthetic plastic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Sante

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As motivações psíquicas associadas à crescente busca de Cirurgia Plástica Estética (CPE têm sido pesqui-sadas, porém sem resultados conclusivos. Assim, objetivou-se investigar características de personalidade e imagem corporal de mulheres que buscam CPE, avaliando-se, individualmente, 37 mulheres solicitantes de mamoplastia adicional e/ou lipoaspiração (Grupo 1 e 41 mulheres sem procura de CPE (Grupo 2, pela Escala de Satisfação com Imagem Corporal (ESIC e pelas Escalas de Personalidade de Comrey (CPS. Comparando-se seus resultados (Student t-test, p Internal motivations associated with the increasing search for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (APS have been previously investigated without conclusive results. Our objective was to investigate personality traits and body image satisfaction of women seeking APS by individual evaluation of 37 women interested in breast augmentation (mammoplasty and/or liposuction (Group 1, and 41 women not seeking APS (Group 2. It was applied the Body Image Satisfaction Scale (BISS and Comrey Personality Scales (CPS. Statistical analysis (Student t-test, p < .05 has shown significant difference between groups for Factor 1 (satisfaction with self appearance of BISS as well as for CPS T (Confidence vs. Defensive Attitude and M (Mascu-linity vs. Femininity scales. It suggests that women in G1 are less satisfied with their body image, have increased defensive attitude and greater affective sensibility.

  15. Insufficient sleep and suicidality in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Jin; Cho, Seong-Jin; Cho, In Hee; Kim, Seog Ju

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the association between the behaviorally induced insufficient sleep and suicidality among adolescents. A population-based, cross-sectional survey. General community. A sample of 8,530 students (grades 7-11) was recruited in the Republic of Korea. The participants were 8,010 students who completed all questionnaires. N/A. The survey included the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (SSI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), a modified Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and questionnaires about sleep (weekday/weekend sleep schedule/duration, insomnia and snoring). Adolescents with behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome (BISS) had higher SSI scores than those who slept ≥ 7 hours on weekdays, even after controlling for age, sex, and BDI score (F = 11.71, P sleep duration predicted a higher SSI score (β = 0.19, P sleep restriction among adolescents may increase suicidal risk.

  16. Wireless intelligent alarm technology with pyroelectric infrared sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao

    2009-07-01

    Aiming at the defects of monitoring conducted by man in the conventional practice, we study the passive intelligent automatic alarm technology based on the pyroelectric infrared sensor and wireless communication technology. The designed passive infrared wireless alarm is composed of pyroelectric infrared sensors, infrared special chip BISS0001 and their peripheral circuits. When someone enters into the detecting and monitoring range, the alarm will detect the infrared ray of the human radiation by the contactless form and detect the signals of circuit output. Then it translates them into low frequency signals relative with human sports speed, distance and direction, produce corresponding output signals through amplifying by the back state controller, switch on the work power of the wireless transmitting circuit and make it emit the alarm signals. The system enhances the monitoring level and effects and possesses many advantages such as wide detecting range, long detecting distance and high reliability.

  17. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN SPENT BLEACHING EARTH PADA MINYAK NYAMPLUNG UNTUK GEMUK LUMAS

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    Yeti Widyawati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Telah dikembangkan formula gemuk lumas dengan bahan dasar minyak nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum L. di mana  tribological performance dari minyak nyamplung tersebut ditingkatkan dengan penambahan pengental tanah pemucat bekas. Hasil uji nilai dropping point produk gemuk lumas ini didapat pada komposisi SBE : minyak nyampung (35:65 nilai NLGI 2, ini menunjukkan bahwa campuran tersebut berbentuk gemuk lumas pada umumnya. Formulasi gemuk lumas berbahan dasar minyak nyamplung, adalah suatu inovasi penelitian di bidang pelumas yang berkomitmen untuk menghasilkan jenis-jenis gemuk lumas ramah lingkungan dan terbarukan. Kata kunci: nyamplung, gemuk lumas, tanah pemucat bekas

  18. Inhibitory effects of xanthones from guttiferae plants on PAF-induced hypotension in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Hisae; Ueda, Yoshimi; Iinuma, Munekazu; Ishiguro, Kyoko

    2005-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of 22 xanthones from three Guttiferae plants (Hypericum patulum, Calophyllum inophyllum and C. austroindium) on exogenous platelet activating factor (PAF)-induced hypotension were examined using a blood pressure monitoring in vivo assay method. Guanandin (2), caloxanthone E (3), 1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxy-2-isoprenylxanthone (8), 6-deoxyjacareubin (11) and patulone (18) showed strong inhibition of PAF-induced hypotension, with inhibitory effects of more than 60 %. Their ID50 values were greater than that of ginkgolide B (BN-52 021), a natural PAF-antagonist from the Ginkgo biloba.

  19. 5-Meth-oxy-2,2-dimethyl-6-[(2E)-2-methyl-but-2-eno-yl]-10-phenyl-2H,8H-pyrano[2,3-f]chromen-8-one (calophyllolide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanaraman, L; Mohan Kumar, R; Vishweshwar, Peddy; Pichai, R; Narasimhan, S

    2010-04-17

    The title compound, C(26)H(24)O(5), was isolated from calophyllum inophyllum seeds. In the mol-ecule, the phenyl and 2-methyl-but-2-enoyl groups are almost orthogonal to the chromene fragment [C-C-C-C torsion angles = 81.4 (3) and -90.1 (2)°, respectively]. In the crystal packing, centrosymmetrically related mol-ecules are linked by C-H⋯O contacts into dimers, which are connected via further C-H⋯O inter-actions into a double chain along [010].

  20. 5-Meth­oxy-2,2-dimethyl-6-[(2E)-2-methyl­but-2-eno­yl]-10-phenyl-2H,8H-pyrano[2,3-f]chromen-8-one (calophyllolide)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanaraman, L.; Mohan Kumar, R.; Vishweshwar, Peddy; Pichai, R.; Narasimhan, S.

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, C26H24O5, was isolated from calophyllum inophyllum seeds. In the mol­ecule, the phenyl and 2-methyl­but-2-enoyl groups are almost orthogonal to the chromene fragment [C—C—C—C torsion angles = 81.4 (3) and −90.1 (2)°, respectively]. In the crystal packing, centrosymmetrically related mol­ecules are linked by C—H⋯O contacts into dimers, which are connected via further C—H⋯O inter­actions into a double chain along [010]. PMID:21579166

  1. 5-Methoxy-2,2-dimethyl-6-[(2E-2-methylbut-2-enoyl]-10-phenyl-2H,8H-pyrano[2,3-f]chromen-8-one (calophyllolide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kalyanaraman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C26H24O5, was isolated from calophyllum inophyllum seeds. In the molecule, the phenyl and 2-methylbut-2-enoyl groups are almost orthogonal to the chromene fragment [C—C—C—C torsion angles = 81.4 (3 and −90.1 (2°, respectively]. In the crystal packing, centrosymmetrically related molecules are linked by C—H...O contacts into dimers, which are connected via further C—H...O interactions into a double chain along [010].

  2. Inhibition of HIV-1 entry by the tricyclic coumarin GUT-70 through the modification of membrane fluidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Kouki; Hattori, Shinichiro; Kariya, Ryusho [Division of Hematopoiesis, Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Komizu, Yuji [Division of Applied Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Sojo University, 4-22-1 Ikeda, Nishi-ku, Kumamoto 860-0082 (Japan); Kudo, Eriko; Goto, Hiroki; Taura, Manabu [Division of Hematopoiesis, Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Ueoka, Ryuichi [Division of Applied Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Sojo University, 4-22-1 Ikeda, Nishi-ku, Kumamoto 860-0082 (Japan); Kimura, Shinya [Division of Hematology, Respiratory Medicine and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Okada, Seiji, E-mail: okadas@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Division of Hematopoiesis, Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan)

    2015-02-13

    Membrane fusion between host cells and HIV-1 is the initial step in HIV-1 infection, and plasma membrane fluidity strongly influences infectivity. In the present study, we demonstrated that GUT-70, a natural product derived from Calophyllum brasiliense, stabilized plasma membrane fluidity, inhibited HIV-1 entry, and down-regulated the expression of CD4, CCR5, and CXCR4. Since GUT-70 also had an inhibitory effect on viral replication through the inhibition of NF-κB, it is expected to be used as a dual functional and viral mutation resistant reagent. Thus, these unique properties of GUT-70 enable the development of novel therapeutic agents against HIV-1 infection.

  3. Mangrove plant diversity in Sepanjang Island, East Java

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    SUHARDJONO

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Inventarisasi flora mangrove di Pulau Sepanjnag telah dilakukan. Tercatat 36 jenis tumbuhan mangrove tersebar di 8 lokasi (Pajang Barat, Segentong, Dermaga Sepanjang, Turunan Ceremeh, Calung dan Tarungguk.. Sekitar 23 jenis diantaranya telah ditetapkan oleh IUCN (1997 sebagai tumbuhan langka dengan status kelangkaan terkikis (LR sampai kritis (CR. Rhizophora apiculata, Ceriops tagal, C. decandra, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Excoecaria agallocha, Xylocarpus moluccensis, X. granatum dan Lumnitzera racemosa, merupakan jenis-jenis yang dijumpai hampir di seluruh lokasi. Sedangkan beberapa jenis hanya ditemukan di lokasi tertentu seperti Calophyllum inophyllum dijumpai di Pajan Barat, Caesalpinia bundoc, Scaevola taccada dan Wedelia biflora di Tanjung Perak, dan Bruguiera sexangula hanya ditemukan di Tanjung Kiaok.

  4. Multiple continental radiations and correlates of diversification in Lupinus (Leguminosae): testing for key innovation with incomplete taxon sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Christopher S; Eastwood, Ruth J; Miotto, Silvia T S; Hughes, Colin E

    2012-05-01

    Replicate radiations provide powerful comparative systems to address questions about the interplay between opportunity and innovation in driving episodes of diversification and the factors limiting their subsequent progression. However, such systems have been rarely documented at intercontinental scales. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis of multiple radiations in the genus Lupinus (Leguminosae), which exhibits some of the highest known rates of net diversification in plants. Given that incomplete taxon sampling, background extinction, and lineage-specific variation in diversification rates can confound macroevolutionary inferences regarding the timing and mechanisms of cladogenesis, we used Bayesian relaxed clock phylogenetic analyses as well as MEDUSA and BiSSE birth-death likelihood models of diversification, to evaluate the evolutionary patterns of lineage accumulation in Lupinus. We identified 3 significant shifts to increased rates of net diversification (r) relative to background levels in the genus (r = 0.18-0.48 lineages/myr). The primary shift occurred approximately 4.6 Ma (r = 0.48-1.76) in the montane regions of western North America, followed by a secondary shift approximately 2.7 Ma (r = 0.89-3.33) associated with range expansion and diversification of allopatrically distributed sister clades in the Mexican highlands and Andes. We also recovered evidence for a third independent shift approximately 6.5 Ma at the base of a lower elevation eastern South American grassland and campo rupestre clade (r = 0.36-1.33). Bayesian ancestral state reconstructions and BiSSE likelihood analyses of correlated diversification indicated that increased rates of speciation are strongly associated with the derived evolution of perennial life history and invasion of montane ecosystems. Although we currently lack hard evidence for "replicate adaptive radiations" in the sense of convergent morphological and ecological trajectories among species in different clades, these

  5. Bipolar mixed features - Results from the comparative effectiveness for bipolar disorder (Bipolar CHOICE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohen, Mauricio; Gold, Alexandra K; Sylvia, Louisa G; Montana, Rebecca E; McElroy, Susan L; Thase, Michael E; Rabideau, Dustin J; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A; Friedman, Edward S; Shelton, Richard C; Bowden, Charles L; Singh, Vivek; Deckersbach, Thilo; Ketter, Terence A; Calabrese, Joseph R; Bobo, William V; McInnis, Melvin G

    2017-08-01

    DSM-5 changed the criteria from DSM-IV for mixed features in mood disorder episodes to include non-overlapping symptoms of depression and hypomania/mania. It is unknown if, by changing these criteria, the same group would qualify for mixed features. We assessed how those meeting DSM-5 criteria for mixed features compare to those meeting DSM-IV criteria. We analyzed data from 482 adult bipolar patients in Bipolar CHOICE, a randomized comparative effectiveness trial. Bipolar diagnoses were confirmed through the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Presence and severity of mood symptoms were collected with the Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale (BISS) and linked to DSM-5 and DSM-IV mixed features criteria. Baseline demographics and clinical variables were compared between mood episode groups using ANOVA for continuous variables and chi-square tests for categorical variables. At baseline, the frequency of DSM-IV mixed episodes diagnoses obtained with the MINI was 17% and with the BISS was 20%. Using DSM-5 criteria, 9% of participants met criteria for hypomania/mania with mixed features and 12% met criteria for a depressive episode with mixed features. Symptom severity was also associated with increased mixed features with a high rate of mixed features in patients with mania/hypomania (63.8%) relative to those with depression (8.0%). Data on mixed features were collected at baseline only and thus do not reflect potential patterns in mixed features within this sample across the study duration. The DSM-5 narrower, non-overlapping definition of mixed episodes resulted in fewer patients who met mixed criteria compared to DSM-IV. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Antimicrobial screening of some medicinal plants from Mato Grosso Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iberê E Silva Junior

    Full Text Available Hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts from stem barks of Bowdichia virgilioides, Calophyllum brasiliense, Cariniana rubra, Lafoensia pacari, and Stryphnodendron obovatum and rhizome of Simaba ferruginea and Dragon's blood red sap from Croton urucurana were screened against a panel of bacteria and fungi using the micro-broth dilution method. Dragon's blood from Croton urucurana was the most effective antimicrobial plant material. Ethyl acetate and hexane extracts of Calophyllum brasiliense stem bark deserved distinction by their selective antibacterial activity. Lafoensia pacari stem bark polar extracts distinguished by their potent and selective anti-yeast activity and Bowdichia virgilioides polar and non-polar extracts by their antifungal activity towards hyalohypho-mycetes and dermatophytes. This is the first report showing antifungal activity for polar extracts of Cariniana rubra and Simaba ferruginea. This study has demonstrated antimicrobial activity of Mato Grosso Cerrado ethnomedicinal plants in in vitro assays and has indicated that they can be effective potential candidates for the development of new strategies to treat fungal and bacterial infections.

  7. Caloric content of leaves of five tree species from the riparian vegetation in a forest fragment from South Brazil

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    Leandro Fabrício Fiori

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: The measurement of the caloric content evidences the amount of energy that remains in the leaf and that can be released to the aquatic trophic chain. We assessed the energy content of leaves from five riparian tree species of a forest fragment in south Brazil and analyzed whether leaf caloric content varied between leaf species and between seasons (dry and wet. The studied sites are located in Northwest of Paraná State, inside a Semi-Deciduous Forest fragment beside two headwater streams. Methods Sampling sites were located along the riparian vegetation of these two water bodies, and due to its proximity and absence of statistical differences of caloric values, analyzed as one compartment. Results Caloric content varied significantly among species and among all pairs of species, with exception of Nectandra cuspidata Ness and Calophyllum brasiliensis Cambess. Two species presented significant differences between seasons, Sloanea guianensis (Aubl. Ben and Calophyllum brasiliensis Cambess. Conclusions The absence of significant seasonal differences of energy content for some species may be due to the characteristics of the tropical forest, in which temperature did not varied dramatically between seasons. However, the energy differed between species and seasons for some species, emphasizing the necessity of a preliminary inspection of energy content, before tracing energy fluxes instead of using a single value to all species from riparian vegetation.

  8. Multiple independent origins of auto-pollination in tropical orchids (Bulbophyllum) in light of the hypothesis of selfing as an evolutionary dead end.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamisch, Alexander; Fischer, Gunter Alexander; Comes, Hans Peter

    2015-09-16

    The transition from outcrossing to selfing has long been portrayed as an 'evolutionary dead end' because, first, reversals are unlikely and, second, selfing lineages suffer from higher rates of extinction owing to a reduced potential for adaptation and the accumulation of deleterious mutations. We tested these two predictions in a clade of Madagascan Bulbophyllum orchids (30 spp.), including eight species where auto-pollinating morphs (i.e., selfers, without a 'rostellum') co-exist with their pollinator-dependent conspecifics (i.e., outcrossers, possessing a rostellum). Specifically, we addressed this issue on the basis of a time-calibrated phylogeny by means of ancestral character reconstructions and within the state-dependent evolution framework of BiSSE (Binary State Speciation and Extinction), which allowed jointly estimating rates of transition, speciation, and extinction between outcrossing and selfing. The eight species capable of selfing occurred in scattered positions across the phylogeny, with two likely originating in the Pliocene (ca. 4.4-3.1 Ma), one in the Early Pleistocene (ca. 2.4 Ma), and five since the mid-Pleistocene (ca. ≤ 1.3 Ma). We infer that this scattered phylogenetic distribution of selfing is best described by models including up to eight independent outcrossing-to-selfing transitions and very low rates of speciation (and either moderate or zero rates of extinction) associated with selfing. The frequent and irreversible outcrossing-to-selfing transitions in Madagascan Bulbophyllum are clearly congruent with the first prediction of the dead end hypothesis. The inability of our study to conclusively reject or support the likewise predicted higher extinction rate in selfing lineages might be explained by a combination of methodological limitations (low statistical power of our BiSSE approach to reliably estimate extinction in small-sized trees) and evolutionary processes (insufficient time elapsed for selfers to go extinct). We suggest

  9. Vegetable oil from fruits of forest species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razzaque, M.A.; Sayeed, M.; Das, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    Seeds were collected from species in various areas of Bangladesh to assess their potential for production of industrial (e.g. for paint, varnish, soap) and edible oils: Aleurites montana; Amoora spp.; Amoora spectabilis; Aphanamixis (Ricinocarpodendron) polystachya; Calophyllum inophyllum; Elaeis guineensis; Garcinia cowa; Hydnocarpus kurzii; Mallotus philippinensis; Mesua ferrea; Mimusops elengi; Pongamia pinnata; Schleichera oleosa; Shorea robusta; and Zanthoxylum budrunga. In cases where the seed coat could be detached, the weight ratio of seed coat to kernel was calculated. Oil contents of kernel, pulp or whole seed were determined by solvent extraction depending on the ease of separation of the seed coat. Free fatty acid contents and saponification and iodine values of the oil samples were determined. High percentages of oil were obtained from most species. 10 references.

  10. Pemanfaatan Biji Buah Nyamplung (Callophylum Inophylum Sebagai Bahan Baku Pembuatan Biodisel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Biru Chandra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia merupakan negara kepulauan dengan garis pantai terpanjang keempat di dunia. Sepanjang sekitar 95000 Km merupakan habitat penting bagi vegetasi mangrove dan biota nya. Sebuah survei tahun 2007 menunjukkan bahwa 20% dari garis pantai rusak, dan tanah aktif terancam oleh erosi. Reboisasi penanaman vegetasi pantai dilakukan oleh pemerintah daerah. Salah satunya adalah Calophyllum Inophyllum. Potensi penggunaan benih C.Inophyllum tidak jelas sampai sekarang. Oleh karena itu, komposisi dan analisia C. Inophyllum dan minyak akan diselidiki. Dari hasil, ditemukan bahwa biji buah C. inophyllum mengandung lemak kasar (63,1%, serat kasar (16,64%, abu (3,22%, protein (3,42%, kelembaban (4,15%, dan ekstrak nitrogen bebas (13.62%. Itu juga memiliki nilai kalori 6092 kal / g. Its lipid asam lemak bebas yang terkandung (8,23%, monogliserida (3,93%, digliserida (3,37%, trigliserida (81.06% dan bioactive (3,4%.

  11. Concise synthesis of anti-HIV-1 active (+)-inophyllum B and (+)-calanolide A by application of (-)-quinine-catalyzed intramolecular oxo-Michael addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekino, Etsuko; Kumamoto, Takuya; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Tomoko; Ishikawa, Tsutomu

    2004-04-16

    (-)-Quinine-catalyzed intramolecular oxo-Michael addition (IMA) of 7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-8-tigloylcoumarins was developed for the enantioselective construction of 2,3-dimethyl-4-chromanone systems in the context of the asymmetric synthesis of anti-HIV-1 active Calophyllum coumarins. Combination of the IMA and MgI(2)-assisted demethylation of the 5-methoxy group along with isomerization of the formed chromanone systems as key steps successfully led to the concise synthesis of (+)-inophyllum B and (+)-calanolide A, possible candidates for AIDS drugs. Further examination of the asymmetric IMA with cinchona alkaloids lacking a methoxy group on the quinoline skeleton suggested the influence of the methoxy substituent on stereoselectivity at the stereogenic centers of the chromanone systems.

  12. Antibacterial activity of crude extracts from Mexican medicinal plants and purified coumarins and xanthones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaka, Kakuko; Abe, Fumiko; Nagayama, Ariaki; Okabe, Hikaru; Lozada-Pérez, Lucio; López-Villafranco, Edith; Muñiz, Elizabeth Estrada; Aguilar, Abigail; Reyes-Chilpa, Ricardo

    2005-02-28

    Thirty-two extracts from 22 Mexican medicinal plants of 15 different families were assayed to determine their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Seventeen plants showed antibacterial activity, while five plants showed no activity against both bacteria. All of the extracts showed higher activity against Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant) than against Escherichia coli, except one. Among the plants examined, Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. (Burseraceae), Haematoxylum brasiletto H. Karst. (Fabaceae), Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (Clusiaceae), and Mammea americana L. (Clusiaceae) were highly active against Staphylococcus aureus. Coumarins (mammea A/BA and mammea A/AA) and xanthones, namely jacareubin and 1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxy-2-(3,3-dimethylallyl) xanthone, were isolated as the principle compounds from the last two plants.

  13. Seleksi Pohon untuk Sarang Kuntul Kerbau (Bubulcus ibis di Dusun Wisata Ketingan Kab. Sleman Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Kosasih

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Habitat selection of Bubulcus ibis in Ketingan Village, Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta was investigated to provide basic information for population management. Presence of Bubulcus ibis nest was surveyed along with identification available tree species. Tree height, canopy size and openness, and distance from human disturbance were also measured for each tree. The Chi Square test showed that bubulcus ibis selected several species as nest trees such as Gnetum gnemon L., Cassia siamea Lamk., Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk., Calophyllum inophyllum L., Melia azedarach L., Antidesma bunius (L. Spreng., and Dysoxylum gaudichaudianum(Juss. Miq. Tree height, canopy height, canopy diameter and the distance from human disturbance showed a significant difference between used and non-used trees for the nest, however diameter breast high (DBH and canopy openness of trees did not show significant differences. Habitat management of Bubulcus ibis should be improved by controlling its population that needed for the conservation of this bird species.

  14. Prospects and potential of fatty acid methyl esters of some non-traditional seed oils for use as biodiesel in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohibbe Azam, M.; Waris, Amtul; Nahar, N.M. [Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur 342003 (India)

    2005-10-01

    Fatty acid profiles of seed oils of 75 plant species having 30% or more fixed oil in their seed/kernel were examined. Saponification number (SN), iodine value (IV) and cetane number (CN) of fatty acid methyl esters of oils were empirically determined and they varied from 169.2 to 312.5, 4.8 to 212 and 20.56 to 67.47, respectively. Fatty acid compositions, IV and CN were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters of oil for use as biodiesel. Fatty acid methyl ester of oils of 26 species including Azadirachta indica, Calophyllum inophyllum, Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata were found most suitable for use as biodiesel and they meet the major specification of biodiesel standards of USA, Germany and European Standard Organization. The fatty acid methyl esters of another 11 species meet the specification of biodiesel standard of USA only. These selected plants have great potential for biodiesel. (author)

  15. Charcoal anatomy of forest species

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    Graciela Inés Bolzon de Muñiz1

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Vegetal charcoal retains the anatomical structure of the wood and may permit its botanical identification, which depends on species characteristics, the charcoal fragments size and preservation state. Anatomical characterization of ten forest species charcoal was done envisaging the identification and control of illegal charcoal. Differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms are evident in carbonized wood. Vessel diameter was statistically different between wood and charcoal in Vatairea guianensis, Mezilaurus itauba, Calophyllum brasiliense e Qualea cf. acuminata, and vessel frequency in Vatairea guianensis, Manilkara huberi, Qualea cf. acuminata e Simarouba amara. The anatomical structure from wood, in general aspects, is constant during carbonization process using temperature of 450°C, being possible to identify the material by using its cellular components.

  16. Removal of Basic Violet 14 from aqueous solution using sulphuric acid activated materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, S

    2016-01-01

    In this study the adsorption of Basic Violet, 14 from aqueous solution onto sulphuric acid activated materials prepared from Calophyllum inophyllum (CS) and Theobroma cacao (TS) shells were investigated. The experimental data were analysed by Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. The results showed that CS has a superior adsorption capacity compared to the TS. The adsorption capacity was found to be 1416.43 mg/g for CS and 980.39 mg/g for TS. The kinetic data results at different concentrations were analysed using pseudo first-order and pseudo-second order model. Boyd plot indicates that the dye adsorption onto CS and TS is controlled by film diffusion. The adsorbents were characterised by scanning electron microscopy. The materials used in this study were economical waste products and hence can be an attractive alternative to costlier adsorbents for dye removal in industrial wastewater treatment processes.

  17. Targetting the hemozoin synthesis pathway for antimalarial drug and detected by TEM (Transmission electron microscope)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Jamilah; Artanti, Nina; Sundowo, Andini; Dewijanti, Indah Dwiatmi; Hanafi, Muhammad; Lisa, Syafrudin, Din

    2017-11-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem mainly due to the development of resistance by the most lethal causative parasite species, the alarming spread of drug resistance and limited number of effective drug available now. Therefore it is important to discover new antimalarial drug. Malaria is caused by a singlecelled parasite from the genus Plasmodium. Plasmodium falciparum parasite infect red blood cells, ingesting and degradation hemoglobin in the acidic food vacuola trough a sequential metabolic process involving multiple proteases. During these process, hemoglobin is utilized as the predominant source of nutrition. Proteolysis of hemoglobin yields amino acid for protein synthesis as well as toxic heme. Massive degradation of hemoglobin generates large amount of toxic heme. Malaria parasite has evolved a distinct mechanism for detoxification of heme through conversion into insoluble crystalline pigment, known as hemozoin (β hematoin). Hemozoin synthesis is an indispensable process for the parasite and is the target for action of several known antimalarial drug. TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) technology for hemozoin formation in vitro assay was done in this research. Calophyllum aerophyllum Lauterb as medicinal plants was used as a source of antimalarial drug. Acetone extracts of C. lowii showed growth inhibition against parasite P. falciparum with IC50 = 5.2 µg/mL. Whereas from hexane, acetone and methanol fraction of C. aerophyllum showed growth inhibition with IC50 = 0.054, 0.055 and 0.0054 µg/mL respectively. New drug from Calophyllum might have potential compounds that have unique structures and mechanism of action which required to develop new drug for treatment of sensitive and drug resistant strain of malaria.

  18. Edoardo Zuccato (Cassano Magnago, 1963

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolino Nappi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Edoardo Zuccato nació en 1963 en Cassano Magnago, cerca de Milán. Ha publicado las colecciones de poesía en dialecto altomilanés Tropicu da Vissévar (Crocetti, Milán 1996, La vita in tram (Marcos y Marcos, Milán 2001, I bosch di Celti (Sartorio, Pavía 2008, Ulona (Il Ponte del Sale, Rovigo 2010 y, en italiano, Gli incubi di Menippo (Elliot, Roma 2016. Ha traducido las Églogas de Virgilio (I Bücòligh, Medusa, Milano 2007 y, con Claudio Recalcati, Biss, lüsèrt e alter galantomm. Ballate di François Villon (Effigie, Milán 2005. Ha editado ediciones bilingües de obras de poetas ingleses de la época romántica y contemporánea, además de un cuaderno de traducciones, Il dragomanno errante, publicado en 2012 por la editorial ATì (Brescia. Es profesor de literatura inglesa en la Universidad IULM de Milán. Los textos que publicamos aquí pertenecen a Tropicu da Vissévar, La vita in tram e I bosch di Celti

  19. A battery of assays as an integrated approach to evaluate fungal and mycotoxin inhibition properties and cytotoxic/genotoxic side-effects for the prioritization in the screening of thiosemicarbazone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zani, Claudia; Bisceglie, Franco; Restivo, Francesco Maria; Feretti, Donatella; Pioli, Marianna; Degola, Francesca; Montalbano, Serena; Galati, Serena; Pelosi, Giorgio; Viola, Gaia V C; Carcelli, Mauro; Rogolino, Dominga; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Buschini, Annamaria

    2017-07-01

    Aflatoxins represent a serious problem for a food economy based on cereal cultivations used to fodder animal and for human nutrition. The aims of our work are two-fold: first, to perform an evaluation of the activity of newly synthesized thiosemicarbazone compounds as antifungal and anti-mycotoxin agents and, second, to conduct studies on the toxic and genotoxic hazard potentials with a battery of tests with different endpoints. In this paper we report an initial study on two molecules: S-4-isopropenylcyclohexen-1-carbaldehydethiosemicarbazone and its metal complex, bis(S-4-isopropenylcyclohexen-1-carbaldehydethiosemicarbazonato)nickel (II). The outcome of the assays on fungi growth and aflatoxin production inhibition show that both molecules possess good antifungal activities, without inducing mutagenic effects on bacteria. From the assays to ascertain that the compounds have no adverse effects on human cells, we have found that they are cytotoxic and, in the case of the nickel compound, they also present genotoxic effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Diversity dynamics in Nymphalidae butterflies: effect of phylogenetic uncertainty on diversification rate shift estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Peña

    Full Text Available The species rich butterfly family Nymphalidae has been used to study evolutionary interactions between plants and insects. Theories of insect-hostplant dynamics predict accelerated diversification due to key innovations. In evolutionary biology, analysis of maximum credibility trees in the software MEDUSA (modelling evolutionary diversity using stepwise AIC is a popular method for estimation of shifts in diversification rates. We investigated whether phylogenetic uncertainty can produce different results by extending the method across a random sample of trees from the posterior distribution of a Bayesian run. Using the MultiMEDUSA approach, we found that phylogenetic uncertainty greatly affects diversification rate estimates. Different trees produced diversification rates ranging from high values to almost zero for the same clade, and both significant rate increase and decrease in some clades. Only four out of 18 significant shifts found on the maximum clade credibility tree were consistent across most of the sampled trees. Among these, we found accelerated diversification for Ithomiini butterflies. We used the binary speciation and extinction model (BiSSE and found that a hostplant shift to Solanaceae is correlated with increased net diversification rates in Ithomiini, congruent with the diffuse cospeciation hypothesis. Our results show that taking phylogenetic uncertainty into account when estimating net diversification rate shifts is of great importance, as very different results can be obtained when using the maximum clade credibility tree and other trees from the posterior distribution.

  1. Diversity dynamics in Nymphalidae butterflies: effect of phylogenetic uncertainty on diversification rate shift estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Carlos; Espeland, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The species rich butterfly family Nymphalidae has been used to study evolutionary interactions between plants and insects. Theories of insect-hostplant dynamics predict accelerated diversification due to key innovations. In evolutionary biology, analysis of maximum credibility trees in the software MEDUSA (modelling evolutionary diversity using stepwise AIC) is a popular method for estimation of shifts in diversification rates. We investigated whether phylogenetic uncertainty can produce different results by extending the method across a random sample of trees from the posterior distribution of a Bayesian run. Using the MultiMEDUSA approach, we found that phylogenetic uncertainty greatly affects diversification rate estimates. Different trees produced diversification rates ranging from high values to almost zero for the same clade, and both significant rate increase and decrease in some clades. Only four out of 18 significant shifts found on the maximum clade credibility tree were consistent across most of the sampled trees. Among these, we found accelerated diversification for Ithomiini butterflies. We used the binary speciation and extinction model (BiSSE) and found that a hostplant shift to Solanaceae is correlated with increased net diversification rates in Ithomiini, congruent with the diffuse cospeciation hypothesis. Our results show that taking phylogenetic uncertainty into account when estimating net diversification rate shifts is of great importance, as very different results can be obtained when using the maximum clade credibility tree and other trees from the posterior distribution.

  2. Connecting human behavior and infectious disease spreading. Comment on "Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review" by Wang et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Petter

    2015-12-01

    Vaccination against measles is one of the great success stories of 20th century medicine. In the USA, before the introduction of the vaccine in 1963, three to four million adolescents were infected annually, around 500 died, around 5000 got serious complications (primarily encephalitis, swelling of the brain), and around 50,000 were hospitalized [7]. With the vaccine, measles virtually vanished and by 2000 it was declared extinct from the USA. This was, however, not the end of the story. There is still a small fraction of parents who do not let their children be vaccinated. The reasons vary-fear of side effects, an aversion of exposing children to something ;unnatural;, and a large number of other ideas. (For a non-academic account of the psychology of vaccination, we recommend Eula Biss's On Immunity[3].) The last few decades, anti-vaccination ideas have been spreading in social media and united people opposing vaccination into something of a movement [4]. In December 2014 there was a first larger outbreak (over 500 cases) of the century, centered around Disneyland (Anaheim, California) [10], and the anti-vaccination movement got much of the blame [4]. This example illustrates how ideas and opinions-that just like diseases are spreading over networks of people-can facilitate outbreaks. The reverse is, thankfully, more common-people, aware of an emerging outbreak, try to lower the chance of contagion by improving hygiene etc., which impedes the outbreak.

  3. Foods that are perceived as healthy or unhealthy differentially alter young women's state body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jacqueline F; D'Anci, Kristen E; Kanarek, Robin B

    2011-10-01

    Body image can be influenced by day-to-day events, including food intake. The present study investigated the effects of foods typically perceived as "healthy" or "unhealthy" on state body image and mood. College-aged women were told the experiment was designed to assess the effects of food on cognition. Using a between-subjects design, participants consumed isocaloric amounts of foods perceived to be healthy (banana) or unhealthy (donut) or ate nothing. Next, participants completed three cognitive tasks. Prior to eating and following the cognitive tests, participants completed the BISS, POMS, the Figure Rating Scale, and the Restraint Scale. Body satisfaction decreased following intake of a donut, but was not altered in the other conditions. Depression scores significantly decreased after intake of either a donut or banana, but did not decrease in the no-food condition. Tension scores decreased significantly after consumption of a banana and in the no-food condition, but did not decrease following consumption of a donut. These results indicate that intake of a food that is perceived as unhealthy negatively affects state body image. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Voice preprocessing system incorporating a real-time spectrum analyzer with programmable switched-capacitor filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, G.

    1984-01-01

    As part of a speaker verification program for BISS (Base Installation Security System), a test system is being designed with a flexible preprocessing system for the evaluation of voice spectrum/verification algorithm related problems. The main part of this report covers the design, construction, and testing of a voice analyzer with 16 integrating real-time frequency channels ranging from 300 Hz to 3 KHz. The bandpass filter response of each channel is programmable by NMOS switched capacitor quad filter arrays. Presently, the accuracy of these units is limited to a moderate precision by the finite steps of programming. However, repeatability of characteristics between filter units and sections seems to be excellent for the implemented fourth-order Butterworth bandpass responses. We obtained a 0.1 dB linearity error of signal detection and measured a signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 70 dB. The proprocessing system discussed includes preemphasis filter design, gain normalizer design, and data acquisition system design as well as test results.

  5. Diversification of C(4) grasses (Poaceae) does not coincide with their ecological dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchenak-Khelladi, Yanis; Slingsby, Jasper A; Verboom, G Anthony; Bond, William J

    2014-02-01

    The radiation of a lineage and its rise to ecological dominance are distinct phenomena and driven by different processes. For example, paleoecological data has been used to show that the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation did not coincide with their rise to dominance. Using a phylogenetic approach, we here explored the evolution of C4 grasses and evaluated whether the diversification of this group and its rise to ecological dominance in the late Miocene were decoupled. We assembled a matrix including 675 grass species of the PACMAD clade and 2784 characters (ITS and ndhF) to run a molecular dating analysis using three fossils as reference calibrations. We coded species as C3 vs. C4 and reconstructed ancestral states under maximum likelihood. We used the program BiSSE to test whether rates of diversification are correlated with photosynthetic pathway and whether the radiation of C4 lineages preceded or coincided with their rise to ecological dominance from ∼10 Ma. C4 grass lineages first originated around 35 Ma at the time of the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Accelerated diversification of C4 lineages did not coincide with their rise to ecological dominance. C4-dominated grasslands have expanded only since the Late Miocene and Pliocene. The initial diversification of their biotic elements can be tracked back as far as the Eocene-Oligocene transition. We suggest that shifts in taxonomic diversification and ecological dominance were stimulated by different factors, as in the case of the early angiosperms in the Cretaceous.

  6. Coupling path influence on the conducted emission measurement results by the EMC semiconductor test board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, M.; Eidher, R.; Weigel, R.

    2011-08-01

    The fact of reduced development time in the automotive sector requires a change in the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) validation of electronic components. To increase the development time of automotive components, e.g. sensors or electronic control units (ECUs), it is mandatory to verify the EMC behavior of the integrated circuit (IC) itself in an early development stage simultaneous to the development process of the entire ECU into which it is embedded. The conducted IC EMC tests emission as well as immunity is realized with a specific test printed circuit board (PCB) which is built according to the guidelines of the Bosch, Infineon, Siemens VDO Specification (BISS, 2007). The measurement results of these EMC tests are affected by the test PCB itself. To deduce the application requirements of the component from the application circuit of the test PCB it is necessary to consider this influence by the printed circuit board. The text at hand gives an overview on how far the emission results are adulterated by the used test PCB. The presented method also grants a validation of the disturbance voltage directly at the IC pin considering the application circuit.

  7. Pharmacovigilance Mobile Tool Design in the Field of Arhroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åserød, Hanne; Babic, Ankica

    2017-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance is an important part of the patient safety and it has a great appeal to physicians. It is concerned with the safety of medical devices and treatments in the light of understanding the risks and dangers based on the already reported safety issues. Internet resources such as the Manufacturer And User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) web-site are often retrieved due to the lack of internal, local safety databases. The research looked at how Human Computer Interaction could improve user experience. We have designed data entry for safety reporting and pharmacovigilance based on the web-bases system called WebBISS (Web-based implant search system). The expectation is not only to improve usability, but also to stimulate physicians to enter their safety data and become also contributors, and not only users of information. The expert evaluation has been generally positive and encouraged stronger help and error reporting functions. The high fidelity design has given a good impression of the future mobile solution.

  8. Ancestral state reconstruction, rate heterogeneity, and the evolution of reptile viviparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Benedict; Lee, Michael S Y

    2015-05-01

    Virtually all models for reconstructing ancestral states for discrete characters make the crucial assumption that the trait of interest evolves at a uniform rate across the entire tree. However, this assumption is unlikely to hold in many situations, particularly as ancestral state reconstructions are being performed on increasingly large phylogenies. Here, we show how failure to account for such variable evolutionary rates can cause highly anomalous (and likely incorrect) results, while three methods that accommodate rate variability yield the opposite, more plausible, and more robust reconstructions. The random local clock method, implemented in BEAST, estimates the position and magnitude of rate changes on the tree; split BiSSE estimates separate rate parameters for pre-specified clades; and the hidden rates model partitions each character state into a number of rate categories. Simulations show the inadequacy of traditional models when characters evolve with both asymmetry (different rates of change between states within a character) and heterotachy (different rates of character evolution across different clades). The importance of accounting for rate heterogeneity in ancestral state reconstruction is highlighted empirically with a new analysis of the evolution of viviparity in squamate reptiles, which reveal a predominance of forward (oviparous-viviparous) transitions and very few reversals. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Environmental Survey Report for ORNL: Small Mammal Abundance and Distribution Survey Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park 2009 - 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giffen, Neil R [ORNL; Reasor, R. Scott [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE); Campbell, Claire L. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE)

    2009-12-01

    Sherman and pitfall traps. In total 227 small mammals representing nine species were captured during the course of the study. The most common species found in the study was the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus). The least common species found were the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), meadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius), woodland vole (Microtus pinetorum), and northern short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda).

  10. Crescimento, acúmulo de fósforo e frações fosfatadas em mudas de sete espécies arbóreas nativas Growth, phosphorus accumulation and p fractions in seedlings of seven native tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Zilton Lopes Santos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou comparar o crescimento, a absorção de fósforo (P e a distribuição das frações fosfatadas em mudas de sete espécies florestais classificadas como: pioneiras [aroeira (Lithraea molleoides, aroeirinha (Shcinus terebinthifolius, sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, sesbânia (Sesbania virgata] ou clímax [jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril, guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliensis e óleo-bálsamo (Myroxylon peruiferum]. As plantas foram cultivadas com cinco doses de P (0, 100, 250, 500 e 800 mg dm-3 de P em casa de vegetação. Aos 90 dias, as plantas foram colhidas, determinando-se a produção de matéria seca e o conteúdo de P da parte aérea e as frações de P total, P inorgânico e P orgânico presentes nas folhas. As espécies apresentaram grande variação no comportamento diante da adubação fosfatada. De modo geral, as espécies pioneiras foram mais eficientes em produzir matéria seca da parte aérea e na absorção de P do que as climácicas. Entre as espécies pioneiras, a aroeira apresentou produção de massa estreitamente relacionada ao acúmulo de P, e as proporções de fósforo inorgânico e orgânico permanecem inalteradas com o aumento da disponibilidade do nutriente. O crescimento de aroeirinha, sesbânia e jatobá não acompanhou a absorção do nutriente que é acumulado na forma de fósforo inorgânico na primeira e fósforo orgânico nas últimas. As espécies clímácicas guanandi e óleo-bálsamo apresentaram maior presença de fósforo orgânico, porém a absorção do nutriente e o crescimento das plantas sofreram pouca interferência da adubação fosfatada.This work aimed to compare growth, phosphorus (P uptake and distribution of P-fractions in seedlings of seven tree species classified as pioneers (Lithraea molleoides, Shcinus terebinthifolius, Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, Sesbania virgata or climaxes (Hymenaea courbaril, Calophyllum brasiliensis, Myroxylon peruiferum and cultivated under five doses

  11. CRESCIMENTO INICIAL DE ESPÉCIES FLORESTAIS DE DIFERENTES GRUPOS SUCESSIONAIS EM RESPOSTA A DOSES DE FÓSFORO INITIAL GROWTH OF FOREST SPECIES OF DIFFERENT SUCCESSIONAL GROUPS IN RESPONSE TO PHOSPHORUS DOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÁLVARO VILELA DE RESENDE

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar a resposta de espécies florestais ao fornecimento de P, conduziu-se um ensaio sob condições de casa de vegetação, cultivando-se mudas das espécies arbóreas pioneiras (aroeira - Lithraea molleoides; aroeirinha - Schinus terebinthifolius; jacaré - Piptadenia gonoacantha; sabiá - Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia; sesbânia - Sesbania virgata, clímax exigente em luz (jatobá - Hymenaea courbaril, e clímax tolerantes a sombra (guanandi - Calophyllum brasiliensis; ipê-amarelo - Tabebuia serratifolia; óleo-bálsamo - Myroxylon peruiferum. Utilizaram-se cinco doses de P, correspondentes a 0, 100, 250, 500 e 800 mg dm-3 de P. Foram avaliados o diâmetro do caule, a altura e a matéria seca de raízes, parte aérea e total das plantas. As espécies pioneiras foram mais responsivas ao fornecimento de P, indicando a necessidade do suprimento deste nutriente para o adequado desenvolvimento destas espécies. As espécies clímax mostraram-se pouco sensíveis ao suprimento de P, refletindo um baixo requerimento na fase de mudas. Diferenças em relação à taxa de crescimento e ao tamanho das sementes podem estar ligadas ao comportamento contrastante observado para espécies pioneiras e clímax.With the aim of evaluating the responses of forest species to phosphorus supply, an assay under greenhouse conditions was carried out, where seedlings of pioneer tree species (Lithraea molleoides, Schinus terebinthifolius, Piptadenia gonoacantha, Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, Sesbania virgata, a light-demander climax species (Hymenaea courbaril, and the shade-tolerant climaxes species (Calophyllum brasiliensis, Tabebuia serratifolia, Myroxylon peruiferum were cultivated. Five phosphorus doses were used, corresponding to 0, 100, 250, 500 and 800 mg dm-3 of P. Stem diameter, height, and root, shoot and total dry matter yield of the plants were evaluated. The pioneers species were more responsive to phosphorus furnishing, indicating the need of

  12. PROSPEK PEMBANGUNAN HUTAN TANAMAN RAKYAT DI KABUPATEN BIAK NUNFOR, PAPUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Yeny

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pembangunan hutan tanaman oleh rakyat diharapkan secara bertahap akan mengubah lahan kritis menjadi produktif dan meningkatkan kesejahteraan masyarakat. Salah satu faktor yang menyebabkan lambannya pembangunan hutan tanaman rakyat adalah kurangnya minat masyarakat. Untuk mendukung minat masyarakat dan pengusaha lokal dalam mengembangkan hutan tanaman rakyat dibutuhkan beberapa hal yaitu : sosialisasi program ditingkat masyarakat sehingga tepat sasaran, kepastian hukum atas status lahan, informasi kelayakan usaha baik secara teknis maupun finansialnya, dan pendampingan kelembagaan masyarakat. Penelitian ini bertujuan memberikan informasi prospek hutan tanaman rakyat yang dapat dikembangkan di Kabupaten Biak Nunfor termasuk manfaat ekonomis yang diterima dengan keberadaan hutan tanaman rakyat tersebut. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode Desktiptif Kwantitatif dengan teknik survey. Prospek pengembangan hutan rakyat dihitung dengan melihat aspek finansial dan kontribusi kegiatan HTR pada pendapatan petani. Perhitungan aspek finansial dilakukan dengan mengambil contoh pada hutan rakyat KTH Insumarires Distrik Biak Timur yaitu pendapatan bersih pengusahaan hutan dengan menggunakan rumus Faustman, kelayakan finansial dihitung kriteria Net Present Value (NPV, Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR dan Internal Rate of Return (IRR yang dinyatakan dalam satuan persen. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan 1 jika 10% dari hutan produksi di Kabupaten Biak Nunfor merupakan hutan produksi yang tidak produktif maka diperkirakan terdapat 7.477,8 ha yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai areal hutan tanaman rakyat dengan jenis unggulan Calophyllum inophyllum dengan menggunakan sistem silvikultur THPB. 2 Pengusahaan HTR layak dilaksanakan dalam daur 50 tahun dengan discount rate 5%. 3 Tingginya curahan hari kerja (5.724 HOK memberikan dampak pada perluasan lapangan kerja dan tingkat pendapatan petani dari kegiatan tersebut. 4 Kontribusi pendapatan petani terbesar berasal dari nilai

  13. Taxa de sobrevivência e crescimento inicial das espécies em plantio de recomposição da mata ciliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselda Durigan

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Em experimento de recomposição da mata ciliar em domínio de cerrado, na Estação Experimental de Assis, SP, foram utilizadas 20 espécies arbóreas, escolhidas em função da ocorrência natural em matas ciliares da região ou, no caso das espécies comerciais, com base na adaptabilidade a solos com lençol freático superficial ou pouco profundo. As espécies foram agrupadas em nove tratamentos (puros e mistos, com quatro repetições, num total de 3.624 mudas plantadas em uma área de 16.308m². Oito meses após o plantio avaliou-se a sobrevivência e o crescimento inicial das espécies plantadas. Destacaram-se pelo crescimento vigoroso e alta taxa de sobrevivência: Anadenanthera falcata (angico, Tapirira guianensis (peito-de-pombo, Calophyllum brasiliense (guanandi e Pinus elliottii var. densa (espécie exótica produtora de resina. Mostraram-se mal adaptadas, com baixa taxa de sobrevivência ou limitações no desenvolvimento: Euterpe edulis (palmito branco, Citharexylum myrianthum (pau-viola, Bauhinia bongardii (mororó e Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus (embira-de-sapo.Experimental data on riparian forest restoration at the Assis Experimental Station, São Paulo, Brazil are presented. The 20 tree species used were chosen based upon natural ocurrence in remnant riparian forests of the region or, in the case of commercial species, upon adaptability to swampy soils. Eight months after planting, survival and initial growth of the plants were evaluated. Species which presented vigorous growth and high survival rates were: Anadenanthera falcata, Tapirira guianensis, Calophyllum brasiliense and Pinus elliottii var. densa. Those with poor survival rates and restricted growth were: Euterpe edulis, Citharexylum myrianthum, Bauhinia bongardii and Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus.

  14. Adaptive optics retinal imaging in the living mouse eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Ying; Dubra, Alfredo; Yin, Lu; Merigan, William H.; Sharma, Robin; Libby, Richard T.; Williams, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Correction of the eye’s monochromatic aberrations using adaptive optics (AO) can improve the resolution of in vivo mouse retinal images [Biss et al., Opt. Lett. 32(6), 659 (2007) and Alt et al., Proc. SPIE 7550, 755019 (2010)], but previous attempts have been limited by poor spot quality in the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS). Recent advances in mouse eye wavefront sensing using an adjustable focus beacon with an annular beam profile have improved the wavefront sensor spot quality [Geng et al., Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 717 (2011)], and we have incorporated them into a fluorescence adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). The performance of the instrument was tested on the living mouse eye, and images of multiple retinal structures, including the photoreceptor mosaic, nerve fiber bundles, fine capillaries and fluorescently labeled ganglion cells were obtained. The in vivo transverse and axial resolutions of the fluorescence channel of the AOSLO were estimated from the full width half maximum (FWHM) of the line and point spread functions (LSF and PSF), and were found to be better than 0.79 μm ± 0.03 μm (STD)(45% wider than the diffraction limit) and 10.8 μm ± 0.7 μm (STD)(two times the diffraction limit), respectively. The axial positional accuracy was estimated to be 0.36 μm. This resolution and positional accuracy has allowed us to classify many ganglion cell types, such as bistratified ganglion cells, in vivo. PMID:22574260

  15. Bulk Superconductivity Induced by Se Substitution in BiCh2-Based Layered Compounds Eu0.5Ce0.5FBiS2-xSex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yosuke; Sogabe, Ryota; Mizuguchi, Yoshikazu

    2017-10-01

    We report the effect of Se substitution on the crystal structure and superconductivity of BiCh2-based (Ch: S, Se) layered compounds Eu0.5Ce0.5FBiS2-xSex (x = 0-1). Crystal structure analysis showed that both lattice constants, a and c, increased with increasing x, which is different from the related La-doped system Eu0.5La0.5FBiS2-xSex. This is due to Se substitution at both in-plane and out-of-plane Ch sites in the present Ce-doped system. Zero resistivity was observed for x = 0.2-1 above 2 K. The superconducting properties of Eu0.5Ce0.5FBiS2-xSex were investigated by magnetic susceptibility measurement, and the highest superconducting transition temperature of 3.5 K was obtained for x = 0.6 with a large shielding volume fraction. The emergence of bulk superconductivity and metallic conductivity can be qualitatively described in terms of the increased in-plane chemical pressure effect. A magnetic anomaly below 8 K, probably because of the ferromagnetic order of the magnetic moment of Ce3+ ions, coexists with bulk superconductivity in the BiCh2 layer. Since the effect of Se substitution on the magnetic transition temperature is ignorable, we suggest that the coupling between the magnetic order at the (Eu,Ce)F layer and the superconductivity at the Bi(S,Se)2 layer is weak.

  16. Irrigation channels of the Upper Rhone valley (Switzerland). Geomorphological analysis of a cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    The Upper Rhone valley (Canton of Valais, Switzerland) is characterised by dry climatic conditions that explain the presence of an important network (about 800 km) of irrigation channels - called Bisses in the French-speaking part of the canton or Suonen in the German-speaking area - dating back to the Middle Ages. This network constitutes a cultural heritage and during the last 30 years these agricultural infrastructures have sparked a renewed interest for tourist and cultural reasons. Indeed, the paths along the channels are used as tourist trails and several abandoned channels have been renovated for tourist use. Based on an inventory of the Bisses/Suonen of Valais, the proposed communication has three aims: (1) to analyse the geomorphological context (morphometric analysis, structural geomorphology, main processes) of various types of channels and to show the impact of the geomorphological context on the building techniques; (2) to identify particularly active processes along the channels; (3) to classify the Bisses/Suonen according to their geomorphological value and to their geomorphological sensitivity, and to propose managing measures. Structural and climatic conditions influence the geomorphological context of the channels. In a structural point of view, irrigation channels are developed in three main contexts: (1) in the Aar Massif crystalline basement; (2) in the limestone and marl cover nappes of the Helvetic Alps; (3) in the metamorphic cover nappes of the Penninic domain. The Rhone River valley is boarded by two high mountain ranges: the Penninic Alps in the South and the Bernese Alps in the North. Because of rain shadow effects, the climate is relatively dry and, between Brig and Martigny, annual rainfall is not more than 600 mm at 500 m ASL and 800 mm at 1600 m ASL. Nevertheless, due to important vertical precipitation gradients annual rainfall totals are high at high altitudes. On the southern facing tributary valleys, the dry climatic conditions

  17. The pyranoxanthone inophyllin A induces oxidative stress mediated-apoptosis in Jurkat T lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kok Meng; Hamzah, Ruhana; Rahaman, Amira Abd; Jong, Vivien Yi Mian; Khong, Heng Yen; Rajab, Nor Fadilah; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Inayat-Hussain, Salmaan Hussain

    2012-08-01

    Inophyllin A (INO-A), a pyranoxanthone isolated from the roots of Calophyllum inophyllum represents a new xanthone with potential chemotherapeutic activity. In this study, the molecular mechanism of INO-A-induced cell death was investigated in Jurkat T lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Assessment of phosphatidylserine exposure confirmed apoptosis as the primary mode of cell death in INO-A-treated Jurkat cells. INO-A treatment for only 30 min resulted in a significant increase of tail moment which suggests that DNA damage is an early apoptotic signal. Further flow cytometric assessment of the superoxide anion level confirmed that INO-A induced DNA damage was mediated with a concomitant generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Investigation on the thiols revealed an early decrease of free thiols in 30 min after 50 μM INO-A treatment. Using tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester, a potentiometric dye, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MPP) was observed in INO-A-treated cells as early as 30 min. The INO-A-induced apoptosis progressed with the simultaneous activation of caspases-2 and -9 which then led to the processing of caspase-3. Taken together, these data demonstrate that INO-A induced early oxidative stress, DNA damage and loss of MMP which subsequently led to the activation of an intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in Jurkat cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Floristics of mangrove tree species in Angke-Kapuk Protected Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUGAYAH

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Angke-Kapuk Protected Forest with total area 44.76 ha is part of the Tegal Alur-Angke Kapuk mangrove forests. Therefore, this forest has important role as an interface between terrestrial and marine ecosystems, whether physical, biological or social-economic aspects, to determine mangrove ecosystem as a productive and unique ecosystem in the coastal area. However, the study of floristic of the mangrove vegetation in this forest has never to be done previously. According to the study on September to November 2003, in this forest found 8 species of mangrove trees. The tree species can be classified into two groups. The first group is true mangroves (7 species, i.e. Avicennia officinalis, Rhizophora apiculata, R. mucronata, R. stylosa, Sonneratia caseolaris (major component, Excoecaria agallocha, and Xylocarpus moluccensis (minor component. The last group is mangrove associate, i.e. Terminalia catappa. In this forest also found 7 tree species, i.e. Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Calophyllum inophyllum, Cerbera manghas, Paraserianthes falcataria, Tamarindus indicus, Acacia mangium, and A. auriculiformis as introduced species. The growth level of B. gymnorhiza, C. inophyllum and C. manghas up to now is seedling and sapling, while the growth level of another introduced species is till in pole and tree.

  19. Pengaruh Prosentase Solvent Non Polar dalam Campuran Pelarut terhadap Pemisahan Senyawa Non Polar dari Minyak Nyamplung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Anggraini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Minyak nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum oil dikenal sebagai minyak yang tidak dapat dikonsumsi. Oleh sebab itu, penelitian tentang minyak ini kebanyakan hanya terfokus pada konversi minyak menjadi biodiesel. Pada penelitian ini, diharapkan agar trigliserida (senyawa non polar terpisah dengan resin beracun yang ada di dalam minyak nyamplung itu sendiri, dengan tujuan agar minyak nyamplung bisa dikonsumsi oleh manusia. Minyak nyamplung sendiri disinyalir mengandung senyawa anti HIV dan anti tumor yang sangat berfungsi bagi manusia. Resin beracun yang terdapat dalam minyak ini diidentifikasi sebagai phthalic acid ester (PAE. Trigliserida dalam minyak nyamplung sendiri berkisar antara 70-80%, sehingga jika trigliserida ini dapat terpisah dengan baik dari PAE atau komponen lain yang berbahaya dalam minyak nyamplung, bukan tidak mungkin minyak nyamplung nantinya akan dapat dikonsumsi oleh manusia. Proses isolasi trigliserida dimulai dengan memisahkan senyawa yang diinginkan dari lipid menggunakan ekstraksi pelarut-pelarut dengan dua macam variable solvent yaitu : n-hexane-methanol serta petroleum eter-methanol. Pemilihan pelarut berdasarkan atas nilai kepolaran yang dimilikinya karena solvent yang saling larut tidak dapat digunakan dalam ekstraksi ini. Rasio jumlah solvent non polar dan polar ini juga divariasikan, yaitu : 100:0, 75:25, 50:50 dan 0:100.

  20. Biodiesel development from high acid value polanga seed oil and performance evaluation in a CI engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.K. Sahoo; L.M. Das; M.K.G. Babu; S.N. Naik [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2007-02-15

    Non-edible filtered high viscous (72 cSt at 40{sup o}C) and high acid value (44 mg KOH/gm) polanga (Calophyllum inophyllum L.) oil based mono esters (biodiesel) produced by triple stage transesterification process and blended with high speed diesel (HSD) were tested for their use as a substitute fuel of diesel in a single cylinder diesel engine. HSD and polanga oil methyl ester (POME) fuel blends (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%) were used for conducting the short-term engine performance tests at varying loads (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%). Tests were carried out over entire range of engine operation at varying conditions of speed and load. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and brake thermal efficiency (BTE) were calculated from the recorded data. The engine performance parameters such as fuel consumption, thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature and exhaust emissions (CO, CO{sub 2}, HC, NOx, and O{sub 2}) were recorded. The optimum engine operating condition based on lower brake specific fuel consumption and higher brake thermal efficiency was observed at 100% load for neat biodiesel. From emission point of view the neat POME was found to be the best fuel as it showed lesser exhaust emission as compared to HSD. 18 refs., 7 figs., 2t abs.

  1. Coumarins as Potential Inhibitors of DNA Polymerases and Reverse Transcriptases. Searching New Antiretroviral and Antitumoral Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garro, Hugo A; Pungitore, Carlos R

    2015-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the viral agent of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), and at present, there is no effective vaccine against HIV. Reverse Transcriptase (RT) is an essential enzyme for retroviral replication, such as HIV as well as for other RNA infectious viruses like Human T lymphocyte virus. Polymerases act in DNA metabolism, modulating different processes like mitosis, damage repair, transcription and replication. It has been widely documented that DNA Polymerases and Reverse Transcriptases serve as molecular targets for antiviral and antitumoral chemotherapy. Coumarins are oxygen heterocycles that are widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom. Natural coumarins have attraction due to their bioactive properties such as tumor promotion inhibitory effects, and anti-HIV activity. Coumarins and derivates exhibit potent inhibitory effects on HIV-1 replication in lymphocytes and compounds isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum or DCK derivates showed inhibitory activity against human RT. Furthermore, natural isocoumarins isolated from cultures of fungi or hydroxycoumarins were able to inhibit human DNA polymerase. In view of their importance as drugs and biologically active natural products, and their medicinally useful properties, extensive studies have been carried out on the synthesis of coumarin compounds in recent years. Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs), a class of antiretroviral chemotherapeutic agents, act by binding to an allosteric pocket showing, generally, low toxicity. This work tries to summarize the investigation about natural and synthetic coumarins with the ability to inhibit key enzymes that play a crucial role in DNA metabolism and their possible application as antiretroviral and antitumoral agents.

  2. Diversity and ecology of Varanus indicus in Pepaya Island at Teluk Cenderawasih National Park, West Irian Jaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DENY ANJELIUS IYAI

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitor lizard (Varanidae has dispersed widely in Indonesia, even in Papua. Papua contents of six species. It’s distribution, abundance, both in land and island have been known yet, even carrying capacity of feeding relative limited. However, species extinction rates in nature were increasing both in it. This research was done in Papaya Island in Teluk Cenderawasih National Park, Nabire, Papua since 24th -25th October 2005. Descriptive method was done to answer this study. This research resulted that in Papaya island contents only one species that is Varanus indicus. The V. indicus chosen same habitat in southern part of Papaya island. This species dispersed on 0-4 m above sea level, humidity about 78.6%, and temperature about 23.90C. Vegetation was dominated by coconut (Cocos nucifera, bitangur (Calophyllum inophyllum and tikar (Pandanus sp., papaya (Carica papaya, and ketapang (Terminalia catappa. V. indicus chosen Megapodius reinwadt nest as nesting area. Population of V. indicus was estimated as much 36.3 ≈ 36 pieces by King Method. The nest of V. indicus placed in Cassuarina sp. tree where cutting down. The diet of V. indicus was found such as megapods, sea birds, lizard (sauria, butterflies and bats (Macrochyroptera. People were caused threatened both direct and indirect toward the V. indicus existence.

  3. Ocular burn: rinsing and healing with ionic marine solutions and vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Toihiri; Dutot, Mélody; Labbé, Antoine; Warnet, Jean-Michel; Rat, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effects of various rinsing and healing protocols on corneal wound repair and inflammation following alkali burn in rabbits. We conducted in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo studies. First, different rinse solutions were tested in vitro after incubation of ocular cells with methanol or NaOH. Cell viability was then assessed using the neutral red test (cytofluorometry). Second, NaOH was applied to rabbit corneas and associations of rinse solutions (NaCl 0.9% or controlled ionization marine solutions) with N-acetylcysteine or vegetable oils (from Calophyllum inophyllum and Aleurites moluccana) were tested in vivo. The regeneration of the corneal epithelium and the infiltration of inflammatory cells were evaluated using in vivo confocal microscopy and ex vivo histological cuts. The association of a controlled ionization marine solution with 10% C. inophyllum oil and 90% A. moluccana oil induced regeneration of the corneal epithelium and a decrease in inflammatory cells. Irrigation with marine solution followed by treatment with a mixture of C. inophyllum and A. moluccana oils is a promising treatment for ocular burns. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Nitrogen doses on the initial growth and nutrition of guanandi plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Ciriello

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen doses on the initial development and nutrition of Guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambèss plants, a native Brazilian arboreal species. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in plastic containers with capacity of 50 L of dystrophic red Latosol (oxisol. The experimental design used was completely randomized, with six treatments and four repetitions. The treatments consisted of five N doses: 0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg dm-3, and the control (with no fertilization or liming of the soil, where urea was used as the fertilization source. With the exception of the control, all the treatments received liming to elevate saturation by bases of soil of 60% and fertilization with 150 mg dm-3 of P2O5, 80 mg dm-3 of K2O. There were monthly analysis of the plant's height and diameter of the connecting point of root and stem of the plant and at its 10 months age were also analyzed the leaves, stems, roots and total dry mass, the foliar area and the chemical analysis of leaves and stems. The N doses significantly affected the height, foliar area, stem and foliar dry mass data, observing a quadratic effect. The diameter and root dry mass data were affected on a negative linear way. The best growth response was obtained with the 40mg dm-3 N dose.

  5. Macrofungal diversity in the Western Ghats, Kerala, India: members of Russulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mohanan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A macrofungal biodiversity inventory carried out in different forest ecosystems viz., west coast tropical evergreen forests, west coast tropical semi-evergreen forests, south Indian moist deciduous forests, southern subtropical broadleaved hill forests, southern montane wet temperate forests (shola forests, southern tropical dry deciduous forests, grasslands, Myristica swamp forests, and forest plantations falling in different forest divisions in the Western Ghats, Kerala employing opportunistic as well as fixed-size plot sampling methods from 2006-2011 yielded several rare and hitherto unrecorded macrofungi. In Russulaceae 15 species of macrofungi belonging to the genera Russula and Lactarius were recorded. Of these, 12 species of Russula viz. Russula aciculocystis, R. adusta, R. atropurpurea, R. cinerella, R. congoana, R. delicula, R. hygrophytica, R. luteotacta, R. mariae, R. martinica, R. michiganensis and R. periglypta and white coloured latex exuding Lactarius nebulosus are new records for the Western Ghats. All the Russulaceae members exhibit an ectomycorrhizal association with tree species like Hopea ponga, H. parviflora, Myristica malabarica, Vateria indica, Calophyllum apetalaum, among others.

  6. Biodiesel from plant seed oils as an alternate fuel for compression ignition engines-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, C; Ramesh, M; Murugesan, A; Panneerselvam, N; Subramaniam, D; Bharathiraja, M

    2016-12-01

    The modern scenario reveals that the world is facing energy crisis due to the dwindling sources of fossil fuels. Environment protection agencies are more concerned about the atmospheric pollution due to the burning of fossil fuels. Alternative fuel research is getting augmented because of the above reasons. Plant seed oils (vegetable oils) are cleaner, sustainable, and renewable. So, it can be the most suitable alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. This paper reviews the availability of different types of plant seed oils, several methods for production of biodiesel from vegetable oils, and its properties. The different types of oils considered in this review are cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) oil, ginger oil, eucalyptus oil, rice bran oil, Calophyllum inophyllum, hazelnut oil, sesame oil, clove stem oil, sardine oil, honge oil, polanga oil, mahua oil, rubber seed oil, cotton seed oil, neem oil, jatropha oil, egunsi melon oil, shea butter, linseed oil, Mohr oil, sea lemon oil, pumpkin oil, tobacco seed oil, jojoba oil, and mustard oil. Several methods for production of biodiesel are transesterification, pre-treatment, pyrolysis, and water emulsion are discussed. The various fuel properties considered for review such as specific gravity, viscosity, calorific value, flash point, and fire point are presented. The review also portrays advantages, limitations, performance, and emission characteristics of engine using plant seed oil biodiesel are discussed. Finally, the modeling and optimization of engine for various biofuels with different input and output parameters using artificial neural network, response surface methodology, and Taguchi are included.

  7. Trypanocidal constituents in plants: 7. Mammea-type coumarins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Reyes-Chilpa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Calophyllum brasiliense and Mammea americana (Clusiaceae are two trees from the tropical rain forests of the American continent. A previous screening showed high trypanocidal activity in the extracts of these species. Several mammea-type coumarins, triterpenoids and biflavonoids were isolated from the leaves of C. brasiliense. Mammea A/AA was obtained from the fruit peels of M. americana. These compounds were tested in vitro against epimastigotes and trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. The most potent compounds were mammea A/BA, A/BB, A/AA, A/BD and B/BA, with MC100 values in the range of 15 to 90 g/ml. Coumarins with a cyclized ,-dimethylallyl substituent on C-6, such as mammea B/BA, cyclo F + B/BB cyclo F, and isomammeigin, showed MC100 values > 200 g/ml. Several active coumarins were also tested against normal human lymphocytes in vitro, which showed that mammea A/AA and A/BA were not toxic. Other compounds from C. brasiliense, such as the triterpenoids, friedelin, canophyllol, the biflavonoid amentoflavone, and protocatechuic and shikimic acids, were inactive against the epimastigotes. The isopropylidenedioxy derivative of shikimic acid was inactive, and its structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Our results suggest that mammea-type coumarins could be a valuable source of trypanocidal compounds.

  8. Environmental dynamics and carbon accumulation rate of a tropical peatland in Central Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapsari, Kartika Anggi; Biagioni, Siria; Jennerjahn, Tim C.; Reimer, Peter Meyer; Saad, Asmadi; Achnopha, Yudhi; Sabiham, Supiandi; Behling, Hermann

    2017-08-01

    Tropical peatlands are important for the global carbon cycle as they store 18% of the total global peat carbon. As they are vulnerable to changes in temperature and precipitation, a rapidly changing environment endangers peatlands and their carbon storage potential. Understanding the mechanisms of peatland carbon accumulation from studying past developments may, therefore, help to assess the future role of tropical peatlands. Using a multi-proxy palaeoecological approach, a peat core taken from the Sungai Buluh peatland in Central Sumatra has been analyzed for its pollen and spore, macro charcoal and biogeochemical composition. The result suggests that peat and C accumulation rates were driven mainly by sea level change, river water level, climatic variability and anthropogenic activities. It is also suggested that peat C accumulation in Sungai Buluh is correlated to the abundance of Freycinetia, Myrtaceae, Calophyllum, Stemonuraceae, Ficus and Euphorbiaceae. Sungai Buluh has reasonable potential for being a future global tropical peat C sinks. However, considering the impact of rapid global climate change in addition to land-use change following rapid economic growth in Indonesia, such potential may be lost. Taking advantage of available palaeoecological records and advances made in Quaternary studies, some considerations for management practice such as identification of priority taxa and conservation sites are suggested.

  9. Performance and emission characteristics of a DI compression ignition engine operated on Honge, Jatropha and sesame oil methyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banapurmath, N.R.; Tewari, P.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.V.B. College of Engineering and Technology, Vidyanagar, Poona-Bangalore Road, Hubli 580031 (India); Hosmath, R.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.L.E' s C.E.T., Belgaum (India)

    2008-09-15

    The high viscosity of vegetable oils leads to problem in pumping and spray characteristics. The inefficient mixing of vegetable oils with air contributes to incomplete combustion. The best way to use vegetable oils as fuel in compression ignition (CI) engines is to convert it into biodiesel. Biodiesel is a methyl or ethyl ester of fatty acids made from vegetable oils (both edible and non-edible) and animal fat. The main resources for biodiesel production can be non-edible oils obtained from plant species such as Pongamia pinnata (Honge oil), Jatropha curcas (Ratanjyot), Hevea brasiliensis (Rubber) and Calophyllum inophyllum (Nagchampa). Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or can be blended with diesel to form different blends. It can be used in CI engines with very little or no engine modifications. This is because it has properties similar to mineral diesel. This paper presents the results of investigations carried out on a single-cylinder, four-stroke, direct-injection, CI engine operated with methyl esters of Honge oil, Jatropha oil and sesame oil. Comparative measures of brake thermal efficiency, smoke opacity, HC, CO, NO{sub X}, ignition delay, combustion duration and heat release rates have been presented and discussed. Engine performance in terms of higher brake thermal efficiency and lower emissions (HC, CO, NO{sub X}) with sesame oil methyl ester operation was observed compared to methyl esters of Honge and Jatropha oil operation. (author)

  10. Heme polymerization inhibition activity (HPIA) assay of synthesized xanthone derivative as antimalarial compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriastuti, Dhina; Jumina, Priatmoko

    2017-03-01

    Xanthone is a phenolic secondary metabolite of Garcinia and Calophyllum herbs which has been clinically proven to display anti malaria activity. In the present paper, 2,3,4-trihydroxy-5-methyl xanthone which has been synthesized from gallic acid and o-cresol in Eaton's reagent was tested for its activity as antimalarial. Thus, HPIA assay of the synthesized xanthones was successfully conducted. The HPIA assay was carried out towards the xanthone, chloroquine diphosphate as positive control and distilled water as negative control in various concentration. The samples were reacted with hematin (ferriprotoporphyrin IX hydroxide) and the absorbance of the precipitate was observed by using Elisa reader. The results of HPIA assay showed that 2,3,4-trihydroxy-5-methyl xanthone and chloroquine have IC50 values of 0.755 and 1.462 mg/mL or 2.92 and 4.57 mM, respectively. 2,3,4-Trihydroxy-5-methyl xanthone displayed better antimalarial activity than chloroquine.

  11. Thermal characteristics of non-edible oils as phase change materials candidate to application of air conditioning chilled water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsyad, M.; Indartono, Y. S.; Suwono, A.; Pasek, A. D.

    2015-09-01

    The addition of phase change material in the secondary refrigerant has been able to reduce the energy consumption of air conditioning systems in chilled water system. This material has a high thermal density because its energy is stored as latent heat. Based on material melting and freezing point, there are several non-edible oils that can be studied as a phase change material candidate for the application of chilled water systems. Forests and plantations in Indonesia have great potential to produce non-edible oil derived from the seeds of the plant, such as; Calophyllum inophyllum, Jatropha curcas L, and Hevea braziliensis. Based on the melting temperature, these oils can further studied to be used as material mixing in the secondary refrigerant. Thermal characteristics are obtained from the testing of T-history, Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) and thermal conductivity materials. Test results showed an increase in the value of the latent heat when mixed with water with the addition of surfactant. Thermal characteristics of each material of the test results are shown completely in discussion section of this article.

  12. Trypanocidal constituents in plants: 7. Mammea-type coumarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Chilpa, Ricardo; Estrada-Muñiz, Elizabeth; Vega-Avila, Elisa; Abe, Fumiko; Kinjo, Junei; Hernández-Ortega, Simón

    2008-08-01

    Calophyllum brasiliense and Mammea americana (Clusiaceae) are two trees from the tropical rain forests of the American continent. A previous screening showed high trypanocidal activity in the extracts of these species. Several mammea-type coumarins, triterpenoids and biflavonoids were isolated from the leaves of C. brasiliense. Mammea A/AA was obtained from the fruit peels of M. americana. These compounds were tested in vitro against epimastigotes and trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. The most potent compounds were mammea A/BA, A/BB, A/AA, A/BD and B/BA, with MC100 values in the range of 15 to 90 microg/ml. Coumarins with a cyclized gamma,gamma-dimethylallyl substituent on C-6, such as mammea B/BA, cyclo F + B/BB cyclo F, and isomammeigin, showed MC100 values > 200 microg/ml. Several active coumarins were also tested against normal human lymphocytes in vitro, which showed that mammea A/AA and A/BA were not toxic. Other compounds from C. brasiliense, such as the triterpenoids, friedelin, canophyllol, the biflavonoid amentoflavone, and protocatechuic and shikimic acids, were inactive against the epimastigotes. The isopropylidenedioxy derivative of shikimic acid was inactive, and its structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Our results suggest that mammea-type coumarins could be a valuable source of trypanocidal compounds.

  13. Comparison of iso-eluotropic mobile phases at different temperatures for the separation of triacylglycerols in Non-Aqueous Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmida, Dorra; Abderrabba, Manef; Tchapla, Alain; Héron, Sylvie; Moussa, Fathi

    2015-05-15

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are a large class of neutral lipids that naturally occur in both plant and animal oils and fats. Their analyses in Non-Aqueous Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography (NARP) require a mixture of weak solvent (mostly acetonitrile) and strong solvent. In the present work, we have established eluotropic solvent strength scale of several binary mobile phases on C18 bonded silica at different temperatures (acetonitrile/methylene chloride, acetonitrile/acetone, acetonitrile/ethyl acetate, acetonitrile/propan-2-ol, and acetonitrile/butan-1-ol at 25°C, 43°C, 63°C and 85°C); it is based on the methylene selectivity and the use of homologous series. We show that this scale is well suited to the TAGs analysis. The analysis of nine seed oils (Aleurites fordii, Calophyllum inophyllum, Glycina max, Olea europea, Orbignya olifeira, Pinus koraiensis, Pistacia lentiscus, Punica granatum and Ribes nigrum) in iso-eluotropic conditions leads to propose unambiguously the couple MeCN/BuOH at 25°C as the best system to separate TAGs. The use of butanol, as strong solvent, provides very good TAGs congeners separations and avoids the use of chlorinated solvents which gave to this day the best separations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Production of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculum under different environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamir Torres-Arias

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to obtain an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF native inoculum from Sierra de Moa and determine the most appropriate conditions for its big scale production, four light and temperature combinations were tested in three plant species (Calophyllum antillanum, Talipariti elatum and Paspalum notatum. Growth and development parameters, as well as the mycorrhizal functioning of the seedlings were evaluated. The natural light treatment under high temperatures (L-H was the most suitable for the growth and development of the three plant species, showing the highest total biomass values, mainly of root, and a positive root-shoot ratio balance. This treatment also promoted higher values of root mycorrhizal colonization, external mycelium and AMF spore density. A total of 38 AMF species were identified among the plants and environmental conditions tested. Archaeospora sp.1, Glomus sp.5, Glomus brohultii and G. glomerulatum were observed in all the treatments. The L-H condition can be recommended for native inoculum production, as it promotes a better expression of the AM symbiosis and an elevated production of mycorrhizal propagules.

  15. Diastereomeric mixture of calophyllic acid and isocalophyllic acid stimulates glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells: involvement of PI-3-kinase- and ERK1/2-dependent pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Janki; Maurya, Chandan Kumar; Pandey, Jyotsana; Jaiswal, Natasha; Madhur, Gaurav; Srivastava, Arvind Kumar; Narender, Tadigoppula; Tamrakar, Akhilesh Kumar

    2013-05-06

    The diastereomeric mixture of calophyllic acid and isocalophyllic acid (F015) isolated from the leaves of Calophyllum inophyllum was investigated for the metabolic effect on glucose transport in skeletal muscle cells. In L6 myotubes, F015 dose-dependently stimulated glucose uptake by increasing translocation of glucose transporter4 (GLUT4) to plasma membrane without affecting their gene expression. The effects on glucose uptake were additive to insulin. Inhibitors analyses revealed that F015-induced glucose uptake was dependent on the activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI-3-K) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), while independent to the activation of 5'AMP-activated kinase (AMPK). F015 significantly increased the phosphorylation of AKT, AS160 and ERK1/2, account for the augmented glucose transport capacity in L6 myotubes. Furthermore, F015 improved glucose tolerance and enhanced insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle of dexamethasone-induced insulin resistant mice. Our findings demonstrate that F015 activates glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells through PI-3-K- and EKR1/2-dependent mechanisms and can be a potential lead for the management of diabetes and obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bissincronia secundária na síndrome de Lennox Secondary bisynchronous electroencephalographic discharges in the Lennox syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Pierre Lison

    1970-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas as relações entre lesões convulsiógenas focais não temporais e encefalopatías epilépticas da criança com ponta-ondas lentas difusas. De 32 pacientes com características clínicas e/ou EEG de síndrome de Lennox submetidos a seguimentos clínico-terapéuticos e EEG longitudinais foram selecionados 11 (3 com sinais clínicos e EEG de comprometimento cortical mesial e 8 com sinais de lesão difusa num dos hemisférios. A história clínica, os achados do exame neurológico e anormalidades EEG focais têm importância quanto à localização primitiva da agressão cerebral. Não há dados fisiopatogênicos seguros para excluir da síndrome de Lennox as seqüelas de encefalopatia mioclônica infantil com hipsarritmia, os casos com sinais clínicos e/ou EEG de localização cortical ou hemisférica, desde que sejam observadas as alterações EEG bissíncronas secundárias e clínicas características bem como a peculiar resposta terapêutica.The relations between epileptogenic focus seated outside the temporal lobe and childhood epileptic encephalopathies with diffuse slow spike-waves were studied. Eleven patients (3 with clinical and electroencephalographic evidences of cortico-mesial lesions and 8 with evidences of diffuse lesions in one of the hemispheres were selected among 32 patients suffering from Lennox syndrome. Clinical history, findings of neurological examination and focal electroencephalographic abnormalities are important factors for ascertaining the localization of the primary cerebral lesion. No physiopathogenic datum permits to exclude from the Lennox syndrome the sequels of myoclonic encephalopathy with hypsarrhythmia or the cases with clinical and electroencephalographic signs of cortical or hemispheric localization when secondary bi-synchronous electroencephalographic discharges are present and the characteristic clinical symptoms and response to therapy are observed.

  17. Current lead natural products for the chemotherapy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, E

    2000-09-01

    antagonism with the HIV corecept or CXCR4. A number of natural products have been reported to interact with the reverse transcriptase, i.e., baicalin, avarol, avarone, psychotrine, phloroglucinol derivatives, and, in particular, calanolides (from the tropical rainforest tree, Calophyllum lanigerum) and inophyllums (from the Malaysian tree, Calophyllum inophyllum). The natural marine substance illimaquinone would be targeted at the RNase H function of the reverse transcriptase. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane, from turmeric, the roots/rhizomes of Curcuma spp), dicaffeoylquinic and dicaffeoylt artaric acids, L-chicoric acid, and a number of fungal metabolites (equisetin, phomasetin, oteromycin, and integric acid) have all been proposed as HIV-1 integrase inhibitors. Yet, we have recently shown that L-c hicoric acid owes its anti-HIV activity to a specific interaction with the viral envelope gp120 rather than integrase. A number of compounds would be able to inhibit HIV-1 gene expression at the transcription level: the flavonoid chrysin (through inhibition of casein kinase II, the antibacter ial peptides melittin (from bee venom) and cecropin, and EM2487, a novel substance produced by Streptomyces. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

  18. Composição florística e estrutura fitossociológica de dois fragmentos de floresta de restinga no Município de Bertioga, SP, Brasil Floristic and phytosociological analysis of two fragments of restinga forest in Bertioga, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Daniela Guedes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado em dois fragmentos de floresta de restinga (floresta inundável e floresta não inundável no Município de Bertioga, Estado de São Paulo, em uma área com extensão total aproximada de 3.000.000 m², pertencente ao condomínio residencial Riviera de São Lourenço. Para o levantamento fitossociológico foram instaladas 48 parcelas de 10×10 m distribuídas em blocos de 20×30 m e de 10×30 m, onde foram amostrados todos os indivíduos lenhosos com perímetro do caule à altura do peito (PAP igual ou superior a 10 cm. Foram levantados 893 indivíduos distribuídos em 83 espécies e 31 famílias. As espécies da floresta não inundável com maior valor de importância (VI foram: Manilkara subsericea (Mart. Dubard, Amaioua intermedia Mart. ex K. Schum., Didymopanax angustissimum A. Sampaio, Miconia cubatanensis Hoehne, Euterpe edulis Mart., Syagrus pseudococos (Raud. Glassm., Bactris setosa Mart., Guarea macrophylla Vahl. e Nectandra oppositifolia Ness & Mart. ex Mez. e na floresta inundável: Eriotheca pentaphylla (Vell. emend K. Schum. A. Robyns, Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess., Syagrus pseudococos, Tabebuia cassinoides (Lam. DC., Manilkara subsericea, Tabebuia obtusifolia (Cham Bureau, Didymopanax angustissimum, Sloanea guianensis (Aubl. Benth. e Amaioua intermedia. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' foi de 3,50 nats/ind. para a floresta inundável e 3,70 nats/ind. para a floresta não inundável.A phytosociological investigation in two fragments of restinga forest (flooded and nonflooded in Riviera de São Lourenço complex, Bertioga, São Paulo, was carried out. Each fragment in the phytosociological survey was studied using 10×10 m plots. These plots were distributed in blocks of 20×30 m and 10×30 m, for a total area of 4,800 m². The 893 individuals sampled in both fragments were distributed in 83 species and 31 families. The species with highest importance values (IV in the flooded restinga

  19. Florística e estrutura do componente arbustivo-arbóreo de uma floresta higrófila da bacia do rio Jacaré-Pepira, SP, Brasil Floristics and structure of the shrub and the tree-layer of a swamp forest in Jacaré-Pepira river, Southeastern Brazil

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    Márcia C. M. Marques

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available As florestas higrófilas são formações ribeirinhas caracterizadas por ocorrerem em solo permanentemente encharcado e restritas a pequenos fragmentos junto a outros tipos vegetacionais. Neste trabalho caracterizaram-se a florística e a estrutura do componente arbustivo-arbóreo (plantas com DAP>5cm de uma área de 0,36ha de floresta higrófila localizada em Brotas (48º06'W 22º16'S, 470m.s.m., Estado de São Paulo, usando-se método de parcelas (total de 24 parcelas. No total foram amostrados 735 indivíduos, distribuídos em 32 famílias e 51 espécies. As espécies que se destacaram na comunidade devido aos elevados valores de importância foram Calophyllum brasiliense Camb., Protium almecega L. Marchand, Podocarpus sellowii Klotzch., Tapirira guianensis Aubl. e Dendropanax cuneatum DC. Decne. & Planch. O índice de diversidade de Shannon foi igual a 2,81, valor pouco superior aos descritos para florestas semelhantes. Na comunidade, as espécies generalistas com relação ao encharcamento do solo e as de solo drenado contribuíram na riqueza total (juntas 62% do total de espécies amostradas, enquanto as espécies de solo encharcado tiveram maior contribuição na composição da dominância (66% da dominância total e densidade (67% da densidade total relativas. A diversidade de situações topográficas e a entrada de espécies da vegetação do cerrado adjacente permitiram que espécies com diferentes exigências hídricas se estabelecessem na área relativamente pequena da floresta e influenciaram fortemente a florística e estrutura da comunidade.Swamp forests occur in permanently flooded small forest fragments in southeastern Brazil. We studied the floristic composition and community structure (plants with DBH>5cm of a swamp forest in Brotas municipality (48º06'W 22º16'S, 470m high, São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 735 individuals, 32 families, and 51 woody species were recorded in the area. The most important species were

  20. Evaluation of the proliferative activity of methanol extracts from six medicinal plants in murine spleen cells

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    Rodrigo Hermes Zandonai

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of natural compounds have been used as immunomodulatory agents, enabling the function of the immune system to be modified by stimulating or suppressing it. There has been increasing interest in the study of therapeutic action of plant extracts regarding their immunomodulatory activity. The aim of this study was to identify and evaluate the action of extracts of the medicinal plants Calophyllum brasiliense, Ipomoea pes-caprae, Matayba elaeagnoides, Maytenus robusta, Rubus imperialis and Vernonia scorpioides on the development of spleen cells from mice, using the in vitro cellular proliferation assay. The cells, obtained by mechanical rupture of mice spleen (5x10(4 cells/mL, were incubated with methanol extracts (10, 50, 100 and 200 µg/mL and phytohemagglutinin (PHA, 5 µg/mL. The basal control for proliferation consisted of cells alone, while the positive control consisted of cells and PHA. The cell culture was kept at 37 ºC in 5% CO2 for 72 hours, and cell proliferation was revealed by the blue tetrazolium reduction assay (MTT. The results were expressed as percentage of growth and were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. The C. brasiliense, I. pes-caprae and M. elaeagnoides extracts showed dose-dependent induction of cell proliferation, with a significant increase in cell proliferation (pVárias substâncias de origem natural têm sido utilizadas como agentes imunomoduladores, permitindo modificar a função do sistema imune e propiciando o estudo de atividades terapêuticas de extratos de plantas. Este trabalho objetivou identificar a atividade imunomodulatória dos extratos de seis plantas medicinais da flora brasileira, Calophyllum brasiliense, Ipomoea pes-caprae, Matayba elaeagnoides, Maytenus robusta, Rubus imperialis e Vernonia scorpioides, sobre a proliferação de células esplênicas de camundongos. As células esplênicas murinas obtidas por ruptura mecânica do baço (5x14³ células/mL foram

  1. Assessing the extent of "conflict of use" in multipurpose tropical forest trees: a regional view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Jáuregui, Cristina; Guariguata, Manuel R; Cárdenas, Dairon; Vilanova, Emilio; Robles, Marco; Licona, Juan Carlos; Nalvarte, Walter

    2013-11-30

    In the context of multiple forest management, multipurpose tree species which provide both timber and non-timber forest products (NTFP), present particular challenges as the potential of conflicting use for either product may be high. One key aspect is that the magnitude of conflict of use can be location specific, thus adding complexity to policy development. This paper focuses on the extent to which the potential for conflict of use in multipurpose tree species varies across the Amazonian lowland forests shared by Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, emphasizing the economic dimension of conflict. Based on a review of the current normative and regulatory aspects of timber and NTFP extraction in the five countries, the paper also briefly discusses the opportunities and constraints for harmonization of timber and NTFP management of multipurpose species across the region. It was found that about half of the 336 timber species reviewed across the five countries also have non-timber uses. Eleven timber species are multipurpose in all five countries: Calophyllum brasiliense, Cedrela odorata, Ceiba pentandra, Clarisia racemosa, Ficus insipida, Jacaranda copaia, Schefflera morototoni, Simarouba amara and Terminalia amazonia. Seven other multipurpose species occurred only in either Venezuela (Tabebuia impetiginosa, Spondias mombin, Pentaclethra macroloba, Copaifera officinalis, Chlorophora tinctoria, Carapa guianensis) or Ecuador (Tabebuia chrysantha). Four multipurpose tree species presented the highest potential of conflict of use across the region: Dipteryx odorata, Tabebuia serratifolia, Hymenaea courbaril and Myroxylon balsamum yet these were not evenly distributed across all five countries. None of the five studied countries have specific legislation to promote sustainable use of any of the multipurpose species reported here and thus mitigate potential conflict of use; nor documented management options for integration or else segregation of both their

  2. Pembuatan Biodiesel Dari Minyak Nyamplung Menggunakan Pemanasan Gelombang Mikro

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    Fatih Ridho Muhammad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Energi fosil yang selama ini menjadi tumpuan penduduk seluruh dunia, jumlahnya semakin menipis dari waktu ke waktu. Peran minyak bumi dalam penyediaan energi nasional pun masih dominan. Sekitar 53% kebutuhan energi nasional dipenuhi dari minyak bumi. Oleh karena itu, pencarian energi alternatif pengganti minyak bumi harus dikembangkan, salah satunya biodiesel. Penggunaan microwave sebagai sumber energi pembuatan biodiesel dapat mempercepat waktu reaksi. Sehingga microwave dipandang lebih efisien. Biji nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum memiliki kandungan minyak sebesar 60,1% berat. Dengan kandungan minyak sebesar ini maka biji nyamplung memiliki potensi yang besar bila digunakan sebagai bahan baku pembuatan biodiesel. Nyamplung tersebar luas di pantai-pantai Indonesia. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mensintesa biodiesel dari minyak mentah nyamplung (Callophyluminophyllum dengan proses trans-esterifikasi dengan menggunakan microwave, mempelajari daya optimal dalam pembuatan biodiesel, mempelajari jumlah katalis yang dibutuhkan untuk mendapatkan biodiesel yang paling baik, mempelajari yield biodiesel yang dihasilkan serta mempelajari pengaruh penambahan ratio mol minyak-metanol terhadap kualitas biodiesel yang dihasilkan. Langkah awal pembuatan biodiesel nyamplung adalah proses degumming atau penghilangan impurities seperti getah, kemudian dilanjutkan dengan esterifikasi yang bertujuan untuk mengubah free fatty acid (FFA menjadi metil ester. Setelah esterifikasi, larutan dititrasi dengan NaOH dan indicator pp hingga konsentrasi FFA menjadi < 2%. Kemudian masuk proses trans-esterifikasi yang merubah trigliserida dalam minyak menjadi metil ester dan gliserol. Proses selanjutnya adalah pemisahan biodiesel dan gliserol dan terakhir proses pencucian. Variabel percobaan adalah kadar katalis CaO 2, 3, 4, 5, dan 6% berat minyak. Ratio mol minyak-metanol 1:9 dan 1:12. Variabel terakhir adalah daya microwave sebesar 100W, 264W dan 400W. Dari hasil

  3. An in vitro efficacy validation of mangrove associates

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    Aseer Manilal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the in vitro antimicrobial potential of mangrove associates against a battery of human and shrimp pathogenic bacteria and to elucidate its antimicrobial principles. Methods: In the present study, 12 species of mangrove associates collected from the Kollam (southwest coast of India vicinity were extracted in different organic solvents of increasing polarity. The resultant extracts obtained from the respective species were examined for the antimicrobial activity against a panel of shrimp and human pathogens by agar diffusion assay. Results: Of the 12 species evaluated, three species of mangrove associates [Calophyllum inophyllum (C. inophyllum, Cerbera odollam and Dalbergia candenatensis] were found to be active. The broadest and highest rank of activity was observed in the crude extract of C. inophyllum. Amongst the pathogens tested, shrimp pathogenic Vibrios were the most sensitive organisms while human pathogens were found to be a bit resistant. In the present study, ethyl acetate was found to be the best solvent for extracting antimicrobial metabolites. The bioactive principles present in the crude extract of C. inophyllum were chemically elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometer studies revealed the presence of two principal compounds such as 1-Dimethyl(phenylsilyloxyhexadecane (24.73% and β-d-Mannofuranoside, O-geranyl (50% which might play functional role in the chemical defense against microbial invasion. Conclusions: Based on the overall findings, it could be inferred that the mangrove associate C. inophyllum is a promising candidate for the development of plant-based human and veterinary grade antibiotics in future.

  4. Systematic analysis of in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity in extracts from terrestrial plants in Peninsula Malaysia for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Cheng Yi; Ling, Sui Kiong; Ali, Rasadah Mat; Chee, Chin Fei; Samah, Zainon Abu; Ho, Anthony Siong Hock; Teo, Soo Hwang; Lee, Hong Boon

    2009-09-04

    One hundred and fifty-five extracts from 93 terrestrial species of plants in Peninsula Malaysia were screened for in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity by means of a cell viability test using a human leukaemia cell-line HL60. These plants which can be classified into 43 plant families are diverse in their type of vegetation and their natural habitat in the wild, and may therefore harbour equally diverse metabolites with potential pharmaceutical properties. Of these, 29 plants, namely three from each of the Clusiaceae, Leguminosae, Rutaceae and Verbenaceae families, two from the Piperaceae family and the remaining 15 are from Acanthaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae, Celastraceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Irvingiaceae, Lauraceae, Lythraceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae, Myristicaceae, Myrsinaceae, Olacaceae and Sapindaceae. Hibiscus cannabinus (Malvaceae), Ficus deltoidea (Moraceae), Maranthes corymbosa (Chrysobalanaceae), Micromelum sp., Micromelum minutum and Citrus hystrix (Rutaceae), Cryptocarya griffithiana (Lauraceae), Litchi chinensis (Sapindaceae), Scorodocarpus bornensis (Olacaceae), Kokoona reflexa (Celastraceae), Irvingia malayana (Irvingiaceae), Knema curtisii (Myristicaceae), Dysoxylum sericeum (Meliaceae), Garcinia atroviridis, Garcinia mangostana and Calophyllum inophyllum (Clusiaceae), Ervatamia hirta (Apocynaceae), Cassia alata, Entada phaseoloides and Leucaena leucocephala (Leguminosae), Oroxylum indicum (Bignoniaceae), Peronema canescens,Vitex pubescens and Premna odorata (Verbenaceae), Piper mucronatum and Piper sp. (Piperaceae), Ardisia crenata (Myrsinaceae), Lawsonia inermis (Lythraceae), Strobilanthes sp. (Acanthaceae) were able to reduce the in vitro cell viability by more than 50% when exposed to 9.6J/cm(2) of a broad spectrum light when tested at a concentration of 20 microg/mL. Six of these active extracts were further fractionated and bio-assayed to yield four photosensitisers, all of which are based on the pheophorbide-a and -b core structures

  5. Nitrogen fixation in trees - 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobereiner, J.; Gauthier, D.L.; Diem, H.G.; Dommergues, Y.R.; Bonetti, R.; Oliveira, L.A.; Magalhaes, F.M.M.; Faria, S.M. de; Franco, A.A.; Menandro, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Six papers are presented from the symposium. Dobereiner, J.; Nodulation and nitrogen fixation in leguminous trees, 83-90, (15 ref.), reviews studies on Brazilian species. Gauthier, D.L., Diem, H.G., Dommergues, Y.R., Tropical and subtropical actinorhizal plants, 119-136, (Refs. 50), reports on studies on Casuarinaceae. Bonetti, R., Oliveira, L.A., Magalhaes, F.M.M.; Rhizobium populations and occurrence of VA mycorrhizae in plantations of forest trees, 137-142, (Refs. 15), studies Amazonia stands of Cedrelinga catenaeformis, Calophyllum brasiliense, Dipteryx odorata, D. potiphylla, Carapa guianensis, Goupia glabra, Tabebuia serratifolia, Clarisia racemosa, Pithecellobium racemosum, Vouacapoua pallidior, Eperua bijuga, and Diplotropis species. Nodulation was observed in Cedrelinga catenaeformis and V. pallidior. Faria, S.M. de, Franco, A.A., Menandro, M.S., Jesus, R.M. de, Baitello, J.B.; Aguiar, O.T. de, Doebereiner, J; survey of nodulation in leguminous tree species native to southeastern Brazil, 143-153, (Refs. 7), reports on 119 species, with first reports of nodulation in the genera Bowdichia, Poecilanthe, Melanoxylon, Moldenhaurea (Moldenhawera), and Pseudosamanea. Gaiad, S., Carpanezzi, A.A.; Occurrence of Rhizobium in Leguminosae of silvicultural interest for south Brazil, 155-158, (Refs. 2). Nodulation is reported in Mimosa scabrella, Acacia mearnsii, A. longifolia various trinervis, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, and Erythrina falcata. Magalhaes, L.M.S., Blum, W.E.H., Nodulation and growth of Cedrelinga catanaeformis in experimental stands in the Manaus region - Amazonas, 159-164, (Refs. 5). Results indicate that C. catenaeformis can be used in degraded areas of very low soil fertility.

  6. CO2 emission from soil after reforestation and application of sewage sludge

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    Janaina Braga Carmo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to quantify the carbon dioxide emissions from an Oxisol under degraded pasture located in Sorocaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. The treatments were: sewage sludge (LE, sewage sludge compost (CLE, mineral fertilizer (AM and no fertilization (T0. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with analysis of the effect of the four treatments (CLE, LE, and AM T0 with four replications. The application of sewage sludge, sewage sludge compost, mineral fertilizer and no fertilizer was statistically significant for the variables of height increase and stem height of Guanandi seedlings (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambessèdes - Calophyllaceae. Treatments showed significant differences in terms of CO2 emissions from soil. The CLE exhibited the highest CO2 fluxes, reaching a peak of 9.33±0.96 g C m- 2 day- 1 (p<0.0001, as well as the LE with a maximum CO2 flux of 6.35±1.17 C m- 2 day- 1 (p<0.005. The AM treatment (4.96±1.61 g C m- 2 day- 1 had the same statistical effect as T0 (5.33±0.49 g C m- 2 day- 1. CO2 fluxes were correlated with soil temperature in all treatments. However, considering the period of 172 days of evaluation, the total loss of C as CO2 was 2.7% for sewage sludge and 0.7% for the sewage sludge compost of the total C added with the application on soil.

  7. Avaliação de danos por insetos em toras estocadas em indústrias madeireiras de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil

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    Abreu Raimunda Liége Souza de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Em seis indústrias madeireiras de Manaus, Amazonas, foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa, com a utilização de um questionário,para averiguar as condições de uso e processamento da madeira e as medidas preventivas contra o ataque de insetos. Foram realizados, também,um levantamento da ocorrência de insetos em 19 espécies de madeiras utilizadas por essas indústrias e a avaliação do dano provocado pelas principais espécies de Coleoptera (besouros e Isoptera (cupins. Das respostas apuradas, constatou-se que nenhuma das empresas visitadas emprega qualquer produto para prevenir o ataque de insetos às toras, assim como a secagem e a estocagem das toras são feitas de forma incorreta, contribuindo para aumentar a intensidade de ataque de insetos. Foram encontradas uma família de cupins e 16 de besouros, ressaltando que destas apenas cinco causam danos à madeira. Do total de 13 espécies de insetos coletados, destacam-se Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff e Platypus parallelus (Fabricius, encontradas em 18 espécies madeireiras, sendo conseqüentemente responsáveis pela maioria dos danos nas toras X. volvulus (Fabricius e Platypus sp. foram encontradas em cinco espécies; X. ferrugineus (Fabricius em três espécies; Minthea rugicolis Walk, Minthea sp. e Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky em duas, e Dinoderus bifoveolatus Wollaston, Anoplotermes sp.; e Cnesinus sp. em uma. As espécies de madeiras que sofreram maior grau de deterioração, causada principalmente por coleópteros, foram Ceiba pentandra (L. Gaertn. e Copaifera multijuga Hayne, seguidas por Couroupitaguianensis Aubl., Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess., Cedrela odorata L., Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg., Hura crepitans L., Hymenolobium sp., Maquira coriacea (Karsten C.C. Berg, Nectandra sp., Virolasurinamensis Warb. e Vochysia sp.

  8. Técnicas para superação da dormência de sementes de guanandi

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    Rosemeire Carvalho da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar tipos de preparo de sementes de guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense, com vistas à superação da dormência física e mecânica, e verificar a influência da temperatura e do substrato sobre a germinação. Foram avaliados três substratos (papel, areia e vermiculita, duas temperaturas de germinação (25 e 30ºC e quatro tipos de preparo das sementes: sementes íntegras; sementes nuas, sem tegumento e endocarpo; sementes com punctura no endocarpo, na região próxima ao eixo embrionário ou na região oposta ao eixo embrionário; e sementes cortadas a 1/3 da região oposta ao eixo embrionário. Foram realizados testes de vigor (índice de velocidade de germinação e emergência de plântulas em campo, e a curva de embebição foi obtida para os diferentes tipos de preparo da semente. A retirada total do envoltório (endocarpo e tegumento é necessária para a completa superação da dormência física e mecânica das sementes de guanandi. A germinação das sementes deve ser realizada em substrato papel à temperatura de 30ºC.

  9. VARIATION IN BIOFUEL POTENTIAL OF TWELVE CALOPYLLUM INOPHYLLUM POPULATIONS IN INDONESIA

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    Budi Leksono

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The global energy crisis has raises demand for biofuel prices. It has driven the world to enhance environmentally-friendly renewable-energy (biofuel production. Oil from the seeds of Calophyllum inophyllum (nyamplung which can be harvested up to 50 years, is one of  such potential biofuel source. Methods for biofuel production from nyamplung seeds have been developed at an industrial scale by cooperative in Cilacap (Java and Energy Self-Sufficient Villages (Desa Mandiri Energi in Banyuwangi, Purworejo, Kebumen, Ujung Kulon (Java and Selayar (South Sulawesi. However, there is only a limited-information available on biofuel potential, in term of  productivity and quality, from nyamplung populations. This paper reports the variations in biofuel potential among 12 populations in Indonesia (6 from Java, 6 outside Java. The oil was extracted using a combination of  vertical hot press (VHP and screw press expeller (SPE methods, followed by degumming to make refined oil, and esterification-transesterification to turn it into biodiesel. The result show great variation of  biofuel content among the population. Oil production percentage varies from 37-48.5% (VHP and 50-58% (SPE crude oil, 36-48% (VHP and 40-53% (SPE refined oil, and 1733% (SPE for biodiesel. Seed resin content is responsible for most of the variation after degumming. DNA analysis shows genetic variation among populations ranges from intermediate within Java to high ouside Java and is intermediate within populations. Information about biofuel content and potential of  populations and genetic variation between and within population are important factors for establishment of  geneticallyimproved seed-sources for biofuel production from nyamplung.

  10. MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI INCREASED EARLY GROWTH OF TROPICAL TREE SEEDLINGS IN ADVERSE SOIL

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    Maman Turjaman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The rate of reforestation  has increased throughout the countries in Southeast Asia region during the last 20 years.  At the same time, inconvenient situations such as forest destruction, forest exploitation, illegal logging, clear-cut forest areas, old agricultural lands, post-wildfire areas, conversion  of natural  forests into  plantations, resettlement areas, mine  lands,  and amended adverse soils have also been increasing  significantly. Mycorrhizas, hovewer,  play important role  to increase  plant  growth,  enrich  nutrient content  and enhance  survival rates of forest tree species in temperate  and sub-tropical  regions.  Unfortunately, a little information so far is available  regarding  the effect of mycorrhizas on growth  of tree species growing  in tropical  forests. In relevant,  several experiments  were carried  out to determine whether  ectomycorrhizal (ECM fungi and arbuscular  mycorrhizal (AM fungi can enhance mycorrhizal colonization, nutrient content, and plant growth of some tropical rain forest tree species in Indonesia under nursery  and field conditions.   The families of tropical  tree species used in the experiment were  Thymelaeaceae (Aquilaria crassna, Leguminosae  (Sesbania grandifolia, Guttiferae (Ploiarium alternifolium and Calophyllum hosei, Apocynaceae (Dyera polyphylla and Alstonia scholaris, and Dipterocarpaceae (Shorea belangeran. These families are important as they provide timber  and non-timber  forest products (NTFPs.   This paper discusses the role of mycorrhizal fungi in increasing  early  growth  of tropical  tree seedlings in adverse soil.

  11. Aprovechamiento forestal maderable en cuatro municipios del departamento de Chocó, Colombia

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    Melida Martínez Guardia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available  Se caracterizó el aprovechamiento de los productos forestales maderables de cuatro municipiosdel departamento del Choco, Colombia, teniendo en cuenta los procesos de transformación, uso y comercialización. Para la recolección de la información, se formularon encuestas estructuradas, las cuales fueron aplicadas a los aserradores y ebanistas; paralelo a esto, se realizaron visitas al bosque donde se observaron los procesos productivos. Como resultado se obtuvo que las especies maderables más aprovechadas en los municipios de Atrato, Certegui, Istmina y Medio San Juan son: Brosimum utile, Hymenaea oblongifolia, Pseudolmedia laevigata, Cedrela odorata, Couma macrocarpa, Calophyllum longifolium y Humiriastrum procerum. Los rendimientos promedios en la cosecha del bosque son 1,72 m3 hora-1, equivalente a 412 m3  mes-1, de los cuales se obtienen bloques y trozas. El 69% de este material es comercializado con intermediario y el 31% restante es vendido a los centros de acopios locales, quienes lo transforman en 2x2, Guayacanes, 2x3, vigas, tablas y soleras. Los desperdicios generados de las labores de aprovechamiento, en casi su totalidad no son aprovechados a excepción del aserrín, del cual una parte se utiliza en labores agropecuarias y el resto es arrojado a los ríos. Producto del segundo grado de transformación a nivel local se obtienen: camas, sillas, canaletes, canoas, entre otros materiales. Las actividades de cosecha del bosque en los cuatros municipios en estudio se caracterizan porque: son realizadas con motosierra, la madera obtenida es transportada a hombro, balsas (fluvialmente y utilizando tracción animal. Referente a la relación beneficio costo, se obtuvo un valor de 6.

  12. Características de los trabajos publicados sobre las propiedades de las plantas en revistas médicas peruanas

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    Oscar G. Pamo-Reyna

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar las características de los trabajos originales sobre las propiedades de las plantas publicadas en revistas médicas peruanas. Material y métodos. Se revisó las bases de datos bibliográficas SciELO Perú y SISBIB para el período 2004-2008. Resultados. En 14 revistas se halló 825 trabajos originales, de los cuales 45 fueron incluidos en el estudio. El número de trabajos por años fue 3 (2004, 5 (2005, 9 2006, 13 (2007 y 15 (2008. Las revistas que publicaron mayor proporción de artículos sobre plantas fueron revistas de facultades de medicina: Rev Med Vallejiana (33%, Horizonte Médico (29% y An Fac Med (13%. Las instituciones que más publicaron fueron la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (45,5%, Universidad San Martín de Porres (22% y Universidad Nacional de Trujillo (13%. De un total de 226 autores, 11 de ellos realizaron el 22,1% de la producción total. De 57 plantas estudiadas, las más investigadas fueron Lepidium sp. (maca, Croton palanostigma (sangre de grado, Calophyllum brasiliense (lagarto caspi y Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacón. Los potenciales usos más estudiados fueron nutritivos, antineoplásicos, antioxidante, hipoglicemiante e hipotensor arterial. Seis (13,3% trabajos fueron clínicos y el resto fue de tipo experimental o bioquímico. Conclusión. La producción científica médica relacionada con las propiedades de las plantas y publicada es escasa aunque creciente, se realiza en las universidades públicas y privadas, la participación privada es casi nula; y, existe una élite de investigadores que gran producción de trabajos.

  13. Influence of polymethyl acrylate additive on the formation of particulate matter and NOX emission of a biodiesel-diesel-fueled engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monirul, Islam Mohammad; Masjuki, Haji Hassan; Kalam, Mohammad Abdul; Zulkifli, Nurin Wahidah Mohd; Shancita, Islam

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the polymethyl acrylate (PMA) additive on the formation of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NOX) emission from a diesel coconut and/or Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel-fueled engine. The physicochemical properties of 20% of coconut and/or C. inophyllum biodiesel-diesel blend (B20), 0.03 wt% of PMA with B20 (B20P), and diesel fuel were measured and compared to ASTM D6751, D7467, and EN 14214 standard. The test results showed that the addition of PMA additive with B20 significantly improves the cold-flow properties such as pour point (PP), cloud point (CP), and cold filter plugging point (CFPP). The addition of PMA additives reduced the engine's brake-specific energy consumption of all tested fuels. Engine emission results showed that the additive-added fuel reduce PM concentration than B20 and diesel, whereas the PM size and NOX emission both increased than B20 fuel and baseline diesel fuel. Also, the effect of adding PMA into B20 reduced Carbon (C), Aluminum (Al), Potassium (K), and volatile materials in the soot, whereas it increased Oxygen (O), Fluorine (F), Zinc (Zn), Barium (Ba), Chlorine (Cl), Sodium (Na), and fixed carbon. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) results for B20P showed the lower agglomeration than B20 and diesel fuel. Therefore, B20P fuel can be used as an alternative to diesel fuel in diesel engines to lower the harmful emissions without compromising the fuel quality.

  14. TROCAS GASOSAS E EFICIÊNCIA DO FOTOSSISTEMA II EM PLANTAS ADULTAS DE SEIS ESPÉCIES FLORESTAIS EM FUNÇÃO DO SUPRIMENTO DE ÁGUA NO SOLO1

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    David de Holanda Campelo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A redução da disponibilidade hídrica causa efeitos sobre a fotossíntese e o desenvolvimento de espécies arbóreas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as trocas gasosas e a eficiência fotoquímica do fotossistema II em plantas adultas de gonçalo-alves (Astronium fraxinifolium Schott., guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess., ipê-amarelo (Handroanthus serratifolius (Vahl., ipê-rosa (Handroanthus impetiginosa (Mart. Matos, marupá (Simarouba amara Aubl. e mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King. cultivadas em condições de sequeiro e irrigadas, no Perímetro Irrigado do Baixo Acaraú, Ceará. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de medidas repetidas no tempo, num esquema de parcelas subsubdivididas (6 x 2 x 3, sendo a parcela principal composta por seis espécies, a subparcela por dois regimes hídricos (irrigado e sequeiro e a subsubparcela pelas épocas de avaliação. As análises das trocas gasosas foram realizadas em 22/11/2012 (estação seca, 07/02/2013 (data que antecedeu o período chuvoso e 17/05/2013 (estação chuvosa. As espécies mogno, guanandi e ipê-amarelo mostraram-se mais sensíveis ao déficit hídrico, em comparação com as outras espécies, o que foi evidenciado pelas maiores reduções nas trocas gasosas e na eficiência fotoquímica do fotossistema II. O ipê-rosa, o marupá e o gonçalo-alves mostraram-se mais adaptados às condições de baixa disponibilidade hídrica do solo.

  15. Mudanças na estrutura da vegetação lenhosa em três porções da mata de galeria do Córrego Bacaba (1999-2006, Nova Xavantina-MT

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    Aline Miguel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo, realizado na Mata de Galeria do córrego Bacaba (14º41'S e 52º20'W, em Nova Xavantina, MT, avaliou as mudanças na estrutura da vegetação no período de 1999 a 2006. Em 1999, foram demarcadas 141 parcelas permanentes em três porções da mata (alto, meio e baixo, em um gradiente topográfico, e medidos os indivíduos com CAP ≥ 15 cm. No inventário de 2006, os indivíduos foram remedidos e os recrutas, computados. Em 2006, amostraram-se 135 espécies, 113 gêneros e 49 famílias. A posição hierárquica das espécies apresentou mudanças expressivas em relação a 1999. Na porção do alto, as espécies com maior valor de importância (VI foram: Astrocaryum vulgare, Diospyros guianensis e Calophyllum brasiliense. Essa porção pode ter sido a mais afetada pelo fogo que atingiu a área em 2001, visto que uma espécie típica de ambientes antropizados passou a ocupar a primeira posição de VI. No meio, as espécies mais importantes em 2006 foram: Aspidosperma subincanum, Tetragastris altissima e Hymenaea courbaril. No baixo, apenas Mauritia flexuosa manteve a mesma posição do inventário anterior, e a maior alteração hierárquica foi apresentada pelas espécies pioneiras, sugerindo um fechamento da vegetação. Entre as 10 espécies de maior VI em 2006, nenhuma foi comum às três porções da mata. Características estruturais distintas da vegetação entre áreas geograficamente tão próximas podem estar relacionadas à heterogeneidade do ambiente. As mudanças no VI registradas nas espécies das três porções de mata reforçam a ideia de que esta apresenta elevada dinâmica.

  16. Kinetic and mutational analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase inhibition by inophyllums, a novel class of non-nucleoside inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P B; Culp, J S; Debouck, C; Johnson, R K; Patil, A D; Woolf, D J; Brooks, I; Hertzberg, R P

    1994-03-04

    Inophyllums are novel non-nucleoside inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 reverse transcriptase identified through an enzyme screening program and isolated from the plant Calophyllum inophyllum. The kinetics of reverse transcriptase inhibition by inophyllum B were characterized using recombinant purified enzyme, a heteropolymeric RNA template, and a scintillation proximity assay. Preincubation of inhibitor with the enzyme-template-primer complex for 11 min was required for maximal inhibition of reverse transcriptase to occur, suggesting that inophyllum B had a slow on-rate and that template-primer must bind to reverse transcriptase prior to inhibitor binding. Inhibition of reverse transcriptase by inophyllums was shown to be reversible. When thymidine triphosphate was the variable substrate, inophyllum B inhibited reverse transcriptase noncompetitively with a Ki of 42 nM. Enzyme inhibition with respect to template-primer was uncompetitive with a Ki of 26 nM. Reverse transcriptase enzymes containing point mutations in which tyrosine 181 was changed to either cysteine or isoleucine exhibited marginal resistance to inophyllums but were resistant to (+)-(5S)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-9-chloro-5-methyl-6- (3-methyl-2-butenyl)-imidazo[4,5,1-j,k][1,4]benzodiazepin-2-(1H)-t hione (TIBO R82913). A mutant enzyme in which tyrosine 188 was changed to leucine was cross-resistant to both inophyllum B and TIBO R82913, as was HIV type 2 reverse transcriptase. These studies suggest that inophyllum B and TIBO R82913 bind to distinct but overlapping sites. Inhibition of avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptase and Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase by inophyllum B was detectible, suggesting that these inhibitors may be more promiscuous than other previously described non-nucleoside inhibitors. Inophyllums were active against HIV type 1 in cell culture with IC50 values of approximately 1.5 microM. These studies imply that the inophyllums have a

  17. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants commonly used by Kani tribals in Tirunelveli hills of Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyanar, Muniappan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2011-04-12

    present study we can recommend the plants Alpinia galanga, Azadirachta indica, Calophyllum inophyllum, Gymnema sylvestre, Leucas aspera, M. azedarach, Mollugo nudicaulis, Ocimum tenuiflorum, S. cumini, T. chebula and Tribulus terrestris (with high UV and RI values), Bambusa arundinacea, Datura metel, Evolvulus nummularius, Opuntia dillenii and Physalis minima (newly reported claims with highest FL) for further ethnopharmacological studies for the discovery of potential new drugs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. List of Article Contents

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    Editorial Section

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTENTS OF ARTICLES Premixed combustion of coconut oil in a hele-shaw cell DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.155-160 155-160 Hadi Saroso, I.N.G. Wardana, Rudy Soenoko, Nurkholis Hamidi   Analysing the potential of retrofitting ultra-low heat loss triple vacuum glazed windows to an existing UK solid wall dwelling DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.161-174 161-174 Saim Memon   Study of Gasohol as Alternative Fuel for Gasoline Substitution: Characteristics and Performances DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.175-183 175-183 Bardi Murachman, Dicky Pranantyo, Eddie Sandjaya Putra   Thermal effects investigation on electrical properties of silicon solar cells treated by laser irradiation DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.184-187 184-187 Ali Pourakbar Saffar, Bahman Deldadeh Barani   Synthesis of Trimethylolpropane Esters of Calophyllum Methyl Esters : Effect of Temperatur and Molar Ratio DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.188-192 188-192 Yeti Widyawati, Ani Suryani, Muhammad Romli, Sukardi Sukardi   Incorporating Root Crops under Agro-Forestry as the Newly Potential Source of Food, Feed and Renewable Energy DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.193-206 193-206 Yudi Widodo, St. A. Rahayuningsih, Nasir Saleh, Sri Wahyuningsih   Solmap: Project In India's Solar Resource Assessment DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.207-216 207-216 Indradip Mitra, Kaushal Chhatbar, Ashvini Kumar, Godugunur Giridhar, Ramdhan Vashistha, Richard Meyer, Marko Schwandt   Thermo-economic Optimization of Solar Assisted Heating and Cooling (SAHC System DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.217-227 217-227 A. Ghafoor, A. Munir   Combustion characteristics of diesel engine using producer gas and blends of Jatropha methyl ester with diesel in mixed fuel mode DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.228-235 228-235 Hifjur Raheman, Debasish Padhee    

  19. SEMI SINTESIS SENYAWA 2,4,6-TRINITROFENILHIDRAZON KALANON DAN UJI AKTIVITAS TERHADAP SEL LEUKIMIA L1210

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    Mochammad Chasani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Kalanon adalah senyawa antikanker yang diisolasi dari Calophyllum biflorum Hends dan Ws. Aktivitas kalanon terhadap sel leukemia L1210 masih rendah yakni dengan niali IC50 = 59,4 ug/mL. Suatu senyawa dikatakan aktif sebagai antikanker jjika memiliki nilai IC50 di bawah 10 ug/mL. Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk mensintesis senyawa turunan kalanon dan diharapkan diperoleh senyawa baru yang mempunyai aktivitas lebih tinggi dibandingkan senyawa asal kalanon. Senyawa turunan kalanon diperoleh melalui reaksi antara kalanon dengan 2,4,6-trinitrofenilhidrazin. Reaksi dilakukan pada suhu 78 oC selama delapan jam. Analisis pendahuluan senyawa hasil sintesis dilakukan dengan metode kromatografi lapis tipis (KLT menggunakan eluen n-heksana dan etil asetat (2:1, v/v. Pemurnian senyawa hasil sintesis menggunakan teknik rekristalisasi dengan pelarut n-heksana dan diklorometan (3:1, v/v. Senyawa hasil sintesis diperoleh dengan Rf = 0,6609 dan rendemen 5,125 % ( b/b serta berupa kristal berwarna coklat. Identifikasi senyawa hasil sintesis dilakukan dengan spektrometer massa dan spektrofotometer IR. Hasil identifikasi menunjukkan bahwa senyawa hasil sintesis yang diharapkan telah terbentuk. Data spektrometer massa diperoleh ion molekul M+ = 647 dengan lepasnya molekul H2. Fragmen-fragmen yang terbentuk adalah pada m/e = 504, m/e = 479, m/e = 451, m/e = 429, m/e = 405, m/e = 377, m/e = 341, m/e = 316, m/e = 281, m/e = 253, m/e = 233, m/e = 207, m/e = 177, m/e = 156, m/e = 135, m/e = 96, m/e = 73, dan m/e = 41. Hasil spektrofotometer IR menunjukkan pita serapan pada 1654.8 cm-1 yang merupakan daerah regang ikatan rangkap C=N, pita serapan pada 3000 cm-1 – 3400 cm-1 adalah pita getaran OH fenol dan pita pada 1380 cm-1 menunjukkan rentangan simetri gugus nitro (NO2. Hasil uji sitotoksik terhadap sel leukemia L1210 menghasilkan nilai IC50 sebesr 47.69 μg/ml.

  20. Six centuries of anthropogenic forest change on a Polynesian high island: Archaeological charcoal records from the Marquesas Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebert, Jennifer M.; Allen, Melinda S.

    2016-04-01

    It is widely recognised that Polynesian settlers developed central Pacific islands into productive economic landscapes, but the character and tempo of these transformations are poorly understood. Archaeological wood charcoal assemblages are uniquely suited to inform on landscape change, especially when the principal food crops were arboreal. We use a large archaeological charcoal collection, drawn from numerous geographically and functionally varied contexts, to develop a multi-scalar vegetation history of Marquesas Islands' lowland forests. Our aims were to: 1) reveal historical patterns of plant biogeography, including introductions by Polynesian settlers; 2) detail the nature and timing of anthropogenic impacts on native Marquesan forests; and 3) track the emergence of economically productive arboreal landscapes. A collection of 6510 fragments identified to 59 taxa inform on a ∼600-year sequence of human activities. The earliest samples indicate rich forests were encountered by human colonists, comprised of a mix of dicotyledonous hardwood species and woody monocots. These included members of two now-extinct Sapotaceae genera, Planchonella and cf. Sideroxylon, along with Allophylus, a Sapindaceae apparently extirpated from Nuku Hiva. Two important coastal trees, Calophyllum inophyllum and Thespesia populnea, also appear to be indigenous. Polynesian impacts were rapid and widespread, irrevocably altering the indigenous vegetation and disrupting native ecosystems. Samples from later occupations document on-going modifications to lowland vegetation communities. This included inter-valley variability in the timing of transformations and the development of mosaic formations, comprised of native forest interspersed with areas of cultivation and habitation. By 1650 CE, low and mid-elevation vegetation was extensively remodelled, as anthropogenic forests of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit), Inocarpus fagifer (Tahitian chestnut), and other economic species became widely

  1. Ethnobotanical survey of cosmetic plants used in Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Xénia; Ansel, Jean-Luc; Lecellier, Gaël; Raharivelomanana, Phila; Butaud, Jean-François

    2016-11-29

    Cosmetic plants and their uses have often been neglected in ethnobotanical surveys which focus mainly on plants with medicinal or food uses. Thus, this survey was carried out to specifically investigate cosmetics in a small community and to establish a cosmetopoeia, based on the model of pharmacopoeia for medicinal plants. The geographic spread of the survey covered the Marquesas Islands, one of the five archipelagos of French Polynesia (Pacific Ocean). This archipelago was also recently investigated for its pharmacopoeia. This survey is based on individual interviews of Marquesan informants on the islands of Tahiti (Society archipelago) and Nuku Hiva (Marquesas archipelago). The methodological approach was semi-directive with open-ended questions based on cosmetic criteria (application area, cosmetic use, plant). Before each interview, researchers and the informant signed a Prior Informed Consent (PIC). Quantitative analyses were performed using basic statistics and the indice of Fidelity Level (FL). Twenty-eight informants from five of the six inhabited Marquesan islands were interviewed and yielded more than 500 cosmetic recipes. Marquesan cosmetopoeia included 79 plant taxa, of which 5% are Marquesan endemics, 23% are indigenous, 28% are Polynesian introductions and 44% are modern introductions. Among the introduced species, half were cultivated whereas the other half were weedy species. Most of the plants were abundant and only eight species were considered rare, of which four were Marquesan endemics. Main cosmetic plants were identified through informant citations and fidelity levels, and included Calophyllum inophyllum, Cananga odorata, Citrus aurantiifolia, Cocos nucifera, Curcuma longa, Gardenia taitensis, Mentha spp., Ocimum basilicum, Rauvolfia nukuhivensis and Santalum insulare var. marchionense. The most referred application areas were skin, hair and private parts whereas the main cosmetic uses were perfume, hydration, medicinal care and healing

  2. Florística e estrutura da comunidade arbórea de um remanescente florestal ripário no município de Guariba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Floristic and structure of the arboreal community of riparian forest remain at Guariba municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Maria Marson DONADIO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento sobre a composição eestrutura de comunidades florestais é fundamentalpara embasar ações de conservação e restauração.O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar olevantamento florístico e descrever a estrutura dacomunidade arbórea de um remanescente florestallocalizado no município de Guariba, Estado de SãoPaulo. Foram alocadas 30 parcelas de 10 x 10 m,para amostrar os indivíduos arbóreos e arbustivoscom diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP ³ 5 cm.Foram encontradas 54 espécies, pertencentes a 47gêneros, distribuídos em 32 famílias botânicas,com índice de diversidade (H’ de 2,67 eequabilidade (J de 0,20. As famílias Meliaceae eFabaceae apresentaram maior riqueza em espécies.Calophyllum brasiliensis, Astronium graveolens,Scheffera morototoni, Xylopia aromatica eProtium widgrenii destacaram-se como as espéciesde maior valor de importância. Foram amostrados420 indivíduos. A presença de espécies do cerradosugere condição de ecótono e a dominância de umaespécie higrófila indica saturação hídrica em parteda área. A distribuição dos indivíduos em classesde tamanho revelou uma comunidade emregeneração com a maioria dos indivíduos com até15,0 cm de DAP e distribuídos entre 7 e 14,9 m,e com estoques de jovens tanto das espéciespioneiras como secundárias podendo garantir ofuturo da comunidade. Em termos sucessionais aárea estudada encontra-se em estádio de médiopara avançado.Knowledge of the composition andstructure of arboreal communities is paramount forconservation and restoration efforts. The mainobjectives of this study were to characterize thearboreal species floristic composition and describethe structure of the arboreal community of aremaining forest located at the municipality ofGuariba, State of São Paulo. Thirty plots of 10 x 10 mwere allocated. In each plot, diameter and heightwere measured for each individual tree withdiameter at breast height (dbh ³ 5 cm. Fifty-fourspecies were