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Sample records for calophyllum brasiliense camb

  1. GENETIC AND SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF NATURAL POPULATIONS OF Calophyllum brasiliense Camb. IN GALLERY FOREST

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    Anderson Marcos de Souza

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Calophyllum brasiliense Camb. (Clusiaceae is a tree of great ecological plasticity and it is present in different forestphysiognomy. Due to its preference to water-saturated soils, it is considered specialist in habitat, due to this, it occurs frequently inthe riparian forest. In order to access and understand the inter and intrapopulation genetic variability patterns, two populations of C.brasiliense in gallery forest were sampled. The results obtained by isoenzyme electrophoresis analysis showed a high heterozygosityfor this species, equal 0.444 and 0.492. The genetic structure analysis indicated the absence of intra and inter populationsinbreeding ( f = -0.078; F = -0.063. Most of the genetic variability was distributed within the populations ( = 0.14 and the geneflow was low ( m N= 0.83. The coancestry coefficient estimated showed positive spatial structure in small distance classes. Thisinformation is important to programs of conservation genetics in situ and ex situ of the species. Moreover, it is necessary to improvethe preservation and the maintenance of natural populations of C. brasiliense, since this species demonstrates fragility to factors thatput at risk its genetic variability. op

  2. Phytochemical study and evaluation of the molluscicidal activity of Calophyllum brasiliense Camb (Clusiaceae); Estudo fitoquimico e avaliacao da atividade moluscicida do Calophyllum brasiliense Camb (Clusiaceae)

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    Gasparotto Junior, Arquimedes; Brenzan, Mislaine Adriana; Piloto, Izabel Cristina; Cortez, Diogenes Aparicio Garcia [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia e Farmacologia]. E-mail: dagcortez@uem.br; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Analises Clinicas; Rodrigues Filho, Edson; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2005-07-15

    The bioassay-guided fractionation against Biomphalaria glabrata of hydroalcoholic extracts of Calophyllum brasiliense aerial parts led to the isolation of the coumarin, named (-) mammea A/BB. The compound had its structure determined by both spectroscopic techniques (NMR {sup 1}H, NMR {sup 13}C, gHSQC, gHMBC and MS) and some literature comparison data. The probit analysis of (-) mammea A/BB showed LD{sub 50} = 0.67 ppm and LD{sub 90} = 1.47 ppm. In addition, the dichloromethane extract obtained from C. brasiliense leaves with significant molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata was analyzed by HPLC-UV. (author)

  3. Unequivocal NMR assignments: O-methoxy-methyl esters derivatives of acid chromanones from Calophyllum brasiliense CAMB. (Guanandi).

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    Caneppele, D; Vieira, P C; Dall'Oglio, E L; da Silva, L E; Sousa, P T

    2008-01-01

    The present work describes the fractionation of the crude hexane extract (EBHEX) from Calophyllum brasiliense (Clusiaceae) stem bark. Derivatization of DCM(2-9) fraction with diazomethane afforded the chromanones inophylloidic acid, isobrasiliensic acid, as well as, a mixture containing isobrasiliensic and brasiliensic acids, in the form of their more stable O-methoxy-methyl esters derivatives 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The isolation of 1 from C. brasiliense is described for the first time herein. The use of two-dimensional NMR methods ((1)H-COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) allowed the precise determination of (13)C and (1)H chemical shifts of compounds 1, 2, and 3. PMID:18626818

  4. QUANTITATIVE STUDY OF MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURAL VARIATION IN THE Calophyllum brasiliense WOOD

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    Ricardo Marques Barreiros; Simone Simões Amaral; Carlos Alberto Oliveira de Matos; Alex Siqueira Costa

    2016-01-01

    Favorable silvicultural and technological characteristics of the species Calophyllum brasiliense Camb. have led to the emergence of commercial plantations. Scientific literature offers only medium and general data on some variables of this species, not reporting specific variables prior to the time of the study, such as age, spacing, among others, perhaps because the wood is mostly from native forests. Given the knowledge gap regarding the characterization of guanandi wood, the aim of this wo...

  5. Influencia da intensidade luminosa e do substrato no crescimento, no conteudo de clorofila e na fotossintese de Cabralea canjerana (Vell.) Mart. Subsp. canjerana, Calophyllum brasiliense Camb. e centrolobium robustum (Vell.) Mart. Ex Benth., na fase ju

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    Carvalho, Paulo Ernani Ramalho, 1946-

    2013-01-01

    Visando estudar a auto-ecologia de três espécies florestais brasileiras; Cabralea canjerana (Vell.) Mart. subsp. canjerana (canjarana); Callophyllum brasiliense Camb. (guanandi) e Centrolobium robustum (VelI.) Mart. ex Benth. (araribá-rosa), estudou-se o comportamento na fase juvenil de mudas envasadas em dois substratos (Colombo e Santa Helena) e sob intensidades luminosas de 10%, 30%, 50% e 100%. Para todas as espécies, foram estudados vários parâmetros ecofisiológicos: altura, diâmetro do ...

  6. Novo besouro-de-ambrosia em guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambessedes)

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    Wagner Calixto de Castro Morais*; Maria Eunice Paula de Souza; Norivaldo dos Anjos

    2011-01-01

    Calophyllum brasiliense, known as Guanandi, is a heliophytic tree, and native to the Americancontinent and show great historic importance in Brazil. There is some information about insectsassociated with this tree species, but very few specific records. The aim of this study was to describethe occurrence and damage of a new Ambrosia beetle attacking Guanandi tree. In order to getthis information, pieces of attacked Guanandi branch were collected and kept under observationfor a period of 39 da...

  7. Gamma radiation effects on pequi fruits (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.)

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    Santos, Marcio Ramatiz L.; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia], e-mail: mramatiz@eafce.gov.br, e-mail: vaarthur@cena.usp.br; Salgado, Jocelem M.; Spoto, Marta H. Fillet; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao], e-mail: jmsalgad@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: mhfspoto@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: sgcbraza@esalq.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of gamma radiation on characteristics of pequi fruits (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.). Just now, they are gained attention of researchers due their nutritional properties, between then is the pequi fruits. Fruits come from Goias State was classified, washed and processed to separate the endocarp (edible part) from pericarp. The endocarps were packing in polyethylene bags with 150 g, labeled and submitted to radiation process (0.0, 0.4, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy doses) on multipurpose irradiator located in IPEN/USP. The samples were analyzed to chemical (pH, trititable acidity, deg Brix, ratio TSS/TTA, lipids, ash, humidity, protein, soluble and insoluble fiber, total carotenoids and antioxidant activity) and physical properties (loss weight, texture and color). The irradiation process using gamma rays from Co{sup 60} was effective to protect pequi fruits in postharvest period. (author)

  8. Gamma radiation effects on pequi fruits (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of gamma radiation on characteristics of pequi fruits (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.). Just now, they are gained attention of researchers due their nutritional properties, between then is the pequi fruits. Fruits come from Goias State was classified, washed and processed to separate the endocarp (edible part) from pericarp. The endocarps were packing in polyethylene bags with 150 g, labeled and submitted to radiation process (0.0, 0.4, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy doses) on multipurpose irradiator located in IPEN/USP. The samples were analyzed to chemical (pH, trititable acidity, deg Brix, ratio TSS/TTA, lipids, ash, humidity, protein, soluble and insoluble fiber, total carotenoids and antioxidant activity) and physical properties (loss weight, texture and color). The irradiation process using gamma rays from Co60 was effective to protect pequi fruits in postharvest period. (author)

  9. Occurrence and damages of Danothrips trifasciatus (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) on Calophyllum brasiliense (Clusiaceae) in Brazil

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    Marcílio José Thomazini; Élison Fabrício Bezerra Lima

    2014-01-01

    Occurrence and damages of Danothrips trifasciatus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Calophyllum brasiliense (Clusiaceae) in Brazil. Danothrips trifasciatus Sakimura, 1975 (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) is recorded for the first time in Brazil, in the municipality of Garça, São Paulo state. Individuals were collected in April 2011 damaging young leaves of guanandi, Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (Clusiaceae), forest species of increasing importance in Brazil. Future studies involving aspects on biolog...

  10. QUANTITATIVE STUDY OF MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURAL VARIATION IN THE Calophyllum brasiliense WOOD

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    Ricardo Marques Barreiros

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Favorable silvicultural and technological characteristics of the species Calophyllum brasiliense Camb. have led to the emergence of commercial plantations. Scientific literature offers only medium and general data on some variables of this species, not reporting specific variables prior to the time of the study, such as age, spacing, among others, perhaps because the wood is mostly from native forests. Given the knowledge gap regarding the characterization of guanandi wood, the aim of this work was to quantitatively study: (i the morphological structural variation of the wood cells, and (ii the distinction between juvenile and mature wood, for the species from a pure plantation, whose growth history are known. Five specimens were sampled, within a population of 135 trees, with 13 years of age and 4.0 x 2.5 m spacing. The results indicated average values of 1134, 21.02, 12.88 and 4.07 μm for the length, width, and diameter of the lumen and mean wall fiber thickness, respectively. 13-years-old guanandi wood was characterized as juvenile.

  11. Occurrence and damages of Danothrips trifasciatus (Thysanoptera, Thripidae on Calophyllum brasiliense (Clusiaceae in Brazil

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    Marcílio José Thomazini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence and damages of Danothrips trifasciatus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae on Calophyllum brasiliense (Clusiaceae in Brazil. Danothrips trifasciatus Sakimura, 1975 (Thysanoptera, Thripidae is recorded for the first time in Brazil, in the municipality of Garça, São Paulo state. Individuals were collected in April 2011 damaging young leaves of guanandi, Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (Clusiaceae, forest species of increasing importance in Brazil. Future studies involving aspects on biology and population dynamics of the thrips in this plant species need to be carried out, in order to establish its potential economic importance to guanandi.

  12. Novo besouro-de-ambrosia em guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambessedes

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    Wagner Calixto de Castro Morais*

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Calophyllum brasiliense, known as Guanandi, is a heliophytic tree, and native to the Americancontinent and show great historic importance in Brazil. There is some information about insectsassociated with this tree species, but very few specific records. The aim of this study was to describethe occurrence and damage of a new Ambrosia beetle attacking Guanandi tree. In order to getthis information, pieces of attacked Guanandi branch were collected and kept under observationfor a period of 39 days. Adult beetles emerged from the timber were collected and measured.Branch pieces were dissected to evaluate the damage caused by the Ambrosia beetle to thewood. We collected 113 adult beetles, identified as Premnobius cavipennis, Eichhoff with a bodylength ranging from 2.7 to 2.9 mm. The timber infested with P. cavipennis had tunnels (galleries andholes, with diameters ranging from 1.1 to 1.3 mm. Furthermore, we observed that the timber showedstains around the galleries, which were caused by a fungus introduced by this beetle into the wood.This study is the first record of attack and damage of P. cavipennis in the Guanandi tree.

  13. Toxicogenomic analysis of pharmacological active coumarins isolated from Calophyllum brasiliense.

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    Gomez-Verjan, J C; Estrella-Parra, E A; Gonzalez-Sanchez, I; Rivero-Segura, N A; Vazquez-Martinez, R; Magos-Guerrero, G; Mendoza-Villanueva, D; Cerbón-Cervantes, M A; Reyes-Chilpa, R

    2015-12-01

    Calophyllum brasiliense (Calophyllaceae) is a tropical rain forest tree, mainly distributed in South and Central America. It is an important source of bioactive natural products like, for instance soulatrolide, and mammea type coumarins. Soulatrolide is a tetracyclic dipyranocoumarins and a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mammea A/BA and A/BB coumarins, pure or as a mixture, are highly active against several leukemia cell lines, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania amazonensis. In the present work, a toxicogenomic analysis of Soulatrolide and Mammea A/BA + A/BB (3:1) mixture was performed in order to validate the toxicological potential of this type of compounds. Soulatrolide or mixture of mammea A/BA + A/BB (3:1) was administered orally to male mice (CD-1) at dose of 100 mg/kg/daily, for 1 week. After this time, mice were sacrificed, and RNA extracted from the liver of treated animals. Transcriptomic analysis was performed using Affymetrix Mouse Gene 1.0 ST Array. Robust microarray analysis (RMA) and two way ANOVA test revealed for mammea mixture treatment 46 genes upregulated and 72 downregulated genes; meanwhile, for soulatrolide 665 were upregulated and 1077 downregulated genes. Enrichment analysis for such genes revealed that in both type of treatments genetic expression were mainly involved in drug metabolism. Overall results indicate a safety profile. The microarray data complies with MIAME guidelines and are deposited in GEO under accession number GSE72755.

  14. Toxicogenomic analysis of pharmacological active coumarins isolated from Calophyllum brasiliense

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    J.C. Gomez-Verjan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Calophyllum brasiliense (Calophyllaceae is a tropical rain forest tree, mainly distributed in South and Central America. It is an important source of bioactive natural products like, for instance soulatrolide, and mammea type coumarins. Soulatrolide is a tetracyclic dipyranocoumarins and a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mammea A/BA and A/BB coumarins, pure or as a mixture, are highly active against several leukemia cell lines, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania amazonensis. In the present work, a toxicogenomic analysis of Soulatrolide and Mammea A/BA + A/BB (3:1 mixture was performed in order to validate the toxicological potential of this type of compounds. Soulatrolide or mixture of mammea A/BA + A/BB (3:1 was administered orally to male mice (CD-1 at dose of 100 mg/kg/daily, for 1 week. After this time, mice were sacrificed, and RNA extracted from the liver of treated animals. Transcriptomic analysis was performed using Affymetrix Mouse Gene 1.0 ST Array. Robust microarray analysis (RMA and two way ANOVA test revealed for mammea mixture treatment 46 genes upregulated and 72 downregulated genes; meanwhile, for soulatrolide 665 were upregulated and 1077 downregulated genes. Enrichment analysis for such genes revealed that in both type of treatments genetic expression were mainly involved in drug metabolism. Overall results indicate a safety profile. The microarray data complies with MIAME guidelines and are deposited in GEO under accession number GSE72755.

  15. ROOTING OF GUANANDI (Calophyllum brasiliense CAMBESS) CUTTINGS USING INDOLE-BUTYRIC ACID

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    Eduardo Ciriello; Edson Seizo Mori

    2015-01-01

    Commercial reforestation of Brazilian native species to produce hardwood for sawmills has been recently intensified in the country. Among the potential species planted by the logging industry is guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess) because it is widely distributed in the country, highly adapted to different soil and climate conditions, good bole form and high quality timber. The development of genetic improvement programs should prioritize gains in productivity and yields in the medium ...

  16. Caryocar brasiliense camb protects against genomic and oxidative damage in urethane-induced lung carcinogenesis

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    N.B.R. Colombo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant effects of Caryocar brasiliense Camb, commonly known as the pequi fruit, have not been evaluated to determine their protective effects against oxidative damage in lung carcinogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated the role of pequi fruit against urethane-induced DNA damage and oxidative stress in forty 8-12 week old male BALB/C mice. An in vivo comet assay was performed to assess DNA damage in lung tissues and changes in lipid peroxidation and redox cycle antioxidants were monitored for oxidative stress. Prior supplementation with pequi oil or its extract (15 µL, 60 days significantly reduced urethane-induced oxidative stress. A protective effect against DNA damage was associated with the modulation of lipid peroxidation and low protein and gene expression of nitric oxide synthase. These findings suggest that the intake of pequi fruit might protect against in vivo genotoxicity and oxidative stress.

  17. Efeitos de diferentes tratamentos na germinação do pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. Effects of different treatments in the germination of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.

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    C. G. Sá e Carvalho

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. provenientes de frutos coletados do chão e "de vez", foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: choques térmicos úmido (80ºC/15 min e seco (80ºC/15 min e 50ºC/30, 60, 90 e 120 min, ácido giberélico 100mg/l e 6 benzil aminopurina 10-4M durante 24 horas, ácido sulfúrico conc./ 1 hora e lavagem em água corrente/48 horas. Sementes provenientes de frutos coletados do chão, com parte do mesocarpo removido, e "de vez", com mesocarpo íntegro, foram armazenadas a 5º C durante 30 dias, seguido ou não pela adição de GA3 100 mg/l. Observou-se que a germinação do pequi começa consistentemente a partir do 9.º mês após o plantio não havendo diferença significativa entre a porcentagem de germinação de sementes provenientes de frutos colhidos "de vez" (85% e completamente maduros (67%. Tratamentos das sementes com temperatura de 80ºC durante 15 min. com ácido sulfúrico concentrado durante 1 hora e estratificação a 5ºC durante 30 dias prejudicaram o processo germinativo. Os demais tratamentos não apresentaram diferenças em relação ao controle.Seeds of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. collected from fallen fruits on the soil surface under the tree and those from maturing fruits still on the tree were submitted to the following treatments: humid heating (80ºC/15 min, dry heating (80ºC/15 min and 50ºC during 30,60,90 and 120 min, gibberellic acid 100 mg/1 (24h and 6-benzylamynopurine 10-4M (24h, concentrated sulphuric acid (1 h and running tap water (48h. Seeds of fruits collected from the soil surface, with part of the mesocarp removed, and those maturing fruits from the tree, with intact mesocaip, were stored at 5ºC during 30 days, followed or not by addition of GA3 100mg/l. It was observed that seed germination started consistently 9 months after sowing and that there was no significant difference between germination of seed proceeding from maturing fruits (85% and those

  18. Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA to Assess Genetic Diversity and Structure of Natural Calophyllum brasiliense (Clusiaceae) Populations in Riparian Forests

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    Evânia Galvão Mendonça; Anderson Marcos de Souza; Fábio de Almeida Vieira; Regiane Abjaud Estopa; Cristiane Aparecida Fioravante Reis; Dulcinéia de Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the genetic variability in two natural populations of Calophyllum brasiliense located along two different rivers in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using RAPD molecular markers. Eighty-two polymorphic fragments were amplified using 27 primers. The values obtained for Shannon index (I) were 0.513 and 0.530 for the populations located on the margins of the Rio Grande and Rio das Mortes, respectively, demonstrating the high genetic diversity in the st...

  19. Effect of seed coat on the seed germination and seedling development of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (Clusiaceae)

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    Valquíria Aparecida Mendes de Jesus; Alessandro Lucca Braccini; Carlos Alberto Scapim; Fábio Lúcio Santos; Giovanna Emanuelle Goncalves Mariucci; Andréia Kazumi Suzukawa

    2014-01-01

    This work aimed to study the effect of the Calophyllum brasiliense seed coat on the seed germination process. To this end, three experiments were conducted in laboratory, greenhouse and screenhouse. From a total of six treatments, five are related to the seed coat (mechanical scarification; mechanical scarification followed by 2 hours in water, chemical scarification, hot water immersion and complete seed coat removal) and one control. Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted in a...

  20. Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity and cytotoxicity of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess (Clusiaceae

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    Claudia Terencio Agostinho Pires

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the in vitro anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity and the cytotoxicity of dichloromethane extract and pure compounds from the leaves of Calophyllum brasiliense. Purification of the dichloromethane extract yielded the pure compounds (- mammea A/BB (1, (- mammea B/BB (2 and amentoflavone (3. The compound structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and spectrometric data. The contents of bioactive compounds in the extracts were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an ultraviolet detector. The anti-M. tuberculosis activity of the extracts and the pure compounds was evaluated using a resazurin microtitre assay plate. The cytotoxicity assay was performed in J774G.8 macrophages using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide colourimetric method. The quantification of the dichloromethane extract showed (1 and (2 at concentrations of 31.86 ± 2.6 and 8.24 ± 1.1 µg/mg of extract, respectively. The dichloromethane and aqueous extracts showed anti-M. tuberculosis H37Rv activity of 62.5 and 125 µg/mL, respectively. Coumarins (1 and (2 showed minimal inhibitory concentration ranges of 31.2 and 62.5 µg/mL against M. tuberculosis H37Rv and clinical isolates. Compound (3 showed no activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. The selectivity index ranged from 0.59-1.06. We report the activity of the extracts and coumarins from the leaves of C. brasiliense against M. tuberculosis.

  1. ROOTING OF GUANANDI (Calophyllum brasiliense CAMBESS CUTTINGS USING INDOLE-BUTYRIC ACID

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    Eduardo Ciriello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial reforestation of Brazilian native species to produce hardwood for sawmills has been recently intensified in the country. Among the potential species planted by the logging industry is guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess because it is widely distributed in the country, highly adapted to different soil and climate conditions, good bole form and high quality timber. The development of genetic improvement programs should prioritize gains in productivity and yields in the medium and long term. For such programs to be successful, the study of vegetative propagation techniques to abbreviate steps in forest improvement and allow its mass production is fundamental. To assess the viability of vegetative propagation of the species, two successive experiments were carried out during two years testing the best type of cutting, hormone concentration and management. Different cuttings types submitted to increasing doses of indole-butyric acid (IBA were tested to evaluate survival, sprouting, rooting and callus formation. Results indicate that the species is viable for vegetative propagation with 85 to 90% rooting of cuttings from seedlings in the IBA concentrations of 3000 to 7000 mg.L-1. For the cuttings, sprouting from the base of adult trees 3000 mg.L-1 was the best concentration of IBA.

  2. Effect of seed coat on the seed germination and seedling development of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (Clusiaceae

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    Valquíria Aparecida Mendes de Jesus

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the effect of the Calophyllum brasiliense seed coat on the seed germination process. To this end, three experiments were conducted in laboratory, greenhouse and screenhouse. From a total of six treatments, five are related to the seed coat (mechanical scarification; mechanical scarification followed by 2 hours in water, chemical scarification, hot water immersion and complete seed coat removal and one control. Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design (CRD. Screenhouse experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design (RBD. We evaluated the total percentage, the speed index and the average time of germination or emergence. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and means compared by LSD test, at 5%. Under the conditions of this work, it was possible to infer that, in laboratory, mechanical scarification followed by 2 hours in water increases the proportion and germination speed index (GSI, in the greenhouse, the complete seed coat removal increases the percentage and emergence speed index (ESI, and in the screenhouse, mechanical scarification followed by 2 hours in water and chemical scarification presented the best results. The average germination time was not significantly different in the three experiments evaluated.

  3. Efeito do volume de tubetes na produção de mudas de Calophyllum brasiliense e Toona ciliata

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    Alysson Canabrava Lisboa; Paulo Sérgio dos Santos; Sílvio Nolasco de Oliveira Neto; Daniele Nunes de Castro; Alan Henrique Marques de Abreu

    2012-01-01

    A demanda por informações silviculturais de espécies florestais alternativas para reflorestamentos com fins econômicos, entre as quais incluem os métodos de produção de mudas, tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a influência de volumes de tubetes, com dimensões de 115, 180 e de 280 cm³, no crescimento de mudas de guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess.) e cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata M. Roem. var. australis (F. Muell.) Bahadur). O substrato utilizado foi composto...

  4. Endothelium-Dependent Vasorelaxant Effect of Butanolic Fraction from Caryocar brasiliense Camb. Leaves in Rat Thoracic Aorta

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    Lais Moraes de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caryocar brasiliense Camb. “pequi” is a native plant from the Cerrado region of Brazil that contains bioactive components reported to be antioxidant agents. Previous work has demonstrated that dietary supplementation with pequi decreased the arterial pressure of volunteer athletes. We found that the crude hydroalcoholic extract (CHE of C. brasiliense leaves relaxed, in a concentration-dependent manner, rat aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine, and that the butanolic fraction (BF produced an effect similar to that of the CHE. Aortic relaxation induced by BF was abolished by endothelium removal, by incubation of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME, or the soluble guanylatecyclase inhibitor ODQ. However, incubation with atropine and pyrilamine had no effect on the BF-induced vasorelaxation. Moreover, this effect was not inhibited by indomethacin and tetraethylammonium. The concentration-response curve to calcium in denuded-endothelium rings was not modified after incubation with BF, and the vasorelaxation by BF in endothelium-intact rings precontracted with KCl was abolished after incubation with L-NAME. In addition, administration of BF in anesthetized rats resulted in a reversible hypotension. The results reveal that C. brasiliense possesses both in vivo and in vitro activities and that the vascular effect of BF involves stimulation of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway.

  5. Influência da secagem do pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. na qualidade do óleo extraído Influence of pequi drying (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. on the quality of the oil extracted

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    Ludmila Pereira Aquino

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. tem se destacado por ser um fruto oleaginoso e rico em carotenoides. A secagem é um processo utilizado na extração do óleo por hexano, mas a degradação dos carotenoides e óleo podem ocorrer. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de diferentes métodos de secagem (ao sol, estufa ventilada a 40 e a 60 °C e do tempo (4 horas e até peso constante no rendimento e na qualidade do óleo extraído por hexano no extrator Soxhlet. Quando a polpa de pequi foi seca, 3% ou conteúdo menor de umidade e maior rendimento do óleo foi obtido (52 a 59%, base seca. Carotenoides totais foram maiores e índice de peróxido menores para a polpa desidratada a 40 °C em estufa ventilada, quando comparada com a secagem da polpa em estufa a 60 °C e ao sol. Estes resultados indicaram que a secagem em estufa a 40 °C por 19 horas resultou num maior rendimento do óleo e menor degradação térmica.Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb has stood out for being an oleaginous fruit rich in carotenoids. Drying is widely used technique in the oil extraction process using hexane, but the degradation of oil and carotenoids may occur. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different drying methods (sun, air-circulated drier at 40 and 60 °C and time (4 hours and up to constant weight on the yield and quality of the oil extracted using hexane using a soxhlet apparatus. When the pequi pulp was dried up to 3% or even lower, more oil yield was obtained (52-59%, dry basis. The total carotenoids contents obtained were higher and the peroxide index was lower for the pulp dried at 40 °C in an air-circulated drier when compared to drying at 60 °C in an air-ventilated drier and to sun drying technique. These results indicate that drying in an air-circulated drier at 40 °C for 19 hours resulted in higher oil yields with less heat degradation.

  6. Extração, secagem e torrefação da amêndoa do pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. Extration, drying, and toasting of the pequi almond (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.

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    Ana Maria da Silva Rabêlo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. possui em seu interior amêndoa comestível pouco explorada. Objetivou-se avaliar o processo de extração, secagem e torrefação da amêndoa do pequi. Foram utilizadas sementes de pequi fornecidas pela Associação de Beneficiamento de Frutos do Cerrado, localizada na cidade de Damianópolis-GO. Para a extração da amêndoa, foi adaptado equipamento tipo guilhotina, com a finalidade de cortar a semente ao meio. O equipamento é composto por uma lâmina fixa em um suporte de madeira, recoberto com placa de Policloreto de Vinila (PVC e apresentou desempenho satisfatório. Para a secagem das amêndoas, sugeriu-se o binômio tempo/temperatura de 70 °C por 60 minutos, pois conferiu ao produto atividade de água em torno de 0,60 em menor tempo secagem. As amêndoas torradas a 130 °C durante 15 e 30 minutos apresentaram melhores características sensoriais, não diferindo significativamente entre si (p > 0,05 pelo Teste de Friedman. No tempo de 30 minutos, observaram-se tendências de melhores características sensoriais, como cor e crocância, no produto final.The Pequi (caryocar brasiliense Camb. edible almond seed is little used. The aim of this study is to evaluate almond seeds of pequi supplied by the "Associação de Beneficiamento de Frutos do Cerrado" (Cerrado fruit supply association, located in the city of Damianópolis-GO. For the extration of the almond, a guillotine like equipment was used with the purpose of cutting the seed in half. The equipment was composed of a fixed blade placed in a wooden support, recovered with Polyvinyl chloride (PVC, and it presented satisfactory performance. For the almonds drying, the temperature of 70 ºC for 60 minutes was suggested since it allowed water activity of around 0,60 in shorter drying time. The almonds roasted at 130 °C for 15 and 30 minutes presented better sensorial characteristics, and proved not significantly different among themselves (P > 0,05 in

  7. PHENOLOGY OF Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (CARYOCARACEAE IN THE ALTO RIO GRANDE, MINAS GERAIS STATE

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    Gisele Freitas Vilela

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenological studies are important to understand the dynamics in forest ecosystems and also to enable adequatemanagement of their native species. In the Cerrado regions of the high Rio Grande river (south of Minas Gerais State, Caryocarbrasiliense species is found in highly distinct morphological forms with variable phenology. The aim of this study was to investigatephenological patterns within and between populations of both the tree and shrub forms of the individuals and to determine anycorrelation with abiotic factors. Thirty-five observations of the phenophases of the vegetative and reproductive stages were recordedevery two weeks for 18 months. The activity index was analyzed for each stage and further analyzed to see if there were associationswith the climate data by using Spearman s linear correlation. The species was deciduous but leaf growth became retarded during thedry season, at which point leaf flushing stopped and total leaf fall occurred throughout the rainy season. The flowering and the fruitproduction occurred in the rainy season. The reproductive phase can be either annual or sub-annual. The activity index showed highsynchronism within populations during the first flowering in all populations studied (> 80%. Flowering and mature fruits were highlysynchronized according to Spearman correlations. Tree and shrub individuals of C. brasiliense had very similar times for theirphenophases. The best period for collecting mature fruits in these regions is between February and March.

  8. Efeito do volume de tubetes na produção de mudas de Calophyllum brasiliense e Toona ciliata

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    Alysson Canabrava Lisboa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A demanda por informações silviculturais de espécies florestais alternativas para reflorestamentos com fins econômicos, entre as quais incluem os métodos de produção de mudas, tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a influência de volumes de tubetes, com dimensões de 115, 180 e de 280 cm³, no crescimento de mudas de guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. e cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata M. Roem. var. australis (F. Muell. Bahadur. O substrato utilizado foi composto por uma mistura de 80% de substrato comercial e 20% de argila. Foram avaliados o diâmetro de colo e a altura das mudas aos 60, 90, 120 e 150 dias após a repicagem. Nessa última ocasião, determinou-se também o peso de massa seca da parte aérea, do sistema radicular e total, bem como o Índice de Qualidade de Dickson. Houve efeito do volume do tubete sobre as características das mudas, sendo o cedro-australiano a espécie mais responsiva. Conclui-se que para o guanandi o tubete mais indicado é o de 180 cm³ e para o cedro-australiano, o de 280 cm³.

  9. Antigenotoxic activity and antioxidant properties of organic and aqueous extracts of pequi fruit (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. pulp

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    Ana L. Miranda-Vilela

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The daily consumption of natural antioxidants protects against oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS, including DNA damage, and can reduce the risk of cancer, atherosclerosis and other degenerative diseases. The pulp of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. fruit, a tree native to the Brazilian savannah, contains several compounds with antioxidant properties, including carotenoids, vitamin C, phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, saponins and tannins, and essential oils. In this work, we examined the ability of organic and aqueous extracts of pequi fruit pulp to protect against the genotoxicity induced by two antineoplastic drugs, cyclophosphamide (CP and bleomycin (BLM. Micronucleus tests with mouse bone marrow cells and single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay with peripheral blood leukocytes were used to examine the effects of CP and BLM, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed by measuring lipid peroxidation with the TBARS method in mouse plasma. The fruit pulp extracts had no clastogenic or genotoxic effects in the cells studied, but both extracts protected against oxidative DNA damage caused by BLM or CP, indicating an ability to inhibit chemical mutagenesis in vivo. However, the protective effect against oxidative DNA damage depended on the dose of extract used. At the doses tested, the aqueous extract enhanced lipid peroxidation in mice of both sexes, especially in males. In contrast, the organic extract enhanced lipid peroxidation only in male mice, with no significant effect in females. These results suggest that, with adequate adjustment of the dose, an organic extract of pequi fruit pulp could be a useful dietary supplement with natural antioxidant activity, at least in females.

  10. Efeito da temperatura e do tegumento na germinação de sementes de Calophyllum brasiliense Effect of temperature and coat in the germination of Calophyllum brasiliense seeds

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    Fernanda Carlota Nery

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A crescente demanda por informações de espécies com potencial para serem implantadas em ambientes degradados, torna fundamental o conhecimento fisiológico da germinação de sementes, visando sua exploração mais racional. Objetivou-se neste trabalho, estudar o comportamento da embebição das sementes, determinar a temperatura ótima da germinação e o efeito da retirada de tegumento sobre a germinação de sementes de Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. O teste de germinação foi realizado em rolos de papel, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os resultados da curva de embebição demonstraram que o envoltório (endocarpo + tegumento dificulta a absorção de água pela semente. Quanto à temperatura, observou-se uma maior germinabilidade nos regimes térmicos de 30ºC (constante e 30/20ºC (alternada, sendo que, o maior índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG também ocorreu a 30ºC. As sementes incubadas a 10ºC, 15ºC e 40ºC não germinaram. Menores valores de tempo médio de germinação foram observados nos regimes térmicos de 30ºC, 30/20ºC e 35ºC. Não foram verificadas diferenças significativas quanto à germinabilidade das sementes com e sem tegumento, porém, o tegumento reduziu a velocidade de germinação.Due to the increasing demand for informations about species with potential for being introduced in degraded environment, it is important the physiological knowledge of seeds germination, aiming their rational exploration. The objective of this research was to evaluate the behaviour of seed imbibition, to determine the germination optimum temperature and the effect of coat seeds withdrawing in the germination of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. The germination was performed in paper rolls, with four replicates of 25 seeds each, disposed in a complete randomized design. The results of imbibition curve showed that seed-coat has as hindance for the water absorption by seed. In

  11. PROPAGAÇÃO SEXUADA DO PEQUIZEIRO (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. ESTIMULADA POR ÁCIDO GIBERÉLICO SEXED PROPAGATION OF PEQUI (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. INDUCED BY GIBBERELLIC ACID

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    Jácomo Divino Borges

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    A espécie Caryocar brasiliense (Camb., conhecida como pequi, apresenta baixa porcentagem e baixo tempo médio de emergência de plântulas. Buscando-se solucionar esse problema,o presente trabalho propôs-se a avaliar diferentes concentrações de ácido giberélico (GA3 em sementes de pequi sem endocarpo. Os frutos maduros, após coletados, foram armazenados por 27 dias, em sacos plásticos, e,posteriormente, retirou-se a casca, o mesocarpo e os espinhos. Após sete dias, a amêndoa foi extraída do endocarpo. Os tratamentos constituiram-se de: água destilada, GA3 a 75 mg L-1, GA3 a 150 mg L-1, GA3 a 300 mg L-1 e GA3 a 600 mg L-1, embebidas por 24 horas. Foram utilizadas 26 sementes por parcela, em cinco tratamentos e cinco epetições. Avaliaramse a porcentagem e tempo médio de emergência das plântulas, a altura, o diâmetro e a massa fresca e seca das raízes e da parte aérea das plântulas de pequi. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos a análises de variância e regressão linear. O ácido giberélico, nas condições e concentrações estudadas, influenciou, significativamente, a porcentagem e o tempo médio de emergência das plântulas de pequi. Obteve-se, em média, 24% de emergência, aos quarenta dias após a semeadura. O uso de ácido giberélico (GA3 em sementes de pequi sem endocarpo, na concentração estimada de 345 mg L-1, proporciona maior porcentagem de emergência, em relação aos demais tratamentos avaliados.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Pequi; hôrmonio vegetal; emergência.

    The objective of this study was to evaluate physical and chemical characteristics of Caryocar brasiliense fruits originated from Araguapaz and Mambaí regions, Goiás State, Brazil. Five replicates, with sixteen fruits for each determination were used in a completely randomized experimental design. The evaluated quality criteria were: fruit, peel, and not developed seed (fruitlet masses; fruit and pit (internal mesocarp, endocarp, and nut number and dimensions; pit, pulp, and nut total dimensions, and moisture content; pulp ethereal extract and protein, and pulp pH. It was observed a difference (p<0.05 among regions for fruits, except for mass of not developed seeds per fruit (p>0.05. C. brasiliense fruits from Araguapaz region presented lower fruit and pit masses and dimensions, and greater pulp and nut yield, protein content and ethereal extract level than fruits from Mambaí region. It was concluded that Araguapaz pequi fruits have greater nutritional value and are more appropriated for industrial processing than fruits from Mambaí regions.

     KEY-WORDS: nutritional value; pequi fruit; savannah.

    O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar características físicas e químicas de frutos de pequizeiro, oriundos das regiões de Araguapaz e Mambaí, Estado de Goiás. Foram utilizadas cinco repetições, com dezesseis frutos para cada determinação, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado. Os critérios avaliados foram: as massas do fruto, da casca e das sementes não desenvolvidas (frutilhos, as dimensões dos frutos e dos pirênios (mesocarpo interno, endocarpo e amêndoa, o número de pirênios, as massas totais de pirênios, de polpa e de amêndoas, os teores de umidade, de extrato etéreo e de proteínas na polpa e o pH da polpa. Observou-se que houve diferen

  12. Characterization of the major nutritional components of Caryocar brasiliense fruit pulp by NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Genetica e Morfologia; Resck, Ines Sabioni; Mendonca, Marcio Antonio [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), a typical fruit of Brazilian Cerrado, is well known in regional cookery and used in folk medicine to treat various illnesses. Mass spectrometry and chromatographic methods have identified the organic composition of pequi fruit pulp; however, NMR spectroscopy is used for the first time to characterize the nutritional components of organic and aqueous-ethanolic extracts. This spectroscopic technique determined the triacylglycerols in the pequi organic fraction, which is constituted mainly by oleate and palmitate esters, and detected the carbohydrate mixtures as the major components of aqueous and ethanolic fractions, respectively. In this study, presence of phenolic compounds was only evidenced in the ethanolic fraction. (author)

  13. Characterization of the major nutritional components of Caryocar brasiliense fruit pulp by NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), a typical fruit of Brazilian Cerrado, is well known in regional cookery and used in folk medicine to treat various illnesses. Mass spectrometry and chromatographic methods have identified the organic composition of pequi fruit pulp; however, NMR spectroscopy is used for the first time to characterize the nutritional components of organic and aqueous-ethanolic extracts. This spectroscopic technique determined the triacylglycerols in the pequi organic fraction, which is constituted mainly by oleate and palmitate esters, and detected the carbohydrate mixtures as the major components of aqueous and ethanolic fractions, respectively. In this study, presence of phenolic compounds was only evidenced in the ethanolic fraction. (author)

  14. Effects of gamma radiation on antioxidant capacity of Pequi fruits (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marcio Ramatiz Lima dos; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia]. E-mails: ramatiz@cena.usp.br; varthur@cena.usp.br; Alencar, Severino Matias de; Salgado, Jocelem Mastrodi [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ)]. E-mails: jmsalgad@esalq.usp.br; alencar@esalq.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Full text: This research evaluated the effects of gamma radiation from Cobalt-60 on pequi fruits antioxidant properties. The capacity of some foods in neutralizing free radicals have taking been importance due its relationship with decrease of chronic degenerative diseases as the cancer. It becomes important the study of the conservation processes effects on these properties. Pequi fruits come from Ceres-GO (Brazil) were wrapped in polyethylene sacks, sealed at vacuous and storage at -18 deg C until irradiation process. Fruits were irradiated at 0.0 (control) kGy, 0.4 kGy, 0.6 kGy and 1.0 kGy doses in Gammacell irradiator with Cobalt-60 source (IPEN/USP), in agreement with ANVISA recommendations. After irradiated, fruits were maintained at refrigerator until the analysis. Samples were analyzed to total carotenoids (TC) described by Rodrigues and Penteado (1989), antioxidant capacity (AC) by reduction of DPPH method and Vitamin C (VC) by Tillmans method agreement to Adolfo Lutz Institute recommendations (IAL, 1985). Was observed a decrease on CT content of the order of 42,56% to 0.4 kGy dose, 53,42% to 0.6 kGy dose and 65,97% to 1.0 kGy dose compared to control, demonstrating a proportional effect to used doses, this is due the carotenoids be sensitive to the gamma radiation. This effect have been related in other foods as carrots, oranges etc, due susceptibility of carotenoids to the gamma radiation. Total carotenoids content presented in the control (167.4 mg/100g) is comparable with another fruits as carrots, palm and other rich ones in carotenes. There was a decrease in the Vitamin C content proportional to applied doses, with losses of the order of 49.37% for 0.4 kGy dose, 82,30 % for 0.6 kGy dose and 85,25% for 1.0 kGy dose. The antioxidant activity, evaluated in the capacity of food to reduce DPPH, it presented similar behavior to indicate for total carotenoids and Vitamin C analyses. This show the narrow relationship between the content of these nutritious ones and its antioxidant function. The results obtained showed that antioxidant capacity of pequi fruits were considerably modified to researched doses. (author)

  15. Effect of soaking on the nutritional quality of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) peel flour

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz dos Santos Siqueira; Manoel Soares Soares Júnior; Kátia Flávia Fernandes; Márcio Caliari; Clarissa Damiani

    2013-01-01

    Pequi peel comprises 76% of the whole fruit and it is discarded during consumption. Thus, pequi peel has been considered a solid residue, although it has potential for use in various applications. Limitations in the use of this material are mainly due to the lack of information of its nutritional composition, especially about the toxic or antinutritional factors. Soaking is often used to prepare complementary foods and has been reported to be beneficial for enhancing nutritive value. The effe...

  16. Effect of soaking on the nutritional quality of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. peel flour

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    Beatriz dos Santos Siqueira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pequi peel comprises 76% of the whole fruit and it is discarded during consumption. Thus, pequi peel has been considered a solid residue, although it has potential for use in various applications. Limitations in the use of this material are mainly due to the lack of information of its nutritional composition, especially about the toxic or antinutritional factors. Soaking is often used to prepare complementary foods and has been reported to be beneficial for enhancing nutritive value. The effect of soaking on the nutritional quality of pequi peel flour was determined by measuring changes in chemical composition, antinutritional factors, total phenols and in vitro protein and starch digestibility. The results showed that 24 h of maceration increases the content of lipids (200%, protein (28.3% and dietary fibber (31%, while carbohydrate and ash content decreases. There were no haemagglutination activity or α-amylase inhibitors, but it was detected the presence of phytic acid (0.4 g 100 g-1. The soaking reduced 8.5% phenols and 19.0% tannins, 6.2% protein digestibility, and was also effective to eliminate trypsin inhibitors, and increase starch digestibility (24.2%. Soaking was efficient to improve nutritional characteristics of the pequi peel flour, opening up possibilities for its use in food formulations.

  1. Extraction of oil from pequi fruit (Caryocar Brasiliense, Camb. using several solvents and their mixtures

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    Antoniassi, R.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the oil extraction process from pequi pulp using different solvents (hexane, acetone and ethyl alcohol and their mixtures was investigated, using a simplex-centroid design. The extraction occurred at 50°C, under stirring (22 Hz, for 16 hours. The solid-liquid ratio used was 1:10 (w/w. Higher yield values were obtained for extractions with acetone and hexane, especially their mixtures with ethanol. Iodine value, saponification value and refractive index did not differ significantly among the treatments. A higher acid value was obtained for the extraction with ethyl alcohol. Higher carotenoid contents were obtained for the extraction with acetone and ethyl alcohol as pure solvents. The fatty acid profile in the oil fraction of the extracts did not vary among the different types of solvents and their mixtures.En este trabajo fue estudiado el proceso de extracción de aceite de la pulpa de pequi utilizando diferentes disolventes (n-hexano, acetona y etanol y sus mezclas, empleando diseño central simplex. Las extracciones fueron realizadas a 50°C, durante 16 horas de agitación (22 Hz. La proporción sólido:líquido empleada fue 1:10 (p/p. Los mayores rendimientos fueron obtenidos para las extracciones con acetona y con hexano, especialmente cuando fueron mezclados con etanol. El índice de yodo, el índice de saponificación y el índice de refracción no difirieron significativamente entre los tratamientos. Los mayores valores de acidez se obtuvieron en la extracción con etanol. Los mayores contenidos en carotenoides se obtuvieron en las extracciones con acetona y etanol como disolventes puros. El perfil de los ácidos grasos en las fracciones de aceite de los extractos no presentó variación entre los diferentes tipos de disolventes y sus mezclas.

  2. Effects of gamma radiation on antioxidant capacity of Pequi fruits (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This research evaluated the effects of gamma radiation from Cobalt-60 on pequi fruits antioxidant properties. The capacity of some foods in neutralizing free radicals have taking been importance due its relationship with decrease of chronic degenerative diseases as the cancer. It becomes important the study of the conservation processes effects on these properties. Pequi fruits come from Ceres-GO (Brazil) were wrapped in polyethylene sacks, sealed at vacuous and storage at -18 deg C until irradiation process. Fruits were irradiated at 0.0 (control) kGy, 0.4 kGy, 0.6 kGy and 1.0 kGy doses in Gammacell irradiator with Cobalt-60 source (IPEN/USP), in agreement with ANVISA recommendations. After irradiated, fruits were maintained at refrigerator until the analysis. Samples were analyzed to total carotenoids (TC) described by Rodrigues and Penteado (1989), antioxidant capacity (AC) by reduction of DPPH method and Vitamin C (VC) by Tillmans method agreement to Adolfo Lutz Institute recommendations (IAL, 1985). Was observed a decrease on CT content of the order of 42,56% to 0.4 kGy dose, 53,42% to 0.6 kGy dose and 65,97% to 1.0 kGy dose compared to control, demonstrating a proportional effect to used doses, this is due the carotenoids be sensitive to the gamma radiation. This effect have been related in other foods as carrots, oranges etc, due susceptibility of carotenoids to the gamma radiation. Total carotenoids content presented in the control (167.4 mg/100g) is comparable with another fruits as carrots, palm and other rich ones in carotenes. There was a decrease in the Vitamin C content proportional to applied doses, with losses of the order of 49.37% for 0.4 kGy dose, 82,30 % for 0.6 kGy dose and 85,25% for 1.0 kGy dose. The antioxidant activity, evaluated in the capacity of food to reduce DPPH, it presented similar behavior to indicate for total carotenoids and Vitamin C analyses. This show the narrow relationship between the content of these nutritious ones and its antioxidant function. The results obtained showed that antioxidant capacity of pequi fruits were considerably modified to researched doses. (author)

  3. Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Calophyllum Membranaceum Gardn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Chang-Ri; SONG Xiao-Ping; CHEN Guang-Ying

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction There are more than 200 Calophyllum family in the world, mainly distributed in the semitorpical zones as Malaysia, the Phillipines, India, Sri Lanka, etc., some in South America and the Oceanic as well . In China, 4 species were found, two of which were from Hainan Island :Calophyllum linn and Calophyllum membranaceum Gardn.

  4. Calophyllum inophyllum: recalcitrant or intermediate seed?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subhash Hathurusingha; Nanjappa Ashwath

    2012-01-01

    We studied seed storage behaviour of a multipurpose tree Calophyllum inophyllum (Clusiaseae).Seeds were collected at Roslyn bay (23°7′60″ S,150°43′60″ E) Central Queensland.Seed drying and desiccation tolerance tests were carried out according to International Seed Testing Association (ISTA) rules.We found C.inophyllum seeds to be recalcitrant and vulnerable to chilling injury,hence,unsuited for cold storage.C inophyllum seeds maintained their viability for an appreciable period (> 8 months) if stored in warmer environments.

  5. PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PEQUI FRUITS (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. IN THE GOIÁS STATE CARACTERIZAÇÃO FÍSICA DE FRUTOS DO PEQUIZEIRO (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. NO ESTADO DE GOIÁS

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    Rosângela Vera

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The Brazilian Cerrado region presents large biodiversity in its ecosystem. Native fruit trees stand out, with tens of species used by locals for feeding. In the Goiás legumes and fruits victualling center (Central de Abastecimento de Goiás ? CEASA, the most commercialized Brazilian Cerrado fruit is pequi. The harvest period occurs from September to February, the fruit originating from different regions of Goiás, Minas Gerais, Tocantins, and Bahia states. This research had as objective to evaluate physical characteristics of pequi tree fruits from five Goiás state regions. Three subpopulations in each region, called areas, were identified. In each area, five trees were chosen for fruit sampling. Physical characteristics analyzed were fruit mass, peel, pit, pulp and almond; fruit and pit dimensions; peel thickness and pulp color. Results indicate differences in fruits physical characteristics for regions. The edible fresh pulp represents 8.53% of fruit mass; differences in physical characteristics of fruits were observed mainly in fruits within plants, in plants within areas and among areas.

    KEY-WORDS: Brazilian savannah; cerrado; pequi; native fruitfull.

    A região dos Cerrados brasileiros apresenta grande biodiversidade em seu ecossistema. As fruteiras nativas da região muito se destacam, com dezenas de espécies utilizadas pela população local para alimentação. Na Central de Abastecimento de Goiás, a principal fruta nativa do cerrado comercializada é o pequi. O período de safra ocorre nos meses de setembro a fevereiro, e o fruto é proveniente de diferentes regiões dos Estados de Goiás, Minas Gerais, Tocantins e Bahia. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as características físicas dos frutos de pequizeiros oriundos de cinco regiões do Estado de Goiás. Em cada região, identificaram-se três sub-populações de pequizeiros, denominadas por áreas. Em cada área, elegeram-se cinco árvores para a coleta dos frutos. Foram analisadas as características físicas: massas do fruto, da casca, do caroço, da polpa e da amêndoa; dimensões do fruto e do caroço, espessura da casca e cor da polpa. Os resultados indicaram que há diferenças nas características físicas estudadas entre os frutos das diferentes regiões. A polpa fresca comestível representa 8,53% da massa dos frutos. As diferenças nas características físicas dos frutos ocorrem, principalmente, em frutos dentro de plantas, em plantas dentro de áreas e entre as regiões estudadas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Frutos do cerrado; pequi; fruteira nativa.

  6. Propagação in vitro e análise de Rapd de Guanandi(Calophyllum brasiliense cambess)

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Sheila Susy

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: O guanandi é uma espécie com grande potencial para utilização na indústria madeireira, reposição de mata ciliar e extração de compostos medicinais, mas sua reprodução na natureza é limitada porque a frutificação é irregular e as sementes são recalcitrantes. A germinação in vitro foi estudada, assim como a micropropagação, usando segmentos nodais de plantas de casa de vegetação. Para a germinação in vitro, a maior taxa de obtenção de sementes não contaminadas (93,3%) foi obtida mantend...

  7. A new chromanone acid from the bark of Calophyllum dryobalanoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieu, Ly Ha; Hansen, Poul Erik; Duus, Fritz;

    2012-01-01

    A new chromanone acid, calodryobalanoic acid, along with six known compounds, apetalic acid, isoblancoic acid, lupeol, 1-hydroxy-2-methoxyxanthone, 1,7-dihydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone, and 5,7,4′-trihydroxyflavanone, was isolated from the bark of Calophyllum dryobalanoides collected in Vietnam. The s...

  8. Nitrogen doses on the initial growth and nutrition of guanandi plants

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria Ciriello; Iraê Amaral Guerrini; Clarice Backes

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen doses on the initial development and nutrition of Guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambèss) plants, a native Brazilian arboreal species. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in plastic containers with capacity of 50 L of dystrophic red Latosol (oxisol). The experimental design used was completely randomized, with six treatments and four repetitions. The treatments consisted of five N doses: 0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 m...

  9. Calophyllum inophyllum L. as a future feedstock for bio-diesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atabania, A.E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Khartoum (Sudan)], email: a_atabani2@msn.com, email: ardinsu@yahoo.co.id; Silitonga, A.S.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjukia, H.H.; Badruddin, I.A. [University of Malaya (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01

    Due to the energy crisis and the concerns about climate change, the possibility of using biodiesel as an alternative energy resource has been examined. It has been found that biodiesel could be a solution for the future but the first generation of biodiesel, prepared from edible vegetable oils, has raised important concerns about food and environmental problems. The aim of this study is to assess if Calophyllum inophyllum, a non-edible oil, could be used for biodiesel production. Density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number, flashpoint and iodine value were determined on Calophyllum inophyllum trees from Cilacap, Indonesia and compared in light of ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards. It was found that Calophyllum inophyllum would be a satisfactory feedstock to produce biodiesel in the future. This study demonstrated that Calophyllum inophyllum has the potential to be a biodiesel feedstock and further research should be carried out on engine performance, combustion and emission performance of biodiesel produced from Calophyllum inophyllum.

  10. Colonization patterns of an mCherry-tagged Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense strain in potato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubheka, Gugulethu C; Coutinho, Teresa A; Moleleki, Ntsane; Moleleki, Lucy N

    2013-12-01

    Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense is a newly identified member of the potato soft rot enterobacteriaceae. The pathogenesis of this pathogen is still poorly understood. In this study, an mCherry-P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense-tagged strain was generated to study P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense-potato plant interactions. Prior to use, the tagged strain was evaluated for in vitro growth, plasmid stability, and virulence on potato tubers and shown to be similar to the wild type. Four potato cultivars were evaluated for stem-based resistance against P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy and in vitro viable cell counts showed that P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense is able to penetrate roots of a susceptible potato cultivar as early as 12 h postinoculation and migrate upward into aerial stem parts. Due to the phenotypic differences observed between tolerant and susceptible cultivars, a comparison of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense colonization patterns in these cultivars was undertaken. In the susceptible cultivar, P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense cells colonized the xylem tissue, forming "biofilm-like" aggregates that led to occlusion of some of the vessels. In contrast, in the tolerant cultivar, P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense appeared as free-swimming planktonic cells with no specific tissue localization. This suggests that there are resistance mechanisms in the tolerant cultivar that limit aggregation of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense in planta and, hence, the lack of symptom development in this cultivar. PMID:23758294

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of a Virulent Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense Isolate Causing Soft Rot of Cucumber

    OpenAIRE

    Onkendi, Edward M.; Ramesh, Aadi Moolam; Kwenda, Stanford; Naidoo, Sanushka; Moleleki, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense causes soft rot and blackleg diseases on potatoes, ornamentals, and other crops of economic importance. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of a highly virulent P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense strain, PcbHPI01, isolated from a cucumber in South Africa.

  12. Influence of the extraction method and storage time on the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) oil

    OpenAIRE

    Milton Cosme Ribeiro; Eduardo Valério de Barros Vilas Boas; Tania Regina Riul; Lílian Pantoja; Helyde Albuquerque Marinho; Alexandre Soares dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels of pequi oil obtained by different extraction methods and to evaluate the preservation of these properties and pigments during storage time. The pequi oil was obtained by solvent extraction, mechanical extraction, and hot water flotation. It was stored for over 180 days in an amber bottle at ambient conditions. Analyses for the determination of the acidity, peroxide, saponification and iodine value...

  13. Influence of the extraction method and storage time on the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Cosme Ribeiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels of pequi oil obtained by different extraction methods and to evaluate the preservation of these properties and pigments during storage time. The pequi oil was obtained by solvent extraction, mechanical extraction, and hot water flotation. It was stored for over 180 days in an amber bottle at ambient conditions. Analyses for the determination of the acidity, peroxide, saponification and iodine values, coloration, total carotenoids, and β-carotene levels were conducted. The oil extraction with solvents produced the best yield and carotenoid levels. The oil obtained by mechanical extraction presented higher acidity (5.44 mg KOH.g-1 and peroxide values (1.07 mEq.kg-1. During the storage of pequi oil, there was an increase in the acidity and the peroxide values, darkening of the oil coloration, and a reduction of the carotenoid levels. Mechanical extraction is the less advantageous method for the conservation of the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels in pequi oil.

  14. Identifikasi kandungan Squalene dari Minyak Nyamplung (calophyllum inophyllum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Saputra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sebuah studi baru mencatat temuan yang mengkhawatirkan. Sekitar 100 juta ekor ikan hiu mati setiap tahunnya. Berbagai eksploitasi telah dilakukan untuk keperluan manusia, salah satunya dengan memperdagangkan minyak hati ikan hiu, yang disebut squalene. Squalene kini menjadi salah satu bahan mahal untuk pembuatan kosmetik dan pelembap, serta kerap dijual dalam bentuk pil sebagai suplemen dan mampu mengobati berbagai penyakit. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari indentifikasi kandungan squalene (senyawa non polar dari minyak nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum. Identifikasi dilakukan melalui hasil ekstraksi multi stage 8 kali dilanjutkan dengan metode stirred batch-wise. Ekstraksi dilakukan sebagai alternatif saponifikasi. Metode stirred batch-wise dilakukan pada suhu -6°C sebanyak 5 batch dan dicampur menjadi satu sampel. Setelah sampel diuji dengan TLC dan GC-MS, komponen squalene dapat teridentifikasi dan ter-recovery 100% dengan kadar 1,71 %.

  15. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and total phenolic contents of Calophyllum symingtonianum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nissad Attoumani; Deny Susanti; Muhammad Taher

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the total phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the extracts from Calophyllum symingtonianum.Methods:The extracts were tested for their antioxidant activity by the DPPH radical scavenging assay and the β-carotene bleaching assay, while the antimicrobial activity was determined by disc diffusion method.Results:All the tested extracts showed antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The extracts showed moderate antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with zone of inhibition values of 10, 11 and 12 mm for n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol extracts respectively at 30 µg/disc. N-hexane showed low antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5 mm) at 30 µg/disc. The total phenolic test showed that methanol has high phenolic content (162.25 mg GAE/g of extract) compared to the other extracts.Conclusions:The ability of the extracts to inhibit microbial growth at a concentration of 30 µg/disc indicated the its potent antimicrobial activity.

  16. Enzymatic technology to improve oil extraction from Caryocar brasiliense camb. (Pequi Pulp. Tecnologia enzimática para melhorar a extração do óleo da polpa de Caryocar brasiliense (pequi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Gomes de Brito Mariano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to compare yield and quality of pequi pulp oil when applying two distinct processes: in the first, pulp drying in a tray dryer at 60ºC was combined with enzymatic treatment and pressing to oil extraction; in the second, a simple process was carried out by combining sun-drying pulp and pressing. In this study, raw pequi fruits were collected in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The fruits were autoclaved at 121ºC and stored under refrigeration. An enzymatic extract with pectinase and CMCase activities was used for hydrolysis of pequi pulp, prior to oil extraction. The oil extractions were carried out by hydraulic pressing, with or without enzymatic incubation. The oil content in the pequi pulp (45% w/w and the physicochemical characteristic of the oil was determined according to standard analytical methods. Free fatty acids, peroxide values, iodine and saponification indices were respectively 1.46 mgKOH/g, 2.98 meq/kg, 49.13 and 189.40. The acidity and peroxide values were lower than the obtained values in commercial oil samples, respectively 2.48 mgKOH/g and 5.22 meq/kg. Aqueous extraction has presented lower efficiency and higher oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. On the other hand, pequi pulp pressing at room temperature has produced better quality oil. However its efficiency is still smaller than the combined enzymatic treatment and pressing process. This combined process promotes cellular wall hydrolysis and pulp viscosity reduction, contributing to at least 20% of oil yield increase by pressing.O presente estudo tem como objetivo comparar o rendimento e a qualidade do óleo da polpa de pequi obtido por dois processos distintos: no primeiro, a secagem da polpa, conduzida em secador de bandeja a 60ºC, foi combinada com tratamento enzimático e prensagem para extração de óleo, no segundo, um processo mai simples foi realizado combinando-se a secagem da polpa ao sol seguida da prensagem a frio. Neste estudo, frutos de pequi in natura foram coletados no estado do Mato Grosso, Brasil. Os frutos foram auto-clavados a 121º C e armazenados sob refrigeração. Um extrato enzimático com atividades pectinase e CMCase foi utilizado para a hidrólise da polpa de pequi antes da extração do óleo. O processo de extração foi realizado por prensagem hidráulica, com ou sem incubação enzimática. O teor de óleo na polpa do pequi (45% w/w e as características físico-químicas do óleo foram determinados de acordo com métodos analíticos oficiais. O teor de ácidos graxos livres, os índices de peróxido, de iodo e de saponificação foram respectivamente de 1,46 mgKOH/g, 2,98 meq/kg, 49,13 e 189,40. A acidez e os valores de peróxido foram inferiores aos valores obtidos em amostras comerciais de óleo vegetal, respectivamente, 2,48 mgKOH/g, 5,22 meq/kg. A extração aquosa apresentou menor eficiência e promoveu uma maior oxidação dos ácidos graxos insaturados. Por outro lado, a polpa de pequi prensada, após secagem ao sol, produziu um óleo de melhor qualidade. No entanto, sua eficiência ainda é menor do que no processo combinado onde se aplicou o tratamento aquoso enzimático seguido da prensagem. O processo combinado promove a hidrólise da parede celular e a redução da viscosidade da polpa, contribuindo com pelo menos 20% de aumento na produtividade da etapa de extração do óleo por prensagem.

  17. Enzymatic technology to improve oil extraction from Caryocar brasiliense camb. (Pequi) Pulp. Tecnologia enzimática para melhorar a extração do óleo da polpa de Caryocar brasiliense (pequi)

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Gomes de Brito Mariano; Sonia Couri; Suely Pereira Freitas

    2009-01-01

    The present study aims to compare yield and quality of pequi pulp oil when applying two distinct processes: in the first, pulp drying in a tray dryer at 60ºC was combined with enzymatic treatment and pressing to oil extraction; in the second, a simple process was carried out by combining sun-drying pulp and pressing. In this study, raw pequi fruits were collected in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The fruits were autoclaved at 121ºC and stored under refrigeration. An enzymatic extract with pectina...

  18. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Hedyosmum brasiliense Miq., Chloranthaceae, essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Karoline Kirchner; Alberto Wisniewski Jr; Alexandre Bella Cruz; Maique W. Biavatti; Netz, Daisy J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Hedyosmum brasiliense Miq., Chloranthaceae, is an endemic species of Brazil, locally known as "cidrão". Although H. brasiliense is popularly used as sedative, chemical constituents of this species remains uncharacterized. This work presents the essential oil composition, obtained by distillation of the fresh leaves and from a stored sample for three months, analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The inhibitory effects of essential oil were tested by the agar dilution method against six bacterial speci...

  19. The Quality of Transparent Soap from Farmer's Crude Calophyllum Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawarni Hasibuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Calophyllum inophyllum plants is one of the potential non-edible vegetable oil in Indonesia. Currently, the utilization of C. inophyllum seed oils directed for biofuels such as biodiesel feedstock. The oleochemical product diversification of C. inophyllum seed oil into transparent soap products is prospective to be developed, considering its utilization that does not compete with edible oil.  The purpose of this research is to obtain the best conditions for the production process of C. inophyllum seed oil transparent soap. The research process is conducted in two phases. The first is the determination of the basic formula of transparent soap from C. inophyllum seed oil, and the second is the improvement of the organoleptic quality of the Calophyllum transparent soap.  The research design used is the completely randomized factorial design with two treatments, i.e. the addition of olive oil and ethanol.  The determination of the best formula for Calophyllum transparent soap is based on the weighting method on a number of physicochemical and organoleptic criteria. The results of the research show that the addition of olive oil and ethanol has a significant effect on the amount of Calophyllum transparent soap suds (P<0,05.  The quality improvement of Calophyllum transparent soap is conducted with the addition of honey, fragrance, and coloring agent. The addition of honey has a significant effect on the transparency and color of Calophyllum transparent soap (P<0,05. The addition of fragrance types has a significant effect on transparency, color and aroma (P<0,05, but does not have a significant effect on the hedonic test on texture and impression after use (P>0,06.  Based on the composite weighting method, the most preferred formula for Calophyllum transparent soap according to the panelists is the use of olive oil 5%, ethanol 15%, honey 0,3%, and floral fragrance 1%. This  best condition for Calophyllum transparent soap are able to meet the

  20. Endophytic synthesis of silver chloride nanoparticles from Penicillium sp. of Calophyllum apetalum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrappa, C. P.; Govindappa, M.; Chandrasekar, N.; Sarkar, Sonia; Ooha, Sepuri; Channabasava, R.

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, Penicillium species extract isolated from Calophyllum apetalum was used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and it was confirmed by changing the color of the silver nitrate UV-Vis spectrum. The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by biophysical techniques such as scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction.

  1. Caracterização física de frutos e putâmens e taxa de ataque por Carmenta sp. a pequizeiros (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. no norte de Minas Gerais Physical characterization of fruits and putamens and attack rate by Carmenta sp. to pequi tree (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. in the northern of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Rodrigues da Luz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O pequizeiro é uma espécie nativa do cerrado brasileiro, cujos frutos, explorados de forma extrativista, têm grande importância econômica. O extenso período de oferta dos frutos do pequi, aliado à heterogeneidade das regiões produtoras levam a crer na existência de diferenças entre as suas características físicas. Dessa forma, este trabalho objetivou comparar as características físicas de frutos de pequizeiro coletados em três municípios do norte de Minas Gerais e verificar se a taxa de ataque por Carmenta sp. está diretamente relacionada com as características biométricas. Assim, foram marcados 10 indivíduos e coletados 20 frutos de cada árvore, em Montes Claros, Mirabela e Japonvar, totalizando 200 frutos por área. Foram determinados as variáveis físicas dos frutos e dos putâmens, o número de frutilhos, de putâmens e de sementes e a porcentagem de frutos e de putâmens intactos e danificados. Os resultados indicaram que há diferenças nas características físicas entre as localidades, possuindo a região de Japonvar os putâmens mais vigorosos e com menor taxa de ataque pela broca-do-pequizeiro. Além disso, a porcentagem de ataque por Carmenta sp. relacionou-se com a espessura da casca e o comprimento dos frutos nas localidades de Japonvar e Mirabela, respectivamente. As diferenças encontradas entre as localidades podem estar associadas às influências climáticas e edáficas das regiões, que podem ressaltar certos aspectos de sua composição genética.The pequi tree is a native species of brazilian savanah, which fruits are explored in an extractivist form, having a huge economic importance. The long periods of availability of the fruits, together with the heterogeneity of the productive regions, leads to an inference of the existence of differences among their physical characteristics. Thus, this study aimed to compare the physical characteristics of pequi tree fruit collected in three municipalities in the north of Minas Gerais state, and to verify if the attack by insects is directly related to it's biometrical characteristics. We sampled 10 individuals and collected 20 fruits from each tree, in Montes Claros, Mirabela and Japonvar, municipalities, totalling 200 fruits per area. The physical variables of the fruits and pits, the number of little fruits (frutilhos, pits and seeds, and the percentage of intact and damaged fruits and pits were determined. The results indicated that there are physical differences among the collected areas, with the region of Japonvar having the most vigorous pits, with the lowest rates of attack by the pequi fruit borer. In addition, skin thickness and length of fruits from Japonvar and Mirabela, respectively, had relations with the percentage of attack by Carmenta sp. These differences found among the areas may be associated with the climatic and edaphic influences of these regions, which may also highlight the linkage to the genetical composition aspects of the pequi.

  2. The mortality of Caryocar brasiliense in northern Minas Gerais State, Brazil =Mortalidade de Caryocar brasiliense no norte do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilza de Lima Pereira Sales

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to study the percentage of healthy trees, living trees and healthy branches and the renewal (natural propagation of Caryocar brasiliense associated with the properties of soil, the floristic diversity and the canopy size of this plant. Lower proportions of live C. brasiliense trees and of healthy branches were found in the Savanna of Ibiracatu, where only 30% of the trees were healthy and without visible signs of attack by wood borers and by Phomopsis sp. We observed that C. brasiliense trees in areas where the soils contained higher levels of summed chemical bases and total sand (fine + gross were less healthy. Moreover, the areas whose soils contained higher levels of aluminum and clay had a higher percentage of healthy C. brasiliense trees and branches. Smaller percentages of live and healthy trees and healthy branches were noted in areas with higher floristic diversity. Overall, the higher mortality of C. brasiliense trees may be associated with a higher pH and a lower content of aluminum, silt and clay, with competition with other tree species for nutrients, water and light, with the attack of Cossidae and particularly with the attack of fungi, Phomopsis sp.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a percentagem de árvores sadias, vivas, galhos sadios e taxa natural de regeneração (propagação natural de Caryocar brasiliense, associando com propriedades do solo, diversidade florística e tamanho de copa desta planta. As menores percentagens de árvores vivas de C. brasiliense e de galhos sadios foram observadas no cerrado de Ibiracatu, onde somente 30% destas estavam saudáveis, sem sinais visíveis de ataque do broqueador de tronco (Lepidoptera: Cossidae e do fungo Phomopsis sp. As árvores de C. brasiliense localizadas em áreas cujos solos continham maiores níveis de soma de bases e areia total (fina + grossa estavam menos saudáveis. Além disso, as áreas cujos solos continham maiores níveis de alum

  3. Esterco bovino e calagem para formação de mudas de guanandi Cattle manure and liming for guanandi seedlings production

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Guirado Artur; Mara Cristina Pessôa da Cruz; Manoel Evaristo Ferreira; Vitor Corrêa de Mattos Barretto; Renato Yagi

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, em casa de vegetação, os efeitos de doses de esterco bovino e de calcário na formação de mudas de guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambèss.). Foram avaliadas quatro doses de cada fator, combinadas em esquema fatorial 4x4. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso com quatro repetições, e cada parcela continha cinco mudas. O substrato foi formado pela mistura, em volume, de oito partes de subsolo e duas partes de areia, e doses de esterco cor...

  4. Isolation and preparation of cytotoxic chromanone acids from the bark of Calophyllum dongnaiense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tri Hieu; Hansen, Poul Erik; Duus, Fritz;

    2009-01-01

    Three chromanone acids, blancoic acid (1), isoblancoic acid (2) and chapelieric acid (3), were isolated from the bark of Calophyllum dongnaiense Pierre collected in Dong Nai Province. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic techniques (1-D and 2-D NMR, UV, IR and MS) as well as chemi...... as chemical methods. Cytotoxicity of compounds 1-3 and their 5-O-acetylated and methylated derivatives against Hela cell line was examined....

  5. The Quality of Transparent Soap from Farmer's Crude Calophyllum Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Sawarni Hasibuan; Sahirman Sahirman; Amar Ma’ruf

    2014-01-01

    Calophyllum inophyllum plants is one of the potential non-edible vegetable oil in Indonesia. Currently, the utilization of C. inophyllum seed oils directed for biofuels such as biodiesel feedstock. The oleochemical product diversification of C. inophyllum seed oil into transparent soap products is prospective to be developed, considering its utilization that does not compete with edible oil.  The purpose of this research is to obtain the best conditions for the production process of C. inophy...

  6. Caloxanthones O and P: Two New Prenylated Xanthones from Calophyllum inophyllum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Li Mei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the EtOH extract of the twigs of Calophyllum inophyllum collected in Hainan Province of China resulted in the isolation of two new prenylated xanthones, caloxanthone O (1 and caloxanthone P (2. Their structures were elucidated by a study of their physical and spectral data. Compound 1 exhibited cytotoxicity against human gastric cancer cell line (SGC-7901,with an IC50 value of 22.4 μg mL-1.

  7. Processamento e estudo da estabilidade de pasta de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Processing and stability study of pequi paste (Caryocar brasiliense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroldo Arévalo-Pinedo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho de pesquisa teve como objetivo desenvolver um processo de obtenção de pasta de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense para uso culinário e avaliar a sua estabilidade quando acondicionada em embalagens de plástico e de vidro durante 180 dias de armazenamento. O processamento da pasta envolveu: descascamento, retirada da polpa em forma de lascas, obtenção da pasta em liquidificador, acidificação do produto com ácido cítrico até um pH The aim of this paper was to develop a process to obtain a salted and unsalted pequi paste for culinary use and to evaluate its stability when packed in plastic or in glass jars during 180 days of storage. The process included peeling of pequi fruit, pulp cutting, obtain the paste with the use of a blender, acidification of the product with citric acid at a pH < 4,5, addition 10% of NaCl (to avoid the development of deteriorating microorganisms and enzymatic darkening, thermal treatment at 80 ºC during 10 minutes, and hot filling in plastic and glass jars. The final product was submitted to microbiological and physicochemical analysis of the pH values and acidity and color evaluation. The results showed what the acidification with citric acid and hot filling process was effective to establish commercial sterility to the pequi paste in glass jars during a four-month period. The paste was more stable when packed in glass jars than in plastic jars with respect to microbiological and physicochemical analysis and color degradation during the four-month period.

  8. Características físicas, composição químico-nutricional e dos óleos essenciais da polpa de Caryocar brasiliense nativo do estado de Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madison Willy Silva Cordeiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O fruto do pequizeiro (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. apresenta considerável variabilidade em suas características físicas e químicas, segundo a região de origem, e pesquisas com frutos procedentes do Estado de Mato Grosso são escassas na literatura. Neste estudo, foram analisadas as características físicas, a composição químico-nutricional e os constituintes voláteis da polpa de pequi coletado em diferentes locais do Estado de Mato Grosso. Os frutos foram analisados quanto à cor (L*, a*, b*, hº e C*, à massa e ao rendimento do mesocarpo externo, pirênios e polpa. Foram determinados a composição centesimal, os teores de carotenoides totais, o perfil de ácidos graxos e de constituintes voláteis da polpa, e analisada a composição físico-química do solo dos locais de coleta.. Constatou-se que o fruto é composto por 80-85% de mesocarpo externo, 11-15% de pirênios e 4-7% de polpa, que é rica em lipídios (46-51g 100g-1, carotenoides totais (15-27mg 100g-1 - que foram associados à tonalidade e à intensidade da cor (hº e C* da polpa - e fibra alimentar (8-15g 100g-1. Os principais constituintes voláteis da polpa de pequi foram o hexanoato de etila, (E-β-ocimeno e octanoato de etila. O isobutirato de alila, 3-hexanol, 4-metil-2-pentanol, mirceno, (Z-di-hidroapofarnesol, β-eudesmol e (E-E geranilalinalool foram descritos pela primeira vez nos óleos essenciais da polpa de C. brasiliense. Grande parte da variância total dos voláteis foi explicada pelo conjunto de variáveis do solo, destacando-se o silte, o P e o Mg2+.

  9. Hydrocracking of Calophyllum inophyllum Oil With Non-sulfide CoMo Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rismawati Rasyid

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to convert Calophyllum inophyllum kernel oil into liquid fuel through hydro-cracking process using non-sulfide CoMo catalysts. The experiment was carried out in a pressurized re-actor operated at temperature and pressure up to 350 oC and 30 bar, respectively. The CoMo catalysts used in the experiment were prepared by 10 wt.% loading of cobalt and molybdenum solutions over various supports, i.e. γ-Al2O3, SiO2, and γ-Al2O3-SiO2 through impregnation method. It is figured out from the experiment that non-sulfide CoMo based catalysts have functioned well in the hydrocracking conversion of Calophyllum inophyllum kernel oil into fuels, such as gasoline, kerosene, and gasoil. The CoMo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst resulted higher conversion than CoMo/SiO2 and CoMo/γ-Al2O3-SiO2. The fuel yields were 25.63% gasoline, 17.31% kerosene, and 38.59% gasoil. The fuels obtained in this research do not contain sulfur compounds so that they can be categorized as environmentally friendly fuels. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 24th March 2014; Revised: 25th November 2014; Accepted: 26th November 2014How to Cite: Rasyid, R., Prihartantyo, A., Mahfud, M., Roesyadi, A. (2015. Hydrocracking of Calophyllum inophyllum Oil With Non-sulfide CoMo Catalysts. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (1: 61-69. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.1.6597.61-69Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.1.6597.61-69

  10. Gestão ambiental de sistemas agroflorestais com Guanandi(Calophyllum braziliense).

    OpenAIRE

    Devide, Antonio Carlos Pries

    2013-01-01

    Em Pindamonhangaba (SP), os sistemas agroflorestais com Guanandi (Calophyllum braziliense) em áreas várzeas e terraços fluviais estão sendo pesquisados na Fazenda Coruputuba. No ano de 2007, o proprietário redefiniu o uso do solo da propriedade: 10 ha de várzeas antes cultivadas com arroz passaram ao domínio do guanandi; introduziu acácia (Acacia mangium) em 17ha de terraços substituindo o eucalipto, e prosseguiu o plantio em pastagens formadas após o corte do eucalipto, totalizando 34ha de a...

  11. Hydrocracking of Calophyllum inophyllum Oil With Non-sulfide CoMo Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Rismawati Rasyid; Adrianto Prihartantyo; Mahfud Mahfud; Achmad Roesyadi

    2015-01-01

    This research was aimed to convert Calophyllum inophyllum kernel oil into liquid fuel through hydro-cracking process using non-sulfide CoMo catalysts. The experiment was carried out in a pressurized re-actor operated at temperature and pressure up to 350 oC and 30 bar, respectively. The CoMo catalysts used in the experiment were prepared by 10 wt.% loading of cobalt and molybdenum solutions over various supports, i.e. γ-Al2O3, SiO2, and γ-Al2O3-SiO2 through impregnation method. It is figured ...

  12. Gênero Calophyllum: importância química e farmacológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noldin Vânia Floriani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Calophyllum genus (Clusiaceae is composed of about 200 species, with a pantropical distribution. Some species are medicinal and are used against several diseases, including gastric ulcers, infectious pathologies, painful, inflammatory processes and as molluscicidal. A search in the literature regarding the chemical and biological aspects of these plants indicates cytotoxic activity against several cell lines, inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, antisecretory and cytoprotective properties, antinociceptive, molluscicidal and antimicrobial effects, among others, related particularly to the presence of coumarins, xanthones, flavonoids, and triterpenes.

  13. Fluorescent Staining Technique for Nucleoid Regions of Streptosporangium albidum and Streptosporangium brasiliense

    OpenAIRE

    Speth, J. L.; Nash, C H

    1980-01-01

    Fluorescent staining procedures were developed for elucidating the nucleoid region in Streptosporangium albidum and Streptosporangium brasiliense. In these procedures, plugs of nutrient agar were inoculated with the microorganims and then covered with a sterile glass slide. The growing cells adhered to the surface of the slide and remained attached throughout the staining procedures. Two separate staining methods were utilized, one with bisbenzimid H33258 and the other with auramine O. Fluore...

  14. Mevalonosomes: specific vacuoles containing the mevalonate pathway in Plocamium brasiliense cortical cells (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradas, Wladimir Costa; Crespo, Thalita Mendes; Salgado, Leonardo Tavares; de Andrade, Leonardo Rodrigues; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Hellio, Claire; Paranhos, Ricardo Rogers; Hill, Lilian Jorge; de Souza, Geysa Marinho; Kelecom, Alphonse Germaine Albert Charles; Da Gama, Bernardo Antônio Perez; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Amado-Filho, Gilberto Menezes

    2015-04-01

    This paper has identified, for the first time in a member of the Rhodophyta, a vacuolar organelle containing enzymes that are involved in the mevalonate pathway-an important step in red algal isoprenoid biosynthesis. These organelles were named mevalonosomes (Mev) and were found in the cortical cells (CC) of Plocamium brasiliense, a marine macroalgae that synthesizes several halogenated monoterpenes. P. brasiliense specimens were submitted to a cytochemical analysis of the activity of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGS). Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we confirmed the presence of HMGS activity within the Mev. Because HMGS is necessary for the biosynthesis of halogenated monoterpenes, we isolated a hexanic fraction (HF) rich in halogenated monoterpenes from P. brasiliense that contained a pentachlorinated monoterpene as a major metabolite. Because terpenes are often related to chemical defense, the antifouling (AF) activity of pentachlorinated monoterpene was tested. We found that the settlement of the mussel Perna perna was reduced by HF treatment (2.25 times less than control; 40% and 90% of fouled surface, respectively; P = 0.001; F9,9 = 1.13). The HF (at 10 μg · mL(-1) ) also inhibited three species of fouling microalgae (Chlorarachnion reptans, Cylindrotheca cloisterium, and Exanthemachrysis gayraliae), while at a higher concentration (50 μg · mL(-1) ), it inhibited the bacteria Halomonas marina, Polaribacter irgensii, Pseudoalteromonas elyakovii, Shewanella putrefaciens, and Vibrio aestuarianus. The AF activity of P. brasiliense halogenated monoterpenes and the localization of HMGS activity inside Mev suggest that this cellular structure found in CC may play a role in thallus protection against biofouling. PMID:26986518

  15. Axonal degeneration in sheep caused by the ingestion of Halimium brasiliense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riet-Correa, Franklin; Barros, Severo S; Méndez, Maria C; Gevehr-Fernandes, Cristina; Pereira Neto, Otaviano A; Soares, Marcio P; McGavin, M Donald

    2009-07-01

    Nervous system disease is reported in sheep from 2 farms in southern Brazil and in 33 farms in Uruguay. The illness was seasonal, occurring from May to November, during the growing season of Halimium brasiliense, and primarily affected sheep older than 3 years of age. Clinical signs included transient seizures that occurred mainly when sheep were disturbed or frightened. Most affected sheep recovered when removed to other pastures. Feeding trials produced clinical signs in 1 sheep after the ingestion of 2,117 g/kg of body weight of H. brasiliense over 142 days. Two sheep that had previously recovered from spontaneous toxicosis developed clinical signs after the ingestion of 263 g and 565 g of H. brasiliense per kg body weight given over 36 and 31 days, respectively. The main histologic lesion was vacuolation of the brain and spinal cord, with rare axonal spheroid formation. Transmission electron microscopy revealed segmental axonal swelling with degeneration and disappearance of the axonal organelles and vacuolation of the axoplasm. A pigment identified as ceroid was also present in neurons, astrocytes, and macrophages. These lesions suggested a novel morphologic manifestation of a toxic axonopathy. PMID:19564495

  16. The sacred construction: healers and religious practices in Cambé/Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cristina Maceda Rubert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research seeks to comprehend the intrinsic relations of multiple memories present in the disposition of religious images of faith healer ladies in the city of Cambé. Through the dialogue with the oral source and the image source, we seek to relate the historic aspects to the particularities present in the studied cases. We reflected in this research on the concepts of identity, memory and healing present in these relations of exchange between the supernatural and the terrestrial, paying attention to the meaning of the plurality of images present in this space through the image analysis and the narratives and histories of ex-votes described in the faith healers testimony. The research discussed the religious reminiscences based on memories, identities and family heritages of the devotees, relating their particular and private lives with the processes of the Brazilian cultural and religious formation.

  17. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Hedyosmum brasiliense Miq., Chloranthaceae, essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Kirchner

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hedyosmum brasiliense Miq., Chloranthaceae, is an endemic species of Brazil, locally known as "cidrão". Although H. brasiliense is popularly used as sedative, chemical constituents of this species remains uncharacterized. This work presents the essential oil composition, obtained by distillation of the fresh leaves and from a stored sample for three months, analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The inhibitory effects of essential oil were tested by the agar dilution method against six bacterial species (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and S. saprophyticus. In addition, six fungal species (Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes were included. Among the determined constituents, α-terpineol (10.2%, curzerene (8.9%, pinocarvone (8.4% and β-thujene (7.1% were found as the main components. The essential oil has only low activity against Gram-negative microorganisms. However, is remarkable active against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi with MIC values ranging from 0.125 to 2.5% (v/v.Óleo essencial de Hedyosmum brasiliense Miq., Chloranthaceae: composição e atividade antimicrobiana. Hedyosmum brasiliense Miq. Chloranthaceae, é uma espécie endêmica no Brasil, conhecida como "cidrão". Embora H. brasiliense seja utilizada como calmante na medicina popular, não foi ainda caracterizada quanto aos constituintes químicos. Este trabalho apresenta a composição do óleo essencial, obtido pela destilação de folhas frescas e de amostra de óleo essencial armazenada por três meses, analisadas por GC-FID e CG-MS. Os efeitos inibitórios do óleo essencial foram testados pelo método da diluição em agar, contra seis espécies de bactérias (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus e S. saprophyticus. Adicionalmente, seis espécies de fungos (Candida albicans

  18. Aplicações de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares no gênero Calophyllum sp. em restauração ambiental e sistemas agroflorestais.

    OpenAIRE

    Devide, Antonio Carlos Pries

    2012-01-01

    O gênero Calophyllum spp., nativo das Américas representa uma oportunidade econômica de restauração ambiental. O uso de micorrizas potencializa o crescimento e melhora o desenvolvimento vegetal, em reflorestamentos e sistemas agroflorestais. Essa revisão pretende oferecer uma visão ampla do estado da arte do emprego de micorrizas no gênero Calophyllum sp.

  19. Xiphinema brasiliense, nova espécie de nematóide do Brasil, parasita de Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gonzaga E. Lordello

    1951-03-01

    Full Text Available Xiphinema brasiliense, a new opistodelphic species of Brazilian nematode, was found in soil around potato roots at Sapecado (State of São Paulo, Brazil. It differs from the other known opistodelphic species of the genus, by its type of tail end, which is digitate. It contrasts most strongly with X. ensiculiferum (Cobb, 1893, in which the shape of the extremity is decidedly hemispheroidal. The species most closely resembling X. brasiliense isX. chambersi Thorne, 1939, from which it is distinguished by its longer stylet and the mentioned characteristic form of the end of the tail. The X. brasiliense amphids are also very short and wide, unlike those of X. chambersi.

  20. An antifungal gamma-pyrone and xanthones with monoamine oxidase inhibitory activity from Hypericum brasiliense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, L; Marston, A; Kaplan, M A; Stoeckli-Evans, H; Thull, U; Testa, B; Hostettmann, K

    1994-08-01

    A new gamma-pyrone (hyperbrasilone), three known xanthones (1,5-dihydroxyxanthone, 5-hydroxy-1-methoxyxanthone and 6-deoxyjacareubin) and betulinic acid have been isolated from a dichloromethane extract of stems and roots of Hypericum brasiliense. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods (UV, EI-MS, 1H and 13C NMR) and that of the gamma-pyrone was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Hyperbrasilone and the xanthones were all antifungal against Cladosporium cucumerinum, while the three xanthones showed differing degrees of inhibition of monoamine oxidase A and B. PMID:7765428

  1. Utilization of Calophyllum inophyllum shell and kernel oil cake for reducing sugar production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Shen; Wu, Jang-Hong; Yeh, Li-Hsien

    2016-07-01

    This study is aimed at fully utilizing fruit biomass of Calophyllum inophyllum for reducing sugar production. The effects of pretreatment conditions and post reaction wash on the lignin removal and enzymatic hydrolysis of shell were investigated. The oil cake was also subjected to solvent extraction followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The results showed that the sequential acid/alkaline pretreatment of C. inophyllum shell resulted in better delignification than alkaline or acid only pretreatment. The reducing sugar yields obtained from sequential acid/alkaline pretreated shell and solvent extracted oil cake were 0.24g/g and 0.66g/g, respectively. The results suggested that the shell and oil cake of C. inophyllum could also be feedstocks for reducing sugar production.

  2. Utilization of Calophyllum inophyllum shell and kernel oil cake for reducing sugar production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Shen; Wu, Jang-Hong; Yeh, Li-Hsien

    2016-07-01

    This study is aimed at fully utilizing fruit biomass of Calophyllum inophyllum for reducing sugar production. The effects of pretreatment conditions and post reaction wash on the lignin removal and enzymatic hydrolysis of shell were investigated. The oil cake was also subjected to solvent extraction followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The results showed that the sequential acid/alkaline pretreatment of C. inophyllum shell resulted in better delignification than alkaline or acid only pretreatment. The reducing sugar yields obtained from sequential acid/alkaline pretreated shell and solvent extracted oil cake were 0.24g/g and 0.66g/g, respectively. The results suggested that the shell and oil cake of C. inophyllum could also be feedstocks for reducing sugar production. PMID:27130225

  3. Caracterização física de frutos e putâmens e taxa de ataque por Carmenta sp. a pequizeiros (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. no norte de Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Rodrigues da Luz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O pequizeiro é uma espécie nativa do cerrado brasileiro, cujos frutos, explorados de forma extrativista, têm grande importância econômica. O extenso período de oferta dos frutos do pequi, aliado à heterogeneidade das regiões produtoras levam a crer na existência de diferenças entre as suas características físicas. Dessa forma, este trabalho objetivou comparar as características físicas de frutos de pequizeiro coletados em três municípios do norte de Minas Gerais e verificar se a taxa de ataque por Carmenta sp. está diretamente relacionada com as características biométricas. Assim, foram marcados 10 indivíduos e coletados 20 frutos de cada árvore, em Montes Claros, Mirabela e Japonvar, totalizando 200 frutos por área. Foram determinados as variáveis físicas dos frutos e dos putâmens, o número de frutilhos, de putâmens e de sementes e a porcentagem de frutos e de putâmens intactos e danificados. Os resultados indicaram que há diferenças nas características físicas entre as localidades, possuindo a região de Japonvar os putâmens mais vigorosos e com menor taxa de ataque pela broca-do-pequizeiro. Além disso, a porcentagem de ataque por Carmenta sp. relacionou-se com a espessura da casca e o comprimento dos frutos nas localidades de Japonvar e Mirabela, respectivamente. As diferenças encontradas entre as localidades podem estar associadas às influências climáticas e edáficas das regiões, que podem ressaltar certos aspectos de sua composição genética.

  4. Conservation of Campomanesia adamantium (CAMB. O. berg seeds in different packaging and at varied temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana de Paula Quintão Scalon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at evaluating the effects of different packaging and varied storage temperatures on the germination potential of seeds of Campomanesia adamantium Camb. O. Berg. The seeds were packaged in glass, aluminum foil and plastic containers, or maintained inside intact fruits at 5, 10 and 15 ºC during 0, 7, 14 and 21 days. After these periods the seeds were sown in Germitest® germination paper and maintained in incubation chambers at 25 ºC under constant white light for 42 days. Seed moisture contents were evaluated both before and after storage, as well as germination percentages, germination speed index, root and aerial portion of seedlings lengths, and total dry weights. All possible combinations of packing materials, temperatures and storage times were tested, with four repetitions of 25 seeds for each treatment. C. adamantium seeds showed initial water contents of 31.5%. Glass and aluminum packaging were efficient at maintaining the water content of the seeds, and provided greater germination speed index than the other packaging materials. Germination percentages, seedlings lengths and dry weights did not vary among the different temperatures tested. C. adamantium seeds can be stored for up to 21 days at temperatures between 5 and 15 ºC without altering their physiological quality. In terms of cost-benefit efficiencies, these seeds can be stored without significant damage for 21 days while still inside the fruits at temperatures of 5, 10 or 15 ºC.

  5. Influence of the extraction method and storage time on the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. oil Influência do método de extração e do tempo de armazenamento sobre as propriedades físico-químicas e o teor de carotenóides do óleo de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Cosme Ribeiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels of pequi oil obtained by different extraction methods and to evaluate the preservation of these properties and pigments during storage time. The pequi oil was obtained by solvent extraction, mechanical extraction, and hot water flotation. It was stored for over 180 days in an amber bottle at ambient conditions. Analyses for the determination of the acidity, peroxide, saponification and iodine values, coloration, total carotenoids, and β-carotene levels were conducted. The oil extraction with solvents produced the best yield and carotenoid levels. The oil obtained by mechanical extraction presented higher acidity (5.44 mg KOH.g-1 and peroxide values (1.07 mEq.kg-1. During the storage of pequi oil, there was an increase in the acidity and the peroxide values, darkening of the oil coloration, and a reduction of the carotenoid levels. Mechanical extraction is the less advantageous method for the conservation of the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels in pequi oil.Este estudo objetivou analisar as propriedades físico-químicas e o teor de carotenoides totais do óleo de pequi (OP obtido por diferentes métodos de extração, bem como avaliar a conservação dessas propriedades e dos pigmentos durante o armazenamento. O OP foi obtido por extração com solventes, extração mecânica e flotação com água quente, e armazenado por 180 dias em frascos âmbar sob condições ambientes. Foram realizadas análises para determinação dos índices de acidez, peróxido, saponificação e iodo, da coloração e do teor de carotenoides totais e de β-carotenos. Verificou-se que a extração com solventes promoveu um maior rendimento em óleo e o maior valor de carotenoides totais. A extração mecânica resultou em um óleo com acidez (5,44 mg KOH.g-1 e índice de peróxido (1,07 mEq.kg-1 elevados. Ao longo do armazenamento do OP, houve aumento da acidez e do índice de peróxido, escurecimento do óleo e redução do teor de carotenoides. A extração mecânica foi o método menos vantajoso para a conservação das propriedades físico-químicas e do teor de carotenoides no óleo de pequi.

  6. A comparative analysis of physical and chemical properties of Jatropha Curcas. L, Calophyllum Inophyllum. L and Sterculia Feotida. L oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silitonga, A.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Medan State Polytechnic (Indonesia)], email: ardinsu@yahoo.co.id, email: a_atabani2@msn.com; Atabani, A.E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Khartoum (Sudan); Mahlia, T.M.I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Syiah Kuala University, (Indonesia); Masjuki, H.H.; Badruddin, I.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01

    Production of bio-diesel converted from edible oil has raised the issue of competition for resources between food production and fuel production, as well as other questions of environmental impact. It has been established that producing bio-diesel from non-edible vegetable oils was one of the effective ways to resolve these issues. Jatropha curcas L., Calophyllum inophyllum L., and Sterculia foetida L. are all non-edible oils and all can be potential sources for future energy supply. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the results of a comparative analysis of the physical and chemical properties of Jatropha curcas L., Calophyllum inophyllum L., and Sterculia foetida L. oils. Physical and chemical properties of these vegetable oils, such as density, iodine value, free fatty acid, etc. were investigated and measured. These properties were then compared with those of other non-edible vegetable oils in terms of potential. This paper finds that the results of analysis indicate that there is high potential for using Jatropha curcas L., Calophyllum inophyllum L., and Sterculia foetida L. crude oil as an alternative fuel.

  7. Allelopathic potential of extracts the from marine macroalga Plocamium brasiliense and their effects on pasture weed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainiomar Raimundo da Fonseca

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Four extracts from the marine red alga Plocamium brasiliense (Greville M.A.Howe & W.R.Taylor were prepared to identify and characterize their potential allelopathic effects on seed germination, radicle elongation and hypocotyl development of the weeds Mimosa pudica L. and Senna obtusifolia (L. Irwin & Barneby. The four extracts were prepared in a sequence of solvents of increasing polarity: n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol/water (7:3. The germination bioassay was carried out at 25 °C with a 12 h photoperiod and the radicle elongation and hypocotyl development at 25 °C with a 24 h photoperiod. The dichloromethane extract showed inhibitory effects on seed germination of both plants (35 and 14%, respectively, in M. pudica and S. obtusifolia, radical germination (52 and 41.7%, respectively and hypocotyl development (17.1 and 25.5%, respectively. Given the high sensitivity of this parameter to the potential allelopathic effects and the insufficient number of references found in the literature, these results are expected to stimulate new tests with other species of marine algae. Given the high sensitivity of the method for the detection of allelopathic potential, the species P. brasiliense emerges as a possible source of allelopathic substances against weed species. The results are attributed to the chemical composition, especially in relation to the presence of halogenated monoterpenes.

  8. Synthesis of cracked Calophyllum inophyllum oil using fly ash catalyst for diesel engine application

    KAUST Repository

    Muthukumaran, N.

    2015-04-16

    In this study, production of hydrocarbon fuel from Calophyllum inophyllum oil has been characterized for diesel engine application, by appraising essential fuel processing parameters. As opposed to traditional trans-esterification process, the reported oil was cracked using a catalyst, as the latter improves the fuel properties better than the former. In a bid to make the production process economically viable, a waste and cheap catalyst, RFA (raw fly ash), has been capitalized for the cracking process as against the conventional zeolite catalyst. The fuel production process, which is performed in a fixed bed catalytic reactor, was done methodologically after comprehensively studying the characteristics of fly ash catalyst. Significantly, fly ash characterization was realized using SEM and EDS, which demarcated the surface and internal structures of fly ash particles before and after cracking. After the production of hydrocarbon fuel from C. inophyllum oil, the performed compositional analysis in GC-MS revealed the presence of esters, parfins and olefins. Followed by the characterization of catalytically cracked C. inophyllum oil, suitable blends of it with diesel were tested in a single cylinder diesel engine. From the engine experimental results, BTE (brake thermal efficiency) of the engine for B25 (25% cracked C. inophyllum oil and 75% diesel) was observed to be closer to diesel, while it decreased for higher blends. On the other hand, emissions such as HC (hydrocarbon), CO (carbon monoxide) and smoke were found to be comparable for B25 with diesel. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Performance and Emission Study of 4S CI Engine using Calophyllum Inophyllum Biodiesel with Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash K Hegde

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum sourced fuels is now widely known as non-renewable due to fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. Renewable, carbon neutral, transport fuels are necessary for environmental and economic sustainability. Biodiesel derived from oil crops is a potential renewable and carbon neutral alternative to petroleum fuels. Chemically, biodiesel is mono alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable feed stock like vegetable oils and animal fats. It is produced by transesterification in which, oil or fat is reacted with a monohydric alcohol in presence of a catalyst. The process of transesterification is affected by the mode of reaction condition, molar ratio of alcohol to oil, type of alcohol, type and amount of catalysts, reaction time and temperature and purity of reactants. In present work, calophyllum innophyllum seeds are used to produce biodiesel. In transesterification process, methanol and NaOH is used. The different blending of biodiesel is tested in CI engine and also emission characteristics are studied. Further, additive SC5D is also used. It is evident from the experiment that additive will improve the thermal efficiency of the engine and also it influence on emission characteristics.

  10. Reproductive phenology of Calophyllum inophyllum in Yeppoon Australia and Meegoda Western Province, Sri Lanka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subhash Hathurusingha; Nanjappa Ashwath; Kolitha Wijesekara; David Midmore

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive phenology of multiple use native plant Calophyllum inophyllum L.was studied in Yeppoon (23°7'60″ S,150°43′60″E),northern Australia (southern hemisphere) and in Meegoda (6°18′51″N,80°31′3″E),Sri Lanka (northern hemisphere).C.inophyllum trees in Yeppoon,Australia had relatively shorter flowering periods,shorter floral life spans,longer fruit life spans,smaller flowers and larger fruits compared to those in Meegoda,Sri Lanka.Although the number of flower buds/ inflorescence was comparatively higher in Meegoda,C.inophyllum trees in both locations had similar mean number of mature fruits/cluster due to the higher floral abscission in C.inophyllum trees at Meegoda.Despite having a comparatively lower fruit yield (664 000 fruts·ha-1·a-1),C.inophyllum trees in Yeppoon had higher kernel weights (2988.0±853.2 kg·ha-1·a-1) and oil yields (1 332.6±380.5 kg·ha-1·a-1)compared to those in Meegoda.

  11. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial activity of endophytic Myrothecium spp. isolated from Calophyllum apetalum and Garcinia morella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruma, Karmakar; Sunil, Kumar; Kini, Kukkundoor R; Prakash, Harischandra Sripathy

    2015-11-01

    Calophyllum apetalum and Garcinia morella, medicinal plants are endemic to Western Ghats, Karnataka, India. Sixteen Myrothecium isolates were obtained from the tissues of bark and twigs of these plants. The purpose of this study was to explore the antimicrobial activity and genetic variability of the endophytic Myrothecium isolates. The antimicrobial activity as well as the genetic diversity of endophytic Myrothecium species was investigated through RAPD, ISSR and ITS sequence analysis. Myrothecium isolates were genotypically compared by RAPD and ISSR techniques, 510 and 189 reproducible polymorphic bands were obtained using 20 RAPD and ten ISSR primers respectively. The isolates grouped into four main clades and subgroups using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster analysis. rDNA ITS sequence analysis presented better resolution for characterising the isolates of Myrothecium spp. The clustering patterns of the isolates were almost similar when compared with RAPD and ISSR dendograms. The results signify that RAPD, ISSR and ITS analysis can be employed to distinguish the genetic diversity of the Myrothecium species. The endophytic and pathogenic strains were compared by maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and neighbour joining methods. One isolate (JX862206) amongst the 16 Myrothecium isolates exhibited potent antibacterial and as well as anti-Candida activity. PMID:26409457

  12. Seed bank estimation and regeneration studies of Calophyllum apetalum Willd., from Western Ghats of Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Prasanna Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the seed production, modes of dispersal and regeneration patterns of threatened tree species are crucial for the management of their genetic diversity. The seed bank estimation of Calophyllum apetalum was assessed from three different locations of Western Ghats of Karnataka, using two factorial completely randomized design. The results revealed the seeds are dispersed by hydrochory and mammalochory. The post seed dispersal, seed bank estimation studies yielded a high seed density near the base of tree trunks, but it was varied between the distances and locations. The results revealed seed densities are insignificant among the forest ranges and significant with the distances. The in-situ regeneration studies revealed an insignificant relationship between the mean regeneration among the forest ranges and the distances. Also, the ex-situ regeneration studies resulted an insignificant relationship among forest ranges and the distances from which the seeds were collected. The highest seed germination through ex-situ regeneration suggested it, as a best suitable method of conservation of this species.

  13. Physiological Response of Crocidolomia pavonana to the Calophyllum soulattri Active Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDY SYAHPUTRA

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiological response of the cabbage head caterpillar Crocidolomia pavonana treated with an active fraction of Calophyllum soulattri bark extract. Extraction of the test plant materials were performed with maceration method using methanol, continued by counter-current distribution separation in ethylacetate and water. Methanol fractionation of C. soulattri was performed by vaccuum liquid chromatography and the bioassays were conducted by a leaf-feeding method. The results showed that the dichloromethane fraction of C. soulattri had strong insecticidal activity against C. pavonana larvae, with LC50 of 0.05%. Sublethal treatments with the active fraction at LC15, LC50, and LC85 reduced the relative growth rate of the fourth instars by 48.9-94.1%. The treatments with the fraction at LC15 and LC50 to the fourth instars reduced the activity of invertase and protease enzyme by 20.7-24.1 and 14.4-25.14%, respectively, but increased the activity of trehalase by 26.7-120% as compared with controls.

  14. Caracterização química do óleo essencial de Hypericum brasiliense Choisy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Carvalho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypericum brasiliense Choisy, planta da família Guttiferae, ocorre principalmente nas regiões Sudeste e Sul do Brasil. Em trabalhos anteriores foram isolados e identificados nesta espécie, dentre outras classes de compostos, xantonas, floroglucinóis e flavonóides. Apesar da presença de óleos essenciais ser uma característica do gênero, ainda não há registros na literatura da composição química do óleo essencial desta espécie. Neste trabalho foi realizado o estudo químico da fração volátil de H. brasiliense visando identificar e quantificar as substâncias químicas presentes através da cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada a espectrômetro de massas equipado com banco de dados.

  15. Culturas anuais para sistemas agroflorestais com Calophyllum braziliense em várzea e terraço fluvial.

    OpenAIRE

    Devide, Antonio Carlos Pries

    2013-01-01

    A Mata Atlântica é um complexo de ecossistemas com elevada diversidade biológica; um dos biomas mais ameaçados do mundo pelas agressões às florestas; uma das cinco regiões do planeta de maior prioridade para a conservação. Em Pindamonhangaba, SP, vem sendo realizado experimentos de conversão agroflorestal de áreas de plantio de Guanandi (Calophyllum braziliense) em várzeas e terraços fluviais. O objetivo desse trabalho é buscar alternativas menos impactantes, rentáveis e com potencial de cont...

  16. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for genetic analysis of a Brazilian endangered tree species Caryocar brasiliense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collevatti, R G; Brondani, R V; Grattapaglia, D

    1999-12-01

    In this work we report the development and characterization of 10 microsatellite loci for the endangered tree species Caryocar brasiliense. Using genomic library enrichment, the efficiency of SSR marker development was 14.4% from sequencing data to operationally useful loci. Primer sequences for this set of 10 loci are made available together with their estimates of expected heterozygosity, probability of paternity exclusion and probability of identity. Mendelian inheritance and segregation was confirmed for all 10 loci in open-pollinated half-sib families as well as the absolute transferability of these 10 loci to five other species of the same genus. Number of alleles per locus ranged from 10 to 22 with a mean value of 16 and expected heterozygosity varying from 0.84 to 0.94. The combined probability of genetic identity was on the order of 10-17 clearly demonstrating that SSR multilocus genotypes are likely to be unique and capable of readily discriminating individuals of C. brasiliense. The very high combined probability of paternity exclusion (0.99999995) also indicates that these markers will permit detailed parentage studies in natural populations even in situations where both maternity and paternity are unknown. The battery of microsatellite markers developed and characterized in this study opens a new perspective for the generation of fundamental population genetic data for devising sound collection and conservation procedures for C. brasiliense and related species of the genus. PMID:10651920

  17. Effects of environmental and architechtural diversity of Caryocar brasiliense (Malpighiales: Caryocaraceae on Edessa ruformaginata (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae and its biology

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    Germano Leao Demolin Leite

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of environmental complexity and plant architecture on the abundance of the Edessa rufomarginata bugs in pastures and cerrado areas and its biology. We observed higher number of bugs on Caryocar brasiliense trees in the cerrado than pasture areas. Bugs were more abundant on leaves and branches rather than fruits. Caryocar brasiliense had greatest fruit production on pasture than in the cerrado areas. The abundance of bugs was correlated positively with aluminum, organic matter, and tree height, but negatively correlated by soil pH. Productivity of C. brasiliense were negatively correlated with aluminum, pH, and number of bugs, but positively correlated with phosphorus and calcium. The number of eggs per clutch was 14.3, their viability was 93% and the embryonic period was 6.9 days. The respective length and width of each instar were: first instar 3.3 mm and 2.4 mm, second 4.1 mm and 3.0 mm, third 6.7 mm and 3.0mm, and fourth 11.5 mm and 3.5 mm. The respective length and width of adults were: males, 15.8 mm and 8.6 mm and females, 17.3 mm and 9.1 mm. The sex ratio was 0.43, and the total duration of the life cycle of E. rufomarginata was 156 days.

  18. Aspectos fisioanatômicos de plantas jovens de Cupania vernalis camb. submetidas a diferentes níveis de sombreamento Physioanatomy traits of leaves in young plants of Cupania vernalis camb. subjected to different shading levels

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    Érico de Castro Lima Jr.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Cupania vernalis Camb. (Sapindaceae é uma espécie freqüente em quase todas as formações florestais, principalmente em Cerrado e Mata de Galeria, abrangendo os Estados de Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso e São Paulo até o Rio Grande do Sul. Essa espécie se destaca, principalmente, pelo seu emprego em plantios mistos destinados à recuperação de áreas degradadas de preservação permanente, pelo fato de seus frutos serem muito apreciados e consumidos por pássaros e, ainda, na medicina popular contra asma e tosses convulsivas. O estudo da anatomia foliar é de grande importância para a compreensão da plasticidade adaptativa de uma espécie submetida a diferentes condições ambientais, por estar correlacionada com processos de trocas gasosas e assimilação de CO2 e outras características inerentes ao crescimento da planta. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estudar o efeito de diferentes níveis de sombreamento (pleno sol, 30%, 50% e 70% sobre a anatomia foliar e trocas gasosas de plantas jovens de Cupania vernalis Camb. Os resultados indicaram maior taxa fotossintética e, ainda, incrementos na condutância estomática, espessura do limbo, número de estômatos por área e espessura de parede celular em folhas de plantas crescidas sob pleno sol e 30% de sombreamento. Foram observadas correlações positivas entre características de trocas gasosas e anatomia foliar. Pelos resultados, pôde-se concluir que a espécie em estudo apresenta grande plasticidade anatômica em relação aos níveis de sombreamento testados, favorecendo, assim, um melhor desenvolvimento das mudas sob diferentes condições ambientais.Cupania vernalis camb. (Sapindaceae is a species commonly found in almost all forest associations, mainly in savanna-like vegetation (cerrado and galeria woods, spreading over the states of Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso, São Paulo and reaching as far as Rio Grande do Sul. The species stands out mainly by its use in mixed planting to recover

  19. Optimization of biodiesel production and engine performance from high free fatty acid Calophyllum inophyllum oil in CI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Calophyllum inophyllum has been evaluated as a potential feedstock for biodiesel. • Acid and base catalyzed transesterification processes was used to produce biodiesel. • The physiochemical properties of CIME fulfilled specification of ASTM D6751. • Engine performance and emission are conducted for CIME and its blends. - Abstract: In the present study, crude Calophyllum inophyllum oil (CCIO) has been evaluated as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. C.inophyllum oil has high acid value which is 59.30 mg KOH/g. Therefore, the degumming, esterification, neutralization and transesterification process are carried out to reduce the acid value to 0.34 mg KOH/g. The optimum yield was obtained at 9:1 methanol to oil ratio with 1 wt.%. NaOH catalyst at 50 °C for 2 h. On the other hand, the C.inophyllum biodiesel properties fulfilled the specification of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. After that, the C.inophyllum biodiesel diesel blends were tested to evaluate the engine performance and emission characteristic. The performance and emission of 10% C.inophyllum biodiesel blends (CIB10) give a satisfactory result in diesel engines as the brake thermal increase 2.30% and fuel consumption decrease 3.06% compared to diesel. Besides, CIB10 reduces CO and smoke opacity compared to diesel. In short, C.inophyllum biodiesel can become an alternative fuel in the future

  20. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Hypericum brasiliense (Willd standardized extract Atividades anti-inflamatória e analgésica de extratos padronizados de Hypericum brasiliense (Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio F. Perazzo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the standardized leaves extract (HBSE of Hypericum brasiliense (Guttiferae were evaluated in animal models. Male Wistar rats were treated with H. brasiliense extract (50, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. in 3% Tween 80 0.9% saline solution. The treatment of the edema induced by carrageenin with HBSE (500 mg/kg showed significant inhibition when compared to the control group. At this dose, the edema decreased by 31.25% in the third hour after treatment (edema peak, but the dose of 50 mg/kg has inhibited the edema by 53.13% (p As atividades antiinflamatória e antinociceptiva do extrato padronizado de Hypericum brasiliense (HBSE (Guttiferae foi avaliada em modelos animais. Ratos Wistar machos foram tratados com extrato de H. brasiliense (50, 250 e 500 mg/kg, v.o. em solução 3% Tween 80 0,9% NaCl. O tratamento com HBSE (500 mg/kg mostrou inibição significativa sobre o edema induzido por carragenina comparado ao grupo controle. Nessa dose, o edema foi reduzido em 31,25% na terceira hora (pico do edema após o tratamento, mas na dose de 50 mg/kg, o edema apresentou redução de 53,13% (p < 0,05. Ainda com a dose de 50 mg/kg, a diminuição do edema induzido por dextrana foi similar ao controle positivo, ciproeptadina. Houve diminuição na formação do tecido granulomatoso (6,6% comparável ao grupo controle. O HBSE também inibiu o número de contorções abdominais em 46,4%, estatisticamente igual ao controle positivo, tratado com indometacina (42,9%. Na dose de 250 mg/kg, houve inibição do número de contorções em 70,7% quando comparado ao grupo controle (p < 0,001. No teste da placa-quente, foi verificado aumento no tempo de latência com a dose de 50 mg/kg. Os resultados demonstram que o HBSE possui atividade antiinflamatória sobre processos agudos, principalmente quando sua gênese está relacionada à síntese dos derivados do ácido araquidônico, e seu efeito analgésico provavelmente

  1. Temperatura, nitrato de potássio e fotoperíodo na germinação de sementes de Hypericum perforatum L. e H. Brasiliense Choisy Light, temperature and potassium nitrate in the germination of Hypericum. perforatum L. and H. Brasiliense Choisy seeds

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    Maria Luisa Bertelle Faron

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypericum perforatum L. e H. brasiliense Choisy, da família Clusiaceae, são espécies de plantas de considerável valor medicinal. A primeira é comercialmente cultivada na Europa e largamente utilizada como fitoterápico para tratamento da depressão. A segunda é nativa do Brasil e, recentemente, vem sendo objeto de muitos estudos por possuir o mesmo potencial farmacológico. Neste trabalho, as sementes de ambas as espécies foram investigadas com relação à massa de mil sementes e a diversas condições de germinação, combinando-se quatro temperaturas, ou seja, 20, 25, 30 e 20-30 ºC, em presença ou ausência de luz e com ou sem umedecimento do substrato de germinação com solução aquosa de nitrato de potássio a 0,2%. O diminuto tamanho das sementes ficou bem revelado pelos valores da massa de mil sementes que foram de 0,13 g (7.692 sementes por grama e 0,02 g (50.000 sementes por grama para H. perforatum e H. brasiliense respectivamente. As temperaturas mais benéficas à germinação foram as alternadas de 20-30 ºC, para as duas espécies, ou as constantes de 20 ºC, para H. perforatum e de 30 ºC, para H. brasiliense. A luz foi necessária para a germinação das sementes das duas espécies, porém seu efeito foi mais pronunciado em H. brasiliense. Em H. perforatum o efeito da luz foi mais evidente a 20-30 ºC enquanto em H. brasiliense esse efeito acentuou-se em todas as temperaturas estudadas. A aplicação de nitrato de potássio a 0,2% foi eficaz para as sementes de H. brasiliense porém não afetou as de H. perforatum.Hypericum perforatum L. and H. brasiliense Choisy, both belonging to the Clusiaceae family, are plant species of remarkable medicinal value. The former is commercially grown in Europe, and widely used as a phytotherapic for depression treatment while the latter, native to Brazil, has been recently studied as to its similar pharmacological potential. In this research work, seeds of both species were

  2. Conservation of Campomanesia adamantium (CAMB. O. berg seeds in different packaging and at varied temperatures Conservação de sementes de Campomanesia adamantium (CAMB. O. berg em diferentes embalagens e temperaturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana de Paula Quintão Scalon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at evaluating the effects of different packaging and varied storage temperatures on the germination potential of seeds of Campomanesia adamantium Camb. O. Berg. The seeds were packaged in glass, aluminum foil and plastic containers, or maintained inside intact fruits at 5, 10 and 15 ºC during 0, 7, 14 and 21 days. After these periods the seeds were sown in Germitest® germination paper and maintained in incubation chambers at 25 ºC under constant white light for 42 days. Seed moisture contents were evaluated both before and after storage, as well as germination percentages, germination speed index, root and aerial portion of seedlings lengths, and total dry weights. All possible combinations of packing materials, temperatures and storage times were tested, with four repetitions of 25 seeds for each treatment. C. adamantium seeds showed initial water contents of 31.5%. Glass and aluminum packaging were efficient at maintaining the water content of the seeds, and provided greater germination speed index than the other packaging materials. Germination percentages, seedlings lengths and dry weights did not vary among the different temperatures tested. C. adamantium seeds can be stored for up to 21 days at temperatures between 5 and 15 ºC without altering their physiological quality. In terms of cost-benefit efficiencies, these seeds can be stored without significant damage for 21 days while still inside the fruits at temperatures of 5, 10 or 15 ºC.Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito de diferentes embalagens e temperaturas durante o armazenamento sobre o potencial de germinação das sementes de Campomanesia adamantium Camb. O. Berg. As sementes foram mantidas em embalagens de vidro, papel de alumínio, plástico e no interior do fruto, nas temperaturas de 5, 10 e 15 ºC, durante zero, sete, quatorze e 21 dias. Após esse período, as sementes foram semeadas em rolo de papel Germitest® e mantidas em B.O.D. a 25 º

  3. Production of palm and Calophyllum inophyllum based biodiesel and investigation of blend performance and exhaust emission in an unmodified diesel engine at high idling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Biodiesel produced from palm and Calophyllum oil using trans-esterification process. • Produced biodiesels properties were compared with ASTM D6751 standards. • Engine performance and exhaust emissions were evaluated at high idling conditions. • Idling CO and HC emission was reduced using biodiesel–diesel blends. • For low percentages of biodiesel–diesel blends NOX emission increased negligibly. - Abstract: Rapid depletion of fossil fuels, increasing fossil-fuel price, carbon price, and the quest of low carbon fuel for cleaner environment – these are the reason researchers are looking for alternatives of fossil fuels. Renewable, non-flammable, biodegradable, and non-toxic are some reasons that are making biodiesel as a suitable candidate to replace fossil-fuel in near future. In recent years, in many countries of the world production and use of biodiesel has gained popularity. In this research, biodiesel from palm and Calophyllum inophyllum oil has been produced using the trans-esterification process. Properties of the produced biodiesels were compared with the ASTM D6751 standard: biodiesel standard and testing methods. Density, kinematic viscosity, flash point, cloud point, pour point and calorific value, these are the six main physicochemical properties that were investigated. Both palm biodiesel and Calophyllum biodiesel were within the standard limits, so they both can be used as the alternative of diesel fuel. Furthermore, engine performance and emission parameters of a diesel engine run by both palm biodiesel–diesel and Calophyllum biodiesel–diesel blends were evaluated at high idling conditions. Brake specific fuel consumption increased for both the biodiesel–diesel blends compared to pure diesel fuel; however, at highest idling condition, this increase was almost negligible. Exhaust gas temperatures decreased as blend percentages increased for both the biodiesel–diesel blends. For low blend percentages increase in NOX

  4. Atividade antibacteriana de floroglucinóis e do extrato hexânico de Hypericum brasiliense Choysi Antibacterial activity of the phloroglucinols and hexanic extract from Hypericum brasiliense Choysi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildegardo Seibert França

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Three phloroglucinols were obtained from Hypericum brasiliense: japonicine A (1, isouliginosin B (2 and uliginosin B (3. Bioautography and disk diffusion methods were used to determine antibacterial activity of the hexanic extract. Strains of the Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus and American Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones showed a growth inhibition zone ranging from 10 to 12 mm and 7 to 15 mm, respectively. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values were used to measure antistaphylococcal activity for all phloroglucinols. Isouliginosin B and uliginosin B presented MIC values of 1.5 and 3.0 µg/mL, respectively, while japonicine A displayed MIC value of 50.0 µg/mL.

  5. Morphological description of Amblyomma brasiliense Aragão, 1908 (Acari: Ixodidae larvae and nymphs Descrição morfológica de larvas e ninfas de Amblyomma brasiliense Aragão, 1908 (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Seron Sanches

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The immature stages of Neotropical ticks are poorly known and in many cases have not been described. This work presents a morphological description of Amblyomma brasiliense larvae (F1 and a redescription of nymphs (F1. A. brasiliense is reported as one of the most aggressive ticks to humans in Brazil. Immature ticks obtained from a laboratory colony initiated from adult specimens collected in the Parque Estadual Intervales (24º 18' S and 48º 24' W, São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed under scanning electron microscope, and also under light and stereoscopic microscopes. A. brasiliense larvae present basis capituli rectangular; short palpi; rounded idiosoma; coxa I with two spurs, the external one being longer than the internal one; and coxae II and III each with one short spur. Nymphs present basis capituli rectangular with a sharp pointed cornua; oval idiosoma with scutum reaching coxa III; coxa I with two evident spurs, the external one being longer than the internal one; coxae II-III each with one short spur; and coxa IV with a very short spur and chitinous tubercles on internal surface of posterior border of idiosoma. These morphological features, in association with chaetotaxy and porotaxy, should make possible the identification of immature Amblyomma ticks.Os estágios imaturos dos carrapatos Neotropicais são pouco conhecidos e, em muitos casos, não estão descritos. Este trabalho apresenta uma descrição morfológica das larvas (F1 e redescrição das ninfas (F1 do carrapato Amblyomma brasiliense, relatado como um dos ixodídeos mais agressivos ao homem no Brasil. Para este fim, carrapatos imaturos de uma colônia iniciada com espécimes adultos do Parque Estadual de Intervales, São Paulo, Brasil foram analisados sob microscopia eletrônica de varredura, microscopia de luz e lupa estereoscópica. Observou-se que larvas têm a base do capítulo retangular, palpos curtos e idiossoma arredondado, coxa I com dois espinhos, sendo o externo

  6. Experimental investigation of performance and regulated emissions of a diesel engine with Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel blends accompanied by oxidation inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel blends were evaluated using antioxidants. • Blend fuel properties met the ASTM D7467 specification. • Usage of antioxidants provided good stabilization with improved BP and BSFC. • Treated blends showed lower NOx but higher CO and HC compared to untreated blend. - Abstract: Biodiesel having higher unsaturation possesses lower oxidation stability, which needs treatment of oxidation inhibitors or antioxidants. It is expected that antioxidants may affect the clean burning characteristic of biodiesel. Calophyllum inophyllum Linn oil is one of the promising non-edible based feedstock which consists of mostly unsaturated fatty acids. This paper presents an experimental investigation of the antioxidant addition effect on engine performance and emission characteristics. Biodiesel (CIBD) was produced by one step esterification using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) as catalyst and one step transesterification using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a catalyst. Two monophenolic, 2(3)-tert-Butyl-4-methoxyphenol (BHA) and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT) and one diphenolic, 2-tert-butylbenzene-1,4-diol (TBHQ) were added at 2000 ppm concentration to 20% CIBD (CIB20). The addition of antioxidants increased oxidation stability without causing any significant negative effect of physicochemical properties. TBHQ showed the greatest capability in increasing stability of CIB20. The tests were carried out using a 55 kW 2.5 L four-cylinder diesel engine at constant load varying speed condition. The performance results indicate that CIB20 showed 1.36% lower mean brake power (BP) and 4.90% higher mean brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) compared to diesel. The addition of antioxidants increased BP and reduced BSFC slightly. Emission results show that CIB20 increased NOx but decreased CO and HC emission. Antioxidants reduced 1.6–3.6% NOx emission, but increased both CO and HC emission compared to CIB20. However, the level was below the

  7. Engine performance and emissions using Jatropha curcas, Ceiba pentandra and Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel in a CI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiesel is a recognized replacement for diesel fuel in compressed ignition engines due to its significant environmental benefits. The purpose of this study is to investigate the engine performance and emissions produced from Jatropha curcas, Ceiba pentandra and Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel in compressed ignition engine. The biodiesel production process and properties are discussed and a comparison of the three biodiesels as well as diesel fuel is undertaken. After that, engine performance and emissions testing was conducted using biodiesel blends 10%, 20%, 30% and 50% in a diesel engine at full throttle load. The engine performance shows that those biodiesel blends are suitable for use in diesel engines. A 10% biodiesel blend shows the best engine performance in terms of engine torque, engine power, fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency among the all blending ratios for the three biodiesel blends. Biodiesel blends have also shown a significant reduction in CO2, CO and smoke opacity with a slight increase in NOx emissions. - Highlights: • The properties of JCME, CPME and CIME fulfill ASTM standard. • Engine performance and emission was conducted for JCME, CPME and CIME. • The B10 is the best engine performance and reduce in exhaust emission

  8. Biohydrogen and polyhydroxyalkanoate co-production by Enterobacter aerogenes and Rhodobacter sphaeroides from Calophyllum inophyllum oil cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, A; Sandhya, M; Ponnusami, V

    2014-07-01

    The feasibility of coupled biohydrogen and polyhydroxyalkanoate production by Enterobacter aerogenes and Rhodobacter sphaeroides using Calophyllum inophyllum oil cake was studied under dark and photo fermentation conditions. The utilization of a non-edible acidic oil cake (C. inophyllum), and exploitation of a modified minimal salt media led to reduction in the cost of media. Cost of fermentation is reduced by implementation of alternate dark-photo fermentative periods and through the use of a co-culture consisting of a dark fermentative (E. aerogenes) and a photo fermentative (R. sphaeroides) bacterium. The biohydrogen and polyhydroxyalkanoate produced were 7.95 L H2/L media and 10.73 g/L media, respectively, under alternate dark and photo fermentation and were 3.23 L H2/L media and 5.6g/L media, respectively under complete dark fermentation. The characteristics of the oil cake and alternate dark (16 h) and photo (8h) fermentative conditions were found to be supportive in producing high biohydrogen and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) yield. PMID:24859207

  9. Use of calophyllum inophyllum biofuel blended with diesel in DI diesel engine modified with nozzle holes and its size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairamuthu, G.; Sundarapandian, S.; Thangagiri, B.

    2016-05-01

    Improved thermal efficiency, reduction in fuel consumption and pollutant emissions from biodiesel fueled diesel engines are important issues in engine research. To achieve these, fast and perfect air-biodiesel mixing are the most important requirements. The mixing quality of biodiesel spray with air can be improved by better design of the injection system. The diesel engine tests were conducted on a 4-stroke tangentially vertical single cylinder (TV1) kirloskar 1500 rpm water cooled direct injection diesel engine with eddy current dynamometer. In this work, by varying different nozzles having spray holes of 3 (base, Ø = 0.280 mm), 4 (modified, Ø = 0.220 mm) and 5 (modified, Ø = 0.240 mm) holes, with standard static injection timing of 23° bTDC and nozzle opening pressure (NOP) of 250 bar maintained as constant throughout the experiment under steady state at full load condition of the engine. The effect of varying different nozzle configuration (number of holes), on the combustion, performance and exhaust emissions, using a blend of calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester by volume in diesel were evaluated. The test results showed that improvement in terms of brake thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption for 4 holes and 5 holes nozzle operated at NOP 250 bar. Substantial improvements in the reduction of emissions levels were also observed for 5 holes nozzle operated at NOP 250 bar.

  10. Biohydrogen and polyhydroxyalkanoate co-production by Enterobacter aerogenes and Rhodobacter sphaeroides from Calophyllum inophyllum oil cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, A; Sandhya, M; Ponnusami, V

    2014-07-01

    The feasibility of coupled biohydrogen and polyhydroxyalkanoate production by Enterobacter aerogenes and Rhodobacter sphaeroides using Calophyllum inophyllum oil cake was studied under dark and photo fermentation conditions. The utilization of a non-edible acidic oil cake (C. inophyllum), and exploitation of a modified minimal salt media led to reduction in the cost of media. Cost of fermentation is reduced by implementation of alternate dark-photo fermentative periods and through the use of a co-culture consisting of a dark fermentative (E. aerogenes) and a photo fermentative (R. sphaeroides) bacterium. The biohydrogen and polyhydroxyalkanoate produced were 7.95 L H2/L media and 10.73 g/L media, respectively, under alternate dark and photo fermentation and were 3.23 L H2/L media and 5.6g/L media, respectively under complete dark fermentation. The characteristics of the oil cake and alternate dark (16 h) and photo (8h) fermentative conditions were found to be supportive in producing high biohydrogen and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) yield.

  11. The Wound Healing and Antibacterial Activity of Five Ethnomedical Calophyllum inophyllum Oils: An Alternative Therapeutic Strategy to Treat Infected Wounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teddy Léguillier

    Full Text Available Calophyllum inophyllum L. (Calophyllaceae is an evergreen tree ethno-medically used along the seashores and islands of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, especially in Polynesia. Oil extracted from the seeds is traditionally used topically to treat a wide range of skin injuries from burn, scar and infected wounds to skin diseases such as dermatosis, urticaria and eczema. However, very few scientific studies reported and quantified the therapeutic properties of Calophyllum inophyllum oil (CIO. In this work, five CIO from Indonesia (CIO1, Tahiti (CIO2, 3, Fiji islands (CIO4 and New Caledonia (CIO5 were studied and their cytotoxic, wound healing, and antibacterial properties were presented in order to provide a scientific support to their traditional use and verify their safety.The safety of the five CIO was ascertained using the Alamar blue assay on human keratinocyte cells. CIO wound healing properties were determined using the scratch test assay on human keratinocyte cells. CIO-stimulated antibacterial innate immune response was evaluated using ELISA by measuring β defensin-2 release in human derivative macrophage cells. CIO antibacterial activity was tested using oilogramme against twenty aerobic Gram- bacteria species, twenty aerobic Gram+ bacteria species, including a multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain and two anaerobic Gram+ bacteria species e.g. Propionibacterium acnes and Propionibacterium granulosum. To detect polarity profile of the components responsible of the antibacterial activity, we performed bioautography against a Staphylococcus aureus strain.Based on Alamar Blue assay, we showed that CIO can be safely used on keratinocyte cells between 2.7% and 11.2% depending on CIO origin. Concerning the healing activity, all the CIO tested accelerated in vitro wound closure, the healing factor being 1.3 to 2.1 higher compared to control when keratinocytes were incubated after scratch with CIO at 0.1%. Furthermore, our results

  12. Biodiesel Production from Non-Edible Beauty Leaf (Calophyllum inophyllum Oil: Process Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad I. Jahirul

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the beauty leaf plant (Calophyllum Inophyllum is being considered as a potential 2nd generation biodiesel source due to high seed oil content, high fruit production rate, simple cultivation and ability to grow in a wide range of climate conditions. However, however, due to the high free fatty acid (FFA content in this oil, the potential of this biodiesel feedstock is still unrealized, and little research has been undertaken on it. In this study, transesterification of beauty leaf oil to produce biodiesel has been investigated. A two-step biodiesel conversion method consisting of acid catalysed pre-esterification and alkali catalysed transesterification has been utilized. The three main factors that drive the biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester (FAME conversion from vegetable oil (triglycerides were studied using response surface methodology (RSM based on a Box-Behnken experimental design. The factors considered in this study were catalyst concentration, methanol to oil molar ratio and reaction temperature. Linear and full quadratic regression models were developed to predict FFA and FAME concentration and to optimize the reaction conditions. The significance of these factors and their interaction in both stages was determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA. The reaction conditions for the largest reduction in FFA concentration for acid catalysed pre-esterification was 30:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 10% (w/w sulfuric acid catalyst loading and 75 °C reaction temperature. In the alkali catalysed transesterification process 7.5:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 1% (w/w sodium methoxide catalyst loading and 55 °C reaction temperature were found to result in the highest FAME conversion. The good agreement between model outputs and experimental results demonstrated that this methodology may be useful for industrial process optimization for biodiesel production from beauty leaf oil and possibly other industrial processes as well.

  13. Repellency to Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) of plant essential oils alone or in combination with Calophyllum inophyllum nut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieu, Tran Trung; Kim, Soon-Il; Lee, Sang-Guei; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2010-07-01

    The repellency to female Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) of 21 essential oils (EOs) alone or in combination with Calophyllum inophyllum L. (Clusiaceae) nut oil (tamanu oil) was examined using an exposed human hand bioassay. Results were compared with those of commonly used repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). In tests with six human male volunteers at a dose of 0.5 mg/cm2, patchouli (protection time [PT], 3.67 h) was the most effective EO but less active than DEET (4.47 h), as judged by the PT to first bite. Very strong repellency also was produced by clove bud, lovage root, and clove leaf EOs (PT, 3.50-3.25 h), whereas strong repellency was obtained from thyme white EO (2.12 h). Thyme red, oregano, and geranium EOs exhibited moderate repellency (PT, 1.24-1.11 h). At 0.25 mg/cm2, protection time of clove bud, clove leaf, and lovage root EOs (PT, approximately equal to 1 h) was shorter than that of DEET (2.17 h). An increase in the protection time was produced by binary mixtures (PT, 2.68-2.04 h) of five EOs (clove bud, clove leaf, thyme white, patchouli, and savory) and tamanu oil (0.25:2.0 mg/cm2) compared with that of either the constituted essential oil or tamanu oil alone (PT, 0.56 h). The protection time of these binary mixtures was comparable with that of DEET. With the exception of savory EO, the other EOs, tamanu oil, and binary mixtures did not induce any adverse effects on the human volunteers at 0.5 mg/cm2. Thus, binary mixtures of essential oils and tamanu oil described merit further study as potential repellents for protection from humans and domestic animals from biting and nuisance caused by S. calcitrans. PMID:20695272

  14. Indução de metabólitos secundários em plântulas de Hypericum brasiliense Choisy crescendo in vitro Induction of secondary metabolites in plantlets of Hypericum brasiliense Choisy in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariella Araújo Luna Velloso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A produção de rutina, quercetina, 1,5-diidroxixantona e ácido betulínico foi investigada em plântulas de H. brasiliense crescendo in vitro, sob a influência de ácido salicílico, polietilenoglicol, NaCl, 24-epibrassinolídeo, benzotiadiazole (BION, metiljasmonato e concentrações aumentadas de boro e nitrogênio no meio líquido de cultura. As avaliações foram feitas após 5 e 10 dias do início dos tratamentos. Os maiores aumentos de conteúdo foram observados com quercetina para boro e ácido salicílico aos 5 dias, e 24-epibrassinolídeo e BION aos 10 dias.The production of rutin, quercetin, 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone and betulinic acid was investigated in plantlets of H. brasieliense in vitro, and exposed to salycilic acid, poliethylene glycol, NaCl, 24-epibrassinolide, benzothiadiazole (BION, methyljasmonate and increased concentrations of boron and nitrogen in the liquid culture medium. Evaluations of the contents were carried out after 5 and 10 days of treatments. The highest increase was observed in quercetin in the salycilic acid and B treatments after 5 days of exposure, and in 24-epibrassinolide and BION after 10 days.

  15. Traditional knowledge and uses of the Caryocar brasiliense Cambess. (Pequi) by "quilombolas" of Minas Gerais, Brazil: subsidies for sustainable management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, L C L; Morais, L M O; Guimarães, A Q; Almada, E D; Barbosa, P M; Drumond, M A

    2016-06-01

    Local knowledge of biodiversity has been applied in support of research focused on utilizing and management of natural resources and promotion of conservation. Among these resources, Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Cambess.) is important as a source of income and food for communities living in the Cerrado biome. In Pontinha, a "quilombola" community, which is located in the central region of State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, an ethnoecological study about Pequi was conducted to support initiatives for generating income for this community. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, participant observation, and crossing. The most relevant uses of Pequi were family food (97%), soap production (67%), oil production (37%), medical treatments (17%), and trade (3%). Bees were the floral visitors with the highest Salience Index (S=0.639). Among frugivores that feed on unfallen fruits, birds showed a higher Salience (S=0.359) and among frugivores who use fallen fruits insects were the most important (S=0.574). Borers (folivorous caterpillars) that attack trunks and roots were the most common pests cited. According to the respondents, young individuals of Pequi are the most affected by fire due to their smaller size and thinner bark. Recognition of the cultural and ecological importance of Pequi has mobilized the community, which has shown interest in incorporating this species as an alternative source of income. PMID:27058602

  16. Development and Validation of a GC-MS Method for Rapid Determination of Calophyllolide in Calophyllum inophyllum L.: A Quality Control Approach%Development and Validation of a GC-MS Method for Rapid Determination of Calophyllolide in Calophyllum inophyllum L.:A Quality Control Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ha Minh Hien; Paul WS Heng; Nguyen Van Thi; Nguyen Khac Quynh Cu; Vo Thi Bach Hue

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To establish a GC-MS method for the determination of calophyllolide in Calophyllum inophyllum L.and its application in quality control of natural medicine.METHODS:Methanolic extract from Calophyllum inophyllum L.was prepared.Calophyllolide was isolated,purified and then identified to serve as a chemical marker for development and validation a GC-MS method according to ICH guideline and USP.The established method was proved to be useful in quality control with the aid of Principle Component Analysis (PCA),a multivariate data analysis technique.RESULTS:The proposed method was selective against mass spectral deconvoluting software AMDIS32.The linear range was from 3.125-50 tg.mL-1.The RSD of intra-and inter-day precision variations were less than 3% and the mean recovery was (101.22 ± 1.98) % (RSD = 1.95%).PCA was used to indicate a differentiation of batches in production as well as proving that calophyllolide has influence on the discrimination of extracts from different batches.CONCLUSION:The proposed capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometric method for the determination of calophyllolide obtained from resin of Calophyllum inophyllum L.nut oil showed its suitability,simplicity,rapidity and precision,and it can be used for chemical assay.This is the first time such a technique was reported in literature.The multivariate data analysis technique was employed to provide an extensive but inclusive method for quality control of the extracts,to ensure consistency for batch to batch of extracts to be used for product development.

  17. Sistema agroforestal de yuca y guanandi (Calophyllum braziliense) en el Valle de Paraíba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Devide, Antonio; De Castro, Cristina; Ribeiro, Raul de Lucena Duarte; Abboud, Antônio Carlos de Souza; Pereira, Marcos Gervasio; Assumpção, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    La eliminación de vegetación ribereña y un uso intenso de terrazas en el Valle del Río Paraíba do Sul, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, han causado la degradación de la tierra y la lixiviación de nutrientes y sedimentos por la lluvia. En el año 2008, se introdujo el guanandi – Calophyllum braziliense (3x2m); árbol nativo resistente a inundaciones y productor de madera fina; después del corte de eucaliptos en las terrazas. En 2011 ha comenzado a conversión de agroforestería con un experimento en b...

  18. Cultivo de Calophyllum braziliense em várzea e terraço fluvial e seleção de espécies para a conversão agroflorestal.

    OpenAIRE

    Devide, Antonio C.P.; Ribeiro, Raul de Lucena Duarte; Abboud, Antônio Carlos de Souza; Pereira, Marcos Gervásio

    2012-01-01

    O cultivo agroflorestal de Guanandi - Calophyllum braziliense nas várzeas e terraços fluviais do Vale do Paraíba é sustentável e representa baixo impacto ambiental na principal bacia hidrográfica da região Sudeste do Brasil. Este estudo de caso contém informações do Projeto desenvolvido na centenária Fazenda Coruputuba, em Pindamonhangaba, SP. Aborda aspectos ecofisiológicos do gênero Calophyllum que torna o guanandi apto ao cultivo sob inundação e contém uma seleção de espécies adaptadas aos...

  19. Species Biological Characteristics of Christolea crassifolia Camb.in Three Populations%高原芥三个居群的物种生物学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任宏岩; 吾买尔夏提·塔汉; 周桂玲

    2011-01-01

    The study was used to overally reveal pollen morphology and phenotypic characteristics of chromosome karyotype.pollen morphology,leaf epidermal pollen morphology and phenotypic characteristics from Christolea crassifolia Camb. In thee populations of Pamirs plateau region by use of the principle and method of population. Our results showed that in the three populations,chromosomes (2n) were 14,I. E. Radix was seven. The dissymmetrical coefficients of karyotypes were 1A type. Three germinating holes were distributed in all pollens,channel reached two polars in cross section,and there were trifid roundness with meshy veins. However,there were difference in the pollen shape,grid mesh diameters and grid back width. The upper and lower epidermis of leaves were composed of polygon with three to six sides,their anticlinal walls were straight,stomata with kidney-shaped guard cells but without subsidiary cells were irregular on the surface of the upper and lower epidermis. This could be considered as a basis for classification. It was possible that the systemic evolution of Ch. Crassifolia was antiquate or original in Cruciferae.%运用居群生物学的原理和方法,对分布于帕米尔高原地区三个居群的高原芥(Christolea crassifolia Camb.)的染色体核型、花粉形态与叶表皮气孔形态进行了研究.结果表明,高原芥三个居群的染色体2n=14,基数为7;核型不对称系数均为1A型;花粉均具三沟萌发孔,沟长达两极,极面观均为具网状纹饰的三裂圆形,但在花粉形状、网眼直径及网脊宽度上均存在差异;叶上、下表皮细胞呈3~6条边组成的多边形,其垂周壁平直,上下表皮均有无规则的气孔分布,保卫细胞肾形,无副卫细胞,由此确定高原芥是十字花科系统演化上处于较古老位置或原始的类型.

  20. Esterco bovino e calagem para formação de mudas de guanandi Cattle manure and liming for guanandi seedlings production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Guirado Artur

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, em casa de vegetação, os efeitos de doses de esterco bovino e de calcário na formação de mudas de guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambèss.. Foram avaliadas quatro doses de cada fator, combinadas em esquema fatorial 4x4. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso com quatro repetições, e cada parcela continha cinco mudas. O substrato foi formado pela mistura, em volume, de oito partes de subsolo e duas partes de areia, e doses de esterco correspondentes a 0, 2, 4 e 6 partes que, em massa, equivalem a 0, 101, 175 e 229 kg m-3. As doses de calcário foram calculadas para elevar a saturação por bases (V% a 20, 35, 50 e 65%. Aos 120 dias, foram avaliados: altura, diâmetro do colo, número de folhas, área foliar e matéria seca das partes aérea e radicular das mudas. Em substrato constituído de subsolo+areia, a calagem e a adubação com esterco bovino não são necessárias para produção de mudas de guanandi.The effects of cattle manure and lime levels in substrate were evaluated to produce guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambèss. seedlings in greenhouse conditions. Four levels of each factor were evaluated, in a factorial scheme 4x4. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replicates, each plot with five seedlings. The substrate was obtained by the mixture of eight subsoil parts and two sand parts (v:v. The manure was applied in 0, 2, 4 and 6 parts, in volume, that correspond, in mass, to 0, 101, 175 and 229 kg m-3. Lime doses were calculated to increase the base saturation degree near to 20% (original subsoil sample, 35, 50 and 65%. Seedlings harvest was performed 120 days after transplant, when height, stem diameter, leaf number, leaf area, shoot and root dry matter were evaluated. For substrate constituted by subsoil+sand, the liming and the cattle manure are not necessary to produce guanandi seedlings.

  1. Conservação pós-colheita de guavira (Campomanesia adamantium Camb. sob diferentes revestimentos e temperaturas de armazenamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana de Paula Quintão Scalon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a conservação pós-colheita de guavira (Campomanesia adamantium Camb. em diferentes revestimentos e temperaturas de armazenamento. Os frutos receberam os seguintes tratamentos: imersão em 1 carboxi metilcelulose a 1% (m/v (CMC; 2 pectina a 3%; 3 pectina + cloreto de cálcio a 3% (m/v, e 4 sem tratamento (ST, todos embalados em polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD e armazenados por 0; 7; 14 e 21 dias em câmara B.O.D., nas temperaturas de 5; 10 e 15 ºC. A menor perda de massa e acidez titulável foram observadas a 5 ºC e na cobertura pectina + cálcio. O pH não variou entre as coberturas e manteve-se maior a 5 ºC. O teor de vitamina C foi maior sob efeito do revestimento de pectina + cálcio, com valores semelhantes aos iniciais a 5 °C e 10 ºC. Concluiu-se que as guaviras podem ser armazenadas por até 21 dias em temperatura de 5 ºC, revestidas com pectina + cálcio a 3%.

  2. Efeito do extrato húmico solúvel em água e biofertilizante sobre o desenvolvimento de mudas de Callophyllum brasiliense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jader Galba Busato

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de extrato húmico solúvel em água (EHSA, biofertilizante Hortbio® (HORT e a combinação dos dois produtos sobre o crescimento vegetativo, indicador fisiológico (medida do teor de clorofila e a capacidade de absorção de nutrientes em mudas de guanandi (Callophyllum brasiliense. A adição isolada ou em conjunto de EHSA e HORT não alterou a altura das mudas, o número de folhas, a matéria seca foliar e radicular e a área radicular e foliar durante a fase inicial de crescimento em viveiro. Entretanto, os teores de clorofila e N total aumentaram significativamente nas mudas que receberam os tratamentos HORT e EHSA+HORT. Além disso, a adição de HORT resultou em maiores teores de S, Zn, B, Mg, Mn e Cu nas plantas, enquanto a aplicação do ESHA aumentou os teores de K, Mg, S e B. Os teores de P e Ca não tiveram seus teores alterados pela aplicação dos tratamentos, mas a adição do EHSA e ESHA+HORT reduziram significativamente a absorção de Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn. Effects of water-soluble humic extract and biofertilizer on development of Callophyllum brasiliense seedlings The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of water-soluble humic extract (EHSA, Hortbio® biofertilizer (HORT and both compounds combination (EHSA+HORT on vegetative growth, nutrient absorption and chlorophyll levels in guanandi (Callophyllum brasiliense seedlings. Isolated and combined additions of EHSA and HORT did not affect seedlings height, number of leaves, leaf and root dry matter and leaf area during early stages of seedling growth. However, HORT and EHSA+HORT treatments increased chlorophyll levels and total N content. Addition of HORT resulted in S, Zn, Mg, Mn and Cu increases in the seedlings leaves, while ESHA application increased K, Mg, S and B. P and Ca levels were not altered by the treatments, however, addition of EHSA and EHSA+HORT reduced significantly the absorption of

  3. Efeito do extrato húmico solúvel em água e biofertilizante sobre o desenvolvimento de mudas de Callophyllum brasiliense

    OpenAIRE

    Jader Galba Busato; Daniel Basílio Zandonadi; Izadora Mendes de Sousa; Eduardo Barros Marinho; Leonardo Barros Dobbss; Alan Ribeiro Mól

    2016-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de extrato húmico solúvel em água (EHSA), biofertilizante Hortbio® (HORT) e a combinação dos dois produtos sobre o crescimento vegetativo, indicador fisiológico (medida do teor de clorofila) e a capacidade de absorção de nutrientes em mudas de guanandi (Callophyllum brasiliense). A adição isolada ou em conjunto de EHSA e HORT não alterou a altura das mudas, o número de folhas, a matéria seca foliar e radicular e a área radi...

  4. Kroyeria brasiliense sp. nov. (Copepoda, Kroyeriidaea gill parasite of the shark, Galeorhinus vitaminicus de Buen, in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil Kroyeria brasiliense sp. nov. (Copepoda, Kroyeriidae um parasito de guelras do tubarão, Galeorhinus vitaminicus de Buen, no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon E. Thatcher

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Kroyeria brasiliense sp. nov. from the shark, Galeorhinus vitaminicus de Buen, 1950, from Rio Grande do Sul, State, Brazil, is described on the basis of 14 adult females. The new species is superficially similar to Kroyeria deetsi Dippenaar, Benz & Olivier, 2000, but differs from it in the following characters. The maxillipeds of the new species are large and project well beyond the lateral margins of the cephalothorax. Those of K. deetsi are much smaller. The third endopodal segments of K. deetsi are twice as long as the second endopodal segments and are provided with prominent marginal denticles. The second and third endopodal segments of the new species are rounded, of similar length and lack teeth.Kroyeria brasiliense sp. nov. proveniente de guelras de G. vitaminicus de Buen, 1950 do Rio Grande do Sul, é descrita baseada em 14 fêmeas adultas. A nova espécie aproxima-se de Kroyeria deetsi Dippenaar, Benz & Oliver, 2000, mas a nova espécie se distingue por apresentar os maxilípedes grandes e estendendo-se bem além das margens do cefalotorax. Os terceiros segmentos dos endopoditos de K. deetsi são duas vezes mais cumpridos que os segundos e têm dentículos marginais proeminentes. Os segundos e terceiros segmentos dos endopoditos da nova espécie são arredondados, de tamanhos parecidos e carecem de dentículos.

  5. A loucura na fronteira entre a medicina e o direito: a elite médica em busca da legitimação socioprofissional nas páginas do Annaes Brasilienses de Medicina (1860-1880

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    Monique de Siqueira Gonçalves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina o papel estratégico desempenhado pelo Annaes Brasilienses de Medicina - órgão oficial da Academia Imperial de Medicina -, na busca da elite médica pela legitimação socioprofissional no campo da medicina mental, visando a expansão de suas prerrogativas no âmbito das relações entre loucura, responsabilidade penal, direitos civis e medicina legal de 1860 a 1880.

  6. Equilibrium, thermodynamic and kinetic studies for the biosorption of aqueous lead(II) ions onto the seed husk of Calophyllum inophyllum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biosorption of lead(II) ions from aqueous solution onto the seed husk of Calophyllum inophyllum was investigated in a batch system. Equilibrium, thermodynamics and kinetic studies were conducted by considering the effects of pH, initial metal ion concentration, contact time, and temperature. The results showed that the uptake of the metal ions increased with increase in initial metal ion concentration. The pH for optimum adsorption was 4 for the Pb(II) ions (q = 4.86 mg/g and 97.2% adsorption). Langmuir isotherm described the biosorption of Pb(II) ions onto the biomass (R2 = 0.9531) better than the Freundlich model (R2 = 0.7984), and the Temkin model (R2 = 0.8761). Biosorption kinetics data obtained for the metal ions sorption were fitted using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order. It was found that the kinetics data fitted well into the pseudo-second-order kinetics. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy (ΔG), standard enthalpy (ΔH) and standard entropy (ΔS) were evaluated. The result showed that biosorption of the metal ion onto C. inophyllum biomass was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The results of FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy) revealed that carboxyl, amine, and hydroxyl groups on the biomass surface were involved in the adsorption of Pb(II) ions.

  7. Nitrogen doses on the initial growth and nutrition of guanandi plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Ciriello

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen doses on the initial development and nutrition of Guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambèss plants, a native Brazilian arboreal species. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in plastic containers with capacity of 50 L of dystrophic red Latosol (oxisol. The experimental design used was completely randomized, with six treatments and four repetitions. The treatments consisted of five N doses: 0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg dm-3, and the control (with no fertilization or liming of the soil, where urea was used as the fertilization source. With the exception of the control, all the treatments received liming to elevate saturation by bases of soil of 60% and fertilization with 150 mg dm-3 of P2O5, 80 mg dm-3 of K2O. There were monthly analysis of the plant's height and diameter of the connecting point of root and stem of the plant and at its 10 months age were also analyzed the leaves, stems, roots and total dry mass, the foliar area and the chemical analysis of leaves and stems. The N doses significantly affected the height, foliar area, stem and foliar dry mass data, observing a quadratic effect. The diameter and root dry mass data were affected on a negative linear way. The best growth response was obtained with the 40mg dm-3 N dose.

  8. EFFECT OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL COLONIZATION ON EARLY GROWTH AND NUTRIENT CONTENT OF TWO PEAT­ SWAMP FOREST TREE SPECIES SEEDLINGS, Calophyllum hosei AND Ploiarium alternifolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maman Turjaman

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Tropical peat-swamp forests are one of  the largest near-surface reserves of terrestrial organic carbon,  but rnany peat-swamp forest tree species decreased due over-exploitation, forest fire and conversion of natural forests into agricultural lands. Among those species are slow-growing Calophyllum  hoseiand Ploiarium  alternifolium, two species are good for construction of boats, furniture, house building and considerable attention from pharmacological viewpoint for human healthly. This study was aimed at understanding the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi on early growth of  C. hosei and P.alternifoliumunder greenhouse condition. Seedlings of C. hosei and P.alternifoliumwere inoculated with AM fungi: Glomus clarum and Glomus aggregatum ,or uninoculated under greenhouse condition during 6 months. AM colonization,   plant growth,  survival rate and  nutrient  content  (P, Zn  and B were measured. The percentage of C. hoseiand P.alternifolium ranged from 27-32% and 18-19%,  respectively. Both inoculated seedling species had greater plant  height, diameter, leaf number, shoot and root dry weight than control  seedlings.   Nutrient  content  of  inoculated  plants  were increased with AM colonization- Survival rates of  inoculated plants were higher (100%  than those of  control plants (67%. The results suggested that inoculation of AM fungi could improve the early growth of C. hoseiand P.alternifolium grown in tropical peat-swamp forest therefore  this finding has greater potential impact if this innovative technology applied in field scales which are socially acceptable, commercially profitable and environmentally friendly.

  9. Trocas gasosas, características das folhas e crescimento de plantas jovens de Cupania vernalis Camb. submetidas a diferentes níveis de sombreamento Gas exchange and initial growth of young leaves of Cupania vernalis camb. submitted to different shading levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico de Castro Lima Junior

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Cupania vernalis Camb. é uma espécie arbórea pertencente à família sapindaceae, conhecida popularmente como camboatá, camboatã. É uma espécie de grande importância pelo seu uso em plantios mistos destinados à recuperação de áreas degradadas e preservação permanente. Este estudo teve como objetivo básico caracterizar o desempenho ecofisiológico desta espécie sob condições de viveiro. Avaliou-se o efeito de quatro níveis de irradiância (Pleno sol, 30%, 50% e 70% de sombreamento sobre as trocas gasosas, concentração de nitrogênio, clorofilas foliares e crescimento de plantas jovens de Cupania vernalis. As plantas submetidas a 50% de sombreamento acumularam maior massa seca de folha, caule e massa seca total em comparação com as cultivadas a pleno sol, não sendo observada diferença quanto à massa seca de raízes. A maior taxa fotossintética e condutância estomática foram observadas em folhas de plantas crescidas sob pleno sol e 30% de sombreamento. Plantas sob condições mais sombreadas apresentaram teores mais elevados tanto de clorofilas quanto de nitrogênio nas folhas. Fato semelhante ocorreu com outras características como altura, diâmetro de caule e área foliar. Essas últimas características constituem fatores determinantes da qualidade de mudas. Os resultados possibilitaram concluir que as mudas desta espécie devem ser formadas sob condições de viveiro com sombreamento de 50% ou 70% para que se obtenham mudas de melhor qualidade.Cupania vernalis Camb. is an arboreal species belonging to the sapindaceae family, known popularly as "Camboatá", "Camboatã". This species has great economical importance by its use in mixed plantings trying to recovery permanent degraded and preservation areas. This study aimed, basically, at characterizing the ecophysiological aspects of this species under nursery conditions. The effect of four levels of irradiance (Full sunshine, 30%, 50% and 70% of shading on the gas

  10. Uso do óleo de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense em emulsões cosméticas: desenvolvimento e avaliação da estabilidade física Use of pequi oil (Caryocar brasiliense in cosmetics emulsions: development and evaluate of physical stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Rocha Pianovski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram desenvolver e avaliar a estabilidade física de emulsões O/A contendo óleo de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense. Emulsões O/A contendo 10,0% (p/p de óleo de pequi foram preparadas e, para promover a estabilidade, a adição de carbomer, magnesium sulfate, sodium chloride e sorbitan oleate, foram estudadas. O tipo de emulsão foi verificado pelo método de diluição e o aspecto, homogeneidade e características organolépticas avaliadas através de análises macroscópicas. Como testes preliminares foram utilizados a centrifugação, ciclo gela-degela e o estresse térmico. Para avaliar a estabilidade acelerada as amostras foram submetidas em diferentes condições de estresse e analisadas a partir do valor de pH, análises macroscópicas e comportamento reológico. As emulsões preparadas com óleo de pequi, 0,3% (p/p de Acrylates/C10-30 Alkyl Acrilate Crosspolymer e 0,2% (p/p de carbomer apresentaram-se estáveis com propriedades pseudoplásticas e tixotrópicas. As características macroscópicas e valores obtidos de pH, viscosidade aparente, índices de fluxo e de consistência da área de histerese durante a estocagem indicaram estabilidade da formulação.The aims of this study were to development and evaluated the physical stability of O/W emulsions containing "Pequi" oil (Caryocar brasiliense. O/W emulsions containing 10.0% (w/w of Pequi oil were prepared, and to improve the stability, the carbomer, magnesium sulfate, sodium chloride and sorbitan oleate were added and studied. The direction of the emulsions was evaluated by dilution method and by macroscopic analysis, the appearance, homogeneity and organoleptic properties were evaluated. The centrifugation, freeze/defrost cycles and stress thermal were used to investigate the preliminary stability. To evaluate the accelerated stability, the samples were stored at different stress conditions and evaluated the pH value, macroscopic analysis and rheological

  11. Development and chemical characterization of flour obtained from the external mesocarp of "pequizeiro" fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Manoel Soares Soares Júnior; Priscila Zaczuk Bassinello; Márcio Caliari; Renata Cunha dos Reis; Diracy Betânia Cavalcante Lemos Lacerda; Selma Nakamoto Koakuzu

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a recommendation for the chemical peeling of pequi fruit and characterize the flour obtained from the external mesocarp of "Pequizeiro", pequi tree (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.). The technology applied to obtain the external mesocarp pequi flour included the epicarp removal with NaOH solution. The Response Surface Method was used to optimize the chemical peeling process by applying the Central Composite Rotatable Design, with eleven trials including th...

  12. Ocorrência de Sciaphila purpurea Benth (Triuridaceae) em restinga do estado do Espírito Santo – Brasil.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Theófilo Valadares; Fabíola Schunk Souza Arçari; Marcio Lacerda Lopes Martins; Solange Zanotti Schneider

    2015-01-01

    Apresentamos o primeiro registro de Sciaphila purpurea Benth. (Triuridaceae) para o estado do Espírito Santo incluindo dados sobre sua distribuição e aspectos ecológicos. A espécie foi encontrada em formação florestal inundável componente de vegetação de restinga entre raízes de Symphonia globulifera L.f. e Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess, espécies típicas de ambientes inundáveis. O registro desta espécie contribui para o enriquecimento do projeto envolvendo a Flora do Estado do Espírito Sant...

  13. TROCAS GASOSAS E EFICIÊNCIA DO FOTOSSISTEMA II EM PLANTAS ADULTAS DE SEIS ESPÉCIES FLORESTAIS EM FUNÇÃO DO SUPRIMENTO DE ÁGUA NO SOLO1

    OpenAIRE

    David de Holanda Campelo; Claudivan Feitosa de Lacerda; João Alencar de Sousa; Diva Correia; Antônio Marcos Esmeraldo Bezerra; José Dionis Matos Araújo; Antônia Leila Rocha Neves

    2015-01-01

    RESUMO A redução da disponibilidade hídrica causa efeitos sobre a fotossíntese e o desenvolvimento de espécies arbóreas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as trocas gasosas e a eficiência fotoquímica do fotossistema II em plantas adultas de gonçalo-alves (Astronium fraxinifolium Schott.), guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess.), ipê-amarelo (Handroanthus serratifolius (Vahl.), ipê-rosa (Handroanthus impetiginosa (Mart.) Matos), marupá (Simarouba amara Aubl.) e mogno (Swietenia macroph...

  14. Técnicas para superação da dormência de sementes de guanandi

    OpenAIRE

    Rosemeire Carvalho da Silva; Elisa Serra Negra Vieira; Maristela Panobianco

    2014-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar tipos de preparo de sementes de guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense), com vistas à superação da dormência física e mecânica, e verificar a influência da temperatura e do substrato sobre a germinação. Foram avaliados três substratos (papel, areia e vermiculita), duas temperaturas de germinação (25 e 30ºC) e quatro tipos de preparo das sementes: sementes íntegras; sementes nuas, sem tegumento e endocarpo; sementes com punctura no endocarpo, na região próxima ...

  15. Inhibition of HIV-1 entry by the tricyclic coumarin GUT-70 through the modification of membrane fluidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Kouki; Hattori, Shinichiro; Kariya, Ryusho [Division of Hematopoiesis, Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Komizu, Yuji [Division of Applied Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Sojo University, 4-22-1 Ikeda, Nishi-ku, Kumamoto 860-0082 (Japan); Kudo, Eriko; Goto, Hiroki; Taura, Manabu [Division of Hematopoiesis, Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Ueoka, Ryuichi [Division of Applied Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Sojo University, 4-22-1 Ikeda, Nishi-ku, Kumamoto 860-0082 (Japan); Kimura, Shinya [Division of Hematology, Respiratory Medicine and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Okada, Seiji, E-mail: okadas@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Division of Hematopoiesis, Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan)

    2015-02-13

    Membrane fusion between host cells and HIV-1 is the initial step in HIV-1 infection, and plasma membrane fluidity strongly influences infectivity. In the present study, we demonstrated that GUT-70, a natural product derived from Calophyllum brasiliense, stabilized plasma membrane fluidity, inhibited HIV-1 entry, and down-regulated the expression of CD4, CCR5, and CXCR4. Since GUT-70 also had an inhibitory effect on viral replication through the inhibition of NF-κB, it is expected to be used as a dual functional and viral mutation resistant reagent. Thus, these unique properties of GUT-70 enable the development of novel therapeutic agents against HIV-1 infection.

  16. Inhibition of HIV-1 entry by the tricyclic coumarin GUT-70 through the modification of membrane fluidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membrane fusion between host cells and HIV-1 is the initial step in HIV-1 infection, and plasma membrane fluidity strongly influences infectivity. In the present study, we demonstrated that GUT-70, a natural product derived from Calophyllum brasiliense, stabilized plasma membrane fluidity, inhibited HIV-1 entry, and down-regulated the expression of CD4, CCR5, and CXCR4. Since GUT-70 also had an inhibitory effect on viral replication through the inhibition of NF-κB, it is expected to be used as a dual functional and viral mutation resistant reagent. Thus, these unique properties of GUT-70 enable the development of novel therapeutic agents against HIV-1 infection

  17. Trypanocidal constituents in plants: 7. Mammea-type coumarins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Reyes-Chilpa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Calophyllum brasiliense and Mammea americana (Clusiaceae are two trees from the tropical rain forests of the American continent. A previous screening showed high trypanocidal activity in the extracts of these species. Several mammea-type coumarins, triterpenoids and biflavonoids were isolated from the leaves of C. brasiliense. Mammea A/AA was obtained from the fruit peels of M. americana. These compounds were tested in vitro against epimastigotes and trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. The most potent compounds were mammea A/BA, A/BB, A/AA, A/BD and B/BA, with MC100 values in the range of 15 to 90 g/ml. Coumarins with a cyclized ,-dimethylallyl substituent on C-6, such as mammea B/BA, cyclo F + B/BB cyclo F, and isomammeigin, showed MC100 values > 200 g/ml. Several active coumarins were also tested against normal human lymphocytes in vitro, which showed that mammea A/AA and A/BA were not toxic. Other compounds from C. brasiliense, such as the triterpenoids, friedelin, canophyllol, the biflavonoid amentoflavone, and protocatechuic and shikimic acids, were inactive against the epimastigotes. The isopropylidenedioxy derivative of shikimic acid was inactive, and its structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Our results suggest that mammea-type coumarins could be a valuable source of trypanocidal compounds.

  18. Ocorrência de Sciaphila purpurea Benth (Triuridaceae em restinga do estado do Espírito Santo – Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Theófilo Valadares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos o primeiro registro de Sciaphila purpurea Benth. (Triuridaceae para o estado do Espírito Santo incluindo dados sobre sua distribuição e aspectos ecológicos. A espécie foi encontrada em formação florestal inundável componente de vegetação de restinga entre raízes de Symphonia globulifera L.f. e Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess, espécies típicas de ambientes inundáveis. O registro desta espécie contribui para o enriquecimento do projeto envolvendo a Flora do Estado do Espírito Santo, fornecendo informações para que políticas públicas de conservação incluam este táxon no contexto regional.

  19. Charcoal anatomy of forest species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Inés Bolzon de Muñiz1

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Vegetal charcoal retains the anatomical structure of the wood and may permit its botanical identification, which depends on species characteristics, the charcoal fragments size and preservation state. Anatomical characterization of ten forest species charcoal was done envisaging the identification and control of illegal charcoal. Differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms are evident in carbonized wood. Vessel diameter was statistically different between wood and charcoal in Vatairea guianensis, Mezilaurus itauba, Calophyllum brasiliense e Qualea cf. acuminata, and vessel frequency in Vatairea guianensis, Manilkara huberi, Qualea cf. acuminata e Simarouba amara. The anatomical structure from wood, in general aspects, is constant during carbonization process using temperature of 450°C, being possible to identify the material by using its cellular components.

  20. Chemical composition and analgesic activity of the leaves and branches of Marlierea tomentosa Camb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Louise S. Messias

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the isolation of five phytoconstituents from Marlierea tomentosa. The triterpenes α-amyrin (1 and β-amyrin (2, and the flavonoids quercitrin (3 and isoquercetin (4, were isolated from the leaves. The branches afforded the triterpene arjunolic acid (5. The antinociceptive activity of crude extract, fractions and compound 5 were tested using the writhing and formalin tests in mice. The crude extract, some fractions, particularly dichloromethane and butanol (leaves, ethyl acetate (branches and arjunolic acid (5 (81.2% inhibition were more active against the writhing test than the two reference drugs, acetylsalicylic acid and indomethacin.

  1. Chemical composition and analgesic activity of the leaves and branches of Marlierea tomentosa Camb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messias, Karina Louise S.; Campos-Buzzi, Fatima de; Fischer, Luiz G.O.; Malheiros, Angela; Delle Monache, Franco; Cechinel Filho, Valdir [Universidade do Vale do Itajai, SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Nucleo de Investigacoes Quimico-Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: cechinel@univali.br

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the isolation of five phyto constituents from Marlierea tomentosa. The triterpenes alpha-amyrin and beta-amyrin, and the flavonoids quercitrin and isoquercetin, were isolated from the leaves. The branches afforded the triterpene arjunolic acid (5). The antinociceptive activity of crude extract, fractions and compound 5 were tested using the writhing and formalin tests in mice. The crude extract, some fractions, particularly dichloromethane and butanol (leaves), ethyl acetate (branches) and arjunolic acid (81.2% inhibition) were more active against the writhing test than the two reference drugs, acetylsalicylic acid and indomethacin. (author)

  2. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi, Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru, Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita, Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga, Genipa americana L. (jenipapo, Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba, Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti, Myrciaria cauliflora (DC Berg (jabuticaba, Psidium guajava L. (goiaba, Psidium spp. (araçá, Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira, Spondias mombin L. (cajá, Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, among others are reported here.

  3. Performance and Emission Study of 4S CI Engine using Calophyllum Inophyllum Biodiesel with Additives

    OpenAIRE

    Avinash K Hegde; K V Sreenivas Rao

    2012-01-01

    Petroleum sourced fuels is now widely known as non-renewable due to fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. Renewable, carbon neutral, transport fuels are necessary for environmental and economic sustainability. Biodiesel derived from oil crops is a potential renewable and carbon neutral alternative to petroleum fuels. Chemically, biodiesel is mono alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable feed stock like vegetable oils and animal fats. It is produced by trans...

  4. Soybean SDS in South Africa is caused by Fusarium brasiliense and a novel undescribed Fusarium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS) was detected in South Africa for the first time during pathogen surveys conducted in 2013-2014. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the 16 slow-growing Fusarium strains that were isolated from the roots of symptomatic plants. Molecular phylogen...

  5. Identification of Ellagitannins and Flavonoids from Eugenia brasilienses Lam. (Grumixama) by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Luciane de Lira; Bertoldi, Fabiano Cleber; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto

    2015-06-10

    The grumixama (Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.), also known as Brazilian cherry, is a fruit native to Brazil. This study identified the flavonoids in the flesh and seeds and ellagitannin in the flesh of purple and yellow varieties. The physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant capacity of these fruits were also evaluated. Anthocyanins and flavonols were found in high levels in the flesh of purple (32-180 mg 100 g(-1) FW) and yellow grumixama (13-41 mg 100 g(-1) FW), respectively. The major flavonoids identified were cyanidin 3-glucoside and quercetin aglycone. Furthermore, ellagitannins were found in high levels in the flesh of purple (82-243 mg ellagic acid equiv 100 g(-1) FW) and yellow grumixama (92 mg ellagic acid equiv 100 g(-1) FW) and seeds (2220-2905 mg ellagic acid equiv 100 g(-1) FW). The ellagitannin profiles of both varieties were first characterized in which pedunculagin isomers, strictinin isomers, and ellagic acid galloyl hexoside were the major ellagitannins identified. In summary, both varieties of the grumixama fruit as well as the seeds could be good sources of bioactive compounds, mainly ellagitannins. PMID:25990484

  6. Conformational analysis of phloroglucinols from hypericum Brasiliense by using x-ray diffraction and molecular modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Katia Z.; Lindgren, Eric B.; Correa, Arthur L., E-mail: kzleal@uol.com.b [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Fisico-Quimica; Yoneda, Julliane D. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Polo Universitario de Volta Redonda; Pinheiro, Carlos B. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Franca, Hildegardo S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Dept. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica

    2010-07-01

    In this work we intend to verify the applicability of a computational methodology to predict structural features of organic compounds with biological activity. We selected three phloroglucinols and compared their calculated conformational data with their X-ray crystallographic structure. The results showed that conformations obtained by conformational analysis with the AM1 method followed by geometry optimization by using the DFT B3LYP/6-31 G(d,p) basis set are in very good agreement with X-ray data, indicating that the methodology employed here seems to be a very useful tool in order to predict the conformational preference for this class of compounds. (author)

  7. Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata Pers under light and temperature levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Bruna P; Chedier, Luciana M; Fabri, Rodrigo L; Pimenta, Daniel S

    2011-12-01

    This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with homogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight) at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature range than the external environment. It was obtained for K. pinnata a greater plant height, total length of sprouts, stems, production and dry matter content of leaves than that obtained for K. brasiliensis, which achieved higher averages only for the length of lateral branches. The species showed increases in height, which varied in inverse proportion to the light, and it was observed the influence of temperature in K. pinnata. The production and dry matter content of leaves were proportional to the luminosity; the same occurred in the thickness of leaves for K. brasiliensis. In the swelling index and Brix degree, K. brasiliensis showed higher averages than K. pinnata. In relation to the total content of flavonoids it was not observed significant differences for both species. The analyzed parameters showed the main differences in the agronomic development of the two species. PMID:22146966

  8. Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk. Pers under light and temperature levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna P. Cruz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with homogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature range than the external environment. It was obtained for K. pinnata a greater plant height, total length of sprouts, stems, production and dry matter content of leaves than that obtained for K. brasiliensis, which achieved higher averages only for the length of lateral branches. The species showed increases in height, which varied in inverse proportion to the light, and it was observed the influence of temperature in K. pinnata. The production and dry matter content of leaves were proportional to the luminosity; the same occurred in the thickness of leaves for K. brasiliensis. In the swelling index and Brix degree, K. brasiliensis showed higher averages than K. pinnata. In relation to the total content of flavonoids it was not observed significant differences for both species. The analyzed parameters showed the main differences in the agronomic development of the two species.Este estudo compara o desenvolvimento de Kalanchoe brasiliensis e Kalanchoe pinnata, espécies medicinais conhecidas como "saião" e "folha da fortuna" que são utilizadas indiferenciadamente pela população para fins medicinais. O experimento consistiu em 20 parcelas/espécie plantadas em sacos plásticos com substrato homogêneo, em delineamento ao acaso, cultivadas sob níveis de luminosidade (25%, 50%, 70%, luz plena em temperatura ambiente, e um tratamento sob plástico com maior amplitude térmica que o meio externo. Obteve-se para K. pinnata maiores alturas de plantas, comprimentos totais de brotos, caules, produção e teor de matéria seca de folhas que para K. brasiliensis, que alcançou maiores médias apenas para comprimentos de ramos laterais. As espécies apresentaram aumento em altura que variou em proporção inversa à incidência luminosa, e observou-se a influência da temperatura em K. pinnata. A produção e teor de matéria seca de folhas foram proporcionais à luminosidade; o que também ocorreu na espessura foliar para K. brasiliensis. No índice de intumescência e grau Brix, K. brasiliensis apresentou maiores médias que K. pinnata. Em relação ao teor de flavonoides totais, não foram observadas diferenças significativas para ambas as espécies. Os parâmetros analisados apontaram as principais diferenças no desenvolvimento agronômico das duas espécies.

  9. Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk.) Pers under light and temperature levels

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna P. Cruz; Luciana M. Chedier; Rodrigo L. Fabri; Daniel S. Pimenta

    2011-01-01

    This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with homogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight) at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature range...

  10. Taxa de sobrevivência e crescimento inicial das espécies em plantio de recomposição da mata ciliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselda Durigan

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Em experimento de recomposição da mata ciliar em domínio de cerrado, na Estação Experimental de Assis, SP, foram utilizadas 20 espécies arbóreas, escolhidas em função da ocorrência natural em matas ciliares da região ou, no caso das espécies comerciais, com base na adaptabilidade a solos com lençol freático superficial ou pouco profundo. As espécies foram agrupadas em nove tratamentos (puros e mistos, com quatro repetições, num total de 3.624 mudas plantadas em uma área de 16.308m². Oito meses após o plantio avaliou-se a sobrevivência e o crescimento inicial das espécies plantadas. Destacaram-se pelo crescimento vigoroso e alta taxa de sobrevivência: Anadenanthera falcata (angico, Tapirira guianensis (peito-de-pombo, Calophyllum brasiliense (guanandi e Pinus elliottii var. densa (espécie exótica produtora de resina. Mostraram-se mal adaptadas, com baixa taxa de sobrevivência ou limitações no desenvolvimento: Euterpe edulis (palmito branco, Citharexylum myrianthum (pau-viola, Bauhinia bongardii (mororó e Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus (embira-de-sapo.Experimental data on riparian forest restoration at the Assis Experimental Station, São Paulo, Brazil are presented. The 20 tree species used were chosen based upon natural ocurrence in remnant riparian forests of the region or, in the case of commercial species, upon adaptability to swampy soils. Eight months after planting, survival and initial growth of the plants were evaluated. Species which presented vigorous growth and high survival rates were: Anadenanthera falcata, Tapirira guianensis, Calophyllum brasiliense and Pinus elliottii var. densa. Those with poor survival rates and restricted growth were: Euterpe edulis, Citharexylum myrianthum, Bauhinia bongardii and Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus.

  11. Antimycobacterial and HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Activity of Julianaceae and Clusiaceae Plant Species from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Gómez-Cansino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracts of 14 Julianaceae and 5 Clusiaceae species growing in Mexico were tested in vitro (50 µg/mL against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and HIV reverse transcriptase (HIV-RT. The Julianaceae bark and leaf extracts inhibited M. tuberculosis (>84.67% and HIV-RT (58.3% and >67.6%, respectively. The IC50 values for six selected extracts and their cytotoxicity (50 µg/mL to human macrophages were then determined. Amphipterygium glaucum, A. molle, and A. simplicifolium fairly inhibited M. tuberculosis with IC50 of 1.87–2.35 µg/mL; but their IC50 against HIV-RT was 59.25–97.83 µg/mL. Calophyllum brasiliense, Vismia baccifera, and Vismia mexicana effect on M. tuberculosis was noteworthy (IC50 3.02–3.64 µg/mL and also inhibited RT-HIV (IC50 26.24–35.17 µg/mL. These 6 extracts (50 µg/mL presented low toxicity to macrophages (<23.8%. The HPLC profiles of A. glaucum, A. molle, and A. simplicifolium indicated that their antimycobacterial activity cannot be related to masticadienonic, 3α, or 3β-hydromasticadienonic acids, suggesting that other compounds may be responsible for the observed activity or this might be a synergy result. The anti-HIV-RT and antimycobacterial activities induced by C. brasiliense can be attributed to the content of calanolides A, B, as well as soulatrolide.

  12. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SODIUM SOAP FROM NYAMPLUNG SEED OIL (Calophyllum inophyllum L.) AND TEST ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST Staphilococus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Mochamad Chasani; Senny Widyaningsih; Adidyan Mubarok

    2015-01-01

    This research was used nyamplung seed oil as antibacterial soap material. The soap from nyamplung seed oil was performed by saponification reactions, characterization of soap based on SNI 06-3632-1994. The antibacterial activity was tested against bacteria Staphylococus aureus. The result of this research showed that soap had yellow color with weight 13,028 g from 10,028 g nyamplung seed oil. The characteristic of soap based on SNI were water content of 25,287%, fatty acid of 72,177%, free ...

  13. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SODIUM SOAP FROM NYAMPLUNG SEED OIL (Calophyllum inophyllum L. AND TEST ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST Staphilococus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Chasani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was used nyamplung seed oil as antibacterial soap material. The soap from nyamplung seed oil was performed by saponification reactions, characterization of soap based on SNI 06-3632-1994. The antibacterial activity was tested against bacteria Staphylococus aureus. The result of this research showed that soap had yellow color with weight 13,028 g from 10,028 g nyamplung seed oil. The characteristic of soap based on SNI were water content of 25,287%, fatty acid of 72,177%, free alkali 0,082%, unsoap fatty or free fatty 0,834%, and mineral oil was negative. Soap base on nyamplung seed oil have antibacterial activity against bacteria Staphylococus aureus with diameter of inhibition zone 14,701 mm.

  14. Extrato hidroalcoolico da casca do pequi (Caryocar brasiliense em ratos submetidos à aplicação de doxorrubicina Hydro alcoholic extract of pequi peel (Caryocar brasiliense in rats submitted to the application of doxorubicin

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    Léa Resende Moura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito antioxidante do extrato hidroalcoolico da casca do pequi (EHCP em ratos após a administração de doxorrubicina (DOX. Foram utilizados ratos da raça Wistar, distribuídos em quatro grupos, sendo que os animais do G1 (n=6 receberam água e solução salina (grupo controle, G2 (n=7 EHCP e solução salina, G3 (n=7 água e DOX e G4 (n=6 EHCP e DOX. O EHCP foi administrado por gavagem durante 10 dias aos ratos dos grupos G2 e G4 e água aos dos G1 e G3. DOX na dose de 10mg kg-1 e solução salina 0,9% foram administradas por via intravenosa no dia sete após o início do experimento aos animais de G3 e G4 e aos de G1 e G2, respectivamente. Foram avaliados peso e taxa de mortalidade. Dez dias após o início do experimento, foi avaliada a concentração sérica de creatina quinase MB (CK-MB, troponina e mioglobina, e os ratos foram submetidos à eutanásia e à avaliação anatomopatológica. Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos quanto ao peso dos animais (PThe objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of pequi peel (HEPP in rats after administration of doxorubicin (DOX. Were used 26 Wistar rats divided into four groups, which G1 (n=6 received water and saline solution (control group, G2 (n=7 HEPP and saline solution, G3 (n=7 water and DOX, and G4 (n=6 HEPP and DOX. The HEPP was administered by gavage for 10 days to G2 and G4 and water to G1 and G3. DOX and saline solution were administered intravenously on day seven after the start of the experiment, with the DOX (10mg kg-1 applied in G3 and G4, and saline solution 0.9% in G1 and G2. Were evaluated weight and mortality rate. Ten days after the start of the experiment were evaluated creatina kinase MB (CK-MB, troponin and myoglobin, and the rats were euthanized and evaluated morphologically. There was no difference between treatments in weight of animals (P>0.05. About the mortality rate an increase in group 2 was showed (P<0.05. The results of the qualitative test for the detection of CK-MB, troponin I and myoglobin in the four groups were negative and there were no macroscopic changes in different rat's organs of different groups. Multifocal and moderate to severe acute tubular necrosis in cortical and medullary regions of the kidneys was observed in all rats studied. DOX intravenous and in a one dose of 10mg kg-1 don't induce cardiac changes in rats and the HEPP in conditions here evaluated increase the rate of mortality of rats, which may be related to toxic substances in the peel of this fruit.

  15. Paracoccidioides brasilienses isolates obtained from patients with acute and chronic disease exhibit morphological differences after animal passage

    OpenAIRE

    SVIDZINSKI, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; MIRANDA NETO Marcílio Hubner; SANTANA Rosângela Getirana; Fischman, Olga; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes

    1999-01-01

    The basis for virulence in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is not completely understood. There is a consensus that the sequencial in vitro subcultivation of P. brasiliensis leads to loss of its pathogenicity, which can be reverted by reisolation from animal passage. Attention to morphological and biochemical properties that are regained or demonstrated after animal passage may provide new insights into factors related to the pathogenicity and virulence of P. brasiliensis. We evaluated morpholog...

  16. Paracoccidioides brasilienses isolates obtained from patients with acute and chronic disease exhibit morphological differences after animal passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SVIDZINSKI Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The basis for virulence in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is not completely understood. There is a consensus that the sequencial in vitro subcultivation of P. brasiliensis leads to loss of its pathogenicity, which can be reverted by reisolation from animal passage. Attention to morphological and biochemical properties that are regained or demonstrated after animal passage may provide new insights into factors related to the pathogenicity and virulence of P. brasiliensis. We evaluated morphological characters: the percentage of budding cells, number of buds by cell and the diameter of 100 mother cells of yeast-like cells of 30 P. brasiliensis isolates, before and after animal passage. The isolates were obtained from patients with different clinical forms of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM: acute form (group A, n=15 and chronic form (group C, n=15. The measurement of the yeast cell sizes was carried out with the aid of an Olympus CBB microscope coupled with a micrometer disc. We measured the major transverse and longitudinal axes of 100 viable cells of each preparation. The percentage of budding cells as also the number of buds by cell was not influenced by animal passage, regardless of the source of the strain (acute or chronic groups. The size values of P. brasiliensis isolates from groups A and C, measured before the animal passage exhibited the same behavior. After animal passage, there was a statistically significant difference between the cell sizes of P. brasiliensis isolates recovered from testicles inoculated with strains from groups A and C. The maximum diameter of mother cells from group A isolates exhibited a size of 42.1mm in contrast with 32.9mm exhibited by mother cells from group C (p<0.05. The diameter of 1500 mother cells from group A isolates exhibited a medium size of 16.0mm (SD ± 4.0, a value significantly higher than the 14.1mm (SD = ± 3.3 exhibited by 1500 mother cells from group C isolates (p<0.05. Our results reinforce the polymorphism exhibited by P. brasiliensis in biological material and the need for further investigations to elucidate the role of morphological parameters of the fungus in the natural history of the disease.

  17. Dietary carotenoid-rich oil supplementation improves exercise-induced anisocytosis in runners: influences of haptoglobin, MnSOD (Val9Ala), CAT (21A/T) and GPX1 (Pro198Leu) gene polymorphisms in dilutional pseudoanemia (sports anemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Physical training induces beneficial adaptation, whereas exhaustive exercises increase reactive oxygen-species generation, thereby causing oxidative damage in plasma and erythrocytes, fractions susceptible to lipid peroxidation. Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) is a Brazilian Cerrado fruit containing a carotenoid-rich oil. The aim was to investigate the effects of pequi-oil on exercise-induced oxidative damage in plasma and erythrocytes, after running in the same environment and undergoing weekly training under the same conditions as to type, intensity and length. Evaluations were accomplished after outdoor running on flat land before and after ingestion of 400 mg pequi-oil capsules for 14 days. Blood samples were taken after running and submitted to TBARS assay and erythrogram analysis. Haptoglobin, MnSOD (Val9Ala), CAT (21A/T) and GPX1 (Pro198Leu) gene polymorphisms were priorly investigated, so as to estimate genetic influence The reduction in erythrocytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit after pequi-oil treatment was notably associated with higher plasma expansion. Except for MCHC (mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration) and RDW (red cell distribution width), the results were influenced by the polymorphisms studied. The best response to pequi-oil was presented by MnSOD Val/Val, CAT AA or AT genotypes and the GPX1 Pro allele. The significantly lower RDW and higher MHCH values were related to pequi-oil protective effects. Pequi oil, besides possessing other nutritional properties, showed protective blood effects. PMID:21637495

  18. DETERMINATION OF Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn AND FREE FATTY ACIDS IN PEQUI OIL

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    Aparecida M. S. Mimura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb., a typical fruit of the Brazilian Cerrado, is an important source of micronutrients and fatty acids. In this work, a new approach for the acid digestion (using H2SO4, HNO3 and H2O2 of pequi oil samples and the determination of Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F AAS was employed. Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE was used for free fatty acid (FFA determination after simple and fast extraction with heated ethanol. Good results regarding precision (RSD < 10%, in most cases, sensitivity and adequate LOD and LOQ values were obtained. The accuracy was evaluated using spike tests and the recoveries were from 97 to 107%. The analytes were investigated in four different pequi oil samples. Fe was the trace element with the highest concentration (from 1.99 to 10.3 mg/100 g, followed by Zn, Mn and Cu (1.15 to 3.19, 0.42 to 0.91 and 0.31 to 0.56 mg/100 g, respectively. The main FFA found were oleic acid and palmitic acid (1.61 to 10.7 and 0.82 to 2.69 g/100 g, respectively, while linoleic acid (0.50 g/100 g was detected in only one sample. The pequi oil chemical composition showed good characteristics to be used as a food additive, in cosmetic formulations and for traditional medicine.

  19. EFEITO RESIDUAL DE INSETICIDAS NATURAIS NO CONTROLE DE SITOPHILUS ZEAMAIS MOTS. EM MILHO ARMAZENADO

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    Rodrigo Leandro Braga de Castro Coitinho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The residual effect of natural insecticides was evaluated on adults of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae on stored corn grains. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum L., white pepper (Piper nigrum L., neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss and silica dioxide powders were tested as well as neem, eucalyptus (Eucaliptus globulus Labill and Eucaliptus citriodora Hook., eugenol, andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl., rosemary (Lippia gracillis HBK., cedar (Cedrela fissilis Vell. and pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. oils. Powders were tested at concentration of 1kg/t in 50g-corn-plot and the oils at dosage of 50¿L in 20g-corn-plot. The plots infestation was accomplished using 20 and 8 adults (males and females of S. zeamais being 0 to 15 days old, respectively, in the experiments with powders and oils. Silica dioxide caused 46.7, 38.3 and 37.5% of mortality, respectively, in the initial (soon after the treatment with the powders or oils and at 60 and 120 days of storage periods, but the mortality induced by the other powders was inexpressive. In the three studied storage periods, silica dioxide was the more efficient in reducing adults emergency. At the initial storage period, all the oils caused mortality above 79%, however, after 60 and 120 days, mortality was lower than 2.5%. The adult emergency increased as stored period increased, although at 120 days the best performance was obtained using neem, followed by andiroba, cedar, rosemary and E. globulus oils.

  20. Pequi cake composition, hydrolysis and fermentation to bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Macedo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Pequizeiro (Caryocar brasiliense Camb fruits have been evaluated as a potential raw material for the newly established biodiesel industry. This scenario demands applications using the solid co-product derived from the extraction of pequi oil, called cake or meal. This study analyses the acid hydrolysis of carbohydrates present in the pequi meal in order to obtain fermentable sugars and evaluates their conversion to bioethanol. There was 27% starch in the pequi meal. The use of a CCRD experimental design type to study the acid saccharification of pequi meal results in 61.6% conversion of its starch content to reducing sugars. Positive and significant linear effects were observed for H2SO4 concentration and temperature factors, while the quadratic effect of H2SO4 concentration and the linear effect of solid-liquid ratio were negative. Even, with non-optimized fermentative condition using 1% of dried baker's yeast in conical flasks, it was possible to obtain a value equivalent to 53 L of ethanol per ton of hydrolyzed pequi meal.

  1. Adaptação de espécies arbóreas nativas em um sistema agrossilvicultural, submetidas a extremos climáticos de geada na região de Florianópolis Adaptation of native tree species submitted to extreme frost stress under an agrosilvicultural system in the Florianopolis region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Rodrigues Vieira

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta de cinco espécies arbóreas nativas submetidas a extremos climáticos de geada em um sistema agroflorestal, na região de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina (latitude de 27º35' S , longitude 48º34' W e altitude de 1,84 m. O solo é do tipo Neossolo quartzarênico hidromórfico distrófico, textura arenosa, com elevada flutuação do lençol freático. Foram tomadas sete parcelas de dez árvores, seguindo o delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado. Os parâmetros analisados foram altura total, número de folhas, incremento médio em altura total e número de folhas de cada árvore (quantificados a cada quatro meses, porcentagem de árvores com folhas danificadas pela geada e sobrevivência de cada planta após a geada. Os parâmetros estatísticos analisados foram a média e o desvio-padrão. Para analisar os resultados utilizou-se o teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Os ingás (Inga uruguensis e Inga sessilis apresentaram tolerância à geada e um alto potencial para implantação em SAFs nas condições edafoclimáticas em estudo. A espécie tucaneira (Citharexylium myrianthum apresentou pouca tolerância à geada, porém mostrou alta taxa de rebrota. As espécies corticeira (Erythrina falcata, olandi (Calophyllum brasilienses e licurana (Hieronyma alchorneoides apresentaram alta mortalidade em razão da geada, não se mostrando indicadas para compor um SAF na região em estudo.This work aimed to evaluate the response of five indigenous arboreal species, submitted to extreme frost stress in an agroforest system (AFS in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina (lat. 27º35' S, long. 48º34' W and alt. of 1,84 m. The soil is a distrophic Hydromorphic Quartzarenic Neosoil, with sandy texture, and high watertable flotation.The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete design, with seven plots of ten trees each. The analyzed parameters were: height, number of leaves, average height

  2. Técnicas para superação da dormência de sementes de guanandi

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    Rosemeire Carvalho da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar tipos de preparo de sementes de guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense, com vistas à superação da dormência física e mecânica, e verificar a influência da temperatura e do substrato sobre a germinação. Foram avaliados três substratos (papel, areia e vermiculita, duas temperaturas de germinação (25 e 30ºC e quatro tipos de preparo das sementes: sementes íntegras; sementes nuas, sem tegumento e endocarpo; sementes com punctura no endocarpo, na região próxima ao eixo embrionário ou na região oposta ao eixo embrionário; e sementes cortadas a 1/3 da região oposta ao eixo embrionário. Foram realizados testes de vigor (índice de velocidade de germinação e emergência de plântulas em campo, e a curva de embebição foi obtida para os diferentes tipos de preparo da semente. A retirada total do envoltório (endocarpo e tegumento é necessária para a completa superação da dormência física e mecânica das sementes de guanandi. A germinação das sementes deve ser realizada em substrato papel à temperatura de 30ºC.

  3. TROCAS GASOSAS E EFICIÊNCIA DO FOTOSSISTEMA II EM PLANTAS ADULTAS DE SEIS ESPÉCIES FLORESTAIS EM FUNÇÃO DO SUPRIMENTO DE ÁGUA NO SOLO1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David de Holanda Campelo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A redução da disponibilidade hídrica causa efeitos sobre a fotossíntese e o desenvolvimento de espécies arbóreas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as trocas gasosas e a eficiência fotoquímica do fotossistema II em plantas adultas de gonçalo-alves (Astronium fraxinifolium Schott., guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess., ipê-amarelo (Handroanthus serratifolius (Vahl., ipê-rosa (Handroanthus impetiginosa (Mart. Matos, marupá (Simarouba amara Aubl. e mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King. cultivadas em condições de sequeiro e irrigadas, no Perímetro Irrigado do Baixo Acaraú, Ceará. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de medidas repetidas no tempo, num esquema de parcelas subsubdivididas (6 x 2 x 3, sendo a parcela principal composta por seis espécies, a subparcela por dois regimes hídricos (irrigado e sequeiro e a subsubparcela pelas épocas de avaliação. As análises das trocas gasosas foram realizadas em 22/11/2012 (estação seca, 07/02/2013 (data que antecedeu o período chuvoso e 17/05/2013 (estação chuvosa. As espécies mogno, guanandi e ipê-amarelo mostraram-se mais sensíveis ao déficit hídrico, em comparação com as outras espécies, o que foi evidenciado pelas maiores reduções nas trocas gasosas e na eficiência fotoquímica do fotossistema II. O ipê-rosa, o marupá e o gonçalo-alves mostraram-se mais adaptados às condições de baixa disponibilidade hídrica do solo.

  4. CO2 emission from soil after reforestation and application of sewage sludge

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    Janaina Braga Carmo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to quantify the carbon dioxide emissions from an Oxisol under degraded pasture located in Sorocaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. The treatments were: sewage sludge (LE, sewage sludge compost (CLE, mineral fertilizer (AM and no fertilization (T0. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with analysis of the effect of the four treatments (CLE, LE, and AM T0 with four replications. The application of sewage sludge, sewage sludge compost, mineral fertilizer and no fertilizer was statistically significant for the variables of height increase and stem height of Guanandi seedlings (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambessèdes - Calophyllaceae. Treatments showed significant differences in terms of CO2 emissions from soil. The CLE exhibited the highest CO2 fluxes, reaching a peak of 9.33±0.96 g C m- 2 day- 1 (p<0.0001, as well as the LE with a maximum CO2 flux of 6.35±1.17 C m- 2 day- 1 (p<0.005. The AM treatment (4.96±1.61 g C m- 2 day- 1 had the same statistical effect as T0 (5.33±0.49 g C m- 2 day- 1. CO2 fluxes were correlated with soil temperature in all treatments. However, considering the period of 172 days of evaluation, the total loss of C as CO2 was 2.7% for sewage sludge and 0.7% for the sewage sludge compost of the total C added with the application on soil.

  5. Nitrogen fixation in trees - 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobereiner, J.; Gauthier, D.L.; Diem, H.G.; Dommergues, Y.R.; Bonetti, R.; Oliveira, L.A.; Magalhaes, F.M.M.; Faria, S.M. de; Franco, A.A.; Menandro, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Six papers are presented from the symposium. Dobereiner, J.; Nodulation and nitrogen fixation in leguminous trees, 83-90, (15 ref.), reviews studies on Brazilian species. Gauthier, D.L., Diem, H.G., Dommergues, Y.R., Tropical and subtropical actinorhizal plants, 119-136, (Refs. 50), reports on studies on Casuarinaceae. Bonetti, R., Oliveira, L.A., Magalhaes, F.M.M.; Rhizobium populations and occurrence of VA mycorrhizae in plantations of forest trees, 137-142, (Refs. 15), studies Amazonia stands of Cedrelinga catenaeformis, Calophyllum brasiliense, Dipteryx odorata, D. potiphylla, Carapa guianensis, Goupia glabra, Tabebuia serratifolia, Clarisia racemosa, Pithecellobium racemosum, Vouacapoua pallidior, Eperua bijuga, and Diplotropis species. Nodulation was observed in Cedrelinga catenaeformis and V. pallidior. Faria, S.M. de, Franco, A.A., Menandro, M.S., Jesus, R.M. de, Baitello, J.B.; Aguiar, O.T. de, Doebereiner, J; survey of nodulation in leguminous tree species native to southeastern Brazil, 143-153, (Refs. 7), reports on 119 species, with first reports of nodulation in the genera Bowdichia, Poecilanthe, Melanoxylon, Moldenhaurea (Moldenhawera), and Pseudosamanea. Gaiad, S., Carpanezzi, A.A.; Occurrence of Rhizobium in Leguminosae of silvicultural interest for south Brazil, 155-158, (Refs. 2). Nodulation is reported in Mimosa scabrella, Acacia mearnsii, A. longifolia various trinervis, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, and Erythrina falcata. Magalhaes, L.M.S., Blum, W.E.H., Nodulation and growth of Cedrelinga catanaeformis in experimental stands in the Manaus region - Amazonas, 159-164, (Refs. 5). Results indicate that C. catenaeformis can be used in degraded areas of very low soil fertility.

  6. Características de los trabajos publicados sobre las propiedades de las plantas en revistas médicas peruanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar G. Pamo-Reyna

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar las características de los trabajos originales sobre las propiedades de las plantas publicadas en revistas médicas peruanas. Material y métodos. Se revisó las bases de datos bibliográficas SciELO Perú y SISBIB para el período 2004-2008. Resultados. En 14 revistas se halló 825 trabajos originales, de los cuales 45 fueron incluidos en el estudio. El número de trabajos por años fue 3 (2004, 5 (2005, 9 2006, 13 (2007 y 15 (2008. Las revistas que publicaron mayor proporción de artículos sobre plantas fueron revistas de facultades de medicina: Rev Med Vallejiana (33%, Horizonte Médico (29% y An Fac Med (13%. Las instituciones que más publicaron fueron la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (45,5%, Universidad San Martín de Porres (22% y Universidad Nacional de Trujillo (13%. De un total de 226 autores, 11 de ellos realizaron el 22,1% de la producción total. De 57 plantas estudiadas, las más investigadas fueron Lepidium sp. (maca, Croton palanostigma (sangre de grado, Calophyllum brasiliense (lagarto caspi y Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacón. Los potenciales usos más estudiados fueron nutritivos, antineoplásicos, antioxidante, hipoglicemiante e hipotensor arterial. Seis (13,3% trabajos fueron clínicos y el resto fue de tipo experimental o bioquímico. Conclusión. La producción científica médica relacionada con las propiedades de las plantas y publicada es escasa aunque creciente, se realiza en las universidades públicas y privadas, la participación privada es casi nula; y, existe una élite de investigadores que gran producción de trabajos.

  7. Assessing the extent of "conflict of use" in multipurpose tropical forest trees: a regional view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Jáuregui, Cristina; Guariguata, Manuel R; Cárdenas, Dairon; Vilanova, Emilio; Robles, Marco; Licona, Juan Carlos; Nalvarte, Walter

    2013-11-30

    In the context of multiple forest management, multipurpose tree species which provide both timber and non-timber forest products (NTFP), present particular challenges as the potential of conflicting use for either product may be high. One key aspect is that the magnitude of conflict of use can be location specific, thus adding complexity to policy development. This paper focuses on the extent to which the potential for conflict of use in multipurpose tree species varies across the Amazonian lowland forests shared by Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, emphasizing the economic dimension of conflict. Based on a review of the current normative and regulatory aspects of timber and NTFP extraction in the five countries, the paper also briefly discusses the opportunities and constraints for harmonization of timber and NTFP management of multipurpose species across the region. It was found that about half of the 336 timber species reviewed across the five countries also have non-timber uses. Eleven timber species are multipurpose in all five countries: Calophyllum brasiliense, Cedrela odorata, Ceiba pentandra, Clarisia racemosa, Ficus insipida, Jacaranda copaia, Schefflera morototoni, Simarouba amara and Terminalia amazonia. Seven other multipurpose species occurred only in either Venezuela (Tabebuia impetiginosa, Spondias mombin, Pentaclethra macroloba, Copaifera officinalis, Chlorophora tinctoria, Carapa guianensis) or Ecuador (Tabebuia chrysantha). Four multipurpose tree species presented the highest potential of conflict of use across the region: Dipteryx odorata, Tabebuia serratifolia, Hymenaea courbaril and Myroxylon balsamum yet these were not evenly distributed across all five countries. None of the five studied countries have specific legislation to promote sustainable use of any of the multipurpose species reported here and thus mitigate potential conflict of use; nor documented management options for integration or else segregation of both their

  8. Discrimination of Pulp Oil and Kernel Oil from Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) by Fatty Acid Methyl Esters Fingerprinting, Using GC-FID and Multivariate Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faria-Machado, A.F.; Tres, Alba; Ruth, Van S.M.; Antoniassi, Rosemar; Junqueira, N.T.V.; Lopes, P.S.N.; Bizzo, H.R.

    2015-01-01

    Pequi is an oleaginous fruit whose edible oil is composed mainly by saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. The biological and nutritional properties of pequi oil are dependent on its composition, which can change according to the oil source (pulp or kernel). There is little data in the scient

  9. Caracterização do ataque da broca dos frutos do pequizeiro Characterization of the attack of the pequi fruit borer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sergio Nascimento Lopes

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O extrativismo dos frutos de pequizeiro (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Caryocaraceae é uma importante opção de renda, alimento e emprego para as populações que vivem nas regiões de Cerrado em todo Brasil. Entretanto, a oferta natural desses frutos encontra-se ameaçada por diversos fatores, entre estes, destaca-se uma séria praga, Carmenta sp. (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae, que os torna impróprios para o consumo. Diante disso, o presente estudo objetivou conhecer algumas características do inseto responsável, bem como a forma de ataque aos frutos de pequizeiro, os danos causados e sintomas característicos. Este trabalho foi realizado através da análise de frutos de pequizeiro coletados aleatoriamente, tanto na planta como no solo, na vegetação do tipo Cerrado nos municípios de Montes Claros, Norte de Minas e Itumirim, Sul de Minas, em Minas Gerais. No primeiro município foram colhidos frutos aproximadamente entre 80-120 dias após a antese (DAA, enquanto no segundo, em duas épocas, 45 e 90 DAA. Em cada município, época e local de coleta (planta ou solo foram coletados 50 frutos para análise. As características avaliadas foram: diâmetro longitudinal e transversal, percentagem de frutos danificados, número de lagartas por fruto e número de crisálidas por fruto. Após a análise dessas características, foram anotados e documentados fotograficamente os estágios de desenvolvimento do inseto quanto ao comprimento, coloração e morfologia, bem como os sintomas do ataque. A partir desse trabalho pode-se concluir que a lepidobroca dos frutos de pequizeiro pode provocar danos à produção superior a 50%, destruindo todo o interior dos frutos que se tornam imprestáveis para o consumo. Os frutos mais atacados são os mais jovens, sendo mais comum encontrar uma só lagarta em seu interior.The extractivism of pequi fruits (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Caryocaraceae is an important option of income, food and employment for the populations

  10. Composição e estrutura da vegetação ripária na sub-bacia do córrego do Cintra (Botucatu–SP. Composition and structure of the riparian forest in the sub-watershed of Cintra stream (Botucatu–SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivalde BELLUTA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As Cuestas Basálticas apresentam-se na paisagem da região central do Estado de São Paulo e caracterizam-se pela Floresta Estacional Semidecidual. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a estrutura, estádio sucessional e a diversidade da mata ripária integrante da sub-bacia do córrego do Cintra, situada na região da Cuesta de Botucatu. O método fitossociológico utilizado em três áreas foi o de ponto-quadrante com dois indivíduos amostrados em cada quadrante e de tamanho > 5 m e 5 m and < 5 m of height. The Friedman test was adopted in the comparison among tree species in all three areas and was followed by Dunn’s test, at 5% significance. The analyzed indexes were relative dominance − (DoR, relative density − (DR, and covering index − (IVC, obtained by means of an electronic spreadsheet; the successional stage was determined by the relative proportion among the numbers of individuals of different synusiae species identified; and the diversity of species was studied based on the diversity indexes of Shannon-Wiener (H’, Pielou (J and Simpson, connotation 1-D, using the software Past. In the three sampling areas, 2,241 arboreal individuals of 145 species were found, which belong to 55 botanical families, and the most representative families were Fabaceae, 16.3%; Lauraceae, Myrtaceae and Boraginaceae, 7% each, totaling 37.3% of the total sampling. The species with the highest DoR, DR and IVC in areas 1, 2 and 3, respectively, were Calophyllum brasiliense, Piptadenia gonoacantha and Gochnatia polymorpha. The successional stage in area 1 was considered late, in area 2 was intermediate, and the one in area 3 was pioneer, while the diversity (H’A1 = 4.08; H’A2 = 3.79; H’A3 = 3.31 nats/ind-1 of species was considered high and with good equitability for all 3 areas. Therefore, the indexes indicated greater dominance of a few species in area 3, which is in succession process, requiring reforestation and forest regeneration.

  11. Estrutura da vegetação lenhosa em dois fragmentos naturais de florestas inundáveis (impucas no Parque Estadual do Araguaia, Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Cristine de Figueiredo Barbosa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available As impucas são fragmentos florestais que sofrem inundação sazonal e se localizam em área de transição entre os biomas Cerrado e Floresta Amazônica. Este estudo objetivou avaliar e comparar a estrutura da vegetação de duas impucas com diferentes estados de conservação no Parque Estadual do Araguaia (PEA, em Mato Grosso, uma não degradada (ND (12º19'11,2"S e 50º44'15,6"W e outra degradada (DE (12º09'04,2"S e 50º49'37"W. Foram demarcados cinco transectos subdivididos em 50 parcelas permanentes de 10x20m. Todos os indivíduos lenhosos com diâmetro à altura do peito > 5 cm foram amostrados. A impuca ND apresentou 28 famílias, 42 gêneros e 45 espécies, e a DE apresentou 22, 31 e 33, respectivamente. Na impuca ND, a densidade total foi de 2.177 ind.ha-1, a área basal de 35,23 m².ha-1, e a diversidade de espécies de Shannon-Wiener de 2,87 nats.ind-1, e na DE foi 1.501 ind.ha-1, 25,16 m².ha-1 e 2,64 nats.ind-1, respectivamente. As espécies que mais se destacaram foram Licania apetala, Calophyllum brasiliense, Ochthocosmus multiflorus, Mabea paniculata, Tachigali froesii e Xylopia sp. A impuca DE apresentou menores riqueza, diversidade de espécies, densidade e dominância relativas do que a impuca ND, provavelmente devido ao histórico de perturbações e à inundação anual. A similaridade florística (Sørensen entre ambas foi alta. Contudo, ao compará-las com impucas de Tocantins e outras florestas brasileiras, a similaridade foi baixa, sugerindo que as impucas de Mato Grosso e Tocantins apresentam identidade florística própria. Este estudo contribui para o conhecimento dos ecótonos brasileiros, para a elaboração do plano de manejo do PEA e para iniciativas de recuperação de impucas degradadas.

  12. Caracterização da população portadora de tuberculose do município de Américo Brasiliense/SP, no período de 1992 a 2002

    OpenAIRE

    C. Q.F. LEITE; N. P.F. SEVERO

    2009-01-01

    A tuberculose é um grave problema de Saúde Pública em todo o mundo, sendo desde 1993 considerada pela OMS uma emergência global. O Brasil ocupa a 13ª posição no ranking mundial em incidência de tuberculose. Ocorrências de tuberculose nas grandes cidades brasileiras são bem conhecidas e estudadas. Entretanto, pouco se sabe sobre a problemática da tuberculose nas peque...

  13. Caracterização da população portadora de tuberculose do município de Américo Brasiliense/SP, no período de 1992 a 2002

    OpenAIRE

    N. P.F. SEVERO; C. Q.F. LEITE

    2009-01-01

    A tuberculose é um grave problema de Saúde Pública em todo o mundo, sendo desde 1993 considerada pela OMS uma emergência global. O Brasil ocupa a 13ª posição no ranking mundial em incidência de tuberculose. Ocorrências de tuberculose nas grandes cidades brasileiras são bem conhecidas e estudadas. Entretanto, pouco se sabe sobre a problemática da tuberculose nas peque...

  14. Palynological record of tropical rain forest vegetation and sea level fluctuations since 140 ka from sediment core, south-eastern Arabian sea.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Farooqui, A.; Pattan, J.N.; Parthiban, G.; Srivastava, J.; Ranjana

    - evergreen species that generally grow on the sides of rivers/streams as moist tropical riparian forest, including Terminalia arjuna, Hopea parviflora, Mangifera indica, Drypetes roxburghii, Garcinia gummi- gutta, Mallotus stenanthus, Calophyllum calaba...

  15. Caracterização de genótipos de soja na região dos Cerrados quanto à reação à podridão vermelha da raiz, causada pelos fungos Fusarium tucumaniae e Fusarium brasiliense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austeclinio Lopes de Farias Neto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A podridão vermelha da raiz de soja vem crescendo em importância, a cada ano, no Brasil, com aumento substancial de participação nas perdas de produtividade. Na região dos Cerrados, são escassos os dados de campo sobre a reação de cultivares à doença. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo a caracterização, em campo, de uma série de genótipos de soja, quanto à resistência à podridão vermelha da raiz, em solos naturalmente infestados. Foram testados 71 genótipos de soja, sendo 16 do ciclo de maturação precoce, 28 do ciclo de maturação médio e 27 do ciclo de maturação tardio, em quatro localidades, no entorno do Distrito Federal. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. A caracterização foi realizada por meio dos níveis de incidência e severidade dos sintomas foliares. Genótipos com altos níveis de resistência à doença foram observados nos três grupos de maturação, em cultivares e linhagens em fase final de melhoramento.

  16. The relationship between cognitive ability and demographic factors in late midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Molbo, Drude;

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to analyze associations between sex, age, education, and social class and cognitive ability in late midlife and to evaluate differences in cognitive ability among the three Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) cohorts.......The aim of the article is to analyze associations between sex, age, education, and social class and cognitive ability in late midlife and to evaluate differences in cognitive ability among the three Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) cohorts....

  17. Occurrence of biflavonoids in Clusiaceae: chemical and pharmacological aspects; Ocorrencia de biflavonoides em Clusiaceae: aspectos quimicos e farmacologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rafaela Oliveira [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Carvalho, Mario Geraldo de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (NPPN/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisa em Produtos Naturais; Silva, Tania Maria Sarmento da, E-mail: mgeraldo@ufrrj.br [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Moleculares

    2012-07-01

    This work describes the biflavonoids found in species of Clusiaceae, particularly the genera Garcinia and Calophyllum, emphasizing the importance of these metabolites as chemical markers of this family, their contribution to the pharmacological potential of these species, besides the promising potential of these compounds in the search for new drugs. (author)

  18. Bioactivity of non-edible oil seed extracts and purified extracts against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Pushpa; Joseph, Mary; Tungikar, Vijay; Joshi, Swati

    2004-01-01

    Extracts and purified extracts of seeds of two plant species, Madhuca latifolia and Calophyllum inophyllum when evaluated against the 2nd instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera reared on synthetic diet, exhibited high larval mortality, prolongation of developmental period, morphological deformities and highly significant reduction in adult emergence. The reduction in larval weights in the treatments was also highly significant. PMID:15274488

  19. Occurrence of biflavonoids in Clusiaceae: chemical and pharmacological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes the biflavonoids found in species of Clusiaceae, particularly the genera Garcinia and Calophyllum, emphasizing the importance of these metabolites as chemical markers of this family, their contribution to the pharmacological potential of these species, besides the promising potential of these compounds in the search for new drugs. (author)

  20. Feeding and decoration preferences of the epialtidae crab Acanthonyx scutiforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Augusto Vasconcelos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the feeding preferences of marine herbivores are very important for our better understanding of the biology and the ecological role of these organisms. Members of the family Epialtidae are usually herbivores that mask themselves with pieces of seaweed and other materials to avoid predation. In order to better understand the mechanisms of food and decorating choices of the decorator crab Acanthonyx scutiformis, two multiple-choice feeding assays were performed using fresh seaweeds and artificial food containing crude extracts of the four seaweeds Osmundaria obtusiloba, Plocamium brasiliense, Sargassum sp., and Dictyota menstrualis, offered simultaneously to this crab species. In both assays the seaweed most consumed was O. obtusiloba, followed by P. brasiliense and Sargassum sp., while D. menstrualis was the least consumed. It is suggested that A. scutiformis is a generalist feeder, but with some preference for the perennial red seaweed O. obtusiloba and the chemically-defended seaweed P. brasiliense. Decorating behavior observations revealed the preferences of A. scutiformis by P. brasiliense. This decorating behavior can be interpreted as a mechanism to avoid generalist predators, since feeding and decorating preference were not associated and the crab used only small pieces of chemically defended algae.Estudos sobre preferência alimentar de herbívoros marinhos são muito importantes para o melhor entendimento da importância biológica e ecológica destes organismos. Caranguejos majídeos são usualmente herbívoros que se camuflam com pedaços de macroalgas e outros materiais para evitar a predação. Para entender melhor os mecanismos de escolha de alimento e decoração do caranguejo decorador Acanthonyx scutiformis, foram realizados dois ensaios de múltipla escolha usando macroalgas frescas e alimentos artificiais contendo extratos brutos das macroalgas Osmundaria obtusiloba, Plocamium brasiliense, Sargassum sp. e Dictyota

  1. Helmintos parasitos do pirarucu, Arapaima gigas (Schinz, 1822 (Osteoglossiformes: Arapaimidae, no rio Araguaia, estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil Helminth parasites of pirarucu, Arapaima gigas (Schinz, 1822 (Osteoglossiformes: Arapaimidae from Araguaia River, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia M. C. dos Santos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados 65 exemplares de pirarucu em agosto de 2004, provenientes do rio Araguaia, Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil para o estudo dos seus helmintos parasitos. Cinco espécies foram registradas parasitando Arapaima gigas: Dawestrema cycloancistrium (Monogenea nas brânquias, Nilonema senticosum e Goezia spinulosa (Nematoda na vesícula gasosa e no estômago respectivamente; Caballerotrema brasiliense (Digenea e Polyacanthorhynchus rhopalorhynchus (Acanthocephala no intestino. Os valores mais altos de prevalência foram observados para D. cycloancistrium (100% and P. rhopalorhynchus (96,9%. Os maiores valores de intensidade e abundância média foram calculados para C. brasiliense e N. senticosum (61 e 46,9, respectivamente. Todas estas espécies são registradas pela primeira vez na Bacia do Rio Araguaia.Sixty-five specimens of pirarucu collected in August 2004 from Araguaia River, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, were examined to study their helminth parasites. Five species were recorded parasitic Arapaima gigas: Dawestrema cycloancistrium (Monogenea in gills, Nilonema senticosum and Goezia spinulosa (Nematoda in the swimbladder and stomach, respectively; Caballerotrema brasiliense (Digenea and Polyacanthorhynchus rhopalorhynchus (Acanthocephala in the intestine. Highest prevalence values were detected for D. cycloancistrium (100% and P. rhopalorhynchus (96.9%. Highest values of mean intensity and mean abundance were detected for C. brasiliense and N. senticosum (61 and 46.9, respectively. All these species are recorded by the first time in the Araguaia River basin.

  2. Computer-aided Framework for Design of Pure, Mixed and Blended Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cignitti, Stefano; Zhang, Lei; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    Design of novel chemical products with process and application considerations is an emerging topic in thefield of chemical and biochemical engineering. Methods, such as Computer Aided Molecular Design(CAMD) [1] and Computer-aided Mixture and Blend Design (CAMbD) [2], provide the possibility...... metrics that must be included in today’s product designs, consequently makes the problem harder to mathematically formulate and to solve.In this work, a framework for computer-aided design of pure, mixed and blended chemical products hasbeen developed. The framework is a systematic approach to formulate...... and solve CAMbD problems throughfour sequential steps. In the first step, the needs, target properties and product type are defined. In the second step, the CAMbD is formulated together with objectives and process/application model. In the third step,the formulation is then converted into a mixed integer...

  3. Failures of TDDFT in describing the lowest intramolecular charge-transfer excitation in para-nitroaniline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Janus J.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Mikkelsen, Kurt Valentin;

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the failure of Time{Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) with the CAM{B3LYP exchange{correlation (xc) functional coupled to the Polarizable Embedding (PE) scheme (PE-CAM-B3LYP) in reproducing the solvatochromic shift of the lowest intense charge{transfer excitation in para...... to benchmark results of TDDFT calculations with CAM-B3LYP for intramolecular charge{transfer excitations in molecular systems similar to pNA against higher{level ab initio wave function methods, like, e.g., CCSD, prior to their use. Using the calculated change in dipole moment upon excitation as a measure...

  4. Charge-resonance excitations in symmetric molecules - Comparison of linear response DFT with CC3 for the excited states of a model dimer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlman, Thomas Scheby; Mikkelsen, Kurt V.; Møller, Klaus Braagaard;

    2009-01-01

    We present a study on the excited states of an ethylene dimer as to investigate the presence of and perturbation from low-lying charge-resonance states calculated by linear response density functional theory (DFT) using the B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP functionals. The calculations are compared to a refer......We present a study on the excited states of an ethylene dimer as to investigate the presence of and perturbation from low-lying charge-resonance states calculated by linear response density functional theory (DFT) using the B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP functionals. The calculations are compared...

  5. QUALITY OF COOKIES FORMULATED WITH DIFFERENT PEQUI PEEL FLOUR CONTENTS QUALIDADE DE BISCOITOS FORMULADOS COM DIFERENTES TEORES DE FARINHA DE CASCA DE PEQUI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Nakamoto Koakuzu

    2009-03-01

    -decoration: none;" lang="pt-BR" align="justify"> 

    KEY-WORDS: Caryocar brasiliense Camb.; residue; product development; dietary fiber.

    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade de biscoitos tipo cookie, formulados com diferentes níveis de farinha de casca de pequi (FCP, em substituição à farinha de trigo (FT. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com controle mais quatro tratamentos (12,5%; 25%; 37,5%; e 50% de substituição de FT por FCP, e quatro

  6. Local Distribution and coexistence of prevalent tree species in peat swamp forests of Central Kalimantan

    OpenAIRE

    Herwint Simbolon

    2009-01-01

    SIMBOLON, H. 2009. Local Distribution and coexistence of prevalent tree species in peat swamp forests of Central Kalimantan. Reinwardtia 12(5): 373–382. ⎯ A study on the distribution and coexistence of prevalent tree species in peat swamp forests was conducted at Lahei and Kelampangan, Central Kalimantan. The prevalent species in both sites were Calophyllum canum, Combretocarpus rotundatus, Cratoxylum glaucum, Ctenolophon parvifolius, Elaeocarpus petiolatus, with Palaquium cochleariifolium at...

  7. "Escola Familia": A Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carani, George; Carani, José; Strong-Wilson, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    "Alphabetização" (literacy) of young children involves a school exclusively devoted to the early years, parental participation, and teachers specialized in early literacy. This is the basis of José Carani's proposal for an "escola familia" in the municipality of Cambé (Brazil). This "Note from the Field," based…

  8. ANALYSIS OF PROJECT ABOUT CERRADO FRUITS DEVELOPED WITH STUDENTS FROM TWO PUBLIC SCHOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, D. B.; Costa, L. T.; C. P. O. F. Melo; A. G. Souza; E. M. Garcia; H. A. Taroco; J. O. F. Melo

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado has enormous diversity featuring a large number of fruit native plants that have a high nutritional value and distinctive flavor. This work belongs to an extension program of Cerrado fruits, where two species stand out in this region: Cagaita tree (Eugenia dysenterica DC) and Pequi tree (Caryocar brasiliense). The same was done in a neighborhood located near the Federal University of Sao Joao del Rei, Campus of Sete Lagoas - MG and developed in two municipal schools, wit...

  9. Adubos verdes para sistemas agroflorestais com Guanandi cultivado em várzea e terraço fluvial.

    OpenAIRE

    Devide, Antonio Carlos Pries

    2013-01-01

    A Mata Atlântica é um complexo de ecossistemas com elevada diversidade biológica; um dos biomas mais ameaçados do mundo pelas agressões às florestas; uma das cinco regiões do planeta de maior prioridade para a conservação. Em Pindamonhangaba, SP, vem sendo realizado experimentos de conversão agroflorestal de áreas de plantio de Guanandi (Calophyllum braziliense) em várzeas e terraços fluviais. O objetivo desse trabalho é buscar alternativas menos impactantes, rentáveis e com potencial de cont...

  10. Crescimento, acúmulo de fósforo e frações fosfatadas em mudas de sete espécies arbóreas nativas Growth, phosphorus accumulation and p fractions in seedlings of seven native tree species

    OpenAIRE

    José Zilton Lopes Santos; Álvaro Vilela de Resende; Antônio Eduardo Furtini Neto; Edmar Fernando Corte

    2008-01-01

    Este trabalho objetivou comparar o crescimento, a absorção de fósforo (P) e a distribuição das frações fosfatadas em mudas de sete espécies florestais classificadas como: pioneiras [aroeira (Lithraea molleoides), aroeirinha (Shcinus terebinthifolius), sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia), sesbânia (Sesbania virgata)] ou clímax [jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril), guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliensis) e óleo-bálsamo (Myroxylon peruiferum)]. As plantas foram cultivadas com cinco doses de P (0, 100, 250, 500...

  11. CRESCIMENTO INICIAL DE ESPÉCIES FLORESTAIS DE DIFERENTES GRUPOS SUCESSIONAIS EM RESPOSTA A DOSES DE FÓSFORO INITIAL GROWTH OF FOREST SPECIES OF DIFFERENT SUCCESSIONAL GROUPS IN RESPONSE TO PHOSPHORUS DOSES

    OpenAIRE

    ÁLVARO VILELA DE RESENDE; ANTONIO EDUARDO FURTINI NETO; JOEL AUGUSTO MUNIZ; NILTON CURI; VALDEMAR FAQUIN

    1999-01-01

    Objetivando avaliar a resposta de espécies florestais ao fornecimento de P, conduziu-se um ensaio sob condições de casa de vegetação, cultivando-se mudas das espécies arbóreas pioneiras (aroeira - Lithraea molleoides; aroeirinha - Schinus terebinthifolius; jacaré - Piptadenia gonoacantha; sabiá - Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia; sesbânia - Sesbania virgata), clímax exigente em luz (jatobá - Hymenaea courbaril), e clímax tolerantes a sombra (guanandi - Calophyllum brasiliensis; ipê-amarelo - Tabebuia...

  12. Computing the Absorption and Emission Spectra of 5-Methylcytidine in Different Solvents: A Test-Case for Different Solvation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Fernández, L; Pepino, A J; Segarra-Martí, J; Banyasz, A; Garavelli, M; Improta, R

    2016-09-13

    The optical spectra of 5-methylcytidine in three different solvents (tetrahydrofuran, acetonitrile, and water) is measured, showing that both the absorption and the emission maximum in water are significantly blue-shifted (0.08 eV). The absorption spectra are simulated based on CAM-B3LYP/TD-DFT calculations but including solvent effects with three different approaches: (i) a hybrid implicit/explicit full quantum mechanical approach, (ii) a mixed QM/MM static approach, and (iii) a QM/MM method exploiting the structures issuing from molecular dynamics classical simulations. Ab-initio Molecular dynamics simulations based on CAM-B3LYP functionals have also been performed. The adopted approaches all reproduce the main features of the experimental spectra, giving insights on the chemical-physical effects responsible for the solvent shifts in the spectra of 5-methylcytidine and providing the basis for discussing advantages and limitations of the adopted solvation models. PMID:27529792

  13. La formazione in psicoterapia cognitiva tra evidence based training e dimensione personale del terapeuta

    OpenAIRE

    Bani, MR

    2010-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. La formazione in psicoterapia è un’area che solo recentemente ha ricevuto attenzione da parte dei ricercatori, in particolare è emersa la necessità di verificare, accanto all’efficacia dei trattamenti che è tradizionalmente oggetto di studio in psicoterapia, se i percorsi di formazione in psicoterapia sono in grado di formare terapeuti efficaci e in che direzione si muove il cambiamento dei trainee. Questo lavoro si propone, alla luce dei dati di letteratura, di valutare il camb...

  14. Mocking the Weak Lensing universe: the LensTools python computing package

    OpenAIRE

    Petri, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We present a newly developed software package which implements a wide range of routines frequently used in Weak Gravitational Lensing (WL). With the continuously increasing size of the WL scientific community we feel that easy to use Application Program Interfaces (APIs) for common calculations are a necessity to ensure efficiency and coordination across different working groups. Coupled with existing open source codes, such as CAMB and Gadget2, LensTools brings together a cosmic shear simula...

  15. Confronting quasi-exponential inflation with WMAP seven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Barun Kumar; Pal, Supratik; Basu, B., E-mail: barunp1985@rediffmail.com, E-mail: pal@th.physik.uni-bonn.de, E-mail: banasri@isical.ac.in [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 B.T. Road, Kolkata 700 108 (India)

    2012-04-01

    We confront quasi-exponential models of inflation with WMAP seven years dataset using Hamilton Jacobi formalism. With a phenomenological Hubble parameter, representing quasi exponential inflation, we develop the formalism and subject the analysis to confrontation with WMAP seven using the publicly available code CAMB. The observable parameters are found to fair extremely well with WMAP seven. We also obtain a ratio of tensor to scalar amplitudes which may be detectable in PLANCK.

  16. The experience in monitoring pennalties and alternative measures: the case of the NUMOPA/CEAPA/NUAPA

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra regina de abreu Pires

    2014-01-01

    The present text aimed to show an experience with the monitoring of the execution of the penalties and alternative measures developed in the Londrina – Paraná region, through the projects Londrina’s Center for Alternative Sentencing Monitoring, Center for Alternative Sentencing Monitoring of Arapongas; Central Monitoring and Sentencing Alternative Measures and Center for Monitoring and Sentencing Alternative Measures of Cambé. The text if initiates with some notes on sentencing alternative me...

  17. Study on Theory and Application of the Energy Method used for Analyzing Compressive Instability in Sheet Forming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    It is pointed out that there was serious weakness w he n using the energy method for studying compressive plastic instability in sheet forming in the past. Where applying the deduced instability strengths to relativ e engineering analysis, theoretical solutions were away from practices. Its basi c reason is that simplified process in mathematical analysis of elastic bending energy was completely applied to that of plastic bending energy. Where the cambe r expressed by function of displacement normal to a ...

  18. Smoking and drinking as risk indicators for tooth loss in middle-aged Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morse, Douglas E; Avlund, Kirsten; Christensen, Lisa Bøge;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate tobacco and alcohol consumption as risk indicators for missing teeth in late middle-aged Danes. METHOD: In all, 1,517 Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) participants received a clinical oral examination that included number of teeth. Information on smoking......, drinking, and various covariates was obtained using self-administered, structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression (dependent variable: 6+ vs.

  19. Individual Differences in the Ability to Recognise Facial Identity Are Associated with Social Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Joshua M.; Elinor McKone; Hugh Dennett; Kirsty B O'Connor; Richard O'Kearney; Romina Palermo

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has been concerned with the relationship between social anxiety and the recognition of face expression but the question of whether there is a relationship between social anxiety and the recognition of face identity has been neglected. Here, we report the first evidence that social anxiety is associated with recognition of face identity, across the population range of individual differences in recognition abilities. Results showed poorer face identity recognition (on the Camb...

  20. Predicting accurate fluorescent spectra for high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jacob; Heider, Emily C.; Campiglia, Andres; Harper, James K.

    2016-10-01

    The ability of density functional theory (DFT) methods to predict accurate fluorescence spectra for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is explored. Two methods, PBE0 and CAM-B3LYP, are evaluated both in the gas phase and in solution. Spectra for several of the most toxic PAHs are predicted and compared to experiment, including three isomers of C24H14 and a PAH containing heteroatoms. Unusually high-resolution experimental spectra are obtained for comparison by analyzing each PAH at 4.2 K in an n-alkane matrix. All theoretical spectra visually conform to the profiles of the experimental data but are systematically offset by a small amount. Specifically, when solvent is included the PBE0 functional overestimates peaks by 16.1 ± 6.6 nm while CAM-B3LYP underestimates the same transitions by 14.5 ± 7.6 nm. These calculated spectra can be empirically corrected to decrease the uncertainties to 6.5 ± 5.1 and 5.7 ± 5.1 nm for the PBE0 and CAM-B3LYP methods, respectively. A comparison of computed spectra in the gas phase indicates that the inclusion of n-octane shifts peaks by +11 nm on average and this change is roughly equivalent for PBE0 and CAM-B3LYP. An automated approach for comparing spectra is also described that minimizes residuals between a given theoretical spectrum and all available experimental spectra. This approach identifies the correct spectrum in all cases and excludes approximately 80% of the incorrect spectra, demonstrating that an automated search of theoretical libraries of spectra may eventually become feasible.

  1. 悬钩子属部分类群的分类订正%TAXONOMIC REVISION ON SEVERAL TAXA INTHE GENUS RUBUS(ROSACEAE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李维林; 贺善安

    2001-01-01

    根据野外调查和查阅标本的结果,对悬钩子属部分类群做了修订.将红毛悬钩子(R. pinfaensis Lévl. et Vant.)并入椭圆悬钩子(R. ellipticus Smith),栽秧泡(R. ellipticus Smith var. obcordatus (Franch.) Focke)提升为种(R. obcordatus (Franch.) Focke);棱枝细瘦悬钩子(R. macilentus Camb. var. angulatus Delav. )并入细瘦悬钩子(R. macilentus Camb.);毛叶插田泡(R. coreanus Miq. var.tomentosus Card.)并入插田泡(R. coreanus Miq.);狭叶绢毛悬钩子(R.lineatus Reinw. var. angustifolius Hook.)并入绢毛悬钩子(R.lineatus Reinw.).对针刺悬钩子(R. pungens Camb.)及其各变种做了订正.

  2. Electronic Structures and Optical Properties of Phenyl C71 Butyric Acid Methyl Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Rong Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM has been adopted as electron acceptor materials in bulk heterojunction solar cells with relatively higher power conversion efficiency. The understanding of the mechanism and performance for the devices based upon PC71BM requires the information of conformations, electronic structures, optical properties, and so forth. Here, the geometries, IR and Raman, electronic structures, polarizabilities, and hyperpolarizabilities of PC71BM isomers are studied by using density functional theory (DFT; the absorption and excitation properties are investigated via time-dependent DFT with B3LYP, PBE0, and CAM-B3LYP functionals. The calculated results show that [6,6]PC71BM is more stable than [5,6]PC71BM due to the lower total energy. The vibrational modes of the isomers at IR and Raman peaks are quite similar. As to absorption properties, CAM-B3LYP functional is the suitable functional for describing the excitations of PC71BM because the calculated results with CAM-B3LYP functional agree well with that of the experiment. The analysis of transition configurations and molecular orbitals demonstrated that the transitions at the absorption maxima in UV/Vis region are localized π-π* transitions in fullerenes cages. Furthermore, the larger isotropic polarizability of PC71BM indicates that the response of PC71BM to applied external electric field is stronger than that of PC61BM, and therefore resulting into better nonlinear optical properties.

  3. Feeding preference of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck, 1816 on seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Ferreira Souza

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds exhibit different strategies to minimize the damage caused by herbivores and also to influence the feeding preference of these consumers. This study evaluated the feeding preference of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus through multiple-choice experiments using the seaweeds Caulerpa racemosa, Dictyota menstrualis, Osmundaria obtusiloba, Plocamium brasiliense, Sargassum sp., and Ulva sp. In order to verify the importance of morphological and chemical aspects on this feeding preference, two assay-types were carried out using live and powdered macroalgae, respectively. Two different methods were employed to analyze the results obtained: comparison between biomass losses versus autogenic changes, and inclusion of autogenic values in biomass loss through herbivory. In both experiments a clear differential consumption of certain species of seaweeds by L. variegatus was observed, in the following decreasing order of preference: C. racemosa ≈ Ulva sp. > O. obtusiloba ≈ Sargassum sp. > P. brasiliense > D. menstrualis. It was also verified that both methods of analysis used yielded similar results. According to the results obtained, feeding preference of L. variegatus is probably established by the defensive chemicals produced by P. brasiliense and D. menstrualis, and by morphological aspects of C. racemosa, Ulva sp., O. obtusiloba and Sargassum sp.As macroalgas apresentam diversos tipos de estratégias para minimizar os danos gerados por herbívoros que influenciam a preferência alimentar dos consumidores. Este estudo avaliou a preferência alimentar do ouriço-do-mar Lytechinus variegatus em experimentos de múltipla escolha utilizando as macroalgas bentônicas Caulerpa racemosa, Dictyota menstrualis, Osmundaria obtusiloba, Plocamium brasiliense, Sargassum sp., e Ulva sp. Para verificar a importância dos aspectos morfológicos e químicos na preferência, os ensaios foram realizados com algas vivas e em pó, respectivamente. Foram

  4. Caloric content of leaves of five tree species from the riparian vegetation in a forest fragment from South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Fabrício Fiori

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: The measurement of the caloric content evidences the amount of energy that remains in the leaf and that can be released to the aquatic trophic chain. We assessed the energy content of leaves from five riparian tree species of a forest fragment in south Brazil and analyzed whether leaf caloric content varied between leaf species and between seasons (dry and wet. The studied sites are located in Northwest of Paraná State, inside a Semi-Deciduous Forest fragment beside two headwater streams. Methods Sampling sites were located along the riparian vegetation of these two water bodies, and due to its proximity and absence of statistical differences of caloric values, analyzed as one compartment. Results Caloric content varied significantly among species and among all pairs of species, with exception of Nectandra cuspidata Ness and Calophyllum brasiliensis Cambess. Two species presented significant differences between seasons, Sloanea guianensis (Aubl. Ben and Calophyllum brasiliensis Cambess. Conclusions The absence of significant seasonal differences of energy content for some species may be due to the characteristics of the tropical forest, in which temperature did not varied dramatically between seasons. However, the energy differed between species and seasons for some species, emphasizing the necessity of a preliminary inspection of energy content, before tracing energy fluxes instead of using a single value to all species from riparian vegetation.

  5. Vegetation change in the coastal-lowland rainforest at Avai'o'vuna Swamp, Vava'u, Kingdom of Tonga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Patricia L.

    2005-11-01

    Avai'o'vuna Swamp, a small coastal wetland in Vava'u, Kingdom of Tonga, produced a 4500-year pollen and sediment record. Results are: (1) a mid-Holocene sea level highstand is confirmed for Tonga between about 4500 and 2600 14C yr B.P.; marine clay contains pollen from mangroves ( Rhizophora mangle), coastal forest trees ( Barringtonia asiatica and Cocos nucifera), and rainforest trees ( Alphitonia, Rhus, Hedycarya and Calophyllum). (2) Microscopic charcoal first appeared at 2600 14C yr B.P., coincident with the arrival of Polynesians. (3) Cocos, Pandanus, Excoecaria, Macaranga, and Elaeocarpaceae pollen reflects the establishment of a mixed coastal-lowland rainforest in the last 2500 years. (4) The loss of Hedycarya, Elaeocarpus, Calophyllum, and Guettarda and the reduction of Terminalia and taxa in the Papilionaceae family by about 1000 years ago may be due to habitat destruction and the loss of dispersal capabilities of some species through the extinction of the two largest pigeons in Tonga.

  6. Modelos ridge em planejamentos de misturas: uma aplicação na extração da polpa de pequi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Miranda Nepomucena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixture Models can be used in experimental situations involving areas related to food science and chemistry. Some problems of a statistical nature can be found, such as effects of multicollinearity that result in uncertainty in the optimization of a dependent variable. This study proposes the application of the ridge model adapted for mixture planning considering the Kronecker (K-model and Scheffe (S-Model methods applied to response surfaces. The method determined the proportions of hexane, acetone and alcohol proportions that resulted in the maximum response of percentage of extracted pequi (Caryocar brasiliense pulp oil.

  7. Modelos ridge em planejamentos de misturas: uma aplicação na extração da polpa de pequi Ridge models in mixture planning: an application in the extraction of pequi pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Miranda Nepomucena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixture Models can be used in experimental situations involving areas related to food science and chemistry. Some problems of a statistical nature can be found, such as effects of multicollinearity that result in uncertainty in the optimization of a dependent variable. This study proposes the application of the ridge model adapted for mixture planning considering the Kronecker (K-model and Scheffe (S-Model methods applied to response surfaces. The method determined the proportions of hexane, acetone and alcohol proportions that resulted in the maximum response of percentage of extracted pequi (Caryocar brasiliense pulp oil.

  8. Ticks infesting humans in Northern Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamattina, Daniela; Nava, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This work presents records of ticks infesting humans in northern Misiones Province, Argentina. Also, notes on potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens are included. A total of 282 ticks attached to researchers were collected and identified by their morphological characters. Eight tick species were found: Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma incisum, Amblyomma ovale, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus. Some of these species as A. dubitatum, A. ovale and R. sanguineus have been found infected with spotted fever group rickettsiae pathogenic to humans in Brazil and Argentina. The potential role as vectors of humans pathogens of the ticks found attached to humans in this study is discussed.

  9. A rapid assessment of the decapod fauna in the Rio Tahuamanu and Rio Manuripi Basins, with new records of shrimps and crabs for Bolivia (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae, Sergestidae, Trichodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célio Magalhães

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of a decapad fauna survey canducted during the AquaRAP expeditian to Río Tahuamanu and Río Manuripi Basins, in the Departmentaf Panda, Balivia, in September, 1996 are presented. Ten species of shrimps and crabs, representing three families and six genera were faund. New recards for Balivia were Macrobrachium depressimanum Pereira, 1993, Macrobrachium brasiliense (Heller, 1862, Acetes paraguayensis Hansen, 1919, Sylviocarcinus devillei H. Milne-Edwards, 1853, Sylviocarcinus maldonadoensis (Pretzmann, 1978, and valdivia serrata White, 1847.

  10. Biochemical remediation of a TNT contaminated soil. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This research presents the first field evidence for the phytoremediation of a TNT contaminated soil by the emersed aquatic plant, Myriophyllum brasiliense. Commonly known as Parrotfeather, this plant features a nitroreductase enzyme capable of promoting the reduction of the nitro groups on TNT to the corresponding amino groups. The proposed reductive pathway takes the TNT through isomers of monoamino and diamino to the final triaminonitrotoluene (TNT) Once in the TAT form and in the presence of oxygen, the final oxidative step quickly yields ring opened products and complete phytoremediation of TNT.

  11. Production and characterization of exopolysaccharide from submerged fermentation by Agaricus Brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Gern, Juliana Carine

    2005-01-01

    Resumo: Agaricus brasilienses (=Agaricus blazei Murril) é um basidiomiceto comestível conhecido mundialmente por suas propriedades medicinais. Estudos mostram que a principal atividade atribuída a este cogumelo, a atividade antitumoral, está relacionada a seus polissacarídeos estruturais. Este trabalho teve como objetivo aumentar o conhecimento sobre a produção e a estrutura do exopolissacarídeo (EPS) de Agaricus brasiliensis LPB 03 por fermentação submersa. Primeiramente, estudou-se o efeito...

  12. The ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, S; Lareschi, M; Rebollo, C; Benítez Usher, C; Beati, L; Robbins, R G; Durden, L A; Mangold, A J; Guglielmone, A A

    2007-04-01

    The ticks reported in Paraguay, which are here reviewed, can be categorized as 'endemic or established' (Argas persicus or a sibling species, Ornithodoros hasei, O. rostratus, O. rudis, O. talaje/O. puertoricensis, Amblyomma aureolatum, Am. auricularium, Am. brasiliense, Am. cajennense, Am. calcaratum, Am. coelebs, Am. dissimile, Am. dubitatum, Am. incisum, Am. longirostre, Am. nodosum, Am. ovale, Am. pacae, Am. parvum, Am. pseudoconcolor, Am. rotundatum, Am. scutatum, Am. tigrinum, Am. triste, Dermacentor nitens, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, H. leporispalustris, Ixodes loricatus, Rhipicephalus microplus, and Rh. sanguineus), 'probably endemic or established' (Ar. miniatus, Ar. monachus, Am. argentinae, Am. humerale, Am. naponense, Am. oblongoguttatum, Am. pseudoparvum, I. aragaoi/I. pararicinus, I. auritulus, I. luciae), or 'erroneously reported from Paraguay' (O. coriaceus, Am. americanum and Am. maculatum). Most Paraguayan tick collections have been made in the Chaco phyto-geographical domain, in the central part of the country. Argas persicus or a related species, Am. cajennense, D. nitens, Rh. microplus and Rh. sanguineus are important parasites of domestic animals. Ornithodoros rudis, Am. aureolatum, Am. brasiliense, Am. cajennense, Am. coelebs, Am. incisum, Am. ovale and Am. tigrinum have all been collected from humans. In terms of public health, the collections of Am. cajennense and Am. triste from humans may be particularly significant, as these species are potential vectors of Rickettsia rickettsii and Ri. parkeri, respectively.

  13. Lytopylus Förster (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Agathidinae species from Costa Rica, with an emphasis on specimens reared from caterpillars in Area de Conservación Guanacaste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Sharkey

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Twelve species of Costa Rican Lytopylus are treated; these include all species reared from Lepidoptera caterpillars in Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica, over 32 years of caterpillar inventory, as well as two species recorded in the literature as occurring in Costa Rica. Ten new species are described, i.e., Lytopylus bradzlotnicki, Lytopylus colleenhitchcockae, Lytopylus gregburtoni, Lytopylus jessicadimauroae, Lytopylus jessiehillae, Lytopylus mingfangi, Lytopylus rebeccashapleyae, Lytopylus robpringlei, Lytopylus sandraberriosae, Lytopylus vaughntani. The following species are transferred to Lytopylus: Metriosoma flavicalcar Enderlein 1920 to Lytopylus flavicalcar comb. n.; Bassus macadamiae Briceño and Sharkey 2000 to Lytopylus macadamiae comb. n.; Metriosoma bicarinatum Enderlein 1920 to Lytopylus bicarinatum comb. n.; Metriosoma brasiliense Enderlein 1920 to Lytopylus brasiliense comb. n.; Bassus tayrona Campos 2007 to Lytopylus tayrona comb. n.; Microdus femoratus Cameron 1887 to Lytopylus femoratus comb. n.; Microdus melanocephalus Cameron 1887 to Lytopylus melanocephalus comb. n.; Bassus pastranai Blanchard 1952 to Lytopylus pastranai comb. n.; Agathis nigrobalteata Cameron 1911 to Lytopylus nigrobalteatus comb. n. Two keys to species of Lytopylus are presented, one interactive and the other static.

  14. Enfermidades do sistema nervoso dos ruminantes no sul do Rio Grande do Sul Neurological diseases in ruminants in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Riet-Correa

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e patológicos das enfermidades do sistema nervoso central dos ruminantes, diagnosticadas na região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul, incluindo: abiotrofia cerebelar; hipoplasia cerebelar; hipermetria hereditária; artrogripose; hipomielinogênese congênita; abscesso cerebral; listeriose; tétano; botulismo; necrose simétrica focal; raiva; leucose; encefalite por herpesvírus bovino-5; febre catarral maligna; intoxicações por Solanum fastigiatum, Claviceps paspali, Ramaria flavo-brunnescens, Halimium brasiliense e Diplodia maydis; encefalopatia hepática causada por Senecio spp. e Echium plantagineum; cetose; coenurose; e síndrome espinhal.The main epidemiological, clinical and pathologic aspects of the diseases of the nervous system in cattle in Southern Rio Grande do Sul are described, including, the following conditions: cerebellar abiotrophy; cerebellar hypoplasia; congenital hypermetria; arthrogryposis; congenital hypomyelinogenesis; brain abscess; listeriose; tetanus; botulism; focal symmetrical encephalomalacia; rabies; leucosis; encephalitis by Herpesvirus Bovine-5; bovino malignant catarrh; intoxications by Solanum fastigiatum, Claviceps paspali, Halimium brasiliense, Diplodia maydis, and Ramaria flavo-brunnescens; hepatoencephalopaty caused by Senecio spp. and Echium plantagineum; ketosis; coenurosis; and spinal syndrome.

  15. Phytochemical Analysis and Antifungal Activity of Extracts from Leaves and Fruit Residues of Brazilian Savanna Plants Aiming Its Use as Safe Fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Caroline Alves; Gasperini, Alessandra Marcon; Garcia, Vera Lucia; Monteiro, Karin Maia; Bataglion, Giovana Anceski; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira

    2016-08-01

    The increasing demand for safe food without preservatives or pesticides residues has encouraged several studies on natural products with antifungal activity and low toxicity. In this study, ethanolic extracts from leaves and fruit residues (peel and seeds) of three Brazilian savanna species (Acrocomia aculeata, Campomanesia adamantium and Caryocar brasiliense) were evaluated against phytopathogenic fungi. Additionally, the most active extract was chemically characterized by ESI-MS and its oral acute toxicity was evaluated. Extracts from C. brasiliense (pequi) peel and leaves were active against Alternaria alternata, Alternaria solani and Venturia pirina with minimal inhibitory concentrations between 350 and 1000 µg/mL. When incorporated in solid media, these extracts extended the lag phase of A. alternata and A. solani and reduced the growth rate of A. solani. Pequi peel extract showed better antifungal activity and their ESI-MS analysis revealed the presence of substances widely reported as antifungal such as gallic acid, quinic acid, ellagic acid, glucogalin and corilagin. The oral acute toxicity was relatively low, being considered safe for use as a potential natural fungicide. PMID:27169570

  16. Determinação do potencial antioxidante in vitro de frutos do Cerrado brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Lopes Morais

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Extratos em metanol e acetona de diferentes espécies do Cerrado, semente de Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil (Lobeira, polpa de Byrsonima verbascifolia (L. DC. (Murici, epicarpo e mesocarpo de Caryocar brasiliense Cambess (Pequi e pendúculo de Cipocereus minensis F. Ritter (Quiabo-da-lapa foram submetidos a ensaios antioxidantes in vitro para avaliar a capacidade de sequestrar os radicais orgânicos DPPH e ABTS.+, reduzir o ferro (FRAP e/ ou inibir a peroxidação lipídica (β-caroteno. Todas as amostras apresentaram considerável atividade antioxidante, embora em diferentes proporções, destacando-se o mesocarpo de Caryocar brasiliense como o responsável pela maior atividade antioxidante por captura de radicais livres (DPPH e ABTS e poder de redução do metal (FRAP e o pendúnculo de Cipocereus minensis frente à inibição da peroxidação lipídica (B-caroteno. Os frutos estudados podem ser considerados fontes potenciais de antioxidantes naturais e podem ser explorados como aditivos alimentares promissores para a prevenção de doenças, bem como para a manutenção da saúde.

  17. Modeling the Galaxy-Halo Connection: An open-source approach with Halotools

    OpenAIRE

    Hearin, Andrew

    2016-01-01

     Although the modern form of galaxy-halo modeling has been in place for over ten years, there exists no common code base for carrying out large-scale structure calculations. Considering, for example, the advances in CMB science made possible by Boltzmann-solvers such as CMBFast, CAMB and CLASS, there are clear precedents for how theorists working in a well-defined subfield can mutually benefit from such a code base. Motivated by these and other examples, I present Halotools: an open-sour...

  18. Ghost dark energy models in specific modified gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Abdul; Salako, Ines G.; Sohail, Ayesha

    2016-09-01

    The paper is devoted to the study of the cosmic acceleration through ghost dark energy models (its simple and generalized form) in the dynamical Chern-Simons modified gravity. In order to check the reliability of this scenario, we explore different cosmological parameters, such as deceleration, equation of state parameters and squared speed of sound. The cosmological planes ωD - 'D and r- s are also investigated in this framework. The obtained results are consistent with observational data of various schemes (WMAP+eCAMB+BAO+H0).

  19. Triterpenóides pentacíclicos das folhas de Terminalia brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo Delton Sérvulo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven oleanane, ursane and lupane-type triterpenes were isolated from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis Camb, daturadiol (3b,6beta-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene, 3beta-hydroxy-30-norlupan-20-one, lupenone, beta-amyrenone, alpha-amyrenone, lupeol, beta-amyrin, alpha-amyrin, betulin, erythrodiol and uvaol, in addition to squalene, sitosterol and alpha-tocopherol. The structures of these compounds were identified by ¹H and 13C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data.

  20. Pentacyclic triterpenoids from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis; Triterpenoides pentaciclicos das folhas de Terminalia brasiliensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Delton Servulo; Chaves, Mariana H. [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mariana@ufpi.br

    2005-11-15

    Eleven oleanane, ursane and lupane-type triterpenes were isolated from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis Camb, daturadiol (3{beta},6{beta}-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene), 3{beta}-hydroxy-30-norlupan-20-one, lupenone, {beta}-amyrenone, {alpha}-amyrenone, lupeol, {beta}-amyrin, {alpha}-amyrin, betulin, erythrodiol and uvaol, in addition to squalene, sitosterol and {alpha}-tocopherol. The structures of these compounds were identified by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data. (author)

  1. Theoretical tuning of the firefly bioluminescence spectra by the modification of oxyluciferin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan-Yuan; Zhu, Jia; Liu, Ya-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Extending the firefly bioluminescence is of practical significance for the improved visualization of living cells and the development of a multicolor reporter. Tuning the color of bioluminescence in fireflies mainly involves the modification of luciferase and luciferin. In this Letter, we theoretically studied the emission spectra of 9 firefly oxyluciferin analogs in the gas phase and in solutions. Three density functionals, including B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP and M06-2X, were employed to theoretically predict the efficiently luminescent analogs. The reliable functionals for calculating the targeted systems were suggested. The luminescence efficiency, solvent effects, and substituent effects are discussed based on the calculated results.

  2. Modelos workflow: Análisis y medición

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta, Mario; Salgado, Carlos Humberto; Baigorria, Lorena; Berón, Mario; Riesco, Daniel Eduardo; Montejano, Germán Antonio

    2011-01-01

    La necesidad de mejora continua de los procesos de negocio, ha llevado a las organizaciones a buscar herramientas que den soporte a dichas mejoras. La Gestión de Procesos de Negocio proporciona este soporte mediante los Sistemas de Gestión de Procesos de Negocio. Una de las tecnologías más significativas para soportar la automatización de los procesos de negocio son los Sistemas de Gestión Workflow. Para favorecer y dar flexibilidad a dichos sistemas, de manera que puedan adaptarse a los camb...

  3. PolyChord: nested sampling for cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Handley, W J; Lasenby, A N

    2015-01-01

    PolyChord is a novel nested sampling algorithm tailored for high dimensional parameter spaces. In addition, it can fully exploit a hierarchy of parameter speeds such as is found in CosmoMC and CAMB. It utilises slice sampling at each iteration to sample within the hard likelihood constraint of nested sampling. It can identify and evolve separate modes of a posterior semi-independently and is parallelised using openMPI. PolyChord is available for download at: http://ccpforge.cse.rl.ac.uk/gf/project/polychord/

  4. Reinventando la rueda: una experiencia de aprendizaje por descubrimiento en la asignatura de Sistemas Operativos

    OpenAIRE

    Riesco Albizu, Miguel; Díaz Fondón, María Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    El aprendizaje por descubrimiento es una técnica docente de las propuestas para formación por competencias, donde se fomenta el aprendizaje activo y, se supone, se obtiene un mayor aprovechamiento por parte del alumno. En este artículo se describe una experiencia de aplicación de dicha técnica a la asignatura de Sistemas Operativos y los resultados que se han observado. Además, como resultado del trabajo desarrollado, se reflexiona sobre los problemas que se están produciendo respecto al camb...

  5. Implicaciones hidrológicas del cambio de la cobertura vegetal y uso del suelo: una propuesta de análisis espacial a nivel regional en la cuenca cerrada del lago de Cuitzeo, Michoacán

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel E. Mendoza; Gerardo Bocco; Ema Martha López Granados; Miguel Bravo

    2002-01-01

    Este estudio intenta contribuir en la comprensión de las implicaciones del cambio de la cobertura vegetal y uso del suelo (CCVUS) a nivel regional en el balance hídrico espacialmente distribuido (BHED) en una cuenca poco aforada para 1975 y 2000. Los resultados de esta investigación son producto de la integración de herramientas de percepción remota y sistemas de información geográfica con un modelo de balance de agua; además, se utilizaron técnicas de análisis de dinámica de camb...

  6. Computer-aided Framework for Design of Pure, Mixed and Blended Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cignitti, Stefano; Zhang, Lei; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for computer-aided design of pure, mixed and blended chemical based products. The framework is a systematic approach to convert a Computer-aided Molecular, Mixture and Blend Design (CAMbD) formulation, based on needs and target properties, into a mixed integer non-......-linear program (MINLP). TheMINLP is sequentially solved through a decomposed optimization approach to solve the possibly large MINLP in a smaller set of sub-problems. The framework application is highlighted through a solvent design case study....

  7. Selective detection of toxic cyanogen gas in the presence of O2, and H2O molecules using a AlN nanocluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimannejad, Mohammad; Kamalinahad, Saeedeh; Shakerzadeh, Ehsan

    2016-08-01

    The interaction of cyanogen molecule with Al12N12 nanocage has been studied using density functional theory (DFT) at CAM-B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level. Geometric, electronic structure and natural bond orbitals (NBO) analysis display that adsorption of cyanogen onto exterior surface of Al12N12 is physisorption with adsorption energy (Eads) equal to -55.36 kJ/mol. UV-vis study shows a high intensity peak in 388.9 nm due to interaction of gas with nanocage. It is expected that Al12N12 will be used in designing novel materials for potential applications to detect toxic cyanogen molecule.

  8. Pemanfaatan Biji Buah Nyamplung (Callophylum Inophylum Sebagai Bahan Baku Pembuatan Biodisel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Biru Chandra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia merupakan negara kepulauan dengan garis pantai terpanjang keempat di dunia. Sepanjang sekitar 95000 Km merupakan habitat penting bagi vegetasi mangrove dan biota nya. Sebuah survei tahun 2007 menunjukkan bahwa 20% dari garis pantai rusak, dan tanah aktif terancam oleh erosi. Reboisasi penanaman vegetasi pantai dilakukan oleh pemerintah daerah. Salah satunya adalah Calophyllum Inophyllum. Potensi penggunaan benih C.Inophyllum tidak jelas sampai sekarang. Oleh karena itu, komposisi dan analisia C. Inophyllum dan minyak akan diselidiki. Dari hasil, ditemukan bahwa biji buah C. inophyllum mengandung lemak kasar (63,1%, serat kasar (16,64%, abu (3,22%, protein (3,42%, kelembaban (4,15%, dan ekstrak nitrogen bebas (13.62%. Itu juga memiliki nilai kalori 6092 kal / g. Its lipid asam lemak bebas yang terkandung (8,23%, monogliserida (3,93%, digliserida (3,37%, trigliserida (81.06% dan bioactive (3,4%.

  9. Removal of Basic Violet 14 from aqueous solution using sulphuric acid activated materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, S

    2016-01-01

    In this study the adsorption of Basic Violet, 14 from aqueous solution onto sulphuric acid activated materials prepared from Calophyllum inophyllum (CS) and Theobroma cacao (TS) shells were investigated. The experimental data were analysed by Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. The results showed that CS has a superior adsorption capacity compared to the TS. The adsorption capacity was found to be 1416.43 mg/g for CS and 980.39 mg/g for TS. The kinetic data results at different concentrations were analysed using pseudo first-order and pseudo-second order model. Boyd plot indicates that the dye adsorption onto CS and TS is controlled by film diffusion. The adsorbents were characterised by scanning electron microscopy. The materials used in this study were economical waste products and hence can be an attractive alternative to costlier adsorbents for dye removal in industrial wastewater treatment processes. PMID:27330899

  10. Prospects and potential of fatty acid methyl esters of some non-traditional seed oils for use as biodiesel in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohibbe Azam, M.; Waris, Amtul; Nahar, N.M. [Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur 342003 (India)

    2005-10-01

    Fatty acid profiles of seed oils of 75 plant species having 30% or more fixed oil in their seed/kernel were examined. Saponification number (SN), iodine value (IV) and cetane number (CN) of fatty acid methyl esters of oils were empirically determined and they varied from 169.2 to 312.5, 4.8 to 212 and 20.56 to 67.47, respectively. Fatty acid compositions, IV and CN were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters of oil for use as biodiesel. Fatty acid methyl ester of oils of 26 species including Azadirachta indica, Calophyllum inophyllum, Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata were found most suitable for use as biodiesel and they meet the major specification of biodiesel standards of USA, Germany and European Standard Organization. The fatty acid methyl esters of another 11 species meet the specification of biodiesel standard of USA only. These selected plants have great potential for biodiesel. (author)

  11. Variations in bark thickness and sapwood density of Calophyilum inophyllum provenances in Australia and in Sri Lanka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subhash Hathurusingha; Nanjappa Ashwath

    2011-01-01

    Sapwood density and bark thickness of Calophyllum inophyl- lum L. (a multipurpose durable timber species) were studied in various locations in Northern Australia and in Sri Lanka. Measurements were taken non-destructively by using core sampling and bark gauge. From each provenance, 4-15 mature trees having girth at breast height over bark (GBHOB) at 100-150 cm were selected on the basis of the popula- tion size. Significant (p<0.05) hemispheric and provenance variations in bark thickness were found. Variations in the bark thickness are influ- enced by environmental variables. Variations in sapwood density were less pronounced compared to that of bark thickness. Variations in sap- wood density are likely to be governed by genotypic variations.

  12. Vegetable oil from fruits of forest species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razzaque, M.A.; Sayeed, M.; Das, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    Seeds were collected from species in various areas of Bangladesh to assess their potential for production of industrial (e.g. for paint, varnish, soap) and edible oils: Aleurites montana; Amoora spp.; Amoora spectabilis; Aphanamixis (Ricinocarpodendron) polystachya; Calophyllum inophyllum; Elaeis guineensis; Garcinia cowa; Hydnocarpus kurzii; Mallotus philippinensis; Mesua ferrea; Mimusops elengi; Pongamia pinnata; Schleichera oleosa; Shorea robusta; and Zanthoxylum budrunga. In cases where the seed coat could be detached, the weight ratio of seed coat to kernel was calculated. Oil contents of kernel, pulp or whole seed were determined by solvent extraction depending on the ease of separation of the seed coat. Free fatty acid contents and saponification and iodine values of the oil samples were determined. High percentages of oil were obtained from most species. 10 references.

  13. Electronic structures and second hyperpolarizabilities of alkaline earth metal complexes end-capped with NA2 (A = H, Li, Na).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Paramita; Nandi, Prasanta K

    2016-05-14

    The ground state structures and NLO properties of a number of alkaline earth metal complexes end-capped with NA2 groups (A = H, Li, Na) are calculated by employing the CAM-B3LYP, wB97XD and B2PLYP functionals along with MP2 and CCSD(T) for 6-311++G(d,p), 6-311++G(3df,3pd), aug-cc-pVTZ, aug-pc-2 and Hypol basis sets. The complexes are found to be significantly stable. The magnitude of second hyperpolarizability enhances appreciably with increase in the number of magnesium and calcium atoms in the chain, which has been indicated by the power law dependence γ = a + bn(c) with c values ranging from 2.4-4.3 for Mg and 2.4-3.7 for Ca complexes, respectively. The largest second-hyperpolarizability (10(9) au) is obtained for the complex Ca7(NNa2)2 at the CAM-B3LYP level. The two state model has been used to explain the variation of hyperpolarizabilities. PMID:27088138

  14. Land Planarian Assemblages in Protected Areas of the Interior Atlantic Forest: Implications for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrete, Lisandro; Colpo, Karine D.; Brusa, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Land planarians are an interesting group of free-living flatworms that can be useful as bioindicators because of their high sensitivity to environmental changes and low dispersal capacity. In this study, we describe and compare assemblages of land planarians from areas with different conservation degrees of the Interior Atlantic Forest (Misiones, Argentina), and assess factors that could be related to their abundance and richness. Eight sites were tracked in search of land planarians in Reserva de Vida Silvestre Urugua-í (RVSU) and Campo Anexo Manuel Belgrano (CAMB). Diurnal and nocturnal surveys were performed in each site along nine sampling campaigns. We collected 237 individuals belonging to 18 species of the subfamily Geoplaninae. All sites were dominated by Geoplana sp. 1 and Pasipha hauseri. The richness estimators showed that there would be more species in RVSU than in CAMB. The abundance and richness of land planarians was high during the night and after rainfalls, suggesting an increased activity of flatworms under such conditions. The abundance and richness of land planarians were also related to the conservation condition of the sites. Disturbed sites showed less abundance and richness, and were segregated from non-disturbed ones by nmMDS analysis. Beta diversity between sites was higher than expected, indicating that the species turnover between sites contributed more to the total richness (gamma diversity) than the alpha diversity. PMID:24598934

  15. Second harmonic generation and electro-optical Pockels effect of 1-and 3-nitro-6-azabenzo[]pyrene N-oxide isomers: A Hartree-Fock and Coulomb-attenuating density functional theory investigation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andrea Alparone

    2014-05-01

    Structural, energetic, spectroscopic, linear and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of the environmental mutagens 1- and 3-nitro-6-azabenzo[]pyrene -oxides were characterized by means of Hartree-Fock as well as B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP density functional theory computations. The NLO investigations were performed for the second harmonic generation (SHG) and electro-optical Pockels effect (EOPE) at the incident wavelength of 1064 nm. The results show that, the predicted structures, vibrational spectra, nucleus independent chemical shifts, ionization energy, electron affinity as well as electronic polarizabilities are little influenced by the position of the nitro substituent. Differently, the dipole moment () and the first-order hyperpolarizabilities () are significantly dependent on the isomerization. The rather different mutagenic activity of the investigated isomers could be related to their diverse polarity. At the CAM-B3LYP level, when passing from the 1- to the 3-nitro-6-azabenzo[a]pyrene -oxide isomer, the datum increases by about 5 D (a factor of three), whereas the static and dynamic values decrease by ca. 50%. Dipole moment measurement and SHG and EOPE NLO techniques are potentially useful to distinguish these important environmental mutagens.

  16. Fast cosmological parameter estimation using neural networks

    CERN Document Server

    Auld, T; Hobson, M P; Gull, S F

    2006-01-01

    We present a method for accelerating the calculation of CMB power spectra, matter power spectra and likelihood functions for use in cosmological parameter estimation. The algorithm, called CosmoNet, is based on training a multilayer perceptron neural network and shares all the advantages of the recently released Pico algorithm of Fendt & Wandelt, but has several additional benefits in terms of simplicity, computational speed, memory requirements and ease of training. We demonstrate the capabilities of CosmoNet by computing CMB power spectra over a box in the parameter space of flat \\Lambda CDM models containing the 3\\sigma WMAP1 confidence region. We also use CosmoNet to compute the WMAP3 likelihood for flat \\Lambda CDM models and show that marginalised posteriors on parameters derived are very similar to those obtained using CAMB and the WMAP3 code. We find that the average error in the power spectra is typically 2-3% of cosmic variance, and that CosmoNet is \\sim 7 \\times 10^4 faster than CAMB (for flat ...

  17. First hyperpolarizability of polymethineimine with long-range corrected functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemin, Denis; Perpète, Eric A.; Medved', Miroslav; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J.; Kobayashi, Rika; Adamo, Carlo

    2007-05-01

    Using the long-range corrected (LC) density functional theory (DFT) scheme introduced by Iikura et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 115, 3540 (2001)] and the Coulomb-attenuating model (CAM-B3LYP) of Yanai et al. [Chem. Phys. Lett. 393, 51 (2004)], we have calculated the longitudinal dipole moments and static electronic first hyperpolarizabilities of increasingly long polymehtineimine oligomers. For comparison purposes Hartree-Fock (HF), Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), and conventional pure and hybrid functionals have been considered as well. HF, generalized gradient approximation (GGA), and conventional hybrids provide too large dipole moments for long oligomers, while LC-DFT allows to reduce the discrepancy with respect to MP2 by a factor of 3. For the first hyperpolarizability, the incorrect evolution with the chain length predicted by HF is strongly worsened by BLYP, Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE), and also by B3LYP and PBE0. On the reverse, LC-BLYP and LC-PBE hyperpolarizabilities are correctly predicted to be positive (but for the two smallest chains). Indeed, for medium and long oligomers LC hyperpolarizabilities are slightly smaller than MP2 hyperpolarizabilities, as it should be. CAM-B3LYP also strongly improves the B3LYP results, though a bit less impressively for small chain lengths. The present study demonstrates the efficiency of long-range DFT, even in very pathological cases.

  18. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of nucleic acid bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alparone, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Electronic and vibrational (hyper)polarizabilities of neutral nucleic acid bases (uracil, thymine, cytosine, adenine, hypoxanthine and guanine) were determined using Hartree-Fock, correlated MPn (n = 2, 4), CCSD and DFT (B3LYP, B97-1, CAM-B3LYP) methods. The computations were performed in gaseous and aqueous phases for the most stable tautomeric forms. Frequency-dependent second-order hyperpolarizabilities were calculated for the OKE, IDRI, EFISHG and THG nonlinear optical processes at the wavelength of 1064 nm. The results show that the average electronic polarizabilities increase in the order uracil guanine. This order is also maintained for the electronic hyperpolarizabilities, with the inversion between cytosine and thymine. The response electric properties for the tautomers are almost similar to each other, whereas group substitution and solvation effects are much more significant. Among the DFT methods, the long-range corrected CAM-B3LYP functional gives the better performances, reproducing satisfactorily the correlated ab initio (hyper)polarizability data.

  19. Excited States of DNA Base Pairs Using Long-Range Corrected Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Lasse; Govind, Niranjan

    2009-08-01

    In this work, we present a study of the excitation energies of adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, and the adenine-thymine (AT) and guanine-cytosine (GC) base pairs using long-range corrected (LC) density functional theory. We compare three recent LC functionals, BNL, CAM-B3LYP, and LC-PBE0, with B3LYP and coupled cluster results from the literature. We find that the best overall performance is for the BNL functional based on LDA. However, in order to achieve this good agreement, a smaller attenuation parameter is needed, which leads to nonoptimum performance for ground-state properties. B3LYP, on the other hand, severely underestimates the charge-transfer (CT) transitions in the base pairs. Surprisingly, we also find that the CAM-B3LYP functional also underestimates the CT excitation energy for the GC base pair but correctly describes the AT base pair. This illustrates the importance of retaining the full long-range exact exchange even at distances as short as that of the DNA base pairs. The worst overall performance is obtained with the LC-PBE0 functional, which overestimates the excitations for the individual bases as well as the base pairs. It is therefore crucial to strike a good balance between the amount of local and long-range exact exchange. Thus, this work highlights the difficulties in obtained LC functionals, which provides a good description of both ground- and excited-state properties.

  20. Benchmarking the starting points of the GW approximation for molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GW approximation is nowadays being used to obtain accurate quasiparticle energies of atoms and molecules. In practice, the GW approximation is generally evaluated perturbatively, based on a prior self-consistent calculation within a simpler approximation. The final result thus depends on the choice of the self-consistent mean-field chosen as a starting point. Using a recently developed GW code based on Gaussian basis functions, we benchmark a wide range of starting points for perturbative GW, including Hartree-Fock, LDA, PBE, PBE0, B3LYP, HSE06, BH and HLYP, CAM-B3LYP, and tuned CAM-B3LYP. In the evaluation of the ionization energy, the hybrid functionals are clearly superior results starting points when compared to Hartree-Fock, to LDA, or to the semi local approximations. Furthermore, among the hybrid functionals, the ones with the highest proportion of exact-exchange usually perform best. Finally, the reliability of the frozen-core approximation, that allows for a considerable speedup of the calculations, is demonstrated. (authors)

  1. Modeling emission features of salicylidene aniline molecular crystals: A QM/QM' approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presti, Davide; Labat, Frédéric; Pedone, Alfonso; Frisch, Michael J; Hratchian, Hrant P; Ciofini, Ilaria; Cristina Menziani, Maria; Adamo, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    A new computational protocol relying on the use of electrostatic embedding, derived from QM/QM' ONIOM calculations, to simulate the effect of the crystalline environment on the emission spectra of molecular crystals is here applied to the β-form of salicylidene aniline (SA). The first singlet excited states (S1 ) of the SA cis-keto and trans-keto conformers, surrounded by a cluster of other molecules representing the crystalline structure, were optimized by using a QM/QM' ONIOM approach with and without electronic embedding. The model system consisting of the central salicylidene aniline molecule was treated at the DFT level by using either the B3LYP, PBE0, or the CAM-B3LYP functional, whereas the real system was treated at the HF level. The CAM-B3LYP/HF level of theory provides emission energies in good agreement with experiment with differences of -20/-32 nm (cis-keto form) and -8/-14 nm (trans-keto form), respectively, whereas notably larger differences are obtained using global hybrids. Though such differences on the optical properties arise from the density functional choice, the contribution of the electronic embedding is rather independent of the functional used. This plays in favor of a more general applicability of the present protocol to other crystalline molecular systems. PMID:26919703

  2. Optical Rotation from Coupled Cluster and Density Functional Theory: The Role of Basis Set Convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghdani, Shokouh; Åstrand, Per-Olof; Koch, Henrik

    2016-02-01

    We have calculated the electronic optical rotation of seven molecules using coupled cluster singles-doubles (CCSD) and the second-order approximation (CC2) employing the aug-cc-pVXZ (X = D, T, or Q) basis sets. We have also compared to time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) by utilizing two functionals B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP and the same basis sets. Using relative and absolute error schemes, our calculations demonstrate that the CAM-B3LYP functional predicts optical rotation with the minimum deviations compared to CCSD at λ = 355 and 589.3 nm. Furthermore, our results illustrate that the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set provides the optical rotation in good agreement with the larger basis sets for molecules not possessing small-angle optical rotation at λ = 589.3 nm. We have also performed several two-point inverse power extrapolations for the basis set convergence, i.e., OR(∞) + AX(-n), using the CC2 model at λ = 355 and 589.3 nm. Our results reveal that a two-point inverse power extrapolation with the aug-cc-pVTZ and aug-cc-pVQZ basis sets at n = 5 provides optical rotation deviations similar to those of aug-cc-pV5Z with respect to the basis limit.

  3. FRCAMB: An $f(R)$ Code for Anisotropies in the Microwave Background

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    An $f(R)$ gravity model is proposed to realize a late time accelerated expansion of our Universe. To test the viability of an $f(R)$ gravity model through cosmic observations, the background evolution and the Einstein-Boltzmann equation should be solved for studying the effects on the cosmic microwave background power spectrum and on the matter power spectrum. In the market, we already have the modified versions of {\\bf CAMB} code, for instance {\\bf EFTCAMB} and {\\bf MGCAMB}. However, in these publicly available Einstein-Boltzmann codes, a specific background cosmology, for example the $\\Lambda$CDM or $w$CDM, is assumed. This assumption would be non-proper for a specific $f(R)$ model where the background evolution may be different from a $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology. Therefore the main task for this paper is to present a code to calculate the anisotropies in the microwave background for any $f(R)$ gravity model based on {\\bf CAMB} code, i.e. {\\bf FRCAMB}, where the background and perturbation evolutions are include...

  4. Direct Dynamics Simulation of Dissociation of the [CH3--I--OH]- Ion-Molecule Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Jing; McClellan, Miranda; Sun, Rui; Kohale, Swapnil C.; Govind, Niranjan; Hase, William L.

    2015-02-05

    Direct dynamics simulations were used to study dissociation of the [CH3--I--OH]- complex ion, which was observed in a previous study of the OH- + CH3I gas phase reaction (J. Phys. Chem. A 2013, 117, 7162). Restricted B97-1 simulations were performed to study dissociation at 65, 75 and 100 kcal/mol and the [CH3--I--OH]- ion dissociated exponentially, in accord with RRKM theory. For these energies the major dissociation products are CH3I + OH-, CH2I- + H2O, and CH3OH + I-. Unrestricted B97-1 and restricted and unrestricted CAM-B3LYP simulations were also performed at 100 kcal/mol to compare with the restricted B97-1 results. The {CH3I + OH-}:{CH2I- + H2O}:{CH3OH + I-} product ratio is 0.72 : 0.15 : 0.13, 0.81 : 0.05 : 0.14, 0.71 : 0.19 : 0.10 , and 0.83 : 0.13 : 0.04 for the restricted B97-1, unrestricted B97-1, restricted CAM-B3LYP, and unrestricted CAM-B3LYP simulations, respectively. Other product channels found are CH2 + I- + H2O, CH2 + I-(H2O), CH4 + IO-, CH3 - + IOH, and CH3 + IOH-. The CH3 - + IOH singlet products are only given by the restricted B97-1 simulation and the lower energy CH3 + IOH- doublet products are only formed by the unrestricted B97-1 simulation. Also studied were the direct and indirect atomic-level mechanisms for forming CH3I + OH-, CH2I- + H2O, and CH3OH + I-. The majority of CH3I + OH- were formed through a direct mechanism. For both CH2I- + H2O and CH3OH + I-, the direct mechanism is overall more important than the indirect mechanisms, with the round-about like mechanism the most important indirect mechanism at high excitation energies. Mechanism comparisons between the B97-1 and CAM-B3LYP simulations showed that formation of the CH3OH---I- complex is favored for the B97-1 simulations, while formation of the HO----HCH2I complex is favored for the CAM-B3LYP simulations. The unrestricted simulations give a higher percentage of indirect mechanisms than the restricted simulations. The possible role of the self-interaction error in the

  5. Growth and maturation of pequi fruit of the Brazilian cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz José Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the development of pequi fruit (Caryocar brasiliense of the Brazilian cerrado. It takes 84 days (12 weeks for pequi to develop with the onset of flowering in September and early fruit set in January. Pequi fruit showed a simple sigmoid growth curve, and its growth was characterized based on fresh mass and longitudinal and transverse diameters. The contents of titratable acidity, soluble solids, β-carotene, and vitamin C increased during fruit growth, reaching their maximum values at the 12th week (84 days after anthesis. Pequi is a fruit with an extremely high respiratory activity; its respiratory rate decreased during its development. Pequi fruit has been classified as a non-climacteric fruit due to the decrease of both respiration and ethylene production rates during maturation and ripening.

  6. A contribution to the taxonomy of the genus xiphinema cobb, 1913.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, E; Sher, S A

    1972-01-01

    In a comparative study of different populations of Xiphinema, the significance of the female gonad structure in species determination is stressed, and monodelphic, pseudomonodelphic, and didelphic forms in the genus are defined. X. chambersi is redescribed and illustrated, X. ensiculiferum and X. krugi are redefined, and X. ensiculiferoides n.sp. and X. orthotenum n.sp. are described. Proposed new synonymies are: X. itanhaense = X. brasiliense; X. bulgariensis and X. conurum = X. italiae; X. ifacolum = X. basiri; X. macrostylum = X. ensiculiferum; X. truncatum = X. elongatum; and X. vulgare = X. setariae. X. yapoense is considered species inquirenda and X. obtusum a nomen dubium. The following eight subgenera of the genus Xiphinema are proposed: Radiphinema n. subg., Krugiphinema n. subg., Xiphinema n. subg., Elongiphinema n. subg., Halliphinema n. subg., Basiphinema n. subg., Rotundiphinema n. subg., and Diversiphinema n. subg. A key to the subgenera of Xiphinema is presented, plus a list of 50 species in the genus, their synonyms, and 10 species inquirendae.

  7. Composição florística das formações vegetais sobre uma turfeira topotrófica da planície costeira do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Floristic composition of the vegetation types of a fen on the southern Brazil coastal plain in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César S. B. Costa

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Turfeiras topotróficas caracterizam-se como corpos de águas rasas, permanente ou periodicamente alagados por água do lençol freático, percolada através do solo inorgânico das terras altas adjacentes à depressão central da turfeira. Possuem solos orgânicos e a cobertura vegetal é dominanda por fanerógamas aquáticas emergentes. Este estudo visou o levantamento da diversidade específica e caracterização das principais formações vegetais ao longo de duas transecções de 200m em uma turfeira topotrófica na localidade de Domingos Petrolini (Rio Grande, RS. Em março/1998, o total de 48 espécies vegetais (30 famílias foram encontradas nas 40 parcelas de 5m × 2m observadas nas duas transecções efetuadas. Cerca de 56% das espécies eram plantas aquáticas herbáceas (submersas, flutuantes ou emergentes e apenas 10% arbustos ou árvores. Sete espécies dominaram a cobertura vegetal (Eupatorium tremulum, Eryngium pandanifolium, Blechnum brasiliense, Rhynchospora sp., Xyris jupicai, Utricularia gibba e Cladium jamaicense. Quatro formações vegetais tipicamente distribuídas em relação à topografia e à distância do lençol freático foram caracterizadas: (1 banhados do capim-navalha Cladium jamaicense, drenados apenas no verão, ocupam a depressão central da turfeira (DCT; (2 planos médios de Gravatás/Caraguatás (Eryngium pandanifolium associados a samambaia Blechnum brasiliense (+0,5 a +1,5m da DCT; (3 bosques marginais de arbustos palustres (+1 a +3m da DCT são dominados por Eupatorium tremulum; e (4 campos de turfa recobertos por ciperáceas de pequeno porte, gramas boiadeiras e botões-de-ouro (Xyris jupicai ocupam a borda do afloramento da turfa (+3 a +4m da DCT.Fens are characterized as shallow water bodies permanently or periodically flooded by ground-water table, originating from the percolation of rain water through mineral soils of uplands adjacent to the fen central basin. Fens have organic soil and their plant

  8. Free-living ixodid ticks in an urban Atlantic Forest fragment, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Michele da Costa; Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Patrício, Priscilla Maria Peixoto; Sá-Hungaro, Iwine Joyce Barbosa de; Famadas, Kátia Maria

    2014-01-01

    As a consequence of the importance of ticks in forests in protected areas, was conducted survey of species of free-living ticks in the Natural Park Municipal Curió, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Monthly samples were taken by dragging method, dry ice traps and visual search in two transects. Adults and nymphs of Amblyomma cajennense (n= 147), Amblyomma brasiliense (n= 4) and Amblyomma parvum (n= 1) were collected. This is the first occurrence of A. parvum in the state. No correlation was found between the abundance of stages of A. cajennense and rainfall, temperature and relative humidity. The highest abundances of adults were in the months of January and May, and nymphs in September and October. The low diversity of parasites on Curió Park can be attributed to the proximity of households with pets, which would also explain the higher abundance of A. cajennense that is commonly found in areas impacted by anthropogenic pressure.

  9. Crescimento, acúmulo de fósforo e frações fosfatadas em mudas de sete espécies arbóreas nativas Growth, phosphorus accumulation and p fractions in seedlings of seven native tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Zilton Lopes Santos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou comparar o crescimento, a absorção de fósforo (P e a distribuição das frações fosfatadas em mudas de sete espécies florestais classificadas como: pioneiras [aroeira (Lithraea molleoides, aroeirinha (Shcinus terebinthifolius, sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, sesbânia (Sesbania virgata] ou clímax [jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril, guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliensis e óleo-bálsamo (Myroxylon peruiferum]. As plantas foram cultivadas com cinco doses de P (0, 100, 250, 500 e 800 mg dm-3 de P em casa de vegetação. Aos 90 dias, as plantas foram colhidas, determinando-se a produção de matéria seca e o conteúdo de P da parte aérea e as frações de P total, P inorgânico e P orgânico presentes nas folhas. As espécies apresentaram grande variação no comportamento diante da adubação fosfatada. De modo geral, as espécies pioneiras foram mais eficientes em produzir matéria seca da parte aérea e na absorção de P do que as climácicas. Entre as espécies pioneiras, a aroeira apresentou produção de massa estreitamente relacionada ao acúmulo de P, e as proporções de fósforo inorgânico e orgânico permanecem inalteradas com o aumento da disponibilidade do nutriente. O crescimento de aroeirinha, sesbânia e jatobá não acompanhou a absorção do nutriente que é acumulado na forma de fósforo inorgânico na primeira e fósforo orgânico nas últimas. As espécies clímácicas guanandi e óleo-bálsamo apresentaram maior presença de fósforo orgânico, porém a absorção do nutriente e o crescimento das plantas sofreram pouca interferência da adubação fosfatada.This work aimed to compare growth, phosphorus (P uptake and distribution of P-fractions in seedlings of seven tree species classified as pioneers (Lithraea molleoides, Shcinus terebinthifolius, Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, Sesbania virgata or climaxes (Hymenaea courbaril, Calophyllum brasiliensis, Myroxylon peruiferum and cultivated under five doses

  10. CRESCIMENTO INICIAL DE ESPÉCIES FLORESTAIS DE DIFERENTES GRUPOS SUCESSIONAIS EM RESPOSTA A DOSES DE FÓSFORO INITIAL GROWTH OF FOREST SPECIES OF DIFFERENT SUCCESSIONAL GROUPS IN RESPONSE TO PHOSPHORUS DOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÁLVARO VILELA DE RESENDE

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar a resposta de espécies florestais ao fornecimento de P, conduziu-se um ensaio sob condições de casa de vegetação, cultivando-se mudas das espécies arbóreas pioneiras (aroeira - Lithraea molleoides; aroeirinha - Schinus terebinthifolius; jacaré - Piptadenia gonoacantha; sabiá - Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia; sesbânia - Sesbania virgata, clímax exigente em luz (jatobá - Hymenaea courbaril, e clímax tolerantes a sombra (guanandi - Calophyllum brasiliensis; ipê-amarelo - Tabebuia serratifolia; óleo-bálsamo - Myroxylon peruiferum. Utilizaram-se cinco doses de P, correspondentes a 0, 100, 250, 500 e 800 mg dm-3 de P. Foram avaliados o diâmetro do caule, a altura e a matéria seca de raízes, parte aérea e total das plantas. As espécies pioneiras foram mais responsivas ao fornecimento de P, indicando a necessidade do suprimento deste nutriente para o adequado desenvolvimento destas espécies. As espécies clímax mostraram-se pouco sensíveis ao suprimento de P, refletindo um baixo requerimento na fase de mudas. Diferenças em relação à taxa de crescimento e ao tamanho das sementes podem estar ligadas ao comportamento contrastante observado para espécies pioneiras e clímax.With the aim of evaluating the responses of forest species to phosphorus supply, an assay under greenhouse conditions was carried out, where seedlings of pioneer tree species (Lithraea molleoides, Schinus terebinthifolius, Piptadenia gonoacantha, Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, Sesbania virgata, a light-demander climax species (Hymenaea courbaril, and the shade-tolerant climaxes species (Calophyllum brasiliensis, Tabebuia serratifolia, Myroxylon peruiferum were cultivated. Five phosphorus doses were used, corresponding to 0, 100, 250, 500 and 800 mg dm-3 of P. Stem diameter, height, and root, shoot and total dry matter yield of the plants were evaluated. The pioneers species were more responsive to phosphorus furnishing, indicating the need of

  11. New density functional parameterizations to accurate calculations of electric field gradient variations among compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Régis Tadeu; Haiduke, Roberto Luiz Andrade

    2015-10-30

    This research provides a performance investigation of density functional theory and also proposes new functional parameterizations to deal with electric field gradient (EFG) calculations at nuclear positions. The entire procedure is conducted within the four-component formalism. First, we noticed that traditional hybrid and long-range corrected functionals are more efficient in the description of EFG variations for a set of elements (indium, antimony, iodine, lutetium, and hafnium) among linear molecules. Thus, we selected the PBE0, B3LYP, and CAM-B3LYP functionals and promoted a reoptimization of their parameters for a better description of these EFG changes. The PBE0q variant developed here showed an overall promising performance in a validation test conducted with potassium, iodine, copper, and gold. In general, the correlation coefficients found in linear regressions between experimental nuclear quadrupole coupling constants and calculated EFGs are improved while the systematic EFG errors also decrease as a result of this reparameterization. PMID:26284820

  12. FalconIC: Initial conditions generator for cosmological N-body simulations in Newtonian, Relativistic and Modified theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenburg, Wessel; Hu, Bin

    2015-09-01

    FalconIC generates discrete particle positions, velocities, masses and pressures based on linear Boltzmann solutions that are computed by libraries such as CLASS and CAMB. FalconIC generates these initial conditions for any species included in the selection, including Baryons, Cold Dark Matter and Dark Energy fluids. Any species can be set in Eulerian (on a fixed grid) or Lagrangian (particle motion) representation, depending on the gauge and reality chosen. That is, for relativistic initial conditions in the synchronous comoving gauge, Dark Matter can only be described in an Eulerian representation. For all other choices (Relativistic in Longitudinal gauge, Newtonian with relativistic expansion rates, Newtonian without any notion of radiation), all species can be treated in all representations. The code also computes spectra. FalconIC is useful for comparative studies on initial conditions.

  13. Delegaciones y oficinas de prensa españolas en el extranjero durante el primer franquismo: el caso francés (1936-1942

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio César MORENO CANTANO

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Francia fue uno de los enclaves más importantes de la propaganda franquista en Europa durante los años de la Guerra Civil española y la Segunda Guerra Mundial. En el presente artículo analizaremos las características generales que presentaron las Delegaciones y Oficinas de Prensa y Propaganda españolas en el extranjero durante 1936-1945. Posteriormente, dirigiremos nuestra atención a Francia, analizando el importante papel que desarrollaron en ese país los carlistas, falangistas y catalanistas franquistas de Cambó. Estudiaremos, en definitiva, las iniciativas que se acometieron desde Francia en beneficio de la España franquista y las adversidades que en el logro de tal objetivo tuvieron que superar, tanto externas como internas. hðF

  14. A new estimator of the deceleration parameter from galaxy rotation curves

    CERN Document Server

    van Putten, Maurice H P M

    2016-01-01

    The nature of dark energy may be probed by the derivative $Q=\\left.dq(z)/dz\\right|_0$ at redshift $z=0$ of the deceleration parameter $q(z)$. It is probably static if $Q2.5$, supporting $\\Lambda$CDM or, respectively, $\\Lambda=(1-q)H^2$, where $H$ denotes the Hubble parameter. We derive $q=1-\\left(4\\pi a_0/cH\\right)^{2}$, enabling a determination of $q(z)$ by measurement of Milgrom's parameter $a_0(z)$ in galaxy rotation curves, equivalent to the coefficient $A$ in the Tully-Fisher relation $V^4_c=AM_b$ between rotation velocity $V_c$ and baryonic mass $M_b$. We infer that dark matter should be extremely light with clustering limited to the size of galaxy clusters. The associated transition radius to non-Newtonian gravity may conceivably be probed in a free fall Cavendish type experiment in space.

  15. PolyChord: next-generation nested sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Handley, W J; Lasenby, A N

    2015-01-01

    PolyChord is a novel nested sampling algorithm tailored for high-dimensional parameter spaces. This paper coincides with the release of PolyChord v1.3, and provides an extensive account of the algorithm. PolyChord utilises slice sampling at each iteration to sample within the hard likelihood constraint of nested sampling. It can identify and evolve separate modes of a posterior semi-independently, and is parallelised using openMPI. It is capable of exploiting a hierarchy of parameter speeds such as those present in CosmoMC and CAMB, and is now in use in the CosmoChord and ModeChord codes. PolyChord is available for download at: http://ccpforge.cse.rl.ac.uk/gf/project/polychord/

  16. Shifting the Quantum-Classical Boundary: Theory and Experiment for Statistically Classical Optical Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, Xiao-Feng; Howell, John C; Eberly, J H

    2015-01-01

    The growing recognition that entanglement is not exclusively a quantum property, and does not even originate with Schr\\"odinger's famous remark about it [Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. {\\bf 31}, 555 (1935)], prompts examination of its role in marking the quantum-classical boundary. We have done this by subjecting correlations of classical optical fields to new Bell-analysis experiments, and report here values of the Bell parameter greater than ${\\cal B} = 2.54$. This is many standard deviations outside the limit ${\\cal B} = 2$ established by the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) Bell inequality [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 23}, 880 (1969)], in agreement with our theoretical classical prediction, and not far from the Tsirelson limit ${\\cal B} = 2.828...$. These results cast a new light on the standard quantum-classical boundary description, and suggest a reinterpretation of it.

  17. Influence of physical and psychosocial work environment throughout life and physical and cognitive capacity in midlife on labor market attachment among older workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As average life span increases, elderly will account for an increasing proportion of the total population in most parts of the world. Thus, initiatives to retain older workers at the labor market are becoming increasingly important. This study will investigate the influence of physical...... and psychosocial work environment throughout working life and physical and cognitive capacity in midlife on labor market attachment among older workers. METHODS/DESIGN: Approximately 5000 participants (aged 50-60 years) from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) will be followed prospectively...... the baseline measurement as a function of the following predictors: 1) physical work demands throughout working life, 2) psychosocial working conditions throughout working life, 3) physical capacity in midlife, 4) cognitive capacity in midlife. Estimates will be adjusted for age, sex, lifestyle, socioeconomic...

  18. The Music of the Aetherwave - B-mode Polarization in Einstein-Aether Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nakashima, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    We study how the dynamical vector degree of freedom in modified gravity affects the CMB B-mode polarization in terms of the Einstein-aether theory. In this theory, vector perturbations can be generated from inflation, which can grow on superhorizon scales in the subsequent epochs and thereby leaves imprints on the CMB B-mode polarization. We derive the linear perturbation equations in a covariant formalism, and compute the CMB B-mode polarization using the CAMB code modified so as to incorporate the effect of the aether vector field. We find that the amplitude of the B-mode signal from the aether field can surpass the contribution from the inflationary gravitational waves for a viable range of model parameters. We also give an analytic argument explaining the shape of the spectrum based on the tight coupling approximation.

  19. The experience in monitoring pennalties and alternative measures: the case of the NUMOPA/CEAPA/NUAPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra regina de abreu Pires

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present text aimed to show an experience with the monitoring of the execution of the penalties and alternative measures developed in the Londrina – Paraná region, through the projects Londrina’s Center for Alternative Sentencing Monitoring, Center for Alternative Sentencing Monitoring of Arapongas; Central Monitoring and Sentencing Alternative Measures and Center for Monitoring and Sentencing Alternative Measures of Cambé. The text if initiates with some notes on sentencing alternative measures in view of allowing the visualization of the thematic context of the experience. After that, it contemplates the experience directly, telling first the trajectory covered for, continuous act, to summarily approach some elements of the work methodology. It finishes with a mention to some of the gotten positive results with the developed work.

  20. Relativistic time-dependent density functional theory, a study of the ground and excited states of the zinc dimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kullie, Ossama [CNRS et Universite de Strasbourg, Institut de Chimie, Laboratoire de Chimie Quantique, 1 Rue Blaise Pascal, F- 67008 Strasbourg cedex (France)

    2012-07-01

    In this poster I present a (time-dependent) density functional study of the 20 low-lying excited states as well the ground states of the zinc dimer Zn{sub 2}. I analyze the spectrum of the dimer obtained form all electrons calculations which are performed using time-depended density functional with a relativistic 4-components-, and spin-free-Hamiltonian. I show results for different well-known density functional approximations, in comparing with literature and experimental values, the results are very encouraging, especially for the lowest excited states of these dimers. However, the results show that only the long-range corrected functionals such CAMB3LYP gives the correct asymptotic behavior for the higher states, for which the best result is obtained, and a comparable result is obtained from PBE0 functional.

  1. Does physical exposure throughout working life influence chair-rise performance in midlife?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anne; Reventlow, Susanne; Hansen, Åse Marie;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to study associations between physical exposures throughout working life and physical function measured as chair-rise performance in midlife. METHODS: The Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) provided data about employment and measures of physical function. Individual...... job histories were assigned exposures from a job exposure matrix. Exposures were standardised to ton-years (lifting 1000 kg each day in 1 year), stand-years (standing/walking for 6 h each day in 1 year) and kneel-years (kneeling for 1 h each day in 1 year). The associations between exposure-years and......-linear associations and confirmed the findings. CONCLUSIONS: Higher physical exposure throughout working life is associated with slightly poorer chair-rise performance. The associations between exposure and outcome were non-linear....

  2. Modification of alkali metals on silicon-based nanoclusters: An enhanced nonlinear optical response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojun; Han, Quan; Yang, Xiaohui; Song, Ruijuan; Song, Limei

    2016-08-01

    Structures, chemical stabilities and nonlinear optical properties of alkali metals-adsorbed niobium-doped silicon (M@SinNb+) clusters are investigated using the DFT methods. The alkali metals prefer energetically to be attached as bridged bond rather than M-Si single bond in most of optimized structures. Adsorption of alkali metals on doped silicon clusters gradually enhances their chemical stabilities with increasing cluster size. Noteworthily, the first hyperpolarizabilities (βtot) of the M@SinNb+ clusters, obtained by using the long-range corrected CAM-B3LYP functional, are large enough to establish their strong nonlinear optical behavior, especially for M@Si9Nb+ (M = Li, Na, and K), and the enhanced βtot ordering by alkali metals is Na > K > Li.

  3. CMB and matter power spectra with non-linear dark-sector interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Marttens, R F vom; Hipólito-Ricaldi, W S; Zimdahl, W

    2016-01-01

    An interaction between dark matter and dark energy, proportional to the product of their energy densities, results in a scaling behavior of the ratio of these densities with respect to the scale factor of the Robertson-Walker metric. This gives rise to a class of cosmological models which deviate from the standard model in an analytically tractable way. In particular, it becomes possible to quantify the role of potential dark-energy perturbations. We investigate the impact of this interaction on the structure formation process. Using the (modified) CAMB code we obtain the CMB spectrum as well as the linear matter power spectrum. It is shown that the strong degeneracy in the parameter space present in the background analysis is considerably reduced by considering \\textit{Planck} data. Our analysis is compatible with the $\\Lambda$CDM model at the $2\\sigma$ confidence level with a slightly preferred direction of the energy flow from dark matter to dark energy.

  4. A comparison of density functional theory and coupled cluster methods for the calculation of electric dipole polarizability gradients of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paidarová, Ivana; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2012-01-01

    We have compared the performance of density functional theory (DFT) using five different exchange-correlation functionals with four coupled cluster theory based wave function methods in the calculation of geometrical derivatives of the polarizability tensor of methane. The polarizability gradients...... of hydrocarbons are important ingredients in the simulation of their electron energy loss spectra and reliable but cost-effective methods for obtaining the gradients need to be found. In the present work we present results of a systematic investigation on methane as a prototype molecule with special focus on DFT...... methods. The KT3, B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP, B97-2 and PBE0 DFT exchange-correlation functionals and the highly correlated wave function methods SOPPA(CCSD), CCSD-LR, CCSD and CCSD(T) were employed in combination with a series of eleven basis sets. Comparison of the DFT results with CCSD(T)/daug-cc-pVQZ reference...

  5. Does a history of physical exposures at work affect hand-grip strength in midlife?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anne; Reventlow, Susanne; Hansen, Åse Marie;

    2013-01-01

    were non-linear and primarily positive among men. Among women, the associations were non-linear and, according to ton-years, primarily negatively associated with HGS but statistically insignificant. CONCLUSION: A history of physical exposures at work explained only a minor part of the variation in HGS......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cohort study was to examine associations between physical exposures throughout working life and hand-grip strength (HGS) in midlife. METHODS: The Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) provided data about employment and HGS for 3843 Danes. Individual job histories...... and women, respectively. Among men, exposure to kneel-years was associated with higher HGS (>0.030 kg (P=0.007) per exposure-year). Ton- and stand-years were not associated with HGS among either men or women in linear analyses. In spline regression analyses, associations between ton- and stand-years and HGS...

  6. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis of latin-american pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (EDXRF) induced by low power X- Ray tubes provides relatively inexpensive, fast and quantitative method of analysis with good reproducibility and sensitivity, in the field of archaeometry in general and for the analysis of ceramics in particular. Ancient Latin-American potteries have been analyzed: tupiguarani Brazilian pottery from the Fazenda Sta Dalmacia, Cambe', city; Mayan pottery from the Yucatan, Mexico, tainos cuban pottery, from Baracoa region. Minor and trace elements have been identified, that can be classified into three groups, following their atomic number and the EDXRF excitation energy: elements with low atomic number, such as K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn; elements with medium atomic number such as Rb, Sr, Y, and Zr; and Ba

  7. Initial Conditions for Accurate N-Body Simulations of Massive Neutrino Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Zennaro, Matteo; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Carbone, Carmelita; Sefusatti, Emiliano; Guzzo, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    The set-up of the initial conditions in cosmological N-body simulations is usually implemented by rescaling the desired low-redshift linear power spectrum to the required starting redshift consistently with the Newtonian evolution of the simulation. The implementation of this practical solution requires more care in the context of massive neutrino cosmologies, mainly because of the non-trivial scale-dependence of the linear growth that characterises these models. In this work we consider a simple two-fluid, Newtonian approximation for cold dark matter and massive neutrinos perturbations that can reproduce the cold matter linear evolution predicted by Boltzmann codes such as CAMB or CLASS with a 0.1% accuracy or below for all redshift relevant to nonlinear structure formation. We use this description, in the first place, to quantify the systematic errors induced by several approximations often assumed in numerical simulations, including the typical set-up of the initial conditions for massive neutrino cosmolog...

  8. CosmoSIS: A System for MC Parameter Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuntz, Joe [Manchester U.; Paterno, Marc [Fermilab; Jennings, Elise [Chicago U., EFI; Rudd, Douglas [U. Chicago; Manzotti, Alessandro [Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Dodelson, Scott [Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Bridle, Sarah [Manchester U.; Sehrish, Saba [Fermilab; Kowalkowski, James [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological parameter estimation is entering a new era. Large collaborations need to coordinate high-stakes analyses using multiple methods; furthermore such analyses have grown in complexity due to sophisticated models of cosmology and systematic uncertainties. In this paper we argue that modularity is the key to addressing these challenges: calculations should be broken up into interchangeable modular units with inputs and outputs clearly defined. We present a new framework for cosmological parameter estimation, CosmoSIS, designed to connect together, share, and advance development of inference tools across the community. We describe the modules already available in Cosmo- SIS, including camb, Planck, cosmic shear calculations, and a suite of samplers. We illustrate it using demonstration code that you can run out-of-the-box with the installer available at http://bitbucket.org/joezuntz/cosmosis.

  9. Semi-analytical description of clumping factor and CMB free-free distortions from reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Trombetti, Tiziana

    2013-01-01

    The density contrast of the Universe, parametrized in terms of the matter power spectrum and its variance, can amplify the signal of the free-free process in the plasma. The damping of fluctuations on scales smaller than the DM particle free streaming scale corresponds to a suppression of the total matter power spectrum on large wave numbers k. We derive the time evolution of the variance of the matter power spectrum for various cosmological models and parameters by numerically computing the power spectrum with a modified version of the Boltzmann code CAMB, for different values of the cut-off parameter kmax. Suitable analytical approximations of the numerical results are presented. We then characterize the CMB free-free spectral distortion accounting for the amplification effect coming from clumping factor. Indeed, the clumpiness, associated to the density contrast of the intergalactic medium, increases at decreasing redshift. The analysis is carried out for selected astrophysical and phenomenological cosmolo...

  10. Relativistic time-dependent density functional calculations for the excited states of the cadmium dimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kullie, Ossama, E-mail: kullie@uni-kassel.de [Institute de Chimie de Strasbourg, CNRS et Université de Strasbourg, Laboratoire de Chimie Quantique, 4 rue Blaise Pascal, 67070 Strasbourg (France); Theoretical Physics, Institute for Physics, Department of Mathematics and Natural Science, University of Kassel (Germany)

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► The achievement of CAMB3LYP functional for excited states in framework of TD-DFT. ► Relativistic 4-components calculations for the excited states of the Cd{sub 2} dimer. ► Relativistic Spin-Free calculations for the excited states of Cd{sub 2} dimer. ► A comparison of the achievements of different types of DFT approximations upon Cd{sub 2}. - Abstract: In this paper we present a time-dependent density functional study for the ground-state as well the 20-lowest laying excited states of the cadmium dimer Cd{sub 2}, we analyze its spectrum obtained from all electrons calculations performed with time-depended density functional for the relativistic Dirac-Coulomb- and relativistic spin-free-Hamiltonian as implemented in DIRAC-PACKAGE. The calculations were obtained with different density functional approximations, and a comparison with the literature is given as far as available. Our result is very encouraging, especially for the lowest excited states of this dimer, and is expected to be enlightened for similar systems. The result shows that only long-range corrected functionals such as CAMB3LYP, gives the correct asymptotic behavior for the higher states. A comparable but less satisfactory results were obtained with B3LYP and PBE0 functionals. Spin-free-Hamiltonian is shown to be very efficient for systems containing heavy elements such as Cd{sub 2} in frameworks of (time-dependent) density functional without introducing large errors.

  11. A relativistic time-dependent density functional study of the excited states of the mercury dimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kullie, Ossama, E-mail: kullie@uni-kassel.de, E-mail: ossama.kullie@unistra.fr [Institute de Chimie de Strasbourg, CNRS et Université de Strasbourg, Laboratoire de Chimie Quantique, 4 rue Blaise Pascal, 67070 Strasbourg, France and Theoretical Physics, Institute for Physics, Department of Mathematics and Natural Science, University of Kassel, D-34127 Kassel (Germany)

    2014-01-14

    In previous works on Zn{sub 2} and Cd{sub 2} dimers we found that the long-range corrected CAMB3LYP gives better results than other density functional approximations for the excited states, especially in the asymptotic region. In this paper, we use it to present a time-dependent density functional (TDDFT) study for the ground-state as well as the excited states corresponding to the (6s{sup 2} + 6s6p), (6s{sup 2} + 6s7s), and (6s{sup 2} + 6s7p) atomic asymptotes for the mercury dimer Hg{sub 2}. We analyze its spectrum obtained from all-electron calculations performed with the relativistic Dirac-Coulomb and relativistic spinfree Hamiltonian as implemented in DIRAC-PACKAGE. A comparison with the literature is given as far as available. Our result is excellent for the most of the lower excited states and very encouraging for the higher excited states, it shows generally good agreements with experimental results and outperforms other theoretical results. This enables us to give a detailed analysis of the spectrum of the Hg{sub 2} including a comparative analysis with the lighter dimers of the group 12, Cd{sub 2}, and Zn{sub 2}, especially for the relativistic effects, the spin-orbit interaction, and the performance of CAMB3LYP and is enlightened for similar systems. The result shows, as expected, that spinfree Hamiltonian is less efficient than Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian for systems containing heavy elements such as Hg{sub 2}.

  12. Empresas, instituciones y red social: la Compañía Hispanoamericana de Electricidad (CHADE entre Barcelona y Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalla-Corte Caballero, Gabriela

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the relation between the Casa de América of Barcelone and the Hispanoamerican Electric Company» (CHADE of Buenos Aires taking into account three moments: first, the foundation of the association Casa de América and the presence of Francisco Cambó in the Iberoamerican Jurídic Center; second, the foundation of CHADE so as to save the german´s inversions in America because of the participation of Germany in the First World War; third, the change of the American association of Barcelona into the Instituto de Economía Americana (IDEA-Casa de América so as to encourage their internacional activities until the Civil War in Spain.

    En este trabajo se presenta la vinculación entre la Casa de América de Barcelona y la Compañía Hispanoamericana de Electricidad (CHADE en Buenos Aires a través del estudio de tres momentos: primero, la fundación de la asociación y la presencia de Francisco Cambó en el Centro Jurídico Iberoamericano; segundo, la fundación de la CHADE para salvar los capitales alemanes del pago de reparaciones económicas a los Aliados por su participación en la Primera Guerra Mundial; y tercero, la conversión de la asociación americanista barcelonesa en Instituto de Economía Americana (IDEA-Casa de América para reforzar su naturaleza internacional en consonancia con la Sociedad de Naciones, así como el declive de la asociación por la interrupción de remesas de capital del Cono Sur que llegaban a Barcelona en forma de subsidios para la asociación americanista.

  13. Macrofungal diversity in the Western Ghats, Kerala, India: members of Russulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mohanan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A macrofungal biodiversity inventory carried out in different forest ecosystems viz., west coast tropical evergreen forests, west coast tropical semi-evergreen forests, south Indian moist deciduous forests, southern subtropical broadleaved hill forests, southern montane wet temperate forests (shola forests, southern tropical dry deciduous forests, grasslands, Myristica swamp forests, and forest plantations falling in different forest divisions in the Western Ghats, Kerala employing opportunistic as well as fixed-size plot sampling methods from 2006-2011 yielded several rare and hitherto unrecorded macrofungi. In Russulaceae 15 species of macrofungi belonging to the genera Russula and Lactarius were recorded. Of these, 12 species of Russula viz. Russula aciculocystis, R. adusta, R. atropurpurea, R. cinerella, R. congoana, R. delicula, R. hygrophytica, R. luteotacta, R. mariae, R. martinica, R. michiganensis and R. periglypta and white coloured latex exuding Lactarius nebulosus are new records for the Western Ghats. All the Russulaceae members exhibit an ectomycorrhizal association with tree species like Hopea ponga, H. parviflora, Myristica malabarica, Vateria indica, Calophyllum apetalaum, among others.

  14. Comparison of iso-eluotropic mobile phases at different temperatures for the separation of triacylglycerols in Non-Aqueous Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmida, Dorra; Abderrabba, Manef; Tchapla, Alain; Héron, Sylvie; Moussa, Fathi

    2015-05-15

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are a large class of neutral lipids that naturally occur in both plant and animal oils and fats. Their analyses in Non-Aqueous Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography (NARP) require a mixture of weak solvent (mostly acetonitrile) and strong solvent. In the present work, we have established eluotropic solvent strength scale of several binary mobile phases on C18 bonded silica at different temperatures (acetonitrile/methylene chloride, acetonitrile/acetone, acetonitrile/ethyl acetate, acetonitrile/propan-2-ol, and acetonitrile/butan-1-ol at 25°C, 43°C, 63°C and 85°C); it is based on the methylene selectivity and the use of homologous series. We show that this scale is well suited to the TAGs analysis. The analysis of nine seed oils (Aleurites fordii, Calophyllum inophyllum, Glycina max, Olea europea, Orbignya olifeira, Pinus koraiensis, Pistacia lentiscus, Punica granatum and Ribes nigrum) in iso-eluotropic conditions leads to propose unambiguously the couple MeCN/BuOH at 25°C as the best system to separate TAGs. The use of butanol, as strong solvent, provides very good TAGs congeners separations and avoids the use of chlorinated solvents which gave to this day the best separations. PMID:25855317

  15. Major and trace elements in plants and soils in Horton Plains National Park, Sri Lanka: an approach to explain forest die back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrajith, Rohana; Koralegedara, Nadeesha; Ranawana, K. B.; Tobschall, H. J.; Dissanayake, C. B.

    2009-03-01

    Forest die back has been observed from 1980s in the montane moist forest of Horton Plains in the Central Sri Lanka for which the aetiology appears to be uncertain. The concentration levels of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb in canopy leaves, bark and roots, which were collected from dying and healthy plants of three different endemic species, Calophyllum walkeri, Syzygium rotundifolium and Cinnamomum ovalifolium, from three different die back sites were studied. Soils underlying the plants were also analyzed for their extractable trace metals and total contents of major oxides. Analysis of dead and healthy plants does not show any remarkable differences in the concentrations of studied trace elements. The results show that there is a low status of pollution based on the concentrations of chemical elements of environmental concern. Extractable and total trace element analysis indicates a low content of Ca in soils due to high soil acidity that probably leads to Mg and Al toxicity to certain plants. Relatively high Al levels in the soil would affect the root system and hamper the uptake and transport of essential cations to the plant. It therefore seems that the forest declining appears to be a natural phenomenon, which occurs due to the imbalance of macro and micronutrients in the natural forest due to excessive weathering and the continuous leaching of essential elements.

  16. Diversity and ecology of Varanus indicus in Pepaya Island at Teluk Cenderawasih National Park, West Irian Jaya

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    DENY ANJELIUS IYAI

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitor lizard (Varanidae has dispersed widely in Indonesia, even in Papua. Papua contents of six species. It’s distribution, abundance, both in land and island have been known yet, even carrying capacity of feeding relative limited. However, species extinction rates in nature were increasing both in it. This research was done in Papaya Island in Teluk Cenderawasih National Park, Nabire, Papua since 24th -25th October 2005. Descriptive method was done to answer this study. This research resulted that in Papaya island contents only one species that is Varanus indicus. The V. indicus chosen same habitat in southern part of Papaya island. This species dispersed on 0-4 m above sea level, humidity about 78.6%, and temperature about 23.90C. Vegetation was dominated by coconut (Cocos nucifera, bitangur (Calophyllum inophyllum and tikar (Pandanus sp., papaya (Carica papaya, and ketapang (Terminalia catappa. V. indicus chosen Megapodius reinwadt nest as nesting area. Population of V. indicus was estimated as much 36.3 ≈ 36 pieces by King Method. The nest of V. indicus placed in Cassuarina sp. tree where cutting down. The diet of V. indicus was found such as megapods, sea birds, lizard (sauria, butterflies and bats (Macrochyroptera. People were caused threatened both direct and indirect toward the V. indicus existence.

  17. Local Distribution and coexistence of prevalent tree species in peat swamp forests of Central Kalimantan

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    Herwint Simbolon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available SIMBOLON, H. 2009. Local Distribution and coexistence of prevalent tree species in peat swamp forests of Central Kalimantan. Reinwardtia 12(5: 373–382. ⎯ A study on the distribution and coexistence of prevalent tree species in peat swamp forests was conducted at Lahei and Kelampangan, Central Kalimantan. The prevalent species in both sites were Calophyllum canum, Combretocarpus rotundatus, Cratoxylum glaucum, Ctenolophon parvifolius, Elaeocarpus petiolatus, with Palaquium cochleariifolium at Kelampangan, and Buchanania sessifolia, Madhuca sericea, Semecarpus sp., Shorea balangeran, Tetractomia obovata and Vatica oblongifolia at Lahei plot. The prevalent species were randomly distributed, however, when individuals were grouped into mature vs juvenile, the mature individuals of C. parvifolius tended to be clumped and the juvenile were randomly distributed; while in C. rotundatus, the mature individuals were randomly distributed and the juvenile were clumped. Pattern of the coexistence among the prevalent species in the study site were associated, and independent relationships, and almost no exclusion relationship was found. Independent and associated relationships among the coexisting species may be one of the explanations of the mechanism which maintain relatively high diversity of plant species in the tropical peat swamp forests, which has extreme habitat conditions and narrow habitat heterogeneity. Pattern of the coexistence relationships among mature vs juvenile individuals of the same species varied.

  18. Thermal characteristics of non-edible oils as phase change materials candidate to application of air conditioning chilled water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsyad, M.; Indartono, Y. S.; Suwono, A.; Pasek, A. D.

    2015-09-01

    The addition of phase change material in the secondary refrigerant has been able to reduce the energy consumption of air conditioning systems in chilled water system. This material has a high thermal density because its energy is stored as latent heat. Based on material melting and freezing point, there are several non-edible oils that can be studied as a phase change material candidate for the application of chilled water systems. Forests and plantations in Indonesia have great potential to produce non-edible oil derived from the seeds of the plant, such as; Calophyllum inophyllum, Jatropha curcas L, and Hevea braziliensis. Based on the melting temperature, these oils can further studied to be used as material mixing in the secondary refrigerant. Thermal characteristics are obtained from the testing of T-history, Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) and thermal conductivity materials. Test results showed an increase in the value of the latent heat when mixed with water with the addition of surfactant. Thermal characteristics of each material of the test results are shown completely in discussion section of this article.

  19. Performance and emission characteristics of a DI compression ignition engine operated on Honge, Jatropha and sesame oil methyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banapurmath, N.R.; Tewari, P.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.V.B. College of Engineering and Technology, Vidyanagar, Poona-Bangalore Road, Hubli 580031 (India); Hosmath, R.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.L.E' s C.E.T., Belgaum (India)

    2008-09-15

    The high viscosity of vegetable oils leads to problem in pumping and spray characteristics. The inefficient mixing of vegetable oils with air contributes to incomplete combustion. The best way to use vegetable oils as fuel in compression ignition (CI) engines is to convert it into biodiesel. Biodiesel is a methyl or ethyl ester of fatty acids made from vegetable oils (both edible and non-edible) and animal fat. The main resources for biodiesel production can be non-edible oils obtained from plant species such as Pongamia pinnata (Honge oil), Jatropha curcas (Ratanjyot), Hevea brasiliensis (Rubber) and Calophyllum inophyllum (Nagchampa). Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or can be blended with diesel to form different blends. It can be used in CI engines with very little or no engine modifications. This is because it has properties similar to mineral diesel. This paper presents the results of investigations carried out on a single-cylinder, four-stroke, direct-injection, CI engine operated with methyl esters of Honge oil, Jatropha oil and sesame oil. Comparative measures of brake thermal efficiency, smoke opacity, HC, CO, NO{sub X}, ignition delay, combustion duration and heat release rates have been presented and discussed. Engine performance in terms of higher brake thermal efficiency and lower emissions (HC, CO, NO{sub X}) with sesame oil methyl ester operation was observed compared to methyl esters of Honge and Jatropha oil operation. (author)

  20. Diversidade de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera do Complexo Aporé-Sucuriú, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Bat Diversity (Mammalia, Chiroptera from Aporé-Sucuriú's complex, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo O. Bordignon

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um inventário da fauna de morcegos entre abril e novembro de 2004 no norte de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil (Projeto Jauru/MMA. Oito pontos de coleta foram amostrados com redes-neblina em um ambiente de cerrado, sendo capturados 146 indivíduos de 28 espécies, distribuídos em seis famílias. O total de espécies neste estudo, representa apenas 30% da fauna de morcegos do cerrado. A família mais capturada foi a Phyllostomidae, representada por Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766 e Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818. Algumas espécies raras foram capturadas: Lophostoma brasiliense (Peters, 1866, Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903 e Lionycteris spurrelli Thomas, 1913. O local de maior abundância (0,032 indivíduos/m²/h mostrou um índice de Simpson de D = 3.86 e o de menor abundância (0,003 indivíduos/m²/h um índice de Simpson de D = 3.03. A preservação dos mananciais de água e a cobertura florestal nestes pontos são discutidas.From April to November 2004 was made a bat fauna inventory in Northern of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (Jauru's Project/MMA. Eight points was sampled with mist-nets in a cerrado's ecosystem and was caught 146 individuals de 28 species, distributed into six bat families. The total of species in this study just represents 30% of cerrado's bat fauna. The more caught family was Phyllostomidae represented by Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766 and Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818. Some rare species were caught: Lophostoma brasiliense (Peters, 1866, Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903 and Lionycteris spurrelli Thomas, 1913. The more abundant point sampled (0.032 bat/m²/h shown a Simpson index of D = 3.86 and the low abundant point sampled (0.003 bat/m²/h was D = 3.03. The preservation of water springs and forest cover in study sites are discussed.

  1. Rhodolith bed structure along a depth gradient on the northern coast of bahia state, brazil

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    Ricardo G. Bahia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the structure of a rhodolith bed along a depth gradient of 5 to 25 m in the shelf in front of Salvador City, a region of northeastern Brazil. The dimensions, morphology and coralline algae composition of the rhodoliths were analyzed, as well as the vitality, density, and associated flora of the bed at three depths: 5, 15 and 25 m. Samples were obtained by SCUBA divers in summer 2007. Five rhodolith-forming taxa were identified: Sporolithon episporum, Lithothamnion brasiliense, Lithothamnion superpositum, Mesophyllum erubescens, and Lithophyllum sp. The encrusting growth form and the spherical shape were predominant at all depths. Rhodolith dimensions and vitality decreased and the density increased from the shallow to the deepest zones. Fifty-six macroalgal species were found as rhodolith-associated flora. The shallower depth presented higher values for macroalgal biomass and number of species. These results associated with other recent rhodolith bed descriptions indicate that the pattern of Brazilian rhodolith bed structure along depth gradients may be related to a combination of the extent and slope of the continental shelf.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a estrutura de um banco de rodolitos ao longo de um gradiente de profundidade na plataforma em frente à cidade de Salvador, nordeste brasileiro. Foram analisadas as dimensões, a forma e composição das algas calcárias dos rodolitos, bem como a vitalidade, densidade e flora associada ao banco, em três profundidades: 5, 15 e 25 m. As amostras foram obtidas por meio de mergulho autônomo no verão de 2007. Cinco espécies de algas calcárias formadoras de rodolito foram identificadas: Sporolithon episporum, Lithothamnion brasiliense, Lithothamnion superpositum, Mesophyllum erubescens e Lithophyllum sp. A forma de crescimento incrustante e a forma esférica foram predominantes em todas as profundidades. Houve uma redução da dimensão e

  2. Decapod crustaceans used as food by the Yanomami Indians of the Balawa-ú village, State of Amazonas, Brazil Crustáceos decápodos usados na alimentação pelos índios Yanomami da aldeia de Balawa-ú, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil

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    Célio Magalhães

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Yanomami are a group of South American Indians that live in the rainforest along the borderlands of Brazil and Venezuela. They depend on hunting, gardening and wild food for survival; crustaceans are a highly prized food item in their diet. Taxonomical and ethnozoological aspects of the Yanomami Indians of the Balawa-ú village, state of Amazonas, Brazil, related to the crustaceans are described. Information and specimens were obtained from August to December, 2003. Interviews were conducted with residents of the village and focused on questions about species exploited, indigenous names, modes of capture and use of the species. One shrimp species of the family Palaemonidae (Macrobrachium brasiliense and two crab species of Trichodactylidae (Sylviocarcinus pictus, Valdivia serrata as well as two of Pseudothelphusidae (Fredius fittkaui, F. platyacanthus were recorded. The indigenous names applied to these species are: shuhu, for shrimp, oko and peimatherimi for each of the two pseudothelphusid crabs, and hesiki tôtôrema for both trichodactylid crabs.Os Yanomami são um grupo de índios que habitam a floresta tropical úmida ao longo da fronteira entre Brasil e Venezuela. Eles dependem da caça, da agricultura e da coleta de produtos da floresta para a sua sobrevivência, sendo os crustáceos um dos itens alimentares mais apreciados. São descritos aspectos taxonômicos e etnozoológicos dos índios Yanomami da aldeia de Balawa-ú, no estado do Amazonas, Brasil, relacionados aos crustáceos. Informações e espécimes foram coletados de agosto a dezembro de 2003. Foram realizadas entrevistas com habitantes da aldeia com enfoque nas espécies exploradas, nomes indígenas, modos de captura e utilização. Foram registradas uma espécie de camarão da família Palaemonidae (Macrobrachium brasiliense, duas espécies de caranguejos da família Trichodactylidae (Sylviocarcinus pictus, Valdivia serrata e duas da família Pseudothelphusidae (Fredius

  3. A toxic cyanobacterial bloom in an urban coastal lake, Rio Grande do Sul state, Southern Brazil

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    Luciana Retz de Carvalho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Reports of cyanobacterial blooms developing worldwide have considerably increased, and, in most cases, the predominant toxins are microcystins. The present study reports a cyanobacterial bloom in Lake Violão, Torres, Rio Grande do Sul State, in January 2005. Samples collected on January 13, 2005, were submitted to taxonomical, toxicological, and chemical studies. The taxonomical analysis showed many different species of cyanobacteria, and that Microcystis protocystis and Sphaerocavum cf. brasiliense were dominant. Besides these, Microcystis panniformis, Anabaena oumiana,Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, and Anabaenopsis elenkinii f. circularis were also present. The toxicity of the bloom was confirmed through intraperitoneal tests in mice, and chemical analyses of bloom extracts showed that the major substance was anabaenopeptin F, followed by anabaenopeptin B, microcystin-LR, and microcystin-RR.O número de relatos de ocorrências de florações de cianobactérias em todo o mundo vem aumentando consideravelmente e na maioria desses episódios, as toxinas dominantes são as microcistinas. O presente estudo relata a ocorrência de floração na Lagoa do Violão, município de Torres, RS, em janeiro de 2005. As amostras coletadas em 13/01/2005 foram submetidas a estudos taxonômicos, toxicológicos e químicos. O exame microscópico do fitoplancton mostrou a dominância das espécies Microcystis protocystis e Sphaerocavum cf. brasiliense; foram observadas, também, Microcystis panniformis, Anabaena oumiana,Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii e Anabaenopsis elenkinii f. circularis. A toxicidade da floração foi confirmada através de ensaio intraperitonial em camundongos e a análise química de extratos obtidos da biomassa liofilizada mostrou que a substância majoritária era a anabaenopeptina F, seguida por anabaenopeptina B, microcistina-LR e microcistina-RR.

  4. Investigation of Longidoridae and Trichodoridae Nematodes on landscape plants in Guangdong%广东省园林植物长针科和毛刺科线虫调查初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟远丽; 张卫东; 吴长坤; 邵晓勇; 廖力; 陈其文

    2011-01-01

    2008~2010年,对广东省园林植物线虫进行调查,共采集324份样品,分离到长针科和毛刺科线虫4属10个种。其中长针科线虫7种:移去剑线虫(Xiphinema elongatum)、标明剑线虫(X.insigne)、湖南剑线虫(X.hunaniense)、巴西剑线虫(X.brasiliense)、短颈剑线虫(X.brevicollum)、荔枝长针线虫(Longi-dorus litchii)和河南长针线虫(L.henanus);毛刺科线虫3种:胼胝拟毛刺线虫(Paratrichodorus porosu%A survey of virus-vector nematodes on landscape plants was carried out in Guangdong province from 2008 to 2010.Seven Longidoridae and three Trichodoridae Nematodes:Xiphinema elongatum,X.insigne,X.hunaniense,X.brasiliense,X.brevicollum,Longidorus litchii,L.henanus,Paratrichodorus porosus,P.renifer and Trichodorus cedarus were extracted from 324 samples.

  5. Phylogenetic Relationships Among Xiphinema and Xiphidorus Nematode Species from Brazil Inferred from 18S rDNA Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Claudio M G; Hübschen, Judith; Brown, Derek J F; Ferraz, Luiz C C B; Wright, Frank; Neilson, Roy

    2004-06-01

    Maximum likelihood trees produced from 18S rDNA sequences separated 14 Xiphinema and five Xiphidorus nematode species from Brazil into distinct groups that concurred with their current morphological taxonomic status. Species belonging to the X. americanum group (X. brevicolle, X. diffusum, X. oxycaudatum, and X. peruvianum) formed a single group that was clearly separated from the other Xiphinema species. As with previous taxonomic studies that noted only minor morphological differences between putative X. americanum group species, separation of these species based upon 18S rDNA sequences was inconclusive. Thus it is probable that instead of comprising distinct species, the X. americanum group may in fact represent numerous morphotypes with large inter- and intra- population morphological variability that may be environmentally driven. Within the cluster representing non X. americanum group species, there was little statistical support to clearly separate species. However, three subgroups, comprising (i) the X. setariae/vulgare complex, (ii) X. ifacolum and X. paritaliae, and (iii) X. brasiliense and X. ensiculiferum were well resolved.

  6. Evaluation of the Effects of Some Brazilian Medicinal Plants on the Production of TNF-α and CCL2 by THP-1 Cells

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    Grasielle S. Gusman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several plant species are traditionally used in Brazil to treat various inflammatory diseases. Tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α and chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2 are key inflammatory mediators in diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis, respectively; nevertheless, only a few extracts have been assayed against these targets. We herein report the effect of 19 plant extracts on TNF-α and CCL2 release by lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated THP-1 cells, a human monocytic leukemia cell line, along with their radical scavenging activity on DPPH. The extracts of Caryocar brasiliense, Casearia sylvestris, Coccoloba cereifera, and Terminalia glabrescens inhibited TNF-α production in a concentration-dependent manner. Fractionation of these extracts potentiated the anti-TNF-α effect, which was shown to concentrate in polar fractions, mainly composed by polyphenols. Significant CCL2 inhibition was elicited by Lippia sidoides and Terminalia glabrescens extracts, whose fractionation resulted in highly active low polar fractions. All assayed extracts showed strong radical scavenging activity, but antioxidant activity did not correlate with inhibition of TNF-α or CCL2 production. Our results allowed identifying extracts with selective capacity to block cytokine production; therefore, further purification of these extracts may yield molecules that could be useful in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases.

  7. Cytotoxic, Virucidal, and Antiviral Activity of South American Plant and Algae Extracts

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    Paula Faral-Tello

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 infection has a prevalence of 70% in the human population. Treatment is based on acyclovir, valacyclovir, and foscarnet, three drugs that share the same mechanism of action and of which resistant strains have been isolated from patients. In this aspect, innovative drug therapies are required. Natural products offer unlimited opportunities for the discovery of antiviral compounds. In this study, 28 extracts corresponding to 24 plant species and 4 alga species were assayed in vitro to detect antiviral activity against HSV-1. Six of the methanolic extracts inactivated viral particles by direct interaction and 14 presented antiviral activity when incubated with cells already infected. Most interesting antiviral activity values obtained are those of Limonium brasiliense, Psidium guajava, and Phyllanthus niruri, which inhibit HSV-1 replication in vitro with 50% effective concentration (EC50 values of 185, 118, and 60 μg/mL, respectively. For these extracts toxicity values were calculated and therefore selectivity indexes (SI obtained. Further characterization of the bioactive components of antiviral plants will pave the way for the discovery of new compounds against HSV-1.

  8. Cassia renigera Wall.: novo hospedeiro de Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. Cassia renigera Wall.: a new host of Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan José Antunes Ribeiro

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceratocystis fimbriata foi descrito pela primeira vez em 1984, causando murcha em plantas de Cassia renigera, em Campinas (SP. Foram realizadas inoculações cruzadas com dois isolados de C. fimbriata obtidos de Cassia renigera e mangueira (Mangifera indica em plantas de: acácia-negra (Acacia decurrens, cacaueiro (Theobroma cacao, crotalária (Crotalaria juncea, feijão-guandu (Cajanus cajan, figueira (Ficus carica, gamelina (Gmelina arborea, mangueira (Mangifera indica, seringueira (Hevea brasilienses, Cassia sp., C. carnaval, C. ferruginea, C. grandis, C. moschata, C. multijuga, C. nodosa, C. renigera, C. siamea e C. speciosa. Os dois isolados do fungo foram patogênicos a todas as plantas testadas, com exceção de cacaueiro, gamelina e C. grandis.Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. is described for the first time in 1984 on Cassia renigera, in Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. In cross inoculation, the isolates of C. fimbriata obtained from Cassia renigera and from Mangifera indica showed pathogenicity to the following plants: Acacia decurrens, Theobroma cacao, Crotalaria juncea, Cajanus cajan, Ficus Carica, Gmelina arborea, Mangifera indica, Hevea brasiliensis, Cassia sp., C. carnaval, C. ferruginea, C. grandis, C. moschata, C. multijuga, C. nodosa, C. renigera, C. siamea and C. speciosa. The isolates of C. fimbriata were pathogenic to all tested plants, except for Theobroma cacao, Gmelina arborea and C. grandis.

  9. Assessment of lipolytic activity of isolated microorganisms from the savannah of the Tocantins

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    Marysa de Kássia Guedes Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Current study assesses the biodiversity and selects lipase-producer microorganisms with industrial interest, from the savannah of the state of Tocantins, Brazil. Seventeen pequi microorganisms (Caryocar brasiliense were isolated in the decomposition stage and 35 microorganisms were retrieved from the soil fraction under the collected pequi. Yarrowia lypolitica strain was used as positive control in all assays. The 52 strains were subjected to tests in a solid medium with Tween 20 for checking halos formed by crystals, indicating lipase production by inoculated strains. Another test to confirm lipase producers was conducted in microplates with liquid medium and enriched with p-nitrophenyl palmitate (pNPP monitored at 410 ηm. The AS16 and AP5 strains showed the highest activity for test conditions, namely, 0.072 and 0.067 U mL-1 respectively. Rates were higher than the lipase activity of Yarrowia lypolitica(0.052 U mL-1, a reference strain in current assay.

  10. Nymphs of the genus Amblyomma (Acari: Ixodidae) of Brazil: descriptions, redescriptions, and identification key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Thiago F; Onofrio, Valeria C; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2010-06-01

    Together with the larval stage, the nymphal stage of ticks of the genus Amblyomma are the most aggressive ticks for humans entering areas inhabited by wildlife and some domestic animals in Brazil. However, due to the absence of morphological descriptions of the nymphal stage of most Brazilian Amblyomma species, plus the lack of an identification key, little or nothing is known about the life history of Amblyomma spp. nymphs in the country. In the present study, morphological description of the nymphal stage, illustrating important external characters through scanning electron microscopy, is provided for nymphs of 15 Amblyomma species that occur in Brazil, for which the nymphal stage had never been described: A. aureolatum, A. auricularium, A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. fuscum, A. humerale, A. incisum, A. latepunctatum, A. naponense, A. nodosum, A. ovale, A. pacae, A. pseudoconcolor, A. scalpturatum, A. varium. In addition, the nymphal stage of 12 Amblyomma species, which had been previously described, are redescribed: A. brasiliense, A. cajennense, A. dissimile, A. dubitatum, A. longirostre, A. oblongoguttatum, A. parkeri, A. parvum, A. romitii, A. rotundatum, A. tigrinum, A. triste. The descriptions and redescriptions totalized 27 species. Only 2 species (A. geayi, A. goeldii) out of the 29 Amblyomma species established in Brazil are not included in the present study. A dichotomous identification key is included to support taxonomic identification of the nymphal stage of 27 Amblyomma species established in Brazil. PMID:21771514

  11. Taxonomic key to nymphs of the genus Amblyomma (Acari: Ixodidae) in Argentina, with description and redescription of the nymphal stage of four Amblyomma species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Thiago F; Labruna, Marcelo B; Mangold, Atilio J; Cafrune, M Mercedes; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Nava, Santiago

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, we provide morphological descriptions of the nymph of Amblyomma parvitarsum, A. tonelliae, and redescriptions of A. argentinae and A. sculptum. A taxonomic key, with relevant morphological characters illustrated by scanning electron micrographs, is provided for nymphs of the 24 species of the genus Amblyomma occurring in Argentina. Species included are A. argentinae, A. aureolatum, A. auricularium, A. boeroi, A. brasiliense, A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. dissimile, A. dubitatum, A. incisum, A. longirostre, A. neumanni, A. nodosum, A. ovale, A. parvitarsum, A. parvum, A. pseudoconcolor, A. pseudoparvum, A. rotundatum, A. sculptum, A. tigrinum, A. tonelliae, A. triste and A. varium. Principal morphological characters used for discrimination among species are presence/absence of auriculae, cornua and festoons with tubercles, size and shape of spurs of coxa I, margin and punctations of scutum, shape of basis capituli and length of cervical grooves. The geographical distribution of each tick species included in this work is presented and the importance of an accurate determination to species level of the Amblyomma nymphs to make epidemiological inferences is also discussed. PMID:25113984

  12. Microbial diversity in a bagasse-based compost prepared for the production of Agaricus brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cristina Ferreira; Azevedo, Raquel Santos; Braga, Claudia; da Silva, Romildo; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2009-01-01

    Edible mushrooms are renowned for their nutritional and medicinal properties and are thus of considerable commercial importance. Mushroom production depends on the chemical composition of the basic substrates and additional supplements employed in the compost as well as on the method of composting. In order to minimise the cost of mushroom production, considerable interest has been shown in the use of agro-industrial residues in the preparation of alternative compost mixtures. However, the interaction of the natural microbiota present in agricultural residues during the composting process greatly influences the subsequent colonisation by the mushroom. The aim of the present study was to isolate and identify the microbiota present in a sugar cane bagasse and coast-cross straw compost prepared for the production of Agaricus brasilienses. Composting lasted for 14 days, during which time the substrates and additives were mixed every 2 days, and this was followed by a two-step steam pasteurisation (55 - 65°C; 15 h each step). Bacteria, (mainly Bacillus and Paenibacillus spp. and members of the Enterobacteriaceae) were the predominant micro-organisms present throughout the composting process with an average population density of 3 x 108 CFU/g. Actinomycetes, and especially members of the genus Streptomyces, were well represented with a population density of 2 - 3 x 108 CFU/g. The filamentous fungi, however, exhibited much lower population densities and were less diverse than the other micro-organisms, although Aspergillus fumigatus was present during the whole composting process and after pasteurisation. PMID:24031404

  13. Livros, editoras e oposição à ditadura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flamarion Maués

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O período da abertura política no Brasil (1974-1985 foi marcado, no campo da edição de livros, pelo surgimento ou revitalização de "editoras de oposição", ou seja, editoras com perfil nitidamente político e ideológico de oposição ao governo ditatorial. Compunham um universo que englobava desde editoras já estabelecidas, como Civilização Brasileira, Brasiliense, Vozes e Paz e Terra, até as surgidas naquele período, como Alfa-Ômega, Global, Codecri, Brasil Debates, Ciências Humanas, Kairós, Livramento, Vega, entre outras. Algumas dessas editoras mantinham vínculos estreitos com partidos ou grupos políticos oposicionistas, caracterizando-se como editoras de oposição engajadas; outras não estabeleciam vinculações políticas orgânicas ou explícitas mas, por seu perfil e linha editorial, representaram iniciativas políticas de oposição. Minha hipótese é de que o surgimento ou a revitalização das editoras de oposição no período em foco, em particular as que classifico como engajadas, teve como motor principal os objetivos políticos a que elas visavam.

  14. Práticas populares de mães adolescentes no cuidado aos filhos Prácticas populares de madres adolescentes en el cuidado a los hijos General practice of teenage mothers caring for their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keli Regiane Tomeleri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar e descrever os cuidados populares adotados por mães adolescentes na assitência aos filhos nos seis primeiros meses de vida. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa com abordagem qualitativa desenvolvida com seis mães adolescentes residentes em Cambé - PR. Os dados foram coletados no período de fevereiro a abril de 2007, por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, realizadas no domicílio em quatro momentos distintos:uma semana, um, quatro e seis meses após o nascimento. RESULTADOS: As mães adolescentes revelaram reproduzir em seu cotidiano de cuidar várias práticas populares que fazem parte da cultura local e familiar, tais como amamentação cruzada, utilização de benzimentos, xaropes, chás e orações para tratar intercorrências, além de algumas crendices relacionadas com o coto umbilical, soluços e alteração no sono do bebê. CONCLUSÃO: Os profissionais de saúde precisam conhecer as crenças e práticas das mães adolescentes para então planejar, da melhor forma possível, a assistência a ser prestada ao binômio mãe-filho.OBJETIVO: Identificar y describir los cuidados populares adoptados por madres adolescentes en la asistencia a los hijos en los seis primeros meses de vida. MÉTODOS: Investigación con abordaje cualitativo desarrollado con seis madres adolescentes residentes en Cambé - PR. Los datos fueron recolectados en el período de febrero a abril del 2007, por medio de entrevistas semi-estructuradas, realizadas en el domicilio en cuatro momentos distintos: una semana, uno, cuatro y seis meses después del nacimiento. RESULTADOS: Las madres adolescentes revelaron reproducir en su cotidiano de cuidar varias prácticas populares que hacen parte de la cultura local y familiar, tales como amamantamiento cruzado, utilización de bendiciones, jarabes, infusiones y oraciones para tratar ocurrencias, además de algunas creencias relacionadas con el muñón umbilical, hipos y alteraciones en el sueño del bebé. CONCLUSI

  15. 中国毛茛科翠雀属的分类学研究(三):拟澜沧翠雀花、磨顶山翠雀花和粗距蓝翠雀花的名实订正%Taxonomic Studies on the Genus Delphinium (Ranunculaceae) from China (III):The Identities of D. pseudothibeticum, D. motingshanicum and D. caeruleum var. crassicalcaratum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁琼; 杨亲二

    2014-01-01

    Both herbarium and field observations have shown that Delphinium pseudothibeticum W. T. Wang&M. J. Warnock described from Mo-ting (=Mao-ding) Shan, Deqen, northwestern Yunnan, China, is identical with D. ceratophorum Franch. var. brevicorniculatum W. T. Wang, and that both D. motingshanicum W. T. Wang&M. J. Warnock and D. caeruleum Jacq. ex Camb. var. crassicalcaratum W. T. Wang&M. J. Warnock, also described from Mo-ting Shan, are identical with D. beesianum W. W. Smith (D. motingshanicum is no more than a gigantic form of D. beesianum). Delphinum ceratophorum var. brevicorniculatum is currently known only from Deqen, while D. beesianum is a very common species in northwestern Yunnan. Delphinium pseudothibeticum, D. motingshanicum and D. caeruleum var. crassicalcaratum are all synonymized.%通过标本室和野外观察,发现根据云南西北部德钦标本描述的拟澜沧翠雀花(Delphinium pseudothibeticum W. T. Wang&M. J. Warnock)与同样根据德钦标本描述的短角萼翠雀花(D. ceratophorum Franch. var. brevicorniculatum W. T. Wang)属于同一植物,故将前者处理为后者的异名;而根据德钦标本描述的磨顶山(“磨顶”应为德钦县羊拉乡茂顶,故“磨顶山”实应为“茂顶山”)翠雀花(D. motingshanicum W. T. Wang&M. J. Warnock)和粗距蓝翠雀花(D. caeruleum Jacq. ex Camb. var. crassicalcaratum W. T. Wang&M. J. Warnock)均与云南西北部颇为常见的宽距翠雀花(D. beesianum W. W. Smith)属于同一植物(磨顶山翠雀花为宽距翠雀花的高大个体),故将磨顶山翠雀花和粗距蓝翠雀花均处理为宽距翠雀花的异名。

  16. O estilo motivacional de professores de Educação Física The motivational style of Physical Education teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Schwabe Minelli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar qual o estilo motivacional adotado por professores de educação física escolar, exclusivamente no que se refere à autonomia. A pesquisa de caráter descritivo-exploratório contou com a participação de 16 professores atuantes em escolas do município de Cambé, norte do Paraná. Os dados foram coletados por meio do instrumento "Problemas na escola", composto por oito vinhetas que representam cenários comuns às escolas, seguidas de quatro afirmações que devem ser avaliada numa escala de Likert. Cada uma das quatro situações-respostas corresponde a um estilo motivacional adotado, que varia de altamente controlador até altamente promotor de autonomia. Os resultados mostraram que o estilo motivacional altamente promotor de autonomia foi o mais adotado pelos participantes da pesquisa, podendo assim, representar uma prática docente na educação física escolar que promova efetivamente a aprendizagem e, uma mudança efetiva no comportamento dos estudantes.The study aimed to identify the motivational style adopted by teachers of Physical Education School, only with regard to autonomy. The research was a descriptive exploratory with the participation of 16 teachers working in public schools in Cambé, north of Paraná. Data were collected via the instrument "Problems in Schools", composed of eight vignettes that represent common scenarios for schools followed by four statements to be assessed on a Likert scale. Each of the four-response situations corresponds to a motivational style adopted, ranging from highly controlling to highly autonomy. The results showed that the promoter highly motivational style of autonomy was the most frequently adopted by the participants and may therefore represent a teaching practice in physical education to promote effective learning and an effective change in the behavior of students.

  17. Comparação de métodos de laboratório e de campo para a estimativa da área foliar em fruteiras silvestres Comparison of laboratory and field methods for the estimation of leaf area of wild fruit species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Mielke

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um trabalho com o objetivo de estudar diferentes métodos de laboratório e de campo para a estimativa da área foliar de fruteiras silvestres, pertencentes à família Myrtaceae, a saber: uvalheira (Eugenia uvalha Camb., aracazeiro (Psidium cattleyanum Sabine, goiabeira serrana (Feijoa sellowiana Berg. e pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora DC. Entre os métodos de laboratório, também utilizados como "padrão", bons resultados foram obtidos utilizando-se um medidor automático de área foliar, planímetro ou através do método gravimétrico (fotocópia ou papel filtro. Dentre os métodos de campo, os melhores resultados foram obtidos por regressão linear. As estimativas das áreas foliares (y para as quatro espécies estudadas podem ser tomadas a partir das equações: y = 2,658 + 0,554X, para o araçazeiro; y = 0.75X ou y = 0,856X - 2,115, para a goiabeira serrana; y = 0.68X, para a uvalheira e y = 0,69X ou y = 0,503 + 0,643X, para a pitangueira, sendo X = comprimento x largura da folha.This work was carried out in order to study different laboratory and field methods for estimating leaf area of wild fruit species, belonging to the Myrtaceae: "uvalha" plant (Eugenia uvalha Camb., cattley guava plant (Psidium cattleyanum Sabine, feijoa plant (Feijoa sellowiana Berg and Surinam cherry plant (Eugenia uniflora DC. Among the laboratory' methods utilized as "standard methods", good results were obtained with the use of an automatic leaf area meter, planimeter or by the gravimetric method (photocopy or Whatman paper. Among field methods, best results were obtained with linear regression. The estimation of leaf area y for all studied species could be obtained through the equations: y = 2,658 + 0,554 x for cattley guava plant; y = 0,75 x or y = 0,856 x - 2,115 for feijoa plant; y = 0,68 x for "uvalha" plant and y = 0,69 x or y = 0,503 + 0,643 x for Surinam cherry plant, where x = leaf length x leaf width.

  18. [Al2O4](-), a Benchmark Gas-Phase Class II Mixed-Valence Radical Anion for the Evaluation of Quantum-Chemical Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaupp, Martin; Karton, Amir; Bischoff, Florian A

    2016-08-01

    The radical anion [Al2O4](-) has been identified as a rare example of a small gas-phase mixed-valence system with partially localized, weakly coupled class II character in the Robin/Day classification. It exhibits a low-lying C2v minimum with one terminal oxyl radical ligand and a high-lying D2h minimum at about 70 kJ/mol relative energy with predominantly bridge-localized-hole character. Two identical C2v minima and the D2h minimum are connected by two C2v-symmetrical transition states, which are only ca. 6-10 kJ/mol above the D2h local minimum. The small size of the system and the absence of environmental effects has for the first time enabled the computation of accurate ab initio benchmark energies, at the CCSDT(Q)/CBS level using W3-F12 theory, for a class-II mixed-valence system. These energies have been used to evaluate wave function-based methods [CCSD(T), CCSD, SCS-MP2, MP2, UHF] and density functionals ranging from semilocal (e.g., BLYP, PBE, M06L, M11L, N12) via global hybrids (B3LYP, PBE0, BLYP35, BMK, M06, M062X, M06HF, PW6B95) and range-separated hybrids (CAM-B3LYP, ωB97, ωB97X-D, LC-BLYP, LC-ωPBE, M11, N12SX), the B2PLYP double hybrid, and some local hybrid functionals. Global hybrids with about 35-43% exact-exchange (EXX) admixture (e.g., BLYP35, BMK), several range hybrids (CAM-B3LYP, ωB97X-D, ω-B97), and a local hybrid provide good to excellent agreement with benchmark energetics. In contrast, too low EXX admixture leads to an incorrect delocalized class III picture, while too large EXX overlocalizes and gives too large energy differences. These results provide support for previous method choices for mixed-valence systems in solution and for the treatment of oxyl defect sites in alumosilicates and SiO2. Vibrational gas-phase spectra at various computational levels have been compared directly to experiment and to CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV(T+d)Z data. PMID:27434425

  19. Can Contemporary Density Functional Theory Predict Energy Spans in Molecular Catalysis Accurately Enough To Be Applicable for in Silico Catalyst Design? A Computational/Experimental Case Study for the Ruthenium-Catalyzed Hydrogenation of Olefins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmann, Kai; Hölscher, Markus; Leitner, Walter

    2016-01-13

    The catalytic hydrogenation of cyclohexene and 1-methylcyclohexene is investigated experimentally and by means of density functional theory (DFT) computations using novel ruthenium Xantphos(Ph) (4,5-bis(diphenylphosphino)-9,9-dimethylxanthene) and Xantphos(Cy) (4,5-bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)-9,9-dimethylxanthene) precatalysts [Ru(Xantphos(Ph))(PhCO2)(Cl)] (1) and [Ru(Xantphos(Cy))(PhCO2)(Cl)] (2), the synthesis, characterization, and crystal structures of which are reported. The intention of this work is to (i) understand the reaction mechanisms on the microscopic level and (ii) compare experimentally observed activation barriers with computed barriers. The Gibbs free activation energy ΔG(⧧) was obtained experimentally with precatalyst 1 from Eyring plots for the hydrogenation of cyclohexene (ΔG(⧧) = 17.2 ± 1.0 kcal/mol) and 1-methylcyclohexene (ΔG(⧧) = 18.8 ± 2.4 kcal/mol), while the Gibbs free activation energy ΔG(⧧) for the hydrogenation of cyclohexene with precatalyst 2 was determined to be 21.1 ± 2.3 kcal/mol. Plausible activation pathways and catalytic cycles were computed in the gas phase (M06-L/def2-SVP). A variety of popular density functionals (ωB97X-D, LC-ωPBE, CAM-B3LYP, B3LYP, B97-D3BJ, B3LYP-D3, BP86-D3, PBE0-D3, M06-L, MN12-L) were used to reoptimize the turnover determining states in the solvent phase (DF/def2-TZVP; IEF-PCM and/or SMD) to investigate how well the experimentally obtained activation barriers can be reproduced by the calculations. The density functionals B97-D3BJ, MN12-L, M06-L, B3LYP-D3, and CAM-B3LYP reproduce the experimentally observed activation barriers for both olefins very well with very small (0.1 kcal/mol) to moderate (3.0 kcal/mol) mean deviations from the experimental values indicating for the field of hydrogenation catalysis most of these functionals to be useful for in silico catalyst design prior to experimental work. PMID:26713773

  20. Current lead natural products for the chemotherapy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, E

    2000-09-01

    antagonism with the HIV corecept or CXCR4. A number of natural products have been reported to interact with the reverse transcriptase, i.e., baicalin, avarol, avarone, psychotrine, phloroglucinol derivatives, and, in particular, calanolides (from the tropical rainforest tree, Calophyllum lanigerum) and inophyllums (from the Malaysian tree, Calophyllum inophyllum). The natural marine substance illimaquinone would be targeted at the RNase H function of the reverse transcriptase. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane, from turmeric, the roots/rhizomes of Curcuma spp), dicaffeoylquinic and dicaffeoylt artaric acids, L-chicoric acid, and a number of fungal metabolites (equisetin, phomasetin, oteromycin, and integric acid) have all been proposed as HIV-1 integrase inhibitors. Yet, we have recently shown that L-c hicoric acid owes its anti-HIV activity to a specific interaction with the viral envelope gp120 rather than integrase. A number of compounds would be able to inhibit HIV-1 gene expression at the transcription level: the flavonoid chrysin (through inhibition of casein kinase II, the antibacter ial peptides melittin (from bee venom) and cecropin, and EM2487, a novel substance produced by Streptomyces. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:10934347

  1. Influence of biodiesel blending on physicochemical properties and importance of mathematical model for predicting the properties of biodiesel blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Short identification of selected biodiesel feedstock. • Review of physicochemical properties for blended biodiesel. • Mathematical model for predicting properties of various biodiesel blends. - Abstract: The growing demand for green world serves as one of the most significant challenges of modernization. Requirements like largest usage of energy for modern society as well as demand for friendly milieu create a deep concern in field of research. Biofuels are placed at the peak of the research arena for their underlying benefits as mentioned by multiple researches. Out of a number of vegetable oils, only a few are used commercially for biodiesel production. Due to various limitations of edible oil, non-edible oils are becoming a profitable choice. Till today, very little percentage of biodiesel is used successfully in engine. The research is still continuing for improving the biodiesel usage level. Recently, it is found that the blended biodiesel from more than one feedstock provides better performance in engine. This paper reviews the physicochemical properties of different biodiesel blends obtained from various feedstocks with a view to properly understand the fuel quality. Moreover, a short description of each feedstock is given along with graphical presentation of important properties for various blend percentages from B0 to B100. Finally, mathematical model is formed for predicting various properties of biodiesel blend with the help of different research data by using polynomial curve fitting method. The results obtained from a number of literature based on this work shows that the heating value of biodiesel is about 11% lower than diesel except coconut (14.5% lower) whereas kinematic viscosity is in the range of 4–5.4 mm2/s. Flash point of all biodiesels are more than 150 °C, except neem and coconut. Cold flow properties of calophyllum, palm, jatropha, moringa are inferior to others. This would help to determine important properties of

  2. An in vitro efficacy validation of mangrove associates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aseer Manilal; Behailu Merdekios; Jose Paul Veliyath Paul; Akbar Idhayadhulla; Chinnaswamy Muthukumar; Mulugeta Melkie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the in vitro antimicrobial potential of mangrove associates against a battery of human and shrimp pathogenic bacteria and to elucidate its antimicrobial principles.Methods:(southwest coast of India) vicinity were extracted in different organic solvents of increasing polarity. The resultant extracts obtained from the respective species were examined for the antimicrobial activity against a panel of shrimp and human pathogens by agar diffusion assay.Results:In the present study, 12 species of mangrove associates collected from the Kollam inophyllum (C. inophyllum), Cerbera odollam and Dalbergia candenatensis] were found to be active. The broadest and highest rank of activity was observed in the crude extract of C. inophyllum. Amongst the pathogens tested, shrimp pathogenic Vibrios were the most sensitive organisms while human pathogens were found to be a bit resistant. In the present study, ethyl acetate was found to be the best solvent for extracting antimicrobial metabolites. The bioactive principles present in the crude extract of C. inophyllum were chemically elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometer studies revealed the presence of two principal compounds such as 1-Dimethyl(phenyl)silyloxyhexadecane (24.73%) and β-d-Mannofuranoside, O-geranyl (50%) which might play functional role in the chemical defense against microbial invasion.Conclusions:Of the 12 species evaluated, three species of mangrove associates [Calophyllum inophyllum is a promising candidate for the development of plant-based human and veterinary grade antibiotics in future. Based on the overall findings, it could be inferred that the mangrove associate C.

  3. Pembuatan Biodiesel Dari Minyak Nyamplung Menggunakan Pemanasan Gelombang Mikro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Ridho Muhammad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Energi fosil yang selama ini menjadi tumpuan penduduk seluruh dunia, jumlahnya semakin menipis dari waktu ke waktu. Peran minyak bumi dalam penyediaan energi nasional pun masih dominan. Sekitar 53% kebutuhan energi nasional dipenuhi dari minyak bumi. Oleh karena itu, pencarian energi alternatif pengganti minyak bumi harus dikembangkan, salah satunya biodiesel. Penggunaan microwave sebagai sumber energi pembuatan biodiesel dapat mempercepat waktu reaksi. Sehingga microwave dipandang lebih efisien. Biji nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum memiliki kandungan minyak sebesar 60,1% berat. Dengan kandungan minyak sebesar ini maka biji nyamplung memiliki potensi yang besar bila digunakan sebagai bahan baku pembuatan biodiesel. Nyamplung tersebar luas di pantai-pantai Indonesia. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mensintesa biodiesel dari minyak mentah nyamplung (Callophyluminophyllum dengan proses trans-esterifikasi dengan menggunakan microwave, mempelajari daya optimal dalam pembuatan biodiesel, mempelajari jumlah katalis yang dibutuhkan untuk mendapatkan biodiesel yang paling baik, mempelajari yield biodiesel yang dihasilkan serta mempelajari pengaruh penambahan ratio mol minyak-metanol terhadap kualitas biodiesel yang dihasilkan. Langkah awal pembuatan biodiesel nyamplung adalah proses degumming atau penghilangan impurities seperti getah, kemudian dilanjutkan dengan esterifikasi yang bertujuan untuk mengubah free fatty acid (FFA menjadi metil ester. Setelah esterifikasi, larutan dititrasi dengan NaOH dan indicator pp hingga konsentrasi FFA menjadi < 2%. Kemudian masuk proses trans-esterifikasi yang merubah trigliserida dalam minyak menjadi metil ester dan gliserol. Proses selanjutnya adalah pemisahan biodiesel dan gliserol dan terakhir proses pencucian. Variabel percobaan adalah kadar katalis CaO 2, 3, 4, 5, dan 6% berat minyak. Ratio mol minyak-metanol 1:9 dan 1:12. Variabel terakhir adalah daya microwave sebesar 100W, 264W dan 400W. Dari hasil

  4. Ab initio geometry and bright excitation of carotenoids: Quantum Monte Carlo and Many Body Green's Function Theory calculations on peridinin

    CERN Document Server

    Coccia, Emanuele; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In this letter we report the singlet ground state structure of the full carotenoid peridinin by means of variational Monte Carlo (VMC) calculations. The VMC relaxed geometry has an average bond length alternation of 0.1165(10) {\\AA}, larger than the values obtained by DFT (PBE, B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP) and shorter than that calculated at the Hartree-Fock (HF) level. TDDFT and EOM-CCSD calculations on a reduced peridinin model confirm the HOMO-LUMO major contribution of the Bu+-like (S2) bright excited state. Many Body Green's Function Theory (MBGFT) calculations of the vertical excitation energy of the Bu+-like state for the VMC structure (VMC/MBGFT) provide excitation energy of 2.62 eV, in agreement with experimental results in n-hexane (2.72 eV). The dependence of the excitation energy on the bond length alternation in the MBGFT and TDDFT calculations with different functionals is discussed.

  5. Molecular anions of polydeprotonated naphthalenes: An investigation on the metastability and deprotonation energies using nuclear-charge stabilization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangwan, Poonam; Vikas, E-mail: qlabspu@pu.ac.in, E-mail: qlabspu@yahoo.com [Quantum Chemistry Group, Department of Chemistry and Centre of Advanced Studies in Chemistry, Panjab University, Chandigrah 160014 (India)

    2016-01-28

    The dianions and trianions of doubly- and triply-deprotonated naphthalenes are investigated using density functional theory (DFT) computations employing hybrid, long-range, and dispersion corrected exchange-correlation functionals. The investigated polyanionic species are found to be metastable with negative electron affinity and are further treated using a nuclear-charge stabilization method. The tunneling lifetimes of these anionic species were estimated to be a few femtoseconds. Notably, the deprotonated energies (DPEs) of naphthalene leading to the formation of triply deprotonated trianions are observed to be affected by the metastability of the dianions and trianions. For the deprotonation of doubly deprotonated dianions, the DPE calculated using the improved methodology based on the stabilization method is found to be nearly 100 kcal/mol more than that computed using the conventional procedure. Though the various DFT approximations employed are in a good agreement for predicting the lifetimes of the metastable species but in the prediction of electron-affinities and deprotonation energies, the dispersion-corrected DFT-D3 significantly disagrees with the long-range corrected DFT methods employing cam-B3LYP and ωB97XD exchange-correlation functionals.

  6. Modeling the Galaxy-Halo Connection: An open-source approach with Halotools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearin, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Although the modern form of galaxy-halo modeling has been in place for over ten years, there exists no common code base for carrying out large-scale structure calculations. Considering, for example, the advances in CMB science made possible by Boltzmann-solvers such as CMBFast, CAMB and CLASS, there are clear precedents for how theorists working in a well-defined subfield can mutually benefit from such a code base. Motivated by these and other examples, I present Halotools: an open-source, object-oriented python package for building and testing models of the galaxy-halo connection. Halotools is community-driven, and already includes contributions from over a dozen scientists spread across numerous universities. Designed with high-speed performance in mind, the package generates mock observations of synthetic galaxy populations with sufficient speed to conduct expansive MCMC likelihood analyses over a diverse and highly customizable set of models. The package includes an automated test suite and extensive web-hosted documentation and tutorials (halotools.readthedocs.org). I conclude the talk by describing how Halotools can be used to analyze existing datasets to obtain robust and novel constraints on galaxy evolution models, and by outlining the Halotools program to prepare the field of cosmology for the arrival of Stage IV dark energy experiments.

  7. Vibrational, NMR and UV-Visible spectroscopic investigation, VCD and NLO studies on Benzophenone thiosemicarbazone using computational calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, N.; Jobe Prabakar, P. C.; Ramalingam, S.; Periandy, S.; Parasuraman, K.

    2016-04-01

    In order to explore the unbelievable NLO property of prepared Benzophenone thiosemicarbazone (BPTSC), the experimental and theoretical investigation has been made. The theoretical calculations were made using RHF and CAM-B3LYP methods at 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The title compound contains Cdbnd S ligand which helps to improve the second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency. The molecule has been examined in terms of the vibrational, electronic and optical properties. The entire molecular behavior was studied by their fundamental IR and Raman wavenumbers and was compared with the theoretical aspect. The molecular chirality has been studied by performing vibrational circular dichroism (circularly polarized infrared radiation). The Mulliken charge levels of the compound ensure the perturbation of atomic charges according to the ligand. The molecular interaction of frontier orbitals emphasizes the modification of chemical properties of the compound through the reaction path. The enormous amount of NLO activity was induced by the Benzophenone in thiosemicarbazone. The Gibbs free energy was evaluated at different temperature and from which the enhancement of chemical stability was stressed. The VCD spectrum was simulated and the optical dichroism of the compound has been analyzed.

  8. Structure and electronic properties of azadirachtin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Elton A S; de Oliveira, Daniel A B; Farias, Sergio A S; Gargano, Ricardo; Martins, João B L

    2014-02-01

    We performed a combined DFT and Monte Carlo (13)C NMR chemical-shift study of azadirachtin A, a triterpenoid that acts as a natural insect antifeedant. A conformational search using a Monte Carlo technique based on the RM1 semiempirical method was carried out in order to establish its preferred structure. The B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p), wB97XD/6-311++G(d,p), M06/6-311++G(d,p), M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p), and CAM-B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) levels of theory were used to predict NMR chemical shifts. A Monte Carlo population-weighted average spectrum was produced based on the predicted Boltzmann contributions. In general, good agreement between experimental and theoretical data was obtained using both methods, and the (13)C NMR chemical shifts were predicted highly accurately. The geometry was optimized at the semiempirical level and used to calculate the NMR chemical shifts at the DFT level, and these shifts showed only minor deviations from those obtained following structural optimization at the DFT level, and incurred a much lower computational cost. The theoretical ultraviolet spectrum showed a maximum absorption peak that was mainly contributed by the tiglate group. PMID:24509732

  9. Benzylammonium Thermometer Ions: Internal Energies of Ions Formed by Low Temperature Plasma and Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Edward R.; Dumlao, Morphy; Xiao, Dan; Zhang, Daming; Donald, William A.

    2015-12-01

    The extent of internal energy deposition upon ion formation by low temperature plasma and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization was investigated using novel benzylammonium thermometer ions. C-N heterolytic bond dissociation enthalpies of nine 4-substituted benzylammoniums were calculated using CAM-B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p), which was significantly more accurate than B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p), MP2/6-311++G(d,p), and CBS-QB3 for calculating the enthalpies of 20 heterolytic dissociation reactions that were used to benchmark theory. All 4-substituted benzylammonium thermometer ions fragmented by a single pathway with comparable dissociation entropies, except 4-nitrobenzylammonium. Overall, the extent of energy deposition into ions formed by low temperature plasma was significantly lower than those formed by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization under these conditions. Because benzylamines are volatile, this new suite of thermometer ions should be useful for investigating the extent of internal energy deposition during ion formation for a wide range of ionization methods, including plasma, spray and laser desorption-based techniques.

  10. Cytisine basicity, solvation, logP, and logD theoretical determination as tool for bioavailability prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieńko, Tomasz; Grudzień, Monika; Taciak, Przemysław Paweł; Mazurek, Aleksander Paweł

    2016-01-01

    Cytisine, an α4β2 nicotinic receptor partial agonist, is a plant alkaloid widely used as a smoking cessation agent. Despite long history of use, knowledge on pharmacokinetics of cytisine still demands an extension. This work is aimed at theoretical determination of physicochemical parameters that affect the bioavailability of cytisine. The acidic dissociation constant, Gibbs free energy of solvation in water and n-octanol as well as n-octanol/water partition coefficient and n-octanol/water distribution coefficient of cytisine were calculated as quantities corresponding to its solubility and permeability. Cytisine structure was optimized with several quantum chemical methods-ab initio: HF and MP2, and DFT functionals (B3LYP, B3LYP-D3, CAM-B3LYP, M06-2X, TPSS, VSXC) with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Solvation of cytisine in water and n-octanol was determined with the SMD continuum model. It was shown that lipophilicity of cytisine depends on the pH of an environment. Protonated cytisine, the most populated state under acidic conditions, is characterized by enhanced hydrophilicity. Then neutral cytisine, dominating in a basic environment, demonstrates more lipophilic character. It appears that cytisine is very well soluble in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract fluids. Then the distribution of cytisine ought to occur very rapidly. However, permeability of cytisine through the mucous membrane of the GI tract may be limited, leading to the diminished bioavailability.

  11. Chelation behavior of various flavonols and transfer of flavonol-chelated zinc(II) to alanylaspartic dipeptide: A PCM/DFT investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasarawan, Nuttawisit; Thipyapong, Khajadpai; Ruangpornvisuti, Vithaya

    2016-03-01

    Alanylaspartic dipeptide (AlaAsp) and zinc(II)-flavonol complex could represent a metal-binding site in proteins and a metal-ion releasing agent, respectively. Chelation of zinc(II) by either AlaAsp or flavonol ligands in aqueous solution has been examined using DFT methods with polarizable continuum model (PCM/DFT). Coordination geometry, complexation stoichiometry, coordination bond strength, preferable metal-binding site on ligands and effect of water coordination on the stability of complexes have been addressed. In several cases, the long-range corrected density functional CAM-B3LYP allows the most accurate prediction of both structural and spectroscopic data. The preferential transfer of flavonol-chelated zinc(II) to AlaAsp under solvation is attainable through the ligand-exchange reaction. The energy barrier of such reaction is significantly dependent on the degree of hydrogen bonding within the transition state. In summary, either hydroxylation or methoxylation at particular positions on the 3-hydroxyflavone backbone significantly affects the reactivity of flavonol chelates in the metal-ion transfer.

  12. Quantitative Trait Loci for Yield and Yield-Related Traits in Spring Barley Populations Derived from Crosses between European and Syrian Cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Mikołajczak

    Full Text Available In response to climatic changes, breeding programmes should be aimed at creating new cultivars with improved resistance to water scarcity. The objective of this study was to examine the yield potential of barley recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from three cross-combinations of European and Syrian spring cultivars, and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs for yield-related traits in these populations. RILs were evaluated in field experiments over a period of three years (2011 to 2013 and genotyped with simple sequence repeat (SSR and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers; a genetic map for each population was constructed and then one consensus map was developed. Biological interpretation of identified QTLs was achieved by reference to Ensembl Plants barley gene space. Twelve regions in the genomes of studied RILs were distinguished after QTL analysis. Most of the QTLs were identified on the 2H chromosome, which was the hotspot region in all three populations. Syrian parental cultivars contributed alleles decreasing traits' values at majority of QTLs for grain weight, grain number, spike length and time to heading, and numerous alleles increasing stem length. The phenomic and molecular approaches distinguished the lines with an acceptable grain yield potential combining desirable features or alleles from their parents, that is, early heading from the Syrian breeding line (Cam/B1/CI08887//CI05761 and short plant stature from the European semidwarf cultivar (Maresi.

  13. Design of Acceptors with Suitable Frontier Molecular Orbitals to Match Donors via Substitutions on Perylene Diimide for Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiaoli; Li, Zhuoxin; Li, Songyang; Luan, Guoyou; Liang, Dadong; Tang, Shanshan; Jin, Ruifa

    2016-05-13

    A series of perylene diimide (PDI) derivatives have been investigated at the CAM-B3LYP/6-31G(d) and the TD-B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) levels to design solar cell acceptors with high performance in areas such as suitable frontier molecular orbital (FMO) energies to match oligo(thienylenevinylene) derivatives and improved charge transfer properties. The calculated results reveal that the substituents slightly affect the distribution patterns of FMOs for PDI-BI. The electron withdrawing group substituents decrease the FMO energies of PDI-BI, and the electron donating group substituents slightly affect the FMO energies of PDI-BI. The di-electron withdrawing group substituents can tune the FMOs of PDI-BI to be more suitable for the oligo(thienylenevinylene) derivatives. The electron withdrawing group substituents result in red shifts of absorption spectra and electron donating group substituents result in blue shifts for PDI-BI. The -CN substituent can improve the electron transport properties of PDI-BI. The -CH₃ group in different positions slightly affects the electron transport properties of PDI-BI.

  14. Benchmarking DFT and semi-empirical methods for a reliable and cost-efficient computational screening of benzofulvene derivatives as donor materials for small-molecule organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic computational investigation on the optical properties of a group of novel benzofulvene derivatives (Martinelli 2014 Org. Lett. 16 3424–7), proposed as possible donor materials in small molecule organic photovoltaic (smOPV) devices, is presented. A benchmark evaluation against experimental results on the accuracy of different exchange and correlation functionals and semi-empirical methods in predicting both reliable ground state equilibrium geometries and electronic absorption spectra is carried out. The benchmark of the geometry optimization level indicated that the best agreement with x-ray data is achieved by using the B3LYP functional. Concerning the optical gap prediction, we found that, among the employed functionals, MPW1K provides the most accurate excitation energies over the entire set of benzofulvenes. Similarly reliable results were also obtained for range-separated hybrid functionals (CAM-B3LYP and wB97XD) and for global hybrid methods incorporating a large amount of non-local exchange (M06-2X and M06-HF). Density functional theory (DFT) hybrids with a moderate (about 20–30%) extent of Hartree–Fock exchange (HFexc) (PBE0, B3LYP and M06) were also found to deliver HOMO–LUMO energy gaps which compare well with the experimental absorption maxima, thus representing a valuable alternative for a prompt and predictive estimation of the optical gap. The possibility of using completely semi-empirical approaches (AM1/ZINDO) is also discussed. (paper)

  15. Bond overlap population analysis on through-space electron transfer in [3n]cyclophanes (n = 2 – 5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through-space electron transfer between the benzene rings of [3n]cyclophanes, n = 2 – 5, was investigated using density functional theory calculations, CAM-B3LYP/6-311++G**. An external point charge, q, was placed on the axis perpendicular to a benzene ring of the cyclophane molecule. The dependence of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)–lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gap and bond overlap population (BOP) of cyclophanes on the values of q and n are discussed. The HOMO–LUMO gap generally decreases as q decreases and n increases. It is found from the BOP analysis that electron transfer occurs mainly through LUMO + 2 for n = 2, LUMO for n = 3 and n = 4, and LUMO + 4 for n = 5. The result that the values of the BOP for n = 2 and 5 increase as q decreases means that the through-space electron transfer is enhanced by the negative charge on the neighboring molecule in the solid. - Highlights: • Bond overlap population (BOP) analysis for electron transfer in [3n]cyclophanes. • Specification of the first excited states and orbital component of cyclophanes. • Change of BOP and electron path by external point charge and methylene bridge

  16. Tuning the NLO properties of polymethineimine chains by chemical substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medved', Miroslav; Jacquemin, Denis

    2013-03-01

    Structure and molecular electronic properties including dipole moment, polarizability and first hyperpolarizability of polymethineimine (PMI) oligomers (up to hexadecamers) and its experimentally known amino-, methyl-, and cyano-derivatives are investigated using several ab initio methods (HF, MP2 and DFT). It is shown that side-chain substitutions have significant effects both on the structure and molecular properties of PMI chains. Depending on the substitution, two types of structures have been identified. The first is characterized by a bent skeleton and encompasses PMI, polyacetonitrile (PAcN), and polycyanonitrile (PCN). The second, represented by polyaminonitrile (PAN), remains quasi-linear with the plane of the unit cell (UC) only slightly rotating around the longitudinal molecular axis. These structural differences are also reflected in molecular properties; while in case of PMI, PAcN, and PCN the longitudinal component of properties (reduced per UC) reaches its maximum value for medium-size oligomers and then decreases for longer chains, the linear and nonlinear properties of PAN steadily increase towards the polymeric limit. In addition, we have assessed the performances of long-range corrected DFT functionals (LR-DFT), namely LC-BLYP, CAM-B3LYP, and ωB97X within the present framework: they provide results in qualitative agreement with MP2, a success not reached with B3LYP.

  17. Charge-transfer optical absorption mechanism of DNA:Ag-nanocluster complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longuinhos, R.; Lúcio, A. D.; Chacham, H.; Alexandre, S. S.

    2016-05-01

    Optical properties of DNA:Ag-nanoclusters complexes have been successfully applied experimentally in Chemistry, Physics, and Biology. Nevertheless, the mechanisms behind their optical activity remain unresolved. In this work, we present a time-dependent density functional study of optical absorption in DNA:Ag4. In all 23 different complexes investigated, we obtain new absorption peaks in the visible region that are not found in either the isolated Ag4 or isolated DNA base pairs. Absorption from red to green are predominantly of charge-transfer character, from the Ag4 to the DNA fragment, while absorption in the blue-violet range are mostly associated to electronic transitions of a mixed character, involving either DNA-Ag4 hybrid orbitals or intracluster orbitals. We also investigate the role of exchange-correlation functionals in the calculated optical spectra. Significant differences are observed between the calculations using the PBE functional (without exact exchange) and the CAM-B3LYP functional (which partly includes exact exchange). Specifically, we observe a tendency of charge-transfer excitations to involve purines bases, and the PBE spectra error is more pronounced in the complexes where the Ag cluster is bound to the purines. Finally, our results also highlight the importance of adding both the complementary base pair and the sugar-phosphate backbone in order to properly characterize the absorption spectrum of DNA:Ag complexes.

  18. Molecular hyperpolarizabilities of push–pull chromophores: A comparison between theoretical and experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capobianco, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Università di Salerno, via ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Centore, R. [Dipartimento di Chimica P. Corradini, Università di Napoli, via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Noce, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Università di Salerno, via ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Peluso, A., E-mail: apeluso@unisa.it [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biologia, Università di Salerno, via ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2013-01-16

    Highlights: ► Electro-optical determined and MP2/DFT computed NLO properties have been compared. ► Significant dependence of dipole moments of elongated NLO chromophores on conformations has been found. ► A thorough comparison between MP2 and DFT/TD-DFT computational approaches has been carried out. ► The two-state model overestimates hyperpolarizability. - Abstract: Electric dipole moments and static first order hyperpolarizabilities of two push–pull molecules with an extended π electron systems have been evaluated at different computational levels and compared with the results of electro-optical absorption measurements, based on the two state model. Calculations show that: (i) the dipole moments of such elongated systems depend significantly on conformation, a thorough conformational search is necessary for a meaningful comparison between theoretical and experimental results; (ii) DFT methods, in particular CAM-B3LYP and M05-2X, yield dipole moments which compare well with those obtained by post Hartree–Fock methods (MP2) and by EOA measurements; (iii) theoretical first order hyperpolarizabilities are largely underestimated, both by MP2 and DFT methods, possibly because of the failure of two state model used in electro-optical measurements.

  19. Mocking the Weak Lensing universe: the LensTools python computing package

    CERN Document Server

    Petri, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We present a newly developed software package which implements a wide range of routines frequently used in Weak Gravitational Lensing (WL). With the continuously increasing size of the WL scientific community we feel that easy to use Application Program Interfaces (APIs) for common calculations are a necessity to ensure efficiency and coordination across different working groups. Coupled with existing open source codes, such as CAMB and Gadget2, LensTools brings together a cosmic shear simulation pipeline which, complemented with a variety of WL feature measurement tools and parameter sampling routines, provides easy access to the numerics for theoretical studies of WL as well as for experiment forecasts. Being implemented in python, LensTools takes full advantage of a range of state--of--the art techniques developed by the large and growing open--source software community (scipy,pandas,astropy,scikit-learn,emcee). We made the LensTools code available on the Python Package Index and published its documentatio...

  20. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of five medicinal plant; Fenois totais e atividade antioxidante de cinco plantas medicinais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Cleyton Marcos de M.; Silva, Hilris Rocha e; Vieira-Junior, Gerardo Magela; Ayres, Mariane Cruz C.; Costa, Charllyton Luis S. da; Araajo, Delton Servulo; Cavalcante, Luis Carlos D.; Barros, Elcio Daniel S.; Araujo, Paulo Breitner de M.; Brandao, Marcela S.; Chaves, Mariana H. [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mariana@ufpi.br

    2007-03-15

    This paper describes total phenolics content and antioxidant activity in the ethanolic extract of leaves, bark and roots of five medicinal plants: Terminalia brasiliensis Camb., Terminalia fagifolia Mart. and Zucc., Copernicia cerifera (Miller) H.E. Moore, Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. var. acuminata Teles Freire and Qualea grandiflora Mart. The total phenolics content of the plant extracts, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, varied from 250.0 {+-}8,2 to 763,63 {+-}13.03 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g dry EtOH extract. The antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay system. Extract of bark from T. brasiliensis, the most active, with an EC{sub 50} value of 27.59 {+-} 0.82 {mu}g/mL, was comparable to rutin (EC{sub 50} = 27.80 {+-} 1.38) and gallic acid (EC{sub 50} = 24.27 {+-} 0.31), used as positive controls. The relationship between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was positive and significant for T. brasiliensis, C. macrophyllum and C. cerifera. (author)

  1. Benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole Donor-Acceptor Dyes: A Synthetic, Spectroscopic, and Computational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnsley, Jonathan E; Shillito, Georgina E; Larsen, Christopher B; van der Salm, Holly; Wang, Lei E; Lucas, Nigel T; Gordon, Keith C

    2016-03-24

    The synthesis, optical characterization and computational modeling of seven benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (BTD) donor-acceptor dyes are reported. These dyes have been studied using electrochemical analysis, electronic absorption, emission, and Raman and resonance Raman spectroscopies coupled with various density functional theoretical approaches. Crystal structure geometries on a number of these compounds are also reported. The optical spectra are dominated by low energy charge-transfer states; this may be modulated by the coupling between donor and acceptor through variation in donor energy, variation of the donor-acceptor torsion angle, and incorporation of an insulating bridge. These modifications result in a perturbation of the excitation energy for this charge-transfer transition of up to ∼2000 cm(-1). Emission spectra exhibit significant solvatochromisim, with Lippert-Mataga analysis yielding Δμ between 8 and 33 D. Predicted λmax, ε, and Raman cross sections calculated by M06L, B3LYP, PBE0, M06, CAM-B3LYP, and ωB97XD DFT functionals were compared to experimental results and analyzed using multivariate analysis, which shows that hybrid functionals with 20-27% HF best predict ground state absorption, while long-range corrected functionals best predict molecular polarizabilities. PMID:26918584

  2. Testing General Relativity at Cosmological Scales using ISiTGR

    CERN Document Server

    Dossett, Jason; Moldenhauer, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    With the plethora of incoming and future cosmological data, the testing of general relativity at cosmological scales has become a possible and timely endeavor. It is not only motivated by the pressing question of cosmic acceleration but also by the proposals of some extensions to general relativity that would manifest themselves at large scales of distance. To test the consistency of current and future data with general relativity, we introduce the package: ISiTGR, Integrated Software in Testing General Relativity, an integrated set of modified modules for the publicly available packages CosmoMC and CAMB, including a modified version of the ISW-galaxy cross correlation module of Ho et al and a new weak lensing likelihood module for the refined HST-COSMOS weak gravitational lensing tomography data. We provide the equations for the parameterized modified growth equations and their evolution. We implement a functional form approach, a binning approach, as well as a new hybrid approach to evolve the modified grav...

  3. Study of the Effect of the Pulse Width of the Excitation Source on the Two-Photon Absorption and Two-Photon Circular Dichroism Spectra of Biaryl Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesga, Yuly; Hernandez, Florencio E

    2016-09-01

    Herein we report on the expanded theoretical calculations and the experimental measurements of the two-photon absorption (TPA) and two-photon circular dichroism (TPCD) spectra of a series of optically active biaryl derivatives (R-BINOL, R-VANOL, and R-VAPOL) using femtosecond pulses. The comparative analysis of the experimental TPCD spectra obtained with our tunable amplified femtosecond system with those previously measured in our group on the same series of compounds in the picosecond regime reveals a decrease in the amplitude of the signal and an improvement in matching with the theory in the former. These results can be explained based on the negligible contribution of excited state absorption (ESA) using femtosecond pulses compared to the picosecond regime. We show how ESA affects both the strength of the signal and the shape of the TPA and TPCD spectra. TPA and TPCD spectra were obtained using the double L-scan technique over a broad spectral range (450-750 nm) using 90 fs pulses at 50 Hz repetition rate produced by an amplified femtosecond system. The theoretical calculations were performed using modern analytical response theory within the time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) approach using CAM-B3LYP and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets. PMID:27525702

  4. Extending the Coyote emulator to dark energy models with standard w0-wa parametrization of the equation of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarini, L.; Bonometto, S. A.; Tessarotto, E.; Corasaniti, P.-S.

    2016-08-01

    We discuss an extension of the Coyote emulator to predict non-linear matter power spectra of dark energy (DE) models with a scale factor dependent equation of state of the form w = w0+(1-a)wa. The extension is based on the mapping rule between non-linear spectra of DE models with constant equation of state and those with time varying one originally introduced in ref. [40]. Using a series of N-body simulations we show that the spectral equivalence is accurate to sub-percent level across the same range of modes and redshift covered by the Coyote suite. Thus, the extended emulator provides a very efficient and accurate tool to predict non-linear power spectra for DE models with w0-wa parametrization. According to the same criteria we have developed a numerical code that we have implemented in a dedicated module for the CAMB code, that can be used in combination with the Coyote Emulator in likelihood analyses of non-linear matter power spectrum measurements. All codes can be found at https://github.com/luciano-casarini/pkequal.

  5. Assessment of Charge-Transfer Excitations in Organic Dyes obtained from TD-srDFT Based on Long-Range MP2 and MCSCF Wave Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Hedegård, Erik D; Knecht, Stefan; Fromager, Emmanuel; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa

    2013-01-01

    Charge transfer excitations can be described within TD-DFT, not only by means of long-range corrected exchange functionals but also with a combination of wave function theory and TD-DFT based on range separation. The latter approach enables a rigorous formulation of multi-determinantal TD-DFT schemes where excitation classes, which are absent in conventional TD-DFT spectra (like for example double excitations), can be addressed. This paper investigates the combination of both the long-range MCSCF and SOPPA ans\\"atze with a short-range DFT (srDFT) description. We find that the combinations of SOPPA or MCSCF with TD-DFT yield better results than could be expected from the pure wave function schemes. For the Time-Dependent MCSCF short-range DFT ansatz (TD-MC-srDFT) excitation energies calculated over a larger benchmark set of molecules with predominantly single reference character yield good agreement with their reference values, and are in general comparable to the long-range corrected functional CAM-B3LYP. The...

  6. Conically shaped drops in electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Howard A.; Brenner, Michael P.; Lister, John R.

    1996-11-01

    When an electric field is applied to a dielectric liquid containing a suspended immiscible fluid drop, the drop deforms into a prolate ellipsoidal shape. Above a critical field strength the drop develops conical ends, as first observed by Zeleny [Phys. Rev. 10, 1 (1917)] and Wilson & Taylor [Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 22, 728 (1925)] for, respectively, the case of conducting drops and soap films in air. The case of two dielectric liquids was studied recently using a slender drop approximation by Li, Halsey & Lobkovsky [Europhys. Lett 27, 575 (1994)]. In this presentation we further develop the slender body approximation to obtain coupled ordinary differential equations for the electric field and the drop shape. Analytical formulae are derived which approximately give the cone angle as a function of the dielectric constant ratio between the two fluids, and the minimum applied electric field at which conical tips first form as a function of the dielectric constant ratio. Finally, drops shapes are calculated numerically and compared with the common prolate shape assumption.

  7. More about a successful vector-tensor theory of gravitation

    CERN Document Server

    Dale, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The vector-tensor (VT) theory of gravitation revisited in this article was studied in previous papers, where it was proved that VT works and deserves attention. New observational data and numerical codes have motivated further development which is presented here. New research has been planed with the essential aim of proving that current cosmological observations, including Planck data, baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), and so on, may be explained with VT, a theory which accounts for a kind of dark energy which has the same equation of state as vacuum. New versions of the codes CAMB and COSMOMC have been designed for applications to VT, and the resulting versions have been used to get the cosmological parameters of the VT model at suitable confidence levels. The parameters to be estimated are the same as ingeneral relativity (GR), plus a new parameter $D$. For $D=0$, VT linear cosmological perturbations reduces to those of GR, but the VT background may explain dark energy. The fits between observations and ...

  8. Mocking the weak lensing universe: The LensTools Python computing package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, A.

    2016-10-01

    We present a newly developed software package which implements a wide range of routines frequently used in Weak Gravitational Lensing (WL). With the continuously increasing size of the WL scientific community we feel that easy to use Application Program Interfaces (APIs) for common calculations are a necessity to ensure efficiency and coordination across different working groups. Coupled with existing open source codes, such as CAMB (Lewis et al., 2000) and Gadget2 (Springel, 2005), LensTools brings together a cosmic shear simulation pipeline which, complemented with a variety of WL feature measurement tools and parameter sampling routines, provides easy access to the numerics for theoretical studies of WL as well as for experiment forecasts. Being implemented in PYTHON (Rossum, 1995), LensTools takes full advantage of a range of state-of-the art techniques developed by the large and growing open-source software community (Jones et al., 2001; McKinney, 2010; Astrophy Collaboration, 2013; Pedregosa et al., 2011; Foreman-Mackey et al., 2013). We made the LensTools code available on the Python Package Index and published its documentation on http://lenstools.readthedocs.io.

  9. Extending the Coyote emulator to dark energy models with standard $w_0$-$w_a$ parametrization of the equation of state

    CERN Document Server

    Casarini, L; Tessarotto, E; Corasaniti, P -S

    2016-01-01

    We discuss an extension of the Coyote emulator to predict non-linear matter power spectra of dark energy (DE) models with a scale factor dependent equation of state of the form w = w_0 + ( 1 - a )w_a . The extension is based on the mapping rule between non-linear spectra of DE models with constant equation of state and those with time varying one originally introduced in ref. [25]. Using a series of N-body simulations we show that the spectral equivalence is accurate to sub-percent level across the same range of modes and redshift covered by the Coyote suite. Thus, the extended emulator provides a very efficient and accurate tool to predict non-linear power spectra for DE models with w_0 - w_a parametrization. According to the same criteria we have developed a numerical code that we have implemented in a dedicated module for the CAMB code, that can be used in combination with the Coyote Emulator in likelihood analyses of non-linear matter power spectrum measurements. All codes can be found at https://github.c...

  10. Benzylammonium Thermometer Ions: Internal Energies of Ions Formed by Low Temperature Plasma and Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Edward R; Dumlao, Morphy; Xiao, Dan; Zhang, Daming; Donald, William A

    2015-12-01

    The extent of internal energy deposition upon ion formation by low temperature plasma and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization was investigated using novel benzylammonium thermometer ions. C-N heterolytic bond dissociation enthalpies of nine 4-substituted benzylammoniums were calculated using CAM-B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p), which was significantly more accurate than B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p), MP2/6-311++G(d,p), and CBS-QB3 for calculating the enthalpies of 20 heterolytic dissociation reactions that were used to benchmark theory. All 4-substituted benzylammonium thermometer ions fragmented by a single pathway with comparable dissociation entropies, except 4-nitrobenzylammonium. Overall, the extent of energy deposition into ions formed by low temperature plasma was significantly lower than those formed by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization under these conditions. Because benzylamines are volatile, this new suite of thermometer ions should be useful for investigating the extent of internal energy deposition during ion formation for a wide range of ionization methods, including plasma, spray and laser desorption-based techniques. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  11. Photoactivity of Molecule-TiO2 Clusters with Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppi, E; Urdaneta, I; Calatayud, M

    2016-07-14

    The interaction of molecules with titanium oxide substrates may lead to substantial modifications of their optical properties, in particular a red shift of the absorption spectrum compared to that of bare titania. In the present paper we discuss the role of the interface between two molecules, catechol and dopamine, with gas-phase (TiO2)N clusters (N = 2, 4, 6). We studied, for the interface, the bidentate modes (the molecule bonded to two Ti sites via its two oxygen sites), which was the most energetically favorable, followed by the chelated modes (the molecule bonded to one Ti site via its two oxygen sites), and the monodentate mode (the molecule bonded to one Ti site via one oxygen site). The absorption spectra were calculated with time-dependent functional-theory with CAM-B3LYP for the description of charge-transfer excitations. We observe a red shift of the molecule/cluster systems with respect to the molecules and clusters alone. Moreover, the chelated mode was found to present bands at lower energies than the other modes, making it the most interesting mode to tune the absorption edge of these systems. PMID:27082739

  12. Algorithms for singularities and real structures of weak Del Pezzo surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Lubbes, Niels

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we consider the classification of singularities [P. Du Val, On isolated singularities of surfaces which do not affect the conditions of adjunction. I, II, III, Proc. Camb. Philos. Soc. 30 (1934) 453-491] and real structures [C. T. C. Wall, Real forms of smooth del Pezzo surfaces, J. Reine Angew. Math. 1987(375/376) (1987) 47-66, ISSN 0075-4102] of weak Del Pezzo surfaces from an algorithmic point of view. It is well-known that the singularities of weak Del Pezzo surfaces correspond to root subsystems. We present an algorithm which computes the classification of these root subsystems. We represent equivalence classes of root subsystems by unique labels. These labels allow us to construct examples of weak Del Pezzo surfaces with the corresponding singularity configuration. Equivalence classes of real structures of weak Del Pezzo surfaces are also represented by root subsystems. We present an algorithm which computes the classification of real structures. This leads to an alternative proof of the known classification for Del Pezzo surfaces and extends this classification to singular weak Del Pezzo surfaces. As an application we classify families of real conics on cyclides. © World Scientific Publishing Company.

  13. Experimental, DFT and molecular docking studies on 2-(2-mercaptophenylimino)-4-methyl-2H-chromen-7-ol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Ravindra Kumar

    2016-10-01

    A new coumarin derivative 2-(2-mercaptophenylimino)-4-methyl-2H-chromen-7-ol (COMSB) was synthesized and characterized with the help of 1H,13C NMR, FT-IR, FT-Raman and mass spectrometry. All quantum calculations were performed at DFT level of theory using B3LYP functional and 6-31G (d,p) as basis set. The UV-Vis spectrum studied by TD-DFT theory, with a hybrid exchange-correlation functional using Coulomb-attenuating method (CAM-B3LYP) in solvent phase gives similar pattern of bands, at energies and is consistent with that of experimental findings. The detailed analysis of vibrational (IR and Raman) spectra and their assignments has been done by computing Potential Energy Distribution (PED) using Gar2ped. Intra-molecular interactions were analyzed by 'Atoms in molecule' (AIM) approach. Computed first static hyperpolarizability (β0 = 8.583 × 10-30 esu) indicates non-linear optical (NLO) response of the molecule. Molecular docking studies show that the title molecule may act as potential acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibitor.

  14. The role of high-level calculations in the assignment of the Q-band spectra of chlorophyll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimers, Jeffrey R. [School of Physics and Materials Science, The University of Technology, Sydney NSW (Australia); Cai, Zheng-Li [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane QLD4001 (Australia); Kobayashi, Rika [Australian National University Supercomputer Facility, Mills Rd, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Rätsep, Margus [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Freiberg, Arvi [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu, Estonia and Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Riia 23, 51010 Tartu (Estonia); Krausz, Elmars [Research School of Chemistry, The Australian National University, Canberra 2601 (Australia)

    2014-10-06

    We recently established a novel assignment of the visible absorption spectrum of chlorophyll-a that sees the two components Q{sub x} and Q{sub y} of the low-energy Q band as being intrinsically mixed by non-adiabatic coupling. This ended 50 years debate as to the nature of the Q bands, with prior discussion poised only in the language of the Born-Oppenheimer and Condon approximations. The new assignment presents significant ramifications for exciton transport and quantum coherence effects in photosystems. Results from state of the art electronic structure calculations have always been used to justify assignments, but quantitative inaccuracies and systematic failures have historically limited usefulness. We examine the role of CAM-B3LYP time-dependent density-functional theory (TD-DFT) and Symmetry Adapted Cluster-Configuration Interaction (SAC-CI) calculations in first showing that all previous assignments were untenable, in justifying the new assignment, in making some extraordinary predictions that were vindicated by the new assignment, and in then identifying small but significant anomalies in the extensive experimental data record.

  15. Effective Field Theory of Cosmic Acceleration: constraining dark energy with CMB data

    CERN Document Server

    Raveri, Marco; Frusciante, Noemi; Silvestri, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    We introduce EFTCAMB/EFTCosmoMC as publicly available patches to the commonly used CAMB/CosmoMC codes. We briefly describe the structure of the codes, their applicability and main features. To illustrate the use of these patches, we obtain constraints on parametrized pure EFT and designer $f(R)$ models, both on $\\Lambda$CDM and $w$CDM background expansion histories, using data from Planck temperature and lensing potential spectra, WMAP low-$\\ell$ polarization spectra (WP), and baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO). Upon inspecting theoretical stability of the models on the given background, we find non-trivial parameter spaces that we translate into viability priors. We use different combinations of data sets to show their individual effects on cosmological and model parameters. Our data analysis results show that, depending on the adopted data sets, in the $w$CDM background case this viability priors could dominate the marginalized posterior distributions. Interestingly, with Planck+WP+BAO+lensing data, in $f(R)...

  16. Adsorption-induced changes of intramolecular optical transitions: PTCDA/NaCl and PTCDA/KCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochheim, Manuel; Bredow, Thomas

    2015-09-15

    Structural and optical properties of isolated perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride molecules adsorbed on (100) oriented NaCl and KCl surfaces were studied theoretically to analyze the recently observed red-shift of the optical excitation spectrum after adsorption (Müller et al., Phys. Rev. B, 2011, 83, 241203; Paulheim et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2013, 15, 4906). The ground-state structures were obtained by periodic dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT) calculations. For the excited-state calculations, nonperiodic time-dependent DFT methods were applied for a cluster model embedded in point charges. The range-separated hybrid functional CAM-B3LYP was used. Correlation-consistent basis sets were used and the calculated excitation energies were extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. The shift of the first optical excitation energy was analyzed in terms of electronic and geometric contributions. It was found that both the distortion of the molecule due to the interaction with the surface and the electrostatic potential of the surface play an important role. PMID:26152591

  17. Reliable modeling of the electronic spectra of realistic uranium complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecmer, Paweł; Govind, Niranjan; Kowalski, Karol; de Jong, Wibe A.; Visscher, Lucas

    2013-07-01

    We present an EOMCCSD (equation of motion coupled cluster with singles and doubles) study of excited states of the small [UO2]2+ and [UO2]+ model systems as well as the larger UVIO2(saldien) complex. In addition, the triples contribution within the EOMCCSDT and CR-EOMCCSD(T) (completely renormalized EOMCCSD with non-iterative triples) approaches for the [UO2]2+ and [UO2]+ systems as well as the active-space variant of the CR-EOMCCSD(T) method—CR-EOMCCSd(t)—for the UVIO2(saldien) molecule are investigated. The coupled cluster data were employed as benchmark to choose the "best" appropriate exchange-correlation functional for subsequent time-dependent density functional (TD-DFT) studies on the transition energies for closed-shell species. Furthermore, the influence of the saldien ligands on the electronic structure and excitation energies of the [UO2]+ molecule is discussed. The electronic excitations as well as their oscillator dipole strengths modeled with TD-DFT approach using the CAM-B3LYP exchange-correlation functional for the [UVO2(saldien)]- with explicit inclusion of two dimethyl sulfoxide molecules are in good agreement with the experimental data of Takao et al. [Inorg. Chem. 49, 2349 (2010), 10.1021/ic902225f].

  18. DEMNUni: ISW, Rees-Sciama, and weak-lensing in the presence of massive neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Carbone, Carmelita; Dolag, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We present, for the first time in the literature, a full reconstruction of the total (linear and non-linear) ISW/Rees-Sciama effect in the presence of massive neutrinos, together with its cross-correlations with CMB-lensing and weak-lensing signals. The present analyses make use of all-sky maps extracted via ray-tracing across the gravitational potential distribution provided by the "Dark Energy and Massive Neutrino Universe" (DEMNUni) project, a set of large-volume, high-resolution cosmological N-body simulations, where neutrinos are treated as separate collisionless particles. We correctly recover, at $1-2\\%$ accuracy, the linear predictions from CAMB. Concerning the CMB-lensing and weak-lensing signals, we also recover, with similar accuracy, the signal predicted by Boltzmann codes, once non-linear neutrino corrections to Halofit are accounted for. Interestingly, in the ISW/Rees-Sciama signal, and its cross correlation with lensing, we find an excess of power with respect to the massless case, due to free ...

  19. Theoretical study on molecular packing and electronic structure of bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Haitao

    2014-01-01

    The molecular aggregation structure of 5,5′-bis(naphthalen-2-yl)-2,2′-bi(1,3,4-oxadiazole) (BOXD-NP) was studied by computing the intermolecular interaction potential energy surface (PES) at density functional theory level based on a dimer model. All B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP and M062x functionals can yield a reliable isolated molecular geometry. The conformation of BOXD-NP obtained with all methods is perfectly planar, indicating good conjugation ability between oxadiazole and naphthalene rings. The vibrational frequencies of BOXD-NP were also calculated using the B3LYP/6-311+G∗∗ method, which showed great consistency with the experimental observations and makes the assignments of the IR spectra more solid. It was revealed that the lowest excited state of BOXD-NP should be assigned as a highly allowed π-π∗ state by TD-DFT calculation. Considering the non-covalent interactions in molecular aggregates, the M062x functional was applied in the construction of the PES. Besides the packing structure found in the crystals, PES also predicted several stable structures, indicating that PES has great ability in guiding molecular self-assembly. Symmetry Adapted Perturbation Theory (SAPT) analysis on these energy-minimum molecular stacking structures revealed that London dispersion forces are the strongest attractive component in the binding. This journal is

  20. The DFT investigations of the electron injection in hydrazone-based sensitizers

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G.

    2012-03-01

    Quantum chemical calculations were carried out by using density functional theory and time-dependant density functional theory at B3LYP/6-31G(d) and TD-B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theories. The absorption spectra have been computed with and without solvent. The calculated absorption spectra in ethanol, acetonitrile, and methanol are in good agreement with experimental evidences. The absorption spectra are red shifted compared to System1. On the basis of electron injection and electronic coupling constant, we have shed light on the nature of different sensitizers. The coplanarity between the benzene near anchoring group having LUMO and the bridge (N-N) is broken in System6 and System7 that would hamper the recombination process. The electron injection of System2-System10 is superior to System1. The highest electronic coupling constant has been observed for System6 that followed the System7 and System8. The light-harvesting efficiency of all the sensitizers enlarged in acetonitrile and ethanol. The long-range-corrected functional (LC-BLYP), Coulomb-attenuating method (CAM-B3LYP), and BH and HLYP functional underestimate the excitation energies while B3LYP is good to reproduce the experimental data. Moreover, we have investigated the effect of cyanoacetic acid as anchoring group on the electron injection. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  1. Investigation of intermolecular interactions between single walled nanotubes and conjugated oligomers using the dispersion-corrected DFT methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, Jolanta B.; Aljohani, Suad; Khan, M. Zahidul H.; Zhao, Yuming

    The area of carbon nanotubes (CNT)-polymer composites has been progressing rapidly in recent years. Pure CNT and CNT-polymer composites have many useful (industry related) properties: ranging from electronic electrical conductivity to superior strength. However the full potential of using CNTs as reinforcements (in say a polymer matrix) has been severely limited because of complications associated with the dispersion of CNTs. CNTs tend to entangle with each other forming materials that have properties that fall short of the expectations. The goal of this work is to identify the type of conjugated oligomers that are best suited for the dispersion of single walled CNT (SWCNT). For this purpose, various methods of dispersion corrected density functional theory (DFT-D/B97D, /WB97XD, /CAM-B3LYP) have been used to investigate the interaction between the SWCNT and the organic conjugated oligomers with different end groups (aldehyde (ALD) and dithiafulvenyl (DTF)). We investigate the effect of intermolecular interactions on the structure, polarity and energetics of the oligomers and SWCNT combinations. The comparison of results obtained using different DFT approximations is made. Our results show that DFT-endcapped oligomer interact more strongly with CNT than ALD-endcapped oligomer. The financial support from NSERC, SACBC and Memorial University and the computational resources from Compute Canada were received.

  2. Synthesis, spectral analysis and quantum chemical studies on molecular geometry of (2E,6E)-2,6-bis(2-chlorobenzylidene)cyclohexanone: Experimental and theoretical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anil Kumar; Bishnoi, Abha; Fatma, Shaheen

    2016-07-01

    (2E,6E)-2,6-bis(2-chlorobenzylidene) cyclohexanone was synthesized and characterized by proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, ultraviolet-visible, mass spectral analysis and X-ray crystallography techniques. Quantum Chemical calculations were done using Becke3-Lee-Yang-Parr with 6-31, 6-311, 6-311 + and 6-311++G (d, p) as basis sets and CAM-B3LYP with 6-31G(d,p) as the basis set. A good correlation between calculated and experimental spectroscopic data has been accomplished. Ultraviolet-Visible spectrum of the molecule was recorded in the region 200-500 nm and the electronic properties and composition were obtained using Time Dependent Density Functional Theory method. X-ray parameters (bonds, bond angles and torsion angles), Electric dipole moment, Mulliken atomic charges, polarizability and first static hyperpolarizability values have been calculated. Hyperconjugative interactions were studied with the help of natural bond orbital analysis. The thermodynamic properties of the compound were calculated at different temperatures.

  3. Improvement of photovoltaic performance by substituent effect of donor and acceptor structure of TPA-based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza, Natalia; Mendizabal, Fernando; Arratia-Pérez, Ramiro; Orellana, Carlos; Linares-Flores, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    We report a computational study of a series of organic dyes built with triphenylamine (TPA) as an electron donor group. We designed a set of six dyes called (TPA-n, where n = 0-5). In order to enhance the electron-injection process, the electron-donor effect of some specific substituent was studied. Thus, we gave insights into the rational design of organic TPA-based chromophores for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In addition, we report the HOMO, LUMO, the calculated excited state oxidized potential E(dye*)(eV) and the free energy change for electron-injection ΔGinject(eV), and the UV-visible absorption bands for TPA-n dyes by a time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) procedure at the B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP levels with solvent effect. The results demonstrate that the introduction of the electron-acceptor groups produces an intramolecular charge transfer showing a shift of the absorption wavelengths of TPA-n under studies. Graphical Abstract Several organic dyes TPA-n with different donors and acceptors are modeled. A strong conjugation acrros the donor and anchoring groips (TPA-n) bas been studied. Candidate TPA-3 shows a promising results.

  4. Surface study and sensing activity of nanotubular indium trioxide to NH3, H2S, NO2 and CO environmental pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Mehdi

    2016-02-01

    Molecular and electronic structures of nanotubular indium trioxide were studied using B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP density functional methods. Three nanotube models including nanotubes with closed ends (CENT), one opened end (OOENT) and two opened ends (TOENT) were considered. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of CENT is distributed over the entire nanotube; while it is distributed on the end cap of OOENT. In both CENT and OOENT, the distribution of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) is on the end caps. HOMO and LUMO of TOENT are distributed on the center of nanotube. The sensing activity of OOENT to environmental pollutants was evaluated regarding the interaction of nanotube with NH3, H2S, NO2 and CO molecules. Adsorptions over different positions of OOENT are exothermic and the NH3 adsorption is thermodynamically more favorable. The selectivity of OOENT toward gaseous pollutants is investigated as NH3 > H2S > CO > NO2. Interaction of NO2 and CO over the closed end (end cap) of nanotube is preferred; while adsorption of NH3 and H2S on the opened end is more favorable.

  5. Benchmarking DFT and semi-empirical methods for a reliable and cost-efficient computational screening of benzofulvene derivatives as donor materials for small-molecule organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorella, Sara; Talamo, Maurizio Mastropasqua; Cardone, Antonio; Pastore, Mariachiara; De Angelis, Filippo

    2016-02-24

    A systematic computational investigation on the optical properties of a group of novel benzofulvene derivatives (Martinelli 2014 Org. Lett. 16 3424-7), proposed as possible donor materials in small molecule organic photovoltaic (smOPV) devices, is presented. A benchmark evaluation against experimental results on the accuracy of different exchange and correlation functionals and semi-empirical methods in predicting both reliable ground state equilibrium geometries and electronic absorption spectra is carried out. The benchmark of the geometry optimization level indicated that the best agreement with x-ray data is achieved by using the B3LYP functional. Concerning the optical gap prediction, we found that, among the employed functionals, MPW1K provides the most accurate excitation energies over the entire set of benzofulvenes. Similarly reliable results were also obtained for range-separated hybrid functionals (CAM-B3LYP and wB97XD) and for global hybrid methods incorporating a large amount of non-local exchange (M06-2X and M06-HF). Density functional theory (DFT) hybrids with a moderate (about 20-30%) extent of Hartree-Fock exchange (HFexc) (PBE0, B3LYP and M06) were also found to deliver HOMO-LUMO energy gaps which compare well with the experimental absorption maxima, thus representing a valuable alternative for a prompt and predictive estimation of the optical gap. The possibility of using completely semi-empirical approaches (AM1/ZINDO) is also discussed. PMID:26808717

  6. Computing UV/vis spectra using a combined molecular dynamics and quantum chemistry approach: bis-triazin-pyridine (BTP) ligands studied in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfener, Sebastian; Trumm, Michael; Koke, Carsten; Heuser, Johannes; Ekström, Ulf; Skerencak-Frech, Andrej; Schimmelpfennig, Bernd; Panak, Petra J

    2016-03-21

    We report a combined computational and experimental study to investigate the UV/vis spectra of 2,6-bis(5,6-dialkyl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)pyridine (BTP) ligands in solution. In order to study molecules in solution using theoretical methods, force-field parameters for the ligand-water interaction are adjusted to ab initio quantum chemical calculations. Based on these parameters, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out from which snapshots are extracted as input to quantum chemical excitation-energy calculations to obtain UV/vis spectra of BTP ligands in solution using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) employing the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA). The range-separated CAM-B3LYP functional is used to avoid large errors for charge-transfer states occurring in the electronic spectra. In order to study environment effects with theoretical methods, the frozen-density embedding scheme is applied. This computational procedure allows to obtain electronic spectra calculated at the (range-separated) DFT level of theory in solution, revealing solvatochromic shifts upon solvation of up to about 0.6 eV. Comparison to experimental data shows a significantly improved agreement compared to vacuum calculations and enables the analysis of relevant excitations for the line shape in solution.

  7. Multiple Lensing of the Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies

    CERN Document Server

    Calabrese, Matteo; Fabbian, Giulio; Baldi, Marco; Baccigalupi, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    We study the gravitational lensing effect on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies performing a ray-tracing of the primordial CMB photons through intervening large-scale structures (LSS) distribution predicted by N-Body numerical simulations with a particular focus on the precise recovery of the lens-induced polarized counterpart of the source plane. We apply both a multiple plane ray-tracing and an effective deflection approach based on the Born approximation to deflect the CMB photons trajectories through the simulated lightcone. We discuss the results obtained with both these methods together with the impact of LSS non-linear evolution on the CMB temperature and polarization power spectra. We compare our results with semi-analytical approximations implemented in Boltzmann codes like, e.g., CAMB. We show that, with our current N-body setup, the predicted lensing power is recovered with good accuracy in a wide range of multipoles while excess power with respect to semi-analytic prescriptions is ...

  8. Características clínico-demográficas de pacientes hospitalizados com tuberculose no Brasil, no período de 1994 a 2004 Clinical and demographic characteristics of patients hospitalized with tuberculosis in Brasil between 1994 and 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Pinheiro Franco Severo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as características clínico-demográficas de pacientes com tuberculose internados no Hospital Nestor Goulart Reis, de Américo Brasiliense (SP. MÉTODOS: Investigação epidemiológica através de um estudo observacional, retrospectivo, descritivo, conforme as fichas de internações de pacientes com tuberculose, ocorridas no período de 1994 a 2004. RESULTADOS: O número de pacientes com tuberculose durante o período foi de 1787: 117 (7% eram do sexo feminino; 1670 (93% eram do sexo masculino; e 1215 (68% eram separados, solteiros ou viúvos. O grau de escolaridade mais freqüente foi o de 1º grau incompleto (74%. A faixa etária mais atingida (de 30 a 50 anos totalizou 63%. O alcoolismo esteve associado em 61%. A profissão mais freqüente foi a de lavrador (25% e 70% dos pacientes estavam desempregados. A forma clínica mais freqüente foi a pulmonar (92%. O índice de alta por indicação médica foi de 60%. Em 34% dos casos foi utilizado um esquema terapêutico diferente do usual (rifampicina, isoniazida e pirazinamida. CONCLUSÕES: O perfil dos internos para tratamento da tuberculose neste hospital indicou que estes tinham necessidades diferenciadas: dificuldades para cuidar de si mesmos (os casos sociais e necessidade de terapia diferenciada do esquema usual, o que justificou as internações. O Hospital cumpriu importante papel social no tratamento e orientação destes pacientes.OBJECTIVE: To describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with tuberculosis hospitalized in the Nestor Goulart Reis Hospital, located in the city of Américo Brasiliense, Brazil. METHODS: Epidemiological investigation by means of an observational, retrospective, descriptive study based on the medical charts of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis and hospitalized between 1994 and 2004. RESULTS: There were 1787 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis during the period evaluated. Of those, 117 (7% were females, 1670 (93

  9. Carbon-to-nitrogen ratios for Agaricus brasiliensis on the axenic method = Relação carbono/nitrogênio do substrato pelo método de cultivo axênico para Agaricus brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lienine Luiz Zaghi Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation techniques for Agaricus brasiliensis (composting method and substratum formulations are the same ones used for Agaricus bisporus. Most of the carbon-tonitrogen (C:N ratios reported for A. brasiliensis are similar to those used for A. bisporus on the composting method and there are few studies about the variation of C:N ratios for A. brasilienses on the axenic method. The objective of this study was to verify the mycelial growth of A. brasiliensis on different C:N ratios using regional by-products as substrate formulation on the axenic method. Studied C:N ratios of substrate (mixture of soybean and cassava fibers ranged from 11:1 to 248:1, with nitrogen content ranging from 4.25 to 0.20%, respectively. It was concluded that substrate with only soybean fiber generates higher mycelial growth than any formulation with cassava fiber; the highest mycelial growth on substrate is with C:N ratio of 11:1 (N = 4.25%; the intermediate growth is with C:N ratio range from 15:1 to 50:1 (N from 3.31 to 0.98%; and the lowest growth is with C:N ratio of 100:1 or higher (N ≤ 0.50%. As técnicas de cultivo do Agaricus brasiliensis (método de compostagem e formulação de substrato são as mesmas utilizadas para o Agaricus bisporus. A maioria das relações carbono/nitrogênio (C/N relatadas para A. brasiliensis são similares às usadas para A. bisporus no método de compostagem. Há poucos estudos sobre a variação da relação C/N para A. brasilienses para o método axênico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito de diferentes relações C/N no crescimento micelial de Agaricus brasiliensis utilizando subprodutos regionais como substrato pelo método axênico. As relações C/N no substrato (misturas de fibra de soja e de mandioca estudadas variaram de 11 a 248 com consequentes concentrações de nitrogênio de 4,25 a 0,20%, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que os substratos somente com fibra de soja propiciam maior crescimento micelial que

  10. Atividade antimicrobiana de extratos hidroalcoolicos das folhas de alecrim- pimenta, aroeira, barbatimão, erva baleeira e do farelo da casca de pequi Antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from rosemary, peppertree, barbatimão and erva baleeira leaves and from pequi peel meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinéia de Pinho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o perfil fitoquímico de extratos hidroalcoólicos padrão (EAPs, obtidos a partir das folhas de alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides, aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva, barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstringens, erva baleeira (Cordia verbenacea e do farelo da casca do fruto do pequi (Caryocar brasiliense e a atividade antimicrobiana de diferentes concentrações desses EAPs contra Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli. Após coleta e identificação, as folhas das plantas e cascas do pequi foram usadas para preparação dos EAPs e submetidas a rastreamento fitoquímico. A atividade antimicrobiana dos EAPs em diferentes diluições (200, 300, 400 e 500mg mL-1 foi testada pela técnica de difusão em ágar. O rastreamento fitoquímico detectou componentes com potencial antimicrobiano em todos os EAPs. Nos testes de difusão em ágar, os extratos de aroeira (≥200mg mL-1, barbatimão (≥300mg mL-1 e erva-baleeira (≥400mg mL-1 inibiram o crescimento de S. aureus, mas não de E. coli. Os EAPs não mostraram atividade sobre E.coli, todavia as folhas de aroeira, barbatimão e erva-baleeira evidenciaram potencial para inibir o crescimento de S. aureus. O uso das folhas e cascas dessas espécies vegetais pode constituir-se numa alternativa sustentável, viável e acessível para tratamento antimicrobiano.This study evaluated the phytochemical profile of standardized hydroalcoholic extracts (EAPs obtained from leafs of rosemary (Lippia sidoides, peppertree (Myracrodruon urundeuva, barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstringens, erva baleeira (Cordia verbenacea and from the meal of pequi fruit peel (Caryocar brasiliense and the activity of different levels of these EAPs against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. After collection and identification of the species, plant leaves and pequi peel were separated to prepare the EAPs. The EAPs underwent phytochemical screening. The antimicrobial activity of the EAPs at different dilutions (200, 300

  11. Variação temporal do fitoplâncton de um lago pertencente à Área de Proteção Permanente no estado de Alagoas, nordeste do Brasil Temporal variation of phytoplankton in a lake in a permanent protected area in Alagoas State, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Priscila Barros da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a variação espaço-temporal do microfitoplâncton e variáveis ambientais no Lago Azul, Área de Proteção Permanente do município de Marechal Deodoro, Alagoas. As coletas ocorreram no período de abril a setembro de 2008. As amostras do fitoplâncton foram obtidas através de arrastos horizontais superficiais, com rede de abertura de malha de 45 µm e, concomitantemente, coletadas amostras de água utilizando garrafa de Van Dorn, para a determinação dos parâmetros físico-químicos. Foram identificados 27 táxons predominando as Chlorophyta (63%, destacando-se como espécies "dominantes" Desmidium swartzii var. quadrangulatum (Ralfs A. Roy (62,3% e D. cylindricum Greville (55,1%, seguidos das Bacillariophyta (26% e Cyanobacteria (11%. O pH levemente ácido e a baixa disponibilidade de nutrientes ofereceram condições favoráveis para o desenvolvimento das Desmidiaceae: Closterium sp., Cosmarium goniodes West & West, C. margaritiferum Meneghini ex Ralfs, C. vogeciacum Gutwinski, Desmidium cylindricum Greville, D. pseudotreplonema West & West, D. swartzii var. quadrangulatum (Ralfs A. Roy, Euastrum brasiliense Borge var. minus G.S.West, Gymnozyga moniliformis Ehrenberg, Micrasterias denticulata Brébisson ex Ralfs, M. (Kützing Ralfs, M. radians Turner e Tetmemorus laevis (Kuetzing Ralfs.The objective of this work is to determine the spatial and temporal variation of microphytoplankton and environmental variables in Lake Azul, a permanent protected area in the town of Marechal Deodoro, Alagoas State, Brazil. Samples were collected from April to September 2008. Phytoplankton samples were obtained by surface-horizontal trawling with a 45µm mesh net. Water samples were taken with a Van Dorn bottle, during the phytoplankton collection, in order to determine physical-chemical parameters. A total of 27 taxa were identified, Chlorophyta were the most abundant taxa (63% of the sample followed by

  12. Diversidade e uso de plantas do Cerrado em comunidade de Geraizeiros no norte do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil Diversity and use of Cerrado plants in a Geraizeiros community in northern Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Isabela Lustz Portela Lima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A conservação e o uso sustentável da biodiversidade requerem conhecimentos da vegetação nativa e de como as populações locais utilizam os recursos naturais disponíveis. Os objetivos deste estudo foram testar a hipótese da aparência ecológica e levantar a diversidade de uso e a distribuição do conhecimento sobre plantas úteis em uma comunidade tradicional de Geraizeiros no município de Rio Pardo de Minas, Norte de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Caryocar brasiliense Cambess., Hancornia speciosa Gomes, Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel e Pterodon emarginatus Vogel apresentaram os maiores valores de uso (0,7 a 1,8 e maiores valores de importância fitossociológica (1,31 a 36,98. A diversidade de uso (H' = 1,13 a 1,26 e a diversidade de plantas arbóreas no ambiente (H' = 3,11 foram baixas. Os homens demonstraram conhecer mais as espécies úteis que as mulheres e não foram encontradas diferenças significativas relacionadas à idade dos entrevistados. Foi constatada relação positiva entre utilidade e disponibilidade da planta no ambiente, confirmando a hipótese da aparência ecológica. Os dados obtidos poderão contribuir para conservação do cerrado remanescente na região, do modo de vida da população local e para o estabelecimento de estratégias de manejo baseadas nas demandas locais e nas espécies prioritárias.The conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity requires knowledge about the native vegetation and how local people use available natural resources. The aims of this study were to test the ecological appearance hypothesis and to survey the diversity of uses and distribution of knowledge about useful plants in a tradicional community (Geraizeiros in the municipality of Rio Pardo de Minas, in northern Minas Gerais, Brazil. Caryocar brasiliense Cambess., Hancornia speciosa Gomes, Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel and Pterodon emarginatus Vogel presented higher use (0.7 to 1.8 and phytosociological importance values (1.31 to

  13. [Non-indigenous and non-specific parasitic nematodes--the background and the consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulewicz, Anna

    2009-01-01

    different climatic conditions contribute to introduction of non-native nematodes: Dirofilaria immitis--in dogs, D. repens or Ancylostoma brasiliense--in humans. PMID:20209803

  14. Paradoxical effect of a pequi oil-rich diet on the development of atherosclerosis: balance between antioxidant and hyperlipidemic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, E.C. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Jascolka, T.L. [Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Teixeira, L.G.; Lages, P.C.; Ribeiro, A.C.C.; Vieira, E.L.M. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Peluzio, M.C.G. [Departamento de Nutrição, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Alvarez-Leite, J.I. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-05-11

    Pequi is the fruit of Caryocar brasiliense and its oil has a high concentration of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, which are anti- and pro-atherogenic agents, respectively, and of carotenoids, which give it antioxidant properties. Our objective was to study the effect of the intake of a cholesterol-rich diet supplemented with pequi oil, compared to the same diet containing soybean oil, on atherosclerosis development, and oxidative stress in atherosclerosis-susceptible LDL receptor-deficient mice (LDLr{sup −/−}, C57BL/6-background). Female mice were fed a cholesterol-rich diet containing 7% soybean oil (Soybean group, N = 12) or 7% pequi oil (Pequi group, N = 12) for 6 weeks. The Pequi group presented a more atherogenic lipid profile and more advanced atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic root compared to the Soybean group. However, the Pequi group presented a less advanced lesion in the aorta than the Soybean group and showed lower lipid peroxidation (Soybean group: 50.2 ± 7.1; Pequi group: 30.0 ± 4.8 µmol MDA/mg protein) and anti-oxidized LDL autoantibodies (Soybean group: 35.7 ± 9.4; Pequi group: 15.6 ± 3.7 arbitrary units). Peritoneal macrophages from the Pequi group stimulated with zymosan showed a reduction in the release of reactive oxygen species compared to the Soybean group. Our data suggest that a pequi oil-rich diet slows atherogenesis in the initial stages, possibly due to its antioxidant activity. However, the increase of serum cholesterol induces a more prominent LDL migration toward the intimae of arteries, increasing the advanced atherosclerotic plaque. In conclusion, pequi oil associated with an atherogenic diet worsens the lipid profile and accelerates the formation of advanced atherosclerotic lesions despite its antioxidant action.

  15. Distribution of tree species in a geomorphological and pedological gradient of submontane semidecidual seasonal forest in the vicinity of Rio Doce state park, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Bezerra de Souza

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the distribution of tree species in a fragment of submontane seasonal semideciduous forest, a buffer zone in the Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais, is influenced by geomorphological and weather and soil variables, therefore it can represent a source of information for the restoration of degraded areas where environmental conditions are similar to those of the study area. A detailed soil survey was conducted in the area by sampling three soil profiles per slope segment, totaling 12 profiles. To sample the topsoil, four composite samples were collected from the 10-20 cm layers in each topographic range totaling 16 composite samples. In the low ramp and the lower and upper concave slopes, the texture ranged from clay to sandy-clay. The soil and topographic gradient was characterized by changes in the soil physical-chemical properties. The soil in the 10-20 cm sampled layer was sandier, slightly more fertile and less acid in the low ramp than the clayer soil, nutrient-poor and highly acid soil at the top. The soil conditions in the lower and upper slope of the sampled layers, in turn, were intermediate. The P levels were limiting in all soils. The species distribution along the topographic gradient was associated with variations in chemical fertility, acidity and soil texture. The distribution of Pera leandri, Astronium fraxinifolium, Pouteria torta, Machaerium brasiliense and Myrcia rufipes was correlated with high aluminum levels and to low soil fertility and these species may be indicated for restoration of degraded areas on hillsides and hilltops in regions where environmental conditions are similar. The distribution of Pouteria venosa, Apuleia leiocarpa and Acacia polyphylla was correlated with the less acid and more fertile soil in the environment of the low ramps, indicating the potential for the restoration of similar areas.

  16. Paradoxical effect of a pequi oil-rich diet on the development of atherosclerosis: balance between antioxidant and hyperlipidemic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pequi is the fruit of Caryocar brasiliense and its oil has a high concentration of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, which are anti- and pro-atherogenic agents, respectively, and of carotenoids, which give it antioxidant properties. Our objective was to study the effect of the intake of a cholesterol-rich diet supplemented with pequi oil, compared to the same diet containing soybean oil, on atherosclerosis development, and oxidative stress in atherosclerosis-susceptible LDL receptor-deficient mice (LDLr−/−, C57BL/6-background). Female mice were fed a cholesterol-rich diet containing 7% soybean oil (Soybean group, N = 12) or 7% pequi oil (Pequi group, N = 12) for 6 weeks. The Pequi group presented a more atherogenic lipid profile and more advanced atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic root compared to the Soybean group. However, the Pequi group presented a less advanced lesion in the aorta than the Soybean group and showed lower lipid peroxidation (Soybean group: 50.2 ± 7.1; Pequi group: 30.0 ± 4.8 µmol MDA/mg protein) and anti-oxidized LDL autoantibodies (Soybean group: 35.7 ± 9.4; Pequi group: 15.6 ± 3.7 arbitrary units). Peritoneal macrophages from the Pequi group stimulated with zymosan showed a reduction in the release of reactive oxygen species compared to the Soybean group. Our data suggest that a pequi oil-rich diet slows atherogenesis in the initial stages, possibly due to its antioxidant activity. However, the increase of serum cholesterol induces a more prominent LDL migration toward the intimae of arteries, increasing the advanced atherosclerotic plaque. In conclusion, pequi oil associated with an atherogenic diet worsens the lipid profile and accelerates the formation of advanced atherosclerotic lesions despite its antioxidant action

  17. Survey of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and their rickettsia in an Atlantic rain forest reserve in the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, Guilherme S; Pinter, Adriano; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Marcili, Arlei; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2010-09-01

    The current study investigated the occurrence of ticks and their rickettsiae in the Serra do Mar State Park, which encompasses one of the largest Atlantic rain forest reserves of Brazil. From July 2008 to June 2009, a total of 2439 ticks (2,196 free living and 243 collected on hosts) was collected, encompassing the following 13 species: Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas), Amblyomma brasiliense AragAo, Amblyomma dubitatum Neumann, Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, Amblyomma incisum Neumann, Amblyomma longirostre (Koch), Amblyomma naponense (Packard), Amblyomma nodosum Neumann, Amblyomma ovale Koch, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley, Ixodes aragaoi Fonseca, Ixodes loricatus Neumann, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille). Ticks were submitted to polymerase chain reaction assays targeting portions of the rickettsial genes gltA and ompA. Polymerase chain reaction products were DNA sequenced and compared with corresponding sequences available in GenBank. Rickettsia bellii, a rickettsia of unknown pathogenicity, was detected in one A. aureolatum, one A. ovale, and three A. incisum specimens. At least 8.8% (3/34) of the free-living A. ovale ticks, 13.6% (8/59) of the A. ovale ticks collected from dogs, and 1.9% (1/54) of the R. sanguineus (Latreille) ticks were found to be infected by Rickettsia sp strain Atlantic rain forest, a novel strain that has been shown to cause an eschar-associated spotted fever in the state of Sho Paulo. Our results suggest that A. ovale is the vector of Rickettsia sp strain Atlantic rain forest in the state of São Paulo. PMID:20939390

  18. [Larva migrans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabasse, D; Le Clec'h, C; de Gentile, L; Verret, J L

    1995-01-01

    Larbish, cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruption, is a serpiginous cutaneous eruption caused by skin penetration of infective larva from various animal nematodes. Hookworms (Ancylostoma brasiliense, A. caninum) are the most common causative parasites. They live in the intestines of dogs and cats where their ova are deposited in the animal feces. In sandy and shady soil, when temperature and moisture are elevated, the ova hatch and mature into infective larva. Infection occurs when humans have contact with the infected soil. Infective larva penetrate the exposed skin of the body, commonly around the feet, hands and buttocks. In humans, the larva are not able to complete their natural cycle and remain trapped in the upper dermis of the skin. The disease is widespread in tropical or subtropical regions, especially along the coast on sandy beaches. The diagnosis is easy for the patient who is returning from a tropical or subtropical climate and gives a history of beach exposure. The characteristic skin lesion is a fissure or erythematous cord which is displaced a few millimeters each day in a serpiginous track. Scabies, the larva currens syndrome due to Strongyloides stercoralis, must be distinguished from other creeping eruptions and subcutaneous swelling lesions caused by other nematodes or myiasis. Medical treatments are justified because it shortens the duration of the natural evolution of the disease. Topical tiabendazole is safe for localized invasions, but prolonged treatment may be necessary. Oral thiabendazole treatment for three days is effective, but sometimes is associated with adverse effects. Trials using albendazole for one or four consecutive days appear more efficacious. More recent trials using ivermectine showed that a single oral dose can cure 100% of the patients; thus, this drug looks very promising as a new form of therapy. Individual prophylaxis consists of avoiding skin contact with soil which has been contaminated with dog or cat feces

  19. Floristic composition and soil fertility in gold mining of Lavrinha, Pontes and Lacerda, MT, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiani Botini Pires

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The mining activities cause intense environmental degradation, especially to the soil and vegetation. This study evaluated attributes of floristic composition and soil fertility in areas of open gold mining areas. One hundred plots of 10 × 10 m were distributed in the area effectively mined and in its surroundings. Stem circunference measures (AGC of all identified woody individuals with greater than or equal to 9 cm were taken at 0.3 m height above the ground. In all plots soil samples at 0-20 cm depth were collected for analysis of fertility attributes that are routinely evaluated. In total we observed the occurrence of 92 species and 43 families. The most abundant families were Myrtaceae, Fabaceae and Dilleniaceae; and families that had the greatest numbers of species were Fabaceae (10, Malpighiaceae (7 and Vochysiaceae (5. In the area effectively mined the species with higher importance value index (IVI were Curatella americana (89.1 Cecropia hololeuca (40.9, Roupala montana (12.5 and Pouteria ramiflora (10.2 while in surrounding of the mined area the species with the highest IVI were Myrcia multiflora (25.6, Caryocar brasiliense (15.7, Magonia pubescens (14.8 and Vatareia macrocarpa (14.4. In both areas, the soil had low pH, low availability of P, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ and high Al3+ saturation. In spite of the low soil fertility of the studied area, it was able to maintain an overall density of vegetation with AGC > 9 cm of 430 individuals per hectare in the effectively mined area and of 2,220 individuals per hectare in their surroundings.

  20. Production and comparison of fuel properties, engine performance, and emission characteristics of biodiesel from various non-edible vegetable oils: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Overview of current energy situation. • Overview of biology, distribution and chemistry of various non-edible oil resources. • Comparison of fuel properties of various biodiesels produced from various non-edible oils. • Comparison of engine performance and emission characteristics of reviewed biodiesels. - Abstract: Energy demand is increasing dramatically because of the fast industrial development, rising population, expanding urbanization, and economic growth in the world. To fulfill this energy demand, a large amount of fuel is widely used from different fossil resources. Burning of fossil fuels has caused serious detrimental environmental consequences. The application of biodiesel has shown a positive impact in resolving these issues. Edible vegetable oils are one of the potential feedstocks for biodiesel production. However, as the use of edible oils will jeopardize food supplies and biodiversity, non-edible vegetable oils, also known as second-generation feedstocks, are considered potential substitutes of edible food crops for biodiesel production. This paper introduces some species of non-edible vegetables whose oils are potential sources of biodiesel. These species are Pongamia pinnata (karanja), Calophyllum inophyllum (Polanga), Maduca indica (mahua), Hevea brasiliensis (rubber seed), Cotton seed, Simmondsia chinesnsis (Jojoba), Nicotianna tabacum (tobacco), Azadirachta indica (Neem), Linum usitatissimum (Linseed) and Jatropha curcas (Jatropha). Various aspects of non-edible feedstocks, such as biology, distribution, and chemistry, the biodiesel’s physicochemical properties, and its effect on engine performance and emission, are reviewed based on published articles. From the review, fuel properties are found to considerably vary depending on feedstocks. Analysis of the performance results revealed that most of the biodiesel generally give higher brake thermal efficiency and lower brake-specific fuel consumption. Emission results

  1. Six centuries of anthropogenic forest change on a Polynesian high island: Archaeological charcoal records from the Marquesas Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebert, Jennifer M.; Allen, Melinda S.

    2016-04-01

    It is widely recognised that Polynesian settlers developed central Pacific islands into productive economic landscapes, but the character and tempo of these transformations are poorly understood. Archaeological wood charcoal assemblages are uniquely suited to inform on landscape change, especially when the principal food crops were arboreal. We use a large archaeological charcoal collection, drawn from numerous geographically and functionally varied contexts, to develop a multi-scalar vegetation history of Marquesas Islands' lowland forests. Our aims were to: 1) reveal historical patterns of plant biogeography, including introductions by Polynesian settlers; 2) detail the nature and timing of anthropogenic impacts on native Marquesan forests; and 3) track the emergence of economically productive arboreal landscapes. A collection of 6510 fragments identified to 59 taxa inform on a ∼600-year sequence of human activities. The earliest samples indicate rich forests were encountered by human colonists, comprised of a mix of dicotyledonous hardwood species and woody monocots. These included members of two now-extinct Sapotaceae genera, Planchonella and cf. Sideroxylon, along with Allophylus, a Sapindaceae apparently extirpated from Nuku Hiva. Two important coastal trees, Calophyllum inophyllum and Thespesia populnea, also appear to be indigenous. Polynesian impacts were rapid and widespread, irrevocably altering the indigenous vegetation and disrupting native ecosystems. Samples from later occupations document on-going modifications to lowland vegetation communities. This included inter-valley variability in the timing of transformations and the development of mosaic formations, comprised of native forest interspersed with areas of cultivation and habitation. By 1650 CE, low and mid-elevation vegetation was extensively remodelled, as anthropogenic forests of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit), Inocarpus fagifer (Tahitian chestnut), and other economic species became widely

  2. List of Article Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Section

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTENTS OF ARTICLES Premixed combustion of coconut oil in a hele-shaw cell DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.155-160 155-160 Hadi Saroso, I.N.G. Wardana, Rudy Soenoko, Nurkholis Hamidi   Analysing the potential of retrofitting ultra-low heat loss triple vacuum glazed windows to an existing UK solid wall dwelling DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.161-174 161-174 Saim Memon   Study of Gasohol as Alternative Fuel for Gasoline Substitution: Characteristics and Performances DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.175-183 175-183 Bardi Murachman, Dicky Pranantyo, Eddie Sandjaya Putra   Thermal effects investigation on electrical properties of silicon solar cells treated by laser irradiation DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.184-187 184-187 Ali Pourakbar Saffar, Bahman Deldadeh Barani   Synthesis of Trimethylolpropane Esters of Calophyllum Methyl Esters : Effect of Temperatur and Molar Ratio DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.188-192 188-192 Yeti Widyawati, Ani Suryani, Muhammad Romli, Sukardi Sukardi   Incorporating Root Crops under Agro-Forestry as the Newly Potential Source of Food, Feed and Renewable Energy DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.193-206 193-206 Yudi Widodo, St. A. Rahayuningsih, Nasir Saleh, Sri Wahyuningsih   Solmap: Project In India's Solar Resource Assessment DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.207-216 207-216 Indradip Mitra, Kaushal Chhatbar, Ashvini Kumar, Godugunur Giridhar, Ramdhan Vashistha, Richard Meyer, Marko Schwandt   Thermo-economic Optimization of Solar Assisted Heating and Cooling (SAHC System DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.217-227 217-227 A. Ghafoor, A. Munir   Combustion characteristics of diesel engine using producer gas and blends of Jatropha methyl ester with diesel in mixed fuel mode DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.228-235 228-235 Hifjur Raheman, Debasish Padhee    

  3. Electronic structures and third-order nonlinear optical prop erties of annulenes derivatives%轮烯衍生物电子结构及三阶非线性光学性质的理论研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈盈盈; 韩奎; 李海鹏; 李明雪; 唐刚; 沈晓鹏

    2015-01-01

    Organic nonlinear optical materials have attracted considerable attention in recent years because of their potential applications in photonic devices and optical information processing. Recent studies have shown that annulene derivatives exhibit good second-order nonlinear optical properties, but their third-order nonlinear optical properties are studied little. In this paper, the values of molecular static linear polarizabilityαand second hyperpolarizabilityγ of substituted annulenes have been investigated with different levels of HF, B3LYP, BHandHLYP and CAM-B3LYP at different basis sets, respectively. Their ultraviolet spectra have also been calculated by using the TD-B3LYP method. It is found that the quality of the basis set is important for the hyperpolarizability calculations, and diffuse functions are important to obtain accurate results for the second hyperpolarizability. We also study the structure-optical property relationship for annulene. It is found that annulene molecular structure has a significant influence on third-order nonlinear optical response. Increasing the conjugation length and introducing push-pull electronic groups can enhance the second hyperpolarizability. But the introduction of push-pull electronic groups can enhance the hyperpolarizability more remarkably than increasing the conjugation length dose, which may be due to the fact that the introduction of push-pull electronic groups can provide a large number of polarizable electrons whereas increasing the conjugation length can only enhance the electron delocalization. Meanwhile the push-pull electronic group substituted annulenes can also exhibit high transparency in visible region. Thus, this work has a good reference for designing nonlinear optical material with high, nonlinear optical coefficient and good transparency. In addition, for the same push-pull electronic groups, the higher conjugation degree and the longerπ-conjugated bridge result in the decrease of HOMO-LUMO energy

  4. Anatomia foliar de espécies de Myrtaceae: contribuições à taxonomia e filogenia Leaf anatomy of Myrtaceae species: contributions to the taxonomy and phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Maria Gomes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Trabalhos taxonômicos e filogenéticos têm utilizado informações anatômicas e para contribuir com estes estudos examinaram-se cortes paradérmicos e transversais da porção mediana foliar de Campomanesia adamantium (Camb. O. Berg, Myrcia cordiifolia DC., M. decrescens O. Berg e M. torta D.C. Os caracteres anatômicos foram comparados com os de outras espécies descritas na literatura. São características comuns às quatro espécies examinadas: epiderme uniestratificada, tricomas unicelulares, folhas hipoestomáticas, estômatos paracíticos, cavidades secretoras em ambas as faces, mesofilo dorsiventral e nervura mediana com feixes bicolaterais. Destacam-se os seguintes caracteres úteis para a taxonomia da família: formato das células comuns da epiderme, tricomas dibraquiados ou não, camadas celulares incolores subepidérmicas e formato da nervura mediana. O formato e número das células teto das glândulas foliares têm utilidade taxonômica. O exame de 144 exsicatas evidenciou que a glabrescência é um fenômeno comum. A queda dos tricomas pode ser devido à sua base estreita e à ausência de célula pedal nos mesmos. Analisaram-se os caracteres à luz de estudos filogenéticos recentes e do ponto de vista ecológico, destacando a hipótese relacionada às células epidérmicas com possível função de célula de transferência. As características anatômicas forneceram dados para análises comparativas mais amplas entre os táxons de Myrtaceae e possibilitaram a construção de um cladograma, onde espécies de Leptospermum e Eucalyptus ocuparam posição basal, em consonância com filogenias relatadas na literatura.Taxonomical and phylogenetical studies have used anatomical information. In order to contribute to these studies, paradermal and cross sections of the median leaf blade portion of Campomanesia adamantium (Camb. O. Berg, Myrcia cordiifolia DC., M. decrescens O. Berg and M. torta D.C. were examined. The anatomical

  5. The avocado fruit borer, Stenoma catenifer (wals. (Lepidoptera: elachistidae: egg and damage distribution and parasitism A broca-do-abacate, Stenoma catenifer (wals. (Lepidoptera: elachistidae: distribuição de ovos e de danos e parasitismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Luiz Hohmann

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The avocado fruit borer, Stenoma catenifer (Wals. has been a limiting factor in growing avocados over the last years in many Brazilian states. This is a result of the lack of safe and feasible management practices to minimize the fruit borer damage. The aim of this study was to obtain information on the pest biology and ecology as well as on the role of natural enemies to define strategies to control the pest. Samples were taken biweekly and consisted of 20 fruits collected randomly (10 from the upper half and 10 from the lower half of the plant in ten plants, cv. Margarida, in a commercial avocado grove in Arapongas and Cambé regions, PR, from October/2001 to September/2002. Laboratory determinations of the percentage of damaged fruit per plant region, location and number of bored fruit sites, and the number and location of the fruit borer eggs, including parasitized ones, were performed. The results showed that S. catenifer preferred to oviposit and attack fruits located on the upper half of the trees. The majority of the eggs were laid on the fruit pedicel whereas the damage was mainly located on the lower half of the fruits. Trichogrammatids were the most constant and abundant parasitoids found in both localities throughout the study period.A broca-do-abacate, Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae, continua sendo fator limitante para o cultivo do abacate em vários estados do Brasil, nos últimos anos. Isso se deve a falta de métodos seguros e viáveis para reduzir os prejuízos causados pela praga. Com o intuito de obter informações sobre a sua bioecologia e ação de inimigos naturais, para auxiliar na elaboração de estratégias de controle, realizaram-se coletas quinzenais de 20 frutos ao acaso (10 da metade superior e 10 da metade inferior em 10 plantas, em pomar comercial, cv. Margarida, nos municípios de Arapongas e Cambé, PR, durante os meses de outubro/2001 a setembro/2002. Em laboratório determinaram-se a porcentagem

  6. Reseñas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HC Reseñas

    2010-02-01

    . Beneficencia, ahorro y previsión, 1876-1936. San Sebastián, Fundación Social y Cultural KUTXA, 1996. LARRINAGA, Carlos et alii. El Fuerte de San Marcos de Rentería. Ayuntamiento de Rentería, 1995. RABATÉ, Jean-Claude. 1900 en Salamanca. Guerra y Paz en la Salamanca del joven Unamuno. Salamanca, Eds. Universidad, 1997. LUIS MARTIN, Francisco de. Historia de la FETE (1909-1936. Madrid, Fondo Editorial de Enseñanza, 1997. DE RIQUER, Borja. El último Cambó 1936-1947. La tentación autoritaria. Barcelona, Grijalbo Mondadori, 1997. En su versión catalana, L'últim Cambó (1936-1947. La dreta catalanista davant la guerra civil i el franquisme. Vic, Eumo editorial, 1996. SÁNCHEZ RECIO, Glicerio. Los cuadros políticos intermedios del régimen franquista, 1936-1959. Diversidad de origen e identidad de intereses. Alicante, Instituto de Cultura Gil Albert, 1996. PAREDES, Javier. Félix Huarte, 1896-1971. Madrid, Ariel Historia, 1997. BERNECKER, Walther L. et alii. El peso del pasado: Percepciones de América y V Centenario. Madrid, Verbum, 1996.

  7. Desenvolvimento de indicadores para avaliação de serviço público de odontologia Development of indicators for evaluating public dental healthcare services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia Ribeiro de Carvalho Bueno

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente artigo é descrever e analisar o desenvolvimento dos indicadores utilizados para se identificar fortalezas e deficiências de serviço público de odontologia no município de Cambé, Paraná. A metodologia usada foi o estudo de caso histórico-organizacional. Para o planejamento da avaliação foi desenvolvido o modelo-lógico do serviço. Para tanto, foram coletadas informações a partir da triangulação de métodos (entrevistas, análise documental e observação. Na sequência, foi desenvolvida uma matriz que apresenta dimensões de análise, critérios, indicadores, pontuações, parâmetros e fontes de informações. Três oficinas de trabalho foram realizadas com profissionais do serviço local visando melhor adequação do modelo-lógico e da matriz à realidade do serviço. O período de coleta de dados foi novembro de 2006 a julho de 2007. Como resultado, obteve-se um fluxograma da organização do serviço de odontologia e uma matriz com duas dimensões de análise, doze critérios e vinte e quatro indicadores. O desenvolvimento dos indicadores, privilegiando a participação dos sujeitos envolvidos com a prática, proporcionou o planejamento de uma avaliação abrangente e realista.The objective of this article is to describe and analyze the development of indicators used to identify strengths and deficiencies in public dental healthcare services in the municipality of Cambé, Paraná. The methodology employed was a historical-organizational case study. A theoretical model of the service was developed for evaluation planning. To achieve this, information was collected from triangulation of methods (interviews, document analysis and observation. A matrix was then developed which presents analysis dimensions, criteria, indicators, punctuation, parameters and sources of information. Three workshops were staged during the process with local service professionals in order to verify whether both the logical model

  8. Angola Seismicity MAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, F. A. P.; Franca, G.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this job was to study and document the Angola natural seismicity, establishment of the first database seismic data to facilitate consultation and search for information on seismic activity in the country. The study was conducted based on query reports produced by National Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics (INAMET) 1968 to 2014 with emphasis to the work presented by Moreira (1968), that defined six seismogenic zones from macro seismic data, with highlighting is Zone of Sá da Bandeira (Lubango)-Chibemba-Oncócua-Iona. This is the most important of Angola seismic zone, covering the epicentral Quihita and Iona regions, geologically characterized by transcontinental structure tectono-magmatic activation of the Mesozoic with the installation of a wide variety of intrusive rocks of ultrabasic-alkaline composition, basic and alkaline, kimberlites and carbonatites, strongly marked by intense tectonism, presenting with several faults and fractures (locally called corredor de Lucapa). The earthquake of May 9, 1948 reached intensity VI on the Mercalli-Sieberg scale (MCS) in the locality of Quihita, and seismic active of Iona January 15, 1964, the main shock hit the grade VI-VII. Although not having significant seismicity rate can not be neglected, the other five zone are: Cassongue-Ganda-Massano de Amorim; Lola-Quilengues-Caluquembe; Gago Coutinho-zone; Cuima-Cachingues-Cambândua; The Upper Zambezi zone. We also analyzed technical reports on the seismicity of the middle Kwanza produced by Hidroproekt (GAMEK) region as well as international seismic bulletins of the International Seismological Centre (ISC), United States Geological Survey (USGS), and these data served for instrumental location of the epicenters. All compiled information made possible the creation of the First datbase of seismic data for Angola, preparing the map of seismicity with the reconfirmation of the main seismic zones defined by Moreira (1968) and the identification of a new seismic

  9. Interaction between transition metals and phenylalanine: A combined experimental and computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elius Hossain, Md.; Mahmudul Hasan, Md.; Halim, M. E.; Ehsan, M. Q.; Halim, Mohammad A.

    2015-03-01

    Some transition metal complexes of phenylalanine of general formula [M(C9H10NO2)2]; where M = Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) are prepared in aqueous medium and characterized by spectroscopic, thermo-gravimetric (TG) and magnetic susceptibility analysis. Density functional theory (DFT) has been employed calculating the equilibrium geometries and vibrational frequencies of those complexes at B3LYP level of theory using 6-31G(d) and SDD basis sets. In addition, frontier molecular orbital and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations are performed with CAM-B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) and B3LYP/SDD level of theories. Thermo-gravimetric analysis confirms the composition of the complexes by comparing the experimental and calculated data for C, H, N and metals. Experimental and computed IR results predict a significant change in vibrational frequencies of metal-phenylalanine complexes compared to free ligand. DFT calculation confirms that Mn, Co, Ni and Cu complexes form square planar structure whereas Zn adopts distorted tetrahedral geometry. The metal-oxygen bonds in the optimized geometry of all complexes are shorter compared to the metal-nitrogen bonds which is consistent with a previous study. Cation-binding energy, enthalpy and Gibbs free energy indicates that these complexes are thermodynamically stable. UV-vis and TD-DFT studies reveal that these complexes demonstrate representative metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) and d-d transitions bands. TG analysis and IR spectra of the metal complexes strongly support the absence of water in crystallization. Magnetic susceptibility data of the complexes exhibits that all except Zn(II) complex are high spin paramagnetic.

  10. Characterization of prepared In2O3 thin films: The FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Visible investigation and optical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneerdoss, I. Joseph; Jeyakumar, S. Johnson; Ramalingam, S.; Jothibas, M.

    2015-08-01

    In this original work, the Indium oxide (In2O3) thin film is deposited cleanly on microscope glass substrate at different temperatures by spray pyrolysis technique. The physical properties of the films are characterized by XRD, SEM, AFM and AFM measurements. The spectroscopic investigation has been carried out on the results of FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-Visible. XRD analysis exposed that the structural transformation of films from stoichiometric to non-stoichiometric orientation of the plane vice versa and also found that, the film is polycrystalline in nature having cubic crystal structure with a preferred grain orientation along (2 2 2) plane. SEM and AFM studies revealed that, the film with 0.1 M at 500 °C has spherical grains with uniform dimension. The complete vibrational analysis has been carried out and the optimized parameters are calculated using HF and DFT (CAM-B3LYP, B3LYP and B3PW91) methods with 3-21G(d,p) basis set. Furthermore, NMR chemical shifts are calculated by using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) technique. The molecular electronic properties; absorption wavelengths, excitation energy, dipole moment and frontier molecular orbital energies, molecular electrostatic potential energy (MEP) analysis and Polarizability first order hyperpolarizability calculations are performed by time dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. The energy excitation on electronic structure is investigated and the assignment of the absorption bands in the electronic spectra of steady compound is discussed. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies showed the enhancement of energy gap by the addition of substitutions with the base molecule. The thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy, and enthalpy) at different temperatures are calculated and interpreted in gas phase.

  11. Complex self-assembly of reverse poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) triblock copolymers with long hydrophobic and extremely lengthy hydrophilic blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambón, Adriana; Figueroa-Ochoa, Edgar; Juárez, Josué; Villar-Álvarez, Eva; Pardo, Alberto; Barbosa, Silvia; Soltero, J F Armando; Taboada, Pablo; Mosquera, Víctor

    2014-05-15

    Amphiphilic block copolymers have emerged during last years as a fascinating substrate material to develop micellar nanocontainers able to solubilize, protect, transport, and release under external or internal stimuli different classes of cargos to diseased cells or tissues. However, this class of materials can also induce biologically relevant actions, which complement the therapeutic activity of their cargo molecules through their mutual interactions with biologically relevant entities (cellular membranes, proteins, organelles...); these interactions at the same time, are regulated by the nature, conformation, and state of the copolymeric chains. For these reasons, in this paper we investigated the self-assembly process and physico-chemcial properties of two reverse triblock poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) block copolymers, BO14EO378BO14 and BO21EO385BO21, which have been recently found to be very useful as drug delivery nanovehicles and biological response modifiers under certain conditions (A. Cambón et al. Int. J. Pharm. 2013, 445, 47-57) in order to obtain a clear picture of the solution behavior of this class or block copolymers and to understand their biological activity. These block copolymers are characterized by possessing long BO blocks and extremely lengthy central EO ones, which provide them with a rich rheological behavior characterized by the formation of flowerlike micelles with sizes ranging from 20 to 40 nm in aqueous solution and the presence of intermicellar bridging even at low copolymers concentrations as denoted by atomic force microscopy. Bridging is also clearly observed by analyzing the rheological response of these block copolymers both storage and loss moduli upon changes on time, temperature, and or concentration. Strikingly, the relatively wide Poisson distribution of the polymeric chains make the present copolymers behave rather distinctly to conventional associative thickeners. The observed rich

  12. Theoretical study of chlordecone and surface groups interaction in an activated carbon model under acidic and neutral conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Carballo, Juan José; Melchor-Rodríguez, Kenia; Hernández-Valdés, Daniel; Enriquez-Victorero, Carlos; Montero-Alejo, Ana Lilian; Gaspard, Sarra; Jáuregui-Haza, Ulises Javier

    2016-04-01

    Activated carbons (ACs) are widely used in the purification of drinking water without almost any knowledge about the adsorption mechanisms of the persistent organic pollutants. Chlordecone (CLD, Kepone) is an organochlorinated synthetic compound that has been used mainly as agricultural insecticide. CLD has been identified and listed as a persistent organic pollutant by the Stockholm Convention. The selection of the best suited AC for this type of contaminants is mainly an empirical and costly process. A theoretical study of the influence of AC surface groups (SGs) on CLD adsorption is done in order to help understanding the process. This may provide a first selection criteria for the preparation of AC with suitable surface properties. A model of AC consisting of a seven membered ring graphene sheet (coronene) with a functional group on the edge was used to evaluate the influence of the SGs over the adsorption. Multiple Minima Hypersurface methodology (MMH) coupled with PM7 semiempirical Hamiltonian was employed in order to study the interactions of the chlordecone with SGs (hydroxyl and carboxyl) at acidic and neutral pH and different hydration conditions. Selected structures were re-optimized using CAM-B3LYP to achieve a well-defined electron density to characterize the interactions by the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules approach. The deprotonated form of surface carboxyl and hydroxyl groups of AC models show the strongest interactions, suggesting a chemical adsorption. An increase in carboxylic SGs content is proposed to enhance CLD adsorption onto AC at neutral pH conditions. PMID:26945637

  13. Theoretical study of chlordecone and surface groups interaction in an activated carbon model under acidic and neutral conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Carballo, Juan José; Melchor-Rodríguez, Kenia; Hernández-Valdés, Daniel; Enriquez-Victorero, Carlos; Montero-Alejo, Ana Lilian; Gaspard, Sarra; Jáuregui-Haza, Ulises Javier

    2016-04-01

    Activated carbons (ACs) are widely used in the purification of drinking water without almost any knowledge about the adsorption mechanisms of the persistent organic pollutants. Chlordecone (CLD, Kepone) is an organochlorinated synthetic compound that has been used mainly as agricultural insecticide. CLD has been identified and listed as a persistent organic pollutant by the Stockholm Convention. The selection of the best suited AC for this type of contaminants is mainly an empirical and costly process. A theoretical study of the influence of AC surface groups (SGs) on CLD adsorption is done in order to help understanding the process. This may provide a first selection criteria for the preparation of AC with suitable surface properties. A model of AC consisting of a seven membered ring graphene sheet (coronene) with a functional group on the edge was used to evaluate the influence of the SGs over the adsorption. Multiple Minima Hypersurface methodology (MMH) coupled with PM7 semiempirical Hamiltonian was employed in order to study the interactions of the chlordecone with SGs (hydroxyl and carboxyl) at acidic and neutral pH and different hydration conditions. Selected structures were re-optimized using CAM-B3LYP to achieve a well-defined electron density to characterize the interactions by the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules approach. The deprotonated form of surface carboxyl and hydroxyl groups of AC models show the strongest interactions, suggesting a chemical adsorption. An increase in carboxylic SGs content is proposed to enhance CLD adsorption onto AC at neutral pH conditions.

  14. Mechanism of dissolution of a lithium salt in an electrolytic solvent in a lithium ion secondary battery: a direct ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Hiroto

    2014-06-01

    The mechanism of dissolution of the Li(+) ion in an electrolytic solvent is investigated by the direct ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) method. Lithium fluoroborate (Li(+)BF4(-)) and ethylene carbonate (EC) are examined as the origin of the Li(+) ion and the solvent molecule, respectively. This salt is widely utilized as the electrolyte in the lithium ion secondary battery. The binding of EC to the Li(+) moiety of the Li(+)BF4(-) salt is exothermic, and the binding energies at the CAM-B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level for n=1, 2, 3, and 4, where n is the number of EC molecules binding to the Li(+) ion, (EC)n(Li(+)BF4(-)), are calculated to be 91.5, 89.8, 87.2, and 84.0 kcal mol(-1) (per EC molecule), respectively. The intermolecular distances between Li(+) and the F atom of BF4(-) are elongated: 1.773 Å (n=0), 1.820 Å (n=1), 1.974 Å (n=2), 1.942 Å (n=3), and 4.156 Å (n=4). The atomic bond populations between Li(+) and the F atom for n=0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 are 0.202, 0.186, 0.150, 0.038, and 0.0, respectively. These results indicate that the interaction of Li(+) with BF4(-) becomes weaker as the number of EC molecules is increased. The direct AIMD calculation for n=4 shows that EC reacts spontaneously with (EC)3(Li(+)BF4(-)) and the Li(+) ion is stripped from the salt. The following substitution reaction takes place: EC+(EC)3(Li(+)BF4(-))→(EC)4Li(+)-(BF4(-)). The reaction mechanism is discussed on the basis of the theoretical results. PMID:24616076

  15. LESÕES FOLIARES EM MUDAS DE PEQUIZEIRO (Caryocar brasiliensis Cambess LEAF LESIONS OF YOUNG PLANTS OF PEQUIZEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvo de Carvalho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foram descritas as características de lesões e morfologia de colônias de Pestalotia sp., Phomopsis sp., Stigmella sp., Chaetophoma sp., Helminthosporium sp. e Epicoccum sp. obtidas de folhas de mudas de pequizeiro em viveiros nos municípios de Goiânia e Hidrolândia (GO. Respostas positivas para patogenicidade foram obtidas de todos os isolados, exceto para Chaetophoma sp. que foram consideradas inconclusivas. Observou-se que lesões foliares foram importante fator de retardamento no crescimento das mudas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Caryocar brasiliensis; pequizeiro; doenças foliares de pequizeiro; pequizeiro.

    Leaf lesions and morphological description of Pestalotia sp., Phomopsis sp., Stigmella sp., Chaetophoma sp., Helminthosporium sp. and Epicoccum sp. cultures obtained from young plants of pequizeiro (Caryocar brasiliensis Camb. in nurseries in Goiânia and Hidrolândia counties. All the isolates except Chaetophoma sp., showed pathogenicity. Leaf spots greatly reduced plant growth.

    KEY-WORDS: Leaf diseases of pequizeiro.

  16. Tuning the NLO properties of polymethineimine chains by chemical substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medved’, Miroslav, E-mail: miroslav.medved@umb.sk [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Matej Bel University, Tajovského 40, SK-97400 Banská Bystrica (Slovakia); Jacquemin, Denis [CEISAM, UMR CNRS 6230, BP 92208, Université de Nantes, 2, rue de la Houssinière, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Institut Universitaire de France, 103, bd Saint-Michel, F-75005 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► Properties of the most stable isomers of polymethineimine (PMI) are investigated. ► 2nd order NLO properties of experimentally known PMI derivatives are determined. ► Structure-property relationships are unraveled for several series of oligomers. ► Performance of long-range corrected DFT methods is assessed. - Abstract: Structure and molecular electronic properties including dipole moment, polarizability and first hyperpolarizability of polymethineimine (PMI) oligomers (up to hexadecamers) and its experimentally known amino-, methyl-, and cyano-derivatives are investigated using several ab initio methods (HF, MP2 and DFT). It is shown that side-chain substitutions have significant effects both on the structure and molecular properties of PMI chains. Depending on the substitution, two types of structures have been identified. The first is characterized by a bent skeleton and encompasses PMI, polyacetonitrile (PAcN), and polycyanonitrile (PCN). The second, represented by polyaminonitrile (PAN), remains quasi-linear with the plane of the unit cell (UC) only slightly rotating around the longitudinal molecular axis. These structural differences are also reflected in molecular properties; while in case of PMI, PAcN, and PCN the longitudinal component of properties (reduced per UC) reaches its maximum value for medium-size oligomers and then decreases for longer chains, the linear and nonlinear properties of PAN steadily increase towards the polymeric limit. In addition, we have assessed the performances of long-range corrected DFT functionals (LR-DFT), namely LC-BLYP, CAM-B3LYP, and ωB97X within the present framework: they provide results in qualitative agreement with MP2, a success not reached with B3LYP.

  17. Comprehensive evaluation of medium and long range correlated density functionals in TD-DFT investigation of DNA bases and base pairs: gas phase and water solution study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Manoj K.; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2010-11-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the performance of the TD-DFT method using different density functionals including recently developed medium and long-range correlation corrected density functionals have been carried out for lower-lying electronic singlet valence transitions of nucleic acid bases and the Watson-Crick base pairs in the gas phase and in the water solution. The standard 6-311++G(d,p) basis set was used. Ground state geometries of bases and base pairs were optimized at the M05-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level. The nature of potential energy surfaces (PES) was ascertained through the harmonic vibrational frequency analysis; all geometries were found to be minima at the respective PES. Electronic singlet vertical transition energies were also computed at the CC2/def2-TZVP level in the gas phase. The effect of state-specific water solvation on TD-DFT computed transition energies was considered using the PCM model. For the isolated bases the performance of the B3LYP functional was generally found to be superior among all functionals, but it measurably fails for charge-transfer states in the base pairs. The CC2/def2-TZVP computed transition energies were also revealed to be inferior compared with B3LYP results for the isolated bases. The performance of the ωB97XD, CAM-B3LYP and BMK functionals were found to be similar and comparable with the CC2 results for the isolated bases. However, for the Watson-Crick adenine-thymine and guanine-cytosine base pairs the performance of the ωB97XD functional was found to be the best among all the studied functionals in the present work in predicting the locally excited transitions as well as charge transfer states.

  18. New design strategy for the two-photon active material based on push-pull substituted bisanthene molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyaya, Mausumi; Alam, Md Mehboob; Chakrabarti, Swapan

    2011-03-31

    In the present work, we have critically examined the origin of strong two-photon transition probability of a donor-acceptor substituted bisanthene molecule that imitates a small piece of edge passivated (4, 4) graphene nanoribbon. In our calculations, we have considered -OMe, and -NH(2) as donors and -NO(2) as an acceptor. The one- and two-photon absorption parameters are evaluated using state-of-the-art linear and quadratic response theory, respectively, and all these calculations are carried out within the framework of time dependent density functional theory. To give a proper judgment on our findings, we have used the long-range corrected CAMB3LYP functional for all of the time dependent calculations. The present investigation reveals that the bisanthene molecule with three pairs of donor/acceptor moiety has a lower two-photon transition probability than that of a suitably designed bisanthene with only a single pair of donor/acceptor moiety. This in silico observation is consistent for all of the donor/acceptor moieties chosen in the present work. A comprehensive analysis at the two state model level of theory clearly offers us a verdict that by placing the donor/acceptor moiety in a suitable position of bisanthene, we can create a significant asymmetry in the electron density in the first excited state, which eventually leads to a significant difference in the ground and excited state dipole moment and is attributed to the higher two-photon transition probability of a particular bisanthene with a single pair of donor/acceptor moiety than bisanthene with three pairs of donor/acceptor.

  19. Application of the Englert-Schwinger model to the equation of state and the fullerene molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Venkata Ramana, A.; Menon, S. V. G.

    2011-05-01

    The Englert-Schwinger model (ESM) is applied to two problems. One is the calculation of zero-temperature equation of state (EOS) of elements within the spherically symmetric Wigner-Sietz cell approximation. The other is to obtain the equilibrium radius of fullerene molecule using March’s approach [N. H. March, Proc. Camb. Philos. Soc. 48, 665 (1952)]. In each case, the results of the ESM are compared with those of Thomas-Fermi-Dirac (TFD) and Thomas-Fermi-Dirac-Weizsacker (TFDW) models. Zero-temperature equation of state calculations are done for Al and Cu. The results of the ESM show an enormous improvement over those of the TFD model. Also, the ESM is in good agreement with the TFDW model for compressions greater than 2. In the regime of validity of TFDW theory, i.e., compressions greater than 20 and 10 for Al and Cu, respectively, the deviations between the results of the two models are negligible. Hence, the ESM may be used in lieu of the TFDW model for EOS calculations. In the fullerene case, we have obtained the cohesive energy using the models assuming the radius obtained from accurate calculations of the fullerene molecule. We have also obtained the equilibrium radius predicted by each model. The results obtained show that the ESM results are not much of an improvement over the TFD results. This shows that the ESM cannot always improve the results of the TFD model and be a replacement for the TFDW model. However, as in the EOS case, it would give results in good agreement with TFDW results for properties that are dependent on the electron density at the outer reaches of the atom.

  20. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, FT-NMR and UV-Vis) investigation on benzil dioxime using quantum computational methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkiyaraj, D.; Periandy, S.; Xavier, S.

    2016-03-01

    The spectral analysis of benzil dioxime is carried out using the FTIR, FT Raman, FT NMR and UV-Vis spectra of the compound with the help of quantum computations by density functional theories. The FT-IR (4000 - 400 cm-1) and FT-Raman (4000-100 cm-1) spectra are recorded in solid phase, the 1H and 13C NMR spectra in DMSO phase and the UV spectrum (200-400 nm) in ethanol phase. The different conformers of the compound and their minimum energies are studied by potential energy surface scan, using semi-empirical method PM6. The computed wavenumbers from different methods are scaled so as to agree with the experimental values and the scaling factors are reported. All the fundamental modes have been assigned based on the potential energy distribution (PED) values and the structure the molecule is analyzed interms of parameters like bond length, bond angle and dihedral angles predicted byB3LYP and CAM-B3LYP methods with cc-pVDZ basis sets. The values of dipole moment (μ), polarizability (α) and hyperpolarizability (β) of the molecule are reported, using which the non -linear optical property of the molecule is discussed. The HOMO-LUMO mappings are reported which reveals the different charge transfer possibilities within the molecule. The isotropic chemical shifts predicted for 1H and 13C atoms using gauge invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) theory show good agreement with experimental shifts and the same is discussed in comparison with atomic charges, predicted by Mullikan and APT charge analysis. NBO analysis is carried out to picture the probable electronic transitions in the molecule.

  1. DEMNUni: ISW, Rees-Sciama, and weak-lensing in the presence of massive neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Carmelita; Petkova, Margarita; Dolag, Klaus

    2016-07-01

    We present, for the first time in the literature, a full reconstruction of the total (linear and non-linear) ISW/Rees-Sciama effect in the presence of massive neutrinos, together with its cross-correlations with CMB-lensing and weak-lensing signals. The present analyses make use of all-sky maps extracted via ray-tracing across the gravitational potential distribution provided by the ``Dark Energy and Massive Neutrino Universe'' (DEMNUni) project, a set of large-volume, high-resolution cosmological N-body simulations, where neutrinos are treated as separate collisionless particles. We correctly recover, at 1–2% accuracy, the linear predictions from CAMB. Concerning the CMB-lensing and weak-lensing signals, we also recover, with similar accuracy, the signal predicted by Boltzmann codes, once non-linear neutrino corrections to HALOFIT are accounted for. Interestingly, in the ISW/Rees-Sciama signal, and its cross correlation with lensing, we find an excess of power with respect to the massless case, due to free streaming neutrinos, roughly at the transition scale between the linear and non-linear regimes. The excess is ~ 5 – 10% at l ~ 100 for the ISW/Rees-Sciama auto power spectrum, depending on the total neutrino mass Mν, and becomes a factor of ~ 4 for Mν = 0.3 eV, at l ~ 600, for the ISW/Rees-Sciama cross power with CMB-lensing. This effect should be taken into account for the correct estimation of the CMB temperature bispectrum in the presence of massive neutrinos.

  2. The Role of Cytosine Methylation on Charge Transport through a DNA Strand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Jianqing [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Govind, Niranjan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anantram, M. P. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-09-04

    Cytosine methylation has been found to play a crucial role in various biological processes, including a number of human diseases. The detection of this small modifi-cation remains challenging. In this work, we computationally explore the possibility of detecting methylated DNA strands through direct electrical conductance measurements. Using density functional theory and the Landauer-Buttiker method, we study the electronic properties and charge transport through an eight base-pair methylated DNA strand and its native counterpart. Specifically, we compare the results generated with the widely used B3LYP exchange-correlation (XC) functional and CAM-B3LYP based tuned range-separated hybrid density functional. We first analyze the effect of cytosine methylation on the tight-binding parameters of two DNA strands and then model the transmission of the electrons and conductance through the strands both with and without decoherence. We find that with both functionals, the main difference of the tight-binding parameters between the native DNA and the methylated DNA lies in the on-site energies of (methylated) cytosine bases. The intra- and interstrand hopping integrals between two nearest neighboring guanine base and (methylated) cytosine base also change with the addition of the methyl groups. Our calculations show that in the phase-coherent limit, the transmission of the methylated strand is close to the native strand when the energy is nearby the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level and larger than the native strand by 5 times in the bandgap. The trend in transmission also holds in the presence of the decoherence with both functionals. We also study the effect of contact coupling by choosing coupling strengths ranging from weak to strong coupling limit. Our results suggest that the effect of the two different functionals is to alter the on-site energies of the DNA bases at the HOMO level, while the transport properties don't depend much on the two

  3. Diterpene production in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prach, Lisa; Kirby, James; Keasling, Jay D.; Alber, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Diterpenes are a structurally diverse class of molecules common in plants, although they are very rarely found in bacteria. We report the identification in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) of three diterpenes proposed to promote phagolysosome maturation arrest. MS analysis reveals that these diterpenes are novel compounds not previously identified in other organisms. The diterpene with highest abundance in Mtb has a mass fragmentation pattern identical to edaxadiene, which is produced in vitro from geranylgeranyl diphosphate by the enzymes Rv3377c and Rv3378c [Mann FM et al. (2009) J Am Chem Soc 131, 17526–17527]. A second diterpene found in Mtb has a similar mass spectrum, and is always observed in the same proportion relative to edaxadiene, indicating that it is a side product of the Rv3378c reaction in vivo. We name this second diterpene olefin edaxadiene B. The least abundant of the three diterpenes in Mtb extracts is tuberculosinol, a dephosphorylated side-product of the edaxadiene pathway intermediate produced by Rv3377c [Nakano C et al. (2009) Chembiochem 10, 2060–2071; Nakano C et al. (2005) Chem Commun (Camb) 8, 1016–1018]. A frameshift in Rv3377c in Mtb completely eliminates diterpene production, whereas expression of Rv3377c and Rv3378c in the nonpathogenic M. smegmatis is sufficient to produce edaxadiene and edaxadiene B. These studies define the pathway of edaxadiene and edaxadiene B biosynthesis in vivo. Rv3377c and Rv3378c are unique to Mtb and M. bovis, making them candidates for selective therapeutics and diagnostics. PMID:20670276

  4. Theoretical Studies on F(-) + NH2Cl Reaction: Nucleophilic Substitution at Neutral Nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Zhang, Jiaxu; Yang, Li; Sun, Rui

    2016-05-26

    The SN2 reactions at N center, denoted as SN2@N, has been recognized to play a significant role in carcinogenesis, although they are less studied and less understood. The potential energy profile for the model reaction of SN2@N, chloramine (NH2Cl) with fluorine anion (F(-)), has been characterized by extensive electronic structure calculations. The back-side SN2 channel dominates the reaction with the front-side SN2 channel becoming feasible at higher energies. The minimum energy pathway shows a resemblance to the well-known double-well potential model for SN2 reactions at carbon. However, the complexes involving nitrogen on both sides of the reaction barrier are characterized by NH---X (X = F or Cl) hydrogen bond and possess C1 symmetry, in contrast to the more symmetric ion-dipole carbon analogues. In the F(-) + NH2Cl system, the proton transfer pathway is found to become more competitive with the SN2 pathway than in the F(-) + CH3Cl system. The calculations reported here indicate that stationary point properties on the F(-) + NH2Cl potential energy surface are slightly perturbed by the theories employed. The MP2 and CAM-B3LYP, as well as M06-2X and MPW1K functionals give overall best agreement with the benchmark CCSD(T)/CBS energies for the major SN2 reaction channel, and are recommended as the preferred methods for the direct dynamics simulations to uncover the dynamic behaviors of the title reaction. PMID:27144809

  5. Characterization of prepared In2O3 thin films: The FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Visible investigation and optical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneerdoss, I Joseph; Jeyakumar, S Johnson; Ramalingam, S; Jothibas, M

    2015-08-01

    In this original work, the Indium oxide (In2O3) thin film is deposited cleanly on microscope glass substrate at different temperatures by spray pyrolysis technique. The physical properties of the films are characterized by XRD, SEM, AFM and AFM measurements. The spectroscopic investigation has been carried out on the results of FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-Visible. XRD analysis exposed that the structural transformation of films from stoichiometric to non-stoichiometric orientation of the plane vice versa and also found that, the film is polycrystalline in nature having cubic crystal structure with a preferred grain orientation along (222) plane. SEM and AFM studies revealed that, the film with 0.1M at 500°C has spherical grains with uniform dimension. The complete vibrational analysis has been carried out and the optimized parameters are calculated using HF and DFT (CAM-B3LYP, B3LYP and B3PW91) methods with 3-21G(d,p) basis set. Furthermore, NMR chemical shifts are calculated by using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) technique. The molecular electronic properties; absorption wavelengths, excitation energy, dipole moment and frontier molecular orbital energies, molecular electrostatic potential energy (MEP) analysis and Polarizability first order hyperpolarizability calculations are performed by time dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. The energy excitation on electronic structure is investigated and the assignment of the absorption bands in the electronic spectra of steady compound is discussed. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies showed the enhancement of energy gap by the addition of substitutions with the base molecule. The thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy, and enthalpy) at different temperatures are calculated and interpreted in gas phase. PMID:25827760

  6. Dimensions of cookie-cutter-like sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; Jihua(

    2001-01-01

    [1]Bedford, T., Application of dynamical systems theory to fractals——a study of cookie-cutter sets, in Fractal G eometry and Analysis (eds. Bélair, J., Dubuc, S.), Amsterdam: Kluwer, 1991, 1-44.[2]Falconer, K. J., Techniques in Fractal Geometry, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997.[3]Takens, F., Hyperbolicity and Sensitive Chaotic Dynamics at Holmoclinic Bifurcations, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990, 53.[4]Falconer, K. J., Fractal Geometry-Mathematical Foundations and Application, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1990.[5]Mattila, P. , Geometry of Sets and Measures in Euclidean Spaces, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.[6]Hua Su, Dimensions for generalized self-similar sets, Acta. Math. Appl. Siniea, 1994, 17(4): 551.[7]Feng Dejun, Wen Zhiying, Wu Jun, Some dimensional results for homogeneous Moran sets, Science in China, Ser. A, 1997,40(5): 475.[8]Hua Su, Rao Hui, Wen Zhiying, et al. , On the structures and dimensions of Moran sets, Science in China, Ser. A, 2000,43(8): 836.[9]Tricot, C., Two definitions of fractal dimensions, Math. Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc., 1982, 91(1): 57.[10]Oxtoby, J., Measure and Category, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1980.[11]Feng Dejun, Hua Su, Wen Zhiying, Some relations between pre-packing measure and packing measure, Bull. London. Math.Soc., 1999, 31: 665.

  7. Semi-analytical description of clumping factor and cosmic microwave background free-free distortions from reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetti, T.; Burigana, C.

    2014-01-01

    The density contrast of the Universe, parametrized in terms of the matter power spectrum and its variance, can amplify the signal of the free-free process in the plasma. The damping of fluctuations on scales smaller than the dark matter particle free streaming scale corresponds to a suppression of the total matter power spectrum on large wavenumbers k. We derive the time evolution of the variance of the matter power spectrum for various cosmological models and parameters by numerically computing the power spectrum with a modified version of the Boltzmann code CAMB, for different values of the cut-off parameter kmax. Suitable analytical approximations of the numerical results are presented. We then characterize the cosmic microwave background (CMB) free-free spectral distortion accounting for the amplification effect coming from clumping factor. Indeed, the clumpiness, associated with the density contrast of the intergalactic medium, increases at decreasing redshift. The analysis is carried out for selected astrophysical and phenomenological cosmological reionization histories for which we evaluate the impact of the clumping factor on the free-free distortion and discuss the wavelength dependence of the predicted signal. Finally, we address a comparison with other classes of unavoidable CMB spectral distortions and future observational perspectives. While Comptonization from reionization is dominant at high frequencies, the free-free signal predicted in the considered models contributes to the distortion at a level of few (few tens) per cent at frequencies below ˜25 GHz (˜10 GHz) and represents the main signature below ˜4 GHz. The cosmological signal from the H I 21-cm background is found to prevail over the free-free distortion in a restricted, model-dependent frequency window between ˜0.1 and ˜0.2 GHz.

  8. The Growth and Influencing Factors of Three Native Tree Species in Coastal Casuarina equisetifolia Plantation%滨海木麻黄林下3种乡土树种苗木的生长及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚宝琪; 刘强; 蔡梓; 王孝杉

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The aim was to study the growth and environment factors of three native tree species ( Thespesiat lampas, Calophyllum inophyllum and Hernandia sonora) in Hainan in coastal Casuarina equisetifolia plantation. [ Method ] The coastal sandy soil was treated by adding wood chips, bagasse and the control without adding anything in the plant pits. The growth of three native tree species planted for one year was analyzed. [ Result] ① One year later, the survival rate showed an order of T. lampas > H. sonora > C. inophyllum;the net increase of basal diameter showed an order of H. sonora > T. lampas > C. inophyllum; while the net increase of height showed an order of T. lampas >C. inophyllum > H. Sonora. The difference of survival rate between T. lampas and C. inophyllum was extremely significant, the difference of survival rate between H. sonora and C. inophyllum was significant, but the survival rate between T. lampas and H. Sonora showed no significant difference. ② Among different soil treatments ,the survival rate of three native tree species in the treatment by adding wood chips, bagasse were higher than the treatment without adding anything, and the difference of survival rate of T. lampas between the treatment by adding wood chips, bagasse and the treatment without adding anything was extremely significant, but the treatment by adding wood chips and bagasse had not significant difference. ③ The growth of three native tree species showed some correlation with environment factors ( | r | > 0.3 ). The survival rate of T. lampas showed higher correlation with soil pH value and soil moisture, and the basal diameter and height of T. lampas showed some correlation with soil pH value and soil temperature. The survival rate of C. inophyllum showed higher correlation with soil PH value, soil temperature and light intensity, while the basal diameter and height of C. inophyllum showed some correlation with soil temperature. The survival rate

  9. Democracia Liberal: uma novidade já desbotada entre jovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Florentino

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo busca mostrar a relação da juventude brasiliense com a política institucional, revelando o que está por trás da rejeição aos políticos profissionais e às instituições que ocupam. Em vez de estereotipar a postura crítica destes e destas jovens, sem antes analisar serenamente o contexto em que essa crítica surge, procurou-se mostrar o lugar de fala, a arena política em que surge essa crítica. Nessa arena, encontra-se uma democracia institucionalizada, com eleições estáveis, mas que não corresponde às expectativas que foram geradas com a sua implementação, junto com uma população bem informada e impactada por ações governamentais ou a ausência destas. Sem louvores ou reprovações, há que se perguntar se esta descrença da política institucional revela apenas uma desconexão de mundos ou a abertura de espaço para o surgimento de novas formas de organização política. O artigo trabalha com dados da PNAD 2005 e o Índice de Desenvolvimento Juvenil da UNESCO sobre a caracterização da juventude de Brasília e dados do TSE, sobre o alistamento eleitoral facultativo entre jovens.This article intends to analize the relationship between the city of Brasília´s youth and the institutional politics. We show what is behind the rejection to professional politicians and to the institutions they control. Instead of stereotipyze the critical behavior of the youth, we first analyze the context where this refusal takes place. We find an established democracy, with stable elections, but not corresponding to the expectations created during its implementation, added to a population that is well informed about the youth, it is necessary to ask if this lack of trust on institutional politics shows disconected worlds or a opened space to the emergence of new forms of political organization. This article is based on 2005 PNAD (National Research by Housing sample data and the Youth Development Index of UNESCO, to describe the

  10. Extração de DNA genômico de tecidos foliares maduros de espécies nativas do cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Nara da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Grandes quantidades de contaminantes na amostra de DNA dificultam a obtenção de DNA genômico de qualidade durante a extração. A presença de polissacarídeos, fenóis e outros compostos secundários representa o principal problema com o procedimento de isolamento do DNA e sua aplicação subsequente, por inibir a atividade das enzimas Taq DNA polimera-se e enzimas de restrição. Neste estudo, descreveu-se um procedimento modificado baseado no hexadecyltrimethylammonium (CTAB, rendendo DNA genômico satisfatório para técnicas de manipulação subsequente, como reações de PCR e digestão com enzima de restrição. Nesse protocolo foram utilizadas diferentes concentrações de β-mercaptoetanol no tampão de extração (0,0; 0,2; 10; 15; 25; e 50 uL de β-mercaptoetanol/mL do tampão de extração: 100 mM de Tris-HCl, pH 8; 20 mM de EDTA; 1,4 mM de NaCl; 2% de CTAB; 1% de PVP, cujo procedimento foi aplicado no caso de folhas maduras e testado em Annona crassiflora (arati-cum, Eugenia dysenterica (cagaita, Anacardium humilis (caju-do-campo, Hancornia speciosa (mangaba e Caryocar brasiliense (pequi. O protocolo foi eficiente no isolamento de DNA livre de polissacarídeos e polifenóis, com rendimento do DNA com alto peso molecu-lar, utilizando-se concentrações a partir de 1% de β-mercaptoetanol no tampão de extração. O DNA isolado por esse método mostrou alta pureza, de acordo com as análises de digestão por restrição e amplificação por PCR.

  11. Self-perception of knowledge and adherence reflecting the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagli-Hernandez C

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carolina Dagli-Hernandez,1 Rosa Camila Lucchetta,1 Tales Rubens de Nadai,2 José Carlos Fernandez Galduróz,3 Patricia de Carvalho Mastroianni1 1Department of Drugs and Medications, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of the UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, 2Department of Surgery and Anatomy, Americo Brasiliense State Hospital, 3Department of Psychobiology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil Objectives: To evaluate which indirect method for assessing adherence best reflects highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART effectiveness and the factors related to adherence. Method: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed in 2012 at a reference center of the state of São Paulo. Self-report (simplified medication adherence questionnaire [SMAQ] and drug refill parameters were compared to the viral load (clinical parameter of the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy [EP] to evaluate the EP. The “Cuestionario para la Evaluación de la Adhesión al Tratamiento Antiretroviral” (CEAT-VIH was used to evaluate factors related to adherence and the EP and, complementarily, patient self-perception of adherence was compared to the clinical parameter of the EP. Results: Seventy-five patients were interviewed, 60 of whom were considered as adherent from the clinical parameter of the EP and ten were considered as adherent from all parameters. Patient self-perception about adherence was the instrument that best reflected the EP when compared to the standardized self-report questionnaire (SMAQ and drug refill parameter. The level of education and the level of knowledge on HAART were positively correlated to the EP. Forgetfulness, alcohol use, and lack of knowledge about the medications were the factors most frequently reported as a cause of nonadherence. Conclusion: A new parameter of patient self-perception of adherence, which is a noninvasive, inexpensive instrument, could be applied and assessed as easily as self

  12. When genome-based approach meets the ‘old but good’: revealing genes involved in the antibacterial activity of Pseudomonas sp. P482 against soft rot pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Magdalena Krzyżanowska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dickeya solani and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasili¬ense are recently established species of bacterial plant pathogens causing black leg and soft rot of many vegetables and ornamental plants. Pseudomonas sp. strain P482 inhibits the growth of these pathogens, a desired trait considering the limited measures to combat these diseases. In this study, we determined the genetic background of the antibacterial activity of P482, and established the phylogenetic position of this strain.Pseudomonas sp. P482 was classified as Pseudomonas donghuensis. Genome mining revealed that the P482 genome does not contain genes determining the synthesis of known antimicrobials. However, the ClusterFinder algorithm, designed to detect atypical or novel classes of secondary metabolite gene clusters, predicted 18 such clusters in the genome. Screening of a Tn5 mutant library yielded an antimicrobial negative transposon mutant. The transposon insertion was located in a gene encoding an HpcH/HpaI aldolase/citrate lyase family protein. This gene is located in a hypothetical cluster predicted by the ClusterFinder, together with the downstream homologues of four nfs genes, that confer production of a nonfluorescent siderophore by P. donghuensis HYST. Site-directed inactivation of the HpcH/HpaI aldolase gene, the adjacent short chain dehydrogenase gene, as well as a homologue of an essential nfs cluster gene, all abolished the antimicrobial activity of the P482, suggesting their involvement in a common biosynthesis pathway. However, none of the mutants showed a decreased siderophore yield, neither was the antimicrobial activity of the wild type P482 compromised by high iron bioavailability.A genomic region comprising the nfs cluster and three upstream genes is involved in the antibacterial activity of P. donghuensis P482 against D. solani and P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense. The genes studied are unique to the two known P. donghuensis strains. This study

  13. Estrutura da vegetação herbácea em paisagens ciliares no sul de Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Votri Guislon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As características estruturais e ecológicas da vegetação herbácea fazem com que ela seja sensível às alterações do ambiente, atuando como indicador da qualidade ambiental. No entanto, o estudo dessa comunidade ainda é incipiente em regiões neotropicais. Este estudo descreve a florística e os aspectos fitossociológicos da vegetação herbácea terrícola na mata ciliar de sete rios, no município de Urussanga, sul do estado de Santa Catarina, além de analisar e quantificar o status do conhecimento científico relacionado às herbáceas terrícolas no Brasil. Foram levantadas 320 unidades amostrais de 4 m², nas quais todos os indivíduos foram identificados e dados relacionados aos parâmetros fitossociológicos foram coletados. A amostragem resultou em 58 táxons, 38 pertencentes às angiospermas e 20 às samambaias, distribuídos em 25 famílias botânicas. Poaceae apresentou maior riqueza, com 11 espécies. Estruturalmente, destacaram-se Goeppertia monophylla (Vell. Borchs. e S. Suárez, Blechnum brasiliense Desv. e Heliconia farinosa Raddi. A forma de vida mais frequente foi a hemicriptófita reptante. Os resultados revelam uma elevada riqueza de herbáceas terrícolas adaptadas às condições climáticas das matas ciliares, contribuindo para a diversidade da flora regional. Quanto à produção científica, foram encontrados 50 trabalhos indexados nas bases de dados eletrônicas (1990 a 2015, com destaque ao ano de 2011, que teve maior produção científica enfocando as herbáceas terrícolas. Embora com baixo número, a quantidade de indexações tende a crescer, em virtude do avanço da tecnologia de acesso às bases de dados e pela crescente adesão de periódicos em portais de busca.

  14. Composition and conservation of Orchidaceae on an inselberg in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and floristic relationships with areas of Eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessanha, Alexandre Soares; Menini Neto, Luiz; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade

    2014-06-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest presents high levels of richness and endemism of several taxonomic groups. Within this forest, the Orchidaceae may be highlighted as the richest family of Angiosperms found there, and is highly threatened due to collection and habitat destruction. The inselbergs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest are mostly unknown regarding their floristic composition, but the available information points to occurrence of endemic species, with adaptations to survive to this dry environment. The objectives of this study were to conduct a floristic survey of the Orchidaceae species on the Maciço do Itaoca, an inselberg located in the Northern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, make a comparative analysis with other sites in Eastern Brazil, and discuss the geographic distribution, floristic relationships and conservation status of the orchid species present on the inselbergs. The floristic composition of the study area was compared with 24 other locations in Eastern Brazil (of which 13 are inselbergs) and the influence of the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the Orchidaceae flora on the inselbergs. On Maciço do Itaoca we recorded 18 species from 17 genera: Brasiliorchis picta, Brassavola tuberculata, Campylocentrum robustum; C sellowii, Catasetum luridum, Cattleya guttata, Cyclopogon congestus, Cyrtopodium glutiniferum, Leptotes bicolor, Lophiaris pumila, Miltonia moreliana, Oeceoclades maculata, Phymatochilum brasiliense, Prescottia plantaginifolia, Pseudolaelia vellozicola, Sarcoglottis fasciculata, Sophronitis cernua. and Vanilla chamissonis. The highest floristic similarity was with the Pedra da Botelha (0.43), an inselberg located in the North of Espírito Santo. This result is probably due to the similarity in altitude and distance from the coast in both areas despite the geographical distance between them. Apparently, little influence is exerted by the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the flora of

  15. Fitossociologia de cerrado sensu stricto no município de Abaeté-MG Phytosociology of the cerrado sensu stricto in Abaeté, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilcar Walter Saporetti Jr

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O cerrado tem sido objeto de discussão de grupos temáticos que estudam a conservação de biodiversidade no Estado de Minas Gerais. São inúmeras as áreas de conservação com vegetação de cerrado das quais não se têm informações a respeito de sua composição florística e estrutura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar florística e fitossociologicamente uma área de cerrado sensu stricto, no município de Abaeté-MG. A área de estudo é um fragmento com 2 ha de cerrado sensu stricto, preservado como área de reserva da CAF-Santa Bárbara, situada nas coordenadas 19º05'S e 44º58'W, a uma altitude de 480 m, em leve depressão próxima de uma vereda. O clima pertence ao tipo Cwa pelo sistema de Köppen, com precipitação média anual de 1.400 mm. O solo é do tipo Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. Foram instaladas 15 parcelas de 200 m² (10 x 20 m, distribuídas sistematicamente ao longo de trilhas, distanciadas 10 m entre si. Foram amostrados todos os indivíduos lenhosos vivos com circunferência do caule ao nível do solo (CAS igual ou maior que 10 cm. O índice de Shannon foi de 3,590 e a equabilidade foi de 0,804, considerados comuns para cerrados bem conservados. Foram amostrados 1.339 indivíduos, sendo a composição florística constituída por 85 espécies, distribuídas em 44 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae com sete espécies, Annonaceae com cinco, Myrtaceae, Malpighiaceae, Erythroxylaceae, Anacardiaceae, Rubiaceae e Bignoniaceae com quatro, seguidas de Vochysiaceae e Leguminosae Papilionoideae com três. As espécies que apresentaram o maior valor de importância (VI foram Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (22,21, Myrcia lingua Berg (18,18 Caryocar brasiliense Cambess. (17,91, Eugenia dysenterica DC. (17,58, Byrsonima intermedia A. Juss. (13,69 e Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul (11,86.The cerrado has been a topic of discussion of thematic groups studying biodiversity

  16. Hydroxyl radical (OH•) reaction with guanine in an aqueous environment: a DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Pottiboyina, Venkata; Sevilla, Michael D

    2011-12-22

    The reaction of hydroxyl radical (OH(•)) with DNA accounts for about half of radiation-induced DNA damage in living systems. Previous literature reports point out that the reaction of OH(•) with DNA proceeds mainly through the addition of OH(•) to the C═C bonds of the DNA bases. However, recently it has been reported that the principal reaction of OH(•) with dGuo (deoxyguanosine) is the direct hydrogen atom abstraction from its exocyclic amine group rather than addition of OH(•) to the C═C bonds. In the present work, these two reaction pathways of OH(•) attack on guanine (G) in the presence of water molecules (aqueous environment) are investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP method with 6-31G* and 6-31++G** basis sets. The calculations show that the initial addition of the OH(•) at C(4)═C(5) double bond of guanine is barrier free and the adduct radical (G-OH(•)) has only a small activation barrier of ca. 1-6 kcal/mol leading to the formation of a metastable ion-pair intermediate (G(•+)---OH(-)). The formation of ion-pair is a result of the highly oxidizing nature of the OH(•) in aqueous media. The resulting ion-pair (G(•+)---OH(-)) deprotonates to form H(2)O and neutral G radicals favoring G(N(1)-H)(•) with an activation barrier of ca. 5 kcal/mol. The overall process from the G(C(4))-OH(•) (adduct) to G(N(1)-H)(•) and water is found to be exothermic in nature by more than 13 kcal/mol. (G-OH(•)), (G(•+)---OH(-)), and G(N(1)-H)(•) were further characterized by the CAM-B3LYP calculations of their UV-vis spectra and good agreement between theory and experiment is achieved. Our calculations for the direct hydrogen abstraction pathway from N(1) and N(2) sites of guanine by the OH(•) show that this is also a competitive route to produce G(N(2)-H)(•), G(N(1)-H)(•) and H(2)O.

  17. Sticking to (first) principles: quantum molecular dynamics and Bayesian probabilistic methods to simulate aquatic pollutant absorption spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trerayapiwat, Kasidet; Ricke, Nathan; Cohen, Peter; Poblete, Alex; Rudel, Holly; Eustis, Soren N

    2016-08-10

    This work explores the relationship between theoretically predicted excitation energies and experimental molar absorption spectra as they pertain to environmental aquatic photochemistry. An overview of pertinent Quantum Chemical descriptions of sunlight-driven electronic transitions in organic pollutants is presented. Second, a combined molecular dynamics (MD), time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) analysis of the ultraviolet to visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectra of six model organic compounds is presented alongside accurate experimental data. The functional relationship between the experimentally observed molar absorption spectrum and the discrete quantum transitions is examined. A rigorous comparison of the accuracy of the theoretical transition energies (ΔES0→Sn) and oscillator strength (fS0→Sn) is afforded by the probabilistic convolution and deconvolution procedure described. This method of deconvolution of experimental spectra using a Gaussian Mixture Model combined with Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC) to determine the mean (μ) and standard deviation (σ) as well as the number of observed singlet to singlet transition energy state distributions. This procedure allows a direct comparison of the one-electron (quantum) transitions that are the result of quantum chemical calculations and the ensemble of non-adiabatic quantum states that produce the macroscopic effect of a molar absorption spectrum. Poor agreement between the vertical excitation energies produced from TD-DFT calculations with five different functionals (CAM-B3LYP, PBE0, M06-2X, BP86, and LC-BLYP) suggest a failure of the theory to capture the low energy, environmentally important, electronic transitions in our model organic pollutants. However, the method of explicit-solvation of the organic solute using the quantum Effective Fragment Potential (EFP) in a density functional molecular dynamics trajectory simulation shows promise as a robust model of the hydrated organic

  18. Why do TD-DFT excitation energies of BODIPY/Aza-BODIPY families largely deviate from experiment? Answers from electron correlated and multireference methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Mohammad R; Brown, Alex

    2015-06-01

    The vertical excitation energies of 17 boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) core structures with a variety of substituents and ring sizes are benchmarked using time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) with nine different functionals combined with the cc-pVTZ basis set. When compared to experimental measurements, all functionals provide mean absolute errors (mean AEs) greater than 0.3 eV, larger than the 0.1-0.3 eV differences typically expected from TD-DFT. Due to the high linear correlation of TD-DFT results with experiment, most functionals can be used to predict excitation energies if corrected empirically. Using the CAM-B3LYP functional, 0-0 transition energies are determined, and while the absolute difference is improved (mean AE = 0.478 eV compared to 0.579 eV), the correlation diminishes substantially (R(2) = 0.961 to 0.862). Two very recently introduced charge transfer (CT) indices, q(CT) and d(CT), and electron density difference (EDD) plots demonstrate that CT does not play a significant role for most of the BODIPYs examined and, thus, cannot be the source of error in TD-DFT. To assess TD-DFT methods, vertical excitation energies are determined utilizing TD-HF, configuration interaction CIS and CIS(D), equation of motion EOM-CCSD, SAC-CI, and Laplace-transform based local coupled-cluster singles and approximate doubles LCC2* methods. Moreover, multireference CASSCF and CASPT2 vertical excitation energies were also obtained for all species (except CASPT2 was not feasible for the four largest systems). The SAC-CI/cc-pVDZ, LCC2*/cc-pVDZ, and CASPT2/cc-pVDZ approaches are shown to have the smallest mean AEs of 0.154, 0.109, and 0.100 eV, respectively; the utility of the LCC2* approach is demonstrated for eight extended BODIPYs and aza-BODIPYs. We found that the problems with TD-DFT arise from difficulties in dealing with the differential electron correlation (as assessed by comparing CCS, CC2, LR-CCSD, CCSDR(T), and CCSDR(3) vertical excitation energies for

  19. Tuning the push-pull configuration for efficient second-order nonlinear optical properties in some chalcone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Shabbir; Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G; Irfan, Ahmad; Chaudhry, Aijaz R

    2016-07-01

    Using the density functional theory methods, we effectively tune the second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties in some chalcone derivatives. Various unique push-pull configurations are used to efficiently enhance the intramolecular charge transfer process over the designed derivatives, which result in significantly larger amplitudes of the first hyperpolarizability as compared to their parent molecule. The ground state molecular geometries have been optimized using B3LYP/6-311G** level of theory. A variety of methods including B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP, PBE0, M06, BHandHLYP and MP2 are tested with 6-311G** basis set to calculate the first hyperpolarizability of parent system 1. The results of M06 are found closer to highly correlated MP2 method, which has been selected to calculate static and frequency dependent first hyperpolarizability amplitudes of all selected systems. At M06/6-311G** level of theory, the permanent electronic dipole moment (μtot), polarizability (α0) and static first hyperpolarizability (βtot) amplitudes for parent system 1 are found to be 5.139 Debye, 274a. u. and 24.22×10(-30)esu, respectively. These amplitudes have been significantly enhanced in designed derivatives 2 and 3. More importantly, the (βtot) amplitudes of systems 2 and 3 mount to 75.78×10(-30) and 128.51×10(-30)esu, respectively, which are about 3 times and 5 times larger than that of their parent system 1. Additionally, we have extended the structure-NLO property relationship to several newly synthesized chalcone derivatives. Interestingly, the amplitudes of dynamic frequency dependent hyperpolarizability μβω (SHG) are also significantly larger having values of 366.72×10(-48), 856.32×10(-48) and 1913.46×10(-48)esu for systems 1-3, respectively, at 1400nm of incident laser wavelength. The dispersion behavior over a wide range of change in wavelength has also been studied adopting a range of wavelength from 1907 to 544nm. Thus, the present work realizes the potential of

  20. Retracts, fixed point property and existence of periodic points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAI; Jiehua(

    2001-01-01

    [1]Sarkovskii, A. N. , Coexistence of cycles of a continuous map of a line into itself, Ukrain. Mat. Z. , 1964, 16(1): 61-71.[2]Li, T. Y., Misiurewicz, M., Pianigiani, G. et al., No division implies chaos, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., 1982, 273(1):191-199.[3]Mai Jiehua, Multi-separation, centrifugality and centripetality imply chaos, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., 1999, 351 (1):343-351.[4]Block, L., Coppel, W., Dynamics in One Dimension, Berlin, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1992.[5]Misiurewicz, M., Periodic points of maps of degree one of a circle, Ergod. Th. & Dynam. Sys. , 1982, 2(2): 221-227.[6]Alseda, L., Llibre, J., Misiurewicz, M., Periodic orbits of maps of Y, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., 1989, 313(2): 475-538.[7]Baldwin, S. , An extension of Sarkovskii's theorem to the n-od, Ergod. Th. & Dynam. Sys. , 1991, 11(2): 249-271.[8]Alseda, L. , Ye, X. D. , No division and the set of periods for tree maps, Ergod. Th. & Dynam. Sys., 1995, 15(2): 221-237.[9]Leseduarte, M. C., Llibre, J., On the set of periods for σ maps, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., 1995, 347(12): 4899-4942.[10]Armstrong, M. A., Basic Topology, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1983.[11]Dicks, W. , Llibre, J. , Orientation-preserving self-homeomorphisms of the surface of genus two have points of period at most two, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc., 1996, 124(5): 1583-1591.[12]Kolev, B., Peroueme, M. C., Recurrent surface homeonorphisms, Math. Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc., 1998, 124(1): 161-168.[13]Franks, J., Generalizations of the Poincare-Birkhoff theorem, Ann. Math., 1988, 128(1): 139-151.[14]Hall, G. R. , Some problems on dynamics of annulus maps, Contemporary Mathematics, 1988, 81(1): 135-152.[15]Barge, M., Matison, T., A Poincare-Birkhoff theorem on invariant plane continua, Ergod. Th. & Dynam. Sys., 1998, 18(1): 41-52.[16]Munkres, J. Pt., Topology, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1975.

  1. Interação genótipo x ambiente no desempenho produtivo da soja no Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Claudio Guilherme Portela de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram conhecer o grau de representatividade dos locais no Estado do Paraná, onde são conduzidos os ensaios de avaliação final de produtividade de linhagens de soja no período 1990/2000 e realizar estudo de adaptabilidade e estabilidade das linhagens no ano agrícola 1999/2000. As linhagens testadas pertencem aos grupos de maturação precoce, semiprecoce e médio. Verificaram-se padrões de similaridade de resposta das linhagens dos três grupos de maturação, em alguns locais, em todos ou na maioria dos anos testados. Esses padrões dependeram do grupo de maturação. Contudo, as avaliações em Londrina/Cambé, Campo Mourão, Guarapuava/Mariópolis e Sertaneja foram sempre indicadas. O local Ponta Grossa - 1 foi útil na discriminação de linhagens do grupo precoce, e Ponta Grossa - 2, dos grupos semiprecoce e médio. O estudo de adaptabilidade e estabilidade revelou que as linhagens precoces BR95-7613, BRS 137, OC95-3006 e CD96-518 tiveram bom desempenho produtivo, adaptabilidade geral e previsibilidade. A linhagem semiprecoce BR96-25619 mostrou a maior produtividade, tanto em ambientes favoráveis como nos desfavoráveis, e pode ser indicada como tendo adaptabilidade geral. Outras linhagens semiprecoces de bom desempenho, como BR96-18710 e BRS 154, são indicadas para ambientes favoráveis e geral (ambientes favoráveis e desfavoráveis, respectivamente. As linhagens OC95-3194, BR96-12086 e BR96-16185, do grupo de maturação médio, destacam-se nos ambientes favoráveis e desfavoráveis.

  2. Hydroxyl Radical (OH•) Reaction with Guanine in an Aqueous Environment: A DFT Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Pottiboyina, Venkata; Sevilla, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The reaction of hydroxyl radical (OH•) with DNA accounts for about half of radiation-induced DNA damage in living systems. Previous literature reports point out that the reaction of OH• with DNA proceeds mainly through the addition of OH• to the C=C bond of the DNA bases. However, recently it has been reported that the principal reaction of OH• with dGuo (deoxyguanosine) is the direct hydrogen atom abstraction from its exocyclic amine group rather than addition of OH• to the C=C bond. In the present work, these two reaction pathways of OH• attack on guanine (G) in the presence of water molecules (aqueous environment) are investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP method with 6-31G* and 6-31++G** basis sets. The calculations show that the initial addition of the OH• at C4=C5 double bond of guanine is barrier free and the adduct radical (G-OH•) has only a small activation barrier of ca. 1 – 6 kcal/mol leading to the formation of a metastable ion-pair intermediate (G•+---OH−). The formation of ion-pair is a result of the highly oxidizing nature of the OH• in aqueous media. The resulting ion-pair (G•+---OH−) deprotonates to form H2O and neutral G radicals favoring G(N1-H)• with an activation barrier of ca. 5 kcal/mol. The overall process from the G(C4)-OH• (adduct) to G(N1-H)• and water is found to be exothermic in nature by more than 13 kcal/mol. (G-OH•), (G•+---OH−), and G(N1-H)• were further characterized by the CAM-B3LYP calculations of their UV-visible spectra and good agreement between theory and experiment is achieved. Our calculations for the direct hydrogen abstraction pathway from N1 and N2 sites of guanine by the OH• show that this is also a competitive route to produce G(N2-H)•, G(N1-H)• and H2O. PMID:22050033

  3. Packing of Large Two- and Three-Photon Activity Into Smallest Possible Unsymmetrical Fluorene Chromophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundi, Varun; Thankachan, Pompozhi Protasis

    2016-05-01

    The quantum chemical study of one-, two-, and three-photon absorption (1PA, 2PA, and 3PA) properties for a set of compact fluorene derivatives (FD) with combination of different donor and acceptor moieties on both sides of fluorene ring system is presented. The main goal of the study is to pack large two-photon (2P) and three-photon (3P) activity into smallest possible chromophore. Linear, quadratic, and cubic response time-dependent density functional theory was used to calculate 1PA, 2PA, and 3PA properties, respectively. We used CAMB3LYP/cc-pVDZ level of theory for all the property calculations. The 2P and 3P transition probabilities were recalculated using two-state model approach and found to be in good agreement with the response theory results for first excited state. To include the contributions from higher states, the three-state model was also employed to recalculate the 2P transition probabilities and found to be in excellent agreement with response theory. The 2P/3P tensor elements were also analyzed to find reasons behind large 2P/3P activities. All the orbitals involved in transition processes were studied in detail by both molecular orbital pictures (qualitatively) and overlap diagnostic Λ-values (quantitatively). The study reveals that the novel fluorene derivatives FD-12 and FD-13 have shown large 2PA cross-section values of 1100 G.M. and 1030 G.M.; and 3PA transition probabilities of 6.10 × 10(10) a.u. and 4.85 × 10(10) a.u., respectively, for transition S0 → S1. The largest 3PA transition probability of 4.04 × 10(11) a.u. was found with FD-12 for S0 → S2 excitation. The linear relationship between Λ-values and 2PA cross-section values was also studied. PMID:27054876

  4. Evaluation of the Linear and Second-Order NLO Properties of Molecular Crystals within the Local Field Theory: Electron Correlation Effects, Choice of XC Functional, ZPVA Contributions, and Impact of the Geometry in the Case of 2-Methyl-4-nitroaniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, Tomasz; Stadnicka, Katarzyna; Champagne, Benoît

    2014-05-13

    The linear [χ((1))] and second-order nonlinear [χ((2))] optical susceptibilities of the 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA) crystal are calculated within the local field theory, which consists of first computing the molecular properties, accounting for the dressing effects of the surroundings, and then taking into account the local field effects. Several aspects of these calculations are tackled with the aim of monitoring the convergence of the χ((1)) and χ((2)) predictions with respect to experiment by accounting for the effects of (i) the dressing field within successive approximations, of (ii) the first-order ZPVA corrections, and of (iii) the geometry. With respect to the reference CCSD-based results, besides double hybrid functionals, the most reliable exchange-correlation functionals are LC-BLYP for the static χ((1)) and CAM-B3LYP (and M05-2X, to a lesser extent) for the dynamic χ((1)) but they strongly underestimate χ((2)). Double hybrids perform better for χ((2)) but not necessarily for χ((1)), and, moreover, their performances are much similar to MP2, which is known to slightly overestimate β, with respect to high-level coupled-clusters calculations and, therefore, χ((2)). Other XC functionals with less HF exchange perform poorly with overestimations/underestimations of χ((1))/χ((2)), whereas the HF method leads to underestimations of both. The first-order ZPVA corrections, estimated at the B3LYP level, are usually small but not negligible. Indeed, after ZPVA corrections, the molecular polarizabilities and first hyperpolarizabilities increase by 2% and 5%, respectively, whereas their impact is magnified on the macroscopic responses with enhancements of χ((1)) by up to 5% and of χ((2)) by as much as 10%-12% at λ = 1064 nm. The geometry plays also a key role in view of predicting accurate susceptibilities, particularly for push-pull π-conjugated compounds such as MNA. So, the geometry optimized using periodic boundary conditions is characterized

  5. Florística e estrutura da comunidade arbórea de um remanescente florestal ripário no município de Guariba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Floristic and structure of the arboreal community of riparian forest remain at Guariba municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Maria Marson DONADIO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento sobre a composição eestrutura de comunidades florestais é fundamentalpara embasar ações de conservação e restauração.O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar olevantamento florístico e descrever a estrutura dacomunidade arbórea de um remanescente florestallocalizado no município de Guariba, Estado de SãoPaulo. Foram alocadas 30 parcelas de 10 x 10 m,para amostrar os indivíduos arbóreos e arbustivoscom diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP ³ 5 cm.Foram encontradas 54 espécies, pertencentes a 47gêneros, distribuídos em 32 famílias botânicas,com índice de diversidade (H’ de 2,67 eequabilidade (J de 0,20. As famílias Meliaceae eFabaceae apresentaram maior riqueza em espécies.Calophyllum brasiliensis, Astronium graveolens,Scheffera morototoni, Xylopia aromatica eProtium widgrenii destacaram-se como as espéciesde maior valor de importância. Foram amostrados420 indivíduos. A presença de espécies do cerradosugere condição de ecótono e a dominância de umaespécie higrófila indica saturação hídrica em parteda área. A distribuição dos indivíduos em classesde tamanho revelou uma comunidade emregeneração com a maioria dos indivíduos com até15,0 cm de DAP e distribuídos entre 7 e 14,9 m,e com estoques de jovens tanto das espéciespioneiras como secundárias podendo garantir ofuturo da comunidade. Em termos sucessionais aárea estudada encontra-se em estádio de médiopara avançado.Knowledge of the composition andstructure of arboreal communities is paramount forconservation and restoration efforts. The mainobjectives of this study were to characterize thearboreal species floristic composition and describethe structure of the arboreal community of aremaining forest located at the municipality ofGuariba, State of São Paulo. Thirty plots of 10 x 10 mwere allocated. In each plot, diameter and heightwere measured for each individual tree withdiameter at breast height (dbh ³ 5 cm. Fifty-fourspecies were

  6. 滨海木麻黄林下3种乡土树种苗木的生长及其影响因素(摘要)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚宝琪; 刘强; 蔡梓; 王孝杉

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究海南3种乡土树种肖槿(Thespesia lampas)、海棠果(Calophyllum inophyllum)、莲叶桐(Hernandia sonora)在海岸木麻黄林下的生长状况及其环境因子的关系。[方法]定植肖槿、海棠果、莲叶桐植株的滨海沙土进行了添加木屑、蔗渣及空白对照处理,分析定植1年后3种乡土树种的生长状况。[结果]1年的生长期后,各树种生长指标表现为存活率肖槿〉莲叶桐〉海棠果、基径净增长量莲叶桐〉肖槿〉海棠果、株高净增长量肖槿〉海棠果〉莲叶桐。肖槿和海棠果存活率差异极显著,海棠果和莲叶桐的存活率差异也达到显著,而肖槿和莲叶桐的存活率差异不显著;肖槿、海棠果、莲叶桐株高1年净增长量均达到极显著差异,基径净增长量只有肖槿和海棠果的差异显著。②不同土壤处理下,添加木屑、蔗渣处理的肖槿、海棠果、莲叶桐存活率大于对照处理,且添加木屑与添加蔗渣的肖槿存活率与对照处理间的差异均达到显著水平,而添加木屑和蔗渣这2种处理间的差异不显著。③3种苗木生长指标与环境因子都有一定的相关性(|r|〉0.3),其中肖槿存活率与土壤pH值、土壤水分相关性较高,基径、株高与土壤pH值、土壤温度有一定的相关性;海棠果存活率与土壤pH值、土壤温度、光照强度相关性均较高,基径、株高都与土壤温度有一定的相关性;莲叶桐存活率与土壤盐度、土壤温度相关性均较高,基径、株高与都与土壤温度有一定的相关性。肖槿、海棠果、莲叶桐的基径与株高的相关性均较高(r〉0.5),且都达到显著水平。[结论]在木麻黄林下1年生长期内,肖槿苗木生长状况最好,是与木麻黄混交最有潜力的树种。

  7. Growth and Influencing Factors of Three Native Tree Species in Coastal Casuarina equisetifolia Plantation%滨海木麻黄林下3种乡土树种苗木的生长及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚宝琪; 刘强; 蔡梓; 王孝杉

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim was to study the growth and environment factors of three native tree species ( Thespesia lampas, Calophyllum inophyllum and Hernandia sonora) in Hainan in coastal Casuarina equisetifolia plantation. [ Method ] The coastal sandy soil was treated by adding wood chips, bagasse and the control without adding anything in the plant pits. The growth of three native tree species planted for one year was analyzed. [ Result ] ① One year later, the survival rate showed an order of T. lampas > H. sonora > C. inophyllum;the net increase of basal diameter showed an order of H. sonora > T. lampas > C. inophyllum;while the net increase of plant height showed an order of T. lampas > C.inophyllum > H. sonora. The difference of survival rate between T. lampas and C. inophyllum was extremely significant, the difference of survival rate between H. sonora and C. inophyllum was significant, but the survival rate between T. lampas and H. sonora showed no significant difference. The difference on net growth of plant height among T. lampas, C. inophyllum and H. sonora was extremely significant, and the different on the net growth of basal diameter between T. lampas and C. inophyllum was significant. ② Among different soil treatments,the survival rate of three native tree species in the treatment by adding wood chips, bagasse were higher than the treatment without adding anything, and the difference of survival rate of T. lampas between the treatment by adding wood chips, bagasse and the treatment without adding anything was extremely significant, but the treatment by adding wood chips and bagasse had not significant difference. ③ The growth of three native tree species showed some correlation with environment factors ( | r |>0.3). The survival rate of T. lampas showed higher correlation with soil pH value and soil moisture, and the basal diameter and height of T. lampas showed some correlation with soil pH value and soil temperature. The survival

  8. Riscos na qualidade sanitária da carne de jacaré da Amazônia Centra | Sanitary risk assessment for caiman meat quality in Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Sotero-Martins

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A determinação da qualidade sanitária da carne de jacaré é um dos principais problemas no estabelecimento da cadeia produtiva deste animal, pois não existem protocolos no Brasil para esse tipo de carne. O abate e processamento da carne foram realizados em sistema simplificado e artesanal em balsa flutuante, com sistema de tratamento de água por filtração e produtos químicos. Os animais foram capturados por anzol, arpão, cambão e laço. Foram capturados animais de vida silvestre na região da Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Piagaçu-Purus, na Amazônia Central, das espécies Melanosuchus niger e Caiman crocodilos, em três eventos de abate, com melhoria progressiva no protocolo de beneficiamento da carne. Foram feitas análises microbiológicas da carne, conforme descrito em normas e legislações brasileiras para a carne de pescado. Como resultados da pesquisa obtivemos melhorias na qualidade microbiológica da carne dos animais abatidos, conforme as medidas de vigilância sanitária que foram adotadas, passando de 57% de amostras aprovadas no 1º lote de abate para 76,5% no 2º lote e, no final, para 100% no 3º lote. Ocorreram diferenças significativas no comprometimento da qualidade sanitária da carne, com diminuição das reprovações das amostras. Os processos de captura dos animais, laço e cambão foram os que menos comprometeram a qualidade da carne, e animais com tamanho na faixa de 81 a 100 cm de CRC foram os que apresentaram menor risco de contaminação microbiológica. Podemos concluir que ações de vigilância sanitária como: higienização das mãos durante a manipulação da carne, melhorias na qualidade da água, abate de animais no tamanho mais adequado e captura por métodos menos invasivos contribuem para diminuição dos riscos potenciais de contaminação microbiológica da carne. =============================================== Determining caiman meat quality is a major problem when establishing the

  9. Ixodidas brasileiros e de alguns paizes limitrophes

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    Henrique de Beaurepaire Aragão

    1936-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the Ixodidae becomes every day, more and more important owing to the fact of the increasing number of diseases of man and animals they can transmit. In Brasil besides transmitting treponemosis, piroplasmosis and anaplasmosis to several domestic animals, the ticks are also responsible fo the transmission of the brazilian rocky mountain spotted fever (A. cajennense and Amblyomma striatum and they can also harbour the virus of the yellow fever and even to transmit it in laboratory experiments (A. cajennense, O. rostratus. The Brazilian fauna of ticks is a small one and has no more than 45 well-established species belonging to the genus Argas, Ornithodoros, Ixodes, Haemaphysalis, Rhipicephalus, Boophilus, Amblyomma and Spaelaeorhynchus. The genus Amblyomma is the best represented one, with 67% of all species of ticks known in Brazil. One of the most important species in the Amblyomma cajennense owing to its abundance and its wide parasitism in many vertebrates: reptiles, birds and mammals, incluing man, who is much attacked by the larva, the nymph and the adult of this species. The other ticks who attack the man are the Amblyomma brasiliense (the pecari tick, in the forests, and the Ornithodoros, especially the species. O. rostratus and brasiliensis. Other species can bite the man, but only occasionally, like Amblyomma fossum, striatum, oblongogutatum etc. Argas persicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Boophilus are very important species not only as parasites but specially because they transmit several diseases to animals. Some of the ticks of the brazilian wild animals are now also parasites of the domestic ones and vice-versa. Arga persicus var. dissimilis is very common among the poultry and transmits the Treponema anserinum (gallinarum. Boophilus microplus is very abundant on our domestic and wild ruminants (Bos, Cervus, Mazama etc. and can also ben found on horse, dogs, Felis onca, Felis concolor etc., and it transmits to cattle

  10. Boa leitura!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Enne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Prezado leitor,

    Neste número, a Ciberlegenda traz três artigos voltados para os campos do cinema e da imagem, abordados em múltiplos aspectos. Assim, abrem nossa edição de julho os textos de Alexandre Rocha da Silva e Vinícuis Pellenz, Gabriel Menotti e Cid Vasconcellos.
    O sempre instigante universo da cibercultura é o eixo que aproxima os trabalhos de Rodrigo Rodrigues e Aletéia Ferreira, ambos buscando pensar o lugar do individuo e das relações sociais em novos contextos.
    Por fim, fechando nossa edição, Danielle Brasiliense e Fernanda Lima Lopes oferecem importantes reflexões sobre o jornalismo, em sua relação com o senso comum e com o ethos profissional.
    Além de apresentarmos os títulos que publicaremos em nossa edição nº 18, aproveitamos este editorial para agradecer às inúmeras mensagens com elogios, críticas e apoio que recebemos desde o início de 2007, quando a nova Ciberlegenda foi colocada na rede. Todo esse feedback tem sido fundamental para a consolidação de nossa proposta.
    Sem dúvida, no entanto, nosso maior retorno tem se dado com a expressiva resposta às nossas chamadas para publicação. Temos recebido um significativo número de trabalhos, que, submetidos ao crivo cuidadoso de nossos pareceristas, são selecionados de acordo com a qualidade dos textos, a adequação das temáticas à proposta editorial da revista, a relevância, interesse e seriedade dos assuntos abordados. Assim, nossas edições finais têm sido o resultado de um criterioso processo.
    Visando, no entanto, à circularidade do conhecimento, o que, para nós, está ligado diretamente à proposta de publicarmos textos de qualidade com resultados de pesquisas e estudos, fazendo com que os mesmos cheguem a um público diversificado e ampliado, temos tido o cuidado de enviar, para os autores cujos textos recebem pareceres negativos, uma síntese dos problemas detectados, de forma a incentivar

  11. Cura espontânea da leishmaniose causada por Leishmania Viannia Braziliensis em lesões cutâneas

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    Jackson Maurício Lopes Costa

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam que durante 14 anos de trabalho clínico em campo, realizado nas comunidades de Três Braços e Corte de Pedra, Bahia, acompanharam 1.416 pacientes portadores de Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana, cuja espécie envolvida na transmissão, é predominantemente a Leishmania Viannia brasilienses. A terapêutica utilizada rotineiramente nos casos é o antimoniato-N-metilglucamina (Glucantime. Contudo, 16 pacientes do sexo masculino recusaram-se a utilizar a medicação e 6 do sexo feminino encontravam-se em período gestacional, portanto não utilizaram o medicamento. Estes pacientes foram acompanhados por um período entre 4 a 12 anos, a partir do diagnóstico. Observou-se que em 9 pacientes (40,9% desta casuística, o tempo de cicatrizaçâo após o aparecimento da lesão, pode ser calculado em 6 meses de evolução. Quando se eleva a observação para 12 meses, temos que 19 pacientes (86,3% cicatrizaram suas lesões neste período. Em 3 casos (13,6% as lesões permaneceram ativas por mais de 12 meses. Conclui-se que os determinantes da cicatrizaçâo natural das lesões produzidas por Leishmania Viannia Braziliensis permanecem desconhecidos, dificultando para nós entendermos e compararmos aos efeitos das drogas utilizadas no tratamento da leishmaniose tegumentar.In field clinics in the comunities of Três Braços and Corte de Pedra, Bahia, we have attended 1.416 patients with tegumentary leishmaniasis in fourteen years, the predomi nant species in transmission is Leishmania Viannia brasiliensis (LVB. Because of the danger of metastasis with this infection treatment was routinely recomended with Glucantime. However sixteen patients refused injection therapy and six women were pregnant when seen and not treated. All patients were followed up in our clinic. All these patients closed their skin ulcers although one subsequently relapsed. Patients were followed up for variable periods (four to twelve years, after the diagnosis. In

  12. Análise comparativa de fragmentos identificáveis de forrageiras, pela técnica micro-histológica Comparative analysis of identifiable fragments of forages, by the microhistological technique

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    Maristela de Oliveira Bauer

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, verificar, pela técnica micro-histológica, diferenças entre espécies forrageiras quanto ao percentual de fragmentos identificáveis, em função do processo digestivo e da época do ano. Lâminas foliares frescas recém-expandidas, correspondentes à última e à penúltima posição no perfilho, das espécies Melinis minutiflora Pal. de Beauv (capim-gordura, Hyparrhenia rufa (Nees Stapf. (capim-jaraguá, Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. (capim-braquiária, Imperata brasiliensis Trin. (capim-sapé, de Medicago sativa L. (alfafa e de Schinus terebenthifolius Raddi (aroeira, amostradas nos períodos chuvoso e seco, foram digeridas in vitro e preparadas de acordo com a técnica micro-histológica. Observou-se que as espécies apresentaram diferenças marcantes na porcentagem de fragmentos identificáveis e que a digestão alterou estas porcentagens em torno de 10 %; que o período de amos­tragem não influenciou a porcentagem de fragmentos identificáveis para a maioria das espécies; que a presença de pigmentos e a adesão da epiderme às células dos tecidos internos da folha prejudicaram a identificação dos fragmentos; e que a digestão melhorou a visualização dos fragmentos dos capins sapé e jaraguá e da aroeira, mas prejudicou a do capim-braquiária e, principalmente, a da alfafa.The objetive of this study was to verify differences among forages species in relation to the percentage of identifiable fragment as affected by the digestion process and season. Fresh last expanded leaf lamina samples of the species Melinis minutiflora Pal. de Beauv (Molassesgrass, Hyparrhenia rufa (Nees Stapf. (Jaraguagrass, Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. (Signalgrass, Imperata brasilienses Trin. (Sapegrass, and foliar laminas of Medicago sativa L. (Alfalfa and Schinus terebenthifolius Raddi (Aroeira, sampled in the rainy and dry seasons, were digested in vitro and prepared according to the microhistological technique. The

  13. Lesões sequelares na laringe em pacientes com paracoccidiodomicose Sequelae lesions in the larynxes of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis

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    Jose Mauricio Lopes Neto

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A Paracoccidioidomicose (PCM é uma doença sistêmica que em sua forma sequelar se caracteriza por manifestações clínicas relacionadas às alterações anatômicas ou funcionais de órgãos e sistemas comprometidos no período de estado. OBJETIVO: Descrever as alterações anatômicas e funcionais laríngeas sequelares em pacientes com paracoccidioidomicose. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, sendo avaliados 49 pacientes do sexo masculino, na faixa etária de 30 a 60 anos, entre 1999 a 2004, com diagnóstico de PCM em acompanhamento pela disciplina de Moléstias Infecciosas e Parasitárias, confirmado pela demonstração do fungo em escarro, exame citológico ou histopatológico. RESULTADOS: As pregas vocais foram a estrutura laríngea mais afetada, em 67% dos pacientes verificaram-se alterações. A epiglote estava acometida em 55% dos casos. As pregas ariepiglóticas tinham modificações em 53% dos pacientes. As pregas vestibulares estavam alteradas em 46% dos casos. Em 40% dos casos verificaram-se alterações em aritenoides. Na fonação, 28% tinham limitação ao movimento das cordas vocais, paresia unilateral ocorreu em 4% casos. Em 24% havia restrição da luz supraglótica e 4% tinham estenose glótica, sendo que 2% precisaram de traqueotomia. CONCLUSÃO: As lesões sequelares na laringe devido à infecção pelo P. brasilienses são extensas e causam restrições funcionais na maioria dos casos.Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a systemic disease that in its aftermath form is characterized by clinical manifestations related to anatomic or functional sequelae of organs and systems affected during the period of state. AIM: To describe the anatomical and functional sequelae in patients with treated laryngeal PCM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study. We reviewed the charts from of 49 male patients, aged between 30 to 60 years, diagnosed with laryngeal PCM during the period of 1999 to 2004. In all patients the diagnosis of

  14. 半菁染料作为染料敏化太阳能电池吸光材料的理论研究%Theoretical Study of Hemicyanine Dye as a Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Light-Absorbing Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李会学; 左国防; 李志锋; 王晓峰; 郑仁慧

    2015-01-01

    We used first-principles calculations to investigate the photo-induced electron transfer (PIET) process of the hemicyanine-(TiO2)n complex ((TiO2)n-dye) for n=5, 9, 15. The geometries of the (TiO2)n-dye in the ground state were optimized using density functional theory (DFT) and their excited states were investigated using the time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) method. The excited energies, which were calculated using the long-range-corrected functionals, CAM-B3LYP andωB97X-D, were in good agreement with the experimentally observed values. The wave functions based on DFT were used to calculate the charge transfer integrals by the generalized Mul iken-Hush (GMH) approach. In addition, the photo-induced charge separation rate constant (kCS) and charge recombination rate constant (kCR) were calculated using Marcus theory. The calculated results showed that there were a cascade of electron transfer channels from the dye into the (TiO2)n cluster, which increases the kCS value. In contrast, the single channel of charge recombination decreases the kCR value, which is negligible compared with kCS, indicating that electron recombination is not favored.%采用第一性原理研究了半菁-二氧化钛团簇形成的配合物(hemicyanine-(TiO2)n)的光电子转移过程,这里n分别取5,9,15.配合物基态构型采用密度泛函理论方法进行优化,而激发态采用含时密度泛函理论进行计算.采用长程相关校正的密度泛函CAM-B3LYP和ωB97X-D计算的激发能与实验值吻合得很好.依据广义Mul iken-Hush (GMH)公式,基于密度泛函理论得到的波函数被用来计算电荷转移积分,进而可根据Marcus理论计算出电荷分离速率常数(kCS)和电荷回传速率常数(kCR).计算结果表明电子从染料到(TiO2)n团簇的传递有多条通道,这使得kCS具有更大值,相反,只具有单通道的电荷回传降低了kCR值,与kCS相比甚至可以忽略,这表明在所研究的体系中电荷回传是不利的.

  15. 用GGA密度泛函及其长程、色散校正方法计算各类氢键的结合能%Calculation of the Binding Energies of Different Types of Hydrogen Bonds Using GGA Density Functional and Its Long-Range, Empirical Dispersion Correction Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙涛; 王一波

    2011-01-01

    We investigated eleven exchange-correlation energy density functionals including generalized gradient approximation (GGA) (PBE, PW91), meta-GGA (M06-L), hyper-GGA (M06-2X, B3LYP, X3LYP), LC-DFT methods (CAM-B3LYP, LC-wPBE, ioB97X), and density functional theory with dispersion corrections (DFT-D) methods (u)B97X-D, B97-D) for their performance in describing systems with conventional and non-conventional hydrogen bonds. After comparing the results using the benchmark CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVQZ approach we found that the M06-2X and ca)B97X-D functionals provided the most accurate and reliable results for the fifteen systems studied in this work with strong, moderate, and weak hydrogen bonds. It is important to employ an appropriate basis set to predict the binding energy of hydrogen bonds for all DFT methods and we found that the basis set of 6-311++G(2of, 2p) or aug-cc-pVDZ is adequate. The effect of the basis set superposition error (BSSE) is relatively small for the DFT methods tested. All the methods except for coB97X and WB97X-D were found to produce equally accurate or even more accurate results without BSSE correction.%应用广义梯度近似(GGA) (PW91和PBE)、含动能密度的广义梯度近似(meta-GGA) (M06-L)、杂化泛函(hyper-GGA)(M06-2X、X3LYP和B3LYP)及其长程校正泛函LC-DFT(CAM-B3LYP、LC-ωPBE和ωB97X)和色散校正密度泛函(DFT-D)(ωB97X-D和B97-D),用多种基函数对15种不同强度的传统氢键和非传统氢键体系的结合能进行了系统的计算与分析.并与高精度的CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVQZ结果比较发现:在上述各类泛函中,对于氢键结合能的计算M06-2X和ωB97X-D泛函较为精确与可靠,且没有必要使用过大的基函数,6-311++G(2d,2p)或aug-cc-pVDZ水平的基组就已足够,各类泛函所计算结合能的基组重叠误差(BSSE)均较小,除ωB97X和ωB97X-D外,其它9种泛函不经BSSE校正也能得到同样甚至更准确的结果.

  16. Locally primitive Cayley graphs of finite simple groups

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    FANG; Xingui

    2001-01-01

    . et al., Composition factors from the group ring and Artin's theorem on orders of simple groups, Proc. London Math. Soc. (3), 990, 60(): 89.[17]Kleidman, P. B., The maximal subgroups of the finite 8-dimensional orthogonal groups PΩ+8(q) and of their automorphism groups, J. Algebra, 987, 0(): 73.[18]Hall, M. Jr., The Theory of Groups, New York: MacMillan, 959.[19]Wielandt, H., Finite Permutation Groups, New York: Academic Press, 964.[20]. Weiss, R., An application of p-factorization methods to symmetric graphs, Math. Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc., 979, 85() :43.

  17. 海南滨海木麻黄林下三种乡土树种的光合特性%Photosynthetic characteristics of three native tree species in coastal Casuarina equisetifolia plantation in Hainan

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    姚宝琪; 刘强; 蔡梓; 王孝杉

    2011-01-01

    maximum value(9.96, 12.43 and 19.56 mmol-mol"') in February. The study shows that they were suitable to grow in the coastal sand in C. Equisetifolia forest, and they could be planted as mixed forest species with C. Equisetifolia.%主要研究了海南3种乡土树种肖槿Thespesia lampas、海棠果Calophyllum inophyllum、莲叶桐Hernandia sonora在海岸木麻黄林下生长的光合作用特征.定植植株的滨海沙土进行了添加木屑、蔗渣、及空白对照处理.用Li-6400便携式光合仪测定净光合速率(Pn)、气孔导度(Ccond)、胞间CO2浓度(Ci)和蒸腾速率(Tr).结果表明:1)3种乡土树种一年中的Pn、Ccond、Tr日平均最大值均表现为肖槿>莲叶桐>海棠果.2)不同土壤处理下,肖槿、海棠果、莲叶桐Pn、Ccond、Ci、Tr日变化基本相似,只有添加蔗渣处理的肖槿、莲叶桐叶片在2009年11月Ccond、Tr明显大于对照处理,添加木屑处理的海棠果叶片在2009年8月Ccond、Tr明显大于对照处理;3)4个光合参数在一年的四次测定中,肖槿、莲叶桐的日变化曲线主要为单峰型,仅在2月份Pn、Ci日变化出现双峰;海棠果的日变化曲线也主要为单峰型,仅在5月份Pn、Tr日变化以及2月份Ci日变化出现双峰;且肖槿只有Ci在5月份达到一年中最大值,Pn、Ccond、Tr均在8月份达到一年中最大值;而海棠果和莲叶桐的Pn、Ccond、Ci、Tr均在5月份达到一年中最大值.4)这3种乡土树种均具有较好的光合能力和水分利用率,肖槿Pn在8月份达到一年中最大值7.68 μmol·m-2s-1,而海棠果和莲叶桐的Pn均在5月份达到一年中最大值,分别为3.82和4.13 μmol·m-2s-l;3种植物的水分利用率均在2月份达到一年中最大值,分别为9.96、12.43和19.56 mmol·mol-1.研究发现它们能在木麻黄林下的滨海沙地上良好地生长,可以作为与木麻黄林混交的树种.

  18. 九种滇产药用植物体外抗菌作用及其活性部位的初步研究%in vitro Antimicrobial Activities of Extracts from Nine Medicinal Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林青雯; 左国营; 王根春

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of extracts from 9 medici-nal plants growing in Yunnan. Methods Plant materials were extracted with 80% EtOH. After the solvent was evaporat-ed,the resultant extracts were then extracted with petroleum ether,ethyl acetate,n-BuOH and water successively. All the extracts were subjected to screen of the antibacterial and antifungal activity by the agar hole diffusion test. The mini-mum inhibitory concentration( MIC)and minimum bactericidal concentration( MBC)were determined by serial dilution with a standard broth microdilution method. Results Among the 9 plant extracts,the ethyl acetate extracts of Garcinia xanthochymus Hook. f. ex T. Anders. and Calophyllum polyanthum Wall. ex Choisy,the ethanol and ethyl acetate ex-tracts of Mallotus philippensis(Lam. )Muell. Arg. exhibited higher inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus. Their in-hibition zone diameters(IZD)were 19 mm,and MICs were 128,1024,1024,256μg·ml-1,respectively. The ethyl ace-tate extract of Garcinia cowa showed strong activity against Pseudomonas aeruginos with IZD and MIC at 20 mm and 2048μg·ml-1,respectively. The ethyl acetate extract of Mallotus philippensis(Lam. )Muell. Arg. had higher activity against Extended-spectrumβ-lactamases(ESBLs)producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ,with the IZD and MIC at 17 mm and﹥2048μg·ml-1 ,respectively. The activities of the n-BuOH extract from Marsdenia tinctoria R. Br. against Esche-richia coli,ESBLs producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa ,Candida albicans,C. glabrata,C. tropicalis,Aspergillus Fumigatus were the highest with the IZD at 26,28,34,15and 38 mm,and MICs at 1024,256,512,1024,1024 and 128μg·ml-1 ,respectively. Conclusion The n-BuOH extract of Marsdenia tinctoria R. Br. shows promising broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity,especially to Aspergillus Fumigatus .%目的:测定9种滇产药用植物的80%乙醇提取物及石油醚、乙酸乙酯、正丁醇萃取部分体

  19. Fire effects on a Spartina densiflora salt marsh in the floodplain of the Paraná River, Argentina Efectos del fuego en una marisma de Spartina densiflora en la planicie de inundación del río Paraná, Argentina

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    NORA MADANES

    2007-06-01

    , which in turn differed from that observed in pre-fire plots in N95SEn este trabajo estudiamos el efecto del fuego sobre atributos estructurales de una marisma de Spartina densiflora. El estudio se realizó desde noviembre de 1995, primavera (N95P hasta diciembre de 1996, primavera tardía (D96PT. En noviembre se instalaron 37 parcelas permanentes, en enero de 1996, 32 (Q se quemaron accidentalmente mientras que cinco no (NQ. La vegetación de cada parcela fue muestreada estacionalmente. Las especies fueron identificadas y su cobertura-abundancia estimada. Analizamos y comparamos las variaciones estacionales en la riqueza específica, diversidad, composición y cobertura-abundancia en parcelas Q y NQ. Los tipos biológicos (latifoliadas y graminiformes y de ciclos de vida (anuales y perennes fueron comparados antes (N95P y después del fuego (D96PT en las parcelas Q y NQ. El análisis de componentes principales (PCA se realizó en base a la cobertura-abundancia de las especies por parcela para cada fecha y tratamiento. La especie dominante fue S. densiflora. Las acompañantes Limonium brasiliense y Dipsacum fullanum estuvieron presentes en todas las fechas de muestreo y tratamientos. En total se identificaron 47 especies, 30 de las cuales estuvieron presentes antes del fuego. Todas las especies presentes en las parcelas NQ lo estuvieron en las Q en las cuales 15 especies fueron exclusivas de este tratamiento. Los incrementos en riqueza de especies y diversidad fueron mayores en las parcelas Q que en las NQ para las mismas fechas. Cuando las perennes se compararon en las parcelas Q antes y después del fuego, se encontró que disminuyeron en cobertura-abundancia e incrementaron su riqueza; mientras que ambos valores s incrementaron en las anuales, el mismo patrón siguieron las latifoliadas mientras que las graminiformes disminuyeron sus valores de cobertura-abundancia pero la riqueza permaneció similar. Los resultados del PC A mostraron que las parcelas NQ estuvieron

  20. Intoxicação experimental aguda por Senecio brasiliensis em ovinos e indução de resistência à intoxicação

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    Fabiane B. Grecco

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ovinos são mais resistentes à intoxicação por Senecio spp. que bovinos e equinos. Para determinar se essa resistência é induzida pela ingestão de pequenas e repetidas doses da planta e se essa resistência é duradoura, foram realizados três experimentos com folhas e talos verdes de Senecio brasilienses. Para determinar a dose mínima que causa intoxicação aguda (experimento 1, foram administradas doses únicas de 60, 80, 90, 100 e 100g/kg de peso corporal (pc a cinco ovinos, respectivamente. Os animais que receberam 60 e 80 g/kg de pc de S. brasiliensis não adoeceram, porém o ovino que recebeu 80g/kg de pc apresentava fibrose e megalocitose discretas nas biópsias realizadas aos 90, 120 e 150 dias do término da administração da planta. Os ovinos que receberam 90 e 100g/kg de pc apresentaram anorexia, prostração, movimentos de pedalagem, dor abdominal e morte 12-48 horas após o aparecimento dos sinais clínicos. Na necropsia havia ascite, petéquias disseminadas e acentuação do padrão lobular hepático. Histologicamente havia necrose hemorrágica centro-lobular. No Experimento 2 a dose capaz de causar a intoxicação aguda foi fracionada e administrada em duas, cinco e 10 doses diárias para 3 ovinos, respectivamente. A dose tóxica fracionada não provocou sinais clínicos de intoxicação em nenhum dos ovinos, porém havia fibrose periportal e megalocitose moderadas nas biopsias realizadas aos 60 dias do término da administração da planta, as quais não evoluíram. O ovino que recebeu a dose fracionada em 10 administrações não apresentou lesões histológicas nas biópsias. Para determinar se os ovinos tornam-se resistentes à forma aguda da intoxicação (experimento 3, foram administradas doses diárias de 15g/kg de pc por 30 dias e 30g/kg de pc por 10 dias a quatro ovinos. No dia seguinte à última administração dois ovinos receberam a dose única de 100g/kg de pc de S. brasiliensis, mas não adoeceram nem

  1. Petrographical and geochemical signatures of the Granja paragneisses (Médio Coreaú Domain, NW Ceará, Brasil

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    Silva, A. J.F.

    2014-12-01

    . Geochemical data also suggest that the precursor sediments of the Granja paragneisses derived from source areas of felsic to intermediate composition and were deposited in a tectonically active continental margin / continental island arc setting.El Complejo Granulítico de Granja (GGC, expuesto en el Dominio Medio Coreaú (NW del Estado de Ceará, Brasil, está constituido predominantemente por paragneises granatíferos con silimanita en cuyo seno se intercalan cuerpos lenticulares, discontinuos, de granulitas máficas y enderbitas. De acuerdo con los datos geocronológicos publicados, este terreno metamórfico de alto grado representa un segmento de un basamento Paleoproterozoico que fue intensamente retrabajado en el Neoproterozoico, durante la Orogénesis Brasiliense / Panafricana (600 Ma. Los paragneises de Granja son rocas con una fuerte foliación, caracterizadas por la alternancia de niveles oscuros, ricos en granate-biotita-silimanita, y bandas milimétricas leucocráticas cuarzo-feldespáticas interpretadas como resultado de fusión incipiente. Con el incremento del componente fundido, aumenta el espesor de los leucosomas concordantes y las rocas adquieren un aspecto estromático. A estas estructuras se superpone una foliación milonítica asociada a la última reactivación de la Zona de Cizalla de Granja, un accidente con dirección NE-SW y movimiento dextral que atraviesa la zona estudiada. Las asociaciones minerales y las texturas de reacción indican que después de alcanzar las condiciones de fusión parcial en la facies granulítica, las rocas sufrieron descompresión y enfriamiento. Con el fin de caracterizar la composición de los protolitos de los paragneises de Granja, se analizaron los elementos mayores y tierras raras de doce muestras de aquellas partes de los paragneises migmatíticos en los que la extracción de fundido parece haber sido nula o muy limitada. En el diagrama de clasificación de Herron (1988, las muestras se sitúan en la transici

  2. Estudos sôbre os órgãos odoríferos de alguns Hesperidae Brasileiros

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    Rudolf Barth

    1952-03-01

    Full Text Available 1. São descritas áreas de escamas nas asas do macho e da fêmea de várias espécies de Hesperidae brasilienses. 2. É considerada a corelação destas áreas as articulações entre as asas anteriores e posteriores. 3. Verificou-se que as áreas das escamas odoríferas da asa posterior têm origem nas áreas das escamas de ligação. Esta mudança de função é demonstrada pela forma das escamas em comparação com escamas de ligação em função. 4. É apresentada uma descrição detalhada da estrutura mais fina das escamas de ligação e das escamas odoríferas. 5. As borboletas de sexo masculino das espécies examinadas podem ser divididas de acôrdo com a ausência ou presença de órgãos odoríferos diferentes (v. tabela 1: 1. grupo: borboletas sem glândulas odoríferas especiais (tipo de Vehilius. 2. grupo: borboletas com sulco odorífero na asa anterior (tipo de Augiades 3. grupo: borboletas com dobra costal da asa anterior (tipo de Thanaos. 4. grupo: borboletas com órgão odorífero no metatórax (tipo de Achlyodes. 6. A fêmea de H 31 possui na memebrana intersegmental VII./VIII. escamas odoríferas de uma notável estrutura mais fina. 7. As escamas odoríferas são estudadas com respeito à sua estrutura fina e dada uma possível derivação da cerda da escama. 8. O estudo dos órgãos odoríferos é feito com respeito ao aumento da superfície destinada á evaporação pelas escamas e ainda á função protetora das escamas de cobertura e dobras cuticulares. 9. A evolução de órgãos odoríferos diferentes em diferentes partes do corpo indica uma evolução polifilética dos órgãos, o que tem valor sistemático na família bem limitada das Hesperidae. 10. Os machos de h 16 e H 130 possuem dois tipos de órgãos odoríferos especiais, a dobra costal e o órgão odorífero do metatórax com pincel-distribuidor na tíbia posterior. Nas espécies citadas e que têm parentesco, toma lugar uma evolução polifilética de

  3. Interaction of host-guest complexes of cucurbit[n]urils with double probe guests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; Peihua; DONG; Jun; XIANG; Shuangchun; XUE; Saifeng; ZH

    2004-01-01

    -cucurbituril: cis-SnCl4(OH2)2 @cucurbit[7]uril, Cryst. Eng.Comm., 2001, 49: 1-7.[13]Krasia, T. C., Steinke, J. H. G., Formation of oligotriazoles catalysed by cucurbituril, Chem. Commun. (Camb.), 2002, 1: 22-23.[14]Kim, H. J., Heo, J., Jeon, W. S. et al., Selective inclusion of a hetero-guest pair in a molecular host: formation of stable charge-transfer complexes in cucurbit[8]uril, Angew. Chem. Int.Ed., 2001, 40(8): 1526-1529.[15]Burnett, C. A., Witt, D., Fettinger, J. C. et al., A cyclic congener of cucurbituril: synthesis and recognition properties, J. Org.Chem., 2003, 68(16): 6184-6191.[16]Samsonenko, D. G., Virovets, A. V., Lipkowski, J. et al., Distortion of the cucurbituril molecule by an included 4-methylpyridinum cation, J. Struc. Chem. (Translation of Zhurnal Strukturnoi Khimii), 2002, 43(4): 664-668.[17]Lim, Y. b., Kim, T., Lee, J. W. et al., Self-assembled ternary complex of cationic dendrimer, cucurbituril, and DNA: noncovalent strategy in developing a gene delivery carrier, Bioconjugate Chem., 2002, 13(6): 1181-1185.[18]Miyahara, Y., Abe, K., Inazu, T., "Molecular" molecular sieves:lid-free decamethylcucurbit[5]uril absorbs and desorbs gases selectively, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2002, 41 (16): 3020-3023.[19]Tan, Y., Choi, S. W., Lee, J. W. et al., Synthesis and characterization of novel side-chain pseudopol- yrotaxanes containing cucurbituril, Macromolecules, 2002, 35(18): 7161-7165.[20]Ong, W., Gomez, K. M., Kaifer, A. E., Cucurbit[7]uril: a very effective host for viologens and their cation radicals, Org. Lett.,2002, 4(10): 1791-1794.[21]Shen, Y. Q., Xue, S. F., Zhao, Y. J. et al., NMR study on self-assembled cage complex of hexamethylenetetramine and cucurbit[n]urils, Chinese Science Bulletin, 2004, 48(1): 2694-2697.[22]Luo, X. Q., Xue, S. F., Zhu, Q. J., A new method for synthesis and separation of a new family cage compounds-cucurbit[n = 5-8]urils, J. Guizhou Univ. (Nat. Sci.), 2003, 20(1): 184-187.

  4. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Machado

    2008-11-01

    ção Regina nos conta na seção de Galáxia. Na seção de resenhas, este número traz ainda análise de obras imprescindí­veis: Da Imperfeição, de J. Greimas, por Lúcia Teixeira; O instinto da linguagem, de Steve Pinker, por Mirna Feitoza; Interlab. Labirintos do pensamento contemporâneo, organizado por Lucia Leão, por Geane Alzamora; Transformação e Realidade: mundos convergentes e divergentes, organizado por Dulcimira Capisani, por Eluí­za Ghizzi; Tekstura: Russian essays on visual culture, organizado por Alla Efimova e Lev Manovich, por Jeová Rocha; Sinestesia, arte e tecnologia: fundamentos da cromossonia, de Sérgio Roclaw Basbaum, por Eufrásio Prates; Ática, Cidadania e Imprensa, organizado por Raquel Paiva, por Djalma Benette. Duas notí­cias: uma sobre a reunião da COMPÔS, Associação dos Programas de Pós-Graduação em Comunicação, e outra sobre a I Conferência de Semiótica, promovido pela Associação Brasiliense de Comunicação e Semiótica de Brasí­lia. Com essa gama de temas e problemas; teorias e abordagens, Galáxia preserva a seu leitor o direito de avaliar a performance por meio da qual tem enfrentado os debates de temas de sua área de competência e dentro de sua proposta editorial. Irene Machado Editora Cientí­fica

  5. PERSPECTIVE: Waorani at the head of the table: towards inclusive conservation in Yasuní

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Kendra; Pearson, Zoe

    2009-09-01

    /2007 Oil development, indigenous organizations, and the politics of egalitarianism Camb. Anthropol. 26 34-6 Holt F L 2005 The catch-22 of conservation: indigenous peoples, biologists, and cultural change Hum. Ecol. 33 199-215 Kane J 1995 Savages (New York: Alfred A Knopf) Ma'anit A 2008 Costing the earth New Internationalist (413) 17-19 Martínez M O, Napolitano D A, MacLennan G J, O'Callaghan C, Ciborowski S and Fabregas X 2007 Impacts of petroleum activities for the Achuar people of the Peruvian Amazon: summary of existing evidence and research gaps Environ. Res. Lett. 2 045006 Napolitano D A and Ryan A S S 2007 The dilemma of contact: voluntary isolation and the impacts of gas exploitation on health and rights in the Kugapakori Nahua Reserve, Peruvian Amazon Environ. Res. Lett. 2 045005 Nygren A 2004 Contested lands and incompatible images: the political ecology of struggles over resources in Nicaragua's Indio-Maíz Reserve Soc. Nat. Resources 17 189-205 Peluso N and Watts D 2001 Violent environments Violent Environments ed N Peluso and D Watts (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press) pp 3-38 Rival L 2000 Marginality with a difference, or how the Huaorani preserve their sharing relations and naturalize outside powers Hunters and Gatherers in the Modern World: Conflict, Resistance, and Self-Determination ed P P Schweitzer, M Biesele and R K Hitchcock (New York: Berghahn) pp 244-63 Sawyer S 2003 Subterranean techniques: corporate environmentalism, oil operations, and social injustice in the Ecuadorian rain forest In Search of the Rainforest ed C Slater (Durham, NC: Duke University Press) pp 69-100 United Nations 2007 United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples Report of the Human Rights Council A/61/L.67 (New York: United Nations General Assembly)