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  1. Pointed wings, low wingloading and calm air reduce migratory flight costs in songbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S Bowlin

    Full Text Available Migratory bird, bat and insect species tend to have more pointed wings than non-migrants. Pointed wings and low wingloading, or body mass divided by wing area, are thought to reduce energy consumption during long-distance flight, but these hypotheses have never been directly tested. Furthermore, it is not clear how the atmospheric conditions migrants encounter while aloft affect their energy use; without such information, we cannot accurately predict migratory species' response(s to climate change. Here, we measured the heart rates of 15 free-flying Swainson's Thrushes (Catharus ustulatus during migratory flight. Heart rate, and therefore rate of energy expenditure, was positively associated with individual variation in wingtip roundedness and wingloading throughout the flights. During the cruise phase of the flights, heart rate was also positively associated with wind speed but not wind direction, and negatively but not significantly associated with large-scale atmospheric stability. High winds and low atmospheric stability are both indicative of the presence of turbulent eddies, suggesting that birds may be using more energy when atmospheric turbulence is high. We therefore suggest that pointed wingtips, low wingloading and avoidance of high winds and turbulence reduce flight costs for small birds during migration, and that climate change may have the strongest effects on migrants' in-flight energy use if it affects the frequency and/or severity of high winds and atmospheric instability.

  2. Efficiency of dust sampling inlets in calm air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, J A; Stein, R L

    1975-08-01

    Measurement of airborne dust concentrations usually involves drawing a sample of the dust-laden air into the measuring instrument through an inlet. Even if the surrounding air is calm, theoretical calculations predict that large particles may not be sampled accurately due to the combined effects of gravity and inertia on the particles near the sampling inlet. Tests were conducted to determine the conditions of particle size, inlet radius, and flow rare necessary for accurate dust sampling. A coal-dust aerosol was sampled simultaneously through inlets of different diameters at the same volume flow-rate and collected on filters. The dust was removed from the filters and the particles were counted and sized with a Coulter counter. Results showed that published criteria for inlet conditions for correct sampling are overly restrictive and that respirable-size particles are sampled correctly in the normal range or operation of most dust sampling instruments. PMID:1227283

  3. Traffic calming policy can reduce inequalities in child pedestrian injuries: database study

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, S; Lyons, R.; John, A.; Palmer, S.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether area wide traffic calming distribution reflects known inequalities in child pedestrian injury rates. To determine whether traffic calming is associated with changes in childhood pedestrian injury rates.

  4. TriCalm® hydrogel is significantly superior to 2% diphenhydramine and 1% hydrocortisone in reducing the peak intensity, duration, and overall magnitude of cowhage-induced itch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papoiu ADP

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alexandru DP Papoiu,1 Hunza Chaudhry,2 Erin C Hayes,2 Yiong-Huak Chan,3 Kenneth D Herbst4 1Independent contractor, San Diego, CA, USA: 2Cosmederm Bioscience, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA; 3Biostatistics Unit, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore; 4Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA Background: Itch is one of the most frequent skin complaints and its treatment is challenging. From a neurophysiological perspective, two distinct peripheral and spinothalamic pathways have been described for itch transmission: a histaminergic pathway and a nonhistaminergic pathway mediated by protease-activated receptors (PAR2 and 4. The nonhistaminergic itch pathway can be activated exogenously by spicules of cowhage, a tropical plant that releases a cysteine protease named mucunain that binds to and activates PAR2 and PAR4. Purpose: This study was conducted to assess the antipruritic effect of a novel over-the-counter (OTC steroid-free topical hydrogel formulation, TriCalm®, in reducing itch intensity and duration, when itch was induced with cowhage, and compared it with two other commonly used OTC anti-itch drugs. Study participants and methods: This double-blinded, vehicle-controlled, randomized, crossover study recorded itch intensity and duration in 48 healthy subjects before and after skin treatment with TriCalm hydrogel, 2% diphenhydramine, 1% hydrocortisone, and hydrogel vehicle, used as a vehicle control. Results: TriCalm hydrogel significantly reduced the peak intensity and duration of cowhage-induced itch when compared to the control itch curve, and was significantly superior to the two other OTC antipruritic agents and its own vehicle in antipruritic effect. TriCalm hydrogel was eight times more effective than 1% hydrocortisone and almost six times more effective than 2% diphenhydramine in antipruritic action, as evaluated by the reduction of area under the curve

  5. Spatial variability of the active layer thickness at the Limnopolar Lake CALM-S site (Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, Antarctica) and the role of snow cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pablo, Miguel A.; Molina, Antonio; Ramos, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Since its establishment in early 2009, thaw depth has been measured in late January - early February at the Limnopolar Lake CALM-S site (A25) in Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, Antarctica (62°38'59.1''S, 61°06'16.9''W). Ground, surface, and air temperatures have been also measured, as well as snow cover deep, derived from an array of miniature temperature loggers mounted into a wood mast (iButton from Maxim) (Lewcovicz, 2008). Thermal characterization of the active layer has been already done based on this data (de Pablo et al., 2013), as well as the interannual variability (de Pablo et al., 2014) and the snow cover evolution analyses (de Pablo et al., submitted). The results show that permafrost could exist at 120 cm depth, although the active layer is reducing, probably caused by the elongation on the snow cover duration. While the snow cover thickness remains approximately similar each winter, the snow offset delays, reducing the period in which solar radiation could heat the ground. In fact, during the last years, thaw depth was not able to be measured (in spite we visited the area in the approximately the same dates) due to thick snow layer remained covering the CALM-S site. However, we have not yet developed an analysis of the spatial variability of the thaw depth we measured each year, and how it could be conditioned by the ground properties (as slope or grain-size) or external factors, such as snow cover. In order to confirm the effect of the snow cover in the evolution of the active layer thickness, here we analyze the spatial variability of the thaw depth for the entire CALM-S site, and try to correlate it respect to the ground surface characteristics (grain-size, ground patterns, among others), the ground surface temperature and the snow cover thickness. Some of those data were acquired while the surface was visible during Antarctic field trips few years ago, and others (snow cover thickness) was measured by mechanical probing in each node. This

  6. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  7. Developing Personal Learning Environments Based on Calm Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaidhi, Jinan

    Educational technology is constantly evolving and growing, and it is inevitable that this progression will continually offer new and interesting advances in our world. The instigation of calm technologies for the delivery of education is another new approach now emerging. Calm technology aims to reduce the "excitement" of information overload by letting the learner select what information is at the center of their attention and what information need to be at the peripheral. In this paper we report on the adaptation of calm technologies in an educational setting with emphasis on the needs to cater the preferences of the individual learner to respond to the challenge of providing truly learner-centered, accessible, personalized and flexible learning. Central to calm computing vision is the notion of representing learning objects as widgets, harvesting widgets from the periphery based on semantic wikis as well as widgets garbage collection from the virtual/central learning memory.

  8. Reduced bleed air extraction for DC-10 cabin air conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, W. H.; Viele, M. R.; Hrach, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    It is noted that a significant fuel savings can be achieved by reducing bleed air used for cabin air conditioning. Air in the cabin can be recirculated to maintain comfortable ventilation rates but the quality of the air tends to decrease due to entrainment of smoke and odors. Attention is given to a development system designed and fabricated under the NASA Engine Component Improvement Program to define the recirculation limit for the DC-10. It is shown that with the system, a wide range of bleed air reductions and recirculation rates is possible. A goal of 0.8% fuel savings has been achieved which results from a 50% reduction in bleed extraction from the engine.

  9. Evaluating strategies to reduce urban air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, L.; Relvas, H.; Silveira, C.; Ferreira, J.; Monteiro, A.; Gama, C.; Rafael, S.; Freitas, S.; Borrego, C.; Miranda, A. I.

    2016-02-01

    During the last years, specific air quality problems have been detected in the urban area of Porto (Portugal). Both PM10 and NO2 limit values have been surpassed in several air quality monitoring stations and, following the European legislation requirements, Air Quality Plans were designed and implemented to reduce those levels. In this sense, measures to decrease PM10 and NO2 emissions have been selected, these mainly related to the traffic sector, but also regarding the industrial and residential combustion sectors. The main objective of this study is to investigate the efficiency of these reduction measures with regard to the improvement of PM10 and NO2 concentration levels over the Porto urban region using a numerical modelling tool - The Air Pollution Model (TAPM). TAPM was applied over the study region, for a simulation domain of 80 × 80 km2 with a spatial resolution of 1 × 1 km2. The entire year of 2012 was simulated and set as the base year for the analysis of the impacts of the selected measures. Taking into account the main activity sectors, four main scenarios have been defined and simulated, with focus on: (1) hybrid cars; (2) a Low Emission Zone (LEZ); (3) fireplaces and (4) industry. The modelling results indicate that measures to reduce PM10 should be focused on residential combustion (fireplaces) and industrial activity and for NO2 the strategy should be based on the traffic sector. The implementation of all the defined scenarios will allow a total maximum reduction of 4.5% on the levels of both pollutants.

  10. FHL2 interacts with CALM and is highly expressed in acute erythroid leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The t(10;11)(p13;q14) translocation results in the fusion of the CALM (clathrin assembly lymphoid myeloid leukemia protein) and AF10 genes. This translocation is observed in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML M6), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and malignant lymphoma. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, the four and a half LIM domain protein 2 (FHL2) was identified as a CALM interacting protein. Recently, high expression of FHL2 in breast, gastric, colon, lung as well as in prostate cancer was shown to be associated with an adverse prognosis. The interaction between CALM and FHL2 was confirmed by glutathione S-transferase-pulldown assay and co-immunoprecipitation experiments. The FHL2 interaction domain of CALM was mapped to amino acids 294–335 of CALM. The transcriptional activation capacity of FHL2 was reduced by CALM, but not by CALM/AF10, which suggests that regulation of FHL2 by CALM might be disturbed in CALM/AF10-positive leukemia. Extremely high expression of FHL2 was seen in acute erythroid leukemia (AML M6). FHL2 was also highly expressed in chronic myeloid leukemia and in AML with complex aberrant karyotype. These results suggest that FHL2 may play an important role in leukemogenesis, especially in the case of AML M6

  11. Modeling the Effect of Traffic Calming on Local Animal Population Persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharinus F. Jaarsma

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A steady growth in traffic volumes in industrialized countries with dense human populations is expected, especially on minor roads. As a consequence, the fragmentation of wildlife populations will increase dramatically. In human-dominated landscapes, typically minor roads occur in high densities, and animals encounter them frequently. Traffic calming is a new approach to mitigate negative impacts by reducing traffic volumes and speeds on minor roads at a regional scale. This leads to a distinction between roads with low volumes as being part of the traffic-calmed area, whereas roads with bundled traffic are located around this area. Within the traffic-calmed area, volumes and speeds can be decreased substantially; this is predicted to decrease the disturbance and mortality risk for animals. Thus far, data on the effects of traffic calming on wildlife population persistence remain scarce. Using metapopulation theory, we derived a model to estimate thresholds in the size of traffic-calmed areas and traffic volumes that may allow persistent populations. Our model suggests that traffic calming largely increases the persistence of roe deer in a landscape with a dense road network. Our modeling results show trade-offs between traffic volume on roads within the traffic-calmed area and both the area of habitat available for this species in the traffic-calmed area and the size of the traffic-calmed area. These results suggest ways to mitigate the fragmentation of wildlife habitat by road networks and their expected traffic volumes.

  12. Seismic calm predictors of rockburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmushko, Tatjana; Turuntaev, Sergey; Kulikov, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    The method of "seismic calm" is widely used for forecasting of strong natural earthquakes (Sobolev G.A., Ponomarev A.V., 2003). The "seismic calm" means that during some time period before the main earthquake, the smaller events (with energies of several order smaller than that of the main earthquake) don't occur. In the presented paper the applicability of the method based on the idea of seismic calm for forecasting rockburst is considered. Three deposits (with seismicity induced by mining) are analyzed: Tashtagol iron deposit (Altai, Russia), Vorkuta (North Ural, Russia) and Barentsburg (Spitsbergen, Norway) coalmines. Local seismic monitoring networks are installed on each of them. The catalogues of seismic events were processed and strong events (rockbursts) were studied (Vorkuta M=2,3; Barentsburg M=1,8; Tashtagol M=1,9÷2,2). All catalogues cover at least two years (Vorkuta - 2008-2011, Barentsburg - 2011-2012, Tashtagol - 2002-2012). It was found that the number of seismic events with magnitudes M=0,5÷1 decreased in a month before the main strong event at Vorkuta coalmines. This event was not directly related with coal mining, its epicenter was located aside of the area of coal mining. In Barentsburg mine the rockburst wasn't so strong as in Vorkuta. The number of events with energies M=0,5 decreased slightly before the rockburst, but not so obviously as in Vorkuta case. The seismic events with high energies occur often at Tashtagol iron deposit. Mining methods used there differ from the coal deposit mining. At coalmines the mining combine runs from edge to edge of the wall, cutting off the coal. The considered iron deposit is developed by a method of block blasting. Not all rockbursts occur immediately after the blasting, so, the problem of the rockburst prediction is important for mining safety. To find rockburst precursors it is necessary to separate the events occurred due to the block blasting from the seismic events due to relocation of stresses in

  13. Traffic calming schemes : opportunities and implementation strategies.

    OpenAIRE

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van (samenst.)

    2003-01-01

    Commissioned by the Swedish National Road Authority, this report aims to provide a concise overview of knowledge of and experiences with traffic calming schemes in urban areas, both on a technical level and on a policy level. Traffic calming refers to a combination of network planning and engineering measures to enhance road safety as well as other aspects of liveability for the citizens. More specifically, in the current report the starting point is that traffic calming schemes in residentia...

  14. CALM: Complex Adaptive System (CAS)-Based Decision Support for Enabling Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Richard M.; Koehn, David J.

    Guiding organizations through transformational changes such as restructuring or adopting new technologies is a daunting task. Such changes generate workforce uncertainty, fear, and resistance, reducing morale, focus and performance. Conventional project management techniques fail to mitigate these disruptive effects, because social and individual changes are non-mechanistic, organic phenomena. CALM (for Change, Adaptation, Learning Model) is an innovative decision support system for enabling change based on CAS principles. CALM provides a low risk method for validating and refining change strategies that combines scenario planning techniques with "what-if" behavioral simulation. In essence, CALM "test drives" change strategies before rolling them out, allowing organizations to practice and learn from virtual rather than actual mistakes. This paper describes the CALM modeling methodology, including our metrics for measuring organizational readiness to respond to change and other major CALM scenario elements: prospective change strategies; alternate futures; and key situational dynamics. We then describe CALM's simulation engine for projecting scenario outcomes and its associated analytics. CALM's simulator unifies diverse behavioral simulation paradigms including: adaptive agents; system dynamics; Monte Carlo; event- and process-based techniques. CALM's embodiment of CAS dynamics helps organizations reduce risk and improve confidence and consistency in critical strategies for enabling transformations.

  15. Calming an escalated psychiatric milieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, K R

    1994-01-01

    On inpatient psychiatric units, nurses control the tone, pace, and activity level of the environment. But under the influence of factors such as high patient acuity and negative group contagion, a milieu can become unacceptably loud and chaotic. A volatile milieu is a potentially dangerous environment because patients' anxiety and agitation can quickly lead to acting out and aggression. This article focuses on how nurses can regain control of a milieu spiralling into chaos by tightening the structure of the routine, anticipating potential problems, and maintaining a confident calm manner. The charge nurse orchestrates the staff group's response to escalation through detailed planning, decisive interventions, and strategic use of every available resource. PMID:7697316

  16. Atmospheric dispersion modeling near a roadway under calm meteorological conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Fallah Shorshani, Masoud; Seigneur, Christian; POLO REHN, Lucie; CHANUT, Hervé; PELLAN, Yann; Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc; CHARRON, Aurélie; Andre, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric pollutant dispersion near sources is typically simulated by Gaussian models because of their efficient compromise between reasonable accuracy and manageable com- putational time. However, the standard Gaussian dispersion formula applies downwind of a source under advective conditions with a well-defined wind direction and cannot calculate air pollutant concentrations under calm conditions with fluctuating wind direction and/or upwind of the emission source. Attempts have been made...

  17. Optimization models for reducing air emissions from ships

    OpenAIRE

    Balland, Océane

    2013-01-01

    This research deals with the reduction of air emissions from ships. Ships are large contributors to air pollution with implications for climate change and human health. Regulations have entered into force or will in the near future, which will force shipowners to reduce the air emissions from their vessels. Multiple technologies or operational measures reducing these main pollutants are available and the term air emission control has here been defined as any effort made by ship-owners, operat...

  18. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Sidheswaran, Meera

    2010-01-01

    Approximately ten percent of the energy consumed in U.S. commercial buildings is used by HVAC systems to condition outdoor ventilation air. Reducing ventilation rates would be a simple and broadly-applicable energy retrofit option, if practical counter measures were available that maintained acceptable concentrations of indoor-generated air pollutants. The two general categories of countermeasures are: 1) indoor pollutant source control, and 2) air cleaning. Although pollutant source contr...

  19. Reduced graphene oxide for Li–air batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Mie Møller; Overgaard, Marc; Younesi, Reza;

    2015-01-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has shown great promise as an air-cathode for Li-air batteries with high capacity. In this article we demonstrate how the oxidation time of graphene oxide (GO) affects the ratio of different functional groups and how trends of these in GO are extended to chemically...

  20. Permafrost and active layer monitoring in the maritime Antarctic: Preliminary results from CALM sites on Livingston and Deception Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, M.; Vieira, G.; Blanco, J.J.; Hauck, C.; Hidalgo, M.A.; Tome, D.; Nevers, M.; Trindade, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes results obtained from scientific work and experiments performed on Livingston and Deception Islands. Located in the South Shetland Archipelago, these islands have been some of the most sensitive regions over the last 50 years with respect to climate change with a Mean Annual Air Temperature (MAAT) close to -2 ºC. Three Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) sites were installed to record the thermal regime and the behaviour of the active layer in different places with similar climate, but with different soil composition, porosity, and water content. The study’s ultimate aim is to document the influence of climate change on permafrost degradation. Preliminary results, obtained in 2006, on maximum active-layer thickness (around 40 cm in the CALM of Deception Island), active layer temperature evolution, snow thickness, and air temperatures permit early characterization of energy exchange mechanisms between the ground and the atmosphere in the CALM-S sites.

  1. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2010-10-27

    Approximately ten percent of the energy consumed in U.S. commercial buildings is used by HVAC systems to condition outdoor ventilation air. Reducing ventilation rates would be a simple and broadly-applicable energy retrofit option, if practical counter measures were available that maintained acceptable concentrations of indoor-generated air pollutants. The two general categories of countermeasures are: 1) indoor pollutant source control, and 2) air cleaning. Although pollutant source control should be used to the degree possible, source control is complicated by the large number and changing nature of indoor pollutant sources. Particle air cleaning is already routinely applied in commercial buildings. Previous calculations indicate that particle filtration consumes only 10percent to 25percent of the energy that would otherwise be required to achieve an equivalent amount of particle removal with ventilation. If cost-effective air cleaning technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also available, outdoor air ventilation rates could be reduced substantially and broadly in the commercial building stock to save energy. The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel VOC air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. The minimum required VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50percent reduction in ventilation rate for air cleaning systems installed in the HVAC supply airstream is modest (generally 20percent or less).

  2. Air suctioning during colon biopsy acquisition reduces bacterial contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Vavricka, S; Tutuian, R; Imhof, A.; Wildi, S; Gubler, C; Fruehauf, H; Ruef, C; Fried, M

    2006-01-01

    Background and Aim: Contamination of endoscopy suites with bacteria during procedures is of concern particularly through droplets during handling of biopsy specimens. It has been advocated that suctioning while removing the biopsy forceps could help to reduce potentially hazardous bioaerosols. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of air suctioning during removal of the biopsy forceps. Materials and Methods: Airborne bacteria were collected by an impactor air-sampler (MAS-...

  3. Indoor air quality. Exploring policy options to reduce human exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deciding between the different policy approaches available for reducing human exposures to indoor pollutants in an exceptionally complex task. These options can range from waiting until more definitive information is available to enacting regulatory standards, with many variations in between. This paper presents some of the factors policy-makers must consider in establishing indoor air quality policies, and the role researchers should play in ensuring that indoor air policies are based on the best available scientific information. (au) (22 refs.)

  4. On the turbulent spot and calmed region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jonáš, Pavel

    Praha: Institute of Thermomechanics AS CR, v. v. i., 2007 - (Zolotarev, I.), s. 109-110 ISBN 978-80-87012-06-2. [Engineering Mechanics 2007. Svratka (CZ), 14.05.2007-17.05.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/05/0675; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200760614 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : transition to turbulence * boundary layer * calmed region * turbulent spot Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  5. Speed-calming measures and their Effect on driving speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Knudsen, Daniel; Variyeswaran, Kajan

    2016-01-01

    Speeding increases the risk and severity of accidents, especially for vulnerable road users. Hence, minimisation of speeding in built-up areas is vital. Some countries widely use speed-calming measures (SCs). Documentation shows that SCs reduce speeding considerably although various types and...... designs of SCs affect this reduction. This paper includes studies of the effects from establishment of sinus speed humps of height 10 cm and length 950 cm and chicanes (with a free carriageway width of 5,30 cm and a length between the 0.5 m wide obstacles of 18 m) as a before/after study where the speed....... Despite the apparent absence of more distant effects of each SC, there is an overall reduced average speed on the full length of a road with SCs. Humps reduce the mean speed comparable to the reduction from chicanes, but the speed variation is less reduced near chicanes, and especially prior to the...

  6. Orally Mediated Sources of Calming in 1- to 3-Day-Old Human Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barbara A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Infants who received 0.2, 0.6, or 1.0 ml of sucrose cried much less than infants who sucked a pacifier for 2, 6, 10, or 14 minutes. Sucrose infused through a pacifier reduced crying more effectively than did water infused through a pacifier. It is argued that these differences support idea of two separate functional calming systems in human…

  7. Solution to Reduce Air Environmental Pollution from Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phẁm Tân HỚu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust gas emissions from ships are increasingly polluting the air environment seriously. Therefore, the MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI is applied for all ships from 2017, Annex VI provided that the concentrations of NOx,SOx CO contained in ship’s exhaust gases must be less than 6.4 g/kWh, 0.6 g/kWh, and 5.5g/kWh respectively. Today, there are many solutions to reduce pollution emissions from exhaust gas of ships, such as improving combustion, using oil emulsion, using biofuel,…However, these solutions also have a handful of disadventages such as being unable to thoroughly resoulve problems, high cost, and very difficult to improve the quality of ship exhaust gas emissions for old ships. Exhaust gas treatment method uses a centralized treatment system where exhaust gas from the thermal engines is taken in a centralized treatment system before discharging into the air. After centralized treatment system, in comparision with raw exhaust gas, soot can be reduced by 98%, NOx can be reduced by 75%, SOx can be reduced by 80%. This method of treatment is not only low cost, good quality but also make marine heat-engines still use traditional fuels as well as need not improve its structure.

  8. Driving cycles for measuring passenger car emissions on roads with traffic calming measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although local authorities in the UK need to be aware of any air quality impacts resulting from their traffic calming operations, there is little information relating to the effects of different traffic calming measures. The effects on air quality on this scale are complex, and so TRL is providing guidance by developing performance indices for different measures based on their effects on vehicle emissions. The emissions indices for passenger cars are based on tests conducted on a chassis dynamometer, and this paper describes the development of the methodology for constructing the driving cycles to be used. The technique involves the measurement of the speed profiles of a large number of vehicles using a roadside LIDAR system, and the determination of typical gear selections using three-instrumented cars

  9. Driving cycles for measuring passenger car emissions on roads with traffic calming measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutler; Latham; Ainge

    1999-09-01

    Although local authorities in the UK need to be aware of any air quality impacts resulting from their traffic calming operations, there is little information relating to the effects of different traffic calming measures. The effects on air quality on this scale are complex, and so TRL is providing guidance by developing performance indices for different measures based on their effects on vehicle emissions. The emissions indices for passenger cars are based on tests conducted on a chassis dynamometer, and this paper describes the development of the methodology for constructing the driving cycles to be used. The technique involves the measurement of the speed profiles of a large number of vehicles using a roadside LIDAR system, and the determination of typical gear selections using three-instrumented cars. PMID:10535109

  10. Solution to Reduce Air Environmental Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Phẁm Tân HỚu; Nguyen Tri Minh

    2015-01-01

    Exhaust gas emissions from ships are increasingly polluting the air environment seriously. Therefore, the MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI is applied for all ships from 2017, Annex VI provided that the concentrations of NOx,SOx CO contained in ship’s exhaust gases must be less than 6.4 g/kWh, 0.6 g/kWh, and 5.5g/kWh respectively. Today, there are many solutions to reduce pollution emissions from exhaust gas of ships, such as improving combustion, using oil emulsion, using biofuel,…However, these solutio...

  11. Biodiesel – a Real Solution for Reducing Air Pollution ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ODAGIU Antonia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Traffic emissions made up of high levels of nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, and particulate matter determineserious pollution in urban high agglomerations. One solution in reducing atmospheric pollution is represented byfinding not pollutant alternatives to classic fuel used for urban vehicles and one valuable solution is the replacement ofpollutant fossil fuels with biodiesel/biofuel. The reaction between glycerides and methanol, in presence of a catalystrepresents the basis of biodiesel fuel production. The main plants used for biofuel production are: soybeans, rapeseed(canola, sunflower seed, palm fruit or kernels, coconut and physic nut, etc. The legal approach of biodiesel use includesa series of national and international agreements adopted with the aim of reducing air pollution produced by the use oftraditional fuel in urban traffic, and biodiesel use remains a valuable option, in spite of high production costs.

  12. What can individuals do to reduce personal health risks from air pollution?

    OpenAIRE

    Laumbach, Robert; Meng, Qingyu; Kipen, Howard

    2015-01-01

    In many areas of the world, concentrations of ambient air pollutants exceed levels associated with increased risk of acute and chronic health problems. While effective policies to reduce emissions at their sources are clearly preferable, some evidence supports the effectiveness of individual actions to reduce exposure and health risks. Personal exposure to ambient air pollution can be reduced on high air pollution days by staying indoors, reducing outdoor air infiltration to indoors, cleaning...

  13. Calm Water and Seakeeping Investigation for a Fast Catamaran

    OpenAIRE

    Broglia, Riccardo; Bouscasse, Benjamin; Jacob, Boris; Olivieri, Angelo; Zaghi, Stefano; Stern, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    In this paper calm water and in wave research activities on a high-speed displacement catamaran performed at CNRINSEAN in collaboration with the IIHR are presented. The selected geometry is the DELFT-372 catamaran, for which a large database is in construction through a series of NICOP projects. Calm water activity was carried out for the analysis of the interference phenomena; resistance, trim and sinkage tests have been performed for both the monohull and the catamaran with several separati...

  14. Modeling the Effect of Traffic Calming on Local Animal Population Persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Catharinus F. Jaarsma; Frank van Langevelde

    2009-01-01

    A steady growth in traffic volumes in industrialized countries with dense human populations is expected, especially on minor roads. As a consequence, the fragmentation of wildlife populations will increase dramatically. In human-dominated landscapes, typically minor roads occur in high densities, and animals encounter them frequently. Traffic calming is a new approach to mitigate negative impacts by reducing traffic volumes and speeds on minor roads at a regional scale. This leads to a distin...

  15. EFFECTS OF CALM /AF10 ANTISENSES ON PRIMARY LEUKEMIC CELLS WITH CALM /AF10 FUSION TRANSCRIPTS IN VITRO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ge-xiu

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To define the involvement of CALM and AF10 fusion transcripts in primary leukaemias with t(10; 11). Methods: The AF10 and CALM fusion in five t(10; 11) leukemia samples were checked by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and effects of CALM/AF10 antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides (AS PS-ODNs) on chemotherapy sensitivity and apoptosis of leukemia cells in vitro were observed. Results: Five different-sized AF10-CALM products and four different-sized CALM/AF10 products were detected by RT-PCR. The chemotherapy sensitivity of leukemic cells with t(10; 11) to drugs in vitro was lower than that of leukemic cells without t(10; 11). AS PS-ODNs increased the chemotherapy sensitivity and apoptotic rate. There were 4 cases positive at 5 (mol/L concentration, a11 cases positive at 10 (mol/L and 20 (mol/L concentration, P0.05). Conclusion: The CALM and AF10 fusion transcripts are involved in the pathogenesis of haematological malignancies with t(10, 11), and is associated with a poor prognosis. AS-PS-ODNs might be useful in therapy of t(10, 11) leukemia.

  16. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofen, E. D.; Evans, M. J.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Photometric ozone measurements rely upon an accurate value of the ozone absorption cross section at 253.65 nm. This has recently been re-evaluated by Viallon et al. (2015) as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961) used for the preceding 50 years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross-section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  17. What can individuals do to reduce personal health risks from air pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumbach, Robert; Meng, Qingyu; Kipen, Howard

    2015-01-01

    In many areas of the world, concentrations of ambient air pollutants exceed levels associated with increased risk of acute and chronic health problems. While effective policies to reduce emissions at their sources are clearly preferable, some evidence supports the effectiveness of individual actions to reduce exposure and health risks. Personal exposure to ambient air pollution can be reduced on high air pollution days by staying indoors, reducing outdoor air infiltration to indoors, cleaning indoor air with air filters, and limiting physical exertion, especially outdoors and near air pollution sources. Limited evidence suggests that the use of respirators may be effective in some circumstances. Awareness of air pollution levels is facilitated by a growing number of public air quality alert systems. Avoiding exposure to air pollutants is especially important for susceptible individuals with chronic cardiovascular or pulmonary disease, children, and the elderly. Research on mechanisms underlying the adverse health effects of air pollution have suggested potential pharmaceutical or chemopreventive interventions, such as antioxidant or antithrombotic agents, but in the absence of data on health outcomes, no sound recommendations can be made for primary prevention. Health care providers and their patients should carefully consider individual circumstances related to outdoor and indoor air pollutant exposure levels and susceptibility to those air pollutants when deciding on a course of action to reduce personal exposure and health risks from ambient air pollutants. Careful consideration is especially warranted when interventions may have unintended negative consequences, such as when efforts to avoid exposure to air pollutants lead to reduced physical activity or when there is evidence that dietary supplements, such as antioxidants, have potential adverse health effects. These potential complications of partially effective personal interventions to reduce exposure or

  18. Influence of combined dust reducing carpet and compact air filtration unit on the indoor air quality of a classroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Hartog, J.J. de; Reijnaerts, J.; Beckmann, G.; Anzion, R.B.M.; Poels, K.; Godderis, L.

    2015-01-01

    Primary schools mostly rely on natural ventilation but also have an interest in affordable technology to improve indoor air quality (IAQ). Laboratory tests show promising results for dust reducing carpets and compact air filtration systems but there is no information available on the performance of

  19. Novel Reduced GWP Refrigerant Compositions for Stationary Air Conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Leck, Thomas J.; Naicker, Pavan K.; Hughes, Joshua; Hydutsky, Bianca

    2014-01-01

    The current fluids most widely used for small and mid-sized air conditioning systems globally are R-410A and R-22. While these fluids have many positive attributes for cooling, they are the subject of valid criticisms regarding their high direct global warming potential (GWP) and, in the case of R-22, ozone depletion potential (ODP) also. In the interest of improved environmental sustainability, a new class of refrigerant molecule has been developed, the hydrofluoroolefin, or HFO. While the v...

  20. Radiative and aerodynamic effects of an open pine shelterwood on calm, clear nights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Net radiation represents a disequilibrium between incoming and outgoing radiative fluxes at a surface. This disequilibrium is caused by the non-radiative, i.e. the convective, conductive and chemical (mainly photosynthetic and respiratory) heat fluxes. Contrary to the prevailing common sense regarding net radiation in shelterwoods, a more negative (negative in this context refers to any energy flux directed away from, i.e. cooling, the surface) net radiation was observed beneath the canopy of an open pine shelterwood than in a nearby clearcut area. These observations were made during comparative net radiation surveys at Vindeln, Sweden, using 22 net radiometers at each site. In the evening the net radiation was initially more negative in the clearcut, but later became more negative in the shelterwood by about 10 W m−2. This was a consistent pattern on all calm, clear nights during the survey. On windy nights the net radiation was slightly more negative in the clearcut than in the shelterwood. Since non-zero net radiation can only be caused by the non-radiative fluxes, and the nocturnal chemical heat fluxes are small, this difference is caused either by the ground heat flux or the convective fluxes or both. The temporal variations in measured ground temperatures and net radiation suggest that convective rather than conductive heat fluxes are responsible for the net radiation difference we observed on calm nights. On such nights, light winds interacting with the upper parts of the tree crowns induce slight movements of the air in the near-surface layers of the shelterwood. In the clearcut there are no such aerodynamic effects. Thus, in calm conditions there is, in addition to the radiative shelterwood effect, also an aerodynamic effect of the open shelterwood

  1. Opportunities to Reduce Air-Conditioning Loads Through Lower Cabin Soak Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air-conditioning loads can significantly reduce electric vehicle (EV) range and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) fuel economy. In addition, a new U. S. emissions procedure, called the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP), has provided the motivation for reducing the size of vehicle air-conditioning systems in the United States. The SFTP will measure tailpipe emissions with the air-conditioning system operating. If the size of the air-conditioning system is reduced, the cabin soak temperature must also be reduced, with no penalty in terms of passenger thermal comfort. This paper presents the impact of air-conditioning on EV range and HEV fuel economy, and compares the effectiveness of advanced glazing and cabin ventilation. Experimental and modeled results are presented

  2. Air Circulation and Heat Exchange Under Reduced Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygalov, V.; Wheeler, R.; Dixon, M.; Fowler, P.; Hillhouse, L.

    2010-01-01

    Heat exchange rates decrease non-linearly with reductions in atmospheric pressure. This decrease creates risk of thermal stress (elevated leaf temperatures) for plants under reduced pressures. Forced convection (fans) significantly increases heat exchange rate under almost all pressures except below 10 kPa. Plant cultivation techniques under reduced pressures will require forced convection. The cooling curve technique is a reliable means of assessing the influence of environmental variables like pressure and gravity on gas exchange of plant. These results represent the extremes of gas exchange conditions for simple systems under variable pressures. In reality, dense plant canopies will exhibit responses in between these extremes. More research is needed to understand the dependence of forced convection on atmospheric pressure. The overall thermal balance model should include latent and radiative exchange components.

  3. Biodiesel – a Real Solution for Reducing Air Pollution ?

    OpenAIRE

    ODAGIU Antonia; I. OROIAN; Sonia SANĂ; VÂRBAN D. I.; P. BURDUHOS

    2010-01-01

    Traffic emissions made up of high levels of nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, and particulate matter determineserious pollution in urban high agglomerations. One solution in reducing atmospheric pollution is represented byfinding not pollutant alternatives to classic fuel used for urban vehicles and one valuable solution is the replacement ofpollutant fossil fuels with biodiesel/biofuel. The reaction between glycerides and methanol, in presence of a catalystrepresents the basis of biodiesel fu...

  4. From Chaos to Calm understanding Anger in Urban Adolescent Males

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, June M.

    2010-01-01

    From Chaos to Calm Understanding Anger in Urban Adolescent Males by June Mardell Montgomery (ABSTRACT) This work is based on the premise that uncontrolled anger contributes to the violence committed by adolescent boys 13-17 years of age. In fact, in all countries, young males are both the principal perpetrators and victims of homicide (World Health Organization, 2002). Identifying the underlying reasons for the anger is instrumental in controlling this emotion and in develop...

  5. Air quality enhancement by reducing emissions from electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electric power industry is responsible for electricity generations, transmission and distribution. The system is dominated by thermal electricity generation (in Syria its share is about 80%). The fossil fuels used in te thermal power plants are a major stationary source of greenhouse gases (GHG) in addition to other pollutant. The primary GHG are CO2, NOx, SO2, CO, and VOC, of which CO2 is believed to account for about half of the global warming. There are many approaches to reduce the amount of pollutants emitted from power systems. The best measures as given mainly by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 1996 are presented in the paper. From the efficiency and sustainability side of view, the implementation of these approaches cannot be done optimally without an integrated environmental management program (EMP). The paper proposes an EMP as a conceptual strategy using a set of evaluation criteria to be applied on the power system on concern. As a final item, a case study of the Syrian power system is presented. The energy system in Syria emitted about 115 million tons of CO2 in the year 2000. The electric power system alone consumes approximately 36% of the total consumed fossil fuels in the country, and is responsible of about 35-40% of the CO2 emissions. The Syrian power system has three major problems (like many systems in the region) which need to be resolved in order to improve its operation and consequently to reduce the emission of green house gases. First, the technical electrical losses are about 25-30% of net generated electricity. Second, the power factor has reached alarming levels in various parts of the power system. Third, the efficiencies in all power plant units are very low and still decreasing rapidly. The paper gives an overview of the energy sector in Syria showing a significant potential for energy efficiency and environmental protection projects. The main outcome of the case study is a comprehensive program designed for one

  6. Potential for reducing air pollution from oil refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbassi, A R; Abbasspour, M; Sekhavatjou, M S; Ziviyar, F; Saeedi, M

    2008-10-01

    Islamic Republic of Iran has to invest 95 billion US$ for her new oil refineries to the year 2045. At present, the emission factors for CO(2), NO( x ) and SO(2) are 3.5, 4.2 and 119 times higher than British refineries, respectively. In order to have a sustainable development in Iranian oil refineries, the government has to set emission factors of European Community as her goal. At present CO(2) per Gross Domestic Production (GDP) in the country is about 2.7 kg CO(2) as 1995's USD value that should be reduced to 1.25 kg CO(2)/GDP in the year 2015. Total capital investment for such reduction is estimated at 346 million USD which is equal to 23 USD/ton of CO(2). It is evident that mitigation of funds set by Clean Development Mechanism (3 to 7 USD/tons of CO(2)) is well below the actual capital investment needs. Present survey shows that energy efficiency promotion potential in all nine Iranian oil refineries is about 165,677 MWh/year through utilization of more efficient pumps and compressors. Better management of boilers in all nine refineries will lead to a saving of 273 million m(3) of natural gas per year. PMID:18066676

  7. Obligations under international law for reducing transfrontier air pollution in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The obligations under international law to reduce transfrontier air pollution is discussed in five chapters from various aspects. Consequences for the European Communities are gone into in five further chapters. (orig./HP)

  8. Effect of an ozone-generating air-purifying device on reducing concentrations of formaldehyde in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esswein, E.J. [Univ. of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Boeniger, M.F. [National Institute for Occupational Safety, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1994-02-01

    Formaldehyde, an air contaminant found in many indoor air investigations, poses distinct occupational exposure hazards in certain job categories (e.g., mortuary science) but is also of concern when found or suspected in office buildings and homes. A variety of air-purifying devices (APDs) are currently available or marketed for application to reduce or remove concentrations of a variety of indoor air pollutants through the use of ozone as a chemical oxidant. An investigation was conducted to determine if concentrations of formaldehyde similar to those found in industrial hygiene evaluations of funeral homes could be reduced with the use of an ozone-generating APD. An ozone-generating APD was placed in an exposure chamber and formaldehyde-containing embalming solution was allowed to evaporate naturally, creating peak and mean chamber concentrations of 2.5 and 1.3 ppm, respectively. Continuous-reading instruments were used to sample for formaldehyde and ozone. Active sampling methods were also used to sample simultaneously for formaldehyde and a possible reactant product, formic acid. Triplicate measurements were made in each of three evaluations: formaldehyde alone, ozone alone, and formaldehyde and ozone combined. Concentrations of formaldehyde were virtually identical with and without 0.5 ppm ozone. No reduction in formaldehyde concentration was found during a 90-minute evaluation using ozone at this concentration with peak and average concentrations of approximately 2.5 and 1.3 ppm formaldehyde, respectively. The results of this investigation suggest that the use of ozone is ineffective in reducing concentrations of formaldehyde. Because ozone has demonstrated health hazards, and is a regulated air contaminant in both the occupational and ambient environment, the use of ozone as an air purification agent in indoor air does not seem warranted. 25 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Stay calm! Regulating emotional responses by implementation intentions: Assessing the impact on physiological and subjective arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azbel-Jackson, Lena; Butler, Laurie T; Ellis, Judi A; van Reekum, Carien M

    2016-09-01

    Implementation intention (IMP) has recently been highlighted as an effective emotion regulatory strategy. Most studies examining the effectiveness of IMPs to regulate emotion have relied on self-report measures of emotional change. In two studies we employed electrodermal activity (EDA) and heart rate (HR) in addition to arousal ratings (AR) to assess the impact of an IMP on emotional responses. In Study 1, 60 participants viewed neutral and two types of negative pictures (weapon vs. non-weapon) under the IMP "If I see a weapon, then I will stay calm and relaxed!" or no self-regulatory instructions (Control). In Study 2, additionally to the Control and IMP conditions, participants completed the picture rating task either under goal intention (GI) to stay calm and relaxed or warning instructions highlighting that some pictures contain weapons. In both studies, participants showed lower EDA, reduced HR deceleration and lower AR to the weapon pictures compared to the non-weapon pictures. In Study 2, the IMP was associated with lower EDA compared to the GI condition for the weapon pictures, but not compared to the weapon pictures in the Warning condition. ARs were lower for IMP compared to GI and Warning conditions for the weapon pictures. PMID:26219461

  10. Advanced Methods for Air Distribution in Occupied Spaces for Reduced Risk from Air-Borne Diseases and Improved Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov

    airborne pathogens. The threat from possible bio-terrorist attacks in the last decade makes the topic quite important. So far the existing methods of indoor air cleaning rely on several basic strategies: dilution, filtration and Ultra Violet Germicidal Irradiation (UVGI). Dilution utilizes ventilation at...... Ventilation Cleansing Unit (the device is part of a patient application in Europe (EP 09165736.1) and in the United States of America (US 61/226,542). The HBIVCU helped to provide improved protection to doctor and other patients, present in a space, from a sick individual with highly contagious airborne...

  11. The impact of European legislative and technology measures to reduce air pollutants on air quality, human health and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnock, S. T.; Butt, E. W.; Richardson, T. B.; Mann, G. W.; Reddington, C. L.; Forster, P. M.; Haywood, J.; Crippa, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Johnson, C. E.; Bellouin, N.; Carslaw, K. S.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2016-02-01

    European air quality legislation has reduced emissions of air pollutants across Europe since the 1970s, affecting air quality, human health and regional climate. We used a coupled composition-climate model to simulate the impacts of European air quality legislation and technology measures implemented between 1970 and 2010. We contrast simulations using two emission scenarios; one with actual emissions in 2010 and the other with emissions that would have occurred in 2010 in the absence of technological improvements and end-of-pipe treatment measures in the energy, industrial and road transport sectors. European emissions of sulphur dioxide, black carbon (BC) and organic carbon in 2010 are 53%, 59% and 32% lower respectively compared to emissions that would have occurred in 2010 in the absence of legislative and technology measures. These emission reductions decreased simulated European annual mean concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) by 35%, sulphate by 44%, BC by 56% and particulate organic matter by 23%. The reduction in PM2.5 concentrations is calculated to have prevented 80 000 (37 000-116 000, at 95% confidence intervals) premature deaths annually across the European Union, resulting in a perceived financial benefit to society of US232 billion annually (1.4% of 2010 EU GDP). The reduction in aerosol concentrations due to legislative and technology measures caused a positive change in the aerosol radiative effect at the top of atmosphere, reduced atmospheric absorption and also increased the amount of solar radiation incident at the surface over Europe. We used an energy budget approximation to estimate that these changes in the radiative balance have increased European annual mean surface temperatures and precipitation by 0.45 ± 0.11 °C and by 13 ± 0.8 mm yr-1 respectively. Our results show that the implementation of European legislation and technological improvements to reduce the emission of air pollutants has improved air quality and human

  12. The impact of European legislative and technology measures to reduce air pollutants on air quality, human health and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    European air quality legislation has reduced emissions of air pollutants across Europe since the 1970s, affecting air quality, human health and regional climate. We used a coupled composition-climate model to simulate the impacts of European air quality legislation and technology measures implemented between 1970 and 2010. We contrast simulations using two emission scenarios; one with actual emissions in 2010 and the other with emissions that would have occurred in 2010 in the absence of technological improvements and end-of-pipe treatment measures in the energy, industrial and road transport sectors. European emissions of sulphur dioxide, black carbon (BC) and organic carbon in 2010 are 53%, 59% and 32% lower respectively compared to emissions that would have occurred in 2010 in the absence of legislative and technology measures. These emission reductions decreased simulated European annual mean concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) by 35%, sulphate by 44%, BC by 56% and particulate organic matter by 23%. The reduction in PM2.5 concentrations is calculated to have prevented 80 000 (37 000–116 000, at 95% confidence intervals) premature deaths annually across the European Union, resulting in a perceived financial benefit to society of US$232 billion annually (1.4% of 2010 EU GDP). The reduction in aerosol concentrations due to legislative and technology measures caused a positive change in the aerosol radiative effect at the top of atmosphere, reduced atmospheric absorption and also increased the amount of solar radiation incident at the surface over Europe. We used an energy budget approximation to estimate that these changes in the radiative balance have increased European annual mean surface temperatures and precipitation by 0.45 ± 0.11 °C and by 13 ± 0.8 mm yr−1 respectively. Our results show that the implementation of European legislation and technological improvements to reduce the emission of air pollutants has improved air quality and

  13. Reducing the energy consumption of an earth–air heat exchanger with a PID control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The application of control actions to green technologies has been simulated. • Energy consumption of green technologies can be reduced even more. • The efficiency of green technologies can be raised. • Environmental concerns can be diminished. • The sustainability of the planet can be increased. - Abstract: Reducing environmental emissions is one of the challenges that human being has to overcome. It can only be reached with a proper energetic efficiency and management of the processes that exist in the society nowadays. Several academic works have mentioned that raising the efficiency of a process it also increases sustainability and in turn decreases the environmental impact. One process that requires much attention is the cooling and heating of buildings; this process contributes to the major part of the electric bill, in particular, if a conventional and old air conditioning is used as commonly occurs in many countries. In recent years there have been developed new alternatives that are used in few countries, such as the earth–air heat exchanger, where air is passed through a heat exchanger buried a few meters below the ground. The heat exchanger takes advantage of the well-known difference between the temperature of the surrounding air and the temperature of the ground for cooling or heating the air that is subsequently injected into the buildings. This process requires less energy, then in the present work is thought that a PID (Proportional, Integral and Derivative) controller can be applied to an earth–air heat exchanger to reduce even more the energy consumption. Therefore, a simulation of a thermodynamic model of an earth–air heat exchanger was done and used along with a PID controller, to estimate savings in energy consumption. The results show that the energy consumption can be reduced up to 87% with the PID control, hence the efficiency of the process is increased as well as the sustainability of the planet and thus the

  14. Containing urban sprawl: An integrated improvement of space-tranport strategies to reduce air pollution emission

    OpenAIRE

    Ambarwati, L.; Verhaeghe, R.J.; Pel, A.J.; VAN AREM,B

    2014-01-01

    Diverse effective strategies have been designed to minimize the phenomenon of urban sprawl. Previous research focused on the link between spatial and transport development strategies to achieve this goal, with the intention of increasing mobility, reducing commuting time and travel costs. However, a side effect of urban sprawl is an increase of air pollution. Higher pollution levels result in higher costs for road users. To reduce these costs, improvement in public transport linked to urban d...

  15. [Reduce Energy Costs While Maintaining Healthy IAQ.] "Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools" Update #17

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This issue of "Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools" Update ("IAQ TfS" Update) contains the following items: (1) News and Events; (2) Feature Article: Reduce Energy Costs while Maintaining Healthy IAQ; (3) Insight into Excellence: North East Independent School District ; (4) School Building Week 2009; and (5) Have Your Questions Answered!

  16. Effects of a calm companion on fear reactions in naive test horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Malmkvist, Jens; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm;

    2008-01-01

    Reasons for performing study: In fear-eliciting situations, horses tend to show flight reactions that can be dangerous for both horse and man. Finding appropriate methods for reducing fearfulness in horses has important practical implications. Objectives: To investigate whether the presence of a......). During the test, unique pairs of companion and subject horses were exposed to the test stimulus while heart rate and behavioural responses were registered. Subsequently, subject horses were exposed to the stimulus on their own (post test). Results: Subject horses, paired with a calm companion horse......, showed less fear-related behaviour and lower heart rate responses compared to subject horses with control companions. Results from the post test suggest that the difference between treatment groups remained in the subsequent absence of companion horses. Conclusions and potential relevance: It appears...

  17. Randomized double-blind trial of prophylactic topical Evozac® Calming Skin Spray for gefitinib-associated acne-like eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2014-07-01

    -associated symptoms (13.7% vs 34.0%, P=0.017. Conclusion: Prophylactic treatment with Evozac Calming Skin Spray appears to decrease the number of facial lesions at the peak of the rash, reduce the incidence of grade 2 or more severe rash and relieve rash-associated symptoms. Keywords: dermatological toxicities, facial rash lesions, rash severity, rash-associated symptoms

  18. Strategies for reducing the environmental impacts of room air conditioners in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grignon-Masse, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.grignon-masse@mines-paristech.f [Mines ParisTech, Center for Energy and Processes, 60 Boulevard Saint Michel, 75272 Paris Cedex 06 (France); Riviere, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.riviere@mines-paristech.f [Mines ParisTech, Center for Energy and Processes, 60 Boulevard Saint Michel, 75272 Paris Cedex 06 (France); Adnot, Jerome, E-mail: jerome.adnot@mines-paristech.f [Mines ParisTech, Center for Energy and Processes, 60 Boulevard Saint Michel, 75272 Paris Cedex 06 (France)

    2011-04-15

    In Europe, buildings tend to be equipped with individual air conditioners, which constitute a fast growing electrical end-use. In this context, this study aims to assess the environmental impacts of European individual air conditioners and to analyse policy strategies to reduce these impacts. After analysing the European context concerning individual air conditioners, the environmental impacts of European air conditioners are assessed using a Life Cycle Analysis approach. The following step consists in studying, both technically and economically, different improvement options aiming at reducing the environmental impacts of these appliances. These results, obtained at the product level, are then generalised at the European level and different policy measures are defined and analysed. The main conclusion is that the implementation of a Minimum Energy Performance Standard based on Least Life Cycle Costs could save up to 49 TWh and 20 MtCO{sub 2-eq} in 2020 and be economically beneficial to the European end-user. - Research highlights: {yields} A methodology based on Life Cycle Analysis is applied to European air conditioners. {yields} Environmental impacts are mainly due to energy consumption. {yields} There is a high potential for energy savings at very low costs for end users.

  19. The calming effect of maternal carrying in different mammalian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Gianluca; Setoh, Peipei; Yoshida, Sachine; Kuroda, Kumi O

    2015-01-01

    Attachment theory postulates that mothers and their infants possess some basic physiological mechanisms that favor their dyadic interaction and bonding. Many studies have focused on the maternal physiological mechanisms that promote attachment (e.g., mothers' automatic responses to infant faces and/or cries), and relatively less have examined infant physiology. Thus, the physiological mechanisms regulating infant bonding behaviors remain largely undefined. This review elucidates some of the neurobiological mechanisms governing social bonding and cooperation in humans by focusing on maternal carrying and its beneficial effect on mother-infant interaction in mammalian species (e.g., in humans, big cats, and rodents). These studies show that infants have a specific calming response to maternal carrying. A human infant carried by his/her walking mother exhibits a rapid heart rate decrease, and immediately stops voluntary movement and crying compared to when he/she is held in a sitting position. Furthermore, strikingly similar responses were identified in mouse rodents, who exhibit immobility, diminished ultra-sonic vocalizations and heart rate. In general, the studies described in the current review demonstrate the calming effect of maternal carrying to be comprised of a complex set of behavioral and physiological components, each of which has a specific postnatal time window and is orchestrated in a well-matched manner with the maturation of the infants. Such reactions could have been evolutionarily adaptive in mammalian mother-infant interactions. The findings have implications for parenting practices in developmentally normal populations. In addition, we propose that infants' physiological response may be useful in clinical assessments as we discuss possible implications on early screening for child psychopathology (e.g., autism spectrum disorders and perinatal brain disorders). PMID:25932017

  20. The calming effect of maternal carrying in different mammalian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Gianluca; Setoh, Peipei; Yoshida, Sachine; Kuroda, Kumi O.

    2015-01-01

    Attachment theory postulates that mothers and their infants possess some basic physiological mechanisms that favor their dyadic interaction and bonding. Many studies have focused on the maternal physiological mechanisms that promote attachment (e.g., mothers’ automatic responses to infant faces and/or cries), and relatively less have examined infant physiology. Thus, the physiological mechanisms regulating infant bonding behaviors remain largely undefined. This review elucidates some of the neurobiological mechanisms governing social bonding and cooperation in humans by focusing on maternal carrying and its beneficial effect on mother–infant interaction in mammalian species (e.g., in humans, big cats, and rodents). These studies show that infants have a specific calming response to maternal carrying. A human infant carried by his/her walking mother exhibits a rapid heart rate decrease, and immediately stops voluntary movement and crying compared to when he/she is held in a sitting position. Furthermore, strikingly similar responses were identified in mouse rodents, who exhibit immobility, diminished ultra-sonic vocalizations and heart rate. In general, the studies described in the current review demonstrate the calming effect of maternal carrying to be comprised of a complex set of behavioral and physiological components, each of which has a specific postnatal time window and is orchestrated in a well-matched manner with the maturation of the infants. Such reactions could have been evolutionarily adaptive in mammalian mother–infant interactions. The findings have implications for parenting practices in developmentally normal populations. In addition, we propose that infants’ physiological response may be useful in clinical assessments as we discuss possible implications on early screening for child psychopathology (e.g., autism spectrum disorders and perinatal brain disorders). PMID:25932017

  1. 76 FR 32116 - Implementation of the Commercial Advertisement Loudness Mitigation (CALM) Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ...In this document, the Commission proposes rules to implement the Commercial Advertisement Loudness Mitigation (``CALM'') Act. Among other things, the CALM Act directs the Commission to incorporate into its rules by reference and make mandatory a technical standard developed by an industry standard-setting body that is designed to prevent television commercial advertisements from being......

  2. Physical Exercise as a Reinforcer to Promote Calmness of an ADHD Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrin, Nathan H.; Ehle, Christopher T.; Beaumont, Amy L.

    2006-01-01

    Age-appropriate reinforcers have been found to be effective in promoting attentiveness and calmness with children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present study with a 4-year-old ADHD boy found attentive calmness was substantially increased from a mean of about 3 seconds per trial to the maximum scheduled duration of 60…

  3. Gravel washing demonstration system and reducing the contaminated soil by BAT (Blend Air Tornado pump)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravel washing system is composed of Blend Air Tornado pump (BAT), gravel classification and muddy water purification equipments. Gravel contaminated by radioactive cesium, pure water and air are mixed in BAT. This process will wash the contaminated gravel and reduce its radioactivity quickly. BAT is operated under appropriate water pressure and air/water/solid gravel ratio. After washing the gravel, it is classified by grain gravel classification equipment and the muddy waste water is purified by cohesive material process. This process is simple and reasonable gravel washing system. Improvement of the existing technology and the maintenance management in easy operation and a small number of people are possible for the system. The system is demonstrated to be the high efficiency decontamination technology of radioactive cesium on soils such as gravel with energy saving system which does not give the load on the environment. (author)

  4. Reduced ozone by air filtration consistently improved grain yield in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study considered effects of reduced [O3] on wheat yield. Open-top chamber charcoal filtered air treatments were compared with non-filtered treatments for field-grown wheat. 30 experiments meeting requirements were found, representing nine countries in North America, Europe and Asia. 26 experiments reported improved yield and 4 experiments reduced yield by filtration, a significant positive effect. Average yield improvement was 9%. Average daytime [O3] was reduced by filtration from 35 to 13 nmol mol-1. Filtration efficiency was 63% for O3 and 56% for SO2. For NOx it was observed that NO2 was reduced and NO increased by filtration. Thus, filters convert NO2 to NO. Most experiments reported low or very low [SO2] and [NOx]. Thus, O3 can be concluded to be the main phytotoxic component in the experiments. Elevated [NO2] was observed in one experiment. The conclusion is that current [O3] over large parts of the world adversely affect wheat yield. - Research highlights: → Charcoal air filtration consistently improved grain yield in wheat. → Ozone was the most important pollutant to reduce wheat yield. → Charcoal filters remove O3, NO2 and SO2 but emit NO. - Reduced ozone in open-top chamber experiments improved wheat yield over wide geographic areas.

  5. Response of four foliage plants to heated soil and reduced air temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnaruk, W.H. Jr.; Mills, T.W.; Ingram, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Tip cuttings of Dieffenbachia maculata (Lodd.) G. Donn Exotic Perfection Compacta' and Aglaonema commutatum Schott Silver Queen and single eye cuttings of Epipremnum aureum (Linden and Andre) Bunt, and Philodendron scandens oxycardium (Schott) Bunt. were propagated in combinations of 4 minimum air temperatures, 45/sup 0/, 50/sup 0/, 55/sup 0/ and 60/sup 0/F (7.2/sup 0/, 10/sup 0/, 12.7/sup 0/, 15.5/sup 0/C), and 2 soil temperature treatments; controlled 70/sup 0/F (21/sup 0/C) minimum and variable. Maintaining minimum soil temperatures at 70/sup 0/F reduced production times for rooted Dieffenbachia and Aglaonema tips by 45% and of Epipremnum and Philodendron suitable for 3 inch pots by 35% and 25%, respectively, regardless of minimum air temperature. Minimum air temperature had little effect on Dieffenbachia or Aglaonema root number and length at 70/sup 0/F soil temperature. Similarly shoot length and number of leaves of Philodendron and Epipremnum were not affected by minimum air temperatures with 70/sup 0/F soil temperature. Plant quality was uniformly high in all crops at the 70/sup 0/F soil minimum for all air temperatures except Epipremnum which was chlorotic at 45/sup 0/F. A description of a warm water in-benching heating system is included. 6 references, 2 figures, 9 tables.

  6. The effects of reduced ventilation on indoor air quality in an office building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turiel, I.; Hollowell, C. D.; Miksch, R. R.; Rudy, J. V.; Young, R. A.; Coye, M. J.

    Indoor air quality was monitored at an office building in San Francisco, CA where occupants had registered eye, nose and throat irritation complaints. Portable air pollution monitoring equipment was placed on site to monitor air outdoors and at three indoor sites (a waiting room, an interview room and an office room), and data were taken under two different ventilation rates. The parameters measured were outside air flow rates, temperature, relative humidity, odor perception, microbial burden, particulate mass, formaldehyde and other organics, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. Carbon dioxide concentrations increased as the ventilation rate decreased; odor perceptibility increased slightly at the lowest ventilation rate, and other pollutants generally showed very low concentrations, which increased when ventilation was reduced. In no case, however, did levels exceed current health standards for outdoor air, nor was any one contaminant found to be responsible for the medical symptoms reported by occupants. It is possible that a synergistic effect of the various contaminants and environmental conditions may account for the discomfort of occupants.

  7. Hydrogen-air detonation cells computed using skeletal and reduced reaction mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, David; Taylor, Brian; Gamezo, Vadim; Oran, Elaine

    2011-11-01

    The multidimensional instability of gas-phase detonations results in a complex dynamic structure at the detonation front that leaves behind characteristic cellular patterns as it propagates. In fuel-air mixtures with high effective activation energies, such as hydrogen and air, these detonation cells can become irregular and modelling this behavior using reduced chemical reaction mechanisms can be challenging. Using complex reaction mechanisms, however, can be computationally overwhelming for problems of practical interest. We compare the reaction front structures and dynamic behavior of two-dimensional detonations in a stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixture computed using a 12-step skeletal mechanism and several reduced mechanisms, including a calibrated one-step model. We pay particular attention to how transverse instabilities that form in this high-activation-energy mixture are affected by the details of the chemistry model. We then discuss how to adjust the parameters in reduced reaction models to better describe irregular triple point behavior. NAS/NRC Postdoctoral Research Associate.

  8. Residential demand response reduces air pollutant emissions on peak electricity demand days in New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many urban areas in the United States have experienced difficulty meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), partially due to pollution from electricity generating units. We evaluated the potential for residential demand response to reduce pollutant emissions on days with above average pollutant emissions and a high potential for poor air quality. The study focused on New York City (NYC) due to non-attainment with NAAQS standards, large exposed populations, and the existing goal of reducing pollutant emissions. The baseline demand response scenario simulated a 1.8% average reduction in NYC peak demand on 49 days throughout the summer. Nitrogen oxide and particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter emission reductions were predicted to occur (−70, −1.1 metric tons (MT) annually), although, these were not likely to be sufficient for NYC to meet the NAAQS. Air pollution mediated damages were predicted to decrease by $100,000–$300,000 annually. A sensitivity analysis predicted that substantially larger pollutant emission reductions would occur if electricity demand was shifted from daytime hours to nighttime hours, or the total consumption decreased. Policies which incentivize shifting electricity consumption away from periods of high human and environmental impacts should be implemented, including policies directed toward residential consumers. - Highlights: • The impact of residential demand response on air emissions was modeled. • Residential demand response will decrease pollutant emissions in NYC. • Emissions reductions occur during periods with high potential for poor air quality. • Shifting demand to nighttime hours was more beneficial than to off-peak daytime hours

  9. Beneficial cardiovascular effects of reducing exposure to particulate air pollution with a simple facemask

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jing

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to air pollution is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and is associated with increased blood pressure, reduced heart rate variability, endothelial dysfunction and myocardial ischaemia. Our objectives were to assess the cardiovascular effects of reducing air pollution exposure by wearing a facemask. Methods In an open-label cross-over randomised controlled trial, 15 healthy volunteers (median age 28 years walked on a predefined city centre route in Beijing in the presence and absence of a highly efficient facemask. Personal exposure to ambient air pollution and exercise was assessed continuously using portable real-time monitors and global positional system tracking respectively. Cardiovascular effects were assessed by continuous 12-lead electrocardiographic and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Results Ambient exposure (PM2.5 86 ± 61 vs 140 ± 113 μg/m3; particle number 2.4 ± 0.4 vs 2.3 ± 0.4 × 104 particles/cm3, temperature (29 ± 1 vs 28 ± 3°C and relative humidity (63 ± 10 vs 64 ± 19% were similar (P > 0.05 for all on both study days. During the 2-hour city walk, systolic blood pressure was lower (114 ± 10 vs 121 ± 11 mmHg, P vs 88 ± 11/min; P > 0.05. Over the 24-hour period heart rate variability increased (SDNN 65.6 ± 11.5 vs 61.2 ± 11.4 ms, P vs 816 ± 340 ms2, P Conclusion Wearing a facemask appears to abrogate the adverse effects of air pollution on blood pressure and heart rate variability. This simple intervention has the potential to protect susceptible individuals and prevent cardiovascular events in cities with high concentrations of ambient air pollution.

  10. Reduced exposure to coughed air by a novel ventilation method for hospital patient rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Brand, Marek

    2012-01-01

    A novel hospital bed integrated ventilation and cleaning unit (HBIVCU) for local airflow control and cleansing, limiting the airborne spread of contagious air coughed from a sick patient in a hospital room, was developed. The performance efficiency of the unit, to successfully reduce occupants......’ exposure to coughed air, was studied in a full-scale, two-bed hospital room mock-up, 4.65 m x 4.65 m x 2.60 m (W x L x H), with two patients and a doctor. Four units were placed along the two sides of both beds close to the head. The room was ventilated by overhead mixing air distribution at 22 °C room air...... temperature. The sick coughing patient was simulated by a heated dummy with simplified geometry equipped with a cough generator. Similar heated dummy was used for the second patient. A dressed breathing thermal manikin with realistic human body and surface temperature was used to mimic a doctor standing...

  11. Air quality and human health improvements from reduced deforestation in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddington, C.; Butt, E. W.; Ridley, D. A.; Artaxo, P.; Morgan, W.; Coe, H.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    Significant areas of the Brazilian Amazon have been deforested over the past few decades, with fire being the dominant method through which forests and vegetation are cleared. Fires emit large quantities of particulate matter into the atmosphere, degrading air quality and negatively impacting human health. Since 2004, Brazil has achieved substantial reductions in deforestation rates and associated deforestation fires. Here we assess the impact of this reduction on air quality and human health. We show that dry season (August - October) aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved by satellite over southwest Brazil and Bolivia is positively related to Brazil's annual deforestation rate (r=0.96, Pdeforestation rates compared to years with low deforestation rates, suggesting regional air quality is degraded substantially by fire emissions associated with deforestation. This link is further demonstrated by the positive relationship between observed AOD and satellite-derived particulate emissions from deforestation fires (r=0.89, Pdeforestation have reduced regional dry season mean surface particulate matter concentrations by ~30%. Using concentration response functions we estimate that this reduction in particulate matter may be preventing 1060 (388-1721) premature adult mortalities annually across South America. Future increases in Brazil's deforestation rates and associated fires may threaten the improved air quality reported here.

  12. I am Calm: Towards a Psychoneurological Evaluation of ABC Ringtones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N.A. Brown

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Anthropology-Based Computing (ABC suggests that socio-cultural, neurological, and physiological parameters of normal human interaction with the world can be applied to current technology in order to improve Human-Computer Interaction (HCI. To challenge this theory, we hypothesized smartphone ringtones that could be targeted to specific people in a manner that would inform them without disturbing their work or the work of others. In this paper we report the quantitative data from the first formal trials of these ‘ABC ringtones’. Beta Wave activity patterns were recorded in the brains of 10 participants exposed to 5 different ringtones at three different volumes while they were focused on performing a typing test in a noisy environment. Our preliminary findings seem to show that the ABC ringtones - at a volume too low to be consciously heard - triggered a response in the pre-attentive part of the brain, and that the embedded information was transferred to the attentive part of the brain by an internal mechanism that did not disrupt the work being done in the typing task. We propose that these results provide preliminary evidence for the ABC model of HCI and its explanation of the centering mechanism that is requisite if Peripheral Interaction is to be applied in changing Ubiquitous Computing into Calm Technology.

  13. Calming the mind: Healing after mass atrocity in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agger, Inger

    2015-08-01

    After catastrophic events in which people's survival has been threatened, as happened during the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia 1975-1979, some continue to suffer from painful mental symptoms. Surveys carried out in Cambodia based on Western diagnostic categories have found a high prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety symptoms in the population. This study explored Cambodian approaches to healing trauma, examining the ways in which Cambodians appeal to elements of Buddhism in their efforts to calm their minds, situating this mode of coping in the context of broader Khmer Buddhist practice and understandings. Western psychology may have much to learn from local, contextualised methods of dealing with the aftermath of trauma, including Khmer understandings of distress and approaches to relief. Methods of assessment and treatment of distress cannot be transposed wholesale from one cultural setting to another but require considerable cultural adaptation. This kind of cultural interchange may give rise to innovative, hybrid discourses and methods that may have much to offer in the support of victims of organised violence. PMID:25653141

  14. Cost/benefit trade-offs for reducing the energy consumption of commercial air transportation (RECAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobetz, F. W.; Leshane, A. A.

    1976-01-01

    The RECAT study evaluated the opportunities for reducing the energy requirements of the U.S. domestic air passenger transport system through improved operational techniques, modified in-service aircraft, derivatives of current production models, or new aircraft using either current or advanced technology. Each of these fuel-conserving alternatives was investigated individually to test its potential for fuel conservation relative to a hypothetical baseline case in which current, in-production aircraft types are assumed to operate, without modification and with current operational techniques, into the future out to the year 2000. Consequently, while the RECAT results lend insight into the directions in which technology can best be pursued for improved air transport fuel economy, no single option studied in the RECAT program is indicative of a realistic future scenario.

  15. Reduced adverse effects on Si thin film solar cells caused by growth chamber air exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Fan; Zhang, Lin; Zheng, Yi; Schimitt, Francimar; Tso, Alan; Li, Lipan; Tsuei, Lun; Yuan, Zheng; Shieh, Brian [Thin Film Solar Products Division, Applied Materials, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The cost of photovoltaic (PV) energy is reduced by increasing solar cell power conversion efficiency and decreasing manufacture cost. An effective way of lowering the cost of Si thin film solar cells (TFSC) is to grow panels on large-area substrates. In this paper we study the effect of air residual to Si TFSC grown on 5.7 m{sup 2} glass in plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) chambers. Structural and chemical analysis show that oxygen incorporated into the Si films behaved as impurity dopant in the hydrogenated microcrystalline Si ({mu}c-Si) layers and reduced the efficiency of amorphous Si (a-Si)/{mu}c-Si tandem junction solar cells when the film had oxygen concentration >2 x 10{sup 19} atoms/cm{sup 3}. Higher oxygen content further suppressed the {mu}c-Si crystallization. We found that hydrogen plasma treatment of process chamber before Si film deposition effectively reduced the adverse effects of air exposure and improved both film quality and solar cell performance. The hydrogen-treated chamber produced contamination-free, solar cells with consistent, initial efficiency >10%. (author)

  16. Prediction of Ship Unsteady Maneuvering in Calm Water by a Fully Nonlinear Ship Motion Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ray-Qing Lin; Tim Smith; Michael Hughes

    2012-01-01

    This is the continuation of our research on development of a fully nonlinear, dynamically consistent, numerical ship motion model (DiSSEL). In this study we will report our results in predicting ship motions in unsteady maneuvering in calm water. During the unsteady maneuvering, both the rudder angle, and ship forward speed vary with time. Therefore, not only surge, sway, and yaw motions occur, but roll, pitch and heave motions will also occur even in calm water as heel, trim, and sinkage, re...

  17. Development of air conditioning technologies to reduce CO2 emissions in the commercial sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida Yukiko

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Architectural methods that take into account global environmental conservation generally concentrate on mitigating the heat load of buildings. Here, we evaluate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions that can be achieved by improving heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC technologies. Results The Climate Change Research Hall (CCRH of the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES is used as a case study. CCRH was built in line with the "Green Government Buildings" program of the Government Buildings Department at the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport in Japan. We have assessed the technology used in this building, and found that there is a possibility to reduce energy consumption in the HVAC system by 30%. Conclusion Saving energy reduces CO2 emissions in the commercial sector, although emission factors depend on the country or region. Consequently, energy savings potential may serve as a criterion in selecting HVAC technologies with respect to emission reduction targets.

  18. Cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the commercial air transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, E. F.; Vanabkoude, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The fuel saving potential and cost effectiveness of numerous operational and technical options proposed for reducing the fuel consumption of the U.S. commercial airline fleet was examined and compared. The impact of the most promising fuel conserving options on fuel consumption, passenger demand, operating costs and airline profits when implemented in the U.S. domestic and international airline fleets was determined. A forecast estimate was made of the potential fuel savings achievable in the U.S. scheduled air transportation system. Specifically, the means for reducing the jet fuel consumption of the U.S. scheduled airlines in domestic and international passenger operations were investigated. A design analysis was made of two turboprop aircraft as possible fuel conserving derivatives of the DC-9-30.

  19. Meeting Report: Estimating the Benefits of Reducing Hazardous Air Pollutants—Summary of 2009 Workshop and Future Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Gwinn, Maureen R.; Craig, Jeneva; Axelrad, Daniel A.; Cook, Rich; Dockins, Chris; Fann, Neal; Fegley, Robert; Guinnup, David E.; Helfand, Gloria; Hubbell, Bryan; Mazur, Sarah L.; Palma, Ted; Smith, Roy L.; Vandenberg, John; Sonawane, Babasaheb

    2010-01-01

    Background Quantifying the benefits of reducing hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) has been limited by gaps in toxicological data, uncertainties in extrapolating results from high-dose animal experiments to estimate human effects at lower doses, limited ambient and personal exposure monitoring data, and insufficient economic research to support valuation of the health impacts often associated with exposure to individual air toxics. Objectives To address some of these issues, the U...

  20. Wearable Personal Exhaust Ventilation, WPEV: Improved Indoor Air Quality and Reduced Exposure to Air Exhaled from a Sick Doctor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho D.; Barova, Maria; Melikov, Arsen K.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure reduction to exhaled air from a sick doctor wearing a personal exhaust unit incorporated in a headset-microphone was studied. Experiments were performed in a full-scale test room furnished as a double-bed hospital room with overhead ventilation at 3, 6, and 12 air changes per hour. Room...

  1. One-step reduced kinetics for lean hydrogen-air deflagration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Galisteo, D.; Sanchez, A.L. [Area de Mecanica de Fluidos, Univ. Carlos III de Madrid, Leganes 28911 (Spain); Linan, A. [ETSI Aeronauticos, Pl. Cardenal Cisneros 3, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Williams, F.A. [Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0411 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    A short mechanism consisting of seven elementary reactions, of which only three are reversible, is shown to provide good predictions of hydrogen-air lean-flame burning velocities. This mechanism is further simplified by noting that over a range of conditions of practical interest, near the lean flammability limit all reaction intermediaries have small concentrations in the important thin reaction zone that controls the hydrogen-air laminar burning velocity and therefore follow a steady state approximation, while the main species react according to the global irreversible reaction 2H{sub 2} + O{sub 2} {yields} 2H{sub 2}O. An explicit expression for the non-Arrhenius rate of this one-step overall reaction for hydrogen oxidation is derived from the seven-step detailed mechanism, for application near the flammability limit. The one-step results are used to calculate flammability limits and burning velocities of planar deflagrations. Furthermore, implications concerning radical profiles in the deflagration and reasons for the success of the approximations are clarified. It is also demonstrated that adding only two irreversible direct recombination steps to the seven-step mechanism accurately reproduces burning velocities of the full detailed mechanism for all equivalence ratios at normal atmospheric conditions and that an eight-step detailed mechanism, constructed from the seven-step mechanism by adding to it the fourth reversible shuffle reaction, improves predictions of O and OH profiles. The new reduced-chemistry descriptions can be useful for both analytical and computational studies of lean hydrogen-air flames, decreasing required computation times. (author)

  2. Photocatalytic Removal of Formaldehyde from Air Using Titanium Oxide-Reduced Graphene Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Rastkari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Formaldehyde is a toxic volatile organic compound, which its removal from polluted air is essential. One of the techniques available for removing such compounds is photocatalytic degradation. The aim of this study was to investigate the photocatalytic degradation of gaseous formaldehyde on TiO2 nanoparticles coated on reduced graphene oxide Materials and Methods: The synthesized reduced graphene oxide- TiO2 nanocomposite was characterized using SEM, EDS, and FTIR spectra. The photocatalytic activity of prepared reduced graphene oxide- TiO2 nanocomposite was investigated for degradation of gaseous toluene under different operational conditions such as different initial concentration, flow rate, and time. Results: The photocatalytic degradation efficiency of the RGO-TiO2 nanocomposite was much higher than P25 TiO2. The photocatalytic degradation efficiency of the RGO-TiO2 nanocomposite decreased by increasing the flow rate so the flow rate is a key factor for the use of RGO-TiO2 nanocomposite as a photocatalyst. The results showed that the photocatalytic degradation rates decreased from 89 to 30% with increasing formaldehyde initial concentration from 0.1 to 1 ppm. Conclusion: This research indicated that RGO-TiO2 nanocomposite can be effectively used as suitable photocatalyst to remove gaseous pollutants. One of the advantages of the as-prepared composite was using visible light instead of UV to activate the oxidation process.

  3. Reduced heat stress in offices in the tropics using solar powered drying of the supply air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsen, Lars; Santos, A M B

    2002-01-01

    Many solutions to indoor climate problems known from developed countries may have prohibitive installation and running costs in developing countries. The purpose was to develop a low-cost solution to heat stress in a hot and humid environment based on solar powered drying of supply air. Dry supply...... air may facilitate personal cooling by increased evaporation of sweat. Heat acclimatized people with efficient sweating may in particular benefit from this cooling. A prototype solar powered supply system for dried-only air was made. Air from the system was mixed with room air, heated to six different...... content of room air, temperature of supply air and moisture content of supply air was developed based on the experiments. Reduction of moisture content in the supply air by 1.6 g/kg had the same effect as lowering the operative temperature by 1 degree C. The solar-powered system for supplying dry air...

  4. Developing a Web-Based Advisory Expert System for Implementing Traffic Calming Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Falamarzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lack of traffic safety has become a serious issue in residential areas. In this paper, a web-based advisory expert system for the purpose of applying traffic calming strategies on residential streets is described because there currently lacks a structured framework for the implementation of such strategies. Developing an expert system can assist and advise engineers for dealing with traffic safety problems. This expert system is developed to fill the gap between the traffic safety experts and people who seek to employ traffic calming strategies including decision makers, engineers, and students. In order to build the expert system, examining sources related to traffic calming studies as well as interviewing with domain experts have been carried out. The system includes above 150 rules and 200 images for different types of measures. The system has three main functions including classifying traffic calming measures, prioritizing traffic calming strategies, and presenting solutions for different traffic safety problems. Verifying, validating processes, and comparing the system with similar works have shown that the system is consistent and acceptable for practical uses. Finally, some recommendations for improving the system are presented.

  5. Zonal-mean circulation response to reduced air-sea momentum roughness

    CERN Document Server

    Polichtchouk, I

    2016-01-01

    The impact of uncertainties in surface layer physics on the atmospheric general circulation is comparatively unexplored. Here the sensitivity of the zonal-mean circulation to reduced air-sea momentum roughness ($Z_{0m}$) at low flow speed is investigated with the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3). In an aquaplanet framework with prescribed sea surface temperatures, the response to reduced $Z_{0m}$ resembles the La Ni$\\tilde{\\text{n}}$a minus El Ni$\\tilde{\\text{n}}$o response to El Ni$\\tilde{\\text{n}}$o Southern Oscillation variability with: i) a poleward shift of the mid-latitude westerlies extending all the way to the surface; ii) a weak poleward shift of the subtropical descent region; and iii) a weakening of the Hadley circulation, which is generally also accompanied by a poleward shift of the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and the tropical surface easterlies. Mechanism-denial experiments show this response to be initiated by the reduction of tropical latent and sensible heat fluxes, effected by re...

  6. Advanced air distribution: Improving health and comfort while reducing energy use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2015-01-01

    -quality indoor environments at the same time as low-energy consumption. Advanced air distribution, designed to supply clean air where, when, and as much as needed, makes it possible to efficiently achieve thermal comfort, control exposure to contaminants, provide high-quality air for breathing and minimizing the......Indoor environment affects the health, comfort, and performance of building occupants. The energy used for heating, cooling, ventilating, and air conditioning of buildings is substantial. Ventilation based on total volume air distribution in spaces is not always an efficient way to provide high....... The focus is on advanced air distribution in spaces, its guiding principles and its advantages and disadvantages. Examples of advanced air distribution solutions in spaces for different use, such as offices, hospital rooms, vehicle compartments, are presented. The potential of advanced air...

  7. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy ? FY11 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Cohn, Sebastian; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2011-10-31

    The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel volatile organic compounds (VOCs) air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. we targeted a VOC air cleaning system that could enable a 50% reduction in ventilation rates. In a typical commercial HVAC system that provides a mixture of recirculated and outdoor air, a VOC air cleaner in the supply airstream must have a 15% to 20% VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50% reduction in outdoor air supply.

  8. Reduced heat stress in offices in the tropics using solar powered drying of the supply air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnarsen, L. [By og Byg. Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut, Hoersholm (Denmark); Santos, A.M.B. [Univ. of the Philippines, Diliman (Philippines)

    2002-07-01

    Many solutions to indoor climate problems known from developed countries may have prohibitive installation and running costs in developing countries. The purpose was to develop a low-cost solution to heat stress in a hot and humid environment based on solar powered drying of supply air. Dry supply air may facilitate personal cooling by increased evaporation of sweat. Heat acclimatized people with efficient sweating may in particular benefit from this cooling. A prototype solar powered supply system for dried-only air was made. Air from the system was mixed with room air, heated to six different combinations of temperature and humidity and led to Personal Units for Ventilation and Cooling (PUVAC) in six cubicles simulating office workplaces. A total of 123 heat acclimatized subjects were exposed 45 min in each of the cubicles. A model for the combined effect of operative temperature of room, moisture content of room air, temperature of supply air and moisture content of supply air was developed based on the experiments. Reduction of moisture content in the supply air by 1.6 g/kg had the same effect as lowering the operative temperature by 1deg C. The solar-powered system for supplying dry air is a low-cost alternative to traditional air conditioning in hot and humid regions. (au)

  9. Reduced heat stress in offices in the tropics using solar powered drying of the supply air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsen, L; Santos, A M B

    2002-12-01

    Many solutions to indoor climate problems known from developed countries may have prohibitive installation and running costs in developing countries. The purpose was to develop a low-cost solution to heat stress in a hot and humid environment based on solar powered drying of supply air. Dry supply air may facilitate personal cooling by increased evaporation of sweat. Heat acclimatized people with efficient sweating may in particular benefit from this cooling. A prototype solar powered supply system for dried-only air was made. Air from the system was mixed with room air, heated to six different combinations of temperature and humidity and led to Personal Units for Ventilation and Cooling (PUVAC) in six cubicles simulating office workplaces. A total of 123 heat acclimatized subjects were exposed 45 min in each of the cubicles. A model for the combined effect of operative temperature of room, moisture content of room air, temperature of supply air and moisture content of supply air was developed based on the experiments. Reduction of moisture content in the supply air by 1.6 g/kg had the same effect as lowering the operative temperature by 1 degree C. The solar-powered system for supplying dry air is a low-cost alternative to traditional air conditioning in hot and humid regions. PMID:12532757

  10. China’s Three Giants in Air Conditioner Manufacturing Reduced Production to Cut Excessive Inventory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Midea,Haier and Gree,China’s three giants in air conditioner manufacturing who have been troubled by an excessive inventory due to a cool summer this year,have cut their produc- tions,marking a premature end to the huge de- mand in China’s air conditioner market lasting for three consecutive years.Currently the whole industry has an inventory of more than 10 million air conditioners.

  11. The Allure of Technology: How France and California Promoted Electric Vehicles to Reduce Urban Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Calef, David; Goble, Robert

    2005-01-01

    All advanced industrialized societies face the problem of air pollution produced by motor vehicles. In spite of striking improvements in internal combustion engine technology, air pollution in most urban areas is still measured at levels determined to be harmful to human health. Throughout the 1990s and beyond, California and France both chose to improve air quality by means of technological innovation, adopting legislation that promoted clean vehicles, prominently among them, electric vehicl...

  12. Fuelling clean air : municipal fuel purchasing policies that reduce emissions contributing to poor air quality and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air quality can be improved by low sulphur fuels in two ways: through the direct reduction of sulphates, sulphur dioxide and PM; and by improving the effectiveness of existing emission control devices. This report examined three case studies involving the fuel purchasing policies in three Ontario municipalities: Toronto, Waterloo, and Brampton. Toronto favors purchasing conventional fuels with lower sulphur levels. Waterloo will purchase on-road diesel for its off-road diesel fleet; ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) for buses; and 10 per cent ethanol blended with 90 per cent gasoline (E10) for its gasoline-fuelled fleet. Brampton purchased 20 per cent biodiesel blended with 80 per cent on-road diesel (B20). Two approaches were examined for lowering emissions from gasoline fuelled vehicles: favouring gasoline with the lowest sulphur levels, and purchasing E10. It was recommended that the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) Clean Air Council look into: ownership of emissions trading credits created as a result of fuel purchasing policies; the benefits of, and mechanisms available for, pooling fuel purchases; and, establishing a subcommittee to monitor developments related to fuels, vehicles and emission control technologies. 48 refs., 18 tabs

  13. Development of ANFIS models for air quality forecasting and input optimization for reducing the computational cost and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kanchan; Gorai, Amit Kumar; Goyal, Pramila

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to develop adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for forecasting of daily air pollution concentrations of five air pollutants [sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3) and particular matters (PM10)] in the atmosphere of a Megacity (Howrah). Air pollution in the city (Howrah) is rising in parallel with the economics and thus observing, forecasting and controlling the air pollution becomes increasingly important due to the health impact. ANFIS serve as a basis for constructing a set of fuzzy IF-THEN rules, with appropriate membership functions to generate the stipulated input-output pairs. The ANFIS model predictor considers the value of meteorological factors (pressure, temperature, relative humidity, dew point, visibility, wind speed, and precipitation) and previous day's pollutant concentration in different combinations as the inputs to predict the 1-day advance and same day air pollution concentration. The concentration value of five air pollutants and seven meteorological parameters of the Howrah city during the period 2009 to 2011 were used for development of the ANFIS model. Collinearity tests were conducted to eliminate the redundant input variables. A forward selection (FS) method is used for selecting the different subsets of input variables. Application of collinearity tests and FS techniques reduces the numbers of input variables and subsets which helps in reducing the computational cost and time. The performances of the models were evaluated on the basis of four statistical indices (coefficient of determination, normalized mean square error, index of agreement, and fractional bias).

  14. Physical Activity as Reinforcement for Classroom Calmness of ADHD Children: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrin, Nathan H.; Vinas, Veronica; Ehle, Christopher T.

    2007-01-01

    Contingent reward procedures have been found beneficial in improving classroom conduct of ADHD children. Based on the conceptualization of the Premack Principle, a previous single-subject study of an ADHD Autistic child suggested the novel use of physical activity availability as a reinforcer for attentive calmness of the Attention Deficit…

  15. 78 FR 70907 - Implementation of the Commercial Advertisement Loudness Mitigation (CALM) Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ..., 77 FR 40276, July 9, 2012 (CALM Act Report and Order). \\4\\ See infra para. 7. II. Background 2. On... Order on Reconsideration, FCC 95-196, 60 FR 35854, July 12, 1995. \\43\\ NCTA, Industry Data, Number of...-189, Thirteenth Annual Report, FCC 07- 206, 74 FR 11102, March 16, 2009 (Thirteenth Annual...

  16. The range and effectiveness of short-term measures to reduce traffic emissions during high air pollution episodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concern for continuing poor urban air quality, caused primarily by motor vehicles emissions, and the slow progress being made towards reducing total vehicle emissions by long-term measures, such as improving fuel and vehicle technologies, has prompted some authorities to try to reduce the severity and duration of high air pollution episodes by implementing short-term traffic restraint measures. This paper reviews the range of episodic air quality management schemes applied in cities around the world and comments on the effectiveness of such schemes. The difficulty of targeting vehicles according to the contribution they make to the air quality problem is highlighted. The problem of some schemes simply causing a displacement of the area of excessive vehicle emissions rather than reducing total emissions is reviewed. Rapid developments in telematics and improved urban air quality and traffic monitoring networks (e.g. Urban Traffic Management and Control systems) may offer significant improvements in the effectiveness of episodic management schemes in the future. (Author)

  17. Analysis of copper surface features obtained using TEA CO2 laser at reduced air pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interaction of a transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO2 laser with rough copper surface, at reduced air pressure, was studied. Optical pulse duration of the laser employed was ∼2 μs, with the initial spike FWHM of ∼100 ns. Laser energy density of ∼32 J/cm2 (intensity ∼108 W/cm2) was above the plasma ignition threshold. Morphological features of the copper can be summarized as follows: (i) superficial damages, which take crater-shaped form at a higher number of accumulated laser pulses, (ii) development of melt pools with visible bubbles inside the damage region, (iii) formation of solid droplets at near periphery, and (iv) presence of “halo” effect at the irradiated surface. The laser induced surface changes were influenced by the target plasma formation. The formation of plasma influenced the laser–target interaction in two opposite ways: trough absorption of laser energy by the plasma, i.e. trough the effect of plasma shielding, and trough energy transfer from the plasma to the sample. Optical emission spectra were compared for laser induced plasma originated by a single and by cumulative laser pulses. It was found that plasma dimensions and emission intensities have a strong correlation with the number of accumulated laser pulses. Enhancement of both atomic and ionic copper lines was registered when laser induced plasma originated from a single pulse. Chemical analysis of the surface showed a tendency of copper content increase and oxygen content reduction when going from non-irradiated region to the central irradiated region. In the central damage zone, nearly pure copper was present which can be advantageous for some applications due to considerably lower contamination.

  18. Improved inhaled air quality at reduced ventilation rate by control of airflow interaction at the breathing zone with lobed jets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Spilak, Michal;

    2014-01-01

    Inhaled air quality at a reduced supply of clean air was studied by controlling the airflow interaction at the breathing zone of a person using lobed jets as part of personalized ventilation (PV). Experiments were performed in a full-scale test room at 23°C (73.4°F) with a breathing thermal manikin...... seated at a workstation, with realistic free-convection flow around the body and a normal breathing cycle. The air in the room was mixed with tracer gas R134a. Clean air was supplied isothermally from three nozzles with circular, four-leafed clover, and six-edged star openings of 0.025 m (0.08 ft...

  19. Selected Information on European Union Research and Development Programmes and Projects focused on Reducing Emissions from Air Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Koblen, Ivan; Szabo, Stanislav; Krnáčová, Katarína

    2013-01-01

    The paper in the introductory part informs on the structure of jet engines emissions and introduce some facts regarding the timing progressive development in the area of aviation emissions reducing. The second part of the paper is focusing on introducing selected information concerning strategies and goals of the international aviation organizations (especially ACARE and IATA) as well as the European Commission in reducing emissions from air transport issue, including principle information ...

  20. CALM: cascading system with leaking detection mechanism for medical image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Lim, Joo Hwee; Li, Huiqi

    2008-03-01

    Medical image segmentation is a challenging process due to possible image over-segmentation and under-segmentation (leaking). The CALM medical image segmentation system is constructed with an innovative scheme that cascades threshold level-set and region-growing segmentation algorithms using Union and Intersection set operators. These set operators help to balance the over-segmentation rate and under-segmentation rate of the system respectively. While adjusting the curvature scalar parameter in the threshold level-set algorithm, we observe that the abrupt change in the size of the segmented areas coincides with the occurrences of possible leaking. Instead of randomly choose a value or use the system default curvature scalar values, this observation prompts us to use the following formula in CALM to automatically decide the optimal curvature values γ to prevent the occurrence of leaking : δ2S/δγ2 >= M, where S is the size of the segmented area and M is a large positive number. Motivated for potential applications in organ transplant and analysis, the CALM system is tested on the segmentation of the kidney regions from the Magnetic Resonance images taken from the National University Hospital of Singapore. Due to the nature of MR imaging, low-contrast, weak edges and overlapping regions of adjacent organs at kidney boundaries are frequently seen in the datasets and hence kidney segmentation is prone to leaking. The kidney segmentation accuracy rate achieved by CALM is 22% better compared with those achieved by the component algorithms or the system without leaking detection mechanism. CALM is easy-to-implement and can be applied to many applications besides kidney segmentation.

  1. Implementation of the CALM intervention for anxiety disorders: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curran Geoffrey M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigators recently tested the effectiveness of a collaborative-care intervention for anxiety disorders: Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management(CALM [] in 17 primary care clinics around the United States. Investigators also conducted a qualitative process evaluation. Key research questions were as follows: (1 What were the facilitators/barriers to implementing CALM? (2 What were the facilitators/barriers to sustaining CALM after the study was completed? Methods Key informant interviews were conducted with 47 clinic staff members (18 primary care providers, 13 nurses, 8 clinic administrators, and 8 clinic staff and 14 study-trained anxiety clinical specialists (ACSs who coordinated the collaborative care and provided cognitive behavioral therapy. The interviews were semistructured and conducted by phone. Data were content analyzed with line-by-line analyses leading to the development and refinement of themes. Results Similar themes emerged across stakeholders. Important facilitators to implementation included the perception of "low burden" to implement, provider satisfaction with the intervention, and frequent provider interaction with ACSs. Barriers to implementation included variable provider interest in mental health, high rates of part-time providers in clinics, and high social stressors of lower socioeconomic-status patients interfering with adherence. Key sustainability facilitators were if a clinic had already incorporated collaborative care for another disorder and presence of onsite mental health staff. The main barrier to sustainability was funding for the ACS. Conclusions The CALM intervention was relatively easy to incorporate during the effectiveness trial, and satisfaction was generally high. Numerous implementation and sustainability barriers could limit the reach and impact of widespread adoption. Findings should be interpreted with the knowledge that the ACSs in this study were provided and trained by

  2. Evaluation of antistress, anxiolytic and hypnotic activity of vedic calm, a polyherbal formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K N Bharathi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate antistress, annxiolytic and hypnotic activity of Vedic calm, a polyherbal formulation comprising of Bacopa monnieri, Centella asiatica, Evolvulus alsinides and many other related plants extracts, all of which are classified in ayurveda as rasayanas which are reported to promote physical and mental health and also possess depressant activity. Antistress activity was evaluated by cold immobilization induced stress for 10 days in rats using Withania somnifera (100 mg/kg as reference standard. Antianxiety activity was evaluated by elevated plus maze and light and dark box in acute study and elevated plus maze in chronic study of 10 days in rats, using diazepam (2 mg/kg as reference standard. Hypnotic activity was evaluated by potentiation of thiopental induced sleeping time in mice. Stress was evidenced by occurrence of gastric ulcer, elevation of adrenals weight, liver weight, serum glucose, AST, ALT, cholesterol, WBC and reduction of spleen weight. Vedic calm pretreatment in rats with doses of 135 mg/kg, 270 mg/kg p.o. and standard drug Withania somnifera significantly reversed all the changes those were due to stress. The Vedic calm at 270 mg/kg significantly increased the time spent and number of entries into open arms in elevated plus maze and increased the time spent and number of entries into light box in light and dark box model. The Vedic calm at a dose of 390 mg/kg significantly potentiated duration of thiopental induced sleeping time in mice. The Vedic calm showed significant antistress, anxiolytic and hypnotic activity.

  3. Reducing burden of disease from residential indoor air exposures in Europe (HEALTHVENT project)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asikainen, Arja; Carrer, Paolo; Kephalopoulos, Stylianos;

    2016-01-01

    D) calculations taking into account asthma, cardiovascular (CV) diseases, acute toxication, respiratory infections, lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Results: The quantitative comparison of three main policy approaches, (i) optimising ventilation rates only; (ii) filtration of outdoor......Background: The annual burden of disease caused indoor air pollution, including polluted outdoor air used to ventilate indoor spaces, is estimated to correspond to a loss of over 2 million healthy life years in the European Union (EU). Based on measurements of the European Environment Agency (EEA......), approximately 90 % of EU citizens live in areas where the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for air quality of particulate matter sized <2.5 mm (PM2.5) are not met. Since sources of pollution reside in both indoor and outdoor air, selecting the most appropriate ventilation strategy is not a simple and...

  4. Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Szabolcs Péter; Fernando Holguin; Wood, Lisa G; Clougherty, Jane E; Daniel Raederstorff; Magda Antal; Peter Weber; Manfred Eggersdorfer

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors—including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources)—as well as l...

  5. The use of fault detection and diagnostics to reduce air handling unit energy consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Bruton, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of buildings towards total worldwide energy consumption in developed countries is between 20% and 40%. Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC), and more specifically Air Handling Units (AHUs) energy consumption accounts on average for 40% of a typical medical device manufacturing or pharmaceutical facility’s energy consumption. Studies have indicated that 20 – 30% energy savings are achievable by recommissioning HVAC systems, and more specifically AHU operations, to r...

  6. New trajectory-driven aerosol and chemical process model Chemical and Aerosol Lagrangian Model (CALM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tunved

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A new Chemical and Aerosol Lagrangian Model (CALM has been developed and tested. The model incorporates all central aerosol dynamical processes, from nucleation, condensation, coagulation and deposition to cloud formation and in-cloud processing. The model is tested and evaluated against observations performed at the SMEAR II station located at Hyytiälä (61° 51' N, 24° 17' E over a time period of two years, 2000–2001. The model shows good agreement with measurements throughout most of the year, but fails in reproducing the aerosol properties during the winter season, resulting in poor agreement between model and measurements especially during December–January. Nevertheless, through the rest of the year both trends and magnitude of modal concentrations show good agreement with observation, as do the monthly average size distribution properties. The model is also shown to capture individual nucleation events to a certain degree. This indicates that nucleation largely is controlled by the availability of nucleating material (as prescribed by the [H2SO4], availability of condensing material (in this model 15% of primary reactions of monoterpenes (MT are assumed to produce low volatile species and the properties of the size distribution (more specifically, the condensation sink. This is further demonstrated by the fact that the model captures the annual trend in nuclei mode concentration. The model is also used, alongside sensitivity tests, to examine which processes dominate the aerosol size distribution physical properties. It is shown, in agreement with previous studies, that nucleation governs the number concentration during transport from clean areas. It is also shown that primary number emissions almost exclusively govern the CN concentration when air from Central Europe is advected north over Scandinavia. We also show that biogenic emissions have a large influence on the amount of potential CCN observed

  7. New trajectory driven aerosol and chemical process model: chemical and aerosol Lagrangian model (CALM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tunved

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A new Chemical and Aerosol Lagrangian Model (CALM have been developed and tested. The model incorporates all central aerosol dynamical processes, from nucleation, condensation, coagulation and deposition to cloud formation and in-cloud processing. The model is tested and evaluated against observations performed at the SMEAR II station located at Hyytiälä (61°51' N, 24°17' E over a time period of two years, 2000–2001. The model shows good agreement with measurements throughout most of the year, but fails in reproducing the aerosol properties during the winter season, resulting in poor agreement between model and measurements especially during December–January. Nevertheless, through the rest of the year both trends and magnitude of modal concentrations show good agreement with observation, as do the monthly average size distribution properties. The model is also shown to capture individual nucleation events to a certain degree. This indicates that nucleation largely is controlled by the availability of nucleating material (as prescribed by the [H2SO4], availability of condensing material (in this model 15% of primary reactions of monoterpenes (MT are assumed to produce low volatile species and the properties of the size distribution (more specifically, the condensation sink. This is further demonstrated by the fact that the model captures the annual trend in nuclei mode concentration. The model is also used, alongside sensitivity tests, to examine which processes dominate the aerosol size distribution physical properties. It is shown, in agreement with previous studies, that nucleation governs the number concentration while transport from clean areas takes place. It is also shown that primary number emissions almost exclusively govern the CN concentration when air from Central Europe is advected north over Scandinavia. We also show that biogenic emissions have a large influence on the amount of potential CCN observed

  8. Air quality in a simulated office environment as a result of reducing pollution sources and increasing ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Bako-Biro, Zsolt; Clausen, Geo;

    2002-01-01

    and paper documents) so that the space could no longer be classified as low-polluting. The outdoor air supply rate in the office was altered from 1 to 3 h-1 (0.83 and 2.5 l/s per m2 floor, respectively) when sources were present and absent. Air temperature of 23 deg.C, relative humidity of 50% and noise......Air quality was studied in an office space classified as low-polluting and ventilated with outdoor air at a rate of 1 h-1. The pollution load in the space was changed by introducing or removing common building-related indoor pollution sources (linoleum, sealant and wooden shelves with books...... level of 35 dB(A) remained unchanged. Under each of the four conditions of air quality in the office, concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured and perceived air quality was assessed by a panel of 30 female subjects. Removing the sources reduced the chemical and sensory pollution...

  9. Air quality in a simulated office environment as a result of reducing pollution sources and increasing ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Bako-Biro, Zsolt; Clausen, Geo; Fanger, Povl Ole

    paper documents) so that the space could no longer be classified as low-polluting. The outdoor air supply rate in the office was altered from 1 to 3 h-1 (0.83 and 2.5 l/s per m2 floor, respectively) when sources were present and absent. Air temperature of 23 deg.C, relative humidity of 50% and noise......Air quality was studied in an office space classified as low-polluting and ventilated with outdoor air at a rate of 1 h-1. The pollution load in the space was changed by introducing or removing common building-related indoor pollution sources (linoleum, sealant and wooden shelves with books and...... level of 35 dB(A) remained unchanged. Under each of the four conditions of air quality in the office, concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured and perceived air quality was assessed by a panel of 30 female subjects. Removing the sources reduced the chemical and sensory pollution...

  10. Use of a seismic air gun to reduce survival of nonnative lake trout embryos: A tool for conservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, B.S.; Dux, A.M.; Quist, M.C.; Guy, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    The detrimental impacts of nonnative lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in the western USA have prompted natural resource management agencies in several states to implement lake trout suppression programs. Currently, these programs rely on mechanical removal methods (i.e., gill nets, trap nets, and angling) to capture subadult and adult lake trout. We conducted a study to explore the potential for using high-intensity sound from a relatively small (655.5 cm3 [40 in3]) seismic air gun to reduce survival of lake trout embryos. Lake trout embryos at multiple stages of development were exposed to a single discharge of the seismic air gun at two depths (5 and 15 m) and at two distances from the air gun (0.1 and 2.7 m). Control groups for each developmental stage, distance, and depth were treated identically except that the air gun was not discharged. Mortality in lake trout embryos treated at 0.1 m from the air gun was 100% at 74 daily temperature units in degrees Celsius (TU°C) at both depths. Median mortality in lake trout embryos treated at 0.1 m from the air gun at 207 TU°C (93%) and 267 °C (78%) appeared to be higher than that of controls (49% and 48%, respectively) at 15-m depth. Among the four lake trout developmental stages, exposure to the air gun at 0.1 m resulted in acute mortality up to 60% greater than that of controls. Mortality at a distance of 2.7 m did not appear to differ from that of controls at any developmental stage or at either depth. Our results indicate that seismic air guns have potential as an alternative tool for controlling nonnative lake trout, but further investigation is warranted.

  11. Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péter, Szabolcs; Holguin, Fernando; Wood, Lisa G; Clougherty, Jane E; Raederstorff, Daniel; Antal, Magda; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors-including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources)-as well as local meteorology, topography, and population susceptibility. It has been hypothesized that the intake of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients may ameliorate various respiratory and cardiovascular effects of air pollution through reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation. To date, several studies have suggested that some harmful effects of air pollution may be modified by intake of essential micronutrients (such as B vitamins, and vitamins C, D, and E) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we review the existing literature related to the potential for nutrition to modify the health impacts of air pollution, and offer a framework for examining these interactions. PMID:26690474

  12. Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Péter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors—including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources—as well as local meteorology, topography, and population susceptibility. It has been hypothesized that the intake of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients may ameliorate various respiratory and cardiovascular effects of air pollution through reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation. To date, several studies have suggested that some harmful effects of air pollution may be modified by intake of essential micronutrients (such as B vitamins, and vitamins C, D, and E and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we review the existing literature related to the potential for nutrition to modify the health impacts of air pollution, and offer a framework for examining these interactions.

  13. Air quality more extensive monitoring of particulates pollution but concentrations must be reduced by 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most epidemiological data point to a link between the concentrations of particles measured in the ambient air and the effects of air pollution on human health. Particulates emitted by road traffic and industry are among the most harmful; they carry serious risks. The particulate monitoring network and legislation on the issue are constantly changing. In France, the number of monitoring stations has more than doubled in recent years. EC Directive 1999/30/EC of 22 April 1999 sets limit values for concentrations of particulates in ambient air to be complied with at certain given dates. In France, while the concentrations measured in urban areas with over 100 000 inhabitants are below the limit values set by the Directive for today, they are significantly higher than those to be complied with by 1 January 2005. (author)

  14. Measurement of Fine Particles From Mobile and Stationary Sources, and Reducing the Air Conditioner Power Consumption in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Eli Henry

    recirculation of cabin air also significantly reduced in-cabin particle concentrations. Recirculation of cabin air is an excellent and immediate solution to increase vehicle mileage and improve cabin air quality.

  15. New trajectory driven aerosol and chemical process model: chemical and aerosol Lagrangian model (CALM)

    OpenAIRE

    Tunved, P.; D. G. Partridge; Korhonen, H.

    2010-01-01

    A new Chemical and Aerosol Lagrangian Model (CALM) have been developed and tested. The model incorporates all central aerosol dynamical processes, from nucleation, condensation, coagulation and deposition to cloud formation and in-cloud processing. The model is tested and evaluated against observations performed at the SMEAR II station located at Hyytiälä (61°51' N, 24°17' E) over a time period of two years, 2000–2001. The model shows good agreement with measurements thro...

  16. Developing a Web-Based Advisory Expert System for Implementing Traffic Calming Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Lack of traffic safety has become a serious issue in residential areas. In this paper, a web-based advisory expert system for the purpose of applying traffic calming strategies on residential streets is described because there currently lacks a structured framework for the implementation of such strategies. Developing an expert system can assist and advise engineers for dealing with traffic safety problems. This expert system is developed to fill the gap between the traffic safety experts and...

  17. Up a lymphoid blind alley: Does CALM/AF10 disturb Ikaros during leukemogenesis?

    OpenAIRE

    Greif, Philipp A; Bohlander, Stefan K.

    2011-01-01

    The Ikaros gene is required for normal development of lymphocytes and frequent intragenic deletions of Ikaros have been identified in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, little is known about the role of Ikaros in myeloid malignancies. Here we discuss the role of Ikaros as a lineage master regulator during the onset and progression of myeloid leukemias, namely CALM-AF10 positive acute myeloid leukemia and chronic myeloid leukemia. Alterations of Ikaros at the gene or protein level may act ...

  18. Direct simulation of non-premixed flame extinction in a methane–air jet with reduced chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Pantano, C.

    2004-01-01

    A three-dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS) study of a spatially evolving planar turbulent reacting jet is reported. Combustion of methane with air is modelled using a four-step reduced mechanism in the non-premixed regime. A total of eight chemical species are integrated in time along with the fluid mechanical fields. The solution of the compressible Navier–Stokes equations is obtained numerically for moderately low Mach number. A large computational grid, with 100 million grid poi...

  19. Headquarters Air Force Logistics Command guidance manual for hazardous waste minimization (PACER REDUCE): Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual provides guidance for the Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC) Waste Minimization Program, called PACER REDUCE, and applies to all AFLC installations and personel who are responsible for implementing and monitoring activities relating to PACER REDUCE. This guidance for waste minimization provides management and technical approaches for assessing potential waste reduction techniques and for making informed decisions concerning industrial process and waste stream management. Such actions will assist in achieving regulatory compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 as updated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984. 37 refs., 14 figs., 22 tabs

  20. Development of a Child Abuse Level Management (CALM) Guide for Research with Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Linda C; Schim, Stephanie Myers

    2016-05-01

    Reporting child abuse or neglect is an ethical expectation and a legislated mandate of behavioral and health care professionals in the United States. In particular, researchers who investigate parent-child dyads are responsible for submitting procedures and informed consent documents to institutional review boards that provide for the protection of children. The challenge for researchers is to recognize failing quality of parent-child interaction, prior to any event of maltreatment and to intercede in a deteriorating dynamic. The obligation to report any suspicions of child maltreatment supersedes the responsibility to provide for confidentiality of research data. The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale for the development of a research protocol guide, Child Abuse Level Management (CALM), and address protection of children in research. The CALM is a brief, flexible guide designed for use by researchers to help identify and respond to negative trends in the parent-child interaction during data collection. Suggested intervention scripts are provided that can be modified for specific culture-focused samples. The CALM guide can be used for training of data collectors using simulations prior to initiating any study involving higher-risk dyads. PMID:26588859

  1. Future Arctic sea ice loss reduces severity of cold air outbreaks in midlatitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayarzagüena, Blanca; Screen, James A.

    2016-03-01

    The effects of Arctic sea ice loss on cold air outbreaks (CAOs) in midlatitudes remain unclear. Previous studies have defined CAOs relative to the present-day climate, but changes in CAOs, defined in such a way, may reflect changes in mean climate and not in weather variability, and society is more sensitive to the latter. Here we revisit this topic but applying changing temperature thresholds relating to climate conditions of the time. CAOs do not change in frequency or duration in response to projected sea ice loss. However, they become less severe, mainly due to advection of warmed polar air, since the dynamics associated with the occurrence of CAOs are largely not affected. CAOs weaken even in midlatitude regions where the winter mean temperature decreases in response to Arctic sea ice loss. These results are robustly simulated by two atmospheric models prescribed with differing future sea ice states and in transient runs where external forcings are included.

  2. Reducing air pollution in Europe : a study of boundaries between science and policy

    OpenAIRE

    Tuinstra, W.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores the communication process between science and policy actors in assessment processes in the field of air quality policy inEurope. It focuses on the boundaries between science and policy and on the processes that shape assessments. It uses a concept of effectiveness of scientific assessments in policy processes in terms of credibility, legitimacy and relevance, in combination with the concept of "boundary work". Credibility is the scientific and technical credibility of the...

  3. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  4. Reducing the air temperature inside the simple structure greenhouse using roof angle variation

    OpenAIRE

    Tashoo, Krit; Thepa, Sirichai; Pairintra, Ratanachai; Namprakai, Pichai

    2014-01-01

    There is a problem with the natural ventilation of a Simple Structure Greenhouse (SSG), having a roof with a gable end and a roof vent placed at a height of <2.5 m above the greenhouse column, with an average roof angle of <15°, that causes the air temperature inside the greenhouse to be much higher than the ambient temperature (an average of 6-8 K), which can be found in greenhouses that are covered by plastic film. This investigation considers the flow pattern and temperature distribu...

  5. Reduced gene expression levels after chronic exposure to high concentrations of air pollutants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Tulupová, Elena; Rössnerová, Andrea; Líbalová, Helena; Hoňková, Kateřina; Gmuender, H.; Pastorková, Anna; Švecová, Vlasta; Topinka, Jan; Šrám, Radim

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 780, oct (2015), s. 60-70. ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1B3/8/08; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1508; GA ČR GA13-13458S; GA MŠk 2B08005 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : chronic exposure * air pollution * gene expression profiles * human health * particulate matter * polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.680, year: 2014

  6. Energy transfer from a laser pulse to a blast wave in reduced-pressure air atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focusing a transversely excited atmospheric CO2 laser beam in air atmospheres induced a blast wave. The kinetic energy of a laser-induced blast wave was determined from shadowgraph images of shock wave expansion. Results showed that the fraction of input laser energy that is converted into the blast wave energy decreased from 0.45 to 0.2 concomitant with the decrease in ambient pressure from 100 to 10 kPa. Also, it was insensitive to input laser energy from 4 to 13 J

  7. Loss reduction in few-mode photonic crystal fiber by reducing inner surface imperfections in air holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Hanzawa, Nobutomo; Tsujikawa, Kyozo; Aozasa, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Fumihiko

    2015-05-18

    We studied both theoretically and experimentally the additional loss in photonic crystal fiber (PCF) that results from inner surface imperfections such as contamination and the surface roughness of air holes. We estimated the modal loss dependence of these imperfections using a model with a "defective layer" for the first time. The theoretical studies suggest that higher order modes have a larger loss due to imperfections in the air holes. By minimizing the inner surface imperfections of the six innermost air holes, we can theoretically expect any additional loss to be reduced to a negligible level. Moreover, we examined our theoretical prediction experimentally. We fabricated few-mode PCFs by employing a suitable inner surface treatment for just the six innermost holes. As expected theoretically, the transmission loss was greatly reduced by employing these processes. The lowest transmission losses in the 1550 nm band were 0.31 dB/km for the LP01 mode and 0.43 dB/km for the LP11 mode. Our theoretical model will be useful with a view to realizing few-mode PCF with a loss comparable to that of conventional fibers. PMID:26074611

  8. Dynamic Simulation pro-environmental behavior in reducing air pollution in el Valle de Aburra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes to expose some of the theoretical, methodological and conceptual aspects of the study of the pro-environmental behaviour on which the Master in Environmental and Development thesis named Dynamic simulation of stake holders under a structure based in beliefs, desires and intentions. Study in case: Pact for Air Quality Improvement of the AMVA, which justifies a reorientation of the intervention programs of the metropolitan authorities. Likewise, it is tried to provide to the reader with an ample point of view, with rigorous criteria, that do possible to analyze the multiple identities, the diversity of aims and the heterogeneity of intentions, to make visible what are behind the citizen's of environmental policies. By means of the analysis of the theoretical models: the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). It's presented the aspects that influence the pro environmental behaviour of the individuals, and their dynamics in a systemic environment. An approach from methodological individualism of the TRA was applied to the reduction 01 air pollution in the valley of Aburra, and the proposed model is validated in abstract. Finally, so me considerations are presented about their application in the metropolitan environmental management. The analysis of the intention of behaviour of the actors and stake holders who participate in the execution of the programs tend to the diminution of the contamination establishes by the authorities, serves to understand how strong they will try, or how much effort they will exert to realise the promoted pro environmental behaviour.

  9. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  10. Nonlinear propagation of a high-power focused femtosecond laser pulse in air under atmospheric and reduced pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the propagation of focused femtosecond gigawatt laser pulses in air under normal and reduced pressure in the case of Kerr self-focusing and photoionisation of the medium. The influence of gas density on the beam dimensions and power and the electron density in the plasma column in the nonlinear focus zone of the laser beam has been studied experimentally and by numerical simulation. It has been shown that, in rarefied air, the radiation-induced reduction in the rate of plasma formation diminishes the blocking effect of the plasma on the growth of the beam intensity in the case of tight focusing. This allows higher power densities of ultrashort laser pulses to be reached in the focal waist region in comparison with beam self-focusing under atmospheric pressure.

  11. Near-optimal order-reduced control for A/C (air-conditioning) system of EVs (electric vehicles)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is aimed to investigate the regulation problem for thermal comfortableness and propose control strategies for cabin environment of EVs (electric vehicles) by constructing a reduced-scale A/C (air-conditioning) system which mainly consists of two modules: ECB (environmental control box) and AHU (air-handling unit). Temperature and humidity in the ECB can be regulated by AHU via cooling, heating, mixing air streams and adjusting speed of fans. To synthesize the near-optimal controllers, the mathematical model for the system thermodynamics is developed by employing the equivalent lumped heat capacity approach, energy/mass conservation principle and the heat transfer theories. In addition, from the clustering pattern of system eigenvalues, the thermodynamics of the interested system can evidently be characterized by two-time-scale property. That is, the studied system can be decoupled into two subsystems, slow mode and fast mode, by singular perturbation technique. As to the optimal control strategies for EVs, by taking thermal comfortableness, humidity and energy consumption all into account, a series of optimal controllers is synthesized on the base of the order-reduced thermodynamic model. The feedback control loop for the experimental test rig is examined and realized by the aid of the control system development kit dSPACE DS1104 and the commercial software MATLAB/Simulink. To sum up, the intensive computer simulations and experimental results verify that the performance of the near-optimal order-reduced control law is almost as superior as that of standard LQR (Linear-Quadratic Regulator). - Highlights: • A reduced-scale test rig for A/C (air-conditioning) system to imitate the temperature/humidity of cabin in EV (electric vehicle) is constructed. • The non-linear thermodynamic model of A/C system can be decoupled by singular perturbation technique. • The temperature/humidity in cabin is regulated to the desired values by proposed optimal

  12. Chemical Transport and Reduced-Form Models for Assessing Air Quality Impacts of Current and Future Energy Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Though essential for informed decision-making, it is challenging to estimate the air quality and public health impacts associated with current and future energy generation scenarios because the analysis must address the complicated atmospheric processes that air pollutants undergo: emissions, dispersion, chemistry, and removal. Employing a chemical transport model (CTM) is the most rigorous way to address these atmospheric processes. However, CTMs are expensive from a computational standpoint and, therefore, beyond the reach of policy analysis for many types of problems. On the other hand, previously available reduced-form models used for policy analysis fall short of the rigor of CTMs and may lead to biased results. To address this gap, we developed the Estimating Air pollution Social Impacts Using Regression (EASIUR) method, which builds parameterizations that predict per-tonne social costs and intake fractions for pollutants emitted from any location in the United States. Derived from a large database of tagged CTM simulations, the EASIUR method predicts social costs almost indistinguishable from a full CTM but with negligible computational requirements. We found that the average mortality-related social costs from inorganic PM2.5 and its precursors in the United States are 150,000-180,000/t EC, 21,000-34,000/t SO2, 4,200-15,000/t NOx, and 29,000-85,000/t NH3. This talk will demonstrate examples of using both CTMs and reduced-form models for assessing air quality impacts associated with current energy production activities as well as a future deployment of carbon capture and sequestration.

  13. An evaluation of new technologies with the potential to reduce air emissions from floating Mobile Offshore Drilling Units

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Annikken

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis three new technologies with the potential to significantly reduce the release of air emissions have been evaluated. The rigs considered are semi-submersibles and drillships as they have the capacity to reach ultradeep water sites. One potential method is to implement natural gas engines on MODUs, as natural gas is the cleanest burning fossil fuel. LNG will allow for 20-25% lower CO2 emissions and 90-95% lower SOx emissions. In addition, the NOx emissions will be significantly r...

  14. Incidence of Cold Injury and Effects of Reduced Air Pressure in High Altitude Areas of the Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    B. D. Varma

    1984-01-01

    Data covering the three-year period, 1981-1984, from the forward area hospitals, receiving patients from units operating in high altitude areas of the Himalaya reveal an average admission of 247 and 171 cases of cold injury and effects of reduced air pressure respectively. Chillblain was the commonest (85.8%) form of cold injury and high altitude pulmonary oedema the commonest (76.2%) clinical syndrome in the hopoxia group. In both groups, the disease was mild in 61 per cent cases and severe ...

  15. The target cell of transformation is distinct from the leukemia stem cell in murine CALM/AF10 leukemia models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, S; Krause, A; Vosberg, S; Herold, T; Ksienzyk, B; Quintanilla-Martinez, L; Tizazu, B; Chopra, M; Graf, A; Krebs, S; Blum, H; Greif, P A; Vetter, A; Metzeler, K; Rothenberg-Thurley, M; Schneider, M R; Dahlhoff, M; Spiekermann, K; Zimber-Strobl, U; Wolf, E; Bohlander, S K

    2016-05-01

    The CALM/AF10 fusion gene is found in various hematological malignancies including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and malignant lymphoma. We have previously identified the leukemia stem cell (LSC) in a CALM/AF10-driven murine bone marrow transplant AML model as B220+ lymphoid cells with B-cell characteristics. To identify the target cell for leukemic transformation or 'cell of origin of leukemia' (COL) in non-disturbed steady-state hematopoiesis, we inserted the CALM/AF10 fusion gene preceded by a loxP-flanked transcriptional stop cassette into the Rosa26 locus. Vav-Cre-induced panhematopoietic expression of the CALM/AF10 fusion gene led to acute leukemia with a median latency of 12 months. Mice expressing CALM/AF10 in the B-lymphoid compartment using Mb1-Cre or CD19-Cre inducer lines did not develop leukemia. Leukemias had a predominantly myeloid phenotype but showed coexpression of the B-cell marker B220, and had clonal B-cell receptor rearrangements. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified an average of two to three additional mutations per leukemia, including activating mutations in known oncogenes such as FLT3 and PTPN11. Our results show that the COL for CALM/AF10 leukemia is a stem or early progenitor cell and not a cell of B-cell lineage with a phenotype similar to that of the LSC in CALM/AF10+ leukemia. PMID:26686248

  16. New trajectory-driven aerosol and chemical process model Chemical and Aerosol Lagrangian Model (CALM)

    OpenAIRE

    Tunved, P.; D. G. Partridge; Korhonen, H.

    2010-01-01

    A new Chemical and Aerosol Lagrangian Model (CALM) has been developed and tested. The model incorporates all central aerosol dynamical processes, from nucleation, condensation, coagulation and deposition to cloud formation and in-cloud processing. The model is tested and evaluated against observations performed at the SMEAR II station located at Hyytiälä (61° 51' N, 24° 17' E) over a time period of two years, 2000–2001. The model shows good agreement with measurements throughout mos...

  17. Ultimate detectability of volatile organic compounds: how much further can we reduce their ambient air sample volumes for analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2012-10-01

    To understand the ultimately lowest detection range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air, application of a high sensitivity analytical system was investigated by coupling thermal desorption (TD) technique with gas chromatography (GC) and time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The performance of the TD-GC/TOF MS system was evaluated using liquid standards of 19 target VOCs prepared in the range of 35 pg to 2.79 ng per μL. Studies were carried out using both total ion chromatogram (TIC) and extracted ion chromatogram (EIC) mode. EIC mode was used for calibration to reduce background and to improve signal-to-noise. The detectability of 19 target VOCs, if assessed in terms of method detection limit (MDL, per US EPA definition) and limit of detection (LOD), averaged 5.90 pg and 0.122 pg, respectively, with the mean coefficient of correlation (R(2)) of 0.9975. The minimum quantifiable mass of target analytes, when determined using real air samples by the TD-GC/TOF MS, is highly comparable to the detection limits determined experimentally by standard. In fact, volumes for the actual detection of the major aromatic VOCs like benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) in ambient air samples were as low as 1.0 mL in the 0.11-2.25 ppb range. It was thus possible to demonstrate that most target compounds including those in low abundance could be reliably quantified at concentrations down to 0.1 ppb at sample volumes of less than 10 mL. The unique sensitivity of this advanced analytical system can ultimately lead to a shift in field sampling strategy with smaller air sample volumes facilitating faster, simpler air sampling (e.g., use of gas syringes rather than the relative complexity of pumps or bags/canisters), with greatly reduced risk of analyte breakthrough and minimal interference, e.g., from atmospheric humidity. The improved detection limits offered by this system can also enhance accuracy and measurement precision. PMID:22934885

  18. Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Mortensen

    2011-12-31

    This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

  19. Determination of reduced sulfur compounds in air samples for the monitoring of malodor caused by landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás, Esther; Tortajada-Genaro, Luis Antonio; Muñoz, Amalia

    2016-02-01

    A reliable method for determining malodorous reduced sulfur compounds (RSC) in atmospheric samples has been developed. The method uses an activated coconut solid-phase sorbent for active sampling, hexane as desorption solvent, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique for specific and sensitive separation-detection. The compounds analyzed were hydrogen sulfide, ethyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, butyl mercaptan and dimethyl disulfide. Recovery efficiency varied between 75% and 97% and no detectable losses were observed during storage at -20°C. Satisfactory analytical parameters were reported, such as good linearity (r(2)>0.98), low detection limits (0.6-59 pg m(-3)), adequate repeatability (9%) and reproducibility (17%), and fast GC-MS analysis (wastes. The results indicated that hydrogen sulfide and ethyl mercaptan were the main molecules responsible of malodor phenomenon in the study areas. PMID:26653474

  20. Prediction of Ship Unsteady Maneuvering in Calm Water by a Fully Nonlinear Ship Motion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray-Qing Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the continuation of our research on development of a fully nonlinear, dynamically consistent, numerical ship motion model (DiSSEL. In this study we will report our results in predicting ship motions in unsteady maneuvering in calm water. During the unsteady maneuvering, both the rudder angle, and ship forward speed vary with time. Therefore, not only surge, sway, and yaw motions occur, but roll, pitch and heave motions will also occur even in calm water as heel, trim, and sinkage, respectively. When the rudder angles and ship forward speed vary rapidly with time, the six degrees-of-freedom ship motions and their interactions become strong. To accurately predict the six degrees-of-freedom ship motions in unsteady maneuvering, a universal method for arbitrary ship hull requires physics-based fully-nonlinear models for ship motion and for rudder forces and moments. The numerical simulations will be benchmarked by experimental data of the Pre-Contract DDG51 design and an Experimental Hull Form. The benchmarking shows a good agreement between numerical simulations by the enhancement DiSSEL and experimental data. No empirical parameterization is used, except for the influence of the propeller slipstream on the rudder, which is included using a flow acceleration factor.

  1. Air pollution exposure during pregnancy and reduced birth size: a prospective birth cohort study in Valencia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llop Sabrina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal exposure to air pollution has been related to fetal growth in a number of recent scientific studies. The objective of this study was to assess the association between exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and anthropometric measures at birth in a cohort in Valencia, Spain. Methods Seven hundred and eighty-five pregnant women and their singleton newborns participated in the study. Exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2 was estimated by means of land use regression. NO2 spatial estimations were adjusted to correspond to relevant pregnancy periods (whole pregnancy and trimesters for each woman. Outcome variables were birth weight, length, and head circumference (HC, along with being small for gestational age (SGA. The association between exposure to residential outdoor NO2 and outcomes was assessed controlling for potential confounders and examining the shape of the relationship using generalized additive models (GAM. Results For continuous anthropometric measures, GAM indicated a change in slope at NO2 concentrations of around 40 μg/m3. NO2 exposure >40 μg/m3 during the first trimester was associated with a change in birth length of -0.27 cm (95% CI: -0.51 to -0.03 and with a change in birth weight of -40.3 grams (-96.3 to 15.6; the same exposure throughout the whole pregnancy was associated with a change in birth HC of -0.17 cm (-0.34 to -0.003. The shape of the relation was seen to be roughly linear for the risk of being SGA. A 10 μg/m3 increase in NO2 during the second trimester was associated with being SGA-weight, odds ratio (OR: 1.37 (1.01-1.85. For SGA-length the estimate for the same comparison was OR: 1.42 (0.89-2.25. Conclusions Prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution may reduce fetal growth. Findings from this study provide further evidence of the need for developing strategies to reduce air pollution in order to prevent risks to fetal health and development.

  2. Encounter rates and swimming behavior of pause-travel and cruise larval fish predators in calm and turbulent laboratory environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    turbulence levels, the pause-travel model predicts higher encounter rates than does the cruise model. In terms of prey encounter rate, cod larvae benefit more from turbulent motion than do herring larvae. However, aspects of larval behavior other than prey search strategy (e.g. prey capture success) need to...... herring larvae were higher in turbulent water than in calm water, but the difference was not significant. Interspecific differences in swimming and pausing behavior were related to differences in prey search strategy used by the two species (cod: pause-travel; herring: cruise). We used a newly developed...... search model for pause-travel predators in calm and turbulent environments to compare encounter rates for predators using cruise and pause-travel search strategies. Encounter rates for cod and herring larvae, estimated with respective search models, were similar in calm and low turbulence water; at high...

  3. Sustainable, alternative farming practices as a means to simultaneously secure food production and reduce air pollution in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, A. P. K.; Fung, K. M.; Yong, T.; Liu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Proper agricultural land management is essential for securing food supply and minimizing damage to the environment. Among available farming practices, relay strip intercropping and fertilizer application are commonly used, but to study their wider environmental implications and possible feedbacks we require an Earth system modeling framework. In this study, the effectiveness of a maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system and fertilizer reduction is investigated using a multi-model method. The DNDC (DeNitrification-DeComposition) model is used to simulate agricultural activities and their impacts on the environment through nitrogen emissions and changes in soil chemical composition. Crop yield, soil nutrient content and nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere in major agricultural regions of China are predicted under various cultivation scenarios. The GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model is then used to estimate the effects on downwind particle and ozone air pollution. We show that relay strip intercropping and optimal fertilization not only improve crop productivity, but also retain soil nutrients, reduce ammonia emission and mitigate downwind air pollution. By cutting 25% fertilization inputs but cultivating maize and soybean together in a relay strip intercropping system used with field studies, total crop production was improved slightly by 4.4% compared to monoculture with conventional amount of fertilizers. NH3 volatilization decreases by 29%, equivalent to saving the pollution-induced health damage costs by about US$2.5 billion per year. The possible feedback effects from atmospheric nitrogen deposition onto the croplands are also investigated. We show that careful management and better quantitative understanding of alternative farming practices hold huge potential in simultaneously addressing different global change issues including the food crisis, air pollution and climate change, and calls for greater collaboration between scientists, farmers and

  4. Reduced European emissions of S and N - Effects on air concentrations, deposition and soil water chemistry in Swedish forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in sulphur and nitrogen pollution in Swedish forests have been assessed in relation to European emission reductions, based on measurements in the Swedish Throughfall Monitoring Network. Measurements were analysed over 20 years with a focus on the 12-year period 1996 to 2008. Air concentrations of SO2 and NO2, have decreased. The SO4-deposition has decreased in parallel with the European emission reductions. Soil water SO4-concentrations have decreased at most sites but the pH, ANC and inorganic Al-concentrations indicated acidification recovery only at some of the sites. No changes in the bulk deposition of inorganic nitrogen could be demonstrated. Elevated NO3-concentrations in the soil water occurred at irregular occasions at some southern sites. Despite considerable air pollution emission reductions in Europe, acidification recovery in Swedish forests soils is slow. Nitrogen deposition to Swedish forests continues at elevated levels that may lead to leaching of nitrate to surface waters. - Highlights: → S deposition to Swedish forests has decreased in parallel with European emissions. → Soil water pH, ANC and inorganic Al-concentrations indicated a slow recovery. → The bulk deposition of inorganic nitrogen over Sweden has not decreased. → Continued N deposition to Swedish forests may cause leaching of N to surface waters. - Reduced European emissions have led to decreased acidic deposition and a slow recovery of soil water but nitrogen deposition remains the same in Swedish forests.

  5. Time-Dependent Solutions to the Fokker-Planck Equation of Maximum Reduced Air-Sea Coupling Climate Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Guolin; DONG Wenjie; GAO Hongxing

    2005-01-01

    The time-dependent solution of reduced air-sea coupling stochastic-dynamic model is accurately obtained by using the Fokker-Planck equation and the quantum mechanical method. The analysis of the timedependent solution suggests that when the climate system is in the ground state, the behavior of the system appears to be a Brownian movement, thus reasoning the foothold of Hasselmann's stochastic climatic model;when the system is in the first excitation state, the motion of the system exhibits a form of time-decaying,or under certain condition a periodic oscillation with the main period being 2.3 yr. At last, the results are used to discuss the impact of the doubling of carbon dioxide on climate.

  6. A procedure to reduce pollutant gases from Diesel combustion during European MVEG-A cycle by using electrical intake air-heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberto Broatch; Jose M. Lujan; Jose R. Serrano; Benjamin Pla [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain). CMT - Motores Termicos

    2008-09-15

    While intake air heating is a widespread technology used in heavy duty diesel engines, it rarely appears in the field of HSDI diesel engines. Nevertheless, intake air heating is currently under study as a possible alternative to glow plugs for cold start assistance in HSDI diesel engines. Since the use of intake air heaters involves a cylinder-head simplification, this solution presents both economical and combustion advantages. Despite of the negative impact of the high intake temperatures on NOx emissions, intake air heating reduces significantly HC and CO emissions during warm up due to combustion improvement. While the potential of intake air heating technology to assist cold start is proved, the present paper is devoted to the evaluation of the intake air heating technology potential to reduce pollutant emissions from Diesel combustion. To deal with this objective a deep analysis of both glow plug and intake air heating technology behaviour during the MVEG-A cycle is done. Experimental tests are carried out on a small turbocharged direct injection Diesel engine in an engine-in-the-loop (EIL) approach. Results prove that an optimal intake air heating strategy together with an adapted air loop control calibration can improve HC, CO and NOx emissions with only a slight PM increase. 36 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  7. BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO THEORETICAL INTENTION OF "NEEDLING METHOD FOR TRANQUILLIZATION AND CALMING THE MIND" FOR TREATMENT OF INSOMNIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A set of scientific theories and an effective acupuncture therapy for insomnia about "the needling method for tranquillization and calming the mind" are gradually formed through many years' theoretical and clinical studies. In this paper, the theoretical intention about "the needling method for tranquillization and calming the mind" for treatment of insomnia are briefly introduced mainly from the cause of disease,pathogenesis, therapeutic method and characteristics of composition of a prescription, etc. in order to provide a new train of thoughts and a new method for working out scientific and standard prescriptions in the treatment of insomnia.

  8. Co-current air-water flow in downward sloping pipes: Transport of capacity reducing gas pockets in wastewater mains

    OpenAIRE

    Pothof, I.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Air-water flow is an undesired condition in many systems for the transportation of water or wastewater. Air in storm water tunnels may get trapped and negatively affect the system. Air pockets in hydropower tunnels or sewers may cause blow-back events and inadmissible pressure spikes. Water pipes and wastewater pressure mains in particular are subject to air pocket formation in downward-sloping reaches, such as inverted siphons or terrain slopes. Air pocket accumulation causes energy losses a...

  9. The challenges of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution through energy sources: evidence from a panel of developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmat, Ghulam; Zaman, Khalid; Shukui, Tan; Sajjad, Faiza; Khan, Muhammad Azhar; Khan, Muhammad Zahir

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the long-run relationship between climatic factors (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural methane emissions, and industrial nitrous oxide emission), air pollution (i.e., carbon dioxide emissions), and energy sources (i.e., nuclear energy; oil, gas, and coal energy; and fossil fuel energy) in the panel of 35 developed countries (including EU-15, new EU member states, G-7, and other countries) over a period of 1975-2012. In order to achieve this objective, the present study uses sophisticated panel econometric techniques including panel cointegration, panel fully modified OLS (FMOLS), and dynamic OLS (DOLS). The results show that there is a long-run relationship between the variables. Nuclear energy reduces greenhouse gases and carbon emissions; however, the other emissions, i.e., agricultural methane emissions and industrial nitrous oxide, are still to increase during the study period. Electricity production from oil, gas, and coal sources increases the greenhouse gases and carbon emissions; however, the intensity to increase emissions is far less than the intensity to increase emissions through fossil fuel. Policies that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases can simultaneously alter emissions of conventional pollutants that have deleterious effects on human health and the environment. PMID:24584642

  10. Reducing prospective memory error and costs in simulated air traffic control: External aids, extending practice, and removing perceived memory requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loft, Shayne; Chapman, Melissa; Smith, Rebekah E

    2016-09-01

    In air traffic control (ATC), forgetting to perform deferred actions-prospective memory (PM) errors-can have severe consequences. PM demands can also interfere with ongoing tasks (costs). We examined the extent to which PM errors and costs were reduced in simulated ATC by providing extended practice, or by providing external aids combined with extended practice, or by providing external aids combined with instructions that removed perceived memory requirements. Participants accepted/handed-off aircraft and detected conflicts. For the PM task, participants were required to substitute alternative actions for routine actions when accepting aircraft. In Experiment 1, when no aids were provided, PM errors and costs were not reduced by practice. When aids were provided, costs observed early in practice were eliminated with practice, but residual PM errors remained. Experiment 2 provided more limited practice with aids, but instructions that did not frame the PM task as a "memory" task led to high PM accuracy without costs. Attention-allocation policies that participants set based on expected PM demands were modified as individuals were increasingly exposed to reliable aids, or were given instructions that removed perceived memory requirements. These findings have implications for the design of aids for individuals who monitor multi-item dynamic displays. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27608067

  11. Up a lymphoid blind alley:Does CALM/AF10 disturb Ikaros during leukemogenesis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Philipp; A; Greif; Stefan; K; Bohlander

    2011-01-01

    The Ikaros gene is required for normal development of lymphocytes and frequent intragenic deletions of Ikaros have been identified in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.However,little is known about the role of Ikaros in myeloid malignancies.Here we discuss the role of Ikaros as a lineage master regulator during the onset and progression of myeloid leukemias,namely CALM-AF10 positive acute myeloid leukemia and chronic myeloid leukemia.Alterations of Ikaros at the gene or protein level may act as a bi-directional lineage switch subverting developmental plasticity for malignant transformation.Finally,we propose that promiscuous signaling involving Ikaros and FOXO transcription factors might be a critical link between early lineage fate and uncontrolled proliferation.

  12. The Calm and Alert Class: Using Body, Mind and Breath to Teach Self-Regulation of Learning Related Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlauflin, Helene M.

    2010-01-01

    This article documents an action research pilot study called "The Calm and Alert Class" which utilized the body, mind and breath of students to teach the self-regulation of learning related social skills. Sixty first graders in four classrooms at a public elementary school were offered a 30 minute class for 28 weeks, which taught explicit skills…

  13. Co-current air-water flow in downward sloping pipes: Transport of capacity reducing gas pockets in wastewater mains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pothof, I.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Air-water flow is an undesired condition in many systems for the transportation of water or wastewater. Air in storm water tunnels may get trapped and negatively affect the system. Air pockets in hydropower tunnels or sewers may cause blow-back events and inadmissible pressure spikes. Water pipes an

  14. Prevention of airborne disposal from staff in the O.R. reducing the risk of infection : what are the benefits of using clean air suits or scrub suits?

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Maria José Araújo Marques

    2012-01-01

    Experts in infection control are often asked about issues related to the use of scrubs and clean air suits in the operating room (OR). So, what are clean air suits and scrub suits? This article seeks to highlight the most relevant information of this products and try to define the benefits of using them for preventing airborne disposal from the surgical staff, reducing the risk of infection. No scientific data support the practice of using scrub suits as a means for preventing transmis...

  15. Enriched Air Nitrox Breathing Reduces Venous Gas Bubbles after Simulated SCUBA Diving: A Double-Blind Cross-Over Randomized Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Souday

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis whether enriched air nitrox (EAN breathing during simulated diving reduces decompression stress when compared to compressed air breathing as assessed by intravascular bubble formation after decompression.Human volunteers underwent a first simulated dive breathing compressed air to include subjects prone to post-decompression venous gas bubbling. Twelve subjects prone to bubbling underwent a double-blind, randomized, cross-over trial including one simulated dive breathing compressed air, and one dive breathing EAN (36% O2 in a hyperbaric chamber, with identical diving profiles (28 msw for 55 minutes. Intravascular bubble formation was assessed after decompression using pulmonary artery pulsed Doppler.Twelve subjects showing high bubble production were included for the cross-over trial, and all completed the experimental protocol. In the randomized protocol, EAN significantly reduced the bubble score at all time points (cumulative bubble scores: 1 [0-3.5] vs. 8 [4.5-10]; P < 0.001. Three decompression incidents, all presenting as cutaneous itching, occurred in the air versus zero in the EAN group (P = 0.217. Weak correlations were observed between bubble scores and age or body mass index, respectively.EAN breathing markedly reduces venous gas bubble emboli after decompression in volunteers selected for susceptibility for intravascular bubble formation. When using similar diving profiles and avoiding oxygen toxicity limits, EAN increases safety of diving as compared to compressed air breathing.ISRCTN 31681480.

  16. Innovative HEPA [high-efficiency particulate air] filter designs to reduce waste generation and simplify waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment and disposal of spent high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters has presented a problem at some defense production plants and could be a problem at potential future spent-fuel consolidation or fuel reprocessing facilities. During studies of transuranic (TRU) waste treatment options conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, it was concluded that treatment of spent HEPA filters would become easier and less costly if some modifications were made to the present materials of construction and design. This study was undertaken to develop and evaluate alternative materials and innovative designs for HEPA filters, making them more compatible with volume reduction technology. The following treatment options were selected for this study: (1) no treatment; (2) compaction; (3) supercompaction; (4) incinerate and melt; and (5) separate the frame from the media and dispose of the frame as low-level waste, and incinerate and melt the filter media and sealant. Forty HEPA design concepts were identified and evaluated by means of a figure-of-merit methodology for technical performance and an economic evaluation that considered filter fabrication and disposal costs. Results of the study indicate that if improved HEPA designs are combined with volume reduction treatments, the costs of filter disposal can be reduced substantially over the use of standard-flow filter designs with no volume reduction treatment. It is estimated that by combining the new design concepts with waste volume reduction treatments, manufacturing and disposal costs can be reduced by $290 or more per filter if classified as low-level waste (LLW) and up to $23,000 per filter if it is high-activity waste (containing activity greater than class-C LLW) and requires repository disposal

  17. Proposal to reduce greenhouse gas emissions via landfill gas management in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.B.

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of reducing the emission of greenhouse gases by collection, flaring, and possibly beneficially using the gas from landfills in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina (GBA). Another purpose was to prepare a proposal to the US Initiative on Joint Implementation (USIJI) for a project to collect and possibly use the landfill gas (LFG). The project was carried out from September 30, 1997 through September 30, 1998. Collection and flaring of gas is feasible provided private firms have sufficient incentive to obtain greenhouse gas emission reduction benefits. The value of those benefits that would be required to motivate funding of an LFG management project was not explicitly determined. However, one independent power producer has expressed an interest in funding the first phase of the proposed project and paid for a detailed feasibility study which was conducted in August and September of 1998. As a result of this project, a proposal was submitted to the USIJI Evaluation Panel in June, 1998. In August, 1998, an office was established for reviewing and approving joint implementation proposals. The proposal is currently under review by that office.

  18. Self-rated health among Mayan women participating in a randomised intervention trial reducing indoor air pollution in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Kirk R

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor air pollution (IAP from solid fuels is a serious health problem in low-income countries that can be alleviated using improved stoves. Although women are the principal users, few studies have investigated the self-assessed impact of the stoves on their health and lives. Methods This study was conducted in rural highland Guatemala, involving 89 intervention and 80 control Mayan Indian young women (mean 27.8 years, SD 7.2. Outcomes were assessed after approximately 18 months use of the new stove. Our objectives were to compare self-rated health and change in health among women participating in a randomised control trial comparing a chimney stove with an open fire, to describe impacts on women's daily lives and their perceptions of how reduced kitchen smoke affects their own and their children's health. Results On intention-to-treat analysis, 52.8% of intervention women reported improvement in health, compared to 23.8% of control women (p Conclusion Women's perception of their health was improved, but although smoke reduction was valued, this was linked mainly with alleviation of non-respiratory symptoms like eye discomfort and headache. More focus on such symptoms may help in promoting demand for improved stoves and cleaner fuels, but education about more severe consequences of IAP exposure is also required.

  19. The benefits of whole-house in-duct air cleaning in reducing exposures to fine particulate matter of outdoor origin: a modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, David L; Minegishi, Taeko; Kaufman, Matthew; Baker, Brian J; Allen, Joseph G; Levy, Jonathan I; Myatt, Theodore A

    2010-03-01

    Health risks of fine particle air pollution (PM(2.5)) are an important public health concern that has the potential to be mitigated in part by interventions such as air cleaning devices that reduce personal exposure to ambient PM(2.5). To characterize exposure to ambient PM(2.5) indoors as a function of residential air cleaners, a multi-zone indoor air quality model was used to integrate spatially resolved data on housing, meteorology, and ambient PM(2.5), with performance testing of residential air cleaners to estimate short-term and annual average PM(2.5) of outdoor origin inside residences of three metropolitan areas. The associated public health impacts of reduced ambient PM(2.5) exposure were estimated using a standard health impact assessment methodology. Estimated indoor levels of ambient PM(2.5) varied substantially among ventilation and air cleaning configurations. The median 24-h average indoor-outdoor ratio of ambient PM(2.5) was 0.57 for homes with natural ventilation, 0.35 for homes with central air conditioning (AC) with conventional filtration, and 0.1 for homes with central AC with high efficiency in-duct air cleaner. Median modeled 24-h average indoor concentrations of PM(2.5) of outdoor origin for those three configurations were 8.4, 5.3, and 1.5 microg/m(3), respectively. The potential public health benefits of reduced exposure to ambient PM(2.5) afforded by air cleaning systems were substantial. If the entire population of single-family homes with central AC in the modeling domain converted from conventional filtration to high-efficiency in-duct air cleaning, the change in ambient PM(2.5) exposure is estimated to result in an annual reduction of 700 premature deaths, 940 hospital and emergency room visits, and 130,000 asthma attacks in these metropolitan areas. In addition to controlling emissions from sources, high-efficiency whole-house air cleaner are expected to reduce exposure to particles of outdoor origin and are projected to be an

  20. The Body Calming and Body Vitalizing Effects of Vernonia Amygdalina Leaf Extract and Leaf Powder and their Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utoh-Nedosa U. Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Vernonia amygdalina (V. amygdalina leaf soup is regarded by the indigenous Igbo people of South Eastern Nigeria as their best leafy vegetable soup. Despite the bitterness of the bitter leaf soup, the native eaters of the soup feel very content when they eat pounded carbohydrate foods with it. Oral V. amygdalina leaf extract was taken methodically in this study to examine the generalized effect of oral V. amygdalina leaf intake on the human body. Approach: Vernonia amygdalina leaf extract and leaf powder produced a generalized calming effect on the whole body of the extract-treated human subject. The relaxation effect of leaf extract of V. amygdalina on the skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles of the subject made the whole body of the subject to function at close to basal metabolic rate, in an efficient, calm and alert manner. Results: V. amygdalina leaf extract produced its calming effects on the body by its action as an inhibitory first messenger that inhibited x2-adrenoceptors of the whole body of the subject by occupation of β3-adreceptors on membranes the bodys cells. Such inhibitory action on α2-adrenoceptors of the body (especially of adipose tissues; smooth, cardiac and skeletal muscles and of tissues of the body involved with control of excess blood sugar caused the inhibition of the accumulation of cyclic AMP and resulted in a generalized calming effect on the body. V. amygdalina extract acted inhibited α2-adrenoceptors of the body by acting as an inhibitory G-protein on β3 adrenoceptores of the cells of the whole body. Conclusion: This study concludes that the mechanism by which V. amygdalina leaf active principles exert a calming effect on the whole human body is by acting as an inhibitory first messenger that sits on the membrane receptors of body tissues to activate an inhibitory G-protein adenylyl cyclase messenger which causes an inhibition of the accumulation of cyclic AMP at the sites where cyclic

  1. Evaluation of retrofit crankcase ventilation controls and diesel oxidation catalysts for reducing air pollution in school buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenbath, Kim; Hannigan, Michael P.; Milford, Jana B.

    2009-12-01

    This study evaluates the effect of retrofit closed crankcase ventilation filters (CCFs) and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) on the in-cabin air quality in transit-style diesel school buses. In-cabin pollution levels were measured on three buses from the Pueblo, CO District 70 fleet. Monitoring was conducted while buses were driven along their regular routes, with each bus tested three times before and three times after installation of control devices. Ultrafine number concentrations in the school bus cabins were 33-41% lower, on average, after the control devices were installed. Mean mass concentrations of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) were 56% lower, organic carbon (OC) 41% lower, elemental carbon (EC) 85% lower, and formaldehyde 32% lower after control devices were installed. While carbon monoxide concentrations were low in all tests, mean concentrations were higher after control devices were installed than in pre-retrofit tests. Reductions in number, OC, and formaldehyde concentrations were statistically significant, but reductions in PM2.5 mass were not. Even with control devices installed, during some runs PM2.5 and OC concentrations in the bus cabins were elevated compared to ambient concentrations observed in the area. OC concentrations inside the bus cabins ranged from 22 to 58 μg m -3 before and 13 to 33 μg m -3 after control devices were installed. OC concentrations were correlated with particle-bound organic tracers for lubricating oil emissions (hopanes) and diesel fuel and tailpipe emissions (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and aliphatic hydrocarbons). Mean concentrations of hopanes, PAH, and aliphatic hydrocarbons were lower by 37, 50, and 43%, respectively, after the control devices were installed, suggesting that both CCFs and DOCs were effective at reducing in-cabin OC concentrations.

  2. Speciation and Fate of Trace Metals in Estuarine Sediments Under Reduced and Oxidized Conditions, Seaplane Lagoon, Alameda Naval Air Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, S A; Day, P A; Esser, B; Randall, S

    2002-10-18

    We have identified important chemical reactions that control the fate of metal-contaminated estuarine sediments if they are left undisturbed (in situ) or if they are dredged. We combined information on the molecular bonding of metals in solids from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with thermodynamic and kinetic driving forces obtained from dissolved metal concentrations to deduce the dominant reactions under reduced and oxidized conditions. We evaluated the in situ geochemistry of metals (cadmium, chromium, iron, lead, manganese and zinc) as a function of sediment depth (to 100 cm) from a 60-year record of contamination at the Alameda Naval Air Station, California. Results from XAS and thermodynamic modeling of porewaters show that cadmium and most of the zinc form stable sulfide phases, and that lead and chromium are associated with stable carbonate, phosphate, phyllosilicate, or oxide minerals. Therefore, there is minimal risk associated with the release of these trace metals from the deeper sediments contaminated prior to the Clean Water Act (1975) as long as reducing conditions are maintained. Increased concentrations of dissolved metals with depth were indicative of the formation of metal HS- complexes. The sediments also contain zinc, chromium, and manganese associated with detrital iron-rich phyllosilicates and/or oxides. These phases are recalcitrant at near-neutral pH and do not undergo reductive dissolution within the 60-year depositional history of sediments at this site. The fate of these metals during dredging was evaluated by comparing in situ geochemistry with that of sediments oxidized by seawater in laboratory experiments. Cadmium and zinc pose the greatest hazard from dredging because their sulfides were highly reactive in seawater. However, their dissolved concentrations under oxic conditions were limited eventually by sorption to or co-precipitation with an iron (oxy)hydroxide. About 50% of the reacted CdS and 80% of the reacted ZnS were

  3. Impact on air quality of measures to reduce CO2 emissions from road traffic in Basel, Rotterdam, Xi'an and Suzhou

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuken, M.P.; Jonkers, S.; Verhagen, H.L.M.; Perez, L.; Truëb, S.; Okkerse, W.J.; Liu, J.; Pan, X.C.; Zheng, L.; Wang, H.; Xu, R.; Sabel, C.E.

    2014-01-01

    Two traffic scenarios to reduce CO2 emissions from road traffic in two European cities (Basel and Rotterdam) and two Chinese cities (Xi'an and Suzhou) were evaluated in terms of their impact on air quality. The two scenarios, one modelling a reduction of private vehicle kilometres driven by 10% on u

  4. Encounter rates and swimming behavior of pause-travel and cruise larval fish predators in calm and turbulent laboratory environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    We observed the feeding and swimming behavior of freely swimming cod (Gadus morhua) and herring (Clupea harengus) larvae in calm and turbulent (epsilon = similar to 7.4 x 10(-8) m(2) s(-3)) laboratory environments at limiting and satiating abundances of Acartia tonsa prey. Attack position rates (a...... herring larvae were higher in turbulent water than in calm water, but the difference was not significant. Interspecific differences in swimming and pausing behavior were related to differences in prey search strategy used by the two species (cod: pause-travel; herring: cruise). We used a newly developed...... turbulence levels, the pause-travel model predicts higher encounter rates than does the cruise model. In terms of prey encounter rate, cod larvae benefit more from turbulent motion than do herring larvae. However, aspects of larval behavior other than prey search strategy (e.g. prey capture success) need to...

  5. Characterisation of the Leukemic Stem Cell in a Murine Model of CALM/AF10 Positive Myeloid Leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Aniruddha

    2006-01-01

    We have demonstrated, that an acute leukemia with a predominantly myeloid phenotype can be propagated by a progenitor with lymphoid characteristics in a mouse model of the t(10;11) (p13;q14) translocation. Mice transplanted with bone marrow retrovirally engineered to express the leukemia specific CALM/AF10 fusion gene consistently developed an acute leukemia with a short latency. The leukemia showed characteristic myeloid features such as the presence of myeloid marker positive cells infilt...

  6. Final Report Recommended Actions to Reduce Electrical Peak Loads at the Marine Corps Air Station at Camp Pendleton, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hail, John C.; Brown, Daryl R.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Underhill, Ronald M.

    2001-05-08

    PNNL conducted a walk-through audit of Marine Corps Air Station at Camp Pendleton. The audit inspected a significant portion of the site and identified a large number of similar energy saving opportunities across all building types.

  7. The Experience to Abate Air Pollution : What Lessons can Beijing, China Draw from Developed Countries When Trying to Reduce Emissions?

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Currently, China is facing a challenge of sustainable development. The worsening air quality and increasing haze days in Beijing and many other cities in China have exerted serious health impacts and an economic toll. Pollution control and emission reduction have become an urgent issue that Chinese governments need to tackle. Hence, stricter Environmental laws and Clean Air Plans have been published and implemented in recent years in China. The developed countries had experienced the similar ...

  8. Air pollution exposure during pregnancy and reduced birth size: a prospective birth cohort study in Valencia, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Llop Sabrina; Iñiguez Carmen; Estarlich Marisa; Ballester Ferran; Ramón Rosa; Esplugues Ana; Lacasaña Marina; Rebagliato Marisa

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Maternal exposure to air pollution has been related to fetal growth in a number of recent scientific studies. The objective of this study was to assess the association between exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and anthropometric measures at birth in a cohort in Valencia, Spain. Methods Seven hundred and eighty-five pregnant women and their singleton newborns participated in the study. Exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was estimated by means of land use re...

  9. Evaluation of emission control strategies to reduce ozone pollution in the Paso del Norte region using a photochemical air quality modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Victor Hugo

    Air pollution emissions control strategies to reduce ozone precursor pollutants are analyzed by applying a photochemical modeling system. Simulations of air quality conditions during an ozone episode which occurred in June, 2006 are undertaken by increasing or reducing area source emissions in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico. Two air pollutants are primary drivers in the formation of tropospheric ozone. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) undergo multiple chemical reactions under favorable meteorological conditions to form ozone, which is a secondary pollutant that irritates respiratory systems in sensitive individuals especially the elderly and young children. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency established National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to limit ambient air pollutants such as ozone by establishing an 8-hour average concentration of 0.075 ppm as the threshold at which a violation of the standard occurs. Ozone forms primarily due reactions in the troposphere of NOx and VOC emissions generated primarily by anthropogenic sources in urban regions. Data from emissions inventories indicate area sources account for ˜15 of NOx and ˜45% of regional VOC emissions. Area sources include gasoline stations, automotive paint bodyshops and nonroad mobile sources. Multiplicity of air pollution emissions sources provides an opportunity to investigate and potentially implement air quality improvement strategies to reduce emissions which contribute to elevated ozone concentrations. A baseline modeling scenario was established using the CAMx photochemical air quality model from which a series of sensitivity analyses for evaluating air quality control strategies were conducted. Modifications to area source emissions were made by varying NOx and / or VOC emissions in the areas of particular interest. Model performance was assessed for each sensitivity analysis. Normalized bias (NB) and normalized error (NE) were used to identify

  10. Willingness to pay for reducing fatal risk by improving air quality: a contingent valuation study in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Mullahy, John

    2006-08-15

    In China, 76% of all energy comes from coal consumption, which is the major cause of air pollution. One of the major barriers to developing sound policies for controlling air pollution is the lack of information related to the value of the health consequences of air pollution. We conducted a willingness-to-pay (WTP) study using contingent valuation (CV) methods in Chongqing, China to estimate the economic value of saving one statistical life through improving air quality. A sample of 500residents was chosen based on multistage sampling methods. A face-to-face household interview was conducted using a series of hypothetical, open-ended scenarios followed by bidding game questions designed to elicit the respondents' WTP for air pollution reduction. The Two-Part Model was used for estimations. The results show that 96% of respondents were able to express their WTP. Their mean annual income is $490. Their WTP to save one statistical life is $34,458. Marginal increases for saving one statistical life is $240 with 1year age increase, $14,434 with 100yuan monthly income increase, and $1590 with 1year education increase. Unlike developed country, clean air may still be considered as a "luxury" good in China based on the estimation of income elasticity. PMID:16580710

  11. Technique for reducing surface wave at an air/left-handed medium (LHM) interface or excitation of the forward wave in an LHM

    OpenAIRE

    Boutayeb, Halim; Wu, Ke; Mahdjoubi, Kouroch

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the illumination by an electromagnetic wave of an air/left-handed medium (LHM) interface. It is shown that by placing a periodic structure of resistors near the LHM it is possible to suppress or to reduce the surface wave that is present at the interface. For our demonstration, we consider a semi-infinite lossless left-handed medium having the same constitutive parameters as those of air but with opposite signs. Numerical results, obtained by using a full-wave time...

  12. Reducing lead in air and preventing childhood exposure near lead smelters: learning from the U.S. experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Marianne

    2015-05-01

    Childhood lead exposure and poisoning near primary lead smelters continues in developed and developing countries. In the United States, the problem of lead poisoning in children caused by smelter emissions was first documented in the early 1970s. In 1978, Environmental Protection Agency set National Ambient Air Quality Standards for lead. Attainment of this lead standard in areas near operating lead smelters took twenty to thirty years. Childhood lead exposure and poisoning continued to occur after the lead National Ambient Air Quality Standards were set and before compliance was achieved. This article analyzes and discusses the factors that led to the eventual achievement of the 1978 lead National Ambient Air Quality Standards near primary smelters and the reduction of children's blood lead levels in surrounding communities. Factors such as federal and state regulation, monitoring of emissions, public health activities such as blood lead surveillance and health education, relocation of children, environmental group and community advocacy, and litigation all played a role. PMID:25815743

  13. Evaluation of reactive oxygen species generating AirOcare system for reducing airborne microbial populations in a meat processing plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbial contamination of meat and meat products is of continuing concern to the meat industry and regulatory agencies. Air has been established as a source of microbial contamination in slaughter and processing facilities. The objective of this research was to determine the efficacy of reactiv...

  14. The Green Heart Initiative: Using Air Quality Information to Reduce Adverse Health Effects in Patients with Heart and Vascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Green Heart Initiatives designed to raise public awareness about the role outdoor air pollution plays in cardiovascular health. Developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to complement the national Million Hearts” initiative1, Green Heart seeks to teach healt...

  15. Influence of Air Temperature on the Performance of Different Water-Reducing Admixtures with Respect to the Properties of Fresh and Hardened Mortar

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Ricardo Leal Silva; Luiz Roberto Prudêncio; Alexandre Lima Oliveira; Gabriela Damo; Eduardo Tochetto

    2010-01-01

    The performance of water-reducing admixtures used in concrete is affected by the weather conditions to which the concrete mixture is exposed. The most used WRAs are lignosulfonate, naphthalene, and polycarboxylate. However, they react differently to weather conditions, especially to air temperature. Therefore, it can be useful to evaluate how temperature affects admixture performance. In this study, the performance of three admixtures (naphthalene, lignosulfonate, and polycarboxylate) was eva...

  16. Self-rated health among Mayan women participating in a randomised intervention trial reducing indoor air pollution in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Kirk R; Díaz Anaité; Pope Dan; Bruce Nigel; Díaz Esperanza; Smith-Sivertsen Tone

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Indoor air pollution (IAP) from solid fuels is a serious health problem in low-income countries that can be alleviated using improved stoves. Although women are the principal users, few studies have investigated the self-assessed impact of the stoves on their health and lives. Methods This study was conducted in rural highland Guatemala, involving 89 intervention and 80 control Mayan Indian young women (mean 27.8 years, SD 7.2). Outcomes were assessed after approximately 1...

  17. Self-rated health among Mayan women participating in a randomised intervention trial reducing indoor air pollution in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, Esperanza; Bruce, Nigel; Pope, Dan; Díaz, Anaité; Kirk R Smith; Smith-Sivertsen, Tone

    2008-01-01

    Background: Indoor air pollution (IAP) from solid fuels is a serious health problem in low-income countries that can be alleviated using improved stoves. Although women are the principal users, few studies have investigated the self-assessed impact of the stoves on their health and lives. Methods: This study was conducted in rural highland Guatemala, involving 89 intervention and 80 control Mayan Indian young women (mean 27.8 years, SD 7.2). Outcomes were assessed after approximatel...

  18. An improved model for the microwave brightness temperature seen from space over calm ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Pol, Sandra L.

    An improved model for the microwave brightness temperature seen from space over calm ocean is presented. This model can be divided into two sub-models, the atmospheric absorption model and the ocean surface emissivity model. An improved model for the absorption of the atmosphere near the 22 GHz water vapor line is presented in the first part of this work. The Van-Vleck-Weisskopf line shape is used with a simple parameterized version of the model from Liebe for the water vapor absorption spectra and a scaling of the model from Rosenkranz for the 20-32 GHz oxygen absorption. Radiometric brightness temperature measurements from two sites of contrasting climatological properties-San Diego, CA and West Palm Beach, FL-are used as ground truth for comparison with in situ radiosonde derived brightness temperatures. Estimation of the new model's four parameters, related to water vapor line strength, line width and continuum absorption, and far-wing oxygen absorption, are performed using the Newton-Raphson inversion method. Improvements to the water vapor line strength and line width parameters are found to be statistically significant. The accuracy of brightness temperatures computed using the improved model is 1.3-2% near 22 GHz. In the second part of this work, a modified ocean emissivity model is presented. We investigate the contribution to the brightness temperature from the specular ocean emission. For this purpose, satellite- based microwave radiometric measurements from the TOPEX/Poseidon project are employed together with near- coincident radiosonde profiles from fifteen stations around the world's oceans and TOPEX altimeter measurements for filtering of low wind conditions. The radiative transfer equation is applied to these profiles, using the atmospheric model developed in part one, in order to account for atmospheric effects in the modeled brightness temperature. NODC ocean temperature and salinity profiles are used in determining the dielectric properties of

  19. A numerical model for the mixing of an inclined submerged heated plane water jet in a calm fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelidis, P.B. [Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi (Greece). School of Engineering

    2002-06-01

    The basic objective of this paper is the presentation of a numerical model for the mixing of an inclined submerged heated plane water jet in calm fluid, which has some improvements over similar models presented by various other investigators. The basic features of our model are: the conservation of heat flux instead of conservation of the buoyancy flux, the inclusion of the turbulent heat flux integrated across the jet, and the modification to include entrainment coefficient depending on the local Richardson number. This model predicts with reasonable accuracy experimental results regarding the axial dilution and the trajectory. (author)

  20. Measurement of Fine Particles From Mobile and Stationary Sources, and Reducing the Air Conditioner Power Consumption in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Brewer, Eli Henry

    2015-01-01

    We study the PM2.5 and ultrafine exhaust emissions from a new natural gas-fired turbine power facility to better understand air pollution in California. To characterize the emissions from new natural gas turbines, a series of tests were performed on a GE LMS100 gas turbine. These tests included PM2.5 and wet chemical tests for SO2/SO3 and NH3, as well as ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) particulate matter measurements. The turbine exhaust had an average particle number concentration t...

  1. Air Quality and Exercise-Related Health Benefits from Reduced Car Travel in the Midwestern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Grabow, Maggie L; Spak, Scott N.; Holloway, Tracey; Stone, Brian; Mednick, Adam C.; Jonathan A Patz

    2011-01-01

    Background: Automobile exhaust contains precursors to ozone and fine particulate matter (PM ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter; PM2.5), posing health risks. Dependency on car commuting also reduces physical fitness opportunities. Objective: In this study we sought to quantify benefits from reducing automobile usage for short urban and suburban trips. Methods: We simulated census-tract level changes in hourly pollutant concentrations from the elimination of automobile round trips ≤ 8 km in 11 me...

  2. CLEAN-AIR heat pump. Reduced energy consumption for ventilation in buildings by integrating air cleaning and heat pump. Final Report; CLEAN-AIR heat pump - Reduceret energiforbrug til ventilation af bygninger ved luftrensning integreret med luft varmepumpe. Slut rapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, L.; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Molinaro, G.; Simmonsen, P.; Skocajic, S. [Danmarks Tekniske Univ. Institut for Byggeri og Anlaeg, Lyngby (Denmark); Hummelshoej, R.M.; Carlassara, L. [COWI A/S, Lyngby, (Denmark); Groenbaek, H.; Hansen, Ole R. [Exhausto A/S, Langeskov (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    This report summarizes task 1 of the Clean Air Heat Pump project - modelling and simulation on energy savings when using the clean air heat pump for ventilation, air cleaning and energy recovery. The total energy consumption of the proposed ventilation systems using clean air heat pump technology was calculated by a theoretical model and compared with the reference ventilation systems (conventional ventilation systems). The energy compared between the two systems includes energy used for heating, cooling and fan. The simulation and energy saving calculation was made for the application of the clean air heat pump in three typical climate conditions, i.e. mild-cold, mild-hot and hot and wet climates. Real climate data recorded from three cities in 2002 was used for the calculation. The three cities were Copenhagen (Denmark), Milan (Italy) and Colombo (Sir Lanka) which represent the above three typical climate zones. For the Danish climate (the mild cold climate), the calculations show that the ventilation system using clean air heat pump technology can save up to 42% of energy cost in winter compared to the conventional ventilation system. The energy saving in summer can be as high as 66% for the ventilation system with humidity control and 9% for the ventilation system without the requirement of humidity control. Since the Danish summer climate is very mild, over 80% of the yearly energy consumption for ventilation is used during winter season. It is, therefore, estimated that more than 35% annual energy saving for ventilation is expected in Denmark using the clean air heat pump ventilation technology. For the mild hot climate, e.g. the Italian climate, the calculations show that up to 63% of the energy saving can be achieved in summer season. For the winter mode, 17% reduction of the energy cost can be expected for the domestic use. For industrial use, the energy cost of the clean air heat pump may not be favourable due to the industrial price of gas in Italy is

  3. Application of CalME incremental-recursive method to the evaluation of the structural condition as asphalt pavements; Aplicacion del metodo recursivo-incremental CalME a la evaluacion del estado estructural de los pavimentos bituminosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateos Moreno, A.; Perez Ayuso, J.; Cadavid Jauregui, B.; Marron Fernandez, J. O.

    2011-07-01

    CalME procedure represents one of the most advanced tools for the design, of flexible pavements world-wide. It is an incremental-recursive method, which means that pavements service life must be divided into many time intervals where both structural integrity and environmental conditions can be regarded as constants. It also means that the damage calculated at the end of each interval must be considered as initial condition for the next one. The goal of this type of models is the prediction of the evolution of the different distress mechanisms. The advantages of incremental-recursive procedures versus classical analytical design are shown in this paper. Advantages are shown not only in terms of design, but also as a tool in order to support structural evaluation. In particular, the potential of asphalt fatigue model incorporated in CalME is presented. this model is initially calibrated in the laboratory, and it is then re-calibrated based on the actual performance observed from field deflection testing. The model provides a reliable prediction of the future evolution of the damage of the asphalt mixture. Fatigue model validation has been conducted based on the performance from several flexible sections evaluated in CEDEX full-scale pavements test track. (Author) 14 refs.

  4. Efficiency of mitigation measures to reduce particulate air pollution--a case study during the Olympic Summer Games 2008 in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Nina; Norra, Stefan; Chen, Yizhen; Chai, Fahe; Wang, Shulan

    2012-06-15

    Atmospheric particles were studied before, during, and after the period of the Olympic Summer Games in Beijing, China, in August 2008 in order to investigate the efficiency of the mitigation measures implemented by the Chinese Government. Total suspended particles (TSP) and fine particles (PM(2.5) and PM(1)) were collected continuously from October 2007 to February 2009 and were analyzed in detail with regard to mass and element concentrations, water-soluble ions, and black carbon (BC). Mass as well as element concentrations during the Olympic air quality control period were lower than the respective concentrations during the time directly before and after the Olympic Games. The results showed that the applied aerosol source control measures, such as shutting down industries and reducing traffic, had a huge impact on the reduction of aerosol pollution in Beijing. However, the meteorological conditions, especially rainfall, certainly also contributed to the successful reduction of particulate air pollution. Coarse particles were reduced more efficiently than finer particles, which indicates that long-range transport of atmospheric particles is difficult to control and that presumably the established mitigation area was not large enough. The study further showed that elements from predominantly anthropogenic sources, such as S, Cu, As, Cd, and Pb, as well as BC, were reduced more efficiently during the Olympic Games than elements for which geogenic sources are more significant, such as Al, Fe, Rb or Sr. Furthermore, the mentioned anthropogenic element concentrations were reduced more in the finer PM(2.5) samples whereas geogenic ones were reduced stronger in TSP samples including the coarser fraction. Consequently, it can be assumed that the mitigation measures, as intended, were successful in reducing more toxic and health-relevant particles from anthropogenic sources. Firework displays, especially at the Opening Ceremony, could be identified as a special short

  5. Study of cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the commercial air transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coykendall, R. E.; Curry, J. K.; Domke, A. E.; Madsen, S. E.

    1976-01-01

    Economic studies were conducted for three general fuel conserving options: (1) improving fuel consumption characteristics of existing aircraft via retrofit modifications; (2) introducing fuel efficient derivations of existing production aircraft and/or introducing fuel efficient, current state-of-the-art new aircraft; and (3) introducing an advanced state-of-the-art turboprop airplane. These studies were designed to produce an optimum airline fleet mix for the years 1980, 1985 and 1990. The fleet selected accommodated a normal growth market by introducing somewhat larger aircraft while solving for maximum departure frequencies and a minimum load factor corresponding to a 15% investment hurdle rate. Fuel burnt per available-seat-mile flown would drop 22% from 1980 to 1990 due to the use of more fuel efficient aircraft designs, larger average aircraft size, and increased seating density. An inflight survey was taken to determine air traveler attitudes towards a new generation of advanced turboprops.

  6. Application of CalME incremental-recursive method to the evaluation of the structural condition as asphalt pavements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CalME procedure represents one of the most advanced tools for the design, of flexible pavements world-wide. IT is an incremental-recursive method, which means that pavements service life must be divided into many time intervals where both structural integrity and environmental conditions can be regarded as constants. It also means that the damage calculated at the end of each interval must be considered as initial condition for the next one. The goal of this type of models is the prediction of the evolution of the different distress mechanisms. The advantages of incremental-recursive procedures versus classical analytical design are shown in this paper. Advantages are shown not only in terms of design, but also as a tool in order to support structural evaluation. In particular, the potential of asphalt fatigue model incorporated in CalME is presented. this model is initially calibrated in the laboratory, and it is then re-calibrated based on the actual performance observed from field deflection testing. The model provides a reliable prediction of the future evolution of the damage of the asphalt mixture. Fatigue model validation has been conducted based on the performance from several flexible sections evaluated in CEDEX full-scale pavements test track. (Author) 14 refs.

  7. Reducing inputs and losses of nitrogen and energy on dairy farms : final report project AIR3 CT92-0332

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der H.G.

    2004-01-01

    The need to reduce nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses as well as the (direct and indirect) use of fossil energy on intensive dairy farms in Europe to ecologically acceptable levels requires radical changes of the management of these farms. The objective of the project, (started in 1993) was to d

  8. Cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the commercial air transportation system. Volume 1: Technical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, E. F.

    1976-01-01

    The effectiveness and associated costs of operational and technical options for reduced fuel consumption by Douglas aircraft in the domestic airline fleet are assessed. Areas explored include alternative procedures for airline and flight operations, advanced and state of the art technology, modification and derivative configurations, new near-term aircraft, turboprop configuration studies, and optimum aircraft geometry. Data for each aircraft studied is presented in tables and graphs.

  9. Generalized cost-effectiveness analysis of a package of interventions to reduce cardiovascular disease in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souto Alberto

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic diseases, represented mainly by cardiovascular disease (CVD and cancer, are increasing in developing countries and account for 53% of chronic diseases in Argentina. There is strong evidence that a reduction of 50% of the deaths due to CVD can be attributed to a reduction in smoking, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Generalized cost-effectiveness analysis (GCE is a methodology designed by WHO to inform decision makers about the extent to which current or new interventions represent an efficient use of resources. We aimed to use GCE analysis to identify the most efficient interventions to decrease CVD. Methods Six individual interventions (treatment of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking cessation and combined clinical strategies to reduce the 10 year CVD Risk and two population-based interventions (cooperation between government, consumer associations and bakery chambers to reduce salt in bread, and mass education strategies to reduce hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and obesity were selected for analysis. Estimates of effectiveness were entered into age and sex specific models to predict their impact in terms of age-weighted and discounted DALYs saved (disability-adjusted life years. To translate the age- and sex-adjusted incidence of CVD events into health changes, we used risk model software developed by WHO (PopMod. Costs of services were measured in Argentine pesos, and discounted at an annual rate of 3%. Different budgetary impact scenarios were explored. Results The average cost-effectiveness ratio in argentine pesos (ARS$ per DALY for the different interventions were: (i less salt in bread $151; (ii mass media campaign $547; (iii combination drug therapy provided to subjects with a 20%, 10% and 5% global CVD risk, $3,599, $4,113 and $4,533, respectively; (iv high blood pressure (HBP lowering therapy $7,716; (v tobacco cessation with bupropion $ 33,563; and (iv high-cholesterol lowering therapy

  10. Proteomic analysis of effects of Chinese herbs to calm the liver and suppress hyperactive yang in a rat migraine model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun Hu; Zeqi Chen; Guangwei Zhong; Wei Li; Yaohui Yin

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The expression of ubiquitin and energy-associated protein can provoke migraines. Studies have suggested that expression is closely linked to "hyperactivity of liver-yang theory" in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), as well as the function of periphery sympathetic nerve medulla.OBJECTIVE: To observe proteomic changes in a rat migraine model with regard to hyperactivity of liver-yang when treated with Chinese herbs to calm the liver and suppress hyperactive yang compound.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized controlled study. This study was performed at the laboratory of Institute of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Institute of Human Reproduction and Stem Cell Engineering and Key Laboratory of Cancer Proteomics of Ministry of Health, Xiangya Hospital Affiliated to Central South University between September 2006 and July 2007.MATERIALS: Thirty, male, healthy, Sprague-Dawley rats, aged eight weeks, were included in the final analysis. Aconitc, to calm the liver and suppress hyperactive yang compound, was provided by the Dispensary of Traditional Chinese medicine, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University. A physiological electronic stimulator, type SDQ-1, was provided by Bengbu Practical Institute of Technology. The left trigeminal ganglion was localized and stimulated for 10 minutes, and the rats were orally administered an aconite concoction to establish a rat migraine model with hyperactivity of liver-yang.METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into a normal control group, model group, and TCM treatment group, with 10 rats in each group. The TCM treatment group was orally treated to calm the liver and suppress the hyperactive yang compound once a day for 28 days. In contrast, the model group and normal group were orally administered the same amount of distilled water once a day for 28 days.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The total proteins from adrenal glands of the three groups were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE

  11. A trained demonstrator has a calming effect on naïve horses when crossing a novel surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Ahrendt, Line Peerstrup; Christensen, Janne Winther

    2015-01-01

    transmission of habituation in horses are scarce. This study investigated if demonstration by a habituated demonstrator horse influenced the willingness of young Icelandic horses (n = 22, 3 years old) to cross a novel surface. Observer horses (n = 11) were allowed to observe the similarly aged demonstrator...... horse being led five times across a novel surface. Immediately afterwards the observer horses were given the opportunity to cross the novel surface themselves to obtain food on the other side. Controls (n = 11) were allowed to observe the demonstrator eating on the opposite side of the novel surface but...... not the demonstration of crossing the novel surface. All observers and controls succeeded the task, but observers had significantly lower average and maximum heart rate, compared to controls. This result suggests a calming effect of the demonstration, which could be exploited for habituation training...

  12. Taste-Mediated Calming in Premature, Preterm, and Full-Term Human Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barbara A.; Blass, Elliott M.

    1996-01-01

    Preterm and term infants were given a sucrose solution, a glucose solution, or water during a test period in which the amount of their crying was measured. Sucrose reduced crying in preterm and term infants by 91% and 93%, respectively, and glucose by 86% and 81%, respectively. Water was ineffective in reducing crying in both preterm and term…

  13. Oral clonidine: a simple yet effective and safe premedicant for hemodynamic stability during laparoscopic surgery and a calm post-operative period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketaki Marodkar

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Oral clonidine in the present dose is able to maintain stable intra-operative haemodynamics and achieve a calm post-operative period during laparoscopic surgeries in ASA I/II patients. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(2.000: 293-299

  14. The influence of ship movements on the energy expenditure of fishermen. A study during a North Sea Voyage in calm weather

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breidahl, Tomas; Christensen, Michael; Johansen, Jens Peter; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Omland, Øyvind

    minor sea motions. Trends were seen in the individual graphs with increasing energy expenditure at higher exposures. Conclusion: Our data suggests that even the heel and pitch in calm weather have an impact on the fishermen by increasing their energy consumption. This study has demonstrated the...

  15. Influence of Air Temperature on the Performance of Different Water-Reducing Admixtures with Respect to the Properties of Fresh and Hardened Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Ricardo Leal Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of water-reducing admixtures used in concrete is affected by the weather conditions to which the concrete mixture is exposed. The most used WRAs are lignosulfonate, naphthalene, and polycarboxylate. However, they react differently to weather conditions, especially to air temperature. Therefore, it can be useful to evaluate how temperature affects admixture performance. In this study, the performance of three admixtures (naphthalene, lignosulfonate, and polycarboxylate was evaluated at 15, 25, and 35°C by means of the flow table test, mixture air content, and compressive strength. Moreover, mixture temperature was monitored and time-temperature curves were plotted in order to assess whether the admixtures affected cement hydration reactions at different temperatures. The final results indicate that an increase in temperature leads to an increase in saturation dosage; lignosulfonate had the most pronounced retarding effect, followed by polycarboxylate, and finally, naphthalene, and considering the weather conditions in the area where the study was carried, the final finding would be that the naphthalene-based admixture had the best performance.

  16. Explaining adoption of end of pipe solutions and clean technologies-Determinants of firms' investments for reducing emissions to air in four sectors in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We estimate firms' probability of technological adoption based on a firm level panel data set from four major sectors in Sweden between 2000 and 2003. Technological adoption is measured by environmental protection investments (EPI), and we focus particularly on differences between the decisions to adopt end of pipe solutions and clean technologies. We find that there seem to be different drivers for investments in end of pipe solutions and clean technologies, in particular we show that the probability of a firm investing in clean technologies to reduce emissions to air increases if the firm has expenditures for R and D related to environmental protection (green R and D), while price on energy is important for the investment in end of pipe solutions. Furthermore, our results indicate complementarity between the two types of technologies.

  17. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  18. Hydrogen supplemented air inhalation reduces changes of prooxidant enzyme and gap junction protein levels after transient global cerebral ischemia in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugyecz, Marietta; Mracskó, Eva; Hertelendy, Péter; Farkas, Eszter; Domoki, Ferenc; Bari, Ferenc

    2011-08-01

    Transient global cerebral ischemia (TGCI) occurs during acute severe hypotension depriving the brain of oxygen and glucose for a short period of time. During reperfusion, several mechanisms can induce secondary neuronal damage, including the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hydrogen gas-enriched air inhalation is a neuroprotective approach with proven antioxidant potential, which has not yet been examined in TGCI. Accordingly, we set out to describe the effect of inhalation of 2.1% hydrogen supplemented room air (H(2)-RA) in comparison with a well studied neuroprotective agent, rosiglitazone (RSG) in a TGCI rat model. Male Wistar rats were exposed to TGCI (n=26) or sham operation (n=26), while a third group served as intact control (naive, n=5). The operated groups were further divided into non-treated, H(2)-RA, RSG (6 mg/kg i.v.) and vehicle treated animals. Tissue samples from the hippocampus and frontal cortex were taken 3 days following surgery. Western blot analysis was applied to determine the expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), neuronal and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (nNOS and eNOS, respectively), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and glial connexin proteins: connexin 30 and connexin 43. The expressions of COX-2, and connexin proteins were upregulated, while nNOS was downregulated 3 days after TGCI. Both RSG and H(2)-RA prevented the changes of enzyme and connexin levels. Considering the lack of harmful side effects, inhalation of H(2)-RA can be a promising approach to reduce neuronal damage after TGCI. PMID:21718970

  19. Best available techniques (BATs) for oil spill response in the Mediterranean Sea: calm sea and presence of economic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Giambattista; Sliskovic, Merica; Violante, Anna Carmela; Vukic, Luka

    2016-01-01

    An oil spill is the accidental or intentional discharge of petroleum products into the environment due to human activities. Although oil spills are actually just a little percent of the total world oil pollution problem, they represent the most visible form of it. The impact on the ecosystems can be severe as well as the impact on economic activities. Oil spill cleanup is a very difficult and expensive activity, and many techniques are available for it. In previous works, a methodology based on different kinds of criteria in order to come to the most satisfactory technique was proposed and the relative importance of each impact criterion on the basis of the Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was also evaluated. After a review of the best available techniques (BATs) available for oil spill response, this work suggests criteria for BATs' selection when oil spills occur in the Mediterranean Sea under well-defined circumstances: calm sea and presence of economic activities in the affected area. A group of experts with different specializations evaluated the alternative BATs by means of AHP method taking into account their respective advantages and disadvantages. PMID:26498811

  20. Comparison of wave propagation through ice covers in calm and storm conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingkai; Kohout, Alison L.; Shen, Hayley H.

    2015-07-01

    Motivated by a dramatic reduction in Arctic sea ice cover, interest in the field of wave-ice interaction has accelerated over the past few years. Recent observations have identified that large waves (>3 m) have a linear attenuation rate, rather than the previously assumed exponential rate that is found for small waves. This suggests that waves penetrate further into the ice cover than previously expected. To explore this further we tested two exponentially decaying wave models. Contributions from nonlinear and wind generation source terms enabled both models to reproduce the observed regime shift. Essentially, the accumulation of nonlinear and wind energy contributions to long (and thus higher amplitude) waves can offset the ice damping, thus reducing the apparent attenuation. This study highlights the relevance of considering frequency dependence when analyzing wave attenuation in sea ice field data.

  1. Community effectiveness of stove and health education interventions for reducing exposure to indoor air pollution from solid fuels in four Chinese provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass and coal is a leading cause of mortality and disease burden in the developing world. There is limited evidence of the community effectiveness of interventions for reducing IAP exposure. We conducted a community-based intervention study of stove and health education interventions in four low-income Chinese provinces: Gansu, Guizhou, Inner Mongolia, and Shaanxi. Separate townships in one county in each province were assigned to stove plus behavioral interventions, behavioral interventions alone, and control. Data on household fuel and stove use, and on concentrations of respirable particles (RPM), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), were collected in peak and late heating seasons before and after interventions. The effectiveness of interventions was evaluated using difference-in-difference analysis. Pollutant concentrations were also measured in controlled tests, in which stoves were operated by expert users. In controlled tests, there was consistent and substantial reduction in concentrations of RPM (>88%) and CO (>66%); in the two coal-using provinces, SO2 concentrations declined more in Shaanxi than in Guizhou. In community implementation, combined stove and behavioral interventions reduced the concentrations of pollutants in rooms where heating was the main purpose of stove use in the peak heating season, with smaller, non-significant, reduction in late heating season. Gansu was the only province where combined stove and behavioral interventions led to pollution reduction where cooking was the primary purpose of stove use. Compared to the control group, no significant IAP reductions were seen in groups with health education alone

  2. Further evaluation of alternative air-filtration systems for reducing the transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Scott A; Deen, John; Cano, Jean Paul; Batista, Laura; Pijoan, Carlos

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare 4 methods for the reduction of aerosol transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration, 2x-low-cost filtration, bag filtration, and use of a filter tested against particles derived from dioctylphthalate (DOP). The HEPA-filtration system used a prefilter screen, a bag filter (Eurovent [EU] 8 rating), and a HEPA filter (EU13 rating). The low-cost-filtration system contained mosquito netting (prefilter), 2 fiberglass furnace filters, and 2 electrostatic furnace filters. Bag filtration involved the use of a filter rated EU8 and a minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) of 14. The 95%-DOP, 0.3-microm-filtration system involved a pleat-in-pleat V-bank disposable filter with a 95% efficiency rating for particles 0.3 microm or greater in diameter and ratings of EU9 and MERV 15. No form of intervention was used in the control group. The experimental facilities consisted of 2 chambers connected by a 1.3-m-long duct containing the treatments. Recipient pigs, housed in chamber 2, were exposed to artificial aerosols created by a mechanically operated mister containing modified live PRRSV vaccine located in chamber 1. Aerosol transmission of PRRSV occurred in 0 of the 10 HEPA-filtration replicates, 2 of the 10 bag-filtration replicates, 4 of the 10 low-cost-filtration replicates, 0 of the 10 95%-DOP, 0.3-microm-filtration replicates, and all 10 of the control replicates. Using a similar approach, we further evaluated the HEPA- and 95%-DOP, 0.3-microm-filtration systems. Infection was not observed in any of the 76 HEPA-filtration replicates but was observed in 2 of the 76 95%-DOP, 0.3-microm replicates and 42 of the 50 control replicates. Although the difference between the 95%-DOP, 0.3-microm and control replicates was significant (P failure of the 95%-DOP, 0.3-microm system (P = 0.02). In conclusion, under the conditions of this study, some methods of air

  3. Contribution of emission control and atmospheric diffusion ability to the improved air quality in 2015 of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Wang, K.

    2015-12-01

    China experiences extremely severe and frequent PM2.5 (fine particulate matters with diameters less than 2.5 µm) pollution in recent years, arousing unprecedented public concern. Tough targets have been set for three particularly smog-ridden regions: JingJinJi area, the Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta, requiring these regions to reduce their atmospheric levels of PM2.5 by 25%, 20% and 15% respectively by the year 2017. A lot of mitigation actions have been taken to improve the air quality in China. In January 2013, China began to deploy instruments to measure PM2.5 nationally and released hourly observational data to the public. Observed PM2.5 concentrations showed a significant decrease in 2015 comparing to that of 2014 as shown in Fig.1. Many studies have attributed this kind of air quality improvement to the effect of emission control. However, air quality not only depends on the original emission, the atmospheric abilities of contaminant transfer, spread and wet deposition play a big role in reducing the ambient air pollutants and directly determined by the occurrence of pollution episodes. Here we used the first 2 years PM2.5 observation data in China to quantify the contribution of the effect of emission control and atmospheric ability of diffusing on reducing ambient PM2.5 concentrations. We found that PM2.5 decreased by 24% in 2015 winter (Dec. 2014-Feb. 2015) comparing to that in 2014; and 12% of decrease occurred for the spring time. The inconsistent seasonal improvement of air quality is mainly due to the favorable atmospheric background in 2015, with its frequent precipitation, infrequency of surface calm wind during the wintertime.

  4. Assisting People with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder by Actively Reducing Limb Hyperactive Behavior with a Gyration Air Mouse through a Controlled Environmental Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    The latest researches have adopted software technology turning the gyration air mouse into a high performance limb movement detector, and have assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control an environmental stimulation using limb movement. This study extends gyration air mouse functionality by actively reducing…

  5. Speciation and fate of trace metals in estuarine sediments under reduced and oxidized conditions, Seaplane Lagoon, Alameda Naval Air Station (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esser Brad

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available We have identified important chemical reactions that control the fate of metal-contaminated estuarine sediments if they are left undisturbed (in situ or if they are dredged. We combined information on the molecular bonding of metals in solids from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS with thermodynamic and kinetic driving forces obtained from dissolved metal concentrations to deduce the dominant reactions under reduced and oxidized conditions. We evaluated the in situ geochemistry of metals (cadmium, chromium, iron, lead, manganese and zinc as a function of sediment depth (to 100 cm from a 60 year record of contamination at the Alameda Naval Air Station, California. Results from XAS and thermodynamic modeling of porewaters show that cadmium and most of the zinc form stable sulfide phases, and that lead and chromium are associated with stable carbonate, phosphate, phyllosilicate, or oxide minerals. Therefore, there is minimal risk associated with the release of these trace metals from the deeper sediments contaminated prior to the Clean Water Act (1975 as long as reducing conditions are maintained. Increased concentrations of dissolved metals with depth were indicative of the formation of metal HS- complexes. The sediments also contain zinc, chromium, and manganese associated with detrital iron-rich phyllosilicates and/or oxides. These phases are recalcitrant at near-neutral pH and do not undergo reductive dissolution within the 60 year depositional history of sediments at this site. The fate of these metals during dredging was evaluated by comparing in situ geochemistry with that of sediments oxidized by seawater in laboratory experiments. Cadmium and zinc pose the greatest hazard from dredging because their sulfides were highly reactive in seawater. However, their dissolved concentrations under oxic conditions were limited eventually by sorption to or co-precipitation with an iron (oxyhydroxide. About 50% of the reacted CdS and 80% of the reacted

  6. Pressurized air supply device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventilation air-conditioning facilities in a nuclear reactor building are adapted to suck clean external air not containing radioactivity through air supply filters disposed at an air intake port of the nuclear reactor building by means of an air supply blower and then supply the sucked air through an air supply duct and an air supply port to the inside of the power plant. Futher, pipeways for supplying sucked air to a compressor is branched from the air supply duct, through which air is supplied to an air compressor for instrumentation and an air compressor used in the power plant. The air sucked and compressed in the air compressor for instrumentation is further supplied by way of pipeways for supplying air for instrumentation to air-actuated valves, instruments, etc. Further, air sucked and compressed in the air compressor used in the power plant is further supplied by way of air supply pipeways for the power plant to a reservoir, air mask, etc. By supplying clean compressed air in this way, operators exposure dose can be reduced. (T.M.)

  7. Calming Local Debt Fears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Local governments in China, barred from directly selling bonds and taking out bank loans, have set up thousands of financing vehicles to raise money to fund infrastructure projects. A first-ever audit found that these local government financing vehicles have accumulated a record breaking debt of 10.7 trillion yuan ($1.7 trillion).But there’s no need to panic over this debt, said Xu Lin, Director of the Department of Fiscal and Financial Affairs of the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), in a question-andanswer statement posted on the NDRC’s website on August 29.Edited excerpts follow:

  8. Calming Local Debt Fears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Local governments in China,barred from directly selling bonds and taking out bank loans,have set up thousands of financing vehicles to raise money to fund infrastructure projects.A first-ever audit found that these local government financing vehicles have accumulated a record breaking debt of 10.7 trillion yuan ($1.7 trillion).But there's no need to panic over this debt,said Xu Lin,Director of the Department of Fiscal and Financial Affairs of the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC),in a question-and-answer statement posted on the NDRC's website on August 29.

  9. Electron loss rates from the outer radiation belt caused by the filling of the outer plasmasphere: the calm before the storm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovsky, Joseph E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Denton, Michael H [LANCASTER UNIV

    2009-01-01

    Measurements from 7 spacecraft in geosynchronous orbit are analyzed to determine the decay rate of the number density of the outer electron radiation belt prior to the onset of high-speed-stream-driven geomagnetic storms. Superposed-data analysis is used wan(?) a collection of 124 storms. When there is a calm before the storm, the electron number density decays exponentially before the storm with a 3.4-day e-folding time: beginning about 4 days before storm onset, the density decreases from {approx}4x10{sup -4} cm{sup -3} to {approx}1X 10{sup -4} cm{sup -3}. When there is not a calm before the storm, the number-density decay is very smalL The decay in the number density of radiation-belt electrons is believed to be caused by pitch-angle scattering of electrons into the atmospheric loss cone as the outer plasmasphere fills during the calms. While the radiation-belt electron density decreases, the temperature of the electron radiation belt holds approximately constant, indicating that the electron precipitation occurs equally at all energies. Along with the number density decay, the pressure of the outer electron radiation belt decays and the specific entropy increases. From the measured decay rates, the electron flux to the atmosphere is calculated and that flux is 3 orders of magnitude less than thermal fluxes in the magnetosphere, indicating that the radiation-belt pitch-angle scattering is 3 orders weaker than strong diffusion. Energy fluxes into the atmosphere are calculated and found to be insufficient to produce visible airglow.

  10. Air quality more extensive monitoring of particulates pollution but concentrations must be reduced by 2005; Qualite de l'air: une surveillance accrue des particules, mais des concentrations a reduire d'ici l'an 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ba, M. [Institut francais de l' environnement, 45 - Orleans (France); Colosio, J. [ADEME, Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-09-01

    Most epidemiological data point to a link between the concentrations of particles measured in the ambient air and the effects of air pollution on human health. Particulates emitted by road traffic and industry are among the most harmful; they carry serious risks. The particulate monitoring network and legislation on the issue are constantly changing. In France, the number of monitoring stations has more than doubled in recent years. EC Directive 1999/30/EC of 22 April 1999 sets limit values for concentrations of particulates in ambient air to be complied with at certain given dates. In France, while the concentrations measured in urban areas with over 100 000 inhabitants are below the limit values set by the Directive for today, they are significantly higher than those to be complied with by 1 January 2005. (author)

  11. Keep Calm and Kill Zombies – ewolucja żywych trupów, ich wpływ na popkulturę oraz banalizacja strachu

    OpenAIRE

    Wiater, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    In the chapter Keep Calm and Kill Zombies—The Evolution of Walking Deads, Their Influence on Popular Culture and the Trivialization of Fear, Paweł Wiater analyses the phenomenon of the trivialization of fear present in today’s pop culture. The au-thor focuses on zombies and their portrayal in mass media. The Undead, the walking dead—these are only two of the terms referring to these monsters. They have Haitian roots that are related to voodoo culture. Thanks to the books of William Seabrook a...

  12. Air Quality Guide for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Air Quality Guide for Ozone Ground-level ozone is one of our nation’s most common air pollutants. Use the chart below to help reduce ...

  13. Cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the commercial air transportation system. Volume 2: Market and economic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanabkoude, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of the most promising fuel conserving options on fuel consumption, passenger demand, operating costs, and airline profits when implemented into the U.S. domestic and international airline fleets is assessed. The potential fuel savings achievable in the U.S. scheduled air transportation system over the forecast period, 1973-1990, are estimated.

  14. Presence of a dog reduces subjective but not physiological stress responses to an analog trauma

    OpenAIRE

    JohannaLass-Hennemann

    2014-01-01

    Dogs are known to have stress and anxiety reducing effects. Several studies have shown that dogs are able to calm people during cognitive and performance stressors. Recently, therapy dogs have been proposed as a treatment adjunct for post-traumatic stress disorder patients. In this study we aimed to investigate, whether dogs also have anxiety- and stress reducing effect during “traumatic stressors.” 80 healthy female participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. They were exp...

  15. SU Shi's view of health preservation: calmness and harmony%苏轼“安”与“和”养生观的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛芳芸

    2013-01-01

    北宋文坛巨匠苏轼对中医理论及中医养生学颇有研究,为后人留下了丰富的养生类作品和行之有效的养生方法,提出了“安”与“和”养生观,告诉人们只有保持内心的宁静与安详,顺应外界事物的变化,保持生理心理与自然社会的和谐,才能泰然处世,颐养天年.%SU Shi, the literary giant in the Northern Song Dynasty, did a lot of researches on TCM theory and health preservation, and left abundant works and effective methods about health preservation. He put forward the view of health preservation, calmness and harmony. Only keeping the inner tranquility and peace, conforming to external changes and maintaining physiologically and psychologically harmonizing with the nature, one can take things calmly and enjoy his life.

  16. Elderberry Supplementation Reduces Cold Duration and Symptoms in Air-Travellers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Evelin Tiralongo; Shirley S. Wee; Lea, Rodney A.

    2016-01-01

    Intercontinental air travel can be stressful, especially for respiratory health. Elderberries have been used traditionally, and in some observational and clinical studies, as supportive agents against the common cold and influenza. This randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of 312 economy class passengers travelling from Australia to an overseas destination aimed to investigate if a standardised membrane filtered elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) extract has beneficial effec...

  17. A Randomized Cross-over Air Filtration Intervention Trial for Reducing Cardiovascular Health Risks in Residents of Public Housing near a Highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padró-Martínez, Luz T; Owusu, Emmanuel; Reisner, Ellen; Zamore, Wig; Simon, Matthew C; Mwamburi, Mkaya; Brown, Carrie A; Chung, Mei; Brugge, Doug; Durant, John L

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to traffic-generated ultrafine particles (UFP; particles counter (measuring particle number concentration (PNC), a proxy for UFP) were installed in living rooms. Participants were exposed to filtered air for 21 days and unfiltered air for 21 days. Blood samples were collected and blood pressure measured at days 0, 21 and 42 after a 12-hour fasting period. Plasma was analyzed for high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha-receptor II (TNF-RII) and fibrinogen. PNC reductions ranging from 21% to 68% were recorded in 15 of the apartments. We observed no significant differences in blood pressure or three of the four biomarkers (hsCRP, fibrinogen, and TNF-RII) measured in participants after 21-day exposure to HEPA-filtered air compared to measurements after 21-day exposure to sham-filtered air. In contrast, IL-6 concentrations were significantly higher following HEPA filtration (0.668 pg/mL; CI = 0.465-0.959) compared to sham filtration. Likewise, PNC adjusted for time activity were associated with increasing IL-6 in 14- and 21-day moving averages, and PNC was associated with decreasing blood pressure in Lags 0, 1 and 2, and in a 3-day moving average. These negative associations were unexpected and could be due to a combination of factors including exposure misclassification, unsuccessful randomization (i.e., IL-6 and use of anti-inflammatory medicines), or uncontrolled confounding. Studies with greater reduction in UFP levels and larger sample sizes are needed. There also needs to be more complete assessment of resident time activity and of outdoor vs. indoor source contributions to UFP exposure. HEPA filtration remains a promising, but not fully realized intervention. PMID:26184257

  18. Further evaluation of alternative air-filtration systems for reducing the transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by aerosol

    OpenAIRE

    Dee, Scott A.; Deen, John; Cano, Jean Paul; Batista, Laura; Pijoan, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare 4 methods for the reduction of aerosol transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration, 2×-low-cost filtration, bag filtration, and use of a filter tested against particles derived from dioctylphthalate (DOP). The HEPA-filtration system used a prefilter screen, a bag filter (Eurovent [EU] 8 rating), and a HEPA filter (EU13 rating). The low-cost-filtration system contained mo...

  19. Reducing a solar-assisted air-conditioning system’s energy consumption by applying real-time occupancy sensors and chilled water storage tanks throughout the summer: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We present an innovative occupancy and chilled water storage-based operation mode. • This mode was implemented to the solar-assisted air-conditioning system. • It permits to save 42% of total electrical energy during one cooling period. • It allows storing the excess cooling capacity of the absorption chiller. • It prevents the sudden start/stop (on/off cycles) of the absorption chiller. - Abstract: This study describes an innovative occupancy and chilled-water storage-based operation sequence implemented in a solar-assisted air-conditioning system. The core purpose of this solar-assisted air-conditioning system is to handle the cooling and heating load of the Solar Energy Research Centre (CIESOL), thus minimising its environmental impact. In this study, the cooling mode was investigated with special attention focused on the chilled-water storage circuit. The critical concern is that the solar-assisted air-conditioning system should always operate considering the actual load conditions, not using an abstract maximum load that is predetermined during the system’s design process, which can lead to energy waste during periods of low occupancy. Thus, the fundamental problem is to identify the optimum operation sequence for the solar-assisted air-conditioning system that provides the best energy performance. The significance of this work lies in the demonstration of a new operation strategy that utilises real-time occupancy monitoring and chilled-water storage tanks to improve the efficiency of solar-assisted air-conditioning systems, thereby reducing their electricity consumption. Adopting this strategy resulted in a large energy-saving potential. The results demonstrate that during one cooling period, it is possible to conserve approximately 42% of the total electrical energy consumed by the system prior to the adoption of this operation strategy

  20. Sustainable passenger road transport scenarios to reduce fuel consumption, air pollutants and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents passenger road transport scenarios that may assist the MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area) in achieving lower emissions in both criteria air pollutants (CO, NOx, NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds), and PM10) and GHG (greenhouse gas) (CH4, N2O and CO2), while also promoting better mobility and quality of life in this region. We developed a bottom-up model to estimate the historical trends of energy demand, criteria air pollutants and GHG emissions caused by passenger vehicles circulating in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) in order to construct a baseline scenario and two mitigation scenarios that project their impact to 2028. Mitigation scenario “eff” considers increasing fuel efficiencies and introducing new technologies for vehicle emission controls. Mitigation scenario “BRT” considers a modal shift from private car trips to a Bus Rapid Transport system. Our results show significant reductions in air pollutants and GHG emissions. Incentives and environmental regulations are needed to enable these scenarios. - Highlights: • More than 4.2 million passenger vehicles in the MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area) that represent 61% of criteria pollutants and 44% of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions. • Emissions of CO, NOx and NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds) in baseline scenario decrease with respect to its 2008 value because emission standards. • Emissions of PM10 and GHG increase in baseline scenario. • Emissions of PM10 and GHG decrease in eff + BRT scenario from year 2020. • Additional reductions are possible with better standards for diesel vehicles and other technologies

  1. A Randomized Cross-over Air Filtration Intervention Trial for Reducing Cardiovascular Health Risks in Residents of Public Housing near a Highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz T. Padró-Martínez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to traffic-generated ultrafine particles (UFP; particles <100 nm is likely a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We conducted a trial of high-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA filtration in public housing near a highway. Twenty residents in 19 apartments living <200 m from the highway participated in a randomized, double-blind crossover trial. A HEPA filter unit and a particle counter (measuring particle number concentration (PNC, a proxy for UFP were installed in living rooms. Participants were exposed to filtered air for 21 days and unfiltered air for 21 days. Blood samples were collected and blood pressure measured at days 0, 21 and 42 after a 12-hour fasting period. Plasma was analyzed for high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha-receptor II (TNF-RII and fibrinogen. PNC reductions ranging from 21% to 68% were recorded in 15 of the apartments. We observed no significant differences in blood pressure or three of the four biomarkers (hsCRP, fibrinogen, and TNF-RII measured in participants after 21-day exposure to HEPA-filtered air compared to measurements after 21-day exposure to sham-filtered air. In contrast, IL-6 concentrations were significantly higher following HEPA filtration (0.668 pg/mL; CI = 0.465–0.959 compared to sham filtration. Likewise, PNC adjusted for time activity were associated with increasing IL-6 in 14- and 21-day moving averages, and PNC was associated with decreasing blood pressure in Lags 0, 1 and 2, and in a 3-day moving average. These negative associations were unexpected and could be due to a combination of factors including exposure misclassification, unsuccessful randomization (i.e., IL-6 and use of anti-inflammatory medicines, or uncontrolled confounding. Studies with greater reduction in UFP levels and larger sample sizes are needed. There also needs to be more complete assessment of resident time activity and of outdoor vs. indoor source

  2. Elderberry Supplementation Reduces Cold Duration and Symptoms in Air-Travellers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiralongo, Evelin; Wee, Shirley S; Lea, Rodney A

    2016-01-01

    Intercontinental air travel can be stressful, especially for respiratory health. Elderberries have been used traditionally, and in some observational and clinical studies, as supportive agents against the common cold and influenza. This randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of 312 economy class passengers travelling from Australia to an overseas destination aimed to investigate if a standardised membrane filtered elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) extract has beneficial effects on physical, especially respiratory, and mental health. Cold episodes, cold duration and symptoms were noted in a daily diary and assessed using the Jackson score. Participants also completed three surveys containing questions regarding upper respiratory symptoms (WURSS-21) and quality of life (SF-12) at baseline, just before travel and at 4-days after travel. Most cold episodes occurred in the placebo group (17 vs. 12), however the difference was not significant (p = 0.4). Placebo group participants had a significantly longer duration of cold episode days (117 vs. 57, p = 0.02) and the average symptom score over these days was also significantly higher (583 vs. 247, p = 0.05). These data suggest a significant reduction of cold duration and severity in air travelers. More research is warranted to confirm this effect and to evaluate elderberry's physical and mental health benefits. PMID:27023596

  3. Cold-batter mincing of hot-boned and crust-frozen air-chilled turkey breast allows for reduced sodium content in protein gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H C; Medellin-Lopez, M; Singh, P; Sansawat, T; Chin, K B; Kang, I

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate sodium reduction in the protein gels that were prepared with turkey breasts after hot boning (HB), quarter (¼) sectioning, crust-frozen air-chilling (CFAC), and cold temperature mincing. For each of 4 replications, 36 turkeys were slaughtered and eviscerated. One-half of the carcasses were randomly assigned to water immersion chilling for chill boning (CB), whereas the remaining carcasses were immediately HB and quarter-sectioned/crust-frozen air-chilled (HB-¼CFAC) in a freezing room (-12°C, 1.0 m/s). After deboning, CB fillets were conventionally minced, whereas HB-¼CFAC fillets were cold minced up to 27 min with 1 or 2% salt. From the beginning of mincing, the batter temperatures of HB-¼CFAC were lower (P mincing, the batter pH of the HB-¼CFAC (P 0.05) from the pH of CB batters, except for the 1% salt HB-¼CFAC batter after 15 min of mincing. The pattern of pH was not changed when the batters were stored overnight. The protein of 2% salt HB-¼CFAC fillets was more extractable (P mincing technologies appear to improve protein functionality and sodium reduction capacity. PMID:25012854

  4. Elderberry Supplementation Reduces Cold Duration and Symptoms in Air-Travellers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelin Tiralongo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intercontinental air travel can be stressful, especially for respiratory health. Elderberries have been used traditionally, and in some observational and clinical studies, as supportive agents against the common cold and influenza. This randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of 312 economy class passengers travelling from Australia to an overseas destination aimed to investigate if a standardised membrane filtered elderberry (Sambucus nigra L. extract has beneficial effects on physical, especially respiratory, and mental health. Cold episodes, cold duration and symptoms were noted in a daily diary and assessed using the Jackson score. Participants also completed three surveys containing questions regarding upper respiratory symptoms (WURSS-21 and quality of life (SF-12 at baseline, just before travel and at 4-days after travel. Most cold episodes occurred in the placebo group (17 vs. 12, however the difference was not significant (p = 0.4. Placebo group participants had a significantly longer duration of cold episode days (117 vs. 57, p = 0.02 and the average symptom score over these days was also significantly higher (583 vs. 247, p = 0.05. These data suggest a significant reduction of cold duration and severity in air travelers. More research is warranted to confirm this effect and to evaluate elderberry’s physical and mental health benefits.

  5. A Pictorial Research of the Evolvement of "Autumn Moon on Calm Lake"%平湖秋月变迁图考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪泉; 董璁

    2012-01-01

    平湖秋月曾为南宋西湖十景之首,有着1000多年的发展历程.从唐代望湖亭时期的单体建筑到清末以御书楼为主体的建筑群落,景址屡经变迁,规模陆续增加,意境不断充实.利用方志、版画、山水面、照片等历史文献,对平湖秋月及其前身望湖亭的变迁过程进行考察,追寻历史原貌,探究变化因果.认为“建筑—平台—湖面”的布局关系形成于明万历年间,并保持至今.康熙年间景址的确定和园林建设对平湖秋月意义重大,使之进入一个平稳发展的新阶段.%"Autumn Moon on Calm Lake" was in the first plaee of the ten views of West Lake in the Southern Sang Dynasty. Thus far, it has a development history of more than one thousand years. From the single building of Wanghu Pavilion to the architectural complex with the pavilion of imperial inscription as the main building, the location had been changed for several times, the building's scale increased successively and the artistic conception of the sight spot had been enriched. Through its historical documents, ancient woodcut prints, traditional Chinese paintings, old photos and other information, the evolvement of "Autumn Moon on Calm Lake" and its predecessor-Wanghu Pavilion were studied, its historical features were restored and the causes and effects of its changes were analyzed. The article concluded that the layout relations of "Architecture - Platform - Lake" formed since the Wanli period of the Ming Dynasty and it has been maintained to present. Since Wanghu Pavilion's site was developed into "Autumn Moon on Calm Lake" in the Kangxi period of the Qing Dynasty, the scenic spot had entered a new stage of steady development.

  6. Enhanced ozone strongly reduces carbon sink strength of adult beech (Fagus sylvatica) - Resume from the free-air fumigation study at Kranzberg Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ground-level ozone (O3) has gained awareness as an agent of climate change. In this respect, key results are comprehended from a unique 8-year free-air O3-fumigation experiment, conducted on adult beech (Fagus sylvatica) at Kranzberg Forest (Germany). A novel canopy O3 exposure methodology was employed that allowed whole-tree assessment in situ under twice-ambient O3 levels. Elevated O3 significantly weakened the C sink strength of the tree-soil system as evidenced by lowered photosynthesis and 44% reduction in whole-stem growth, but increased soil respiration. Associated effects in leaves and roots at the gene, cell and organ level varied from year to year, with drought being a crucial determinant of O3 responsiveness. Regarding adult individuals of a late-successional tree species, empirical proof is provided first time in relation to recent modelling predictions that enhanced ground-level O3 can substantially mitigate the C sequestration of forests in view of climate change. - Empirical proof corroborates substantial mitigation of carbon sequestration in the tree-soil system of a forest site under enhanced O3 impact for adult beech.

  7. Air gasification of mixed plastic wastes using calcined dolomite and activated carbon in a two-stage gasifier to reduce tar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this experiment, air gasification was conducted with a fraction of mixed plastic wastes using a two-stage gasifier. Calcined dolomite as a bed material and activated carbon as a tar-cracking additive were simultaneously used for the production of a producer gas containing low tar and high hydrogen. The effects of the bed material, equivalence ratio (ER), amount of activated carbon, and temperatures in two reaction zones (the upper- and lower-reactor) on the composition of producer gas and amount of tar generated were investigated. When the amount of activated carbon increased from 0 to 900 g using calcined dolomite as the bed material, the concentrations of H2 and CO in the producer gas increased sharply from 14.9 to 26.1 vol% and from 9.4 to 16.8 vol%, respectively. When 900 g of activated carbon was applied, the total tar amount was about 96% less than that obtained with only silica sand as the bed material. The maximum Lower Heating Value (LHV) of the producer gas was about 13.4 MJ/Nm3. - Highlights: ► Stable gasification of mixed plastic wastes was conducted in a two-stage gasifier. ► Strong tar removal was achieved with the combination of activated carbon and dolomite. ► Increasing amount of activated carbon resulted in less tar and high hydrogen production. ► Chlorine in feed material was mainly transferred to char or captured by activated carbon

  8. Comparing Contingent Valuation, Conjoint Analysis and decition Panels: An Application to the valuation of reduced damages from air pollution in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, B.; Strand, J.; Saelensminde, K.; Wenstoep, F.

    1996-12-31

    The need for assessing values of non-market goods has led to the development of two main groups of valuation approaches, those based on revealed preferences, and those on stated preferences (SP). One of the stated preference approaches, the Contingent Valuation Method, has recently been heavily criticized and alternative SP valuation approaches have appeared. This report discusses three SP approaches to eliciting willingness to pay (WTP) for environmental goods, namely open-ended contingent valuation (OE-CVM), conjoint analysis (CA) and multi-attribute utility theory applied to decision panels of experts (DPE). Each approach has advantages and disadvantages relative to the others and the relation between WTP estimates from the approaches cannot be predicted on prior arguments alone. The three approaches are applied in three different surveys, seeking valuation of specific damages due to air pollution in Norway. In all cases studied, OE-CVM yields the lowest average WTP estimate, while those from CA and EDP are similar. Possible explanations are offered, based on the principle differences between the approaches and on particular features of the three surveys. 35 refs., 10 tabs.

  9. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  10. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  11. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  12. Advanced manufacturing technologies for reduced cost and weight in portable ruggedized VIS-IR and multi-mode optical systems for land, sea, and air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Michael; Spinazzola, Robert; Morrison, Donald; Macklin, Dennis; Marion, Jared

    2011-06-01

    Homeland security systems, special forces, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), and marine patrols require low cost, high performance, multi-mode visible through infrared (VIS-IR) wavelength optical systems to identify and neutralize potential threats that often arise at long ranges and under poor visibility conditions. Long range and wide spectral performance requirements favor reflective optical system design solutions. The limited field of view of such designs can be significantly enhanced by the use of catadioptric optical solutions that utilize molded or diamond point machined VIS-IR lenses downstream from reflective objective optics. A common optical aperture that services multiple modes of field-of-view, operating wavelength, and includes laser ranging and spotting, provides the highest utility and is most ideal for size and weight. Such a design also often requires fast, highly aspheric, reflective, refractive, and sometimes diffractive surfaces using high performance and aggressively light-weighted materials that demand the finest of manufacturing technologies. Visible wavelength performance sets the bar for component optical surface irregularity on the order of 20 nm RMS and surface finishes less than 3.0 nm RMS. Aluminum mirrors and structures can also be precision machined to yield "snap together alignment" or limited compensation assembly approaches to reduce cost and enhance interchangeability. Diamond point turning, die cast and investment cast mirror substrates and structures, computerized optical polishing, mirror replication, lens molding and other advanced manufacturing technologies can all be used to minimize the cost of this type of optical equipment. This paper discusses the tradeoffs among materials and process selection for catadioptric, multi-mode systems that are under development for a variety of DoD and Homeland Security applications. Several examples are profiled to illuminate the confluence of applicable design and manufacturing

  13. Potential benefits of cool roofs on commercial buildings. Conserving energy, saving money, and reducing emission of greenhouse gases and air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cool roofs - roofs that stay cool in the sun by minimizing solar absorption and maximizing thermal emission - lessen the flow of heat from the roof into the building, reducing the need for space cooling energy in conditioned buildings. Cool roofs may also increase the need for heating energy in cold climates. For a commercial building, the decrease in annual cooling load is typically much greater than the increase in annual heating load. This study combines building energy simulations, local energy prices, local electricity emission factors, and local estimates of building density to characterize local, state average, and national average cooling energy savings, heating energy penalties, energy cost savings, and emission reductions per unit conditioned roof area. The annual heating and cooling energy uses of four commercial building prototypes - new office (1980+), old office (pre-1980), new retail (1980+), and old retail (pre-1980) - were simulated in 236 US cities. Substituting a weathered cool white roof (solar reflectance 0.55) for a weathered conventional gray roof (solar reflectance 0.20) yielded annually a cooling energy saving per unit conditioned roof area ranging from 3.30 kWh/m2 in Alaska to 7.69 kWh/m2 in Arizona (5.02 kWh/m2 nationwide); a heating energy penalty ranging from 0.003 therm/m2 in Hawaii to 0.14 therm/m2 in Wyoming (0.065 therm/m2 nationwide); and an energy cost saving ranging from USD 0.126/m2 in West Virginia to USD 1.14/m2 in Arizona (USD 0.356/m2 nationwide). It also offered annually a CO2 reduction ranging from 1.07 kg/m2 in Alaska to 4.97 kg/m2 in Hawaii (3.02 kg/m2 nationwide); an NOx reduction ranging from 1.70 g/m2 in New York to 11.7 g/m2 in Hawaii (4.81 g/m2 nationwide); an SO2 reduction ranging from 1.79 g/m2 in California to 26.1 g/m2 in Alabama (12.4 g/m2 nationwide); and an Hg reduction ranging from 1.08 μg/m2 in Alaska to 105 μg/m2 in Alabama (61.2 μg/m2 nationwide). Retrofitting 80% of the 2.58 billion square meters of

  14. 连续镇静与传统方法的伦理学比较%Ethical Comparison between Continuous Calm and the Traditional Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温新意; 蒋碧华; 崔宇龙

    2012-01-01

    Issues about euthanasia has been argued for a long lime, the implementation of it have a certain resistance. And in theory, hospice care is feasible, but limited to human, financial, material resources and treatment technique, having difficulty in extensive development. However, almost 20 years of implement continuous calm technology in the end - stage patients, firstly, can make a patient away from extreme pain relief, secondly, avoid the ethical and legal defects, and it is a way of end - stage treatment, which is easy to implement, easy to be accepted by patients, family and society.%对安乐死的争论由来已久,实施起来有一定阻力.而临终关怀在理论上虽然可行,但是限于人力、财力、物力以及治疗技术,现阶段难以广泛深入的开展.而近20多年来实施的终末期病人连续镇静技术,一方面可以使患者从极度痛苦中解脱,另一方面又避开了其在伦理学和法律上的缺陷,是一种在临床容易实施,易于被患者、家属以及社会接受的终末期治疗方法.

  15. Good Child is a Calm Child: Mothers' Social Status, Maternal Conceptions of Proper Demeanor, and Stranger Anxiety in One-Year Old Cameroonian Nso Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiltrud Otto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Our article questions the assumption that stranger anxiety develops universally in children; thereby our study is rooted in a long tradition in psychological anthropology of testing the universality of theories formulated in Western society. We argue that the infant's behavior towards strangers is the product of socialization processes that represent adaptations to cultural contexts. Our study investigates the ethnotheory of childrearing and the development of stranger anxiety in a Cameroonian community of traditional Nso farmers. The participants of the study were 29 Cameroonian Nso mothers with one-year old children. Using a multi-method approach, we demonstrate that Nso mothers value inexpressive infants that adjust easily to others. Accordingly, a considerably large number of one-year old Nso infants showed no stranger anxiety when encountered by a stranger. Maternal social status and her social support system proved crucial to successful implementation of the socialization goal of a calm child. Our data support the view that child behavior is a product of culturally constructed experiences of daily life. The acknowledgement of the cultural construction of stranger anxiety carries implications for developmental theories, especially for attachment theory, which relies on the universality of stranger anxiety in their most acclaimed paradigm, the Strange Situation.

  16. Indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rising energy prices, among other factors, have generated an incentive to reduce ventilation rates and thereby reduce the cost of heating and cooling buildings. Reduced ventilation in buildings may significantly increase exposure to indoor air pollution and perhaps have adverse effects on occupant health and comfort. Preliminary findings suggest that reduced ventilation may adversely affect indoor air quality unless appropriate control strategies are undertaken. The strategies used to control indoor air pollution depend on the specific pollutant or class of pollutants encountered, and differ somewhat depending on whether the application is to an existing building or a new building under design and construction. Whenever possible, the first course of action is prevention or reduction of pollutant emissions at the source. In most buildings, control measures involve a combination of prevention, removal, and suppression. Common sources of indoor air pollution in buildings, the specific pollutants emitted by each source, the potential health effects, and possible control techniques are discussed

  17. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  18. Electric air filtration movie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of electrostatics to improve the performance of conventional air filters has gained considerable attention in recent years. This interest is due to the higher efficiency and reduced pressure drop of electrically enhanced filters compared to conventional fibrous filters. This 30-minute movie presents a state of the art review of electric air filters in the United States with major illustrations provided by the research and development program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory sponsored by the Department of Energy. The electric air filters described in this movie are mechanical air filters to which electrical forces have been added

  19. High-Pressure Air Injection on a Low-Head Francis Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Fellenberg, S.; Häussler, W.; Michler, W.

    2014-03-01

    Birecik is a Turkish hydroelectric power plant located at the Euphrat River in the southeast of Turkey. During commissioning of the units, a vibration phenomenon was discovered, restricted to a small power band. The cone which supports the thrust bearing and which is braced against the turbine head cover started to vibrate at its natural frequency. Investigations showed the vibrations to be innocuous to the lifetime of the machine. Exhaustive vibration measurements on site pointed to hydraulic source for the vibration. Detailed flow simulations by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were carried out. They permitted the detailed analysis of a variety of transient flow phenomena happening inside the machine. They revealed the presence of interblade vortices in the power and head range where the vibrations occurred. As a consequence, it was suggested to inject air downstream of the wicket gates through the head cover. In 2012, one unit of the Birecik power plant was equipped with such an air injection system. As soon as the air injection was turned on, the machine operated calmly in the small power band where vibrations had been observed before. The necessary air volume was considerably smaller than expected to be necessary for a calm operation.

  20. High-Pressure Air Injection on a Low-Head Francis Turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birecik is a Turkish hydroelectric power plant located at the Euphrat River in the southeast of Turkey. During commissioning of the units, a vibration phenomenon was discovered, restricted to a small power band. The cone which supports the thrust bearing and which is braced against the turbine head cover started to vibrate at its natural frequency. Investigations showed the vibrations to be innocuous to the lifetime of the machine. Exhaustive vibration measurements on site pointed to hydraulic source for the vibration. Detailed flow simulations by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were carried out. They permitted the detailed analysis of a variety of transient flow phenomena happening inside the machine. They revealed the presence of interblade vortices in the power and head range where the vibrations occurred. As a consequence, it was suggested to inject air downstream of the wicket gates through the head cover. In 2012, one unit of the Birecik power plant was equipped with such an air injection system. As soon as the air injection was turned on, the machine operated calmly in the small power band where vibrations had been observed before. The necessary air volume was considerably smaller than expected to be necessary for a calm operation

  1. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  2. Bangkok and its air pollution problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panich, S.

    1995-12-31

    Bangkok is the city on a former river delta and is a very flat area. The topography is unremarkable but being only a few kilometers (about 20) from the sea in the Gulf of Bangkok, the City experiences the sea breeze every afternoon and evening. The natural phenomenon is caused by the uplifting of hot air from the sun-baked ground and heat generation in the city, to be replaced by the cooler air from the sea, which is to the south. During the nighttime the sea breeze ceases to operate as the ground temperature cools down. The late night and early morning is characterized by the calm or no wind. With 2.1 million vehicles, the city has a serious problem of carbon monoxide from the gasoline vehicles stuck in the traffic on start and stop cycles, while particulate matter is the result of diesel vehicles. Hydrocarbons mainly result from two-stroke motorcycles and tuk-tuk (three-wheeled) taxis. Air pollution in Bangkok and major cities of Thailand is the result of emissions from gasoline, diesel, and LPG fueled vehicles, which contribute to the observed levels of carbon monoxide, lead, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and hydrocarbons. The industrial activities contribute smaller share due to tall stacks and more efficient combusting processes and pollution control.

  3. Design of a circular photonic crystal fiber with flattened chromatic dispersion using a defected core and selectively reduced air holes: Application to supercontinuum generation at 1.55 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjouri, Abdelkader; Simohamed, Lotfy Mokhtar; Ziane, Omar; Boudrioua, Azzedine; Becer, Zoubir

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present and numerically investigate a new and simple design of Circular Lattice Photonic Crystal Fiber (CL-PCF) with near zero ultra-flattened chromatic dispersion. The near zero dispersion is obtained by introducing a defect into the solid core and the dispersion flatness is achieved by appropriately reducing the diameter of the core-neighboring air holes ring. Simulations are performed by using the finite-difference frequency-domain (FDFD) method combined with the perfectly matched layer (PML) boundary condition. Results show that an ultra-flattened chromatic dispersion as small as ±0.66 ps/nm km is obtained over a broad band of 400 nm with high nonlinearity and ultra-low confinement loss. Furthermore, the supercontinuum (SC) generation over a short length of the proposed CL-PCF is numerically investigated. Results indicate that flat SC spectrum with a Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of 600 nm is achieved with 25 cm of fiber length.

  4. Keep calm and share science!

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    FameLab is the exciting competition for young researchers that is conquering the world of science communication. CERN, which was already a partner in the Swiss and French competitions, is now launching its own event. Enter the competition now!   FameLab is not just another talent show for scientists: its magic formula truly helps real scientists show off their communication skills. Successful candidates will have to impress the judges by giving an original and entertaining 3-minute talk.  In the words of one of the participants in the Swiss competition: “I enjoyed the fact that it wasn't only a competition, and there were also plenty of opportunities to network with other young researchers and to get valuable feedback on our public speaking and science communication skills.” The contestants are judged on the content, clarity and charisma of their talks. The result is an amazing collection of speeches that are inspiring, educational and accurate, despite their ...

  5. An atmospheric dispersion model for linear sources in calm wind, stable conditions; Un modello di dispersione atmosferica per sorgenti lineari in condizioni di vento debole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, M. C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Buratti, D. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Facolta' di Scienze Statistiche; Metallo, M. C.; Poli, A.A. [ESA s.a.s., Bracciano, RM (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    In this report a dispersion model is proposed that provides an estimate of concentration of gaseous pollutants emitted by an highway, or in general by a line source, in presence of low wind speed. This aim was pursued because available models have not a satisfactory behaviour in such conditions, which is critical for dispersion of gaseous pollutants. This lack is due to difficulty of simulating dispersion turbulent component which is determined by fluctuation of wind speed and wind direction, and in presence of calm conditions it assumes values comparable with transport component. The proposed model overcomes this difficulty, as it is shown by sensitivity analysis and comparison with experimental data. The capability of simulating dispersion eve in critical conditions, like the presence of low level inversion, and the absence of source geometrical approximations make the model a tool that, properly used, may contribute to the efficient planning and management of environmental resources. [Italian] In questo rapporto viene proposto un modello per la stima delle concentrazioni di inquinanti aeriformi emessi da un'arteria stradale, o in generale da una sorgente lineare, in presenza di vento debole. Questo scopo e' stato perseguito in quanto in questa condizione, nonostante la dispersione degli inquinanti risulti fortemente problematica, i modelli disponibili in letteratura non hanno un comportamento soddisfacente. Questa mancanca e' attribuibile alla difficolta' di simulare la componente turbolenta della dispersione, dovuta alla fluttuazione della direzione e della velocita' del vento che, in presenza di vento debole, assume valori confrontabili alla componente di trasporto. Il modello qui di seguito proposto supera questa difficolta', come dimostrano l'analisi di sensibilita' e il confronto con un caso reale; la capacita' di simulare la dispersione anche in condizioni fisicamente critiche quali la presenza di inversione a

  6. Transportation and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the greater Vancouver regional district (GVRD), some 80% of the annual production of 600,000 tonnes of air pollutants come from motor vehicles. Three critical air quality issues in the GVRD are discussed: local air pollution, ozone layer depletion, and greenhouse gas emissions, all of which are fundamentally linked to transportation. Overall air quality in the GVRD has been judged acceptable by current federal standards, but ground-level ozone has exceeded maximum tolerable levels at some locations and concentrations of suspended particulates are above maximum acceptable levels. Serious deterioration in air quality has been predicted unless a concerted effort is made to manage air quality on an airshed-wide basis. The GVRD is developing Canada's first Air Management Plan with the goal of halving atmospheric emissions by 2000. GVRD transportation priorities stress public transit, walking, cycling, car pooling, and reducing of travel demand; however, the viability of such strategies depends on decisions made outside the transportation sector. Restricted authority and jurisdiction also hinder GVRD goals; the regional level of government has no authority over highways or transit and only has authority for pollution control in some parts of the Fraser Valley. Airshed quality management, using the Los Angeles example, is seen as a possible direction for future GVRD policymaking in the transportation sector. A single regional planning agency with responsibility for transportation, land use, and air quality management appears as the best option for an integrated approach to solve multiple problems. 19 refs

  7. Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Lawther, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  8. Indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor Air Quality is rapidly becoming a major environmental concern because a significant amount of people spend a substantial amount of time in a variety of different indoor environments. Health effects from indoor pollutants fall into two categories: those that are experienced immediately after exposure and those that do not show up until years later. They are: radon, formaldehyde, asbestos, lead and household organic chemicals. The authors presented a source-by-source look at the most common indoor air pollutants, their potential health effects, and ways to reduce their levels in the home. There are three basic strategies to improve indoor air quality: one method is source control, another is through ventilation improvements, and the third is the utilization of some sort of mechanical device such as air cleaners

  9. Réduction de la pollution atmosphérique due à l'automobile et économie d'énergie Reducing Air Pollution Caused by Automobiles and Energy Conservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salé B.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'action engagée dans les pays industriels pour réduire la pollution atmosphérique doit maintenant tenir compte, plus encore que par le passé, de la nécessité, imposée par la conjoncture, d'économiser l'énergie. L'article est consacré à l'étude de la compatibilité de ces deux objectifs en ce qui concerne l'automobile. L'ensemble des actions antigaspillage ou antipollution ne portant pas sur le générateur d'énergie constitue un domaine de compatibilité évident. En revanche la réduction des émissions de polluants nécessite des modifications plus ou moins profondes du moteur dont certaines peuvent poser des problèmes du point de vue de l'économie d'énergie. Dans le but de préciser la nature de ces problèmes, les techniques antipollution correspondant à différents niveaux de limitation des émissions sont examinées du point de vue de leur coût, de leur incidence sur la consommation de carburant et de leur interaction avec les procédés visant à l'économie d'énergie. Sont ainsi passés en revue les moyens de réduction des émissions basés sur une amélioration de la combustion, les procédés de post-combustion, le problème de la réduction de la teneur en plomb des essences. Cette analyse montre que dans une large mesure la réduction des émissions de polluants et la diminution de la consommation sont des objectifs compatibles, mais que la difficulté des problèmes à résoudre pour que les mesures antipollution n'aient pas d'effet négatif au plan de l'économie d'énergie croît très rapidement avec la sévérité de ces mesures au-delà d'un certain niveau. L'effort de recherche entrepris dans le monde sur ce thème devrait progressivement permettre à la fois de réduire encore de façon substantielle les émissions de polluants et d'améliorer le rendement des moteurs. Efforts made by industrialized countries ta reduce air pollution must now, more than ever, give consideration to the need for energy

  10. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  11. 咪达唑仑和丙泊酚靶控输注用于清醒镇静患者遗忘作用的比较分析%Comparative analysis of target-controlled infusion of midazolam and propofol on anterograde amnesia in sober calm patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周冠同; 黄梅英; 陈新妹; 温清娴; 李金波; 吴开华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the difference of target-controlled infusion of midazolam and propofol on anterograde amnesia in sober calm patient.Methods One hundred and twenty patients underwent the epidural anesthesia for the abdomen or legs operation were randomly divided into observation group and control group,every group for 60 cases.Patient in control group were given target-controlled infusion of propofol,patient in observation group were given target-controlled infusion of midazolam.Calmness depth were assessed by OAA/S mark criterion.The changes of SBP,DBP,HR,RR,SpO2 in the different time were recorded.Results The SBP,DBP,HR,RR,SpO2 in the observation group were not changed,HR in the control group was increased after intravenous injection for 1-5 min(P < 0.05),return to onrmal after ten to twenty minutes; and the SBP,DBP,RR were not changed in the other time.The SpO2 was 95%-100%.The OAA/S mark was reduced from 4 to 2,calmness depth was gradually deepen,and the forgetting rate was gradually rising.Patients in 2-3 mark was 93.3% and 65.0%,the complete forgetting rate was 91.7% and 25.0%,the observation group was better than the control group (P <0.05).Conclusions Both of midazolam and propofol have anterograde amnesia effect,and the propofol presented the effects in deeper sedation,midazolam has rerograde amnesia effect in shallow calm.%目的 比较咪达唑仑和丙泊酚靶控输注用于清醒镇静患者遗忘作用的差异.方法 选择120例硬膜外麻醉下择期行腹部及下肢手术的患者,并随机分为观察组和对照组,每组60例,观察组靶控输注咪达唑仑,对照组靶控输注丙泊酚.用OAA/S评分标准评定镇静深度,并记录.记录用药后不同时间点的收缩压(SBP)、舒张压(DBP)、呼吸(HR)、心率(RR)、脉搏氧饱和度(SpO2)的变化.结果 观察组SBP、DBP、HR 、RR 、Sp02平稳,对照组静脉注射后l~5 min HR明显加快(P<0.05),10~20 min恢复;其余观察时

  12. Experimental Analysis on Solar Desiccant Air Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. U. V. Kongre, C. M. Singh, A. B. Biswas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiment investigated and evaluated the feasibility of an solar desiccant air conditioner. Its effectiveness as a possible air conditioner option used in household air conditioner or as an energy efficient and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional air conditioning units used in houses are evaluated. A solar water heater was used as heat gain. The model utilizes the technology of solar air conditioner system. The purpose in the long term would be reduced the consumption of electricity used for air conditioning, reduce harmful emission and hence saving money.

  13. Thin air

    OpenAIRE

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Clearing the air How do we grasp the air? Without Michel Callon’s guidance, I might never have asked that question. Years ago, when I first entered environmental law practice, I took it for granted that problems such as air pollution exist “out there” in the real world for science to discover and law to fix. It is a measure of Callon’s influence that I understand the law today as a metaphysical instrument, no less powerful in its capacity to order nature than the tools of the ancient oracular...

  14. Clean air Hamilton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarry, B.E. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The industrial City of Hamilton is located on Lake Ontario, downwind from the Ohio Valley. The Hamilton Air Quality Initiative (HAQI) was divided in several phases, one of which is Clean Air Hamilton. This most recent phase was described in this presentation. Two major goals of this phase were: to ensure that the City of Hamilton has the best air quality of any major urban area in Ontario, and to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases by 20 per cent compared to the levels in 1990. There were five main objectives to this initiative, namely: (1) the identification of priority air quality issues, (2) achieving an understanding of air quality issues, (3) the identification of sources, the evaluation of impacts and the recommendation of solutions, (4) the assessment of human health, and (5) the identification of further research. The reduction of air quality impacts is progressing through the support provided to the Drive Clean Program, the discouragement of vehicle idling, the support to car pooling initiatives, and the promotion of green vehicles. The implementation of pollution control technologies is taking place on the industrial side, as well as the development of plans to reduce steel industry emissions, the development of energy conservation measures and the promotion of green building practices. Efforts are being deployed over fleet greening partnerships, community tree planting program, an international air conference, an electronic information network linking the United States and the communities of Southern Ontario, a road dust study, a truck emissions research project, the assessment of human health impacts, and finally methods for the monitoring of local improvements. figs.

  15. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  16. Air issues update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    from Ontario Power Generation (OPG) actually rose to 55.8 kT in 1998 from 50 kT in 1990. ASAP had been formulated on the assumption that OPG was to reduce its NO{sub x} emissions to 38 kT in the year 2000 and beyond. On April 1, 2000, the MOE shut down its network of acid deposition monitoring stations as a cost-saving measure. MOE produces very good annual air quality reports and has launched an Air Quality Ontario Web site to serve as a real-time information source in addition to the air quality report series. In January 2001, MOE assured ECO that the Web site will include more information for the smog season.

  17. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a close in June 2013 when the company, Conscious Clothing, was awarded the My Air grand ... Page Options: Request Translation Services Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Google+ Reddit Email Evernote More Increase Font Size Decrease ...

  18. Air-Microfluidics: Creating Small, Low-cost, Portable Air Quality Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air-microfluidics shows great promise in dramatically reducing the size, cost, and power requirements of future air quality sensors without compromising their accuracy. Microfabrication provides a suite of relatively new tools for the development of micro electro mechanical syste...

  19. The Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Air Act amendments alter the complex laws affecting atmospheric pollution and at the same time have broad implications for energy. Specifically, the Clean Air Act amendments for the first time deal with the environmental problem of acid deposition in a way that minimizes energy and economic impacts. By relying upon a market-based system of emission trading, a least cost solution will be used to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by almost 40 percent. The emission trading system is the centerpiece of the Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments effort to resolve energy and environmental interactions in a manner that will maximize environmental solutions while minimizing energy impacts. This paper will explore how the present CAA amendments deal with the emission trading system and the likely impact of the emission trading system and the CAA amendments upon the electric power industry

  20. Air Quality and Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change and air quality are closely related: through the policy measures implemented to mitigate these major environmental threats but also through the geophysical processes that drive them. We designed, developed and implemented a comprehensive regional air quality and climate modeling System to investigate future air quality in Europe taking into account the combined pressure of future climate change and long range transport. Using the prospective scenarios of the last generation of pathways for both climate change (emissions of well mixed greenhouse gases) and air pollutants, we can provide a quantitative view into the possible future air quality in Europe. We find that ozone pollution will decrease substantially under the most stringent scenario but the efforts of the air quality legislation will be adversely compensated by the penalty of global warming and long range transport for the business as usual scenario. For particulate matter, the projected reduction of emissions efficiently reduces exposure levels. (authors)

  1. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  2. Managing Air in Olympic Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing W. Tian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century Olympic Agenda aims to align itself with the concept of sustainable development and has driven improved environmental quality in host cities, such as the Green Games in Sydney 2000 and the planned Beijing 2008 Games and in London 2012 as the Low Carbon Games. Air quality has long been a concern of Olympic mega-cities, although the air quality plans and strategies have often seemed short-lived and unsustainable in the long term. We have explored air quality data and air pollution control from seven Olympic cities: Mexico City, Los Angeles, Atlanta, Sydney and Athens and also Beijing and London which will host Olympic Games in near future. The study shows that despite a high altitude and air pollution problems, Mexico City had no clear environmental policy in place for the 1968 games. The characteristic smog of Los Angeles raised concerns about athletic performance at the Olympic Games of 1984, but there were limited efforts to tackle the ozone concentration during these games. The 1996 Atlanta Games represents a case where temporary public transport changes were used as a tactic to reduce air pollution. In Sydney a well planned sustainable strategy reduced air pollutants and CO2 emissions in 2000, but Athens' long efforts to improve air quality for the 2004 games were not wholly effective. Even where strategies proved successful the improvements in air quality seem short-lived. Current host cities Beijing and London are developing emission reduction plans. These have clear air quality objectives and are well intentioned. However, the improvements may be too narrow and may not be sustainable in the long term. Our analysis looks at the origins of success and failure and how more coherent improvements might be achieved and what would promote sustainable plans for air quality management at future games. The study illustrates the feedback between air pollution science and policy awareness.

  3. Strategy Guideline. Compact Air Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, Arlan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  4. Air Cleaning Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    , and personal protection methods. Engineering methods that are usually carried out by the building’s heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system function to prevent the spread of airborne infectious pathogens by diluting (dilution ventilation) and removing (exhaust ventilation) contaminated air from a room, controlling the direction of airflow and the air flow patterns in a building. However, general wear and tear over time may compromise the HVAC system’s effectiveness to maintain adequate indoor air quality. Likewise, economic issues may curtail the completion of necessary renovations to increase its effectiveness. Therefore, when exposure to airborne infectious pathogens is a risk, the use of an in-room air cleaner to reduce the concentration of airborne pathogens and prevent the spread of airborne infectious diseases has been proposed as an alternative to renovating a HVAC system. Airborne transmission is the spread of infectious pathogens over large distances through the air. Infectious pathogens, which may include fungi, bacteria, and viruses, vary in size and can be dispersed into the air in drops of moisture after coughing or sneezing. Small drops of moisture carrying infectious pathogens are called droplet nuclei. Droplet nuclei are about 1 to 5μm in diameter. This small size in part allows them to remain suspended in the air for several hours and be carried by air currents over considerable distances. Large drops of moisture carrying infectious pathogens are called droplets. Droplets being larger than droplet nuclei, travel shorter distances (about 1 metre) before rapidly falling out of the air to the ground. Because droplet nuclei remain airborne for longer periods than do droplets, they are more amenable to engineering infection control methods than are droplets. Droplet nuclei are responsible for the airborne transmission of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, chicken pox (varicella), measles (rubeola), and dessiminated herpes

  5. Process for reducing harmful substances in exhaust gas/exhaust air by means of photosynthesising algae and device to carry out the process. Verfahren zur Minderung von Abgas-/Abluft-Schadstoffen mittels photosynthetisierender Algen und Vorrichtung zur Durchfuehrung des Verfahrens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimmelpfeng, L.; Thormaelen, C.

    1986-09-25

    The process reported here uses the photosynthesis properties of micro-organisms which can stand extremes of harmful substances (micro-algae: cyanidium caldarium), using light energy to fix carbon dioxide, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ in biological compounds. Metal ions can be accumulated simultaneously. The process provides for the uncomplicated direct introduction of exhaust gas/exhaust air (temperature range: 40-80/sup 0/C) into the lighted culture. If sunlight is used, the process has a very favourable energy balance, as the harmful substances are converted biologically into compounds rich in energy, which can be reused (e.g. biogas).

  6. Healthy Air Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung.org > Our Initiatives > Healthy Air > Outdoor Healthy Air Outdoors The quality of the air we breathe ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to ...

  7. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter of the 'Assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' describes the air quality and identifies the most important air quality issues. Baseline information about the factors affecting dispersion and the climate of Lebanon presents as well and overall estimation of total emissions in Lebanon. Emissions from vehicles, electricity and power plants generation are described. Industrial emitters of air pollutants are described for each kind of industry i.e.cement plants, Selaata fertilizer factory, sugar-beet factory, refineries and for those derived from the use of leaded fuel . Impact of economic and human activities on air quality in Lebanon (especially in Beirut and Tripoli) are quantified by quantities of CO2, SO2, NOx, total suspended particulates(TSP), deposition and their environmental effects on health. In abscence of emissions monitoring, data available are expressed in terms of fuel use, output and appropriate empirical factors, national output and workfores sizes. Finally key issues and some potential mitigation /management approaches are presented

  8. Comparison of regional air dispersion simulation and ambient air monitoring data for the soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wesenbeeck, I J; Cryer, S A; de Cirugeda Helle, O; Li, C; Driver, J H

    2016-11-01

    SOFEA v2.0 is an air dispersion modeling tool used to predict acute and chronic pesticide concentrations in air for large air sheds resulting from agronomic practices. A 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) air monitoring study in high use townships in Merced County, CA, logged 3-day average air concentrations at nine locations over a 14.5month period. SOFEA, using weather data measured at the site, and using a historical CDPR regulatory assumption of a constant 320m mixing height, predicted the general pattern and correct order of magnitude for 1,3-D air concentrations as a function of time, but failed to estimate the highest observed 1,3-D concentrations of the monitoring study. A time series and statistical comparison of the measured and modeled data indicated that the model underestimated 1,3-D concentrations during calm periods (wind speed density was also found to have an effect on the modeled 1,3-D concentration PDF, and a 50×50 receptor grid in the nine township domain captured the measured 1,3-D concentration distribution much better than a 3×3 receptor grid (i.e., simulated receptors at the nine monitoring locations). Comparison of the monitored and simulated PDF for 72-h 1,3-D concentrations indicated that SOFEA slightly over predicts the 1,3-D concentration distribution at all percentiles below the 99th with slight under prediction of the 99-100th percentile values. This suggests that without further refinement, the SOFEA2 model, based upon field validation observations, will result in representative but conservative estimates of lifetime exposure to 1,3-D for bystanders in 1,3-D use areas. PMID:27376915

  9. THERMAL ANALYSIS OF EARTH AIR HEAT EXCHANGER USING CFD

    OpenAIRE

    Vaibhav Madane; Meeta Vedpathak

    2015-01-01

    This project focuses on Earth Air Heat Exchanger which is reducing energy consumption in a building. The air is passing through the buried tubes and heat exchange takes place between air and surrounding soil. This equipment helps to reduce energy consumption of an air conditioning unit. This project analyses the thermal performance of earth air heat exchanger by using computational fluid dynamics modeling. The model is validated against experimental observations and investigations...

  10. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst of...

  11. Reducing costs by reducing size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper discusses briefly the many factors, including capital cost, which have to be taken into account in determining whether a series of power stations based on a small nuclear plant can be competitive with a series based on traditional large unit sizes giving the guaranteed level of supply. The 320 MWe UK/US Safe Integral Reactor is described as a good example of how the factors discussed can be beneficially incorporated into a design using proven technology. Finally it goes on to illustrate how the overall costs of a generating system can indeed by reduced by use of the 320 MWe Safe Integral Reactor rather than conventional units of around 1200 MWe. (author). 9 figs

  12. Efficacy of a brief manualized intervention Managing Cancer and Living Meaningfully (CALM) adapted to German cancer care settings: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Scheffold, Katharina; Philipp, Rebecca; Engelmann, Dorit; Schulz-Kindermann, Frank; Rosenberger, Christina; Oechsle, Karin; Härter, Martin; Wegscheider, Karl; Lordick, Florian; Lo, Chris; Hales, Sarah; Rodin, Gary; Mehnert, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Background Although psycho-oncological interventions have been shown to significantly reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression and enhance quality of life, a substantial number of patients with advanced cancer do not receive psycho-oncological interventions tailored to their individual situation. Given the lack of reliable data on the efficacy of psycho-oncological interventions in palliative care settings, we aim to examine the efficacy of a brief, manualized individual psychotherapy for pa...

  13. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  14. A mathematical correlation between variations in solar radiation parameters. 2. Global radiation, air temperature and specific humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derive from first principles, an equation which expresses global radiation as a function of specific humidity and air temperature at screen height. The practical validity of this equation is tested by using humidity, air temperature and global radiation data from Tanzania. It is shown that global radiation values calculated on the basis of the derived equation agree with measured radiation values to within ± 8% as long as the prevalent (horizontal) winds are either calm or light. It is noted that the equation is equally valid at times of strong horizontal winds provided that the temperature and humidity measuring site is sufficiently shielded from the winds. This implies that meteorological stations that are (for some unavoidable reasons) unable to stock pyranometers can still procure reasonable estimates of local global radiation as long as they can, at least, stock the relatively cheaper barometers and wet- and dry-bulb psychrometers. (author). 12 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  15. Airborne rotary air separator study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, A.; Gottzmann, C. F.; Nowobilski, J. J.

    1990-01-01

    Several air breathing propulsion concepts for future earth-to-orbit transport vehicles utilize air collection and enrichment, and subsequent storage of liquid oxygen for later use in the vehicle emission. Work performed during the 1960's established the feasibility of substantially reducing weight and volume of a distillation type air separator system by operating the distillation elements in high 'g' fields obtained by rotating the separator assembly. This contract studied the capability test and hydraulic behavior of a novel structured or ordered distillation packing in a rotating device using air and water. Pressure drop and flood points were measured for different air and water flow rates in gravitational fields of up to 700 g. Behavior of the packing follows the correlations previously derived from tests at normal gravity. The novel ordered packing can take the place of trays in a rotating air separation column with the promise of substantial reduction in pressure drop, volume, and system weight. The results obtained in the program are used to predict design and performance of rotary separators for air collection and enrichment systems of interest for past and present concepts of air breathing propulsion (single or two-stage to orbit) systems.

  16. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A.

    2013-06-01

    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  17. R9 Air Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  18. AirData

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  19. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  20. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous air pollutants are those known to cause ... protect against adverse environmental effects. About Hazardous Air Pollutants What are hazardous air pollutants? Health and Environmental ...

  1. [Air Microbial Pollution and Health Risk of Urban Black Odorous Water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-fu; Chen, Jing-xiong; Gu, Shi-you

    2016-04-15

    Aiming at the possihle air microhial pollution of urhan hlack odorous water the contamination characteristics of hacteria, fungi and total microhe as well as health risks of different types of population within certain distance from the urhan hlack odorous water were studied. The results showed that hacteria and fungi pollution was primary within offshore 200 m; under near calm condition, there was an aggregation phenomenon of microorganisms within offshore 20 m; the concentrations of hacteria, fungi and total microhe were the highest in the morning, the middle at noon, and the lowest in the afternoon; within offshore 200 m, the width of hlack odorous water was significantly correlated with the concentrations of hacteria, fungi and total microorganisms; the microhial health risk of residents mainly existed in the offshore 100 m range; at the same offshore distance, the short-term exposure health risk to children was the greatest, followed hy women, men to a minimum. PMID:27548945

  2. Urban air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate

  3. Urban air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenger, Jes

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate

  4. Model test of air-exchange efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klobut, K.

    1987-01-01

    The mixing-air flow pattern was studied. Three air flows were tested using the tracer gas technique and decay method. The indices of air exchange efficiency were calculated, namely: overall air-exchange efficiency and room-air mean age for the whole room; local ventilation indices and local mean ages of air at 10 points distributed throughout the room. Experiments were carried out in both isothermal and nonisothermal conditions. Based on the theory of similarity requirements, a reduced-scale model, geometrically similar to the laboratory test room, was built. Air flows and temperature differences were calculated for the model tests in order to make them comparable with the full scale, and the tests were repeated. The objective of the study was to determine the relation between the air-exchange efficiency indices obtained in the model and on the full scale.

  5. Synthesis and Calm Activity of Quinoline and Flavone Derivatives of Helicid%豆腐果苷-喹啉和黄酮衍生物的合成及镇静活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超; 李霞; 胡晓枫; 李颖; 尹述凡

    2011-01-01

    以L-脯氨酸为有机催化剂一步合成了豆腐果苷-喹啉酮(2),在此基础上合成了一系列豆腐果苷-喹啉衍生物3a~3c,4和5a~5c;以苄溴、豆腐果苷、邻羟基苯乙酮,氨基脲盐酸盐、羟胺盐酸盐、甲氧基胺盐酸盐为原料合成出豆腐果苷-黄酮衍生物8和9a~9c.产物结构经1H NMR,IR和HRMS确认.初步生物活性测试结果表明5b和9b具有较好的镇静催眠活性.%Helicid-quinoline 2 was synthesized by using I-proline as an effective organocatalyst in one step, and a series of quinoline derivatives 3a~3c, 4 and 5a~5c were obtained from 2. Helicid-flavone derivatives 8 and 9a~9c were conveniently prepared from benzyl bromide, helicid, 2'-hydroxyacetophenone, semicarbazide hydrochloride, hydroxylamine hydrochloride and methoxy amine hydrochloride as the starting materials. Their chemical structures were confirmed by 1H NMR, IR and HRMS techniques. The bioassay test results showed that 5b and 9b had good calm activity.

  6. Theoretical analysis of professor YANG Ming-hui's experience on treating insomnia by harmonizing the stomach to calm the mind%杨明会教授从“胃”论治失眠理论探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗海鸥; 李绍旦; 杨明会

    2013-01-01

    Professor YANG Ming-hui uphold 'when the stomach is in disharmony, one can hardly lie still', combined the pathogenesis of insomnia, proposed in Inner Canon of Huangdi, 'defensive qi failing to move from yang to yin normally' and stomach is the pivot which makes defensive qi move from yang to yin normally, proposed by historical physicians and put forward treating insomnia from stomach in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). He considered insomnia was ascribed to stomach from the correlation between brain and intestine in modern medicine. He treated insomnia differentiated as stomach being in disharmony by harmonizing the stomach to calm the mind, which had good effects.%杨明会教授推崇《黄帝内经》“胃不和则卧不安”之论,宗《黄帝内经》“卫气不能由阳入阴”的失眠病机理论,以及胃为卫气由阳入阴之枢机的主张,结合现代医学脑肠相关理论,认为失眠与“胃”密切相关,用“和胃安神法”治疗“胃不和”型失眠,疗效显著.

  7. Gradual extinction reduces Reinstatement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef eShiban

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated whether gradually reducing the frequency of aversive stimuli during extinction can prevent the return of fear. Thirty-one participants of a three-stage procedure (acquisition, extinction and a reinstatement test on day two were randomly assigned to a standard extinction (SE and gradual extinction (GE procedure. The two groups differed only in the extinction procedure. While the SE group ran through a regular extinction process without any negative events, the frequency of the aversive stimuli during the extinction phase was gradually reduced for the GE group. The unconditioned stimulus was an air blast (5 bar, 10 ms. A spider and a scorpion were used as conditioned stimuli. The outcome variables were contingency ratings and physiological measures (skin conductance response and startle response. There were no differences found between the two groups for the acquisition and extinction phases concerning contingency ratings, SCR, or startle response. Gradual extinction compared to standard extinction significantly reduced the return of fear in the reinstatement test for the startle response but not for skin conductance response or contingency ratings. This study was successful in translating the findings in rodent to humans. The results suggest that the gradual extinction process is suitable for increasing the efficacy of fear extinction.

  8. Research of indoor smoke warning and air purification equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wangronglong; Zhaoyexing; Fuyunhua

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce indoor smoke concentration and improve indoor air quality,we put forward the intelligent indoor smoke warning and air purification device. This device can quickly reduce the concentration of indoor smoke by the air purification and fire alarm function. It provides a suitable living environment for people.

  9. Air pollution control policy in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a lot of reasons why emissions of air pollutants have to be reduced. Acid deposition and its consequences are among them, but they are not the only ones. This paper presents the comprehensive legal basis of air pollution control policy in Switzerland as well as the overall air pollution control strategy. The present situation with respect to air pollution is discussed. A list of implemented and planned measures is given as well as emission trends of major air pollutants from 1950 to 2010. 6 refs., 1 fig

  10. Energy Recovery with Air-to-air Membrane Energy Exchanger for Ventilation in Cold Climates

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Air-to-air membrane energy exchangers (MEEs) are attracting increasing attention as one of the most important novel trends in heat and energy recovery exchangers for heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. In MEEs, simultaneous heat and moisture transfer through the selectively permeable membrane reduces the energy consumed for heating, cooling, dehumidifying or humidifying the ventilation air. In cold climates, the moisture transfer from the warm and humid...

  11. Traffic Calming Techniques for Pedestrian and Bicycle Transportation System Planning:A Case Study in Xianning Tourism Area%交通静化技术在步行和自行车交通系统规划中的应用——以咸宁市旅游区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余华刚; 赵海娟; 陈傲

    2012-01-01

    为营造和谐、安全、便利的步行和自行车交通出行环境,在咸宁市旅游区步行和自行车交通系统规划中引入交通静化技术.首先,指出交通静化技术的内涵和工程措施.然后,解读咸宁市旅游区空间布局,并着重从安全的角度分析旅游区步行和自行车交通系统现状及步行和自行车交通出行特征.最后,从宏观交通宁静带与交通宁静区划分、中观交通宁静廊道构建及微观交通静化措施应用三个方面对旅游区步行和自行车交通系统进行规划.%In order to build a user-friendly, safe and convenient travel environment, the traffic calming techniques were introduced into the planning of pedestrian and bicycle transportation system in Xianning tourism area. Firstly, based on traffic calming principles, this paper analyzes the content and engineering measures of pedestrian and bicycle transportation system in Xianning, Hubei province. And then, the layout of pedestrian and bicycle transportation planning in Xianning tourism area was presented in detail while emphasizing the safety and security characteristics of pedestrian and bicycle travels. Finally, the design of pedestrian and bicycle transportation system is discussed from three aspects - they are the classification of traffic clamming zone, establishment of traffic calming corridor and implement of traffic calming measures.

  12. Perception des émotions non verbales dans la musique, les voix et les visages chez les adultes implantés cochléaires présentant une surdité évolutive

    OpenAIRE

    Ambert-Dahan, Emmanuèle

    2014-01-01

    Le bénéfice de l’implant cochléaire pour la compréhension de la parole en milieu calme, et même dans certains cas pour des situations auditives complexes telles que les environnements bruyants ou l’écoute de la musique est aujourd’hui connu. Si la compréhension de la parole est nécessaire à la communication, la perception des informations non verbales transmises par la voix de même que des expressions faciales est fondamentale pour interpréter le message d’un interlocuteur. Les capacités de p...

  13. Indoor plants as air cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela Cruz, Majbrit; Christensen, Jan H.; Müller, Renate

    2015-01-01

    experiments is not directly transferrable to real life settings. The largest problem is the use of closed chambers where there is no air exchange. This also results in a declining VOC concentration over time. Due to this limitation, we constructed a new experimental system which among others can allow for air......Plants have been used decoratively indoors for centuries. For the last 25-30 years, their beneficial abilities to reduce the levels of harmful volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the indoor air have also been investigated. Previous studies have shown that VOCs are removed by the plant itself...... exchange and a constant VOC concentration. With the new system it was found that removal rates obtained in chambers with air exchange and constant VOC concentration were significantly higher than removal rates obtained in closed chambers. This means that removal rates obtained in closed chambers may be an...

  14. Air transparent soundproof window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation

  15. Air transparent soundproof window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hoon Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  16. Air transparent soundproof window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon, E-mail: shkim@mmu.ac.kr [Division of Marine Engineering, Mokpo National Maritime University, Mokpo 530-729, R. O. Korea (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seong-Hyun [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-343, R. O. Korea (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  17. Air leakage in refrigerated vans. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    The Air Leakage in Refrigerated Vans Project was initiated by the Department of Energy to assess the impact of air leakage on fuel consumption of highway transport refrigeration equipment. The project, conducted from September of 1977 to December of 1978 collected air leakage data on refrigerated trailers, containers and truck bodies. A Prototype Air Leakage Test Set was developed, designed and constructed to take measurements, and a total of 92 representative vehicles were examined. The results of the study indicate that air leakage causes a 25% increase in the average refrigeration load. However, the majority of transport refrigeration units are equipped with control systems that require the power to be supplied continuously, so that the potential reduction in fuel consumption that can be expected by reduced air leakage is limited. Alternative control techniques and power sources for the control and operation of refrigeration unit components other than the compressor could reduce fuel consumption by approximately 60%.

  18. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... humidity (30, 40 and 70%) and pollution level (low and high). Most of the experiments were performed with and without facially applied airflow at elevated velocity. The importance of the use of recirculated room air and clean, cool and dry outdoor air was studied. The exposures ranged from 60. min to 235....... min. Acceptability of PAQ and freshness of the air improved when air movement was applied. The elevated air movement diminished the negative impact of increased air temperature, relative humidity and pollution level on PAQ. The degree of improvement depended on the pollution level, the temperature and...

  19. Some measurements of ambient air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambient air pollution arising from different sources in Karachi and its surroundings has been studied. The urban centres like Karachi are mostly confronted with eye-irritation, reduce visibility, heart-diseases, nervous disorder, smog and other unpleasant experiences. In this paper quantitative estimations of some air-pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, chlorine and particular matters are presented with their hazardous effects. The remedial measures for the control of major air emissions are also discussed. (author)

  20. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... contradictions should motivate manufacturers and researchers to develop new efficient filtration techniques and/or improve the existing ones. Development of low polluting filtration techniques, which are at the same time easy and inexpensive to maintain is the way forward in the future....

  1. AIR SEBAGAI SUBYEK DALAM DESAIN ARSITEKTUR Kasus telaah: Istana Alhambra Granada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esterlita Devi Hendrayani

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Water has always been imperative for life, since the very beginning, the birth, growth, survival, to the death, water always play an important role. In whatever kind of form, water has the character and potency to increase the quality of human life or to destroy it. Water is well responsive against natural forces, such as storm, rain, lightning and thunder, it could change in a sudden from a still and calm condition to a new powerful force, which could evoke certain human emotion. With this character and potency, water contribute to the dynamic of the architecture which incorporates it, placed as subject to architectural composition, not merely as object to meet the physical human needs. Through analyzing the Alhambra palace which is known as the locus classicus of the use of water in architectural design, a reflection can be made, whether water has been placed as subject in an architectural composition or just as something routine. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Air adalah sesuatu yang tidak dapat dilepaskan dalam segala aspek kehidupan manusia, mulai dari awal kehidupan, kelahiran, pertumbuhan, perjuangan hidup hingga kematian. Dalam wujud apapun air mempunyai karakter dan potensi untuk meningkatkan kualitas hidup manusia atau merusakkannya. Air begitu responsif terhadap kekuatan alam seperti, badai, hujan lebat, kilat dan petir; ia dapat dengan tiba-tiba berubah dari keadaan tenang menjadi kekuatan baru yang mampu membangkitkan emosi tertentu. Dengan mengenal karakter dan potensi inilah, maka air dapat menjadi komponen dinamis dalam arsitektur, dapat berperan sebagai subjek dalam desain komposisi arsitektural, bukan hanya semata-mata sebagai objek guna memenuhi kebutuhan fisik manusia saja. Air dapat menjadi urat nadi dalam komposisi arsitektur. Melalui telaah desain istana Alhambra, yang dikenal sebagai locus classicus bagi penggunaan air dalam desain arsitektur, maka kita dapat melakukan refleksi apakah telah menempatkan air sebagai subyek

  2. Customer issues related to limitations in air connectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Laesser, Christian; Wittmer, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Air access is claimed to be most crucial for regional economic development, especially in terms of globally acting industries. However, air traffic generates potential negative impacts, such as noise or air pollution, which case wise might lead to the claim to reduce air traffic politically. This paper investigates customer issues and potential responses of frequent flyers to non market driven limitations of air transportation (frequent flyers are considered to be more affected by such measur...

  3. Integrated Technology Air Cleaners (ITAC): Design and Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Fisk, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this project was to design, build, and test an air cleaner for residential use with the potential to substantially improve indoor air quality, or maintain indoor air quality unchanged, when outdoor air ventilation rates are reduced to save energy. Two air cleaners were designed and fabricated. The design targets for airflow rate, fan power, and projected cost were met. In short term laboratory studies, both units performed as expected; however, during field studies in...

  4. Energy use, air infiltration, and indoor air quality in well-insulated residences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports two unoccupied bilevel houses of identical design and construction studied to determine the relationships among air exchange, energy consumption, and indoor air quality. The experimental house was retrofitted to increase building tightness and was equipped with an air-to-air heat exchanger; the control house was kept in its initial state of construction. Infiltration, energy, indoor air quality, and environmental parameters were monitored in both houses before and after the retrofit. It was found that the retrofit decreased air infiltration rates by nearly 25 percent, heating energy savings of 12 to 20 percent were achieved through the retrofit, and among the pollutants monitored, only radon and radon progeny increased in proportion to the reduced infiltration. Similarly, when the heat exchanger was operated, radon and radon progeny were the only pollutants reduced in proportion to the added air exchange

  5. Human Brain Model of Smile,Calmness,Honesty and Lying:Chua’s Circuit%微笑、平静、说谎和诚实的人脑蔡氏电路模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雷; 李文石

    2013-01-01

    Based on the similarity of chaos in human brain and Chua′s circuit ,we propose the methods to model human brain with Chua′s circuit .With the simulation of Multisim 10® ,we set voltages across resistor R1 as original signals .Also ,Analogous def-inite integral ,Lyapunov ,Micro-segmented windows and P values are applied to gain data window .Then ,minimum mean power of R1(PR1min :1.56×10-4W) is discovered after tuning inductance L and nonlinear-resistor parameter R5 .Furthermore ,we suppose PR1min as log-base ,and calculate the new indexes for each power of R1 as reference values .After compared with previous indexes of brain power consumption (BPC )in frontal lobe at cognitive states of calmness ,honesty ,or lying (BPC at smile as base ) ,two-set in-dexes equal to each other .According to actual BPC ,and with Chua′s circuit corresponding to minimum mean power PR1min ,we ac-complish human brain model in frontal lobe at cognitive states of calmness ,honesty ,lying and smile .This work will provide novel thinking for nonlinear modeling of human brain .%基于人脑和蔡氏电路都能表现复杂的混沌特征,本文利用蔡氏电路为人脑建立电路模型.文中利用Multisim10®仿真蔡氏电路,提取纯阻 R1两端电压,作为原始待分析数据.类积分法、李亚普若夫指数、微窗口法和 P分数等四种方法顺次应用于选取数据分析窗口.基于数据窗口,分别调整电感 L和非线性电阻参数R5,得到纯阻 R1的平均功率及其最小值 PR1min (1.56×10-4W).同时以 PR1min为底数,利用Log函数计算 R1的平均功率对应的指数值.对比最近几年人脑近红外耳穴信号研究成果,R1平均功率指数与以微笑时人脑额区消耗功率为底数的人脑平静、诚实和说谎的功率消耗指数分布相同.结合人脑实际消耗功率,我们选取纯阻 R1最小平均功率对应的蔡氏电路并联,实现平静、微笑、诚实和说谎的人脑额区

  6. Border Effects in Passenger Air Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Klodt, Henning

    2003-01-01

    National borders substantially matter in passenger air traffic. Empirical estimates based upon a new data set on domestic and international departures from German airports indicate that the German border reduces air traffic activity by a factor of four to five. This result adds a further piece of evidence to the significance of border effects in various kinds of economic activity.

  7. The oasis project, exploring the concept of reducing anxiety & stress in a hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousley, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Comments written in a prayer book in a hospital Chaplaincy Centre, about the area being a 'quiet oasis' in the middle of a busy hospital amid lots of anxiety and stress led to a focus group forming to explore ideas on how this could be addressed; a short term vision was the creation of an area (Oasis) in the Chaplaincy centre and longer term in other areas across the whole hospital. These areas would have an ambience of calm and relaxation where the use of colour, sound, aroma's and touch would be used to help in the reduction of stress and anxiety, this may be from forthcoming surgery, procedures or life in general from traumatic circumstances. The potential impact of this would be to aid recovery, potentially reduce other stress related illness and improve general well-being using strategies to include relaxation, breathing and visualisation techniques and aromatherapy hand massage. PMID:26256136

  8. Air pollution prevention at the Hanford Site: Status and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the introduction of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and other air and pollution prevention regulations, there has been increased focus on both pollution prevention and air emissions at US DOE sites. The Pollution Prevention (P2) Group of WHC reviewed the status of air pollution prevention with the goal of making recommendations on how to address air emissions at Hanford through pollution prevention. Using the air emissions inventory from Hanford's Title V permit, the P2 Group was able to identify major and significant air sources. By reviewing the literature and benchmarking two other DOE Sites, two major activities were recommended to reduce air pollution and reduce costs at the Hanford Site. First, a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (P2OA) should be conducted on the significant painting sources in the Maintenance group and credit should be taken for reducing the burning of tumbleweeds, another significant source of air pollution. Since they are significant sources, reducing these emissions will reduce air emission fees, as well as have the potential to reduce material and labor costs, and increase worker safety. Second, a P2OA should be conducted on alternatives to the three coal-fired powerhouses (steam plants) on-site, including a significant costs analysis of alternatives. This analysis could be of significant value to other DOE sites. Overall, these two activities would reduce pollution, ease regulatory requirements and fees, save money, and help Hanford take a leadership role in air pollution prevention

  9. Improving Air Quality with Solar Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-04-01

    This fact sheet series highlights how renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies can and are being used to reduce air emissions and meet environmental goals, showcasing case studies and technology-specific topics.

  10. Improving Air Quality with Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    This fact sheet series highlights how renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies can and are being used to reduce air emissions and meet environmental goals, showcasing case studies and technology-specific topics. This one focus on solar energy technologies.

  11. Ambient concentrations of radionuclides in air at Maralinga and Emu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this component of the study was to obtain data on the radioactive content of dust resuspended under natural (ambient) conditions at various sites around Maralinga and at Emu. Ambient concentrations in air of radionuclides and the toxic chemical beryllium have been monitored by use of both high and low volume samplers over several years during calm conditions and during dust storms. Data are presented for the contaminated sites which indicate that airborne concentrations of plutonium are low most of the time (10-4 Bq/m3). Annual average ambient activity concentrations of plutonium at the most heavily contaminated sampling sites were ca. 10-3 Bq/m3 at a height of 1.1 m above ground level. The highest concentrations measured were ca. 2 x 10-2 bq/m3 averaged over a few days. The results indicate that the radiological risk due to naturally resuspended dust is dominated by a rare event, such as the occasional dust storms that resuspends considerable activity. 7 refs., 15 tabs., 2 figs., ills

  12. Air protection. Ochrana ovzdusia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siska, F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses problems of air pollution control, air pollution abatement and effects of air pollution. Air pollution caused by black and brown coal combustion, by fossil-fuel power plants and by coking plants is evaluated. Air pollution by dusts, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, ammonia as well arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, chromium, gallium, cobalt, manganese, copper, nickel, lead, plutonium, titanium and vanadium, which sometimes accompany ashes in coal, is analyzed. Methods of air pollution abatement such as fluidized bed combustion, coal preparation, desulfurization or dry coke quenching are described. Systems for air pollution control are presented: air filtration, cyclones, electrostatic precipitators. Systems of air pollution measurement and recording are evaluated. Propagation of air pollutants in the atmosphere as well as the factors which influence pollutant propagation are characterized. Problems associated with site selection for fossil-fuel power plants are also discussed. An analysis of economic aspects of air pollution abatement and air pollution control is made. (55 refs.)

  13. Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  14. Bad Air Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Bad Air Day Air Quality and Your Health In many parts of the country, summer has the worst air quality of any season. When the forecast says ...

  15. Air Quality Assessment Using Interpolation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awkash Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is increasing rapidly in almost all cities around the world due to increase in population. Mumbai city in India is one of the mega cities where air quality is deteriorating at a very rapid rate. Air quality monitoring stations have been installed in the city to regulate air pollution control strategies to reduce the air pollution level. In this paper, air quality assessment has been carried out over the sample region using interpolation techniques. The technique Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW of Geographical Information System (GIS has been used to perform interpolation with the help of concentration data on air quality at three locations of Mumbai for the year 2008. The classification was done for the spatial and temporal variation in air quality levels for Mumbai region. The seasonal and annual variations of air quality levels for SO2, NOx and SPM (Suspended Particulate Matter have been focused in this study. Results show that SPM concentration always exceeded the permissible limit of National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Also, seasonal trends of pollutant SPM was low in monsoon due rain fall. The finding of this study will help to formulate control strategies for rational management of air pollution and can be used for many other regions.

  16. Estimating the health and economic benefits associated with reducing air pollution in the Barcelona metropolitan area (Spain Estimación de los beneficios en salud y económicos asociados a la reducción de la contaminación atmosférica en el área metropolitana de Barcelona (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pérez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the health and economic benefits that would result from two scenarios of improved air quality in 57 municipalities of the metropolitan area of Barcelona. Methods: We used attributable fractions and life tables to quantify the benefits for selected health outcomes, based on published concentration-response functions and economic unit values. The mean weighted concentration of PM10 for the study population was estimated through concentration surface maps developed by the local government. Results: The annual mean health benefits of reducing the mean PM10 exposure estimated for the population in the study area (50µg/m³ to the annual mean value recommended by the World Health Organization (20µg/m³ were estimated to be 3,500 fewer deaths (representing an average increase in life expectancy of 14 months, 1,800 fewer hospitalizations for cardio-respiratory diseases, 5,100 fewer cases of chronic bronchitis among adults, 31,100 fewer cases of acute bronchitis among children, and 54,000 fewer asthma attacks among children and adults. The mean total monetary benefits were estimated to be 6,400 million euros per year. Reducing PM10 to comply with the current European Union regulatory annual mean level (40µg/m³ would yield approximately one third of these benefits. Conclusions: This study shows that reducing air pollution in the metropolitan area of Barcelona would result in substantial health and economic benefits. The benefits are probably underestimated due to the assumptions made in this study. Assessment of the health impact of local air pollution is a useful tool in public health.Objetivos: Se presenta una estimación de los beneficios para la salud y económicos de dos escenarios de mejora de la calidad del aire ambiental en 57 municipios del área metropolitana de Barcelona. Métodos: Usando fracciones atribuibles y tablas de vida, se cuantificaron los beneficios para los indicadores de salud seleccionados basándose en

  17. Indoor air quality: a UK perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outdoor air quality has generally improved in the UK over the last 2 decades but during this period changing conditions within the home have tended to reduce ventilation and increase the opportunity for accumulation of undesirable levels of indoor air pollutants. Information obtained from laboratory and epidemiological studies suggest that indoor air pollutants are an important cause of avoidable morbidity and mortality in the UK. This paper reviews the major indoor air pollutants of concern in the UK and considers some of the special issues relevant to indoor environment. (author) 3 figs., 37 refs

  18. LHC data and extensive air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierog Tanguy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently the uncertainty in the prediction of shower observables for different primary particles and energies is dominated by differences between hadronic interaction models. The LHC data on minimum bias measurements can be used to test Monte Carlo generators and these new constraints will help to reduce the uncertainties in air shower predictions. In this article, after a short introduction on air showers we will show the results of the comparison between the updated version of high energy hadronic interaction models EPOS LHC and QGSJETII-04 with LHC data. Results for air shower simulations and their consequences on comparisons with air shower data will be discussed.

  19. LHC data and extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently the uncertainty in the prediction of shower observables for different primary particles and energies is dominated by differences between hadronic interaction models. The LHC data on minimum bias measurements can be used to test Monte Carlo generators and these new constraints will help to reduce the uncertainties in air shower predictions. In this article, after a short introduction on air showers we will show the results of the comparison between the updated version of high energy hadronic interaction models EPOS LHC and QGSJETII-04 with LHC data. Results for air shower simulations and their consequences on comparisons with air shower data will be discussed. (authors)

  20. Air pollution and its control in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Jiming; HE Kebin; DUAN Lei; LI Junhua; WANG Litao

    2007-01-01

    The rapid growth of China's economy has led to severe air pollution characterized by acid rain,severe pollution in cities,and regional air pollution.High concentrations are found for various pollutants such as sulfur dioxides(SO2),nitrogen oxides(NOx),and fine particulates.Great efforts have thus been undertaken for the control of air pollution in the country.This paper discusses the development and application of appropriate technologies for reducing the major pollutants produced by coal and vehicles,and investi gates air quality modeling as an important support for policy-making.

  1. Calming the Waters or Riding the Waves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydén, Pernille; Kottika, Efthymia; Hossain, Muhammad Ismail;

    Traditional consumer anger management tends to be compromising rather than empowering the brand. This paper conceptualizes and provides a case example on how consumer empowerment and negative emotions can in fact create opportunities for companies to ride the waves of consumer anger in a way....... This calls for a reconsideration of assumptions that empowerment is like a seesaw swinging in favor of either the consumer or the company, and that negative emotions can only be destructive....

  2. Pétrole: un calme trompeur

    OpenAIRE

    Antonin, Céline

    2010-01-01

    Alors que l'OPEP souffle ses cinquante bougies, elle a tout lieu de se réjouir. La décision de réduire massivement les quotas début 2009 pour enrayer la baisse des cours a été couronnée de succès : depuis près d'un an, le prix du baril de Brent converge vers 80 dollars, sur fond de reprise timide de la croissance dans les pays de l'OCDE, de persistance d'une offre excédentaire et de l'appréciation récente du dollar (...).

  3. Dystrophin: The dead calm of a dogma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Dariusz C

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common inherited muscle disease leading to severe disability and death of young men. Current interventions are palliative as no treatment improves the long-term outcome. Therefore, new therapeutic modalities with translational potential are urgently needed and abnormalities downstream from the absence of dystrophin are realistic targets. It has been shown that DMD mutations alter extracellular ATP (eATP) signaling via P2RX7 purinoceptor upregulation, which leads to autophagic death of dystrophic muscle cells. Furthermore, the eATP-P2RX7 axis contributes to DMD pathology by stimulating harmful inflammatory responses. We demonstrated recently that genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of P2RX7 in the mdx mouse model of DMD produced functional attenuation of both muscle and non-muscle symptoms, establishing this receptor as an attractive therapeutic target. Central to the argument presented here, this purinergic phenotype affects dystrophic myoblasts. Muscle cells were believed not to be affected at this stage of differentiation, as they do not produce detectable dystrophin protein. Our findings contradict the central hypothesis stating that aberrant dystrophin expression is inconsequential in myoblasts and the DMD pathology results from effects such as sarcolemma fragility, due to the absence of dystrophin, in differentiated myofibres. However, we discuss here the evidence that, already in myogenic cells, DMD mutations produce a plethora of abnormalities, including in cell proliferation, differentiation, energy metabolism, Ca(2+) homeostasis and death, leading to impaired muscle regeneration. We hope that this discussion may bring to light further results that will help re-evaluating the established belief. Clearly, understanding how DMD mutations alter such a range of functions in myogenic cells is vital for developing effective therapies. PMID:27141413

  4. Pascal au pays du matin calme

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Ran-E

    2016-01-01

    Après le Japon, la Corée à son tour jouit d’une certaine florescence dans les études pascaliennes. Celles-ci sont largement dues à la qualité des travaux et de l’enseignement de celui qui en reste le doyen, à savoir M. Lee Whan. Le premier à avoir, en 1974, consacré une thèse de doctorat sur Pascal, il s’intéresse tout particulièrement à la première partie de l’Apologie communément appelée l’anthropologie de Pascal. Dans son livre majeur Recherches sur Pascal qui constitue un recueil d’articl...

  5. Contempt: Derogating Others While Keeping Calm

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Agneta H.; Giner-Sorolla, Roger

    2015-01-01

    While philosophers have discussed the emotion of contempt from antiquity to the present day, contempt has received less attention in psychological research. We review the defining features of contempt, both as a short-term emotion and as a more long lasting sentiment. Contempt is similar to anger in that it may occur after (repeated) social or moral transgressions, but it differs from anger in its appraisals, actions and emotivational goals. Unlike anger, contempt arises when a person’s or gr...

  6. Inviting Calm Within: ADD, Neurology, and Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riner, Phillip S.; Tanase, Madalina

    2014-01-01

    The fourth edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM IV") describes ADD as behaviorally observed impairments in attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Officially known as AD/HD, we use ADD here because we are dealing primarily with attention, organizational, and impulsivity issues. A more…

  7. Application of Computer Model to Estimate the Consistency of Air Conditioning Systems Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Amal El-Berry; Afrah Al-Bossly

    2013-01-01

    Reliability engineering is utilized to predict the performance and optimization of the design and maintenance of air conditioning systems. There are a number of failures associated with the conditioning systems. The failures of an air conditioner such as turn on, loss of air conditioner cooling capacity, reduced air conditioning output temperatures, loss of cool air supply and loss of air flow entirely are mainly due to a variety of problems with one or more components of an air conditioner o...

  8. Bioventing reduces soil cleanup costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An offshoot technology from soil venting, bioventing offers a win-win solution for soils contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nonvolatile contaminants such as diesel and fuel oil. Using low air flowrates through permeable soils, bioventing injects sufficient oxygen to support naturally-occurring bacteria, which biodegraded the VOCs and other contaminants into benign byproducts. Waste gas can be directly discharged to atmosphere without further treatment. This results in no offgas treatment required. Bioventing is a cost-effective alternative to traditional soil-venting techniques. Soil venting uses air to volatilize organic-compound contamination from the vadose zone, the unsaturated soil layer above groundwater. Unfortunately, this simple-and-fast approach creates a waste offgas that requires further treatment before discharge, thus adding significantly to overall project costs. In contrast, bioventing uses low air flowrates, which require lower capital and operating costs. No offgas treatment further reduces equipment and operating costs and often eliminates air permitting. As in all treatment strategies, the process must meet the cleanup objectives. Bioventing is an alternative technique making inroads into refining and petrochemical soil-remediation applications

  9. A Solution for Reducing the Pollution of the Atmospheric Air

    OpenAIRE

    De Aquino, Fran

    2014-01-01

    Here we show how polluted smoke can be compacted and transformed into a glass similar to amorphous silica glass, by means of gravitational compression produced in a compression chamber, where gravity is strongly increased by using gravity control technology based on the discovery of correlation between gravitational mass and inertial mass [1]. Possibly this process can be a way of storing of CO 2 , a major contributor to global warming.

  10. Reducing secondary losses by blowing cold air in a turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschel, W.

    1977-01-01

    Local blowing on the profile suction side of the turbine guide wheel blades can be effective in preventing the propagation of secondary flows that is, the transport of casing and hub boundary layers by pressure gradients. Some preliminary results on how the blowing should be accomplished in order to influence the secondary flows in the desired manner are given. The effectiveness of blowing is demonstrated. Blowing is also seen to be more effective than using boundary layer slots as far as diminishing losses in the rim zones is concerned.

  11. Evaluation of thermal formation and air ventilation inside footwear during gait: The role of gait and fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Yasuhiro; Matsutani, Toshiki; Satsumoto, Yayoi

    2016-07-01

    Comfort is an important concept in footwear design. The microclimate inside footwear contributes to the perception of thermal comfort. To investigate the effect of ventilation on microclimate formation inside footwear, experiments with subjects were conducted at four gait speeds with three different footwear sizes. Skin temperature, metabolism, and body mass were measured at approximately 25 °C and 50% relative humidity, with no solar radiation and a calm wind. The footwear occupancy and ventilation rate were also estimated, with the latter determined using the tracer gas method. The experimental results revealed that foot movement, metabolism, evaporation, radiation, convection, and ventilation were the main factors influencing the energy balance for temperature formation on the surface of the foot. The cooling effect of ventilation on the arch temperature was observed during gait. The significance of the amount of air space and ventilation on the improvement in the thermal comfort of footwear was clarified. PMID:26611985

  12. EFFECTS OF ENTRAINED AIR MANNER ON CAVITATION DAMAGE*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jian-hua; LUO Chao

    2011-01-01

    Early in 1953 the experiments by Peterka proved that air entrainment has effects on decreasing cavitation damage. This technology has been widely used in the release works of high dams since the inception of air entrainment in the Grand Goulee Dam in 1960. Behavior, mechanism and application of air entrainment for cavitation damage control have been investigated for over half century. However, severe cavitation damage happened due to complex mechanism of air entrainment. The effects of air entrainment are related to many factors, including geometric parameters, hydraulic parameters and entrained air manners. In the present work an experimental set-up for air entrainment was specially designed, the behavior of reducing cavitation damage was experimentally investigated in the three aspects of entrained air pressure, air tube aera and air tube number. The results show that magnitude of reduction of cavitation damage is closely related to the entrained air tube number as well as entrained air pressure, air tube aera, and that the effect through three air tubes is larger than that through single air tube although the entrained air tubes have the same sum of tube aera, that is, 1 + 1 + 1 > 3. Therefore, it is important to design an effective manner of air entrainment.

  13. Metal-air electrochemical cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarbacher, R. I.; Fechter, H. R.

    1985-01-01

    An electrochemical cell for which fuel is prepared and introduced under artificial gravity forces. The active metal is deposited through the action of the field on an anode current collecting member, effecting good compaction and reduced cell internal impedance. A microprocessor provides control of the induced gravity, flow rates, temperature, and other variables-enabling the active metal to be controlled in its thickness as well as providing a predetermined separation from the cathode. Abrasion of the cathode and the possibility of shorting are avoided by the presence of outwardly directed radial forces. These forces are induced by rotation of the electrolyte, air cathode, anode collector and the active metal. The forces promote also the passage of moisture laden air through the air cathode elements. Reaction products produced within the cell volume are circulated to an outside container for separation and possible reuse.

  14. A Review of Solar Desiccant Air Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. U. V. Kongre, D. P. Mahure, P. A. Zamre

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a detailed study and description of a new solar-based air-conditioning technique. It uses solar energy to produce cold or hot air. This technology can be used to reduce the energy consumption and environmental impact of mechanical cooling system. The use of Desiccant cooling is used to perform air dehumidification operation by utilizing low grade heat source. The solar desiccant air conditioner uses solar power as the main energy source to help in the thermodynamic heat transfer process as well as heat transfer principles to convert ambient air into cooling air. With our constructed design we have seen temperature as well as humidity level drops throughout the desiccant cooling system. A significant advantage of this system is, it have no moving parts consequently they are noiseless, non-corrosive, cheap to maintain, long lasting in addition to being environmentally friendly with zero ozone depletion as well as zero global warming potentials.

  15. Gaseous and particulate urban air pollution in the region of Vojvodina (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinović-Milićević Slavica B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on interpretations of the temporal variations and variations between urban locations of sulfur dioxide (SO2, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and black smoke (BS during the period 2001-2008 in the Vojvodina Region of Serbia (VR_S. In this study we examined variations of pollutants concentrations during household heating and non-heating seasons and the effect of household heating, traffic, rainfall and wind speed on the air pollution levels of SO2, NO2 and BS in eight locations. The analyses showed that the annual limit values of these pollutants as recommended by the Serbian regulations and recommendations were not exceeded, unlike the daily limits. Higher SO2 concentrations during household heating season in four locations indicate the substantial impact of house­hold heating on air quality. Positive effects of the use of environmentally cleaner fuels were observed in only two locations. The growing impact of traffic on air pollution is shown by the increasing trend of NO2 during both seasons. Calm wind conditions and an absence of rainfall were found to have incremental effects on pollution levels in most locations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43007: Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation i br. III 43002: Biosensing Technolo­gies and Global System for Continuous Research and Integrated Management

  16. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  17. Simulation of particle distribution in a room with air cleaner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Nielsen, Peter V.;

    2012-01-01

    Ventilation is one of the ways that humans can keep the indoor air quality at the proper level. Portable air cleaners have been developed to improve indoor air quality while reducing the energy consumption of the ventilation system. The aim of this study is to find the correct turbulence model an...

  18. Loss of air sacs improved hominin speech abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. de Boer

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the acoustic-perceptual effects of air sacs are investigated. Using an adaptive hearing experiment, it is shown that air sacs reduce the perceptual effect of vowel-like articulations. Air sacs are a feature of the vocal tract of all great apes, except humans. Because the presence or a

  19. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ... Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Print this Page Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ...

  20. Optimization of recirculating laminar air flow in operating room air conditioning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Yalcin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The laminar flow air-conditioning system with 100% fresh air is used in almost all operating rooms without discrimination in Turkey. The laminar flow device which is working with 100% fresh air should be absolutely used in Type 1A operating rooms. However, there is not mandatory to use of 100% fresh air for Type 1B defined as places performed simpler operation. Compared with recirculating laminar flow, energy needs of the laminar flow with 100 % fresh air has been emerged about 40% more than re-circulated air flow. Therefore, when a recirculating laminar flow device is operated instead of laminar flow system with 100% fresh air in the Type 1B operating room, annual energy consumption will be reduced. In this study, in an operating room with recirculating laminar flow, optimal conditions have been investigated in order to obtain laminar flow form by analyzing velocity distributions at various supply velocities by using computational fluid dynamics method (CFD.

  1. Perceived air quality, thermal comfort, and SBS symptoms at low air temperature and increased radiant temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Reimann, Gregers Peter; Foldbjerg, P.;

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated if low air temperature, which is known to improve the perception of air quality, also can reduce the intensity of some SBS symptoms. In a low-polluting office, human subjects were exposed to air at two temperatures 23 deg.C and 18 deg.C both with and without a pollution...... source present at the low temperature. To maintain overall thermal neutrality, the low air temperature was partly compensated for by individually controlled radiant heating, and partly by allowing subjects to modify clothing insulation. A reduction of the air temperature from 23 deg.C to 18 deg.......C suggested an improvement of the perceived air quality, while no systematic effect on symptom intensity was observed. The overall indoor environment was evaluated equally acceptable at both temperatures due to local thermal discomfort at the low air temperature....

  2. Providing cleaner air to Canadians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet is designed to explain salient aspects of the Ozone Annex, negotiated and signed recently by Canada and the United States, in a joint effort to improve air quality in North America. By significantly reducing the transboundary flows of air pollutants that cause smog, the Ozone Annex will benefit some 16 million people in central and eastern Canada and provide an example for a future round of negotiations to address concerns of the millions of Canadians and Americans who live in the border area between British Columbia and Washington State. The brochure provide summaries of the Canadian and American commitments, focusing on transportation, monitoring and reporting. The Ozone Annex complements other air quality initiatives by the Government of Canada enacted under the Environmental Protection Act, 1999. These measures include regulations to reduce sulphur content to 30 parts per million by Jan 1, 2005; proposing to restrict toxic particulate matter (PM) to less than 10 microns; establishing daily smog forecasts in the Maritimes and committing to a national program built upon existing smog advisories and forecasts in Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia; and investing in more clean air research through the newly created Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences

  3. Air-Breathing Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine prototype in the test bay at the General Applied Science Lab facility in Ronkonkoma, New York. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  4. Air Pollution and the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni eDrakaki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase of air pollution over the years has major effects on the human skin. The skin is exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR and environmental air pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, volatile organic compounds (VOCs, oxides, particulate matter (PM, ozone (O3 and cigarette smoke. Although human skin acts as a biological shield against pro-oxidative chemical and physical air pollutants, the prolonged or repetitive exposure to high levels of these pollutants may have profound negative effects on the skin. Exposure of the skin to air pollutants has been associated with skin aging and inflammatory or allergic skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis or acne, while skin cancer is among the most serious effects. On the other hand, some air pollutants (ie, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide and scattering particulates (clouds and soot in the troposphere reduce the effects of shorter wavelength UVR and significant reductions in UV irradiance have been observed in polluted urban areas.

  5. Trading emissions improve air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While admitting sharply contrasting views exist, James M. Lents of the South Coast Air Quality Management District in southern California sees emissions trading open-quotes as a lifesaver for our troubled planet.close quotes He explains: open-quotes If political support for the environment is to be maintained, we must seek the most economical and flexible means of pursuing cleanup. At present, market incentives and emissions trading represent our best hope.close quotes Lents is putting his money where his pen is. The air quality management district he heads plans to use market incentives, including emissions trading, to reduce air pollution in the notoriously dirty southern California area. When the system goes into operation in 1994, he estimates it will save southern California businesses more than $400 million a year in compliance costs, while also making major improvements in the region's air quality. If the idea works there, why won't it work elsewhere, even on a global scale, Lents asks? He believes it will. But open-quotes the ultimate success of emissions-trading programs, whether regional, national, or international in scope, lies in the proof that they're actually achieving reductions in harmful emissions,close quotes he emphasizes. open-quotes These reductions must be real and verifiable to satisfy the Clean Air Act and a skeptical public.close quotes

  6. Improving indoor air quality through botanical air filtration in energy efficient residences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk, Daniel W.

    According to the U.S. EPA, the average American spends 90% of their time indoors where pollutants are two to five times more prevalent than outside. The consequences of these pollutants are estimated to cost the U.S. 125 billion dollars in lost health and productivity. Background literature suggests botanical air filtration may be able to solve this problem by leveraging the natural ability of plants to purify indoor air. By improving indoor air quality, energy consumption can also be reduced by bringing in less outside air to dilute contaminants within the space. A botanical air filter, called the Biowall, was designed and grown aeroponically in a sealed environmental chamber. Precise measurements of air temperature, air humidity, air quality and energy consumption were made under various lighting levels, plant species and watering strategies to optimize its performance. It was found to reduce indoor air pollutants 60 percent and has the potential to reduce heating and cooling energy consumption by 20 to 30 percent.

  7. Efficacy observation on Governor Vessel-unblocking and mind-calming acupuncture for insomnia%调督安神针法治疗失眠症疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳君; 张丽华; 韩一栩; 李朋朋

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察调督安神针法对失眠症的疗效,传承燕赵高氏针灸学术思想。方法:将68例失眠症患者按随机数字表随机分为针刺组及药物组,每组34例。针刺组采用调督安神针法治疗,每日1次,每星期治疗5次,休息2 d,共治疗4星期。药物组予艾司唑仑片治疗,每日1 mg,睡前口服,共治疗4星期。治疗前后采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数(Pittsburgh sleep quality index, PSQI)评价睡眠质量,根据PSQI减分率评定疗效。结果:治疗后,针刺组PSQI总分及各单项评分均明显下降,与本组治疗前有统计学差异(均P<0.01);药物组PSQI总分明显下降,与本组治疗前差异有统计学意义(均P<0.01),除睡眠障碍外,其余各单项积分均较治疗前下降(P<0.01或P<0.05)。针刺组治疗后 PSQI 总分明显低于药物组(P<0.01)。除入睡时间及睡眠时间外,针刺组睡眠质量、睡眠效率、睡眠障碍及日间功能障碍评分均低于药物组,组间差异有统计学意义(均 P<0.05)。针刺组愈显率显著高于药物组(P<0.05)。结论:调督安神针法治疗失眠疗效确切,疗效优于口服艾司唑仑片。%Objective:To observe the effect of Governor Vessel-unblocking and mind-calming acupuncture on insomnia and further develop the academic idea on Gao’s lineage acupuncture. Methods:A total of 68 insomnia cases were randomly allocated into an acupuncture group (n=34) and a medication group (n=34) according to their sequences of consultation. Patients in the acupuncture group received acupuncture treatment once a day, 5 d a week, for 4 weeks. Patients in the medication group took 1 mg of Estazolam before sleep for each dose, one dose a day, for 4 weeks. Before and after treatment, the sleep quality was evaluated using the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), and the efficacy was assessed using the PSQI reductive rate. Results:After treatment, the global PSQI score and scores of each component in the

  8. Enlightenment From the Assertion“We Should Keep Calm When Dealing With the International Problems”Pointed Out by DENG Xiaoping Based on the Science of Complexity%邓小平“处理国际问题要非常冷静”的论断及启示--基于复杂性科学视野

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶志华

    2014-01-01

    邓小平“处理国际问题要非常冷静”的论断内涵十分丰富,基于复杂性科学视野,它体现了邓小平的整体思维、变化思维和关系思维。由于国际问题的不可预测性、国际问题中危与机并存,以及人们在认识国际问题方面的非理性等因素,导致我们在处理国际问题时有时可能会不够冷静。为了做到非常冷静地处理国际问题,就需要我们在处理国际问题时不仅要努力做好充分的预判,摒弃一些错误的思维模式,还要大力加强把冷静作为一种领导力的培养,唯此,才能够做到有效地破解国际难题。%The connotation of the assertion“We should keep calm when dealing with the internation-al problems. ”by DENG Xiaoping is rich,and reflects the overall thinking,the changing thinking and the relationship thinking of DENG Xiaoping. Due to the unpredictability of international issues,coex-istence of the risks and opportunities in international problems,and the irrational factors in under-standing international issues,we may occasionally not calm down when dealing with the international problems. To deal with the international issues very calmly,we need not only to predict adequately and abandon some wrong modes of thinking,but also to take the training of keeping calm as a way to foster leadership skills. If we accomplish the above things,we can solve international problems effec-tively.

  9. Nordic agriculture air and climate

    OpenAIRE

    Antman, Anne; Brubæk, Stein; Andersen, Bente Hessellund; Lindqvist, Kajsa; Markus-Johansson, Miriam; Sørensen, Jacob; Teerikangas, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    This report constitutes the main outputs of the project “Pathways to a Nordic food system that contributes to reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants”. The overall goals are to present the baseline data regarding the Nordic agricultural sector, its greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions, the regulatory framework and support systems, and conflicts of interest. The report aims to describe pathways to a Nordic food system that contributes to achieving the climate target of below 2...

  10. Indoor air pollution and health

    OpenAIRE

    World Heath Organization (WHO)

    2005-01-01

    Metadata only record This is a fact sheet summarizing the indoor air pollution problem. The risk factors include health impacts such as respiratory infections and lung cancer. The fact sheet explains that women and children in developing nations are most vulnerable to the pollutants. It links Millennium Development Goals 1, 3, 4 and 7 (eradicate extreme poverty, empowering women, reducing child mortality, and ensure environmental sustainability) with the need for action. The fact sheet end...

  11. Air pollution of urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Makarova, V. N.

    2016-01-01

    Raising of problem. Any manufacturing processes related to the generation of waste. Year after year, a growing mass of waste is one of the main factors reducing the quality of the environment and destruction of natural landscapes. Industrial development inevitably enhances human impacts on the environment and disrupts the ecological balance [3]. Atmospher air is a vital element of the environment. The development of industry, the growth of cities, increasing the number of transport, active ex...

  12. The Bottom Line For Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how the right type of flooring can help schools reduce indoor-air-quality problems. Using vinyl composition flooring to handle moisture and reduce fungi growth is examined as are the benefits of vinyl cushion tufted textile flooring for cost effectiveness, learning environment improvement, installation, and effectiveness in emergencies.…

  13. Air quality measurements in urban green areas - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttler, W.; Strassburger, A.

    The influence of traffic-induced pollutants (e.g. CO, NO, NO 2 and O 3) on the air quality of urban areas was investigated in the city of Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), Germany. Twelve air hygiene profile measuring trips were made to analyse the trace gas distribution in the urban area with high spatial resolution and to compare the air hygiene situation of urban green areas with the overall situation of urban pollution. Seventeen measurements were made to determine the diurnal concentration courses within urban parks (summer conditions: 13 measurements, 530 30 min mean values, winter conditions: 4 measurements, 128 30 min mean values). The measurements were carried out during mainly calm wind and cloudless conditions between February 1995 and March 1996. It was possible to establish highly differentiated spatial concentration patterns within the urban area. These patterns were correlated with five general types of land use (motorway, main road, secondary road, residential area, green area) which were influenced to varying degrees by traffic emissions. Urban parks downwind from the main emission sources show the following typical temporal concentration courses: In summer rush-hour-dependent CO, NO and NO 2 maxima only occurred in the morning. A high NO 2/NO ratio was established during weather conditions with high global radiation intensities ( K>800 W m -2), which may result in a high O 3 formation potential. Some of the values measured found in one of the parks investigated (Gruga Park, Essen, area: 0.7 km 2), which were as high as 275 μg m -3 O 3 (30-min mean value) were significantly higher than the German air quality standard of 120 μg m -3 (30-min mean value, VDI Guideline 2310, 1996) which currently applies in Germany and about 20% above the maximum values measured on the same day by the network of the North Rhine-Westphalian State Environment Agency. In winter high CO and NO concentrations occur in the morning and during the afternoon rush-hour. The

  14. Mitigation effects of radon decay products by air cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most effective methods for reducing exposure is the use of air cleaners. In this study, a dose mitigation of a commonly-used Japanese air cleaner under conditions in which aerosols are continuously supplied was investigated. Although the values of the EERC during an operation of air cleaner decreased, values of the fp increased with the use of air cleaner. An effective dose was calculated on the basis of our experimental results, resulting in the dose mitigation of about 40 % by the air cleaner. Air cleaners can be regarded as an effective tool for the dose mitigation under with conditions in which aerosols are continuously supplied. (author)

  15. Can air pollutant controls change global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Air pollution policies do not affect long-term climate targets. • Reduction of aerosols counteracts a fraction of the reduction of Kyoto forcing. • Air pollution policies may affect the rate of climate change in the short term. • There is no tradeoff between clean air and climate policies. - Abstract: In this paper we analyze the interaction between climate and air pollution policies using the integrated assessment model REMIND coupled to the reduced-form climate model MAGICC. Since overall, aerosols tend to cool the atmosphere, there is a concern that a reduction of pollutant emissions could accelerate global warming and offset the climate benefits of carbon dioxide emission reductions. We investigate scenarios which independently reduce emissions from either large-scale sources, such as power plants, or small-scale sources, such as cooking and heating stoves. Large-scale sources are likely to be easier to control, but their aerosol emissions are characterized by a relatively high sulfur content, which tends to result in atmospheric cooling. Pollution from small-scale sources, by contrast, is characterized by a high share of carbonaceous aerosol, which is an important contributor to global warming. We find that air pollution policies can significantly reduce aerosol emissions when no climate policies are in place. Stringent climate policies lead to a large reduction of fossil fuel use, and therefore result in a concurrent reduction of air pollutant emissions. These reductions partly reduce aerosol masking, thus initially counteracting the reduction of greenhouse gas forcing, however not overcompensating it. If climate policies are in place, air pollution policies have almost no impacts on medium- and long-term radiative forcing. Therefore there is no conflict of objectives between clean air and limiting global warming. We find that the stringency of air pollution policies may influence the rate of global temperature change in the first decade

  16. Building ventilation and indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rising energy prices, among other factors, have generated an incentive to reduce ventilation rates and thereby reduce the cost of heating and cooling buildings. Reduced infiltration and ventilation in buildings may significantly increase exposure to indoor contaminations and perhaps have adverse effects on occupant health and comfort. Four indoor air contaminants - carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide from gas appliances; formaldehyde from particleboard, plywood, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, and gas appliances; and radon from building materials, soil, and ground water - are currently receiving considerable attention in the context of potential health risks associated with reduced infiltration and ventilation rates. The authors have measured and analyzed these air contaminants in conventional and energy efficient buildings with a view to assessing their potential health risks and various control strategies capable of lowering pollutant concentrations. Preliminary findings suggest that further intensive studies are needed in order to develop criteria for maintaining acceptable indoor air quality without compromising energy efficiency. (Auth.)

  17. Control of asthma triggers in indoor air with air cleaners: a modeling analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Allen Joseph G; Minegishi Taeko; Myatt Theodore A; MacIntosh David L

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Reducing exposure to environmental agents indoors shown to increase asthma symptoms or lead to asthma exacerbations is an important component of a strategy to manage asthma for individuals. Numerous investigations have demonstrated that portable air cleaning devices can reduce concentrations of asthma triggers in indoor air; however, their benefits for breathing problems have not always been reproducible. The potential exposure benefits of whole house high efficiency in-du...

  18. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality (IAQ control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs and moxibustion rooms, demonstrating elevated air pollutants that pose a threat to the health of medical staff and patients. Our study investigated the indoor air pollutants of indoor carbon dioxide (CO2, carbon monoxide (CO, formaldehyde (HCHO, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs, airborne particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10 and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5 during moxibustion in an acupuncture and moxibustion room of the OPD in a hospital in Taipei. To evaluate the different control strategies for indoor air pollution from moxibution, a comparison of air pollutants during moxibution among the methods of using alternative old moxa wools, local exhaust ventilation and an air cleaner was conducted. In this study, burning alternative old moxa wools for moxibustion obviously reduced all gaseous pollutants except for aerosols comparing burning fresh moxa wools. Using local exhaust ventilation reduced most of the aerosols after burning moxa. We also found that using an air cleaner was inefficient for controlling indoor air pollutants, particularly gaseous pollutants. Therefore, combining replacing alternative old moxa wools and local exhaust ventilation could be a suitable design for controlling indoor air pollution during moxibustion therapy.

  19. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chung-Yen; Kang, Sy-Yuan; Liu, Shu-Hui; Mai, Cheng-Wei; Tseng, Chao-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs) and moxibustion rooms, demonstrating elevated air pollutants that pose a threat to the health of medical staff and patients. Our study investigated the indoor air pollutants of indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), airborne particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10) and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) during moxibustion in an acupuncture and moxibustion room of the OPD in a hospital in Taipei. To evaluate the different control strategies for indoor air pollution from moxibution, a comparison of air pollutants during moxibution among the methods of using alternative old moxa wools, local exhaust ventilation and an air cleaner was conducted. In this study, burning alternative old moxa wools for moxibustion obviously reduced all gaseous pollutants except for aerosols comparing burning fresh moxa wools. Using local exhaust ventilation reduced most of the aerosols after burning moxa. We also found that using an air cleaner was inefficient for controlling indoor air pollutants, particularly gaseous pollutants. Therefore, combining replacing alternative old moxa wools and local exhaust ventilation could be a suitable design for controlling indoor air pollution during moxibustion therapy. PMID:27331817

  20. The Effect of Road Hump in Reducing Speed of Motorcars in a Residential Area in Kuala Lumpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Alyani Yaacob

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In its most simple terms, traffic calming is about preserving the functions of local streets. As local streets are intended to provide primarily land-access services, hence, when traffic begins to use local streets for through movements, traffic volume and speed levels become incompatible with this primary function. To respond, a study on the effectiveness of traffic calming measures in reducing vehicles speed at Taman Setapak residential area was undertaken. Field observations and spot speed survey were conducted to collect primary data. The field observation was carried out to collect data on road geometrics and design characteristics of the road humps. The spot speed survey was administered to collect vehicles speed at different points near the road humps. The major findings include first, the road humps proved effective in reducing the speed of the vehicles and second the design characteristics of the road humps is an important factor in reducing the speed of the vehicles. The average speed of the vehicles before approaching the road humps was about 30 km/hr and at the road humps below 10 km/hr. The findings showed that the design profiles of the road humps have an impact on the speed of the vehicles; the gentle the design profiles of the road humps especially in terms of its height and slope, the higher the speed of the vehicles near and at the road hump. The findings also showed a clear difference in the average speed of the motorcars approaching the road hump and at the road hump.

  1. Indoor Air Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Korlakunta Divya #1, M.Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of our project is to maintain the indoor air quality.The analysis is done on different parameters like temperature,relativehumidity,CO2,lights,sens ors and air conditioners to maintain the indoor environment.This report provides overview on importance of indoor air quality in an office or any other closed structure. It also discusses about the effects of poor indoor air quality, the various factors that affect the indoor air quality and various methods to assess indoor air qualit...

  2. Air purification techniques for radon daughters in uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modified air purifier to filter air was built to reduce radon daughter concentrations in uranium mines, and thus reduce exposure of miners. The main experimental results for the purifiers are presented for several levels: individual purification; secondary ventilation; purification; and primary ventilation purification. The study concentrates on secondary ventilation purification. For this case the electrostatic technique is preferred

  3. Reducing VOC Press Emission from OSB Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Gary D. McGinnis; Laura S. WIlliams; Amy E. Monte; Jagdish Rughani: Brett A. Niemi; Thomas M. Flicker

    2001-12-31

    Current regulations require industry to meet air emission standards with regard to particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and other gases. One of many industries that will be affected by the new regulations is the wood composites industry. This industry generates VOCs, HAPs, and particulates mainly during the drying and pressing of wood. Current air treatment technologies for the industry are expensive to install and operate. As regulations become more stringent, treatment technologies will need to become more efficient and cost effective. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of process conditions and chemical additives to reduce VOC/HAPs in air emitted from presses and dryers during the production of oriented strand board.

  4. On-Road Air Quality and the Effect of Partial Recirculation on In-Cabin Air Quality for Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Grady, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The California Air Resource Board (CARB) recently reported that due to exposure to particle emissions, 9,000 people die annually in California alone [11]. A method for quantifying the exposure during a daily commute as well as reducing the exposure for the passengers has been developed. A fractional recirculation of cabin air was proposed and studied to improve cabin air quality by reducing cabin particle concentrations. Vehicle tests were run with differing number of passengers (1, 2, 3,...

  5. Air Quality Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other...

  6. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  7. Allegheny County Air Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals...

  8. Nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters

  9. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements...

  10. Boiler burden reduced at Bedford site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Chris

    2011-10-01

    With the NHS aiming to reduce its 2007 carbon footprint by 10% by 2015, Chris Horsley, managing director of Babcock Wanson UK, a provider of industrial boilers and burners, thermal oxidisers, air treatment, water treatment, and associated services, looks at how one NHS Trust has approached the challenge, and considerably reduced its carbon emissions, by refurbishing its boiler house and moving from oil to gas-fired steam generation. PMID:22049674

  11. Indoor air: Reference bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency initially established the indoor air Reference Bibliography in 1987 as an appendix to the Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan. The document was submitted to Congress as required under Title IV--Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The Reference Bibliography is an extensive bibliography of reference materials on indoor air pollution. The Bibliography contains over 4500 citations and continues to increase as new articles appear

  12. Air leakage in residential solar heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingleton, J. G.; Cassel, D. E.; Overton, R. L.

    1981-02-01

    A series of computer simulations was performed to evaluate the effects of component air leakage on system thermal performance for a typical residential solar heating system, located in Madison, Wisconsin. Auxiliary energy required to supplement solar energy for space heating was determined using the TRNSYS computer program, for a range of air leakage rates at the solar collector and pebble bed storage unit. The effects of heat transfer and mass transfer between the solar equipment room and the heated building were investigated. The effect of reduced air infiltration into the building due to pressurized by the solar air heating system were determined. A simple method of estimating the effect of collector array air leakage on system thermal performance was evaluated, using the f CHART method.

  13. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  14. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  15. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...

  16. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution ... is known as sick building syndrome. Usually indoor air quality problems only cause discomfort. Most people feel ...

  17. Air Travel Health Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Air Travel Health Tips Air Travel Health Tips How can I improve plane travel? Most people don't have any problems when ... and dosages of all of your medicines. The air in airplanes is dry, so drink nonalcoholic, decaffeinated ...

  18. We Pollute the Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    1.Clean air is important to good health.If the aircontains impurities,they may be absorbed by ourbodies and make us ill.We need clean air,butunfortunately,air pollution is generally present,especially in cities. 2.Our cities have many factories,which we need tomake food products,clothing and many other things.

  19. Fungal Air Quality in Medical Protected Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, Ricardo; Cabral, João P.

    2010-01-01

    It is probably true to say that moulds cannot be completely eliminated from indoor environments. Normal buildings contain a diversity of materials and substrates that allow growth and sporulation of many species of fungi. Some strategies can be used to reduce indoor fungal load in wards receiving high-risk patients, namely by adding air filters and a positive air flow rate, by the presence of an anteroom, the use of protective clothes and of hair and shoe covers, the implementation of regular...

  20. Electrode Evaporation Effects on Air Arc Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xingwen; CHEN Degui; LI Rui; WU Yi; NIU Chunping

    2008-01-01

    A numerical study of the effects of copper and silver vapours on the air arc behavior is performed. The commercial software FLUENT is adapted and modified to develop a two-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) models of arc with the thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients, net emission coefficient for the radiation model of 99% ai-1% Cu, 99% air-1% Ag, and pure air, respectively. The simulation result demonstrates that vaporization of the electrode material may cool the arc center region and reduce the arc velocity. The effects of Ag vapour are stronger compared to those of Cu vapour.

  1. Research review: Indoor air quality control techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques for controlling the concentration of radon, formaldehyde, and combustion products in the indoor air are reviewed. The most effective techniques, which are generally based on limiting or reducing indoor pollutant source strengths, can decrease indoor pollutant concentrations by a factor of 3 to 10. Unless the initial ventilation rate is unusually low, it is difficult to reduce indoor pollutant concentrations more than approximately 50% by increasing the ventilation rate of an entire building. However, the efficiency of indoor pollutant control by ventilation can be enhanced through the use of local exhaust ventilation near concentrated sources of pollutants, by minimizing short circuiting of air from supply to exhaust when pollutant sources are dispersed and, in some situations, by promoting a displacement flow of air and pollutants toward the exhaust. Active air cleaning is also examined briefly. Filtration and electrostatic air cleaning for removal of particles from the indoor air are the most practical and effective currently available techniques of air cleaning. 49 refs., 7 figs

  2. Coordination of energy and air quality management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The project had two goals: first, to demonstrate industrial firms can improve plant energy efficiency as air pollution emissions are reduced; second, to demonstrate that both Seattle City Light and PSAPCA could more effectively accomplish their individual objectives through mutual cooperation, even though the two agencies have very different missions. The cooperative efforts promised benefits for all the parties involved. Seattle City Light hoped that PSAPCA`s knowledge of the likely developments in air pollution controls would help the utility better target energy conservation opportunities among its industrial customers. PSAPCA hoped that the financial assistance offer by Seattle City Light through its conservation programs would make industry less resistant to PSAPCA enforcement of new air pollution control regulations. Finally, individual industrial firms could mitigate some of the cost of meeting the new air pollution control standards. The results of the project were mixed. CEAM did demonstrate that industrial plants can improve energy efficiency as they reduce air pollution emissions, but the relationship between air pollution reduction and energy consumption is complicated; and the project was less successful in meeting its second goal. The project design did not include a measure by which results could be compared against what the two agencies would have accomplished had they not collaborated. Moreover, the project could have benefited substantially from a more complete implementation plan and the production of data quantifying the energy conservation potential resulting from the development of more stringent air pollution control regulations for each of Seattle`s major industries.

  3. Influence of local air velocity from air conditioner evaluated by salivary and skin biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Takahashi, Takayuki; Yoshino, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Makoto [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Nishimiya, Hajime [Asahi Kasei Homes Corporation, R and D Laboratories, 2-1 Samejima, Fuji, Shizuoka 416-8501 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is to reveal both the psychosomatic and the physical effects of local air velocity from an air conditioner using biomarkers which can be collected noninvasively. Salivary {alpha}-amylase activity (SAA) and salivary cortisol were used as the indexes of psychosomatic effects. The total protein (TP) collected from stratum corneum was used as an index of the physical condition of dry skin. A continuous experiment over a 5 days period in summer was conducted using 8 healthy young male adults for 2-types of airflow conditioners, a whole ceiling-type air conditioner (without local air velocity) and a normal-type air conditioner (with local air velocity). The subjects felt cool, windy, dry and uncomfortable when under the normal-type air conditioner as determined in a subjective evaluation. The SAA under the normal-type air conditioner fluctuated more widely than with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. The level of salivary cortisol decreased more in a day under the normal-type air conditioner than with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. These results showed that reducing local air velocity may provide more healthy psychosomatic conditions over the long-term. Moreover, the TP of a drying-exposed skin area showed a significant change during this experiment whereas the TP of drying-protected area was relatively unchanged. It was indicated that one week's exposure to local air velocity conditions possibly influences the drying of facial skin. Thus, air movement at low velocity can be provides more comfortable conditions not only psychosomatically but also physically. (author)

  4. Advanced air distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2011-01-01

    The aim of total volume air distribution (TVAD) involves achieving uniform temperature and velocity in the occupied zone and environment designed for an average occupant. The supply of large amounts of clean and cool air are needed to maintain temperature and pollution concentration at acceptable....... Ventilation in hospitals is essential to decrease the risk of airborne cross-infection. At present, mixing air distribution at a minimum of 12 ach is used in infection wards. Advanced air distribution has the potential to aid in achieving healthy, comfortable and productive indoor environments at levels...... higher than what can be achieved today with the commonly used total volume air distribution principles....

  5. Characterization of positive air ions in boreal forest air at the Hyytiälä SMEAR station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Hõrrak

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of the concentration of positive small (or cluster air ions and naturally charged nanometer aerosol particles (aerosol ions has been studied on the basis of measurements carried out in a boreal forest at the Hyytiälä SMEAR station, Finland, during the BIOFOR III campaign in spring 1999. Statistical characteristics of the concentrations of cluster ions, two classes of aerosol ions of the sizes of 2.5–8 nm and 8–ca. 20 nm and the quantities that determine the balance of small ions in the atmosphere have been given for the nucleation event days and non-event days. The dependence of small ion concentration on the ion loss (sink due to aerosol particles was investigated applying a model of bipolar diffusion charging of particles by small ions. The small ion concentration and the ion sink were closely correlated (correlation coefficient –87% when the fog events and the hours of high relative humidity (above 95%, as well as nocturnal calms and weak wind (wind speed <0.6 m s−1 had been excluded. However, an extra ion loss term presumably due to small ion deposition on coniferous forest with a magnitude equal to the average ion loss to pre-existing particles is needed to explain the observations. Also the hygroscopic growth correction of measured aerosol particle size distributions was found to be necessary for proper estimation of the ion sink. In the case of nucleation burst events, variations in the concentration of small positive ions were in accordance with the changes caused by the ion sink due to aerosols; no clear indication of positive ion depletion by ion-induced nucleation was found. The estimated average ionization rate of the air at the Hyytiälä station in early spring, when the ground was partly covered with snow, was about 6 ion pairs cm−3 s−1. The study of the charging state of nanometer aerosol particles (2.5–8 nm revealed a strong correlation (correlation coefficient 88

  6. Characterization of positive air ions in boreal forest air at the Hyytiälä SMEAR station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hõrrak, U.; Aalto, P. P.; Salm, J.; Komsaare, K.; Tammet, H.; Mäkelä, J. M.; Laakso, L.; Kulmala, M.

    2007-07-01

    The behavior of the concentration of positive small (or cluster) air ions and naturally charged nanometer aerosol particles (aerosol ions) has been studied on the basis of measurements carried out in a boreal forest at the Hyytiälä SMEAR station, Finland, during the BIOFOR III campaign in spring 1999. Statistical characteristics of the concentrations of cluster ions, two classes of aerosol ions of the sizes of 2.5-8 nm and 8-ca. 20 nm and the quantities that determine the balance of small ions in the atmosphere have been given for the nucleation event days and non-event days. The dependence of small ion concentration on the ion loss (sink) due to aerosol particles was investigated applying a model of bipolar diffusion charging of particles by small ions. The small ion concentration and the ion sink were closely correlated (correlation coefficient -87%) when the fog events and the hours of high relative humidity (above 95%), as well as nocturnal calms and weak wind (wind speed <0.6 m s-1) had been excluded. However, an extra ion loss term presumably due to small ion deposition on coniferous forest with a magnitude equal to the average ion loss to pre-existing particles is needed to explain the observations. Also the hygroscopic growth correction of measured aerosol particle size distributions was found to be necessary for proper estimation of the ion sink. In the case of nucleation burst events, variations in the concentration of small positive ions were in accordance with the changes caused by the ion sink due to aerosols; no clear indication of positive ion depletion by ion-induced nucleation was found. The estimated average ionization rate of the air at the Hyytiälä station in early spring, when the ground was partly covered with snow, was about 6 ion pairs cm-3 s-1. The study of the charging state of nanometer aerosol particles (2.5-8 nm) revealed a strong correlation (correlation coefficient 88%) between the concentrations of particles and positively

  7. Released air during vapor and air cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonská, Jana; Kozubková, Milada

    2016-06-01

    Cavitation today is a very important problem that is solved by means of experimental and mathematical methods. The article deals with the generation of cavitation in convergent divergent nozzle of rectangular cross section. Measurement of pressure, flow rate, temperature, amount of dissolved air in the liquid and visualization of cavitation area using high-speed camera was performed for different flow rates. The measurement results were generalized by dimensionless analysis, which allows easy detection of cavitation in the nozzle. For numerical simulation the multiphase mathematical model of cavitation consisting of water and vapor was created. During verification the disagreement with the measurements for higher flow rates was proved, therefore the model was extended to multiphase mathematical model (water, vapor and air), due to release of dissolved air. For the mathematical modeling the multiphase turbulence RNG k-ɛ model for low Reynolds number flow with vapor and air cavitation was used. Subsequently the sizes of the cavitation area were verified. In article the inlet pressure and loss coefficient depending on the amount of air added to the mathematical model are evaluated. On the basis of the approach it may be create a methodology to estimate the amount of released air added at the inlet to the modeled area.

  8. Ensuring clean air: Developing a clean air strategy for British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1992, a clean air strategy will be developed to incorporate views of British Columbians on ways to meet goals related to air quality. A discussion paper is presented to provide information to those interested in participation in developing this strategy. The paper gives information on air quality issues important to the province, including local air quality, urban smog, ozone layer depletion, and global climate change. The views and concerns expressed by stakeholders who attended the Clean Air Conference in 1991 are summarized. The process used to develop the clean air strategy is outlined and some outcomes to be anticipated from the strategy are suggested, including policies and priorities for action to ensure clean air. Air pollutants of concern are total reduced sulfur, mainly from pulp mills and gas processing plants; smoke from wood burning; sulfur dioxide from pulp mills and gas plants; hydrogen fluoride from aluminum smelting; ground-level ozone in urban areas; and acid rain. Elements of a clean air strategy include a smoke management policy, management strategies for greenhouse gases and ozone smog, ozone layer protection measures, regional air quality management plans, and long-term planning efforts in energy use, transportation modes, community design, and land use. 12 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Manual for THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jørgen;

    The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS.......The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS....

  10. State of the air in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific evidence is rising regarding the danger of air pollution. Poor air quality can pose a problem in British Columbia, particularly in interior communities when temperature inversions, during certain times of the year, trap pollutants in mountain valleys. This document described where pollutants come from, ambient levels in the atmosphere and how they affect human health. Particular focus was on fine particulate matter, ozone and oxides of nitrogen, as these 3 pollutants have been linked to health impacts. The cost of air pollution through increased health care costs and the economic impact of lost productivity from missed work days was also discussed along with the influence of poor air quality on crop damage and forestry production losses. The document also outlined government and community initiatives to protect public health and listed some measures that individuals can do to keep air clean. Air pollution stems from activities such as land development, burning fossil fuels for energy and transportation, industrial operations, residential wood burning and backyard burning of debris and burning from forestry and agricultural operations. The health impacts range from irritation, to coughing and worsening of existing heart and lung conditions. The document states that despite all measures being taken to reduce emissions and to maintain levels of air pollutants at current low levels, health effects are still observed and still pose a burden to health care cost. Scientific evidence indicates that a further reduction in air pollution will result in health benefits. refs., figs

  11. Senate passes clean air bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an 89 to 11 vote the Senate passed a clean air bill aimed at reducing pollution by the turn of the century by imposing tougher controls on American industry. The bill is the first revision of the Clean Air Act of 1970 in 13 years and calls for new limits on auto pollution to clean up smog in most U.S. cities, decreasing by half emissions by power plants that cause acid rain to protect the ecology, and increasing technological controls on factories to protect against cancer-causing and toxic substances. The bill will add about $20 billion per year to the estimated $33 billion cost of complying with current pollution laws.

  12. Frontiers in air quality modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Colette

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The first pan-European kilometre-scale atmospheric chemistry simulation is introduced. The continental-scale air pollution episode of January 2009 is modelled with the CHIMERE offline chemistry-transport model with a massive grid of 2 million horizontal points, performed on 2000 CPU of a high performance computing system hosted by the Research and Technology Computing Center at the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CCRT/CEA. Besides the technical challenge, we find that model biases are significantly reduced, especially over urban areas. The high resolution grid also allows revisiting the contribution of individual city plumes to the European burden of pollution, providing new insights for designing air pollution control strategies.

  13. Reduced Rank Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    The reduced rank regression model is a multivariate regression model with a coefficient matrix with reduced rank. The reduced rank regression algorithm is an estimation procedure, which estimates the reduced rank regression model. It is related to canonical correlations and involves calculating...... eigenvalues and eigenvectors. We give a number of different applications to regression and time series analysis, and show how the reduced rank regression estimator can be derived as a Gaussian maximum likelihood estimator. We briefly mention asymptotic results...

  14. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in full- and reduced-fat pepperoni after manufacture of sticks, storage of slices at 4 degrees C or 21 degrees C under air and vacuum, and baking of slices on frozen pizza at 135, 191 and 246 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, N G; Wierzba, R K; Ihnot, A M; Roering, A M; Lorang, T D; Kaspar, C W; Luchansky, J B

    1998-04-01

    Pepperoni batter was prepared with fat contents of about 15, 20, and 32% (wt/wt) and inoculated with a pediococcal starter culture and > or = 2.0 x 10(7) CFU/g of a five-strain inoculum of Escherichia coli O157:H7. The batter was fermented at 96 degrees F (ca. 36 degrees C and 85% relative humidity (RH) to pH cheese pizzas that were subsequently baked at 275 degrees F (ca. 135 degrees C), 375 degrees F (ca. 191 degrees C), or 475 degrees F (ca. 246 degrees C) for 0 to 20 min. Appreciable differences related to fat levels were observed after drying; pathogen numbers decreased by 1.04, 1.31 and 1.62 log10 units in sticks prepared from batter at initial fat levels of 15, 20, and 32%, respectively. During storage, the temperature rather than the atmosphere had the greater effect on pathogen numbers, with similar viability observed among the three fat levels tested. At 70 degrees F (ca. 21 degrees C), compared to original levels, pathogen numbers decreased by > or = 5.56 and > or = 4.53 log10 units within 14 days in slices stored under air and vacuum, respectively, whereas at 39 degrees F (ca. 4 degrees C) numbers decreased by pizza at 475 degrees F (ca. 246 degrees C) for 10 min or at 375 degrees F (ca. 191 degrees C) for 15 min. The calculated D values for all three temperatures tested increased as the fat content of the batter increased from 15 to 20 to 32%. The present study confirmed that fermentation and drying were sufficient to reduce levels of E. coli O157:H7 in pepperoni sticks by 5.5-log10-unit total reduction of the pathogen. Baking slices on frozen pizza for at least 15 min at 475 degrees F (ca. 246 degrees C) or 20 min at 375 degrees F (ca. 191 degrees C) was necessary to reduce pathogen numbers to below detection by both direct plating and enrichment. PMID:9709198

  15. Advanced Methods for Air Distribution in Occupied Spaces for Reduced Risk from Air-Borne Diseases and Improved Air Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov

    2010-01-01

    Denne Ph.d. afhandling beskæftiger sig med nye avancerede metoder til luftfordeling i lokaler. Formålet er at forbedre den inhalerede luftkvalitet og mindske risikoen fra luftbåren krydsinfektion blandt dem der opholder sig i lokalet.De eksisterende ventilationsstrategier nu til dags er ikke i stand til at yde tilstrækkelig ren luft til brugerne og kan endda øge risikoen for krydsinfektion af luftbårne sygdomme indendørs. Det er tydeligt at nye avancerede metoder er nødvendige for at forbedre...

  16. AIR POLLUTION OF URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAKAROVA V. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Any manufacturing processes related to the generation of waste. Year after year, a growing mass of waste is one of the main factors reducing the quality of the environment and destruction of natural landscapes. Industrial development inevitably enhances human impacts on the environment and disrupts the ecological balance [3]. Atmospher air is a vital element of the environment. The development of industry, the growth of cities, increasing the number of transport, active exploration of near-Earth space lead to a change in the gas composition of the atmosphere and disruption of its natural balance. Air quality affects the health of the population [5]. Without water or food a person can do for a while, but without air he can not live a few minutes, therefore saving air breathable is an urgent problem. Purpose. The results of geological studies clearly indicate that the contamination of the surface layer of the atmosphere is the most powerful permanent factor of influence on the human food chain and the environment. This problem was reflected in the scientific literature [2; 3; 6], and the second significant indicator of ecological well-being of the region is the number of generation and accumulation of waste. According to this indicator, Dnipropetrovsk region is in the lead, as relates to the industrialized regions. The idea of the article is to consider the air pollution of the urban environment in terms of the accumulation of waste in the territory of enterprises, in particular slag dumps metallurgical production. Conclusion. Slag dumps located on the premises are a significant source of air pollution urbanized areas due to the permanent nature of the spread of contamination. Slag dump of PAT "Nikopol Ferroalloy Plant" is a source of manganese, zinc, nickel emissions. As a conclusion about the magnitude of pollution of the atmospheric boundary layer can say the following: on the border of the sanitary protection zone (SPZ, in

  17. Assessing and Reducing Miscellaneous Electric Loads (MELs) in Lodging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Emily M.

    2011-09-01

    Miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) are the loads outside of a building's core functions of heating, ventilating, air conditioning, lighting, and water heating. This report reviews methods to reduce MELs in lodging.

  18. A study of energy exchange in earth air tubes

    OpenAIRE

    Bexell, Jonas; Bjureus, Erik

    2010-01-01

    As energy issues today are of great interest the writers of this report have done a research about an alternative to save energy by reducing the cost of preheating the outdoor air. By taking the outdoor air to the ventilation system via a pipe buried in the ground, you can preheat the outdoor air, which, in turn, could save energy. By doing this you do not have to bring as much energy to preheat the supply air, to get the desired supply air temperature. The report also explains if the earth a...

  19. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... air pollution How to protect yourself from air pollution Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth.gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home The environment and your health Air Health effects of air pollution ... Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that ...

  20. Air filtration in HVAC systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ginestet, Alain; Tronville, Paolo; Hyttinen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Air filtration Guidebook will help the designer and user to understand the background and criteria for air filtration, how to select air filters and avoid problems associated with hygienic and other conditions at operation of air filters. The selection of air filters is based on external conditions such as levels of existing pollutants, indoor air quality and energy efficiency requirements.

  1. Investigation of air pollution concentration in Kathmandu valley during winter season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONDO Akira; KAGA Akikazu; IMAMURA Kiyoshi; INOUE Yoshio; SUGISAWA Masahiko; SHRESTHA Manohar Lal; SAPKOTA Balkrishan

    2005-01-01

    The monthly concentrations of NO2, NOx, SO2 and O3 measured by a passive sampler from February 2003 to January 2004showed that the air pollution during the winter season in Kathmandu valley was higher than the summer season. The O3 level was found the highest during April, May and June due to strong radiation. The hourly concentrations of NO2, NOx, O3 and suspended particulate matter(SPM) were also measured by automatic instruments on December 2003. Temperature at the height of 60 m and 400 m at Raniban Mountain in the northwest of Kathmandu valley was measured on February 2001 in the winter season and the average potential temperature gradient was estimated from observed temperature. Wind speed was also measured at the department of hydrology, airport section, from 18 February to 6 March 2001. It was found that the stable layer and the calm condition in the atmosphere strongly affected the appearance of the maximum concentrations of NO2 and SPM in the morning, and that the unstable layer and the windy condition in the atmosphere was considerably relevant to the decrease of air pollution concentrations at daytime. The emission amounts of NOx, HCs and total suspended particle(TSP) from transport sector in 2003 were estimated from the increasing rate of vehicles on the basis of the emission amounts in 1993 to be 3751 t/a, 30570 t/a and 1317 t/a, respectively. The diurnal concentrations in 2003 calculated by the two-layers box model reproduced the characteristics of air pollution in Kathmandu valley such as the maximum value of O3 and its time, the maximum value of NO in the morning, and the decrease of NO and NO2 at daytime. The comparison with the concentrations in 1993 calculated suggested that the main cause of air pollution was the emission from transport sector.

  2. Air Quality in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietilae, P. [Tampere University of Technology / ECAT-Lithuania (Lithuania); Kliucininkas, L. [Department for Environmental Engineering, Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania)

    2000-07-01

    Sustainable monitoring of the ambient air is the major preventive measure of ensuring its proper quality. Only with a monitoring procedure going-on a continuous basis it is possible to make an objective evaluation of air pollution trends, of the efficiency of air protection measures and, partially, to a certain extent of the impact the pollution exerts on a human health. The information stemming from the monitoring procedure must be reliable, sustainable and efficient. (orig.)

  3. Indonesia's Clean Air Program

    OpenAIRE

    Budy P. Resosudarmo

    2002-01-01

    Unprecedented industrial development in Indonesia during the last two decades, accompanied by a growing population, has increased the amount of environmental damage. One of the most important environmental problems is that the level of air pollution in several large cities has become alarming, particularly in the last few years. This high pollution level has stimulated the government to develop a national clean air program designed to control the quantity of pollutants in the air. However, th...

  4. Bad traffic, bad air

    OpenAIRE

    Duca, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is one of Malta’s greatest concerns. Transportation is the principal source with over 300,000 vehicles belching out smoke, which damages our environment and health. Emissions from vehicles need to be monitored and controlled, and the information used to improve the current system and ensure an acceptable air quality. By using the pollution data set, Nicolette Formosa (supervised by Dr Kenneth Scerri) mapped the air pollution levels and major sources around Malta. http://www....

  5. Emergency air supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An air supply safety device is described which can operate in an hostile environment. The system ensures that should the ring mains supply or the operator's individual hose fail an emergency air supply is obtained from a compressed air bottle fed to the operator's face mask via a valve. The valve switches from mains/mask to emergency supply/mask when the mains pressure falls below the emergency supply pressure. (U.K.)

  6. Radioactive material air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation

  7. Applications Using AIRS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Olsen, E. T.; Teixeira, J.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under many of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. For vector-borne disease, research is underway using AIRS near surface retrievals to assess outbreak risk, mosquito incubation periods and epidemic potential for dengue fever, malaria, and West Nile virus. For drought applications, AIRS temperature and humidity data are being used in the development of new drought indicators and improvement in the understanding of drought development. For volcanic hazards, new algorithms using AIRS data are in development to improve the reporting of sulfur dioxide concentration, the burden and height of volcanic ash and dust, all of which pose a safety threat to aircraft. In addition, anomaly maps of many of AIRS standard products are being produced to help highlight "hot spots" and illustrate trends. To distribute it's applications imagery, AIRS is leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving, distribution and participation in the BEDI. This poster will communicate the status of the applications effort for the AIRS Project and provide examples of new maps designed to best communicate the AIRS data.

  8. Air pollution meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is intended as a training cum reference document for scientists posted at the Environmental Laboratories at the Nuclear Power Station Sites and other sites of the Department of Atomic Energy with installations emitting air pollutants, radioactive or otherwise. Since a manual already exists for the computation of doses from radioactive air pollutants, a general approach is take here i.e. air pollutants in general are considered. The first chapter presents a brief introduction to the need and scope of air pollution dispersion modelling. The second chapter is a very important chapter discussing the aspects of meteorology relevant to air pollution and dispersion modelling. This chapter is important because without this information one really does not understand the phenomena affecting dispersion, the scope and applicability of various models or their limitations under various weather and site conditions. The third chapter discusses the air pollution models in detail. These models are applicable to distances of a few tens of kilometres. The fourth chapter discusses the various aspects of meteorological measurements relevant to air pollution. The chapters are followed by two appendices. Apendix A discusses the reliability of air pollution estimates. Apendix B gives some practical examples relevant to general air pollution. It is hoped that the document will prove very useful to the users. (author)

  9. On the impact of entrapped air in infiltration under ponding conditions. Part a: Preferential air flow path effects on infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Guy; Weisbrod, Noam; Furman, Alex

    2015-04-01

    Entrapped air effects on infiltration under ponding conditions could be important for massive infiltration of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) or soil aquifer treatment (SAT) of treated wastewater. Earlier studies found that under ponding conditions, air is being entrapped and compressed until it reaches a pressure which will enable the air to escape (unstable air flow). They also found that entrapped air could reduce infiltration by 70-90%. Most studies have dealt with entrapped air effects when soil surface topography is flat. The objective of this study is to investigate, under ponding conditions, the effects of: (1) irregular surface topography on preferential air flow path development (stable air flow); (2) preferential air flow path on infiltration; and (3) hydraulic head on infiltration when air is trapped. Column experiments were used to investigate these particular effects. A 140 cm deep and 30 cm wide column packed with silica sand was used under two boundary conditions: in the first, air can only escape vertically upward through the soil surface; in the second, air is free to escape through 20 ports installed along the column perimeter. The surface was flooded with 13 liters of water, with ponding depth decreasing with time. Two soil surface conditions were tested: flat surface and irregular surface (high and low surface zones). Additionally, Helle-show experiments were conducted in order to obtain a visual observation of preferential air flow path development. The measurements were carried out using a tension meter, air pressure transducers, TDR and video cameras. It was found that in irregular surfaces, stable air flow through preferential paths was developed in the high altitude zones. Flat surface topography caused unstable air flow through random paths. Comparison between irregular and flat surface topography showed that the entrapped air pressure was lower and the infiltration rate was about 40% higher in the irregular surface topography than in the

  10. Thermal oxidation for air toxics control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Administration projects annual expenditures of $1.1 billion by 1995, increasing to $6.7 billion by 2005, in order to comply with the new Clean Air Act Title III hazardous air pollutant requirements. The Title III requirements include 189 hazardous air pollutants which must be reduced or eliminated by 2003. Twenty of the 189 listed pollutants account for approximately 75 percent of all hazardous air pollutant emissions. Ninety percent of these 20 pollutants can be effectively controlled through one or mote of the thermal oxidation technologies. This paper reports that the advantages and disadvantages of each thermal oxidation technology vary substantially and must be reviewed for each application in order to establish the most effective thermal oxidation solution. Effective thermal oxidation will meet MACT (maximum achievable control technology) emission standards

  11. Indoor air quality: radon and formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WHO Regional Office for Europe has taken a leading role at the international level in reviewing and stimulating research and action on the potential health hazards of indoor air pollutants. A subject is given on page vi. It is now much more generally recognized than even five years ago that the use of particular materials for construction of buildings or for furniture and fittings is accompanied by certain risks, especially in view of the ''tightening'' of buildings to reduce energy costs, and increased reliance on central heating and air conditioning. For the last three years, the Regional Office, with the support of the Government of the Netherlands, has been developing a set of air quality guidelines for Europe. In addition to major air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and particulates, these guidelines cover some 25 other inorganic and organic substances, including radon and formaldehyde. In 1985, a working group reviewed the latter two substances in relation to the ongoing indoor air quality programme of the Regional Office and also as part of the air quality guidelines. In view of the importance of these substances, it was decided to issue a separate report in the Environmental Health Series. The complete air quality guidelines will be published in mid-1987. (author)

  12. Restoran Buenos Aires = Restaurant Buenos Aires

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Restorani Buenos Aires (Narva mnt. 5, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid: Janno Roos ja Andres Labi (Ruumilabor OÜ). Laudu eraldavad 400 vardasse aetud puukuuli. Sisearhitektidest, nende tähtsamad tööd. I-III korruse plaan, 12 värv. vaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest

  13. Air pollution in China: Scientific and Public Policy Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Sever air pollution in China has in recent years caused intensive public, media and governmental attention. Many questions need to be answered about the air pollution in China, such as how harmful is the air pollution, especially PM2.5? Why suddenly so many reports about sever air pollution, is the air in China getting more polluted? How to design a policy that can control the air pollution most efficiently? After updated the national Ambient Air Quality Standards in 2012 and included PM2.5 as one of the critical air pollutants, in 2013, Chinese central government released for the first time the "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan". The plan has set goals to reduce annual mean concentration of PM2.5 up to 25% in 2017 in different regions in China. If the ambitious goals were achieved, this could be the most significant air pollution reduction in such a short time that affects so many people in human history. To achieve these goals, however, there are enormous scientific and public policy challenges to deal with. For example: Identify the key components, size fraction of PM that have the largest health effects; and identify the sources of PM that has the most harmful effects on human health and ecosystem. Reduce the uncertainty in health risk assessment. Understand complicate chemical transformation processes in air pollution formation with intensive emissions from industry, power plant, vehicles, agriculture. Interactions between air pollution, PBL, and atmospheric circulation at different scales. The accountability, feasibility, effectiveness, and efficiency of air pollution control policies. Integrate multi-pollutant control and achieve co-benefit with climate and energy policy. Regional coordinated air pollution control. The largest challenge in China for air pollution control remains how to strength the link between science and policy.

  14. Ventilation-air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heretofore, in ventilation-air conditioning systems in a nuclear power plant, exhaust gases from each of the ventilation-air conditioning systems of a reactor building, a turbine building, a waste processing building are joined and they are released into atmosphere from the top of a high main exhaustion stack. In order to build such a high main exhaustion stack, a considerable construction cost is required and, in addition, there is a worry of lacking balance with surrounding scenery. Then, in the present invention, exhaust gases are heated by waste heat in a turbine during their introduction from the ventilation-air conditioning facility in the building of a power plant to the main exhaust stack. With such a constitution, since the exhaust gases are heated and their temperature is elevated, they uprise by natural convection when they are released from the top of the main exhaustion stack to the atmosphere. Accordingly, they are released to a level higher than the conventional case in view of the volume of the blower which sends the exhaust gases under pressure, to diffuse them to the atmosphere more sufficiently compared with a conventional case. Further, the height of the main exhaustion stack can be reduced, enabling to minimize the cost for moving the blower. (T.M.)

  15. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  16. Energy consumption in air-conditioning; Improvement and Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacoub Yousef Ahmad Alotaibi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anew technique to reduce latent heat to improve energy consumption in air-conditioning is by using Desiccant . The aim of dehumidification process is to remove the water vapor from the processed air to liquid desiccants. Dehumidification is considered as a key feature of HVAC systems for thermal comfort. Chemical dehumidification is remove the water vapour from the air by transferring it towards a desiccant material (adsorption or absorption. Results illustrate that the application of liquid desiccant in air conditioning can improve indoor air quality, reduce energy consumption and bring environmentally friendly products, also. Lewis number increased rapidly with the increase of solution concentration Therefore liquid desiccant air conditioning systems are drawing more and more attention in recent years.

  17. Air pollution and society

    OpenAIRE

    Brimblecombe P.

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  18. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  19. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  20. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  1. International Air Services

    OpenAIRE

    Productivity Commission

    2001-01-01

    On 12 December 1997 the Treasurer referred international air services arrangements to the Industry Commission for inquiry and report within nine months. The Commission was asked to report on the arrangements for negotiating entitlements under air services agreements and the process of allocating capacity entitlements to Australian carriers.

  2. Energy and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is one of a series of handbooks designed to provide nontechnical readers with a general understanding of the interaction between energy development and environmental media and to provide a rudimentary data base from which estimates of potential future impacts can be made. This handbook describes the air quality impacts of energy development and summarizes the major federal legislation which regulates the potential air quality impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which can be used as the basis for measurement, and in some cases, prediction of the potential conflicts between energy development and achieving and maintaining clean air. Energy utilization is the largest emission source of man-made air pollutants. Choices in energy resource development and utilization generate varying emissions or discharges into the atmosphere, the emissions are affected by the assimilative character of the atmosphere, and the resultant air pollutant concentrations have biological and aesthetic effects. This handbook describes the interrelationships of energy-related air emissions under various methods of pollution control, the assimilative character of the air medium, and the effects of air pollution. The media book is divided into three major sections: topics of concern relating to the media and energy development, descriptions of how to use available data to quantify and examine energy/environmental impacts, and the data

  3. Air Pollution Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  4. Over the air test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    [1] This invention relates to over-the-air testing of a device in an anechoic chamber. In particular, the invention is suitable for simulating both uplink and downlink over-the-air communication with a device under test even when the anechoic chamber has different numbers of uplink and downlink...

  5. Indoor air quality investigation at air-conditioned and non-air-conditioned markets in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To characterize indoor air quality at the markets in Hong Kong, three non-air-conditioned and two air-conditioned markets were selected for this study. The indoor air pollutants measured included PM10 (particulate matters with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm), total bacteria count (TBC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The indoor and outdoor concentrations of these target air pollutants at these markets were measured and compared. The effects of air conditioning, temperature/relative humidity variation and different stalls on the indoor air quality were also investigated. The results indicated that all of the average indoor concentrations of PM10, TBC, CO and NO2 at the markets were below the Hong Kong Indoor Air Quality Objectives (HKIAQO) standards with a few exceptions for PM10 and TBC. The elevated PM10 concentrations at Hung Hom, Ngau Tau Kok and Wan Chai markets were probably due to the air filtration of outdoor airborne particulates emitted from vehicular exhaust, whereas high concentrations of airborne bacteria at Sai Ying Pun and Tin Shing markets were linked to the use of air conditioning. Correlation analysis demonstrated that indoor bacteria concentrations were correlated with temperature and relative humidity. The operation of air conditioning did not significantly reduce the levels of air pollutants at the markets. However, the higher indoor/outdoor ratios demonstrated that the operation of air conditioning had influence on the levels of bacteria at the markets. It was found that average PM10 concentration at poultry stalls was higher than the HKIAQO standard of 180 μg/m3, and was over two times that measured at vegetable, fish and meat stalls. Furthermore, the concentration of airborne bacteria at the poultry stalls was as high as 1031 CFU/m3, which was above the HKIAQO standard of 1000 CFU/m3. The bacteria levels at other three stalls were all below the HKIAQO standard. Statistical

  6. Air pollution and air cleaning equipment in buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Evdokimova, Ekaterina

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this thesis work is air pollution and air cleaners in building. Clean air has big significance for human health because different pollutions can cause allergy and disease. The quality of indoor air affects health and effective working. The aim of this thesis is to present methods and devices for cleaning the air.

  7. Control of asthma triggers in indoor air with air cleaners: a modeling analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Joseph G

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing exposure to environmental agents indoors shown to increase asthma symptoms or lead to asthma exacerbations is an important component of a strategy to manage asthma for individuals. Numerous investigations have demonstrated that portable air cleaning devices can reduce concentrations of asthma triggers in indoor air; however, their benefits for breathing problems have not always been reproducible. The potential exposure benefits of whole house high efficiency in-duct air cleaners for sensitive subpopulations have yet to be evaluated. Methods We used an indoor air quality modeling system (CONTAM developed by NIST to examine peak and time-integrated concentrations of common asthma triggers present in indoor air over a year as a function of natural ventilation, portable air cleaners, and forced air ventilation equipped with conventional and high efficiency filtration systems. Emission rates for asthma triggers were based on experimental studies published in the scientific literature. Results Forced air systems with high efficiency filtration were found to provide the best control of asthma triggers: 30–55% lower cat allergen levels, 90–99% lower risk of respiratory infection through the inhalation route of exposure, 90–98% lower environmental tobacco smoke (ETS levels, and 50–75% lower fungal spore levels than the other ventilation/filtration systems considered. These results indicate that the use of high efficiency in-duct air cleaners provide an effective means of controlling allergen levels not only in a single room, like a portable air cleaner, but the whole house. Conclusion These findings are useful for evaluating potential benefits of high efficiency in-duct filtration systems for controlling exposure to asthma triggers indoors and for the design of trials of environmental interventions intended to evaluate their utility in practice.

  8. Managing Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolums, Jennifer

    This publication examines the causes and effects of poor indoor air quality and provides information for reducing exposure to indoor contaminants in schools. It discusses the various indoor pollutants found in schools, including dust, chemical agents, gases, and volatile organic compounds; where they are found in schools; and their health effects…

  9. Clean the Air and Breathe Easier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevin, John

    1997-01-01

    Failure to prevent indoor air quality problems or act promptly can result in increased chances for long- or short-term health problems for staff and students, reduced productivity, faster plant deterioration, and strained school-community relations. Basic pollution control measures include source management, local exhausts, ventilation, exposure…

  10. AIRE-Linux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Xu, Benda; Peng, Chuan; Yang, Yang; Huo, Zhuoxi

    2015-08-01

    AIRE-Linux is a dedicated Linux system for astronomers. Modern astronomy faces two big challenges: massive observed raw data which covers the whole electromagnetic spectrum, and overmuch professional data processing skill which exceeds personal or even a small team's abilities. AIRE-Linux, which is a specially designed Linux and will be distributed to users by Virtual Machine (VM) images in Open Virtualization Format (OVF), is to help astronomers confront the challenges. Most astronomical software packages, such as IRAF, MIDAS, CASA, Heasoft etc., will be integrated into AIRE-Linux. It is easy for astronomers to configure and customize the system and use what they just need. When incorporated into cloud computing platforms, AIRE-Linux will be able to handle data intensive and computing consuming tasks for astronomers. Currently, a Beta version of AIRE-Linux is ready for download and testing.

  11. Prediction of flame formation in highly preheated air combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundamental information about the ignition position and shape of a flame in highly preheated air combustion was obtained, and the suitability of the suggested reduced kinetic mechanism that reflects the characteristics of the highly preheated air combustion was demonstrated. Flame lift height and flame length with variations of premixed air temperature and oxygen concentration were measured by CH chemiluminescence intensity, and were computed with a reduced kinetic mechanism. Flame attached near a fuel nozzle started to lift when preheated air temperature became close to auto-ignition temperature and/or oxygen concentration reduced. The flame lift height increased but the flame length decreased with decreasing preheated air temperature and flame length reversed after a minimum value. Calculated results showed good agreement with those of experiment within tolerable error. Flame shape shifted from diffusion flame shape to partial premixed flame shape with increasing lift height and this tendency was also observed in the computation results

  12. The effect of a photocatalytic air purifier on indoor air quality quantified using different measuring methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Barbara; Wargocki, Pawel; Skorek-Osikowska, A.;

    2010-01-01

    Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography with UV detection). The experiment was conducted in a simulated office, ventilated with 0.6 h(-1), 2.5 h(-1) and 6 h(-1), in the presence of additional pollution sources (carpet, chipboard and linoleum). At the lowest air change rate...... air quality, as documented by sensory assessments made by human subjects. It also reduces concentrations of many chemical compounds present in the air as documented by the PTR-MS technique. For the lowest ventilation, results from measurements using the chromatographic methods have similar tendency...

  13. Saving energy and improving IAQ through application of advanced air cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, W.J; Destaillats, H.; Sidheswaran, M.A.

    2011-03-01

    In the future, we may be able use air cleaning systems and reduce rates of ventilation (i.e., reduce rates of outdoor air supply) to save energy, with indoor air quality (IAQ) remaining constant or even improved. The opportunity is greatest for commercial buildings because they usually have a narrower range of indoor pollutant sources than homes. This article describes the types of air cleaning systems that will be needed in commercial buildings.

  14. Saving energy and improving IAQ through application of advanced air cleaning technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Fisk, W J

    2012-01-01

    In the future, we may be able use air cleaning systems and reduce rates of ventilation (i.e., reduce rates of outdoor air supply) to save energy, with indoor air quality (IAQ) remaining constant or even improved. The opportunity is greatest for commercial buildings because they usually have a narrower range of indoor pollutant sources than homes. This article describes the types of air cleaning systems that will be needed in commercial buildings.

  15. Energy Efficient Indoor VOC Air Cleaning with Activated Carbon Fiber (ACF) Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Sidheswaran, Meera

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the potential environmental and energy benefits of using activated carbon fiber (ACF) filters for air cleaning in HVAC systems. The parallel aims for the air cleaning system were to enable reduced indoor exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and to simultaneously allow reduced rates and energy consumption for outdoor-air ventilation. We evaluated the use of ACF media to adsorb VOCs from indoor air during repeated simulated 12-hour to 24-hour periods of occupancy. ...

  16. Transportation and Air Quality in California: A Policy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Deakin, Elizabeth

    1991-01-01

    Significant accomplishments in air pollution emissions control have occurred over the past twenty years. Emissions have been substantially reduced by both industrial and transportation sources; over the ten year period 1977-86, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports improvements in each of the six air pollutants for which health-based national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) exist -- lead, sulfur dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particulates. Yet ma...

  17. DESIGN a solar hybrid air conditioning compressor system

    OpenAIRE

    Khalaji Assadi M.; Gilani S. I.; Jun Yen T. C.

    2016-01-01

    To develop and integrate solar hybrid system into conventional air conditioning system which provides the same cooling load with considerably less electricity demand. Solar evacuated tube and DC compressor are used for compressing the refrigerant in an air conditioning system, thus effectively reducing the air conditioning electricity consumption by up to 45%. For the flow through type selected geometry of the designed evacuated U-tube collector, a three dimensional simulation and analysis of...

  18. Chemistry and the linkages between air quality and climate change

    OpenAIRE

    von Schneidemesser, Erika; Monks, Paul S.; Allan, James D.; Bruhwiler, Lori; Forster, Piers; Fowler, David; Lauer, Axel; Morgan, William T.; Paasonen, Pauli; Righi, Mattia; Sindelarova, Katerina; Sutton, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change and air pollution are critical environmental issues both in the here and now and for the coming decades. Many mitigation options offer the possibility to both improve air quality and mitigate climate change, such as improvements in energy efficiency, or a switch to wind or solar power, all of which reduce emissions across the board. The atmospheric chemistry of ozone is an important context to understand the linkages between air quality and climate change, because many indirect...

  19. Protection of plants against air pollutants: Role of chemical protectants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protection of plants against air pollution damage can best be achieved either by developing pollution-tolerant cultivars or by using chemical protectants. Use of chemical protectants such as pesticides, growth regulators, anti-oxidants, fertilizers, etc. is a short-term solution to reduce the risk of air pollution damage. In addition, these protectants help in understanding the mechanism of air pollution toxicity and provide a scientific basis for assessing crop losses in field conditions. 95 refs

  20. Hydrodynamic modeling of semi-planing hulls with air cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matveev Konstantin I.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High-speed heavy loaded monohull ships can benefit from application of drag-reducing air cavities under stepped hull bottoms. The subject of this paper is the steady hydrodynamic modeling of semi-planing air-cavity hulls. The current method is based on a linearized potential-flow theory for surface flows. The mathematical model description and parametric calculation results for a selected configuration with pressurized and open air cavities are presented.

  1. Willingness to Pay of Air Passengers for Carbon-Offset

    OpenAIRE

    Rong-Chang Jou; Tzu-Ying Chen

    2015-01-01

    An important source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is the air transport sector, which accounts for approximately 2% of global GHG emissions. Therefore, reducing GHG emissions from aircrafts has become a major challenge for transportation authorities worldwide. In recent years, much research has focused on tax ideas related to the CO2 emissions produced by air transport, such as the voluntary carbon offset (VCO). This study investigates the willingness of economy class air pas...

  2. Effects of diameter and air inlet on flooding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of diameter and air inlet on flooding and flow reverse have been studied by experiment. Experimental results indicated that when resistance reduced at the air inlet, air flow rate at the onset of flooding will rise in some conditions. On right angle, the inlet conditions do not effect flooding points. When air inlet is well-rounded, the tube diameters have effects on the points. Air inlet has effects on complete carry up, but tube diameter no effects on that, the smaller of diameter, the larger of Jg* in complete carry up. Diameter and air inlet have no effects on flow reverse. Air inlet does not effect flooding but the tube diameter does

  3. Dehumidifying Air for Cooling & Refrigeration: Nanotechnology Membrane-based Dehumidifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-10-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Dais is developing a product called NanoAir which dehumidifies the air entering a building to make air conditioning more energy efficient. The system uses a polymer membrane that allows moisture but not air to pass through it. A vacuum behind the membrane pulls water vapor from the air, and a second set of membranes releases the water vapor outside. The membrane’s high selectivity translates into reduced energy consumption for dehumidification. Dais’ design goals for NanoAir are the use of proprietary materials and processes and industry-standard installation techniques. NanoAir is also complementary to many other energy saving strategies, including energy recovery.

  4. Effects of diffuser airflow minima on occupant comfort, air mixing, and building energy use (RP-1515)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arens, Edward; Zhang, Hui; Hoyt, Tyler;

    2015-01-01

    . However, there has long been concern whether comfort and room air mixing are maintained under low flows through diffusers, and this concern has prompted variable air volume minima to be typically set at 20%-50% of maximum. RP 1515 evaluated occupants' thermal comfort and air quality satisfaction in...... operating buildings under both conventional and reduced minimum variable air volume flow set-points, and measured the air diffusion performance index and air change effectiveness for typical diffuser types in the laboratory. The hypotheses were that lowered flow operation would not significantly reduce...

  5. Presence of a dog reduces subjective but not physiological stress responses to an analog trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Peyk, Peter; Streb, Markus; Holz, Elena; Michael, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Dogs are known to have stress and anxiety reducing effects. Several studies have shown that dogs are able to calm people during cognitive and performance stressors. Recently, therapy dogs have been proposed as a treatment adjunct for post-traumatic stress disorder patients. In this study we aimed to investigate, whether dogs also have anxiety- and stress reducing effect during “traumatic stressors.” 80 healthy female participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. They were exposed to a “traumatic” film clip (trauma-film-paradigm). For one group of participants a friendly dog was present during the film, one group of participants was accompanied by a friendly human, another control group watched the film with a toy animal and the last group watched the film clip alone. Participants that were accompanied by the dog during the film reported lower anxiety ratings and less negative affect after the film clip as compared to the “toy dog group” and the “alone group.” Results of the “dog group” were comparable to the group that was accompanied by a friendly human. There were no differences in physiological stress responses between the four conditions. Our results show that dogs are able to lessen subjectively experienced stress and anxiety during a “traumatic” stress situation. This effect was comparable to that of social support by a friendly person. Implications for PTSD patients are discussed. PMID:25250009

  6. Presence of a dog reduces subjective but not physiological stress responses to an analogue trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Lass-Hennemann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dogs are known to have stress and anxiety reducing effects. Several studies have shown that dogs are able to calm people during cognitive and performance stressors. Recently, therapy dogs have been proposed as a treatment adjunct for PTSD patients. In this study we aimed to investigate, whether dogs also have anxiety- and stress reducing effect during traumatic stressors. 80 healthy female participants were randomly assigned to one of 4 conditions. They were exposed to a traumatic film clip (trauma-film-paradigm. For one group of participants a friendly dog was present during the film, one group of participants was accompanied by a friendly human, another control group watched the film with a toy animal and the last group watched the film clip alone. Participants that were accompanied by the dog during the film reported lower anxiety ratings and less negative affect after the film clip as compared to the toy dog group and the alone group. Results of the dog group were comparable to the group that was accompanied by a friendly human. There were no differences in physiological stress responses between the four conditions. Our results show that dogs are able to lessen subjectively experienced stress and anxiety during a traumatic stress situation. This effect was comparable to that of social support by a friendly person. Implications for PTSD patients are discussed.

  7. Can carpooling clean the air? The economics of HOV lanes, hybrid cars and the Clean Air Act.

    OpenAIRE

    Shewmake, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Private vehicles are a significant source of air pollution in many areas of the United States. Areas with already high levels of air pollution are required by the Clean Air Act to take steps to reduce automobile use and the associated emissions. The behavioral implications of many travel demand management techniques are poorly understood. In this dissertation I focus on carpooling. Policy makers encourage commuters to carpool through High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lanes, fre...

  8. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  9. Computer Model to Estimate Reliability Engineering for Air Conditioning Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliability engineering is used to predict the performance and optimize design and maintenance of air conditioning systems. Air conditioning systems are expose to a number of failures. The failures of an air conditioner such as turn on, loss of air conditioner cooling capacity, reduced air conditioning output temperatures, loss of cool air supply and loss of air flow entirely can be due to a variety of problems with one or more components of an air conditioner or air conditioning system. Forecasting for system failure rates are very important for maintenance. This paper focused on the reliability of the air conditioning systems. Statistical distributions that were commonly applied in reliability settings: the standard (2 parameter) Weibull and Gamma distributions. After distributions parameters had been estimated, reliability estimations and predictions were used for evaluations. To evaluate good operating condition in a building, the reliability of the air conditioning system that supplies conditioned air to the several The company's departments. This air conditioning system is divided into two, namely the main chilled water system and the ten air handling systems that serves the ten departments. In a chilled-water system the air conditioner cools water down to 40-45 degree F (4-7 degree C). The chilled water is distributed throughout the building in a piping system and connected to air condition cooling units wherever needed. Data analysis has been done with support a computer aided reliability software, this is due to the Weibull and Gamma distributions indicated that the reliability for the systems equal to 86.012% and 77.7% respectively. A comparison between the two important families of distribution functions, namely, the Weibull and Gamma families was studied. It was found that Weibull method performed for decision making.

  10. Ambient Air Pollution and Newborn Size and Adiposity at Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembari, Anna; de Hoogh, Kees; Pedersen, Marie; Dadvand, Payam; Martinez, David; Hoek, Gerard; Petherick, Emily S; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with reduced newborn's size, however the modifying effect of maternal ethnicity remains little explored among South Asians. OBJECTIVES: To investigate ethnic differences in the association between ambient air pollution and newborn...... associations of ambient PM exposures with newborn size and adiposity differ between White British and Pakistani origin infants....

  11. INSECTICIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN AIR AFTER APPLICATION OF PEST CONTROL STRIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of air in homes due to spraying of pesticides is of concern to the public. A pest control strip which kills creeping and crawling insects by contact is one method of reducing the amount of insecticide in the air. Several different insecticides are now available in t...

  12. Ozone Generators That Are Sold as Air Cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of a Domestic Ozone Generator. Journal of Clinical Pathology. 36:1102-1104. Esswein, Eric J.; Boeniger, Mark F. 1994. Effects of an Ozone-Generating Air-Purifying Device on Reducing Concentrations of Formaldehyde in Air. Applied Occupational Environmental Hygiene . 9(2):139-146. Foarde, K.; van ...

  13. The effect of a photocatalytic air purifier on indoor air quality quantified using different measuring methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolarik, Barbara [Technical University of Denmark, International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark); Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Danish Building Research Institute (SBi), Department of Construction and Health, Dr Neergaards Vej 15, 2970 Hoersholm (Denmark); Wargocki, Pawel [Technical University of Denmark, International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark); Skorek-Osikowska, Anna [Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Wisthaler, Armin [Institute of Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2010-06-15

    The effect on indoor air quality of an air purifier based on photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) was determined by different measuring techniques: sensory assessments of air quality made by human subjects, Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and chromatographic methods (Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography with UV detection). The experiment was conducted in a simulated office, ventilated with 0.6 h{sup -1}, 2.5 h{sup -1} and 6 h{sup -1}, in the presence of additional pollution sources (carpet, chipboard and linoleum). At the lowest air change rate, additional measurements were made with no pollution sources present in the office. All conditions were tested with the photocatalytic air purifier turned on and off. The results show that operation of the air purifier in the presence of pollutants emitted by building materials and furniture improves indoor air quality, as documented by sensory assessments made by human subjects. It also reduces concentrations of many chemical compounds present in the air as documented by the PTR-MS technique. For the lowest ventilation, results from measurements using the chromatographic methods have similar tendency, however many of the 50 compounds that were targeted for analysis were not detected at all, independent of whether the purifier was on or off. For the two conditions with higher ventilation the results were inconclusive. (author)

  14. Modification of the cast concrete mixture by air-entraining agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Vatin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the combined effect of superplasticizer based on the naphthalene lignosulfonate and the air-entraining surfactant agent on the fluidity, connectivity and air entrainment of concrete. The air-entraining surfactant agent contributes significantly into air entrainment and reduces the water gain and the mortar separation. It was found that under the introduction of air-entraining surfactant agents in the concrete mixture which contains the superplasticizer, the concrete mobility decreases even though the air-entraining agent is a plasticizer itself. The introduction of 0.1 % air-entraining agent decreases mobility: slump Abrams – 5–6 %, slump flow – 18–22 %. Besides, the effect of increasing the connectivity of the concrete mix is associated with the air entrainment. Regardless of the air-entraining surfactant agent, the superplasticizer reduces water separation, and does not have an air-entraining impact, and virtually has no effect on the air entrainment caused by the addition of the air-entraining agent. With the increasing quantity of the air-entraining surfactant agent in the concrete mix, regardless of the superplasticizer dosage, the amount of the entrained air increases from 3 to 7 %, and water separation is reduced to almost 0. Thus, the synergy of the superplasticizer and the air-entraining agent was negative, but it is possible to observe a positive effect in respect of the concrete mix connectivity.

  15. Levels of selected metals in ambient air PM10 in an urban site of Zaragoza (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J M; Callén, M S; Murillo, R; García, T; Navarro, M V; de la Cruz, M T; Mastral, A M

    2005-09-01

    An assessment of the air quality of Zaragoza (Spain) was performed by determining the trace element content in airborne PM10 in a sampling campaign from July 2001 to July 2002. Samples were collected in a heavy traffic area with a high volume air sampler provided with a PM10 cutoff inlet. The levels of 16 elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, V, and Zn) were quantified after collecting the PM10 on Teflon-coated glass fiber filters (GFF). Regarding the PM10, 32% exceedance of the proposed PM10 daily limit was obtained, some of them corresponding to summer and autumn periods. The limit values of toxic trace elements from US-EPA, WHO, and EC were not exceeded, considering Zaragoza as a moderately polluted city under the current air quality guidelines. The contribution of anthropogenic sources to atmospheric elemental levels was reflected by the high values of enrichment factors for Zn, Pb, and Cu compared to the average crustal composition. Statistical analyses also determined the contribution of different sources to the PM10, finding that vehicle traffic and anthropogenic emissions related to combustion and industrial processes were the main pollutant sources as well as natural sources associated with transport of dust from Africa for specific dates. Regarding the influence of meteorological conditions on PM10 and trace elements concentrations, it was found that calm weather conditions with low wind speed favor the PM10 collection and the pollution for trace elements, suggesting the influence of local sources. PMID:16053928

  16. Metal Rubber Sensor Appliquis for Rotor Blade Air Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thin film Metal RubberTM sensor appliqus have the potential to reduce the time, complexity and cost of measuring air flow-induced skin friction during the...

  17. Clean Air and Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    The air we breathe and the water we drink are both vital components of our health. Nevertheless, bacteria, pollutants, and other contaminates can alter life-giving air and water into health-threatening hazards. Learn about how scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work to protect the public from air and water-related health risks.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  18. AIR / SEA RESCUE LAUNCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.H. Rice

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Motor Boat Wing of the South African Air Force was inaugurated some thirty eight years ago.With its main base at Gordon's Bay, the wing was formed to operate the various marine craft used to provide a service to the flying component of the South African Air Force. Its main function was to be air/sea rescue, but it also had to man and maintain armoured target boats, seaplane tenders, marine tenders and the 'bomb scows', used for recovering practise bombs and missiles and for laying and lifting moorings.

  19. Mid-air Acrobatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LlU FENG'AN

    2011-01-01

    On September 1 two new aerobatic demonstration teams,theSky Wing and the Red Falcon,debuted at an air show held in Changchun,capital of northeast China's Jilin Province.The show was staged at a ceremony held by the Aviation University of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) Air Force.Also performing at the show was the 50-year-old Bayi aerobatic demonstration team.The teams demonstrated their superlative flying skills,which showcase the quality of the air force's rigorous pilot training.

  20. Air/liquid collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Østergaard; Olesen, Ole; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    1997-01-01

    This report determine efficiency equations for combined air/liquid solar collectors by measurements on to different air/liquid collectors. Equations which contain all relevant informations on the solar collectors. A simulation program (Kviksol) has been modified in order to be able to handle this...... kind of collectors. The modified simulation program has been used for the determination of the surplus in performance which solar heating systems with this type of solar collectors for combined preheating of ventilation air and domestic hot water will have. The simulation program and the efficiency...

  1. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source...... apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2002 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above the new EU limit values, which the Member...

  2. Air/Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  3. Olefin metathesis in air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Piola

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance.

  4. Emission Facilities - Air Emission Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Represents the Primary Facility type Air Emission Plant (AEP) point features. Air Emissions Plant is a DEP primary facility type related to the Air Quality Program....

  5. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... US Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us ... Indoor Air Quality An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality IAQ & Health Causes of IAQ Problems Identifying IAQ ...

  6. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation??s (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  7. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  8. Smart sensors enable smart air conditioning control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection. PMID:24961213

  9. Smart Sensors Enable Smart Air Conditioning Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chi Cheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants’ information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans’ intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It’s also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection.

  10. Air filtering through the building envelope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrosova D.V.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, building envelopes with efficient insulation of low thermal conductivity, including light building envelope, which allow to increase thermal protection of buildings, are widely used. This new building envelope require a comprehensive study, because previously considered unimportant features often start to make significant effect on the performance characteristics of structures.To reduce the air permeability in the constructions wind-proof membranes are used. However, the influence of air filtering in such structures has not been researched yet.When the air-permeable building envelopes are used, the heat flow is moved away also due to the air filtering. It is proposed to take into account the convective heat transfer mechanism commensurate with the conductive heat transfer mechanism. In the formula for determining the heat flow due to the air filtering the filtration coefficient of air through the building envelope is used. This coefficient is found experimentally for light building envelopes.Furthermore, the empirical expression for the filtration coefficient, which relates it and the coefficient of heat loss is found.

  11. Electronic air cleaners and the indoor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing awareness over the quality of air in the indoor environment is driving the search for effective control methods for the contaminants of concern. Electronic air cleaners can control such pollutants as dust, pollen, tobacco smoke, radon decay products, and other particulates. This paper presents an examination of the various types of electronic air cleaners and their effects on indoor pollutants. It also examines the mechanism for contaminant removal, the relationship of the efficiency to the characteristics of the contaminant, and what type of contaminants can be controlled with the electronic air cleaner, with particular emphasis placed on the removal of radon decay products. From a study on radon product removal in residences, the electronic air cleaner was found to have an efficiency of up to 70%. Not only was there a reduction in the residential working level, but the fluctuations in the working level were also reduced. With this information, they can better understand how to solve the air treatment problem of the inhabited space. 17 references, 8 figures

  12. Air transportation energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy efficiency of air transportation, results of the recently completed RECAT studies on improvement alternatives, and the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Research Program to develop the technology for significant improvements in future aircraft were reviewed.

  13. Criteria Air Emissions Trends

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Emissions Trends site provides national trends of criteria pollutant and precursor emissions data based on the the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) from...

  14. Transportation and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors research. - Modeling & Inventories - Testing & Measuring Emissions - Clean Automotive Technologies - Emission Factors Research This page is maintained by EPA's Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ) . For more: About Us | Get E-mail ...

  15. Air conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  16. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  17. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  18. Regional Air Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on regional air quality, including trace level SO2, nitric acid, ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOy; and particulate sulfate, nitrate, and...

  19. Air Data Calibration Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility is for low altitude subsonic altimeter system calibrations of air vehicles. Mission is a direct support of the AFFTC mission. Postflight data merge is...

  20. Reducing carbon-in-ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigel S. Dong [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    High levels of carbon-in-ash lead to reduced power plant efficiency and higher fuel costs, degrade the performance of electrostatic precipitators and increase emissions of particulates. Increased carbon levels in the fly ash can lead to problems with ash use in cement/concrete production. This report reviews current measures and technologies that can be used to prevent excessive carbon-in-ash in pulverised coal combustion (PCC) power plants. These include coal cleaning, coal fineness improvement, reduction of distribution imbalance of coal among burners, increasing coal-air mixing rates at both burner and OFA levels and optimising excess air ratios. A plasma-assisted combustion enhancement technology can help achieve better ignition and more stable flame for coals that are normally difficult to burn. Computer-based combustion optimisation using expert systems, neural network systems and coal combustion simulation is becoming an invaluable means to tackle the carbon-in-ash issue. This report also reviews the regulations in nine major coal-consuming countries, which stipulate the maximum unburnt carbon levels permitted for fly ash for use in concrete/cement production. The Loss on Ignition (LOI) parameter is used in all national standards, although it is considered inadequate and may exclude some usable fly ash from being utilised. Performance-based regulations are more appropriate and have been adopted by Canada and USA. The EU and Canada now permit the use of fly ash produced from co-combustion of coal and biomass. China and Russia allow very high LOI levels for certain fly ash but the other countries require similar LOI limits for fly ash for use in concrete. Finally, this report discusses measures and technologies for reduction of carbon-in-ash, including classification, froth flotation, triboelectrostatic separators, thermal processes and carbon surface modification. 146 refs., 19 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. Experimental investigation of frictional resistance reduction with air layer on the hull bottom of a ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Jinho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to cope with recent high oil price and global warming, developments of air lubricated ships have been pursued to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to save fuel costs by reducing the frictional resistance. In this study, reduction in the frictional resistance by air lubrication with air layers generated on the lower surface of a flat plate was investigated experimentally in the large water tunnel of SSMB. The generated air layers were observed, and changes in the local frictional drag were measured at various flow rates of injected air. The results indicated that air lubrication with air layers might be useful in reducing the frictional resistance at specific conditions of air injection. Accordingly, resistance and self-propulsion tests for a 66K DWT bulk carrier were carried out in the towing tank of SSMB to estimate the expected net power savings.

  2. INDOOR AIR QUALITY ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xin

    2010-01-01

    With the development of modern architecture, one of the building's interior decoration, furnishings, appliances and equipment have become increasingly demanding, making construction of the indoor environment of increasing pollution, increasing pollution, indoor environmental pollution hazards to human is also a growing the greater. This thesis summarizes the major indoor air pollution sources and major pollutants. Indoor air pollutants are formaldehyde, radon, ammonia, total volatile org...

  3. Indoor Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk R Smith

    2003-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution in developing-country cities is difficult to overlook. Indoor air pollution caused by burning such traditional fuels as wood, crop residues, and dung is less evident, yet it is responsible for a significant part of country and global disease burdens. The main groups affected are poor women and children in rural areas and urban slums as they go about their daily activi...

  4. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Soysal; Yucel Demiral

    2007-01-01

    The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas...

  5. Air Distribution in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The research on air distribution in rooms is often done as full-size investigations, scale-model investigations or by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). New activities have taken place within all three areas and this paper draws comparisons between the different methods. The outcome of the l......EA sponsored research "Air Flow Pattern within Buildings" is used for comparisons in some parts of the paper because various types of experiments and many countries are involved....

  6. Hot Air Engines

    OpenAIRE

    P. Stouffs

    2011-01-01

    Invented in 1816, the hot-air engines have known significant commercial success in the nineteenth century, before falling into disuse. Nowadays they enjoy a renewed interest for some specific applications. The "hot-air engines" family is made up of two groups: Stirling engines and Ericsson engines. The operating principle of Stirling and Ericsson engines, their troubled history, their advantages and their niche applications are briefly presented, especially in the field of...

  7. Air gun test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a facility that is potentially useful in providing data for models to predict the effects of nuclear explosions on cities. IIT Research Institute has a large air gun facility capable of launching heavy items of a wide variety of geometries to velocities ranging from about 80 fps to 1100 fps. The facility and its capabilities are described, and city model problem areas capable of investigation using the air gun are presented

  8. 40 CFR 74.45 - Reduced utilization for process sources. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reduced utilization for process sources. 74.45 Section 74.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....45 Reduced utilization for process sources....

  9. Pipeline Drag Reducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipeline drag reducers have proven to be an extremely powerful tool in fluid transportation. High molecular weight polymers are used to reduce the frictional pressure loss ratio in crude oil pipelines, refined fuel and aqueous pipelines. Chemical structure of the main used pipeline drag reducers is one of the following polymers and copolymers classified according to the type of fluid to ; low density polyethylene, copolymer of I-hexane cross linked with divinyl benzene, polyacrylamide, polyalkylene oxide polymers and their copolymers, fluorocarbons, polyalkyl methacrylates and terpolymer of styrene, alkyl acrylate and acrylic acid. Drag reduction is the increase in pump ability of a fluid caused by the addition of small amounts of an additive to the fluid. The effectiveness of a drag reducer is normally expressed in terms of percent drag reduction. Frictional pressure loss in a pipeline system is a waste of energy and it costly. The drag reducing additive minimizes the flow turbulence, increases throughput and reduces the energy costs. The Flow can be increased by more than 80 % with existing assets. The effectiveness of the injected drag reducer in Mostorod to Tanta crude oil pipeline achieved 35.4 % drag reduction and 23.2 % flow increase of the actual performance The experimental application of DRA on Arab Petroleum Pipeline Company (Summed) achieved a flow increase ranging from 9-32 %

  10. Summary findings from the border air quality study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    The Border Air Quality Study (BAQS) is an ongoing study which supports the development of an international strategy for the Georgia Basin-Puget Sound airshed. The study investigates the association of health risks with the exposure to a range of air pollutants. It identified links between air pollutants and several health impacts ranging from asthma to birthweight. The tools developed for studying air quality provide greater spatial resolution, thus enabling the identification of pollution hot spots that require monitoring and intervention. The tools also provide spatially accurate exposure data for future research and enable land-use decisions that reduce risk to the most vulnerable populations, including children and the elderly. The study found that traffic-related air pollution is an additional risk factor for disease, such as bronchiolitis, asthma and middle ear infections in children. Although air pollution is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, relatively few studies have evaluated the effects of chronic exposures. Therefore, the BAQS is currently assessing the relationship between air quality and cardiovascular diseases in the Metro Vancouver area, with particular attention to the combined effects of traffic-related air pollution and noise pollution. Wood smoke was also found to be an important source of air pollution, even in urban centres. The study showed that building design and ventilation can help reduce infiltration of air pollutants into buildings. It was concluded that despite some concerns, the air quality in the Georgia-Basin-Puget Sound region is good compared to other major metropolitan areas. Air quality managers can use the study to evaluate different policy scenarios and the associated economic costs of air pollution. 5 figs.

  11. Reducing Erosion and Runoff

    OpenAIRE

    Relf, Diane

    2009-01-01

    By caring for and improving your soil, you will help it absorb water more readily, reducing runoff and erosion as well as improving plant health. This publication gives the homeowner tips to help prevent runoff and erosion on their property.

  12. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  13. Reduced Extended MHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, P. J.; Abdelhamid, H. M.; Grasso, D.; Hazeltine, R. D.; Lingam, M.; Tassi, E.

    2015-11-01

    Over the years various reduced fluid models have been obtained for modeling plasmas, with the goal of capturing important physics while maintaining computability. Such models have included the physics contained in various generalizations of Ohm's law, including Hall drift and electron inertia. In a recent publication it was shown that full 3D extended MHD is a Hamiltonian system by finding its noncanonical Poisson bracket. Subsequently, this bracket was shown to be derivable from that for Hall MHD by a series of remarkable transformations, which greatly simplifies the proof of the Jacobi identity and allows one to immediately obtain generalizations of the helicity and cross helicity. In this poster we use this structure to obtain exact reduced fluid models with the effects of full two-fluid theory. Results of numerical computations of collisionless reconnection using an exact reduced 4-field model will be presented and analytical comparisons of mode structure of previous reduced models will be made.

  14. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... page please turn Javascript on. The We Can! childhood obesity-prevention program involves parents, caregivers, and community leaders ...

  15. Air pollution episodes in Stockholm regional background air due to sources in Europe and their effects on human population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, C. [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst., Norrkoping (Sweden)], E-mail: camilla.andersson@smhi.se; Joensson, O. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Environmental Science; Forsberg, B. [Umea Univ. (Sweden), Occupational and Environmental Medicine; Johansson, C. [Environmental and Health Administration, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    Using air quality measurements, we categorized air pollution according to source sectors in a rural background environment in southern Sweden based on hourly air-mass backward trajectories during 1997-2010. Concentrations of fine (PM{sub 2.5}) and sum of fine and coarse particulate matter (PM{sub 10}), accumulation mode particle number, black carbon and surface ozone were 4.0, 3.9, 4.5, 6.8 and 1.3 times higher, respectively, in air masses from the southeast as compared with those in air masses from the cleanest sector in the northwest, consistent with air-mass transport over areas with relatively high emissions of primary particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors. The highest ultrafine particle numbers were associated with clean air from the northwest. We estimate that almost 7.8% and 0.6% higher premature human mortality is caused by PM{sub 2.5} and ozone exposure, respectively, when air originates from the southeast as compared with that when air originates from the northwest. Reductions of emissions in eastern Europe would reduce the highest air pollution concentrations and associated health risks. However, since air masses from the southwest are more frequent, emissions in the western part of Europe are more important for annual mean premature mortality. (orig.)

  16. Reduced shear power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, Scott; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /Northwestern U.; Shapiro, Charles; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; White, Martin J.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron.

    2005-08-01

    Measurements of ellipticities of background galaxies are sensitive to the reduced shear, the cosmic shear divided by (1-{kappa}) where {kappa} is the projected density field. They compute the difference between shear and reduced shear both analytically and with simulations. The difference becomes more important an smaller scales, and will impact cosmological parameter estimation from upcoming experiments. A simple recipe is presented to carry out the required correction.

  17. Combating the 'Sick Building Syndrome' by Improving Indoor Air Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongchai Nimcharoenwon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that many of symptoms attributed to the Sick Building Syndrome in air-conditioned office buildings are a result of considerably reduced negative ions in the internal atmosphere and that replacing the depleted negative ions can improve indoor air quality. This paper describes a method used to develop a formula (DOF-NIL formula for calculating the amount of negative ions to be added to air-conditioned buildings, to improve air quality. The formula enables estimates to be made based on how negative ions in the air are reduced by three main factors namely, Video Display Terminals (VDT; heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC and Building Contents (BC. Calculations for a typical air-conditioned office, are compared with an Air Ion Counter instrument. The results show that the formula, when applied to a typical air-conditioned office, provides an accurate estimate for design purposes. The typical rate of additional negative-ions (ion-generating for a negative ion condition is found to be approximately 12.0 billion ions/hr for at least 4 hour ion-generating.

  18. Integrated Technology Air Cleaners (ITAC): Design and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Cohn, Sebastian; Destaillats, Hugo; Henzel, Victor; Sidheswaran, Meera; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2013-09-13

    The primary objective of this project was to design, build, and test an air cleaner for residential use with the potential to substantially improve indoor air quality, or maintain indoor air quality unchanged, when outdoor air ventilation rates are reduced to save energy. Two air cleaners were designed and fabricated. The design targets for airflow rate, fan power, and projected cost were met. In short term laboratory studies, both units performed as expected; however, during field studies in homes, the formaldehyde removal performance of the air cleaners was much lower than expected. In subsequent laboratory studies, incomplete decomposition of some indoor air volatile organic compounds, with formaldehyde as a product of partial decomposition of volatile organic compounds, was confirmed as the explanation for the poor formaldehyde removal performance in the field studies. The amount of formaldehyde produced per unit of decomposition of other volatile organic compounds was substantially diminished by increasing the amount of catalyst on the filter and also by decreasing the air velocity. Together, these two measures reduced formaldehyde production, per unit destruction of other volatile organic compounds, by a factor of four, while increasing the removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds by a factor of 1.4. A company with a southern California office is conducting studies in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with the goal of incorporating the ITAC catalytic air cleaning technology in their future commercial products.

  19. Biomonitoring air pollution in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Chile, in general, and Santiago, its capital city, in particular, has serious air pollution problems mainly in winter time when the pollutants could reach dangerous levels which might be detrimental to older people and children. A project was undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present paper describes the activities carried out within this CRP. The lichens, collected in clean areas (native forests), were transplanted to selected sites in Santiago and exposed during three and six months. At a second stage, samples of Tillandsia recurvata were collected in the Metropolitan Area. All samples were carefully cleaned, using only clean plastic materials, milled at liquid nitrogen temperature, freeze dried, re-homogenized and stored at low temperature until analysis. The samples were mainly analysed by INAA, RNAA SS-AAS and ASV. As part of the routine QA/QC programme, analytical laboratories involved in the project participated in intercomparison runs organized by the IAEA for the determination of trace and minor elements in two lichens samples. From the data and its subsequent mapping over the area under study, it was possible to identify places exposed to higher amounts of some elements. Of interest are also the correlations between several elements, perhaps indicating a given source of pollutants. The results indicate the usefulness of biomonitoring air pollution using lichens and Tillandsias, which, jointly with multielemental analytical techniques, such as NAA, open the possibility to study extensive areas without the infrastructure needed for conventional APM sample collection and at reduced costs. (author)

  20. The air of our cities everybody's business; L'air de nos villes l'affaire de tous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This conference treats urban areas air pollution, what are the different pollutions sources, what measures can be used in order to reduce this air pollution and the results got after these measures. Some technical approaches are given, some models or statistical approaches in order to forecast pollution episodes are presented. It appears that the traffic is the most important air pollution source in urban areas but the solutions to reduce it, if they are encouraging are not still completely satisfying. (N.C.)