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Sample records for callosum septum pellucidum

  1. Absence of the Septum Pellucidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pellucidum Information Page Absence of the Septum Pellucidum Information Page What research is being done? The mission of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) is to seek fundamental knowledge about the brain and nervous system and to use that knowledge to reduce the ...

  2. The corpus callosum, the other great forebrain commissures, and the septum pellucidum: anatomy, development, and malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raybaud, Charles [Division of Neuroradiology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada); University of Toronto, Division of Radiology, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-06-15

    There are three telencephalic commissures which are paleocortical (the anterior commissure), archicortical (the hippocampal commissure), and neocortical. In non-placental mammals, the neocortical commissural fibers cross the midline together with the anterior and possibly the hippocampal commissure, across the lamina reuniens (joining plate) in the upper part of the lamina terminalis. In placental mammals, a phylogenetically new feature emerged, which is the corpus callosum: it results from an interhemispheric fusion line with specialized groups of mildline glial cells channeling the commissural axons through the interhemispheric meninges toward the contralateral hemispheres. This concerns the frontal lobe mainly however: commissural fibers from the temporo-occipital neocortex still use the anterior commissure to cross, and the posterior occipito-parietal fibers use the hippocampal commissure, forming the splenium in the process. The anterior callosum and the splenium fuse secondarily to form the complete commissural plate. Given the complexity of the processes involved, commissural ageneses are many and usually associated with other diverse defects. They may be due to a failure of the white matter to develop or to the commissural neurons to form or to migrate, to a global failure of the midline crossing processes or to a selective failure of commissuration affecting specific commissural sites (anterior or hippocampal commissures, anterior callosum), or specific sets of commissural axons (paleocortical, hippocampal, neocortical commissural axons). Severe hemispheric dysplasia may prevent the axons from reaching the midline on one or both sides. Besides the intrinsically neural defects, midline meningeal factors may prevent the commissuration as well (interhemispheric cysts or lipoma). As a consequence, commissural agenesis is a malformative feature, not a malformation by itself. Good knowledge of the modern embryological data may allow for a good understanding of a

  3. Isolated absence of the septum pellucidum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supprian, T. [Department of Psychiatry, University of Wuerzburg, Fuechsleinstrasse 15, D-97080 Wuerzburg (Germany)]|[Department of Neuroradiology, University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Sian, J.; Heils, A. [Department of Psychiatry, University of Wuerzburg, Fuechsleinstrasse 15, D-97080 Wuerzburg (Germany); Hofmann, E.; Warmuth-Metz, M.; Solymosi, L. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Wuerzburg (Germany)

    1999-08-01

    Absence of the septum pellucidum in the human is a rare congenital anomaly. Previous reports suggest it is almost always associated with other brain anomalies. However, MRI in two patients with absence of the septum pellucidum presented here, indicates that this anomaly may occur without associated anomalies. It may be one manifestation of a spectrum of developmental anomalies. One patient presented with schizophrenic psychosis; developmental disturbances in limbic areas are believed to be associated with schizophrenia. Agenesis of the septum pellucidum may indicate abnormal development of limbic structures and it may be associated with anomalies, such as cytoarchitectural disturbances of cortical layers, as yet undetectable by MRI. (orig.) With 1 fig., 19 refs.

  4. Variantes anatómicas del septum pellucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sartori

    2015-04-01

    Durante la vida embrionaria existen variantes anatómicas del septum pellucidum que se disponen en sentido rostro-dorsal. Estas son el cavum del septum pellucidum, el cavum vergae y el cavum velum interpositum. Su presencia o ausencia puede estar relacionada con alteraciones del desarrollo del sistema nervioso y trastornos cognitivo-psiquiátricos, por lo que deben conocerse bien para evitar diagnósticos erróneos.

  5. The size and prevalence of the cavum septum pellucidum are normal in subjects with panic disorder

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    J.A.S. Crippa

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Panic disorder is thought to involve dysfunction in the septohippocampal system, and the presence of a cavum septum pellucidum might indicate the aberrant development of this system. We compared the prevalence and size of cavum septum pellucidum in 21 patients with panic disorder and in 21 healthy controls by magnetic resonance imaging. The length of the cavum septum pellucidum was measured by counting the number of consecutive 1-mm coronal slices in which it appeared. A cavum septum pellucidum of >6 mm in length was rated as large. There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients (16 of 21 or 76.2% and controls (18 of 21 or 85.7% with a cavum septum pellucidum (P = 0.35, Fisher's exact test, one-tailed, and no members of either group had a large cavum septum pellucidum. The mean cavum septum pellucidum rating in the patient and control groups was 1.81 (SD = 1.50 and 2.09 (SD = 1.51, respectively. There were also no significant differences between groups when we analyzed cavum septum pellucidum ratings as a continuous variable (U = 196.5; P = 0.54. Across all subjects there was a trend towards a higher prevalence of cavum septum pellucidum in males (100%, 10 of 10 than females (75%, 24 of 32; P = 0.09, Fisher's exact test, one-tailed. Thus, we conclude that, while panic disorder may involve septo-hippocampal dysfunction, it is not associated with an increased prevalence or size of the cavum septum pellucidum.

  6. A newly identified frontal path from fornix in septum pellucidum with 7.0T MRI track density imaging (TDI – The septum pellucidum tract (SPT

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    Zang-Hee eCho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The high anatomical contrast achieved with the newly emerging MRI tractographic technique of super-resolution track density imaging (TDI encouraged us to search for a new fiber tract in the septum pellucidum. Although this septum pellucidum tract (SPT has been observed previously, its connections were unclear due to ambiguity and limited resolution of conventional MRI images. It is now possible to identify detailed parts of SPT with the increased resolution of TDI, which involves diffusion MRI imaging, whole-brain tractography, and voxel subdivision using the track-count information. Four healthy male subjects were included in the study. The experiment was performed with 7.0T MRI, following the guidelines of the institute’s institutional review board. Data were processed with the super-resolution TDI technique to generate a tractographic map with 0.18 mm isotropic resolution. The SPT was identified in all subjects. Based on additional seed tracking method with inter-axis correlation search, we have succeeded in identifying a new frontal lobe pathway in the SPT. We hypothesize that the tract is connected as a superior dorsal branch of the fornix that leads to the prefrontal cortex.

  7. Absent cavum septum pellucidum: a review with emphasis on associated commissural abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundarakumar, Dinesh K.; Farley, Sarah A.; Nixon, Jason N. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Smith, Crysela M. [The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Department of Radiology, San Antonio, TX (United States); Maravilla, Kenneth R.; Dighe, Manjiri K. [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-07-15

    The cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is an important fetal midline forebrain landmark, and its absence often signifies additional underlying malformations. Frequently detected by prenatal sonography, absence of the CSP requires further imaging with pre- or postnatal MRI to characterize the accompanying abnormalities. This article reviews the developmental anatomy of the CSP and the pivotal role of commissurization in normal development. An understanding of the patterns of commissural abnormalities associated with absence of the CSP can lead to improved characterization of the underlying spectrum of pathology. (orig.)

  8. The Relationship between Large Cavum Septum Pellucidum and Antisocial Behavior, Callous-Unemotional Traits and Psychopathy in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stuart F.; Brislin, Sarah; Sinclair, Stephen; Fowler, Katherine A.; Pope, Kayla; Blair, R. James R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The presence of a large cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) has been previously associated with antisocial behavior/psychopathic traits in an adult community sample. Aims: The current study investigated the relationship between a large CSP and symptom severity in disruptive behavior disorders (DBD; conduct disorder and oppositional defiant…

  9. A 58-Year Old Male with Cognitive Deteriorations Caused by Septum Pellucidum Cyst: A Case Report

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    Li-Ming Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is known to be induced by vascular dementia and certain neurodegenerative diseases. The presenting features of disordered memory, intellect and personality often result in referral to a neurologist initially. Septum pellucidum cyst (SPC is a rare clinical finding and defined as a cystic structure between the lateral ventricles. SPC induced memory disorder and dementia has been seldom reported in which the clinical features are atypical and can be misdiagnosed. The main difficulty is to establish a correlation between symptoms and the cyst. When indicated, the treatment is essentially surgical and the ideal operative technique is also a matter of debate. Here, we reported a 58-year-male Chinese patient who presented with memory impairment 1 year ago. Both the physical and laboratory examinations were performed to evaluate the general conditions of the patient. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was applied to observe SPC and the neighboring brain structures. Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA were used to assess cognitive function. The results of the patient’s laboratory examinations were normal. However, the patient exhibited severe sleeplessness along with cognitive deteriorations despite short-term (less than 2 weeks use of benzodiazepines with regular dose. MRI fulfills the consensus criteria for clinical diagnosis of SPC. Furthermore, the results of MMSE and MoCA were showed mild cognitive impairment (MCI before the treatment of SPC. After neuroendoscopic fenestration of SPC, the patient’s syndromes were disappeared, and his cognitive function was improved. In conclusion, the patient’s symptoms were due to a secondary lesion attributed to the cyst. Comprehensive clinical evaluation and MRI help diagnose SPC induced dementia.

  10. Classification of acquired lesions of the corpus callosum with MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, S.A.; Bitzer, M.; Voigt, K.; Kueker, W. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Freudenstein, D. [Department of Neurosurgery, Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    MRI has facilitated diagnostic assessment of the corpus callosum. Diagnostic classification of solitary or multiple lesions of the corpus callosum has not attracted much attention, although signal abnormalities are not uncommon. Our aim was to identify characteristic imaging features of lesions frequently encountered in practice. We reviewed the case histories of 59 patients with lesions shown on MRI. The nature of the lesions was based on clinical features and/or long term follow-up (ischaemic 20, Virchow-Robin spaces 3, diffuse axonal injury 7, multiple sclerosis 11, hydrocephalus 5, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis 5, Marchiafava-Bignami disease 4, lymphoma 2, glioblastoma hamartoma each 1). The location in the sagittal plane, the relationship to the borders of the corpus callosum and midline and the size were documented. The 20 ischaemic lesions were asymmetrical but adjacent to the midline; the latter was involved in new or large lesions. Diffuse axonal injury commonly resulted in large lesions, which tended to be asymmetrical; the midline and borders of the corpus callosum were always involved. Lesions in MS were small, at the lower border of the corpus callosum next to the septum pellucidum, and crossed the midline asymmetrically. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and the other perivenous inflammatory diseases caused relatively large, asymmetrical lesions. Hydrocephalus resulted in lesions of the upper part of the corpus callosum, and mostly in its posterior two thirds; they were found in the midline. Lesions in Marchiafava-Bignami disease were large, often symmetrically in the midline in the splenium and did not reach the edge of the corpus callosum. (orig.)

  11. Electrostatic septum, SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    To minimize losses during slow extraction towards N- and W-Area, electrostatic septa in long straight section 2 and 6 precede the magnetic septa. The 2 electrode plates, visible at the entrance to the septum, establish a vertical electrical field to remove the ions created by the circulating beam in the residual gas. See 7801286 for such a septum in its tank, and 7501201 for a detailed view of the wire suspension. See also 7501120X.

  12. Electrostatic septum, SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    To minimize losses during slow extraction towards N- and W-Area, electrostatic septa in long straight sections 2 and 6 precede the magnetic septa. This picture shows such an electrostatic septum in its tank. See 7501120X, 7501199 and 7501201 for more detailed pictures.

  13. Electrostatic septum, SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    To minimize losses during slow extraction towards N- and W-Area, electrostatic septa in long straight sections 2 and 6 precede the magnetic septa. This picture is a detail of 7501199, and shows the suspension of the wires. 7801286 shows a septum in its tank. See also 7501120X.

  14. Coil for LEAR extraction septum

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    Which way does the current flow ? This intriguing object is the coil for the LEAR extraction septum. There were two septa, first a thin one, then this one, not so thin, somewhat on the borderline between septum and bending magnet.

  15. Electrostatic septum, SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    To minimize losses during slow extraction towards N- and W-Areas, electrostatic septa in long straight sections 2 an 6 precede the magnetic septa. The 2 electrode plates, visible at the entrance to the septum, provide a vertical electric field to remove the ions created by the circulating beam in the residual gas. Here we see one of the electrostatic septa being assembled by Faustin Emery (left) and Jacques Soubeyran (right), in the clean room of building 867. See also 7501199, 7501201, 7801286 and further explanations there.

  16. Nasal septum extramedullary plasmacytoma

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    Belić Branislav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Plasmacytomas are malignant tumors characterized by abnormal monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells. They originate in either bone - solitary osseous plasmacytoma, or in soft tissue - extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP. EMP represents less than 1% of all head and neck malignancies. Case report. We presented a case of EMP of the nasal septum in a 44-year-old male who had progressive difficulty in breathing through the nose and frequent heavy epistaxis on the right side. Nasal endoscopy showed dark red, soft, polypoid tumor in the last third of the right nasal cavity arising from the nasal septum. The biopsy showed that it was plasmacytoma. Bence Jones protein in the urine, serum electrophoresis, bone marrow biopsy, skeletal survey and other screening tests failed to detect multiple myeloma. This confirmed the diagnosis of EMP. The mass was completely removed via an endoscopic approach, and then, 4 week later, radiotherapy was conducted with a radiation dose of 50 Gray. No recurrence was noted in a 3-year follow- up period. Conclusion. EMP of the nasal cavity, being rare and having long natural history, represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for any ear, nose and throat surgeon. Depending on the resectability of the lesion, a combined therapy is the accepted treatment.

  17. Porcine heart interatrial septum anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holda, Mateusz K; Holda, Jakub; Koziej, Mateusz; Piatek, Katarzyna; Klimek-Piotrowska, Wieslawa

    2018-02-16

    The left-sided atrial septal pouch (SP), a recently re-discovered anatomical structure within the human interatrial septum, has emerged as a possible source of thrombi formation and a trigger for atrial fibrillation, thereby potentially increasing the risk for ischemic stroke. In many studies, the swine interatrial septum has been used as model of the human heart. Also, possible new strategies and devices for management of the SPs may first be tested in this pig model. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to evaluate swine interatrial septum morphology and to compare it with the human analog, especially in the light of SP occurrence. A total of 75 swine (Sus scrofa f. domestica) hearts were examined. The interatrial septum morphology was assessed, and SPs were measured. The most common variant of the interatrial septum was smooth septum (26.6%) followed by the patent foramen ovale channel and right SP (both 22.7%). No left or double SPs were observed. In 28.0% of all cases the fold of tissue (left septal ridge) was observed on the left side of the interatrial septum in the location where the left-sided SP should be expected. The mean length of the patent foramen ovale channel was 7.1±1.5mm. The mean right SP depth was 6.3±2.2mm, and its ostium width and height were 5.8±1.2 and 5.3±1.6mm, respectively. There are significant differences between human and porcine interatrial septum morphology that should be taken into account during experimental studies. The absence of the left SP in swine results in the inability to use porcine heart as an experimental model for left-sided SP management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Vaginoscopic resection of vaginal septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Joseph; Al Chami, Ali; Abu Musa, Antoine; Nassar, Anwar H; Kurdi, Ahmed Toufic; Ghulmiyyah, Labib

    2012-12-01

    We report the resection of a vaginal septum while preserving the virginity of a 12-year-old girl with Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich Syndrome (HWWS) having a didelphys uterus, obstructed hemivagina, and an ipsilateral renal agenesis with follow-up at 18 months. Successful resection of the vaginal septum with conservation of the hymenal ring and complete drainage of both the hematocolpos and the hematometra were achieved. Cyclic dysmenorrhea and pelvic pain were completely resolved on follow-up visits at 4, 6, and 18 months. Office hysteroscopy performed during the last follow-up visit revealed a patent vaginal vault without evidence of adenosis or recurrence of the vaginal septum. Vaginoscopy is a safe, convenient, and efficient diagnostic and therapeutic modality that can be used in the management of patients with an obstructed hemivagina. It maintains the patient's virginity and it is useful in patients with a restrictive vaginal opening or narrow vaginal canal. Furthermore, the hysteroscopic excision of the vaginal septum offers minimal risk of recurrence of the septal defect.

  19. The caudal septum replacement graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2008-01-01

    To describe a technique for reconstructing the lost tip support in cases involving caudal septal and premaxillary deficiencies. The study included 120 patients with aesthetic and functional nasal problems resulting from the loss of caudal septal and premaxillary support. An external rhinoplasty approach was performed to reconstruct the lost support using a cartilaginous caudal septum replacement graft and premaxillary augmentation with Mersilene mesh. The majority of cases (75%) involved revisions in patients who had previously undergone 1 or more nasal surgical procedures. A caudal septum replacement graft was combined with premaxillary augmentation in 93 patients (77.5%). The mean follow-up period was 3 years (range, 1-12 years). The technique succeeded in correcting the external nasal deformities in all patients and resulted in a significant improvement in breathing in 74 patients (86%) with preoperative nasal obstruction. There were no cases of infection, displacement, or extrusion. The caudal septum replacement graft proved to be very effective in restoring the lost tip support in patients with caudal septal deficiency. Combining the graft with premaxillary augmentation using Mersilene mesh helped increase support and stability over long-term follow-up.

  20. Interventricular septum hematoma during cineventriculography

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    Melzer Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intraseptal hematoma and subsequent myocardial infarction due to accidental contrast agent deposition complicating diagnostic cineventriculography is a previously undescribed complication of angiography. Case presentation A 61 year old man was admitted at intensive care unit because of unstable angina pectoris 1 hour after coronary angiography. Transthoracic contrast echocardiography showed a non-perfused area in the middle of interventricular septum with an increase of thickening up to 26 mm. Review of cineventriculography revealed contrast enhancement in the interventricular septum after contrast medium injection and a dislocation of the pigtail catheter tip. Follow up by echocardiography and MRI showed, that intramural hematoma has resolved after 6 weeks. After 8 weeks successful stent implantation in LAD was performed and after 6 month the patient had a normal LV-function without ischemic signs or septal thickening demonstrated by stressechocardiography. Conclusion A safe and mobile position of the pigtail catheter during ventriculography in the middle of the LV cavity should be ensured to avoid this potentially life-threatening complication. For assessment and absolute measurement of intramural hematoma contrast-enhanced echocardiography is more feasible than MRI and makes interchangeable results.

  1. The human motor corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Mathias; Ziemann, Ulf

    2008-01-01

    The corpus callosum (CC) is the largest white matter fiber bundle to connect the two hemispheres of the brain. It is thought to be essential for interhemispheric transfer of information. The motor CC is that part of the CC which connects the primary motor cortices. Relatively little is known, in particular in humans, about where these fibers are located in the CC, what their function is, and how the structure of the motor CC relates to its function. This review surveys current knowledge about the human motor CC, with a focus on recent studies which assessed the motor CC by multimodal advanced neurophysiological and neuroimaging techniques.

  2. Thick Corpus Callosum in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupper, Aviv; Konen, Osnat; Halevy, Ayelet; Cohen, Rony; Aharoni, Sharon; Shuper, Avinoam

    2017-04-01

    A thick corpus callosum (TCC) can be associated with a very grave outcome in fetuses, but its clinical presentation in older children seems to be markedly different. The corpus callosum (CC) was defined as thick based on observations and impressions. We reviewed cases of children who were diagnosed as TCC based on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. The pertinent clinical data of these children were collected, and their CCs were measured. Out of 2,552 brain MRI images, those of 37 children were initially considered as showing a TCC. Those initial imaging were reviewed by an experienced neuroradiologist, who confirmed the diagnosis in 34 children (1.3%): 13 had neurofibromatosis-1 (NF-1), 9 had epilepsy, 3 had macrocephaly capillary malformation (MCM) syndrome, 3 had autistic spectrum disorder, 1 had a Chiari-1 malformation, and 1 had increased head circumference. No specific neurologic disorder could be defined in seven children. The measured thickness of the CC in these children was comparable to those published in the literature for adults. A TCC is a rare brain malformation that can be found in neuropathologies with apparently diverse pathognomonic mechanisms, such as NF-1 and MCM. It is not necessarily associated with life-threatening conditions, instead being a relatively benign finding, different in nature from that reported in fetuses.

  3. Design of magnetic septum of CSR

    CERN Document Server

    Ma Li; Wang Yue; Yuan Ping; Han Shao Fei; Yuan You Jin; Xia Jia Wen

    2002-01-01

    In order to satisfy the requirement of beam injection and extraction of CSR, four magnetic septum will be used in the accelerator. In the design, the shape of the lamination is optimized by 2-D magnetic field calculation. Also, in order to decrease the leakage field and obtain a satisfied field distribution, a special auxiliary coil and a shield iron plate are considered and as well as the construction of the septum leg is treated in a special way. As a result, the leakage field is almost zero and the inhomogeneity is less than 0.1% even in the area very near to the septum leg

  4. Magnetic foreign body on the nasal septum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fig. 1). The magnets had caused compres- sion and thinning of the septal cartilage. Examination under general anaesthesia revealed the two magnets embedded into the mucosa across the septum. The magnets were removed under general ...

  5. Corpus callosum atrophy in Wernicke's encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon-Tae; Jung, Young-Min; Na, Duk L; Park, Seong Ho; Kim, Manho

    2005-10-01

    Neuropathologic changes in Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) involve variable brain structures. Corpus callosum involvement in WE, however, is largely unknown. The authors investigated the degree and the pattern of corpus callosum changes in WE according to the etiologies. Nineteen patients with WE (between 34 and 81 years) and 19 age- and sex-matched control participants were included. The total cross-sectional callosal area and 5 callosal subregions (C1-C5) were measured by tracing outer margins in the midsagittal sections. Subregions were determined by placing radial dividers with 10 rays. The pixel numbers for corpus callosums were calculated, and the values obtained were adjusted for head size variations. The causes of WE were alcoholism (10), intestinal surgery (5), anorexia (3), and hyperemesis gravidarum (1). The mean size of the total corpus callosum was significantly reduced in alcoholic WE (P< .001; 527.8 +/- 70.8 mm2 for alcoholic WE; 664.6 +/- 58.1 mm2 for the corresponding controls), but not in nonalcoholic WE. In subregion analysis, prefrontal callosum (C2) atrophy was the most prominent in alcoholic WE. In contrast, only splenium (C5) was atrophied in nonalcoholic WE. The degree of atrophy did not change throughout the follow-up period (mean 5.3 weeks). This study suggests that the extent and location of corpus callosum atrophy differs between alcoholic WE and nonalcoholic WE, implying separate contribution of alcohol neurotoxicity and nutritional deficiency.

  6. Nasal Septum Perforation due to Methamphetamine abuse

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    Mehdi Bakhshaee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spontaneous Perforation of the nasal septum is an uncommon condition. Nasal inhalation of substances such as cocaine has long been linked to this Perforation. Case Report: This report describes the case of a 46-year-old woman who was addicted to methamphetamine and who presented with perforation of the nasal septum.This is the first reported case of nasal septal necrosis linked to nasal inhalation of methamphetamine. Conclusions: Patient history and assurance regardingillegal drug consumption and abuse is a key point for fast and accurate diagnosis. The pathophysiology of drug-induced sinunasal disease and a review of the literature are also presented.

  7. Eosinophilic Angiocentric Fibrosis of the Nasal Septum

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    Yunchuan Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF is a rare benign condition of unknown aetiology that causes stenosis of the upper respiratory tract. It is most commonly found at the nasal septum and sinus mucosa causing mucosal thickening and nasal obstructive symptoms. The diagnosis is mainly based on characteristic histologic findings. Case Report. A 27-year-old young woman presented with a slow growing mass at her anterior nasal septum for over eight years. She complained of persistent nasal obstruction, epistaxis, sometimes diffused facial pain, and chronic headache. 3 years ago, the tumor was partially resected for ventilation and a nasal septum perforation was left. Imaging findings indicated soft-tissue thickening of the anterior part of septum and adjacent lateral nasal walls. Pathological examination showed numerous inflammatory cells infiltrates containing eosinophils, fibroinflammatory lesion with a whorled appearance fibrosis which typically surrounded vessels. A diagnosis of eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis was made. All laboratory tests were unremarkable. Skin prick test was positive. The tumor-like lesion was totally resected. Conclusions. EAF is a rare benign and progressive disorder causing destruction. Combined with radiological imaging of EAF historical findings contribute to the diagnosis. It is important to prevent tumor from recurrence by total resection of the lesion.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging study of corpus callosum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-02

    Nov 2, 2014 ... We recruited 58 chronically schizophrenic patients with different subtypes, and 31 age-and-gender matched healthy controls. The callosum was extracted from a midsagittal slice from T1 weighted magnetic resonance images, and areas of the total CC, its five subregions,. CC length and total brain volume ...

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging study of corpus callosum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We recruited 58 chronically schizophrenic patients with different subtypes, and 31 age-and-gender matched healthy controls. The callosum was extracted from a midsagittal slice from T1 weighted magnetic resonance images, and areas of the total CC, its five subregions, CC length and total brain volume were compared ...

  10. Innards of a New Injection Septum for the PS Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The original injection septum was replaced by this new one, of improved design. It is really 4 septum magnets, for the 4 levels of the Booster rings, mounted on a common structure and housed in a single tank. The 50 MeV proton beam from the linac enters the visible septum aperture and moves from right to left.

  11. Infarction of the corpus callosum: a retrospective clinical investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Li

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate patients with ischemic infarctions in the territory of the corpus callosum to advance our understanding of this rare stroke subtype by providing comprehensive descriptive and epidemiological data.From January 1, 2010 to June 30, 2014, all cases of acute ischemic stroke diagnosed by clinical manifestation and diffusion weighted imaging in Dalian Municipal Central Hospital were investigated. The patients presenting with corpus callosum infarctions were selected and further allocated into genu and/or body and splenium infarction groups. Proportion, lesion patterns, clinical features, risk factors and etiology of corpus callosum infarction were analyzed.Out of 1,629 cases, 59 patients (3.6% with corpus callosum infarctions were identified by diffusion weighted imaging, including 7 patients who had ischemic lesions restricted to the corpus callosum territory. Thirty six patients had lesions in the splenium (61.0%. Corpus callosum infarction patients suffered from a broad spectrum of symptoms including weakness and/or numbness of the limbs, clumsy speech, and vertigo, which could not be explained by lesions in corpus callosum. A classical callosal disconnection syndrome was found in 2 out of all patients with corpus callosum infarctions. Statistical differences in the risk factor and infarct pattern between the genu and/or body group and splenium group were revealed.Corpus callosum infarction and the callosal disconnection syndrome were generally rare. The most susceptible location of ischemic corpus callosum lesion was the splenium. Splenium infarctions were often associated with bilateral cerebral hemisphere involvement (46.2%. The genu and/or body infarctions were associated with atherosclerosis. The most common cause of corpus callosum infarction probably was embolism.

  12. On Automating and Standardising Corpus Callosum Analysis in Brain MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Skoglund, Karl

    2005-01-01

    Corpus callosum analysis is influenced by many factors. The effort in controlling these has previously been incomplete and scattered. This paper sketches a complete pipeline for automated corpus callosum analysis from magnetic resonance images, with focus on measurement standardisation. The prese...

  13. DESIGN OF BEAM-EXTRACTION SEPTUM MAGNET FOR THE SNS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TSOUPAS,N.; LEE,Y.Y.; RANK,J.; TUOZZOLO,J.

    2001-06-18

    The beam-extraction process from the SNS accumulator ring [1,2] requires a Lambertson septum magnet. In this paper we discuss the geometrical and magnetic field requirements of the magnet and present results obtained from two and three dimensional magnetic field calculations that shows the field quality in the regions of interest of the septum magnet.

  14. Letter to the Editor: Interventricular septum hydatid cyst presenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cyst is also rare. We describe a case of a 30-year-old-man who presented with acute lower limb ischemia revealing hydatid cyst of the interventricular septum and septal defect, and who was operated on successfully. Keywords: hydatidosis; embolism; interventricular septum; embolectomy; cardiopulmonary bypass ...

  15. Endoscopic removal of nasal septum chondrosarcoma in paediatric patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nasri Abu Bakar

    2014-07-01

    We report a boy with progressive history of nasal obstruction and epistaxis. Nasal endoscopy revealed a mass arising from nasal septum. Endoscopic excision of the tumour was successfully done followed by radiotherapy. Endoscopic excision of chondrosarcoma of the nasal septum in its early stage should be considered for better outcome.

  16. The anterior complex: A visual mnemonic to aid in identification of normal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranzini, Angela C

    2017-10-01

    The anterior complex of the fetal brain is a group of structures that are important to evaluate during the routine anatomic survey to exclude several serious brain malformations. These structures include the cavum septum pellucidum, anterior horns, interhemispheric fissure, callosal sulcus, and corpus callosum. The relationship between these structures is easily remembered with the presented visual cartoon. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 45:477-479, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Rhombencephalosynapsis: association with single umbilical artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Veena; Sharma, Suvasini; Garg, Ajay

    2008-11-01

    A 6-year-old girl who presented with developmental delay and non-progressive ataxia is described. MRI of brain showed agenesis of cerebellar vermis with fusion of cerebellar hemispheres and dentate nuclei. MRI findings were characteristic of rhombencephalosynapsis. Partial agenesis of corpus callosum and absent septum pellucidum were also seen. The child had also been noted to have a single umbilical artery at birth: a hitherto undescribed association.

  18. Calculation and optimization of stray fields of septum dipole magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, Andrew J T

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical treatment is described of the external stray field of C- shaped septum magnets, such as those designed for the beam extraction systems of the 400 GeV CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. A special conformal transformation of the magnetic plane yields analytic expressions for the four components of the stray field: the septum- shape field (due to the form of the septum conductor), the edge-effect field (due to the mechanical clearance between septum and yoke), the cooling-duct field (due to the presence of these ducts in the septum), and the magnetomotance field (caused by the ampere-turn losses in the yoke). These expressions can be computed by numerical iteration. The septum-shape field turns out to be opposite in sign to the other three, making possible a criterion which creates a minimal stray field for a given magnetic induction. Plots of calculated and measured stray fields are presented for four prototype septum magnets whose total induction is between 0.38 and 1.41 T. (3 refs).

  19. [NeuroBehcet disease with corpus callosum involvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarouf, A; Hadj-Henni, L; Caucheteux, N; Renkes, C; Serre, I; Bakchine, S; Tourbah, A

    2011-01-01

    Behçet's disease is a multi-system vascular-inflammatory disease with possible involvement of the central nervous system. Lesions of the corpus callosum on MRI have been rarely reported in this disease. A 47-year-old woman was admitted for a sudden right hemiplegia and confusion revealing a Behcet's disease. MRI showed a pedonculo-thalamic lesion and a white matter hypersignals, which was suggestive of the disease. Besides, involvement of the corpus callosum was observed. This case demonstrates that Behcet's disease should be considered among diseases with corpus callosum involvement. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Cavernous angioma of the corpus callosum presenting with acute psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavesi, Giacomo; Causin, Francesco; Feletti, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric symptoms may occasionally be related to anatomic alterations of brain structures. Particularly, corpus callosum lesions seem to play a role in the change of patients' behavior. We present a case of a sudden psychotic attack presumably due to a hemorrhagic cavernous angioma of the corpus callosum, which was surgically removed with complete resolution of symptoms. Although a developmental defect like agenesis or lipoma is present in the majority of these cases, a growing lesion of the corpus callosum can rarely be the primary cause. Since it is potentially possible to cure these patients, clinicians should be aware of this association.

  1. Cavernous Angioma of the Corpus Callosum Presenting with Acute Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Pavesi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric symptoms may occasionally be related to anatomic alterations of brain structures. Particularly, corpus callosum lesions seem to play a role in the change of patients’ behavior. We present a case of a sudden psychotic attack presumably due to a hemorrhagic cavernous angioma of the corpus callosum, which was surgically removed with complete resolution of symptoms. Although a developmental defect like agenesis or lipoma is present in the majority of these cases, a growing lesion of the corpus callosum can rarely be the primary cause. Since it is potentially possible to cure these patients, clinicians should be aware of this association.

  2. Agenesis of the corpus callosum with associated inter-hemispheric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    childhood behavioural disorders, bipolar disorders,. Asperger's syndrome, personality disorder and conversion symptoms.1 Suspected causes of corpus callosum agenesis include chromosomal defects, prenatal infections, toxins and metabolic disorders.1 Callosal agenesis has been associated with interhemispheric cysts ...

  3. Clinical significance of the corpus callosum in cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Kim, Ji Chang [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Chul [School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); And Others

    2000-10-01

    To evaluate, using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the clinal significance of the corpus callosum by measuring the size of various portions of the corpus callosum in children with cerebral palsy, and in paired controls. Fifty-two children (30 boys and 22 girls aged between six and 96 (median, 19) months) in whom cerebral palsy was clinically diagnosed underwent MR imaging. There were 23 term patients and 29 preterm, and the control group was selected by age and sex matching. Clinal subtypes of cerebral palsy were classified as hemiplegia (n=14), spastic diplegia (n=22), or spastic quadriplegia (n=16), and according to the severity of motor palsy, the condition was also classified as mild (n=26), moderate (n=13), or severe (n=13). In addition to the length and height of the corpus callosum, the thickness of its genu, body, transitional zone and splenium, as seen on midsagittal T1-weighted MR images, were also measured. Differences in the measured values of the two groups were statistically analysed and differences in the size of the corpus callosum according to the clinical severity and subtypes of cerebral palsy, and gestational age, were also assessed. Except for height, the measured values of the corpus callosum in patients with cerebral palsy were significantly less than those of the control group (p less than 0.05). Its size decreased according to the severity of motor palsy. Compared with term patients, the corpus callosum in preterm patients was considerably smaller (p less than 0.05). There was statistically significant correlation between the severity of motor palsy and the size of the corpus callosum. Quantitative evaluation of the corpus callosum might be a good indicator of neurologic prognosis, and a sensitive marker for assessing the extent of brain injury.

  4. Cavernous Angioma of the Corpus Callosum Presenting with Acute Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Giacomo Pavesi; Francesco Causin; Alberto Feletti

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric symptoms may occasionally be related to anatomic alterations of brain structures. Particularly, corpus callosum lesions seem to play a role in the change of patients’ behavior. We present a case of a sudden psychotic attack presumably due to a hemorrhagic cavernous angioma of the corpus callosum, which was surgically removed with complete resolution of symptoms. Although a developmental defect like agenesis or lipoma is present in the majority of these cases, a growing lesion of t...

  5. Hereditary spastic paraplegia with a thin corpus callosum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaram, Sivaraman; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Imaging Sciences and Interventional Radiology, Trivandrum (India); Raghavendra, Seetharam; Singh, Atampreet; Nair, Muraleedharan [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Neurology, Trivandrum (India)

    2007-05-15

    We report a 15-year-old boy with autosomal recessive complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia with a thin corpus callosum (HSP-TCC). The involvement of the corpus callosum was characteristic with the genu and body predominantly affected with relative sparing of the splenium. HSP-TCC is being increasingly recognized over a wider geographical area than earlier believed. We now report a case of HSP-TCC from the Indian subcontinent. (orig.)

  6. Atresia pulmonar con septum interventricular intacto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Eladio González Morejón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La atresia pulmonar con septum interventricular intacto es una cardiopatía congénita cianótica aparentemente sencilla caracterizada por incorporar diversas variantes morfológicas y lesiones asociadas que conllevan a un diagnóstico y tratamiento más complejo del que inicialmente podría esperarse. La elevada mortalidad antes de los 6 meses de edad obliga a instaurar una conducta agresiva y precoz. Con esta revisión nos hemos propuesto efectuar la evaluación integral de la enfermedad desde sus elementos conceptuales hasta las variantes terapéuticas a adoptar, para lo cual se describen los aspectos más importantes en cuanto a morfología, fisiopatología, diagnóstico y tratamiento. Se discute, asimismo, el papel de la ecocardiografía, de la cirugía y de las técnicas de cardiología intervencionista. La estrategia fundamental del tratamiento es separar las circulaciones sistémica y pulmonar sin provocar disminución del gasto cardíaco ni aumentos en la presión venosa central. Se pretende, además, rescatar al ventrículo derecho para el circuito pulmonar siempre que la circulación coronaria no sea dependiente de aquel. Se resalta, mediante algoritmo, la importancia que reviste la integración de modalidades quirúrgicas, intervencionistas e híbridas en el acometimiento terapéutico de esta cardiopatía.

  7. Interleukin-6, age, and corpus callosum integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianne M Bettcher

    Full Text Available The contribution of inflammation to deleterious aging outcomes is increasingly recognized; however, little is known about the complex relationship between interleukin-6 (IL-6 and brain structure, or how this association might change with increasing age. We examined the association between IL-6, white matter integrity, and cognition in 151 community dwelling older adults, and tested whether age moderated these associations. Blood levels of IL-6 and vascular risk (e.g., homocysteine, as well as health history information, were collected. Processing speed assessments were administered to assess cognitive functioning, and we employed tract-based spatial statistics to examine whole brain white matter and regions of interest. Given the association between inflammation, vascular risk, and corpus callosum (CC integrity, fractional anisotropy (FA of the genu, body, and splenium represented our primary dependent variables. Whole brain analysis revealed an inverse association between IL-6 and CC fractional anisotropy. Subsequent ROI linear regression and ridge regression analyses indicated that the magnitude of this effect increased with age; thus, older individuals with higher IL-6 levels displayed lower white matter integrity. Finally, higher IL-6 levels were related to worse processing speed; this association was moderated by age, and was not fully accounted for by CC volume. This study highlights that at older ages, the association between higher IL-6 levels and lower white matter integrity is more pronounced; furthermore, it underscores the important, albeit burgeoning role of inflammatory processes in cognitive aging trajectories.

  8. [Study on computed tomography features of nasal septum cellule and its clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dingqiang; Li, Wanrong; Gao, Liming; Xu, Guanqiang; Ou, Xiaoyi; Tang, Guangcai

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the features of nasal septum cellule in computed tomographic (CT) images and its clinical significance. CT scans data of nasal septum in 173 patients were randomly obtained from January 2001 to June 2005. Prevalence and clinical features were summarized in the data of 19 patients with nasal septum cellule retrospectively. (1) Nineteen cases with nasal septum cellule were found in 173 patients. (2) All nasal septum cellule of 19 cases located in perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone, in which 8 cases located in upper part of nasal septum and 11 located in middle. (3) There were totally seven patients with nasal diseases related to nasal septum cellule, in which 3 cases with inflammation, 2 cases with bone fracture, 1 case with cholesterol granuloma, 1 case with mucocele. Nasal septum cellule is an anatomic variation of nasal septum bone, and its features can provide further understanding of some diseases related to nasal septum cellule.

  9. Resilience and corpus callosum microstructure in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinowski, A; Miranda, R; Lemaitre, H; Paillère Martinot, M-L; Artiges, E; Vulser, H; Goodman, R; Penttilä, J; Struve, M; Barbot, A; Fadai, T; Poustka, L; Conrod, P; Banaschewski, T; Barker, G J; Bokde, A; Bromberg, U; Büchel, C; Flor, H; Gallinat, J; Garavan, H; Heinz, A; Ittermann, B; Kappel, V; Lawrence, C; Loth, E; Mann, K; Nees, F; Paus, T; Pausova, Z; Poline, J-B; Rietschel, M; Robbins, T W; Smolka, M; Schumann, G; Martinot, J-L

    2015-08-01

    Resilience is the capacity of individuals to resist mental disorders despite exposure to stress. Little is known about its neural underpinnings. The putative variation of white-matter microstructure with resilience in adolescence, a critical period for brain maturation and onset of high-prevalence mental disorders, has not been assessed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Lower fractional anisotropy (FA) though, has been reported in the corpus callosum (CC), the brain's largest white-matter structure, in psychiatric and stress-related conditions. We hypothesized that higher FA in the CC would characterize stress-resilient adolescents. Three groups of adolescents recruited from the community were compared: resilient with low risk of mental disorder despite high exposure to lifetime stress (n = 55), at-risk of mental disorder exposed to the same level of stress (n = 68), and controls (n = 123). Personality was assessed by the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Voxelwise statistics of DTI values in CC were obtained using tract-based spatial statistics. Regional projections were identified by probabilistic tractography. Higher FA values were detected in the anterior CC of resilient compared to both non-resilient and control adolescents. FA values varied according to resilience capacity. Seed regional changes in anterior CC projected onto anterior cingulate and frontal cortex. Neuroticism and three other NEO-FFI factor scores differentiated non-resilient participants from the other two groups. High FA was detected in resilient adolescents in an anterior CC region projecting to frontal areas subserving cognitive resources. Psychiatric risk was associated with personality characteristics. Resilience in adolescence may be related to white-matter microstructure.

  10. Automated measurement of the human corpus callosum using MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Herron

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The corpus callosum includes the majority of fibers that connect the two cortical hemispheres. Studies of cross-sectional callosal morphometry and area have revealed developmental, gender, and hemispheric differences in healthy populations and callosal deficits associated with neurodegenerative disease and brain injury. However, accurate quantification of the callosum using magnetic resonance imaging is complicated by intersubject variability in callosal size, shape, and location and often requires manual outlining of the callosum in order to achieve adequate performance. Here we describe an objective, fully automated protocol that utilizes voxel-based image to quantify the area and thickness both of the entire callosum and of different callosal compartments. We verify the method’s accuracy, reliability, robustness and multisite consistency and make comparisons with manual measurements using public brain-image databases. An analysis of age-related changes in the callosum showed increases in length and reductions in thickness and area with age. A comparison of older subjects with and without mild dementia revealed that reductions in anterior callosal area independently predicted poorer cognitive performance after factoring out Mini-Mental Status Examination scores and normalized whole brain volume. Open-source software implementing the algorithm is available at www.nitrc.org/projects/c8c8.

  11. Upflow bioreactor with septum and pressure release mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Conly L.; Hansen, Carl S.; Pack, Kevin; Milligan, John; Benefiel, Bradley C.; Tolman, C. Wayne; Tolman, Kenneth W.

    2010-04-20

    An upflow bioreactor includes a vessel having an inlet and an outlet configured for upflow operation. A septum is positioned within the vessel and defines a lower chamber and an upper chamber. The septum includes an aperture that provides fluid communication between the upper chamber and lower chamber. The bioreactor also includes means for releasing pressure buildup in the lower chamber. In one configuration, the septum includes a releasable portion having an open position and a closed position. The releasable portion is configured to move to the open position in response to pressure buildup in the lower chamber. In the open position fluid communication between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is increased. Alternatively the lower chamber can include a pressure release line that is selectively actuated by pressure buildup. The pressure release mechanism can prevent the bioreactor from plugging and/or prevent catastrophic damage to the bioreactor caused by high pressures.

  12. Primary subfertility with partial septate uterus and longitudinal vaginal septum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesmine Banu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A 22 year old married woman presented with the complaints of severe dyspareunia, difficulty in conceiving for 18 months, menorrhagia and dysmenorrhoea since menarche. Clinical examination revealed longitudinal vaginal septum. Ultrasound scan revealed two endometrial cavities with a single cervix. Hysterosalpingogram revealed septum which had separated the endometrial cavity with no free spillage of contrast media on both fallopian tubes. Ultrasound KUB and intravenous urethrography did not reveal any abnormality in the urinary system. Resection of vaginal septum, hysteroscopic septoplasty and diagnostic laparoscopy were performed. Three months after the surgery, she was relieved from the symptoms. However, no comments on fertility issue can be made at the moment as the couple is practicing contraceptive methods.

  13. Longitudinal vaginal septum 'obstructive variety'--a challenge for gynaecologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaid, Neelam B; Radhika, A G; Radhakrishnan, Gita

    2008-04-01

    The cases which have been presented here have varied presentations but all the three patients in the series had acyclical abdominal pain. Since the uterus is functional there is collection of blood in the pouch formed due to the vaginal septum. This is a potential site for infection and could result in foul smelling discharge. Failure of fusion of lower ends of mullerian ducts that form vagina results in longitudinal vaginal septum. The septum may be partial or complete. The clinical syndrome of double uterus with vaginal obstruction (unilateral, partial or complete) and ipsilateral renal agenesis (same as of the side of obstruction) is rare. This combination is suggestive of embryologic arrest occuring at 8 weeks of pregnancy that simultaneausly affected the mullerian and metanephric ducts.

  14. Nasal septum perforation in patient with pyoderma gangrenosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia, Camilla Bezerra da Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The cocaine is obtained from the leaves of the coca (Erythroxylon coca. It can be used in many ways, but the most common is the drug inhalation. The Cocaine also causes vasoconstriction at nasal mucous membrane and its chronic use can cause necrosis and nasal septum perforation. Pyoderma gangrenosum is an uncommon idiopathic disease characterized by ulcerations, usually observed on the legs. Its diagnosis is most common an exclusion of others diseases. So far, there is no specific treatment based on evidence by randomized controlled trials. Objective: Describe the rare association between Pyoderma gangrenosum and cocaine. Case Report: E. A., 27-year-old woman with destruction of nasal septum and palate who has been using a big amount of cocaine, been necessary note the difference from which disease cause de damage. Final Comments: Also there are only three cases of Pyoderma gangrenosum complicated with nasal septum perforation in cocaine users.

  15. MR imaging of spastic diplegia. The importance of corpus callosum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, K. [Kyoto City Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Kanda, T. [St. Joseph Hospital for Handicapped Children, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Pediatric Neurology; Hashimoto, K. [Ukyo Hospital, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Pediatrics; Okuno, Y. [Kyoto City Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Yamori, Y. [St. Joseph Hospital for Handicapped Children, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Pediatric Neurology; Yuge, M. [St. Joseph Hospital for Handicapped Children, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Pediatric Neurology; Ando, R. [St. Joseph Hospital for Handicapped Children, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Pediatric Neurology; Ozaki, N. [Ukyo Hospital, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Pediatrics; Tamamoto, A. [Ukyo Hospital, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Pediatrics

    1996-09-01

    Purpose: The MR findings in patients with spastic diplegia were investigated and the role of MR imaging in assessing the extent of brain injury was evaluated. Material and Methods: 39 male and 24 female patients (preterm/term 43/20) were imaged using a 0.5 T MR system. Results: The MR findings in term patients were quite different from those in preterm patients; 55% of the term patients showed normal and minimal changes on MR, whereas 90.7% of the 43 preterm children had periventricular leucomalacia. The deep cerebral white matter was the most frequently involved site. Objective measurements revealed significant reductions of the entire sagittal area of corpus callosum in diplegic patients in comparison with normal controls. The motor plasy severity correlated well with the extent of corpus callosum involvement. Conclusion: The corpus callosum appears to be a sensitive marker site for the assessment of the extent of white matter injury. (orig.).

  16. Corpus callosum in aging and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Kristian Steen

    2013-10-01

    The overarching objective of the thesis was to investigate the morphological changes in the corpus callosum (CC) in aging and dementia in relation to its role in cognitive and motor decline. The CC is the largest white matter tract in the brain, containing upwards of 200 million axons, and is believed important for communication and interaction between the two cerebral hemispheres. Historically, the role of white matter, including the CC, in relation to cognitive function has often been eclipsed by the predominance of the cortex, and led to a "corticocentric" view of the brain and cognitive function. However, from the 1960s and onwards, the role of lesions in the white matter in the appearence of cognitive deficits and diseases such as dementia has become increasingly evident. Many studies have indicated that AD is associated with CC atrophy, but the precise pattern of subregional CC atrophy in different disease stages remains undetermined. In study I, we establish that atrophy is present primarily in the posterior CC early in AD, and that atrophy of the CC is associated with faster disease progression. This finding supports a model where posterior atrophy is the earliest changes in the CC in AD patients, with atrophy of anterior CC being a later pathological event. To further elucidate the role of CC atrophy in dementia, we examined a population of 329 elderly subjects, and found that a higher rate of tissue loss in posterior CC is associated with an increased risk of dementia. This study represents the first to examine CC in elderly subjects longitudinally. In the same cohort, we investigated whether impairment in specific cognitive domains was associated with CC tissue loss. Previous studies had shown that processing speed and executive functions may be particularly reliant on the CC. Our findings indicated that CC tissue loss leads to selective impairment of processing speed but not memory or executive function deficits. Finally, CC tissue loss was also

  17. Diffusion tensor analysis of corpus callosum in progressive supranuclear palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Shoichi; Makino, Takahiro; Shirai, Wakako; Hattori, Takamichi [Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative disease featuring parkinsonism, supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, dysphagia, and frontal lobe dysfunction. The corpus callosum which consists of many commissure fibers probably reflects cerebral cortical function. Several previous reports showed atrophy or diffusion abnormalities of anterior corpus callosum in PSP patients, but partitioning method used in these studies was based on data obtained in nonhuman primates. In this study, we performed a diffusion tensor analysis using a new partitioning method for the human corpus callosum. Seven consecutive patients with PSP were compared with 29 age-matched patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) and 19 age-matched healthy control subjects. All subjects underwent diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging, and the corpus callosum was partitioned into five areas on the mid-sagittal plane according to a recently established topography of human corpus callosum (CC1-prefrontal area, CC2-premotor and supplementary motor area, CC3-motor area, CC4-sensory area, CC5-parietal, temporal, and occipital area). Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were measured in each area and differences between groups were analyzed. In the PSP group, FA values were significantly decreased in CC1 and CC2, and ADC values were significantly increased in CC1 and CC2. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed excellent reliability of FA and ADC analyses of CC1 for differentiating PSP from PD. The anterior corpus callosum corresponding to the prefrontal, premotor, and supplementary motor cortices is affected in PSP patients. This analysis can be an additional test for further confirmation of the diagnosis of PSP.

  18. Polyethylene glycol restores axonal conduction after corpus callosum transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Bamba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG has been shown to restore axonal continuity after peripheral nerve transection in animal models. We hypothesized that PEG can also restore axonal continuity in the central nervous system. In this current experiment, coronal sectioning of the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats was performed after animal sacrifice. 3Brain high-resolution microelectrode arrays (MEA were used to measure mean firing rate (MFR and peak amplitude across the corpus callosum of the ex-vivo brain slices. The corpus callosum was subsequently transected and repeated measurements were performed. The cut ends of the corpus callosum were still apposite at this time. A PEG solution was applied to the injury site and repeated measurements were performed. MEA measurements showed that PEG was capable of restoring electrophysiology signaling after transection of central nerves. Before injury, the average MFRs at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum were 0.76, 0.66, and 0.65 spikes/second, respectively, and the average peak amplitudes were 69.79, 58.68, and 49.60 μV, respectively. After injury, the average MFRs were 0.71, 0.14, and 0.25 spikes/second, respectively and peak amplitudes were 52.11, 8.98, and 16.09 μV, respectively. After application of PEG, there were spikes in MFR and peak amplitude at the injury site and contralaterally. The average MFRs were 0.75, 0.55, and 0.47 spikes/second at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum, respectively and peak amplitudes were 59.44, 45.33, 40.02 μV, respectively. There were statistically differences in the average MFRs and peak amplitudes between the midline and non-midline corpus callosum groups (P < 0.01, P < 0.05. These findings suggest that PEG restores axonal conduction between severed central nerves, potentially representing axonal fusion.

  19. Acquired lesions of the corpus callosum: MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, A.; Takase, Y.; Nomiyama, K.; Egashira, R.; Kudo, S. [Saga Medical School, Department of Radiology, Saga (Japan)

    2006-04-15

    In this pictorial review, we illustrate acquired diseases or conditions of the corpus callosum that may be found by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain, including infarction, bleeding, diffuse axonal injury, multiple sclerosis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, Marchiafava-Bignami disease, glioblastoma, gliomatosis cerebri, lymphoma, metastasis, germinoma, infections, metabolic diseases, transient splenial lesion, dilated Virchow-Robin spaces, wallerian degeneration after hemispheric damage and focal splenial gliosis. MR imaging is useful for the detection and differential diagnosis of corpus callosal lesions. Due to the anatomical shape and location of the corpus callosum, both coronal and sagittal fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images are most useful for visualizing lesions of this structure. (orig.)

  20. Atresia pulmonar con septum interventricular intacto Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum, a thematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Eladio González Morejón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La atresia pulmonar con septum interventricular intacto es una cardiopatía congénita cianótica aparentemente sencilla caracterizada por incorporar diversas variantes morfológicas y lesiones asociadas que conllevan a un diagnóstico y tratamiento más complejo del que inicialmente podría esperarse. La elevada mortalidad antes de los 6 meses de edad obliga a instaurar una conducta agresiva y precoz. Con esta revisión nos hemos propuesto efectuar la evaluación integral de la enfermedad desde sus elementos conceptuales hasta las variantes terapéuticas a adoptar, para lo cual se describen los aspectos más importantes en cuanto a morfología, fisiopatología, diagnóstico y tratamiento. Se discute, asimismo, el papel de la ecocardiografía, de la cirugía y de las técnicas de cardiología intervencionista. La estrategia fundamental del tratamiento es separar las circulaciones sistémica y pulmonar sin provocar disminución del gasto cardíaco ni aumentos en la presión venosa central. Se pretende, además, rescatar al ventrículo derecho para el circuito pulmonar siempre que la circulación coronaria no sea dependiente de aquel. Se resalta, mediante algoritmo, la importancia que reviste la integración de modalidades quirúrgicas, intervencionistas e híbridas en el acometimiento terapéutico de esta cardiopatía.Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum is an apparently simple cyanotic congenital cardiopathy, characterized by several morphological variants and associated lesions leading to a complex diagnosis and treatment. The high mortality rate recorded in under 6 months-old infants demands an early aggressive management to face this situation. This review was intended to make a comprehensive assessment of the disease from its basic conceptual elements to the therapeutic variants to be adopted. To this end, the most important elements of morphology, physiopathology, diagnosis and treatment were addressed, in addition to discussing

  1. Septum necrosis following CPAP treatment of preterm infant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjaeldstad, Alexander; Cipliene, Rasa; Ramsgaard-Jensen, Trine

    2014-01-01

    This case describes the complications of intensive respiratory support in a preterm infant. During two months of rigorous nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy with intermittent use of CPAP-mask and -prongs, an ulcer in the nasal mucus membrane developed into septum necrosis...

  2. Interventricular septum hydatid cyst presenting with acute lower limb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-29

    Jun 29, 2015 ... A trans-thoracic echocardiography defined an anec- hoic lesion of 29)27 mm originating from the interven- tricular septum and ruptured into the left ventricle via a septal defect of 9 mm (Fig. 2). Computerized tomographic scan of thorax revealed a well-defined cystic lesion of 26.7 mm in diameter protrud-.

  3. Rare occupational cause of nasal septum perforation: Nickel exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertugrul Cagri Bolek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many etiologies are held accountable for nasal septum perforations. Topical nasal drug usage, previous surgeries, trauma, nose picking, squamous cell carcinoma, some rheumatological disorders such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener granulomatosis, some infectious diseases such as syphilis and leprosy are among the causes of the perforations. Occupational heavy metal exposures by inhalation rarely may also cause nasal septum perforation. Here, we present a 29-year-old patient without any known diseases, who is a worker at a metallic coating and nickel-plating factory, referred for investigation of his nasal cartilage septum perforation from an otorhinolaryngology clinic. The patient questioning, physical examination and laboratory assessment about rheumatic and infectious diseases were negative. There was a metallic smell in the breath during the physical examination. The analysis showed serum nickel level at 31 μg/l and urine nickel at 18 μg/l (84.11 μg/g creatinine. Other possible serum and urine heavy metal levels were within normal ranges. Nickel exposure is usually together with other heavy metals (chromium or cadmium, it is rarely alone. Nickel ingested by inhalation usually leads to respiratory problems such as reduced olfactory acuity, ulcers, septum perforation or tumors of the nasal sinuses. This case demonstrates the importance of occupational anamnesis and awareness of diagnosis. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(6:963–967

  4. Molecular and electrical characterization of the canine cardiac ventricular septum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakers, Christian; Stengl, Milan; Spätjens, Roel L. H. M. G.; Moorman, Antoon F. M.; Vos, Marc A.

    2005-01-01

    Electrophysiological heterogeneity in the ventricular septum (VS) has been poorly addressed. In this study we investigated the electrophysiological and molecular composition of the VS in control sinus rhythm (SR) and chronic, complete atrio-ventricular block (CAVB) dogs. In the latter model, we

  5. Transcatheter pulmonary valve perforation and balloon dilatation in neonates with pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerestein, C.G.; Berger, R.M.F.; Dalinghaus, M.; Bogers, A.J.J.C.; Witsenburg, M.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum is characterised by a great morphological variety. Treatment is not uniform. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate our experience with transcatheter valvotomy and balloon dilatation in neonates with pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum. DESIGN:

  6. Agenesis of the corpus callosum with associated inter-hemispheric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On examination they noted a normal general and neurological examination apart from some frontal lobe signs on mental status examination. He also had features of psychosis and labile mood. On CT brain scan he had agenesis of the corpus callosum (CC) with associated interhemispheric cyst and right frontal pachygyria.

  7. Corpus callosum atrophy in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristian Steen; Garde, Ellen; Skimminge, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have found atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains unclear whether callosal atrophy is already present in the early stages of AD, and to what extent it may be associated with other structural changes in the brain, such as ...

  8. Autism Traits in Individuals with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yolanda C.; Hinkley, Leighton B. N.; Bukshpun, Polina; Strominger, Zoe A.; Wakahiro, Mari L. J.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Jeremy, Rita J.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Marco, Elysa J.

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have numerous etiologies, including structural brain malformations such as agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC). We sought to directly measure the occurrence of autism traits in a cohort of individuals with AgCC and to investigate the neural underpinnings of this association. We screened a large AgCC cohort (n =…

  9. Accelerated corpus callosum development in prematurity predicts improved outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, Deanne K.; Lee, Katherine J.; van Bijnen, Loeka; Leemans, Alexander; Pascoe, Leona; Scratch, Shannon E.; Cheong, Jeanie; Egan, Gary F.; Inder, Terrie E.; Doyle, Lex W.; Anderson, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine: (1) whether corpus callosum (CC) size and microstructure at 7 years of age or their change from infancy to 7 years differed between very preterm (VP) and full-term (FT) children; (2) perinatal predictors of CC size and microstructure at 7 years; and (3) associations between

  10. Agenesis of the corpus callosum and autism: a comprehensive comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lynn K; Corsello, Christina; Kennedy, Daniel P; Adolphs, Ralph

    2014-06-01

    The corpus callosum, with its ∼200 million axons, remains enigmatic in its contribution to cognition and behaviour. Agenesis of the corpus callosum is a congenital condition in which the corpus callosum fails to develop; such individuals exhibit localized deficits in non-literal language comprehension, humour, theory of mind and social reasoning. These findings together with parent reports suggest that behavioural and cognitive impairments in subjects with callosal agenesis may overlap with the profile of autism spectrum disorders, particularly with respect to impairments in social interaction and communication. To provide a comprehensive test of this hypothesis, we directly compared a group of 26 adults with callosal agenesis to a group of 28 adults with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder but no neurological abnormality. All participants had full-scale intelligence quotient scores >78 and groups were matched on age, handedness, and gender ratio. Using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule together with current clinical presentation to assess autistic symptomatology, we found that 8/26 (about a third) of agenesis subjects presented with autism. However, more formal diagnosis additionally involving recollective parent-report measures regarding childhood behaviour showed that only 3/22 met complete formal criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (parent reports were unavailable for four subjects). We found no relationship between intelligence quotient and autism symptomatology in callosal agenesis, nor evidence that the presence of any residual corpus callosum differentiated those who exhibited current autism spectrum symptoms from those who did not. Relative to the autism spectrum comparison group, parent ratings of childhood behaviour indicated children with agenesis were less likely to meet diagnostic criteria for autism, even for those who met autism spectrum criteria as adults, and even though there was no group difference in parent report of current

  11. Crisscross heart with dextrocardia and intact interventricular septum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kader Muneer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crisscross heart is a rare congenital heart disease characterized by a twisted atrioventricular connection, as a result of rotation of the ventricular mass along its long axis. We report an asymptomatic 48-year-old woman referred to us for evaluation of a cardiac murmur. Further evaluation showed situs solitus, dextrocardia with normal atrioventricular and ventriculoarterial connection, and a crisscross relation of the atrioventricular valves. Unlike the usual case of crisscross heart, our patient had an intact ventricular septum.

  12. Corpus callosum agenesis: Role of fetal magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achour Radhouane

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Corpus callosum agenesis (CCA was evaluated by ultrasound examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with many studies. Ultrasonography was able to suspect CCA by indirect signs but a definitive diagnosis of CCA was achieved in rare cases. MRI was able to diagnose complete CCA in majority of cases. Additional neurological abnormalities including heterotopia, gyration anomaly, asymmetry of the cerebral hemispheres, and Dandy-Walker variant were documented, as well as an ocular anomaly which was described, by MRI examination. Prenatal counseling for fetal agenesis of the corpus callosum is difficult as the prognosis is uncertain. The association with other cerebral abnormalities increases the likelihood of a poor outcome and ultrasonographic assessment of the fetal brain is limited. We found MRI to be a safe and useful additional procedure to complement ultrasonographic diagnosis or suspicion of CCA.

  13. Axon position within the corpus callosum determines contralateral cortical projection

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jing; Wen, Yunqing; She, Liang; Sui, Ya-nan; Liu, Lu; Richards, Linda J.; Poo, Mu-ming

    2013-01-01

    Two hemispheres of the neocortex are connected via a large axon bundle, the corpus callosum (CC). Axons from one side of the cortex project primarily to the equivalent cortical area on the contralateral side. How this homotopic axon projection is achieved during development remains unclear. Quantitative analysis of the cortical axons' positions within CC and their projection pattern after crossing the midline showed that axon position within CC is critical for homotopic projection. Further ge...

  14. Demonstrated rapid growth of a corpus callosum cavernous angioma within a short period of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, E; Yücesoy, K; Kalemci, O

    2005-12-01

    Cavernous angiomas are uncommon central nervous system vascular malformations. They occur in the corpus callosum very rarely. In this study we report a case of corpus callosum cavernous angioma which demonstrated rapid growth within a short period of time. Corpus callosum cavernous angiomas have distinct features regarding growth and should be treated more carefully by giving more importance to surgical removal rather than a conservative approach.

  15. Electrostatic septum for "Continuous Transfer" from PS to SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    For "Continuous Transfer" to the SPS, the PS beam, after acceleration, is peeled off in 5 turns. To minimize losses, the magnetic septa are preceded by an electrostatic septum in straight section 31. We see the inner part of it, on a lab-bench. The first part consists of W-wires, the second part is a Mo-foil. The circulating beam passes through the opening, the ejected beam at the outside (above the wires, in this picture). This assembly is the anode-part, the cathode is not shown.

  16. Partial tearing of the interventricular septum after blunt chest trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ruiz, Nilson; Ramírez Gil, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac trauma after blunt chest trauma is a rare complication of patients arriving alive to an emergency department. We here present the case of patient who had a partial rupture of the interventricular septum after having had a blunt chest trauma in a traffic accident. As there was no ventricular septal defect, conservative management was deemed appropriate. At 3-year follow-up, the patient was free of right heart failure symptoms suggestive of the septal defect progression. Copyright © 2015 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. Alien hand syndrome without a corpus callosum lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, M G; Goldman, S; Hildebrand, J

    1995-01-01

    A 58 year old right handed woman developed a left alien hand syndrome after a right capsulothalamic haemorrhage with mesencephalic extension. No lesion was detected in the corpus callosum. Positron emission tomography suggested that right cortical dysfunction might account for the absence of recognition of the left hand whereas involuntary motor activity was attributed to the lesion itself. This case shows that the alien hand syndrome is not always the expression of a disconnection syndrome and may occur after a large, strategically located, posterior lesion. Images PMID:7608678

  18. Electroconvulsive Therapy and Corpus Callosum Aplasia: A 3-Year Followup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Palm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT is a powerful treatment option in severe or chronic catatonic states and has been reported to be useful in oligophrenic patients. We report the followup medical history of a patient with corpus callosum aplasia (or agenesis who was continuously treated with ECT over three years. First, he improved considerably after a series of ECT, but relapses of catatonia made a continuous, weekly ECT necessary. Due to the severity of the brain malformation, an add-on medication with benzodiazepines and second generation antipsychotics was necessary to treat catatonic symptoms. This case emphasises the benefits of long-term ECT in oligophrenic patients.

  19. [Correlation between growth rate of corpus callosum and neuromotor development in preterm infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui-Ke; Sun, Jie; Hu, Li-Yan; Liu, Fang

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the growth rate of corpus callosum by cranial ultrasound in very low birth weight preterm infants and to provide a reference for early evaluation and improvement of brain development. A total of 120 preterm infants under 33 weeks' gestation were recruited and divided into 26-29(+6) weeks group (n=64) and 30-32(+6) weeks group (n=56) according to the gestational age. The growth rate of corpus callosum was compared between the two groups. The correlation between the corpus callosum length and the cerebellar vermis length and the relationship of the growth rate of corpus callosum with clinical factors and the neuromotor development were analyzed. The growth rate of corpus callosum in preterm infants declined since 2 weeks after birth. Compared with the 30-32(+6) weeks group, the 26-29(+6) weeks group had a significantly lower growth rate of corpus callosum at 3-4 weeks after birth, at 5-6 weeks after birth, and from 7 weeks after birth to 40 weeks of corrected gestational age. There was a positive linear correlation between the corpus callosum length and the cerebellar vermis length. Small-for-gestational age infants had a low growth rate of corpus callosum at 2 weeks after birth. The 12 preterm infants with severe abnormal intellectual development had a lower growth rate of corpus callosum compared with the 108 preterm infants with non-severe abnormal intellectual development at 3-6 weeks after birth. The 5 preterm infants with severe abnormal motor development had a significantly lower growth rate of corpus callosum compared with the 115 preterm infants with non-severe abnormal motor development at 3-6 weeks after birth. The decline of growth rate of corpus callosum in preterm infants at 2-6 weeks after birth can increase the risk of severe abnormal neuromotor development.

  20. Corpus callosum thickness in children: an MR pattern-recognition approach on the midsagittal image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Pillay, Tanyia; Gabuza, Lungile; Mahomed, Nasreen; Naidoo, Jaishree; Tebogo Hlabangana, Linda [University of the Witwatersrand, Radiology Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, Johannesburg (South Africa); Du Plessis, Vicci [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Radiology Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, Durban (South Africa); Prabhu, Sanjay P. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-08-31

    Thickening of the corpus callosum is an important feature of development, whereas thinning of the corpus callosum can be the result of a number of diseases that affect development or cause destruction of the corpus callosum. Corpus callosum thickness reflects the volume of the hemispheres and responds to changes through direct effects or through Wallerian degeneration. It is therefore not only important to evaluate the morphology of the corpus callosum for congenital anomalies but also to evaluate the thickness of specific components or the whole corpus callosum in association with other findings. The goal of this pictorial review is raise awareness that the thickness of the corpus callosum can be a useful feature of pathology in pediatric central nervous system disease and must be considered in the context of the stage of development of a child. Thinning of the corpus callosum can be primary or secondary, and generalized or focal. Primary thinning is caused by abnormal or failed myelination related to the hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathies, metabolic disorders affecting white matter, and microcephaly. Secondary thinning of the corpus callosum can be caused by diffuse injury such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalopathy, hydrocephalus, dysmyelinating conditions and demyelinating conditions. Focal disturbance of formation or focal injury also causes localized thinning, e.g., callosal dysgenesis, metabolic disorders with localized effects, hypoglycemia, white matter injury of prematurity, HIV-related atrophy, infarction and vasculitis, trauma and toxins. The corpus callosum might be too thick because of a primary disorder in which the corpus callosum finding is essential to diagnosis; abnormal thickening can also be secondary to inflammation, infection and trauma. (orig.)

  1. Microstructural changes in thickened corpus callosum in children: contribution of magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlini, Laura; Anooshiravani, Mehrak; Kanavaki, Aikaterini; Hanquinet, Sylviane [University of Geneva Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Radiology Unit, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    Thickened corpus callosum is a rare finding and its pathophysiology is not well known. An anomalous supracallosal bundle has been depicted by fiber tracking in some cases but no diffusion tensor imaging metrics of thickened corpus callosum have been reported. To use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in cases of thickened corpus callosum to help in understanding its clinical significance. During a 7-year period five children (ages 6 months to 15 years) with thickened corpus callosum were studied. We determined DTI metrics of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity, and axial (λ1) and radial (λ2, λ3) diffusivity and performed 3-D fiber tracking reconstruction of the thickened corpus callosum. We compared our results with data from the literature and 24 age-matched controls. Brain abnormalities were seen in all cases. All children had at least three measurements of corpus callosum thickness above the 97th percentile according to age. In all children 3-D fiber tracking showed an anomalous supracallosal bundle and statistically significant decrease in FA (P = 0.003) and λ1 (P = 0.001) of the corpus callosum compared with controls, but no significant difference in mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity. Thickened corpus callosum was associated with abnormal bundles, suggesting underlying axonal guidance abnormality. DTI metrics suggested abnormal fiber compactness and density, which may be associated with alterations in cognition. (orig.)

  2. Corpus callosum tissue loss and development of motor and global cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristian Steen; Garde, Ellen; Skimminge, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    To examine the impact of corpus callosum (CC) tissue loss on the development of global cognitive and motor impairment in the elderly.......To examine the impact of corpus callosum (CC) tissue loss on the development of global cognitive and motor impairment in the elderly....

  3. A critical re-examination of sexual dimorphism in the corpus callosum microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhausen, René; Kompus, Kristiina; Dramsdahl, Margaretha

    2011-01-01

    Recent diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) studies suggest sexual dimorphism in the micro-structural architecture of the corpus callosum. However, the corpus callosum is also found to be larger in males than in females, a fact that might introduce a systematic bias to the analysis of DTI parameters...

  4. Imaging of lipoma of the corpus callosum and intracranial dermoids in the Goldenhar syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltinger, C.; Saule, H.

    1988-01-01

    With increased frequency lipoma of the corpus callosum and intracranial dermoids have been recognized to be associated with oculoauriculovertebral dysplasia (Goldenhar syndrome). We report an additional case of lipoma of the corpus callosum in a newborn with Goldenhar syndrome. Sonographic, roentgenographic and computertomographic features of these intracranial lesions are discussed and the literature is reviewed.

  5. Copy Number Variations Found in Patients with a Corpus Callosum Abnormality and Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heide, Solveig; Keren, Boris; Billette de Villemeur, Thierry; Chantot-Bastaraud, Sandra; Depienne, Christel; Nava, Caroline; Mignot, Cyril; Jacquette, Aurélia; Fonteneau, Eric; Lejeune, Elodie; Mach, Corinne; Marey, Isabelle; Whalen, Sandra; Lacombe, Didier; Naudion, Sophie; Rooryck, Caroline; Toutain, Annick; Caignec, Cédric Le; Haye, Damien; Olivier-Faivre, Laurence; Masurel-Paulet, Alice; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Lesne, Fabien; Faudet, Anne; Ville, Dorothée; des Portes, Vincent; Sanlaville, Damien; Siffroi, Jean-Pierre; Moutard, Marie-Laure; Héron, Delphine

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the role that chromosomal micro-rearrangements play in patients with both corpus callosum abnormality and intellectual disability, we analyzed copy number variations (CNVs) in patients with corpus callosum abnormality/intellectual disability STUDY DESIGN: We screened 149 patients with corpus callosum abnormality/intellectual disability using Illumina SNP arrays. In 20 patients (13%), we have identified at least 1 CNV that likely contributes to corpus callosum abnormality/intellectual disability phenotype. We confirmed that the most common rearrangement in corpus callosum abnormality/intellectual disability is inverted duplication with terminal deletion of the 8p chromosome (3.2%). In addition to the identification of known recurrent CNVs, such as deletions 6qter, 18q21 (including TCF4), 1q43q44, 17p13.3, 14q12, 3q13, 3p26, and 3q26 (including SOX2), our analysis allowed us to refine the 2 known critical regions associated with 8q21.1 deletion and 19p13.1 duplication relevant for corpus callosum abnormality; report a novel 10p12 deletion including ZEB1 recently implicated in corpus callosum abnormality with corneal dystrophy; and) report a novel pathogenic 7q36 duplication encompassing SHH. In addition, 66 variants of unknown significance were identified in 57 patients encompassed candidate genes. Our results confirm the relevance of using microarray analysis as first line test in patients with corpus callosum abnormality/intellectual disability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Organising white matter in a brain without corpus callosum fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénézit, Audrey; Hertz-Pannier, Lucie; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine; Monzalvo, Karla; Germanaud, David; Duclap, Delphine; Guevara, Pamela; Mangin, Jean-François; Poupon, Cyril; Moutard, Marie-Laure; Dubois, Jessica

    2015-02-01

    Isolated corpus callosum dysgenesis (CCD) is a congenital malformation which occurs during early development of the brain. In this study, we aimed to identify and describe its consequences beyond the lack of callosal fibres, on the morphology, microstructure and asymmetries of the main white matter bundles with diffusion imaging and fibre tractography. Seven children aged between 9 and 13 years old and seven age- and gender-matched control children were studied. First, we focused on bundles within the mesial region of the cerebral hemispheres: the corpus callosum, Probst bundles and cingulum which were selected using a conventional region-based approach. We demonstrated that the Probst bundles have a wider connectivity than the previously described rostrocaudal direction, and a microstructure rather distinct from the cingulum but relatively close to callosal remnant fibres. A sigmoid bundle was found in two partial ageneses. Second, the corticospinal tract, thalamic radiations and association bundles were extracted automatically via an atlas of adult white matter bundles to overcome bias resulting from a priori knowledge of the bundles' anatomical morphology and trajectory. Despite the lack of callosal fibres and the colpocephaly observed in CCD, all major white matter bundles were identified with a relatively normal morphology, and preserved microstructure (i.e. fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity) and asymmetries. Consequently the bundles' organisation seems well conserved in brains with CCD. These results await further investigations with functional imaging before apprehending the cognition variability in children with isolated dysgenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A computerized approach for morphological analysis of the corpus callosum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davatzikos, C.; Vaillant, M.; Letovsky, S.; Bryan, R.N.; Prince, J.L. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Resnick, S.M. [National Inst. of Aging, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1996-01-01

    A new technique for analyzing the morphology of the corpus callosum is presented, and it is applied to a group of elderly subjects. The proposed approach normalizes subject data into the Talairach space using an elastic deformation transformation. The properties of this transformation are used as a quantitative description of the callosal shape with respect to the Talairach atlas, which is treated as a standard. In particular, a deformation function measures the enlargement/shrinkage associated with this elastic deformation. Intersubject comparisons are made by comparing deformation functions. This technique was applied to eight male and eight female subjects. Based on the average deformation functions of each group, the posterior region of the female corpus callosum was found to be larger than its corresponding region in the males. The average callosal shape of each group was also found, demonstrating visually the callosal shape differences between the two groups in this sample. The proposed methodology utilizes the full resolution of the data, rather than relying on global descriptions such as area measurements. The application of this methodology to an elderly group indicated sex-related differences in the callosal shape and size. 29 refs., 16 figs.

  8. Corpus callosum volumes in bipolar disorders and suicidal vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifuni, Anthony J; Olié, Emilie; Ding, Yang; Cyprien, Fabienne; le Bars, Emmanuelle; Bonafé, Alain; Courtet, Philippe; Jollant, Fabrice

    2017-04-30

    Reduced size of the corpus callosum (CC) has been associated with bipolar disorders and suicidality. Here, we aimed at investigating the relative independence of these associations in a large sample of patients. Two samples of males and females totaling 209 euthymic participants were recruited, including 72 patients with a major depressive disorder, 64 with bipolar disorders and 73 healthy controls. Among patients, 61 had a lifetime history of suicide attempt and 75 had none. Structural scans were acquired with 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging. Surface-based morphometry (Freesurfer) analysis was used to compute the volumes of the CC. In the whole sample, there was a significant reduction in the volume of mid-anterior, central, and mid-posterior (all pbipolar patients independently from suicidality, with medium effect sizes between unipolar and bipolar patients (Cohen's d between 0.46 and 0.62). In contrast, suicide attempters did not differ from non-attempters. This significant association between CC volumes and bipolar disorders was mainly found in the male sample, while a trend was found in the female sample. Within each patient group, medication had no major effect. Our study adds to the growing body of evidence linking corpus callosum alterations and bipolar disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Emotional Intelligence in Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Luke B; Paul, Lynn K; Brown, Warren S

    2017-05-01

    People with agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) with normal general intelligence have deficits in complex cognitive processing, as well as in social cognition. It is uncertain the extent to which impoverished processing of emotions may contribute to social processing deficiencies. We used the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test to clarify the nature of emotional intelligence in 16 adults with AgCC. As hypothesized, persons with AgCC exhibited greater disparities from norms on tests involving more socially complex aspects of emotions. The AgCC group did not differ from norms on the Experiential subscale, but they were significantly below norms on the Strategic subscale. These findings suggest that the corpus callosum is not essential for experiencing and thinking about basic emotions in a "normal" way, but is necessary for more complex processes involving emotions in the context of social interactions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. [Study on the correlation between chronic sinusitis with nasal septum deviation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoqing; Fu, Hongjuan; Song, Aiqin

    2015-06-01

    Study on the correlation between chronic sinusitis with nasal septum deviation. Randomly selected 722 patients with coronal sinuses CT, statistics the number of cases of nasal septum deviation, cases of nasal septum deviation with chronic sinusitis, the wide and narrow side cases of nasal septum deviation complicated with sinusitis. The number of sinusitis without deviation, and paired test. The incidence of sinusitis between deviation of nasal septum and non deviation were 54. 13% and 44. 66%, the difference between two groups was statistically significant (Psinusitis with nasal septum deviation of wide and narrow side were 31. 65% and 32. 12%, no significant difference between the two groups (P>0. 01). The incidence of sinusitis high deviation and non high deviation were 59. 54% and 46. 97%, the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (Psinusitis was 54, the narrow side was 66, there is no significant difference between the two groups (P>0. 05). The deviation of nasal septum is associated with the formation of chronic sinusitis, the high deviation is more prone to sinusitis, The incidence of sinusitis and nasal septum deviation on both sides was no different.

  11. Management of Recurrent Stricture Formation after Transverse Vaginal Septum Excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridhima Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A transverse vaginal septum (TVS is a rare obstructing anomaly, caused due to improper fusion of Müllerian ducts and urogenital sinus during embryogenesis. Case. A 15-year-old girl presented with primary amenorrhea. She had multiple congenital anomalies. Initial examination and imaging investigation revealed the presence of a unicornuate uterus and a TVS. The TVS was excised; however the patient was unable to perform vaginal dilation postoperatively leading to recurrent stricture formation. She underwent multiple surgeries for excision of the stricture. The patient was eventually evaluated every day in the clinic until she was able to demonstrate successful vaginal dilatation in the presence of a clinician. Summary and Conclusion. Properly guided regular and intensive vaginal dilation after TVS excision may decrease the need of reoperations due to recurrent stricture formation.

  12. Management of Recurrent Stricture Formation after Transverse Vaginal Septum Excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ridhima; Bozzay, Joseph D; Williams, David L; DePond, Robert T; Gantt, Pickens A

    2015-01-01

    Background. A transverse vaginal septum (TVS) is a rare obstructing anomaly, caused due to improper fusion of Müllerian ducts and urogenital sinus during embryogenesis. Case. A 15-year-old girl presented with primary amenorrhea. She had multiple congenital anomalies. Initial examination and imaging investigation revealed the presence of a unicornuate uterus and a TVS. The TVS was excised; however the patient was unable to perform vaginal dilation postoperatively leading to recurrent stricture formation. She underwent multiple surgeries for excision of the stricture. The patient was eventually evaluated every day in the clinic until she was able to demonstrate successful vaginal dilatation in the presence of a clinician. Summary and Conclusion. Properly guided regular and intensive vaginal dilation after TVS excision may decrease the need of reoperations due to recurrent stricture formation.

  13. Reversible transient lesion of the corpus callosum secondary to meningoencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan Yu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year-old male, presented with right-sided weakness, ataxia, expressive dysphasia and was treated for cerebrovascular accident (CVA. However, he became increasingly confused, disorientated and reported worsening headache along with fevers, photophobia and neck stiffness. On further history, the patient’s family reported the patient as being more confused and incoherent rather than having true ataxia and expressive dysphasia. CSF results were consistent with viral meningoencephalitis and MRI revealed a crescent shaped splenial lesion. He was treated empirically with ceftriaxone and acyclovir. On follow up, he remained symptom free and MRI showed regression of the splenial lesion. Reversible transient splenial lesions of the corpus callosum secondary to viral meningoencephalitis are rarely encountered. This case highlights the importance of exploring different aetiologies of splenial lesions to avoid misdiagnoses with more commonly seen conditions such as CVA.

  14. Accurate automated detection of autism related corpus callosum abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Baz, Ayman; Elnakib, Ahmed; Casanova, Manuel F; Gimel'farb, Georgy; Switala, Andrew E; Jordan, Desha; Rainey, Sabrina

    2011-10-01

    The importance of accurate early diagnostics of autism that severely affects personal behavior and communication skills cannot be overstated. Neuropathological studies have revealed an abnormal anatomy of the Corpus Callosum (CC) in autistic brains. We propose a new approach to quantitative analysis of three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the brain that ensures a more accurate quantification of anatomical differences between the CC of autistic and normal subjects. It consists of three main processing steps: (i) segmenting the CC from a given 3D MRI using the learned CC shape and visual appearance; (ii) extracting a centerline of the CC; and (iii) cylindrical mapping of the CC surface for its comparative analysis. Our experiments revealed significant differences (at the 95% confidence level) between 17 normal and 17 autistic subjects in four anatomical divisions, i.e. splenium, rostrum, genu and body of their CCs.

  15. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE LONGITUDINAL STRIPS AND THE HUMAN CORPUS CALLOSUM

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    O. D. Boiagina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is established that there is an anatomical relationship between the corpus callosum and longitudinal strips. These formations must correlate to the common commissural system of the corpus callosum conductors. At present this issue in such a formulation is not considered in literature on Neuromorphology. Objective. The study was aimed to determine the commutations between the longitudinal strips and commissural conductors of the corpus callosum. Methods. The corpus callosum of people aged from 36 to 60 was studied. Some slices of the corpus callosum stem were used for impregnation and then inserted in paraffin blocks. Another part of these slices was subjected to plastination in epoxy resin. Results. Lateral longitudinal strips contain significantly greater mass of nerve conductors. Most of them compactly pass along limbic ring, while the other part is combined to nerve fibres of the corpus callosum commissural cords. The longitudinal strips are coated with an outer limiting glial membrane (grey coating. Conclusions. By means of the corpus callosum the connections between conscious and subconscious brain areas are structurally fixed. It can be assumed that longitudinal strips have relation to hippocampal area, related to the ancient formation of the pallium. This does not exclude the fact that the nerve fibres, found within longitudinal strips may have projections on the cortical cells of vaulted gyrus, which is considered to be paleopallium sphere. So, this interaction between the ancient and the old cortex should presumably be carried out by means of lateral longitudinal strips.

  16. [Sigmoid septum: A variant of the ventricular hypertrophy or of the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentille-Lorente, Delicia; Salvadó-Usach, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Sigmoid septum and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy presenting with left ventricular hypertrophy and, although they appear to be different entities, often involve problems in the differential diagnosis. This study was carried out to assess the prevalence and characteristics of the echocardiographic sigmoid septum and its differential findings regarding hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Descriptive, observational and prospective study. A total of 1,770 patients were studied by echocardiography. Sigmoid septum (focal and isolated hypertrophy of the basal interventricular septum≥13mm in men and ≥12mm in women, exceeding ≥50% of the median septum thickness) was classified as «Type 1» (≤14mm) and «Type 2» (≥15mm). There were 59 cases of sigmoid septum (prevalence of 3.3%): 26 (1.5%) patients with type 1 (50% male) and 33 (1.9%) patients with type 2 (72.7% male); there were 25 (1.4%) cases of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (76% male). The group with type 2 sigmoid septum differed from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in: was older (73±10.5years; Phypertrophic cardiomyopathy, patients with type 2 sigmoid septum are older and generally hypertensive; otherwise, often they have no clear differences in their clinical, electrocardiographic or echocardiographic characteristics. Therefore, cardiac resonance is helpful in the differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. Anatomy and Surgical Approaches to the Rabbit Nasal Septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, Karam W; Chang, John C; Kuan, Edward C; Wong, Brian J F

    2017-09-01

    The rabbit is the primary animal model used to investigate aspects of nasal surgery. Although several studies have used this model, none has provided a comprehensive analysis of the surgical anatomy and techniques used to gain access to the rabbit nasal fossae and septum. To describe and optimize the surgical anatomy and approach to the rabbit nasal vault and septal cartilage. In an ex vivo animal study conducted at an academic medical center, preliminary cadaveric dissections were performed on rabbit head specimens to establish familiarity with relevant anatomy and rehearse various approaches. Live Pasteurella-free New Zealand white rabbits (3.5-4.0 kg) were used to further develop this surgical technique developed here. Access of the nasal vault was gained through a midline nasal dorsum incision and creation of an osteoplastic flap with a drill. Submucosal resection was performed with preservation of the mucoperichondrium. All rabbits were monitored daily for 4 weeks in the postoperative period for signs of infection, pain, and complications. The study was conducted from June 1, 2014, to December 1, 2014. Surgical anatomy and techniques used to gain access to the rabbit nasal vault and harvest septal cartilage. Four Pasteurella-free New Zealand white rabbits (Western Organ Rabbit Co), ranging in age from 9 to 12 months and weighing between 3.5 and 4.0 kg, were used in this study. Initial dissections demonstrated the feasibility of harvesting septal cartilage while preserving the mucoperichondrial envelope. Access to the nasal vault through this 3-osteotomy approach allowed for maximal exposure to the nasal cavity bilaterally while maintaining the integrity of the mucoperichondrium following septal cartilage harvest. The maximum amount of bulk, en bloc, cartilage harvested was 1.0 × 2.5 cm. Following surgical dissection, all animals maintained adequate airway patency and support to midface structures. Furthermore, all specimens preserved the integrity of the

  18. Development of an Eddy Current Septum for LINAC4

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, M; Borburgh, J; Fowler, T; Goddard, B; Ueda, A; Weterings, W

    2008-01-01

    A linear accelerator (linac) is the first stage of the CERN accelerator complex. The linac defines the beam quality for subsequent stages of acceleration and the reliability has to be high as a fault of the linac shuts down all other machines. The existing linacs at CERN were designed 30 or more years ago: recent upgrades allowed the linacs to reach LHC requirements but also showed that they are at the limit of their brightness and intensity capabilities. A replacement Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) has been proposed; the initial part of the SPL is termed LINAC4. The LINAC4 injection bump would be made up of a set of four pulsed dipole magnets; the first of these magnets (BS1) must act as a septum with a thin element dividing the high-field region of the circulating beam from the field-free region through which injected $H^{-}$ beam must pass. The initial specifications for BS1 required; a deflection of 66 mrad at 160 MeV, achieved with a peak field of 628 mT and a length of 250 mm: the field fall time wa...

  19. SEPTUM MAGNET DESIGN FOR THE APS-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abliz, M.; Jaski, M.; Xiao, A.; Wienands, U.; Cease, H.; Borland, M.; Decker, G.; Kerby, J.

    2017-06-25

    The Advanced Photon Source is in the process of upgrading its storage ring from a double-bend to a multi-bend lattice as part of the APS Upgrade Project (APS-U). A swap-out injection scheme is planned for the APS-U to keep a constant beam current and to enable a small dynamic aperture. A septum magnet with a minimum thickness of 2 mm and an injection field of 1.06 T has been designed, delivering the required total deflecting angle is 89 mrad with a ring energy of 6 GeV. The stored beam chamber has an 8 mm x 6 mm super-ellipsoidal aperture. The magnet is straight; however, it is tilted in yaw, roll, and pitch from the stored beam chamber to meet the on axis swap out injection requirements for the APS-U lattice. In order to minimize the leakage field inside the stored beam chamber, four different techniques were utilized in the design. As a result, the horizontal deflecting angle of the stored beam was held to only 5 µrad, and the integrated skew quadrupole inside the stored beam chamber was held to 0.09 T. The detailed techniques that were applied to the design, field multipoles, and resulting trajectories of the injected and stored beams are reported.

  20. Form of the male and female corpus callosum internal organization at the mature age

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    Юрий Петрович Костиленко

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the special features of the male and female corpus callosum internal organization at the mature age.Materials and methods: the total preparations of the male and female corpus callosum (10 preparation of each sex at 45–60 years old were used as the material. The given preparations were used to get from it the plate cuts in the two mutually perpendicular planes with 2 mm. thick. Then the received tissue plates of the corpus callosum underwent plastination in the epoxy. Then the preparations were extracted from the non-polymerized epoxy and placed on the polyethylene film that was covered with the other film of the same size. Further this stratified block was placed amid the two glasses of the equal size that shrunk together by placing the small load on it. After the complete polymerization the received epoxy plates with the corpus callosum tissue contained in it underwent the gentle grinding and the accurate polish and as the result was obtained the surface denudation of its tissue structures that were colored with the 1 % solution of blue methylene for 1% borax solution.Results of research: at the study of the corpus callosum plastinated cuts in saggital plane was revealed that the transverse platen-form elevations of its higher surface are the cord-form tenias standing out from within and going through the corpus callosum. At its studying in the transverse cut was established that in adults can be separated two types of corpus callosum by its density: the dense one and disperse one.At the large increases of the binocular loupe (microscope MBS-9 can be seen the gaps between the adjacent commissural cords. Within it can be detected the blood vessels. On the transverse cut of commissural cords in its depth are revealed the thinnest streaks which totality consists of the two alternate dark and light lines that form the layered striation. Among the series of the light lines are visible the interlayer that separate the whole depth of

  1. MRI and MR spectroscopy findings of a case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis affecting the corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Mehmet; Sığırcı, Ahmet; Yakıncı, Cengiz

    2015-07-10

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, slowly progressive, fatal, inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease that is seen mostly in children and young adolescents, and primarily affects the parieto-occipital lobes. The corpus callosum, cerebellum and basal ganglia are less frequently involved. MR spectroscopy (MRS) may illustrate the pathophysiological features of SSPE. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second report of MRS findings of corpus callosum involvement in a stage 3 SSPE case. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  2. Prognostic value of corpus callosum injuries in severe head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuendez, Marta; Castaño-León, Ana; Ramos, Ana; Hilario, Amaya; Gómez, Pedro A; Lagares, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the relationship between corpus callosum (CC) injury and prognosis in traumatic axonal injury (TAI). We retrospectively reviewed 264 patients with severe head trauma who underwent a conventional MR imaging in the first 60 days after injury. They were selected from a prospectively collected database of 1048 patients with severe head trauma admitted in our hospital. TAI lesions were defined as areas of increased signal intensity on T2 and FLAIR or areas of decreased signal on gradient-echo T2. We attempted to determine whether any MR imaging findings of TAI lesions at CC could be related to prognosis. Neurological impairment was assessed at 1 year after injury by means of GOS-E (good outcome being GOS-E 4/5 and bad outcome being GOS-E motor score at admission, and pupillary reactivity) and the Extended model (including CT information and second insults). We found 97 patients (37 %) with TAI at CC and 167 patients (63 %) without CC lesions at MR. A total of 62 % of the patients with CC lesions had poor outcome, whereas 38 % showed good prognosis. The presence of TAI lesions at the corpus callosum was associated with poor outcome 1 year after brain trauma (p CC lesions measured on T2 and FLAIR sequences was negatively correlated with the GOS-E after adjustment for independent prognostic factors (p = 0.01, OR 2.23, 95 % CI:1.17-4.26). Also the presence of lesions at splenium was statistically related to worse prognosis (p = 0.002, OR 8.1, 95 % CI: 2.2-29.82). We did not find statistical significance in outcome between hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic CC lesions. The presence of CC is associated with a poor outcome. The total volume of the CC lesion is an independent prognostic factor for poor outcome in severe head trauma.

  3. Hemivaginal septum resection in a patient with a rare variant of Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Nigel; Anderson, Sharon H; Verrecchio, Elizabeth S; Brown, M Allyson; Glassner, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome is characterized by a triad of uterine didelphys, obstructed hemivagina, and ipsilateral renal agenesis. The syndrome should be suspected in any young woman with abdominal pain or cyclic dysmenorrhea, and radiologic evidence of müllerian duct and renal anomalies. Herein is presented the case of a 25-year-old woman with a rare variant of Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome, characterized by an anomalous connection between the 2 endocervical canals, who underwent hemivaginal septum resection to relieve progressively worsening dysmenorrhea. The right hemivaginal septum was resected medially from the left cervix and laterally off the right vaginal wall. Hydrodissection between the hemivaginal septum and right cervix facilitated surgical resection. After resection of the hemivaginal septum there was complete resolution of dysmenorrhea and no recurrence of hematometra or hematocolpos. Copyright © 2014 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute infarction of corpus callosum due to transient obstructive hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymakamzade, Bahar; Eker, Amber

    2016-01-01

    Acute ischemia of the corpus callosum (CC) is not a well-known feature in patients with acute hydrocephalus. Herein, we describe a case with acute CC infarction due to another rare entity; transient obstructive hydrocephalus. A 66-year-old male was admitted with sudden onset right-sided hemiparesia. CT demonstrated a hematoma on the left basal ganglia with extension to all ventricles. The following day, the patient's neurological status progressed to coma and developed bilateral pyramidal signs. MRI demonstrated obstructive hydrocephalus and acute diffuse infarction accompanied by elevation of the CC. On the same day there was improvement in his neurological status with significant decrease in ventricular size and complete resolution of the clot in the third ventricle. The mechanism of signal abnormalities is probably related with the neural compression of the CC against the falx. Presumably, the clot causing obstruction in the third ventricle dissolved or decayed by the help of fibrinolytic activity of CSF, which was raised after IVH and caused spontaneous improvement of hydrocephalus. Bilateral neurological symptoms suggest diffuse axonal damage and normalization of the intracranial pressure should be performed on the early onset of clinical detorioration in order to prevent axonal injury. Copyright © 2016 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  5. Social cognition in individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symington, Scott H; Paul, Lynn K; Symington, Melissa F; Ono, Makoto; Brown, Warren S

    2010-01-01

    Past research has revealed that individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) have deficits in interhemispheric transfer, complex novel problem-solving, and the comprehension of paralinguistic aspects of language. Case studies and family reports also suggest problems in social cognition. The performance of 11 individuals with complete ACC and with normal intelligence was compared to that of 13 IQ- and age-matched controls on three measures of social cognition. Individuals with ACC were indistinguishable from controls on the Happe Theory of Mind Stories and the Adult Faux Pas Test, but performed significantly worse on various portions of the Thames Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT) involving interpretations of videotaped social vignettes. Further analysis of the TASIT indicated that individuals with ACC showed deficiency in the recognition of emotion, weakness in understanding paradoxical sarcasm, and particular difficulty interpreting textual versus visual social cues. These results suggest that the tendency for deficient social cognition in individuals with ACC stems from a combination of difficulty integrating information from multiple sources, using paralinguistic cues for emotion, and understanding nonliteral speech. Together, these deficits would contribute to a less robust theory of mind.

  6. Parametric Probability Distribution Functions for Axon Diameters of Corpus Callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehrband, Farshid; Alexander, Daniel C; Clark, Kristi A; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Yang, Zhengyi; Reutens, David C

    2016-01-01

    Axon diameter is an important neuroanatomical characteristic of the nervous system that alters in the course of neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis. Axon diameters vary, even within a fiber bundle, and are not normally distributed. An accurate distribution function is therefore beneficial, either to describe axon diameters that are obtained from a direct measurement technique (e.g., microscopy), or to infer them indirectly (e.g., using diffusion-weighted MRI). The gamma distribution is a common choice for this purpose (particularly for the inferential approach) because it resembles the distribution profile of measured axon diameters which has been consistently shown to be non-negative and right-skewed. In this study we compared a wide range of parametric probability distribution functions against empirical data obtained from electron microscopy images. We observed that the gamma distribution fails to accurately describe the main characteristics of the axon diameter distribution, such as location and scale of the mode and the profile of distribution tails. We also found that the generalized extreme value distribution consistently fitted the measured distribution better than other distribution functions. This suggests that there may be distinct subpopulations of axons in the corpus callosum, each with their own distribution profiles. In addition, we observed that several other distributions outperformed the gamma distribution, yet had the same number of unknown parameters; these were the inverse Gaussian, log normal, log logistic and Birnbaum-Saunders distributions.

  7. Parametric Probability Distribution Functions for Axon Diameters of Corpus Callosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehrband, Farshid; Alexander, Daniel C.; Clark, Kristi A.; Kurniawan, Nyoman D.; Yang, Zhengyi; Reutens, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Axon diameter is an important neuroanatomical characteristic of the nervous system that alters in the course of neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis. Axon diameters vary, even within a fiber bundle, and are not normally distributed. An accurate distribution function is therefore beneficial, either to describe axon diameters that are obtained from a direct measurement technique (e.g., microscopy), or to infer them indirectly (e.g., using diffusion-weighted MRI). The gamma distribution is a common choice for this purpose (particularly for the inferential approach) because it resembles the distribution profile of measured axon diameters which has been consistently shown to be non-negative and right-skewed. In this study we compared a wide range of parametric probability distribution functions against empirical data obtained from electron microscopy images. We observed that the gamma distribution fails to accurately describe the main characteristics of the axon diameter distribution, such as location and scale of the mode and the profile of distribution tails. We also found that the generalized extreme value distribution consistently fitted the measured distribution better than other distribution functions. This suggests that there may be distinct subpopulations of axons in the corpus callosum, each with their own distribution profiles. In addition, we observed that several other distributions outperformed the gamma distribution, yet had the same number of unknown parameters; these were the inverse Gaussian, log normal, log logistic and Birnbaum-Saunders distributions. PMID:27303273

  8. HYSTEROSCOPIC RESECTION OF UTERINE SEPTUM – EFFECTS ON PREGNANCY

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    Helena Ban

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. In women with spontaneous abortions, preterm deliveries or infertility, septate uterus is often detected on transvaginal ultrasound examination. Since 1993 we have used hysteroscopic resection to correct this anomaly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the arcuate uterus on the course of pregnancy and its outcome, and the effect of hysteroscopic resection of the arcuate uterus on the prognosis of pregnancy.Patients and methods. Retrospectively we analyzed prospectively collected data. Between 15 February 1993 and 31 December 1999 we performed 760 hysteroscopic resections of the septum at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Ljubljana. We evaluated the course of pregnancy and its outcome only, therefore we enrolled 241 women, who conceived spontaneously before and after operation.Results. In the group of women with arcuate uterus (n = 111 there were 244 pregnancies before hysteroscopic resection: 38 (15.6% ended with a delivery and 202 (82.8% with a spontaneous abortion. In the group of women with septate uterus (n = 130 there were 269 pregnancies: 42 deliveries (15.6% and 224 (83.3% spontaneous abortions. After hysteroscopic resection there were 109 pregnancies in the women with arcuate uterus: 91 (83.5% deliveries and 16 (14.7% spontaneous abortions; in the septate uterus group there were 118 pregnancies: 98 (83.2% deliveries and 16 (13.5% spontaneous abortions. In both groups there was a significant improvement in the delivery rate (p < 0.00000. Before resection the preterm delivery rates were significantly higher in both groups (arcuate: 50.0%; septate: 35.1% than after the resection (arcuate: 11.3%; septate 17.7%.Conclusions. The women with either septate or arcuate uterus are at a higher risk for spontaneous abortion and preterm delivery. Hysteroscopic resection significantly decreases the risk in both groups of women.

  9. Prenatal Diagnosis of WAGR Syndrome

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    Berrin Tezcan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wilm’s tumour, aniridia, genitourinary abnormalities, and mental retardation (WAGR syndrome is a rare genetic disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 500,000 to 1 million. It is a contiguous gene syndrome due to deletion at chromosome 11p13 in a region containing WT1 and PAX6 genes. Children with WAGR syndrome mostly present in the newborn/infancy period with sporadic aniridia. The genotypic defects in WAGR syndrome have been well established. However, antenatal ultrasonographic presentation of this syndrome has never been reported. Prenatal diagnosis of this condition is possible in some cases with careful ultrasound examination of classical and nonclassical manifestations of this syndrome. The key point for this rare diagnosis was the decision to perform chromosomal microarray analysis after antenatal diagnosis of absent corpus callosum and absent cavum septum pellucidum, as this finding mandates search for potentially associated genetic disorders. We report a case of WAGR syndrome diagnosed prenatally at 29-week gestation. The diagnosis of the anomaly was based on two- and three-dimensional ultrasound as well as fetal MRI scan and microarray analysis. The ultrasonographic findings included borderline ventriculomegaly, absent corpus callosum, and absent cavum septum pellucidum. Cytogenetic results from the amniotic fluid confirmed WAGR syndrome. Parental karyotype was normal, with no evidence of copy number change, deletion, or rearrangement of this region of chromosome 11.

  10. Neurological Soft Signs and Corpus Callosum morphology in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, G; Quartini, A; Paolemili, M; Clemente, R; Iannitelli, A; Di Biasi, C; Gualdi, G

    2011-07-25

    Neurological Soft Signs (NSS) have been found to be more prevalent in schizophrenic patients. A breakdown in intracortical functional connectivity, including interhemispheric communication, has been suggested in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Indeed, problems with interhemispheric information transfer via the Corpus Callosum (CC) have been documented in schizophrenics. Our study goal was to relate NSS to CC morphology. CC Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) measurements were collected from 29 right-handed male schizophrenia inpatients. NSS were evaluated employing the Neurological Evaluation Scale (NES). We examined the scores obtained from the NES total and the three NES subscales: Integrative Sensory Function, Motor Coordination, and Sequencing Of Complex Motor Acts. We compared CC morphology of patients with "high" NSS with that of patients with "low" NSS. Correlation analyses were performed to further clarify the relationship between CC size, NSS, and total lifetime antipsychotic consumption. Patients with "high" scores at the Sequencing Of Complex Motor Acts subscale showed a smaller CC rostral body, whereas patients with "high" scores at the Integrative Sensory Function subscale showed a smaller CC splenium. For both the NES total and the Sequencing Of Complex Motor Acts subscale, "high" scores were accompanied by an increase of the CC genu. Correlation analyses revealed a significant inverse correlation between the CC rostral body size and the Sequencing Of Complex Motor Acts subscale score. In addition, a significant positive correlation was shown between the CC genu size and both the NES total and the Sequencing Of Complex Motor Acts subscale scores. The presence of NSS and the accompanying CC structural abnormalities were independent on antipsychotic treatment. Our data provide evidence for an association between NSS and CC morphology and further support the hypothesis of a disturbed interhemispheric functional connectivity in schizophrenia. Copyright

  11. ELECTRON MICROSCOPE COMPARISON OF ENDOMETRIUM FROM UTERINE SEPTUM AND ENDOMETRIUM FROM THE LATERAL WALL

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    Helena Ban Frangež

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Septate uterus is an important risk factor for spontaneous abortion and preterm delivery. The role of septate uterus in infertility is still questionable. The mechanism of the adverse effects of a septate uterus is not yet understood. The basic theory proposes that the septum represents a less suitable environment for a developing embryo when compared to the unaffected uterine wall. The aim of our study was to compare the endometrial surface morphology in women with septate uterus. Material and methods. This prospective observational study includes endometrial biopsies that were taken from  women with uterine septum. We have included 30 consecutive women who came for the hysteroscopic resection of the septum. The operation was scheduled at the time of the implantation window; an endometrial biopsy was performed and samples were taken from the septum and from the lateral wall and compared under electron microscope. Pinopode development stage and the number of endometrial glands were the main outcome measures. Results. Comparison of the endometrium from the septum with that of the lateral wall showed no difference in the number of endometrial glands (2.0 endometrial glands seen at 250 × magnification vs. 2.5; ns , not even in the pinopode stage (17.7 day vs. 18.1 day, ns. Conclusions. To our knowledge, there are three researches that have compared endometrium from the septum to the endometrium from the lateral wall in infertile women and all have differences in observed parameters. Our results cannot support earlier findings. The question of mechanism, how septum influences on pregnancy should be further investigated in the larger sample.

  12. [Tumour of the corpus callosum: the association between interhemispheric disconnection and an anterograde amnesia syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, J; Lopera, F

    Sperry, or interhemispheric disconnection, syndrome was reported in patients who had undergone surgical section of the corpus callosum carried out in an attempt to control medication-resistant epilepsy. It has occasionally been linked to tumours of the corpus callosum and, although even more rarely, it has also been associated to an amnesic syndrome. In this paper we report the anatomical and neuropsychological findings in a patient with interhemispheric disconnection syndrome associated to a hippocampal-type amnesic syndrome, caused by a tumour in the splenius of the corpus callosum that extended into the fornix. A 52-year-old white male who visited because of loss of memory; on admission to hospital the physical examination revealed a certain degree of asomatognosia with regard to the left-hand side of the body. An axial tomography brain scan showed a dense central lesion in the brain that extended laterally and occluded the body of both lateral ventricles. A biopsy study revealed an undifferentiated astrocytoma that affected the corpus callosum and the fornix. Sperry, or interhemispheric disconnection, syndrome produced by a tumour in the splenius of the corpus callosum is very likely to course with an amnesic syndrome due to disconnection caused by destruction of the fornix. This association, which characterised our patient's clinical picture, has only previously been described in three cases.

  13. Morphometry of the corpus callosum in Chinese children: relationship with gender and academic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Wing Hung Alex; Chan, Yu.Lung [Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Shatin, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Au, Kit Sum Agnes [James Cook University, Department of Psychology, Townsville, Queensland (Australia); Yeung, Ka Wai David; Kwan, Ting Fai; To, Cho Yee

    2005-06-01

    The corpus callosum has been widely studied, but no study has demonstrated whether its size and shape have any relationship with language and calculation performance. To examine the morphometry of the corpus callosum of normal Chinese children and its relationship with gender and academic performance. One hundred primary school children (63 boys, 37 girls; age 6.5-10 years) were randomly selected and the standardized academic performance for each was ascertained. On the mid-sagittal section of a brain MRI, the length, height and total area of the corpus callosum and its thickness at different sites were measured. These were correlated with sex and academic performance. Apart from the normal average dimension of the different parts of the corpus callosum, thickness at the body-splenium junction in the average-to-good performance group was significantly greater than the below-average performance group in Chinese language (P=0.005), English language (P=0.02) and mathematics (P=0.01). The remainder of the callosal thickness showed no significant relationship with academic performance. There was no significant sex difference in the thickness of any part of the corpus callosum. These findings raise the suggestion that language and mathematics proficiency may be related to the morphometry of the fibre connections in the posterior parietal lobes. (orig.)

  14. Angular analysis of corpus callosum in 18 patients with frontonasal dysplasia

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    Giffoni Silvyo David Araújo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the rarity of the frontonasal dysplasia (FD and the few reports about it in a large casuistry using magnetic resonance image (MRI, we describe the results of the angular analysis of the corpus callosum of 18 individuals with FD (7 male, 11 female, using an easily-reproductive method. Group I had 12 individuals with isolated form and Group II had 6 individuals with FD syndromic with unknown etiology. The results are presented in set. Comparing with the control group, patients with FD presented alpha angle increase and beta and gamma angles reduction (p<0.05. Alpha and gamma angles express the relationship between the anterior portion of corpus callosum and the floor of 4th ventricle. Considering the embryonary development, these findings would occur secondarily to failure during the development of nasal capsula. Thus, angular anomaly in corpus callosum would be a usual finding, and not fortuitous in patients with FD.

  15. Correlation between morphological MRI findings and specific diagnostic categories in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronat, S; Sánchez-Montañez, A; Gómez-Barros, N; Jacas, C; Martínez-Ribot, L; Vázquez, E; Del Campo, M

    2017-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) include physical and neurodevelopmental abnormalities related to prenatal alcohol exposure. Some neuroimaging findings have been clearly related to FASD, including corpus callosum and cerebellar anomalies. However, detailed studies correlating with specific FASD categories, that is, the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial FAS (pFAS) and alcohol related neurodevelopmental disorders (ARND), are lacking. We prospectively performed clinical assessment and brain MR imaging to 72 patients with suspected FASD, and diagnosis was confirmed in 62. The most frequent findings were hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and/or of the cerebellar vermis. Additional findings were vascular anomalies, gliosis, prominent perivascular spaces, occipito-cervical junction and cervical vertebral anomalies, pituitary hypoplasia, arachnoid cysts, and cavum septum pellucidum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. TRANSVERSE VAGINAL SEPTUM: A CONGENITAL MALFORMATION AND ITS MANAGEMENT IN A FEMALE DROMEDARY CAMEL

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    Z. I. Qureshi, M. Iqbal, A. Wahab, R. Yass and M. Naif

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A seven year old female dromedary camel was examined for the complaint of inability to breed due to problem during penile intromission. Vaginoscopy, using equine tube vaginoscope, revealed the presence of a tissue flap cranial to the urethral opening, buldging caudally and separating the cranial and caudal parts of vagina. Digital palpation was also performed and the condition was diagnosed as transverse vaginal septum. For treatment, the vaginal septum was grasped with an Allis tissue forceps and a circular piece was severed from the center with the Metzenbaum scissors. The remaining portion of septum was then carefully trimmed. About 28 days after surgery, the animal showed heat signs and was mated. On ultrasonographic examination three months, post mating the animal was found pregnant.

  17. Reaction Time Is Negatively Associated with Corpus Callosum Area in the Early Stages of CADASIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, S; De Guio, F; Reyes, S; Jabouley, A; Chabriat, H; Jouvent, E

    2017-11-01

    Reaction time was recently recognized as a marker of subtle cognitive and behavioral alterations in the early clinical stages of CADASIL, a monogenic cerebral small-vessel disease. In unselected patients with CADASIL, brain atrophy and lacunes are the main imaging correlates of disease severity, but MR imaging correlates of reaction time in mildly affected patients are unknown. We hypothesized that reaction time is independently associated with the corpus callosum area in the early clinical stages of CADASIL. Twenty-six patients with CADASIL without dementia (Mini-Mental State Examination score > 24 and no cognitive symptoms) and without disability (modified Rankin Scale score ≤ 1) were compared with 29 age- and sex-matched controls. Corpus callosum area was determined on 3D-T1 MR imaging sequences with validated methodology. Between-group comparisons were performed with t tests or χ2 tests when appropriate. Relationships between reaction time and corpus callosum area were tested using linear regression modeling. Reaction time was significantly related to corpus callosum area in patients (estimate = -7.4 × 103, standard error = 3.3 × 103, P = .03) even after adjustment for age, sex, level of education, and scores of depression and apathy (estimate = -12.2 × 103, standard error = 3.8 × 103, P = .005). No significant relationship was observed in controls. Corpus callosum area, a simple and robust imaging parameter, appears to be an independent correlate of reaction time at the early clinical stages of CADASIL. Further studies will determine whether corpus callosum area can be used as an outcome in future clinical trials in CADASIL or in more prevalent small-vessel diseases. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  18. Reference curve of the fetal ventricular septum area by the STIC method: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolo, Liliam Cristine; Marcondes Machado Nardozza, Luciano; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Simioni, Christiane; Maccagnano Zamith, Marina; Fernandes Moron, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Early detection of septal changes such as septal hypertrophy commonly present in fetuses of diabetic mothers would help reduce the high rates of infant mortality. Determine reference ranges for the fetal ventricular septal area through three-dimensional ultrasound (US3D) using the STIC method (Spatio-Temporal Image Correlation). We conducted a cross-sectional study with 69 pregnant women between the 18th and 33rd weeks of pregnancy. We used as a reference the four-chamber plane with the ROI (Region of Interest) positioned from the ventricles; the septum area were manually marked. To assess the correlation of the interventricular septum area with gestational age (GA), we constructed scatter plots and calculated Pearson's correlation coefficient (r), and the adjustment was performed by the coefficient of determination (R²). We calculated averages, medians, standard deviations (sd), as well as maximum and minimum values. To calculate the intraobserver reproducibility, we used the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The interventricular septum thickness was measured and it was correlated with gestational age and the septal area rendered in 52 patients using the ICC. The interventricular septum area was highly correlated with gestational age (r = 0.81), and the average increased from 0.47 cm² in the 18th week to 2.42 cm² in the 33rd of gestation. The intraobserver reproducibility was excellent with ICC = 0.994. No significant correlation was observed between the interventricular septum measurement and the GA (R² = 0.200), as well as there was no correlation with the septal area rendered with ICC = 0.150. Reference intervals for the interventricular septum area between the 18th and the 33rd pregnancy week were determined to be highly reproducible.

  19. Corpus Callosum Area and Brain Volume in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Quantitative Analysis of Structural MRI from the ABIDE Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharsky Hiess, R.; Alter, R.; Sojoudi, S.; Ardekani, B. A.; Kuzniecky, R.; Pardoe, H. R.

    2015-01-01

    Reduced corpus callosum area and increased brain volume are two commonly reported findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigated these two correlates in ASD and healthy controls using T1-weighted MRI scans from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE). Automated methods were used to segment the corpus callosum and intracranial…

  20. Cavernous angioma of the corpus callosum mimicking an astrocytic tumor--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, S; Niimi, M; Murakami, K; Nakamura, T

    2001-07-01

    A 49-year-old female presented with a mass at the genu of corpus callosum manifesting as vertiginous sensation persisting for a couple of months. The preoperative diagnosis based on neuroimaging was astrocytic tumor, probably an oligodendroglioma. The mass was totally excised through a left interhemispheric approach without postoperative neurological deficits. Histological examination of the mass revealed only vascular components with tiny hemorrhage, compatible with cavernous angioma. Cavernous angioma at the genu of corpus callosum is very rare, and definitive diagnosis can be achieved only through surgery. Surgical intervention should be considered before starting radiotherapy without histological confirmation.

  1. Marchiafava-Bignami disease: magnetic resonance imaging findings in corpus callosum and subcortical white matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawarabuki, Kentaro E-mail: bukky@h2.dion.ne.jp; Sakakibara, Takehiko; Hirai, Makoto; Yoshioka, Yuji; Yamamoto, Yasumasa; Yamaki, Tarumi

    2003-11-01

    A case of Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) is presented using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A patient with a long history of alcoholism developed a gait disturbance with involuntary movements at the lower extremities. MRI scans taken at the onset showed no particular abnormalities. He progressed to a coma 10 days later. MRI scans taken 20 days after the onset showed a focal lesion at the genu of the corpus callosum and he was diagnosed as having MBD. In addition, multiple lesions were observed in bilateral frontoparietal subcortical white matter. These lesions demonstrated similar intense MRI signals as the corpus callosum.

  2. Unilateral Closed Lip Schizencephaly with Septo‑Optic Dysplasia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... be associated with septo‑optic dysplasia (SOD), optic nerve hypoplasia and absence of septum pellucidum, pachygyria, polymicrogyria, heterotopia and arachnoid cysts. We report a case of unilateral closed lip schizencephaly with SOD. Keywords: Absence of septum pellucidum, Optic nerve hypoplasia, Schizencephaly, ...

  3. Vertical septum magnets for distributing the beam to the 4 PS Booster rings

    CERN Multimedia

    Ordan, Julien Marius

    2017-01-01

    To facilitate H- injection from Linac4 to the PS Booster via the transfer line the BI.SMV10 (Booster Injection Septum Magnet Vertical) provides the vertical deflection of the 160 MeV H- beam to rings 1, 2 and 4 of the Booster. Currently this system is capable of deflecting 50 MeV protons and comprises an assembly of ferrite type magnets in an “omega” section vacuum tank (see fig. 1). The current system shall be replaced with a UHV compatible vacuum chamber incorporating 3 sets of double septum magnets, pulsed from 3 individual power supplies via transformers with 12:1 ratio.

  4. [Disturbances of nasal aerodynamics in patients with the curved nasal septum and the rationale for its surgical correction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulebaev, R K; Mustafin, A A; Zholdybaeva, Z T

    2011-01-01

    Serious disturbances of nasal aerodynamics contribute to the development of diseases of the broncho-pulmonary apparatus. The early recognition of ventilation problems in patients with the curved nasal septum is paramount for the efficacious prevention and treatment of respiratory complications. The authors describe principles of rhinosurgical correction of affected nasal aerodynamics in patients with the curved nasal septum.

  5. Moebius syndrome with Dandy-Walker variant and agenesis of corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Jomol Sara; Vanitha, R

    2013-09-01

    Moebius syndrome is a rare congenital neurological disorder. The most frequent mode of presentation is facial diplegia with bilateral lateral rectus palsy, but there are variations. Here, we report a rare case of Moebius syndrome in a 15-month-old child with unilateral facial palsy, bilateral abducens nerve palsy with Dandy Walker variant, and complete agenesis of corpus callosum.

  6. Moebius syndrome with Dandy-Walker variant and agenesis of corpus callosum

    OpenAIRE

    Jomol Sara John; R Vanitha

    2013-01-01

    Moebius syndrome is a rare congenital neurological disorder. The most frequent mode of presentation is facial diplegia with bilateral lateral rectus palsy, but there are variations. Here, we report a rare case of Moebius syndrome in a 15-month-old child with unilateral facial palsy, bilateral abducens nerve palsy with Dandy Walker variant, and complete agenesis of corpus callosum.

  7. Tractography of the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi corpus callosum using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Platas-Neri

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to describe the organization, connectivity and microstructure of the corpus callosum of the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi. Non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-tensor imaging were obtained from three subjects using a 3T Philips scanner. We hypothesized that the arrangement of fibers in spider monkeys would be similar to that observed in other non-human primates. A repeated measure (n = 3 of fractional anisotropy values was obtained of each subject and for each callosal subdivision. Measurements of the diffusion properties of corpus callosum fibers exhibited a similar pattern to those reported in the literature for humans and chimpanzees. No statistical difference was reached when comparing this parameter between the different CC regions (p = 0.066. The highest fractional anisotropy values corresponded to regions projecting from the corpus callosum to the posterior cortical association areas, premotor and supplementary motor cortices. The lowest fractional anisotropy corresponded to projections to motor and sensory cortical areas. Analyses indicated that approximately 57% of the fibers projects to the frontal cortex and 43% to the post-central cortex. While this study had a small sample size, the results provided important information concerning the organization of the corpus callosum in spider monkeys.

  8. Corpus Callosum Analysis using MDL-based Sequential Models of Shape and Appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Davies, Rhodri H.; Ryberg, Charlotte

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a method for automatically analysing and segmenting the corpus callosum from magnetic resonance images of the brain based on the widely used Active Appearance Models (AAMs) by Cootes et al. Extensions of the original method, which are designed to improve this specific case...

  9. Transient Splenial Lesion of the Corpus Callosum Related to Migraine with Aura in a Pediatric Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünver, Olcay; Kutlubay, Büşra; Besci, Tolga; Ekinci, Gazanfer; Baltacıoğlu, Feyyaz; Türkdoğan, Dilşad

    Transient splenial lesions of the corpus callosum are rare radiological findings first described in association with epilepsy, antiepileptic drugs and viral encephalitis. However, subsequently more cases were described associated with diverse clinical conditions. We describe a 13-year-old girl suffering from migraine with aura presenting with headache, right-sided hemiparesis and encephalopathy. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed an ovoid lesion in the splenium of the corpus callosum. The patient's neurological symptoms resolved within 3 days without therapy and the lesion disappeared in follow up magnetic resonance images obtained 3 weeks after the onset of the symptoms. Migraine with aura was considered to be the cause of the lesion. To our knowledge the present case is the first report of a pediatric patient with a diagnosis of migraine with aura presenting with hemiparesis and encephalopathy. A diagnosis of transient lesion of the corpus callosum should be suspected in patients with migraine with aura presenting with hemiparesis and encephalopathy. A mild course and a good prognosis might be expected in the presence of a splenial lesion of the corpus callosum.

  10. Psychological Correlates of Handedness and Corpus Callosum Asymmetry in Autism: The Left Hemisphere Dysfunction Theory Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floris, Dorothea L.; Chura, Lindsay R.; Holt, Rosemary J.; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward T.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Spencer, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Rightward cerebral lateralization has been suggested to be involved in the neuropathology of autism spectrum conditions. We investigated functional and neuroanatomical asymmetry, in terms of handedness and corpus callosum measurements in male adolescents with autism, their unaffected siblings and controls, and their associations with executive…

  11. Frontonasal Dysplasia with Lipoma of the Corpus Callosum in a 6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipoma of the corpus callosum is a rare slow growing benign lesion that rarely gives any symptoms, Hence, the diagnosis is most often incidental during radiological work up on imaging modalities such as. computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It hardly requires surgery. However rarely ...

  12. Bimanual motor deficits in older adults predicted by diffusion tensor imaging metrics of corpus callosum subregions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serbruyns, L.; Gooijers, J.; Caeyenberghs, K.; Meesen, R. L.; Cuypers, K.; Sisti, H. M.; Leemans, A.; Swinnen, Stephan P.

    2015-01-01

    Age-related changes in the microstructural organization of the corpus callosum (CC) may explain declines in bimanual motor performance associated with normal aging. We used diffusion tensor imaging in young (n = 33) and older (n = 33) adults to investigate the microstructural organization of seven

  13. Age-related signal intensity changes in the corpus callosum: assessment with three orthogonal FLAIR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Akira; Miki, Yukio; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Takahashi, Takahiro; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Haque, Tabassum Laz; Togashi, Kaori [Kyoto University, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Tomimoto, Hidekazu [Kyoto University, Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Konishi, Junya [Kobe University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan)

    2005-11-01

    The presence of age-related hyperintensities of the corpus callosum has not been thoroughly evaluated. Fifty-two patients of 50 years of age or older (mean, 71 years; range, 50-87 years) were included in this study. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images were obtained in three orthogonal planes. Periventricular hyperintensities (PVHs) and deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMHs) were graded according to Fazekas' rating scale. Correlations between the presence of hyperintensities in the corpus callosum and age, and the grade of PVH and DWMH were statistically analyzed. PVH was categorized as grade 0 (n=4), grade 1 (n=28), grade 2 (n=10), or grade 3 (n=10). DWMH was categorized as grade 0 (n=4), grade 1 (n=25), grade 2 (n=8), or grade 3 (n=15). Hyperintensity was considered present in the corpus callosum in 31 of the 52 patients (60%). In these 31 patients, PVH was categorized as grade 1 (n=16), grade 2 (n=7), or grade 3 (n=8), while DWMH was categorized as grade 0 (n=1), grade 1 (n=10), grade 2 (n=7), or grade 3 (n=13). The presence of callosal hyperintensities was significantly correlated with age (p=0.001), and with PVH (p=0.04) and DWMH grades (p=0.004). Hyperintensities may be present in the corpus callosum with aging, and are correlated with PVH and DWMH. (orig.)

  14. Moebius syndrome with Dandy-Walker variant and agenesis of corpus callosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Jomol Sara; Vanitha, R.

    2013-01-01

    Moebius syndrome is a rare congenital neurological disorder. The most frequent mode of presentation is facial diplegia with bilateral lateral rectus palsy, but there are variations. Here, we report a rare case of Moebius syndrome in a 15-month-old child with unilateral facial palsy, bilateral abducens nerve palsy with Dandy Walker variant, and complete agenesis of corpus callosum. PMID:24470815

  15. White matter changes contribute to corpus callosum atrophy in the elderly: The LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, C.; Rostrup, E.; Sjöstrand, Karl

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The corpus callosum (CC) is the most important structure involved in the transmission of interhemispheric information. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential correlation between regional age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) and atrophy of CC in elderly ...

  16. Compact fluorescent lamp using horizontal and vertical insulating septums and convective venting geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siminovitch, Michael

    1998-01-01

    A novel design for a compact fluorescent lamp, including a lamp geometry which will increase light output and efficacy of the lamp in a base down operating position by providing horizontal and vertical insulating septums positioned in the ballast compartment of the lamp to provide a cooler coldspot. Selective convective venting provides additional cooling of the ballast compartment.

  17. Cholinergic and GABAergic neurons in the rat medial septum express muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, E.A. van der; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1994-01-01

    This study describes the cellular distribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) in the medial septum (MS), employing the monoclonal antibody M35 raised against purified mAChR-protein, mAChR-positive neurons are found throughout the MS, but are predominantly located in the midline area

  18. The Septum Magnet System of the New Fast Extraction Channel of the SPS at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Balhan, B; Rizzo, A; Weterings, W

    2004-01-01

    In the Long Straight Section LSS4 of the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN, a new fast extraction system has been installed in order to extract the beam to ring 2 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the CERN Neutrino to Gran Sasso facility (CNGS). The system consists of horizontal closed orbit bumper magnets, extraction kicker magnets, enlarged aperture quadrupoles and six conventional DC electromagnetic septum magnets (MSE). A protection element (TPSG) has been placed immediately upstream of the first septum coil. The septum magnets and TPSG are mounted on a single mobile retractable support girder. The MSE septa are connected by a so-called plug-in system to a rigid water-cooled bus-bar, powered by water-cooled cables. The whole system is kept at the required vacuum pressure by ion pumps attached to separate pumping modules. In this note we present the design features and parameters of the MSE septum magnets, describe the function of the related main equipment elements, briefly report on the control...

  19. Age at developmental cortical injury differentially Alters corpus callosum volume in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosen Glenn D

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Freezing lesions to developing rat cortex induced between postnatal day (P one and three (P1 – 3 lead to malformations similar to human microgyria, and further correspond to reductions in brain weight and cortical volume. In contrast, comparable lesions on P5 do not produce microgyric malformations, nor the changes in brain weight seen with microgyria. However, injury occurring at all three ages does lead to rapid auditory processing deficits as measured in the juvenile period. Interestingly, these deficits persist into adulthood only in the P1 lesion case 1. Given prior evidence that early focal cortical lesions induce abnormalities in cortical morphology and connectivity 1234, we hypothesized that the differential behavioral effects of focal cortical lesions on P1, P3 or P5 may be associated with underlying neuroanatomical changes that are sensitive to timing of injury. Clinical studies indicate that humans with perinatal brain injury often show regional reductions in corpus callosum size and abnormal symmetry, which frequently correspond to learning impairments 567. Therefore, in the current study the brains of P1, 3 or 5 lesion rats, previously evaluated for brain weight, and cortical volume changes and auditory processing impairments (P21-90, were further analyzed for changes in corpus callosum volume. Results Results showed a significant main effect of Treatment on corpus callosum volume [F (1,57 = 10.2, P Conclusion Decrements in corpus callosum volume in the P1 and 3 lesion groups are consistent with the reductions in brain weight and cortical volume previously reported for microgyric rats 18. Current results suggest that disruption to the cortical plate during early postnatal development may lead to more widely dispersed neurovolumetric anomalies and subsequent behavioral impairments 1, compared with injury that occurs later in development. Further, these results suggest that in a human clinical setting decreased

  20. Three-Dimensional Evaluation of Implant Positioning in the Maxillary Sinus Septum: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragan, Eliza; Guillaume, Odri A.; Haba, Danisia; Olszewski, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to simulate implant placement in the maxillary sinus septum, as a potential alternative site to avoid sinus grafting. Material/Methods One hundred partially or completely edentulous patients, with their maxillary sinus septum present in the edentulous region, were selected from the database of the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Bruxelles, Belgium. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions were created using 3D planning software. 3D reconstructions were performed for each maxillary sinus. Using the software implant library, the implants that presented the best fit with the maxillary sinus septum and that followed the established inclusion criteria were selected. Results All of the implants were inserted in premolar and molar regions. Most implants were inserted in the position of the second molar (21 of 55) or in the position of the first molar (17 of 55). In all sites the most frequently used implant was 4 mm in diameter and 7 mm in height. The mean coronal angle for the implant was 80.19±17.13 degrees and the mean sagittal angle was 94.83±9.94 degrees. The septal height represents 38.13% of the total available bone height (ABH). The mean percentage of the septum used to insert the implants was 47.33±2.47%. The septum increased the available bone height by a mean value of 2.18±1.47 mm. In 45 cases, the septa did not permit implant placement. Conclusions In completely edentulous patients, inserting implants in sinus septa does not exclude the need for sinus grafting, but in partially edentulous patients, this minimally invasive technique is an alternative to subantral augmentation. PMID:26363865

  1. Corpus callosum thickness on mid-sagittal MRI as a marker of brain volume: a pilot study in children with HIV-related brain disease and controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronikou, Savvas [University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Cape Town (South Africa); Ackermann, Christelle [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Laughton, Barbara; Cotton, Mark [Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Children' s Hospital, Children' s Infectious Diseases Research Unit, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Tomazos, Nicollette [University of Cape Town, Faculty of Commerce, Department of Management Studies, Cape Town (South Africa); Spottiswoode, Bruce [University of Cape Town, MRC/UCT Medical Imaging Research Unit, Department of Human Biology, Cape Town (South Africa); Mauff, Katya [University of Cape Town, Department of Statistical Sciences, Cape Town (South Africa); Pettifor, John M. [University of the Witwatersrand, MRC/Wits Developmental Pathways for Health Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Witwatersrand (South Africa)

    2015-07-15

    Corpus callosum thickness measurement on mid-sagittal MRI may be a surrogate marker of brain volume. This is important for evaluation of diseases causing brain volume gain or loss, such as HIV-related brain disease and HIV encephalopathy. To determine if thickness of the corpus callosum on mid-sagittal MRI is a surrogate marker of brain volume in children with HIV-related brain disease and in controls without HIV. A retrospective MRI analysis in children (<5 years old) with HIV-related brain disease and controls used a custom-developed semi-automated tool, which divided the midline corpus callosum and measured its thickness in multiple locations. Brain volume was determined using volumetric analysis. Overall corpus callosum thickness and thickness of segments of the corpus callosum were correlated with overall and segmented (grey and white matter) brain volume. Forty-four children (33 HIV-infected patients and 11 controls) were included. Significant correlations included overall corpus callosum (mean) and total brain volume (P = 0.05); prefrontal corpus callosum maximum with white matter volume (P = 0.02); premotor corpus callosum mean with total brain volume (P = 0.04) and white matter volume (P = 0.02), premotor corpus callosum maximum with white matter volume (P = 0.02) and sensory corpus callosum mean with total brain volume (P = 0.02). Corpus callosum thickness correlates with brain volume both in HIV-infected patients and controls. (orig.)

  2. [The application of the nanostructured bioplastic material for the plastic reconstruction of perforations in the nasal septum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'eva, M V; Akimov, A V; Bagautdinov, A A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to estimate the effectiveness of the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material for the plastic reconstruction of perforations in the nasal septum. A total of 80 patients were recruited for the study. Half of them underwent plastic reconstruction of perforations in the nasal septum with the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material. Forty patients were treated using no biotransplants. The functional state of nasal cavity mucosa was evaluated before and after surgery. It is concluded that the nanostructured bioplastic material used in the present study ensures efficacious reconstruction of nasal septum integrity after plastic correction of septal perforations.

  3. Solid Right Ventricular Compression by Intraventricular Septum-Hematoma Induced after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim El-Battrawy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraventricular septum-hematoma is a rare complication following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. This complication may represent a challenge for accurate diagnosis and treatment. This case report is about a 60-year-old male patient being admitted with an acute coronary syndrome. Despite successful PCI with drug eluting stent implantation into the right coronary artery (RCA the patient complained about recurrent angina pectoris according to Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS class IV. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and transthoracic echocardiography revealed a massive 4.9×9.2 cm sized end-diastolic septum-hematoma, which compromised right ventricular cavity. Emergent recoronary angiography ruled out further contrast extravasation from the RCA. Conservative treatment was intended after discussion in the “heart-team.” The patient completely recovered with nearly complete resolution of the hematoma after 6 months.

  4. High field septum magnet using a superconducting shield for the Future Circular Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069375

    2017-01-01

    A zero-field cooled superconducting shield is proposed to realize a high-field (3–4 T) septum magnet for the Future Circular Collider hadron-hadron (FCC-hh) ring. Three planned prototypes using different materials and technical solutions are presented, which will be used to evaluate the feasibility of this idea as a part of the FCC study. The numerical simulation methods are described to calculate the field patterns around such a shield. A specific excitation current configuration is presented that maintains a fairly homogeneous field outside of a rectangular shield in a wide range of field levels from 0 to 3 Tesla. It is shown that a massless septum configuration (with an opening in the shield) is also possible and gives satisfactory field quality with realistic superconducting material properties.

  5. Treatment of Virgin OHVIRA Syndrome with Haematometrocolpos by Complete Incision of Vaginal Septum without Hymenotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tug, Niyazi; Sargin, Mehmet Akif; Çelik, Ayhan; Alp, Turgut; Yenidede, Ilter

    2015-11-01

    Mullerian malformations result from defective fusion of the Mullerian ducts during development of the female reproductive system and have an incidence of 2-3%. The American Fertility Society classification of Mullerian anomalies is the most commonly utilized standardized classification. The least common form of these malformations is Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome characterized by obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly (OHVIRA). This syndrome has been described with case reports since 1922. Early diagnosis and surgery that include drainage of fluid and resection of the vaginal septum is necessary for OHVIRA to prevent late complications (i.e. pyocolpos, chronic cryptomenorrhea). Here in we report a case of Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome that hymen has been preserved during the operation of non-fenestrated transverse vaginal septum resection with hysteroscopy.

  6. A case of the corpus callosum and alien hand syndrome from a discrete paracallosal lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Raymond; Azad, Alvi; Reinsvold, Richard

    2010-08-01

    Here we present a patient with an isolated paracallosal brain lesion who exhibited behavioral changes associated with the corpus callosum syndrome (CCS) including features of the alien hand syndrome (AHS). The CCS is also known as the split-brain syndrome, the syndrome of hemisphere disconnection, the syndrome of brain bisection and the syndrome of the cerebral commissures. Because most reported cases of CCS were caused by tumors which extended beyond the corpus callosum (CC) and did not always induce a complete disconnection, there was much controversy about the role of the CC and the existence of a specific CCS. Aside from surgically based cases, the full complement of the CCS is infrequently clinically encountered. The patient described has a classic CCS from natural causes. This case report is unique in exhibiting a complete CCS with AHS secondary to an ischemic event affecting the left pericallosal region. To our knowledge this is the first case report of such a combination.

  7. Reversible cerebral periventricular white matter changes with corpus callosum involvement in acute toluene-poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Ming; Liu, Chi-Kuang

    2015-01-01

    Substance poisoning, such as toluene intoxication, has seldom been reported in the relevant literature. The documented cerebral neuroimaging has mostly described reversible symmetrical white matter changes in both the cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres. This paper presents 2 patients with toluene poisoning, whose brain magnetic resonance imaging studies showed a similar picture that included extra involvement over the corpus callosum; however, such corpus callosum involvement has never been mentioned and is quite rare in the literature. We discussed the underlying neuropathological pathways in this article. Hopefully, these cases will provide first-line clinicians with some valuable information with regard to toluene intoxication and clinical neuroimaging presentations. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  8. Boomerang sign: Clinical significance of transient lesion in splenium of corpus callosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardeep Singh Malhotra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient signal abnormality in the splenium of corpus callosum on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is occasionally encountered in clinical practice. It has been reported in various clinical conditions apart from patients with epilepsy. We describe 4 patients with different etiologies presenting with signal changes in the splenium of corpus callosum. They were diagnosed as having progressive myoclonic epilepsy (case 1, localization-related epilepsy (case 2, hemicrania continua (case 3, and postinfectious parkinsonism (case 4. While three patients had complete involvement of the splenium on diffusion-weighted image ("boomerang sign", the patient having hemicrania continua showed semilunar involvement ("mini-boomerang" on T2-weighted and FLAIR image. All the cases had noncontiguous involvement of the splenium. We herein, discuss these cases with transient splenial involvement and stress that such patients do not need aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. An attempt has been made to review the literature regarding the pathophysiology, etiology, and outcome of such lesions.

  9. Oligodendrocytes in the Mouse Corpus Callosum Maintain Axonal Function by Delivery of Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Meyer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the optic nerve, oligodendrocytes maintain axonal function by supplying lactate as an energy substrate. Here, we report that, in acute brain slices of the mouse corpus callosum, exogenous glucose deprivation (EGD abolished compound action potentials (CAPs, which neither lactate nor pyruvate could prevent. Loading an oligodendrocyte with 20 mM glucose using a patch pipette prevented EGD-mediated CAP reduction in about 70% of experiments. Loading oligodendrocytes with lactate rescued CAPs less efficiently than glucose. In mice lacking connexin 47, oligodendrocyte filling with glucose did not prevent CAP loss, emphasizing the importance of glial networks for axonal energy supply. Compared with the optic nerve, the astrocyte network in the corpus callosum was less dense, and loading astrocytes with glucose did not prevent CAP loss during EGD. We suggest that callosal oligodendrocyte networks provide energy to sustain axonal function predominantly by glucose delivery, and mechanisms of metabolic support vary across different white matter regions.

  10. The steel septum magnets for beam splitting at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lyndon R; de Raad, Bastiaan; Thomi, W; Weisse, E

    1978-01-01

    Each of the two slow-extracted proton beams of the CERN 400 GeV Super Proton Synchrotron can be divided into three parts by means of steel- septum magnets for the simultaneous irradiation of up to three production targets. The magnets have radiation-proof coils, integrated vacuum chambers and 'plug-in' connections. The paper describes the design of the magnets and gives the results of the magnetic field measurements. (3 refs).

  11. Septum resection for women of reproductive age with a septate uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikken, Judith Fw; Kowalik, Claudia R; Emanuel, Mark H; Mol, Ben Willem J; Van der Veen, Fulco; van Wely, Madelon; Goddijn, Mariëtte

    2017-01-17

    Women with a septate uterus are at increased risk for subfertility, recurrent miscarriage, and preterm birth. Restoration of the anatomy of the uterus by hysteroscopic septum resection is an established intervention. This treatment has been assessed mainly in retrospective cohort studies, which suggested a positive effect on pregnancy outcomes. The major flaw in these studies is the before/after design, which will always favour the tested intervention. To determine whether hysteroscopic septum resection in women of reproductive age with a septate uterus improves live birth rates and to assess the safety of this procedure. We searched the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register (inception to May 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL CRSO) (inception to May 2016), MEDLINE (1946 to May 2016), Embase (1974 to May 2016), PsycINFO (1806 to May 2016), and CINAHL database (1982 to May 2016). We also searched trial registers for ongoing and registered trials, reference lists, the Cochrane Library, unpublished dissertations and theses, conference abstracts, OpenGrey, LILACS, PubMed, and Google. We planned to include randomised controlled trials that assessed the effect on reproductive outcomes and the safety of hysteroscopic septum resection in women of reproductive age with a septate uterus. If there had been studies to include, two review authors would have independently selected studies, assessed trial risk of bias, and extracted data. They would also have contacted study authors for additional information. As in the 2011 version of this review, we identified no randomised controlled trials for inclusion in this update. Hysteroscopic septum resection in women of reproductive age with a septate uterus is performed worldwide to improve reproductive outcomes. At present, there is no evidence to support the surgical procedure in these women. Randomised controlled trials are urgently needed. Two trials are currently underway.

  12. Lupus vulgaris leading to perforation of nasal septum in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Archana; Arora, Rahul; Pandhi, Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris (LV) is a common form of cutaneous tuberculosis in India, mostly involving the lower half of the body. Facial involvement is uncommon. Untreated disease may lead to significant morbidity due to atrophic scarring, mutilation, and deformity. We report a case of multi-focal LV in a 10-year-old boy affecting the nose and cheek that resulted in perforation of the nasal septum, a rarely reported complication.

  13. MÖEBIUS SYNDROME AND CORPUS CALLOSUM AGENESIS; A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hussain S. M. A. Zamani

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Moebius Syndrome is a rare congenital disorder of the facial and abducens nerve. Other cranial nerves may be involved, such as V, IX and XII. Several central nervous system anomalies including hypoplastic or dysplastic brain stem, straightening of the fourth ventricle floor, focal necrosis and calcifications of cranial nerve nuclei have been reported in association with Moebius syndrome, but we report a 18 months old boy of moebius syndrome with corpus callosum agenesis that has not been reported yet.

  14. Reduced white matter connectivity in the corpus callosum of children with Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Grüner, Renate; Lundervold, Arvid

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain imaging studies have revealed anatomical anomalies in the brains of individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS). Prefrontal regions have been found to be larger and the corpus callosum (CC) area smaller in children and young adults with TS compared with healthy control subjects......: Our findings of a reduced interhemispheral white matter connectivity add to the understanding of neural connectivity and plasticity in the brains of children who have TS....

  15. Lipoma of corpus callosum associated with dysraphic lesions and trisomy 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wainwright, H.; Bowen, R.; Radcliffe, M. [Univ. of Cape Town Medical School (South Africa)

    1995-05-22

    We report on a further case of corpus callosal lipoma and frontal cranial defects. Most cases in the literature of corpus callosal lipoma in association with {open_quotes}dysraphic{close_quotes} lesions have been frontal in location. Malformation of the corpus callosum is said to be associated with 50% of these lipomas. Trisomy 13 was confirmed by the 13q14 cosmid probe on paraffin-embedded liver tissue. 19 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Learning and memory in individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn K Paul; Erickson, Roger L.; Hartman, Jo Ann; Brown, Warren S.

    2016-01-01

    Damage to long white matter pathways in the cerebral cortex is known to affect memory capacity. However, the specific contribution of interhemispheric connectivity in memory functioning is only beginning to become understood. The present study examined verbal and visual memory processing in individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) using the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1997b). Thirty participants with AgCC (FSIQ >78) were compared against 30 healthy a...

  17. Role of corpus callosum integrity in arm function differs based on motor severity after stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Jill Campbell; Dewanjee, Pritha; Tran, George; Quinlan, Erin Burke; Dodakian, Lucy; McKenzie, Alison; See, Jill; Cramer, Steven C.

    2017-01-01

    While the corpus callosum (CC) is important to normal sensorimotor function, its role in motor function after stroke is less well understood. This study examined the relationship between structural integrity of the motor and sensory sections of the CC, as reflected by fractional anisotropy (FA), and motor function in individuals with a range of motor impairment level due to stroke. Fifty-five individuals with chronic stroke (Fugl-Meyer motor score range 14 to 61) and 18 healthy controls under...

  18. Early correction of septum JJ deformity in unilateral cleft lip-cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Paolo G; Pinto, Valentina; Negosanti, Luca; Firinu, Antonella; Fabbri, Erich

    2012-09-01

    The treatment of patients affected by unilateral cleft lip-cleft palate is based on a multistage procedure of surgical and nonsurgical treatments in accordance with the different types of deformity. Over time, the surgical approach for the correction of a nasal deformity in a cleft lip-cleft palate has changed notably and the protocol of treatment has evolved continuously. Not touching the cleft lip nose in the primary repair was dogmatic in the past, even though this meant severe functional, aesthetic, and psychological problems for the child. McComb reported a new technique for placement of the alar cartilage during lip repair. The positive results of this new approach proved that the early correction of the alar cartilage anomaly is essential for harmonious facial growth with stable results and without discomfort for the child. The authors applied the same principles used for the treatment of the alar cartilage for correction of the septum deformity, introducing a primary rhinoseptoplasty during the cheiloplasty. The authors compared two groups: group A, which underwent septoplasty during cleft lip repair; and group B, which did not. After the anthropometric evaluation of the two groups, the authors observed better symmetry regarding nasal shape, correct growth of the nose, and a strong reduction of the nasal deformity in the patients who underwent primary JJ septum deformity correction. The authors can assume that, similar to the alar cartilage, the septum can be repositioned during the primary surgery, without causing growth anomaly, improving the morphologic/functional results.

  19. Congenital ptosis: a good cosmetic result with redefinition and suturing of the orbital septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElvanney, A M; Adhikary, H P

    1996-01-01

    A surgical technique employing orbital septum sutures during ptosis surgery in children is described. A retrospective study of 16 children (age range 6 months to 14 years) undergoing surgery for congenital ptosis over a 6 year period was undertaken with regard to cosmetic outcome. All surgery was performed by one consultant ophthalmic surgeon with the patient under general anaesthesia. A standard levator resection was undertaken, following which the orbital septum was redefined and sutured with interrupted 5-0 catgut. This resulted in a well-defined lid crease post-operatively, with a good cosmetic outcome. The only significant post-operative complication was the occurrence of a suture-related granuloma in one patient. All achieved a good cosmetic result. A mild residual ptosis occurred in 3 cases, requiring a further procedure. Special attention to suturing of orbital septum as a separate tissue layer during levator resection for congenital ptosis gives good lid crease definition which may enhance the overall cosmetic outcome.

  20. Enhanced chondrogenesis of human nasal septum derived progenitors on nanofibrous scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafiee, Abbas [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Stem Cell biology and Tissue Engineering Departments, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Seyedjafari, Ehsan [Department of Biotechnology, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadat Taherzadeh, Elham [Stem Cell biology and Tissue Engineering Departments, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dinarvand, Peyman [Stem Cell biology and Tissue Engineering Departments, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); The Edward A. Doisy Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Soleimani, Masoud [Hematology Department, Faculty of Medical Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ai, Jafar, E-mail: jafar_ai@tums.ac.ir [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Brain and Spinal Injury Research Center, Imam Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Topographical cues can be exploited to regulate stem cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation and function in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we aimed to investigate the influence of different nanofibrous topographies on the chondrogenic differentiation potential of nasal septum derived progenitors (NSP) in vitro. Aligned and randomly oriented Ploy (L-lactide) (PLLA)/Polycaprolactone (PCL) hybrid scaffolds were fabricated via electrospinning. First, scaffolds were fully characterized, and then NSP were seeded on them to study their capacity to support stem cell attachment, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. Compared to randomly oriented nanofibers, aligned scaffolds showed a high degree of nanofiber alignment with much better tensile strength properties. Both scaffolds supported NSP adhesion, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. Despite the higher rate of cell proliferation on random scaffolds, a better chondrogenic differentiation was observed on aligned nanofibers as deduced from higher expression of chondrogenic markers such as collagen type II and aggrecan on aligned scaffolds. These findings demonstrate that electrospun constructs maintain NSP proliferation and differentiation, and that the aligned nanofibrous scaffolds can significantly enhance chondrogenic differentiation of nasal septum derived progenitors. - Highlights: • Electrospun nanofiber scaffolds with different topographies were fabricated. • Aligned nanofiber scaffolds had better tensile strength properties. • Nasal septum derived progenitors were cultured on nanofibrous scaffolds. • Both topographies support proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. • Better chondrogenic differentiation was observed on aligned nanofibers.

  1. [Aneurysm of the membranous ventricular septum with ventricular septal defect, mitral and tricuspid insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K; Yasunaga, H; Egashira, A; Kumate, M; Kawara, T; Kosuga, K

    1998-10-01

    A seventy-year-old man was admitted at our hospital because of dyspnea. Echocardiogram and left ventriculogram showed an aneurysm formation of the membranous ventricular septum and small left-to-right shunt through ventricular septum defect and also severe mitral and tricuspid insufficiency. Operation was performed after medical therapy for congestive heart failure. During operation, mitral leaflets showed no organic lesions nor prolapse, but the annulus was dilated. The cause of mitral insufficiency, we thought, might be congenital, and the annulus dilatation was caused of mitral insufficiency, we thought, might be congenital, and the annulus dilatation was caused to produce tricuspid insufficiency secondary. The ventricular septal communication became small (diameter; 5 mm) and was associated with aneurysm formation of the remaining portion of the membranous septum. And the aneurysm, protruding to the septal leaflet of tricuspid valves, enhanced tricuspid insufficiency. It was reported by many authors that the aneurysm formation was related to spontaneous closure of ventricular septal defect. Patients with small ventricular septal defect, without any symptoms, must be followed intensively, or they might get cardiac complications, such as arrhythmia, right ventricular outflow obstruction, tricuspid insufficiency, and so on.

  2. [Pediatric neurofunctional intervention in agenesis of the corpus callosum: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Sheila Cristina da Silva; Queiroz, Ana Paula Adriano; Niza, Nathália Tiepo; da Costa, Letícia Miranda Resende; Ries, Lilian Gerdi Kittel

    2014-09-01

    To describe a clinical report pre- and post-neurofunctional intervention in a case of agenesis of the corpus callosum. Preterm infant with corpus callosum agenesis and hypoplasia of the cerebellum vermis and lateral ventricles, who, at the age of two years, started the proposed intervention. Functional performance tests were used such as the neurofunctional evaluation, the Gross Motor Function Measure and the Gross Motor Function Classification System. In the initial evaluation, absence of equilibrium reactions, postural transfers, deficits in manual and trunk control were observed. The intervention was conducted with a focus on function, prioritizing postural control and guidance of the family to continue care in the home environment. After the intervention, there was an improvement of body reactions, postural control and movement acquisition of hands and limbs. The intervention also showed improvement in functional performance. Postural control and transfers of positions were benefited by the neurofunction intervention in this case of agenesis of the corpus callosum. The approach based on function with activities that involve muscle strengthening and balance training reactions, influenced the acquisition of a more selective motor behavior. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Moyamoya Disease Emerged with Corpus Callosum Hemorrhage: A 3D Computer Graphic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shusuke; Akioka, Naoki; Kashiwazaki, Daina; Tomita, Takahiro; Kuwayama, Naoya; Kuroda, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The authors present a rare case of moyamoya disease emerged with corpus callosum hemorrhage. A 31-year-old woman suddenly complained of severe headache followed by consciousness disturbance. Radiological examinations revealed the bleeding in the splenium of corpus callosum, which was associated with intraventricular hemorrhage. On cerebral angiography, the carotid fork was severely stenotic on both sides, and a marked dilatation was observed in the anterior/posterior choroidal arteries and posterior pericallosal artery as well as the lenticulostriate arteries. Therefore, she was diagnosed as moyamoya disease. She successfully underwent superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA–MCA) anastomosis and indirect bypass on both sides. Postoperative course was uneventful. Follow-up cerebral angiography performed 4 months after surgery showed well-developed surgical collaterals via the external carotid system and a marked decrease of the dilated moyamoya vessels. She has been free from any cerebrovascular events for 36 months after surgery. Radiological findings strongly suggest that splenial bleeding occurred due to the rupture of the dilated abnormal collateral vessels that originate from the medial posterior choroidal artery and penetrate the corpus callosum in this case. Three-dimensional computer graphic analysis was useful to determine the complex collateral circulation in moyamoya disease. PMID:28664005

  4. A cascade of morphogenic signaling initiated by the meninges controls corpus callosum formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Youngshik; Siegenthaler, Julie A.; Pleasure, Samuel J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The corpus callosum is the most prominent commissural connection between the cortical hemispheres, and numerous neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with callosal agenesis. Using mice with either meningeal overgrowth or selective loss of meninges, we’ve identified a cascade of morphogenic signals initiated by the meninges that regulates corpus callosum development. The meninges produce BMP7, an inhibitor of callosal axon outgrowth. This activity is overcome by the induction of expression of Wnt3 by the callosal pathfinding neurons, which antagonizes the inhibitory effects of BMP7. Wnt3 expression in the cingulate callosal pathfinding axons is developmentally regulated by another BMP family member, GDF5, produced by the adjacent Cajal-Retzius neurons and turns on before outgrowth of the callosal axons. The effects of GDF5 are in turn under the control of a soluble GDF5 inhibitor, Dan, made by the meninges. Thus, the meninges and medial neocortex use a cascade of signals to regulate corpus callosum development. PMID:22365545

  5. Effect of Vestibulo-Proprioceptive Stimulations in a Child with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Dalvand

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of vestibulo-proprioceptive stimulations of sensory integration theory on the development of gross and fine motor, language and personal-social functions in a child with agenesis of the corpus callosum.Case: We report a 10.5 month old boy with agenesis of the corpus callosum. The intervention was administered based on sensory integration theory an hour a week for 20 weeks. The exercise intervention consisted of proprioceptive and linear, sustained and low frequency vestibular stimulations on suspension device and physio roll. A Denver Developmental Screening- II and milestones skill testing was completed pre-intervention and monthly. Post-intervention, age of gross motor, fine motor adaptive, language, and personal-social functions significantly improved. Based on milestones skills, maintenance of gross motor functions (e.g. sitting and quadruped position improved. The child could roll from side to side and released objects voluntarily. The reaction time to auditory stimulations became less than 2 seconds.Conclusion: vestibulo-proprioceptive stimulations using the neuroplasticity ability of the central nervous system is effective for development of gross and fine motor, language, and personal-social functions. These exercises can be administered for a child with agenesis of the corpus callosum.

  6. Regional distribution of neuropeptide Y and its receptor in the porcine central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch-Sørensen, M; Sheikh, S P; O'Hare, M; Tortora, O; Schwartz, T W; Gammeltoft, S

    1989-05-01

    The regional distribution of neuropeptide Y (NPY) immunoreactivity and receptor binding was studied in the porcine CNS. The highest amounts of immunoreactive NPY were found in the hypothalamus, septum pellucidum, gyrus cinguli, cortex frontalis, parietalis, and piriformis, corpus amygdaloideum, and bulbus olfactorius (200-1,000 pmol/g wet weight). In the cortex temporalis and occipitalis, striatum, hippocampus, tractus olfactorius, corpus mamillare, thalamus, and globus pallidus, the NPY content was 50-200 pmol/g wet weight, whereas the striatum, colliculi, substantia nigra, cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata, and medulla spinalis contained less than 50 pmol/g wet weight. The receptor binding of NPY was highest in the hippocampus, corpus fornicis, corpus amygdaloideum, nucleus accumbens, and neurohypophysis, with a range of 1.0-5.87 pmol/mg of protein. Intermediate binding (0.5-1.0 pmol/mg of protein) was found in the septum pellucidum, columna fornicis, corpus mamillare, cortex piriformis, gyrus cinguli, striatum, substantia grisea centralis, substantia nigra, and cerebellum. In the corpus callosum, basal ganglia, corpus pineale, colliculi, corpus geniculatum mediale, nucleus ruber, pons, medulla oblongata, and medulla spinalis, receptor binding of NPY was detectable but less than 0.5 pmol/mg of protein. No binding was observed in the bulbus and tractus olfactorius and adenohypophysis. In conclusion, immunoreactive NPY and its receptors are widespread in the porcine CNS, with predominant location in the limbic system, olfactory system, hypothalamoneurohypophysial tract, corpus striatum, and cerebral cortex.

  7. Lectin labelling of amoeboid and ramified microglial cells in the telencephalon of ovine fetuses with the B4 isolectin from Griffonia simplicifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewicker-Trautwein, M; Schultheis, G

    1994-07-01

    The topographical distribution of amoeboid and ramified microglial cells in the telencephalon of sheep fetuses at 60-149 days of gestation was examined by lectin histochemistry. Biotinylated B4 isolectin from Griffonia simplicifolia labelled both types of cell in coronal paraffin wax sections fixed in different fixatives. The most intense staining was seen in sections fixed in Bouin's fluid. Pretrypsinization of formaldehyde- and paraformaldehyde-fixed sections resulted in marked enhancement of staining affinity. In fetuses aged 60 to 96 days numerous amoeboid microglial cells were present in subependymal regions of the lateral ventricles, in the septum pellucidum, within the cavum septum pellucidum, in the corpus callosum, and in the internal and external capsule. From 84 days of gestational age onwards the occurrence of ramified microglial cells was noted. Thereafter, amoeboid microglia gradually disappeared and, in two fetuses examined at term, lectin-positive amoeboid microglial cells were no longer detectable in the telencephalic parenchyma. The distribution of amoeboid microglial cells was similar to that described in rodent brain, but the earlier disappearance of this cell type from the ovine telencephalon was interpreted as a reflection of the more rapidly proceeding brain development in the sheep than in other vertebrates.

  8. The combination of thermal dysregulation and agenesis of corpus callosum: Shapiro′s or/and reverse Shapiro′s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Topcu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shapiro syndrome is an extremely rare condition consisting the clinical triad of recurrent hypothermia, hyperhydrosis and agenesis of the corpus callosum. On the other hand, reverse Shapiro′s sydrome is characterized periodic hyperthermia and agenesis of the corpus callosum. Here, we describe a 3.5-year-old girl with complete agenesis of corpus callosum presenting with recurrent fever and vomiting. She also had hypothermia attacks with accompanying diaphoresis. To the best of our knowledge, there is no described case with episodes of hyperthermia, hypothermia, and vomiting associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum. Recurrent vomiting may be a newly defined symptom associated with these syndromes.

  9. Effects of ligation of lateral intermuscular septum perforating vessels on blood supply to the femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, K; Manestar, M; Lang, A; Ackland, T; Gilbey, H; Kuster, M S

    2015-12-01

    With a subvastus approach to the femur, the vessels that perforate the lateral intermuscular septum (LISP-vessels) must be ligated. The effect on the blood supply to the femur remains unclear. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of ligation of the LISP-Vessels on the blood supply and to examine the anatomy of the LISP-vessels and the anastomoses around the femur. In six human cadavers the LISP vessels were ligated by a lateral subvastus approach on one side. The contralateral side served as control group. After bilateral injection of different coloured silicon dyes into the lateral and medial circumflex femoral artery (green), deep femoral artery (red) and the superficial femoral artery (blue) dissection was performed bilaterally. The arterial perfusion on both sides was compared and the anatomy of the LISP vessels studied. The medullary perfusion of the femur was not altered by the ligation of the LISP vessels. It did also not lead to a decrease in periosteal vessel filling. The LISP vessels were shown to be a part of a complex and rich anastomotic network and play an important role in the perfusion of the femur and quadriceps muscle group. The ligature could be compensated for by this anastomotic network. Branches to the periosteum separate from the LISP vessels immediately after perforating the lateral intermuscular septum. The linea aspera turned out to be an important area for the femoral blood supply. Exposure of the femur through a lateral subvastus approach with ligation of LISP vessels causes a certain degree of soft tissue trauma. However, by using a gentle surgical technique the periostal perfusion of the femur can be preserved by a potent anastomotic network after ligation of the LISP vessels if they are not ligated to close to the lateral intermuscular septum and the linea aspera is not unnecessarily exposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fatty acid composition of the postmortem corpus callosum of patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, K; Maekawa, M; Toyota, T; Dean, B; Hamazaki, T; Yoshikawa, T

    2017-01-01

    Studies investigating the relationship between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels and psychiatric disorders have thus far focused mainly on analyzing gray matter, rather than white matter, in the postmortem brain. In this study, we investigated whether PUFA levels showed abnormalities in the corpus callosum, the largest area of white matter, in the postmortem brain tissue of patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder. Fatty acids in the phospholipids of the postmortem corpus callosum were evaluated by thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography. Specimens were evaluated for patients with schizophrenia (n=15), bipolar disorder (n=15), or major depressive disorder (n=15) and compared with unaffected controls (n=15). In contrast to some previous studies, no significant differences were found in the levels of PUFAs or other fatty acids in the corpus callosum between patients and controls. A subanalysis by sex gave the same results. No significant differences were found in any PUFAs between suicide completers and non-suicide cases regardless of psychiatric disorder diagnosis. Patients with psychiatric disorders did not exhibit n-3 PUFAs deficits in the postmortem corpus callosum relative to the unaffected controls, and the corpus callosum might not be involved in abnormalities of PUFA metabolism. This area of research is still at an early stage and requires further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Enriched environment increases the total number of CNPase positive cells in the corpus callosum of middle-aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuan-Yu; Shi, Xiao-Yan; Qiu, Xuan; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Wei; Yang, Shu; Li, Chen; Cheng, Guo-Hua; Yang, Zheng-Wei; Tang, Yong

    2011-01-01

    It had been reported that enriched environment was beneficial for the brain cognition, neurons and synapses in cortex and hippocampus. With diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), several studies recently found the trained-induced larger corpus callosum. However, the effect of enriched environment on the oligodendrocytes in corpus callosum has not been explored with the unbiased stereological methods. In current study, the effect of enriched environment on the total number of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) positive cells in middle-aged rat corpus callosum was investigated by means of immunohistochemical techniques and the unbiased stereological methods. We found that, when compared to standard rats, the spatial learning capacity of enriched-environment rats was significantly increased. The total number of the CNPase positive cells in the corpus callosum of enriched-environment middle-aged rats was significantly increased when compared to standard rats. The present study provided, to the best of our knowledge, the first evidence of environmental enrichment-induced increases in the total number of CNPase positive cells in the corpus callosum of middle-aged rats.

  12. Maturation of Corpus Callosum Anterior Midbody Is Associated with Neonatal Motor Function in Eight Preterm-Born Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Preethi; Pannek, Kerstin; D'Acunto, M. Giulia; Guzzetta, Andrea; Rose, Stephen E.; Colditz, Paul B.; Finnigan, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Background. The etiology of motor impairments in preterm infants is multifactorial and incompletely understood. Whether corpus callosum development is related to impaired motor function is unclear. Potential associations between motor-related measures and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the corpus callosum in preterm infants were explored. Methods. Eight very preterm infants (gestational age of 28–32 weeks) underwent the Hammersmith neonatal neurological examination and DTI assessments at gestational age of 42 weeks. The total Hammersmith score and a motor-specific score (sum of Hammersmith motor subcategories) were calculated. Six corpus callosum regions of interest were defined on the mid-sagittal DTI slice—genu, rostral body, anterior midbody, posterior midbody, isthmus, and splenium. The fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of these regions were computed, and correlations between these and Hammersmith measures were sought. Results. Anterior midbody FA measures correlated positively with total Hammersmith (rho = 0.929, P = 0.001) and motor-specific scores (rho = 0.857, P = 0.007). Total Hammersmith scores also negatively correlated with anterior midbody MD measures (rho = −0.714, P = 0.047). Discussion. These results suggest the integrity of corpus callosum axons, particularly anterior midbody axons, is important in mediating neurological functions. Greater callosal maturation was associated with greater motor function. Corpus callosum DTI may prove to be a valuable screening or prognostic marker. PMID:23509639

  13. Maturation of Corpus Callosum Anterior Midbody Is Associated with Neonatal Motor Function in Eight Preterm-Born Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Mathew

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The etiology of motor impairments in preterm infants is multifactorial and incompletely understood. Whether corpus callosum development is related to impaired motor function is unclear. Potential associations between motor-related measures and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI of the corpus callosum in preterm infants were explored. Methods. Eight very preterm infants (gestational age of 28–32 weeks underwent the Hammersmith neonatal neurological examination and DTI assessments at gestational age of 42 weeks. The total Hammersmith score and a motor-specific score (sum of Hammersmith motor subcategories were calculated. Six corpus callosum regions of interest were defined on the mid-sagittal DTI slice—genu, rostral body, anterior midbody, posterior midbody, isthmus, and splenium. The fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD of these regions were computed, and correlations between these and Hammersmith measures were sought. Results. Anterior midbody FA measures correlated positively with total Hammersmith (rho =0.929, P=0.001 and motor-specific scores (rho =0.857, P=0.007. Total Hammersmith scores also negatively correlated with anterior midbody MD measures (rho =−0.714, P=0.047. Discussion. These results suggest the integrity of corpus callosum axons, particularly anterior midbody axons, is important in mediating neurological functions. Greater callosal maturation was associated with greater motor function. Corpus callosum DTI may prove to be a valuable screening or prognostic marker.

  14. The effect of injury timing on white matter changes in the corpus callosum following unilateral brain injury☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawe, Rachel L.; Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; Dewald, Julius P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Motor impairments following unilateral brain injuries may be related to changes in the corpus callosum. The purpose of this study was to determine if the corpus callosum is impacted differently in pediatric versus adult hemiplegia. Diffusion tensor imaging was completed on 41 participants (11 pediatric hemiplegia, 10 adult hemiplegia, 10 pediatric control and 10 adult control). Fractional anisotropy values and cross-sectional areas for five regions of the corpus callosum were compared between subject groups. Additionally, the amount of involuntary activity in the paretic elbow was quantified during non-paretic elbow flexion tasks for a subset of pediatric hemiplegia participants. Fractional anisotropy values were reduced in pediatric hemiplegia compared to pediatric control subjects in callosal regions corresponding to premotor and supplementary motor areas, primary sensory cortex, and parietal, temporal, and occipital cortices. Differences in fractional anisotropy between adult stroke and adult controls were only found in the region corresponding to parietal, temporal, and occipital cortices. Cross-sectional area was affected in all regions of the corpus callosum in pediatric hemiplegia, but only in the primary sensory region in adult hemiplegia. Additionally, changes in the cross-sectional areas were correlated with involuntary mirror movements in the pediatric hemiplegia group. In conclusion, the corpus callosum is affected to a greater extent in pediatric compared to adult hemiplegia, which may explain why unsuppressed mirror movements and difficulty with bimanual coordination are greater problems in this population. PMID:24179855

  15. LAS NEURONAS DEL SEPTUM LATERAL MODIFICAN LA ACTIVIDAD DE LAS NEURONAS DEL NUCLEO TUBEROMAMILAR DEL HIPOTALAMO

    OpenAIRE

    FARIAS RODRIGUEZ, PAULA ANDREA

    2012-01-01

    El septum lateral (SL), es un núcleo del cerebro anterior, que, procesa la información sensorial afectiva procedente del hipocampo y dirige sus respuestas, importantes para la supervivencia, hacia las zonas del hipotálamo importantes para la motivación, como lo es el núcleo tuberomamilar del hipotálamo (TMN). El TMN contiene las neuronas histaminérgicas en el cerebro, la cual relacionamos con la vigilia y alerta en conductas motivadas y así puede dirigir y reforzar el comportamiento. El TM...

  16. Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum and hypoplastic right ventricle in an Arabian foal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, M U; Wünschmann, A; Ward, C; Stauthammer, C D

    2016-09-01

    Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum, rudimentary tricuspid valve, hypoplastic right ventricle, and right-to-left atrial shunting were identified in a four-day-old, male Arabian foal with clinical signs of cyanotic heart disease. Pulmonary blood flow was apparently derived from a ductus arteriosus. Echocardiographic evaluation revealed the majority of cardiac abnormalities and also findings compatible with right-sided congestive heart failure. Congenital cardiac defects have a high incidence in this breed, and this is the first description of this combination of congenital cardiac defects. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Automatic corpus callosum segmentation using a deformable active Fourier contour model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachet, Clement; Yvernault, Benjamin; Bhatt, Kshamta; Smith, Rachel G; Gerig, Guido; Hazlett, Heather Cody; Styner, Martin

    2012-03-23

    The corpus callosum (CC) is a structure of interest in many neuroimaging studies of neuro-developmental pathology such as autism. It plays an integral role in relaying sensory, motor and cognitive information from homologous regions in both hemispheres. We have developed a framework that allows automatic segmentation of the corpus callosum and its lobar subdivisions. Our approach employs constrained elastic deformation of flexible Fourier contour model, and is an extension of Szekely's 2D Fourier descriptor based Active Shape Model. The shape and appearance model, derived from a large mixed population of 150+ subjects, is described with complex Fourier descriptors in a principal component shape space. Using MNI space aligned T1w MRI data, the CC segmentation is initialized on the mid-sagittal plane using the tissue segmentation. A multi-step optimization strategy, with two constrained steps and a final unconstrained step, is then applied. If needed, interactive segmentation can be performed via contour repulsion points. Lobar connectivity based parcellation of the corpus callosum can finally be computed via the use of a probabilistic CC subdivision model. Our analysis framework has been integrated in an open-source, end-to-end application called CCSeg both with a command line and Qt-based graphical user interface (available on NITRC). A study has been performed to quantify the reliability of the semi-automatic segmentation on a small pediatric dataset. Using 5 subjects randomly segmented 3 times by two experts, the intra-class correlation coefficient showed a superb reliability (0.99). CCSeg is currently applied to a large longitudinal pediatric study of brain development in autism.

  18. Microstructural damage of the posterior corpus callosum contributes to the clinical severity of neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzali, Marco; Mastropasqua, Chiara; Cercignani, Mara; Giulietti, Giovanni; Bonnì, Sonia; Caltagirone, Carlo; Koch, Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    One theory to account for neglect symptoms in patients with right focal damage invokes a release of inhibition of the right parietal cortex over the left parieto-frontal circuits, by disconnection mechanism. This theory is supported by transcranial magnetic stimulation studies showing the existence of asymmetric inhibitory interactions between the left and right posterior parietal cortex, with a right hemispheric advantage. These inhibitory mechanisms are mediated by direct transcallosal projections located in the posterior portions of the corpus callosum. The current study, using diffusion imaging and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), aims at assessing, in a data-driven fashion, the contribution of structural disconnection between hemispheres in determining the presence and severity of neglect. Eleven patients with right acute stroke and 11 healthy matched controls underwent MRI at 3T, including diffusion imaging, and T1-weighted volumes. TBSS was modified to account for the presence of the lesion and used to assess the presence and extension of changes in diffusion indices of microscopic white matter integrity in the left hemisphere of patients compared to controls, and to investigate, by correlation analysis, whether this damage might account for the presence and severity of patients' neglect, as assessed by the Behavioural Inattention Test (BIT). None of the patients had any macroscopic abnormality in the left hemisphere; however, 3 cases were discarded due to image artefacts in the MRI data. Conversely, TBSS analysis revealed widespread changes in diffusion indices in most of their left hemisphere tracts, with a predominant involvement of the corpus callosum and its projections on the parietal white matter. A region of association between patients' scores at BIT and brain FA values was found in the posterior part of the corpus callosum. This study strongly supports the hypothesis of a major role of structural disconnection between the right and left

  19. Microstructural damage of the posterior corpus callosum contributes to the clinical severity of neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bozzali

    Full Text Available One theory to account for neglect symptoms in patients with right focal damage invokes a release of inhibition of the right parietal cortex over the left parieto-frontal circuits, by disconnection mechanism. This theory is supported by transcranial magnetic stimulation studies showing the existence of asymmetric inhibitory interactions between the left and right posterior parietal cortex, with a right hemispheric advantage. These inhibitory mechanisms are mediated by direct transcallosal projections located in the posterior portions of the corpus callosum. The current study, using diffusion imaging and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS, aims at assessing, in a data-driven fashion, the contribution of structural disconnection between hemispheres in determining the presence and severity of neglect. Eleven patients with right acute stroke and 11 healthy matched controls underwent MRI at 3T, including diffusion imaging, and T1-weighted volumes. TBSS was modified to account for the presence of the lesion and used to assess the presence and extension of changes in diffusion indices of microscopic white matter integrity in the left hemisphere of patients compared to controls, and to investigate, by correlation analysis, whether this damage might account for the presence and severity of patients' neglect, as assessed by the Behavioural Inattention Test (BIT. None of the patients had any macroscopic abnormality in the left hemisphere; however, 3 cases were discarded due to image artefacts in the MRI data. Conversely, TBSS analysis revealed widespread changes in diffusion indices in most of their left hemisphere tracts, with a predominant involvement of the corpus callosum and its projections on the parietal white matter. A region of association between patients' scores at BIT and brain FA values was found in the posterior part of the corpus callosum. This study strongly supports the hypothesis of a major role of structural disconnection between the

  20. Automatic corpus callosum segmentation using a deformable active Fourier contour model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachet, Clement; Yvernault, Benjamin; Bhatt, Kshamta; Smith, Rachel G.; Gerig, Guido; Cody Hazlett, Heather; Styner, Martin

    2012-03-01

    The corpus callosum (CC) is a structure of interest in many neuroimaging studies of neuro-developmental pathology such as autism. It plays an integral role in relaying sensory, motor and cognitive information from homologous regions in both hemispheres. We have developed a framework that allows automatic segmentation of the corpus callosum and its lobar subdivisions. Our approach employs constrained elastic deformation of flexible Fourier contour model, and is an extension of Szekely's 2D Fourier descriptor based Active Shape Model. The shape and appearance model, derived from a large mixed population of 150+ subjects, is described with complex Fourier descriptors in a principal component shape space. Using MNI space aligned T1w MRI data, the CC segmentation is initialized on the mid-sagittal plane using the tissue segmentation. A multi-step optimization strategy, with two constrained steps and a final unconstrained step, is then applied. If needed, interactive segmentation can be performed via contour repulsion points. Lobar connectivity based parcellation of the corpus callosum can finally be computed via the use of a probabilistic CC subdivision model. Our analysis framework has been integrated in an open-source, end-to-end application called CCSeg both with a command line and Qt-based graphical user interface (available on NITRC). A study has been performed to quantify the reliability of the semi-automatic segmentation on a small pediatric dataset. Using 5 subjects randomly segmented 3 times by two experts, the intra-class correlation coefficient showed a superb reliability (0.99). CCSeg is currently applied to a large longitudinal pediatric study of brain development in autism.

  1. Gorlin's syndrome with a thin corpus callosum and a third ventricular cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantarci, M.; Alper, F.; Onbas, O. [Department of Radiology, Atatuerk University School of Medicine, Erzurum (Turkey); Ertas, U. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Atatuerk University School of Dentist, Erzurum (Turkey); Sutbeyaz, Y.; Karasen, R.M. [Otolaryngology, Atatuerk University School of Medicine, Otolaryngology, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2003-06-01

    Gorlin's syndrome (naevoid basal cell carcinoma) is an autosomal dominant tumor-predisposition syndrome, classically consists of multiple basal cell carcinomas of the skin, odontogenic keratocyst of the jaw, various skeletal abnormalities, and lamellar falx calcifications. Many associated lesions have been reported. We report a case of Gorlin's syndrome in a 22-year-old man in whom CT and MR images showed unusual findings of the thin corpus callosum and third ventricular cyst. We present a case of this syndrome with special emphasis on its unusual neuroradiological findings and radiological management. (orig.)

  2. Estimation and Perturbation of the Mid-Sagittal Plane and its Effects on Corpus Callosum Morphometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skoglund, Karl; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Ryberg, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    callosum (CC), the white-matter nervous tissue bridging the left and right cerebral hemisphere. A multitude of papers (e.g. [2]) report on measurements performed on the two-dimensional cross-section of the CC defined by the mid-sagittal plane (MSP) which separates the left hemisphere from the right......Brain morphometry is an important tool for detecting and monitoring brain pathologies such as epilepsy, dementia [1,2] and multiple sclerosis [3]. A common method is to delineate some well-defined area of the brain to yield a shape for interor intra-subject studies. One such structure is the corpus...

  3. Megalencephaly, mega corpus callosum, and complete lack of motor development: delineation of a rare syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengst, Meike; Tücke, Jens; Zerres, Klaus; Blaum, Marcus; Häusler, Martin

    2010-09-01

    Unlike atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC), callosal hypertrophy is a rare neuroimaging finding with only few reported patients. The "megalencephaly, mega CC, and complete lack of motor development" syndrome is morphologically characterized by generalized megalencephaly, a thickened CC, and extensive polymicrogyria causing a pachygyric appearance. We report on the fifth patient showing this rare syndrome, a 3-year-old girl displaying the typical neuroimaging features. Clinically she showed a severely impaired motor, mental, and speech development with marked muscular hypotonia but no dysmorphic facial signs. She also retained the ability to move by rolling sidewards so that complete lack of motor development may not be a consistent feature.

  4. Corpus callosum abnormalities, intellectual disability, speech impairment, and autism in patients with haploinsufficiency of ARID1B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christina Halgren; Kjaergaard, S; Bak, M

    2011-01-01

    Corpus callosum abnormalities, intellectual disability, speech impairment, and autism in patients with haploinsufficiency of ARID1B. Corpus callosum abnormalities are common brain malformations with a wide clinical spectrum ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal cognitive function...... with various sized deletions encompassing ARID1B confirms that haploinsufficiency of ARID1B is associated with CC abnormalities, intellectual disability, severe speech impairment, and autism. Our findings emphasize that ARID1B is important in human brain development and function in general...... of corpus callosum (CC), intellectual disability, severe speech impairment, and autism. The chromosome 6 breakpoint truncated ARID1B which was also truncated in a recently published translocation patient with a similar phenotype. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) data showed that a primer set...

  5. Interaction of a vasopressin antagonist with vasopressin receptors in the septum of the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorsa, D.M.; Brot, M.D.; Shewey, L.M.; Meyers, K.M.; Szot, P.; Miller, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of d(CH2)5-Tyr(Me)-arginine-8-vasopressin, an antagonist of peripheral pressoric (V1-type) vasopressin receptors, to label vasopressin binding sites in the septum of the rat brain was evaluated. Using crude membrane preparations from the septum, /sup 3/H-arginine-8-vasopressin (AVP) specifically labels a single class of binding sites with a Kd of 2.9 nM and maximum binding site concentration of 19.8 fmole/mg protein. /sup 3/H-Antag also labels a single class of membrane sites but with higher affinity (Kd = 0.47 nM) and lower capacity (10.1 fmole/mg protein) than /sup 3/H-AVP. The rank order of potency of various competitor peptides for /sup 3/H-AVP and /sup 3/H-Antag binding was similar. Oxytocin was 100-1,000 fold less potent than AVP in competing for binding with both ligands. /sup 3/H-AVP and /sup 3/H-Antag showed similar labeling patterns when incubated with septal tissue slices. Unlabeled Antag also effectively antagonized vasopressin-stimulated phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis in septal tissue slices.

  6. Correction of the deviated septum: from ancient Egypt to the endoscopic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaronson, Nicole L; Vining, Eugenia M

    2014-11-01

    Obstructed nasal breathing can occur due to deviation of the nasal septum. When the external nose appears grossly normal and cosmesis is not the focus, septoplasty has been the procedure used to straighten the septum with the goal of improving nasal airflow. Septoplasty has evolved over time. A historical literature review was conducted to look for primary source journal articles and medical conferences proccedings addressing the evolution of the septoplasty procedure. Early techniques involved forcible fractures and splinting. Submucous resection was the first major advancement in surgical technique. Once the complications resulting from this technique were observed, it was subsequently revised with attempts to better address the caudal septal deviation. Attention was then turned to better incorporating the role surrounding support structures, such as the upper lateral cartilages. The premaxilla-maxilla approach attempted to address the overall nasal structure to best improve nasal breathing. The advent of endoscopic technique has been the most recent shift in surgical technique with improved visualization allowing for targeted septoplasty and reoperation on complicated cases including pituitary and skull base surgery. This paper discusses the evolution of septoplasty techniques over time from the initial undertakings of the ancient Egyptians to the modern-day septoplasty. While the principles behind septoplasty have remained much the same, experience has allowed for refinement of surgical technique. No doubt new instrumentations and innovations will further help to tailor the practice of septoplasty to the anatomy and functional needs of each individual patient. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  7. Successful management of the recurrent uterine rupture after the uterine septum resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner Kasapoglu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Uterine septum is associated with an increased rate of recurrent miscarriages which can be reduced significantly by performing endoscopic resection. Perinatal outcome improvement due to resection is favorable but still remains controversial. Uterine rupture is a late complication of hysteroscopic surgery that may be a life-threatening condition in terms of perinatal and maternal morbidity–mortality. This article presents the first case of the related literature dealing with the successful management of the third recurrent uterine rupture in the 31st week of pregnancy subsequent to the hysteroscopic resection of uterine septum. The patient observed in this article had experienced uterine rupture twice; firstly, in the 27th week of pregnancy resulted with postpartum exitus and secondly, in the 29th week of pregnancy that ended with stillbirth while her last pregnancy eventuated in a live healthy birth. Surgeons who accomplish these hysteroscopic procedures must weigh out pros and cons; and must also acquaint their patients with the probable risk of recurrent and multiple uterine ruptures during the subsequent pregnancy.

  8. Quantitative analysis of the corpus callosum in children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay: correlation with cerebral white matter volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panigrahy, Ashok [Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Barnes, Patrick D. [Stanford University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Lucile Salter Packard Children' s Hospital, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Robertson, Robert L. [Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Sleeper, Lynn A. [New England Research Institute, Watertown, MA (United States); Sayre, James W. [UCLA Medical Center, Departments of Radiology and Biostatistics, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2005-12-01

    This study was conducted to quantitatively correlate the thickness of the corpus callosum with the volume of cerebral white matter in children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay. Material and methods: A clinical database of 70 children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay was established with children between the ages of 1 and 5 years. These children also demonstrated abnormal periventricular T2 hyperintensities associated with and without ventriculomegaly. Mid-sagittal T1-weighted images were used to measure the thickness (genu, mid-body, and splenium) and length of the corpus callosum. Volumes of interest were digitized based on gray-scale densities to define the hemispheric cerebral white matter on axial T2-weighted and FLAIR images. The thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum was correlated with cerebral white matter volume. Subgroup analysis was also performed to examine the relationship of this correlation with both gestational age and neuromotor outcome. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance and Pearson correlation coefficients. There was a positive correlation between the thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum and the volume of cerebral white matter across all children studied (R=0.665, P=0.0001). This correlation was not dependent on gestational age. The thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum was decreased in the spastic diplegia group compared to the two other groups (hypotonia and developmental delay only; P<0.0001). Within each neuromotor subgroup, there was a positive correlation between thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum and volume of the cerebral white matter. (orig.)

  9. Corpus callosum atrophy is associated with mental slowing and executive deficits in subjects with age-related white matter hyperintensities. The LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Hanne; Ryberg, Charlotte; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille

    2007-01-01

    of the total corpus callosum area and its subregions with cognitive performance were analysed using multiple linear regression, controlling for volume of WMH and other confounding factors. Results: Atrophy of the total corpus callosum area was associated with poor performance in tests assessing speed of mental...

  10. A new case of interstitial deletion of chromosome 3q, del(3q)(q13.12q21.3), with agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuardi, M; Calvieri, F; Tozzi, C; Coslovi, R; Neri, G

    1994-10-01

    We describe a boy with an interstitial deletion of the proximal portion of chromosome 3q. Prominent physical characteristics were a dysmorphic face with apparent hypertelorism, signs of prenatal lymphedema, foot contractures and agenesis of the corpus callosum. The finding of corpus callosum agenesis in a previously reported patient with an overlapping deletion suggests an additional locus for this malformation.

  11. Genetic, morphometric, and behavioral factors linked to the midsagittal area of the corpus callosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex J Newbury

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available TThe corpus callosum is the main commissure connecting left and right cerebral hemispheres, and varies widely in size. Differences in the midsagittal area of the corpus callosum (MSACC have been associated with a number of cognitive and behavioral phenotypes, including obsessive-compulsive disorders, psychopathy, suicidal tendencies, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, autism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although there is evidence to suggest that MSACC is heritable in normal human populations, there is surprisingly little evidence concerning the genetic modulation of this variation. Mice provide a potentially ideal tool to dissect the genetic modulation of MSACC. Here, we use a large genetic reference panel—the BXD recombinant inbred (RI line—to dissect the natural variation of the MSACC. We estimated the MSACC in over 300 individuals from nearly 80 strains. We found a 4-fold difference in MSACC between individual mice, and a 2.5 fold difference between strains. MSACC is a highly heritable trait (h2 = 0.60, and we mapped a suggestive QTL to the distal portion of Chr 14. Using sequence data and neocortical expression databases, we were able to identify eight positional and plausible biological candidate genes within this interval. Finally, we found that MSACC correlated with behavioral traits associated with anxiety and attention.

  12. Communicative deficits in agenesis of the corpus callosum: nonliteral language and affective prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lynn K; Van Lancker-Sidtis, Diana; Schieffer, Beatrix; Dietrich, Rosalind; Brown, Warren S

    2003-05-01

    While some individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum can perform normally on standardized intelligence tests, clinical observations suggest that they nevertheless have deficits in the domains of fluid and social intelligence. Particularly important for social competence is adequate understanding and use of paralinguistic information. This study examined the impact of callosal absence on the processing of pragmatic and paralinguistic information. Young adult males with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) were evaluated in the areas of nonliteral language comprehension, proverb recognition and interpretation, and perception of affective prosody. Ten ACC individuals with normal Wechsler IQ were compared to 14 sex, age, and IQ matched normal controls. The Formulaic and Novel Language Comprehension Test (FANL-C), Gorham Proverbs Test, and LA Prosody Test were administered. ACC subjects exhibited significant impairment on the nonliteral items of the FANL-C, but no significant difference from controls in comprehension of literal items. ACC subjects also exhibited significant deficits in both self-generated interpretation and recognition of proverb meaning, and in recognition of affective prosody. These results demonstrate that normally intelligent individuals with ACC are impaired in the understanding of nonliteral language and emotional-prosodic cues that are important in social communication. In all three tests, the performance of individuals with ACC was similar to patients with right hemisphere brain damage. Thus, persons with ACC appear to lack interhemispheric integration of critical aspects of language processed by the right hemisphere.

  13. The Corpus Callosum and the Visual Cortex: Plasticity Is a Game for Two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pietrasanta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout life, experience shapes and selects the most appropriate brain functional connectivity to adapt to a changing environment. An ideal system to study experience-dependent plasticity is the visual cortex, because visual experience can be easily manipulated. In this paper, we focus on the role of interhemispheric, transcallosal projections in experience-dependent plasticity of the visual cortex. We review data showing that deprivation of sensory experience can modify the morphology of callosal fibres, thus altering the communication between the two hemispheres. More importantly, manipulation of callosal input activity during an early critical period alters developmental maturation of functional properties in visual cortex and modifies its ability to remodel in response to experience. We also discuss recent data in rat visual cortex, demonstrating that the corpus callosum plays a role in binocularity of cortical neurons and is involved in the plastic shift of eye preference that follows a period of monocular eyelid suture (monocular deprivation in early age. Thus, experience can modify the fine connectivity of the corpus callosum, and callosal connections represent a major pathway through which experience can mediate functional maturation and plastic rearrangements in the visual cortex.

  14. PSYCHO-MOTRIC REHABILITATION IN CHILDREN WITH AGENESIS OF CORPUS CALLOSUM (Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zărnica I. Manuela Mirela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Agenesis of corpus callosum is a new challenge for the puluridisciplinary team, in their efforts for the rehabilitation of childrens with this diagnose, because is a rare congenital desease with an unknown frequence of emergence. Scope. This paperwork aims to present the approach modalities of the child with agenesis of corpus callousum and the means of physical therapy that may help. Methods. This is a case study of a 5 years old girl with asenesis of corpus callosum. For assessment we used motor assessment, range of motion, reflexes. Exercises from different positions were done as games and motric songs. Sensory stimulation was also done. Rezults. By direct observation of the patient we observed significant improvement in motor function. We also foud unexpected improvement of quiet stance and dynamic balance, sensory-motor coordination. Conclusions. Game, tha main therapeutic method through its form, diversity and characteristics - atractivity, directness, creativity, movement freedom – is the main supplement of child psicho-motric development. A balanced distribution of influences upon motricity, psychic, thinking and action, nonverbal and expression language, represent the qualitative peculiarity of specialist’s and parents efforts.

  15. Congenital fusion of the thalami (atresia of the third ventricle) associated with parietooccipital meningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, Leonidas D; Sgantzos, Markos N; Kotrotsios, Anastasios; Vassiou, Katerina G

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present a case of a male newborn with a CNS malformation that is characterized mainly by complete fusion of the thalami resulting in atresia of the 3rd ventricle accompanied by fusion of the anterior peduncles of the fornix, the presence of a single occult interventricular foramen lying at the midline, absence of the septum pellucidum, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, disorganization of the head of the left caudate nucleus, and greatly dilated lateral ventricles (hydrocephalus). The patient underwent surgical correction of the meningocele on his 4th postnatal day. On his 13th postnatal day he had projectile vomiting due to a left parietooccipital hygroma that was drained via a shunt. On his 31st postnatal day he developed seizures and marked dilatation of the lateral ventricles, for which he underwent a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (Brown). On the 14th postoperative day the patient developed aspiration pneumonia and died.

  16. [Congenital mydriasis as an initial sign of septo-optic dysplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascosa-Romero, M C; Ruiz-Cano, R; Martínez-López, F; Alfaro-Ponce, B; Pérez-Pardo, A

    2013-10-01

    Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD)[MIM182230] consisting of a heterogeneous and uncommon condition characterised by the classictriad: optic nerve hypoplasia, abnormalities of pituitary hormone, and defects of thebrain midline (including agenesis of the septum pellucidum and/or the corpus callosum; ithas also been described associated cortical malformations, it was referred to as SOD plus syndrome).We report the first known case in which the initial diagnostic sign of SOD was a bilateralmydriasis as a manifestation ofhypoplasia of both optic nerves, pituitary hypoplasia andcerebral dysgenesis with neuronal migration disorder.We discuss thedifferential diagnosis of congenital mydriasis. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationships of the tricuspid valve to the membranous ventricular septum in Down's syndrome without endocardial cushion defect: study of 28 specimens, 14 with a ventricular septal defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenquist, G C; Sweeney, L J; McAllister, H A

    1975-10-01

    The commissure between the anterior and medial leaflets of the tricuspid valve is commonly absent in Down's syndrome without endocardial cushion defect (19 of 28 specimens). As a result, aneurysm of the membranous ventricular septum may develop (eight of 14 specimens with ventricular septal defect limited to the membranous ventricular septum) and the potential for left ventricle-to-right atrial communication is increased.

  18. An endocardial pathway involving Tbx5, Gata4, and Nos3 required for atrial septum formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Mathieu; Georges, Romain O; Laforest, Brigitte; Yamak, Abir; Lefebvre, Chantal; Beauregard, Janie; Paradis, Pierre; Bruneau, Benoit G; Andelfinger, Gregor; Nemer, Mona

    2010-11-09

    In humans, septal defects are among the most prevalent congenital heart diseases, but their cellular and molecular origins are not fully understood. We report that transcription factor Tbx5 is present in a subpopulation of endocardial cells and that its deletion therein results in fully penetrant, dose-dependent atrial septal defects in mice. Increased apoptosis of endocardial cells lacking Tbx5, as well as neighboring TBX5-positive myocardial cells of the atrial septum through activation of endocardial NOS (Nos3), is the underlying mechanism of disease. Compound Tbx5 and Nos3 haploinsufficiency in mice worsens the cardiac phenotype. The data identify a pathway for endocardial cell survival and unravel a cell-autonomous role for Tbx5 therein. The finding that Nos3, a gene regulated by many congenital heart disease risk factors including stress and diabetes, interacts genetically with Tbx5 provides a molecular framework to understand gene-environment interaction in the setting of human birth defects.

  19. Spatial discrimination learning induces LTP-like changes in the lateral septum of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, R; Vouimba, R M; Jaffard, R

    1993-12-13

    The efficacy of synaptic transmission from the fimbria to the lateral septum (LS) of freely moving mice was monitored electrophysiologically over 9 days of training in a spatial discrimination task (radial maze). Electrical stimulation of the fimbria evoked two negative waves (N2 and N3) in the ipsilateral LS. Compared to a control group exposed to muscular effort (treadmill), trained animals displayed a significant and progressive increase in the amplitude of N3 with no changes in N2. Moreover, this increase was of greater magnitude in fast learners than in slow learners and persisted for at least 24 h following the last (9th) training session. These changes might play a role in spatial learning through the regulation of septohippocampal cholinergic activity.

  20. Division genes in Escherichia coli are expressed coordinately to cell septum requirements by gearbox promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldea, M; Garrido, T; Pla, J; Vicente, M

    1990-11-01

    The cell division ftsQAZ cluster and the ftsZ-dependent bolA morphogene of Escherichia coli are found to be driven by gearboxes, a distinct class of promoters characterized by showing an activity that is inversely dependent on growth rate. These promoters contain specific sequences upstream from the mRNA start point, and their -10 region is essential for the inverse growth rate dependence. Gearbox promoters are essential for driving ftsQAZ and bolA gene expression so that the encoded products are synthesized at constant amounts per cell independently of cell size. This mode of regulation would be expected for the expression of proteins that either play a regulatory role in cell division or form a stoichiometric component of the septum, a structure that, independently of cell size and growth rate, is produced once per cell cycle.

  1. Corpus callosum size correlates with asymmetric performance on a dichotic listening task in healthy aging but not in Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gootjes, L; Bouma, A; Van Strien, JW; Van Schijndel, R; Barkhof, F; Scheltens, P

    2006-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves not only gray matter but also white matter pathology, as reflected by atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC). Since decreased CC size may indicate reduced functional interhemispheric connectivity, differences in callosal size may have cognitive consequences that may

  2. Corpus callosum size correlates with asymmetric performance on a dichotic listening task in healthy aging but not in Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Gootjes (Liselotte); A. Bouma (Anke); J.W. van Strien (Jan); R. van Schijndel; F. Barkhof (Frederik); P. Scheltens (Philip)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAlzheimer's disease (AD) involves not only gray matter but also white matter pathology, as reflected by atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC). Since decreased CC size may indicate reduced functional interhemispheric connectivity, differences in callosal size may have cognitive consequences

  3. Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum and Skeletal Deformities in Two Unrelated Patients: Analysis via MRI and Radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Kaissi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Mental retardation, mild to severe epilepsy and cerebral palsy often of hemiplegic type are common accompaniments in patients with agenesis/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Skeletal deformities of bilateral radiohumeral synostosis, brachydactyly, bilateral elbow dislocation, talipes equinovarus, and juxtacalcaneal accessory bones have been encountered in two unrelated children with agenesis of the corpus callosum. Methods. We report on two unrelated children who presented with the full clinical criteria of agenesis of the corpus callosum. Strikingly, both presented with variable upper and lower limb deformities. The clinical features, radiographic and MRI findings in our current patients, have been compared with previously reported cases identified through a PubMed literature review. Results. Bilateral radiohumeral synostosis associated with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency has been encountered in one patient. The other patient manifested bilateral elbow dislocation, coxa valga, talipes equinovarus, and bilateral juxtacalcaneal accessory bones. Conclusion. The constellation of malformation complexes in our current patients have the hitherto not been reported and expanding the spectrum of skeletal deformities in connection with agenesis of the corpus callosum.

  4. Evaluation of histopathologic changes in an animal model of mechanical corpus callosum impingement as seen in hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinkins, J R; Rauch, R A; Hagino, N; Kagan-Hallet, K S; Xiong, L

    1995-07-01

    We evaluated histologic changes associated with chronic impingement of the corpus callosum. Similar callosal impingement has been postulated to be responsible for some of the symptoms in people who have hydrocephalus. Eight rats with callosal impingement produced by surgical implantation of a blunt blade in the interhemispheric fissure and four control animals with no callosal impingement were evaluated by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and by direct histologic evaluation after autopsy. The histologic evaluations occurred 1 month after surgery in half the animals and 6 months after surgery in the other half. MR imaging results showed that the implanted blade was in a good position in all animals. Histologically, the corpus callosum appeared normal 1 month after implantation of the impingement blade. Six months after surgery, the experimental group demonstrated decreased callosal thickness and a loss of axonal fibers in the corpus callosum both near and remote to the blade. Chronic impingement of the corpus callosum was associated with callosal thinning and by loss of callosal axons. Further research will be required to investigate the possible relation of these histologic findings to the clinical findings in normal-pressure hydrocephalus.

  5. Fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity in the corpus callosum of patients with multiple sclerosis: the effect of physiotherapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ibrahim, I.; Tintěra, J.; Škoch, A.; Jírů, F.; Hluštík, P.; Martinková, Patrícia; Zvára, Karel; Řasová, K.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 11 (2011), s. 917-926 ISSN 0028-3940 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Program:1M Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : multiple sclerosis * rehabilitation * facilitation physiotherapy * diffusion tensor imaging * corpus callosum Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.824, year: 2011

  6. Microsurgical anatomy of the posterior median septum of the human spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoglu, Erhan; Kertmen, Hayri; Uluc, Kutluay; Akture, Erinc; Gurer, Bora; Cikla, Ulaş; Salamat, Shahriar; Başkaya, Mustafa K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the topographical anatomy of the dorsal spinal cord (SC) in relation to the posterior median septum (PMS). This included the course and variations in the PMS, and its relationship to and distance from other dorsal spinal landmarks. Microsurgical anatomy of the PMS was examined in 12 formalin-fixed adult cadaveric SCs. Surface landmarks such as the dorsal root entry zone (DREZ), the denticulate ligament, the architecture of the leptomeninges and pial vascular distribution were noted. The PMS was examined histologically in all spinal segments. The PMS extended most deeply at spinal segments C7 and S4. This was statistically significant for all spinal segments except C5. The PMS was shallowest at segments T4 and T6, where it was statistically significantly thinner than at any other segment. In 80% of the SCs, small blood vessels were identified that traveled in a rostrocaudal direction in the PMS. The longest distance between the PMS and the DREZ was at the C1-C4 vertebral levels and the shortest distance was at the S5 level. Prevention of deficits following a dorsal midline neurosurgical approach to deep-seated SC lesions requires careful identification of the midline of the cord. The PMS and septum define the midline on the dorsum of the SC and their accurate identification is essential for a safe midline surgical approach. In this anatomical study, we describe the surface anatomy of the dorsal SC and its relationship with the PMS, which can be used to determine a safe entry zone into the SC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Study of the Median Septum of Juglans regia in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Ravanbakhsh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Median septum of Juglans regia L. (Juglandaceae with anti - diabetic effects has been used in Iranian traditional medicine. The present study estimates both oral acute and subchronic toxicities. Methods: In the oral acute toxicity study, female Wistar rats were treated with doses of 10, 100, 1000, 1600 , 2900 and 5000 mg/ kg of the Juglans regia septum of methanol extract (JRSME, and were monitored for 14 days. In subchronic study, JRSME was administered by gavage at dose of 1000 mg/kg daily in Wistar rats for 28 days. Antioxidant status and biochemical examinations were fulfilled, and the vital organs were subjected to pathological analyses. Results: The extract did not produce any toxic signs or deaths; the medium lethal dose must be higher than 5000 mg/kg. In subchronic study, No significant morpholo gical and histopathological changes were observed in the studied tissues. There was a significant increase in serum malondialdehyde (MDA level in treated group compared to control after 4 weeks of JRSME intake. The treatment of rats resulted in a signific ant reduction of serum urea level (p<0.05, kidney’s xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH activity (p<0.001 and elevation of aldehyde oxidase (AO activity (p<0.05 in kidney. In the treated group, the mean diameter of glomerulus and proximal urine tube epitheliu m stature was slightly greater than control group. A significant increase in serum MDA level is subject for further studies. Conclusion: This study showed that the extract has no acute or subacute adverse effects with dose of 1000 mg/kg. The administratio n of JRSME may improve kidney structure and function and help in treatment of some chronic diseases.

  8. Pulmonary Vein, Dorsal Atrial Wall and Atrial Septum Abnormalities in Podoplanin Knockout Mice With Disturbed Posterior Heart Field Contribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, Yvonne L.; Mahtab, Edris A. F.; Jongbloed, Monique R. M.; Uhrin, Pavel; Zaujec, Jan; Binder, Bernd R.; Schalij, Martin J.; Poelmann, Robert E.; Deruiter, Marco C.; Gittenberger-De Groot, Adriana C.

    The developing sinus venosus myocardium, derived from the posterior heart field, contributes to the atrial septum, the posterior atrial wall, the sino-atrial node, and myocardium lining the pulmonary and cardinal veins, all expressing podoplanin, a coelomic and myocardial marker. . We compared

  9. Glans wings are separated ventrally by the septum glandis and frenulum penis: MRI documentation and surgical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbey, Hüseyin; Kumbasar, Ali

    2017-12-01

    In the normal human penis, the glans wings are in apposition in the midline ventrally, and are separated by the "septum glandis" and "frenulum" of the prepuce. However, most of the hypospadias repair techniques include dissection of the glans wings and their approximation enclosing the neourethra within the glans. In order to obtain detailed information about the normal anatomy of glans penis, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the penis were studied in three adults. Transverse, and sagittal sections of the penis were performed with a 1.5-T MRI scanner. The present MRI study has confirmed that the glans wings do not fuse at the ventral midline and they are seperated by a fibrous tissue (septum glandis). This fibrous tissue is connected to the frenulum, traversing the wings of the glans penis. The glanular urethra forming the fossa navicularis has a wider caliber than the proximal urethra, and its walls are radiologically seen as the extension of that fibrous tissue. The male urethra is not a uniform tubular structure and has distinct attachments in glans penis. The glans wings are separated ventrally by the septum glandis and frenulum. In hypospadias, the septum glandis and frenulum are entirely missing structures. Therefore, in hypospadias surgery, the anatomical features of the glanular urethra must be taken into consideration.

  10. LocZ is a new cell division protein involved in proper septum placement in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holečková, Nela; Doubravová, Linda; Massidda, Orietta; Molle, Virginie; Buriánková, Karolína; Benada, Oldřich; Kofroňová, Olga; Ulrych, Aleš; Branny, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2015), s. 1-13 ISSN 2150-7511 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/12/1568; GA ČR GAP302/12/0256 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : cell division * septum placement * Streptococcus pneumoniae Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 6.975, year: 2015

  11. Delayed activation of Xer recombination at dif by FtsK during septum assembly in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Sean P; Chevalier, Fabien; Barre, François-Xavier

    2008-05-01

    The co-ordination and synchronization of DNA replication, chromosome partitioning and cell division in bacteria are critical to survival. In Escherichia coli, the septal protein FtsK links cell division and chromosome segregation through its integral membrane N-terminal and cytoplasmic C-terminal domains. FtsK is responsible for promoting decatenation and dimer resolution in the later stages of chromosome segregation by activating recombination at dif by the site-specific Xer recombinases. Here, we formally demonstrate, using novel assay based on real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, that dif recombination depends not only on proteins upstream of FtsK in the septum assembly pathway, but also on the activity of downstream proteins. Work in synchronized cell cultures further showed that even though FtsK is recruited early to the septum, dif recombination only occurs shortly before cell division and this activity requires a closing septum. We propose a model whereby septum localization and concentration of FtsK co-ordinate its various roles in chromosome segregation and cell division.

  12. Callosal disconnection syndrome after corpus callosum infarct: a diffusion tensor tractography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho; Lee, Jun; Yeo, Sang Seok; Chang, Min Cheol

    2013-10-01

    We report a patient who presented with callosal disconnection syndrome (CDS) and fiber disconnection on diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) after an infarct of the corpus callosum (CC). A 72-year-old woman presented with manifestations of CDS, including frontal alien hand syndrome (AHS), left agraphia, right hemiparesis, right somatosensory deficit, left neglect, and impaired visual recognition. DTT was performed for the evaluation of CC fibers, followed by comparison with DTT findings of normal subjects. DTT of the normal subject revealed bilateral extension of CC fibers to the frontal, parietal, and occipitotemporal cortices. By contrast, CC fibers of the patient revealed extensive disruption, with the exception of CC fibers passing through the anterior genu and the posterior splenium. The extensive disruption of CC fibers appears to explain the patient's various CDS symptoms. In brief, DTT could be useful for detection of CC lesions in patients with CDS. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Social narratives in agenesis of the corpus callosum: linguistic analysis of the Thematic Apperception Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Anne A; Brown, Warren S; Symington, Melissa; Paul, Lynn K

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study, individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) with normal intelligence provided narratives to pictures from the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) that were limited in logical coherence and social awareness. The current study examined the linguistic content of TAT stories from 22 persons with isolated complete ACC compared to 30 IQ- and age-matched controls using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (Pennebaker et al., 2001). Compared to controls, individuals with ACC used fewer words pertaining to emotionality, cognitive processes, and social processes. They also used relatively more present tense verbs and first person pronouns. These findings suggest that callosal agenesis results in deficiencies in imagining and inferring the mental, emotional, and social functioning of others as implied by TAT pictures, and in translating this content into a narrative. In addition, ACC affects the grammatical structure of verbally produced narratives, with greater emphasis on the present tense and the first person.

  14. Clinical significance of corpus callosum atrophy in a mixed elderly population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, C; Rostrup, E; Stegmann, M B

    2007-01-01

    , and the CC areas were smaller in subjects with subjective gait difficulty. The correlations remained significant after correction for ARWMC grade. In conclusion, CC atrophy was independently associated with impaired global cognitive and motor function in subjects with ARWMC. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jun......Corpus callosum (CC) is the main tract connecting the hemispheres, but the clinical significance of CC atrophy is poorly understood. The aim of this work was to investigate clinical and functional correlates of CC atrophy in subjects with age-related white matter changes (ARWMC). In 569 elderly...... subjects with ARWMC from the Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) study, the CC was segmented on the normalised mid-sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) slice and subdivided into five regions. Correlations between the CC areas and subjective memory complaints, mini mental state examination (MMSE...

  15. Corpus callosum tissue loss and development of motor and global cognitive impairment: the LADIS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Kristian S; Garde, Ellen; Skimminge, Arnold; Barkhof, Frederik; Scheltens, Philip; van Straaten, Elisabeth C W; Fazekas, Franz; Baezner, Hansjörg; Verdelho, Ana; Ferro, José M; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Jokinen, Hanna; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; O'Brien, John T; Basile, Anna M; Pantoni, Leonardo; Inzitari, Domenico; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2011-01-01

    To examine the impact of corpus callosum (CC) tissue loss on the development of global cognitive and motor impairment in the elderly. This study was based on the Leukoaraiosis and Disability (LADIS) study. Assessment of cognitive and motor functions and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were done at baseline and at a 3-year follow-up in nondemented elderly subjects. 328 of 639 LADIS subjects had MRIs at baseline and at the 3-year follow-up, which allowed for assessment of CC. Logistic regression revealed differential tissue loss rates in posterior CC in subjects converting to dementia, compared to nonconverters (p CC tissue loss was significantly correlated with self-perceived memory impairment in nonconverters (p CC tissue loss was also significantly associated with impaired single leg stance time (p CC supports the role of callosal tissue loss in the development of global cognitive as well as motor impairment. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Different patterns of neuronal activity trigger distinct responses of oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the corpus callosum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balint Nagy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the developing and adult brain, oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs are influenced by neuronal activity: they are involved in synaptic signaling with neurons, and their proliferation and differentiation into myelinating glia can be altered by transient changes in neuronal firing. An important question that has been unanswered is whether OPCs can discriminate different patterns of neuronal activity and respond to them in a distinct way. Here, we demonstrate in brain slices that the pattern of neuronal activity determines the functional changes triggered at synapses between axons and OPCs. Furthermore, we show that stimulation of the corpus callosum at different frequencies in vivo affects proliferation and differentiation of OPCs in a dissimilar way. Our findings suggest that neurons do not influence OPCs in "all-or-none" fashion but use their firing pattern to tune the response and behavior of these nonneuronal cells.

  17. Splenial lesions of the corpus callosum: Disease Spectrum and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Eun; Choi, Dae Seob; Shin, Hwa Seon; Baek, Hye Jin; Choi, Ho Cheol; Kim, Ji Eun; Choi, Hye Young; Park, Min Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    The corpus callosum (CC) is the largest white matter structure in the brain, consisting of more than 200–250 million axons that provide a large connection mainly between homologous cerebral cortical areas in mirror image sites. The posterior end of the CC is the thickest part, which is called the slenium. Various diseases including congenital to acquired lesions including congenital anomalies, traumatic lesions, ischemic diseases, tumors, metabolic, toxic, degenerative, and demyelinating diseases, can involve the splenium of the CC and their clinical symptoms and signs are also variable. Therefore, knowledge of the disease entities and the imaging findings of lesions involving the splenium is valuable in clinical practice. MR imaging is useful for the detection and differential diagnosis of splenial lesions of the CC. In this study, we classify the disease entities and describe imaging findings of lesions involving the splenium of the CC based on our experiences and a review of the literature.

  18. Reduced white matter connectivity in the corpus callosum of children with Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Grüner, Renate; Lundervold, Arvid

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain imaging studies have revealed anatomical anomalies in the brains of individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS). Prefrontal regions have been found to be larger and the corpus callosum (CC) area smaller in children and young adults with TS compared with healthy control subjects...... and 20 age- and gender-matched controls. RESULTS: The hypothesis that children with TS would show reduced measures of connectivity in CC fibers was confirmed for all subregions of the CC. There was no significant interaction of TS and region. Reductions in FA in CC regions may reflect either fewer......: Our findings of a reduced interhemispheral white matter connectivity add to the understanding of neural connectivity and plasticity in the brains of children who have TS....

  19. The clinical and radiological evaluation of absence of the corpus callosum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrd, S.E.; Radkowski, M.A.; McLone, D.G. (Children' s Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL (USA) Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL (USA). Medical School); Flannery, A. (Medical College of Georgia, Augusta (USA). Department of Surgery (Neurosurgery) Pediatrics)

    A retrospective and prospective analysis of children with a diagnosis of complete absence of the corpus callosum (ACC) at the Children's Memorial Hospital in Chicago over a 5-year period was performed. The diagnosis was based on the computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance (MR) images. From this material, 105 children with a diagnosis of ACC were analyzed on the basis of clinical symptomatology and radiological studies (CT, MR and ultrasound). Eighty-three percent of our children were symptomatic. The most common symptoms and signs were macrocephaly with hydrocephalus and seizures. MR was the best radiological imaging modality for evaluating children with ACC and associated brain anomalies. The most common associated brain anomalies with ACC in decreasing frequency in our children were: interhemispheric cyst with hydrocephalus, Dandy-Walker malformation, migrational disorders, absence of the inferior vermis, cephaloceles and lipoma aof the interhemispheric fissure. (author). 15 refs.; 8 figs.; 2 tabs.

  20. When more is less: associations between corpus callosum size and handedness lateralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, Eileen; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Thompson, Paul M.; Gutman, Boris; Anstey, Kaarin J.; Sachdev, Perminder; Toga, Arthur W.

    2010-01-01

    Although not consistently replicated, a substantial number of studies suggest that left-handers have larger callosal regions than right-handers. We challenge this notion and propose that callosal size is not linked to left-handedness or right-handedness per se but to the degree of handedness lateralization. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the thickness of the corpus callosum in a large data set (n=361). We analyzed the correlations between callosal thickness and the degree of handedness lateralization in 324 right-handers and 37 left-handers at 100 equidistant points across the corpus callosum. We revealed significant negative correlations within the anterior and posterior midbody suggesting that larger callosal dimensions in these regions are associated with a weaker handedness lateralization. Significant positive correlations were completely absent. In addition, we compared callosal thickness between moderately lateralized left-handers (n=37) and three equally sized groups (n=37) of right-handers (strongly, moderately, and weakly lateralized). The outcomes of these group analyses confirmed the negative association between callosal size and handedness lateralization, although callosal differences between right- and left-handers did not reach statistical significance. This suggests that callosal differences are rather small, if examined as a dichotomy between two handedness groups. Future studies will expand this line of research by increasing the number of left-handers to boost statistical power, and by combining macro- and micro-structural, as well as functional and behavioral measurements to identify the biological mechanisms linking callosal morphology and handedness lateralization. PMID:20394828

  1. Computational methods for corpus callosum segmentation on MRI: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover, G S; Herrera, W G; Bento, M P; Appenzeller, S; Rittner, L

    2018-02-01

    The corpus callosum (CC) is the largest white matter structure in the brain and has a significant role in central nervous system diseases. Its volume correlates with the severity and/or extent of neurodegenerative disease. Even though the CC's role has been extensively studied over the last decades, and different algorithms and methods have been published regarding CC segmentation and parcellation, no reviews or surveys covering such developments have been reported so far. To bridge this gap, this paper presents a systematic literature review of computational methods focusing on CC segmentation and parcellation acquired on magnetic resonance imaging. IEEExplore, PubMed, EBSCO Host, and Scopus database were searched with the following search terms: ((Segmentation OR Parcellation) AND (Corpus Callosum) AND (DTI OR MRI OR Diffusion Tensor Imag* OR Diffusion Tractography OR Magnetic Resonance Imag*)), resulting in 802 publications. Two reviewers independently evaluated all articles and 36 studies were selected through the systematic literature review process. This work reviewed four main segmentation methods groups: model-based, region-based, thresholding, and machine learning; 32 different validity metrics were reported. Even though model-based techniques are the most recurrently used for the segmentation task (13 articles), machine learning approaches achieved better outcomes of 95% when analyzing mean values for segmentation and classification metrics results. Moreover, CC segmentation is better established in T 1 -weighted images, having more methods implemented and also being tested in larger datasets, compared with diffusion tensor images. The analyzed computational methods used to perform CC segmentation on magnetic resonance imaging have not yet overcome all presented challenges owing to metrics variability and lack of traceable materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Local-global interference is modulated by age, sex and anterior corpus callosum size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M.; Schulte, Tilman; Raassi, Carla; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2007-01-01

    To identify attentional and neural mechanisms affecting global and local feature extraction, we devised a global-local hierarchical letter paradigm to test the hypothesis that aging reduces functional cerebral lateralization through corpus callosum (CC) degradation. Participants (37 men and women, 26–79 years) performed a task requiring global, local, or global+local attention and underwent structural MRI for CC measurement. Although reaction time (RT) slowed with age, all participants had faster RTs to local than global targets. This local precedence effect together with greater interference from incongruent local information and greater response conflict from local targets each correlated with older age and smaller callosal genu (anterior) areas. These findings support the hypothesis that the CC mediates lateralized local-global processes by inhibition of task-irrelevant information under selective attention conditions. Further, with advancing age smaller genu size leads to less robust inhibition, thereby reducing cerebral lateralization and permitting interference to influence processing. Sex was an additional modifier of interference, in that callosum-interference relationships were evident in women but not in men. Regardless of age, smaller splenium (posterior) areas correlated with less response facilitation from repetition priming of global targets in men, but with greater response facilitation from repetition priming of local targets in women. Our data indicate the following dissociation: Anterior callosal structure was associated with inhibitory processes (i.e., interference from incongruency and response conflict), which are vulnerable to the effects of age and sex, whereas posterior callosal structure was associated with facilitation processes from repetition priming dependent on sex and independent of age. PMID:17335783

  3. The role of corpus callosum development in functional connectivity and cognitive processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leighton B N Hinkley

    Full Text Available The corpus callosum is hypothesized to play a fundamental role in integrating information and mediating complex behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that lack of normal callosal development can lead to deficits in functional connectivity that are related to impairments in specific cognitive domains. We examined resting-state functional connectivity in individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC and matched controls using magnetoencephalographic imaging (MEG-I of coherence in the alpha (8-12 Hz, beta (12-30 Hz and gamma (30-55 Hz bands. Global connectivity (GC was defined as synchronization between a region and the rest of the brain. In AgCC individuals, alpha band GC was significantly reduced in the dorsolateral pre-frontal (DLPFC, posterior parietal (PPC and parieto-occipital cortices (PO. No significant differences in GC were seen in either the beta or gamma bands. We also explored the hypothesis that, in AgCC, this regional reduction in functional connectivity is explained primarily by a specific reduction in interhemispheric connectivity. However, our data suggest that reduced connectivity in these regions is driven by faulty coupling in both inter- and intrahemispheric connectivity. We also assessed whether the degree of connectivity correlated with behavioral performance, focusing on cognitive measures known to be impaired in AgCC individuals. Neuropsychological measures of verbal processing speed were significantly correlated with resting-state functional connectivity of the left medial and superior temporal lobe in AgCC participants. Connectivity of DLPFC correlated strongly with performance on the Tower of London in the AgCC cohort. These findings indicate that the abnormal callosal development produces salient but selective (alpha band only resting-state functional connectivity disruptions that correlate with cognitive impairment. Understanding the relationship between impoverished functional connectivity and cognition is a key

  4. Learning and memory in individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lynn K; Erickson, Roger L; Hartman, Jo Ann; Brown, Warren S

    2016-06-01

    Damage to long white matter pathways in the cerebral cortex is known to affect memory capacity. However, the specific contribution of interhemispheric connectivity in memory functioning is only beginning to become understood. The present study examined verbal and visual memory processing in individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) using the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1997b). Thirty participants with AgCC (FSIQ >78) were compared against 30 healthy age and IQ matched controls on auditory/verbal (Logical Memory, Verbal Paired Associates) and visual (Visual Reproduction, Faces) memory subtests. Performance was worse in AgCC than controls on immediate and delayed verbal recall for rote word pairs and on delayed recall of faces, as well as on percent recall for these tasks. Immediate recall for thematic information from stories was also worse in AgCC, but groups did not differ on memory for details from narratives or on recall for thematic information following a time delay. Groups also did not differ on memory for abstract figures or immediate recall of faces. On all subtests, individuals with AgCC had greater frequency of clinically significant impairments than predicted by the normal distribution. Results suggest less efficient overall verbal and visual learning and memory with relative weaknesses processing verbal pairs and delayed recall for faces. These findings suggest that the corpus callosum facilitates more efficient learning and recall for both verbal and visual information, that individuals with AgCC may benefit from receiving verbal information within semantic context, and that known deficits in facial processing in individuals with AgCC may contribute to their impairments in recall for faces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A role for the septation initiation network in septum assembly revealed by genetic analysis of sid2-250 suppressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Quan-Wen; Zhou, Mian; Bimbo, Andrea; Balasubramanian, Mohan K; McCollum, Dannel

    2006-04-01

    In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe the septation initiation network (SIN) is required for stabilization of the actomyosin ring in late mitosis as well as for ring constriction and septum deposition. In a genetic screen for suppressors of the SIN mutant sid2-250, we isolated a mutation, ace2-35, in the transcription factor Ace2p. Both ace2Delta and ace2-35 show defects in cell separation, and both can rescue the growth defects of some SIN mutants at low restrictive temperatures, where the SIN single mutants lyse at the time of cytokinesis. By detailed analysis of the formation and constriction of the actomyosin ring and septum in the sid2-250 mutant at low restrictive temperatures, we show that the lysis phenotype of the sid2-250 mutant is likely due to a weak cell wall and septum combined with enzymatic activity of septum-degrading enzymes. Consistent with the recent findings that Ace2p controls transcription of genes involved in cell separation, we show that disruption of some of these genes can also rescue sid2-250 mutants. Consistent with SIN mutants having defects in septum formation, many SIN mutants can be rescued at the low restrictive temperature by the osmotic stabilizer sorbitol. The small GTPase Rho1 is known to promote cell wall formation, and we find that Rho1p expressed from a multi-copy plasmid can also rescue sid2-250 at the low restrictive temperature. Together these results suggest that the SIN has a role in promoting proper cell wall formation at the division septa.

  6. Persistent high grade flurodeoxyglucose uptake in lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum on dual time point imaging and with ambient warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaleshwaran, K K; Sudhakar, N; Shibu, D K; Kurup, E R R; Shinto, Ajit

    2014-01-01

    Lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum (LHIS) is a relatively uncommon disorder of the heart characterized by benign fatty infiltration of the interatrial septum that usually spares the fossa ovalis. LHIS showing flurodeoxyglucose uptake has been reported, and is presumed to be due to activated brown adipose tissue (BAT). We here report a case of a patient who had isolated mediastinal uptake in interatrial septum, mimicking metastasis. Rescanning with external warming to deactivate BAT and a delayed time point image was done, which showed persistent and progressively increasing metabolic uptake respectively, suggesting that LHIS uptake might be unrelated to activated BAT or inflammation.

  7. Novel technique for injecting and extracting beams in a circular hadron accelerator without using septum magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Franchi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With a few exceptions, all on-axis injection and extraction schemes implemented in circular particle accelerators, synchrotrons, and storage rings, make use of magnetic and electrostatic septa with systems of slow-pulsing dipoles acting on tens of thousands of turns and fast-pulsing dipoles on just a few. The dipoles create a closed orbit deformation around the septa, usually referred to as an orbit bump. A new approach is presented which obviates the need for the septum deflectors. Fast-pulsing elements are still required, but their strength can be minimized by choosing appropriate local accelerator optics. This technique should increase the beam clearance and reduce the usually high radiation levels found around the septa and also reduce the machine impedance introduced by the fast-pulsing dipoles. The basis of the technique is the creation of stable islands around stable fixed points in horizontal phase space. The trajectories of these islands may then be adjusted to match the position and angle of the incoming or outgoing beam.

  8. Glutamic acid decarboxylase isoform distribution in transgenic mouse septum: an anti-GFP immunofluorescence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verimli, Ural; Sehirli, Umit S

    2016-09-01

    The septum is a basal forebrain region located between the lateral ventricles in rodents. It consists of lateral and medial divisions. Medial septal projections regulate hippocampal theta rhythm whereas lateral septal projections are involved in processes such as affective functions, memory formation, and behavioral responses. Gamma-aminobutyric acidergic neurons of the septal region possess the 65 and 67 isoforms of the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase. Although data on the glutamic acid decarboxylase isoform distribution in the septal region generally appears to indicate glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 dominance, different studies have given inconsistent results in this regard. The aim of this study was therefore to obtain information on the distributions of both of these glutamic acid decarboxylase isoforms in the septal region in transgenic mice. Two animal groups of glutamic acid decarboxylase-green fluorescent protein knock-in transgenic mice were utilized in the experiment. Brain sections from the region were taken for anti-green fluorescent protein immunohistochemistry in order to obtain estimated quantitative data on the number of gamma-aminobutyric acidergic neurons. Following the immunohistochemical procedures, the mean numbers of labeled cells in the lateral and medial septal nuclei were obtained for the two isoform groups. Statistical analysis yielded significant results which indicated that the 65 isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase predominates in both lateral and medial septal nuclei (unpaired two-tailed t-test p glutamic acid decarboxylase isoform 65 in the septal region in glutamic acid decarboxylase-green fluorescent protein transgenic mice.

  9. Control Loop for a Pulse Generator of a Fast Septum Magnet using DSP and Fuzzy Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Aldaz-Carroll, E; Dieperink, J H; Schröder, G; Vossenberg, Eugène B

    1997-01-01

    A prototype of a fast pulsed eddy current septum magnet for one of thebeam extraction's from the SPS towards LHC is under development. The precision of the magnetic field must be better than ±1.0 10-4 during a flat top of 30 µs. The current pulse is generated by discharging the capacitors of a LC circuit that resonates on the 1st and on the 3rd harmonic of a sine wave with a repetition rate of 15 s. The parameters of the circuit and the voltage on the capacitors must be carefully adjusted to meet the specifications. Drifts during operation must be corrected between two pulses by mechanically adjusting the inductance of the coil in the generator as well as the primary capacitor voltage. This adjustment process is automated by acquiring the current pulse waveform with sufficient time and amplitude resolution, calculating the corrections needed and applying these corrections to the hardware for the next pulse. A very cost-effective and practical solution for this adjustment process is the integration of off-th...

  10. Evidence of specialized tissue in human interatrial septum: histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubov B Mitrofanova

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of information on structural organization of muscular bundles in the interatrial septum (IAS. The aim was to investigate histologic and ultrastructural organization of muscular bundles in human IAS, including fossa ovalis (FO and flap valve.Macroscopic and light microscopy evaluations of IAS were performed from postmortem studies of 40 patients. Twenty three IAS specimens underwent serial transverse sectioning, and 17--longitudinal sectioning. The transverse sections from 10 patients were immunolabeled for HCN4, Caveolin3 and Connexin43. IAS specimens from 6 other patients underwent electron microscopy.In all IAS specimens sections the FO, its rims and the flap valve had muscle fibers consisting of working cardiac myocytes. Besides the typical cardiomyocytes there were unusual cells: tortuous and horseshoe-shaped intertangled myocytes, small and large rounded myocytes with pale cytoplasm. The cells were aggregated in a definite structure in 38 (95% cases, which was surrounded by fibro-fatty tissue. The height of the structure on transverse sections positively correlated with age (P = 0.03 and AF history (P = 0.045. Immunohistochemistry showed positive staining of the cells for HCN4 and Caveolin3. Electron microscopy identified cells with characteristics similar to electrical conduction cells.Specialized conduction cells in human IAS have been identified, specifically in the FO and its flap valve. The cells are aggregated in a structure, which is surrounded by fibrous and fatty tissue. Further investigations are warranted to explore electrophysiological characteristics of this structure.

  11. Interventions on atrial septum under cardiopulmonary bypass and without aortic crossclamping

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    Ye. V. Krivoshchekov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study centered on the possibility of surgery on the atrial septum (AS without aortic clamping and cardiac arrest. We compared two groups of patients who underwent intervention on AS as the major or concomitant stage of surgical treatment. Nineteen patients were assigned to the main group; they were operated under CPB without aortic clamping and cardioplegia. The control group consisted of 20 patients, whose AS was surgically treated by using a standard technique with aortic occlusion. The groups were comparable by age and disease. The patients of both groups withstood the surgical interventions satisfactorily, with no mortality. The mean CBP time in the patients operated without aortic clamping was shorter than that in the control group patients (operated with aortic clamping by about 18-20 minutes. The major surgical stage time did not differ between the groups. The technique of atrial septal defect closure or its dissection on the beating heart without cardioplegia is safe, comfortable for a surgeon and allows saving time required for the recovery period. Besides, it does not cause myocardial lesion associated with cardioplegia.

  12. A Novel Eddy Current Septum Magnet for SPS Extraction towards LHC and CNGS

    CERN Document Server

    Schröder, G H; Carlier, E; Dieperink, J H; Ducimetière, L; Goddard, B; Lázár, C; Mayer, M; Vossenberg, Eugène B; Weterings, W

    2000-01-01

    A new East Fast-Extraction System is under construction in the SPS, to supply particles with a maximum batch length of 7.8 us and 10.5 us to the LHC and to CNGS (CERN Neutrino to Gran Sasso), respectively. The extraction septum magnets actually used at the SPS have been designed for slow extraction over several seconds, have large cooling and electrical power demands and need frequently maintenance in a high radiation environment. A fast system of only 250 us pulse duration has therefore been developed, using a half-sine excitation pulse with a superimposed third harmonic. The short pulse duration requires very thin magnetic yoke laminations, which can not easily be stamped and stacked. Profiting from a development for the LHC beam dump kicker magnets, the yoke is therefore built-up from tape-wound cylindrical cores, employing 50 um thick Si-steel tape. Thirty two cores are stacked longitudinally to produce a yoke of 3.2 meter length. The aperture is cut radial into each cylinder. The cores are radial compres...

  13. Brain oxytocin in social fear conditioning and its extinction: involvement of the lateral septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoicas, Iulia; Slattery, David A; Neumann, Inga D

    2014-12-01

    Central oxytocin (OXT) has anxiolytic and pro-social properties both in humans and rodents, and has been proposed as a therapeutic option for anxiety and social dysfunctions. Here, we utilized a mouse model of social fear conditioning (SFC) to study the effects of OXT on social fear, and to determine whether SFC causes alterations in central OXT receptor (OXTR) binding and local OXT release. Central infusion of OXT, but not arginine vasopressin, prior to social fear extinction training completely abolished social fear expression in an OXTR-mediated fashion without affecting general anxiety or locomotion. SFC caused increased OXTR binding in the dorso-lateral septum (DLS), central amygdala, dentate gyrus, and cornu ammunis 1, which normalized after social fear extinction, suggesting that these areas form part of a brain network involved in the development and neural support of social fear. Microdialysis revealed that the increase in OXT release observed in unconditioned mice within the DLS during social fear extinction training was attenuated in conditioned mice. Consequently, increasing the availability of local OXT by infusion of OXT into the DLS reversed social fear. Thus, alterations in the brain OXT system, including altered OXTR binding and OXT release within the DLS, play an important role in SFC and social fear extinction. Thus, we suggest that the OXT system is adversely affected in disorders associated with social fear, such as social anxiety disorder and reinstalling an appropriate balance of the OXT system may alleviate some of the symptoms.

  14. First-episode 'coenesthetic' schizophrenia presenting with alien hand syndrome and partial agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Andor; Walterfang, Mark; Petralli, Carlo; Velakoulis, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    We describe the case of a 23-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with alien hand syndrome and a first episode of the coenesthetic subtype of schizophrenia. 'Alienness' of her non-dominant hand was intimately phenomenologically associated with the onset of first-psychosis. Cerebral MRI revealed a partial agenesis of the corpus callosum with a complete absence of the rostrum, hypoplastic anterior and inferior genu, and a hypoplastic splenium. This case suggests that this syndrome can occur with the development of a functional disconnection syndrome involving the anterior callosum, and in this case the 'second hit' proposed to occur in early adulthood in schizophrenia may have interacted with her earlier neurodevelopmental lesion to result in a combination of psychosis and alien hand syndrome. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Mowat-Wilson syndrome in a fetus with antenatal diagnosis of short corpus callosum: advocacy for standard autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaggiari, Emmanuel; Baumann, Clarisse; Alison, Marianne; Oury, Jean-François; Belarbi, Nadia; Dupont, Céline; Guimiot, Fabien; Delezoide, Anne-Lise

    2013-06-01

    Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is a genetic disease caused by heterozygous mutations or deletions of the ZEB2 gene rarely diagnosed prenatally and with little fetal description reported. It is mainly characterized by moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, facial dysmorphism and various malformations including Hirschsprung disease and corpus callosum anomalies. Here we report a fetal case of MWS well described, suspected at standard autopsy. The association of a corpus callosum hypoplasia with a histological Hirschsprung disease and a typical facial gestalt allowed the guiding of genetic testing. Classical fetopathological examination still keeps indications in cases of syndromic association in the era of virtual autopsy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Reduced fractional anisotropy in the anterior corpus callosum is associated with reduced speech fluency in persistent developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civier, Oren; Kronfeld-Duenias, Vered; Amir, Ofer; Ezrati-Vinacour, Ruth; Ben-Shachar, Michal

    2015-04-01

    Developmental stuttering is a speech disorder that severely limits one's ability to communicate. White matter anomalies were reported in stuttering, but their functional significance is unclear. We analyzed the relation between white matter properties and speech fluency in adults who stutter (AWS). We used diffusion tensor imaging with tract-based spatial statistics, and examined group differences as well as correlations with behavioral fluency measures. We detected a region in the anterior corpus callosum with significantly lower fractional anisotropy in AWS relative to controls. Within the AWS group, reduced anisotropy in that region is associated with reduced fluency. A statistically significant interaction was found between group and age in two additional regions: the left Rolandic operculum and the left posterior corpus callosum. Our findings suggest that anterior callosal anomaly in stuttering may represent a maladaptive reduction in interhemispheric inhibition, possibly leading to a disadvantageous recruitment of right frontal cortex in speech production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum: report of two cases where histological examination and surgical intervention were unavoidable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calé, Rita; Andrade, Maria João; Canada, Manuel; Hernandez-Estefania, Rafael; Lima, Sónia; Abecasis, Miguel; Vitorino, Emília; Gouveia, Rosa; Gouveia, Raquel; Silva, José Aniceto

    2009-10-01

    Lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum (LHIS) is an increasingly recognized heart condition characterized by fatty deposits in the interatrial septum with sparing of the fossa ovalis. Its distinctive characteristic features by imaging techniques, benign nature, and the fact that most patients remain asymptomatic, has limited the need for histological confirmation and operative intervention in most cases. In this report, we describe two cases of LHIS where cardiac surgical intervention was indispensable: in the first patient, due to the presence of an additional left atrial tumour found out as mixoma and in the second, to relief a superior vena cava obstruction together with bypass grafts for severe coronary artery disease. Histological samples of the interatrial septal lesion were obtained in both cases either because of uncertainty of the diagnosis (Case 1) or to confirm the diagnosis (Case 2).

  18. A Rare Case of Primary Amenorrhea with Two Etiologies, Hypothalamic Amenorrhea, Transverse Vaginal Septum, and No Hematocolpos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouzeh Ghaffari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We reported a rare case of hypothalamic amenorrhea and transverse vaginal septum. A 28-year-old woman presented with primary amenorrhea and no complaint of abdominal pain. Laparoscopy revealed a small rudimentary uterus with streak ovaries and a vaginal pouch. The patient with diagnosis of Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH syndrome was subjected to a vaginoplasty in another fertility center. In our institute, after two courses of estrogen and progesterone, sonography revealed hematocolpos, while, under anesthesia, transverse vaginal septum was resected. Hysteroscopy revealed normal uterine cavity. She became pregnant 5 months postoperatively with controlled ovarian stimulation (COS in conjunction with intrauterine insemination, and she has two healthy babies now. This case highlights the importance of careful evaluation of all primary amenorrheas. Clinicians should be aware of presence of more than one etiology which causes atypical presentations and accomplishes a systematic strategy for the evaluation of amenorrhea potential to avoid long-term side effects of a misdiagnosis.

  19. Fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity in the corpus callosum of patients with multiple sclerosis: the effect of physiotherapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ibrahim, I.; Tintěra, J.; Škoch, A.; Jírů, F.; Hluštík, P.; Martinková, Patrícia; Zvára, Karel; Řasová, K.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 24, Suppl. 1 (2011), s. 291 ISSN 0968-5243. [ESMRMB 2011 Annual Scientific Meeting /28./. 06.10.2011-08.10.2011, Leipzig] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : corpus callosum * diffusion tensor imaging * facilitation physiotherapy * multiple sclerosis * rehabilitation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  20. Fiber connections between the cerebral cortex and the corpus callosum in Alzheimer's disease: a diffusion tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydykova, Djyldyz; Stahl, Robert; Dietrich, Olaf; Ewers, Michael; Reiser, Maximilian F; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Hampel, Harald; Teipel, Stefan J

    2007-10-01

    Regional cortical atrophy in Alzheimer's disease (AD) most likely reflects the loss of cortical neurons. Several diffusion tensor imaging studies reported reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in the corpus callosum in AD. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between reduced FA in the corpus callosum and gray matter atrophy in AD. Thirteen patients with AD with a mean (+/-standard deviation) age of 68.3 years (+/-11.5) and mean Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of 21.8 (+/-4.8) were recruited. There were 13 control subjects with a mean age of 66.7 years (+/-6.4) and MMSE of 29.1 (+/-0.7). We used voxel-based morphometry of gray matter maps and region of interest-based analysis of FA in the corpus callosum. FA values of the anterior corpus callosum in AD patients were significantly correlated with gray matter volume in the prefrontal cortex and left parietal lobes. FA values of the posterior corpus callosum were significantly correlated with gray matter volume in the bilateral frontal, temporal, right parietal, and occipital lobes. In control subjects, no correlations were detected. Our findings suggest that decline of FA in the corpus callosum may be related to neuronal degeneration in corresponding cortical areas.

  1. Increased metabolic activity in the septum and habenula during stress is linked to subsequent expression of learned helplessness behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine M Mirrione

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrollable stress can have a profound effect on an organism’s ability to respond effectively to future stressful situations. Behavior subsequent to uncontrollable stress can vary greatly between individuals, falling on a spectrum between healthy resilience and maladaptive learned helplessness. It is unclear whether dysfunctional brain activity during uncontrollable stress is associated with vulnerability to learned helplessness; therefore, we measured metabolic activity during uncontrollable stress that correlated with ensuing inability to escape future stressors. We took advantage of small animal positron emission tomography (PET and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18FDG to probe in vivo metabolic activity in wild type Sprague Dawley rats during uncontrollable, inescapable, unpredictable foot-shock stress, and subsequently tested the animals response to controllable, escapable, predictable foot-shock stress. When we correlated metabolic activity during the uncontrollable stress with consequent behavioral outcomes, we found that the degree to which animals failed to escape the foot-shock correlated with increased metabolic activity in the lateral septum and habenula. When used a seed region, metabolic activity in the habenula correlated with activity in the lateral septum, hypothalamus, medial thalamus, mammillary nuclei, ventral tegmental area, central gray, interpeduncular nuclei, periaqueductal gray, dorsal raphe, and rostromedial tegmental nucleus, caudal linear raphe, and subiculum transition area. Furthermore, the lateral septum correlated with metabolic activity in the preoptic area, medial thalamus, habenula, interpeduncular nuclei, periaqueductal gray, dorsal raphe, and caudal linear raphe. Together, our data suggest a group of brain regions involved in sensitivity to uncontrollable stress involving the lateral septum and habenula.

  2. A reversible lesion of the corpus callosum splenium with adult influenza-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura En

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available ABstract Introduction Influenza virus-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy is a severe childhood illness with a poor prognosis. Adult case reports are rare and, to date, there have been no reports of adults with a mild subcortical encephalopathy with reversible lesions of the corpus callosum splenium. Case presentation A previously healthy 35-year-old man presented with acute progressive tetraplegia, transcortical motor aphasia and a mild decrease in his consciousness during his recovery after receiving oseltamivir phosphate treatment, and influenza type A antiviral medication. The initial magnetic resonance imaging study at day 1 showed symmetrical diffuse lesions in the white matter and a lesion on the central portion of the corpus callosum splenium. These findings had resolved on follow-up studies at day 8 and day 146. His neurological deficits mostly recovered within 12 hours following methylprednisolone pulse therapy. The levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 in his blood and cerebrospinal fluid were initially elevated, but rapidly decreased to normal levels by day 8. Conclusion It is important for clinicians to recognize that even in adulthood, the subcortical encephalopathy observed during the therapeutic treatment for influenza type A infection can occur in conjunction with a reversible lesion of the corpus callosum, which may recover quickly. In addition, the cytokine storm in the blood system and the corticospinal cavity may play an important role in the etiology of the disease process.

  3. Cerebral Visual Impairment and Dysgenesis of Corpus Callosum in Multidisabled Children Aged 1 to 9 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana CZIKER

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To emphasize the functional vision characteristics in visually impaired multiple disabled children (MDVI aged 2 to 9 years old related to brain damages on magnetic resonance imaging in different cortical and subcortical areas and in the corpus callosum region. Material and Method: 12 MDVI children with severe and mild neurological disorders were medically and neuropsychological assessed. The clinical - psychological, neurological and ophthalmological – and paraclinical methods – visual evoked potential (VEP and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were carried out in order to outline the complete profile of each child. The assessment was completed by morphometric measurement of corpus callosum and brain. Results: 10 of infants with severe neurological disorders showed ocular disorders such as ocular motility and visual function abnormalities. Severe cognitive and psychomotor retardation were associated in visual disorders in MDVI children. Significant correlation between neurological disorders, neuropsychological [τ(12 = 0.783, p = 0.001] evaluation and visual acuity [τ(12 = 0.783, p = 0.001] were found in multiple disabled children. The significant difference of diameter [t(22 = -4.858, p = 0.000] and surface of corpus callosum [t(22 = -6.254, p = 0.000] in multiple disabled children compared with control group was found. Conclusion: The structured assessment of visually impaired children due to neurological disorders, as early as possible, is the remarkably key which reveals the functionality of child and outlines the appropriate developmental and educational rehabilitation.

  4. Developmental malformation of the corpus callosum: a review of typical callosal development and examples of developmental disorders with callosal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lynn K

    2011-03-01

    This review provides an overview of the involvement of the corpus callosum (CC) in a variety of developmental disorders that are currently defined exclusively by genetics, developmental insult, and/or behavior. I begin with a general review of CC development, connectivity, and function, followed by discussion of the research methods typically utilized to study the callosum. The bulk of the review concentrates on specific developmental disorders, beginning with agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC)-the only condition diagnosed exclusively by callosal anatomy. This is followed by a review of several genetic disorders that commonly result in social impairments and/or psychopathology similar to AgCC (neurofibromatosis-1, Turner syndrome, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, Williams yndrome, and fragile X) and two forms of prenatal injury (premature birth, fetal alcohol syndrome) known to impact callosal development. Finally, I examine callosal involvement in several common developmental disorders defined exclusively by behavioral patterns (developmental language delay, dyslexia, attention-deficit hyperactive disorder, autism spectrum disorders, and Tourette syndrome).

  5. Design and installation of the MSE septum system in the new LSS4 extraction channel of the SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Balhan, B; Guinand, R; Luiz, F; Rizzo, A; Weterings, W; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2003-01-01

    For the extraction of the beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) to ring 2 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the CERN Neutrino to Gran Sasso (CNGS) facility, a new fast-extraction system has been installed in the long straight section LSS4 of the SPS. Besides extraction bumpers, enlarged aperture quadrupoles and extraction kicker magnets (MKE), six conventional DC septum magnets (MSE) are used. These magnets are mounted on a single mobile retractable support girder, which is motorised in order to optimise the local SPS aperture during setting up. The MSE septa are connected by a so-called plug-in system to a rigid water-cooled bus bar, which itself is powered by water-cooled cables. In order to avoid destruction of the septum magnet coils by direct impact of the extracted beam, a dilution element (TPSG) has been placed immediately upstream of the first septum coil. The whole system is kept at the required vacuum pressure by ion pumps attached to separate modules (MP). In this note we present the de...

  6. Hysteroscopic resection of the septum improves the pregnancy rate of women with unexplained infertility: a prospective controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollo, Antonio; De Franciscis, Pasquale; Colacurci, Nicola; Cobellis, Luigi; Perino, Antonio; Venezia, Renato; Alviggi, Carlo; De Placido, Giuseppe

    2009-06-01

    To assess fecundity of infertile women after surgical correction of uterine septum. Prospective controlled trial. Three academic infertility clinics. Forty-four women affected by septate uterus and otherwise unexplained infertility represented the study group (group A), and 132 women with unexplained infertility were enrolled as control subjects (group B). Hysteroscopic metroplasty was performed in group A, and group B was managed expectantly. All women were followed-up for 1 year without any other intervention. Fecundity rate was calculated as the number of pregnancies per 100 person-months. Pregnancy rate (38.6% vs. 20.4%) and live birth rate (34.1% and 18.9%) were significantly higher in group A than in group B. The survival analysis showed that the probability of a pregnancy in the twelve-months follow up was significantly higher in patients who had undergone metroplasty than in women with unexplained infertility. The corresponding fecundity (10-week pregnancy) rates were 4.27 and 1.92 person-months in women who had undergone metroplasty and in women with unexplained infertility, respectively. Hysteroscopic resection of the septum improves fecundity of women with septate uterus and otherwise unexplained infertility. Patients with septate uterus and no other cause of sterility have a significantly higher probability of conceiving after removal of the septum than patients affected by idiopathic sterility.

  7. A disconnection syndrome due to agenesis of the corpus callosum: disturbance of unilateral synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midorikawa, Akira; Kawamura, Mitsuru; Takaya, Rieko

    2006-04-01

    Recently, interhemispheric disconnection syndromes have been noted in patients with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) during the performance of certain tasks. However, few studies have demonstrated an asymmetric disconnection syndrome. In this report, we present just such a syndrome in a patient with ACC, who manifested ambidexterity (but with a left-hand tendency) and had high intelligence, no neurological deficits, and no associated malformations. In a comparison with similar subjects (amateur musician), we studied her asymmetric deficits using four tasks: (1) simple reaction time for visual stimuli, (2) paced finger tapping in synchrony with visual or auditory stimuli, (3) paced finger tapping without an external reference, and (4) rhythmical finger tapping in synchrony with visual or auditory stimuli. While the comparable subjects displayed no significant difference between hands, and the patient showed no significant difference between hands in the auditory paradigm, her tapping performance deteriorated significantly when asked to synchronize the left hand with timed visual stimuli, irrespective of whether finger tapping was paced or rhythmical. We believe that this phenomenon constitutes a novel asymmetrical disconnection syndrome in an ACC subject; these results suggest that synchronization of multimodal temporal information was lateralized in the left hemisphere (in this case), which is something that the ACC patient could not compensate for.

  8. Corpus callosum involvement: a useful clue for differentiating Fabry disease from multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocozza, Sirio; Olivo, Gaia; Pontillo, Giuseppe; Ugga, Lorenzo; De Rosa, Dario; Imbriaco, Massimo; Brunetti, Arturo; Tedeschi, Enrico [University ' ' Federico II' ' , Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Naples (Italy); Riccio, Eleonora; Migliaccio, Silvia; Pisani, Antonio [University ' ' Federico II' ' , Department of Public Health, Nephrology Unit, Naples (Italy); Russo, Camilla [University ' ' Federico II' ' , Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Naples (Italy); Feriozzi, Sandro [Belcolle Hospital, Nephrology and Dialysis Department, Viterbo (Italy); Veroux, Massimiliano [University Hospital of Catania, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies, Catania (Italy); Battaglia, Yuri [St. Anna Hospital-University, Department of Specialized Medicine, Division of Nephrology and Dialysis, Ferrara (Italy); Concolino, Daniela [University Magna Graecia, Department of Pediatrics, Catanzaro (Italy); Pieruzzi, Federico [University of Milano-Bicocca, Nephrology Unit, Milan (Italy); Tuttolomondo, Antonino [University of Palermo, Internal Medicine, DiBiMIS, Palermo (Italy); Caronia, Aurelio [Triolo Zancia Care Home, Palermo (Italy); Russo, Cinzia Valeria; Lanzillo, Roberta; Brescia Morra, Vincenzo [University ' ' Federico II' ' , Department of Neurosciences and Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, Naples (Italy)

    2017-06-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) has been proposed as a possible differential diagnosis for Fabry disease (FD). The aim of this work was to evaluate the involvement of corpus callosum (CC) on MR images and its possible role as a radiological sign to differentiate between FD and MS. In this multicentric study, we retrospectively evaluated the presence of white matter lesions (WMLs) on the FLAIR images of 104 patients with FD and 117 patients with MS. The incidence of CC-WML was assessed in the two groups and also in a subgroup of 37 FD patients showing neurological symptoms. WMLs were detected in 50 of 104 FD patients (48.1%) and in all MS patients. However, a lesion in the CC was detected in only 3 FD patients (2.9%) and in 106 MS patients (90.6%). In the FD subgroup with neurological symptoms, WMLs were present in 26 of 37 patients (70.3%), with two subjects (5.4%) showing a definite callosal lesion. FD patients have a very low incidence of CC involvement on conventional MR images compared to MS, independently from the clinical presentation and the overall degree of WM involvement. Evaluating the presence of CC lesions on brain MR scans can be used as a radiological sign for a differential diagnosis between MS and FD, rapidly addressing the physician toward a correct diagnosis and subsequent treatment options. (orig.)

  9. A Case of a Newborn with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum Complicated with Ocular Albinism

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    Michiko Miki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of ocular albinism found in a newborn infant in whom agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC was indicated in utero. Case Report: This study involved a female newborn who was delivered after a gestational period of 41 weeks. The patient was referred to the Obstetrics Department at Takatsuki Hospital, Takatsuki City, Japan, after the indication of ACC by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at a nearby clinic during the fetal period. At birth, the baby’s weight was 2,590 g, and ACC and ventricular enlargement were found by cranial sonography and cranial MRI. While initial ophthalmic findings noted partial loss of pigmentation of the iris and hypopigmentation of broad areas of the fundus in both eyes, nystagmus was not observed. The patient’s hair pigment was slightly diluted, and the color of her skin was slightly off-white. At 2 years after birth, obvious mental retardation was observed. With regard to other systemic findings, no apparent heart, kidney, or immune system abnormalities were found. Conclusion: Although the patient in question is presently growing without any major systemic problems, it will be necessary in the future to pay attention to any changes in systemic and ophthalmic findings.

  10. Watershed-based segmentation of the corpus callosum in diffusion MRI

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    Freitas, Pedro; Rittner, Leticia; Appenzeller, Simone; Lapa, Aline; Lotufo, Roberto

    2012-02-01

    The corpus callosum (CC) is one of the most important white matter structures of the brain, interconnecting the two cerebral hemispheres, and is related to several neurodegenerative diseases. Since segmentation is usually the first step for studies in this structure, and manual volumetric segmentation is a very time-consuming task, it is important to have a robust automatic method for CC segmentation. We propose here an approach for fully automatic 3D segmentation of the CC in the magnetic resonance diffusion tensor images. The method uses the watershed transform and is performed on the fractional anisotropy (FA) map weighted by the projection of the principal eigenvector in the left-right direction. The section of the CC in the midsagittal slice is used as seed for the volumetric segmentation. Experiments with real diffusion MRI data showed that the proposed method is able to quickly segment the CC without any user intervention, with great results when compared to manual segmentation. Since it is simple, fast and does not require parameter settings, the proposed method is well suited for clinical applications.

  11. Corpus callosum anatomy in right-handed homosexual and heterosexual men.

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    Witelson, Sandra F; Kigar, Debra L; Scamvougeras, Anton; Kideckel, David M; Buck, Brian; Stanchev, Peter L; Bronskill, Michael; Black, Sandra

    2008-12-01

    The results of several studies have shown that homosexual men have an increased prevalence of non-right-handedness and atypical patterns of hemispheric functional asymmetry. Non-right-handedness in men has been associated with increased size of the corpus callosum (CC), particularly of the isthmus, which is the posterior region of the callosal body connecting parietotemporal cortical regions. We hypothesized that isthmal area would be greater in homosexual men, even among right handers. Twelve homosexual and ten heterosexual healthy young men, all consistently right-handed, underwent a research-designed magnetic resonance imaging scan. We found that the isthmal area was larger in the homosexual group, adding to the body of findings of structural brain differences between homosexual and heterosexual men. This result suggests that right-handed homosexual men have less marked functional asymmetry compared to right-handed heterosexual men. The results also indicate that callosal anatomy and laterality for motoric functions are dissociated in homosexual men. A logistic regression analysis to predict sexual orientation category correctly classified 21 of the 22 men (96% correct classification) based on area of the callosal isthmus, a left-hand performance measure, water level test score, and a measure of abstraction ability. Our findings indicate that neuroanatomical structure and cognition are associated with sexual orientation in men and support the hypothesis of a neurobiological basis in the origin of sexual orientation.

  12. Diffusion tensor MR imaging evaluation of the corpus callosum of patients with multiple sclerosis

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    Rueda, Fernanda [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radiodiagnostico; Hygino Junior, Luiz Celso; Vasconcelos, Claudia C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Medicina (Radiologia); Domingues, Romeu Cortes [Clinica de Diagnostico Por Imagem e Multi-Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Papais-Alvarenga, Regina M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Gasparetto, Emerson L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: egasparetto@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    Objective: To evaluate the fractional anisotropy (FA) values of the normal-appearing white matter of the corpus callosum (CC) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Method: Fifty-seven patients with diagnosis of relapsing-remitting MS and 47 age- and gender-matched controls were studied. A conventional MR imaging protocol and a DTI sequence were performed. One neuro radiologist placed the regions of interest (ROIs) in the FA maps in five different portions of the normal-appearing CC (rostrum, genu, anterior and posterior portion of the body and splenium) in all cases. The statistical analysis was performed with the Mann-Whitney U test and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The FA values were lower in the MS patients compared with the controls (p<0.05) in the following CC regions: rostrum (0.720 vs 0.819), anterior body (0.698 vs 0.752), posterior body (0.711 vs 0.759) and splenium (0.720 vs 0.880). Conclusion: In this series, there was a robust decrease in the FA in all regions of the normal-appearing CC, being significant in the rostrum, body and splenium. This finding suggests that there is a subtle and diffuse abnormality in the CC, which could be probably related to myelin content loss, axonal damage and gliosis. (author)

  13. Transcriptome analysis of amoeboid and ramified microglia isolated from the corpus callosum of rat brain

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    Parakalan Rangarajan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS, have two distinct phenotypes in the developing brain: amoeboid form, known to be amoeboid microglial cells (AMC and ramified form, known to be ramified microglial cells (RMC. The AMC are characterized by being proliferative, phagocytic and migratory whereas the RMC are quiescent and exhibit a slow turnover rate. The AMC transform into RMC with advancing age, and this transformation is indicative of the gradual shift in the microglial functions. Both AMC and RMC respond to CNS inflammation, and they become hypertrophic when activated by trauma, infection or neurodegenerative stimuli. The molecular mechanisms and functional significance of morphological transformation of microglia during normal development and in disease conditions is not clear. It is hypothesized that AMC and RMC are functionally regulated by a specific set of genes encoding various signaling molecules and transcription factors. Results To address this, we carried out cDNA microarray analysis using lectin-labeled AMC and RMC isolated from frozen tissue sections of the corpus callosum of 5-day and 4-week old rat brain respectively, by laser capture microdissection. The global gene expression profiles of both microglial phenotypes were compared and the differentially expressed genes in AMC and RMC were clustered based on their functional annotations. This genome wide comparative analysis identified genes that are specific to AMC and RMC. Conclusions The novel and specific molecules identified from the trancriptome explains the quiescent state functioning of microglia in its two distinct morphological states.

  14. Relationships between corpus callosum and language lateralization in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders.

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    Tréhout, Maxime; Leroux, Elise; Delcroix, Nicolas; Dollfus, Sonia

    2017-09-01

    The question of whether there is a continuum or a dichotomy among patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorders (BD) has not been clearly resolved and remains a challenge. Thus, the identification of specific biomarkers of these disorders might be helpful. The present study investigated the volume of the corpus callosum (CC) and functional lateralization for language as potential biomarkers and their relationships in SZ and BD. The study included 20 patients with SZ, 20 patients with BD and 40 healthy controls (HC). A functional lateralization index (FLI) was computed for each participant within the language comprehension network. For each participant, the volume of the total CC and those of three subregions were extracted. These variables and their anatomo-functional relationships were investigated. In comparison to HC, SZ patients presented a decreased leftward lateralization for language, whereas this was not found in BD patients. However, as compared to SZ patients and HC, BD patients showed a reduction in CC volume associated with a lower leftward lateralization for language. Our study revealed that SZ patients displayed a reduction of the leftward functional lateralization for language; however, no reduction of CC volume was observed, whereas BD patients presented a decreased volume of the CC associated with a lower leftward asymmetry for language. The results of our study detected distinct anomalies in both SZ and BD that may be considered as specific biomarkers of these disorders related to neurodevelopmental models. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Children born to women treated for hypothyroidism during pregnancy show abnormal corpus callosum development.

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    Samadi, Arash; Skocic, Jovanka; Rovet, Joanne F

    2015-05-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is essential for the developing brain, and because the fetal thyroid develops relatively late in gestation, the maternal TH supply is critical for fetal brain development. However, if the mother has hypothyroidism during pregnancy, fetal brain and neuropsychological development may be compromised. Rodents experiencing maternal TH insufficiency show abnormal corpus callosum (CC) morphology, but it is not known if children born to women treated for hypothyroidism (HYPO) show similar effects. The purpose of the current study was to investigate HYPO for CC morphology and morphometry and to determine whether any specific CC abnormalities were associated aspects of maternal hypothyroidism and were correlated with reduced neuropsychological functioning in the children. ANALYZE software was used to trace CCs in archived magnetic resonance imaging scans from 22 HYPO and 22 matched controls. Areas of two sub-regions and six segments and different shape metrics (angles, lengths, ratios) were determined. CC parameters were correlated with maternal thyrotropin (TSH) values and number of hypothyroid trimesters as well as the child's neuropsychological test performance. HYPO showed a smaller anterior CC and genu and larger posterior CC and splenium areas than controls as well as shape abnormalities in genu and splenium. Results were correlated with the duration of maternal hypothyroidism. Executive function skills were positively associated with genu size in HYPO, while verbal comprehension skills were negatively associated with splenium and overall posterior CC sizes. Maternal hypothyroidism contributes to CC abnormalities in the offspring, and effects differ for anterior versus posterior CC regions.

  16. Structure, integrity, and function of the hypoplastic corpus callosum in spina bifida myelomeningocele.

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    Crawley, Jennifer T; Hasan, Khader; Hannay, H Julia; Dennis, Maureen; Jockell, Catherine; Fletcher, Jack M

    2014-10-01

    Although there are many studies of people with complete or partial hypogenesis of the corpus callosum (CC), little is understood about the hypoplastic CC in which all structures are present but thinned. Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a model organism for such studies because many have either a hypogenetic or hypoplastic CC. We used diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) to evaluate the hypoplastic CC in SBM and its relation to interhemispheric functions and intelligence quotient (IQ). Participants were individuals with SBM and an intact or hypoplastic CC (n=28), who were compared to a typically developing comparison group (n=32). Total and regional DTT volume and integrity measures (fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity) of the CC were related to measures of intelligence (IQ), bimanual motor functioning, and dichotic auditory performance. As predicted, DTT showed variations in volume and integrity that were maximized in the entire CC and the posterior CC. IQ correlated with entire CC volume, anterior and posterior regional CC volumes, and also with measures of integrity. Bimanual motor functioning correlated with the anterior and posterior volumes of the CC but not with any integrity measures. Axial diffusivity in the posterior CC was negatively correlated with right ear dichotic listening performance. The hypoplastic CC is not macrostructurally or microstructurally intact in SBM, even when it appears radiologically intact. Both volume and integrity of the posterior regions were related to reductions in IQ and to interhemispheric processing. These findings may transfer to other disorders characterized by a hypoplastic CC.

  17. Microstructural organization of corpus callosum projections to prefrontal cortex predicts bimanual motor learning.

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    Sisti, Helene M; Geurts, Monique; Gooijers, Jolien; Heitger, Marcus H; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Beets, Iseult A M; Serbruyns, Leen; Leemans, Alexander; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2012-07-26

    The corpus callosum (CC) is the largest white matter tract in the brain. It enables interhemispheric communication, particularly with respect to bimanual coordination. Here, we use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in healthy humans to determine the extent to which structural organization of subregions within the CC would predict how well subjects learn a novel bimanual task. A single DTI scan was taken prior to training. Participants then practiced a bimanual visuomotor task over the course of 2 wk, consisting of multiple coordination patterns. Findings revealed that the predictive power of fractional anisotropy (FA) was a function of CC subregion and practice. That is, FA of the anterior CC, which projects to the prefrontal cortex, predicted bimanual learning rather than the middle CC regions, which connect primary motor cortex. This correlation was specific in that FA correlated significantly with performance of the most difficult frequency ratios tested and not the innately preferred, isochronous frequency ratio. Moreover, the effect was only evident after training and not at initiation of practice. This is the first DTI study in healthy adults which demonstrates that white matter organization of the interhemispheric connections between the prefrontal structures is strongly correlated with motor learning capability.

  18. Human motor corpus callosum: topography, somatotopy, and link between microstructure and function.

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    Wahl, Mathias; Lauterbach-Soon, Birgit; Hattingen, Elke; Jung, Patrick; Singer, Oliver; Volz, Steffen; Klein, Johannes C; Steinmetz, Helmuth; Ziemann, Ulf

    2007-11-07

    The corpus callosum (CC) is the principal white matter fiber bundle connecting neocortical areas of the two hemispheres. Although an object of extensive research, important details about the anatomical and functional organization of the human CC are still largely unknown. Here we focused on the callosal motor fibers (CMFs) that connect the primary motor cortices (M1) of the two hemispheres. Topography and somatotopy of CMFs were explored by using a combined functional magnetic resonance imaging/diffusion tensor imaging fiber-tracking procedure. CMF microstructure was assessed by fractional anisotropy (FA), and CMF functional connectivity between the hand areas of M1 was measured by interhemispheric inhibition using paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. CMFs mapped onto the posterior body and isthmus of the CC, with hand CMFs running significantly more anteriorly and ventrally than foot CMFs. FA of the hand CMFs but not FA of the foot CMFs correlated linearly with interhemispheric inhibition between the M1 hand areas. Findings demonstrate that CMFs connecting defined body representations of M1 map onto a circumscribed region in the CC in a somatotopically organized manner. The significant and topographically specific positive correlation between FA and interhemispheric inhibition strongly suggests that microstructure can be directly linked to functional connectivity. This provides a novel way of exploring human brain function that may allow prediction of functional connectivity from variability of microstructure in healthy individuals, and potentially, abnormality of functional connectivity in neurological or psychiatric patients.

  19. Role of corpus callosum integrity in arm function differs based on motor severity after stroke.

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    Stewart, Jill Campbell; Dewanjee, Pritha; Tran, George; Quinlan, Erin Burke; Dodakian, Lucy; McKenzie, Alison; See, Jill; Cramer, Steven C

    2017-01-01

    While the corpus callosum (CC) is important to normal sensorimotor function, its role in motor function after stroke is less well understood. This study examined the relationship between structural integrity of the motor and sensory sections of the CC, as reflected by fractional anisotropy (FA), and motor function in individuals with a range of motor impairment level due to stroke. Fifty-five individuals with chronic stroke (Fugl-Meyer motor score range 14 to 61) and 18 healthy controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging and a set of motor behavior tests. Mean FA from the motor and sensory regions of the CC and from corticospinal tract (CST) were extracted and relationships with behavioral measures evaluated. Across all participants, FA in both CC regions was significantly decreased after stroke (p motor function. However, these relationships varied based on degree of motor impairment: in individuals with relatively less motor impairment (Fugl-Meyer motor score > 39), motor status correlated with FA in the CC but not the CST, while in individuals with relatively greater motor impairment (Fugl-Meyer motor score ≤ 39), motor status correlated with FA in the CST but not the CC. The role interhemispheric motor connections play in motor function after stroke may differ based on level of motor impairment. These findings emphasize the heterogeneity of stroke, and suggest that biomarkers and treatment approaches targeting separate subgroups may be warranted.

  20. Investigating the role of the corpus callosum in regulating motor overflow in multiple sclerosis.

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    Ternes, Anne-Marie; Maller, Jerome J; Fielding, Joanne; Addamo, Patricia; White, Owen; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie

    2013-08-01

    The corpus callosum (CC) is commonly affected in multiple sclerosis (MS), however, sensitive behavioral measures of MS-related CC pathology are lacking. The CC is considered a key structure in the mediation of a type of involuntary movement known as motor overflow. In this study, we sought to characterize the impact of CC damage on motor overflow in MS. Twenty MS participants and 20 controls performed a unilateral force production task. Motor overflow (involuntary force) in the non-active hand was measured while the active hand performed the task. CC volume and lesion load were calculated for MS participants using T2-weighted MRI. We found no group differences in motor overflow; however, motor overflow correlated significantly with MS disease severity [Expanded disability status scale (EDSS)]. CC damage (lesions and decreased volume) did not correlate with motor overflow. This study suggests that CC damage may not directly lead to changes in the regulation of motor overflow. Rather, findings support the notion that a wider network of structures may mediate the production and suppression of motor overflow.

  1. Bimanual motor deficits in older adults predicted by diffusion tensor imaging metrics of corpus callosum subregions.

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    Serbruyns, L; Gooijers, J; Caeyenberghs, K; Meesen, R L; Cuypers, K; Sisti, H M; Leemans, A; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2015-01-01

    Age-related changes in the microstructural organization of the corpus callosum (CC) may explain declines in bimanual motor performance associated with normal aging. We used diffusion tensor imaging in young (n = 33) and older (n = 33) adults to investigate the microstructural organization of seven specific CC subregions (prefrontal, premotor, primary motor, primary sensory, parietal, temporal and occipital). A set of bimanual tasks was used to assess various aspects of bimanual motor functioning: the Purdue Pegboard test, simultaneous and alternating finger tapping, a choice reaction time test and a complex visuomotor tracking task. The older adults showed age-related deficits on all measures of bimanual motor performance. Correlation analyses within the older group showed that white matter fractional anisotropy of the CC occipital region was associated with bimanual fine manipulation skills (Purdue Pegboard test), whereas better performance on the other bimanual tasks was related to higher fractional anisotropy in the more anterior premotor, primary motor and primary sensory CC subregions. Such associations were less prominent in the younger group. Our findings suggest that structural alterations of subregional callosal fibers may account for bimanual motor declines in normal aging.

  2. Abnormality of the corpus callosum in coalmine gas explosion-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

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    Yang Zhang

    Full Text Available Abnormal corpus callosum (CC has been reported in childhood trauma-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; however, the nature of white matter (WM integrity alterations in the CC of young adult-onset PTSD patients is unknown. In this study, 14 victims of a coal mine gas explosion with PTSD and 23 matched coal miners without experiencing the coal mine explosion were enrolled. The differences in fractional anisotropy (FA within 7 sub-regions of the CC were compared between the two groups. Compared to the controls, PTSD coal miners exhibited significantly reduced FA values in the anterior sub-regions of the CC (P < 0.05, Bonferroni-corrected, which mainly interconnect the bilateral frontal cortices. Our findings indicated that the anterior part of the CC was more severely impaired than the posterior part in young adult-onset PTSD, which suggested the patterns of CC impairment may depend on the developmental stage of the structure when the PTSD occurs.

  3. [Coronary circulation in asymmetrical hypertrophy of the interventricular septum. On a new pathogenic hypothesis].

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    Sánchez, G; Orea, A; Trevethan, S; Martínez Ríos, M A

    1984-01-01

    Thirty-four patients with left ventricular hypertrophy were studied. In all cases the following parameters were analyzed: 1) Echocardiography:left ventricular diastolic and systolic diameters, ejection fraction, thickness and movement of interventricular septum and posterior wall of the left ventricle (LV) 2) Electrocardiography: R wave voltaje in precordial leads V2, V3 and V5 and electrical axis in frontal plane 3) Catheterization: intracavitary pressures in LV and aortic pressures 4) Left ventriculography: areas of altered contractility 5) Coronariography: distribution pattern of coronary arteries and number of first order branches of circumflex (CA) and anterior descending coronary arteries (ADCA). The population was divided into 2 groups. Group A (GA) was made up of 22 patients with concentric hypertrophy (CH) of the LV (15 with systemic hypertensive heart disease, 6 with aortic valvular stenosis and 1 idiopathic). Echocardiographic findings included posterior wall thickness (PWT) or septal thickness of 1.1. cm or more and interventricular septum-posterior wall thickness ratio (S/PW) of less than 1.3. Group B (GB) included 12 patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy (ASH), idiopathic in 5, systemic hypertensive heart disease in 4 and aortic valvular stenosis in 3. In these patients the S/PW thickness ratio was greater than 1.3 and the thickness of either wall greater than 1.1. cm. When the data of the two groups were compared there were significant differences in relation to the presence of septal hypertrophy. The R wave voltage in V2, interventricular thickness and S/PW were greater in GB. In addition, septal movement was less in GB than in Group A (0.47 +/- 0.26 cm vs. 0.74 +/- 0.37 cm; P less than 0.05). PWT was also less in Group B than in A (B: 1.01 +/- 0.1 cm, A: 1.2 +/- 0.2 cm; P less than 0.001). The CA in Group B divided into fewer than 4 first order branches to the upper two thirds of the posterior and lateral walls of the LV in 91.6%. This

  4. Metabolic activation of amygdala, lateral septum and accumbens circuits during food anticipatory behavior.

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    Olivo, Diana; Caba, Mario; Gonzalez-Lima, Francisco; Rodríguez-Landa, Juan F; Corona-Morales, Aleph A

    2017-01-01

    When food is restricted to a brief fixed period every day, animals show an increase in temperature, corticosterone concentration and locomotor activity for 2-3h before feeding time, termed food anticipatory activity. Mechanisms and neuroanatomical circuits responsible for food anticipatory activity remain unclear, and may involve both oscillators and networks related to temporal conditioning. Rabbit pups are nursed once-a-day so they represent a natural model of circadian food anticipatory activity. Food anticipatory behavior in pups may be associated with neural circuits that temporally anticipate feeding, while the nursing event may produce consummatory effects. Therefore, we used New Zealand white rabbit pups entrained to circadian feeding to investigate the hypothesis that structures related to reward expectation and conditioned emotional responses would show a metabolic rhythm anticipatory of the nursing event, different from that shown by structures related to reward delivery. Quantitative cytochrome oxidase histochemistry was used to measure regional brain metabolic activity at eight different times during the day. We found that neural metabolism peaked before nursing, during food anticipatory behavior, in nuclei of the extended amygdala (basolateral, medial and central nuclei, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis), lateral septum and accumbens core. After pups were fed, however, maximal metabolic activity was expressed in the accumbens shell, caudate, putamen and cortical amygdala. Neural and behavioral activation persisted when animals were fasted by two cycles, at the time of expected nursing. These findings suggest that metabolic activation of amygdala-septal-accumbens circuits involved in temporal conditioning may contribute to food anticipatory activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Neuroanatomy and sex differences of the lordosis-inhibiting system in the lateral septum

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    Shinji eTsukahara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Female sexual behavior in rodents, termed lordosis, is controlled by facilitatory and inhibitory systems in the brain. It has been well demonstrated that a neural pathway from the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN to the midbrain central gray (MCG is essential for facilitatory regulation of lordosis. The neural pathway from the arcuate nucleus to the VMN, via the medial preoptic nucleus, in female rats mediates transient suppression of lordosis, until female sexual receptivity is induced. In addition to this pathway, other regions are involved in inhibitory regulation of lordosis in female rats. The lordosis-inhibiting systems exist not only in the female brain but also in the male brain. The systems contribute to suppression of heterotypical sexual behavior in male rats, although they have the potential ability to display lordosis. The lateral septum (LS exerts an inhibitory influence on lordosis in both female and male rats. This review focuses on the neuroanatomy and sex differences of the lordosis-inhibiting system in the LS. The LS functionally and anatomically links to the MCG to exert suppression of lordosis. Neurons of the intermediate part of the LS (LSi serve as lordosis-inhibiting neurons and project axons to the MCG. The LSi-MCG neural connection is sexually dimorphic, and formation of the male-like LSi-MCG neural connection is affected by aromatized testosterone originating from the testes in the postnatal period. The sexually dimorphic LSi-MCG neural connection may reflect the morphological basis of sex differences in the inhibitory regulation of lordosis in rats.

  6. Antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel and aspirin after interventional patent foramen ovale/ atrium septum defect closure.

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    Polzin, Amin; Dannenberg, Lisa; Sophia Popp, Valérie-; Kelm, Malte; Zeus, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    The optimal antiplatelet therapy after patent foramen ovale (PFO)/ atrium septum defect (ASD) closure is a matter of discussion. It is challenging as inter-individual responses to antiplatelet medication vary significantly and common complications are bleeding and ischemic events. In this study, we aimed to analyze the incidence of high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) to antiplatelet medication in patients undergoing PFO/ASD closure as well as clinical complications and thrombus formation on the occluder during six-month follow-up. This hypothesis generating pilot study was observed, which included 140 patients undergoing PFO/ASD closure. The primary endpoint was pharmacodynamic response to antiplatelet medication. A composite of death, myocardial infarction, bleeding, stroke and thrombus formation on the occluder during six-month follow-up was the secondary endpoint. HTPR to clopidogrel was analyzed using the vasodilator-stimulated protein phosphorylation (VASP), HTPR to aspirin by light-transmission aggregometry (LTA). In 71% of patients HTPR to clopidogrel was detected, HTPR to aspirin in only 4%. We observed 12 complications, 9 bleeding events (including 3 major bleeding events) and 3 transient ischemic attacks. No stroke and no thrombus formation on the occluder occurred. The primary endpoint was not associated with the secondary endpoint. The incidence of HTPR to clopidogrel in PFO/ASD closure patients is very high. Despite this high incidence, no stroke or thrombus formation on the occluder occurred at all. This leads to the hypothesis, that the benefit of additional clopidogrel medication is questionable and has to be investigated in large-scale clinical trials.

  7. Aneurysm of the membranous septum in adult patients with perimembranous ventricular septal defect.

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    Yilmaz, A T; Ozal, E; Arslan, M; Tatar, H; Oztürk, O Y

    1997-02-01

    The aneurysm of the membranous septum (AMS) has often been considered as benign in the minds of many previous investigators. We have analyzed the complications with AMS in adult patients. Fifty-one cases (20%) of AMS in 254 adult patients with perimembranous ventricular septal defect (VSD) are described. The diagnosis of AMS was based on angiographic criteria. Thirty-nine (76.5%) of the 51 patients with AMS were aged between 20 and 29 years. All patients but one with AMS had a pulmonary-to-systemic flow (Qp/Qs) of less than 2.3 (range 1-2.1, mean 1.4). In a patient who had a ruptured aneurysm, the Qp/Qs was 2.7. There were six main complications affected by AMS and/or VSD; aortic valve prolapse in 24 patients (47%), aortic regurgitation in 15 (29.4%), tricuspid insufficiency in nine (17.6%), right ventricular outflow tract obstruction in two (4%), and rupture of the aneurysm in one patient (2%). Seven patients (13.7%) had prior bacterial endocarditis. All patients underwent surgery. Aneurysm and VSD were closed by direct suture in nine and with a patch in 42 patients. Aortic valve repair was performed in 13 patients in whom regurgitation was mild to moderate, and replacement was required in two patients with severe aortic regurgitation. There were no early or late deaths. Residual communication and recurrence of the aneurysm was noted three and seven years postoperatively in two patients where VSD had been closed by direct suture. According to present data, aneurysm formation functionally reduces the VSD size, but it has the potential consequence of promoting tricuspid insufficiency, aortic valve prolapse, right ventricular outflow tract obstruction, rupture and bacterial endocarditis. Therefore, we recommend that AMS should be resected completely and the defect produced closed with a patch in order to prevent further enlargement and consequent complications even if there are no cardiac symptoms.

  8. Role of magnetic resonance imaging in biometric evaluation of corpus callosum in hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy patients

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    Amit Garhwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Corpus callosum (CC has an important role in establishing hemispheric lateralization of function. Significance of this structure which is the primary white matter commissure of the brain lies in the fact that damage to the CC during development has been found to be associated with poor neurological outcome and neuropsychological performance. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI can precisely detect, localize, and evaluate damage to CC in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE patients and assist in reaching to at an accurate anatomical diagnosis, thus heeling in further management of the patient. Objectives: The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of HIE on CC morphometry by assessing various diameters of CC. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four patients with history of hypoxic-ischemic injury referred to the Department of Radiodiagnosis were included in the study. All the patients were made to undergo MRI of the brain using Siemens Symphony Magnetom 1.5 Tesla scanner after taking informed consent for the same. The findings of MRI brain were assessed and analyzed. Data analysis was done using percentages of different diagnosis and outcomes made by MRI brain were computed and compiled. Results: In the present study, male predominance is seen, 77.78% patients were male and 22.22% were female. In the present study, maximum numbers of patients were <1 year of age (37.04%. In the present study, we see that the isthmus was the most commonly affected portion of CC. Children who did not cry at birth, born with low birth weight, low Apgar score were positively correlated with severity of damage to CC. Conclusion: From the present study, it was noted that MRI is very efficient tool in evaluating morphometry of CC in HIE. Its noninvasiveness and no exposure to ionizing radiation is an added advantage. However, experience and understanding of the principles are essential for accurate diagnosis.

  9. Quantitative analysis of structural variations in corpus callosum in adults with multiple system atrophy (MSA)

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    Bhattacharya, Debanjali; Sinha, Neelam; Saini, Jitender

    2017-03-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare, non-curable, progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects nervous system and movement, poses a considerable diagnostic challenge to medical researchers. Corpus callosum (CC) being the largest white matter structure in brain, enabling inter-hemispheric communication, quantification of callosal atrophy may provide vital information at the earliest possible stages. The main objective is to identify the differences in CC structure for this disease, based on quantitative analysis on the pattern of callosal atrophy. We report results of quantification of structural changes in regional anatomical thickness, area and length of CC between patient-groups with MSA with respect to healthy controls. The method utilizes isolating and parcellating the mid-sagittal CC into 100 segments along the length - measuring the width of each segment. It also measures areas within geometrically defined five callosal compartments of the well-known Witelson, and Hofer-Frahma schemes. For quantification, statistical tests are performed on these different callosal measurements. From the statistical analysis, it is concluded that compared to healthy controls, width is reduced drastically throughout CC for MSA group and as well as changes in area and length are also significant for MSA. The study is further extended to check if any significant difference in thickness is found between the two variations of MSA, Parkinsonian MSA and Cerebellar MSA group, using the same methodology. However area and length of this two sub-MSA group, no substantial difference is obtained. The study is performed on twenty subjects for each control and MSA group, who had T1-weighted MRI.

  10. Atrophy of the corpus callosum correlates with white matter lesions in patients with cerebral ischaemia

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    Meguro, K.; Yamadori, A. [Section of Neuropsychology, Division of Disability Science, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, 980-8575 Sendai (Japan); Constans, J.M.; Courtheoux, P.; Theron, J. [MR Unit, University of Caen School of Medicine, Caen (France); Viader, F. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Caen School of Medicine, Caen (France)

    2000-06-01

    Many studies of white matter high signal (WMHS) on T2-weighted MRI have disclosed that it is related to cerebral ischaemia and to brain atrophy. Atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC) has also been studied in relation to ischaemia. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to ischaemia. We therefore assessed CC, WMHS and brain atrophy in patients with risk factors without strokes (the risk factor group) and in those with infarcts (the infarct group), to investigate the relationships between these factors. We studied 30 patients in the infarct group, 14 in the risk factor group, and 29 normal subjects. Using axial T1-weighted MRI, cortical atrophy and ventricular enlargement (brain atrophy) were visually rated. Using axial T2-weighted MRI, WMHS was assessed in three categories: periventricular symmetrical, periventricular asymmetrical and subcortical. Using the mid-sagittal T1-weighted image, the CC was measured in its anterior, posterior, midanterior and midposterior portions. In the normal group, no correlations were noted between parameters. In the infarct group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy, and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After removing the effects of age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations were noted between some CC measures and subcortical WMHS. In the risk factor group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After allowance for age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations between some CC measures and periventricular WMHS remained. The hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to cerebral ischaemia was supported by other analyses. Namely, for correlations between the extent of infarcts and partial CC atrophy in patients with anterior middle cerebral artery (MCA) and with posterior MCA infarcts, there were significant correlations between the extent of infarct and midanterior CC atrophy in the former, and posterior

  11. Diffusion tensor tractography analysis of the corpus callosum fibers in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee-Eun; Oh, Jungsu S; Sung, Jung-Joon; Lee, Kwang-Woo; Song, In Chan; Hong, Yoon-Ho

    2014-07-01

    Involvement of the corpus callosum (CC) is reported to be a consistent feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We examined the CC pathology using diffusion tensor tractography analysis to identify precisely which fiber bundles are involved in ALS. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed in 14 sporadic ALS patients and 16 age-matched healthy controls. Whole brain tractography was performed using the multiple-region of interest (ROI) approach, and CC fiber bundles were extracted in two ways based on functional and structural relevance: (i) cortical ROI selection based on Brodmann areas (BAs), and (ii) the sulcal-gyral pattern of cortical gray matter using FreeSurfer software, respectively. The mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values of the CC fibers interconnecting the primary motor (BA4), supplementary motor (BA6), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA9/46) were significantly lower in ALS patients than in controls, whereas those of the primary sensory cortex (BA1, BA2, BA3), Broca's area (BA44/45), and the orbitofrontal cortex (BA11/47) did not differ significantly between the two groups. The FreeSurfer ROI approach revealed a very similar pattern of abnormalities. In addition, a significant correlation was found between the mean FA value of the CC fibers interconnecting the primary motor area and disease severity, as assessed using the revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale, and the clinical extent of upper motor neuron signs. Our findings suggest that there is some degree of selectivity or a gradient in the CC pathology in ALS. The CC fibers interconnecting the primary motor and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices may be preferentially involved in ALS.

  12. The corpus callosum and recovery of working memory after epilepsy surgery.

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    Blackmon, Karen; Pardoe, Heath R; Barr, William B; Ardekani, Babak A; Doyle, Werner K; Devinsky, Orrin; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Thesen, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    For patients with medically intractable focal epilepsy, the benefit of epilepsy surgery must be weighed against the risk of cognitive decline. Clinical factors such as age and presurgical cognitive level partially predict cognitive outcome; yet, little is known about the role of cross-hemispheric white matter pathways in supporting postsurgical recovery of cognitive function. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the presurgical corpus callosum (CC) midsagittal area is associated with pre- to postsurgical change following epilepsy surgery. In this observational study, we retrospectively identified 24 adult patients from an epilepsy resection series who completed preoperative high-resolution T1 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, as well as pre- and postsurgical neuropsychological testing. The total area and seven subregional areas of the CC were measured on the midsagittal MRI slice using an automated method. Standardized indices of auditory-verbal working memory and delayed memory were used to probe cognitive change from pre- to postsurgery. CC total and subregional areas were regressed on memory-change scores, after controlling for overall brain volume, age, presurgical memory scores, and duration of epilepsy. Patients had significantly reduced CC area relative to healthy controls. We found a positive relationship between CC area and change in working memory, but not delayed memory; specifically, the larger the CC, the greater the postsurgical improvement in working memory (β = 0.523; p = 0.009). Effects were strongest in posterior CC subregions. There was no relationship between CC area and presurgical memory scores. Findings indicate that larger CC area, measured presurgically, is related to improvement in working memory abilities following epilepsy surgery. This suggests that transcallosal pathways may play an important, yet little understood, role in postsurgical recovery of cognitive functions. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015

  13. Hallazgo de una hiperplasia lipomatosa del septum interauricular en un caso de muerte súbita Finding of a lipomatous hyperplasia in the interatrial septum in a case of sudden death

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    Sánchez-Quintana, D; Murillo, M.; F. Sánchez-Ugena; S. Alama; Merino, M. J.; M.T. Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    La hiperplasia lipomatosa del septum interauricular (HLSI) es una entidad benigna de naturaleza desconocida que se caracteriza por la acumulación de grasa no encapsulada en el interior del surco interauricular sin participación de la fosa oval. A pesar de su carácter benigno, clínicamente se ha asociado con arritmias cardiacas, generalmente de origen supraventricular, insuficiencia cardiaca y muerte súbita. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de edad media (47 años), con obesidad mórbida e insuf...

  14. Comparative cephalopod shell strength and the role of septum morphology on stress distribution

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    Robert Lemanis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of complexly folded septa in ammonoids has long been a controversial topic. Explanations of the function of these folded septa can be divided into physiological and mechanical hypotheses with the mechanical functions tending to find widespread support. The complexity of the cephalopod shell has made it difficult to directly test the mechanical properties of these structures without oversimplification of the septal morphology or extraction of a small sub-domain. However, the power of modern finite element analysis now permits direct testing of mechanical hypothesis on complete, empirical models of the shells taken from computed tomographic data. Here we compare, for the first time using empirical models, the capability of the shells of extant Nautilus pompilius, Spirula spirula, and the extinct ammonite Cadoceras sp. to withstand hydrostatic pressure and point loads. Results show hydrostatic pressure imparts highest stress on the final septum with the rest of the shell showing minimal compression. S. spirula shows the lowest stress under hydrostatic pressure while N. pompilius shows the highest stress. Cadoceras sp. shows the development of high stress along the attachment of the septal saddles with the shell wall. Stress due to point loads decreases when the point force is directed along the suture as opposed to the unsupported chamber wall. Cadoceras sp. shows the greatest decrease in stress between the point loads compared to all other models. Greater amplitude of septal flutes corresponds with greater stress due to hydrostatic pressure; however, greater amplitude decreases the stress magnitude of point loads directed along the suture. In our models, sutural complexity does not predict greater resistance to hydrostatic pressure but it does seem to increase resistance to point loads, such as would be from predators. This result permits discussion of palaeoecological reconstructions on the basis of septal morphology. We further

  15. A de novo 163 kb interstitial 1q44 microdeletion in a boy with thin corpus callosum, psychomotor delay and seizures.

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    Selmer, Kaja K; Bryne, Einar; Rødningen, Olaug K; Fannemel, Madeleine

    2012-12-01

    The 1q44 deletion syndrome has shown to be a recognizable phenotype with developmental delay, short stature and corpus callosum abnormalities as relatively consistent features. However, the disorder is still clinically heterogeneous and a genotype-phenotype correlation has been challenging to establish. In particular, a delineation of a critical region for the corpus callosum development has turned out to be difficult, and many candidate genes have been proposed. We present here a patient boy with a clinical picture of the 1q44 deletion syndrome, including a thin corpus callosum, and a small de novo 1q44 deletion. The deletion spans a maximum of 163 kb, a region which only contains the two genes FAM36A and HNRNPU. This finding supports the previously suggested hypothesis that the HNRNPU is an essential gene to the development of corpus callosum. However, as patients with deletions outside this interval also have been reported to have corpus callosum abnormalities, other mechanisms are probably also involved. We also identified two conserved non-coding regions in the deleted region of the patient, and speculate that also other elements interfere with the complex interplay and spatiotemporal gene expression during embryonic development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Electrophysiological and autoradiographical evidence of V1 vasopressin receptors in the lateral septum of the rat brain

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    Raggenbass, M.; Tribollet, E.; Dreifuss, J.J.

    1987-11-01

    Extracellular recordings were obtained from single neurons located in the lateral septum, an area known to receive a vasopressinergic innervation in the rat brain. Approximately half of the neurons tested responded to 8-L-arginine vasopressin (AVP) by a marked increase in firing rate at concentrations greater than 1 nM. The effect of vasopressin was blocked by synthetic structural analogues possessing antagonistic properties on peripheral vasopressin and oxytocin receptors. Oxytocin was much less potent than vasopressin in firing septal neurons, and a selective oxytocic agonist was totally ineffective. The action of vasopressin on neuronal firing was mimicked by the vasopressor agonist (2-phenylalanine,8-ornithine)vasotocin but not by the selective antidiuretic agonist 1-deamino(8-D-arginine)vasopressin. In a parallel study, sites that bind (/sup 3/H)AVP at low concentration (1.5 nM) were found by in vitro autoradiography in the lateral septum. Adjacent sections were also incubated with 1.5 mM (/sup 3/H)AVP and, in addition, with 100 nM (2-phenylalanine,8-ornithine)vasotocin or 1-deamino(8-D-arginine)vasopressin--i.e., the same compounds as those used for the electrophysiological study. Results showed that the vasopressor agonist, but not the antidiuretic agonist, displaced (/sup 3/H)AVP, thus indicating that the vasopressin binding sites detected by autoradiography in the septum were V1 (vasopressor type) rather than V2 (antidiuretic type) receptors. Based on the electrophysiological evidence, we conclude that these receptors, when occupied, lead to increased firing of lateral septal neurons.

  17. Effect of skilled reaching training and enriched environment on generation of oligodendrocytes in the adult sensorimotor cortex and corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiner, Silke; Niv, Fanny; Neumann, Susanne; Steinbach, Tanja; Schmeer, Christian; Hornung, Katrin; Schlenker, Yvonne; Förster, Martin; Witte, Otto W; Redecker, Christoph

    2017-03-09

    Increased motor activity or social interactions through enriched environment are strong stimulators of grey and white matter plasticity in the adult rodent brain. In the present study we evaluated whether specific reaching training of the dominant forelimb (RT) and stimulation of unspecific motor activity through enriched environment (EE) influence the generation of distinct oligodendrocyte subpopulations in the sensorimotor cortex and corpus callosum of the adult rat brain. Animals were placed in three different housing conditions: one group was transferred to an EE, a second group received daily RT, whereas a third group remained in the standard cage. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was applied at days 2-6 after start of experiments and animals were allowed to survive for 10 and 42 days. Enriched environment and daily reaching training of the dominant forelimb significantly increased the number of newly differentiated GSTπ+ oligodendrocytes at day 10 and newly differentiated CNPase+ oligodendrocytes in the sensorimotor cortex at day 42. The myelin level as measured by CNPase expression was increased in the frontal cortex at day 42. Distribution of newly differentiated NG2+ subpopulations changed between 10 and 42 days with an increase of GSTπ+ subtypes and a decrease of NG2+ cells in the sensorimotor cortex and corpus callosum. Analysis of neuronal marker doublecortin (DCX) showed that more than half of NG2+ cells express DCX in the cortex. The number of new DCX+NG2+ cells was reduced by EE at day 10. Our results indicate for the first time that specific and unspecific motor training conditions differentially alter the process of differentiation from oligodendrocyte subpopulations, in particular NG2+DCX+ cells, in the sensorimotor cortex and corpus callosum.

  18. MRI in callosal apraxia and agraphia due to a traumatic lesion in the posterior trunk of the corpus callosum

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    Yasumura, Shuichi; Ito, Naoki; Terunuma, Hiroshi; Matsuzaki, Takayuki; Iwabuchi, Reiko

    1987-08-01

    We discussed functional topography of the corpus callosum in a case with ideo-motor apraxia and agraphia of the left hand due to a traumatic callosal hematoma confirmed by MRI. The patient was a 35-year-old right-handed woman with head injury in a traffic accident. On admission she was semi-comatose with left oculomotor palsy and her left upper limb showed a decorticate rigidity by noxious stimuli, however, she became alert within 14 days. X-ray CT showed an abnormal high density area in the posterior part of the trunk of the corpus callosum on admission. MRI (inversion recovery technique) on the 60th hospital day showed a low intensity area extending for about 2 cm posteriorly from the center of the trunk. Sequential neuropsychological examinations for the callosal disconnection syndrome were performed. The patient showed ideo-motor apraxia and agraphia in her left hand only. Her response to verbal commands were all parapraxic except for correct use of a comb and a tooth brush. Her writings with her left hand were those of scrawls due to apraxia. These apraxia and agraphia of the left hand were transient and recovered completely within 80 days of onset. Transient impairement of bimanual coordination movement was also observed. Ataxie optique, callosal pseudoneglect, left hand tactile anomia, difficulty of somesthetic transfer or diagonistic dyspraxia was not observed. Based on the neuropsychological and the MRI findings we suggest that the lesion in the posterior part of the trunk of the corpus callosum is important for causing ideo-motor apraxia and agraphia of the left hand.

  19. Prune belly syndrome with overlapping presentation of partial urorectal septum malformation sequence in a female newborn with absent perineal openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Azhar; AlAqeel, Alaa; Habib, Zakaria

    2014-01-01

    Prune belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital anomaly characterized in males by a triad of anomalous genitourinary tract, deficient development of abdominal wall muscles, and bilateral cryptorchidism. Although similar anomalies have been reported in females, by definition they do not full fill the classical triad. Urorectal septum malformation sequence (URSM) is a lethal condition characterized by presence of ambiguous genitalia, absent perineal openings (urogenital and anal), and lumbosacral abnormalities. In this original case report, the authors discuss the presentation and management of what would be analogous to a Woodhouse category 1 PBS in a female newborn associated with an overlapping presentation of URSM.

  20. Prune Belly Syndrome with Overlapping Presentation of Partial Urorectal Septum Malformation Sequence in a Female Newborn with Absent Perineal Openings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Farooqui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prune belly syndrome (PBS is a rare congenital anomaly characterized in males by a triad of anomalous genitourinary tract, deficient development of abdominal wall muscles, and bilateral cryptorchidism. Although similar anomalies have been reported in females, by definition they do not full fill the classical triad. Urorectal septum malformation sequence (URSM is a lethal condition characterized by presence of ambiguous genitalia, absent perineal openings (urogenital and anal, and lumbosacral abnormalities. In this original case report, the authors discuss the presentation and management of what would be analogous to a Woodhouse category 1 PBS in a female newborn associated with an overlapping presentation of URSM.

  1. Disconnection Syndrome and Verbal, Spatial and Tactile Amnesia following a Tumor of the Splenium of the Corpus Callosum

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    Marina Scarpa

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient with a severe amnesic syndrome following a glioma of the splenium of the corpus callosum is reported. The long-term memory deficit involved anterograde as well as retrograde events dating back to 40 years and causing topographical disorientation. Short-term memory test performance was in the normal range, with the exception of tactile memory which was severely impaired. The patient also showed disconnection symptoms, due to severing of occipito-parietal and parieto-temporal connections, while parieto-parietal connections were undamaged.

  2. Anatomical variants of brain structure: confused spatial relationship of the fornix to the corpus callosum and anterior commissure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, A

    1997-12-01

    How the developing nerve fibers are guided to and able to find their target is currently a matter of research. As examples of the false guidance of axons, anatomical variants of the spatial relationship of the columna fornicis to the corpus callosum and the anterior commissure are demonstrated. In a 60 year-old female patient, some of the fibers of the genu corporis callosi were found to be entrapped by a fornix fiber bundle. The brain of a 20 year-old man showed that the unilateral anterior commissure ran posterior to the columna fornicis. These changes were clinically insignificant.

  3. Transient Splenial Lesion of Corpus Callosum Associated with Antiepileptic Drug: Conventional and Diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakyemez, B.; Erdogan, C.; Yildirim, N.; Gokalp, G.; Parlak, M. [Uludag Univ. Medical School, Bursa (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology

    2005-11-01

    Transient focal lesions of splenium of corpus callosum can be seen as a component of many central nervous system diseases, including antiepileptic drug toxicity. The conventional magnetic resonance (MR) findings of the disease are characteristic and include ovoid lesions with high signal intensity at T2-weighted MRI. Limited information exists about the diffusion-weighted MRI characteristics of these lesions vanishing completely after a period of time. We examined the conventional, FLAIR, and diffusion-weighted MR images of a patient complaining of depressive mood and anxiety disorder after 1 year receiving antiepileptic medication.

  4. Agnathia-holoprosencephaly associated with a 46,XY,-21,+t(21q;21q) karyotype

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    Niedermeyer, K.K.; McCorquodale, M.M.; Burton, B.K. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1994-09-01

    We report an unusual case of agnathia-holoprosencephaly associated with Down syndrome due to a 21/21 translocation. The patient presented prenatally at 21 wks gestation. A fetal ultrasound revealed multiple CNS anomalies including hydrocephalus, compressed cerebellum, absent septum pellucidum and possible cranial meningocele or encephalocele. High resolution ultrasound & fetal karyotype were recommended. The patient refused & elected to have a pregnancy termination. Chromosomal analysis performed on products of conception revealed a 46,XY,-21,+t(21q;21q) karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed and confirmed the 21/21 translocation chromosome. An autopsy revealed agnathia and multiple CNS anomalies including absence of the septum pellucidum, absence of the corpus callosum, arhinencephaly, an occiptal meningoencephalocele, dilation of the lateral ventricles, and extensive dysgenesis & heterotopias of the central cerebrum & mid-brain. Additional abnormalities included a persistent left superior vena cava, atrial & ventricular septal defects, irregular length of the fingers with absence of the middle phalanges of the right 2nd and 5th & left 5th digits and bilateral simian creases. Agnathia can be an isolated abnormality but often is associated with holoprosencephaly and/or situs inversus. The majority of familial case of agnathis-holoprosencephaly was caused by an inherited unbalanced translocation resulting in duplication of 6p and monosomy of 18p. Our patient had a translocation form of trisomy 21 but did not have a phenotype consistent with Down syndrome. Trisomy 21 has not been previously reported in other cases of agnathia-holoprosencephaly. Whether the chromosomal abnormality caused the phenotypic abnormalities or if it is a coincidental finding cannot be determined.

  5. A semi-automated method for measuring thickness and white matter integrity of the corpus callosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Andronikou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Diseases affecting cerebral white matter may lead to left-right asymmetries and atrophy of interhemispheric connections, i.e. the corpus callosum (CC. Our aim was to describe and test a semi-automated system that divides the midline CC into a number of segments and determines thickness at each, then performs fibre tracking from these segments. Methods. Six normal female volunteers (average age 25.8 ±6.7 years and a female patient with diagnosed multiple sclerosis (age 26 years were scanned on a 3T MRI. We performed diffusion-weighted imaging in 12 directions, and calculated diffusion tensors and fractional anisotropy (FA maps from this pre-processed data. Fibre tracking from a region-of-interest encompassing the entire CC was done. This fibre data, together with FA maps and the unweighted diffusion tensor imaging (DTI image (b = 0 s/mm2, were imported into a custom tool written in MATLAB. The midline sagittal position was carefully defined by selecting multiple midline points in coronal and axial views and rotating the image volume and fibre co-ordinates accordingly. Using the customised tool, dorsal and ventral CC contours were manually drawn on the mid-sagittal FA image, initiating automated calculation of a contour midway between these manually drawn lines. The programme was designed to then divide the midline contour into a pre-selected number of segments; from each segment border, perpendicular spokes were projected until they intersected with the dorsal and ventral contours. This technique divided the CC into a pre-set amount of segments, the number of which was limited by the spatial resolution. It was decided to set the number at 40 to ensure that each segment depicted a contiguous strip of voxels across the CC from the dorsal to the ventral contour. The system allows these segments to then be used as seeds for separate fibre tracking in each cerebral hemisphere, and various parameters are automatically plotted as a function of

  6. Reductions in Corpus Callosum Volume Partially Mediate Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on IQ

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    Stevie C. Biffen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Disproportionate volume reductions in the basal ganglia, corpus callosum (CC and hippocampus have been reported in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE. However, few studies have investigated these reductions in high prevalence communities, such as the Western Cape Province of South Africa, and only one study made use of manual tracing, the gold standard of volumetric analysis. The present study examined the effects of PAE on subcortical neuroanatomy using manual tracing and the relation of volumetric reductions in these regions to IQ and performance on the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C, a list learning task sensitive to PAE. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired, using a sequence optimized for morphometric neuroanatomical analysis, on a Siemens 3T Allegra MRI scanner from 71 right-handed, 9- to 11-year-old children [9 fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS, 19 partial FAS (PFAS, 24 non-syndromal heavily exposed (HE and 19 non-exposed controls]. Frequency of maternal drinking was ascertained prospectively during pregnancy using timeline follow-back interviews. PAE was examined in relation to volumes of the CC and left and right caudate nuclei, nucleus accumbens and hippocampi. All structures were manually traced using Multitracer. Higher levels of PAE were associated with reductions in CC volume after adjustment for TIV. Although the effect of PAE on CC was confounded with smoking and lead exposure, additional analyses showed that it was not accounted for by these exposures. Amongst dysmorphic children, smaller CC was associated with poorer IQ and CVLT-C scores and statistically mediated the effect of PAE on IQ. In addition, higher levels of PAE were associated with bilateral volume reductions in caudate nuclei and hippocampi, effects that remained significant after control for TIV, child sex and age, socioeconomic status, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and childhood lead exposure. These data confirm

  7. Assessment of microstructural signal compartments across the corpus callosum using multi-echo gradient recalled echo at 7 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapaliya, Kiran; Vegh, Viktor; Bollmann, Steffen; Barth, Markus

    2017-11-26

    Quantitative assessment of tissue microstructure is important in studying human brain diseases and disorders in which white matter is implicated, as it has been linked to demyelination, re-myelination, and axonal damage in clinical conditions. Ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging data obtained using a multi-echo gradient echo sequence has been shown to contain information on myelin, axonal and extracellular compartments in white matter. In this study, we aimed to assess the sensitivity of a three-compartment model to estimate the variation of corresponding compartment parameters (water fraction, relaxation time and frequency shift) of the corpus callosum sub-regions, which are known to have different tissue structure. Additionally, we computed the g-ratio using myelin and axonal water fractions and performed a voxel-by-voxel analysis in the corpus callosum. Based on data acquired for ten participants, we show that the myelin compartment water fraction and T 2 ∗ is consistent across the corpus callosum sub-regions, whilst myelin frequency shift varies. The results show that the variation in water fraction, T 2 ∗ and frequency shift for the myelin signal compartment across the corpus callosum is smaller than for the axonal and extracellular signal compartments. The computed g-ratio was comparable to previously published studies in the corpus callosum. Our study suggests that a multi-echo GRE approach in vivo combined with a complex three-compartment model is sensitive to microstructural parameter variations across the human corpus callosum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. In vitro study on the disinfectability of two split-septum needle-free connection devices using different disinfection procedures

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    Engelhart, Steffen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study investigated the external disinfection of two needle-free connection devices (NFC using Octeniderm (spraying and wiping technique vs. Descoderm pads (wiping technique. The split-septum membrane of the NFC was contaminated with >10 CFU . The efficacy of the disinfection at 30 sec. exposure time was controlled by taking a swab sample and by flushing the NFC with sterile 0.9% sodium chloride solution. Disinfection with octenidine dihydrochloride 0.1 g, 1-Propanol 30.0 g, and 2-Propanol 45.0 g in solution was highly effective (CFU reduction ≥4 log against both microorganisms, whereas the use of 63.1 g 2-Propanol in 100 ml solution led to residual contamination with . Our investigation underlines that (i in clinical practice disinfection of NFCs before use is mandatory, and that (ii details of disinfection technique are of utmost importance regarding their efficacy. Our investigation revealed no significant differences between both split-septum NFC types. Clinical studies are needed to confirm a possible superiority of disinfectants with long-lasting residual antimicrobial activity.

  9. A case report of aphallia with urorectal septum malformation sequence in a newborn: a very rarely seen condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma D

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Deepak Sharma,1 Ravinder Singh,2 Sweta Shastri3 1Department of Neonatology, Fernandez Hospital, Hyderabad, 2Department of Pediatrics, Civil Hospital, Hisar, Haryana, 3Department of Pathology, NKP Salve Medical College, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India Abstract: Aphallia (absence of penis is an extremely rare abnormality which has rarely been described in medical literature and can be part of the urorectal septum malformation sequence (URSMS. URSMS has hardly been reported in medical literature and includes the absence of perineal and anal openings in association with ambiguous genitalia and urogenital, colonic, and lumbosacral anomalies. This case report tells the importance of detailed examination of infants that are diagnosed with aphallia. We report a case of a newborn who was diagnosed as aphallia with the URSMS syndrome after birth. The neonate had an endocardial cushion defect (atrial septal defect and ventricular septal defect and bilateral agenesis of the kidney. The neonate succumbed to death secondary to hypoplastic lung leading to respiratory failure. Keywords: aphallia, urorectal septum malformation sequence, cloacal membrane, hindgut development, congenital aphallia, anorectal malformation

  10. Synthesis of capsular polysaccharide at the division septum of Streptococcus pneumoniae is dependent on a bacterial tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Mafalda X; Rodrigues, Tatiana; Carido, Madalena; Ferreira, Luís; Filipe, Sérgio R

    2011-10-01

    One of the main virulence factors of the pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae is the capsule, present at the bacterial surface, surrounding the entire cell. Virtually all the 90 different capsular serotypes of S. pneumoniae, which vary in their chemical composition, express two conserved proteins, Wzd and Wze, which regulate the rate of the synthesis of capsule. In this work, we show that Wzd, a membrane protein, and Wze, a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase, localize at the bacterial division septum, when expressed together in pneumococcal cells, without requiring the presence of additional proteins encoded in the capsule operon. The interaction between the two proteins and their consequent septal localization was dependent on a functional ATP binding domain of Wze. In the absence of either Wzd or Wze, capsule was still produced, linked to the cell surface, but it was absent from the division septum. We propose that Wzd and Wze are spatial regulators of capsular polysaccharide synthesis and, in the presence of ATP, localize at the division site, ensuring that capsule is produced in co-ordination with cell wall synthesis, resulting in full encapsulation of the pneumococcal cells. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Intracranial Hemorrhage in the Corpus Callosum Presenting as Callosal Disconnection Syndrome: FDG-PET and Tractography: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Hwan; Lee, Soyoung; Lee, Chang-Young; Lee, Dong Gyu

    2014-12-01

    We report the findings of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglocese positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) in a right-handed patient presenting with callosal disconnection syndrome, including alien hand syndrome, after an anterior communicating artery aneurysmal rupture. The 49-year-old patient had right hemiparesis and unintended movement of the right hand during action of the left hand. A brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed lesions in the upper part of the genu and body in the corpus callosum as well as hemorrhage in the inter-hemispheric fissure. We observed extensive disruption of corpus callosum fibers in the upper genu and trunk by DTT for the evaluation of inter-hemispheric connection. FDG-PET revealed severe hypometabolism in the left cerebral hemisphere, including basal ganglia and thalamus, and hypermetabolism in the right cerebral hemisphere. Based on findings of FDG-PET and DTT, the callosal disconnection syndrome presented in the patient could be the result of loss of transcallosal inhibition in the contralateral hemisphere.

  12. Midsagittal corpus callosum area and conversion to multiple sclerosis after clinically isolated syndrome: A multicentre Australian cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenthal, Cara; Simpson, Steve; Oughton, Justin; van der Mei, Ingrid; Rose, Stephen; Fripp, Jurgen; Lucas, Robyn; Taylor, Bruce; Dear, Keith; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Coulthard, Alan

    2017-08-01

    Patients presenting with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) may proceed to clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS). Midsagittal corpus callosum area (CCA) is a surrogate marker for callosal atrophy, and can be obtained from a standard MRI study. This study explores the relationship between CCA measured at CIS presentation (baseline) and at 5 years post presentation, with conversion from CIS to CDMS. The association between CCA and markers of disability progression is explored. Corpus callosum area was measured on MRI scans at presentation and 5-year review following diagnosis of a first demyelinating event, or evidence of progressive MS, in 143 participants in the Ausimmune/AusLong Study. Relationships between CCA (at baseline and follow-up) and clinical outcomes were assessed. Mean CCA at baseline study was 6.63 cm2 (SD 1.01). Patients who converted to MS by 5-year review (n = 100) had a significantly smaller mean CCA at follow-up (6.22 vs. 6.74, P = 0.007). Greater CCA reduction was associated with higher annualized relapse rate over follow-up. Baseline CCA obtained from standard MRI protocols may be compared with subsequent MRI examinations as a surrogate for neurodegeneration and cerebral atrophy in patients with MS. This study demonstrates an association between CCA and disability in individuals presenting with CIS who convert to MS. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  13. A T1 and DTI fused 3D corpus callosum analysis in pre- vs. post-season contact sports players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Yi; Law, Meng; Shi, Jie; Gajawelli, Niharika; Haas, Lauren; Wang, Yalin; Leporé, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Sports related traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a worldwide public health issue, and damage to the corpus callosum (CC) has been considered as an important indicator of TBI. However, contact sports players suffer repeated hits to the head during the course of a season even in the absence of diagnosed concussion, and less is known about their effect on callosal anatomy. In addition, T1-weighted and diffusion tensor brain magnetic resonance images (DTI) have been analyzed separately, but a joint analysis of both types of data may increase statistical power and give a more complete understanding of anatomical correlates of subclinical concussions in these athletes. Here, for the first time, we fuse T1 surface-based morphometry and a new DTI analysis on 3D surface representations of the CCs into a single statistical analysis on these subjects. Our new combined method successfully increases detection power in detecting differences between pre- vs. post-season contact sports players. Alterations are found in the ventral genu, isthmus, and splenium of CC. Our findings may inform future health assessments in contact sports players. The new method here is also the first truly multimodal diffusion and T1-weighted analysis of the CC, and may be useful to detect anatomical changes in the corpus callosum in other multimodal datasets.

  14. Protective effects of erythropoietin against cuprizone-induced oxidative stress and demyelination in the mouse corpus callosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Ragerdi Kashani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Increasing evidence in both experimental and clinical studies suggests that oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. The aim of the present work is to investigate the protective effects of erythropoietin against cuprizone-induced oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Adult male C57BL/6J mice were fed a chow containing 0.2 % cuprizone for 6 weeks. After 3 weeks, mice were simultaneously treated with erythropoietin (5,000 IU/ kg body weight by daily intraperitoneal injections. Results: Our results showed that cuprizone induced oxidative stress accompanied with down-regulation of subunits of the respiratory chain complex and demyelination of corpus callosum. Erythropoietin antagonized these effects. Biochemical analysis showed that oxidative stress induced by cuprizone was regulated by erythropoietin. Similarly, erythropoietin induced the expression of subunits of the respiratory chain complex over normal control values reflecting a mechanism to compensate cuprizone-mediated down-regulation of these genes. Conclusion: The data implicate that erythropoietin abolishes destructive cuprizone effects in the corpus callosum by decreasing oxidative stress and restoring mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activity.

  15. Low-cost, rapidly-developed, 3D printed in vitro corpus callosum model for mucopolysaccharidosis type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabet, Anthony; Gardner, Matthew; Swanson, Sebastian; Crump, Sydney; McMeekin, Austin; Gong, Diana; Tabet, Rebecca; Hacker, Benjamin; Nestrasil, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The rising prevalence of high throughput screening and the general inability of (1) two dimensional (2D) cell culture and (2) in vitro release studies to predict in vivo neurobiological and pharmacokinetic responses in humans has led to greater interest in more realistic three dimensional (3D) benchtop platforms. Advantages of 3D human cell culture over its 2D analogue, or even animal models, include taking the effects of microgeometry and long-range topological features into consideration. In the era of personalized medicine, it has become increasingly valuable to screen candidate molecules and synergistic therapeutics at a patient-specific level, in particular for diseases that manifest in highly variable ways. The lack of established standards and the relatively arbitrary choice of probing conditions has limited in vitro drug release to a largely qualitative assessment as opposed to a predictive, quantitative measure of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in tissue. Here we report the methods used in the rapid, low-cost development of a 3D model of a mucopolysaccharidosis type I patient's corpus callosum, which may be used for cell culture and drug release. The CAD model is developed from in vivo brain MRI tracing of the corpus callosum using open-source software, printed with poly (lactic-acid) on a Makerbot Replicator 5X, UV-sterilized, and coated with poly (lysine) for cellular adhesion. Adaptations of material and 3D printer for expanded applications are also discussed.

  16. Cerebral metabolic and structural alterations in hereditary spastic paraplegia with thin corpus callosum assessed by MRS and DTI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreha-Kulaczewski, Steffi [Georg August University, Department of Pediatrics and Pediatric Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Goettingen (Germany); Georg August University, MR Research in Neurology and Psychiatry, Goettingen (Germany); Dechent, Peter; Helms, Gunther [Georg August University, MR Research in Neurology and Psychiatry, Goettingen (Germany); Frahm, Jens [Biomedizinische NMR Forschungs GmbH, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biophysikalische Chemie, Goettingen (Germany); Gaertner, Jutta; Brockmann, Knut [Georg August University, Department of Pediatrics and Pediatric Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Goettingen (Germany)

    2006-12-15

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia with thin corpus callosum (HSP-TCC) is a complicated form of autosomal-recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia. Characteristic clinical features comprise progressive spastic gait, cognitive impairment, and ataxia. Diagnostic MRI findings include thinning of the corpus callosum and non-progressive white matter (WM) alterations. To study the extent of axonal involvement, we performed localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the cerebral WM and cortical grey matter (GM) in a patient with HSP-TCC at 20 and 25 years of age. The second investigation included diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). While MRS of the GM was normal, affected WM was characterized by major metabolic alterations such as reduced concentrations of N-acetylaspartate and N-acetylaspartyl-glutamate, creatine and phosphocreatine, and choline-containing compounds as well as elevated levels of myo-inositol. These abnormalities showed progression over a period of 5 years. DTI revealed increased mean diffusivity as well as reduced fractional anisotropy in periventricular WM. The metabolic and structural findings are consistent with progressive neuroaxonal loss in the WM accompanied by astrocytic proliferation - histopathological changes known to occur in HSP-TCC. Our results are in agreement with the hypothesis that the primary pathological process in HSP-TCC affects the axon, possibly due to impaired axonal trafficking. (orig.)

  17. Hysteroscopic management of an oblique vaginal septum in a virgin girl with a rare variant of Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Xue, Min; Xu, Dabao

    2015-01-01

    To demonstrate a technique for hysteroscopic diagnosis and management of a rare variant of Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome (HWWS) in a virgin girl. Presentation of a rare variant of HWWS and a step-by-step description of the technique using videos, images, and title slides (educative video) (Canadian Task Force classification III). HWWS is a congenital anomaly of the urogenital tract, typically characterized by uterus didelphys, obstructed hemivagina, and ipsilateral renal agenesis. Of HWWS cases, 11.5% are a rare variant of the syndrome, with a septate bicollis uterus and obstructed hemivagina. HWWS is often diagnosed in adolescent girls and virgin patients. Early diagnosis and treatment should be achieved using a convenient, minimally invasive, and effective surgical approach to prevent complications. A 14-year-old virgin girl had aggressive cyclic dysmenorrhea for 7 months. We made a diagnosis of the non-classic HWWS variant: septate uterus with double cervix, obstructed right hemivagina with hematocolpos, and unilateral renal agenesis. Diagnostic hysteroscopy indicated a flat hemivaginal septum, left cervix, and uterine cavity, but no right cervix or other associated channel. Hysteroscopic incision of the bulging oblique vaginal septum was performed medially from the most prominent point of the septum up to the left cervix and then down to the low edge of the oblique septum. An inflated Foley catheter was placed in the right hemivagina for 2 days to prevent adhesion of the incised septum. Surgery was successful, and the intact hymen was preserved. The patient has been symptom-free for 4 months after surgery. Hysteroscopic incision of the oblique vaginal septum is a convenient, minimally invasive, and effective approach for treating HWWS in adolescents with cyclic dysmenorrhea and hematocolpos. Copyright © 2015 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Subcellular localization of a sporulation membrane protein is achieved through a network of interactions along and across the septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Thierry; Marquis, Kathleen A; Rudner, David Z

    2005-03-01

    During the process of spore formation in Bacillus subtilis many membrane proteins localize to the sporulation septum where they play key roles in morphogenesis and cell-cell signalling. However, the mechanism by which these proteins are anchored at this site is not understood. In this report we have defined the localization requirements for the mother-cell membrane protein SpoIVFA, which anchors a signalling complex in the septal membrane on the mother cell side. We have identified five proteins (SpoIID, SpoIIP, SpoIIM, BofA and SpoIIIAH) synthesized in the mother cell under the control of sigma(E) and one protein (SpoIIQ) synthesized in the forespore under the control of sigma(F) that are all required for the proper localization of SpoIVFA. Surprisingly, these proteins appear to have complementary and overlapping anchoring roles suggesting that SpoIVFA is localized in the septal membrane through a web of protein interactions. Furthermore, we demonstrate a direct biochemical interaction between the extracellular domains of two of the proteins required to anchor SpoIVFA: the forespore protein SpoIIQ and the mother-cell protein SpoIIIAH. This result supports the idea that the web of interactions that anchors SpoIVFA is itself held in the septal membrane through a zipper-like interaction across the sporulation septum. Importantly, our results suggest that a second mechanism independent of forespore proteins participates in anchoring SpoIVFA. Finally, we show that the dynamic localization of SpoIIQ in the forespore is impaired in the absence of SpoIVFA but not SpoIIIAH. Thus, a complex web of interactions among mother cell and forespore proteins is responsible for static and dynamic protein localization in both compartments of the sporangium. We envision that this proposed network is involved in anchoring other sporulation proteins in the septum and that protein networks with overlapping anchoring capacity is a feature of protein localization in all bacteria.

  19. Abnormal Corpus Callosum Connectivity, Socio-Communicative Deficits, and Motor Deficits in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaie, Ryuzo; Mohri, Ikuko; Kagitani-Shimono, Kuriko; Tachibana, Masaya; Matsuzaki, Junko; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Fujita, Norihiko; Taniike, Masako

    2014-01-01

    In addition to social and communicative deficits, many studies have reported motor deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study investigated the macro and microstructural properties of the corpus callosum (CC) of 18 children with ASD and 12 typically developing controls using diffusion tensor imaging tractography. We aimed to explore…

  20. Functional analysis of genes implicated in Down syndrome: 2. Laterality and corpus callosum size in mice transpolygenic for Down syndrome chromosomal region -1 (DCR-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubertoux, Pierre L; Bichler, Zoë; Pinoteau, Walter; Seregaza, Zohra; Fortes, Sylvia; Jamon, Marc; Smith, Desmond J; Rubin, Edward; Migliore-Samour, Danièle; Carlier, Michèle

    2005-05-01

    The association between atypical laterality and mental retardation has been reported several times, particularly in Down syndrome (DS). We investigated common genetic correlates of these components of the syndrome, examining direction (number of right paw entries in the Collins test) and degree (absolute difference between the number of right paw entries and the number of left paw entries) in mice that had incorporated extra-contiguous HSA21 fragments covering DCR-1 (Down Chromosomal Region-1). As corpus callosum size is substantially reduced in DS, and as the structure has been suspected of playing a role in atypical laterality, we also measured the corpus callosum in these mice. Extra copies of two regions (F7 and E6) have been associated with an atypical degree of laterality (strongly reduced degree). Extra copies of E8, G6 and E6 are also linked to the reduced size of the corpus callosum, indicating that the abnormal number of fibers linking the two hemispheres is not associated with atypical laterality in DS. Together, these results indicate that some of the genes involved in atypical laterality and in the reduced size of the corpus callosum in DS are present on DCR-1. An extra copy of F7 and, to a lesser extent, an extra copy of E6, are also associated with cognitive impairment. These results support the hypothesis of common genetic correlates in atypical laterality and mental retardation in DS.

  1. OTX2 Transcription Factor Controls Regional Patterning within the Medial Ganglionic Eminence and Regional Identity of the Septum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée V. Hoch

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Otx2 homeodomain transcription factor is essential for gastrulation and early neural development. We generated Otx2 conditional knockout (cKO mice to investigate its roles in telencephalon development after neurulation (approximately embryonic day 9.0. We conducted transcriptional profiling and in situ hybridization to identify genes de-regulated in Otx2 cKO ventral forebrain. In parallel, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing to identify enhancer elements, the OTX2 binding motif, and de-regulated genes that are likely direct targets of OTX2 transcriptional regulation. We found that Otx2 was essential in septum specification, regulation of Fgf signaling in the rostral telencephalon, and medial ganglionic eminence (MGE patterning, neurogenesis, and oligodendrogenesis. Within the MGE, Otx2 was required for ventral, but not dorsal, identity, thus controlling the production of specific MGE derivatives.

  2. [An adult case of left ventricular-right atrial communication with a false aneurysm of membranous septum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Y; Okada, M; Taniguchi, I; Yamaga, T

    1993-12-01

    A case of left ventricular-right atrial (LV-RA) communication associated with a false aneurysm of membranous septum is presented. The patient was a 51-year-old woman. Using a left ventriculography this case was diagnosed preoperatively as LV-RA communication. We found that the right atrium was directly communicated with the left ventricle through a fibrous membranous aneurysm adhering to the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve. It was suggested that a false aneurysm, made by jet lesion from the left ventricle, perforated to the right atrium. So the current case was considered an acquired infravaluvular type LV-RA communication formed in the course of the natural closure of the membranous ventricular septal defect.

  3. Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins involved in mycolic acid synthesis and transport localize dynamically to the old growing pole and septum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Carel

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanism that controls space-time coordination of elongation and division of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB, is critical for fighting the tubercle bacillus. Most of the numerous enzymes involved in the synthesis of Mycolic acid - Arabinogalactan-Peptidoglycan complex (MAPc in the cell wall are essential in vivo. Using a dynamic approach, we localized Mtb enzymes belonging to the fatty acid synthase-II (FAS-II complexes and involved in mycolic acid (MA biosynthesis in a mycobacterial model of Mtb: M. smegmatis. Results also showed that the MA transporter MmpL3 was present in the mycobacterial envelope and was specifically and dynamically accumulated at the poles and septa during bacterial growth. This localization was due to its C-terminal domain. Moreover, the FAS-II enzymes were co-localized at the poles and septum with Wag31, the protein responsible for the polar localization of mycobacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis. The dynamic localization of FAS-II and of the MA transporter with Wag31, at the old-growing poles and at the septum suggests that the main components of the mycomembrane may potentially be synthesized at these precise foci. This finding highlights a major difference between mycobacteria and other rod-shaped bacteria studied to date. Based on the already known polar activities of envelope biosynthesis in mycobacteria, we propose the existence of complex polar machinery devoted to the biogenesis of the entire envelope. As a result, the mycobacterial pole would represent the Achilles' heel of the bacillus at all its growing stages.

  4. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome with intact or highly restrictive atrial septum: outcome after neonatal transcatheter atrial septostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Antonios P; Lock, James E; McElhinney, Doff B; van der Velde, Mary E

    2004-05-18

    Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) with intact or very restrictive atrial septum is a highly lethal combination. We review our 13-year institutional experience treating this high-risk subgroup of patients with emergent catheter therapy. Infants with HLHS requiring catheter septostomy within the first 2 days of life were compared with a matched control group with adequate interatrial communication. Preoperative, early postoperative, and medium-term survival were evaluated. Earlier experience was compared with recent results to assess the effect of changes in catheterization and surgical and intensive care unit management strategies over the study period. From 1990 to 2002, 33 newborns with HLHS (11% of newborns with HLHS managed during this period) underwent urgent/semiurgent catheterization to create or enlarge an interatrial communication before surgical palliation. Preoperative and early postoperative mortality were high (48%) compared with control HLHS patients, regardless of prenatal diagnosis and despite successful catheter-based atrial septostomy with clinical stabilization. Mortality trended down during the later part of the study period. Those who survived the neonatal period had late survival, pulmonary artery pressure, and resistance similar to those of control subjects. Neonatal mortality in the subgroup of HLHS patients with intact or highly restrictive atrial septum remains high despite successful urgent septostomy. Persistently poor outcomes for these patients have prompted efforts at our center to develop techniques for fetal intervention for this condition, in the hope that prenatal relief of left atrial and pulmonary venous hypertension may promote normal pulmonary vascular and parenchymal development and improve both short- and long-term outcomes.

  5. Effectiveness of septoplasty versus non-surgical management for nasal obstruction due to a deviated nasal septum in adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond, M.M.H.T. van; Rovers, M.M.; Hendriks, C.T.; Heerbeek, N. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Septoplasty, i.e., surgical correction of the deviated nasal septum, is the most common ear, nose and throat (ENT) operation in adults. Currently the main indication to perform septoplasty is nasal obstruction. However, the effectiveness of septoplasty for nasal obstruction in adults

  6. Human amniotic epithelial cells express specific markers of nerve cells and migrate along the nerve fibers in the corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiyuan; Hui, Guozhen; Lu, Yi; Liu, Tianjin; Huang, Qin; Guo, Lihe

    2012-01-05

    Human amniotic epithelial cells were isolated from a piece of fresh amnion. Using immunocytochemical methods, we investigated the expression of neuronal phenotypes (microtubule-associated protein-2, glial fibrillary acidic protein and nestin) in human amniotic epithelial cells. The conditioned medium of human amniotic epithelial cells promoted the growth and proliferation of rat glial cells cultured in vitro, and this effect was dose-dependent. Human amniotic epithelial cells were further transplanted into the corpus striatum of healthy adult rats and the grafted cells could integrate with the host and migrate 1-2 mm along the nerve fibers in corpus callosum. Our experimental findings indicate that human amniotic epithelial cells may be a new kind of seed cells for use in neurograft.

  7. Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - A diffusion-tensor imaging study of the corpus callosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dramsdahl, Margaretha; Westerhausen, René; Haavik, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the microstructure and the macrostructure of the corpus callosum (CC) in adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty-nine participants with ADHD and 37 controls were included...... to the control group, whereas the size of the CC did not differ across groups. Our findings thus demonstrate a divergence between microstructural and macrostructural measures in the CC of adults with ADHD. This contrasts with findings in children demonstrating callosal abnormalities in both microstructure...... and macrostructure. Our results may indicate that adults with ADHD in part have succeeded in passing by an earlier developmental delay of the CC, resulting in a normalization of callosal macrostructure into adulthood. However, microstructural differences are still present in adults, which may point to an abnormal...

  8. Netrin-DCC signaling regulates corpus callosum formation through attraction of pioneering axons and by modulating Slit2-mediated repulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fothergill, Thomas; Donahoo, Amber-Lee S; Douglass, Amelia; Zalucki, Oressia; Yuan, Jiajia; Shu, Tianzhi; Goodhill, Geoffrey J; Richards, Linda J

    2014-05-01

    The left and right sides of the nervous system communicate via commissural axons that cross the midline during development using evolutionarily conserved molecules. These guidance cues have been particularly well studied in the mammalian spinal cord, but it remains unclear whether these guidance mechanisms for commissural axons are similar in the developing forebrain, in particular for the corpus callosum, the largest and most important commissure for cortical function. Here, we show that Netrin1 initially attracts callosal pioneering axons derived from the cingulate cortex, but surprisingly is not attractive for the neocortical callosal axons that make up the bulk of the projection. Instead, we show that Netrin-deleted in colorectal cancer signaling acts in a fundamentally different manner, to prevent the Slit2-mediated repulsion of precrossing axons thereby allowing them to approach and cross the midline. These results provide the first evidence for how callosal axons integrate multiple guidance cues to navigate the midline.

  9. A transient lesion in splenium of the corpus callosum in a patient with childhood-onset anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Katsuhiko; Takei, Nori; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Kawai, Masayoshi; Sekine, Yoshimoto; Isoda, Haruo; Mori, Norio

    2006-09-01

    Although a transient lesion in the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC) has been reported predominantly regarding patients with epilepsia, it is of rare occurrence, and its underlying biological basis remains unknown. This is a report of an SCC lesion in a patient with anorexia nervosa (AN). The patient was a 15-year-old girl with childhood-onset (11 years) and a protracted course of AN. On admission, the patient showed no apparent neurological abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans revealed a circumscribed lesion in the SCC. We treated her with nutritional rehabilitation supplemented with B vitamins. One month later, the lesion completely disappeared, but her weight was not restored. Treatment with B-vitamin supplementation may be beneficial for the treatment of patients with AN, in cases in which the disorder develops at an early age before brain maturation (i.e., childhood-onset cases), along with an enduring course of malnutrition. Copyright (c) 2006 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Blindness, dancing extremities, and corpus callosum and brain stem involvement: an unusual presentation of fulminant subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Sankhyan, Naveen; Gupta, Pankaj; Vyas, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    A 4-year-old girl presented with acute visual loss followed 2 weeks later with loss of speech and audition, fulminant neuroregression, and choreo-athetoid movements of extremities. Fundus showed bilateral chorioretinitis. Electroencephalography showed periodic complexes. Measles antibody titers were elevated in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid, consistent with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Neuroimaging showed discontiguous involvement of splenium of the corpus callosum and ventral pons with sparing of cortical white matter. Our case highlights the atypical clinical and radiologic presentations of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Pediatricians need to be aware that necrotizing chorioretinitis in a child and/or atypical brain stem changes could be the heralding feature of this condition in endemic countries. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. [Deep-seated (corpus callosum, intraventricular, basal ganglia and insula) and brain stem cavernous angiomas. Experience in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves de Sousa, A

    2007-06-01

    With a review of the literature, we report our experience with surgical treatment of deep-seated cavernomas (intraventricular, of the corpus callosum, the capsula interna, the insula and the brain stem). Outcome was good in all nine patients after surgery for deep-seated brain cavernomas. There we also 13 cases of the brain stem cavernomas treated surgically. Of them, nine patients were stabilized or improved, one patient worsened, one patient died and two were lost to follow-up. Whatever the location, surgery should only concern symptomatic or hemorrhagic lesions close to the pia-matter or the ependyma as well as those covered by a thin layer of parenchyma. Neuronavigation and microsurgical procedures are essential in the treatment of deep-seated cavernomas.

  12. Individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum show sensory processing differences as measured by the sensory profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Carly; Arroyo, Monica S; Dunn, Winnie; Strominger, Zoe; Sherr, Elliott H; Marco, Elysa

    2015-09-01

    Given reports of high pain thresholds and reduced auditory response in individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC), this study investigated whether affected participants report atypical experiences and behaviors on a well-established sensory processing measure. Fourteen participants with AgCC (ages 11-59) completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (Brown & Dunn, 2001). Sensory profile scales were classified as "Atypical" if they were more than 1 standard deviation from the mean. Fifty-seven percent of participants with AgCC reported reduced sensory registration as compared to an expected 16% of the normative sample. Similarly, 50% of the AgCC participants reported atypically increased auditory processing difficulties. Using a well-established sensory processing questionnaire, participants with AgCC reported measurable differences in multiple aspects of sensory processing. The most notable difference was in the quadrant of low sensory registration, suggesting that individuals with AgCC may require sensory information to be presented more slowly or at a higher intensity for adequate processing. The sensory modality that was most affected was the auditory system, which is consistent with increased rates of language disorders and autism spectrum disorders in this population. Understanding sensory processing in individuals with AgCC can both elucidate the role of interhemispheric transfer in the development of intact sensory processing as well as contribute to our knowledge of the role of the corpus callosum in a range of disorders in which sensory processes are impacted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. The changes of horizontal distance condyle to nasal septum after the Twin-block treatment on class II division 1 with retrognathic mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jie Xin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Twin-block appliance is simple removable bite block mostly used in the management of Class II malocclusion. It can modify the occlusal inclined plane to guide the mandible protrusion. Hence, when the patients are wearing the Twin-block appliances, this altered biomechanical environment and will stimulate the growth of the secondary cartilage of condyle and will caused the condyle to change in size, volume or position the in long term. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of horizontal distance from condyle to nasal septum after the Twin-block treatment on Class II division 1 with retrognathic mandible. Methods: There were total 5 samples of panoramic radiograph before Twin-block treatment and 5 samples of panoramic radiograph after Twin-block treatment. The panoramic radiographs were traced to identify the changes of horizontal distance from condyle to nasal septum after the Twin-block treatment. The distance from the middle of nasal septum to the most superior surface of condyle head for right region and left region were measured, then the differences were statistically analyzed. Results: The horizontal distance from the middle of nasal septum to the most superior surface of condyle head after the Twin-block treatment increased. The difference of condyle position before and after the treatment of Twin-block.was slight (p-value > 0.05. Conclusion: There is no significant difference in horizontal distance from the most superior surface of condyle head to the middle of nasal septum before and after treatment of Twin-block.

  14. Application of a Crystal Septum to Replace a Magnet in a Charged Particle Beam and Study of Dechanneling and Feeding in Effects in a Single Silicon Crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijayawardana, Ranjith Laxman [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Albany, NY (United States)

    1985-05-01

    First part of this thesis describes the first application of a crystal septum to replace a magnetic septum at the Fermilab Meson area M-Bottom secondary beam line. As a result the maximum momentum of the beam that could be transmitted to the experimental area was raised from the magnetic septum limit of 225 Gev/c to the full primary beam momentum of 400 Gev/c. Transmission properties of the crystal septum has been studied at energies of 60, 100 and 200 Gev/c. Beam properties at 200 Gev/c with the crystal septum operation has also been studied. The second part consists of a study of planar (110) and axial <112> feeding-in and dechanneling effects in a single silicon crystal. Three surface barrier semiconductor detectors along the crystal were used to measure the energy loss of the charged particles. For each particle incident and outgoing angles and the energy losses in the three crystal mounted detectors were recorded on magnetic tapes. Channeled particles were identified by their low energy losses. Data was acquired at energies of 30, 60, 100 and 200 Gev for planar channeling and 60 and 100 Gev for axial channeling. Feeding-in effects were observed for both planar and axial cases. The basic probabilistic equation was used to derive a simple theoretical model which contains the characteristic dechanneling and feeding-in lengths. The dechanneling lengths have been calculated for both planar and axial channeling and the incident angle dependence of of feeding-in has been studied for planar channeling at above all energies.

  15. Mycobacterium tuberculosis septum site determining protein, Ssd encoded by rv3660c, promotes filamentation and elicits an alternative metabolic and dormancy stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crew Rebecca

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins that are involved in regulation of cell division and cell cycle progression remain undefined in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In addition, there is a growing appreciation that regulation of cell replication at the point of division is important in establishing a non-replicating persistent state. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to use a systematic approach consisting of consensus-modeling bioinformatics, ultrastructural analysis, and transcriptional mapping to identify septum regulatory proteins that participate in adaptive metabolic responses in M. tuberculosis. Results Septum site determining protein (Ssd, encoded by rv3660c was discovered to be an ortholog of septum site regulating proteins in actinobacteria by bioinformatics analysis. Increased expression of ssd in M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis inhibited septum formation resulting in elongated cells devoid of septa. Transcriptional mapping in M. tuberculosis showed that increased ssd expression elicited a unique response including the dormancy regulon and alternative sigma factors that are thought to play a role in adaptive metabolism. Disruption of rv3660c by transposon insertion negated the unique transcriptional response and led to a reduced bacterial length. Conclusions This study establishes the first connection between a septum regulatory protein and induction of alternative metabolism consisting of alternative sigma factors and the dormancy regulon that is associated with establishing a non-replicating persistent intracellular lifestyle. The identification of a regulatory component involved in cell cycle regulation linked to the dormancy response, whether directly or indirectly, provides a foundation for additional studies and furthers our understanding of the complex mechanisms involved in establishing a non-replicating state and resumption of growth.

  16. Midline dural filum of the sellar floor: Its relationship to the septum attachment to the sellar floor and the ossification in the sphenoid sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Kita, Daisuke; Iwato, Masayuki; Fukui, Issei; Sasagawa, Yasuo; Oishi, Masahiro; Tachibana, Osamu; Nakada, Mitsutoshi

    2016-08-01

    It is important to identify and maintain a midline orientation during endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (ETSS) for sellar lesions to prevent critical injury to the internal carotid artery. Therefore, the preoperative neuroradiological assessment of the bony structures in the sphenoid sinus, including the septum attachment to the sellar floor and its surrounding structures, is essential. It has been reported that the midline filum of the sellar dura can function as a useful intraoperative orientation guide during ETSS. However, the relationship between the midline dural filum and the intrasinus bony structures, such as the sellar floor, the intrasinus septation and the ossification, remains unclear and the mechanisms underlying development of the midline dural filum have also not yet been explored. This retrospective study included 160 patients undergoing ETSS to assess both the midline dural filum and the intrasinus bony structures, using video recording reviews. The intrasinus septum and the ossification in the sphenoid sinus were evaluated on the computed tomography images of the bone window. A midline dural filum was identified in 66 (41.3%) of 160 patients. Attachment of the septum to the sellar midline was found in 61 (39.4%) of 155 patients, after excluding 5 patients with the conchal type of sphenoid sinus, 55 (90.2%) of 61 patients with a septum on the midline and only 6 (6.4%) of the remaining 94 patients without a septum on the midline had a midline dural filum. The relationship between a midline dural filum and a septum on midline was statistically significant (possification extended over the midline filum. In patients with the sellar type of sphenoid sinus, 49 (36.0%) of 136 had a midline dural filum, meanwhile, 16 (84.2%) of 19 patients with the pre-sellar type (p=0.039) and all 5 patients (100%) with the choncal type harbored a midline dural filum (possification in both the pre-sellar and the conchal type of sphenoid sinus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  17. Sex differences in the relationship between planum temporale asymmetry and corpus callosum morphology in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): A combined MRI and DTI analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, William D; Hopkins, Anna M; Misiura, Maria; Latash, Elitaveta M; Mareno, Mary Catherine; Schapiro, Steven J; Phillips, Kimberley A

    2016-12-01

    Increases brain size has been hypothesized to be inversely associated with the expression of behavioral and brain asymmetries within and between species. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the relation between asymmetries in the planum temporale (PT) and different measures of the corpus callosum (CC) including surface area, streamline count as measured from diffusion tensor imaging, fractional anisotropy values and the ratio in the number of fibers to surface area in a sample of chimpanzees. We found that chimpanzees with larger PT asymmetries in absolute terms had smaller CC surface areas, fewer streamlines and a smaller ratio of fibers to surface area. These results were largely specific to male but not female chimpanzees. Our results partially support the hypothesis that brain asymmetries are linked to variation in corpus callosum morphology, although these associations may be sex-dependent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Corpus callosum atrophy is associated with mental slowing and executive deficits in subjects with age-related white matter hyperintensities: the LADIS Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Hanna; Ryberg, Charlotte; Kalska, Hely

    2007-01-01

    , attention and executive functions in subjects with age-related white matter hyperintensities (WMH). METHODS: In the Leukoaraiosis and Disability Study, 567 subjects with age-related WMH were examined with a detailed neuropsychological assessment and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. The relationships...... processing--namely, trail making A and Stroop test parts I and II. Anterior, but not posterior, corpus callosum atrophy was associated with deficits of attention and executive functions as reflected by the symbol digit modalities and digit cancellation tests, as well as by the subtraction scores in the trail...... is related to the frontal-lobe-mediated executive functions and attention, whereas overall corpus callosum atrophy is associated with the slowing of processing speed. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-May...

  19. Infusions of muscimol into the lateral septum do not reduce rats' defensive behaviors toward a cat odor stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, San-San A; Patel, Ronak; Menard, Janet L

    2015-01-01

    The lateral septum (LS) is implicated in behavioral defense. We tested whether bilateral infusions of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol into the LS suppress rats' defensive responses to cat odor. Rats received intra-LS infusions of either saline or muscimol (40 ng/rat) and were exposed to either a piece of a cat collar that had been previously worn by a cat or to a control (cat odor free) collar. Rats exposed to the cat odor collar displayed more head-out postures, while intra-LS application of muscimol reduced the number of head-out postures. However, this reduction was also present in rats exposed to a control (cat odor free) collar. This latter finding suggests that despite its involvement in other defensive behaviors (e.g., open arm avoidance in the elevated plus maze), the LS does not selectively regulate rats' receptor defensive responding to the olfactory cues present in our cat odor stimulus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A novel technique for injecting and extracting beams in a circular hadron accelerator without using septum magnets

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)395725

    2015-01-01

    With a few exceptions, all on-axis injection and extraction schemes implemented in circular particle accelerators, synchrotrons, and storage rings, make use of magnetic and electrostatic septa with systems of slow-pulsing dipoles acting on tens of thousands of turns and fast-pulsing dipoles on just a few. The dipoles create a closed orbit deformation around the septa, usually referred to as an orbit bump. A new approach is presented which obviates the need for the septum deflectors. Fastpulsing elements are still required, but their strength can be minimized by choosing appropriate local accelerator optics. This technique should increase the beam clearance and reduce the usually high radiation levels found around the septa and also reduce the machine impedance introduced by the fast-pulsing dipoles. The basis of the technique is the creation of stable islands around stable fixed points in horizontal phase space. The trajectories of these islands may then be adjusted to match the position and angle of the inco...

  1. Combined use of frontal sinus and nasal septum patterns as an aid in forensics: a digital radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pradhuman; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Khosa, Rameen; Kumar, Sandeep; Basavaraju, Suman; Patwardhan, Nitin

    2015-02-01

    Skull radiographic examination is a potentially useful procedure for the personal identification in cases where fragments of skull persist with no likelihood of identification based on dental arch. The study was to determine the uniqueness and reliability of combined frontal sinus (FS) and nasal septum (NS) patterns as observed on posterioanterior (PA) cephalograms for personal identification. The randomly selected 149 digital PA cephalograms taken on Kodak 8000C Digital Panoramic and Cephalometric system were evaluated for patterns of FS and NS. Also the distribution of lobulations, area, and ratio of height/width of FS was calculated. The data obtained was statistical analyzed using Pearson's coefficient correlation. FS symmetry was observed in 78.5% and asymmetry in 7.3% subjects. Bilateral aplasia was noticed in 5.3% and unilateral aplasia in 8.7% of subjects. The total lobulation of FS was noted more in males on both sides while center lobes were observed slightly more in females. The straight NS was maximally seen followed by reverse sigmoid. The mean ratio of width/height of FS was observed more in males and highly significant correlation was observed with both sexes. The mean area of FS was noted more in males. There was significant correlation found between patterns of NS and FS except in right dominated asymmetrical FS. The combined use of FS and NS patterns could be used as method for identification by exclusion in forensics.

  2. A 54 Mb 11qter duplication and 0.9 Mb 1q44 deletion in a child with laryngomalacia and agenesis of corpus callosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lall Meena

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partial Trisomy 11q syndrome (or Duplication 11q has defined clinical features and is documented as a rare syndrome by National Organization of Rare Disorders (NORD. Deletion 1q44 (or Monosomy 1q44 is a well-defined syndrome, but there is controversy about the genes lying in 1q44 region, responsible for agenesis of the corpus callosum. We report a female child with the rare Partial Trisomy 11q syndrome and Deletion 1q44 syndrome. The genomic imbalance in the proband was used for molecular characterization of the critical genes in 1q44 region for agenesis of corpus callosum. Some genes in 11q14q25 may be responsible for laryngomalacia. Results We report a female child with dysmorphic features, microcephaly, growth retardation, seizures, acyanotic heart disease, and hand and foot deformities. She had agenesis of corpus callosum, laryngomalacia, anterior ectopic anus, esophageal reflux and respiratory distress. Chromosome analysis revealed a derivative chromosome 1. Her karyotype was 46,XX,der(1t(1;11(q44;q14pat. The mother had a normal karyotype and the karyotype of the father was 46,XY,t(1;11(q44;q14. SNP array analysis showed that the proband had a 54 Mb duplication of 11q14q25 and a 0.9 Mb deletion of the submicroscopic subtelomeric 1q44 region. Fluorescence Insitu Hybridisation confirmed the duplication of 11qter and deletion of 1qter. Conclusion Laryngomalacia or obstruction of the upper airway is the outcome of increased dosage of some genes due to Partial Trisomy 11q Syndrome. In association with other phenotypic features, agenesis of corpus callosum appears to be a landmark phenotype for Deletion 1q44 syndrome, the critical genes lying proximal to SMYD3 in 1q44 region.

  3. A 54 Mb 11qter duplication and 0.9 Mb 1q44 deletion in a child with laryngomalacia and agenesis of corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Meena; Thakur, Seema; Puri, Ratna; Verma, Ishwar; Mukerji, Mithali; Jha, Pankaj

    2011-09-21

    Partial Trisomy 11q syndrome (or Duplication 11q) has defined clinical features and is documented as a rare syndrome by National Organization of Rare Disorders (NORD). Deletion 1q44 (or Monosomy 1q44) is a well-defined syndrome, but there is controversy about the genes lying in 1q44 region, responsible for agenesis of the corpus callosum. We report a female child with the rare Partial Trisomy 11q syndrome and Deletion 1q44 syndrome. The genomic imbalance in the proband was used for molecular characterization of the critical genes in 1q44 region for agenesis of corpus callosum. Some genes in 11q14q25 may be responsible for laryngomalacia. We report a female child with dysmorphic features, microcephaly, growth retardation, seizures, acyanotic heart disease, and hand and foot deformities. She had agenesis of corpus callosum, laryngomalacia, anterior ectopic anus, esophageal reflux and respiratory distress. Chromosome analysis revealed a derivative chromosome 1. Her karyotype was 46,XX,der(1)t(1;11)(q44;q14)pat. The mother had a normal karyotype and the karyotype of the father was 46,XY,t(1;11)(q44;q14). SNP array analysis showed that the proband had a 54 Mb duplication of 11q14q25 and a 0.9 Mb deletion of the submicroscopic subtelomeric 1q44 region. Fluorescence Insitu Hybridisation confirmed the duplication of 11qter and deletion of 1qter. Laryngomalacia or obstruction of the upper airway is the outcome of increased dosage of some genes due to Partial Trisomy 11q Syndrome. In association with other phenotypic features, agenesis of corpus callosum appears to be a landmark phenotype for Deletion 1q44 syndrome, the critical genes lying proximal to SMYD3 in 1q44 region.

  4. Sequential Venous Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty and Balloon Dilatation of the Interatrial Septum during Percutaneous Edge-to-Edge Mitral Valve Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorbenadze, Rezo; Patzelt, Johannes; Gawaz, Meinrad; Seizer, Peter; Langer, Harald F

    2017-01-01

    Percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (PMVR) is widely used for selected, high-risk patients with severe mitral valve regurgitation (MR). This report describes a case of 81-year-old woman presenting with severe and highly symptomatic mitral valve regurgitation (MR) caused by a flail of the posterior mitral valve leaflet (PML). PMVR turned out to be challenging in this patient because of a stenosis and tortuosity of both iliac veins as well as sclerosis of the interatrial septum, precluding the vascular and left atrial access by standard methods, respectively. We managed to achieve atrial access by venous percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and balloon dilatation of the interatrial septum. Subsequently, we could advance the MitraClip® system to the left atrium, and deployment of the clip in the central segment of the mitral valve leaflets (A2/P2) resulted in a significant reduction of MR.

  5. Sequential Venous Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty and Balloon Dilatation of the Interatrial Septum during Percutaneous Edge-to-Edge Mitral Valve Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezo Jorbenadze

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (PMVR is widely used for selected, high-risk patients with severe mitral valve regurgitation (MR. This report describes a case of 81-year-old woman presenting with severe and highly symptomatic mitral valve regurgitation (MR caused by a flail of the posterior mitral valve leaflet (PML. PMVR turned out to be challenging in this patient because of a stenosis and tortuosity of both iliac veins as well as sclerosis of the interatrial septum, precluding the vascular and left atrial access by standard methods, respectively. We managed to achieve atrial access by venous percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA and balloon dilatation of the interatrial septum. Subsequently, we could advance the MitraClip® system to the left atrium, and deployment of the clip in the central segment of the mitral valve leaflets (A2/P2 resulted in a significant reduction of MR.

  6. Long-term effects of radiation therapy on white matter of the corpus callosum: a diffusion tensor imaging study in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makola, Monwabisi; Douglas Ris, M; Mahone, E Mark; Yeates, Keith Owen; Cecil, Kim M

    2017-12-01

    Despite improving survival rates, children are at risk for long-term cognitive and behavioral difficulties following the diagnosis and treatment of a brain tumor. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy have all been shown to impact the developing brain, especially the white matter. The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term effects of radiation therapy on white matter integrity, as measured by diffusion tensor imaging, in pediatric brain tumor patients 2 years after the end of radiation treatment, while controlling for surgical interventions. We evaluated diffusion tensor imaging performed at two time points: a baseline 3 to 12 months after surgery and a follow-up approximately 2 years later in pediatric brain tumor patients. A region of interest analysis was performed within three regions of the corpus callosum. Diffusion tensor metrics were determined for participants (n=22) who underwent surgical tumor resection and radiation therapy and demographically matched with participants (n=22) who received surgical tumor resection only. Analysis revealed that 2 years after treatment, the radiation treated group exhibited significantly lower fractional anisotropy and significantly higher radial diffusivity within the body of the corpus callosum compared to the group that did not receive radiation. The findings indicate that pediatric brain tumor patients treated with radiation therapy may be at greater risk of experiencing long-term damage to the body of the corpus callosum than those treated with surgery alone.

  7. Instrument specific use-dependent plasticity shapes the anatomical properties of the corpus callosum: a comparison between musicians and non-musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmann, Henning; Ragert, Patrick; Conde, Virginia; Villringer, Arno; Classen, Joseph; Witte, Otto W; Steele, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Long-term musical expertise has been shown to be associated with a number of functional and structural brain changes, making it an attractive model for investigating use-dependent plasticity in humans. Physiological interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) as examined by transcranial magnetic stimulation has been shown to be correlated with anatomical properties of the corpus callosum as indexed by fractional anisotropy (FA). However, whether or not IHI or the relationship between IHI and FA in the corpus callosum can be modified by different musical training regimes remains largely unknown. We investigated this question in musicians with different requirements for bimanual finger movements (piano and string players) and non-expert controls. IHI values were generally higher in musicians, but differed significantly from non-musicians only in string players. IHI was correlated with FA in the posterior midbody of the corpus callosum across all participants. Interestingly, subsequent analyses revealed that this relationship may indeed be modulated by different musical training regimes. Crucially, while string players had greater IHI than non-musicians and showed a positive structure-function relationship, the amount of IHI in pianists was comparable to that of non-musicians and there was no significant structure-function relationship. Our findings indicate instrument specific use-dependent plasticity in both functional (IHI) and structural (FA) connectivity of motor related brain regions in musicians.

  8. Instrument specific use-dependent plasticity shapes the anatomical properties of the corpus callosum: A comparison between musicians and non-musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning eVollmann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-term musical expertise has been shown to be associated with a number of functional and structural brain changes, making it an attractive model for investigating use-dependent plasticity in humans. Physiological interhemispheric inhibition (IHI as examined by transcranial magnetic stimulation has been shown to be correlated with anatomical properties of the corpus callosum as indexed by fractional anisotropy (FA. However, whether or not IHI or the relationship between IHI and FA in the corpus callosum can be modified by different musical training regimes remains largely unknown. We investigated this question in musicians with different requirements for bimanual finger movements (piano and string players and non-expert controls. IHI values were generally higher in musicians, but differed significantly from non-musicians only in string players. IHI was correlated with FA in the posterior midbody of the corpus callosum across all participants. Interestingly, subsequent analyses revealed that this relationship may indeed be modulated by different musical training regimes. Crucially, while string players had greater IHI than non-musicians and showed a positive structure-function relationship, the amount of IHI in pianists was comparable to that of non-musicians and there was no significant structure-function relationship. Our findings indicate instrument specific use-dependent plasticity in both functional (IHI and structural (FA connectivity of motor related brain regions in musicians.

  9. The Prune Belly Syndrome in a Female Foetus with Urorectal Septum Malformation Sequence: A Case Report on a Rare Entity with an Unusual Association

    OpenAIRE

    Goswami, Dibyajyoti; Kusre, Giriraj; Dutta, Hemonta Kumar; Sarma, Adity

    2013-01-01

    The prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly which is characterized by the triad of an absent or a deficient development of the abdominal muscle, bilateral cryptorchidism and an anomalous urinary tract. In its full form, this condition occurs only in males. However, a similar condition occurs in females in the absence of cryptorchidism. On the other hand, the urorectal septum malformation sequence is a lethal congenital malformation which is characterized by the development of a phal...

  10. Capsule, septum, and T2 hyperintense foci for differentiation between large hepatocellular carcinoma (≥5 cm) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma on gadoxetic acid MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jiyoung; Hong, Seong Sook; Kim, Hyun-joo [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kon; Min, Ji Hye; Jeong, Woo Kyung [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seo-Youn [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Soohyun; Ahn, Hyeon Seon [Research Institute for Future Medicine, Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology Center, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    To determine the added value of capsule, septum, and T2 hyperintense foci for differentiating large hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; ≥ 5 cm) from intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) using gadoxetic acid MRI. The study included 116 patients (94 men, 22 women; mean age, 56.8 years) with surgically confirmed HCCs (n = 87, 5.0-18.0 cm) or ICCs (n = 29, 5.0-14.0 cm) who underwent gadoxetic acid MRI. Three observers independently reviewed MRIs in two sessions, examining enhancement patterns only and then adding capsule, septum, and T2 hyperintense foci. Reviewers used a five-point scale to score accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. A significant increase was observed in accuracy when ancillary features (96.1-98.3%) were added compared to enhancement pattern only (83.6-88.4%; p ≤ 0.02). Sensitivity was significantly increased with combined reading (97.1-98.3%) compared to enhancement features only (81.6-88.5%; p ≤ 0.006) for two observers, with no difference in specificity (84.5-89.7% vs. 86.2-98.3%; p > 0.05). We found substantial to excellent interobserver agreement for ancillary features (0.598-0.976). Adding capsule, septum, and T2 hyperintense foci to enhancement patterns for gadoxetic acid MRI increased diagnostic performance for characterizing large HCC by differentiating it from ICC. (orig.)

  11. Callosal disconnection syndrome in a left-handed patient due to infarction of the total length of the corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausberg, H; Göttert, R; Münssinger, U; Boegner, F; Marx, P

    1999-03-01

    We report on a left-handed patient with an ischemic infarction affecting exclusively the total length of the corpus callosum. This lesion clinically correlated with an almost complete callosal disconnection syndrome as described in callosotomy subjects, including unilateral verbal anosmia, hemialexia, unilateral ideomotor apraxia, unilateral agraphia, unilateral tactile anomia, unilateral constructional apraxia, lack of somesthetic transfer and dissociative phenomena. Despite the patient's left-handedness, his pattern of deficits was similar to the disconnection syndrome found in right-handers. Our report focusses on motor dominance and praxis. We followed-up the improvement in left apraxia and investigated the ability to initiate and learn a new visuo-motor skill. The results permit two tentative assumptions: (1) that the improvement in left apraxia was due to a compensatory increase in ipsilateral proximal muscle control, and (2) that motor dominance, i.e. the competence to initiate and learn a new movement pattern, was hemispherically dissociable from manual dominance in the sense of praxis control.

  12. Application of fractal and grey level co-occurrence matrix analysis in evaluation of brain corpus callosum and cingulum architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantic, Igor; Dacic, Sanja; Brkic, Predrag; Lavrnja, Irena; Pantic, Senka; Jovanovic, Tomislav; Pekovic, Sanja

    2014-10-01

    This aim of this study was to assess the discriminatory value of fractal and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) analysis methods in standard microscopy analysis of two histologically similar brain white mass regions that have different nerve fiber orientation. A total of 160 digital micrographs of thionine-stained rat brain white mass were acquired using a Pro-MicroScan DEM-200 instrument. Eighty micrographs from the anterior corpus callosum and eighty from the anterior cingulum areas of the brain were analyzed. The micrographs were evaluated using the National Institutes of Health ImageJ software and its plugins. For each micrograph, seven parameters were calculated: angular second moment, inverse difference moment, GLCM contrast, GLCM correlation, GLCM variance, fractal dimension, and lacunarity. Using the Receiver operating characteristic analysis, the highest discriminatory value was determined for inverse difference moment (IDM) (area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve equaled 0.925, and for the criterion IDM≤0.610 the sensitivity and specificity were 82.5 and 87.5%, respectively). Most of the other parameters also showed good sensitivity and specificity. The results indicate that GLCM and fractal analysis methods, when applied together in brain histology analysis, are highly capable of discriminating white mass structures that have different axonal orientation.

  13. Age at First Exposure to Football Is Associated with Altered Corpus Callosum White Matter Microstructure in Former Professional Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Julie M; Koerte, Inga K; Muehlmann, Marc; Pasternak, Ofer; Bourlas, Alexandra P; Baugh, Christine M; Giwerc, Michelle Y; Zhu, Anni; Coleman, Michael J; Bouix, Sylvain; Fritts, Nathan G; Martin, Brett M; Chaisson, Christine; McClean, Michael D; Lin, Alexander P; Cantu, Robert C; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E

    2015-11-15

    Youth football players may incur hundreds of repetitive head impacts (RHI) in one season. Our recent research suggests that exposure to RHI during a critical neurodevelopmental period prior to age 12 may lead to greater later-life mood, behavioral, and cognitive impairments. Here, we examine the relationship between age of first exposure (AFE) to RHI through tackle football and later-life corpus callosum (CC) microstructure using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Forty retired National Football League (NFL) players, ages 40-65, were matched by age and divided into two groups based on their AFE to tackle football: before age 12 or at age 12 or older. Participants underwent DTI on a 3 Tesla Siemens (TIM-Verio) magnet. The whole CC and five subregions were defined and seeded using deterministic tractography. Dependent measures were fractional anisotropy (FA), trace, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity. Results showed that former NFL players in the AFE <12 group had significantly lower FA in anterior three CC regions and higher radial diffusivity in the most anterior CC region than those in the AFE ≥12 group. This is the first study to find a relationship between AFE to RHI and later-life CC microstructure. These results suggest that incurring RHI during critical periods of CC development may disrupt neurodevelopmental processes, including myelination, resulting in altered CC microstructure.

  14. MR imaging findings of the corpus callosum region in the differentiation between multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhiye, E-mail: yyqf@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Feng, Feng, E-mail: cjr.fengfeng@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 1 Shuaifuyuan, Wangfujing, Beijing 100730 (China); Yang, Yang, E-mail: whitean0584@sina.com.cn [Department of Neurology, PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Li, Jinfeng, E-mail: lijf_301@163.com [Department of Radiology, PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Ma, Lin, E-mail: cjr.malin@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate MR imaging findings in corpus callosum region for the discrimination between opticospinal multiple sclerosis (OSMS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Materials and methods: Forty-two definite OSMS with seronegative NMO-IgG and 23 NMO with seropositive NMO-IgG, and 27 age-matched normal controls (NC) were recruited. Sagittal T2-FLAIR images with 2-mm slice thickness were obtained. Subcallosal dot-dash (SCDD) sign and subcallosal striations (SCS) sign were reviewed. Results: SCDD was more commonly detected in OSMS (28 of 42 patients) than in NMO (5 of 23 patients) (P < 0.05). SCS showed no difference between OSMS (31 of 42 patients) and NMO (12 of 23 patients) (P > 0.05). For comparing ROC analysis among SCDD, SCS, and SCDD + SCS for predicted probability through binary logistic regression analysis, SCDD + SCS had the largest area under ROC curve (0.777) than SCDD (0.725) and SCS (0.608). Conclusion: SCDD may be helpful in distinguishing OSMS from NMO. The regression equation may also be a simple and effective method of choice for the differentiation between OSMS and NMO.

  15. Experimental chronic cerebral hypoperfusion results in decreased pericyte coverage and increased blood-brain barrier permeability in the corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qinghai; Radwanski, Ryan; Babadjouni, Robin; Patel, Arati; Hodis, Drew M; Baumbacher, Peter; Zhao, Zhen; Zlokovic, Berislav; Mack, William J

    2017-01-01

    Murine chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) results in white matter (WM) injury and behavioral deficits. Pericytes influence blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and cerebral blood flow. Under hypoxic conditions, pericytes detach from perivascular locations increasing vessel permeability and neuronal injury. This study characterizes the time course of BBB dysfunction and pericyte coverage following murine experimental CCH secondary to bilateral carotid artery stenosis (BCAS). Mice underwent BCAS or sham operation. On post-procedure days 1, 3, 7 and 30, corpus callosum BBB permeability was characterized using Evans blue (EB) extravasation and IgG staining and pericyte coverage/count was calculated. The BCAS cohort demonstrated increased EB extravasation on postoperative days 1 ( p = 0.003) 3 ( p = 0.002), and 7 ( p = 0.001) when compared to sham mice. Further, EB extravasation was significantly greater ( p = 0.05) at day 3 than at day 30 in BCAS mice. BCAS mice demonstrated a nadir in pericyte coverage and count on post-operative day 3 ( p < 0.05, compared to day 7, day 30 and sham). Decreased pericyte coverage/count and increased BBB permeability are most pronounced on postoperative day 3 following murine CCH. This precedes any notable WM injury or behavioral deficits.

  16. Chemical Analysis in the Corpus Callosum Following Traumatic Axonal Injury using Fourier Transform Infrared Microspectroscopy: A Pilot Study.

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    Zhang, Ji; Liu, Liang; Mu, Jiao; Yang, Tiantong; Zheng, Na; Dong, Hongmei

    2015-11-01

    Evaluating traumatic axonal injury remains challenging in clinical and forensic sciences as its identification is difficult using routine diagnostic methods. This study used Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy to detect TAI within the corpus callosum in an animal model. Protein conformational analysis revealed significantly increased β-sheet and β-turn contents paralleled by a decrease in α-helix content at 24 h postinjury, while the antiparallel β-sheet content was decreased at 12 h postinjury. Compared with the control group, the lipid/protein ratio was significantly reduced in all of the injured groups. At 24 h postinjury, there were increases in the olefinic=CH and CH3 group of lipids accompanied by the decreased CH2 group, but the results at 12 and 72 h were contrary to that at 24 h. Our study showed that FTIRM could differentiate injured from normal white matter at different time points following TBI via examination of these infrared spectral parameters. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Reduced corpus-callosum volume in posttraumatic stress disorder highlights the importance of interhemispheric connectivity for associative memory.

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    Saar-Ashkenazy, Rotem; Cohen, Jonathan E; Guez, Jonathan; Gasho, Chris; Shelef, Ilan; Friedman, Alon; Shalev, Hadar

    2014-02-01

    Memory deficits are a common complaint of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Despite vivid trauma-related memory, previous studies report memory impairment for nontrauma-related stimuli when compared to controls, specifically in associative memory (Guez et al., 2011). Healthy individuals show hemispheric memory asymmetry with left-prefrontal lateralization of encoding and right-prefrontal lateralization of episodic retrieval, suggesting a role for interhemispheric communication in memory-related tasks (Gazzaniga, ; Ringo, Doty, Demeter, & Simard, ). Because brain magnetic resonance imaging (bMRI) studies in PTSD patients report volume changes in various regions, including white matter and corpus callosum (CC), we aimed to test the relationship between memory deficits and CC volume in PTSD patients. We probed for specific alterations in associative memory in PTSD and measured the volume of subportions within the CC employing bMRI. Our main finding was a reduction in CC white-matter volume in PTSD patients, as compared to controls, t(35) = -2.7, p = .010, that was correlated with lower associative performance (r = .76, p = .003). We propose that CC volume reduction is a substrate for the associative memory deficits found in PTSD. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  18. Osseous oral hyaline ring granuloma mimicking a mandible tumor in a child with congenital agenesis of the corpus callosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves-Silva, Rodrigo; Ferreira-Gomes, Camilla-Borges; Palmier, Natalia; Brum-Corrêa, Marcelo; Paes-Almeida, Oslei; Ajudarte-Lopes, Marcio; Agustin-Vargas, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Background Hyaline ring granuloma (HRG) of the oral cavity is an uncommon disorder considered to be a foreign-body reaction resulting from implantation of food vegetable particles. Microscopically, it is characterized by the presence of structures of hyaline rings in an inflamed fibrous tissue background, which contains multinucleated giant cells. Material and Methods We present the case of a 4-year-old boy diagnosed with a mandible osseous HRG, which showed clinical and tomographic aspects suggestive of an aggressive bone tumor. Results The patient underwent surgical exploration and histopathologic analysis showed fragments composed predominantly of widespread dense connective tissue with an acute and chronic inflammatory infiltrate containing multinucleated giant cells and scattered areas of eosinophilic material associated with hyaline rings, strongly suggestive of vegetable particles. The eosinophilic material was positive for periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and resistant to diastase digestion. These features led to diagnosis of osseous HRG. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed for illustrative purposes and the multiple structures resembling vegetable particles were characterized in more detail. Conclusions Although rare, this case highlights the importance of the clinician’s awareness regarding the existence of an osseous counterpart of HRG. Key words:Agenesis of the corpus callosum, child, hyaline ring granuloma, intraosseous, mandible, pulse granuloma. PMID:28210458

  19. DCC mutation update: Congenital mirror movements, isolated agenesis of the corpus callosum, and developmental split brain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Ashley P L; Edwards, Timothy J; Galea, Charles; Cooper, Helen M; Engle, Elizabeth C; Jamuar, Saumya S; Méneret, Aurélie; Moutard, Marie-Laure; Nava, Caroline; Rastetter, Agnès; Robinson, Gail; Rouleau, Guy; Roze, Emmanuel; Spencer-Smith, Megan; Trouillard, Oriane; Billette de Villemeur, Thierry; Walsh, Christopher A; Yu, Timothy W; Heron, Delphine; Sherr, Elliott H; Richards, Linda J; Depienne, Christel; Leventer, Richard J; Lockhart, Paul J

    2018-01-01

    The deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) gene encodes the netrin-1 (NTN1) receptor DCC, a transmembrane protein required for the guidance of commissural axons. Germline DCC mutations disrupt the development of predominantly commissural tracts in the central nervous system (CNS) and cause a spectrum of neurological disorders. Monoallelic, missense, and predicted loss-of-function DCC mutations cause congenital mirror movements, isolated agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC), or both. Biallelic, predicted loss-of-function DCC mutations cause developmental split brain syndrome (DSBS). Although the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to disease remain poorly understood, they are thought to stem from reduced or perturbed NTN1 signaling. Here, we review the 26 reported DCC mutations associated with abnormal CNS development in humans, including 14 missense and 12 predicted loss-of-function mutations, and discuss their associated clinical characteristics and diagnostic features. We provide an update on the observed genotype-phenotype relationships of congenital mirror movements, isolated ACC and DSBS, and correlate this to our current understanding of the biological function of DCC in the development of the CNS. All mutations and their associated phenotypes were deposited into a locus-specific LOVD (https://databases.lovd.nl/shared/genes/DCC). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Degeneration of corpus callosum and recovery of motor function after stroke: a multimodal magnetic resonance imaging study.

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    Wang, Ling E; Tittgemeyer, Marc; Imperati, Davide; Diekhoff, Svenja; Ameli, Mitra; Fink, Gereon R; Grefkes, Christian

    2012-12-01

    Animal models of stroke demonstrated that white matter ischemia may cause both axonal damage and myelin degradation distant from the core lesion, thereby impacting on behavior and functional outcome after stroke. We here used parameters derived from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate the effect of focal white matter ischemia on functional reorganization within the motor system. Patients (n = 18) suffering from hand motor deficits in the subacute or chronic stage after subcortical stroke and healthy controls (n = 12) were scanned with both diffusion MRI and functional MRI while performing a motor task with the left or right hand. A laterality index was employed on activated voxels to assess functional reorganization across hemispheres. Regression analyses revealed that diffusion MRI parameters of both the ipsilesional corticospinal tract (CST) and corpus callosum (CC) predicted increased activation of the unaffected hemisphere during movements of the stroke-affected hand. Changes in diffusion MRI parameters possibly reflecting axonal damage and/or destruction of myelin sheath correlated with a stronger bilateral recruitment of motor areas and poorer motor performance. Probabilistic fiber tracking analyses revealed that the region in the CC correlating with the fMRI laterality index and motor deficits connected to sensorimotor cortex, supplementary motor area, ventral premotor cortex, superior parietal lobule, and temporoparietal junction. The results suggest that degeneration of transcallosal fibers connecting higher order sensorimotor regions constitute a relevant factor influencing cortical reorganization and motor outcome after subcortical stroke. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Corpus callosum size in relation to motor performance in 9- to 10-year-old children with neonatal encephalopathy.

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    VAN Kooij, Britt J M; VAN Handel, Mariëlle; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Groenendaal, Floris; Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Rademaker, Karin J; Jongmans, Marian J; DE Vries, Linda S

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging studies have contributed to recognize the patterns of cerebral injury related to neonatal encephalopathy (NE). We assessed whether a smaller corpus callosum (CC) explained the difference in motor performance between school-age children with NE and controls. Frontal, middle, and posterior areas of the CC were measured in 61 9-10-y-old children with NE and in 47 controls. Motor performance was determined using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC). Linear regression was used to assess whether differences in M-ABC between NE children and controls could be explained by CC size. The CC of 11/30 children with NE type I according to Sarnat (NE I) and 19/36 children with NE type II according to Sarnat (NE II) showed generalized or focal thinning, compared with 8/49 controls. Children with NE II had significantly smaller middle and posterior parts and total areas of the CC. Children with NE scored significantly worse on the M-ABC than controls. The reduction in size of the posterior part of the CC partly explained the mean differences on the M-ABC. Children with NE have poorer motor skills than controls, which is partly explained by a smaller size of the CC.

  2. Altered white matter integrity in whole brain and segments of corpus callosum, in young social drinkers with binge drinking pattern.

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    Smith, Kathleen W; Gierski, Fabien; Andre, Judith; Dowell, Nicholas G; Cercignani, Mara; Naassila, Mickaël; Duka, Theodora

    2017-03-01

    Binge drinking is associated with impaired cognitive functioning, but the relationship of cognitive impairments and white matter integrity is less known. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate the relationships of binge drinking, whole brain white matter integrity and cognitive performance during young adulthood (18 to 25 years), a period of continued brain development in two sessions 1 year apart. Binge drinkers (n = 20) and non-binge drinkers (n = 20) underwent DTI and completed measures of spatial working memory and motor impulsivity. Fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure derived from DTI, was estimated from whole brain and from five segments of the corpus callosum (CC): prefrontal, premotor/supplementary motor, motor, (SMA) sensory and parietal/temporal/occipital (PTO). FA was lower for binge than for non-binge men but not women at Session 1 and 2 for all measurements except for FA in the motor segment, which was significantly increased from Session 1 to Session 2. Lower FA in the prefrontal and PTO CC segments was associated with higher binge score, whereas lower FA in all five segments was associated with greater drug use in men and worse spatial working memory both in men and women. These findings extend the literature by showing that in early adulthood, binge drinking and drug use are linked with degradations in neural white matter and that compromised white matter at this period of brain development is linked with impaired cognitive functioning. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Single-shot T1 mapping of the corpus callosum: A rapid characterization of fiber bundle anatomy

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    Sabine eHofer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Using diffusion-tensor MRI and fiber tractography the topographic organization of the corpus callosum (CC has been described to comprise 5 segments with fibers projecting into prefrontal (I, premotor and supplementary motor (II, primary motor (III, and primary sensory areas (IV, as well as into parietal, temporal, and occipital cortical areas (V. In order to more rapidly characterize the underlying anatomy of these segments, this study used a novel single-shot T1 mapping method to quantitatively determine T1 relaxation times in the human CC. A region-of-interest analysis revealed a tendency for the lowest T1 relaxation times in the genu and the highest T1 relaxation times in the somatomotor region of the CC. This observation separates regions dominated by myelinated fibers with large diameters (somatomotor area from densely packed smaller axonal bundles (genu with less myelin. The results indicate that characteristic T1 relaxation times in callosal profiles provide an additional means to monitor differences in fiber anatomy, fiber density, and gray matter in respective neocortical areas. In conclusion, rapid T1 mapping allows for a characterization of the axonal architecture in an individual CC in less than 10 s. The approach emerges as a valuable means for studying neocortical brain anatomy with possible implications for the diagnosis of neurodegenerative processes.

  4. Structural Alterations in the Corpus Callosum Are Associated with Suicidal Behavior in Women with Borderline Personality Disorder

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    Alexander Lischke

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Structural alterations in the corpus callosum (CC, the major white matter tract connecting functionally related brain regions in the two hemispheres, have been shown to be associated with emotional instability, impulsivity and suicidality in various mental disorders. To explore whether structural alterations of the CC would be similarly associated with emotional instability, impulsivity and suicidality in borderline personality disorder (BPD, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to assess the structural integrity of the CC in 21 BPD and 20 healthy control (HC participants. Our hypothesis-driven analyses revealed a positive correlation between BPD participants’ suicidal behavior and fractional anisotropy (FA in the splenium and genu of the CC and a negative correlation between BPD participants’ suicidal behavior and mean diffusivity (MD in the splenium of CC. Our exploratory analyses suggested that suicidal BPD participants showed less FA and more MD in these regions than HC participants but that non-suicidal BPD participants showed similar FA and MD in these regions as HC participants. Taken together, our findings suggest an association between BPD participants’ suicidal behavior and structural alterations in regions of the CC that are connected with brain regions implicated in emotion regulation and impulse control. Structural alterations of the CC may, thus, account for deficits in emotion regulation and impulse control that lead to suicidal behavior in BPD. However, these findings should be considered as preliminary until replicated and extended in future studies that comprise larger samples of suicidal and non-suicidal BPD participants.

  5. Corpus Callosum Diffusion and Language Lateralization in Patients with Brain Tumors: A DTI and fMRI Study.

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    Tantillo, Gabriella; Peck, Kyung K; Arevalo-Perez, Julio; Lyo, John K; Chou, Joanne F; Young, Robert J; Brennan, Nicole Petrovich; Holodny, Andrei I

    2016-01-01

    Examining how left-hemisphere brain tumors might impact both the microstructure of the corpus callosum (CC) as measured by fractional anisotropy (FA) values in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as well as cortical language lateralization measured with functional MRI (fMRI). fMRI tasks (phonemic fluency and verb generation) were performed in order to detect activation in Broca's and Wernicke's area. Twenty patients with left-hemisphere brain tumors were investigated. fMRI results were divided into left dominant (LD), right dominant (RD), or codominant (CD) for language function. DTI was performed to generate FA maps in the anterior and posterior CC. FA values were correlated with the degree of language dominance. Patients who were LD or RD for language in Broca's area had lower FA in the anterior CC than those who were CD for language (median for CD = .72, LD = .66, RD = .65, P brain tumors can cause compensatory codominance, our findings may suggest a mechanism by which interhemispheric transfer is facilitated during plasticity in the presence of a tumor. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  6. Hereditary spastic paraplegia associated with thin corpus callosum Paraplegia espástica hereditária associada a hipoplasia de corpo caloso

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    Hélio A. Ghizoni Teive

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia (AR-HSP associated with thin corpus callosum was recently described in Japan, and most families were linked to chromosome 15q13-15. We report two patients from two different Brazilian families with progressive gait disturbance starting at the second decade of life, spastic paraparesis, and mental deterioration. One patient presented cerebellar ataxia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the head of both patients showed a thin corpus callosum. AR-HSP with a thin corpus callosum is a rare disorder, mainly described in Japanese patients. We found only 4 Caucasian families with AR-HSP with thin corpus callosum described in the literature. Further studies including additional Caucasian families of AR-HSP with thin corpus callosum are required to delineate the genetic profile of this syndrome in occidental countries.A paraplegia espástica hereditária autossômica recessiva (PEH-AR associada com hipoplasia de corpo caloso foi inicialmente descrita no Japão. Estudos de ligação genética mostram que a maioria das famílias estão relacionadas ao cromossomo 15q13-15. Relatamos dois pacientes de famílias brasileiras, não relacionadas, com distúrbio de marcha com início na segunda década de vida, paraparesia espástica e comprometimento das funções cognitivas. Um dos pacientes apresentava ataxia cerebelar. A ressonância magnética de encéfalo de ambos os pacientes mostrou hipoplasia de corpo caloso. PEH-AR associada com hipoplasia de corpo caloso é uma condição rara, descrita principalmente em pacientes do Japão. Encontramos apenas 4 famílias caucasianas com PEH-AR e hipoplasia de corpo caloso. Mais estudos com famílias caucasianas são necessários para delinear o perfil genético dessa síndrome em países ocidentais.

  7. Adenoma pleomórfico de septo nasal: relato de caso Pleomorphic adenoma of the nasal septum: a case report

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    Mauren P. Rocha

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available As neoplasias nasais são bastante raras. Os tumores mais observados na cavidade nasal são papilomas epiteliais, angiomas, carcinoma de células transicionais, carcinoma pavimentoso e adenocarcinoma. O adenoma pleomórfico pertence ao grupo de tumores que aparecem com menor freqüência na fossa nasal, e é o tumor benigno glandular mais comum originado na cabeça e pescoço. A apresentação clínica típica dos pacientes com adenoma pleomórfico do septo nasal é de obstrução nasal unilateral, epistaxe e massa indolor na cavidade nasal. Em vista da raridade da apresentação clínica do adenoma pleomórfico nesta localização, os autores descrevem um caso de adenoma pleomórfico nasal em um paciente do sexo masculino, com 69 anos de idade, onde relatam os achados clínicos, critérios diagnósticos, tratamento, prognóstico e revisão da literatura.Nasal tumours are very rare. The neoplasms most frequently seen in the nasal cavity are epithelial papillomas, angiomas, transitional cells carcinoma, pavement carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The pleomorphic adenoma belongs to the group of tumours less commonly observed in the nasal cavity, and is the most common head and neck benign glandular tumour. The typical clinical presentation of the nasal pleomorphic adenoma is of unilateral nasal obstruction, epistaxis and a painless mass in the nasal cavity. The authors reported an adenoma pleomorphic case that highlights itself by its unusual nasal presentation in the nasal septum of a 45-year-old male patient who was submitted to surgical treatment, and discuss the clinical findings, diagnostic criteria, treatment, prognosis and literature review.

  8. Morfología ecocardiográfica de la atresia pulmonar con septum interventricular intacto, estudio de dos decenios

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    Adel Eladio González Morejón

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la atresia pulmonar con septum interventricular intacto es una malformación cardiovascular que representa el 1 % de las cardiopatías congénitas observadas en vida extrauterina, y, dados sus resultados desfavorables, constituye un verdadero reto para la medicina contemporánea. Objetivo: la investigación condujo a la aplicación de pautas clasificatorias, a la caracterización del tracto de salida atrésico, al estudio morfológico ventricular derecho, a la valoración del anillo tricuspídeo y a la determinación de la presencia de anomalías en la circulación coronaria. Métodos: se estudiaron 43 pacientes con diagnóstico confirmado de la entidad remitidos al Cardiocentro Pediátrico "William Soler" entre enero de 1992 y noviembre de 2011. Se practicó a cada caso el examen ecocardiográfico bidimensional y doppler con codificación en colores. Resultados y conclusiones: se corroboró el predominio de la variante morfológica valvular de la entidad y la existencia de niveles moderados o severos de hipoplasia ventricular derecha en asociación con capacitancia volumétrica limitada de dicha cámara, con hipodesarrollo valvular tricuspídeo y con presencia de circulación coronaria anómala sinusoides dependiente. El foramen oval permeable constituyó el defecto septal interatrial más vinculado a la enfermedad, y se evidenciaron diversas anomalías estructurales del aparato tricuspídeo en conjunción o no con el hipodesarrollo anular imperante.

  9. Atresia pulmonar con septum interventricular intacto, relevancia clínica del tratamiento paliativo aplicado en nuestro medio

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    Adel Eladio González Morejón

    Full Text Available Introducción: la atresia pulmonar con septum interventricular intacto es una cardiopatía congénita poseedora de complejidad a la hora de tomar decisiones terapéuticas ante cada paciente; por esa razón el enfrentamiento exitoso de la entidad constituye una asignatura pendiente para la Cardiología Pediátrica. Objetivo: determinar el grado de relevancia clínica existente en las modalidades terapéuticas paliativas aplicadas ante la enfermedad en nuestro medio. Métodos: se evaluaron 43 niños con diagnóstico confirmado de la entidad remitidos al Cardiocentro Pediátrico "William Soler", y sometidos a tratamiento paliativo inicial en el período comprendido entre enero de 1992 y noviembre de 2011. Para determinar la relevancia clínica del proceder aplicado se llevó a cabo un estudio de efectividad que comprendió el análisis de la incidencia/prevalencia de eventos bien definidos (mortalidad precoz y presencia de causa letal principal en cada variante de tratamiento impuesta. Resultados: la realización de fístula quirúrgica asociada a atrioseptostomía revistió altos índices de relevancia clínica. Conclusiones: se documentó escasa incidencia/prevalencia de mortalidad precoz y reducida ocurrencia de insuficiencia respiratoria como complicación letal al ser aplicado este proceder híbrido, en comparación al resto de las modalidades terapéuticas estudiadas.

  10. Management and outcome of patients with combined vaginal septum, bifid uterus, and ipsilateral renal agenesis (Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholoum, Suad; Puligandla, Pramod S; Hui, Thomas; Su, Wendy; Quiros, Elsa; Laberge, Jean-Martin

    2006-05-01

    Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome (HWWS) is a rare müllerian anomaly consisting of uterine didelphy, hemivaginal septum, and ipsilateral renal agenesis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the natural history and outcome of patients with HWWS. With ethics review board approval, all patients with uterine/vaginal anomalies were reviewed between 1982 and 2004. Patients with cloacal and/or anorectal anomalies were excluded. Presenting symptoms, preoperative investigations, operative management, and long-term follow-up were assessed. Of 80 patients identified with uterine/vaginal anomalies, 12 had HWWS. Median age at presentation was 13 years. Most patients (11/12) in this series presented with either abdominal pain and/or pelvic masses. Two patients had intra-abdominal abscesses. Seven patients were menstruating at presentation with 4 of these patients having dysmenorrhea. Symptom duration ranged from 0.5 to 12 months. Diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasound (n = 11), computed tomographic scan (n = 3), and/or magnetic resonance imaging (n = 2). Operative management included vaginal septectomy and drainage of the hematocolpos/hematometrocolpos. One patient required salpingectomy for pyosalpinx. Follow-up ultrasounds revealed no recurrent collections. Median follow-up was 3 years (2 months to 16 years). Eleven patients were asymptomatic after treatment. One patient complained of irregular menses. This is one of the largest reviews of HWWS in pediatric patients to date. Good long-term outcome occurs after vaginal septectomy. This diagnosis should be suspected in females with a pelvic mass and ipsilateral renal agenesis.

  11. Reduced fractional anisotropy of corpus callosum modulates inter-hemispheric resting state functional connectivity in migraine patients without aura.

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    Yuan, Kai; Qin, Wei; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Ling; Yu, Dahua; Zhao, Limei; Dong, Minghao; Liu, Jixin; Yang, Xuejuan; von Deneen, Karen M; Liang, Fanrong; Tian, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study revealed reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the corpus callosum (CC) in migraine patients without aura. Abnormalities in white matter integrity, particularly in the CC, may affect inter-hemispheric resting state functional connectivity (RSFC). Unfortunately, relatively little is known about the alterations in functional interactions between the cerebral hemispheres during resting state in migraine patients without aura, and even less about how the inter-hemispheric RSFC are affected by the abnormalities of the CC. Twenty-one migraine patients without aura and 21 healthy controls participated in this study, age-, sex-, and education-matched. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was employed to investigate the white matter alterations of the CC. Meanwhile, voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) was used to compare the inter-hemispheric RSFC differences between the patients and controls. TBSS analysis revealed reduced FA values in the genu and the splenium of CC in patient group. VMHC analysis showed decreased inter-hemispheric RSFC of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in migraine patients without aura relative to that of the controls. Furthermore, in migraine patients without aura, the reduced FA values of the genu of CC correlated with the decreased inter-hemispheric RSFC of the ACC. Our findings demonstrated that the migraine patients without aura showed reduced FA values of the genu of CC and decreased inter-hemispheric RSFC of the ACC. The correlation between the above structural and functional changes suggested that the reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) of CC modulates inter-hemispheric VMHC in migraine patients without aura. Our results demonstrated that the VMHC alterations of ACC can reflect the FA changes of the genu of CC in migraine patients without aura.

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Kynurenine Aminotransferase II in the Adult Rat Brain Reveals High Expression in Proliferative Zones and Corpus Callosum.

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    Song, Chang; Clark, Sarah M; Vaughn, Chloe N; Nicholson, James D; Murphy, Kelley J; Mou, Ta-Chung M; Schwarcz, Robert; Hoffman, Gloria E; Tonelli, Leonardo H

    2018-01-15

    Kynurenic acid, a metabolite of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation, acts as an endogenous antagonist of alpha7 nicotinic and NMDA receptors and is implicated in a number of neurophysiological and neuropathological processes including cognition and neurodegenerative events. Therefore, kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II/AADAT), the enzyme responsible for the formation of the majority of neuroactive kynurenic acid in the brain, has prompted significant interest. Using immunohistochemistry, this enzyme was localized primarily in astrocytes throughout the adult rat brain, but detailed neuroanatomical studies are lacking. Here, we employed quantitative in situ hybridization to analyze the relative expression of KAT II mRNA in the brain of rats under normal conditions and 6 h after the administration of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs). Specific hybridization signals for KAT II were detected, with the highest expression in the subventricular zone (SVZ), the rostral migratory stream and the floor of the third ventricle followed by the corpus callosum and the hippocampus. This pattern of mRNA expression was paralleled by differential protein expression, determined by serial dilutions of antibodies (up to 1:1 million), and was confirmed to be primarily astrocytic in nature. The mRNA signal in the SVZ and the hippocampus was substantially increased by the LPS treatment without detectable changes elsewhere. These results demonstrate that KAT II is expressed in the rat brain in a region-specific manner and that gene expression is sensitive to inflammatory processes. This suggests an unrecognized role for kynurenic acid in the brain's germinal zones. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Increased number of astrocytes and macrophages/microglial cells in the corpus callosum in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

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    Sugiyama, Mikiko; Takao, Masaki; Hatsuta, Hiroyuki; Funabe, Sayaka; Ito, Shinji; Obi, Tomokazu; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Kuroiwa, Yoshiyuki; Murayama, Shigeo

    2013-12-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by degeneration of both upper and lower motor neurons. Neuropathologically, degeneration of the corticospinal tracts is evident and may be associated with loss of motor neurons in the motor cortex. The data from a recently developed imaging technology, the diffusion tensor imaging method of MRI have suggested that white matter in the corpus callosum (CC) is lost in patients with ALS. However, the specific neuropathologic changes of the commissural fibers remain unclear. To investigate the pathologic changes of the CC in ALS, we analyzed midsagittal sections of the CC from eight individuals with ALS and eight controls by using conventional staining and immunohistochemistry with antibodies against CD68, GFAP and phosphorylated neurofilament (SMI-31). The CC was divided into seven areas. The number of CD68-immunoreactive macrophages/microglia and GFAP-immunoreactive astrocytes was significantly higher in individuals with ALS than in controls in all areas of the CC except the rostrum. Among the patients with ALS, the number of macrophages/microglia and astrocytes was significantly higher in the posterior midbody and isthmus than in the rostrum. There was no significant difference in number of SMI-31 immunoreactive axons between ALS and control group as well as among each area of the CC. These findings suggest that pathologic changes in the CC in ALS are present in the posterior midbody and isthmus, where callosal motor fibers may traverse between the two hemispheres. CD68 and GFAP immunohistochemistry are sensitive methods to detect those pathologic changes in routine paraffin-embedded specimens. © 2013 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  14. A prospective study of corpus callosum regional volumes and neurocognitive outcomes following cranial radiation for pediatric brain tumors.

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    Rashid, Arif; Ram, Ashwin N; Kates, Wendy R; Redmond, Kristin J; Wharam, Moody; Mark Mahone, E; Horska, Alena; Terezakis, Stephanie

    2017-06-01

    Cranial radiation therapy (CRT) may disrupt the corpus callosum (CC), which plays an important role in basic motor and cognitive functions. The aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to assess changes in CC mid-sagittal areas, CC volumes, and performance on neuropsychological (NP) tests related to the CC in children following CRT. Twelve pediatric patients were treated with CRT for primary brain malignancies. Thirteen age-matched healthy volunteers served as controls. Brain MRIs and NP assessment emphasizing motor dexterity, processing speed, visuomotor integration, and working memory (visual and verbal) were performed at baseline and at 6, 15, and 27 months following completion of CRT. Linear mixed effects (LME) analyses were used to evaluate patient NP performance and changes in regional CC volumes (genu, anterior body, mid-body, posterior body, and splenium) and mid-sagittal areas over time and with radiation doses, correcting for age at CRT start. The mean age at CRT was 9.41 (range 1.2-15.7) years. The median prescription dose was 54 (range 18-59.4) Gy. LME analysis revealed a significant decrease in overall CC volumes over time (p CC regions demonstrated a significant decrease in all regional volumes over time (p motor dexterity and visual working memory (both p CC regional volumes after CRT, with associated decline in neurocognitive function, most notably in manual dexterity, attention, and working memory. Further prospective study of larger cohorts of patients is needed to establish the relationship between CRT dose, neuroanatomical, and functional changes in the CC.

  15. Properties and fate of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in the corpus callosum, motor cortex, and piriform cortex of the mouse.

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    Clarke, Laura E; Young, Kaylene M; Hamilton, Nicola B; Li, Huiliang; Richardson, William D; Attwell, David

    2012-06-13

    Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in the postnatal mouse corpus callosum (CC) and motor cortex (Ctx) reportedly generate only oligodendrocytes (OLs), whereas those in the piriform cortex may also generate neurons. OPCs have also been subdivided based on their expression of voltage-gated ion channels, ability to respond to neuronal activity, and proliferative state. To determine whether OPCs in the piriform cortex have inherently different physiological properties from those in the CC and Ctx, we studied acute brain slices from postnatal transgenic mice in which GFP expression identifies OL lineage cells. We whole-cell patch clamped GFP-expressing (GFP(+)) cells within the CC, Ctx, and anterior piriform cortex (aPC) and used prelabeling with 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) to assess cell proliferation. After recording, slices were immunolabeled and OPCs were defined by strong expression of NG2. NG2(+) OPCs in the white and gray matter proliferated and coexpressed PDGFRα and voltage-gated Na(+) channels (I(Na)). Approximately 70% of OPCs were capable of generating regenerative depolarizations. In addition to OLIG2(+) NG2(+) I(Na)(+) OPCs and OLIG2(+) NG2(neg) I(Na)(neg) OLs, we identified cells with low levels of NG2 limited to the soma or the base of some processes. These cells had a significantly reduced I(Na) and a reduced ability to incorporate EdU when compared with OPCs and probably correspond to early differentiating OLs. By combining EdU labeling and lineage tracing using Pdgfrα-CreER(T2) : R26R-YFP transgenic mice, we double labeled OPCs and traced their fate in the postnatal brain. These OPCs generated OLs but did not generate neurons in the aPC or elsewhere at any time that we examined.

  16. Corpus callosum damage predicts disability progression and cognitive dysfunction in primary-progressive MS after five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodini, Benedetta; Cercignani, Mara; Khaleeli, Zhaleh; Miller, David H; Ron, Maria; Penny, Sophie; Thompson, Alan J; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2013-05-01

    We aim to identify specific areas of white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM), which predict disability progression and cognitive dysfunction after five years in patients with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS). Thirty-two patients with early PPMS were assessed at baseline and after five years on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), and EDSS step-changes were calculated. At year five, a subgroup of 25 patients and 31 healthy controls underwent a neuropsychological assessment. Baseline imaging consisted of dual-echo (proton density and T2-weighted), T1-weighted volumetric, and diffusion tensor imaging. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were created, and fed into tract-based spatial statistics. To compensate for the potential bias introduced by WM lesions, the T1 volumes underwent a lesion-filling procedure before entering a voxel-based morphometry protocol. To investigate whether FA and GM volume predicted EDSS step-changes over five years and neuropsychological tests scores at five years, voxelwise linear regression analyses were performed. Lower FA in the splenium of the corpus callosum (CC) predicted a greater progression of disability over the follow-up. Lower FA along the entire CC predicted worse verbal memory, attention and speed of information processing, and executive function at five years. GM baseline volume did not predict any clinical variable. Our findings highlight the importance of damage to the interhemispheric callosal pathways in determining physical and cognitive disability in PPMS. Disruption of these pathways, which interconnect motor and cognitive networks between the two hemispheres, may result in a disconnection syndrome that contributes to long-term physical and cognitive disability. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Corpus callosum integrity is affected by mood disorders and also by the suicide attempt history: A diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyprien, Fabienne; de Champfleur, Nicolas Menjot; Deverdun, Jérémy; Olié, Emilie; Le Bars, Emmanuelle; Bonafé, Alain; Mura, Thibault; Jollant, Fabrice; Courtet, Philippe; Artero, Sylvaine

    2016-12-01

    Some MRI studies have noted alterations in the corpus callosum (CC) white matter integrity of individuals with mood disorders and also in patients with suicidal behavior. We investigated the specific impact of suicidal behavior on CC integrity in mood disorders. CC structural changes were assessed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in 121 women 18-50-year-old): 41 with bipolar disorder (BD), 50 with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 30 healthy controls (HC). Fractional anisotropy (FA) and DTI metrics were calculated for the genu, body and splenium of CC and compared in the three groups by MANCOVA. Then, they were re-analyzed relative to the suicide attempt history within the MDD and BD groups and to the suicide number/severity. FA values for the CC genu and body were lower in non-suicide attempters with BD than with MDD and in HC. Conversely, FA values for all CC regions were significantly lower in suicide attempters with BD than in HC. Finally, higher number of suicide attempts (>2) and elevated Suicidal Intent Scale score were associated with significant splenium alterations. Limitations include the cross-sectional design (non-causal study), the potential influence of medications and concerns about the generalizability to men. Genu and body are altered in non-suicide attempters with BD, while splenium is specifically altered in suicide attempters, independently from their psychiatric status. History of suicide attempts may be a source of heterogeneity in the association between CC alterations and BD and may partially explain the variable results of previous studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The ciliogenic transcription factor RFX3 regulates early midline distribution of guidepost neurons required for corpus callosum development.

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    Carine Benadiba

    Full Text Available The corpus callosum (CC is the major commissure that bridges the cerebral hemispheres. Agenesis of the CC is associated with human ciliopathies, but the origin of this default is unclear. Regulatory Factor X3 (RFX3 is a transcription factor involved in the control of ciliogenesis, and Rfx3-deficient mice show several hallmarks of ciliopathies including left-right asymmetry defects and hydrocephalus. Here we show that Rfx3-deficient mice suffer from CC agenesis associated with a marked disorganisation of guidepost neurons required for axon pathfinding across the midline. Using transplantation assays, we demonstrate that abnormalities of the mutant midline region are primarily responsible for the CC malformation. Conditional genetic inactivation shows that RFX3 is not required in guidepost cells for proper CC formation, but is required before E12.5 for proper patterning of the cortical septal boundary and hence accurate distribution of guidepost neurons at later stages. We observe focused but consistent ectopic expression of Fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8 at the rostro commissural plate associated with a reduced ratio of GLIoma-associated oncogene family zinc finger 3 (GLI3 repressor to activator forms. We demonstrate on brain explant cultures that ectopic FGF8 reproduces the guidepost neuronal defects observed in Rfx3 mutants. This study unravels a crucial role of RFX3 during early brain development by indirectly regulating GLI3 activity, which leads to FGF8 upregulation and ultimately to disturbed distribution of guidepost neurons required for CC morphogenesis. Hence, the RFX3 mutant mouse model brings novel understandings of the mechanisms that underlie CC agenesis in ciliopathies.

  19. Developmental trajectory of the corpus callosum from infancy to the juvenile stage: Comparative MRI between chimpanzees and humans

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    Sakai, Tomoko; Mikami, Akichika; Suzuki, Juri; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Matsui, Mie; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hamada, Yuzuru; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Okano, Hideyuki; Oishi, Kenichi

    2017-01-01

    How brains develop during early life is one of the most important topics in neuroscience because it underpins the neuronal functions that mature during this period. A comparison of the neurodevelopmental patterns among humans and nonhuman primates is essential to infer evolutional changes in neuroanatomy that account for higher-order brain functions, especially those specific to humans. The corpus callosum (CC) is the major white matter bundle that connects the cerebral hemispheres, and therefore, relates to a wide variety of neuronal functions. In humans, the CC area rapidly expands during infancy, followed by relatively slow changes. In chimpanzees, based on a cross-sectional study, slow changes in the CC area during the juvenile stage and later have also been reported. However, little is known about the developmental changes during infancy. A longitudinal study is also required to validate the previous cross-sectional observations about the chimpanzee CC. The present longitudinal study of magnetic resonance imaging scans demonstrates that the CC development in chimpanzees and humans is characterized by a rapid increase during infancy, followed by gradual increase during the juvenile stage. Several differences between the two species were also identified. First, there was a tendency toward a greater increase in the CC areas during infancy in humans. Second, there was a tendency toward a greater increase in the rostrum during the juvenile stage in chimpanzees. The rostral body is known to carry fibers between the bilateral prefrontal and premotor cortices, and is involved in behavior planning and control, verbal working memory, and number conception. The rostrum is known to carry fibers between the prefrontal cortices, and is involved in attention control. The interspecies differences in the developmental trajectories of the rostral body and the rostrum might be related to evolutional changes in the brain systems. PMID:28654656

  20. Fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity in the corpus callosum of patients with multiple sclerosis: the effect of physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ibrahim; Tintera, Jaroslav; Skoch, Antonin; Jirů, Filip; Hlustik, Petr; Martinkova, Patricia; Zvara, Karel; Rasova, Kamila

    2011-11-01

    Modulation of neurodegeneration by physical activity is an active topic in contemporary research. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the brain's microstructure in multiple sclerosis (MS) after facilitation physiotherapy. Eleven patients with MS were examined using motor and neuropsychological testing and multimodal MRI at the beginning of the study, with second baseline measurement after 1 month without any therapy, and after a 2-month period of facilitation physiotherapy. Eleven healthy controls were examined at the beginning of the study and after 1 month. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (λ (ax)), and radial diffusivity (λ (rad)) were calculated for the whole corpus callosum (CC) in the midsagittal slice of T1W 3D MPRAGE spatially normalized images. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effect models, paired, and two-sample tests. At the baseline, patients with MS showed significantly lower values in FA (p < 0.001), and significantly higher values in MD (p < 0.001), λ (ax) (p = 0.003), and λ (rad) (p < 0.001) compared to control subjects. The FA, MD, λ (ax), and λ (rad) did not change between the first and second baseline examinations in either group. Differences 2 months after initiating facilitation physiotherapy were in FA, MD, and in λ (rad) significantly higher than differences in healthy controls (p < 0.001 for FA, p = 0.02 for MD, and p = 0.002 for λ (rad)). In MS patients, FA in the CC significantly increased (p < 0.001), MD and λ (rad) significantly decreased (p = 0.014 and p = 0.002), and thus approached the values in healthy controls. The results of the study show that facilitation physiotherapy influences brain microstructure measured by DTI.

  1. Maximum principal strain and strain rate associated with concussion diagnosis correlates with changes in corpus callosum white matter indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Thomas W; Ford, James C; Ji, Songbai; Beckwith, Jonathan G; Flashman, Laura A; Paulsen, Keith; Greenwald, Richard M

    2012-01-01

    On-field monitoring of head impacts, combined with finite element (FE) biomechanical simulation, allow for predictions of regional strain associated with a diagnosed concussion. However, attempts to correlate these predictions with in vivo measures of brain injury have not been published. This article reports an approach to and preliminary results from the correlation of subject-specific FE model-predicted regions of high strain associated with diagnosed concussion and diffusion tensor imaging to assess changes in white matter integrity in the corpus callosum (CC). Ten football and ice hockey players who wore instrumented helmets to record head impacts sustained during play completed high field magnetic resonance imaging preseason and within 10 days of a diagnosed concussion. The Dartmouth Subject-Specific FE Head model was used to generate regional predictions of strain and strain rate following each impact associated with concussion. Maps of change in fractional anisotropy (FA) and median diffusivity (MD) were generated for the CC of each athlete to correlate strain with change in FA and MD. Mean and maximum strain rate correlated with change in FA (Spearman ρ = 0.77, p = 0.01; 0.70, p = 0.031), and there was a similar trend for mean and maximum strain (0.56, p = 0.10; 0.6, p = 0.07), as well as for maximum strain with change in MD (-0.63, p = 0.07). Change in MD correlated with injury-to-imaging interval (ρ = -0.80, p = 0.006) but change in FA did not (ρ = 0.18, p = 0.62). These results provide preliminary confirmation that model-predicted strain and strain rate in the CC correlate with changes in indices of white matter integrity.

  2. Presencia de septum en el primer compartimento extensor de la muñeca y relación con recidiva en enfermedad de De Quervain

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    Gustavo Jiménez-Muñozledo

    Full Text Available Antecedentes y Objetivos. La presencia de un septum en el primer compartimento extensor de la muñeca es una variante anatómica y una de las principales causas de persistencia o recurrencia del dolor después de cirugía en enfermedad de De Quervain. Es pues importante tenerlo en cuenta y conocer su incidencia en nuestra población, ya que en la literatura no hay uniformidad sobre su frecuencia de presentación. Material y método. Realizamos un estudio anatómico en 10 cadáveres mexicanos, en ambas manos, para identificar la estructura del primer compartimento extensor y documentar la presencia de septum entre nuestra población. Dado que en el Servicio de Cirugía Plástica y Reconstructiva del Hospital General de México es práctica habitual la búsqueda intencionada de dicho septum durante la cirugía del De Quervain, llevamos a cabo también una revisión de los expedientes de los pacientes atendidos por esta patología entre marzo del 2010 y marzo del 2013. Resultados. En la disección de los cadáveres, 9 presentaron septum: 3 derecho, 1 izquierdo y 5 bilateral; sólo 1 no presentó. En la revisión de expedientes encontramos 52 pacientes: 4 (7.7% varones y 48 (92.3% mujeres, con edades entre 34 y 75 años (media 55.1+/-10.2. De ellos, 39 presentaron tenosinovitis derecha (75% y 13 izquierda (25%, sin casos de bilateralidad. En todos se hizo búsqueda de septum en el primer compartimento extensor de la muñeca durante la cirugía, y 47 presentaron tabicación (90.38%. Todos los pacientes siguieron revisión postoperatoria a los 7, 14, 30, 60, 230 y 360 días, sin recidiva de la sintomatología. Realizamos finalmente prueba exacta de Fisher entre el grupo de cadáveres y el de pacientes intervenidos, obteniendo una p de 0.988 que traduce la no existencia de una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre ambos grupos. Conclusiones. De la revisión clínica comprobamos que al buscar sistemáticamente y liberar de forma adecuada el

  3. Proteolysis-Dependent Remodeling of the Tubulin Homolog FtsZ at the Division Septum in Escherichia coli.

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    Marissa G Viola

    Full Text Available During bacterial cell division a dynamic protein structure called the Z-ring assembles at the septum. The major protein in the Z-ring in Escherichia coli is FtsZ, a tubulin homolog that polymerizes with GTP. FtsZ is degraded by the two-component ATP-dependent protease ClpXP. Two regions of FtsZ, located outside of the polymerization domain in the unstructured linker and at the C-terminus, are important for specific recognition and degradation by ClpXP. We engineered a synthetic substrate containing green fluorescent protein (Gfp fused to an extended FtsZ C-terminal tail (residues 317-383, including the unstructured linker and the C-terminal conserved region, but not the polymerization domain, and showed that it is sufficient to target a non-native substrate for degradation in vitro. To determine if FtsZ degradation regulates Z-ring assembly during division, we expressed a full length Gfp-FtsZ fusion protein in wild type and clp deficient strains and monitored fluorescent Z-rings. In cells deleted for clpX or clpP, or cells expressing protease-defective mutant protein ClpP(S97A, Z-rings appear normal; however, after photobleaching a region of the Z-ring, fluorescence recovers ~70% more slowly in cells without functional ClpXP than in wild type cells. Gfp-FtsZ(R379E, which is defective for degradation by ClpXP, also assembles into Z-rings that recover fluorescence ~2-fold more slowly than Z-rings containing Gfp-FtsZ. In vitro, ClpXP cooperatively degrades and disassembles FtsZ polymers. These results demonstrate that ClpXP is a regulator of Z-ring dynamics and that the regulation is proteolysis-dependent. Our results further show that FtsZ-interacting proteins in E. coli fine-tune Z-ring dynamics.

  4. Prevention of atrial fibrillation by inter-atrial septum pacing guided by electrophysiological testing, in patients with delayed interatrial conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolis, A G; Katsivas, A G; Vassilopoulos, C; Koutsogeorgis, D; Louvros, N E

    2002-04-01

    Interatrial septum (IAS) pacing seems efficient in synchronizing atrial depolarization in patients (pts) with delayed inter-atrial conduction, but its clinical role in preventing atrial tachyarrhythmias is still debated. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the clinical efficacy of IAS pacing guided by pace mapping of the IAS, as an alternative treatment modality in pts with drug refractory paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). We evaluated 29 pts (13 male, 16 female, 60 +/- 11 years), with drug refractory PAF, normal sinus node function and prolonged inter-atrial conduction time (P wave 142 +/- 10 ms). Multipolar catheters were inserted and the electrograms from the high right atrium (HRA) and proximal, middle and distal coronary sinus (CS) were recorded. The IAS was paced from multiple sites. The site of IAS where the timing between HRA and distal CS was AAIR (75-140 bpm) mode, with random selection of the order and after discontinuation of antiarrhythmic treatment. During the fourth period, the same AAIR mode was assessed, but antiarrhythmic drugs were also administered. We compared the arrhythmia free interval among the four periods. The proportion of atrial paced beats in AAIR pacing mode plus antiarrhythmics was significantly higher compared with the drug-free period in AAIR mode (57 +/- 9% and 49 +/- 9% respectively, P=0017) and with AAT pacing mode (44 +/- 10%,(, PAAIR mode. These intervals did not differ significantly from the pre-implantation period (24.1 +/- 6.3 days). The arrhythmia free interval in AAIR pacing in combination with antiarrhythmic drug therapy was 38.7 +/- 8.1 days and this was significantly longer than the previous periods (P<0.05). Atrial septal pacing in combination with antiarrhythmic drug therapy reduced the incidence of PAF in pts with prolonged inter-atrial conduction times. Pace mapping of the IAS is an attractive technique to assess the shortest atrial activation time between HRA and distal CS. Whether placement of the

  5. Response inhibition deficits in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Relationship between diffusion tensor imaging of the corpus callosum and eye movement control

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    Angelina Paolozza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Response inhibition is the ability to suppress irrelevant impulses to enable goal-directed behavior. The underlying neural mechanisms of inhibition deficits are not clearly understood, but may be related to white matter connectivity, which can be assessed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between response inhibition during the performance of saccadic eye movement tasks and DTI measures of the corpus callosum in children with or without Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD. Participants included 43 children with an FASD diagnosis (12.3 ± 3.1 years old and 35 typically developing children (12.5 ± 3.0 years old both aged 7–18, assessed at three sites across Canada. Response inhibition was measured by direction errors in an antisaccade task and timing errors in a delayed memory-guided saccade task. Manual deterministic tractography was used to delineate six regions of the corpus callosum and calculate fractional anisotropy (FA, mean diffusivity (MD, parallel diffusivity, and perpendicular diffusivity. Group differences in saccade measures were assessed using t-tests, followed by partial correlations between eye movement inhibition scores and corpus callosum FA and MD, controlling for age. Children with FASD made more saccade direction errors and more timing errors, which indicates a deficit in response inhibition. The only group difference in DTI metrics was significantly higher MD of the splenium in FASD compared to controls. Notably, direction errors in the antisaccade task were correlated negatively to FA and positively to MD of the splenium in the control, but not the FASD group, which suggests that alterations in connectivity between the two hemispheres of the brain may contribute to inhibition deficits in children with FASD.

  6. Large scale expression changes of genes related to neuronal signaling and developmental processes found in lateral septum of postpartum outbred mice.

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    Brian E Eisinger

    Full Text Available Coordinated gene expression changes across the CNS are required to produce the mammalian maternal phenotype. Lateral septum (LS is a brain region critically involved with aspects of maternal care, and we recently examined gene expression of whole septum (LS and medial septum in selectively bred maternal mice. Here, we expand on the prior study by 1 conducting microarray analysis solely on LS in virgin and postpartum mice, 2 using outbred mice, and 3 evaluating the role of sensory input on gene expression changes. Large scale changes in genes related to neuronal signaling were identified, including four GABAA receptor subunits. Subunits α4 and δ were downregulated in maternal LS, likely reflecting a reduction in the extrasynaptic, neurosteroid-sensitive α4/δ containing receptor subtype. Conversely, subunits ε and θ were increased in maternal LS. Fifteen K+ channel related genes showed altered expression, as did dopamine receptors Drd1a and Drd2 (both downregulated, hypocretin receptor 1 (Hcrtr1, kappa opioid receptor 1 (Oprk1, and transient receptor potential channel 4 (Trpc4. Expression of a large number of genes linked to developmental processes or cell differentiation were also altered in postpartum LS, including chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 12 (Cxcl12, fatty acid binding protein 7 (Fabp7, plasma membrane proteolipid (Pllp, and suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (Socs2. Additional genes that are linked to anxiety, such as glutathione reductase (Gsr, exhibited altered expression. Pathway analysis also identified changes in genes related to cyclic nucleotide metabolism, chromatin structure, and the Ras gene family. The sensory presence of pups was found to contribute to the altered expression of a subset of genes across all categories. This study suggests that both large changes in neuronal signaling and the possible terminal differentiation of neuronal and/or glial cells play important roles in producing the maternal state.

  7. C syndrome with skeletal anomalies, mental retardation, eyelid chalazion, Bitot’s spots and agenesis of the corpus callosum in an Egyptian child

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    Rabah M. Shawky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 2.5 year old female child, third in order of birth of healthy non consanguineous Egyptian parents with C syndrome. The patient had moderate mental retardation, trigonocephaly, protruding forehead, low anterior hair line, wide upslanted palpebral fissures, depressed nasal bridge, broad nose, high arched palate, microretrognathia, low set ears, short neck, scoliosis, hypertrichosis over the back, talipes equinovarus as well as interatrial septal defect. The patient had in addition chalazion in left lower eyelid as well as bilateral Bitot’s spots most probably due to vitamin A deficiency. MRI brain revealed agenesis of the corpus callosum.

  8. Corpus callosum atrophy as a predictor of age-related cognitive and motor impairment: a 3-year follow-up of the LADIS study cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, C; Rostrup, E; Paulson, O B

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this 3-year follow-up study was to investigate whether corpus callosum (CC) atrophy may predict future motor and cognitive impairment in an elderly population. On baseline MRI from 563 subjects with age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) from the Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS......) study, the CC was segmented and subdivided into five anterior-posterior regions (CC1-CC5). Associations between the CC areas and decline in motor performance and cognitive functions over a 3-year period were analyzed. CC atrophy at baseline was significantly associated with impaired cognitive...

  9. Dysgenesis of the corpus callosum and associated malformaaation{sup :} computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings; Disgenesia do corpo caloso e mas-formacoes associadas: achados de tomografia computadorizada e ressonancia magnetica

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    Montandon, Cristiano; Montandon Junior, Marcelo Eustaquio [Colegio Brasileiro de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem (CBR), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ribeiro, Flavia Aparecida de Sousa; Lobo, Leonardo Valadares Barbosa; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos [Goias Univ., Goiania (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem e Anatomia Patologica]. E-mail: cabeca2@terra.com.br

    2003-10-01

    Callosal dysgenesis is a malformation of the corpus callosum with origins in the embryogenesis of the telencephalon. We reviewed the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings of 11 patients with callosal dysgenesis and one patient with normal corpus callosum associated with a lipoma. The patients were divided into three distinct groups: total agenesis (three patients), partial agenesis (six patients) and hypoplasia (two patients). Associated abnormalities were observed in nine patients, including Chiari II malformation (one patient), schizencephaly (one patient), interhemispheric cyst (two patients), Dandy-Walker cyst (one patient), nodular heterotopy (one patient) and lipoma of the corpus callosum (four patients). This paper presents a review that may contribute to the diagnosis of these disorders. (author)

  10. Self-referential and social cognition in a case of autism and agenesis of the corpus callosum

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    Lombardo Michael V

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While models of autism spectrum conditions (ASC are emerging at the genetic level of analysis, clear models at higher levels of analysis, such as neuroanatomy, are lacking. Here we examine agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC as a model at the level of neuroanatomy that may be relevant for understanding self-referential and social-cognitive difficulties in ASC. Methods We examined performance on a wide array of tests in self-referential and social-cognitive domains in a patient with both AgCC and a diagnosis of ASC. Tests included a depth-of-processing memory paradigm with self-referential and social-cognitive manipulations, self-report measures of self-consciousness, alexithymia, and empathy, as well as performance measures of first-person pronoun usage and mentalizing ability. The performance of the AgCC patient was compared to a group of individuals with ASC but without AgCC and with neurotypical controls. These comparison groups come from a prior study where group differences were apparent across many measures. We used bootstrapping to assess whether the AgCC patient exhibited scores that were within or outside the 95% bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrap confidence intervals observed in both comparison groups. Results Within the depth-of-processing memory paradigm, the AgCC patient showed decreased memory sensitivity that was more extreme than both comparison groups across all conditions. The patient’s most pronounced difficulty on this task emerged in the social-cognitive domain related to information-processing about other people. The patient was similar to the ASC group in benefiting less from self-referential processing compared to the control group. Across a variety of other self-referential (i.e. alexithymia, private self-consciousness and social-cognitive measures (i.e. self-reported imaginative and perspective-taking subscales of empathy, mentalizing, the AgCC patient also showed more extreme scores than

  11. Morfología ecocardiográfica de la atresia pulmonar con septum interventricular intacto, estudio de dos decenios Echocardiographic morphology of the pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum. A 20-year study

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    Adel Eladio González Morejón

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la atresia pulmonar con septum interventricular intacto es una malformación cardiovascular que representa el 1 % de las cardiopatías congénitas observadas en vida extrauterina, y, dados sus resultados desfavorables, constituye un verdadero reto para la medicina contemporánea. Objetivo: la investigación condujo a la aplicación de pautas clasificatorias, a la caracterización del tracto de salida atrésico, al estudio morfológico ventricular derecho, a la valoración del anillo tricuspídeo y a la determinación de la presencia de anomalías en la circulación coronaria. Métodos: se estudiaron 43 pacientes con diagnóstico confirmado de la entidad remitidos al Cardiocentro Pediátrico "William Soler" entre enero de 1992 y noviembre de 2011. Se practicó a cada caso el examen ecocardiográfico bidimensional y doppler con codificación en colores. Resultados y conclusiones: se corroboró el predominio de la variante morfológica valvular de la entidad y la existencia de niveles moderados o severos de hipoplasia ventricular derecha en asociación con capacitancia volumétrica limitada de dicha cámara, con hipodesarrollo valvular tricuspídeo y con presencia de circulación coronaria anómala sinusoides dependiente. El foramen oval permeable constituyó el defecto septal interatrial más vinculado a la enfermedad, y se evidenciaron diversas anomalías estructurales del aparato tricuspídeo en conjunción o no con el hipodesarrollo anular imperante.Introduction: pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular system is a cardiovascular malformation accounting for 1% of congenital cardiopathies seen in the extrauterine life; due to its unfavorable outcomes, this disease is a true challenge for the contemporary medicine. Objectives: the research study comprised the application of the classification guidelines, the characterization of the atresia outlet track, the morphological study of the right ventricle, the assessment of the

  12. Association between reduced white matter integrity in the corpus callosum and serotonin transporter gene DNA methylation in medication-naive patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, E; Choi, S; Kang, J; Kim, A; Han, K-M; Chang, H S; Tae, W S; Son, K R; Joe, S-H; Lee, M-S; Ham, B-J

    2016-08-09

    Previous evidence suggests that the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) is associated with the structure of brain regions that are critically involved in dysfunctional limbic-cortical network activity associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tract-based spatial statistics were used to investigate changes in white matter integrity in patients with MDD compared with healthy controls. A possible association between structural alterations in white matter tracts and DNA methylation of the SLC6A4 promoter region was also assessed. Thirty-five medication-naive patients with MDD (mean age: 40.34, male/female: 10/25) and age, gender and education level matched 49 healthy controls (mean age: 41.12, male/female: 15/34) underwent DTI. SLC6A4 DNA methylation was also measured at five CpG sites of the promoter region, and the cell type used was whole-blood DNA. Patients with MDD had significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values for the genu of the corpus callosum and body of the corpus callosum than that in healthy controls (family-wise error corrected, Pdepression. Moreover, we believe this is the first report of a correlation between DNA methylation of the SLC6A4 promoter region and white matter integrity in patients with MDD.

  13. Low-cost, rapidly-developed, 3D printed in vitro corpus callosum model for mucopolysaccharidosis type I [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Tabet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of high throughput screening and the general inability of (1 two dimensional (2D cell culture and (2 in vitro release studies to predict in vivo neurobiological and pharmacokinetic responses in humans has led to greater interest in more realistic three dimensional (3D benchtop platforms. Advantages of 3D human cell culture over its 2D analogue, or even animal models, include taking the effects of microgeometry and long-range topological features into consideration. In the era of personalized medicine, it has become increasingly valuable to screen candidate molecules and synergistic therapeutics at a patient-specific level, in particular for diseases that manifest in highly variable ways. The lack of established standards and the relatively arbitrary choice of probing conditions has limited in vitro drug release to a largely qualitative assessment as opposed to a predictive, quantitative measure of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in tissue. Here we report the methods used in the rapid, low-cost development of a 3D model of a mucopolysaccharidosis type I patient’s corpus callosum, which may be used for cell culture and drug release. The CAD model is developed from in vivo brain MRI tracing of the corpus callosum using open-source software, printed with poly (lactic-acid on a Makerbot Replicator 5X, UV-sterilized, and coated with poly (lysine for cellular adhesion. Adaptations of material and 3D printer for expanded applications are also discussed.

  14. Low-cost, rapidly-developed, 3D printed in vitro corpus callosum model for mucopolysaccharidosis type I [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Tabet

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of high throughput screening and the general inability of (1 two dimensional (2D cell culture and (2 in vitro release studies to predict in vivo neurobiological and pharmacokinetic responses in humans has led to greater interest in more realistic three dimensional (3D benchtop platforms. Advantages of 3D human cell culture over its 2D analogue, or even animal models, include taking the effects of microgeometry and long-range topological features into consideration. In the era of personalized medicine, it has become increasingly valuable to screen candidate molecules and synergistic therapeutics at a patient-specific level, in particular for diseases that manifest in highly variable ways. The lack of established standards and the relatively arbitrary choice of probing conditions has limited in vitro drug release to a largely qualitative assessment as opposed to a predictive, quantitative measure of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in tissue. Here we report the methods used in the rapid, low-cost development of a 3D model of a mucopolysaccharidosis type I patient’s corpus callosum, which may be used for cell culture and drug release. The CAD model is developed from in vivo brain MRI tracing of the corpus callosum using open-source software, printed with poly (lactic-acid on a Makerbot Replicator 5X, UV-sterilized, and coated with poly (lysine for cellular adhesion. Adaptations of material and 3D printer for expanded applications are also discussed.

  15. Impact of in utero exposure to EtOH on corpus callosum development and paw preference in rats: protective effects of silymarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montoya Rebecca

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a rat model we have found that the bioflavonoid silymarin (SY ameliorates some of the negative consequences of in utero exposure to ethanol (EtOH. In the current study our aim was to determine if laterality preference and corpus callosum development were altered in rat offspring whose mothers were provided with a concomitant administration of SY with EtOH throughout gestation. Methods We provided pregnant Fisher/344 rats with liquid diets containing 35% ethanol derived calories (EDC throughout the gestational period. A silymarin/phospholipid compound containing 29.8% silybin was co administered with EtOH to a separate experimental group. We tested the offspring for laterality preference at age 12 weeks. After testing the rats were sacrificed and their brains perfused for later corpus callosum extraction. Results We observed incomplete development of the splenium in the EtOH-only offspring. Callosal development was complete in all other treatment groups. Rats from the EtOH-only group displayed a left paw preference; whereas control rats were evenly divided between right and left paw preference. Inexplicably both SY groups were largely right paw preferring. Conclusions The addition of SY to the EtOH liquid diet did confer some ameliorative effects upon the developing fetal rat brain.

  16. Transient focal lesion in the splenium of the corpus callosum: MR imaging with an attempt to clinical-physiopathological explanation and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, M; Salis, A; Urigo, C; Canalis, L; Frau, S; Canalis, G C

    2007-09-01

    This article discusses the possible pathophysiological conditions responsible for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) finding of transient focal lesions in the splenium of the corpus callosum on the basis of our experience and a review of the literature. In six patients undergoing computed tomography (CT) and MRI examinations, focal nonhemorrhagic lesions of the splenium of the corpus callosum were incidentally discovered. Patients had been referred for suspected encephalitis (n=2), dural sinus thrombosis (n=1) and multiple sclerosis (n=3). MRI examinations were repeated after 4, 8 and 12 weeks and in two cases also after 6 and 9 months. MRI and medical records were retrospectively reviewed with respect to patients' clinical history, medication and laboratory findings to define lesion aetiology. In all patients, the lesions were isolated, reversible and with no contrast enhancement. In four patients, the lesion disappeared after complete remission of the underlying disease, whereas in two patients, they persisted for 6 and 9 months, respectively. To our knowledge and according to previous reports, the fact that these lesions are detected in a relatively large number of conditions with heterogeneous etiopathogenetic factors leads to the hypothesis that a common underlying pathophysiological mechanism that, considering signal characteristic, reversibility and white matter location, could be represented by vasogenic oedema.

  17. The prune belly syndrome in a female foetus with urorectal septum malformation sequence: a case report on a rare entity with an unusual association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Dibyajyoti; Kusre, Giriraj; Dutta, Hemonta Kumar; Sarma, Adity

    2013-08-01

    The prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly which is characterized by the triad of an absent or a deficient development of the abdominal muscle, bilateral cryptorchidism and an anomalous urinary tract. In its full form, this condition occurs only in males. However, a similar condition occurs in females in the absence of cryptorchidism. On the other hand, the urorectal septum malformation sequence is a lethal congenital malformation which is characterized by the development of a phallus like structure, a smooth perineum and the absence of urethral, vaginal and anal openings. We are reporting a case of a female foetus with the prune belly syndrome, which was associated with a urorectal septum malformation sequence. A dead foetus with a protruded abdomen and ambiguous genitalia, was born at 32 weeks of pregnancy. On autopsy, it was found to have female internal genital organs. The left kidney, the urinary bladder and the rectum were absent. The sigmoid colon, the ureters and the fallopian tubes opened into a common cloacal sac. The histopathological examination of the ovary showed the presence of Leydig's cells. The occurrence of the female counterpart of the prune belly syndrome is extremely rare and only few of such cases were found to be discussed in the details in the indexed English literature so far. Hence, we hope that this case report will contribute to the existing knowledge on the prune belly syndrome.

  18. Long-term effects of immunotoxic cholinergic lesions in the septum on acquisition of the cone-field task and noncognitive measures in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Staay, F Josef; Bouger, Pascale; Lehmann, Olivia; Lazarus, Christine; Cosquer, Brigitte; Koenig, Julie; Stump, Veronika; Cassel, Jean-Christophe

    2006-01-01

    In rats, nonspecific mechanical or neurotoxic lesions of the septum impair spatial memory in, e.g., Morris water- and radial-maze tasks. Unfortunately, the lack of specificity of such lesions limits inferences about the role of the cholinergic hippocampal projections in spatial cognition. We therefore tested the effects of septal lesions produced by 192 IgG-saporin in rats, which is highly selective for basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, on home cage activity, noncognitive tests (modified Irwin test, open field and forced swimming tests, and various sensorimotor tasks), and the cone-field spatial learning task. The immunotoxic lesion reduced acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the septum (-61%) and hippocampus (>-75%). Rats with lesions showed mild home-cage hyperactivity at 4 weeks postlesion, but no noncognitive deficits at 13 weeks postsurgery. In the cone-field task, rats with septal lesions made more working- and reference-memory errors than the controls, but acquisition curves were parallel in both groups. The speed of visiting cones was faster in the rats with lesions, indicative of disturbed attention or increased motivation. These data support the growing evidence that involvement of the septohippocampal cholinergic system in spatial learning and memory may have been overestimated in studies that used lesions with poor selectivity. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. An exome sequencing study of Moebius syndrome including atypical cases reveals an individual with CFEOM3A and a TUBB3 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ronak M; Liu, David; Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Jhangiani, Shalini; Lu, James T; Sutton, V Reid; Fernbach, Susan D; Azamian, Mahshid; White, Lisa; Edmond, Jane C; Paysse, Evelyn A; Belmont, John W; Muzny, Donna; Lupski, James R; Gibbs, Richard A; Lewis, Richard Alan; Lee, Brendan H; Lalani, Seema R; Campeau, Philippe M

    2017-03-01

    Moebius syndrome is characterized by congenital unilateral or bilateral facial and abducens nerve palsies (sixth and seventh cranial nerves) causing facial weakness, feeding difficulties, and restricted ocular movements. Abnormalities of the chest wall such as Poland anomaly and variable limb defects are frequently associated with this syndrome. Most cases are isolated; however, rare families with autosomal dominant transmission with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity have been described. The genetic basis of this condition remains unknown. In a cohort study of nine individuals suspected to have Moebius syndrome (six typical, three atypical), we performed whole-exome sequencing to try to identify a commonly mutated gene. Although no such gene was identified and we did not find mutations in PLXND1 and REV3L, we found a de novo heterozygous mutation, p.E410K, in the gene encoding tubulin beta 3 class III (TUBB3), in an individual with atypical Moebius syndrome. This individual was diagnosed with near-complete ophthalmoplegia, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and absence of the septum pellucidum. No substantial limb abnormalities were noted. Mutations in TUBB3 have been associated with complex cortical dysplasia and other brain malformations and congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 3A (CFEOM3A). Our report highlights the overlap of genetic etiology and clinical differences between CFEOM and Moebius syndrome and describes our approach to identifying candidate genes for typical and atypical Moebius syndrome.

  20. Seizures and electroencephalography findings in 61 patients with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronat, S; Vicente, M; Lainez, E; Sánchez-Montañez, A; Vázquez, E; Mangado, L; Martínez-Ribot, L; Del Campo, M

    2017-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) cause neurodevelopmental abnormalities. However, publications about epilepsy and electroencephalographic features are scarce. In this study, we prospectively performed electroencephalography (EEG) and brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in 61 patients with diagnosis of FASD. One patient had multiple febrile seizures with normal EEGs. Fourteen children showed EEG anomalies, including slow background activity and interictal epileptiform discharges, focal and/or generalized, and 3 of them had epilepsy. In one patient, seizures were first detected during the EEG recording and one case had an encephalopathy with electrical status epilepticus during slow sleep (ESES). Focal interictal discharges in our patients did not imply the presence of underlying visible focal brain lesions in the neuroimaging studies, such as cortical dysplasia or polymicrogyria. However, they had nonspecific brain MR abnormalities, including corpus callosum hypoplasia, vermis hypoplasia or cavum septum pellucidum. The latter was significantly more frequent in the group with EEG abnormal findings (p < 0.01). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Forced abstinence from cocaine self-administration is associated with DNA methylation changes in myelin genes in the corpus callosum: a preliminary study

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    David Andrew Nielsen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human cocaine abuse is associated with alterations in white matter integrity revealed upon brain imaging, an observation that is recapitulated in an animal model of continuous cocaine exposure. The mechanism through which cocaine may affect white matter is unknown and the present study tested the hypothesis that cocaine self-administration results in changes in DNA methylation that could result in altered expression of several myelin genes that could contribute to the effects of cocaine on white matter integrity.Methods: In the present study, we examined the impact of forced abstinence from cocaine self-administration on chromatin-associated changes in white matter. To this end, rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (0.75 mg/kg/0.1 ml infusion for 14 days followed by forced abstinence for 1 day (N = 6 or 30 days (N = 6 before sacrifice. Drug-free, sham surgery controls (n = 7 were paired with the experimental groups. Global DNA methylation and DNA methylation at specific CpG sites in the promoter regions of myelin basic protein (Mbp, proteolipid protein-1 (Plp1, and SRY-related HMG-box-10 (Sox10 genes were analyzed in DNA extracted from corpus callosum.Results: Significant differences in the overall methylation patterns of the Sox10 promoter region were observed in the corpus callosum of rats at 30 days of forced abstinence from cocaine self-administration relative to sham controls; the -189, -142, -93 and -62 CpG sites were significantly hypomethylated point-wise at this time point. After correction for multiple comparisons, no differences in global methylation or the methylation patterns of Mbp or Plp1 were found.Conclusions: Forced abstinence from cocaine self-administration was associated with differences in DNA methylation at specific CpG sites in the promoter region of the Sox10 gene in corpus callosum. These changes may be related to reductions in normal age related changes in DNA methylation and could be a factor in

  2. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor activation regulates cocaine actions and dopamine homeostasis in the lateral septum by decreasing arachidonic acid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, I A; Pino, J A; Weikop, P

    2016-01-01

    Agonism of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) has been effective at treating aspects of addictive behavior for a number of abused substances, including cocaine. However, the molecular mechanisms and brain circuits underlying the therapeutic effects of GLP-1R signaling on cocaine...... actions remain elusive. Recent evidence has revealed that endogenous signaling at the GLP-1R within the forebrain lateral septum (LS) acts to reduce cocaine-induced locomotion and cocaine conditioned place preference, both considered dopamine (DA)-associated behaviors. DA terminals project from...... the ventral tegmental area to the LS and express the DA transporter (DAT). Cocaine acts by altering DA bioavailability by targeting the DAT. Therefore, GLP-1R signaling might exert effects on DAT to account for its regulation of cocaine-induced behaviors. We show that the GLP-1R is highly expressed within...

  3. Repeated successful surgical rescues of early and delayed multiple ruptures of ventricular septum, right ventricle and aneurysmal left ventricle following massive biventricular infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaul Pankaj

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 58 year old man underwent 6 surgical interventions for various complications of massive biventricular myocardial infarction over a period of 2 years following acute occlusion of a possibly "hyperdominant" left anterior descending coronary artery. These included concomitant repair of apicoanterior post-infarction VSD and right ventricular free wall rupture, repeat repair of recurrent VSD following inferoposterior extension of VSD in the infarcted septum 5 weeks later, repair of delayed right ventricular free wall rupture 4 weeks subsequently, repair of a bleeding left ventricular aneurysm eroding through left chest wall 16 months thereafter, repair of right upper lobe lung tear causing massive anterior mediastinal haemorrhage, mimicking yet another cardiac rupture, 2 months later, followed, at the same admission, 2 weeks later, by sternal reconstruction for dehisced and infected sternum using pedicled myocutaneous latissimus dorsi flap. 5 years after the latissimus myoplasty, the patient remains in NYHA class 1 and is leading a normal life.

  4. QUIZ CASE Paediatric neuro-imaging: Diagnosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Along with the posterior frontal and parietal lobe cerebral fusion, note the absence of the septum pellucidum and fused frontal horns of the lateral ventricles (Figs 2 - 4). The sylvian fissures appear continuous across the hemispheres. MRA of the intracranial vessels (Fig. 5) demonstrates an azygous anterior cerebral artery.

  5. [Selected aspects of social cognition in patient with total agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) and Arnold-Chiari desease--case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniluk, Beata; Borkowska, Aneta R; Kaliszewska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the research was a characteristic of emotional-social competencies and communicative abilities in a 16-years old patient with ACC and Arnold-Chiari disease and higher than average intelligence. RHLB-PL was applied. Total score in RHLB-PL suggested language and communication impairment. The greatest problems were observed in the field of behavioral self-control and discourse abilities. The patient had difficulties in the topic of the discourse maintaining, resisting from production of unconnected topics and comments, interject inappropriate remarks. Problems in humor comprehension and the dissociation between relative high level of written metaphors analysis abilities and low level of Picture Metaphors perception and explanation were observed. Linguistic Prosody was average. Patient M.J. with agenesis of corpus callosum presented high number of deficits typical in right hemisphere damage patients. It is possible to explain that fact in the context of interhemispheric transfer disorders, specially when complex material was processed.

  6. Expression of c-Fos protein in medial septum/diagonal band of Broca and CA3 region, associated with the temporary inactivation of the supramammillary area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Lourdes

    2016-07-01

    The supramammillary (SuM) area is part of the diencephalic nuclei comprising the mammillary bodies, and is a key structure in the memory and spatial learning processes. It is a critical region in the modulation/generation of hippocampal theta rhythm. In addition, many papers have recently shown a clear involvement of this structure in the processes of spatial learning and memory in animal models, although it is still not known how it modulates spatial navigation and response emotional. The aim of the present research was to study the effect of the temporary inactivation of the SuM area on synaptic plasticity of crucial structures in the formation of spatial memory and emotional response. Sprague-Dawley rats were asigned in three groups: a control group where the animals were not subjected to any treatment, and two groups where the rats received microinjections of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in the SuM area (5ng diluted in 0.5μl of saline) or saline (0.5μl). The microinjections were administered 90min before the perfusion. Later, cellular activity in medial septum/diagonal band of Broca (MS/DBB) and CA3 region of the dorsal hippocampus was assessed, by measuring the immediate early gene c-fos. The results show a clear hiperactivity cellular in medial septum/diagonal band of Broca and a clear hypoactivity cellular in the CA3 region of the hippocampus when there was a functional inactivation of the SuM area. It suggests that the SuM area seems to be part of the connection and information input pathways to CA3 region of the hippocampal formation, key for proper functioning in spatial memory and emotional response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A New Approach to Suppress the Effect of Machining Error for Waveguide Septum Circular Polarizer at 230 GHz Band in Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yutaka; Harada, Ryohei; Tokuda, Kazuki; Kimura, Kimihiro; Ogawa, Hideo; Onishi, Toshikazu; Nishimura, Atsushi; Han, Johnson; Inoue, Makoto

    2017-05-01

    A new stepped septum-type waveguide circular polarizer (SST-CP) was developed to operate in the 230 GHz band for radio astronomy, especially submillimeter-band VLBI observations. For previously reported SST-CP models, the 230 GHz band is too high to achieve the design characteristics in manufactured devices because of unexpected machining errors. To realize a functional SST-CP that can operate in the submillimeter band, a new method was developed, in which the division surface is shifted from the top step of the septum to the second step from the top, and we simulated the expected machining error. The SST-CP using this method can compensate for specified machining errors and suppress serious deterioration. To verify the proposed method, several test pieces were manufactured, and their characteristics were measured using a VNA. These results indicated that the insertion losses were approximately 0.75 dB, and the input return losses and the crosstalk of the left- and right-hand circular polarization were greater than 20 dB at 220-245 GHz on 300 K. Moreover, a 230 GHz SST-CP was developed by the proposed method and installed in a 1.85-m radio telescope receiver systems, and then had used for scientific observations during one observation season without any problems. These achievements demonstrate the successful development of a 230 GHz SST-CP for radio astronomical observations. Furthermore, the proposed method can be applicable for observations in higher frequency bands, such as 345 GHz.

  8. Electroencephalographic changes in the lateral septum complex following systemic administration of DES-TYR1 -[alpha]-endorphin, Des-Tyr1-[gamma]-endorphin and haloperidol in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, I.J.A.; Wied, D. de

    1982-01-01

    The influence of systemically administered Des-Tyr1-α-endorphin (DTαE), Des-Tyr1-γ-endorphin (DTγE) and haloperidol on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity of the lateral septum complex (LSC) and the frontal cortex was studied in male rats. DTαE (2 μg) significantly increased whereas DTγE (10 μg)

  9. Influence of nasal septum deformity on nasal obstruction, disease severity, and medical treatment response among children and adolescents with persistent allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño-Sánchez, Franklin; Valls-Mateus, Meritxell; Cardenas-Escalante, Paulina; Haag, Oliver; Ruiz-Echevarría, Karen; Jiménez-Feijoo, Rosa; Lozano-Blasco, Jaime; Giner-Muñoz, María T; Plaza-Martin, Ana M; Mullol, Joaquim

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of different types of nasal septum deformity (NSD) on nasal obstruction, rhinitis severity and response to medical treatment among pediatric persistent allergic rhinitis (PER) patients. In a prospective, real-life study, 150 children and adolescents (mean age 13 ± 2.8 years, females 32.6%) diagnosed with PER according to ARIA guidelines were assessed by nasal endoscopy for NSD according to Mladina's classification, their response to medical treatment (intranasal steroids and antihistamines or antileucotriens), the presence of comorbidities, rhinitis severity (modified-ARIA criterion) and nasal obstruction visual analog scale score (VAS). Most patients (87%) had 1 of the 7 types of septal deformities. There was a high prevalence of bilateral (types 4 and 6; 46%) and anterior unilateral (types 1 and 2; 25%) NSD in patients not responding to medical treatment. Type 4 (OR = 6.4; p = 0.005) or type 6 (OR = 4.4; p = 0.03) NSD increased the risk of lack of improvement with medical treatment. Coexistence of anterior unilateral or bilateral NSD with severe turbinate enlargement increased >20-fold the risk of lack of improvement. Patients with bilateral NSD presented greater rhinitis severity. Non-responder adolescents displayed higher prevalence of bilateral NSD than children (53% vs. 23%; p = 0.02). Nasal obstruction VAS was higher for patients with anterior than posterior NSD, and greater for patients with bilateral NSD than any other type of septal morphology. Nasal endoscopy shows that bilateral and unilateral anterior nasal septum deformities are strongly associated with a poor response to medical treatment, greater rhinitis severity and higher nasal obstruction VAS. Consequently, nasal endoscopy is necessary in the PER patients to understand the disease severity as well as to plan a specific surgical treatment in order to improve nasal obstruction, disease severity, and patient's quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  10. Accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound for diagnosis of deep endometriosis in uterosacral ligaments, rectovaginal septum, vagina and bladder: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, S; Ajossa, S; Minguez, J A; Jurado, M; Mais, V; Melis, G B; Alcazar, J L

    2015-11-01

    To review the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) in the preoperative detection of endometriosis in the uterosacral ligaments (USL), rectovaginal septum (RVS), vagina and bladder in patients with clinical suspicion of deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). An extensive search was performed in MEDLINE (PubMed) and EMBASE for studies published between January 1989 and December 2014. Studies were considered eligible if they reported on the use of TVS for the preoperative detection of endometriosis in the USL, RVS, vagina and bladder in women with clinical suspicion of DIE using the surgical data as a reference standard. Study quality was assessed using the PRISMA guidelines and QUADAS-2 tool. Of the 801 citations identified, 11 studies (n = 1583) were considered eligible and were included in the meta-analysis. For detection of endometriosis in the USL, the overall pooled sensitivity and specificity of TVS were 53% (95%CI, 35-70%) and 93% (95%CI, 83-97%), respectively. The pretest probability of USL endometriosis was 54%, which increased to 90% when suspicion of endometriosis was present after TVS examination. For detection of endometriosis in the RVS, the overall pooled sensitivity and specificity were 49% (95%CI, 36-62%) and 98% (95%CI, 95-99%), respectively. The pretest probability of RVS endometriosis was 24%, which increased to 89% when suspicion of endometriosis was present after TVS examination. For detection of vaginal endometriosis, the overall pooled sensitivity and specificity were 58% (95%CI, 40-74%) and 96% (95%CI, 87-99%), respectively. The pretest probability of vaginal endometriosis was 17%, which increased to 76% when suspicion of endometriosis was present after TVS assessment. Substantial heterogeneity was found for sensitivity and specificity for all these locations. For detection of bladder endometriosis, the overall pooled sensitivity and specificity were 62% (95%CI, 40-80%) and 100% (95%CI, 97-100%), respectively. Moderate

  11. Both rare and de novo copy number variants are prevalent in agenesis of the corpus callosum but not in cerebellar hypoplasia or polymicrogyria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samin A Sajan

    Full Text Available Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC, cerebellar hypoplasia (CBLH, and polymicrogyria (PMG are severe congenital brain malformations with largely undiscovered causes. We conducted a large-scale chromosomal copy number variation (CNV discovery effort in 255 ACC, 220 CBLH, and 147 PMG patients, and 2,349 controls. Compared to controls, significantly more ACC, but unexpectedly not CBLH or PMG patients, had rare genic CNVs over one megabase (p = 1.48×10⁻³; odds ratio [OR] = 3.19; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.89-5.39. Rare genic CNVs were those that impacted at least one gene in less than 1% of the combined population of patients and controls. Compared to controls, significantly more ACC but not CBLH or PMG patients had rare CNVs impacting over 20 genes (p = 0.01; OR = 2.95; 95% CI = 1.69-5.18. Independent qPCR confirmation showed that 9.4% of ACC patients had de novo CNVs. These, in comparison to inherited CNVs, preferentially overlapped de novo CNVs previously observed in patients with autism spectrum disorders (p = 3.06×10⁻⁴; OR = 7.55; 95% CI = 2.40-23.72. Interestingly, numerous reports have shown a reduced corpus callosum area in autistic patients, and diminished social and executive function in many ACC patients. We also confirmed and refined previously known CNVs, including significantly narrowing the 8p23.1-p11.1 duplication present in 2% of our current ACC cohort. We found six novel CNVs, each in a single patient, that are likely deleterious: deletions of 1p31.3-p31.1, 1q31.2-q31.3, 5q23.1, and 15q11.2-q13.1; and duplications of 2q11.2-q13 and 11p14.3-p14.2. One ACC patient with microcephaly had a paternally inherited deletion of 16p13.11 that included NDE1. Exome sequencing identified a recessive maternally inherited nonsense mutation in the non-deleted allele of NDE1, revealing the complexity of ACC genetics. This is the first systematic study of CNVs in congenital brain malformations, and

  12. A Newborn with Icthyosis, Corpus Callosum Hypoplasia, Microcephaly, Atrichia and Intra Uterine Growth Retardation (IUGR: AVariant of Icthyosis Follicularis Atrichia Photophobia (IFAP or Brain Anomalies, Retardation, Ectodermal Dysplasia, Skeletal Deformities, Hirschsprung Disease, Ear/Eye Anomalies, Cleft Palate, Cryptorchidism (BRESHECK?

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    Gurudutt S. Joshi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A full term newborn small for gestational age Intra Uterine Growth Retardation (IUGR admitted with congenital dysmorphic features with icthyosis, atrichia, microcephaly and eye abnormalities, when explored further for other congenital malformations, revealed Corpus callosum hypoplasia and closely related features with two rare syndromes Icthyosis Follicularis Atrichia Photophobia (IFAP or Brain Anomalies Retardation, Ectodermal Dysplasia, Skeletal Deformities, Hirschsprung Disease, Hemivertebrae, Ear/Eye Anomalies, and Kidney Dysplasia (BRESHECK.

  13. Automatic Segmentation of the Corpus Callosum Using a Cell-Competition Algorithm: Diffusion Tensor Imaging-Based Evaluation of Callosal Atrophy and Tissue Alterations in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shiou-Ping; Wu, Chien-Sheng; Cheng, Jie-Zhi; Chen, Chung-Ming; Chen, Yu-Chiang; Chou, Ming-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Patients with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) may exhibit corpus callosal atrophy and tissue alterations. Measuring the callosal volume and tissue integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could help to differentiate patients with NPSLE from patients without NPSLE. Hence, this study aimed to use an automatic cell-competition algorithm to segment the corpus callosum and to investigate the effects of central nervous system (CNS) involvement on the callosal volume and tissue integrity in patients with SLE. Twenty-two SLE patients with (N = 10, NPSLE) and without (N = 12, non-NPSLE) CNS involvement and 22 control subjects were enrolled in this study. For volumetric measurement, a cell-competition algorithm was used to automatically delineate corpus callosal boundaries based on a midsagittal fractional anisotropy (FA) map. After obtaining corpus callosal boundaries for all subjects, the volume, FA, and mean diffusivity (MD) of the corpus callosum were calculated. A post hoc Tamhane's T2 analysis was performed to statistically compare differences among NPSLE, non-NPSLE, and control subjects. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was also performed to compare the performance of the volume, FA, and MD of the corpus callosum in differentiating NPSLE from other subjects. Patients with NPSLE had significant decreases in volume and FA but an increase in MD in the corpus callosum compared with control subjects, whereas no significant difference was noted between patients without NPSLE and control subjects. The FA was found to have better performance in differentiating NPSLE from other subjects. A cell-competition algorithm could be used to automatically evaluate callosal atrophy and tissue alterations. Assessments of the corpus callosal volume and tissue integrity helped to demonstrate the effects of CNS involvement in patients with SLE.

  14. Cambios en el cuerpo calloso posteriores a derivación ventricular: Descripción de dos casos y revisión del tema Imaging changes in the corpus callosum after ventricular shunting: Case reports and literature review

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    Santiago Vallejo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan dos pacientes sometidos a derivación ventricular por hidrocefalia idiopática y cisticercosis del cuarto ventrículo, respectivamente. En la resonancia magnética (RM de control se encontró un aumento en el tamaño del cuerpo calloso con zonas de prolongación de los tiempos de relajación sin restricción en la secuencia de difusión. Las teorías fisiopatológicas mencionan: efectos mecánicos directos tras la colocación de la derivación, efecto compresivo crónico sobre el cuerpo calloso contra la hoz cerebral por la hidrocefalia, tracción de ramas perforantes de las arterias pericallosas que conduce a isquemia (probablemente ausente en estudios prequirúrgicos por el adelgazamiento del cuerpo calloso y descompresión, luego de la derivación, que produce reexpansión del cuerpo calloso y edema intersticial del mismo. Los hallazgos pueden explicarse por el antecedente de derivación e hidrocefalia sin repercusión clínica aparente.We report the cases of two patients with ventricular drainage due to idiopathic hydrocephalus and fourth ventricle cysticercosis, respectively. A follow-up MRI demonstrated increased volume of the corpus callosum with areas of prolonged relaxation without restriction on water diffusion sequences. Pathophysiologic theories include direct mechanical effects after the catheter insertion, chronic compression of the corpus callosum against the falx due to hydrocephalus, ischemia due to elongation of perforating pericallosal arteries not detected before shunting due to thinning of the corpus callosum, and decompressive changes leading to corpus callosum expansion and interstitial edema. These findings might be related to the history of ventricular shunt and hydrocephalus with no apparent clinical significance.

  15. Infusion of GAT1-saporin into the medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band disrupts self-movement cue processing and spares mnemonic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppen, Jenny R; Winter, Shawn S; Stuebing, Sarah L; Cheatwood, Joseph L; Wallace, Douglas G

    2013-09-01

    Degeneration of the septohippocampal system is associated with the progression of Dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT). Impairments in mnemonic function and spatial orientation become more severe as DAT progresses. Although evidence supports a role for cholinergic function in these impairments, relatively few studies have examined the contribution of the septohippocampal GABAergic component to mnemonic function or spatial orientation. The current study uses the rat food-hoarding paradigm and water maze tasks to characterize the mnemonic and spatial impairments associated with infusing GAT1-Saporin into the medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band (MS/VDB). Although infusion of GAT1-Saporin significantly reduced parvalbumin-positive cells in the MS/VDB, no reductions in markers of cholinergic function were observed in the hippocampus. In general, performance was spared during spatial tasks that provided access to environmental cues. In contrast, GAT1-Saporin rats did not accurately carry the food pellet to the refuge during the dark probe. These observations are consistent with infusion of GAT1-Saporin into the MS/VDB resulting in spared mnemonic function and use of environmental cues; however, self-movement cue processing was compromised. This interpretation is consistent with a growing literature demonstrating a role for the septohippocampal system in self-movement cue processing.

  16. Role of Inn1 and its interactions with Hof1 and Cyk3 in promoting cleavage furrow and septum formation in S. cerevisiae

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    Nishihama, Ryuichi; Schreiter, Jennifer H.; Onishi, Masayuki; Vallen, Elizabeth A.; Hanna, Julia; Moravcevic, Katarina; Lippincott, Margaret F.; Han, Haesun; Lemmon, Mark A.; Pringle, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Cytokinesis requires coordination of actomyosin ring (AMR) contraction with rearrangements of the plasma membrane and extracellular matrix. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, new membrane, the chitin synthase Chs2 (which forms the primary septum [PS]), and the protein Inn1 are all delivered to the division site upon mitotic exit even when the AMR is absent. Inn1 is essential for PS formation but not for Chs2 localization. The Inn1 C-terminal region is necessary for localization, and distinct PXXP motifs in this region mediate functionally important interactions with SH3 domains in the cytokinesis proteins Hof1 (an F-BAR protein) and Cyk3 (whose overexpression can restore PS formation in inn1Δ cells). The Inn1 N terminus resembles C2 domains but does not appear to bind phospholipids; nonetheless, when overexpressed or fused to Hof1, it can provide Inn1 function even in the absence of the AMR. Thus, Inn1 and Cyk3 appear to cooperate in activating Chs2 for PS formation, which allows coordination of AMR contraction with ingression of the cleavage furrow. PMID:19528296

  17. Cholinergic neuronal lesions in the medial septum and vertical limb of the diagonal bands of Broca induce contextual fear memory generalization and impair acquisition of fear extinction.

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    Knox, Dayan; Keller, Samantha M

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and hippocampus (Hipp) are critical for extinction memory. Basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic input to the vmPFC and Hipp is critical for neural function in these substrates, which suggests BF cholinergic neurons may be critical for extinction memory. In order to test this hypothesis, we applied cholinergic lesions to different regions of the BF and observed the effects these lesions had on extinction memory. Complete BF cholinergic lesions induced contextual fear memory generalization, and this generalized fear was resistant to extinction. Animals with complete BF cholinergic lesions could not acquire cued fear extinction. Restricted cholinergic lesions in the medial septum and vertical diagonal bands of Broca (MS/vDBB) mimicked the effects that BF cholinergic lesions had on contextual fear memory generalization and acquisition of fear extinction. Cholinergic lesions in the horizontal diagonal band of Broca and nucleus basalis (hDBB/NBM) induced a small deficit in extinction of generalized contextual fear memory with no accompanying deficits in cued fear extinction. The results of this study reveal that MS/vDBB cholinergic neurons are critical for inhibition and extinction of generalized contextual fear memory, and via this process, may be critical for acquisition of cued fear extinction. Further studies delineating neural circuits and mechanisms through which MS/vDBB cholinergic neurons facilitate these emotional memory processes are needed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. LytR-CpsA-Psr proteins in Staphylococcus aureus display partial functional redundancy and the deletion of all three severely impairs septum placement and cell separation.

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    Over, Benjamin; Heusser, Ronald; McCallum, Nadine; Schulthess, Bettina; Kupferschmied, Peter; Gaiani, Jessica M; Sifri, Costi D; Berger-Bächi, Brigitte; Stutzmann Meier, Patricia

    2011-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus contains three members of the LytR-CpsA-Psr (LCP) family of membrane proteins: MsrR, SA0908 and SA2103. The characterization of single-, double- and triple-deletion mutants revealed distinct phenotypes for each of the three proteins. MsrR was involved in cell separation and septum formation and influenced β-lactam resistance; SA0908 protected cells from autolysis; and SA2103, although displaying no apparent phenotype by itself, enhanced the properties of msrR and sa0908 mutants when deleted. The deletion of sa0908 and sa2103 also further attenuated the virulence of msrR mutants in a nematode-killing assay. The severely defective growth phenotype of the triple mutant revealed that LytR-CpsA-Psr proteins are essential for optimal cell division in S. aureus. Growth could be rescued to varying degrees by any one of the three proteins, indicating some functional redundancy within members of this protein family. However, differing phenotypic characteristics of all single and double mutants and complemented triple mutants indicated that each protein played a distinct role(s) and contributed differently to phenotypes influencing cell separation, autolysis, cell surface properties and virulence. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Injection of specific amyloid-beta oligomers (beta₁₋₄₀:beta₁₋₄₂ = 10:1) into rat medial septum impairs memory retention without inducing hippocampal apoptosis.

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    Ozdemir, Mehmet Bülent; Erdogan, Cagdas; Iwasaki, Katsunori; Watanabe, Takuya; Ishikane, Shin; Fujiwara, Michihiro

    2013-10-01

    Because of the well-known neurochemical interactions between the septum and hippocampus during memory processes, we investigated the effect of amyloid-beta (A-beta) injection into the medial septum (MS) on the behavior in Wistar rats. We also assessed whether the observed effects were functional or due to apoptosis. Specific A-beta oligomers (beta1-40:beta1-42 = 10:1) were injected into MS for seven consecutive days. Behavior was assessed with the Morris water maze task. Compared with the control group, rats that received A-beta oligomers exhibited significant memory retention impairment (P memory retention, even in the absence of hippocampal apoptosis. This result might bring new insight to spatial memory-related disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD).

  20. 3D pre- versus post-season comparisons of surface and relative pose of the corpus callosum in contact sport athletes

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    Lao, Yi; Gajawelli, Niharika; Haas, Lauren; Wilkins, Bryce; Hwang, Darryl; Tsao, Sinchai; Wang, Yalin; Law, Meng; Leporé, Natasha

    2014-03-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) or concussive injury affects 1.7 million Americans annually, of which 300,000 are due to recreational activities and contact sports, such as football, rugby, and boxing[1]. Finding the neuroanatomical correlates of brain TBI non-invasively and precisely is crucial for diagnosis and prognosis. Several studies have shown the in influence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on the integrity of brain WM [2-4]. The vast majority of these works focus on athletes with diagnosed concussions. However, in contact sports, athletes are subjected to repeated hits to the head throughout the season, and we hypothesize that these have an influence on white matter integrity. In particular, the corpus callosum (CC), as a small structure connecting the brain hemispheres, may be particularly affected by torques generated by collisions, even in the absence of full blown concussions. Here, we use a combined surface-based morphometry and relative pose analyses, applying on the point distribution model (PDM) of the CC, to investigate TBI related brain structural changes between 9 pre-season and 9 post-season contact sport athlete MRIs. All the data are fed into surface based morphometry analysis and relative pose analysis. The former looks at surface area and thickness changes between the two groups, while the latter consists of detecting the relative translation, rotation and scale between them.

  1. Antisaccadic eye movements are correlated with corpus callosum white matter mean diffusivity, stroop performance and symptom burden in mild traumatic brain injury and concussion

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    Windsor Kwan-Chun eTing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antisaccades are thought to involve higher level inputs from neural centers involved in rapid eye movement inhibition and control. Previous work has demonstrated that performance on the antisaccade task can help in assessment of injury in acute and/or chronic mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI. In this exploratory study we performed cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons of rapid eye movement, followed by correlations of antisaccade performance with assessments of symptom burden, diffusion tensor imaging, and a neuropsychological test of response inhibition. Significant deficits in antisaccade median latency, F(2, 31 = 3.65, p = 0.04 and prosaccade error mean duration, F(2, 31 = 3.63, p = 0.04 were found between patient groups and controls: the former was correlated with loss of white matter integrity in the splenium of the corpus callosum in acute mTBI, rho (8 = 0.90, p = 0.0005. Furthermore, increased antisaccade median latency was also correlated with poor performance on an executive functioning task, r2 = 0.439, p = 0.03, and greater symptom burden, r2 = 0.480, p = 0.02 in the acute mTBI patients. Our preliminary research suggests that the antisaccade task could be useful as a neurological marker for mTBI and concussion but more work is required.

  2. Sex-related difference in human white matter volumes studied: Inspection of the corpus callosum and other white matter by VBM

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    Shiino, Akihiko; Chen, Yen-Wei; Tanigaki, Kenji; Yamada, Atsushi; Vigers, Piers; Watanabe, Toshiyuki; Tooyama, Ikuo; Akiguchi, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    It has been contended that any observed difference of the corpus callosum (CC) size between men and women is not sex-related but brain-size-related. A recent report, however, showed that the midsagittal CC area was significantly larger in women in 37 brain-size-matched pairs of normal young adults. Since this constituted strong evidence of sexual dimorphism and was obtained from publicly available data in OASIS, we examined volume differences within the CC and in other white matter using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We created a three-dimensional region of interest of the CC and measured its volume. The VBM statistics were analyzed by permutation test and threshold-free cluster enhancement (TFCE) with the significance levels at FWER Broca’s area were larger in women, whereas there were no significant larger regions in men. Since we used brain-size-matched subjects, our results gave strong volumetric evidence of localized sexual dimorphism of white matter.

  3. A T1 and DTI fused 3D corpus callosum analysis in MCI subjects with high and low cardiovascular risk profile

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    Yi Lao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the extent to which vascular disease and its risk factors are associated with prodromal dementia, notably Alzheimer's disease (AD, may enhance predictive accuracy as well as guide early interventions. One promising avenue to determine this relationship consists of looking for reliable and sensitive in-vivo imaging methods capable of characterizing the subtle brain alterations before the clinical manifestations. However, little is known from the imaging perspective about how risk factors such as vascular disease influence AD progression. Here, for the first time, we apply an innovative T1 and DTI fusion analysis of 3D corpus callosum (CC on mild cognitive impairment (MCI populations with different levels of vascular profile, aiming to de-couple the vascular factor in the prodromal AD stage. Our new fusion method successfully increases the detection power for differentiating MCI subjects with high from low vascular risk profiles, as well as from healthy controls. MCI subjects with high and low vascular risk profiles showed differed alteration patterns in the anterior CC, which may help to elucidate the inter-wired relationship between MCI and vascular risk factors.

  4. Relationship between Stereoscopic Vision, Visual Perception, and Microstructure Changes of Corpus Callosum and Occipital White Matter in the 4-Year-Old Very Low Birth Weight Children

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    Przemko Kwinta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the relationship between stereoscopic vision, visual perception, and microstructure of the corpus callosum (CC and occipital white matter, 61 children born with a mean birth weight of 1024 g (SD 270 g were subjected to detailed ophthalmologic evaluation, Developmental Test of Visual Perception (DTVP-3, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI at the age of 4. Results. Abnormal stereoscopic vision was detected in 16 children. Children with abnormal stereoscopic vision had smaller CC (CC length: 53±6 mm versus 61±4 mm; p<0.01; estimated CC area: 314±106 mm2 versus 446±79 mm2; p<0.01 and lower fractional anisotropy (FA values in CC (FA value of rostrum/genu: 0.7±0.09 versus 0.79±0.07; p<0.01; FA value of CC body: 0.74±0.13 versus 0.82±0.09; p=0.03. We found a significant correlation between DTVP-3 scores, CC size, and FA values in rostrum and body. This correlation was unrelated to retinopathy of prematurity. Conclusions. Visual perceptive dysfunction in ex-preterm children without major sequelae of prematurity depends on more subtle changes in the brain microstructure, including CC. Role of interhemispheric connections in visual perception might be more complex than previously anticipated.

  5. The Integrity of the Corpus Callosum Mitigates the Impact of Blood Pressure on the Ventral Attention Network and Information Processing Speed in Healthy Adults

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    Tatia M. C. Lee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a risk factor for cognitive impairment in older age. However, evidence of the neural basis of the relationship between the deterioration of cognitive function and elevated blood pressure is sparse. Based on previous research, we speculate that variations in brain connectivity are closely related to elevated blood pressure even before the onset of clinical conditions and apparent cognitive decline in individuals over 60 years of age. Forty cognitively healthy adults were recruited. Each received a blood pressure test before and after the cognitive assessment in various domains. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI data were collected. Our findings confirm that elevated blood pressure is associated with brain connectivity variations in cognitively healthy individuals. The integrity of the splenium of the corpus callosum is closely related to individual differences in systolic blood pressure. In particular, elevated systolic blood pressure is related to resting-state ventral attention network (VAN and information processing speed. Serial mediation analyses have further revealed that lower integrity of the splenium statistically predicts elevated systolic blood pressure, which in turn predicts weakened functional connectivity (FC within the VAN and eventually poorer processing speed. The current study sheds light on how neural correlates are involved in the impact of elevated blood pressure on cognitive functioning.

  6. Quantification of Stretching in the Ventricular Wall and Corpus Callosum and Corticospinal Tracts in Hydrocephalus before and after Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Operation

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    Hans von Holst

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we establish a quantitative model to define the stretching of brain tissue, especially in ventricular walls, corpus callosum (CC and corticospinal (CS fiber tracts, and to investigate the correlation between stretching and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF before and after ventriculoperitoneal shunt operations. A nonlinear image registration method was used to calculate the degree of displacement and stretching of axonal fiber tracts based on the medical images of six hydrocephalus patients. Also, the rCBF data from the literature was analyzed and correlated with the strain level quantified in the present study. The results showed substantial increased displacement and strain levels in the ventricular walls as well as in the CC and CS fiber tracts on admission. Following shunt operations the displacement as well as the strain levels reduced substantially. A linear correlation was found to exist between strain level and the rCBF. The reduction in postoperative strain levels correlated with the improvement of rCBF. All patients improved clinically except for one patient due to existing dementia. These new quantitative data provide us with new insight into the mechanical cascade of events due to tissue stretching, thereby provide us with more knowledge into understanding of the role of brain tissue and axonal stretching in some of the hydrocephalus clinical symptoms.

  7. Corpus callosum atrophy as a predictor of age-related cognitive and motor impairment: a 3-year follow-up of the LADIS study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, C; Rostrup, E; Paulson, O B; Barkhof, F; Scheltens, P; van Straaten, E C W; van der Flier, W M; Fazekas, F; Schmidt, R; Ferro, J M; Baezner, H; Erkinjuntti, T; Jokinen, H; Wahlund, L-O; Poggesi, A; Pantoni, L; Inzitari, D; Waldemar, G

    2011-08-15

    The aim of this 3-year follow-up study was to investigate whether corpus callosum (CC) atrophy may predict future motor and cognitive impairment in an elderly population. On baseline MRI from 563 subjects with age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) from the Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) study, the CC was segmented and subdivided into five anterior-posterior regions (CC1-CC5). Associations between the CC areas and decline in motor performance and cognitive functions over a 3-year period were analyzed. CC atrophy at baseline was significantly associated with impaired cognitive performance (pCC1, pCC5), motor function (pCC2 and CC5), and walking speed (pCC2 and CC5, pCC3 and total CC), and with development of dementia at 3 years (pCC1) after correction for appropriate confounders (ARWMC volume, atrophy, age, gender and handedness). In conclusion, CC atrophy, an indicator of reduced functional connectivity between cortical areas, seems to contribute, independently of ARWMC load, to future cognitive and motor decline in the elderly. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Integrity of the Corpus Callosum Mitigates the Impact of Blood Pressure on the Ventral Attention Network and Information Processing Speed in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Nichol M. L.; Ma, Ernie Po-Wing; Lee, Tatia M. C.

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor for cognitive impairment in older age. However, evidence of the neural basis of the relationship between the deterioration of cognitive function and elevated blood pressure is sparse. Based on previous research, we speculate that variations in brain connectivity are closely related to elevated blood pressure even before the onset of clinical conditions and apparent cognitive decline in individuals over 60 years of age. Forty cognitively healthy adults were recruited. Each received a blood pressure test before and after the cognitive assessment in various domains. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data were collected. Our findings confirm that elevated blood pressure is associated with brain connectivity variations in cognitively healthy individuals. The integrity of the splenium of the corpus callosum is closely related to individual differences in systolic blood pressure. In particular, elevated systolic blood pressure is related to resting-state ventral attention network (VAN) and information processing speed. Serial mediation analyses have further revealed that lower integrity of the splenium statistically predicts elevated systolic blood pressure, which in turn predicts weakened functional connectivity (FC) within the VAN and eventually poorer processing speed. The current study sheds light on how neural correlates are involved in the impact of elevated blood pressure on cognitive functioning. PMID:28484386

  9. Nasal septum resection due congenital thickness in foalsRessecção de septo nasal devido ao espessamento congênito em potros

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    Antônio Felipe Paulino de Figueiredo Wouk

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nasal obstructions caused by nasal septal diseases are uncommon in horses and the main causes are malformations, mucosal lesions, neoplasias and trauma. The aim of this case report is to describe two cases of nasal obstruction in foals. Clinical signs were progressive with reduction of air flow bilaterally, intense respiratory noise and dyspnea. Endoscopy evaluation was not performed because, in both cases, it was not possible to introduce the probe into the nasal cavity due to bilateral stenosis. Radiographic exam confirmed nasal septum thickness. Both animals were submitted to septum resection surgery. In order to promote a better respiratory condition, tracheotomy was performed in both foals prior the surgery. The surgical technique applied was modified from DOYLE technique described previously (2005. Briefly, nasal bone trephine role was initially done in order to do osteotomy of its caudal portion. For osteotomy a modified osteotomy was used. The dorsal and ventral limits of the nasal bone were removed with a obstetric wire protected by metalical guide. After surgical recovery, in both cases, the clinical exam showed that the air flow was normal and without noise, allowing the foals to breathe normally. Tracheotomy healed by second intention. After eight months both foals breathed comfortably and they were suitable for physical activity. Histopathology evaluation did not show signs of inflammation, neoplasia, and any other histological changes, suggesting the thickness was congenital.Obstruções nasais causadas por doenças do septo nasal são incomuns em cavalos e as principais causas são: malformações, lesões nas mucosas, neoplasias e trauma. O objetivo deste relato é descrever dois casos de obstrução nasal congênita em potros. Os sinais clínicos demonstravam redução progressiva do fluxo de ar bilateral, ruído respiratório e dispnéia intensa. Não foi possível realizar avaliação endoscópica pois em ambos os casos, n

  10. Effects of nicotine stimulation on spikes, theta frequency oscillations, and spike-theta oscillation relationship in rat medial septum diagonal band Broca slices

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    Wen, Dong; Peng, Ce; Ou-yang, Gao-xiang; Henderson, Zainab; Li, Xiao-li; Lu, Cheng-biao

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Spiking activities and neuronal network oscillations in the theta frequency range have been found in many cortical areas during information processing. The aim of this study is to determine whether nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediate neuronal network activity in rat medial septum diagonal band Broca (MSDB) slices. Methods: Extracellular field potentials were recorded in the slices using an Axoprobe 1A amplifier. Data analysis was performed off-line. Spike sorting and local field potential (LFP) analyses were performed using Spike2 software. The role of spiking activity in the generation of LFP oscillations in the slices was determined by analyzing the phase-time relationship between the spikes and LFP oscillations. Circular statistic analysis based on the Rayleigh test was used to determine the significance of phase relationships between the spikes and LFP oscillations. The timing relationship was examined by quantifying the spike-field coherence (SFC). Results: Application of nicotine (250 nmol/L) induced prominent LFP oscillations in the theta frequency band and both small- and large-amplitude population spiking activity in the slices. These spikes were phase-locked to theta oscillations at specific phases. The Rayleigh test showed a statistically significant relationship in phase-locking between the spikes and theta oscillations. Larger changes in the SFC were observed for large-amplitude spikes, indicating an accurate timing relationship between this type of spike and LFP oscillations. The nicotine-induced spiking activity (large-amplitude population spikes) was suppressed by the nAChR antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (0.3 μmol/L). Conclusion: The results demonstrate that large-amplitude spikes are phase-locked to theta oscillations and have a high spike-timing accuracy, which are likely a main contributor to the theta oscillations generated in MSDB during nicotine receptor activation. PMID:23474704

  11. Characterization of cognitive deficits in rats overexpressing human alpha-synuclein in the ventral tegmental area and medial septum using recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Hélène; Jewett, Michael; Landeck, Natalie; Nilsson, Nathalie; Schagerlöf, Ulrika; Leanza, Giampiero; Kirik, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Intraneuronal inclusions containing alpha-synuclein (a-syn) constitute one of the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD) and are accompanied by severe neurodegeneration of A9 dopaminergic neurons located in the substantia nigra. Although to a lesser extent, A10 dopaminergic neurons are also affected. Neurodegeneration of other neuronal populations, such as the cholinergic, serotonergic and noradrenergic cell groups, has also been documented in PD patients. Studies in human post-mortem PD brains and in rodent models suggest that deficits in cholinergic and dopaminergic systems may be associated with the cognitive impairment seen in this disease. Here, we investigated the consequences of targeted overexpression of a-syn in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic and septohippocampal cholinergic pathways. Rats were injected with recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors encoding for either human wild-type a-syn or green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the ventral tegmental area and the medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca, two regions rich in dopaminergic and cholinergic neurons, respectively. Histopathological analysis showed widespread insoluble a-syn positive inclusions in all major projections areas of the targeted nuclei, including the hippocampus, neocortex, nucleus accumbens and anteromedial striatum. In addition, the rats overexpressing human a-syn displayed an abnormal locomotor response to apomorphine injection and exhibited spatial learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze task, in the absence of obvious spontaneous locomotor impairment. As losses in dopaminergic and cholinergic immunoreactivity in both the GFP and a-syn expressing animals were mild-to-moderate and did not differ from each other, the behavioral impairments seen in the a-syn overexpressing animals appear to be determined by the long term persisting neuropathology in the surviving neurons rather than by neurodegeneration.

  12. Role of the medial septum diagonal band of Broca cholinergic neurons in oestrogen-induced spine synapse formation on hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells of female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lâm, Thiên-Trí; Leranth, Csaba

    2003-05-01

    Oestrogen is known to influence pyramidal cell spine synapse plasticity in the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus. Apart from direct oestrogen action on the hippocampus, oestrogen effects mediated by subcortical structures are known to be important. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the medial septum diagonal band of Broca (MSDB) takes part in mediating oestrogen effects to the hippocampus. Special attention was given to the role of cholinergic MSDB neurons that project to the hippocampus, as a rather large population of them contains oestrogen receptors and, consequently, may be sensitive to oestrogen signals. Adult female rats were ovariectomized. Oestradiol- and cholesterol-filled cannulae (control) were implanted into the MSDB. To selectively eliminate the cholinergic population of MSDB neurons of oestrogen-treated animals, a group of rats was injected with 192 IgG-saporin (SAP) into the lateral ventricle 1 week before the cannula implant. Immunostaining with anti-choline acetyltransferase and parvalbumin (PA) showed that cholinergic but not PA-containing GABAergic neurons were substantially reduced in the MSDB of SAP rats. Comparative electron microscopic unbiased stereological analysis on the spine synapse density of CA1 area pyramidal cells was performed between all animal groups. Rats that received oestradiol-filled cannulae showed a higher (30%) spine synapse density than control animals. Oestrogen-treated rats that had received SAP treatment showed no significant difference to controls. Thus, this observation indicates that septo-hippocampal cholinergic neurons are involved in mediating oestrogen effects to the hippocampus. The relevance of this observation to mnemonic functions and Alzheimer's disease is discussed.

  13. A newly identified mouse hypothalamic area having bidirectional neural connections with the lateral septum: the perifornical area of the anterior hypothalamus rich in chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii-Hayashi, Noriko; Sasagawa, Takayo; Hashimoto, Takashi; Kaneko, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Kosei; Nishi, Mayumi

    2015-09-01

    While previous studies and brain atlases divide the hypothalamus into many nuclei and areas, uncharacterised regions remain. Here, we report a new region in the mouse anterior hypothalamus (AH), a triangular-shaped perifornical area of the anterior hypothalamus (PeFAH) between the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus and fornix, that abundantly expresses chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). The PeFAH strongly stained with markers for chondroitin sulfate/CSPGs such as Wisteria floribunda agglutinin and antibodies against aggrecan and chondroitin 6 sulfate. Nissl-stained sections of the PeFAH clearly distinguished it as a region of comparatively low density compared to neighboring regions, the paraventricular nucleus and central division of the anterior hypothalamic area. Immunohistochemical and DNA microarray analyses suggested that PeFAH contains sparsely distributed calretinin-positive neurons and a compact cluster of enkephalinergic neurons. Neuronal tract tracing revealed that both enkephalin- and calretinin-positive neurons project to the lateral septum (LS), while the PeFAH receives input from calbindin-positive LS neurons. These results suggest bidirectional connections between the PeFAH and LS. Considering neuronal subtype and projection, part of PeFAH that includes a cluster of enkephalinergic neurons is similar to the rat perifornical nucleus and guinea pig magnocellular dorsal nucleus. Finally, we examined c-Fos expression after several types of stimuli and found that PeFAH neuronal activity was increased by psychological but not homeostatic stressors. These findings suggest that the PeFAH is a source of enkephalin peptides in the LS and indicate that bidirectional neural connections between these regions may participate in controlling responses to psychological stressors. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. How reduction of theta rhythm by medial septum inactivation may covary with disruption of entorhinal grid cell responses due to reduced cholinergic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilly, Praveen K; Grossberg, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Oscillations in the coordinated firing of brain neurons have been proposed to play important roles in perception, cognition, attention, learning, navigation, and sensory-motor control. The network theta rhythm has been associated with properties of spatial navigation, as has the firing of entorhinal grid cells and hippocampal place cells. Two recent studies reduced the theta rhythm by inactivating the medial septum (MS) and demonstrated a correlated reduction in the characteristic hexagonal spatial firing patterns of grid cells. These results, along with properties of intrinsic membrane potential oscillations (MPOs) in slice preparations of medial entorhinal cortex (MEC), have been interpreted to support oscillatory interference models of grid cell firing. The current article shows that an alternative self-organizing map (SOM) model of grid cells can explain these data about intrinsic and network oscillations without invoking oscillatory interference. In particular, the adverse effects of MS inactivation on grid cells can be understood in terms of how the concomitant reduction in cholinergic inputs may increase the conductances of leak potassium (K(+)) and slow and medium after-hyperpolarization (sAHP and mAHP) channels. This alternative model can also explain data that are problematic for oscillatory interference models, including how knockout of the HCN1 gene in mice, which flattens the dorsoventral gradient in MPO frequency and resonance frequency, does not affect the development of the grid cell dorsoventral gradient of spatial scales, and how hexagonal grid firing fields in bats can occur even in the absence of theta band modulation. These results demonstrate how models of grid cell self-organization can provide new insights into the relationship between brain learning and oscillatory dynamics.

  15. Characterization of cognitive deficits in rats overexpressing human alpha-synuclein in the ventral tegmental area and medial septum using recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Hall

    Full Text Available Intraneuronal inclusions containing alpha-synuclein (a-syn constitute one of the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD and are accompanied by severe neurodegeneration of A9 dopaminergic neurons located in the substantia nigra. Although to a lesser extent, A10 dopaminergic neurons are also affected. Neurodegeneration of other neuronal populations, such as the cholinergic, serotonergic and noradrenergic cell groups, has also been documented in PD patients. Studies in human post-mortem PD brains and in rodent models suggest that deficits in cholinergic and dopaminergic systems may be associated with the cognitive impairment seen in this disease. Here, we investigated the consequences of targeted overexpression of a-syn in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic and septohippocampal cholinergic pathways. Rats were injected with recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors encoding for either human wild-type a-syn or green fluorescent protein (GFP in the ventral tegmental area and the medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca, two regions rich in dopaminergic and cholinergic neurons, respectively. Histopathological analysis showed widespread insoluble a-syn positive inclusions in all major projections areas of the targeted nuclei, including the hippocampus, neocortex, nucleus accumbens and anteromedial striatum. In addition, the rats overexpressing human a-syn displayed an abnormal locomotor response to apomorphine injection and exhibited spatial learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze task, in the absence of obvious spontaneous locomotor impairment. As losses in dopaminergic and cholinergic immunoreactivity in both the GFP and a-syn expressing animals were mild-to-moderate and did not differ from each other, the behavioral impairments seen in the a-syn overexpressing animals appear to be determined by the long term persisting neuropathology in the surviving neurons rather than by neurodegeneration.

  16. How reduction of theta rhythm by medial septum inactivation may covary with disruption of entorhinal grid cell responses due to reduced cholinergic transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen K. Pilly

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Oscillations in the coordinated firing of brain neurons have been proposed to play important roles in perception, cognition, attention, learning, navigation, and sensory-motor control. The network theta rhythm has been associated with properties of spatial navigation, as has the firing of entorhinal grid cells and hippocampal place cells. Two recent studies reduced the theta rhythm by inactivating the medial septum (MS and demonstrated a correlated reduction in the characteristic hexagonal spatial firing patterns of grid cells. These results, along with properties of intrinsic membrane potential oscillations (MPOs in slice preparations of entorhinal cells, have been interpreted to support oscillatory interference models of grid cell firing. The current article shows that an alternative self-organizing map model of grid cells can explain these data about intrinsic and network oscillations without invoking oscillatory interference. In particular, the adverse effects of MS inactivation on grid cells can be understood in terms of how the concomitant reduction in cholinergic inputs may increase the conductances of leak potassium (K+ and slow and medium after-hyperpolarization (sAHP and mAHP channels. This alternative model can also explain data that are problematic for oscillatory interference models, including how knockout of the HCN1 gene in mice, which flattens the dorsoventral gradient in MPO frequency and resonance frequency, does not affect the development of the grid cell dorsoventral gradient of spatial scales, and how hexagonal grid firing fields in bats can occur even in the absence of theta band modulation. These results demonstrate how models of grid cell self-organization can provide new insights into the relationship between brain learning, oscillatory dynamics, and navigational behaviors.

  17. Proper actin ring formation and septum constriction requires coordinated regulation of SIN and MOR pathways through the germinal centre kinase MST-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilig, Yvonne; Dettmann, Anne; Mouriño-Pérez, Rosa R; Schmitt, Kerstin; Valerius, Oliver; Seiler, Stephan

    2014-04-01

    Nuclear DBF2p-related (NDR) kinases constitute a functionally conserved protein family of eukaryotic regulators that control cell division and polarity. In fungi, they function as effector kinases of the morphogenesis (MOR) and septation initiation (SIN) networks and are activated by pathway-specific germinal centre (GC) kinases. We characterized a third GC kinase, MST-1, that connects both kinase cascades. Genetic and biochemical interactions with SIN components and life cell imaging identify MST-1 as SIN-associated kinase that functions in parallel with the GC kinase SID-1 to activate the SIN-effector kinase DBF-2. SID-1 and MST-1 are both regulated by the upstream SIN kinase CDC-7, yet in an opposite manner. Aberrant cortical actomyosin rings are formed in Δmst-1, which resulted in mis-positioned septa and irregular spirals, indicating that MST-1-dependent regulation of the SIN is required for proper formation and constriction of the septal actomyosin ring. However, MST-1 also interacts with several components of the MOR network and modulates MOR activity at multiple levels. MST-1 functions as promiscuous enzyme and also activates the MOR effector kinase COT-1 through hydrophobic motif phosphorylation. In addition, MST-1 physically interacts with the MOR kinase POD-6, and dimerization of both proteins inactivates the GC kinase hetero-complex. These data specify an antagonistic relationship between the SIN and MOR during septum formation in the filamentous ascomycete model Neurospora crassa that is, at least in part, coordinated through the GC kinase MST-1. The similarity of the SIN and MOR pathways to the animal Hippo and Ndr pathways, respectively, suggests that intensive cross-communication between distinct NDR kinase modules may also be relevant for the homologous NDR kinases of higher eukaryotes.

  18. Glutamatergic neurons of the mouse medial septum and diagonal band of Broca synaptically drive hippocampal pyramidal cells: relevance for hippocampal theta rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Carey Y L; Goutagny, Romain; Williams, Sylvain

    2010-11-24

    Neurons of the medial septum and diagonal band of Broca (MS-DBB) provide an important input to the hippocampus and are critically involved in learning and memory. Although cholinergic and GABAergic MS-DBB neurons are known to modulate hippocampal activity, the role of recently described glutamatergic MS-DBB neurons is unknown. Here, we examined the electrophysiological properties of glutamatergic MS-DBB neurons and tested whether they provide a functional synaptic input to the hippocampus. To visualize the glutamatergic neurons, we used MS-DBB slices from transgenic mice in which the green fluorescent protein is expressed specifically by vesicular glutamate transporter 2-positive neurons and characterized their properties using whole-cell patch-clamp technique. For assessing the function of the glutamatergic projection, we used an in vitro septohippocampal preparation, electrically stimulated the fornix or chemically activated the MS-DBB using NMDA microinfusions and recorded postsynaptic responses in CA3 pyramidal cells. We found that glutamatergic MS-DBB neurons as a population display a highly heterogeneous set of firing patterns including fast-, cluster-, burst-, and slow-firing. Remarkably, a significant proportion exhibited fast-firing properties, prominent I(h), and rhythmic spontaneous firing at theta frequencies similar to those found in GABAergic MS-DBB neurons. Activation of the MS-DBB led to fast, AMPA receptor-mediated glutamatergic responses in CA3 pyramidal cells. These results describe for the first time the electrophysiological signatures of glutamatergic MS-DBB neurons, their rhythmic firing properties, and their capacity to drive hippocampal principal neurons. Our findings suggest that the glutamatergic septohippocampal pathway may play an important role in hippocampal theta oscillations and relevant cognitive functions.

  19. The hippocamposeptal pathway generates rhythmic firing of GABAergic neurons in the medial septum and diagonal bands: an investigation using a complete septohippocampal preparation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manseau, Frédéric; Goutagny, Romain; Danik, Marc; Williams, Sylvain

    2008-04-09

    The medial septum diagonal band area (MS/DB) projects to the hippocampus through the fornix/fimbria pathway and is implicated in generating hippocampal theta oscillations. The hippocampus also projects back to the MS/DB, but very little is known functionally about this input. Here, we investigated the physiological role of hippocamposeptal feedback to the MS/DB in a complete in vitro septohippocampal preparation containing the intact interconnecting fornix/fimbria pathway. We demonstrated that carbachol-induced rhythmic theta-like hippocampal oscillations recorded extracellularly were synchronized with powerful rhythmic IPSPs in whole-cell recorded MS/DB neurons. Interestingly, we found that these IPSPs evoked rebound spiking in GABAergic MS/DB neurons. In contrast, putative cholinergic and glutamatergic MS/DB neurons responded only weakly with rebound spiking and, as a result, were mostly silent during theta-like oscillations. We next determined the mechanism underlying the rebound spiking that followed the IPSPs in MS/DB GABAergic neurons using phasic electrical stimulation of the fornix/fimbria pathway. We demonstrate that the increased rebound spiking was attributable to the activation of I(h) current, because it was significantly reduced by low concentrations of the I(h) antagonist ZD7288 [4-(N-ethyl-N-phenylamino)-1,2-dimethyl-6-(methylamino) pyridinium chloride]. Together, these results suggest that rhythmical activity in hippocampus is transferred to the MS/DB and can preferentially phase the spiking of GABAergic MS/DB neurons because of their significant expression of I(h) currents. Our data demonstrate that hippocamposeptal inhibition facilitates theta rhythmic discharges in MS/DB GABAergic neurons while favoring the inhibition of most ACh and glutamate neurons.

  20. Neuroanatomical Diversity of Corpus Callosum and Brain Volume in Autism: Meta-analysis, Analysis of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange Project, and Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Aline; Beggiato, Anita; Bourgeron, Thomas; Toro, Roberto

    2015-07-15

    Patients with autism have been often reported to have a smaller corpus callosum (CC) than control subjects. We conducted a meta-analysis of the literature, analyzed the CC in 694 subjects of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange project, and performed computer simulations to study the effect of different analysis strategies. Our meta-analysis suggested a group difference in CC size; however, the studies were heavily underpowered (20% power to detect Cohen's d = .3). In contrast, we did not observe significant differences in the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange cohort, despite having achieved 99% power. However, we observed that CC scaled nonlinearly with brain volume (BV): large brains had a proportionally smaller CC. Our simulations showed that because of this nonlinearity, CC normalization could not control for eventual BV differences, but using BV as a covariate in a linear model would. We also observed a weaker correlation of IQ and BV in cases compared with control subjects. Our simulations showed that matching populations by IQ could then induce artifactual BV differences. The lack of statistical power in the previous literature prevents us from establishing the reality of the claims of a smaller CC in autism, and our own analyses did not find any. However, the nonlinear relationship between CC and BV and the different correlation between BV and IQ in cases and control subjects may induce artifactual differences. Overall, our results highlight the necessity for open data sharing to provide a more solid ground for the discovery of neuroimaging biomarkers within the context of the wide human neuroanatomical diversity. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Recovery of axonal myelination sheath and axonal caliber in the mouse corpus callosum following damage induced by N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utrera, Juana; Romero, Rafael; Verdaguer, Ester; Junyent, Fèlix; Auladell, Carme

    2011-12-01

    Disulfiram is an aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor used for the treatment of alcohol dependence and of cocaine addiction. It has been demonstrated that subchronic administration of disulfiram or N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDTC), the main derivative of disulfiram, to rats can produce central-peripheral distal axonopathy. However, few data regarding the axonal effects of these compounds in the central nervous system exist. Our previous studies have revealed DEDTC-induced axonal damage in the mouse brain during the course of postnatal development, together with alterations in axonal pathfinding and in the myelination process, with partial recovery during the post-treatment period. In order to gather new data about how this axonal damage and recovery occurs in the central nervous system, we performed an ultrastructural analysis of the axons located in the corpus callosum from mice treated with DEDTC during postnatal development. The axonal caliber throughout the axonal area, the maximum axonal diameter, the maximum fiber diameter, and the axonal circularity, at different postnatal stages [from postnatal day (P)9 to P30], were analyzed. In addition, parameters related to the myelinization process (number of myelinated axons, sheath thickness, and the ratio of myelinated axons to total axons) were evaluated. A reduction in the average value of axonal caliber during treatment and a delay in the axonal myelination process were detected. Whereas early recovery of individual axons occurred after treatment (P22), complete recovery of myelinated axons occurred at late postnatal stages (P42). Therefore, chronic treatment with dithiocarbamates requires periods of rest to encourage the recovery of myelinated axons. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2011 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Progressive decline in fractional anisotropy on serial DTI examinations of the corpus callosum: a putative marker of disease activity and progression in SPMS

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    Tian, Wei; Zhu, Tong; Zhong, Jianhui; Liu, Xiang [University of Rochester Medical Center, Department of Imaging Sciences, Rochester, NY (United States); Rao, Praveen; Segal, Benjamin M. [University of Michigan, Department of Neurology, Holtom-Garrett Program in Neuroimmunology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ekholm, Sven [University of Rochester Medical Center, Department of Imaging Sciences, Rochester, NY (United States); University of Rochester Medical Center, Division of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Rochester, NY (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Clinical trials of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) is lacking reliable biomarkers or outcome measures that reflect tissue injury incurred within a 1- to 2-year observation period. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is sensitive in detecting acute brain tissue damage. We monitored SPMS patients over 12 months for diffusion changes within the corpus callosum (CC). Bimonthly MRI examinations over a 1-year period were performed on 11 SPMS patients. The protocol included postcontrast T1-weighted images and DTI. Based on the appearance of T1 enhancing lesion(s) during the study period, the patients were divided into enhancing (five patients) and nonenhancing (six patients) groups. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of the genu, body, and splenium of the CC were measured and temporal changes in mean FA and MD were evaluated for each group as well as between groups. Immunology data from peripheral blood mononuclear cells were also collected on a monthly basis. The enhancing group showed significant, progressive decrease in FA in body (p = 0.012) and splenium (p = 0.033) of CC, and significantly higher lymphotoxin-{beta} levels. No significant FA changes were seen in the nonenhancing group. Moreover, the FA decline in the enhancing group deviated significantly from the nonenhancing group, which remained essentially stable. Although MD increased slightly in both groups, there was no significant difference between the two groups. Based on the MR and immunology findings, the results of our study suggest that DTI undergo more rapid and longitudinal changes in SPMS patients with inflammatory activity. (orig.)

  3. The microstructural status of the corpus callosum is associated with the degree of motor function and neurological deficit in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongxin; Wu, Ping; Liang, Fanrong; Huang, Wenhua

    2015-01-01

    Human neuroimaging studies and animal models have suggested that white matter damage from ischemic stroke leads to the functional and structural reorganization of perilesional and remote brain regions. However, the quantitative relationship between the transcallosal tract integrity and clinical motor performance score after stroke remains unexplored. The current study employed a tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate the relationship between white matter diffusivity changes and the clinical scores in stroke patients. Probabilistic fiber tracking was also used to identify structural connectivity patterns in the patients. Thirteen ischemic stroke patients and fifteen healthy control subjects participated in this study. TBSS analyses showed that the corpus callosum (CC) and bilateral corticospinal tracts (CST) in the stroke patients exhibited significantly decreased fractional anisotropy and increased axial and radial diffusivity compared with those of the controls. Correlation analyses revealed that the motor and neurological deficit scores in the stroke patients were associated with the value of diffusivity indices in the CC. Compared with the healthy control group, probabilistic fiber tracking analyses revealed that significant changes in the inter-hemispheric fiber connections between the left and right motor cortex in the stroke patients were primarily located in the genu and body of the CC, left anterior thalamic radiation and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, bilateral CST, anterior/superior corona radiate, cingulum and superior longitudinal fasciculus, strongly suggesting that ischemic induces inter-hemispheric network disturbances and disrupts the white matter fibers connecting motor regions. In conclusion, the results of the present study show that DTI-derived measures in the CC can be used to predict the severity of motor skill and neurological deficit in stroke patients. Changes in structural

  4. New insights in the homotopic and heterotopic connectivity of the frontal portion of the human corpus callosum revealed by microdissection and diffusion tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benedictis, Alessandro; Petit, Laurent; Descoteaux, Maxime; Marras, Carlo Efisio; Barbareschi, Mattia; Corsini, Francesco; Dallabona, Monica; Chioffi, Franco; Sarubbo, Silvio

    2016-12-01

    Extensive studies revealed that the human corpus callosum (CC) plays a crucial role in providing large-scale bi-hemispheric integration of sensory, motor and cognitive processing, especially within the frontal lobe. However, the literature lacks of conclusive data regarding the structural macroscopic connectivity of the frontal CC. In this study, a novel microdissection approach was adopted, to expose the frontal fibers of CC from the dorsum to the lateral cortex in eight hemispheres and in one entire brain. Post-mortem results were then combined with data from advanced constrained spherical deconvolution in 130 healthy subjects. We demonstrated as the frontal CC provides dense inter-hemispheric connections. In particular, we found three types of fronto-callosal fibers, having a dorso-ventral organization. First, the dorso-medial CC fibers subserve homotopic connections between the homologous medial cortices of the superior frontal gyrus. Second, the ventro-lateral CC fibers subserve homotopic connections between lateral frontal cortices, including both the middle frontal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus, as well as heterotopic connections between the medial and lateral frontal cortices. Third, the ventro-striatal CC fibers connect the medial and lateral frontal cortices with the contralateral putamen and caudate nucleus. We also highlighted an intricate crossing of CC fibers with the main association pathways terminating in the lateral regions of the frontal lobes. This combined approach of ex vivo microdissection and in vivo diffusion tractography allowed demonstrating a previously unappreciated three-dimensional architecture of the anterior frontal CC, thus clarifying the functional role of the CC in mediating the inter-hemispheric connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4718-4735, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Schwannoma of the nasal septum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Karatas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are benign and slow growing tumors originating from the Schwann cells of peripheral nerve sheath. Schwannomas of sinonasal origin are rare (4% however septal schwannomas are much more rarer. We presented a 31 year old female patient. At physical examination a pale gray, smooth polypoid lesion obstructing the right nasal cavity was detected. Midfacial degloving and endoscopic approach were combined for surgical treatment. The tumor was originating from posteromedial area of the septal nasal cartilage, close to the bony cartilaginous junction. Postoperative histological examination of the specimen showed a benign tumoral growth consisting of spindle shaped cells and immunohistochemical staining of the tumor proved septal schwannoma.

  6. Cardiac output and blood flow redistribution in fetuses with D-loop transposition of the great arteries and intact ventricular septum: insights into pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, M E; Friedman, K G; Drogosz, M; Rudolph, A M; Tworetzky, W

    2017-11-01

    Although the postnatal physiology of D-loop transposition of the great arteries with intact ventricular septum (D-TGA/IVS) is well established, little is known about fetal D-TGA/IVS. In the normal fetus, the pulmonary valve (PV) is larger than the aortic valve (AoV), there is exclusive right-to-left flow at the foramen ovale (FO) and ductus arteriosus (DA), and the left ventricle (LV) ejects 40% of combined ventricular output (CVO) through the aorta, primarily to the brain. In D-TGA/IVS, the LV ejects oxygen-rich blood to the pulmonary artery, theoretically leading to pulmonary vasodilation, increased branch pulmonary artery flow and reduced DA flow. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that D-TGA/IVS anatomy results in altered cardiac valve sizes, ventricular contribution to CVO, and FO and DA flow direction. Seventy-four fetuses with D-TGA/IVS that underwent fetal echocardiography at our institution between 2004 and 2015 were included in the study. AoV, PV, mitral valve and tricuspid valve sizes were measured and Z-scores indexed to gestational age were generated. Ventricular output was calculated using Doppler-derived velocity-time integral, and direction of flow at the FO and DA shunts was recorded in each fetus using both color Doppler and flap direction. Measurements in the D-TGA/IVS fetuses were compared with data of 222 controls, matched for gestational-age range, from our institutional normal fetal database. The LV component of CVO was higher in D-TGA/IVS fetuses than in controls (50.7% vs 40.2%; P theory that high pulmonary artery oxygen content reduces pulmonary vascular resistance, thereby increasing branch pulmonary artery flow and venous return, which results in increased LV preload and output. Pulmonary sensitivity to oxygen is thought to increase later in gestation, which may explain the higher incidence of bidirectional shunting. Consequences of these flow alterations include increased aortic and, most likely, brain flow, perhaps in an attempt

  7. Clinical, neuroimaging and cytogenetic findings in 20 patients with corpus callosum dysgenesis Achados clínicos, citogenéticos e de neuroimagem em 20 pacientes com disgenesia do corpo caloso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Cláudia Evangelista dos Santos

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty children with corpus callosum agenesis or hypoplasia were evaluated under a standardized investigation protocol. Psychomotor retardation, seizures, and craniofacial anomalies were the most prominent findings. There were three cases of chromosomal anomalies, all of them representing trisomy of chromosome 8.Vinte pacientes com disgenesia do corpo caloso foram avaliados através de um protocolo padronizado. Retardo neuropsicomotor, convulsões e dismorfias faciais foram os achados mais proeminentes. Três casos de anomalia cromossômica foram observados, todos representados por trissomia do cromossomo 8.

  8. Endometriose de septo retovaginal: doença de diagnóstico e tratamento específicos Rectovaginal septum endometriosis: a disease with specific diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Simões Abrão

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O envolvimento do septo retovaginal, reto e sigmóide pela endometriose pode causar sintomas intensos como dismenorréia, dor pélvica, dispareunia de profundidade, tenesmo e proctorragia cíclicos, em mulheres em idade reprodutiva. O diagnóstico pode ser suspeitado diante da história clínica típica e exame ginecológico adequado, ou ainda através de exame retal, enema opaco ou colonoscopia, entre outros. As indicações cirúrgicas, em geral, estão relacionadas à intensidade dos sintomas e falha no tratamento conservador. No entanto, o tratamento de escolha, para este tipo de endometriose, é a ressecção cirúrgica do tecido acometido, a fim de aliviar os sintomas e evitar progressão da doença. A localização correta assim como a avaliação da presença de extensão do processo em direção ao reto, ligamentos uterossacros ou septo retovaginal é extremamente importante para se garantir um tratamento cirúrgico eficaz. OBJETIVO: Descrever os principais aspectos relacionados à endometriose de septo retovaginal e fornecer aos cirurgiões gerais algumas informações específicas sobre esta enigmática doença. CONCLUSÃO: A endometriose de septo retovaginal é doença freqüente, de diagnóstico e tratamento específicos.BACKGROUND: The involvement of the rectovaginal septum, of rectum and sigmoid by endometriosis leads to intense symptoms as dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, deep dyspareunia, tenesmus and hematochezia in young and middle aged women during periods. The diagnosis can be made by tipycal history and vaginal examination, rectal examination, barium enema, proctoscopy and so on. The indications of operation include severe clinic symptoms and failed conservative therapy. The treatment of choice for this type of endometriosis is the surgical resection of affected tissue, in order to relieve patient symptoms, and avoid disease progression. The correct assessment as to the presence and extension of the endometriosis

  9. Impairment in explicit visuomotor sequence learning is related to loss of microstructural integrity of the corpus callosum in multiple sclerosis patients with minimal disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzano, L; Tacchino, A; Roccatagliata, L; Sormani, M P; Mancardi, G L; Bove, M

    2011-07-15

    Sequence learning can be investigated by serial reaction-time (SRT) paradigms. Explicit learning occurs when subjects have to recognize a test sequence and has been shown to activate the frontoparietal network in both contralateral and ipsilateral hemispheres. Thus, the left and right superior longitudinal fasciculi (SLF), connecting the intra-hemispheric frontoparietal circuits, could have a role in explicit unimanual visuomotor learning. Also, as both hemispheres are involved, we could hypothesize that the corpus callosum (CC) has a role in this process. Pathological damage in both SLF and CC has been detected in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (PwMS), and microstructural alterations can be quantified by Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). In light of these findings, we inquired whether PwMS with minimal disability showed impairments in explicit visuomotor sequence learning and whether this could be due to loss of white matter integrity in these intra- and inter-hemispheric white matter pathways. Thus, we combined DTI analysis with a modified version of SRT task based on finger opposition movements in a group of PwMS with minimal disability. We found that the performance in explicit sequence learning was significantly reduced in these patients with respect to healthy subjects; the amount of sequence-specific learning was found to be more strongly correlated with fractional anisotropy (FA) in the CC (r=0.93) than in the left (r=0.28) and right SLF (r=0.27) (p for interaction=0.005 and 0.04 respectively). This finding suggests that an inter-hemispheric information exchange between the homologous areas is required to successfully accomplish the task and indirectly supports the role of the right (ipsilateral) hemisphere in explicit visuomotor learning. On the other hand, we found no significant correlation of the FA in the CC and in the SLFs with nonspecific learning (assessed when stimuli are randomly presented), supporting the hypothesis that inter

  10. Hydrocephalus, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and cleft lip/palate represent frequent associations in fetuses with Peters' plus syndrome and B3GALTL mutations. Fetal PPS phenotypes, expanded by Dandy Walker cyst and encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoner, Katharina; Kohlhase, Juergen; Müller, Annette M; Schramm, Thomas; Plassmann, Margit; Schmitz, Ralf; Neesen, Juergen; Wieacker, Peter; Rehder, Helga

    2013-01-01

    Fetal pathology aims to recognize syndromal patterns of anomalies for goal-directed mutation analyses, genetic counseling, and early prenatal diagnosis in consecutive pregnancies. Here, we report on five fetuses with Peters' plus syndrome (PPS) from two distinct families aborted after prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of hydrocephaly. We performed fetal autopsies and molecular analyses. Among 44 fetuses with prenatally diagnosed hydrocephaly, four fetuses of 16 to 21 gestational weeks presented with additional cleft lip/palate and/or agenesis of the corpus callosum. Other features were growth retardation, hypertelorism, anomalies of the eyes, in part consistent with Peters' anterior chamber anomalies, mild brachymelia, brachydactyly, and also internal anomalies. Suspected PPS was confirmed by detection of B3GALTL mutation in these four fetuses and in one additional sib fetus, revealing homozygosity for the common c.660 + 1G > A donor splice site mutation in intron 8. Autosomal-recessive PPS has not yet been diagnosed prenatally. We want to alert ultrasonographers to the diagnosis of this disorder in growth-retarded fetuses with (recurrent) hydrocephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and cleft lip/palate and stress the more severe fetal manifestation, describing a first such case with additional Dandy-Walker cyst and occult meningoencephalocele. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Walker syndrome, schizencephaly (clefts or deep divisions in brain tissue), and holoprosencephaly (failure of the forebrain to divide into lobes.) Girls may have a gender-specific condition called Aicardi syndrome, which causes severe ...

  12. Forebrain development in fetal MRI: evaluation of anatomical landmarks before gestational week 27

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    Schmook, Maria T.; Weber, Michael; Kasprian, Gregor; Nemec, Stefan; Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology/Division of Neuro- and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Medical University of Vienna, Integrative Morphology Group, Center for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Vienna (Austria); Krampl-Bettelheim, Elisabeth [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology / Division of Obstetrics and Feto-maternal Medicine, Vienna (Austria)

    2010-06-15

    Forebrain malformations include some of the most severe developmental anomalies and require early diagnosis. The proof of normal or abnormal prosencephalic development may have an influence on further management in the event of a suspected fetal malformation. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the detectability of anatomical landmarks of forebrain development using in vivo fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before gestational week (gw) 27. MRI studies of 83 singleton fetuses (gw 16-26, average {+-}sd: gw 22 {+-} 2) performed at 1.5 Tesla were assessed. T2-weighted (w) fast spin echo, T1w gradient-echo and diffusion-weighted sequences were screened for the detectability of anatomical landmarks as listed below. The interhemispheric fissure, ocular bulbs, corpus callosum, infundibulum, chiasm, septum pellucidum (SP), profile, and palate were detectable in 95%, 95%, 89%, 87%, 82%, 81%, 78%, 78% of cases. Olfactory tracts were more easily delineated than bulbs and sulci (37% versus 18% and 8%), with significantly higher detection rates in the coronal plane. The pituitary gland could be detected on T1w images in 60% with an increasing diameter with gestational age (p=0.041). The delineation of olfactory tracts (coronal plane), chiasm, SP and pituitary gland were significantly increased after week 21 (p<0.05). Pathologies were found in 28% of cases. This study provides detection rates for anatomical landmarks of forebrain development with fetal MRI before gw 27. Several anatomical structures are readily detectable with routine fetal MRI sequences; thus, if these landmarks are not delineable, it should raise the suspicion of a pathology. Recommendations regarding favorable sequences/planes are provided. (orig.)

  13. Location of the primary motor cortex in schizencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H K; Kim, J S; Hwang, Y M; Lee, M J; Choi, C G; Suh, D C; Lim, T H

    1999-01-01

    Functional reorganization of the brain can result from congenital brain disorders as well as from brain infarction. The purpose of our study was to use functional MR imaging to determine whether reorganization of brain function occurs in patients with schizencephaly. Four patients with schizencephaly (three right-handed, one ambidextrous) presented with seizures. Associated lesions included agenesis of the corpus callosum (n = 1) and absence of the septum pellucidum (n = 1). Functional MR imaging was performed in each patient using a single-section fast low-angle shot (FLASH) blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) technique at 1.5 T in a standard head coil. The motor cortex was initially identified on an axial T1-weighted anatomic image. Thirty consecutive images were obtained during a motor task consisting of repetitive finger-to-thumb opposition. The percentage of change in increased signal intensity was calculated for the primary motor area. An ipsilateral activation index was used to compare the affected with the unaffected hemisphere. The percentage of change in increased signal intensity in the area of activation ranged from 4.8% +/- 0.9 to 9.2% +/- 1.2 (mean, 5.6% +/- 1.5). The ipsilateral activation index in the affected hemisphere was 0.00 to 0.38, whereas that in the unaffected hemisphere was 15.4 to infinity. The difference in the ipsilateral activation index between each hemisphere was considered significant. Our results showed increased activation in the unaffected hemisphere in patients with schizencephaly, which may reflect functional reorganization of the motor area in patients with this congenital disorder.

  14. NT5C2 novel splicing variant expands the phenotypic spectrum of Spastic Paraplegia (SPG45): case report of a new member of thin corpus callosum SPG-Subgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaid, Mahmoud F; Ibrahim, Khalid; Chalhoub, Nader; Elsotouhy, Ahmed; El Mudehki, Noora; Abdel Aleem, Alice

    2017-03-21

    Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) is a genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative diseases. Thin Corpus Callosum (TCC) associated HSP is a distinguished subgroup of complex forms. Purines and pyrimidine, the basic DNA and RNA components, are regulating the cell metabolism, having roles in signal transduction, energy preservation and cellular repair. Genetic defects in nucleotide metabolism related genes have been only recently implicated in brain and neurodegenerative diseases' pathogenesis. We present a consanguineous Qatari family with two brothers, 9 and 3 years, who displayed a characteristic phenotype of early onset and markedly-severe spasticity with tiptoe walking, delayed dysarthric speech, persistent truncal hypotonia, and multiple variable-sized areas of brownish skin discoloration appearing at different places on the body. A clinical diagnosis suggestive of complex hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) was set after the family had the second affected child. Whole genome sequencing identified a novel homozygous NT5C2 splice site mutation (NM_012229.4/NM_001134373.2: c.1159 + 1G > T) that recessively segregated in family members. Brain MRI revealed dysgenic and thin corpus callosum (TCC) with peri-trigonal white matter cystic changes in both affected boys, whereas a well-developed corpus callosum with normal white matter was shown in their apparently normal brother, who found to be a carrier for the mutant variant. This mutation led to skipping of exon 14 with removal of 58 amino acid residues at the C-terminal half. The aberrantly spliced NT5C2 showed substantial reduction in expression level in the in-vitro study, indicating marked instability of the mutant NT5C2 protein. The present report expands the phenotypic spectrum of SPG45 and confirms NT5C2-SPG45 as a member of the rare TCC SPG-subtypes. Homozygous alteration in NT5C2 seems essential to produce central white matter developmental defects. The study highlights the importance of

  15. Intraventricular tuberculoma. Report of four cases in children. [CT scan findings described

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthier, M.; Sierra, J.; Leiguarda, R.

    1987-03-01

    Four cases of intraventricular tuberculoma (IVT) in children are here reported. In none of the patients was there clinical evidence pointing to the intraventricular location. CT scan findings comprised three stages of development, namely: immature, mature and old. Ependymal attachment and asymmetric hydrocephalus were present in three cases, meningitis in two and ependymitis in one. Septum pellucidum traction was clearly observed in two patients, strongly supporting an adhesive process characteristic of intraventricular tuberculosis. Following specific treatment, the tuberculomas remitted partially or entirely.

  16. Influência da largura do septo inter-radicular sobre a estabilidade dos mini-implantes Influence of inter-root septum width on mini-implant stability

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    Mariana Pracucio Gigliotti

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da largura do septo inter-radicular no local de inserção de mini-implantes autoperfurantes sobre o grau de estabilidade desses dispositivos de ancoragem. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 40 mini-implantes inseridos entre as raízes do primeiro molar e segundo pré-molar superiores de 21 pacientes, com o intuito de fornecer ancoragem para retração anterior. A largura do septo no local de inserção (LSI foi mensurada nas radiografias pós-cirúrgicas e, sob esse aspecto, os mini-implantes foram divididos em dois grupos: grupo 1 (áreas críticas, LSI3mm. A estabilidade dos mini-implantes foi avaliada mensalmente pela quantificação do grau de mobilidade e a partir dessa variável foi calculada a proporção de sucesso. Avaliou-se também: a quantidade de placa, altura de inserção, grau de sensibilidade e período de observação. RESULTADOS: os resultados obtidos demonstraram que não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa para o grau de mobilidade e proporção de sucesso entre os mini-implantes inseridos em septos de largura mesiodistal crítica e não crítica. A proporção de sucesso total encontrada foi de 90% e nenhuma variável demonstrou estar relacionada ao insucesso dos mini-implantes. No entanto, observou-se maior sensibilidade nos pacientes cujos mini-implantes apresentavam mobilidade, e que a falha desses dispositivos de ancoragem ocorria logo após sua inserção. CONCLUSÃO: a largura do septo inter-radicular no local de inserção não interferiu na estabilidade dos mini-implantes autoperfurantes avaliados neste estudo.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the inter-radicular septum width in the insertion site of self-drilling mini-implants on the stability degree of these anchorage devices. METHODS: The sample consisted of 40 mini-implants inserted in the inter-radicular septum between maxillary second premolars and

  17. Estudo radiográfico digital indireto do efeito da expansão de maxila cirurgicamente assistida (EMCA sobre o septo nasal Indirect digital radiographic study about the effect of surgically assisted maxillary expansion (SAME on the nasal septum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sanches Gonçales

    2007-10-01

    maxillary expansion is achieved by means of surgical-orthodontic procedures (known as surgically assisted maxillary expansion - SAME that can cause some effects on the nasal cavity and septum. AIM: To evaluate the behavior of the nasal septum after the procedures of SAME. METHODS: Post-anterior cephalometric and maxillary occlusal radiographs, taken by conventional technique and therefore digitalized, were analyzed from 16 patients undergone SAME. For all patients, the SAME technique consisted of subtotal Le Fort I osteotomy. The radiographs were taken before the surgical procedure, right after (mediate post-operatory time or after the expansion, and thereafter digitalized and measured using DIGORA program. Also, the distances between teeth (canines, first premolars, second premolars, first molars and second molars were registered. RESULTS: The statistical treatment showed an increase in interdental and intermaxillary distances, along with an increase in the width of the base of piriform aperture and in the distances between the base of lateral wall of the piriform aperture and nasal septum. CONCLUSION: SAME is an efficient procedure that seems not to influence the septum position.

  18. Primary Arterial Switch Operation for Late Referral of Transposition of the Great Arteries with Intact Ventricular Septum in the Current Era: Do We Still Need a Rapid Two-Stage Operation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Noritaka; Sivalingam, Sivakumar; Pau, Kiew Kong; Hew, Chee Chin; Dillon, Jeswant; Latiff, Haifa Abdul; Samion, Hasri; Yakub, Mohd Azhari

    2018-01-01

    We introduced primary arterial switch operation for the patient with transposition of great arteries and intact ventricular septum (TGA-IVS) who had more than 3.5 mm of posterior left ventricle (LV) wall thickness. Between January 2013 and June 2015, a total of 116 patients underwent arterial switch operation. Of the 116 patients, 26 with TGA-IVS underwent primary arterial switch operation at more than 30 days of age. The age and body weight (mean ± SD) at the operation were 120.4 ± 93.8 days and 4.1 ±1.0 kg, respectively. There was no hospital mortality. The thickness of posterior LV wall (preoperation vs postoperation; mm) was 4.04 ± 0.71 versus 5.90 ± 1.3; P switch operation with acceptable results under our indication. However, we need further investigation for LV function.

  19. Role of Caspase-3-Mediated Apoptosis in Chronic Caspase-3-Cleaved Tau Accumulation and Blood-Brain Barrier Damage in the Corpus Callosum after Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushakova, Olena Y; Glushakov, Andriy O; Borlongan, Cesar V; Valadka, Alex B; Hayes, Ronald L; Glushakov, Alexander V

    2017-07-21

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be a significant risk factor for development of neurodegenerative disorders such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE), and Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD) diseases. Chronic TBI is associated with several pathological features that are also characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases, including tau pathologies, caspase-3-mediated apoptosis, neuroinflammation, and microvascular alterations. The goal of this study was to evaluate changes following TBI in cleaved-caspase-3 and caspase-3-cleaved tau truncated at Asp421, and their relationships to cellular markers potentially associated with inflammation and blood-brain (BBB) barrier damage. We studied astrocytes (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP]), microglia (ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 [Iba1]), BBB (endothelial barrier antigen [EBA]), and activated microglia/macrophages (cluster of differentiation 68 [CD68]). We employed immunohistochemistry at different time points from 24 h to 3 months after controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury in rats, with particular interest in white matter. The study demonstrated that CCI caused chronic upregulation of cleaved-caspase-3 in the white matter of the corpus callosum. Increases in cleaved-caspase-3 in the corpus callosum were accompanied by accumulation of caspase-3-cleaved tau, with increasing perivascular aggregation 3 months after CCI. Immunofluorescence experiments further showed cellular co-localization of cleaved-caspase-3 with GFAP and CD68 and its adjacent localization with EBA, suggesting involvement of apoptosis and neuroinflammation in mechanisms of delayed BBB and microvascular damage that could contribute to white matter changes. This study also provides the first evidence that evolving upregulation of cleaved-caspase-3 is associated with accumulation of caspase-3-cleaved tau following experimental TBI, thus providing new insights into potential common mechanisms mediated

  20. Risk of infection due to medical interventions via central venous catheters or implantable venous access port systems at the middle port of a three-way cock: luer lock cap vs. luer access split septum system (Q-Syte).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Fabian; Hartmann, Werner; Holzmann, Thomas; Gensicke, Sandra; Kölbl, Oliver; Hautmann, Matthias G

    2014-01-25

    Many cancer patients receive a central venous catheter or port system prior to therapy to assure correct drug administration. Even appropriate hygienic intervention maintenance carries the risk of contaminating the middle port (C-port) of a three-way cock (TWC), a risk that increases with the number of medical interventions. Because of the complexity of the cleaning procedure with disconnection and reconnection of the standard luer lock cap (referred as "intervention"), we compared luer lock caps with a "closed access system" consisting of a luer access split septum system with regard to process optimization (work simplification, process time), efficiency (costs) and hygiene (patient safety). For determination of process optimization the workflow of an intervention according to the usual practice and risks was depicted in a process diagram. For determining the actual process costs, we analyzed use of material and time parameters per intervention and used the process parameters for programming the process into a simulation run (n = 1000) to determine the process costs as well as their differences (ACTUAL vs. NOMINAL) within the framework of a discrete event simulation.Additionally cultures were carried out at the TWC C-ports to evaluate possible contamination. With the closed access system, the mean working time of 5.5 minutes could be reduced to 2.97 minutes. The results for average process costs (labour and material costs per use) were 3.92 € for luer lock caps and 2.55 € for the closed access system. The hypothesis test (2-sample t-test, CI 0.95, p-value<0.05) confirmed the significance of the result.In 50 reviewed samples (TWC's), the contamination rate for the luer lock cap was 8% (4 out of 50 samples were positive), the contamination rate of the 50 samples with the closed access system was 0%.Possible hygienic risks (related to material, surroundings, staff handling) could be reduced by 65.38%. In the present research, the closed access system with a

  1. Drenagem anômala parcial de quatro veias pulmonares com septo interatrial íntegro: relato de um caso raro Partial anomalous return of four pulmonary veins with intact interatrial septum defect: a rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar Atik

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available É relatado caso raro de drenagem anômala parcial de quatro veias pulmonares no átrio direito e veia cava superior, com septo interatrial íntegro em criança de cinco anos de idade. Havia poucos sintomas, em contraste com débito ventricular esquerdo dependente do fluxo da veia lobar superior esquerda e da língula. Complacência diminuída à esquerda motivou quadro acentuado de hipertensão venocapilar pulmonar no pós-operatório imediato, aliviado por feitura de comunicação interatrial de 8 mm. A evolução posterior foi boa.We report on the rare case of partial anomalous return of four pulmonary veins in the right atrium and superior vena cava with intact interatrial septum in a five-year-old child. There were few symptoms in contrast with the left ventricular output dependent on the flow of the left upper lobe vein and from the lingula. Reduced compliance to the left led to a severe picture of pulmonary venocapillary hypertension in the immediate postoperative period, mitigated by an 8-mm interatrial septal defect. The patient progressed well after the intervention.

  2. Septo uterino, duplicação cervical e septo vaginal: relato de rara malformação mülleriana com gestação a termo Septate uterus, cervical duplication and vaginal septum: a report of an uncommon malformation with normal term pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Badalotti

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos um caso de gestação espontânea em uma paciente com útero septado completo e duplicação cervical. Paciente com 34 anos, branca, nuligesta, ciclos regulares, com suspeita de septo uterino em exame ecográfico. Ao exame, apresentava septo vaginal longitudinal até a região himenal e dois colos uterinos. Solicitada ecografia pélvica tridimensional que evidenciou duplicação cervical, septo uterino do istmo à cavidade endometrial e ausência de divisão do corpo uterino, compatível com útero septado completo e duplicação cervical verdadeira. Um mês após, relatou relação sexual desprotegida e atraso menstrual. Ao exame ecográfico foi visualizado saco gestacional único na cavidade uterina direita. Apresentou gestação sem intercorrências. A cesariana ocorreu com 37 semanas, com recém-nascido do sexo feminino saudável e puerpério normal. Esse caso ilustra uma gestação espontânea, sem intercorrências, em uma rara anomalia, cujo impacto reprodutivo ainda não está totalmente elucidado.This report describes an unusual case of spontaneous pregnancy in a patient with Müllerian anomaly. The patient was a 34-years old, white, nulligravida, with regular menstrual cycles, and suspected uterine septum observed during a routine ultrasonographic examination. The gynecological examination revealed a complete longitudinal vaginal septum and two uterine cervices. Three-dimensional pelvic ultrasonography showed cervix duplication, uterine septum from isthmus to endometrial cavity and absence of uterine body division, compatible with complete uterine septum and true dual cervices. She returned after one month and reported unprotected sexual intercourse and delayed menstrual period. She was pregnant, had a good pregnancy evolution, and delivered a healthy term baby girl, by cesarean section, at 37 weeks of pregnancy. This report describes a case of normal-term pregnancy in a patient with a rare anomaly (vaginal septum and two

  3. In vitro activation of the medial septum-diagonal band complex generates atropine-sensitive and atropine-resistant hippocampal theta rhythm: an investigation using a complete septohippocampal preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutagny, Romain; Manseau, Frédéric; Jackson, Jesse; Danik, Marc; Williams, Sylvain

    2008-01-01

    The medial septum and diagonal band complex (MS-DB) is believed to play a key role in generating theta oscillations in the hippocampus, a phenomenon critical for learning and memory. Although the importance of the MS-DB in hippocampal theta rhythm generation is generally accepted, it remains to be determined whether the MS-DB alone can generate hippocampal oscillations or is only a transducer of rhythmic activity from other brain areas. Secondly, it is known that hippocampal theta rhythm can be separated into an atropine-sensitive and insensitive component. However, it remains to be established if the MS-DB can generate both types of rhythm. To answer these questions, we used a new in vitro rat septohippocampal preparation placed in a hermetically separated two side recording chamber. We showed that carbachol activation of the MS-DB generated large theta oscillations in the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. These oscillations were blocked by applying either the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline or the AMPA/kainate antagonist DNQX to the hippocampus. Interestingly, the application of the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine produced only a partial decrease in the amplitude, without modification of the frequency, of theta. These results show for the first time, that upon optimal excitation, the MS-DB alone is able to generate hippocampal oscillations in the theta frequency band. Moreover, these MS-DB generated theta oscillations are mediated by muscarinic and nonmuscarinic receptors and have a pharmacological profile similar to theta rhythm observed in awake animals. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Avaliação dos resultados do tratamento cirúrgico de pacientes portadoras de endometriose do septo retovaginal Evaluation of the results of surgical treatment of patients with endometriosis of the rectovaginal septum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Makin Fahmy

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar os resultados dos 14 primeiros casos de tratamento cirúrgico videolaparoscópico de pacientes com endometriose profunda do septo retovaginal no Setor de Endoscopia Ginecológica do Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual "Francisco Morato de Oliveira". MÉTODOS: foi realizada análise retrospectiva com dados retirados de prontuários, associada ao atendimento ambulatorial pós-operatório das 14 pacientes operadas entre fevereiro de 2002 e fevereiro de 2004, apresentando as seguintes características: a idade das pacientes variou de 33 a 44 anos, com média de 38,4; a paridade variou de 0 a 3, com média de 1,1; os principais sintomas pré-operatórios foram: dismenorréia em 14 (100%, dispareunia de profundidade em 12 (85,7%, dor pélvica acíclica em 10 (71,4%, dor à evacuação em duas (14,3%, enterorragia em duas (14,3% e infertilidade em duas (14,3%. A dosagem plasmática do CA-125 esteve entre 3,6 e 100,3 U/mL, com média de 52,9 U/mL. RESULTADOS: o exame anatomopatológico das lesões do septo retovaginal foi compatível com endometriose em nove (64,3% pacientes. Quanto à sintomatologia dolorosa, houve regressão total em sete (50% pacientes, melhora de mais de 80% em duas (14,3%, sem melhora em quatro (28,6% e piora em uma (7,1%. A incidência de complicações foi de 14,3%, sendo uma lesão de ureter associada a lesão no sigmóide e uma lesão retal diagnosticada no 8º dia de pós-operatório. CONCLUSÃO: pode-se concluir que a endometriose profunda do septo retovaginal pode ser tratada pela cirurgia laparoscópica, com baixa morbidade, e trazendo alívio dos sintomas para a maioria das pacientes.PURPOSE: to evaluate the results of 14 cases of laparoscopic surgical treatment of patients with deep endometriosis of the rectovaginal septum in the Sector of Gynecological Endoscopy of the 'Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual "Francisco Morato de Oliveira"'. METHODS: a retrospective analysis was accomplished with data

  5. Operação de Senning com a utilização de tecidos do próprio paciente Senning operation with autologous tissue for atrial septum augmentation or pulmonary venous pathway enlargement

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    Luiz Fernando CANÊO

    1999-10-01

    advantages of the original Senning Operation is the ability to avoid either biologic or synthetic patches for atrial septum augmentation or to enlarge pulmonary venous pathways. To accomplish this we have performed the Senning procedure with some modifications that allow the operation to be completed without the use of heterologous tissue. Twelve children, aged 5 months to 4 years (mean age: 20 months with transposition of great arteries who had previous balloon atrial septostomy were submitted to the Senning procedure. The following associated lesions were diagnosed: ventricular septal defect in 1 patient, valvular pulmonary stenosis in 1 and auricular juxtaposition in 1. The modified technique used for atrial septum augmentation was the use of open inverted left auricula in 5 cases, inverted auricula in 2 and in situ autologous pericardium for venous pathway enlargement in 5. The hospitalization was 10 to 24 days (mean = 15 days and the post-operative period was 7 to 22 days (mean = 12 days. There were no in-hospital or late deaths during a mean follow-up period of 23 months (range 8 to 34 months. All patients had a good clinical outcome and their follow-up echocardiographic examinations showed no evidence of venous pathway obstruction. This modified Senning Operation can be performed without either biologic or synthetic patches for atrial septum augmentation or to enlarge pulmonary venous pathway. The use of autologous in situ tissues with potential for growth, retains the main theoretical advantage of the original technique.

  6. A new locus (SPG46) maps to 9p21.2-q21.12 in a Tunisian family with a complicated autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia with mental impairment and thin corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhris, Amir; Feki, Imed; Elleuch, Nizar; Miladi, Mohamed Imed; Boland-Augé, Anne; Truchetto, Jérémy; Mundwiller, Emeline; Jezequel, Nadia; Zelenika, Diana; Mhiri, Chokri; Brice, Alexis; Stevanin, Giovanni

    2010-10-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) with thin corpus callosum (TCC) and mental impairment is a frequent subtype of complicated HSP, often inherited as an autosomal recessive (AR) trait. It is clear from molecular genetic analyses that there are several underlying causes of this syndrome, with at least six genetic loci identified to date. However, SPG11 and SPG15 are the two major genes for this entity. To map the responsible gene in a large AR-HSP-TCC family of Tunisian origin, we investigated a consanguineous family with a diagnosis of AR-HSP-TCC excluded for linkage to the SPG7, SPG11, SPG15, SPG18, SPG21, and SPG32 loci. A genome-wide scan was undertaken using 6,090 SNP markers covering all chromosomes. The phenotypic presentation in five patients was suggestive of a complex HSP that associated an early-onset spastic paraplegia with mild handicap, mental deterioration, congenital cataract, cerebellar signs, and TCC. The genome-wide search identified a single candidate region on chromosome 9, exceeding the LOD score threshold of +3. Fine mapping using additional markers narrowed the candidate region to a 45.1-Mb interval (15.4 cM). Mutations in three candidate genes were excluded. The mapping of a novel AR-HSP-TCC locus further demonstrates the extensive genetic heterogeneity of this condition. We propose that testing for this locus should be performed, after exclusion of mutations in SPG11 and SPG15 genes, in AR-HSP-TCC families, especially when cerebellar ataxia and cataract are present.

  7. Novel mutations c.[5121_5122insAG]+[6859C>T] of the SPG11 gene associated with cerebellum hypometabolism in a Chinese case of hereditary spastic paraplegia with thin corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Xiong, Likuan; Chang, Yu; Jing, Xiangyi; Huang, Weijun; Hu, Bin; Shi, Xinchong; Xu, Weiping; Wang, Yiming; Li, Xunhua

    2014-02-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a very heterogeneous disease, both genetically and clinically. To date, approximately 52 loci and 31 genes have been reported to be involved in the causality of HSP. The pattern of inheritance of the disease can be autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked recessive. Autosomal recessive HSP with thin corpus callosum (ARHSP-TCC) is one form of this disease, and a recessive gene, SPG11, is responsible for 41-77% of all ARHSP-TCC cases. SPG11 encodes the protein SPATACSIN, which is most prominently expressed in the cerebellum. However, little is known about its function. Despite diverse clinical presentations, diffuse hypometabolism in the cerebellum has not been reported previously. We have identified an HSP-TCC patient that presented with prominent intellectual disability rather than spasticity. (18)Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)FDG-PET/CT) examination showed diffuse hypometabolism in both cerebella. Mutation screening of the SPG11 gene using Sanger sequencing identified the novel compound heterozygous mutation c.[5121_5122insAG]+[6859C>T] (p.[I1708RfsX2]+[Q2287X]) in the patient. The mother bears the c.5121_5122insAG mutation, which results in a frameshift and is predicted to truncate the 735 amino acids from the C-terminus, and the father carries the c.6859C>T mutation, which terminates the 157 amino acids from the C-terminus. Therefore, these mutations may result in the loss of function of wild-type SPATACSIN. Our results suggest that SPATACSIN may be involved in cerebella metabolism, and the novel mutations provide more data for the mutational spectrum of this gene, which will aid in the development of quick and accurate genetic diagnostic tools for this disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Impaired visual short-term memory capacity is distinctively associated with structural connectivity of the posterior thalamic radiation and the splenium of the corpus callosum in preterm-born adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegaux, Aurore; Meng, Chun; Neitzel, Julia; Bäuml, Josef G; Müller, Hermann J; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter; Wohlschläger, Afra M; Finke, Kathrin; Sorg, Christian

    2017-04-15

    Preterm birth is associated with an increased risk for lasting changes in both the cortico-thalamic system and attention; however, the link between cortico-thalamic and attention changes is as yet little understood. In preterm newborns, cortico-cortical and cortico-thalamic structural connectivity are distinctively altered, with increased local clustering for cortico-cortical and decreased integrity for cortico-thalamic connectivity. In preterm-born adults, among the various attention functions, visual short-term memory (vSTM) capacity is selectively impaired. We hypothesized distinct associations between vSTM capacity and the structural integrity of cortico-thalamic and cortico-cortical connections, respectively, in preterm-born adults. A whole-report paradigm of briefly presented letter arrays based on the computationally formalized Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) was used to quantify parameter vSTM capacity in 26 preterm- and 21 full-term-born adults. Fractional anisotropy (FA) of posterior thalamic radiations and the splenium of the corpus callosum obtained by diffusion tensor imaging were analyzed by tract-based spatial statistics and used as proxies for cortico-thalamic and cortico-cortical structural connectivity. The relationship between vSTM capacity and cortico-thalamic and cortico-cortical connectivity, respectively, was significantly modified by prematurity. In full-term-born adults, the higher FA in the right posterior thalamic radiation the higher vSTM capacity; in preterm-born adults this FA-vSTM-relationship was inversed. In the splenium, higher FA was correlated with higher vSTM capacity in preterm-born adults, whereas no significant relationship was evident in full-term-born adults. These results indicate distinct associations between cortico-thalamic and cortico-cortical integrity and vSTM capacity in preterm-and full-term-born adults. Data suggest compensatory cortico-cortical fiber re-organization for attention deficits after preterm delivery

  9. Disgenesia do corpo caloso e más-formações associadas: achados de tomografia computadorizada e ressonância magnética Dysgenesis of the corpus callosum and associated malformations: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Montandon

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O termo disgenesia do corpo caloso refere-se a uma má-formação deste com origem na embriogênese do telencéfalo. O relato analisa os achados de tomografia computadorizada e ressonância magnética em 11 pacientes com disgenesia calosa e em um caso de corpo caloso normal com lipoma associado. Esta pode ser distinguida em três grupos: agenesia total (três casos, agenesia parcial (seis casos e hipoplasia (dois casos. Anomalias associadas foram observadas em nove casos, incluindo má-formação de Chiari tipo II (um caso, esquizencefalia (um caso, cisto inter-hemisférico (dois casos, heterotopia nodular (um caso, cisto de Dandy-Walker (um caso e lipoma do corpo caloso (quatro casos. Este artigo demonstra um espectro destes distúrbios, auxiliando na sua interpretação diagnóstica.Callosal dysgenesis is a malformation of the corpus callosum with origins in the embryogenesis of the telencephalon. We reviewed the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings of 11 patients with callosal dysgenesis and one patient with normal corpus callosum associated with a lipoma. The patients were divided into three distinct groups: total agenesis (three patients, partial agenesis (six patients and hypoplasia (two patients. Associated abnormalities were observed in nine patients, including Chiari II malformation (one patient, schizencephaly (one patient, interhemispheric cyst (two patients, Dandy-Walker cyst (one patient, nodular heterotopy (one patient and lipoma of the corpus callosum (four patients. This paper presents a review that may contribute to the diagnosis of these disorders.

  10. septum transversum-liver primordium anomaly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 31-year-old man was admitted following an assault. He had sustained extensive bruises and blunt abdominal trauma with peritonitis. Investigations revealed a ... The bowel injury was repaired, the patient's postoperative course was uneventful, and he was discharged after 9 days. Ultrasonographic screening during ...

  11. Dynamic changes in extracellular release of GABA and glutamate in the lateral septum during social play behavior in juvenile rats: Implications for sex-specific regulation of social play behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredewold, Remco; Schiavo, Jennifer K.; van der Hart, Marieke; Verreij, Michelle; Veenema, Alexa H.

    2015-01-01

    Social play is a motivated and rewarding behavior that is displayed by nearly all mammals and peaks in the juvenile period. Moreover, social play is essential for the development of social skills and is impaired in social disorders like autism. We recently showed that the lateral septum (LS) is involved in the regulation of social play behavior in juvenile male and female rats. The LS is largely modulated by GABA and glutamate neurotransmission, but their role in social play behavior is unknown. Here, we determined whether social play behavior is associated with changes in the extracellular release of GABA and glutamate in the LS and to what extent such changes modulate social play behavior in male and female juvenile rats. Using intracerebral microdialysis in freely behaving rats, we found no sex difference in extracellular GABA concentrations, but extracellular glutamate concentrations are higher in males than in females under baseline condition and during social play. This resulted in a higher glutamate/GABA concentration ratio in males versus females and thus, an excitatory predominance in the LS of males. Furthermore, social play behavior in both sexes is associated with significant increases in extracellular release of GABA and glutamate in the LS. Pharmacological blockade of GABA-A receptors in the LS with bicuculline (100 ng/0.5 µl, 250 ng/0.5 µl) dose-dependently decreased the duration of social play behavior in both sexes. In contrast, pharmacological blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors (NMDA and AMPA/kainate receptors) in the LS with AP-5 + CNQX (2 mM+0.4 mM/0.5 µl, 30 mM+3 mM/0.5 µl) dose-dependently decreased the duration of social play behavior in females, but did not alter social play behavior in males. Together, these data suggest a role for GABA neurotransmission in the LS in the regulation of juvenile social play behavior in both sexes, while glutamate neurotransmission in the LS is involved in the sex-specific regulation of juvenile

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging study of corpus callosum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-02

    Nov 2, 2014 ... depression,[4] antisocial personality disorder,[5] post-traumatic stress disorder,[6] autism[7] and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.[8]. Rosenthal and Bigelow[9] first drew attention to an increased thickness of the CC in postmortem brains of schizophrenia patients. Later, in neuroimaging studies, CC size ...

  13. Displasia septo-óptica o síndrome DeMorsier: Presentación de 1 caso y revisión bibliográfica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vargas Díaz

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available La displasia septo-óptica (DSO o síndrome DeMorsier es un cuadro congénito de presentación poco frecuente, constituido por hipoplasia de 1 o más frecuentemente, de ambos nervios ópticos, ausencia de septum pellucidum y deficiencias hormonales. Se presenta una lactante de 6 meses de edad que es atendida porque la niña no mostraba interés visual y no sostenía la cabeza. Durante el embarazo su mamá tenía bajo peso corporal y padeció de infección urinaria en el último trimestre del embarazo. Durante los 2 primeros meses de vida presentó fiebre de hasta 38 ° C sin que se pudiera identificar un proceso infeccioso como causante. En su examen neurológico se halló hipotonia generalizada de predominio axial con reflejos osteotendinosos presentes, nistagmus horizontal, estrabismo convergente, ausencia de reflejo visuopalpebral y en el fondo de ojo bilateralmente papilas muy pequeñas con imagen de doble contorno. El ultrasonido cerebral y la tomografía axial computadorizada (TAC mostraron ausencia del septum pellucidum. La edad ósea se correspondió con 4 meses y se encontró deficiencia de la hormona del crecimiento con valores de 4 ng/L. Las manifestaciones clínicas de esta paciente se corresponden con la triada clásica del síndrome DeMorsier; hipoplasia del nervio óptico, agenesia del septum pellucidum y deficiencias hormonales, en este caso de hormona del crecimiento. Se presenta una actualización de esta enfermedad poco frecuente.The septo-optic dysplasia or DeMorsier's syndrome is a rare congenital disease consisting in hypoplasia of one or more frequently of both optic nerves, absence of septum pellucidum and hormone deficiencies. Clinical case: A female infant of 6 months of age receives attention because the girl had no visual interest and was not able to hold up her head. Her mother had low body weight and suffered from urinary infection in the last trimester of pregnancy. During the first 2 months of life she had fever

  14. Imaging of central neurocytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoho, Daniel; Zada, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Central neurocytoma (CN) is an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of any intraventricular lesion. Initial evaluation should include noncontrast CT, MRI with and without gadolinium contrast, and magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy, if available. CN classically appear as a partially calcified mass on CT, arising from the septum pellucidum or foramen of Monro, with a soap-bubble multicystic appearance on MR T2-imaging and heterogeneous enhancement on MR T1 postcontrast imaging. MR perfusion/permeability and dynamic contrast imaging are experimental and promising tools in the diagnosis of CN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prenatal diagnosis of microdeletion 16p13.11 combination with partial monosomy of 2q37.1-qter and partial trisomy of 7p15.3-pter in a fetus with bilateral ventriculomegaly, agenesis of corpus callosum, and polydactyly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Pi-Lin; Chang, Chia-Ming; Chen, Chih-Yao; Wang, Peng-Hui; Chao, Kuan-Chong; Wen, Kuo-Chang; Cheng, Yung-Yung; Li, Yueh-Chun; Lin, Chyi-Chyang

    2012-06-01

    To present a prenatal diagnosis of microdeletion 16p13.11 with partial monosomy of 2q37.1-qter and partial trisomy of 7p15.3-pter in a fetus with bilateral ventriculomegaly, agenesis of corpus callosum, and polydactyly. A 41-year-old well-being Taiwanese, nulligravida woman received amniocentesis at a gestational age of 18 weeks for advanced maternal age. The fetus' karyotype showed 46,XY,der(2)t(2;7)(q36.2;p15.1). Both parents also received cytogenetic examinations and the mother's karyotype revealed 46,XX,t(2;7)(2q36.2;p15.1). High-resolution ultrasound showed the fetus had bilateral ventriculomegaly, agenesis of corpus callosum, and polydactyly of the right hand. After the termination of this pregnancy, the whole genome oligonucleotide-base array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) by using fetal skin cells demonstrated a 8.44-Mb deletion at 2q37.1 (234602276-243041305), a 22.8-Mb duplication (65558-22869338) at 7p15.3, and an additional 1.32-Mb deletion (14968855-16292235) at 16p13.11. Array CGH is a useful tool not only to discover the genomic imbalance at the breakpoints as well as to detect unexpectedly complex rearrangements in other chromosomes. Our case also provided evidence that genomic aberration at chromosome 16p13.11 involves in the formation of polydactyly. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Circulação coronária dependente do ventrículo direito na atresia pulmonar com septo interventricular íntegro. Ausência da origem das artérias coronárias da aorta Right ventricle-dependent coronary circulation in pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum. Absence of origin of the coronary arteries from the aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Romero Rivera

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available São descritos os aspectos clínicos, ecocardiográficos e angiográficos de um neonato de sexo masculino, com cinco dias de vida e diagnóstico de atresia pulmonar com septo interventricular íntegro. Tanto o ecocardiograma como a aortografia mostraram ausência da origem das artérias coronárias da aorta. O ecocardiograma bidimensional e, posteriormente, a ventriculografia direita identificaram as artérias coronárias, originando-se no ventrículo direito. Não houve contrastação retrógrada da aorta ou do tronco pulmonar quando contrastadas as artérias coronárias. Este é o primeiro caso relatado com diagnóstico ecocardiográfico pré angiografia, e é um exemplo da necessidade de se avaliar as artérias coronárias em pacientes com atresia pulmonar e septo ventricular íntegro.This report describes the clinical, echocardiographic and angiographic aspects of a five-day old boy with pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum. Both the echocardiogram and the aortography did not show any coronary arteries arising from the aorta. Two-dimensional echocardiography was able to identify the coronary arteries originating from the right ventricle and so did the right ventricular angiogram. No retrograde flow into the aorta or pulmonary trunk was identified after opacification of the coronary arteries. As far as we know this is the first case diagnosed by echocardiography, and is a vivid example of the necessity of identifying the coronary arteries in patients with pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum.

  17. Curva de referência da área do septo interventricular fetal pelo método STIC: estudo preliminar Curva de referencia del área del septo interventricular fetal por el método STIC: estudio preliminar Reference curve of the fetal ventricular septum area by the STIC method: preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliam Cristine Rolo

    2011-05-01

    gestación fueron determinados y se mostraron altamente reproducibles. (Arq Bras Cardiol 2011;96(5:386-392BACKGROUND: Early detection of septal changes such as septal hypertrophy commonly present in fetuses of diabetic mothers would help reduce the high rates of infant mortality. OBJECTIVE: Determine reference ranges for the fetal ventricular septal area through three-dimensional ultrasound (US3D using the STIC method (Spatio-Temporal Image Correlation. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study with 69 pregnant women between the 18th and 33rd weeks of pregnancy. We used as a reference the four-chamber plane with the ROI (Region of Interest positioned from the ventricles; the septum area were manually marked. To assess the correlation of the interventricular septum area with gestational age (GA, we constructed scatter plots and calculated Pearson's correlation coefficient (r, and the adjustment was performed by the coefficient of determination (R². We calculated averages, medians, standard deviations (sd, as well as maximum and minimum values. To calculate the intraobserver reproducibility, we used the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. The interventricular septum thickness was measured and it was correlated with gestational age and the septal area rendered in 52 patients using the ICC. RESULTS: The interventricular septum area was highly correlated with gestational age (r = 0.81, and the average increased from 0.47 cm² in the 18th week to 2.42 cm² in the 33rd of gestation. The intraobserver reproducibility was excellent with ICC = 0.994. No significant correlation was observed between the interventricular septum measurement and the GA (R² = 0.200, as well as there was no correlation with the septal area rendered with ICC = 0.150. CONCLUSION: Reference intervals for the interventricular septum area between the 18th and the 33rd pregnancy week were determined to be highly reproducible.

  18. Neurodevelopmental marker for limbic maldevelopment in antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Adrian; Lee, Lydia; Yang, Yaling; Colletti, Patrick

    2010-09-01

    Antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy have been hypothesised to have a neurodevelopmental basis, but this proposition has not been formally tested. This study tests the hypothesis that individuals with cavum septum pellucidum (CSP), a marker of limbic neural maldevelopment, will show higher levels of psychopathy and antisocial personality. Cavum septum pellucidum was assessed using anatomical magnetic resonance imaging in a community sample. Those with CSP (n = 19) were compared with those lacking CSP (n = 68) on antisocial personality, psychopathy and criminal offending. Those with CSP had significantly higher levels of antisocial personality, psychopathy, arrests and convictions compared with controls. The pervasiveness of this association was indicated by the fact that those lacking a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, but who were charged or convicted for an offence, had a more extensive CSP than non-antisocial controls. Results could not be attributed to prior trauma exposure, head injury, demographic factors or comorbid psychiatric conditions. Our findings appear to be the first to provide evidence for a neurodevelopmental brain abnormality in those with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy, and support the hypothesis that early maldevelopment of limbic and septal structures predisposes to the spectrum of antisocial behaviours.

  19. Septo-optic dysplasia: case report Displasia septo-óptica: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso P. Pierre Filho

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The clinical triad of septo-optic dysplasia (SOD comprises the absence of the septum pellucidum, congenital optic nerve dysplasia, and multiple endocrine disorders. When any two of these factors are present, the condition is defined as an incomplete form of SOD. The authors report the case of an incomplete form of SOD in a 9-year-old boy with low vision and nystagmus present from birth. The bilateral ophthalmoscopic examination revealed small papillae with double contour images. Magnetic resonance imaging showed hypoplasia of the optic nerve bilaterally, chiasm and absence of the septum pellucidum.A tríade clínica da displasia septo-óptica (DSO compreende a ausência de septo pelúcido, displasia congênita do nervo óptico e múltiplos defeitos endócrinos. Uma forma incompleta de DSO tem sido reconhecida com dois dos três elementos. Os autores relatam um caso de displasia septo-óptica na forma incompleta em um garoto de 9 anos com baixa visão e nistagmo presentes desde o nascimento. O exame oftalmoscópico revelou papila pequena com imagem em duplo contorno bilateralmente. Ressonância magnética mostrou hipoplasia dos nervos ópticos, quiasma e ausência do septo pelúcido.

  20. Estratégia cirúrgica na transposição das grandes artérias com septo interventricular intacto após o período neonatal Surgical strategy for transposition of the great arteries with intact ventricular septum after the neonatal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayard Gontijo Filho

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o resultado cirúrgico em portadores de transposição das grandes artérias com septo interventricular intacto, operados após o período neonatal. MÉTODOS: Entre janeiro de 1998 e março de 2004 foram atendidas 121 crianças com transposição das grandes artérias com septo interventricular intacto, sendo 29 (24% após o período neonatal. A seleção para tratamento cirúrgico foi baseada na avaliação ecocardiográfica pelo cálculo da massa do ventrículo esquerdo e da configuração do septo interventricular. Das 29 crianças, 12 foram selecionadas para correção anatômica primária, 12 para correção em dois estágios, após preparo cirúrgico do ventrículo esquerdo e 5 submetidas a correção atrial. RESULTADOS: No grupo submetido à correção anatômica primária houve 1 (8,3% óbito hospitalar por sepsis. No grupo de correção em dois estágios, 5 pacientes foram submetidos ao preparo lento, com correção 3-6 meses após o 1º estágio, ocorrendo 4 óbitos após o 1º estágio. Este fato determinou mudança no nosso protocolo, adotando-se a técnica de preparo rápido nos outros 7 pacientes, tendo todos atingido o 2º estágio. Das 8 crianças submetidas ao 2º estágio houve 1 óbito hospitalar e outro óbito tardio. A evolução clínica tardia das crianças de ambos os grupos é excelente. CONCLUSÃO: A seleção ecocardiográfica adequada da transposição de grandes artérias com septo interventricular intacto quando abordada após o período neonatal, permitiu uma orientação segura da escolha da melhor abordagem cirúrgica nestes pacientes.OBJECTIVE: To assess the surgical results in patients with transposition of the great arteries and intact ventricular septum undergoing surgery after the neonatal period. METHODS: From January 1998 to March 2004, 121 children with transposition of the great arteries with intact ventricular septum were treated, 29 (24% of whom after the neonatal period. Selection

  1. Input from the medial septum regulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Borght, Karin; Mulder, Jan; Keijser, Jan N; Eggen, Bart J L; Luiten, Paul G.M.; Van der Zee, Eddy A; Keijser, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    Neural progenitors in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal formation form a continuously proliferating cell population, generating new granule neurons throughout adult life. Between 10 days and 1 month after their formation, many of the newly generated cells die. The present study investigated

  2. [Aneurysm of interauricular septum associated with mesosytolic click].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteiro, J; Fernandez de Almeida, C A; Aparici, M; Hidalgo, R; Iglesias, I; Abecia, A

    1990-02-01

    An echocardiographic study was performed to a patient with symptoms of cardiac failure and midsystolic click confirmed by phonocardiography. The echocardiograms suggested an incipient dilated myocardiopathy and also atrial septal aneurysm. We report the relationship between midsystolic click and atrial septal aneurysm.

  3. a case report of premenarchial transverse vaginal septum at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. The incidence of vaginal atresia has been estimated to be 1 in 400,000 female children.1 The vagina is derived from interaction between the uterovaginal primordium and the pelvic part of the urogenital sinus.2 The causes of vaginal anomalies are difficult to discern because of the controversial subject of ...

  4. Positive Correlations between Corpus Callosum Thickness and Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Luders, Eileen; Narr, Katherine L; Bilder, Robert M.; Paul M. Thompson; Szeszko, Philip R.; Hamilton, Liberty; Toga, Arthur W.

    2007-01-01

    Callosal morphology is thought to reflect the capacity for inter-hemispheric communication and thus, in addition to other cerebral characteristics, may serve as a neuroanatomical substrate of general intellectual capacity. We applied novel computational mesh-based methods to establish the presence and direction of correlations between intelligence and callosal thickness at high spatial resolution while removing the variance associated with overall brain size. Within healthy subjects (n=62), a...

  5. Positive correlations between corpus callosum thickness and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, Eileen; Narr, Katherine L; Bilder, Robert M; Thompson, Paul M; Szeszko, Philip R; Hamilton, Liberty; Toga, Arthur W

    2007-10-01

    Callosal morphology is thought to reflect the capacity for inter-hemispheric communication and thus, in addition to other cerebral characteristics, may serve as a neuroanatomical substrate of general intellectual capacity. We applied novel computational mesh-based methods to establish the presence and direction of correlations between intelligence and callosal thickness at high spatial resolution while removing the variance associated with overall brain size. Within healthy subjects (n=62), and within males (n=28) and females (n=34) separately, we observed significant positive correlations between callosal morphology and intelligence measures (full-scale, performance, and verbal). These relationships were pronounced in posterior callosal sections and were confirmed by permutation testing. Significant negative correlations were absent. Positive associations between intelligence and posterior callosal thickness may reflect a more efficient inter-hemispheric information transfer, positively affecting information processing and integration, and thus intellectual performance. At the same time, regional variations in callosal size might also partly reflect the underlying architecture of topographically connected cortical regions relevant for processing higher-order cognitive information. Our findings emphasize the importance of incorporating posterior (callosal) regions into the theories and models proposed to explain the anatomical substrates of intelligence.

  6. Agenesis of the corpus callosum with associated inter-hemispheric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    spiders in his bedroom, allegations of verbal aggression and a recent relapse of seizures ... He gradually developed symptoms of depression and attempted suicide once. He presented to the ... signs on mental status examination. He also had ...

  7. Parametric Probability Distribution Functions for Axon Diameters of Corpus Callosum

    OpenAIRE

    Sepehrband, Farshid; Alexander, Daniel C; Clark, Kristi A.; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Yang, Zhengyi; Reutens, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Axon diameter is an important neuroanatomical characteristic of the nervous system that alters in the course of neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis. Axon diameters vary, even within a fiber bundle, and are not normally distributed. An accurate distribution function is therefore beneficial, either to describe axon diameters that are obtained from a direct measurement technique (e.g., microscopy), or to infer them indirectly (e.g., using diffusion-weighted MRI). The gamma distribu...

  8. Changes to the septo-fornical area might play a role in the pathogenesis of anxiety in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palotai, Miklos; Mike, Andrea; Cavallari, Michele

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reports on the relationships between white matter lesion load (WMLL) and fatigue and anxiety in multiple sclerosis (MS) are inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of total and tract-specific WMLL with fatigue and anxiety. METHODS: Total and regional T2 WMLL was assessed...... for 19 tracts in 48 MS patients (30 females). ICBM-DTI-81 Atlas-based parcellation was combined with WMLL segmentation of T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fatigue, anxiety, and depression were assessed using Fatigue Impact Scale, State Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory...... and body of the fornix (CBF) remained significantly associated with anxiety. Post hoc analyses showed no CBF lesions on T1-weighted MRI and suggested, but could not confirm, that the septum pellucidum might play a role in the pathogenesis of anxiety. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that anxiety in MS...

  9. A boy with partial dup(18q)/del(18p) due to a maternal pericentric inversion: Genotype-phenotype correlation and risk of recombinant chromosomes based on systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustosa-Mendes, Elaine; Dos Santos, Ana Paula; Viguetti-Campos, Nilma Lúcia; Vieira, Társis Paiva; Gil-da-Silva-Lopes, Vera Lúcia

    2017-01-01

    We report a boy carrying a recombinant chromosome 18, with terminal deletion of 10.8 Mb from 18p11.32 to 18p11.21 and a terminal duplication of 22.8 Mb from 18q21.31 to 18q23, resulting from a maternal pericentric inversion of the chromosome 18. He presented with poor growth, developmental delay, facial dysmorphisms, surgically repaired left cleft lip and palate, a mild form of holoprosencephaly characterized by single central incisor and agenesis of the septum pellucidum, and body asymmetry. Based on the systematic review of the literature, we discuss genotype-phenotype correlation and the risk for the recombinants of pericentric inversions of chromosome 18. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Central neurocytoma: radiological and clinico-pathological findings in 18 patients and one additional MRS case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsahye, Haleena; He, Huijin; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Li, Siyao; Xiong, Ji

    2013-05-01

    WI and heterogeneous moderate enhancement on MR images; (3) the incorporation of the septum pellucidum in bilateral tumours and abutting of the septum pellucidum in unilateral tumours together with the attachment of the wall of the ventricles can help in the diagnosis of preoperative central neurocytoma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Lateralized differences in olfactory function and olfactory bulb volume relate to nasal septum deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altundag, Aytug; Salihoglu, Murat; Tekeli, Hakan; Saglam, Muzaffer; Cayonu, Melih; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    One of the most common reasons for partial nasal obstruction is nasal septal deviation (NSD). The effect of a partial lateralized nasal obstruction on olfactory bulb (OB) volume remains unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the side differences in olfactory function and OB in patients with serious NSD. Sixty-five volunteers were included: 22 patients with serious right NSD and 43 patients with left NSD. The patients' mean age was 22 years. All participants received volumetric magnetic resonance imaging scans of the entire brain and detailed lateralized olfactory tests. The majority of the patients exhibited an overall decreased olfactory function (as judged for the better nostril: functional anosmia in 3%, hyposmia in 72%, normosmia in 25%), which seems to be mostly due to the overall severe changes in nasal anatomy. As expected, olfactory function was significantly lower at the narrower side as indicated for odor thresholds, odor discrimination, and odor identification (P ≤ 0.005). When correlating relative scores and volumes (wider minus narrower side), a significantly positive correlation between the relative measures emerged for OB volume and odor identification, odor discrimination, and odor thresholds. Our study clearly highlights that septal deviation results in decreased olfactory function at the narrower side.

  12. Structural determinants required to target penicillin-binding protein 3 to the septum of Escherichia coli.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piette, A.; Aarsman, M.E.G.; Fraipont, C.; den Blaauwen, T.; Pastoret, S.; Nguyen-Disteche, M.

    2004-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, cell division is mediated by the concerted action of about 12 proteins that assemble at the division site to presumably form a complex called the divisome. Among these essential division proteins, the multimodular class B penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3), which is

  13. Brain Oxytocin in Social Fear Conditioning and Its Extinction: Involvement of the Lateral Septum

    OpenAIRE

    Zoicas, Iulia; Slattery, David A.; Neumann, Inga D

    2014-01-01

    Central oxytocin (OXT) has anxiolytic and pro-social properties both in humans and rodents, and has been proposed as a therapeutic option for anxiety and social dysfunctions. Here, we utilized a mouse model of social fear conditioning (SFC) to study the effects of OXT on social fear, and to determine whether SFC causes alterations in central OXT receptor (OXTR) binding and local OXT release. Central infusion of OXT, but not arginine vasopressin, prior to social fear extinction training comple...

  14. Evaluation of septum-capped vials for storage of gas samples during air transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzel, Stephan; Well, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    In order to provide information on the suitability of commonly used gas storage vials for air transport, we tested two vial types on their ability to preserve defined nitrous oxide concentrations and excess pressure when exposed to low pressure, low temperature and puncture by needles. Unlike in Crimp Cap vials, in Exetainers no nitrous oxide loss following low pressure storage was detectable. Tightness of Exetainers following multiple puncture was best using a small needle diameter. Pressure loss following 5, 10, or 25 punctures was lowest in the Exetainers. We conclude that Exetainers are suitable for storing gas samples for an extended period of time during aircraft transport.

  15. Concomitant Imperforate Hymen and Transverse Vaginal Septum Complicated with Pyocolpos and Abdominovaginal Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Dilbaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 13-year-old patient with a complaint of worsening lower abdominal pain during the past 4 months was admitted to the emergency department. An abdominopelvic ultrasound scan revealed a distended uterocervical cavity suggestive of hematometrocolpos. Imperforate hymen was observed on examination of the external genitalia. MRI scan revealed an air-fluid level representing pyometrocolpos within a distended vagina. Posterior vaginal extraperitoneal leakage as the sign of a fistula between the vagina and the rectovaginal space was detected. Although laparoscopic approach was planned, malodorous pus expelled after the insertion of the Veress needle, it was decided to proceed to laparotomy. Pus with peritoneal microabscess formations was observed at laparotomy. The imperforate hymen and TVS were excised vaginally. A more complex anomaly should be suspected in cases with hematometra and concomitant imperforated hymen without any bulging and thorough evaluation using radiological imaging techniques should be performed before surgical approach.

  16. PENATALAKSANAAN MESIODENS PADA ANAK DENGAN KELAINAN JANTUNG KONGENITAL DEFEK SEPTUM VENTRIKEL (Laporan Kasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanty Ariani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mesiodens is supernumerary teeth which is commonly found and located in midline premaxilla. The supernumerary teeth may cause clinical disorders, such as delayed eruption and malposition of permanent teeth, therefore early diagnosis and intervention is very important. Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD is a congenital heart disease which frequently occurred in children. Dental treatment in children with heart diseases should be done carefully since there is higher risk of developing on bacterial endocarditis. Dentist should know the contraindication of dental treatment that needs prophylactic antibiotics as suggested by American Heart Association. A 6 years 8 months boy who suffered from VSD came to Pediatric Dental Clinic at Faculty of Dentistry University of Indonesia. In the examination we found impacted mesiodens with inverted position which has conical shape at regio 51. The possible etiology of mesiodens in this patient is x-linked dominant with incomplete penetration. After consultation with Pediatric Cardiologist and Oral Surgeon, the odontectomy was conduted with prophylactic cephadroxyl. There was no signs of bacterial endocarditis after the odontectomy.

  17. PENATALAKSANAAN MESIODENS PADA ANAK DENGAN KELAINAN JANTUNG KONGENITAL DEFEK SEPTUM VENTRIKEL (Laporan Kasus)

    OpenAIRE

    Suzanty Ariani; Retno Hayati; Margaretha Suharsini; Corputty Johan E. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Mesiodens is supernumerary teeth which is commonly found and located in midline premaxilla. The supernumerary teeth may cause clinical disorders, such as delayed eruption and malposition of permanent teeth, therefore early diagnosis and intervention is very important. Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) is a congenital heart disease which frequently occurred in children. Dental treatment in children with heart diseases should be done carefully since there is higher risk of developing on bacterial...

  18. Tratamiento quirúrgico en el manejo de los defectos del septum atrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Bucheli, MD

    2013-07-01

    Conclusiones: los resultados obtenidos reflejan que en nuestro medio la corrección quirúrgica de los defectos septales atriales es segura y efectiva, con una tasa de mortalidad con tendencia al 0% y una muy baja morbilidad asociada, acorde con los estándares internacionales. De igual forma, la cirugía cardiaca mínimamente invasiva ha permitido mejorar los resultados del procedimiento y ha tenido gran aceptación por parte de los pacientes, por lo que constituye el abordaje de elección actual para el manejo quirúrgico de esta patología en el servicio de Cardiología de la institución.

  19. Tratamiento quirúrgico en el manejo de los defectos del septum atrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Bucheli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir las características epidemiológicas y los resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico de los defectos septales atriales en los pacientes intervenidos por esta patología en un centro de alta complejidad en Colombia. Métodos: estudio observacional de tipo descriptivo, retrospectivo, de una cohorte que incluye todos los pacientes intervenidos mediante cirugía por defectos septales atriales en el periodo comprendido entre octubre de 1996 y julio de 2012. Resultados: se incluyeron en total 329 pacientes, de los cuales 216 (65,6% pertenecía al género femenino. La mediana de la edad fue de 34 años (RIC 15-49. El 77,8% de los defectos fueron tipo ostium secundum. En 80% se realizó reparo del defecto mediante parche de pericardio autólogo. En 7,6% de los casos se utilizó técnica de cirugía cardiaca mínimamente invasiva. Se realizaron cuatro cirugías de rescate (1,21% por complicaciones relacionadas con la colocación de dispositivos percutáneos. Se documentó una sola muerte intraoperatoria (tasa de mortalidad del 0,3% y una morbilidad global asociada de 7,6%, sin ninguna secuela y representada por: reintervención por sangrado en ocho casos (2,4%, infección profunda de la herida esternal en tres pacientes (0,9%, empiema en tres pacientes (0,9%, colecciones pleurales residuales en cuatro pacientes (1,2%, infecciones superficiales en cinco pacientes (1,5%, disección arterial femoral secundaria a canulación arterial en un paciente (0,3% y bloqueo cardiaco completo con necesidad de marcapaso permanente en un paciente (0,3%. La mediana del tiempo de estancia en UCI fue de 24 horas (RIC 20 – 25. La mediana del tiempo de ventilación mecánica fue de 3 horas (RIC 0-5. La mediana del tiempo de estancia hospitalaria fue de 4 días (RIC 3-5. Conclusiones: los resultados obtenidos reflejan que en nuestro medio la corrección quirúrgica de los defectos septales atriales es segura y efectiva, con una tasa de mortalidad con tendencia al 0% y una muy baja morbilidad asociada, acorde con los estándares internacionales. De igual forma, la cirugía cardiaca mínimamente invasiva ha permitido mejorar los resultados del procedimiento y ha tenido gran aceptación por parte de los pacientes, por lo que constituye el abordaje de elección actual para el manejo quirúrgico de esta patología en el servicio de Cardiología de la institución.

  20. Cor triatriatum sinister with an intact interatrial septum and a decompressing vein in a toddler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binsalamah, Ziyad M; De León, Luis E; Heinle, Jeffrey S

    2017-08-01

    Cor triatriatum sinister is a very rare cardiac anomaly that may lead to pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular dilation, and eventually right heart failure. We report a case of a toddler who presented with respiratory distress and cardiomegaly and was found to have cor triatriatum sinister with a restrictive communication, decompressing vertical vein, pulmonary hypertension, severe tricuspid regurgitation, and severe right ventricular dysfunction. She underwent a successful surgical repair, with normalisation of right ventricular function and pulmonary artery pressure.

  1. Un cas d'hematocolpos sur atresie vaginale et septum vaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'hématocolpos ou rétention de menstrues dans la cavité vaginale est une entité rare, habituellement consécutive à un obstacle unique situé dans la filière génitale basse. Les auteurs rapportent le cas d'une jeune patiente de 14 ans ayant présenté un hématocolpos secondaire à deux obstacles : une atrésie vaginale du ...

  2. Galantamine-induced behavioral recovery after sublethal excitotoxic lesions to the rat medial septum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.; Harkany, T.; Czollner, K.; Cremers, T.I.F.H.; Keijser, J.; Nyakas, C.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Clinical trials show beneficial effects of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors, including galantamine, on cognitive functions in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. Galantamine shows a dual action profile by also acting as an allosteric modulator of nicotinic acetylcholine

  3. Nasal septum perforation repair using differently designed, bilateral intranasal flaps, with nonopposing suture lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    André, R. F.; Lohuis, P. J. F. M.; Vuyk, H. D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we briefly review the aetiology and symptoms of nasal septal perforations, and focus on a surgical reconstruction technique of which the results were retrospectively studied. The technique described, involves the interposition of a connective tissue graft between differently

  4. Condrosarcoma del septum nasal: Reporte de un caso y revisión de la literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Silva C,Mauricio; Rodríguez H,Leandro; TAPIA M,CARLOS; Troncoso V,Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    El condrosarcoma del tabique nasal es una neoplasia poco frecuente. Cuando esto ocurre, el diagnóstico precoz es difícil porque los pacientes generalmente presentan síntomas rinosinusales inespecíficos y en forma tardía. Se presenta un caso clínico de una mujer de 37 años de edad que se presentó con una historia de exoftalmo sin síntomas rinosinusales agregados. El estudio imagenológico mostró una masa de aspecto neoplásico en el tabique nasal con extensión al seno maxilar, celdillas etmoidal...

  5. Organization of diencephalic and brainstem afferent projections to the lateral septum in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, Paul G.M.; Kuipers, Folkert; Schuitmaker, Hans

    1982-01-01

    Ascending diencephalic and brainstem afferents to the lateral septal column were studied by retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase following microiontophoretic injections in the various subdivisions of the lateral septal area. Predominantly ispilateral cells, of which several coincide with

  6. case reports chronic daily headache in a patient with cavum septum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    David Ofori-Adjei

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... GHANA MEDICAL JOURNAL. 48. This interfered with her work and life, and could be exacerbated by exercise and head rotation. The accom- panied symptoms were dysarthria, blurred vision, nau- sea, vomiting, phonophobia, photophobia and hemi- facial paraesthesia. Headaches began in the morning,.

  7. Gerbode Defect—A Rare Defect of Atrioventricular Septum and Tricuspid Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangurde, Pranil; Mahajan, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular to right atrial communications (the Gerbode defect) are rare types of ventricular septal defect and present as direct or an indirect type. We hereby, report two cases, one direct and another indirect type. Cardiopulmonary bypass surgery was done and a successful suture closure of ventricularseptal defect using pericardial patch was performed. PMID:26500939

  8. Lobular capillary hemangioma of the nasal septum – A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panduranga M. Kamath

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lobular capillary hemangioma is a benign, rapidly growing lesion of the skin and mucous membranes. It may rarely present as a mass that entirely fill the nasal cavity with an unknown etiology. Although it has no predilection for age, it is more common in the third decade and in females. Lobular capillary hemangioma usually involves the gingiva, lips, tongue, and buccal mucosa. The nasal cavity is a rare location. The most common symptoms are nasal obstruction and epistaxis. The treatment is nasal endoscopic surgery even for large lesions as it does not require embolization preoperatively. We present a case report of a 45-year-old male patient with lobular capillary hemangioma who presented with epistaxis and nasal obstruction. The diagnosis of capillary hemangioma must always be kept in mind when discussing the differential diagnosis of a rapidly growing bleeding mass of the nasal cavity even though it is a rare entity.

  9. Novel SPG 11 Mutations in Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia With Thin Corpus Callosum in a Chinese Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaojie; Wang, Min; Zhang, Kaiyuan; Zhang, Xinqing

    2016-11-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by progressive weakness and spasticity of the lower extremities; HSP can present as complicated forms with additional neurological signs. More than 70 disease loci have been described with different modes of inheritance. In this study, nine subjects from a Chinese family that included two individuals affected by HSP were examined through detailed clinical evaluations, physical examinations, and genetic tests. Targeted exome capture technology was used to identify gene mutations. Two novel compound heterozygous mutations in the SPG 11 gene were identified, c.4001_4002insATAAC and c.4057C>G. The c.4001_4002insATAAC mutation leads to a reading frame shift during transcription, resulting in premature termination of the protein product. The missense mutation c.4057C>G (p.H1353D) is located in a highly conserved domain and is predicted to be a damaging substitution. Based on the results described here, we propose that these novel compound heterozygous mutations in SPG 11 are the genetic cause of autosomal recessive HSP in this Chinese family.

  10. Remyelination of the Corpus Callosum by Olfactory Ensheathing Cell in an Experimental Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Azimi Alamouti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis (MS causes loss of the myelin sheath, which leads to loss of neurons. Regeneration of myelin sheath stimulates axon regeneration and neurons’ survival. In this study, olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC transplantation is investigated to restore myelin sheath in an experimental model of MS in male mice.OECs were isolated from the olfactory mucosa of seven-day-old infant rats and cultured. Then, cells were evaluated and approved by flow cytometry by p75 and GFAP markers. A total of 32 mice (C57BL /6 were studied in four groups; 1 without any treatment (control, 2 Sham (receiving PBS, 3 MS model and 4 MS and OEC transplantation. MS was induced by adding Cuprizon in the diet of animals for six weeks. After the expiration of 20 days, histologic analysis was performed with approval of the presence of cells in the graft area and the removal of myelin and myelin regeneration with two types of luxal fast blue (LFB staining and immunohistochemistry. The purity of the cells ensheathing the olfactory was 90%.  There was a significant difference in Myelin percentage of PBS and OEC recipient groups (P≤0.05. MBP and PLP of the myelin sheath in the group receiving OECs were more than MS group.According to the findings, in MS model MBP and PLP of the myelin sheath is reduced. In the group receiving OECs, it was returned to a normal level significantly compared to the sham group received only PBS significant differences were observed. The OECs transplantation can improve myelin restoration.

  11. DEVELOPMENTAL HYPOTHYROIDISM INDUCES A NEURONAL HETEROTOPIA IN THE CORPUS CALLOSUM OF THE RAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well established that severe hypothyroidism leads to profound alterations in brain development and mental retardation. In this study we examined the effect of subtle decreases in maternal thyroid hormones (TH) on brain development in the rat. To induce TH insufficiency pr...

  12. Microstructural Integrity of the Corpus Callosum Linked with Neuropsychological Performance in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Susanna L.; Frank, Lawrence R.; Spadoni, Andrea D.; Theilmann, Rebecca J.; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Schweinsburg, Alecia D.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has revealed microstructural aspects of adolescent brain development, the cognitive correlates of which remain relatively uncharacterized. Methods: DTI was used to assess white matter microstructure in 18 typically developing adolescents (ages 16-18). Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusion (MD)…

  13. X-Linked Lissencephaly With Absent Corpus Callosum and Abnormal Genitalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Coman FRACP

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia is a rare and devastating syndrome. The authors present an infant with a multisystem phenotype where the intestinal manifestations were as life limiting as the central nervous system features. Severe chronic diarrhea resulted in failure to thrive, dehydration, electrolyte derangements, long-term hospitalization, and prompted transition to palliative care. Other multisystem manifestations included megacolon, colitis, pancreatic insufficiency hypothalamic dysfunction, hypothyroidism, and hypophosphatasia. A novel aristaless-related homeobox gene mutation, c.1136G>T/p.R379L, was identified. This case contributes to the clinical, histological, and molecular understanding of the multisystem nature of this disorder, especially the role of ARX in the development of the enteroendocrine system.

  14. Clinical significance of corpus callosum atrophy in a mixed elderly population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, C.; Rostrup, E.; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille

    2007-01-01

    ) score, history of depression, geriatric depression scale (GDS) score, subjective gait difficulty, history of falls, walking speed, and total score on the short physical performance battery (SPPB) were analyzed. Significant correlations between CC atrophy and MMSE, SPPB, and walking speed were identified...

  15. Instrument specific use-dependent plasticity shapes the anatomical properties of the corpus callosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollmann, Henning; Ragert, Patrick; Conde, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    , the amount of IHI in pianists was comparable to that of non-musicians and there was no significant structure-function relationship. Our findings indicate instrument specific use-dependent plasticity in both functional (IHI) and structural (FA) connectivity of motor related brain regions in musicians.......Long-term musical expertise has been shown to be associated with a number of functional and structural brain changes, making it an attractive model for investigating use-dependent plasticity in humans. Physiological interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) as examined by transcranial magnetic stimulation...... investigated this question in musicians with different requirements for bimanual finger movements (piano and string players) and non-expert controls. IHI values were generally higher in musicians, but differed significantly from non-musicians only in string players. IHI was correlated with FA in the posterior...

  16. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: A Potential Late Effect of Sport-Related Concussive and Subconcussive Head Trauma1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavett, Brandon E.; Stern, Robert A.; McKee, Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a form of neurodegeneration that is believed to result from repeated head injuries. Originally termed dementia pugilistica due to its association with boxing, the neuropathology of CTE was first described by Corsellis in 1973 in a case series of 15 retired boxers. CTE has recently been found to occur following other causes of repeated head trauma, suggesting that any repeated blows to the head, such as those that occur due to American football, hockey, soccer, professional wrestling, and physical abuse, can also lead to neurodegenerative changes. These changes often include cerebral atrophy, cavum septum pellucidum with fenestrations, shrinkage of the mammillary bodies, dense tau immunoreactive inclusions (neurofibrillary tangles, glial tangles, and neuropil neurites), diffuse axonal injury, and, in some cases, a TDP-43 proteinopathy. In association with these pathological changes, affected individuals often exhibit disordered memory and executive functioning, behavioral and personality disturbances (e.g., apathy, depression, irritability, impulsiveness, suicidality), parkinsonism, and, occasionally, motor neuron disease. At the present time, there are no formal clinical or pathological diagnostic criteria for CTE, but the distinctive neuropathological profile of the disorder lends promise for future research into its prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:21074091

  17. Septo-optic dysplasia plus: clinical presentation and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matushita Junior, Joao Paulo K. [Instituto de Pos-Graduacao Medica Carlos Chagas (IPGMCC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tiel, Chan; Py, Marco [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Neurologia Deolindo Couto; Batista, Raquel Ribeiro [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho; Gasparetto, Emerson L., E-mail: egasparetto@gmail.co [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia

    2010-04-15

    Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) is a heterogeneous developmental malformation characterized by optic nerve hypoplasia associated with dysgenesis of the septum pellucidum and other cerebral malformations. The clinical manifestations include psychomotor retardation, visual impairment, thermoregulatory disturbances, conjugated hyperbilirubinemia and seizures. In 2000, Miller et al. first named the association of SOD and cortical dysplasia as SOD-plus. In this report, all the cases had severe clinical impairment, presenting global developmental delay and spastic motor deficits. Subsequent reports of SOD-plus also stressed the psychomotor development delay, spastic motor deficits and seizures seen in these patients, emphasizing the severity of the brain involvement. Recently, Kwak et al. reported a case of SOD-plus presenting with cortical dysplasia involving the insular cortex bilaterally. However, differently from all the previous reports, the patient had no signs or symptoms of cortical dysfunction, except for one episode of seizure. We report an additional case of SOD-plus, which presented extensive cortical malformation, with no signs or symptoms of cortical dysfunction. We suggest that similar to the classical form of SOD, the clinical presentation in patients with SOD-plus can also range from mild to extremely severe. (author)

  18. The fornix of the human brain: evidence of left/right asymmetry on axial MRI scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supprian, T; Hofmann, E

    1997-01-01

    This article reports the observation that there is a left/right asymmetry of the anterior columns of the fornix in the human brain. This asymmetry is present in the position of the two columns of the fornix in relation to the septum pellucidum. The left columna fornicis was found to be located caudal to the right, and this can be readily visualized on axial MRI scans. This difference was seen in most of the subjects, but in some subjects there was no left/right-difference and in a few the asymmetry was inverse. The asymmetry of the fornix with respect to the anterior-posterior axis was independent of the well-known dissimilar lateral ventricular volumes. However, the left/right difference in the position of the fornix was evident in subjects with or without differences in ventricular volumes. This suggests that the mechanism underlying the development of asymmetry of the fornix is independent of the mechanism leading to ventricular asymmetry. So far, no functional relevance has been ascribed to such differences in location. The finding is gaining interest in connection with recent reports of asymmetries in hippocampal subfields. Studies of fornical lesions should therefore give attention to possible side-to-side differences.

  19. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Athletes: Progressive Tauopathy following Repetitive Head Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Ann C.; Cantu, Robert C.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Hedley-Whyte, E. Tessa; Gavett, Brandon E.; Budson, Andrew E.; Santini, Veronica E.; Lee, Hyo-Soon; Kubilus, Caroline A.; Stern, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1920s, it has been known that the repetitive brain trauma associated with boxing may produce a progressive neurological deterioration, originally termed “dementia pugilistica” and more recently, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). We review the 47 cases of neuropathologically verified CTE recorded in the literature and document the detailed findings of CTE in 3 professional athletes: one football player and 2 boxers. Clinically, CTE is associated with memory disturbances, behavioral and personality changes, Parkinsonism, and speech and gait abnormalities. Neuropathologically, CTE is characterized by atrophy of the cerebral hemispheres, medial temporal lobe, thalamus, mammillary bodies, and brainstem, with ventricular dilatation and a fenestrated cavum septum pellucidum. Microscopically, there are extensive tau-immunoreactive neurofibrillary tangles, astrocytic tangles, and spindle-shaped and threadlike neurites throughout the brain. The neurofibrillary degeneration of CTE is distinguished from other tauopathies by preferential involvement of the superficial cortical layers, irregular, patchy distribution in the frontal and temporal cortices, propensity for sulcal depths, prominent perivascular, periventricular and subpial distribution, and marked accumulation of tau-immunoreactive astrocytes. Deposition of beta amyloid, most commonly as diffuse plaques, occurs in fewer than half the cases. CTE is a neuropathologically distinct, slowly progressive tauopathy with a clear environmental etiology. PMID:19535999

  20. MRI findings in children with neurofibromatosis type 1: a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Es, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Paramatta (Australia); North, K.N. [Dept. of Neurology, Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Paramatta (Australia); McHugh, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Paramatta (Australia); De Silva, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Paramatta (Australia)

    1996-07-01

    To determine the frequency and nature of MRI lesions in children with neurofibromatosis type I (NF1), 50 patients aged 8 to 16 years were evaluated prospectively with cranial MRI. Forty-one children were asymptomatic with respect to central nervous system pathology, and 50% were macrocephalic. Sixteen patients (32%) had normal MRI examinations. Thirty-two patients (64%) had high intensity lesions of T2-weighted images and 16 patients (32%) had hyperintense lesions on T1-weighted images. Seven patients (14%) had ventricular dilatation (associated with increased intracranial pressure in 2) and 11 patients (22%) had optic pathway lesions (optic glioma in 7). MRI was superior to CT in differentiating optic sheath thickening and optic nerve tortuosity from optic glioma in four patients. An intracranial tumour (ependymoma) and sphenoid wing dysplasia were evident in individual patients. Findings previously unreported in NF1 included an aqueductal web resulting in hydrocephalus, intracular neurofibroma resulting in retinal detachment, and asymptomatic enlargement of the septum pellucidum. T1 and T2 signal abnormalities in isolation were not associated with neurological deficits or the occurrence of macrocephaly, and all lesions that required intervention were suspected clinically. Macrocephaly in the absence of increased intracranial pressure or accelerated head growth is not an indication for neuroimaging in children with NF1. However, the majority of children (68%) had disease-specific abnormalities and thus MRI may provide a useful adjunct to clinical evaluation in the diagnosis of equivocal cases. (orig.)