WorldWideScience

Sample records for callosities

  1. An Arabidopsis callose synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Petersen, Morten; Mattsson, Ole;

    2002-01-01

    unclear whether callose synthases can also produce cellulose and whether plant cellulose synthases may also produce beta-1,3-glucans. We describe here an Arabidopsis gene, AtGsl5, encoding a plasma membrane-localized protein homologous to yeast beta-1,3-glucan synthase whose expression partially......Beta-1,3-glucan polymers are major structural components of fungal cell walls, while cellulosic beta-1,4-glucan is the predominant polysaccharide in plant cell walls. Plant beta-1,3-glucan, called callose, is produced in pollen and in response to pathogen attack and wounding, but it has been...

  2. Isolated complete corpus callosal agenesis

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    Jaiganesh S, Venkateshwaran A, Naresh Kumar C, Rajasekhar KV

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Isolated complete corpus callosal agenesis is a rare entity. Usually this condition will be an associated finding in other syndromes. 3 month old male child came with complaints of deformed foot on both sides, not having a social smile and neck holding. Patient referred to the Radiology department for MRI brain which showed complete absence of corpus callosum, widely separated and parallely placed lateral ventricles, colpocephaly, high riding of 3rd ventricle and absence of cingulate gyrus and radial arrangement of gyri along the interhemispheric fissure. Hence it was reported as isolated complete corpus callosal agenesis and this article describes the Embryogenesis, anatomy, developmental anomalies and its clinical manifestations & prognosis.

  3. Callosal alterations in pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedman, S.D.; Ishak, G.E.; Poliachik, S.L.; Poliakov, A.V.; Otto, R.K.; Shaw, D.W.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.; Bok, L.A.; Gospe, S.M., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    AIM: While there have been isolated reports of callosal morphology differences in pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE), a rare autosomal disorder caused by ALDH7A1 gene mutations, no study has systematically evaluated callosal features in a large sample of patients. This study sought to overcome this

  4. Conflict of intentions due to callosal disconnection

    OpenAIRE

    Nishikawa, T.; Okuda, J; MIZUTA, I; Ohno, K.; Jamshidi, J; Tokunaga, H.; Ikejiri, Y; Nakagawa, Y.; Yoshimine, T.; Tanabe, H; Takeda, M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Three patients with callosal syndrome manifested a peculiar symptom in that they were unable to perform intended whole body actions because another intention emerged in competition with the original one. Attempts were made to clarify the symptomatology of this manifestation and its possible mechanism is discussed.
METHODS—The three patients are described and previous reports on patients with callosal damage were reviewed. Four additional patients with similar s...

  5. Callosal Disconnection Syndrome Associated with Relapsing Polychondritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Toru; Kanno, Shigenori; Shijo, Tomomi; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Iizuka, Osamu; Kamimura, Naoto; Ishii, Tomonori; Mori, Etsuro

    2016-01-01

    Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare inflammatory disorder of the cartilagenous structures, and it sometimes involves the central nervous system. Encephalitis associated with RP causes a wide variety of symptoms according to the affected sites. We herein report the first case of 72-year-old right-handed man who developed acute meningoencephalitis associated with RP involving the corpus callous. After immunosuppressive therapy, his symptoms dramatically improved, but difficulty in performing bimanual movements with occasional diagonistic dyspraxia in his right hand remained. Because callosal signs are easily missed, especially in acute settings, it would be useful to know that RP can sometimes cause callosal disconnection syndrome. PMID:27150878

  6. Dynamics of callose deposition and B-1,3-glucanase expression during reproductive events in sexual and apomictic Hieracium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucker, M.R.; Paech, N.A.; Willemse, M.T.M.; Koltunow, A.M.G.

    2001-01-01

    Callose accumulates in the walls of cells undergoing megasporogenesis during embryo sac formation in angiosperm ovules. Deficiencies in callose deposition have been observed in apomictic plants and causal linkages between altered callose deposition and apomictic initiation proposed. In apomictic Hie

  7. Selective serotonergic excitation of callosal projection neurons

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    Daniel eAvesar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-HT acting as a neurotransmitter in the cerebral cortex is critical for cognitive function, yet how 5-HT regulates information processing in cortical circuits is not well understood. We tested the serotonergic responsiveness of layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5PNs of the mouse medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, and found 3 distinct response types: long-lasting 5-HT1A (1A receptor-dependent inhibitory responses (84% of L5PNs, 5-HT2A (2A receptor-dependent excitatory responses (9%, and biphasic responses in which 2A-dependent excitation followed brief inhibition (5%. Relative to 5-HT-inhibited neurons, those excited by 5-HT had physiological properties characteristic of callosal/commissural (COM neurons that project to the contralateral cortex. We tested whether serotonergic responses in cortical pyramidal neurons are correlated with their axonal projection pattern using retrograde fluorescent labeling of COM and corticopontine-projecting (CPn neurons. 5-HT generated excitatory or biphasic responses in all 5-HT-responsive layer 5 COM neurons. Conversely, CPn neurons were universally inhibited by 5-HT. Serotonergic excitation of COM neurons was blocked by the 2A antagonist MDL 11939, while serotonergic inhibition of CPn neurons was blocked by the 1A antagonist WAY 100635, confirming a role for these two receptor subtypes in regulating pyramidal neuron activity. Selective serotonergic excitation of COM neurons was not layer-specific, as COM neurons in layer 2/3 were also selectively excited by 5-HT relative to their non-labeled pyramidal neuron neighbors. Because neocortical 2A receptors are implicated in the etiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia, we propose that COM neurons may represent a novel cellular target for intervention in psychiatric disease.

  8. Electrophysiological Correlates of Morphological Neuroplasticity in Human Callosal Dysgenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarev, Vladimir V.; de Carvalho Monteiro, Myriam; Vianna-Barbosa, Rodrigo; deAzevedo, Leonardo C.; Lent, Roberto; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    In search for the functional counterpart of the alternative Probst and sigmoid bundles, considered as morphological evidence of neuroplasticity in callosal dysgenesis, electroencephalographic (EEG) coherence analysis was combined with high resolution and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. Data of two patients with callosal agenesis, plus two with typical partial dysgenesis with a remnant genu, and one atypical patient with a substantially reduced genu were compared to those of fifteen neurotypic controls. The interhemispheric EEG coherence between homologous nontemporal brain regions corresponded to absence or partial presence of callosal connections. A generalized coherence reduction was observed in complete acallosal patients, as well as coherence preservation in the anterior areas of the two patients with a remnant genu. jThe sigmoid bundles found in three patients with partial dysgenesis correlated with augmented EEG coherence between anterior regions of one hemisphere and posterior regions of the other. These heterologous (crossed) interhemispheric connections were asymmetric in both imaging and EEG patterns, with predominance of the right-anterior-to-left-posterior connections over the mirror ones. The Probst bundles correlated with higher intrahemispheric long-distance coherence in all patients. The significant correlations observed for the delta, theta and alpha bands indicate that these alternative pathways are functional, although the neuropsychological nature of this function is still unknown. PMID:27055255

  9. Comparative Studies on Callose Formation in Powdery Mildew Compatible and Incompatible Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Lilholt, Ulla

    1984-01-01

    Callose formation in barley mutants, lines and varieties with different genes for resistance to powdery mildew in seven different loci was compared. Only barley with resistance genes in the ml-o locus showed so early a callose formation passing off at such a high rate that it prevented fungal pen...

  10. Diffusion Weighted Callosal Integrity Reflects Interhemispheric Communication Efficiency in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlop, Nele P.; Achten, Eric; Debruyne, Jan; Vingerhoets, Guy

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the relation between damage in the corpus callosum and the performance on an interhemispheric communication task in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Relative callosal lesion load defined as the ratio between callosal area and the total lesion load in the total corpus callosum, and the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)…

  11. Callosal lesions and behavior: history and modern concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinsky, Orrin; Laff, Rachel

    2003-12-01

    Callosotomy has played a unique role in the treatment of epilepsy and in the understanding of human brain function. The pioneering work of Dejerine and Liepmann presenting the first findings of callosal lesion pathology at the turn of the 20th century was accepted but then quickly forgotten. Two schools resurrected the phoenix of callosal syndromes: Roger Sperry and Michael Gazzaniga leading in experimental neuroscience, and Norman Geschwind leading in clinical neurology. Callosotomy remains an effective technique to treat atonic, tonic, and tonic-clonic seizures, especially in patients with symptomatic generalized epilepsies such as Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Neurologic, cognitive, and behavioral complications limit its use given that precise characterization of these complications as well as their frequency is difficult. The high frequencies of developmental delays, severe seizures, head injuries, antiepileptic drug burden, and other factors limit the ability to attribute a specific change to surgical intervention, since surgery can change multiple factors. For example, subtle behavioral changes in executive function and personality are difficult to delineate in a population with preexisting neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Despite this, a clearer picture of the effects of callosotomy, as defined by clinical neurology and neuropsychology as well as cognitive neuroscience, is emerging. PMID:14698693

  12. Motor callosal disconnection in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Mathias; Hübers, Annemarie; Lauterbach-Soon, Birgit; Hattingen, Elke; Jung, Patrick; Cohen, Leonardo G; Ziemann, Ulf

    2011-06-01

    In relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) the corpus callosum (CC) is often and early affected by macroscopic lesions when investigated by conventional MRI. We sought to determine to which extent microstructural and effective disconnection of the CC are already present in RRMS patients at the earliest stages of the disease prior to evidence of macroscopic CC lesion. We compared 16 very early RRMS patients (median expanded disability status scale (EDSS), 1.5; range, 0-2.0) to an age-matched group of healthy controls and focused analysis to the motor CC, i.e. that part of the CC relaying interhemispheric motor information. A combined functional magnetic resonance imaging/diffusion tensor imaging fiber-tracking procedure was applied to identify the callosal motor fibers (CMFs) connecting the hand areas of the primary motor cortices of the two hemispheres. Fractional anisotropy (FA) within the motor CC (FA-CC) assessed the CMF microstructural integrity. Bifocal paired transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) tested short-interval interhemispheric inhibition (S-IHI), an established measure of CMF effective connectivity. FA-CC and S-IHI were significantly reduced in early RRMS compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, a significant linear correlation between microstructure (FA-CC) and function (S-IHI) in the controls was broken down in the patients. These abnormalities were obtained in the absence of macroscopic CMF lesion in conventional MRI, and whilst motor hand/arm function in the nine-hole-peg test and corticospinal conduction time were normal. Findings suggest that reductions in FA and S-IHI may serve as surrogate markers of motor callosal disconnection at the earliest stages of RRMS prior to development of macroscopic lesion. PMID:21495114

  13. Why Size Matters: Differences in Brain Volume Account for Apparent Sex Differences in Callosal Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Luders, Eileen; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated a sexual dimorphism of the human corpus callosum. However, the question remains if sex differences in brain size, which typically is larger in men than in women, or biological sex per se account for the apparent sex differences in callosal morphology. Comparing callosal dimensions between men and women matched for overall brain size may clarify the true contribution of biological sex, as any observed group difference should indicate pure sex effects. We thus...

  14. Callose deposition during gravitropism of Zea mays and Pisum sativum and its inhibition by 2-deoxy-D-glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, M. J.; Leopold, A. C.

    1984-01-01

    In etiolated corn (Zea mays L.) and etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings, a gravitropic stimulation induces the deposition of callose. In the corn coleoptiles this occurs within 5 min of gravity stimulation, and prior to the beginning of curvature. Both gravitropic curvature and callose deposition reach their maxima by 12 h. Within the first 2 h more callose is deposited on the upper (concave) side, but after 2-3 h, this deposition pattern is reversed. An inhibitor of protein glycosylation, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (DDG), inhibits callose production and considerably retards gravitropic bending in both species of plants. Mannose can relieve the inhibition of gravitropic bending by DDG. The pea mutant "Ageotropum", which does not respond to gravity when etiolated, also fails to produce callose in response to a gravitic stimulus. These correlations indicate that callose deposition may be a biochemical component of gravitropism in plant shoots.

  15. Persistent activation of microglia is associated with neuronal dysfunction of callosal projecting pathways and multiple sclerosis-like lesions in relapsing--remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Stine; Wang, Yue; Kivisäkk, Pia;

    2007-01-01

    Cortical pathology, callosal atrophy and axonal loss are substrates of progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we describe cortical, periventricular subcortical lesions and callosal demyelination in relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in SJL mice that are similar to...

  16. The enhanced callose deposition in barley with ml-o powdery mildew resistance genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder

    1985-01-01

    Carborundum treatment of barley leaves induced a callose deposition which was detected as diffuse blotches in the epidermal cells of susceptible barleys and as deeply stained tracks along the scratches in barleys with the ml-o powdery mildew resistance gene. Subsequent inoculation with powdery...... mildew resulted in appositions that enlarged inversely to their size in the respective varieties when inoculated without carborundum treatment. Aphids sucking the leaves resulted in rows of callose containing spots along the anticlinal cell walls. The spots were larger in the ml-o mutant than...... in the mother variety. Callose was deposited in connection with the pleiotropic necrotic spotting in barleys with the ml-o gene. Modification of the necrotic spotting by crossing the ml-o gene into other gene backgrounds did not result in any change in the size of appositions upon inoculation with powdery...

  17. Role of callose synthases in transfer cell wall development in tocopherol deficient Arabidopsis mutants

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    Hiroshi eMaeda

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tocopherols (vitamin E are lipid-soluble antioxidants produced by all plants and algae, and many cyanobacteria, yet their functions in these photosynthetic organisms are still not fully understood. We have previously reported that the vitamin E deficient 2 (vte2 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana is sensitive to low temperature (LT due to impaired transfer cell wall (TCW development and photoassimilate export, associated with massive callose deposition in transfer cells of the phloem. To further understand the role of tocopherols in LT induced TCW development we compared global transcript profiles of vte2 and wild type leaves during LT treatment. Tocopherol deficiency had no impact on global gene expression in permissive conditions, but affected expression of 77 genes after 48 hours of LT treatment. In vte2 relative to wild type, genes related with solute transport were repressed, while those involved in various pathogen responses and cell wall modifications, such as GLUCAN SYNTHASE LIKE genes (GSL4 and GSL11, were induced. However, introduction of gsl4 or gsl11 mutations into the vte2 background did not suppress callose deposition or the overall LT-induced phenotypes of vte2. Intriguingly, introduction of a mutation of GSL5, the major GSL responsible for pathogen-induced callose deposition, into vte2 substantially reduced vascular callose deposition at LT, but again had no effect on the photoassimilate export phenotype of LT-treated vte2. These results suggest that GSL5 plays a major role in TCW callose deposition in LT-treated vte2 but that this GSL5-dependent callose deposition is not the primary cause of the impaired photoassimilate export phenotype.

  18. Distribution of callose synthase, cellulose synthase, and sucrose synthase in tobacco pollen tube is controlled in dissimilar ways by actin filaments and microtubules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, G.; Faleri, C.; Casino, C.; Emons, A.M.C.; Cresti, M.

    2011-01-01

    Callose and cellulose are fundamental components of the cell wall of pollen tubes and are probably synthesized by distinct enzymes, callose synthase and cellulose synthase, respectively. We examined the distribution of callose synthase and cellulose synthase in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) pollen tub

  19. Iron-dependent callose deposition adjusts root meristem maintenance to phosphate availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jens; Toev, Theresa; Heisters, Marcus; Teller, Janine; Moore, Katie L; Hause, Gerd; Dinesh, Dhurvas Chandrasekaran; Bürstenbinder, Katharina; Abel, Steffen

    2015-04-20

    Plant root development is informed by numerous edaphic cues. Phosphate (Pi) availability impacts the root system architecture by adjusting meristem activity. However, the sensory mechanisms monitoring external Pi status are elusive. Two functionally interacting Arabidopsis genes, LPR1 (ferroxidase) and PDR2 (P5-type ATPase), are key players in root Pi sensing, which is modified by iron (Fe) availability. We show that the LPR1-PDR2 module facilitates, upon Pi limitation, cell-specific apoplastic Fe and callose deposition in the meristem and elongation zone of primary roots. Expression of cell-wall-targeted LPR1 determines the sites of Fe accumulation as well as callose production, which interferes with symplastic communication in the stem cell niche, as demonstrated by impaired SHORT-ROOT movement. Antagonistic interactions of Pi and Fe availability control primary root growth via meristem-specific callose formation, likely triggered by LPR1-dependent redox signaling. Our results link callose-regulated cell-to-cell signaling in root meristems to the perception of an abiotic cue. PMID:25898169

  20. The enhanced callose deposition in barley with ml-o powdery mildew resistance genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder

    1985-01-01

    Carborundum treatment of barley leaves induced a callose deposition which was detected as diffuse blotches in the epidermal cells of susceptible barleys and as deeply stained tracks along the scratches in barleys with the ml-o powdery mildew resistance gene. Subsequent inoculation with powdery...

  1. Altered callose deposition during embryo sac formation of multi-pistil mutant (mp1) in Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H C; Jin, L; Li, J; Wang, X J

    2016-01-01

    Whether callose deposition is the cause or result of ovule sterility in Medicago sativa remains controversial, because it is unclear when and where changes in callose deposition and dissolution occur during fertile and sterile embryo sac formation. Here, alfalfa spontaneous multi-pistil mutant (mp1) and wild-type plants were used to compare the dynamics of callose deposition during embryo sac formation using microscopy. The results showed that both mutant and wild-type plants experienced megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis, and there was no significant difference during megasporogenesis. In contrast to the wild-type plants, in which the mature embryo sac was observed after three continuous cycles of mitosis, functional megaspores of mutant plants developed abnormally after the second round of mitosis, leading to degeneration of synergid, central, and antipodal cells. Callose deposition in both mutant and wild-type plants was first observed in the walls of megasporocytes, and then in the megaspore tetrad walls. After meiosis, the callose wall began to degrade as the functional megaspore underwent mitosis, and almost no callose was observed in the mature embryo sac in wild-type plants. However, callose deposition was observed in mp1 plants around the synergid, and increased with the development of the embryo sac, and was mainly deposited at the micropylar end. Our results indicate that synergid, central, and antipodal cells, which are surrounded by callose, may degrade owing to lack of nutrition. Callose accumulation around the synergid and at the micropylar end may hinder signals required for the pollen tube to enter the embryo sac, leading to abortion. PMID:27323128

  2. Perinatal testosterone exposure and cerebral lateralisation in adult males: evidence for the callosal hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollier, Lauren P; Maybery, Murray T; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Hickey, Martha; Whitehouse, Andrew J O

    2014-12-01

    Two competing theories address the influence of foetal testosterone on cerebral laterality: one proposing exposure to high foetal testosterone concentrations is related to atypical lateralisation (Geschwind-Galaburda hypothesis), the other that high foetal testosterone concentrations exaggerate typical lateralisation (callosal hypothesis). The current study examined the relationship between cord testosterone concentrations and cerebral laterality for language and spatial memory in adulthood. Male participants with high (>0.15nmol) and low (lateralisation of language was more common in the high-testosterone group than in the low-testosterone group, χ(2)=4.50, df=1, p=034. Spatial memory laterality was unrelated to cord testosterone level. Our findings indicate that foetal testosterone exposure is related to language laterality in a direction that supports the callosal hypothesis. PMID:25148786

  3. Relation of callosal structure to cognitive abilities in temporal lobe epilepsy

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    Christine eSchneider

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to analyse the influence of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE on the morphology of the corpus callosum (CC and its relation to cognitive abilities. More specifically, we investigated correlations between intellectual abilities and callosal morphology, while additionally exploring the modulating impact of (a side of seizure onset (b age of disease onset.For this reason a large representative sample of patients with hippocampal sclerosis (n=79; 35 males; 44 females; age: 18-63 years with disease onset ranging from 0 to 50 years of age, and consisting of 46 left and 33 right TLE patients was recruited. Intelligence was measured using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised (WAIS-R.To get localizations of correlations with high anatomic precision, callosal morphology was examined using computational mesh-based modeling methods, applied to anatomical brain MRI scans.Intellectual performance was positively associated with callosal thickness in anterior and midcallosal callosal regions, with anterior parts being slightly more affected by age of disease onset and side of seizure onset than posterior parts. Earlier age at onset of epilepsy was associated with lower thickness in anterior and midcallosal regions. In addition, laterality of seizure onset had a significant influence on anterior CC morphology, with left hemispheric origin having stronger effects.We found that in TLE, anterior and midcallosal CC morphology are related to cognitive performance. The findings support recent findings of detrimental effects of early onset mTLE on anterior brain regions and of a distinct effect particularly of left TLE on frontal lobe functioning and structure. The causal nature of the relationship remains an open question, i.e., whether CC morphology impacts IQ development or whether IQ development impacts CC morphology, or both.

  4. Developmental evolution of flowering plant pollen tube cell walls: callose synthase (CalS gene expression patterns

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    Abercrombie Jason M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of innovations underlie the origin of rapid reproductive cycles in angiosperms. A critical early step involved the modification of an ancestrally short and slow-growing pollen tube for faster and longer distance transport of sperm to egg. Associated with this shift are the predominantly callose (1,3-β-glucan walls and septae (callose plugs of angiosperm pollen tubes. Callose synthesis is mediated by callose synthase (CalS. Of 12 CalS gene family members in Arabidopsis, only one (CalS5 has been directly linked to pollen tube callose. CalS5 orthologues are present in several monocot and eudicot genomes, but little is known about the evolutionary origin of CalS5 or what its ancestral function may have been. Results We investigated expression of CalS in pollen and pollen tubes of selected non-flowering seed plants (gymnosperms and angiosperms within lineages that diverged below the monocot/eudicot node. First, we determined the nearly full length coding sequence of a CalS5 orthologue from Cabomba caroliniana (CcCalS5 (Nymphaeales. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated low CcCalS5 expression within several vegetative tissues, but strong expression in mature pollen. CalS transcripts were detected in pollen tubes of several species within Nymphaeales and Austrobaileyales, and comparative analyses with a phylogenetically diverse group of sequenced genomes indicated homology to CalS5. We also report in silico evidence of a putative CalS5 orthologue from Amborella. Among gymnosperms, CalS5 transcripts were recovered from germinating pollen of Gnetum and Ginkgo, but a novel CalS paralog was instead amplified from germinating pollen of Pinus taeda. Conclusion The finding that CalS5 is the predominant callose synthase in pollen tubes of both early-diverging and model system angiosperms is an indicator of the homology of their novel callosic pollen tube walls and callose plugs. The data suggest that CalS5 had transient expression

  5. Plasmodesmata without callose and calreticulin in higher plants - open channels for fast symplastic transport?

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    Kirill N. Demchenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodesmata (PD represent membrane-lined channels that link adjacent plant cells across the cell wall. PD of higher plants contain a central tube of endoplasmic reticulum called desmotubule. Membrane and lumen proteins seem to be able to move through the desmotubule, but most transport processes through PD occur through the cytoplasmic annulus (Brunkard et al., 2013. Calreticulin (CRT, a highly conserved Ca2+-binding protein found in all multi-cellular eukaryotes, predominantly located in the ER, was shown to localize to PD, though not all PD accumulate CRT. In nitrogen fixing actinorhizal root nodules of the Australian tree Casuarina glauca, the primary walls of infected cells containing the microsymbiont become lignified upon infection. TEM analysis of these nodules showed that during the differentiation of infected cells, PD connecting infected cells, and connecting infected and adjacent uninfected cells, were reduced in number as well as diameter (Schubert et al., 2013. In contrast with PD connecting young infected cells, and most PD connecting mature infected and adjacent uninfected cells, PD connecting mature infected cells did not accumulate CRT. Furthermore, as shown here, these PD were not associated with callose, and based on their diameter, they probably had lost their desmotubules. We speculate that either this is a slow path to PD degradation, or that the loss of callose accumulation and presumably also desmotubules leads to the PD becoming open channels and improves metabolite exchange between cells.

  6. Callose Synthase Family Genes Involved in the Grapevine Defense Response to Downy Mildew Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Jiao, Li; Fu, Shufang; Yin, Ling; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    The deposition of callose is a common plant defense response to intruding pathogens and part of the plant's innate immunity. In this study, eight grapevine callose synthase (CalS) genes were identified and characterized. To investigate biological function of CalS in grapevine against the infection of Plasmopara viticola, expression patterns of grapevine CalS family genes were analyzed among resistant/susceptible cultivars. After P. viticola infection, expression of CalS1, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 were significantly modified among the grapevine cultivars. For example, the expression of CalS1 and CalS10 were greatly increased in downy mildew (DM)-immune Muscadinia rotundifolia 'Carlos' and 'Noble'. Transient expression assay with promoters of the CalS1 and CalS10 genes confirmed that they were regulated by the oomycete pathogen P. viticola. CalS1 promoter activity was also significantly up-regulated by ABA in DM-immune M. rotundifolia 'Noble', but down-regulated in DM-susceptible Vitis vinifera 'Chardonnay'. The CalS1 promoter, however, was also down-regulated by GA in 'Chardonnay', but not affected in 'Noble'. The promoter activity of CalS10 was significantly up-regulated by GA in 'Chardonnay', but not regulated by ABA at all. It is proposed that CalS1 and CalS10 were involved in grapevine defense against DM disease. PMID:26474330

  7. Characterization and partial purification of beta-1,3-D-glucan (callose) synthase from barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L.H.; Jacobsen, S.; Hejgaard, J.;

    1993-01-01

    was inhibited by UDP and uridine 5' triphosphate (UTP). Glucanase digestion of the in vitro product showed that it was a beta-1,3-linked polysaccharide. Two different procedures were used for further enrichment of polypeptides involved in callose synthase activity. Sucrose gradient centrifugation with...

  8. A new sign of callosal disconnection syndrome: agonistic dyspraxia. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavados, Manuel; Carrasco, Ximena; Peña, Marcela; Zaidel, Eran; Zaidel, Dahlia; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2002-01-01

    We report a patient with callosal haemorrhage and no extracallosal involvement who developed a unique form of intermanual conflict. In the acute phase the patient showed a mild speech disturbance and right hemiparesis, and in her right hand, a grasp reflex and compulsive manipulation of tools, all attributable to transient frontal involvement. In the chronic phase there was intermanual conflict occasionally associated with the sensation of a second left hand. The patient also presented a sign consisting of compulsive, automatic execution of orders by one hand (the left or the right) when the patient was specifically asked to perform the movement with the other hand (the right or the left, respectively). There was no left-right confusion in this patient. We call this condition agonistic dyspraxia. In contrast with diagonistic dyspraxia, this consists of the agonistic behaviour of the other hand under conditions in which the hand that has been instructed to respond cannot execute the request. PMID:12529456

  9. Reactive amyloidosis associated with ischial callosititis: a report with histology of ischial callosities in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, David X.; Gilbert, Margaret H; Wang, Xiaolei; Didier, Peter J.; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2012-01-01

    Ischial callosities have received little attention in veterinary medicine even though they are distinguishing anatomic organs. The organs are characterized by a pair of hairless pads of thickened epidermis, located bilaterally in the gluteal region, which overlay the tuberosities of the ischia of all Old World monkeys, gibbons, and siamangs. The current report describes a case of reactive amyloidosis associated with ischial callosititis in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). Amyloid A (AA) pro...

  10. Deafferentation-Induced Plasticity of Visual Callosal Connections: Predicting Critical Periods and Analyzing Cortical Abnormalities Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime F. Olavarria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Callosal connections form elaborate patterns that bear close association with striate and extrastriate visual areas. Although it is known that retinal input is required for normal callosal development, there is little information regarding the period during which the retina is critically needed and whether this period correlates with the same developmental stage across species. Here we review the timing of this critical period, identified in rodents and ferrets by the effects that timed enucleations have on mature callosal connections, and compare it to other developmental milestones in these species. Subsequently, we compare these events to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI measurements of water diffusion anisotropy within developing cerebral cortex. We observed that the relationship between the timing of the critical period and the DTI-characterized developmental trajectory is strikingly similar in rodents and ferrets, which opens the possibility of using cortical DTI trajectories for predicting the critical period in species, such as humans, in which this period likely occurs prenatally. Last, we discuss the potential of utilizing DTI to distinguish normal from abnormal cerebral cortical development, both within the context of aberrant connectivity induced by early retinal deafferentation, and more generally as a potential tool for detecting abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.

  11. Age Differences in Interhemispheric Interactions: Callosal Structure, Physiological Function, and Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett W Fling

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a fundamental gap in understanding how brain structural and functional network connectivity are interrelated, how they change with age, and how such changes contribute to older adults’ sensorimotor deficits. Recent neuroimaging approaches including resting state functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI have been used to assess brain functional (fcMRI and structural (DTI network connectivity, allowing for more integrative assessments of distributed neural systems than in the past. Declines in corpus callosum size and microstructure with advancing age have been well documented, but their contributions to age deficits in unimanual and bimanual function are not well defined. Our recent work implicates age-related declines in callosal size and integrity as a key contributor to unimanual and bimanual control deficits. Moreover, our data provide evidence for a fundamental shift in the balance of excitatory and inhibitory interhemispheric processes that occurs with age, resulting in age differences in the relationship between functional and structural network connectivity. Training studies suggest that the balance of interhemispheric interactions can be shifted with experience, making this a viable target for future interventions.

  12. Distinct roles of neuropilin 1 signaling for radial and tangential extension of callosal axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Yumiko; Matsumoto, Tomoko; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Fujisawa, Hajime; Murakami, Fujio; Masu, Masayuki

    2009-05-20

    Cortical excitatory neurons migrate from their origin in the ventricular zone (VZ) toward the pial surface. During migration, these neurons exhibit a stellate shape in the intermediate zone (IZ), transform into bipolar cells, and then initiate radial migration, extending a trailing process, which may lead to an axon. Here we examined the role of neuropilin 1 (NRP1) in these developmental events. Both NRP1 mRNA and protein were highly expressed in the IZ, where stellate-shaped cells were located. DiI labeling experiments showed that neuronal migration occurred normally in Nrp1 mutant mice up to embryonic day (E) 14.5, the latest day to which the mutant survives, with only subtle axonal defasciculation. However, interference with Nrp1 signaling at a later stage caused pathfinding errors: when a dominant negative form of Nrp1 was electroporated into the cortical VZ cells at E12.5 or E15.5 and examined perinatally, guidance errors were found in tangential axonal extension toward the midline. In contrast, no significant effect was noted on the migration of cortical excitatory neurons. These findings indicate that NRP1 plays an important role in the guidance of callosal axons originating from cortical excitatory neurons but does not support a role in their migration. Moreover, insofar as radial axonal extension within the cortical plate was unaffected, the present findings imply that molecular mechanisms for the axonal extension of excitatory neurons within the cortical plate are distinct from those in the white matter. PMID:19296474

  13. Small RNA Derived from the Virulence Modulating Region of the Potato spindle tuber viroid Silences callose synthase Genes of Tomato Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkar-Purushothama, Charith Raj; Brosseau, Chantal; Giguère, Tamara; Sano, Teruo; Moffett, Peter; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    2015-08-01

    The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) callose synthase genes CalS11-like and CalS12-like encode proteins that are essential for the formation of callose, a major component of pollen mother cell walls; these enzymes also function in callose formation during pathogen infection. This article describes the targeting of these callose synthase mRNAs by a small RNA derived from the virulence modulating region of two Potato spindle tuber viroid variants. More specifically, viroid infection of tomato plants resulted in the suppression of the target mRNAs up to 1.5-fold, depending on the viroid variant used and the gene targeted. The targeting of these mRNAs by RNA silencing was validated by artificial microRNA experiments in a transient expression system and by RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Viroid mutants incapable of targeting callose synthase mRNAs failed to induce typical infection phenotypes, whereas a chimeric viroid obtained by swapping the virulence modulating regions of a mild and a severe variant of Potato spindle tuber viroid greatly affected the accumulation of viroids and the severity of disease symptoms. These data provide evidence of the silencing of multiple genes by a single small RNA derived from a viroid. PMID:26290537

  14. Small RNA Derived from the Virulence Modulating Region of the Potato spindle tuber viroid Silences callose synthase Genes of Tomato Plants[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkar-Purushothama, Charith Raj; Brosseau, Chantal; Giguère, Tamara; Sano, Teruo; Moffett, Peter; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) callose synthase genes CalS11-like and CalS12-like encode proteins that are essential for the formation of callose, a major component of pollen mother cell walls; these enzymes also function in callose formation during pathogen infection. This article describes the targeting of these callose synthase mRNAs by a small RNA derived from the virulence modulating region of two Potato spindle tuber viroid variants. More specifically, viroid infection of tomato plants resulted in the suppression of the target mRNAs up to 1.5-fold, depending on the viroid variant used and the gene targeted. The targeting of these mRNAs by RNA silencing was validated by artificial microRNA experiments in a transient expression system and by RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Viroid mutants incapable of targeting callose synthase mRNAs failed to induce typical infection phenotypes, whereas a chimeric viroid obtained by swapping the virulence modulating regions of a mild and a severe variant of Potato spindle tuber viroid greatly affected the accumulation of viroids and the severity of disease symptoms. These data provide evidence of the silencing of multiple genes by a single small RNA derived from a viroid. PMID:26290537

  15. MRI in callosal apraxia and agraphia due to a traumatic lesion in the posterior trunk of the corpus callosum

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    Yasumura, Shuichi; Ito, Naoki; Terunuma, Hiroshi; Matsuzaki, Takayuki; Iwabuchi, Reiko

    1987-08-01

    We discussed functional topography of the corpus callosum in a case with ideo-motor apraxia and agraphia of the left hand due to a traumatic callosal hematoma confirmed by MRI. The patient was a 35-year-old right-handed woman with head injury in a traffic accident. On admission she was semi-comatose with left oculomotor palsy and her left upper limb showed a decorticate rigidity by noxious stimuli, however, she became alert within 14 days. X-ray CT showed an abnormal high density area in the posterior part of the trunk of the corpus callosum on admission. MRI (inversion recovery technique) on the 60th hospital day showed a low intensity area extending for about 2 cm posteriorly from the center of the trunk. Sequential neuropsychological examinations for the callosal disconnection syndrome were performed. The patient showed ideo-motor apraxia and agraphia in her left hand only. Her response to verbal commands were all parapraxic except for correct use of a comb and a tooth brush. Her writings with her left hand were those of scrawls due to apraxia. These apraxia and agraphia of the left hand were transient and recovered completely within 80 days of onset. Transient impairement of bimanual coordination movement was also observed. Ataxie optique, callosal pseudoneglect, left hand tactile anomia, difficulty of somesthetic transfer or diagonistic dyspraxia was not observed. Based on the neuropsychological and the MRI findings we suggest that the lesion in the posterior part of the trunk of the corpus callosum is important for causing ideo-motor apraxia and agraphia of the left hand.

  16. Normal centrolineal myelination of the callosal splenium reflects the development of the cortical origin and size of its commissural fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commissural white matter fibers comprising the callosal splenium are diverse. Subsections of the splenium myelinate at different times, in a centrolineal manner. The aims of this study are to depict the normal callosal splenium myelination pattern and to distinguish the transient age-related mid splenium hypointensity from pathology. We reviewed 131 consecutive brain MRIs in patients between ages 3 and 6 months from a single academic children's hospital. Patients that were preterm, hydrocephalic, and/or had volume loss were excluded. Fifty total MR exams that included T1-weighted MR imaging (T1WI), T2-weighted MR imaging (T2WI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were reviewed. Regions of callosal splenium myelination manifested by T1 and T2 shortening were evaluated. Tractography was performed with seeds placed over the posterior, mid, and anterior splenium to define the origin, destination, and course of traversing fibers. Splenium signal varied significantly from 3 to 6 months, with distinct age-related trends. On T1WI, the splenium was hypointense at 3 months (12/13), centrally hypointense/peripherally hyperintense at 4 months (15/16), and hyperintense at 6 months (10/11). Tractography revealed three distinct white matter tract populations: medial occipital (posterior); precuneus, posterior cingulate, and medial temporal (middle); and postcentral gyri (anterior). Specific commissural fiber components of the splenium myelinate at different times. The transient developmental mid splenium hypointensity on T1WI corresponds to tracts from the associative cortex, principally the precuneus. Heterogeneous splenium signal alteration in patients ages 3-6 months is a normal developmental phenomenon that should not be confused with pathologic lesions. (orig.)

  17. Normal centrolineal myelination of the callosal splenium reflects the development of the cortical origin and size of its commissural fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, Matthew T. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Raju, Anand; Choudhri, Asim F. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Commissural white matter fibers comprising the callosal splenium are diverse. Subsections of the splenium myelinate at different times, in a centrolineal manner. The aims of this study are to depict the normal callosal splenium myelination pattern and to distinguish the transient age-related mid splenium hypointensity from pathology. We reviewed 131 consecutive brain MRIs in patients between ages 3 and 6 months from a single academic children's hospital. Patients that were preterm, hydrocephalic, and/or had volume loss were excluded. Fifty total MR exams that included T1-weighted MR imaging (T1WI), T2-weighted MR imaging (T2WI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were reviewed. Regions of callosal splenium myelination manifested by T1 and T2 shortening were evaluated. Tractography was performed with seeds placed over the posterior, mid, and anterior splenium to define the origin, destination, and course of traversing fibers. Splenium signal varied significantly from 3 to 6 months, with distinct age-related trends. On T1WI, the splenium was hypointense at 3 months (12/13), centrally hypointense/peripherally hyperintense at 4 months (15/16), and hyperintense at 6 months (10/11). Tractography revealed three distinct white matter tract populations: medial occipital (posterior); precuneus, posterior cingulate, and medial temporal (middle); and postcentral gyri (anterior). Specific commissural fiber components of the splenium myelinate at different times. The transient developmental mid splenium hypointensity on T1WI corresponds to tracts from the associative cortex, principally the precuneus. Heterogeneous splenium signal alteration in patients ages 3-6 months is a normal developmental phenomenon that should not be confused with pathologic lesions. (orig.)

  18. MRI in callosal apraxia and agraphia due to a traumatic lesion in the posterior trunk of the corpus callosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discussed functional topography of the corpus callosum in a case with ideo-motor apraxia and agraphia of the left hand due to a traumatic callosal hematoma confirmed by MRI. The patient was a 35-year-old right-handed woman with head injury in a traffic accident. On admission she was semi-comatose with left oculomotor palsy and her left upper limb showed a decorticate rigidity by noxious stimuli, however, she became alert within 14 days. X-ray CT showed an abnormal high density area in the posterior part of the trunk of the corpus callosum on admission. MRI (inversion recovery technique) on the 60th hospital day showed a low intensity area extending for about 2 cm posteriorly from the center of the trunk. Sequential neuropsychological examinations for the callosal disconnection syndrome were performed. The patient showed ideo-motor apraxia and agraphia in her left hand only. Her response to verbal commands were all parapraxic except for correct use of a comb and a tooth brush. Her writings with her left hand were those of scrawls due to apraxia. These apraxia and agraphia of the left hand were transient and recovered completely within 80 days of onset. Transient impairement of bimanual coordination movement was also observed. Ataxie optique, callosal pseudoneglect, left hand tactile anomia, difficulty of somesthetic transfer or diagonistic dyspraxia was not observed. Based on the neuropsychological and the MRI findings we suggest that the lesion in the posterior part of the trunk of the corpus callosum is important for causing ideo-motor apraxia and agraphia of the left hand. (author)

  19. Analysis of YFP(J16)-R6/2 reporter mice and postmortem brains reveals early pathology and increased vulnerability of callosal axons in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Rodolfo G; Chu, Yaping; Ye, Allen Q; Price, Steven D; Tavassoli, Ehsan; Buenaventura, Andrea; Brady, Scott T; Magin, Richard L; Kordower, Jeffrey H; Morfini, Gerardo A

    2015-09-15

    Cumulative evidence indicates that the onset and severity of Huntington's disease (HD) symptoms correlate with connectivity deficits involving specific neuronal populations within cortical and basal ganglia circuits. Brain imaging studies and pathological reports further associated these deficits with alterations in cerebral white matter structure and axonal pathology. However, whether axonopathy represents an early pathogenic event or an epiphenomenon in HD remains unknown, nor is clear the identity of specific neuronal populations affected. To directly evaluate early axonal abnormalities in the context of HD in vivo, we bred transgenic YFP(J16) with R6/2 mice, a widely used HD model. Diffusion tensor imaging and fluorescence microscopy studies revealed a marked degeneration of callosal axons long before the onset of motor symptoms. Accordingly, a significant fraction of YFP-positive cortical neurons in YFP(J16) mice cortex were identified as callosal projection neurons. Callosal axon pathology progressively worsened with age and was influenced by polyglutamine tract length in mutant huntingtin (mhtt). Degenerating axons were dissociated from microscopically visible mhtt aggregates and did not result from loss of cortical neurons. Interestingly, other axonal populations were mildly or not affected, suggesting differential vulnerability to mhtt toxicity. Validating these results, increased vulnerability of callosal axons was documented in the brains of HD patients. Observations here provide a structural basis for the alterations in cerebral white matter structure widely reported in HD patients. Collectively, our data demonstrate a dying-back pattern of degeneration for cortical projection neurons affected in HD, suggesting that axons represent an early and potentially critical target for mhtt toxicity. PMID:26123489

  20. Microstructural callosal abnormalities in normal-appearing brain of children with developmental delay detected with diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callosal fibres play an important role in psychomotor and cognitive functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible microstructural abnormalities of the corpus callosum in children with developmental delay, who have normal conventional brain MR imaging results. Seventeen pediatric patients (aged 1-9 years) with developmental delay were studied. Quantitative T2 and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were measured at the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum (CC). Fibre tracking, volumetric determination, as well as fibre density calculations of the CC were also carried out. The results were compared with those of the age-matched healthy subjects. A general elevation of T2 relaxation times (105 ms in patients vs. 95 ms in controls) and reduction of the FA values (0.66 in patients vs. 0.74 in controls) at the genu of the CC were found in patients. Reductions of the fibre numbers (5,464 in patients vs. 8,886 in controls) and volumes (3,415 ml in patients vs. 5,235 ml in controls) of the CC were found only in patients older than 5 years. The study indicates that despite their inconspicuous findings in conventional MRI microstructural brain abnormalities are evident in these pediatric patients suffering from developmental delay. (orig.)

  1. Microstructural callosal abnormalities in normal-appearing brain of children with developmental delay detected with diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Xiao-Qi [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany); University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Sun, Yimeng; Illies, Till; Zeumer, Hermann; Fiehler, Jens [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Kruse, Bernd [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Pediatrics, Hamburg (Germany); Lanfermann, Heinrich [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Callosal fibres play an important role in psychomotor and cognitive functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible microstructural abnormalities of the corpus callosum in children with developmental delay, who have normal conventional brain MR imaging results. Seventeen pediatric patients (aged 1-9 years) with developmental delay were studied. Quantitative T2 and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were measured at the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum (CC). Fibre tracking, volumetric determination, as well as fibre density calculations of the CC were also carried out. The results were compared with those of the age-matched healthy subjects. A general elevation of T2 relaxation times (105 ms in patients vs. 95 ms in controls) and reduction of the FA values (0.66 in patients vs. 0.74 in controls) at the genu of the CC were found in patients. Reductions of the fibre numbers (5,464 in patients vs. 8,886 in controls) and volumes (3,415 ml in patients vs. 5,235 ml in controls) of the CC were found only in patients older than 5 years. The study indicates that despite their inconspicuous findings in conventional MRI microstructural brain abnormalities are evident in these pediatric patients suffering from developmental delay. (orig.)

  2. Sr36- and Sr5-Mediated Resistance Response to Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Is Associated with Callose Deposition in Wheat Guard Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; McCallum, B D; Fetch, T; Bakkeren, G; Saville, B J

    2015-06-01

    Race-specific resistance of wheat to Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is primarily posthaustorial and often involves the induction of a hypersensitive response (HR). The aim of this study was to investigate host defense responses induced in interactions between P. graminis f. sp. tritici races and wheat lines carrying different race-specific stem rust resistance (Sr) genes. In incompatible interactions between wheat lines carrying Sr36 in three genetic backgrounds (LMPG, Prelude, or W2691) and avirulent P. graminis f. sp. tritici races MCCFC or RCCDM, callose accumulated within 24 h in wheat guard cells contacted by a P. graminis f. sp. tritici appressorium, and P. graminis f. sp. tritici ingress was inhibited following appressorium formation. Accordingly, the expression of transcripts encoding a callose synthase increased in the incompatible interaction between LMPG-Sr36 and avirulent P. graminis f. sp. tritici race MCCFC. Furthermore, the inhibition of callose synthesis through the infiltration of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (DDG) increased the ability of P. graminis f. sp. tritici race MCCFC to infect LMPG-Sr36. A similar induction of callose deposition in wheat guard cells was also observed within 24 h after inoculation (hai) with avirulent P. graminis f. sp. tritici race HKCJC on LMPG-Sr5 plants. In contrast, this defense response was not induced in incompatible interactions involving Sr6, Sr24, or Sr30. Instead, the induction of an HR and cellular lignification were noted. The manifestation of the HR and cellular lignification was induced earlier (24 hai) and was more extensive in the resistance response mediated by Sr6 compared with those mediated by Sr24 or Sr30. These results indicate that the resistance mediated by Sr36 is similar to that mediated by Sr5 but different from those triggered by Sr6, Sr24, or Sr30. Resistance responses mediated by Sr5 and Sr36 are prehaustorial, and are a result of very rapid recognition of molecules derived from avirulent isolates of

  3. The PTI1-like kinase ZmPti1a from maize (Zea mays L. co-localizes with callose at the plasma membrane of pollen and facilitates a competitive advantage to the male gametophyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wienand Udo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tomato kinase Pto confers resistance to bacterial speck disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in a gene for gene manner. Upon recognition of specific avirulence factors the Pto kinase activates multiple signal transduction pathways culminating in induction of pathogen defense. The soluble cytoplasmic serine/threonine kinase Pti1 is one target of Pto phosphorylation and is involved in the hypersensitive response (HR reaction. However, a clear role of Pti1 in plant pathogen resistance is uncertain. So far, no Pti1 homologues from monocotyledonous species have been studied. Results Here we report the identification and molecular analysis of four Pti1-like kinases from maize (ZmPti1a, -b, -c, -d. These kinase genes showed tissue-specific expression and their corresponding proteins were targeted to different cellular compartments. Sequence similarity, expression pattern and cellular localization of ZmPti1b suggested that this gene is a putative orthologue of Pti1 from tomato. In contrast, ZmPti1a was specifically expressed in pollen and sequestered to the plasma membrane, evidently owing to N-terminal modification by myristoylation and/or S-acylation. The ZmPti1a:GFP fusion protein was not evenly distributed at the pollen plasma membrane but accumulated as an annulus-like structure which co-localized with callose (1,3-β-glucan deposition. In addition, co-localization of ZmPti1a and callose was observed during stages of pollen mitosis I and pollen tube germination. Maize plants in which ZmPti1a expression was silenced by RNA interference (RNAi produced pollen with decreased competitive ability. Hence, our data provide evidence that ZmPti1a plays an important part in a signalling pathway that accelerates pollen performance and male fitness. Conclusion ZmPti1a from maize is involved in pollen-specific processes during the progamic phase of reproduction, probably in crucial signalling processes associated with regions

  4. Subthreshold receptive fields and baseline excitability of "silent" S1 callosal neurons in awake rabbits: contributions of AMPA/kainate and NMDA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swadlow, H A; Hicks, T P

    1997-07-01

    The contribution of NMDA and non-NMDA receptors to excitatory subthreshold receptive fields was examined in callosal efferent neurons (CC neurons) in primary somatosensory cortex of the fully awake rabbit. Only neurons showing no traditional (suprathreshold) receptive fields were examined. Subthreshold responses were examined by monitoring the thresholds of efferent neurons to juxtasomal current pulses (JSCPs) delivered through the recording microelectrode. Changes in threshold following a peripheral conditioning stimulus signify a subthreshold response. Using this method, excitatory postsynaptic potentials and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials are manifested as decreases and increases in JSCP threshold, respectively. NMDA and non-NMDA agonists and antagonists were administered iontophoretically via a multibarrel micropipette assembly attached to the recording/stimulating microelectrode. Receptor-selective doses of both AMPA/kainate and NMDA antagonists decreased the excitability of CC neurons in the absence of any peripheral stimulation. Threshold to JSCPs rose by a mean of 20% for both classes of antagonist. Despite the similar effects of NMDA and non-NMDA antagonists on baseline excitability, these antagonists had dramatically different effects on the subthreshold excitatory response to activation of the receptive field. Whereas receptor-selective doses of AMPA/kainate antagonists either eliminated or severely attenuated the subthreshold excitatory responses to peripheral stimulation, NMDA antagonists had little or no effect on the subthreshold evoked response. PMID:9262195

  5. Severe form of radiculo - myelo - neuropathy with meningo - encephalitis secondary to Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection: unusual corpus callosal lesions and serial magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalini, Atchayaram; Ramakrishna, Anil; Dekumoy, Paron; Kumar, Raju Ravi; Pakdee, Wallop; Saini, Jitender; Hegde, Vinay S

    2013-01-01

    A 43-year-old man presented with the symptoms of recurrent lower abdominal pain, malaise and loss of appetite of 3-week duration, followed by acute onset of generalized paresthesias, fever and headache which progressed over few days to quadriparesis, altered sensorium, urinary and fecal incontinence. He had consumed raw tongue, liver, gall bladder and testicles of monitor lizard (Varanus bengalensis). Blood picture showed eosinophilia and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed elevated protein and eosinophilia. Serum and CSF serology was positive for angiostrongyliasis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed focal hyperintense lesions in the corpus callosum and brainstem and an enhancing lesion in the cerebellum. Post-contrast T1-weighted axial images of spine showed evidence of cervical cord hyperintense lesions and root enhancement. Susceptibility weighted images/phase images showed unusual feature of multiple hemorrhagic lesions in the posterior fossa and supratentorial areas. Diffusion showed no restriction of corpus callosal lesions. Patient was treated with the high dose parenteral steroids with albendazole and at 6-month follow-up and had a remarkable recovery. PMID:24005735

  6. [Case of callosal disconnection syndrome with a chief complaint of right-hand disability, despite presence of left-hand diagonistic dyspraxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yoko; Saida, Hisako; Yamamoto, Toru

    2009-04-01

    e report the case of 48-year-old right-handed male patient with an infarction affecting most part of the body and the splenium of the left half of the corpus callosum. Neuropsychological examination revealed typical signs of callosal disconnection including left-sided apraxia, diagonistic dyspraxia, left-sided agraphia, left-hand tactile anomia, left hemialexia, and right-sided constructional disability. Moreover, he complained of impairment in activities involving the right hand disability and agraphia. He could not stop behaving with his right hand when he had a vague idea. For example, he involuntarily picked up a tea bottle with his right hand when he had a desire to drink, although the action was not appropriate to that occasion. The imitation and utilization behavior did not imply this case, because his right hand behaviors were not exaggerated in response to external stimuli, such as the gestures of the examiner or the subjects in front of the patient. Unexpectedly, he complained about impairment of the activity of his right hand and was unaware of left hand apraxia or diagonistic dyspraxia; this trend continued for 6 months, at the time of this writing. We argue that the patient may have been subconsciouly aware of the symptoms of his left hand but had not verbalized them. PMID:19378819

  7. Study on the distribution of callose and β-1,3-D-glucanase in Chenopodium quinoa by immuno-gold labeling%免疫胶体金标记定位昆诺藜中的胼胝质和胼胝质降解酶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云琴; 王华; 谢礼; 洪健

    2014-01-01

    运用免疫胶体金技术研究了感染蚕豆萎蔫病毒2号以及健康昆诺藜细胞中胼胝质和胼胝质降解酶的分布情况。电镜观察发现胶体金特异性标记在含有VP37小管的胞间运动通道周围,其余区域感病和健康细胞的胼胝质及胼胝质降解酶分布差别不大,胼胝质主要分布于细胞间隙的大块电子致密物质以及细胞壁结构发生较大变化的区域,胼胝质降解酶主要分布于筛板、维管束细胞紧贴细胞壁区域的大块电子致密物质上,在细胞壁结构发生较大改变的区域也有胼胝质降解酶的分布。推测胼胝质在昆诺藜细胞中的积累和降解可能与细胞壁结构成分改变有关。%The distribution of callose and β⁃1,3⁃D⁃glucanase in the Broad bean wilt virus 2 ( BBWV 2 ) infected and the healthy Chenopodium quinoa was investigated by using immuno⁃gold labeling with the antibody against callose and β⁃1, 3⁃D⁃glucanase, respectively. The results show that, except for the VP37 intercellular moving cell wall pathways, there is no obvious difference on the distribution of callose and β⁃1,3⁃D⁃glucanase between the infected and healthy cells. Callose is mainly distributed on the regions as bellow:the electron condensed material which located in the intercellular space, the structural altered region of cell wall and the cell wall broken region. Glucanase is mainly distributed on the regions as bellow:the sieve plate, the electron condensed material attached to cell wall in the vascular bundle and the structural altered region of cell wall. From these results, it can be deduced that the accumulation and degradation of callose in C. quinoa is related to the cell wall structural and component alteration.

  8. Genetic effects in callose content in root apex of inbred resistant and susceptible corn lines to acid soils Efectos genéticos de la formación de calosa en ápices radicales de líneas de maíz resistentes y susceptibles a suelos ácidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcos Alba Lucía

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The main objective of this work was to identify genetic parameters that are related to callose accumulation using tropical inbreeds corn. Fourteen inbreed lines selected for different levels of tolerance to acid soils were chosen and a diallel among them was generated. The seeds were grown under controlled environmental conditions in a growth chamber and transferred to a nutrient solution at pH 4.3. After 12 hours of 25 µM Al (AlCl3 treatment was applied, callose contents of 1 cm root apex were determined with fluorescence spectrophotometer. Significant differences were found for parents, crosses and parents vs crosses. Average callose content varied from 0.746 to 2.035 (µg PE/cm root apex. Heterosis varied from –21.2% to 276.3%. General combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA were highly significant indicating that both, additive and non–additive gene effects were important for callose inheritance. SCA and GCA sum of squares accounted for 54% and 46%, respectively of crosses of squares sum. Correlation coefficient between callose content and corn grain yield in the field was negative but not significant (r = –0.38.

    Key words: Zea mays; callose; inheritance; diallel; heterosis; acid soils.

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la herencia de la producción de calosa utilizando líneas endogámicas de maíz. Seleccionando 14 líneas (7 tolerantes y 7 susceptibles a suelos ácidos se formó un dialelo que fue probado en campo y en invernadero. Se determinó el contenido de calosa en los 91 cruzamientos resultantes y los 14 progenitores. Para ello se colocaron las semillas en cámara de crecimiento en condiciones controladas. Después de 4–5 días las plántulas fueron transferidas a cubetas que contenían solución nutritiva con aireación constante. Luego de 48 horas se adicionaron 25 µM de aluminio (AlCl3 a cada una de las cubetas y se mantuvieron por 12 horas. Se cortaron tres ápices radicales de

  9. Distinctive patterns of callose deposition provide an early sign of ovule abortion1 in the andromonoecious shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii Patrones distintivos de deposición de calosa proveen evidencia temprana de aborto de óvulos en el arbusto andromonoico Caesalpinia gilliesii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Calviño

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ovule abortion may lead to the partial or complete reduction of the number of functional ovules in the ovary and then is the primary factor that determines the sexual expression of the plant. In different species, ovule abortion was associated with the presence of callose in advanced ovules. Based on these observations, we studied the pattern of ovule development and callose deposition in both perfect and staminate flowers of the andromonoecious shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii. The obtained results showed that all ovules reached the 8-nucleate stage of embryo sac development and exhibited callose deposition at advanced stages. Nevertheless, from the 2-nucleate stage, a distinct spatial pattern of callose deposition within the ovule was observed between perfect and staminate flowers. Differences in callose deposition suggest that not callose per se but its distribution pattern in the ovule tissues is the main factor that triggers ovule isolation and abortion and leads to flowers with non-functional pistils in this species. Furthermore, previous observed differential growth rates between perfect and staminate flowers support for resource depletion as the likely underlying mechanism of ovule fate in C. gilliesii.El aborto de óvulos puede llevar a la reducción parcial o completa de óvulos fértiles en el ovario, pudiendo ser entonces un factor primario que determine la expresión sexual de toda la planta. En diferentes especies de plantas, el aborto de los óvulos ha sido asociado con la presencia de calosa en estadios avanzados del desarrollo de los óvulos. Basado en estas observaciones, se estudiaron el desarrollo de los óvulos y el patrón de deposición de calosa tanto en flores perfectas como estaminadas en el arbusto andromonoico C. gilliesii. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que los sacos embrionarios alcanzan el estadio de desarrollo 8-nucleado en todos los óvulos, y que presentan deposición de calosa en los estadios avanzados. Sin

  10. Efectos genéticos de la formación de calosa en ápices radicales de líneas de maíz resistentes y susceptibles a suelos ácidos Genetic effects in callose content in root apex of inbred resistant and susceptible corn lines to acid soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Lucía Arcos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la herencia de la producción de calosa utilizando líneas endogámicas de maíz. Seleccionando 14 líneas (7 tolerantes y 7 susceptibles a suelos ácidos se formó un dialelo que fue probado en campo y en invernadero. Se determinó el contenido de calosa en los 91 cruzamientos resultantes y los 14 progenitores. Para ello se colocaron las semillas en cámara de crecimiento en condiciones controladas. Después de 4-5 días las plántulas fueron transferidas a cubetas que contenían solución nutritiva con aireación constante. Luego de 48 horas se adicionaron 25 µM de aluminio (AlCl3 a cada una de las cubetas y se mantuvieron por 12 horas. Se cortaron tres ápices radicales de cada genotipo y se mantuvieron en etanol 96%. Para medir el contenido de calosa se utilizó Methyl blue como colorante, este forma un complejo con la calosa llamado Siruflúor-calosa, que es medido con el espectrofotómetro de fluorescencia. Se encontraron diferencias significativas para los progenitores, los cruzamientos y los progenitores Vs cruzamientos. El contenido de calosa de los progenitores varió de 0.746 a 2.035 µg PE/cm ápice de raíz. La heterosis varió desde -21.2% a 276.3%. La Habilidad Combinatoria General (HCG y la Habilidad Combinatoria Específica (HCE fueron altamente significativas, lo que indica que tanto los efectos genéticos aditivos y no aditivos fueron importantes en la herencia de calosa. El 46% de SC entre cruzamientos correspondió a la HCG y el 54% a la HCE. El coeficiente de correlación entre el contenido de calosa y la producción de grano del maíz en el campo fue negativo aunque no significativo (r = -0.38.The main objective of this work was to identify genetic parameters that are related to callose accumulation using tropical inbreeds corn. Fourteen inbreed lines selected for different levels of tolerance to acid soils were chosen and a diallel among them was generated. The seeds were grown

  11. Language and development in FG syndrome with callosal agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCardle, P; Wilson, B

    1993-06-01

    The FG syndrome is characterized by unusual facies, sudden infant death, developmental delay, and abnormalities of the cardiac, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems. No longitudinal data on development in surviving patients are currently available. Serial evaluations of a patient with FG syndrome, whose sole central nervous system anomaly was agenesis of the corpus callosum, showed a consistent pattern over time. Specific language impairments in syntactic and pragmatic-semantic areas are emerging. These findings represent the first detailed data on which expectations for children with the FG syndrome can be based. The findings also fit theoretical constructs on the function of the corpus callosum and may therefore be generalized to provide expectations for other patients with isolated agenesis of the corpus callosum. Given the information gained from this case, it is clear that language intervention/consultation should be a pivotal service for such children, and that the speech-language pathologist should play a role in the development of an integrated educational services plan. PMID:7688382

  12. Cannabis use and callosal white matter structure and integrity in recent-onset schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Dekker; N. Schmitz; B.D. Peters; T.A. van Amelsvoort; D.H. Linszen; L. de Haan

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent-onset cannabis use, compared with adult-onset use, has been associated with a higher risk for developing symptoms of schizophrenia-like psychotic disorders. To test the hypothesis that onset of cannabis use in early adolescence in male schizophrenia patients is associated with abnormaliti

  13. Age Differences in Interhemispheric Interactions: Callosal Structure, Physiological Function, and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Fling, Brett W.; Peltier, Scott J.; Bo, Jin; Welsh, Robert C.; Seidler, Rachael D.

    2011-01-01

    There is a fundamental gap in understanding how brain structural and functional network connectivity are interrelated, how they change with age, and how such changes contribute to older adults’ sensorimotor deficits. Recent neuroimaging approaches including resting state functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been used to assess brain functional (fcMRI) and structural (DTI) network connectivity, allowing for more integrative assessments of distributed neur...

  14. Early phenotype expression of cortical neurons: evidence that a subclass of migrating neurons have callosal axons.

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, M. L.; Rakic, P.; Goldman-Rakic, P. S.

    1991-01-01

    The use of [3H]thymidine labeling in combination with various axonal transport tracers has revealed that a subset of migrating neurons in the fetal monkey cerebrum issue axons to the opposite cerebral hemisphere while still migrating to their final positions in the cortical plate. Other cortical neurons with the same "birthdate" (i.e., that underwent their last round of DNA synthesis on the same day) are not retrogradely labeled by tracer injections of the opposite hemisphere. These findings ...

  15. Callose-mediated resistance to pathogenic intruders in plant defense-related papillae

    OpenAIRE

    Voigt, Christian A.

    2014-01-01

    Plants are exposed to a wide range of potential pathogens, which derive from diverse phyla. Therefore, plants have developed successful defense mechanisms during co-evolution with different pathogens. Besides many specialized defense mechanisms, the plant cell wall represents a first line of defense. It is actively reinforced through the deposition of cell wall appositions, so-called papillae, at sites of interaction with intruding microbial pathogens. The papilla is a complex structure that ...

  16. [A case of diagnostic dyspraxia without ideomotor apraxia by callosal lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tei, H; Soma, Y; Uchiyama, S; Maruyama, S

    1993-05-01

    A case of diagnostic dyspraxia was reported. A 57-year-old right handed male had been suffering from the lack of cooperation between his right and left hands for six months. Except for decreased deep tendon reflexes in all extremities, there were no abnormal findings on neurological examination. On neuropsychological examination, he was attentive, well orientated and his spontaneous speech, comprehension, naming, repetition and reading were intact. There was peculiar dissociative behavior between his right and left hands. For instance, he put a cigarette or coin in the pocket with his right hand then his left hand took out and replaced them, and he buttoned his shirts with his right hand but then unbuttoned with his left hand. These left hand oppositional behavior to his right hand were triggered by voluntary activities of his right hand. Left unilateral agraphia was also revealed but ideomotor apraxia, compulsive manipulation of tools and grasp reflex were not demonstrated. T1-weighted MRI demonstrated irregular low signal intensity areas extending from the genu to the body of the corpus callosum. No definite lesion was detected in the medial aspect of the frontal lobe. Only small numbers of diagnostic dyspraxia have been reported and such cases without ideomotor apraxia or medial frontal lesion are even rare. MRI is very useful for detecting the lesion of the corpus callosum. PMID:8365065

  17. [Left unilateral melokinetic apraxia and left dynamic apraxia following partial callosal infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstichel, P; Meyrignac, C

    2000-03-01

    A 69 year-old right-handed man suffered from an infarct in the left anterior cerebral territory's artery, involving the anterior and middle parts of the corpus callosum, and the cingulum. He had a right crural hemiparesis with a grasp reflex of the right hand, and ipsilaterally a melokinetic and a dynamic apraxia. Agility of the left fingers was lost: fast and nimble movements of theses fingers, and repetitive gestures of the left hand were defective. Execution of motor sequences with the left hand was disrupted by a lack of litheness in gesture series. By analogy with unilateral left ideomotor apraxia, we suggest melokinetic and dynamic apraxia could be symptomatic of an interhemispheric disconnection. Premotor cortex could have a dominance for both digital movements and programmation of gestual sequences. As a general rule, the left cortex could be preferentially activated by the nature of some tasks, particularly the execution of complex gestual series, which implie an internal speech. In theses conditions, an interhemispheric disconnection could lead some difficulties to make theses gestures with the left hand. PMID:10740099

  18. White Matter Compromise of Callosal and Subcortical Fiber Tracts in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Dinesh K.; Keehn, Brandon; Lincoln, Alan J.; Muller, Ralph-Axel

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is increasingly viewed as a disorder of functional networks, highlighting the importance of investigating white matter and interregional connectivity. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine white matter integrity for the whole brain and for corpus callosum, internal capsule, and middle…

  19. Callosal tissue loss parallels subtle decline in psychomotor speed. A longitudinal quantitative MRI study. The LADIS Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Hanna; Frederiksen, Kristian S; Garde, Ellen;

    2012-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have suggested that corpus callosum (CC) atrophy is related to impairment in global cognitive function, mental speed, and executive functions in the elderly. Longitudinal studies confirming these findings have been lacking. We investigated whether CC tissue loss is...

  20. Spatial Coordination of Aluminum Uptake, Production of Reactive Oxygen Species, Callose Production and Wall Rigidification in Maize Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum toxicity associated with acid soils represents one of the biggest limitations to crop production worldwide. Although Al specifically inhibits the elongation of root cells, the exact mechanism by which this growth reduction occurs remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investiga...

  1. Cell Wall Maturation of Arabidopsis Trichomes Is Dependent on Exocyst Subunit EXO70H4 and Involves Callose Deposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kulich, I.; Vojtíková, Z.; Glanc, M.; Ortmannová, Jitka; Rasmann, S.; Žárský, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 168, č. 1 (2015), s. 120-131. ISSN 0032-0889 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : PLASMA-MEMBRANE * MICRO- PIXE * PLANT Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 6.841, year: 2014

  2. Visual-callosal white matter pathways in neurofibromatosis type 1: a diffusion tensor imaging-fiber tracking study

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, André Miguel Fernandes dos

    2011-01-01

    O presente estudo visa investigar a providenciar informação neuro anatómica acerca do desenvolvimento das vias dorsais e ventrais de matéria branca que começam em áreas visuais corticais de baixo nível, associado à neurofibromatose tipo 1. De maneira a se atingir este objectivo, recorreu-se ao uso de técnicas de DTI (Diffusion Tensor Imaging [Imagens de Tensor de Difusão]), FT (Fiber Tracking [Tractografia]) e fMRI (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging [Imagens de Ressonância Magnética Funci...

  3. Callosal connections of primary visual cortex predict the spatial spreading of binocular rivalry across the visual hemifields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan eGenc

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In binocular rivalry, presentation of different images to the separate eyes leads to conscious perception alternating between the two possible interpretations every few seconds. During perceptual transitions, a stimulus emerging into dominance can spread in a wave-like manner across the visual field. These traveling waves of rivalry dominance have been successfully related to the cortical magnification properties and functional activity of early visual areas, including the primary visual cortex (V1. Curiously however, these traveling waves undergo a delay when passing from one hemifield to another. In the current study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to investigate whether the strength of interhemispheric connections between the left and right visual cortex might be related to the delay of traveling waves across hemifields. We measured the delay in traveling-wave times (ΔTWT in nineteen participants and repeated this test 6 weeks later to evaluate the reliability of our behavioral measures. We found large interindividual variability but also good test-retest reliability for individual measures of ΔTWT. Using DTI in connection with fiber tractography, we identified parts of the corpus callosum connecting functionally defined visual areas V1-V3. We found that individual differences in ΔTWT was reliably predicted by the diffusion properties of transcallosal fibers connecting left and right V1, but observed no such effect for neighboring transcallosal visual fibers connecting V2 and V3. Our results demonstrate that the anatomical characteristics of topographically specific transcallosal connections predict the individual delay of interhemispheric traveling waves, providing further evidence that V1 is an important site for neural processes underlying binocular rivalry.

  4. Increased Putamen and Callosal Motor Subregion in Treatment-Naive Boys with Tourette Syndrome Indicates Changes in the Bihemispheric Motor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessner, Veit; Overlack, Sebastian; Schmidt-Samoa, Carsten; Baudewig, Jurgen; Dechent, Peter; Rothenberger, Aribert; Helms, Gunther

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite an increasing number of studies, findings of structural brain alterations in patients with Tourette syndrome are still inconsistent. Several confounders (comorbid conditions, medication, gender, age, IQ) might explain these discrepancies. In the present study, these confounders were excluded to identify differences in basal…

  5. Genes encoding a callose synthase and phytochrome A are adjacent to a MAP3Ka-like gene in Beta vulgaris USH20

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAP3Ka encodes a key conserved protein kinase responsible for orchestrating a rapid cascade of cellular events ultimately leading to localized cell death. Hypersensitive response, as it is termed, enables genetically-resistant plants to limit microbial invasion under the right environmental conditio...

  6. Función de OCP3 en la resistencia de Arabidopsis frente a hongos necrotrofos.

    OpenAIRE

    García-Andrade Serrano, Javier

    2016-01-01

    [EN] ocp3 mutant plants exhibit an accelerated and intensified callose deposition in response to infection by Botrytis cinerea or Plectosphaerella cucumerina. After phenotypic analysis of a series of double mutants ocp3 we observed that both, the increase callose deposition and resistance, require PMR4 callose synthase and hormone abscisic acid (ABA). In wild plants after infection with any of these necrotrophic fungi, ABA synthesis increases, this increase is even higher in ocp3. The greater...

  7. Protein (Viridiplantae): 356525683 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YQLLFRLIVGSIFLTFLAIFIILIAVAKMTIKDIIVCILAVMPTGWGILLIAQACKPLIKKTWFWGSVRALARGYEVIMGLLLFTPVAFLAWFPFVSEFQTRMLFNQAFSRGLQISRILGGQSNERSSNHKE ... ...LQKIFPDEWKNFVQRFDNKSEEKLRVENEEELRLWASYRGQTLTKTVRGMMYIRQALELQAFLDMAKDEELMKGYKAAELESKESTTGERSLWTQCQSLADMKFTYVV...GVSPEKSWESWWEKEHEHLRHSGKRGIATEIILSLRFFIYQYGLVYHLSITDKTQSVLVYGLSWMIIFVILGLMKGVSVGRRRLSAD...WNKIITSLREEDLIDNREMDLMLVPYSADRSLNLIQWPPFLLASKIPIAVSMAEDSLGKGQELEKRLSRDKYMKSAVEECYASFKSIINFLVLGERETMVIQNIFQRVDVHIENKAVLNELNLSAVPSLYER...46:1324 3847:1324 PREDICTED: callose synthase 1-like isoform 1 Glycine max MSYRRGSDLPPQRRILRTQTAGNLGADPILDSEVVPSSLVEIAPILRVANE

  8. Cortical involvement of marchiafava-bignami disease: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Han Won [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    Marchiafava-Bignami disease is a rare complication of chronic alcoholism and this malady typically manifests as callosal lesion. I report here on one patient with Marchiafava-bignami disease (MBD) who has symmetric restricted diffusion in both lateral-frontal cortices, in addition to the callosal lesion.

  9. Overexpression of AtTTP Affects ARF17 Expression and Leads to Male Sterility in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Hao Shi; Cheng Zhang; Xiao-Feng Xu; Jun Zhu; Que Zhou; Li-Juan Ma; Jin Niu; Zhong-Nan Yang

    2015-01-01

    Callose synthesis is critical for the formation of the pollen wall pattern. CalS5 is thought to be the major synthethase for the callose wall. In the Arabidopsis anther, ARF17 regulates the expression of CalS5 and is the target of miR160. Plants expressing miR160-resistant ARF17 (35S:5mARF17 lines) with increased ARF17 mRNA levels display male sterility. Here we report a zinc finger family gene, AtTTP, which is involved in miR160 maturation and callose synthesis in Arabidopsis. AtTTP is expre...

  10. AcEST: DK962832 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available plantlets Developmental stage gametophytes with sporophytes C...ian... 51 4e-06 sp|Q9LTG5|CALS4_ARATH Callose synthase 4 OS=Arabidopsis thaliana... 47 1e-04 sp|Q5YP50|GPMA_NOCFA 2,3-bisphosph...ult : Swiss-Prot sp_hit_id Q9S9U0 Definition sp|Q9S9U0|CALSB_ARATH Callose synthase 11 OS=Arabidopsis thaliana Align length... producing significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|Q9S9U0|CALSB_ARATH Callose synthase 11 OS=Arabidopsis thal...ian... 136 7e-32 sp|Q9ZT82|CALSC_ARATH Callose synthase 12 OS=Arabidopsis thal

  11. Interhemispheric connections between primary visual areas: beyond the midline rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houzel J.-C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last five years, a number of detailed anatomical, electrophysiological, optical imaging and simulation studies performed in a variety of non-human species have revealed that the functional organization of callosal connections between primary visual areas is more elaborate than previously thought. Callosal cell bodies and terminals are clustered in columns whose correspondence to features mapped in the visual cortex, such as orientation and ocularity, are starting to be understood. Callosal connections are not restricted to the vertical midline representation nor do they establish merely point-to-point retinotopic correspondences across the hemispheres, as traditionally believed. In addition, anatomical studies have revealed the existence of an ipsilateral component of callosal axons. The aim of this short review is to propose how these new data can be integrated into an updated scheme of the circuits responsible for assembling the primary visual field map.

  12. Facial emotion recognition in agenesis of the corpus callosum

    OpenAIRE

    Bridgman, Matthew W; Brown, Warren S.; Spezio, Michael L.; Leonard, Matthew K.; Adolphs, Ralph; Paul, Lynn K

    2014-01-01

    Background: Impaired social functioning is a common symptom of individuals with developmental disruptions in callosal connectivity. Among these developmental conditions, agenesis of the corpus callosum provides the most extreme and clearly identifiable example of callosal disconnection. To date, deficits in nonliteral language comprehension, humor, theory of mind, and social reasoning have been documented in agenesis of the corpus callosum. Here, we examined a basic social ability as yet not ...

  13. The Fezf2–Ctip2 genetic pathway regulates the fate choice of subcortical projection neurons in the developing cerebral cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Bin; Wang, Song S.; HATTOX, ALEXIS M.; Rayburn, Helen; Nelson, Sacha B.; McConnell, Susan K.

    2008-01-01

    Pyramidal neurons in the deep layers of the cerebral cortex can be classified into two major classes: callosal projection neurons and long-range subcortical neurons. We and others have shown that a gene expressed specifically by subcortical projection neurons, Fezf2, is required for the formation of axonal projections to the spinal cord, tectum, and pons. Here, we report that Fezf2 regulates a decision between subcortical vs. callosal projection neuron fates. Fezf2−/− neurons adopt the fate o...

  14. Asymmetrical interhemispheric connections develop in cat visual cortex after early unilateral convergent strabismus: Anatomy, physiology and mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel eBui Quoc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the mammalian primary visual cortex, the corpus callosum contributes to the unification of the visual hemifields that project to the two hemispheres. Its development depends on visual experience. When the latter is abnormal, callosal connections must undergo dramatic anatomical and physiological changes. However, such data are sparse and incomplete. Thus, little is known about the consequences of abnormal postnatal visual experience on the development of callosal connections and their role in unifying representation of the two hemifields. Here, the effects of early unilateral convergent strabismus (a model of abnormal visual experience were fully characterized with respect to the development of the callosal connections in cat visual cortex, an experimental model for humans. Electrophysiological responses and 3D reconstruction of single callosal axons show that abnormally asymmetrical callosal connections develop after unilateral convergent strabismus, resulting from an extension of axonal branches of specific orders in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the deviated eye and a decreased number of nodes and terminals in the other (ipsilateral to the non deviated eye. Furthermore this asymmetrical organization prevents the establishment of a unifying representation of the two visual hemifields. As a general rule, we suggest that crossed and uncrossed retino-geniculo-cortical pathways contribute in succession to the development of the callosal maps in visual cortex.

  15. New insight into silica deposition in horsetail (Equisetum arvense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Exley Christopher

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The horsetails (Equisetum sp are known biosilicifiers though the mechanism underlying silica deposition in these plants remains largely unknown. Tissue extracts from horsetails grown hydroponically and also collected from the wild were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their silica 'skeletons' visualised using the fluor, PDMPO, and fluorescence microscopy. Results Silica deposits were observed in all plant regions from the rhizome through to the stem, leaf and spores. Numerous structures were silicified including cell walls, cell plates, plasmodesmata, and guard cells and stomata at varying stages of differentiation. All of the major sites of silica deposition in horsetail mimicked sites and structures where the hemicellulose, callose is known to be found and these serendipitous observations of the coincidence of silica and callose raised the possibility that callose might be templating silica deposition in horsetail. Hydroponic culture of horsetail in the absence of silicic acid resulted in normal healthy plants which, following acid digestion, showed no deposition of silica anywhere in their tissues. To test the hypothesis that callose might be templating silica deposition in horsetail commercially available callose was mixed with undersaturated and saturated solutions of silicic acid and the formation of silica was demonstrated by fluorimetry and fluorescence microscopy. Conclusions The initiation of silica formation by callose is the first example whereby any biomolecule has been shown to induce, as compared to catalyse, the formation of silica in an undersaturated solution of silicic acid. This novel discovery allowed us to speculate that callose and its associated biochemical machinery could be a missing link in our understanding of biosilicification.

  16. Interhemispheric Transfer in Down’s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. J. Braun

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Callosal agenesics and callosotomized epileptics manifest markedly increasing simple visual reaction time (SVRT from conditions of ipsilateral to contralateral stimulus-response relation (SRR. In the contralateral SRR, a response is presumed possible because of presence of other commissures (anterior, intercollicular. The SRR effect is prolonged presumably because the remaining commissures are less efficient than the corpus callosum in relaying necessary visual or motor information. Consequently, the SRR effect is believed to correspond to callosal relay time (CRT in the normal subject. However, both callosal agenesics and callosotomy patients manifest general slowing of SVRT in addition to a prolonged SRR effect. These patients have massive extra-callosal damage which could plausibly cause both the SVRT and the CUD prolongation. If such were the case, the CRT inference would be in jeopardy. A test of the CRT inference is therefore required where patients with massive diffuse extra-callosal brain damage and normal callosi would show marked general SVRT prolongation and a normal SRR effect. Four trisomy-21 (T21 males were compared to age and sex-matched normal controls. General SVRT was highly significantly prolonged in T21, but the CUD was nearly identical in both groups.

  17. Corpus callosum arteriovenous malformation with persistent trigeminal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Chandan B; Devi, B Indira; Somanna, Sampath; Bhat, Dhananjaya I; Dawn, Rose

    2011-12-01

    A 13-year-old boy presented with an intracerebral haematoma secondary to a large corpus callosal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) with an associated persistent trigeminal artery, and was treated with Gamma-Knife Radiosurgery for the AVM. This report discusses the embryological basis, radiological features and various classifications of this rare vascular anomaly. PMID:21501055

  18. Huntington's disease: visuomotor disturbance in patients and offspring.

    OpenAIRE

    Oepen, G; Mohr, U.; Willmes, K; Thoden, U

    1985-01-01

    In 15 patients with Huntington's disease, 17 offspring at risk and 63 healthy controls, visuomotor performances were assessed by quantitative (statistical) and qualitative analysis. The much enlarged error score of the nondominant left hand in patients with Huntington's disease was explained as callosal dyspraxia. Five of the 17 offspring revealed results similar to that of the patients.

  19. A complementary bioinformatics approach to identify potential plant cell wall glycosytransferase encoding genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund, Jack; Skjøt, Michael; Geshi, Naomi;

    2004-01-01

    Plant cell wall (CW) synthesizing enzymes can be divided into the glycan (i.e. cellulose and callose) synthases, which are multimembrane spanning proteins located at the plasma membrane, and the glycosyltransferases (GTs), which are Golgi localized single membrane spanning proteins, believed...

  20. MIR137HG risk variant rs1625579 genotype is related to corpus callosum volume in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, V.S.; Kelly, S.; Wright, C.; Gupta, C.N.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Perrone-Bizzozero, N.; Ehrlich, S.; Wang, L.; Bustillo, J.R.; Morris, D.; Corvin, A.; Cannon, D.M.; McDonald, C.; Donohoe, G.; Calhoun, V.D.; Turner, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies implicate the MIR137HG risk variant rs1625579 (MIR137HGrv) within the host gene for microRNA-137 as a potential regulator of schizophrenia susceptibility. We examined the influence of MIR137HGrv genotype on 17 subcortical and callosal volumes in a large sample of indi

  1. Corpus callosum atrophy in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristian Steen; Garde, Ellen; Skimminge, Arnold;

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have found atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains unclear whether callosal atrophy is already present in the early stages of AD, and to what extent it may be associated with other structural changes in the brain, such as...

  2. The Crossed Projection to the Striatum in Two Species of Monkey and in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Innocenti, Giorgio M; Dyrby, Tim B; Andersen, Kasper Winther;

    2016-01-01

    The corpus callosum establishes the anatomical continuity between the 2 hemispheres and coordinates their activity. Using histological tracing, single axon reconstructions, and diffusion tractography, we describe a callosal projection to n caudatus and putamen in monkeys and humans. In both species...

  3. Anarchic-Hand Syndrome: ERP Reflections of Lost Control over the Right Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verleger, Rolf; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Friedrich, Monique; Sedlmeier, Peter; Kompf, Detlef

    2011-01-01

    In patients with the callosal type of anarchic-hand syndrome, the left hand often does not act as intended and counteracts the right hand. Reports are scarce about the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. We report the case G.H. who developed the syndrome after infarction of the left arteria pericallosa. It has been suggested that the…

  4. [Diagnostic dyspraxia and frontal syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnet, A; Schmitt, A; Poncet, M

    1998-05-01

    A 27-year-old ambidexter woman experienced a clinical and psychometric frontal syndrome associated with a partial callosal syndrome following transcallosal surgery for an intraventricular neurocytoma. She also complained of difficulties with her left hand which realized a particular form of diagnostic dyspraxia: there were specific features of an isolated dysfunction of the control of the realization of a program. PMID:9773062

  5. Descriptions of new Cetoniidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janson, Oliver E.

    1888-01-01

    Testaceous red, shining; head black; elytra with a broad pale greenish yellow longitudinal band at the sides, the lateral margin at the shoulder and humeral callosity black; mesosternal process, anterior and intermediate tibiae and posterior knees piceous; tarsi black. — Length 21 mm. Very similar,t

  6. Action in Perception: Prominent Visuo-Motor Functional Symmetry in Musicians during Music Listening

    OpenAIRE

    Iballa Burunat; Elvira Brattico; Tuomas Puoliväli; Tapani Ristaniemi; Mikko Sams; Petri Toiviainen

    2015-01-01

    Musical training leads to sensory and motor neuroplastic changes in the human brain. Motivated by findings on enlarged corpus callosum in musicians and asymmetric somatomotor representation in string players, we investigated the relationship between musical training, callosal anatomy, and interhemispheric functional symmetry during music listening. Functional symmetry was increased in musicians compared to nonmusicians, and in keyboardists compared to string players. This increased functional...

  7. Functional brain asymmetry, attentional modulation, and interhemispheric transfer in boys with Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Lundervold, Arvid; Grüner, Renate;

    2007-01-01

    to shift attention normally when instructed to focus on the right ear stimulus. When instructed to focus attention on the left ear stimulus, however, performance deteriorated in the TS group. Correlations with CC area further supported the hypothesized presence of deviant callosal functioning in the...

  8. Intracranial Convexity Lipoma with Massive Calcification: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eung Tae; Park, Dong Woo; Ryu, Jeong Ah; Park, Choong Ki; Lee, Young Jun; Lee, Seung Ro [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Intracranial lipoma is a rare entity, accounting for less than 0.5% of intracranial tumors, which usually develops in the callosal cisterns. We report a case of lipoma with an unusual location; in the high parietal convexity combined with massive calcification, and no underlying vascular malformation or congenital anomaly.

  9. The role of Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase in proline degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deuschle, Karen; Funck, Dietmar; Forlani, Giuseppe;

    2004-01-01

    growth. External Pro application caused programmed cell death, with callose deposition, reactive oxygen species production, and DNA laddering, involving a salicylic acid signal transduction pathway. p5cdh mutants were hypersensitive toward Pro and other molecules producing P5C, such as Arg and Orn. Pro...

  10. Comparative morphology of three types of projection-identified pyramidal neurons in the superficial layers of cat visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, J A; Chase, R; Thejomayen, M

    1996-02-26

    The morphology and dendritic organization of corticocortical neurons in the superficial layers of area 18 that project to area 17 were studied by intracellular injection of lucifer yellow in the fixed-slice preparation. This corticocortical population contains primarily standard pyramidal cells, but occasional nonpyramidal, modified, fusiform, star, and inverted pyramidal cells were also seen. All cell types were present throughout layer 2 and in the upper and middle parts of layer 3. Standard pyramidal cells were found exclusively in lower layer 3. The mean somatic area of the area 17 projecting neurons was 251 microns 2. The width of basal dendritic fields was correlated to cell size for standard pyramidal cells but not for the other cell types. Next, the morphology and dendritic organization of the area 17 projecting neurons were compared to the pyramidal cells of the local horizontal patch networks and of the callosal system. The depth profile of the area 17 projecting and callosal pyramidal groups was virtually identical, peaking at 400 microns from the pial surface, whereas the local patch pyramidal group peaked at 281 microns. The local patch, area 17 projecting, and callosal pyramidal cells displayed increasingly larger mean somatic areas and basilar dendritic field width measurements. The number of basal dendritic branch points was greatest for callosal cells, and it was indistinguishable between local patch and area 17 projecting neurons. In the tangential plane, circular dendritic fields were observed on all callosal cells, but they were found on only approximately half of the local patch and area 17 projecting neurons. The remaining local patch and area 17 projecting neurons displayed mediolaterally and anteroposteriorly elongated basal dendritic fields, respectively. PMID:8866848

  11. Dysgenesis of the corpus callosum and associated malformaaation{sup :} computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings; Disgenesia do corpo caloso e mas-formacoes associadas: achados de tomografia computadorizada e ressonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montandon, Cristiano; Montandon Junior, Marcelo Eustaquio [Colegio Brasileiro de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem (CBR), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ribeiro, Flavia Aparecida de Sousa; Lobo, Leonardo Valadares Barbosa; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos [Goias Univ., Goiania (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem e Anatomia Patologica]. E-mail: cabeca2@terra.com.br

    2003-10-01

    Callosal dysgenesis is a malformation of the corpus callosum with origins in the embryogenesis of the telencephalon. We reviewed the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings of 11 patients with callosal dysgenesis and one patient with normal corpus callosum associated with a lipoma. The patients were divided into three distinct groups: total agenesis (three patients), partial agenesis (six patients) and hypoplasia (two patients). Associated abnormalities were observed in nine patients, including Chiari II malformation (one patient), schizencephaly (one patient), interhemispheric cyst (two patients), Dandy-Walker cyst (one patient), nodular heterotopy (one patient) and lipoma of the corpus callosum (four patients). This paper presents a review that may contribute to the diagnosis of these disorders. (author)

  12. Elemental analysis in cultured cells, tobacco and grape, treated with aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relationship between Al toxicity and the Al, Fe and B amount of element in tobacco and grape cells are discussed. Al and Fe were analyzed by neutron activation analysis and B was analyzed by prompt gamma-ray analysis. Callose content was also measured as an indicator of cell damage induced Al toxicity. When tobacco cells were incubated in 1 mM and 300 μM Al solution, the pattern of callose formation was much similar to that of Fe accumulation than that of Al accumulation in tobacco cells, suggesting that the increase of Fe content induced toxic effect along with Al incorporated into the cells. However, this tendency was not observed in grape cells. Boron content did not show any relation to those of Al or Fe throughout the Al treatment in both tobacco and grape cells. (author)

  13. Action in Perception: Prominent Visuo-Motor Functional Symmetry in Musicians during Music Listening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iballa Burunat

    Full Text Available Musical training leads to sensory and motor neuroplastic changes in the human brain. Motivated by findings on enlarged corpus callosum in musicians and asymmetric somatomotor representation in string players, we investigated the relationship between musical training, callosal anatomy, and interhemispheric functional symmetry during music listening. Functional symmetry was increased in musicians compared to nonmusicians, and in keyboardists compared to string players. This increased functional symmetry was prominent in visual and motor brain networks. Callosal size did not significantly differ between groups except for the posterior callosum in musicians compared to nonmusicians. We conclude that the distinctive postural and kinematic symmetry in instrument playing cross-modally shapes information processing in sensory-motor cortical areas during music listening. This cross-modal plasticity suggests that motor training affects music perception.

  14. Action in Perception: Prominent Visuo-Motor Functional Symmetry in Musicians during Music Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burunat, Iballa; Brattico, Elvira; Puoliväli, Tuomas; Ristaniemi, Tapani; Sams, Mikko; Toiviainen, Petri

    2015-01-01

    Musical training leads to sensory and motor neuroplastic changes in the human brain. Motivated by findings on enlarged corpus callosum in musicians and asymmetric somatomotor representation in string players, we investigated the relationship between musical training, callosal anatomy, and interhemispheric functional symmetry during music listening. Functional symmetry was increased in musicians compared to nonmusicians, and in keyboardists compared to string players. This increased functional symmetry was prominent in visual and motor brain networks. Callosal size did not significantly differ between groups except for the posterior callosum in musicians compared to nonmusicians. We conclude that the distinctive postural and kinematic symmetry in instrument playing cross-modally shapes information processing in sensory-motor cortical areas during music listening. This cross-modal plasticity suggests that motor training affects music perception. PMID:26422790

  15. Axon position within the corpus callosum determines contralateral cortical projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Wen, Yunqing; She, Liang; Sui, Ya-Nan; Liu, Lu; Richards, Linda J; Poo, Mu-Ming

    2013-07-16

    How developing axons in the corpus callosum (CC) achieve their homotopic projection to the contralateral cortex remains unclear. We found that axonal position within the CC plays a critical role in this projection. Labeling of nearby callosal axons in mice showed that callosal axons were segregated in an orderly fashion, with those from more medial cerebral cortex located more dorsally and subsequently projecting to more medial contralateral cortical regions. The normal axonal order within the CC was grossly disturbed when semaphorin3A/neuropilin-1 signaling was disrupted. However, the order in which axons were positioned within the CC still determined their contralateral projection, causing a severe disruption of the homotopic contralateral projection that persisted at postnatal day 30, when the normal developmental refinement of contralateral projections is completed in wild-type (WT) mice. Thus, the orderly positioning of axons within the CC is a primary determinant of how homotopic interhemispheric projections form in the contralateral cortex. PMID:23812756

  16. Development of the pollen in the antarctic flowering plant Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Giełwanowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl. produced two types very small bisexual fl owers. In the Antarctic natural conditions chasmogamic and cleistogamic fl owers most often form fi ve stamina with short fi laments. Two microsporangia with a three-layer wall form in the anther. Microspore mother cells, which develop into microspores after meiosis, form inside the microsporangium. Microsporocytes of Colobanthus quitensis are surrounded with a thick callose layer, the special wall. After meiosis, the callose wall is dissolved and microspores are released from the tetrad. The production of proorbicules, orbicules and peritapetal membrane, and the construction of a complex sporoderm with numerous apertural sites were observed. When microspore and pollen protoplasts underwent necrosis, probably as a result of temperature and osmotic stress, sporoderm layers formed around microspores, and the cell tapetum did not disintegrate. However, woody wall layers did not accumulate in endothecium cells.

  17. Computer assisted planning and custom-made surgical guide for malunited pronation deformity after first metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis in rheumatoid arthritis: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hirao, Makoto; Ikemoto, Sumika; Tsuboi, Hideki; Akita, Shosuke; Ohshima, Shiro; Saeki, Yukihiko; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Sugamoto, Kazuomi; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Hashimoto, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP-1) joint is a widely used procedure for the treatment of hallux valgus in patients with MTP-1 degeneration, severe or recurrent deformity, or inflammatory arthritis. In this case, ten years earlier, the patient’s MTP-1 joint had been fused in a severe pronation deformity position. Subsequently, a laterally shifted tibial sesamoid and osseous rising of the phalanx base caused painful callosities. To correct the pronated deformity accurately, a ...

  18. Structural and functional brain rewiring clarifies preserved interhemispheric transfer in humans born without the corpus callosum

    OpenAIRE

    Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Monteiro, Myriam; Andrade, Juliana; Bramati, Ivanei E.; Vianna-Barbosa, Rodrigo; Marins, Theo; Rodrigues, Erika; Dantas, Natalia; Behrens, Timothy E. J.; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Moll, Jorge; Lent, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Individuals subjected to surgical transection of the corpus callosum (“split-brains”) fail to transfer information between the cerebral hemispheres, a condition known as “disconnection syndrome.” On the other hand, subjects born without the callosum (callosal dysgenesis, CD) typically show preserved interhemispheric communication. To clarify this paradox, which has defied neuroscientists for decades, we investigated CD subjects using functional and structural neuroimaging and neuropsychologic...

  19. Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Aicardi Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Wahl, Michael; Strominger, Zoe A.; Wakahiro, Mari; Jeremy, Rita J.; Mukherjee, Pratik; Sherr, Elliott H.

    2010-01-01

    Aicardi syndrome is a congenital neurodevelopmental disorder associated with significant cognitive and motor impairment. Diffusion Tensor Imaging was performed on two subjects with Aicardi syndrome, as well as on two matched subjects with callosal agenesis and cortical malformations, but not a clinical diagnosis of Aicardi syndrome. Whole brain three-dimensional fiber tractography was performed, and major white matter tracts were isolated using standard tracking protocols. One Aicardi subject...

  20. The extracellular matrix of plants: Molecular, cellular and developmental biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    A symposium entitled ``The Extracellular Matrix of Plants: Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology was held in Tamarron, Colorado, March 15--21, 1996. The following topics were explored in addresses by 43 speakers: structure and biochemistry of cell walls; biochemistry, molecular biology and biosynthesis of lignin; secretory pathway and synthesis of glycoproteins; biosynthesis of matrix polysaccharides, callose and cellulose; role of the extracellular matrix in plant growth and development; plant cell walls in symbiosis and pathogenesis.

  1. Peptidoglycan and muropeptides from pathogens Agrobacterium and Xanthomonas elicit plant innate immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erbs, Gitte; Silipo, Alba; Aslam, Shazia;

    2008-01-01

    , oxidative burst, medium alkalinization, and formation of callose. Highly purified muropeptides from PGNs were more effective elicitors of early defense responses than native PGN. Therefore, PGN and its constituents represent a Microbe-Associated Molecular Pattern (MAMP) in plant-bacterial interactions. PGN...... and muropeptides from aggressive Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris were significantly more active than those from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which must maintain host cell viability during infection. The structure of muropeptide components and the distinctive differences are described. Differing...

  2. Mapping Corpus Callosum Morphology in Twin Pairs Discordant for Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Bearden, Carrie E.; van Erp, Theo G. M.; Dutton, Rebecca A.; Boyle, Christina; Madsen, Sarah; Luders, Eileen; Kieseppa, Tuula; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Huttunen, Matti; Partonen, Timo; Kaprio, Jaakko; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Thompson, Paul M.; Cannon, Tyrone D.

    2011-01-01

    Callosal volume reduction has been observed in patients with bipolar disorder, but whether these deficits reflect genetic vulnerability to the illness remains unresolved. Here, we used computational methods to map corpus callosum abnormalities in a population-based sample of twin pairs discordant for bipolar disorder. Twenty-one probands with bipolar I disorder (mean age 44.4 ± 7.5 years; 48% female), 19 of their non-bipolar co-twins, and 34 demographically matched control twin individuals un...

  3. Occupational Dermatoses Among Kitchen Workers In A Chain Of Vegetarian Hotel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rai Reena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify occupation related skin problems among hotel workers. One thousand three hindered and ninety employees of a chain of vegetarian hotels were examined. Of the 273 people working in the kitchen, 206 (75.4% had dermatosis related to work. The Kitchen workers were classified according to the type of work they routinely performed. Forty eight out of the 63 (76.1% cooks who were involved in stirring had callosity at sites of contact with ladle and 28 of the40 (70% cooks who were involved in frying had pigmentation and scars due to contact with hot oil and water. All the onion peelers had staining and fissuring of the palmer aspect of the fingers. Thirty two of the 46(69.5% vegetable cutters had callosity on the palm at areas of contact with knife. Poori markers had pigmentation and callosity of knuckles due to pressing the dough with their knuckles. Nine of the 12 (66% rice cleaners had chapping of nails. Seven of the 12 (58.3% paratha markers had erythema of palm due to contact with hot tava. Tandoori experts had singing of hair over right forearm. Two workers (0.73% had pigmentation of the face probably due to prolonged exposure to heat. Two of the16 (12.5% grinders had paronychia and onychomycosis due to constant contact with water and dough. Nine of the 15 (60% coconut graters had callosities of the palms. We conclude the minor occupational dermatosis is prevalent among kitchen workers employed in hotels

  4. The pig-tailed monkey (Macaca nemestrina) as a space-flight candidate. [for cardiovascular studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Kodama, A. M.; Grunbaum, B. W.; Mains, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Scientific attributes which make the pig-tailed monkey an optimal candidate for studing the nature of cardiovascular and respiratory adaptations in man during exposure to high altitutes for long periods of time include: a calm, quiet, patient temperament; a short tail and the presence of ischial callosities permitting comfortable seated restraint during long duration experiments; and the close phylogenetic relationships and comparable body size to man.

  5. Mirror Focus in a Patient with Intractable Occipital Lobe Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jiyoung; Shin, Hae kyung; Hwang, Kyoung Jin; Choi, Su Jung; Joo, Eun Yeon; Hong, Seung Bong; Hong, Seung Chul; Seo, Dae-Won

    2014-01-01

    Mirror focus is one of the evidence of progression in epilepsy, and also has practical points for curative resective epilepsy surgery. The mirror foci are related to the kindling phenomena that occur through interhemispheric callosal or commissural connections. A mirror focus means the secondary epileptogenic foci develop in the contralateral hemispheric homotopic area. Thus mirror foci are mostly reported in patients with temporal or frontal lobe epilepsy, but not in occipital lobe epilepsy....

  6. Compatibility and pollinator efficiency tests on Pyrus communis L. cv.'Conference'

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemart, Anne-Laure; Michotte-Van der Aa, Agnès; Raspé, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    Effectiveness of pollination was predicted in a 'Conference' pear orchard by examining pollen tube growth. This histological technique allows a reliable and rapid estimation of pollination quality. Intra- and inter-cultivar compatibility was tested by hand pollinations with 'Conference' or 'Doyenne' pollen, respectively. In intra-cultivar pollinated flowers, limited pollen tube growth and large callose plugs were observed. This cultivar was thus considered self-incompatible. As insect pollina...

  7. Morphological Heterogeneity of Layer VI Neurons in Mouse Barrel Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chia-Chien; Abrams, Svetlana; Pinhas, Alex; Brumberg, Joshua C.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the basic neuronal building blocks of the neocortex is a necessary first step toward comprehending the composition of cortical circuits. Neocortical layer VI is the most morphologically diverse layer and plays a pivotal role in gating information to the cortex via its feedback connection to the thalamus and other ipsilateral and callosal corticocortical connections. The heterogeneity of function within this layer is presumably linked to its varied morphological composition. Howe...

  8. Simultaneously Cooperative, but Serially Antagonistic: A Neuropsychological Study of Diagonistic Dyspraxia in a Case of Marchiafava-Bignami Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kazumi Hirayama; Kaori Tachibana; Nobuhito Abe; Hideaki Manabe; Takahisa Fuse; Tetsuro Tsukamoto

    2008-01-01

    We describe a patient with Marchiafava-Bignami disease who showed, in addition to signs of callosal interruption, a peculiar form of diagonistic dyspraxia. Unlike the typical diagonistic dyspraxia, both of the patient’s hands could simultaneously cooperate in a sequence of bimanual actions. More specifically, his right hand could start a commanded action with the cooperation of his left hand. However, once the action was completed, his left hand started an antagonistic action, undoing the res...

  9. TOPOISOMERASE 6B is involved in chromatin remodelling associated with control of carbon partitioning into secondary metabolites and cell walls, and epidermal morphogenesis in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Mittal, Amandeep; Balasubramanian, Rajagopal; Cao, Jin; Singh, Prabhjeet; Subramanian, Senthil; Hicks, Glenn; Eugene A Nothnagel; Abidi, Noureddine; Janda, Jaroslav; Galbraith, David W; Rock, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth is continuous and modular, a combination that allows morphogenesis by cell division and elongation and serves to facilitate adaptation to changing environments. The pleiotropic phenotypes of the harlequin (hlq) mutant, isolated on the basis of ectopic expression of the abscisic acid (ABA)- and auxin-inducible proDc3:GUS reporter gene, were previously characterized. Mutants are skotomorphogenic, have deformed and collapsed epidermal cells which accumulate callose and starch, cell ...

  10. Chitosan as a MAMP, searching for a PRR

    OpenAIRE

    Iriti, Marcello; Faoro, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Chitosan, a deacetylated chitin derivative, behaves like a general elicitor, inducing a non-host resistance and priming a systemic acquired immunity. The defence responses elicited by chitosan include rising of cytosolic H+ and Ca2+, activation of MAP-kinases, callose apposition, oxidative burst, hypersensitive response (HR), synthesis of abscissic acid (ABA), jasmonate, phytoalexins and pathogenesis related (PR) proteins. Putative receptors for chitosan are a chitosan-binding protein, recent...

  11. A Neurocomputational Model of an Imitation Deficit following Brain Lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Petreska, B.; Billard, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the neural mechanisms of visuo-motor imitation in humans through convergent evidence from neuroscience. In particular, we consider a deficit in imitation following callosal brain lesion, based on the rational that looking at how imitation is impaired can unveil its underlying neural principles. We ground the functional architecture and information flow of our model in brain imaging studies and use findings from monkey brain neurophysiological studies to drive the choic...

  12. A Neurocomputational Model of Impaired Imitation

    OpenAIRE

    Petreska, B.; Billard, A.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract addresses the question of human imitation through convergent evidence from neuroscience, using tools from machine learning. In particular, we consider a deficit in imitation of meaningless gestures (i.e., hand postures relative to the head) following callosal brain lesion (i.e., disconnected hemispheres). We base our work on the rational that looking at how imitation in apraxic patients is impaired can unveil its underlying neural principles. We ground the functional architectur...

  13. Proboscis Lateralis of Nose—A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Magadum, Sunil Bajarang; Khairnar, Prashant; Hirugade, Shivprasad; Kassa, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    Lateral proboscis is a rare craniofacial malformation characterized by a rudimentary tubular, nose-like structure located off-center from the vertical midline of the face, and occur in association with a wide spectrum of other anomalies, including heminasal aplasia spectrum,mental retardation, callosal agenesis, heminasal hypoplasia, microphthalmia, and atypical clefting syndrome. Evaluation of a patient should include CT scan examination to look for growth of facial and skull bones. Reconstr...

  14. Topographic Organization of V1 Projections through the Corpus Callosum in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Saenz, M.; Fine, I

    2010-01-01

    The visual cortex in each hemisphere is linked to the opposite hemisphere by axonal projections that pass through the splenium of the corpus callosum. Visual–callosal connections in humans and macaques are found along the V1/V2 border where the vertical meridian is represented. Here we identify the topography of V1 vertical midline projections through the splenium within six human subjects with normal vision using diffusion-weighted MR imaging and probabilistic diffusion tractography. Tractog...

  15. Intrinsic Electrophysiology of Mouse Corticospinal Neurons: a Class-Specific Triad of Spike-Related Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin A Suter; Migliore, Michele; Gordon M. G Shepherd

    2012-01-01

    Corticospinal pyramidal neurons mediate diverse aspects of motor behavior. We measured spike-related electrophysiological properties of identified corticospinal neurons in primary motor cortex slices from young adult mice. Several consistent features were observed in the suprathreshold responses to current steps: 1) Corticospinal neurons fired relatively fast action potentials (APs; width at half-maximum 0.65 ± 0.13 ms, mean ± standard deviation [SD]) compared with neighboring callosally proj...

  16. Development of the pollen in the antarctic flowering plant Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl.

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Giełwanowska; Anna Bochenek; Ewa Szczuka

    2012-01-01

    Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl. produced two types very small bisexual fl owers. In the Antarctic natural conditions chasmogamic and cleistogamic fl owers most often form fi ve stamina with short fi laments. Two microsporangia with a three-layer wall form in the anther. Microspore mother cells, which develop into microspores after meiosis, form inside the microsporangium. Microsporocytes of Colobanthus quitensis are surrounded with a thick callose layer, the special wall. After meiosis, ...

  17. Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum Due to Defective Glial Wedge Formation in Lhx2 Mutant Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Gregory A; Hirokawa, Karla E; Chuang, Tony M; Urbina, Cecilia; Patel, Fenil; Fong, Jeanette; Funatsu, Nobuo; Monuki, Edwin S

    2015-09-01

    Establishment of the corpus callosum involves coordination between callosal projection neurons and multiple midline structures, including the glial wedge (GW) rostrally and hippocampal commissure caudally. GW defects have been associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC). Here we show that conditional Lhx2 inactivation in cortical radial glia using Emx1-Cre or Nestin-Cre drivers results in ACC. The ACC phenotype was characterized by aberrant ventrally projecting callosal axons rather than Probst bundles, and was 100% penetrant on 2 different mouse strain backgrounds. Lhx2 inactivation in postmitotic cortical neurons using Nex-Cre mice did not result in ACC, suggesting that the mutant phenotype was not autonomous to the callosal projection neurons. Instead, ACC was associated with an absent hippocampal commissure and a markedly reduced to absent GW. Expression studies demonstrated strong Lhx2 expression in the normal GW and in its radial glial progenitors, with absence of Lhx2 resulting in normal Emx1 and Sox2 expression, but premature exit from the cell cycle based on EdU-Ki67 double labeling. These studies define essential roles for Lhx2 in GW, hippocampal commissure, and corpus callosum formation, and suggest that defects in radial GW progenitors can give rise to ACC. PMID:24781987

  18. The destructive citrus pathogen, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' encodes a functional flagellin characteristic of a pathogen-associated molecular pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huasong Zou

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB is presently the most devastating citrus disease worldwide. As an intracellular plant pathogen and insect symbiont, the HLB bacterium, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las, retains the entire flagellum-encoding gene cluster in its significantly reduced genome. Las encodes a flagellin and hook-associated protein (Fla of 452 amino acids that contains a conserved 22 amino acid domain (flg22 at positions 29 to 50 in the N-terminus. The phenotypic alteration in motility of a Sinorhizobium meliloti mutant lacking the fla genes was partially restored by constitutive expression of Fla(Las. Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression in planta revealed that Fla(Las induced cell death and callose deposition in Nicotiana benthamiana, and that the transcription of BAK1 and SGT1, which are associated with plant innate immunity, was upregulated. Amino acid substitution experiments revealed that residues 38 (serine and 39 (aspartate of Fla(Las were essential for callose induction. The synthetic flg22(Las peptide could not induce plant cell death but retained the ability to induce callose deposition at a concentration of 20 µM or above. This demonstrated that the pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP activity of flg22 in Las was weaker than those in other well-studied plant pathogenic bacteria. These results indicate that Fla(Las acts as a PAMP and may play an important role in triggering host plant resistance to the HLB bacteria.

  19. The impact of healthy parenting as a protective factor for posttraumatic stress disorder in adulthood: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano R Lima

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early life social adversity can influence stress response mechanisms and is associated with anxious behaviour and reductions in callosal area later in life. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between perceptions of parental bonding in childhood/adolescence, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis response, and callosal structural integrity in adult victims of severe urban violence with and without PTSD. METHODS: Seventy-one individuals with PTSD and 62 without the disorder were assessed with the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI. The prednisolone suppression test was administered to assess cortisol levels, and magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the total area of the corpus callosum (CC, as well as the areas of callosal subregions. RESULTS: The PBI items related to the perception of 'not having a controlling mother' (OR 4.84; 95%CI [2.26-10.3]; p=0.01, 'having a caring father' (OR 2.46; 95'%CI [1.18-5.12]; p=0.02, and 'not having controlling parents' (OR 2.70; 95%CI [1.10-6.63]; p=0.04 were associated with a lower risk of PTSD. The PTSD group showed a blunted response to the prednisolone suppression test, with lower salivary cortisol levels upon waking up (p=0.03. Individuals with PTSD had smaller total CC area than those without the disorder, but these differences were not statistically significant (e-value =0.34. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy parental bonding, characterized by the perception of low parental control and high affection, were associated with a lower risk of PTSD in adulthood, suggesting that emotional enrichment and the encouragement of autonomy are protective against PTSD in adulthood.

  20. The Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato type III effector HopM1 suppresses Arabidopsis defenses independent of suppressing salicylic acid signaling and of targeting AtMIN7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Gangadharan

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato strain DC3000 (Pto delivers several effector proteins promoting virulence, including HopM1, into plant cells via type III secretion. HopM1 contributes to full virulence of Pto by inducing degradation of Arabidopsis proteins, including AtMIN7, an ADP ribosylation factor-guanine nucleotide exchange factor. Pseudomonas syringae pv phaseolicola strain NPS3121 (Pph lacks a functional HopM1 and elicits robust defenses in Arabidopsis thaliana, including accumulation of pathogenesis related 1 (PR-1 protein and deposition of callose-containing cell wall fortifications. We have examined the effects of heterologously expressed HopM1Pto on Pph-induced defenses. HopM1 suppresses Pph-induced PR-1 expression, a widely used marker for salicylic acid (SA signaling and systemic acquired resistance. Surprisingly, HopM1 reduces PR-1 expression without affecting SA accumulation and also suppresses the low levels of PR-1 expression apparent in SA-signaling deficient plants. Further, HopM1 enhances the growth of Pto in SA-signaling deficient plants. AtMIN7 contributes to Pph-induced PR-1 expression. However, HopM1 fails to degrade AtMIN7 during Pph infection and suppresses Pph-induced PR-1 expression and callose deposition in wild-type and atmin7 plants. We also show that the HopM1-mediated suppression of PR-1 expression is not observed in plants lacking the TGA transcription factor, TGA3. Our data indicate that HopM1 promotes bacterial virulence independent of suppressing SA-signaling and links TGA3, AtMIN7, and other HopM1 targets to pathways distinct from the canonical SA-signaling pathway contributing to PR-1 expression and callose deposition. Thus, efforts to understand this key effector must consider multiple targets and unexpected outputs of its action.

  1. EDS1 contributes to nonhost resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana against Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Manon; Degrave, Alexandre; Vedel, Régine; Bitton, Frédérique; Patrit, Oriane; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Barny, Marie-Anne; Fagard, Mathilde

    2012-03-01

    Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight in rosaceous plants. In nonhost Arabidopsis thaliana, E. amylovora triggers necrotic symptoms associated with transient bacterial multiplication, suggesting either that A. thaliana lacks a susceptibility factor or that it actively restricts E. amylovora growth. Inhibiting plant protein synthesis at the time of infection led to an increase in necrosis and bacterial multiplication and reduced callose deposition, indicating that A. thaliana requires active protein synthesis to restrict E. amylovora growth. Analysis of the callose synthase-deficient pmr4-1 mutant indicated that lack of callose deposition alone did not lead to increased sensitivity to E. amylovora. Transcriptome analysis revealed that approximately 20% of the genes induced following E. amylovora infection are related to defense and signaling. Analysis of mutants affected in NDR1 and EDS1, two main components of the defense-gene activation observed, revealed that E. amylovora multiplied ten times more in the eds1-2 mutant than in the wild type but not in the ndr1-1 mutant. Analysis of mutants affected in three WRKY transcription factors showing EDS1-dependent activation identified WRKY46 and WRKY54 as positive regulators and WRKY70 as a negative regulator of defense against E. amylovora. Altogether, we show that EDS1 is a positive regulator of nonhost resistance against E. amylovora in A. thaliana and hypothesize that it controls the production of several effective defenses against E. amylovora through the action of WRKY46 and WRKY54, while WRKY70 acts as a negative regulator. PMID:22316300

  2. Enhancement of the citrus immune system provides effective resistance against Alternaria brown spot disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Eugenio; Fernández-Crespo, Emma; Vicedo, Begonya; Lapeña, Leonor; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2013-01-15

    In addition to basal defense mechanisms, plants are able to develop enhanced defense mechanisms such as induced resistance (IR) upon appropriate stimulation. We recently described the means by which several carboxylic acids protect Arabidopsis and tomato plants against fungi. In this work, we demonstrate the effectiveness of hexanoic acid (Hx) in the control of Alternaria brown spot (ABS) disease via enhancement of the immune system of Fortune mandarin. The application of 1mM Hx in irrigation water to 2-year-old Fortune plants clearly reduced the incidence of the disease and led to smaller lesions. We observed that several of the most important mechanisms involved in induced resistance were affected by Hx application. Our results demonstrate enhanced callose deposition in infected plants treated with Hx, which suggests an Hx priming mechanism. Plants treated with the callose inhibitor 2-DDG were more susceptible to the fungus. Moreover, polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) gene expression was rapidly and significantly upregulated in treated plants. However, treatment with Hx decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in infected plants. Hormonal and gene analyses revealed that the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway was activated due to a greater accumulation of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) and JA along with a rapid accumulation of JA-isoleucine (JA-Ile). Furthermore, we observed a more rapid accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA), which could act as a positive regulator of callose deposition. Thus, our results support the hypothesis that both enhanced physical barriers and the JA signaling pathway are involved in hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR) to Alternaria alternata. PMID:23260526

  3. Study of male sterility in Taiwania cryptomerioides Hayata (Taxodiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S-H; Chung, N-J; Wang, Y-N; Lee, C-L; Lee, Y-L; Tsai, P-F

    2006-08-01

    A study of male sterility over a period of three consecutive years on a conifer species endemic to Taiwan, Taiwania cryptomerioides Hayata (Taxodiaceae), was done for this article. With the aids of fluorescence and electron microscopic observations, the ontogenic processes in the fertile and sterile microsporangia are compared, using samples collected from Chitou Experimental Forest and Yeou-Shoei-Keng Clonal Orchard of the National Taiwan University, Nantou, Taiwan. The development of male strobili occurred from August to the end of March. Microsporogenesis starts with the formation of the archesporium and ends with the maturation of 2-celled pollen grains within the dehiscing microsporangium. Before meiosis, there was no significant difference in ultrastructure between the fertile and sterile microsporangia. Asynchronous pollen development with various tetrad forms may occur in the same microsporangium of either fertile or sterile strobili. However, a callose wall was observable in the fertile dyad and tetrad, but not in the sterile one. After dissolution of the callose wall, the fertile microspores were released into the locule, while some sterile microspores still retained as tetrads or dyads with intertwining of exine walls in the proximal faces. As a result, there was no well developed lamellated endexine and no granulate ectexine or intine in the sterile microspores. Eventually, the intracellular structures in sterile microspores were dramatically collapsed before anthesis. The present study shows that the abortion in pollen development is possibly attributed to the absence of the callose wall. The importance of this structure to the male sterility of T. cryptomerioides is discussed. PMID:16937067

  4. Rubinstein–Taybi syndrome with agenesis of corpus callosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shubhankar; Agarwalla, Sunil Kumar; Potpalle, Dnyaneshwar Ramesh; Dash, Nishant Nilotpal

    2015-01-01

    Rubinstein–Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a rare genetic disorder with characteristic morphological anomaly. Our patient was a 4.5-year-old girl came with features like broad thumbs, downward slanting palpebral fissures and mental retardation. Systemic abnormalities such as repeated infection, seizure with developmental delay were also associated with it. She was having head banging behavior abnormal slurring speech, incoordination while transferring things from one hand to other. Galaxy of clinical pictures and magnetic resonance imaging report helped to clinch the diagnosis as a case of “RSTS with corpus callosal agenesis” which to the best of our knowledge has never been reported in past from India. PMID:26167229

  5. Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome with agenesis of corpus callosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhankar Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS is a rare genetic disorder with characteristic morphological anomaly. Our patient was a 4.5-year-old girl came with features like broad thumbs, downward slanting palpebral fissures and mental retardation. Systemic abnormalities such as repeated infection, seizure with developmental delay were also associated with it. She was having head banging behavior abnormal slurring speech, incoordination while transferring things from one hand to other. Galaxy of clinical pictures and magnetic resonance imaging report helped to clinch the diagnosis as a case of "RSTS with corpus callosal agenesis" which to the best of our knowledge has never been reported in past from India.

  6. Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome with agenesis of corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shubhankar; Agarwalla, Sunil Kumar; Potpalle, Dnyaneshwar Ramesh; Dash, Nishant Nilotpal

    2015-01-01

    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a rare genetic disorder with characteristic morphological anomaly. Our patient was a 4.5-year-old girl came with features like broad thumbs, downward slanting palpebral fissures and mental retardation. Systemic abnormalities such as repeated infection, seizure with developmental delay were also associated with it. She was having head banging behavior abnormal slurring speech, incoordination while transferring things from one hand to other. Galaxy of clinical pictures and magnetic resonance imaging report helped to clinch the diagnosis as a case of "RSTS with corpus callosal agenesis" which to the best of our knowledge has never been reported in past from India. PMID:26167229

  7. Genetic contributions to human brain morphology and intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulshoff Pol, HE; Schnack, HG; Posthuma, D;

    2006-01-01

    .79), corticospinal tract (0.78, 0.79), medial frontal cortex (0.78, 0.83), superior frontal cortex (0.76, 0.80), superior temporal cortex (0.80, 0.77), left occipital cortex (0.85), left postcentral cortex (0.83), left posterior cingulate cortex (0.83), right parahippocampal cortex (0.69), and amygdala (0.80, 0.......55). Intelligence shared a common genetic origin with superior occipitofrontal, callosal, and left optical radiation WM and frontal, occipital, and parahippocampal GM (phenotypic correlations up to 0.35). These findings point to a neural network that shares a common genetic origin with human intelligence...

  8. Regulatory mechanisms for the synthesis of β-glucans in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism for synthesis of a polymer is integrated so closely with the regulation of its synthesis that studies of synthesis and regulation often occur in parallel. One case in point concerns the recent success reported for obtaining high rates of in vitro synthesis of beta-1,4-glucan using cell-free preparation derived from the bacterium, Acetobacter xylinum. In this paper, the authors present a tentative working model for a system of opposing modes of regulation for the synthesis of cellulose (beta-1,4-glucan) and callose (beta-1,3-glucan) in a higher plant, the developing cotton fiber

  9. Effects of beta-1,3-glucan from Septoria tritici on structural defence responses in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, N.P.; Jensen, J.D.; Knudsen, A.;

    2009-01-01

    -1,3-glucanase and chitinase transcripts followed by a subsequent reduction in level. Resistance was also associated with high activity of beta-1,3-glucanase, especially in the apoplastic fluid, in accordance with the biotrophic/endophytic lifestyle of the pathogen in the apoplastic spaces, thus...... of callose. Collectively, these data indicate that resistance is dependent on a fast, initial recognition of the pathogen, probably due to beta-1,3-glucan in the fungal cell walls, and this results in the accumulation of beta-1,3-glucanase and structural defence responses, which may directly inhibit...... the pathogen and protect the host against fungal enzymes and toxins....

  10. Storage products and tissue interaction in the ovule of Pinus silvestris (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Engels

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The organel-sequence in ovular cells of Pinus silvestris was investigated by light- and electronmicroscopy during the post-pollination and pre-fertilization period. Changes in starch and lipid storage suppose starch to be a pool for lipid synthesis and a reserve for ovule development. The base nucellus plays an important role in the distribution of metabolites all over the ovular tissues. Lipid, starch and callose are of interest for the cells to protect them against low temperatures by means of isolation, antifreeze and plug formation respectively.

  11. Congenital malformations of the supratentorial brain. Pt. 2. Disorders of the corpus callosum and holoprosencephalies; Kongenitale Malformationen des Grosshirns. Teil 2: Entwicklungsstoerungen des Balkens und Holoprosenzephalien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummeny, C. [Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany); Institut fuer klinische Radiologie, Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Grosshadern, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377, Muenchen (Germany); Ertl-Wagner, B.; Reiser, M.F. [Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    The corpus callosum is formed between the 7th and the 20th gestational week. If this process is disrupted, partial or complete callosal agenesis may ensue. As large parts of the supra- and infratentorial brain are created druing this critical period, associated anomalies need always to be searched for when callosal agenesis is present. Associations with neuro-genetic syndromes also exist. The corpus callosum is generally formed from front to back (''front-to-back rule''). Therefore, a partial callosal agenesis usually involves the posterior portion of the corpus callosum, while a secondary lesion of the corpus callosum does not follow this rule. Holoprosencephalies are a notable exception to this rule, as the frontal part of the corpus callosum is absent in spite of their classification as congenital malformations. They represent a disturbance of the differentiation and cleavage of the prosencephalon with a disruption of the separation of the cerebral hemispheres. Holoprosencephalies can be due to genetic causes, but also to intrauterine infections or other teratogenic causes. The holoprosencephalies are subdivided into alobar, semilobar and lobar holoprosencephalies. This article aims to describe the most important features of callosal agenesis and holoprosencephalies highlighting the respective imaging characteristics. (orig.) [German] Die Anlage des Balkens findet in der 7.-20. Woche nach Gestation statt. Stoerungen in dieser Entwicklungsphase koennen zu einer Balkenagenesie oder zu einer Balkenhypogenesie fuehren. Da in diesem Entwicklungsstadium grosse Anteile des Gross- und Kleinhirns angelegt werden, muss immer nach assoziierten Anlagestoerungen gesucht werden. Ebenso treten auch Kombinationen mit genetisch bedingten Syndromen auf. Die Entwicklung des Balkens folgt der sog. anterioren-posterioren Sequenz (''front-to-back rule''). Sekundaere Schaedigungen bei der Balkenentwicklung folgen dieser Regel nicht, und lassen

  12. Brain anomalies induced by gamma irradiation in prenatal period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation has been utilized in order to produce cortical and callosal abnormalities. We have also checked for the presence of the aberrant longitudinal bundle in the brains of mice born acallosal due to prenatal irradiation is also checked. Pregnant mice were exposed to gamma irradiation from a 60 Co source at 16, 17 and 19 days of gestational age (E 16, E 17 and E 19) with total doses of 2 Gy and 3 Gy. At 60 days postnatal the offspring of irradiated animals were intra cardiac perfused, the brains were removed from the cranio and cut into coronal or para sagittal sections. (author)

  13. Structural deficits in the emotion circuit and cerebellum are associated with depression, anxiety and cognitive dysfunction in methadone maintenance patients: a voxel-based morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Che; Chou, Kun-Hsien; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Huang, Chu-Chung; Lu, Cheng-Hsien; Li, Shau-Hsuan; Wang, Ya-Ling; Cheng, Yu-Fan; Lin, Ching-Po; Chen, Chien-Chih

    2012-02-28

    Heroin users on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) have elevated rates of co-morbid depression and are associated with have higher relapse rates for substance abuse. Structural abnormalities in MMT patients have been reported, but their impact on clinical performance is unknown. We investigated differences in gray matter volume (GMV) between 27 MMT patients and 23 healthy controls with voxel-based morphometry, and we correlated findings in the patients with Beck Depression Inventory scores, Beck Anxiety Inventory scores, and diminished cognitive functioning. MMT patients exhibited higher emotional deficits than healthy subjects. There was significantly smaller GMV in multiple cortices, especially in the left inferior frontal gyrus and left cerebellar vermis in the MMT group. The smaller GMV in the pre-frontal cortices, left sub-callosal cingulate gyrus, left post-central gyrus, left insula, and right cerebellar declive correlated with higher depression scores. The smaller GMV in the pre-frontal cortices, left sub-callosal cingulate gyrus, and left postcentral gyrus also correlated with higher anxiety scores, while smaller GMV in the cerebellum and bilateral insula was associated with impaired performance on tests of executive function. These results reveal that MMT patients have low GMV in brain regions that are hypothesized to influence cognition and emotion, and the GMV findings might be involved comorbid disorders in the MMT group. PMID:22386968

  14. Structural and functional brain rewiring clarifies preserved interhemispheric transfer in humans born without the corpus callosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Monteiro, Myriam; Andrade, Juliana; Bramati, Ivanei E.; Vianna-Barbosa, Rodrigo; Marins, Theo; Rodrigues, Erika; Dantas, Natalia; Behrens, Timothy E. J.; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Moll, Jorge; Lent, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Why do humans born without the corpus callosum, the major interhemispheric commissure, lack the disconnection syndrome classically described in callosotomized patients? This paradox was discovered by Nobel laureate Roger Sperry in 1968, and has remained unsolved since then. To tackle the hypothesis that alternative neural pathways could explain this puzzle, we investigated patients with callosal dysgenesis using structural and functional neuroimaging, as well as neuropsychological assessments. We identified two anomalous white-matter tracts by deterministic and probabilistic tractography, and provide supporting resting-state functional neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence for their functional role in preserved interhemispheric transfer of complex tactile information, such as object recognition. These compensatory pathways connect the homotopic posterior parietal cortical areas (Brodmann areas 39 and surroundings) via the posterior and anterior commissures. We propose that anomalous brain circuitry of callosal dysgenesis is determined by long-distance plasticity, a set of hardware changes occurring in the developing brain after pathological interference. So far unknown, these pathological changes somehow divert growing axons away from the dorsal midline, creating alternative tracts through the ventral forebrain and the dorsal midbrain midline, with partial compensatory effects to the interhemispheric transfer of cortical function. PMID:24821757

  15. A family of conserved bacterial effectors inhibits salicylic acid-mediated basal immunity and promotes disease necrosis in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DebRoy, Sruti; Thilmony, Roger; Kwack, Yong-Bum; Nomura, Kinya; He, Sheng Yang

    2004-06-29

    Salicylic acid (SA)-mediated host immunity plays a central role in combating microbial pathogens in plants. Inactivation of SA-mediated immunity, therefore, would be a critical step in the evolution of a successful plant pathogen. It is known that mutations in conserved effector loci (CEL) in the plant pathogens Pseudomonas syringae (the Delta CEL mutation), Erwinia amylovora (the dspA/E mutation), and Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (the wtsE mutation) exert particularly strong negative effects on bacterial virulence in their host plants by unknown mechanisms. We found that the loss of virulence in Delta CEL and dspA/E mutants was linked to their inability to suppress cell wall-based defenses and to cause normal disease necrosis in Arabidopsis and apple host plants. The Delta CEL mutant activated SA-dependent callose deposition in wild-type Arabidopsis but failed to elicit high levels of callose-associated defense in Arabidopsis plants blocked in SA accumulation or synthesis. This mutant also multiplied more aggressively in SA-deficient plants than in wild-type plants. The hopPtoM and avrE genes in the CEL of P. syringae were found to encode suppressors of this SA-dependent basal defense. The widespread conservation of the HopPtoM and AvrE families of effectors in various bacteria suggests that suppression of SA-dependent basal immunity and promotion of host cell death are important virulence strategies for bacterial infection of plants. PMID:15210989

  16. Mutation of a Gene in the Fungus Leptosphaeria maculans Allows Increased Frequency of Penetration of Stomatal Apertures of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Candace E. Elliott; Harjono; Barbara J. Howlett

    2008-01-01

    Leptosphaeria maculans, a pathogen of Brassica napus, is unable to invade most wild-type accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana, although several mutants are susceptible. The infection pathway of L. maculans via a non-invasive inoculation method on A, thaliana Ires1 (undefined), pmr4-1 (defective in callose deposition), and pen1-1 and pen2-1 (defective in non-host responses to several pathogens) mutants is described. On wild types Col-0 and Ler-0, hyphae are generally arrested at stomatal apertures. A T-DNA insertional mutant of L. maculans (A22) that penetrates stomatal apertures of Col-0 and Ler-0 five to seven times more often than the wild-type isolate is described. The higher penetration frequency of isolate A22 is associated with an increased hypersensitive response, which includes callose deposition. Complementation analysis showed that the phenotype of this isolate is due to T-DNA insertion in an intronless gene denoted as ipa (increased penetration on Arabidopsis). This gene is predicted to encode a protein of 702 amino acids with best matches to hypothetical proteins in other filamentous ascomycetes. The ipa gene is expressed in the wild-type isolate at low levels in culture and during infection of A. thaliana and B. napus.

  17. Cortical Divergent Projections in Mice Originate from Two Sequentially Generated, Distinct Populations of Excitatory Cortical Neurons with Different Initial Axonal Outgrowth Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Yumiko; Namikawa, Tomohiro; Yamauchi, Kenta; Kawaguchi, Yasuo

    2016-05-01

    Excitatory cortical neurons project to various subcortical and intracortical regions, and exhibit diversity in their axonal connections. Although this diversity may develop from primary axons, how many types of axons initially occur remains unknown. Using a sparse-labeling in utero electroporation method, we investigated the axonal outgrowth of these neurons in mice and correlated the data with axonal projections in adults. Examination of lateral cortex neurons labeled during the main period of cortical neurogenesis (E11.5-E15.5) indicated that axonal outgrowth commonly occurs in the intermediate zone. Conversely, the axonal direction varied; neurons labeled before E12.5 and the earliest cortical plate neurons labeled at E12.5 projected laterally, whereas neurons labeled thereafter projected medially. The expression of Ctip2 and Satb2 and the layer destinations of these neurons support the view that lateral and medial projection neurons are groups of prospective subcortical and callosal projection neurons, respectively. Consistently, birthdating experiments demonstrated that presumptive lateral projection neurons were generated earlier than medial projection neurons, even within the same layer. These results suggest that the divergent axonal connections of excitatory cortical neurons begin from two types of primary axons, which originate from two sequentially generated distinct subpopulations: early-born lateral (subcortical) and later-born medial (callosal) projection neuron groups. PMID:25882037

  18. Proteomic profiling of cellulase-aid-extracted membrane proteins for functional identification of cellulose synthase complexes and their potential associated- components in cotton fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ao; Wang, Ruyi; Li, Xianliang; Liu, Mingyong; Fan, Jian; Guo, Kai; Luo, Bing; Chen, Tingting; Feng, Shengqiu; Wang, Yanting; Wang, Bingrui; Peng, Liangcai; Xia, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Cotton fibers are an excellent model for understanding of cellulose biosynthesis in higher plants. In this study, we determined a high cellulose biosynthesis activity in vitro by optimizing biochemical reaction conditions in cotton fibers. By adding a commercial cellulase enzyme into fibers extraction process, we extracted markedly higher levels of GhCESA1 and GhCESA8 proteins and observed an increase in β-1,4-glucan and β-1,3-glucan products in vitro. LC-MS/MS analysis of anti-GhCESA8-immunoprecipitated proteins showed that 19 proteins could be found in three independent experiments including four CESAs (GhCESA1,2,7,8), five well-known non-CESA proteins, one callose synthase (CALS) and nine novel proteins. Notably, upon the cellulase treatment, four CESAs, one CALS and four novel proteins were measured at relatively higher levels by calculating total peptide counts and distinct peptide numbers, indicating that the cellulase-aid-extracted proteins most likely contribute to the increase in β-glucan products in vitro. These results suggest that the cellulase treatment may aid to release active cellulose synthases complexes from growing glucan chains and make them more amenable to extraction. To our knowledge, it is the first time report about the functional identification of the potential proteins that were associated with plant cellulose and callose synthases complexes by using the cellulase-aided protein extraction. PMID:27192945

  19. PARAMETER ESTIMATION IN NON-HOMOGENEOUS BOOLEAN MODELS: AN APPLICATION TO PLANT DEFENSE RESPONSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angeles Gallego

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Many medical and biological problems require to extract information from microscopical images. Boolean models have been extensively used to analyze binary images of random clumps in many scientific fields. In this paper, a particular type of Boolean model with an underlying non-stationary point process is considered. The intensity of the underlying point process is formulated as a fixed function of the distance to a region of interest. A method to estimate the parameters of this Boolean model is introduced, and its performance is checked in two different settings. Firstly, a comparative study with other existent methods is done using simulated data. Secondly, the method is applied to analyze the longleaf data set, which is a very popular data set in the context of point processes included in the R package spatstat. Obtained results show that the new method provides as accurate estimates as those obtained with more complex methods developed for the general case. Finally, to illustrate the application of this model and this method, a particular type of phytopathological images are analyzed. These images show callose depositions in leaves of Arabidopsis plants. The analysis of callose depositions, is very popular in the phytopathological literature to quantify activity of plant immunity.

  20. Disturbances of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation - neuro psychiatric symptoms and neuroradiological contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aims at relating dementia, pseudo-neurasthenic and affective organic brain syndromes to underlying types of CSF flow disorder and to the subsequent alteration of anatomy. T 2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the mid sagittal plane permitted an analysis of aqueductal CSF flow phenomena and hydrocephalus-induced elevation, thinning and dorsal impingement of the corpus callosum. Furthermore, the width of the third ventricle was measured on the transverse scout images. 72 patients with communicating hydrocephalus (increased aqueductal CSF pulsations) and 26 patients with aqueductal stenosis (absence of aqueductal flow phenomena) were compared with 22 controls. Dementia and affective disorders were distributed equally among both CSF flow subgroups whereas pseudo-neurasthenic syndromes were observed more frequently in non-communicating hydrocephalus (p < 0.03). Alzheimer-type and multi infarct dementia syndromes were found more frequently in communicating hydrocephalus whereas non-classifiable dementia showed some predilection for non-communicating hydrocephalus. Callosal height, area and third ventricular width did not predict affective or pseudo neurasthenic disorder whereas third ventricular width (p < 0.01) and callosal area (p < 0.05) discriminated between demented and non-demented patients. Dorsal impingement of the corpus callosum by the falx was a non-specific finding. (author)

  1. [A case of multiple sclerosis with alien hand (diagonistic dyspraxia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konagaya, Masaaki; Sakai, Motoko

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, we describe a case of mutiple sclerosis (MS) with diagonistic dyspraxia and the callosal lesions in MRI. The patient was a 54-year-old woman with 12 year-history of suffering from MS. Her clinical symptoms were left alien hand, mild euphoria, right blindness, left visual deficit (0.06), mild weakness of right upper limb, complete paraplegia of lower limbs, total sensory deficit below middle sternal level and neurogenic bladder. She was right-handed person and her alien hand was such a manner; when she intended to use spoon with right hand, her left hand aimlessly began to hold and release a cup or dish. Then, she was diagnosed as diagnostic dyspraxia. Neuropsychological examinations disclosed left hemispheric dysfunction including left hand agraphia and disconnection of the callosum. MRI showed patchy lesions in the callosum, right optic radiation, both side thalamus (left > right), left cerebral peduncle, and spinal cord of cervical to the thoracal portion. Although the functional disorders and the radiological atrophy of the callosum, the clinical manifestation of the callosal disconnection in MS cases has been scarcely reported, and this case seems to be a quite rare condition to be described. PMID:17533980

  2. Intrahemispheric dysfunction in primary motor cortex without corpus callosum: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassonde Maryse

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The two human cerebral hemispheres are continuously interacting, through excitatory and inhibitory influences and one critical structure subserving this interhemispheric balance is the corpus callosum. Interhemispheric neurophysiological abnormalities and intrahemispheric behavioral impairments have been reported in individuals lacking the corpus callosum. The aim of this study was to examine intrahemispheric neurophysiological function in primary motor cortex devoid of callosal projections. Methods Intracortical excitatory and inhibitory systems were tested in three individuals with complete agenesis of the corpus callosum and sixteen healthy individuals. These systems were assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS protocols: motor threshold at rest, paired-pulse curve, and cortical silent period. Results TMS revealed no difference between the patient and control groups on the motor threshold measure, as well as intracortical facilitation and intracortical inhibition systems as tested by paired stimulation. However, intrahemispheric inhibitory function was found to be abnormal in participants without callosal projections, as the cortical silent period duration was significantly increased in the patient group. Conclusion These data suggest that in addition to previously reported impaired interhemispheric function, patients lacking the entire corpus callosum also display abnormal intrahemispheric excitability of the primary motor cortex.

  3. Uncoupling of reactive oxygen species accumulation and defence signalling in the metal hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fones, Helen N; Eyles, Chris J; Bennett, Mark H; Smith, J Andrew C; Preston, Gail M

    2013-09-01

    The metal hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens is protected from disease by the accumulation of high concentrations of metals in its aerial tissues, which are toxic to many pathogens. As these metals can lead to the production of damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS), metal hyperaccumulator plants have developed highly effective ROS tolerance mechanisms, which might quench ROS-based signals. We therefore investigated whether metal accumulation alters defence signalling via ROS in this plant. We studied the effect of zinc (Zn) accumulation by N. caerulescens on pathogen-induced ROS production, salicylic acid accumulation and downstream defence responses, such as callose deposition and pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression, to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola. The accumulation of Zn caused increased superoxide production in N. caerulescens, but inoculation with P. syringae did not elicit the defensive oxidative burst typical of most plants. Defences dependent on signalling through ROS (callose and PR gene expression) were also modified or absent in N. caerulescens, whereas salicylic acid production in response to infection was retained. These observations suggest that metal hyperaccumulation is incompatible with defence signalling through ROS and that, as metal hyperaccumulation became effective as a form of elemental defence, normal defence responses became progressively uncoupled from ROS signalling in N. caerulescens. PMID:23758201

  4. Enhancement of Phloem Exudation from Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. (Evergreen Ash) using Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, L R; Bassham, J A; Calvin, M

    1982-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) enhanced the exudation of (14)C-labeled assimilates from excised leaflets and whole plant specimens of Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. A 2 millimolar EDTA concentration was found to be most effective in promoting exudation from excised leaflets, while 10 millimolar EDTA was most effective in whole plants experiments. Exudation rate reached a maximum after 24 hours in both experiments. The continuous presence of EDTA throughout the treatment period was required for maximum exudation from excised leaflets. Stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, and sucrose were the principal compounds found to occur in exudate samples. These compounds are typically transported in sieve elements of various Fraxinus species suggesting the exudate was of phloem origin. Electron microscope studies of petiolule sieve plate pores from excised leaflets showed substantially less callose appearing after treatment with EDTA than after H(2)O treatment. It is suggested that EDTA enhances phloem exudation by inhibiting or reducing callose formation in sieve plate pores. The exudation enhancement technique described for whole plant specimens is suggested as a useful means of collecting phloem sap and studying translocation in woody plants. PMID:16662189

  5. Enhancement of phloem exudation from Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. (evergreen ash) using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) enhanced the exudation of 14C-labeled assimilates from excised leaflets and whole plant specimens of Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. A 2 millimolar EDTA concentration was found to be most effective in promoting exudation from excised leaflets, while 10 millimolar EDTA was most effective in whole plants experiments. Exudation rate reached a maximum after 24 hours in both experiments. The continuous presence of EDTA throughout the treatment period was required for maximum exudation from excised leaflets. Stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, and sucrose were the principal compounds found to occur in exudate samples. These compounds are typically transported in sieve elements of various Fraxinus species suggesting the exudate was of phloem orgin. Electron microscope studies of petiolule sieve plate pores from excisd leaflets showed substantially less callose appearing after treatment with EDTA than after H2O treatment. It is suggested that EDTA enhances phloem exudation by inhibiting or reducing callose formation in sieve plate pores. The exudation enhancement technique described for whole plant specimens is suggested as a useful means of collecting phloem sap and studying translocation in woody plants

  6. Enhancement of phloem exudation from Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. (evergreen ash) using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, L.R.; Bassham, J.A., Calvin, M.

    1982-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) enhanced the exudation of /sup 14/C-labeled assimilates from excised leaflets and whole plant specimens of Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. A 2 millimolar EDTA concentration was found to be most effective in promoting exudation from excised leaflets, while 10 millimolar EDTA was most effective in whole plants experiments. Exudation rate reached a maximum after 24 hours in both experiments. The continuous presence of EDTA throughout the treatment period was required for maximum exudation from excised leaflets. Stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, and sucrose were the principal compounds found to occur in exudate samples. These compounds are typically transported in sieve elements of various Fraxinus species suggesting the exudate was of phloem orgin. Electron microscope studies of petiolule sieve plate pores from excisd leaflets showed substantially less callose appearing after treatment with EDTA than after H/sub 2/O treatment. It is suggested that EDTA enhances phloem exudation by inhibiting or reducing callose formation in sieve plate pores. The exudation enhancement technique described for whole plant specimens is suggested as a useful means of collecting phloem sap and studying translocation in woody plants.

  7. Enhancement of Phloem Exudation from Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. (Evergreen Ash) using Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, L. R.; Bassham, James A.; Calvin, Melvin

    1982-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) enhanced the exudation of 14C-labeled assimilates from excised leaflets and whole plant specimens of Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. A 2 millimolar EDTA concentration was found to be most effective in promoting exudation from excised leaflets, while 10 millimolar EDTA was most effective in whole plants experiments. Exudation rate reached a maximum after 24 hours in both experiments. The continuous presence of EDTA throughout the treatment period was required for maximum exudation from excised leaflets. Stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, and sucrose were the principal compounds found to occur in exudate samples. These compounds are typically transported in sieve elements of various Fraxinus species suggesting the exudate was of phloem origin. Electron microscope studies of petiolule sieve plate pores from excised leaflets showed substantially less callose appearing after treatment with EDTA than after H2O treatment. It is suggested that EDTA enhances phloem exudation by inhibiting or reducing callose formation in sieve plate pores. The exudation enhancement technique described for whole plant specimens is suggested as a useful means of collecting phloem sap and studying translocation in woody plants. Images PMID:16662189

  8. Phloem exudation studies in selected woody trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, L.R.

    1980-10-01

    Chelating agents, particularly EDTA, were tested for their effectiveness in enhancing the exudation of phloem sugars from selected woody tree species. Of the species selected, Fraxinus uhdei (Evergreen Ash) proved most useful for exudation studies. Experiments using /sup 14/C labelled, excised leaflets of F. uhdei demonstrated that exudation was enhanced approximately 9-fold by a 2.0 mM EDTA treatment. An analysis of labelled products in the treatment solution showed that over 90% of label appeared in oligosaccharides and sucrose. These findings suggested that the sugars released into EDTA treatment solutions were principally derived from phloem sieve elements. Electron microscope studies of the fine structure of sieve plate pores after treatment with EDTA or H/sub 2/O showed substantially less callose appearing in sieve plates of leaflets treated with EDTA. It was proposed that EDTA enhances exudation by inhibiting or reducing callose formation in sieve plate pores. Subsequent experiments demonstrated that EDTA was effective in promoting exudation from whole plant specimens of F. uhdei as well as from excised leaflets. (MHR)

  9. Aluminium localization and toxicity symptoms related to root growth inhibition in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M N Alvim; F T Ramos; D C Oliveira; R M S Isaias; M G C França

    2012-12-01

    We correlated root growth inhibition with aluminium (Al3+) localization and toxicity symptoms in rice roots using seedlings of two genotypes (tolerant and sensitive) that were exposed to different AlCl3 concentrations. Al3+ localization was evaluated by hematoxylin in primary roots and by morin in cross-sections of the root tips. Neutral invertase enzyme activity and callose (1$\\to$3, -D-glucan) accumulation were observed and compared with Al3+ accumulation sites. Root growth was inhibited by Al3+ in a concentration-specific manner and proportional to the increase of hematoxylin staining, being more pronounced in the sensitive genotype. Morin staining showed the presence of Al3+ deep within the roots of the sensitive genotype, indicating that the metal was able to penetrate beyond the first few cell layers. In the tolerant genotype, Al3+ penetration was restricted to the first two cell layers. Ruptures in exodermis and epidermis layers by lateral root protrusions in both genotypes allowed Al3+ to enter into the roots. More intense activity of invertase in roots of the tolerant genotype was also observed, which could be related to greater root growth of this cultivar when submitted to Al3+ stress. Moreover, Al3+-induced callose accumulation was a late response occurring in the same areas where Al3+ was present.

  10. White matter alterations differ in primary lateral sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Nobue K.; Kwan, Justin Y.; Danielian, Laura E.; Butman, John A.; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Bayat, Elham

    2011-01-01

    Primary lateral sclerosis is a sporadic disorder characterized by slowly progressive corticospinal dysfunction. Primary lateral sclerosis differs from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis by its lack of lower motor neuron signs and long survival. Few pathological studies have been carried out on patients with primary lateral sclerosis, and the relationship between primary lateral sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis remains uncertain. To detect in vivo structural differences between the two disorders, diffusion tensor imaging of white matter tracts was carried out in 19 patients with primary lateral sclerosis, 18 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 19 age-matched controls. Fibre tracking was used to reconstruct the intracranial portion of the corticospinal tract and three regions of the corpus callosum: the genu, splenium and callosal fibres connecting the motor cortices. Both patient groups had reduced fractional anisotropy, a measure associated with axonal organization, and increased mean diffusivity of the reconstructed corticospinal and callosal motor fibres compared with controls, without changes in the genu or splenium. Voxelwise comparison of the whole brain white matter using tract-based spatial statistics confirmed the differences between patients and controls in the diffusion properties of the corticospinal tracts and motor fibres of the callosum. This analysis further revealed differences in the regional distribution of white matter alterations between the patient groups. In patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the greatest reduction in fractional anisotropy occurred in the distal portions of the intracranial corticospinal tract, consistent with a distal axonal degeneration. In patients with primary lateral sclerosis, the greatest loss of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity occurred in the subcortical white matter underlying the motor cortex, with reduced volume, suggesting tissue loss. Clinical measures of upper motor neuron

  11. HrpNEa -induced deterrent effect on phloem feeding of the green peach aphid Myzus persicae requires AtGSL5 and AtMYB44 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Beibei Lü; Weiwei Sun; Shuping Zhang; Chunling Zhang; Jun Qian; Xiaomeng Wang; Rong Gao; Hansong Dong

    2011-03-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) treated with the harpin protein HrpNEa, resistance to the green peach aphid Myzus persicae, a generalist phloem-feeding insect, develops with induced expression of the AtMYB44 gene. Special GLUCAN SYNTHESIS-LIKE (GSL) genes and -1,3-glucan callose play an important role in plant defence responses to attacks by phloem-feeding insects. Here we report that AtGLS5 and AtMYB44 are both required for HrpNEa-induced repression of M. persicae feeding from the phloem of Arabidopsis leaves. In 24 h successive surveys on large-scale aphid populations, the proportion of feeding aphids was much smaller in HrpNEa-treated plants than in control plants, and aphids preferred to feed from the 37 tested atgsl mutants rather than the wild-type plant. The atgsl mutants were generated previously by mutagenesis in 12 identified AtGSL genes (AtGSL1 through AtGSL12); in the 24 h survey, both atgsl5 and atgsl6 tolerated aphid feeding, and atgsl5 was the most tolerant. Consistently, atgsl5 was also most inhibitive to the deterrent effect of HrpNEa on the phloem-feeding activity of aphids as monitored by the electrical penetration graph technique. These results suggested an important role of the AtGSL5 gene in the effect of HrpNEa. In response to HrpNEa, AtGSL5 expression and callose deposition were induced in the wild-type plant but not in atgsl5. In response to HrpNEa, moreover, the AtMYB44 gene known to be required for repression of aphid reproduction on the plant was also required for repression of the phloem-feeding activity. Small amounts of the AtGSL5 transcript and callose deposition were detected in the atmyb44 mutant, as in atgsl5. Both mutants performed similarly in tolerating the phloem-feeding activity and impairing the deterrent effect of HrpNEa, suggesting that AtGSL5 and AtMYB44 both contributed to the effect.

  12. The click-compatible sugar 6-deoxy-alkynyl glucose metabolically incorporates into Arabidopsis root hair tips and arrests their growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClosky, Daniel D; Wang, Bo; Chen, Gong; Anderson, Charles T

    2016-03-01

    Plant cell walls are dynamic structures whose polysaccharide components are rearranged and recycled during growth and morphogenesis. Covalent fluorescent tagging of these polysaccharides following a metabolic labeling approach can help elucidate these changes. Herein reported are the synthesis and seedling-incorporation of a plant polysaccharide chemical reporter, 6-deoxy-alkynyl glucose (6dAG), that is modeled on D-glucose. Whereas fucose-alkyne, a previously reported chemical reporter for pectin, incorporates diffusely throughout growing cell walls, 6dAG incorporated specifically into root hair tips. This incorporation occurs in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. 6dAG exposure both induces and colocalizes with callose deposition in this tissue, and arrests both root hair and root growth. These results show that plants can incorporate an additional alkynyl-modified sugar analog into their metabolism, and into a discrete subcellular location. PMID:26833385

  13. Human von Economo neurons express transcription factors associated with Layer V subcerebral projection neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos, Inma; Seeley, William W

    2015-01-01

    The von Economo neurons (VENs) are large bipolar Layer V projection neurons found chiefly in the anterior cingulate and frontoinsular cortices. Although VENs have been linked to prevalent illnesses such as frontotemporal dementia, autism, and schizophrenia, little is known about VEN identity, including their major projection targets. Here, we undertook a developmental transcription factor expression study, focusing on markers associated with specific classes of Layer V projection neurons. Using mRNA in situ hybridization, we found that VENs prominently express FEZF2 and CTIP2, transcription factors that regulate the fate and differentiation of subcerebral projection neurons, in humans aged 3 months to 65 years. In contrast, few VENs expressed markers associated with callosal or corticothalamic projections. These findings suggest that VENs may represent a specialized Layer V projection neuron for linking cortical autonomic control sites to brainstem or spinal cord regions. PMID:23960210

  14. Alien Hand Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Anhar; Josephs, Keith A

    2016-08-01

    Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is a rare disorder of involuntary limb movement together with a sense of loss of limb ownership. It most commonly affects the hand, but can occur in the leg. The anterior (frontal, callosal) and posterior variants are recognized, with distinguishing clinical features and anatomical lesions. Initial descriptions were attributed to stroke and neurosurgical operations, but neurodegenerative causes are now recognized as most common. Structural and functional imaging and clinical studies have implicated the supplementary motor area, pre-supplementary motor area, and their network connections in the frontal variant of AHS, and the inferior parietal lobule and connections in the posterior variant. Several theories are proposed to explain the pathophysiology. Herein, we review the literature to update advances in the understanding of the classification, pathophysiology, etiology, and treatment of AHS. PMID:27315251

  15. Cranial MRI in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of MRI examinations in ten patients with documented Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), aged 1.75-19 years. T1-, Proton-Density- and T2-weighted spin-echo sequences were performed in three planes. All patients showed microcephaly with decreased size of the frontal lobes and narrow frontal horns. In four patients agenesis of the posterior part of the corpus callosum was found, with colpocephaly and temporal horns dilatation. In one patient callosal hypoplasia was accompanied by abnormal cerebrospinal fluid spaces and wide cerebral cortex, suspicious of pachygyria. Sinusitis was present in all ten patients, as a result of primary immunodeficiency. As in ataxia teleangiectasia and other breakage syndromes, patients with NBS show an inherited susceptibility to malignancy and hypersensitivity to X- and γ-radiation. CT is therefore contraindicated in these patients and MRI should be the method of choice for diagnostic imaging. (orig.)

  16. The role of T-cadherin in axonal pathway formation in neocortical circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayano, Yuki; Zhao, Hong; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Takeuchi, Kosei; Norioka, Shigemi; Yamamoto, Nobuhiko

    2014-12-01

    Cortical efferent and afferent fibers are arranged in a stereotyped pattern in the intermediate zone (IZ). Here, we studied the mechanism of axonal pathway formation by identifying a molecule that is expressed in a subset of cortical axons in the rat. We found that T-cadherin (T-cad), a member of the cadherin family, is expressed in deep-layer cell axons projecting to subcortical structures, but not in upper layer callosal axons projecting to the contralateral cortex. Ectopic expression of T-cad in upper layer cells induced axons to project toward subcortical structures via the upper part of the IZ. Moreover, the axons of deep-layer cells in which T-cad expression was suppressed by RNAi projected towards the contralateral cortex via an aberrant route. These results suggest that T-cad is involved in axonal pathway formation in the developing cortex. PMID:25468941

  17. Alien hand and leg as the presenting feature of probable sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: A rare presentation of a rare disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banshi Lal Kumawat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD can have varied clinical presentation depending upon the genotype at codon 129. The common presenting clinical features of sCJD are rapid onset cognitive impairment, ataxia, psychosis and visual signs (field defects, distortion, cortical blindness. Alien limb sign was first described in patients with corpus callosal tumors and later with other neurodegenerative conditions like corticobasal degeneration. Alien hand complaints as the presenting feature of sCJD has been described in literature, but simultaneous alien hand and leg has been rarely described as presenting feature of sCJD. We describe here a case of a 55-year-old man who presented with progressive left alien hand and leg as the sole clinical manifestation of probable sCJD.

  18. Chitosan in Plant Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelbasset El Hadrami

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Chitin and chitosan are naturally-occurring compounds that have potential in agriculture with regard to controlling plant diseases. These molecules were shown to display toxicity and inhibit fungal growth and development. They were reported to be active against viruses, bacteria and other pests. Fragments from chitin and chitosan are known to have eliciting activities leading to a variety of defense responses in host plants in response to microbial infections, including the accumulation of phytoalexins, pathogen-related (PR proteins and proteinase inhibitors, lignin synthesis, and callose formation. Based on these and other proprieties that help strengthen host plant defenses, interest has been growing in using them in agricultural systems to reduce the negative impact of diseases on yield and quality of crops. This review recapitulates the properties and uses of chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives, and will focus on their applications and mechanisms of action during plant-pathogen interactions.

  19. Reduction of aberrant NF-κB signalling ameliorates Rett syndrome phenotypes in Mecp2-null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Noriyuki; MacDonald, Jessica L; Ye, Julia; Molyneaux, Bradley J; Azim, Eiman; Macklis, Jeffrey D

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the transcriptional regulator Mecp2 cause the severe X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome (RTT). In this study, we investigate genes that function downstream of MeCP2 in cerebral cortex circuitry, and identify upregulation of Irak1, a central component of the NF-κB pathway. We show that overexpression of Irak1 mimics the reduced dendritic complexity of Mecp2-null cortical callosal projection neurons (CPN), and that NF-κB signalling is upregulated in the cortex with Mecp2 loss-of-function. Strikingly, we find that genetically reducing NF-κB signalling in Mecp2-null mice not only ameliorates CPN dendritic complexity but also substantially extends their normally shortened lifespan, indicating broader roles for NF-κB signalling in RTT pathogenesis. These results provide new insight into both the fundamental neurobiology of RTT, and potential therapeutic strategies via NF-κB pathway modulation. PMID:26821816

  20. Histogenesis of potato light sprouts in healthy plants and those infected with potato leaf roll virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Garbaczewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Developmental stages of potato (Solanum tuberosum light sprouts in healthy plants and those infected with potato leaf roll virus (PLRV have been distinguished. Potato light sprouts from healthy tubers differentiate in the early stages to the apical and basal parts, which are characterized by distinct dynamics of growth. Ultrastructural examination of apex meristem and phloem ontogeny was carried out for healthy plants. In the development of potato light sprouts of plants infected with PLRV a great many anomalies have been described. Three types of light sprouts developed from infected tubers. Anatomical investigations indicated a rapid growth of the number of necroses in the phloem, and submicroscopic observations showed the presence of virus particles and cytopathological structures: tubular and vesicular structures, paramural bodies and callose deposits. In the companion cells of the phloem the occurrence of very regular inclusions of virus particles was recorded.

  1. A critical re-examination of sexual dimorphism in the corpus callosum microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhausen, René; Kompus, Kristiina; Dramsdahl, Margaretha;

    2011-01-01

    Recent diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) studies suggest sexual dimorphism in the micro-structural architecture of the corpus callosum. However, the corpus callosum is also found to be larger in males than in females, a fact that might introduce a systematic bias to the analysis of DTI parameters....... Diffusion parameters obtained in the larger male corpus callosum could be less affected by partial-volume averaging with surrounding non-callosal tissue than respective parameters obtained in the smaller female corpus callosum, i.e. the sex of the subject and partial-volume effects would be confounded. The...... objective of the present DTI study was to re-examine microstructural sex differences in the corpus callosum, while controlling for corpus callosum size differences between sexes. We compared 41 female and 34 male participants using regional tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis. Clusters of...

  2. The Structure of Sucrose Synthase-1 from Arabidopsis thaliana and Its Functional Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yi; Anderson, Spencer; Zhang, Yanfeng; Garavito, R. Michael (MSU); (NWU)

    2014-10-02

    Sucrose transport is the central system for the allocation of carbon resources in vascular plants. During growth and development, plants control carbon distribution by coordinating sites of sucrose synthesis and cleavage in different plant organs and different cellular locations. Sucrose synthase, which reversibly catalyzes sucrose synthesis and cleavage, provides a direct and reversible means to regulate sucrose flux. Depending on the metabolic environment, sucrose synthase alters its cellular location to participate in cellulose, callose, and starch biosynthesis through its interactions with membranes, organelles, and cytoskeletal actin. The x-ray crystal structure of sucrose synthase isoform 1 from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtSus1) has been determined as a complex with UDP-glucose and as a complex with UDP and fructose, at 2.8- and 2.85-{angstrom} resolutions, respectively. The AtSus1 structure provides insights into sucrose catalysis and cleavage, as well as the regulation of sucrose synthase and its interactions with cellular targets.

  3. Short-term aluminium-induced changes in barley root tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinová, Veronika; Halušková, Lubica; Huttová, Jana; Illéš, Peter; Mistrík, Igor; Valentovičová, Katarína; Tamás, Ladislav

    2011-07-01

    The short-term exposure of barley roots to low Al concentration caused significant root growth inhibition and radial swelling of roots. During Al treatment, the radial expansion of root cells occurred in root tissues representing elongation zone and meristem. Both low pH and Al treatments caused significant disruption of cell membranes in swollen roots. In contrast to Evans blue uptake callose formation was observed only at higher Al concentrations and was detected in both swollen and adjacent root areas. Similarly to Al, exogenous short-term application of indole-3-acetic acid, polar transport inhibitor triiodobenzoic acid, ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid or H(2)O(2) evoked root growth inhibition and radial cell expansion in barley root tip too. PMID:20734093

  4. [Mirror movements observed in patients skilled in playing the piano--symptomatological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, H; Sugita, K; Kawamura, M; Fukui, T; Shiota, J

    1995-04-01

    We investigated mirror movements observed in two patients skilled in playing the piano and compared these symptoms with those reported in patients associated with frontal lobe, corpus callosum or cervical cord lesion. We found the following common features in our two patients: 1) mirror movements were observed during skilled finger movements such as playing the piano, 2) these were observed in distal parts of the bilateral upper extremities, 3) contralateral imitative associated movements were seen concomitantly, 4) frontal lobe symptoms and callosal disconnection syndrome were not seen, 5) both patients recalled having mirror movements in their infancy, and one had family history. These characteristics of mirror movements in our patients were similar to those in patients associated with cervical cord lesion, but were different from those in patients associated with frontal lobe or corpus callosum lesion. It is suggested that abnormal pathways in the pyramidal tract or cervical cord lesion elicited mirror movements in our patients. PMID:7614761

  5. Sexual dimorphism of the human corpus callosum studied by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed in 120 normal right-handed individuals (60 males, 60 females) to clarify existing contradictory data concerning possible sexual dimorphism of the human corpus callosum (CC). Five linear and three area measurements of the CC and brain were obtained directly at the MR scanner console from midline sagittal T1-weighted images. The anteroposterior length of the CC was significantly larger in males than in females (p=0.0005). No other differences in absolute callosal measurements between the sexes could be demonstrated. However, several size ratios did achieve statistical significance (p<0.05), being consistently larger in females: splenial width/length CC, splenial width/brain length, and area of CC/area of brain. Where no statistically significant differences were obtained, precision, tolerance, and confidence interval calculations are presented. The data in this large series support a limited but definite sexual dimorphism of the CC in right-handed individuals. (author)

  6. Síndrome de Aicardi: relato de caso Aicardi syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alexandre Bastos

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos um caso de síndrome de Aicardi completa em criança do sexo feminino de 2 meses de idade com defeitos lacunares da coróide, espasmos em flexão, agenesia de corpo caloso e alterações eletrencefalográficas do tipo hipsarritmia assimétrica e alterna atendida no Serviço de Neuropediatria e Neurofisiologia clínica do Hospital de Base de São José do Rio Preto, SP .We report a case of Aicardi syndrome in a female child with 2 month old, ocular abnormalities "chorioretinal lacunae", flexion in spasms, hipsarrhythmic "split brain", callosal agenesis refered to Service of Neuropediatric and Neurophysiology of Base Hospital of São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil.

  7. Hemicellulose of the pollen tube wall of Camellia japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, N; Yoshida, K; Suzuki, H

    1980-12-01

    Successive fractionation of the pollen tube wall polysaccharides of Camellia japonica was carried out to analyze the sugar composition of each fraction. The hemicellulose fraction extracted with dimethylsulfoxide accounted for about 47% of the pollen tube wall. A purified preparation of this fraction was comprised essentially of glucose. A low specific rotation ([α]d = +6° in 1 n NaOH) and an absorption at 890 cm(-1) of the purified glucan indicated the β-configuration. This glucan was shown to be a callose-like β-1,3-d-glucan by periodate oxidation, Smith degradation and methylation studies. The degree of polymerization of the glucan was calculated to be 21 from methylation analysis and determination of the reducing end-group. PMID:25385955

  8. Alien hand and leg as the presenting feature of probable sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: A rare presentation of a rare disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumawat, Banshi Lal; Sharma, Chandra Mohan; Nath, Kunal; Acharya, Mihir; Khandelwal, Dinesh; Jain, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) can have varied clinical presentation depending upon the genotype at codon 129. The common presenting clinical features of sCJD are rapid onset cognitive impairment, ataxia, psychosis and visual signs (field defects, distortion, cortical blindness). Alien limb sign was first described in patients with corpus callosal tumors and later with other neurodegenerative conditions like corticobasal degeneration. Alien hand complaints as the presenting feature of sCJD has been described in literature, but simultaneous alien hand and leg has been rarely described as presenting feature of sCJD. We describe here a case of a 55-year-old man who presented with progressive left alien hand and leg as the sole clinical manifestation of probable sCJD. PMID:25745324

  9. Musical expertise affects neural bases of letter recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Manfredi, Mirella; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta

    2013-02-01

    It is known that early music learning (playing of an instrument) modifies functional brain structure (both white and gray matter) and connectivity, especially callosal transfer, motor control/coordination and auditory processing. We compared visual processing of notes and words in 15 professional musicians and 15 controls by recording their synchronized bioelectrical activity (ERPs) in response to words and notes. We found that musical training in childhood (from age ~8 years) modifies neural mechanisms of word reading, whatever the genetic predisposition, which was unknown. While letter processing was strongly left-lateralized in controls, the fusiform (BA37) and inferior occipital gyri (BA18) were activated in both hemispheres in musicians for both word and music processing. The evidence that the neural mechanism of letter processing differed in musicians and controls (being absolutely bilateral in musicians) suggests that musical expertise modifies the neural mechanisms of letter reading. PMID:23238370

  10. Pattern recognition on brain magnetic resonance imaging in alpha dystroglycanopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Parayil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha dystroglycanopathies are heterogeneous group of disorders both phenotypically and genetically. A subgroup of these patients has characteristic brain imaging findings. Four patients with typical imaging findings of alpha dystroglycanopathy are reported. Phenotypic features included: global developmental delay, contractures, hypotonia and oculomotor abnormalities in all. Other manifestations were consanguinity (3, seizures (3, macrocephaly (1, microcephaly (3, retinal changes (2 and hypogenitalism (2. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain revealed polymicrogyria, white matter changes, pontine hypoplasia, and subcortical cerebellar cysts in all the patients, ventriculomegaly, callosal abnormalities, and absent septum pellucidum in two and Dandy -Walker variant malformation in three. Magnetic resonace imaging of the first cousin of one the patient had the same characteristic imaging features. Brain imaging findings were almost identical despite heterogeneity in clinical presentation and histopathological features. Pattern recognition of MR imaging features may serve as a clue to the diagnosis of alpha dystroglycanopathy.

  11. Proboscis lateralis of nose-a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magadum, Sunil Bajarang; Khairnar, Prashant; Hirugade, Shivprasad; Kassa, Vijay

    2012-04-01

    Lateral proboscis is a rare craniofacial malformation characterized by a rudimentary tubular, nose-like structure located off-center from the vertical midline of the face, and occur in association with a wide spectrum of other anomalies, including heminasal aplasia spectrum,mental retardation, callosal agenesis, heminasal hypoplasia, microphthalmia, and atypical clefting syndrome. Evaluation of a patient should include CT scan examination to look for growth of facial and skull bones. Reconstruction should start at an early age. Proboscis itself is the best option for heminose formation. Cartilaginous or bony support can be planned later in the late teens. Esthetic and psychological problems are often concern of the patient and families. Here we presented a male infant of 2 months with Proboscis Lateralis. There was no e/o cleft lip or cleft palate. Staged repair was done at an early age to avoid anxiety of parents and to allow proportionate growth of nose and face. PMID:23543614

  12. Fetal MRI in intracranial anomalies - preliminary experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MRI technology enables images to be acquired in less than one second and provide multiplanar views that help physicians more accurately acquire a diagnosis and plan for prenatal surgery or design postnatal treatments. A fetal MRI is generally ordered after a suspected anomaly is spotted with ultrasound or if the mother is at risk for a condition that cannot be visualized well with sonography. Fetal MRI works particularly well in identifying ventriculomegaly, lesions within the posterior fossa, callosal anomalies and abnormalities in cerebral myelination, migration, and sulcation. It is also a strong problem-solving tool for finding suspected conditions such as diaphragmatic hernia, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations, renal cystic lesions, and other complicated abdominal masses. In addition, a fetal MRI provides potentially critical information about the maternal abdomen and, in some cases, can reveal problems with the pregnant patient or indicate possible problems that may occur during pregnancy.

  13. Understanding the relationship between cotton fiber properties and non-cellulosic cell wall polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajasundaram, Dhivyaa; Runavot, Jean-Luc; Guo, Xiaoyuan;

    2014-01-01

    A detailed knowledge of cell wall heterogeneity and complexity is crucial for understanding plant growth and development. One key challenge is to establish links between polysaccharide-rich cell walls and their phenotypic characteristics. It is of particular interest for some plant material, like...... different cotton species were studied. The glycan array was generated by sequential extraction of cell wall polysaccharides from mature cotton fibers and screening samples against eleven extensively characterized cell wall probes. Also, phenotypic characteristics of cotton fibers such as length, strength...... probes. Moreover, homogalacturonan and callose were shown to be significant predictors for fiber length. The role of these polysaccharides was already pointed out in previous cell wall elongation studies. Additional relationships were predicted for fiber strength and elongation which will need further...

  14. Cranial MRI in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, M. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Central Railway Hospital, Warsaw (Poland); Chrzanowska, K.H.; Krajewska-Walasek, M. [Department of Medical Genetics, Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw (Poland); Sikorska, J.; Walecki, J. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Medical Centre for Postgraduate Education, Warsaw (Poland); Jozwiak, S. [Department of Neurology, Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw (Poland); Kleijer, W.J. [Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus University Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2000-01-01

    We present the results of MRI examinations in ten patients with documented Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), aged 1.75-19 years. T1-, Proton-Density- and T2-weighted spin-echo sequences were performed in three planes. All patients showed microcephaly with decreased size of the frontal lobes and narrow frontal horns. In four patients agenesis of the posterior part of the corpus callosum was found, with colpocephaly and temporal horns dilatation. In one patient callosal hypoplasia was accompanied by abnormal cerebrospinal fluid spaces and wide cerebral cortex, suspicious of pachygyria. Sinusitis was present in all ten patients, as a result of primary immunodeficiency. As in ataxia teleangiectasia and other breakage syndromes, patients with NBS show an inherited susceptibility to malignancy and hypersensitivity to X- and {gamma}-radiation. CT is therefore contraindicated in these patients and MRI should be the method of choice for diagnostic imaging. (orig.)

  15. Immunocytochemical characterization of the cell walls of bean cell suspensions during habituation and dehabituation to dichlobenil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Angulo, P.; Willats, W. G. T.; Encina, A. E.;

    2006-01-01

    analysed showed calcofluor-stained appositions. However, in habituated and dehabituated cells, appositions were not recognized by an anticallose antibody. This finding suggested the accumulation of an extracellular polysaccharide different to callose, probably a 1,4-ß-glucan in these cell lines......The effects of the cellulose inhibitor dichlobenil on the cell wall composition and structure during the habituation/dehabituation process of suspension-cultured bean cells were assessed. A range of techniques were used including cell wall fractionation, sugar analysis, immunofluorescence and...... fluorochrome labelling of resin-embedded sections, and immunodot assays (IDAs) of cell wall fractions. The cell walls from bean cell suspensions with initial levels of habituation to dichlobenil had decreased levels of cellulose, but this effect lessened with increasing numbers of subcultures. All cell walls...

  16. Computerized tomography of the pleura and parenchyma in exposure to asbestos incident to various occupations. Computertomographie der Pleura und des Parenchyms bei asbestexponierten Beschaeftigten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hering, K.G. (Knappschaftskrankenhaus, Dortmund (Germany). Radiologische Klinik); Raithel, H.J. (Inst. fuer Arbeits- und Sozialmedizin und Poliklinik fuer Berufskrankheiten, Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany)); Wiebe, V. (Berufsgenossenschaftliche Krankenanstalten ' Bergmannsheil' , Bochum (Germany). Radiologische Klinik)

    1993-01-01

    High-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) of the lungs permits an early and accurate assessment of reactive changes in the parenchyma and pleura occurring in groups of individuals exposed to asbestos. Characteristic signs, which are in all likelihood correlated with such exposures, include the formation of hyaline plaques in the pleura, generalized thickening of the pleura associated with subpleural fibrosis, effusions and callosity unattributable to other causes as well as the mesothelioma. In the remaining parenchymal and pleural changes, a definitive link between the causes and clinical picture may be difficult to establish, as these are just as well found in fibroses of any other origins. If, however, the occupation-related patient history is carefully recorded and several parenchymal changes characterized by certain subpleural distribution patterns are seen to coincide, other causes of disease can largely be excluded. (orig.).

  17. White matter microstructural properties correlate with sensorimotor synchronization abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecher, Tal; Tal, Idan; Ben-Shachar, Michal

    2016-09-01

    Sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) to an external auditory rhythm is a developed ability in humans, particularly evident in dancing and singing. This ability is typically measured in the lab via a simple task of finger tapping to an auditory beat. While simplistic, there is some evidence that poor performance on this task could be related to impaired phonological and reading abilities in children. Auditory-motor synchronization is hypothesized to rely on a tight coupling between auditory and motor neural systems, but the specific pathways that mediate this coupling have not been identified yet. In this study, we test this hypothesis and examine the contribution of fronto-temporal and callosal connections to specific measures of rhythmic synchronization. Twenty participants went through SMS and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) measurements. We quantified the mean asynchrony between an auditory beat and participants' finger taps, as well as the time to resynchronize (TTR) with an altered meter, and examined the correlations between these behavioral measures and diffusivity in a small set of predefined pathways. We found significant correlations between asynchrony and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the left (but not right) arcuate fasciculus and in the temporal segment of the corpus callosum. On the other hand, TTR correlated with FA in the precentral segment of the callosum. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that relates these particular white matter tracts with performance on an auditory-motor rhythmic synchronization task. We propose that left fronto-temporal and temporal-callosal fibers are involved in prediction and constant comparison between auditory inputs and motor commands, while inter-hemispheric connections between the motor/premotor cortices contribute to successful resynchronization of motor responses with a new external rhythm, perhaps via inhibition of tapping to the previous rhythm. Our results indicate that auditory

  18. Physiological, structural and molecular traits activated in strawberry plants after inoculation with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense REC3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Molina, M F; Lovaisa, N C; Salazar, S M; Martínez-Zamora, M G; Díaz-Ricci, J C; Pedraza, R O

    2015-05-01

    The plant growth-promoting strain REC3 of Azospirillum brasilense, isolated from strawberry roots, prompts growth promotion and systemic protection against anthracnose disease in this crop. Hence, we hypothesised that A. brasilense REC3 can induce different physiological, structural and molecular responses in strawberry plants. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study these traits activated in Azospirillum-colonised strawberry plants, which have not been assessed until now. Healthy, in vitro micropropagated plants were root-inoculated with REC3 under hydroponic conditions; root and leaf tissues were sampled at different times, and oxidative burst, phenolic compound content, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, callose deposition, cell wall fortification and gene expression were evaluated. Azospirillum inoculation enhanced levels of soluble phenolic compounds after 12 h post-inoculation (hpi), while amounts of cell wall bound phenolics were similar in inoculated and control plants. Other early responses activated by REC3 (at 24 hpi) were a decline of lipid peroxidation and up-regulation of strawberry genes involved in defence (FaPR1), bacterial recognition (FaFLS2) and H₂O₂ depuration (FaCAT and FaAPXc). The last may explain the apparent absence of oxidative burst in leaves after bacterial inoculation. Also, REC3 inoculation induced delayed structural responses such as callose deposition and cell wall fortification (at 72 hpi). Results showed that A. brasilense REC3 is capable of exerting beneficial effects on strawberry plants, reinforcing their physiological and cellular characteristics, which in turns contribute to improve plant performance. PMID:25280241

  19. Disgenesia do corpo caloso e más-formações associadas: achados de tomografia computadorizada e ressonância magnética Dysgenesis of the corpus callosum and associated malformations: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Montandon

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O termo disgenesia do corpo caloso refere-se a uma má-formação deste com origem na embriogênese do telencéfalo. O relato analisa os achados de tomografia computadorizada e ressonância magnética em 11 pacientes com disgenesia calosa e em um caso de corpo caloso normal com lipoma associado. Esta pode ser distinguida em três grupos: agenesia total (três casos, agenesia parcial (seis casos e hipoplasia (dois casos. Anomalias associadas foram observadas em nove casos, incluindo má-formação de Chiari tipo II (um caso, esquizencefalia (um caso, cisto inter-hemisférico (dois casos, heterotopia nodular (um caso, cisto de Dandy-Walker (um caso e lipoma do corpo caloso (quatro casos. Este artigo demonstra um espectro destes distúrbios, auxiliando na sua interpretação diagnóstica.Callosal dysgenesis is a malformation of the corpus callosum with origins in the embryogenesis of the telencephalon. We reviewed the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings of 11 patients with callosal dysgenesis and one patient with normal corpus callosum associated with a lipoma. The patients were divided into three distinct groups: total agenesis (three patients, partial agenesis (six patients and hypoplasia (two patients. Associated abnormalities were observed in nine patients, including Chiari II malformation (one patient, schizencephaly (one patient, interhemispheric cyst (two patients, Dandy-Walker cyst (one patient, nodular heterotopy (one patient and lipoma of the corpus callosum (four patients. This paper presents a review that may contribute to the diagnosis of these disorders.

  20. Early anisotropy changes in the corpus callosum of patients with optic neuritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bester, M.; Ding, X.Q.; Holst, B.; Fiehler, J. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Heesen, C.; Schippling, S.; Martin, R. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Institute for Neuroimmunology and Clinical MS Research, Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    Optic neuritis (ON) and any other early manifestation of multiple sclerosis (MS) are referred to as clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) as long as MS is suspected. In this prospective study we aimed to determine whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could quantify structural changes in patients with early MS. A total of 24 patients and 15 control subjects were prospectively followed by clinical examinations and MRI. the main inclusion criterion was presentation with ON. Patients underwent serial MRI scans: MRI1 (baseline, n=24), MRI2 (mean 6.6 months, n=24), MRI3 (mean 13.0 months, n=14), MRI4 (mean 39.4 months, n=5). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were derived from DTI. Four regions of interest (ROIs) were defined in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). In the temporal course FA decreased in the genu of the callosal body (GCC) from MRI1 to MRI4 (P=0.005) and in the splenium of the callosal body (SCC) (P=0.006). Patients already had lower FA values in the SCC (P<0.01) on MRI1 compared with the controls. Patients had lower FA values in the GCC (P<0.01) starting from MRI2. Patients with definite MS on follow-up (n=9) showed a correlation between FA in the SCC and time (r=-0.40, P=0.004), whereas patients without progression did not. Our findings suggest that the corpus callosum is an early site for development of anisotropy changes in MS patients with ON. There seems to be a primary FA decrease in all patients with ON that only deteriorates in the group developing definite MS. (orig.)

  1. Characterization of non-host resistance in broad bean to the wheat stripe rust pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Yulin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-host resistance (NHR confers plant species immunity against the majority of microbial pathogens and represents the most robust and durable form of plant resistance in nature. As one of the main genera of rust fungi with economic and biological importance, Puccinia infects almost all cereals but is unable to cause diseases on legumes. Little is known about the mechanism of this kind of effective defense in legumes to these non-host pathogens. Results In this study, the basis of NHR in broad bean (Vicia faba L. against the wheat stripe rust pathogen, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst, was characterized. No visible symptoms were observed on broad bean leaves inoculated with Pst. Microscopic observations showed that successful location of stomata and haustoria formation were significantly reduced in Pst infection of broad bean. Attempted infection induced the formation of papillae, cell wall thickening, production of reactive oxygen species, callose deposition and accumulation of phenolic compounds in plant cell walls. The few Pst haustoria that did form in broad bean cells were encased in reactive oxygen and callose materials and those cells elicited cell death. Furthermore, a total of seven defense-related genes were identified and found to be up-regulated during the Pst infection. Conclusions The results indicate that NHR in broad bean against Pst results from a continuum of layered defenses, including basic incompatibility, structural and chemical strengthening of cell wall, posthaustorial hypersensitive response and induction of several defense-related genes, demonstrating the multi-layered feature of NHR. This work also provides useful information for further determination of resistance mechanisms in broad bean to rust fungi, especially the adapted important broad bean rust pathogen, Uromyces viciae-fabae, because of strong similarity and association between NHR of plants to unadapted pathogens and basal

  2. Targeting Kv1.3 channels to reduce white matter pathology after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Thomas M; Trimmer, Patricia A; Colley, Beverly S; Phillips, Linda L

    2016-09-01

    Axonal injury is present in essentially all clinically significant cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI). While no effective treatment has been identified to date, experimental TBI models have shown promising axonal protection using immunosuppressants FK506 and Cyclosporine-A, with treatment benefits attributed to calcineurin inhibition or protection of mitochondrial function. However, growing evidence suggests neuroprotective efficacy of these compounds may also involve direct modulation of ion channels, and in particular Kv1.3. The present study tested whether blockade of Kv1.3 channels, using Clofazimine (CFZ), would alleviate TBI-induced white matter pathology in rodents. Postinjury CFZ administration prevented suppression of compound action potential (CAP) amplitude in the corpus callosum of adult rats following midline fluid percussion TBI, with injury and treatment effects primarily expressed in unmyelinated CAPs. Kv1.3 protein levels in callosal tissue extracts were significantly reduced postinjury, but this loss was prevented by CFZ treatment. In parallel, CFZ also attenuated the injury-induced elevation in pro-inflammatory cytokine IL1-β. The effects of CFZ on glial function were further studied using mixed microglia/astrocyte cell cultures derived from P3-5 mouse corpus callosum. Cultures of callosal glia challenged with lipopolysaccharide exhibited a dramatic increase in IL1-β levels, accompanied by reactive morphological changes in microglia, both of which were attenuated by CFZ treatment. These results support a cell specific role for Kv1.3 signaling in white matter pathology after TBI, and suggest a treatment approach based on the blockade of these channels. This therapeutic strategy may be especially efficacious for normalizing neuro-glial interactions affecting unmyelinated axons after TBI. PMID:27302680

  3. Early anisotropy changes in the corpus callosum of patients with optic neuritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optic neuritis (ON) and any other early manifestation of multiple sclerosis (MS) are referred to as clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) as long as MS is suspected. In this prospective study we aimed to determine whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could quantify structural changes in patients with early MS. A total of 24 patients and 15 control subjects were prospectively followed by clinical examinations and MRI. the main inclusion criterion was presentation with ON. Patients underwent serial MRI scans: MRI1 (baseline, n=24), MRI2 (mean 6.6 months, n=24), MRI3 (mean 13.0 months, n=14), MRI4 (mean 39.4 months, n=5). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were derived from DTI. Four regions of interest (ROIs) were defined in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). In the temporal course FA decreased in the genu of the callosal body (GCC) from MRI1 to MRI4 (P=0.005) and in the splenium of the callosal body (SCC) (P=0.006). Patients already had lower FA values in the SCC (P<0.01) on MRI1 compared with the controls. Patients had lower FA values in the GCC (P<0.01) starting from MRI2. Patients with definite MS on follow-up (n=9) showed a correlation between FA in the SCC and time (r=-0.40, P=0.004), whereas patients without progression did not. Our findings suggest that the corpus callosum is an early site for development of anisotropy changes in MS patients with ON. There seems to be a primary FA decrease in all patients with ON that only deteriorates in the group developing definite MS. (orig.)

  4. Laquinimod prevents cuprizone-induced demyelination independent of Toll-like receptor signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menken, Lena; Hayardeny, Liat; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Brück, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To test whether Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling plays a key role for reduced nuclear factor B (NF-κB) activation after laquinimod treatment in the model of cuprizone-induced demyelination, oligodendrocyte apoptosis, inflammation, and axonal damage. Methods: Ten-week-old C57BL/6J, TLR4−/−, and MyD88−/− mice received 0.25% cuprizone for 6 weeks and were treated daily with 25 mg/kg laquinimod or vehicle. After 6 weeks of demyelination, extent of demyelination, oligodendrocyte density, microglia infiltration, and axonal damage were analyzed in the corpus callosum. Additionally, we analyzed primary mouse astrocytes from C57BL/6J, TLR4−/−, MyD88−/−, and TRIF−/− mice for alteration in NF-κB signaling. Results: Vehicle-treated controls from C57BL/6J, TLR4−/−, and MyD88−/− mice displayed extensive callosal demyelination as well as microglial activation. In contrast, mice treated with 25 mg/kg laquinimod showed mainly intact callosal myelin. The demyelination score was significantly higher in all untreated mice compared to mice treated with laquinimod. There were significantly fewer APP-positive axonal spheroids, Mac3-positive macrophages/microglia, and less oligodendrocyte apoptosis in the corpus callosum of laquinimod-treated mice in comparison to untreated controls. Stimulated primary mouse astrocytes from laquinimod-treated groups show reduced NF-κB activation compared to vehicle-treated controls. Conclusions: Our results confirm that laquinimod prevents demyelination in the cuprizone mouse model for multiple sclerosis via downregulation of NF-κB activation. This laquinimod effect, however, does not involve upstream Toll-like receptor signaling. PMID:27231712

  5. Selective autolysis of protoplasmic components during development of secondary-phloem sieve-tube elements in Populus deltoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zengfang YIN; Ruwen FAN

    2008-01-01

    Observing changes in plasma components dur-ing the development of sieve-tube elements (SE) in sec-ondary-phloem is very important in the study of their physiological function. We investigated the development of SE in the secondary-phloem of Populus deltoides with the aid of an electron microscope. The developmental process of SE in secondary-phloem can be divided into three stages: immature, mature and degenerated, based on the changes of plasma components and cell structures. The immature stage is the development period before the vacuole membrane was ruptured. The radial extension of cells, cell wall incrassation and generation of plastid sieve elements and P-protein occurred during this period. The mature stage started when the vacuole membrane was ruptured. Selective autolysis of protoplasmic components formed mature SEs, with the characteristics that the orga-nelles, such as dissociative ribosome, Golgi body, endo-plasmic reticulum and nuclei were disassembled quickly. Two distinctive ways of nuclear degeneration occur. One is an early degenerated nuclear membrane, with dispersed karyoplasms, joined by P-protein. The other is early agglomerated chromatin and subsequently degenerate karyotin with two clear layer structures in the nuclear membrane. One sign in the degenerated stage is the dis-assembled plasma membrane. During this stage, plastid membranes become disorganized, the starch grains are dispersed in the chamber of SE and the mitochondria dissembled. The callose appears synchronously in sieve plates and P-protein disaggregates. Opened sieve plates are then formed because of callose autolysis, after the protoplasm disappears completely. Finally, the physio-logical function of SE is lost.

  6. Characterization of callase (β-1,3-D-glucanase) activity during microsporogenesis in the sterile anthers of Allium sativum L. and the fertile anthers of A. atropurpureum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiarczyk, Krystyna; Jaroszuk-Ściseł, Jolanta; Kupisz, Kamila

    2012-06-01

    We examined callase activity in anthers of sterile Allium sativum (garlic) and fertile Allium atropurpureum. In A. sativum, a species that produces sterile pollen and propagates only vegetatively, callase was extracted from the thick walls of A. sativum microspore tetrads exhibited maximum activity at pH 4.8, and the corresponding in vivo values ranged from 4.5 to 5.0. Once microspores were released, in vitro callase activity peaked at three distinct pH values, reflecting the presence of three callase isoforms. One isoform, which was previously identified in the tetrad stage, displayed maximum activity at pH 4.8, and the remaining two isoforms, which were novel, were most active at pH 6.0 and 7.3. The corresponding in vivo values ranged from pH 4.75 to 6.0. In contrast, in A. atropurpureum, a sexually propagating species, three callase isoforms, active at pH 4.8-5.2, 6.1, and 7.3, were identified in samples of microsporangia that had released their microspores. The corresponding in vivo value for this plant was 5.9. The callose wall persists around A. sativum meiotic cells, whereas only one callase isoform, with an optimum activity of pH 4.8, is active in the acidic environment of the microsporangium. However, this isoform is degraded when the pH rises to 6.0 and two other callase isoforms, maximally active at pH 6.0 and 7.3, appear. Thus, factors that alter the pH of the microsporangium may indirectly affect the male gametophyte development by modulating the activity of callase and thereby regulating the degradation of the callose wall. PMID:22438078

  7. Histological responses to downy mildew in resistant and susceptible grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiqi; Wang, Lan; Zhu, Jiali; Chen, Tingting; Wang, Yuejin; Xu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Downy mildew in grapevines, caused by Plasmopara viticola, is a very serious disease throughout the grape-producing nations, especially in more humid climates. Downy mildew mainly affects the cultivated varieties of Vitis vinifera. A promising way to minimize or eliminate P. viticola infections is by the adoption of resistant cultivars. Chinese wild grapevines are reported to possess resistance to many fungal diseases. In this study, three Chinese wild grapevines (Vitis pseudoreticulata Baihe-35-1, Vitis davidii var. cyanocarpa Langao-5, and Vitis piasezkii Liuba-8) and a European cultivated variety (V. vinifera cv. Pinot noir) were inoculated with P. viticola, and a histological survey was undertaken. Macroscopic observations revealed no sporulation in V. piasezkii Liuba-8, little sporulation in V. pseudoreticulata Baihe-35-1 and V. davidii var. cyanocarpa Langao-5, but serious sporulation in V. vinifera cv. Pinot noir. Aniline blue staining indicated callose deposition in V. pseudoreticulata Baihe-35-1, V. davidii var. cyanocarpa Langao-5, and V. piasezkii Liuba-8. Cells with distinctive fluorescence were also observed in V. pseudoreticulata Baihe-35-1. After staining with 3,3-diaminobenzidine, production of H₂O₂ was observed early on, after infection in V. davidii var. cyanocarpa Langao-5 and V. piasezkii Liuba-8. No H₂O₂ accumulation was observed in V. vinifera cv. Pinot noir. It is concluded that V. piasezkii Liuba-8 should be classified as "highly resistant" to downy mildew, V. pseudoreticulata Baihe-35-1 and V. davidii var. cyanocarpa Langao-5 as "resistant," and V. vinifera Pinot noir as "susceptible." The possible roles of stomatal callose deposition in the defense r6eactions of the mildew-resistant grapevines are discussed. PMID:25027553

  8. 玫瑰花柱提取液对玫瑰及月季花粉管离体生长的影响%Effect of the Extracted Solution from the Style of Rosa rugosa on the Growth in Vitro of Pollen Tube of R.rugosa and R.chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁一鸣; 赵兰勇; 张玲; 孙华彩; 王新刚

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The effect of the extracted solution from the style of Rosa rugosa on the growth in vitro of pollen tube of R. Rugosa and R. Chinensis was observed to probe the incompatible mechanism of interspecies cross between R. Rugosa and R. Chinensis. [Method] The pollens of*, rugosa and R. Chinensis were cultured by using the extracted solution from the style of/?. Rugosa, with the apical vesicle of pollen tube marked by FM4-64 and the apical calcium marked by Fluo-3AM, then observed under the laser confocal microscope. The morphological changes of pollen tube were observed by optical microscope. [Result] Treated by the extracting solution from the style of R. Rugosa, the pollen tube form of R. Rugosa was normal, while that of if. Chinensis was distorted and crazed during the pollen tube growth course. The regional distribution of the apical vesicle of pollen tubes was not obvious, calcium concentration declined, calcium gradient disappeared, calcium wave weakened, and some cell walls of the pollen tube tips thickened and resulted in callose. [Conclusion] The extracted solution from the style of R. Rugosa affects the apical vesicle secretion and calcium distribution of pollen tube in R. Chinensis, so that the growth of pollen tube is prevented and a large amount of callose is produced on the tip of the pollen tube. The result suggests that one reason of the incompatibility of interspecies cross between R. Rugosa and R. Chinensis may be the effect of R. Rugosa style. The style of R. Rugosa may affect the apical vesicle secretion and calcium distribution of pollen tube in R. Chinensis to prevent its growth, besides, there is a large amount of callose produced on the top of the stagnant pollen tube.%[目的]观察玫瑰(Rosa rugosa)花柱提取液对玫瑰及月季(R.chinensis)花粉管离体生长的影响,探讨玫瑰与月季种间杂交不亲和性机理.[方法]使用玫瑰花柱提取液对玫瑰及月季花粉进行培养,花粉管顶端囊泡采用FM4-64

  9. DspA/E Contributes to Apoplastic Accumulation of ROS in Non-host A. thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launay, Alban; Patrit, Oriane; Wénès, Estelle; Fagard, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    The bacterium Erwinia amylovora is responsible for the fire blight disease of Maleae, which provokes necrotic symptoms on aerial parts. The pathogenicity of this bacterium in hosts relies on its type three-secretion system (T3SS), a molecular syringe that allows the bacterium to inject effectors into the plant cell. E. amylovora-triggered disease in host plants is associated with the T3SS-dependent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), although ROS are generally associated with resistance in other pathosystems. We showed previously that E. amylovora can multiply transiently in the non-host plant Arabidopsis thaliana and that a T3SS-dependent production of intracellular ROS occurs during this interaction. In the present work we characterize the localization and source of hydrogen peroxide accumulation following E. amylovora infection. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis of infected tissues showed that hydrogen peroxide accumulation occurs in the cytosol, plastids, peroxisomes, and mitochondria as well as in the apoplast. Furthermore, TEM analysis showed that an E. amylovora dspA/E-deficient strain does not induce hydrogen peroxide accumulation in the apoplast. Consistently, a transgenic line expressing DspA/E accumulated ROS in the apoplast. The NADPH oxidase-deficient rbohD mutant showed a very strong reduction in hydrogen peroxide accumulation in response to E. amylovora inoculation. However, we did not find an increase in bacterial titers of E. amylovora in the rbohD mutant and the rbohD mutation did not suppress the toxicity of DspA/E when introgressed into a DspA/E-expressing transgenic line. Co-inoculation of E. amylovora with cycloheximide (CHX), which we found previously to suppress callose deposition and allow strong multiplication of E. amylovora in A. thaliana leaves, led to a strong reduction of apoplastic ROS accumulation but did not affect intracellular ROS. Our data strongly suggest that apoplastic ROS accumulation is one layer of

  10. Evaluation of Tl-201 lung uptake and impairment of pulmonary perfusion on scintigraphies in pulmonary tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Tadashige [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). School of Allied Medical Sciences; Tanaka, Masao; Koizumi, Tomonori; Kubo, Keishi

    2000-02-01

    Tl-201 lung uptake in 74 patients (85 lesions) and pulmonary perfusion in 105 patients were studied to evaluate clinical usefulness of Tl-201 lung uptake and perfusion lung scintigraphy in pulmonary tuberculosis, using a scintillation camera with a mini-computer system. As indices of Tl-201 lung uptake, lung (lesion) to upper mediastinum uptake ratio (L/M) and visual grading were used. L/M in pulmonary tuberculosis was 1.96{+-}0.66, which was significantly larger than 1.04{+-}0.24 in healthy controls and lower than that in heart diseases with left heart failure and idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, and showed no significant differences with that in acute pneumonia, pyothorax, primary lung cancer and malignant mediastinal tumor. L/M in pulmonary tuberculosis did not correlate with CRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Gaffky number of sputum and body temperature. It correlated with the type of pulmonary tuberculosis according to the Gakken Classification reflecting the disease activity. It was larger in the exudative type, caseo-infiltrative one, disseminated one, one with cavity in infiltrative lesion than the fibro-caseous one. On perfusion lung scintigram, impairment of pulmonary perfusion larger than area of the entire unilateral lung was observed in 68 cases (64.8%). Area of hypoperfused lung field, which correlated with % vital capacity (r=0.60, p=0.0002) and PaO{sub 2} (r=0.39,p=0.0024), was significantly larger in patients with silicosis and those with bilateral pleural involvements such as pleural callosity than in those with type III according to the Gakkai Classification. Most of the patients showed decreased pulmonary perfusion and Tl-201 accumulation of which grade reflects the disease activity in active tuberculous lesion. Patients with miliary tuberculosis and those with silicotuberculosis showed diffuse Tl-201 accumulation in the both lungs. Tl-201 lung scintigraphy seems to be useful for visualizing active tuberculous lesions, particularly the ones

  11. Evaluation of Tl-201 lung uptake and impairment of pulmonary perfusion on scintigraphies in pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tl-201 lung uptake in 74 patients (85 lesions) and pulmonary perfusion in 105 patients were studied to evaluate clinical usefulness of Tl-201 lung uptake and perfusion lung scintigraphy in pulmonary tuberculosis, using a scintillation camera with a mini-computer system. As indices of Tl-201 lung uptake, lung (lesion) to upper mediastinum uptake ratio (L/M) and visual grading were used. L/M in pulmonary tuberculosis was 1.96±0.66, which was significantly larger than 1.04±0.24 in healthy controls and lower than that in heart diseases with left heart failure and idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, and showed no significant differences with that in acute pneumonia, pyothorax, primary lung cancer and malignant mediastinal tumor. L/M in pulmonary tuberculosis did not correlate with CRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Gaffky number of sputum and body temperature. It correlated with the type of pulmonary tuberculosis according to the Gakken Classification reflecting the disease activity. It was larger in the exudative type, caseo-infiltrative one, disseminated one, one with cavity in infiltrative lesion than the fibro-caseous one. On perfusion lung scintigram, impairment of pulmonary perfusion larger than area of the entire unilateral lung was observed in 68 cases (64.8%). Area of hypoperfused lung field, which correlated with % vital capacity (r=0.60, p=0.0002) and PaO2 (r=0.39,p=0.0024), was significantly larger in patients with silicosis and those with bilateral pleural involvements such as pleural callosity than in those with type III according to the Gakkai Classification. Most of the patients showed decreased pulmonary perfusion and Tl-201 accumulation of which grade reflects the disease activity in active tuberculous lesion. Patients with miliary tuberculosis and those with silicotuberculosis showed diffuse Tl-201 accumulation in the both lungs. Tl-201 lung scintigraphy seems to be useful for visualizing active tuberculous lesions, particularly the ones that could

  12. Enhanced Arabidopsis pattern-triggered immunity by overexpression of cysteine-rich receptor-like kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hung eYeh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Upon recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs such as the bacterial flagellin (or the derived peptide flg22 by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs such as the FLAGELLIN SENSING2 (FLS2, plants activate the pattern-triggered immunity (PTI response. The L-type lectin receptor kinase-VI.2 (LecRK-VI.2 is a positive regulator of Arabidopsis thaliana PTI. Cysteine-rich receptor-like kinases (CRKs possess two copies of the C-X8-C-X2-C (DUF26 motif in their extracellular domains and are thought to be involved in plant stress resistance, but data about CRK functions are scarce. Here we show that Arabidopsis overexpressing the LecRK-VI.2-responsive CRK4, CRK6 and CRK36 demonstrated an enhanced PTI response and were resistant to virulent bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Notably, the flg22-triggered oxidative burst was primed in CRK4, CRK6, and CRK36 transgenics and up-regulation of the PTI-responsive gene FLG22-INDUCED RECEPTOR-LIKE 1 (FRK1 was potentiated upon flg22 treatment in CRK4 and CRK6 overexpression lines or constitutively increased by CRK36 overexpression. PTI-mediated callose deposition was not affected by overexpression of CRK4 and CRK6, while CRK36 overexpression lines demonstrated constitutive accumulation of callose. In addition, Pst DC3000-mediated stomatal reopening was blocked in CRK4 and CRK36 overexpression lines, while overexpression of CRK6 induced constitutive stomatal closure suggesting a strengthening of stomatal immunity. Finally, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation analyses in Arabidopsis protoplasts suggested that the plasma membrane localized CRK4, CRK6 and CRK36 associate with the PRR FLS2. Association with FLS2 and the observation that overexpression of CRK4, CRK6, and CRK36 boosts specific PTI outputs and resistance to bacteria suggest a role for these CRKs in Arabidopsis innate immunity.

  13. Assessment of diffusional anisotropy of the corpus callosum in patients with multiple lacunar infarcts. Relationship between the apparent diffusion coefficient ratio and global cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Makiko; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Amano, Yasuo; Takagi, Ryo; Nakahara, Madoka; Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan); Cho, Keiichi; Okada, Susumu

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate diffusional anisotropy of white matter in patients with multiple lacunar infarcts using diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging (DW-EPI), and to examine the relationship between diffusional anisotropy and global cognitive ability as assessed by the mini-mental status examination (MMSE). In particular, we focused on the parameter changes for the corpus callosum as a marker for disconnection of the associative cortices. Twenty-nine patients divided into 2 cognitive level groups (low MMSE, n=16; high MMSE, n=13) and 8 normal controls were examined with a GE 1.5 T Horizon system. Three series of DW-EPI images were obtained using the following epidw{sub g}{center_dot}psd{sup TM} sequence: TR/TE=6500/120 ms, single shot, 6.5 mm slice thickness and 1.5 mm gap transaxial sections of the whole brain, with b-factors of 0 and 710 along each x- and y-axial direction. The parametric maps for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in each direction, ADC(x) and ADC(y), and their rate map (ADC rate=ADC(x)/ADC(y)) were created on a pixel-by-pixel basis. ROI data were extracted from images of the corpus callosum and bilateral optic radiata. As a result, the ADC(x) was markedly larger for corpus callosum than that for optic radiata, whereas the ADC(y) showed an inverse trend, attributable to regional differences of diffusional anisotropy. In corpus callosum, however, the ADC(y) values were observed to increase with the level of disease severity, resulting in a decrease of the ADC rate. Notably, there was a significant difference between the three groups for callosal genu, with a slight positive correlation between the ADC rate and the MMSE scores. Our study suggests that a relationship exists between the reduction of diffusional anisotropy in callosal genu and the global cognitive impairment seen in patients with multiple lacunar infarcts. (K.H.)

  14. Assessment of diffusional anisotropy of the corpus callosum in patients with multiple lacunar infarcts. Relationship between the apparent diffusion coefficient ratio and global cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate diffusional anisotropy of white matter in patients with multiple lacunar infarcts using diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging (DW-EPI), and to examine the relationship between diffusional anisotropy and global cognitive ability as assessed by the mini-mental status examination (MMSE). In particular, we focused on the parameter changes for the corpus callosum as a marker for disconnection of the associative cortices. Twenty-nine patients divided into 2 cognitive level groups (low MMSE, n=16; high MMSE, n=13) and 8 normal controls were examined with a GE 1.5 T Horizon system. Three series of DW-EPI images were obtained using the following epidwg·psdTM sequence: TR/TE=6500/120 ms, single shot, 6.5 mm slice thickness and 1.5 mm gap transaxial sections of the whole brain, with b-factors of 0 and 710 along each x- and y-axial direction. The parametric maps for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in each direction, ADC(x) and ADC(y), and their rate map (ADC rate=ADC(x)/ADC(y)) were created on a pixel-by-pixel basis. ROI data were extracted from images of the corpus callosum and bilateral optic radiata. As a result, the ADC(x) was markedly larger for corpus callosum than that for optic radiata, whereas the ADC(y) showed an inverse trend, attributable to regional differences of diffusional anisotropy. In corpus callosum, however, the ADC(y) values were observed to increase with the level of disease severity, resulting in a decrease of the ADC rate. Notably, there was a significant difference between the three groups for callosal genu, with a slight positive correlation between the ADC rate and the MMSE scores. Our study suggests that a relationship exists between the reduction of diffusional anisotropy in callosal genu and the global cognitive impairment seen in patients with multiple lacunar infarcts. (K.H.)

  15. Effects of Visual Loss in the Corpus Callosum in Rats Subjected to Sensory-Motor Training Efectos de la Deprivación Visual en el Cuerpo Calloso en Ratas Sometidas a Entrenamiento Sensoriomotriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Suazo Galdames

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in the dimensions of different portions of the corpus callosum in rats subjected to sensory-motor enriched environment with visual loss. We used 24 adult Sprague­Dawley rats divided into three groups: G1 (n = 7 control, G2 (n = 10 subjected to sensory-motor stimulation, and G3 (n = 7 subjected to sensory-motor stimulation followed by visual loss by retinal injury. The brains were extracted and the corpus callosum was divided into three parts of equal length, corresponding to the genu, mid-body, and splenium, and the callosal area was determined according to the method described by Aboitiz et al. (1992. We observed normal performance among animals in G2 and G3 in the enriched environment with a decrease in the area of the posterior third of the corpus callosum or splenium in G3. However, these differences were not statistically significant when compared with G1 and G2, which suggests that prior training to G3 retinal lesion favored the performance observed after the injury.El propósito de este estudio fue analizar los cambios en las dimensiones de las diferentes porciones del cuerpo calloso en ratas sometidas a un medio ambiente enriquecido sensoriomotriz con deprivación visual. Se utilizaron 24 ratas Sprague Dawley adultas divididas en tres grupos: G1(n=7 control; G2 (n=10 sometidas a estimulación sensoriomotriz y G3 (n=7 sometidas a estimulación sensoriomotriz seguida de deprivación visual por lesión retiniana. Se obtuvieron los encéfalos y el cuerpo calloso fue dividido en tres tercios correspondiendo a la rodilla, tercio medio y esplenio. El área callosal se determinó de acuerdo al método descrito por Aboitiz et al. (1992. Encontramos un rendimiento normal de los animales de G2 y G3 en el medio ambiente enriquecido, con disminución en el área del tercio posterior o esplenio del cuerpo calloso en G3, aunque estas diferencias no fueron estadísticamente significativas al

  16. Pantomime to visual presentation of objects: left hand dyspraxia in patients with complete callosotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausberg, Hedda; Cruz, Robyn F; Kita, Sotaro; Zaidel, Eran; Ptito, Alain

    2003-02-01

    Investigations of left hand praxis in imitation and object use in patients with callosal disconnection have yielded divergent results, inducing a debate between two theoretical positions. Whereas Liepmann suggested that the left hemisphere is motor dominant, others maintain that both hemispheres have equal motor competences and propose that left hand apraxia in patients with callosal disconnection is secondary to left hemispheric specialization for language or other task modalities. The present study aims to gain further insight into the motor competence of the right hemisphere by investigating pantomime of object use in split-brain patients. Three patients with complete callosotomy and, as control groups, five patients with partial callosotomy and nine healthy subjects were examined for their ability to pantomime object use to visual object presentation and demonstrate object manipulation. In each condition, 11 objects were presented to the subjects who pantomimed or demonstrated the object use with either hand. In addition, six object pairs were presented to test bimanual coordination. Two independent raters evaluated the videotaped movement demonstrations. While object use demonstrations were perfect in all three groups, the split-brain patients displayed apraxic errors only with their left hands in the pantomime condition. The movement analysis of concept and execution errors included the examination of ipsilateral versus contralateral motor control. As the right hand/left hemisphere performances demonstrated retrieval of the correct movement concepts, concept errors by the left hand were taken as evidence for right hemisphere control. Several types of execution errors reflected a lack of distal motor control indicating the use of ipsilateral pathways. While one split-brain patient controlled his left hand predominantly by ipsilateral pathways in the pantomime condition, the error profile in the other two split-brain patients suggested that the right hemisphere

  17. EPG5-related Vici syndrome: a paradigm of neurodevelopmental disorders with defective autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Susan; Jansen, Lara; U-King-Im, Jean-Marie; Siddiqui, Ata; Lidov, Hart G W; Bodi, Istvan; Smith, Luke; Mein, Rachael; Cullup, Thomas; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Al-Owain, Mohammed; Bruwer, Zandre; Al Thihli, Khalid; El-Garhy, Rana; Flanigan, Kevin M; Manickam, Kandamurugu; Zmuda, Erik; Banks, Wesley; Gershoni-Baruch, Ruth; Mandel, Hanna; Dagan, Efrat; Raas-Rothschild, Annick; Barash, Hila; Filloux, Francis; Creel, Donnell; Harris, Michael; Hamosh, Ada; Kölker, Stefan; Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius; Hoffmann, Georg F; Manchester, David; Boyer, Philip J; Manzur, Adnan Y; Lourenco, Charles Marques; Pilz, Daniela T; Kamath, Arveen; Prabhakar, Prab; Rao, Vamshi K; Rogers, R Curtis; Ryan, Monique M; Brown, Natasha J; McLean, Catriona A; Said, Edith; Schara, Ulrike; Stein, Anja; Sewry, Caroline; Travan, Laura; Wijburg, Frits A; Zenker, Martin; Mohammed, Shehla; Fanto, Manolis; Gautel, Mathias; Jungbluth, Heinz

    2016-03-01

    Vici syndrome is a progressive neurodevelopmental multisystem disorder due to recessive mutations in the key autophagy gene EPG5. We report genetic, clinical, neuroradiological, and neuropathological features of 50 children from 30 families, as well as the neuronal phenotype of EPG5 knock-down in Drosophila melanogaster. We identified 39 different EPG5 mutations, most of them truncating and predicted to result in reduced EPG5 protein. Most mutations were private, but three recurrent mutations (p.Met2242Cysfs*5, p.Arg417*, and p.Gln336Arg) indicated possible founder effects. Presentation was mainly neonatal, with marked hypotonia and feeding difficulties. In addition to the five principal features (callosal agenesis, cataracts, hypopigmentation, cardiomyopathy, and immune dysfunction), we identified three equally consistent features (profound developmental delay, progressive microcephaly, and failure to thrive). The manifestation of all eight of these features has a specificity of 97%, and a sensitivity of 89% for the presence of an EPG5 mutation and will allow informed decisions about genetic testing. Clinical progression was relentless and many children died in infancy. Survival analysis demonstrated a median survival time of 24 months (95% confidence interval 0-49 months), with only a 10th of patients surviving to 5 years of age. Survival outcomes were significantly better in patients with compound heterozygous mutations (P = 0.046), as well as in patients with the recurrent p.Gln336Arg mutation. Acquired microcephaly and regression of skills in long-term survivors suggests a neurodegenerative component superimposed on the principal neurodevelopmental defect. Two-thirds of patients had a severe seizure disorder, placing EPG5 within the rapidly expanding group of genes associated with early-onset epileptic encephalopathies. Consistent neuroradiological features comprised structural abnormalities, in particular callosal agenesis and pontine hypoplasia, delayed

  18. Comparative Transcriptome and iTRAQ Proteome Analyses of Citrus Root Responses to Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Zhong

    Full Text Available Root samples of 'Sanhu' red tangerine trees infected with and without Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas were collected at 50 days post inoculation and subjected to RNA-sequencing and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ to profile the differentially expressed genes (DEGs and proteins (DEPs, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR was subsequently used to confirm the expression of 16 selected DEGs. Results showed that a total of 3956 genes and 78 proteins were differentially regulated by HLB-infection. Among the most highly up-regulated DEPs were sperm specific protein 411, copper ion binding protein, germin-like proteins, subtilisin-like proteins and serine carboxypeptidase-like 40 proteins whose transcript levels were concomitantly up-regulated as shown by RNA-seq data. Comparison between our results and those of the previously reported showed that known HLB-modulated biological pathways including cell-wall modification, protease-involved protein degradation, carbohydrate metabolism, hormone synthesis and signaling, transcription activities, and stress responses were similarly regulated by HLB infection but different or root-specific changes did exist. The root unique changes included the down-regulation in genes of ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation pathway, secondary metabolism, cytochrome P450s, UDP-glucosyl transferases and pentatricopeptide repeat containing proteins. Notably, nutrient absorption was impaired by HLB-infection as the expression of the genes involved in Fe, Zn, N and P adsorption and transportation were significantly changed. HLB-infection induced some cellular defense responses but simultaneously reduced the biosynthesis of the three major classes of secondary metabolites, many of which are known to have anti-pathogen activities. Genes involved in callose deposition were up-regulated whereas those involved in callose degradation were also up-regulated, indicating that the sieve tube

  19. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles

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    De Fine Licht Henrik H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae, wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily

  20. The apoplastic oxidative burst in response to biotic stress in plants: a three-component system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolwell, G Paul; Bindschedler, Laurence V; Blee, Kristopher A; Butt, Vernon S; Davies, Dewi R; Gardner, Sarah L; Gerrish, Chris; Minibayeva, Farida

    2002-05-01

    The oxidative burst, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to microbial pathogen attack, is a ubiquitous early part of the resistance mechanisms of plant cells. It has also become apparent from the study of a number of plant-pathogen interactions and those modelled by elicitor treatment of cultured cells that there may be more than one mechanism operating. However, one mechanism may be dominant in any given species. NADPH oxidases have been implicated in a number of systems and have been cloned and characterized. However, the enzyme system which is the major source of ROS in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cells treated with a cell wall elicitor from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, appears to be dependent on an exocellular peroxidase. The second component, the extracellular alkalinization, occurs as a result of the Ca(2+) and proton influxes and the K(+) efflux common to most elicitation systems as one of the earliest responses. The third component, the actual reductant/substrate, has remained elusive. The low molecular weight compound composition of apoplastic fluid was compared before and after elicitation. The substrate only becomes available some min after elicitation and can be extracted, so that by comparing the profiles by LC-MS it has been possible to identify possible substrates. The mechanism has proved to be complex and may involve a number of low molecular weight components. Stimulation of H(2)O(2) production was observed with saturated fatty acids such as palmitate and stearate without concomitant oxylipin production. This biochemical evidence is supported by immunolocalization studies on papillae forming at bacterial infection sites that show the peroxidase isoform present at sites of H(2)O(2) production revealed by cerium chloride staining together with the cross-linked wall proteins and callose and callose synthase. The peroxidase has been cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris and has been shown to catalyse the oxidation

  1. Enhancing blast disease resistance by overexpression of the calcium-dependent protein kinase OsCPK4 in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundó, Mireia; Coca, María

    2016-06-01

    Rice is the most important staple food for more than half of the human population, and blast disease is the most serious disease affecting global rice production. In this work, the isoform OsCPK4 of the rice calcium-dependent protein kinase family is reported as a regulator of rice immunity to blast fungal infection. It shows that overexpression of OsCPK4 gene in rice plants enhances resistance to blast disease by preventing fungal penetration. The constitutive accumulation of OsCPK4 protein prepares rice plants for a rapid and potentiated defence response, including the production of reactive oxygen species, callose deposition and defence gene expression. OsCPK4 overexpression leads also to constitutive increased content of the glycosylated salicylic acid hormone in leaves without compromising rice yield. Given that OsCPK4 overexpression was known to confer also salt and drought tolerance in rice, the results reported in this article demonstrate that OsCPK4 acts as a convergence component that positively modulates both biotic and abiotic signalling pathways. Altogether, our findings indicate that OsCPK4 is a potential molecular target to improve not only abiotic stress tolerance, but also blast disease resistance of rice crops. PMID:26578239

  2. Lead deposited in the cell wall of Funaria hygrometrica protonemata is not stable - A remobilization can occur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hypothesis that lead (Pb) can be uptake or remobilized from the cell wall (CW) by internalization withlow-esterified pectins (up to 40% - JIM5-P), was studied in tip-growing apical cell of Funaria hygrometrica protonemata. Treatment 4 h with 1 mM PbCl2 caused marked vesicular traffic intensification and the common internalization of JIM5-P from the CW. Lead bound to JIM5-P was internalized from the CW, together with this compound and entered the protoplast. It showed that Pb deposited in CW is not as safe for plant cell as previously believed. However, pulse-chase experiments (recovering 4 h and 24 h) indicated that CW and its thickenings can function as the final sequestration compartments. In Pb deposition sites, a callose layer occurred. It was localized from the protoplast site, next to Pb deposits separating sequestrated to CW and its thickenings Pb from plasma membrane almost certainly protecting the plant cell from its returning into the protoplast. - Lead bound to low-esterified pectins in cell wall can be uptake or remobilized by endocytosis together with this pectin epitope.

  3. A Phytophthora sojae effector PsCRN63 forms homo-/hetero-dimers to suppress plant immunity via an inverted association manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Zhang, Meixiang; Shen, Danyu; Liu, Tingli; Chen, Yanyu; Zhou, Jian-Min; Dou, Daolong

    2016-01-01

    Oomycete pathogens produce a large number of effectors to promote infection. Their mode of action are largely unknown. Here we show that a Phytophthora sojae effector, PsCRN63, suppresses flg22-induced expression of FRK1 gene, a molecular marker in pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). However, PsCRN63 does not suppress upstream signaling events including flg22-induced MAPK activation and BIK1 phosphorylation, indicating that it acts downstream of MAPK cascades. The PsCRN63-transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed increased susceptibility to bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato (Pst) DC3000 and oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici. The callose deposition were suppressed in PsCRN63-transgenic plants compared with the wild-type control plants. Genes involved in PTI were also down-regulated in PsCRN63-transgenic plants. Interestingly, we found that PsCRN63 forms an dimer that is mediated by inter-molecular interactions between N-terminal and C-terminal domains in an inverted association manner. Furthermore, the N-terminal and C-terminal domains required for the dimerization are widely conserved among CRN effectors, suggesting that homo-/hetero-dimerization of Phytophthora CRN effectors is required to exert biological functions. Indeed, the dimerization was required for PTI suppression and cell death-induction activities of PsCRN63. PMID:27243217

  4. AtMYB103 is a crucial regulator of several pathways affecting Arabidopsis anther development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Previous reports indicated that AtMYB103 has an important role in tapetum development,callose dissolution,and exine formation in A.thaliana anthers.Here,we further characterized its function in anther development by expression pattern analysis,transmission electron microscopy observation of the knockout mutant,and microarray analysis of downstream genes.A total of 818 genes differentially expressed between ms188 and the wild-type were identified by global expression profiling analysis.Functional classification showed that loss-of-function of AtMYB103 impairs cell wall modification,lipid metabolic pathways,and signal transduction throughout anther development.RNA in situ hybridization confirmed that transcription factors acting downstream of AtMYB103 (At1g06280 and At1g02040) were expressed in the tapetum and microspores at later stages,suggesting that they might have important roles in microsporogenesis.These results indicated that AtMYB103 is a crucial regulator of Arabidopsis anther development.

  5. Bird-like anatomy, posture, and behavior revealed by an early jurassic theropod dinosaur resting trace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, A.R.C.; Harris, J.D.; Lockley, M.G.; Kirkland, J.I.; Matthews, N.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Fossil tracks made by non-avian theropod dinosaurs commonly reflect the habitual bipedal stance retained in living birds. Only rarely-captured behaviors, such as crouching, might create impressions made by the hands. Such tracks provide valuable information concerning the often poorly understood functional morphology of the early theropod forelimb. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here we describe a well-preserved theropod trackway in a Lower Jurassic (???198 millionyear- old) lacustrine beach sandstone in the Whitmore Point Member of the Moenave Formation in southwestern Utah. The trackway consists of prints of typical morphology, intermittent tail drags and, unusually, traces made by the animal resting on the substrate in a posture very similar to modern birds. The resting trace includes symmetrical pes impressions and well-defined impressions made by both hands, the tail, and the ischial callosity. Conclusions/Significance: The manus impressions corroborate that early theropods, like later birds, held their palms facing medially, in contrast to manus prints previously attributed to theropods that have forward-pointing digits. Both the symmetrical resting posture and the medially-facing palms therefore evolved by the Early Jurassic, much earlier in the theropod lineage than previously recognized, and may characterize all theropods.

  6. Aberrant structural and functional connectivity in the salience network and central executive network circuit in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quan; Chen, Xingui; He, Xiaoxuan; Wang, Lu; Wang, Kai; Qiu, Bensheng

    2016-08-01

    Consistent structural and functional abnormities have been detected in the salience network (SN) and the central-executive network (CEN) in schizophrenia. SN, known for its critical role in switching CEN and default-mode network (DMN) during cognitively demanding tasks, is proved to show aberrant regulation on the interaction between DMN and CEN in schizophrenia. However, it has not been elucidated whether there is a direct alteration of structural and functional connectivity between SN and CEN. 22 schizophrenia patients and 21 healthy controls were recruited for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in present study. The results show that schizophrenia patients had lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in right inferior long fasciculus (ILF), left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) and callosal body than healthy controls. Significantly reduced functional connectivity was also found between right fronto-insular cortex (rFIC) and right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC). FA in right ILF was positively correlated with the functional connectivity of rFIC-rPPC. Therefore, we proposed a disruption of structural and functional connectivity and a positive anatomo-functional relationship in SN-CEN circuit, which might account for a core feature of schizophrenia. PMID:27233217

  7. Assessment of the hemispheric lateralization of grapheme-color synesthesia with Stroop-type tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Mathieu J; Hupé, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia, the idiosyncratic, arbitrary association of colors to letters or numbers, develops in childhood once reading is mastered. Because language processing is strongly left-lateralized in most individuals, we hypothesized that grapheme-color synesthesia could be left-lateralized as well. We used synesthetic versions of the Stroop test with colored letters and numbers presented either in the right or the left visual field of thirty-four synesthetes. Interference by synesthetic colors was stronger for stimuli in the right hemifield (first experiment, color naming task). Synesthetes were also faster in the right hemifield when naming the synesthetic color of graphemes (second experiment). Overall, the lateralization effect was 7 ms (the 95% confidence interval was [1.5 12] ms), a delay compatible with an additional callosal transfer for stimuli presented in the left hemifield. Though weak, this effect suggests that the association of synesthetic colors to graphemes may be preferentially processed in the left hemisphere. We speculate that this left-lateralization could be a landmark of synesthetic grapheme-color associations, if not found for color associations learnt by non-synesthete adults. PMID:25793307

  8. Morphometry of the corpus callosum in Chinese children: relationship with gender and academic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Wing Hung Alex; Chan, Yu.Lung [Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Shatin, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Au, Kit Sum Agnes [James Cook University, Department of Psychology, Townsville, Queensland (Australia); Yeung, Ka Wai David; Kwan, Ting Fai; To, Cho Yee

    2005-06-01

    The corpus callosum has been widely studied, but no study has demonstrated whether its size and shape have any relationship with language and calculation performance. To examine the morphometry of the corpus callosum of normal Chinese children and its relationship with gender and academic performance. One hundred primary school children (63 boys, 37 girls; age 6.5-10 years) were randomly selected and the standardized academic performance for each was ascertained. On the mid-sagittal section of a brain MRI, the length, height and total area of the corpus callosum and its thickness at different sites were measured. These were correlated with sex and academic performance. Apart from the normal average dimension of the different parts of the corpus callosum, thickness at the body-splenium junction in the average-to-good performance group was significantly greater than the below-average performance group in Chinese language (P=0.005), English language (P=0.02) and mathematics (P=0.01). The remainder of the callosal thickness showed no significant relationship with academic performance. There was no significant sex difference in the thickness of any part of the corpus callosum. These findings raise the suggestion that language and mathematics proficiency may be related to the morphometry of the fibre connections in the posterior parietal lobes. (orig.)

  9. Prevalence of Subcallosal Striation as A Radiologic Finding in Multiple Sclerosis Patients Sagital with FLAIR MR Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alizadeh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Multiple sclerosis is one of the debilitating neurological diseases. MRI findings play a major role in diagnosis of diseases, but unfortunately are non-specific. This study was conducted to deter-mine the prevalence of Subcallosal Striation as an early MR finding in MS patients."nPatients and Methods: In this case series, patients re-ferred to our imaging center, Poursina hospital, Rasht, Guilan University of medical sciences with multiple Sclerosis, selected with census method, were studied. For evaluation of subcallosal striation, sagital FLAIR imaging, added to routine MR studies of the brain. The images were reviewed for presence of sub-callosal striation which is linear 1-2 mm thick foci of hyperintensities, perpendicular to epandyma, like stack of coins. Data were reviewed in Excel program and descriptive statistical indicators were extracted."nResults: Most of the patients with Multiple Sclerosis (more than 90% had subcallosal striations. Also we found pericallosal region, subcortical region, hemi-spheric white matter, posterior fossa, brain stem, proximal cervical spinal cord and optic nerves as the most common locations for MS plaques."nConclusion: Subcallosal Striation is a common early radiological finding in MS patients and could help us in differential diagnosis of the disease.

  10. Quantifying and comparing the pattern of thalamic and cortical projections to the posterior auditory field in hearing and deaf cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Blake E; Chabot, Nicole; Lomber, Stephen G

    2016-10-15

    Following sensory loss, compensatory crossmodal reorganization occurs such that the remaining modalities are functionally enhanced. For example, behavioral evidence suggests that peripheral visual localization is better in deaf than in normal hearing animals, and that this enhancement is mediated by recruitment of the posterior auditory field (PAF), an area that is typically involved in localization of sounds in normal hearing animals. To characterize the anatomical changes that underlie this phenomenon, we identified the thalamic and cortical projections to the PAF in hearing cats and those with early- and late-onset deafness. The retrograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine was deposited in the PAF unilaterally, to label cortical and thalamic afferents. Following early deafness, there was a significant decrease in callosal projections from the contralateral PAF. Late-deaf animals showed small-scale changes in projections from one visual cortical area, the posterior ectosylvian field (EPp), and the multisensory zone (MZ). With the exception of these minor differences, connectivity to the PAF was largely similar between groups, with the principle projections arising from the primary auditory cortex (A1) and the ventral division of the medial geniculate body (MGBv). This absence of large-scale connectional change suggests that the functional reorganization that follows sensory loss results from changes in synaptic strength and/or unmasking of subthreshold intermodal connections. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3042-3063, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27019080

  11. Impact of chemical elements on heart failure progression in coronary heart disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherniavsky Aleksander

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. The high prevalence, poor prog-nosis of patients with coronary heart disease with chronic heart failure determine the relevance of the study pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms of this pathology. Researches of the trace element metabolism in the myocardium are scarce. With this in mind, an attempt was made to analyze the relationship of macro and trace elements metabolism with the functional state of the myocardium in coronary heart disease patients against the background of chronic heart failure progression. Methods and Results. To study the content of the chemical elements (S, K, Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr in the myocardium of 43 patients with coronary heart disease, use was made of X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation. While doing autopsy, 43 samples of left ventricle myocardium were taken off the cardiac callosity. Myocardium samples were subjected to histological examination. Dynamics of macro and trace elements content in the myocardium reflects the development of energy deficiency and disorders of myocardial microcirculation with a decrease of systolic myocardial function. Structural/functional disorders in the myocardium of the left ventricle of patients with coronary heart disease that accompany the progression of chronic heart failure are associated with profound changes of metabolic processes in heart muscle. Conclusions. The structural/ functional changes accompanying chronic heart failure progression are associated with wide variations of metabolic processes in the myocardium, which could be evaluated by the content of chemical elements in tissue.

  12. Electrical signalling along the phloem and its physiological responses in the maize leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg eFromm

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the role of electrical signalling in the phloem of maize the tips of attached leaves were stimulated by chilling and wounding. Two different signals were detected in the phloem at the middle of the leaf using the aphid stylet technique: (i action potentials (AP arose in the phloem after chilling; and (ii variation potentials (VP were evoked after wounding the leaf tip. Combined electric potential and gas exchange measurements showed that while the wound-induced VP moved rapidly towards the middle of the leaf to induce a reduction in both the net-CO2 uptake rate and the stomatal conductance, there was no response in the gas exchange to the cold-induced AP. To determine if electrical signalling had any impact on assimilate transport the middle of the leaf was exposed to 14CO2. Autoradiography of labelled assimilates provided evidence that phloem and intercellular transport of assimilates from mesophyll to bundle sheath cells was strongly reduced while the cold-induced AP moved through. In contrast, wound-induced VP did not inhibit assimilate translocation but did reduce the amount of the labelled assimilate in phloem and bundle sheath cells. Biochemical analysis revealed that callose content increased significantly in chilled leaves while starch increased in chilled but decreased in wounded leaves. The results led to the conclusion that different stimulation types incite characteristic phloem-transmitted electrical signals, each with a specific influence on gas exchange and assimilate transport.

  13. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing of Olea europaea L. to Identify Genes Involved in the Development of the Pollen Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaria, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    In olive (Olea europaea L.), the processes controlling self-incompatibility are still unclear and the molecular basis underlying this process are still not fully characterized. In order to determine compatibility relationships, using next-generation sequencing techniques and a de novo transcriptome assembly strategy, we show that pollen tubes from different olive plants, grown in vitro in a medium containing its own pistil and in combination pollen/pistil from self-sterile and self-fertile cultivars, have a distinct gene expression profile and many of the differentially expressed sequences between the samples fall within gene families involved in the development of the pollen tube, such as lipase, carboxylesterase, pectinesterase, pectin methylesterase, and callose synthase. Moreover, different genes involved in signal transduction, transcription, and growth are overrepresented. The analysis also allowed us to identify members in actin and actin depolymerization factor and fibrin gene family and member of the Ca2+ binding gene family related to the development and polarization of pollen apical tip. The whole transcriptomic analysis, through the identification of the differentially expressed transcripts set and an extended functional annotation analysis, will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of pollen germination and pollen tube growth in the olive. PMID:26998509

  14. MR measurement of normal corpus callosum: Age and sex differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of various portions of the corpus callosum was performed on magnetic resonance(MR) images of 114 subjects with no known or suspected corpus callosal disorders. Midsagittal T1-weighted images used for measurements and mean diameters of various portions in each age and sex group were obtained. Measures of five portions were made: (A) the anterio-posterior length, (B) the diameter of genu position, (C) the diameter of splenium, (D) the diameter of mid-body portion, (E) the diameter of a narrow portion at the body of corpus callosum. The mean diameter in each gender group for A, B, C, D and E were 68.8 mm, 12.1 mm, 12.3 mm, 6,9 mm, 4.1 mm in male and 69.9 mm, 12.0 mm, 12.1 mm, 6.4 mm, 4.1 mm in female, retrospectively. The groups of 0-9 years of both genders showed the minimum mean value in each portion

  15. Molecular and structural changes induced by essential oils treatments in Vicia faba roots detected by genotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturchio, Elena; Boccia, Priscilla; Zanellato, Miriam; Meconi, Claudia; Donnarumma, Lucia; Mercurio, Giuseppe; Mecozzi, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been an increased interest in exploiting allelopathy in organic agriculture. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effects of essential oil mixtures in order to establish their allelopathic use in agriculture. Two mixtures of essential oils consisting respectively of tea tree oil (TTO) and clove plus rosemary (C + R) oils were tested. Phytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests on the root meristems of Vicia faba minor were performed. A phytotoxic influence was particularly relevant for C + R mixture, while genotoxicity tests revealed significant results with both C + R oil mixture and TTO. Phenotypic analysis on Vicia faba minor primary roots following C + R oil mixture treatment resulted in callose production, an early symptom attributed to lipid peroxidation. The approach described in this study, based on genotoxicity bioassays, might identify specific DNA damage induced by essential oil treatments. These tests may represent a powerful method to evaluate potential adverse effects of different mixtures of essential oils that might be useful in alternative agriculture. Future studies are focusing on the positive synergism of more complex mixtures of essential oils in order to reduce concentrations of potentially toxic components while at the same time maintaining efficacy in antimicrobial and antifungal management. PMID:26914511

  16. Layer specific and general requirements for ERK/MAPK signaling in the developing neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lei; Larsen, Rylan S; Bjorklund, George Reed; Li, Xiaoyan; Wu, Yaohong; Philpot, Benjamin D; Snider, William D; Newbern, Jason M

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant signaling through the Raf/MEK/ERK (ERK/MAPK) pathway causes pathology in a family of neurodevelopmental disorders known as 'RASopathies' and is implicated in autism pathogenesis. Here, we have determined the functions of ERK/MAPK signaling in developing neocortical excitatory neurons. Our data reveal a critical requirement for ERK/MAPK signaling in the morphological development and survival of large Ctip2(+) neurons in layer 5. Loss of Map2k1/2 (Mek1/2) led to deficits in corticospinal tract formation and subsequent corticospinal neuron apoptosis. ERK/MAPK hyperactivation also led to reduced corticospinal axon elongation, but was associated with enhanced arborization. ERK/MAPK signaling was dispensable for axonal outgrowth of layer 2/3 callosal neurons. However, Map2k1/2 deletion led to reduced expression of Arc and enhanced intrinsic excitability in both layers 2/3 and 5, in addition to imbalanced synaptic excitation and inhibition. These data demonstrate selective requirements for ERK/MAPK signaling in layer 5 circuit development and general effects on cortical pyramidal neuron excitability. PMID:26848828

  17. Activation of auditory white matter tracts as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to detect activation in brain white matter (WM) is controversial. In particular, studies on the functional activation of WM tracts in the central auditory system are scarce. We utilized fMRI to assess and characterize the entire auditory WM pathway under robust experimental conditions involving the acquisition of a large number of functional volumes, the application of broadband auditory stimuli of high intensity, and the use of sparse temporal sampling to avoid scanner noise effects and increase signal-to-noise ratio. Nineteen healthy volunteers were subjected to broadband white noise in a block paradigm; each run had four sound-on/off alternations and was repeated nine times for each subject. Sparse sampling (TR = 8 s) was used. In addition to traditional gray matter (GM) auditory center activation, WM activation was detected in the isthmus and midbody of the corpus callosum (CC), tapetum, auditory radiation, lateral lemniscus, and decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncles. At the individual level, 13 of 19 subjects (68 %) had CC activation. Callosal WM exhibited a temporal delay of approximately 8 s in response to the stimulation compared with GM. These findings suggest that direct evaluation of the entire functional network of the central auditory system may be possible using fMRI, which may aid in understanding the neurophysiological basis of the central auditory system and in developing treatment strategies for various central auditory disorders. (orig.)

  18. Riboflavin-induced Priming for Pathogen Defense in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shujian Zhang; Xue Yang; Maowu Sun; Feng Sun; Sheng Deng; Hansong Dong

    2009-01-01

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) participates in a variety of redox processes that affect plant defense responses. Previously we have shown that riboflavin induces pathogen resistance in the absence of hypersensitive cell death (HCD) in plants. Herein, we report that riboflavin induces priming of defense responses in Arabidopsis thaliana toward infection by virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato DC3000 (Pst). Induced resistance was mechanistically connected with the expression of defense response genes and cellular defense events, including H2O2 burst, HCD, and callose deposition in the plant. Riboflavin treatment and inoculation of plants with Pst were neither active but both synergized to induce defense responses. The priming process needed NPR1 (essential regulator of systemic acquired resistance) and maintenance of H2O2 burst but was independent of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, ethylene, and abscisic acid. Our results suggest that the role of riboflavin in priming defenses is subject to a signaling process distinct from the known pathways of hormone signal transduction.

  19. The Novel Oomycide Oxathiapiprolin Inhibits All Stages in the Asexual Life Cycle of Pseudoperonospora cubensis - Causal Agent of Cucurbit Downy Mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Yigal

    2015-01-01

    Oxathiapiprolin is a new oomycide (piperidinyl thiazole isoxazoline class) discovered by DuPont which controls diseases caused by oomycete plant pathogens. It binds in the oxysterol-binding protein domain of Oomycetes. Growth chambers studies with detached leaves and potted plants showed remarkable activity of oxathiapiprolin against Pseudoperonospora cubensis in cucurbits. The compound affected all stages in the asexual life cycle of the pathogen. It inhibited zoospore release, cystospore germination, lesion formation, lesion expansion, sporangiophore development and sporangial production. When applied to the foliage as a preventive spray no lesions developed due to inhibition of zoospore release and cystospore germination, and when applied curatively, at one or two days after inoculation, small restricted lesions developed but no sporulation occurred. When applied later to mature lesions, sporulation was strongly inhibited. Oxathiapiprolin suppressed sporulation of P. cubensis in naturally-infected leaves. It exhibited trans-laminar activity, translocated acropetaly from older to younger leaves, and moved from the root system to the foliage. Seed coating was highly effective in protecting the developed cucumber plants against downy mildew. UV microscopy observations made with cucumber leaves infected with P. cubensis revealed that inhibition of mycelium growth and sporulation induced by oxathiapiprolin was associated with callose encasement of the haustoria. PMID:26452052

  20. Morphometry of the corpus callosum in Chinese children: relationship with gender and academic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corpus callosum has been widely studied, but no study has demonstrated whether its size and shape have any relationship with language and calculation performance. To examine the morphometry of the corpus callosum of normal Chinese children and its relationship with gender and academic performance. One hundred primary school children (63 boys, 37 girls; age 6.5-10 years) were randomly selected and the standardized academic performance for each was ascertained. On the mid-sagittal section of a brain MRI, the length, height and total area of the corpus callosum and its thickness at different sites were measured. These were correlated with sex and academic performance. Apart from the normal average dimension of the different parts of the corpus callosum, thickness at the body-splenium junction in the average-to-good performance group was significantly greater than the below-average performance group in Chinese language (P=0.005), English language (P=0.02) and mathematics (P=0.01). The remainder of the callosal thickness showed no significant relationship with academic performance. There was no significant sex difference in the thickness of any part of the corpus callosum. These findings raise the suggestion that language and mathematics proficiency may be related to the morphometry of the fibre connections in the posterior parietal lobes. (orig.)

  1. Functional Topography of Human Corpus Callosum: An fMRI Mapping Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Fabri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a topographical map of the corpus callosum (CC has emerged from human lesion studies and from electrophysiological and anatomical tracing investigations in other mammals. Over the last few years a rising number of researchers have been reporting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI activation in white matter, particularly the CC. In this study the scope for describing CC topography with fMRI was explored by evoking activation through simple sensory stimulation and motor tasks. We reviewed our published and unpublished fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging data on the cortical representation of tactile, gustatory, auditory, and visual sensitivity and of motor activation, obtained in 36 normal volunteers and in 6 patients with partial callosotomy. Activation foci were consistently detected in discrete CC regions: anterior (taste stimuli, central (motor tasks, central and posterior (tactile stimuli, and splenium (auditory and visual stimuli. Reconstruction of callosal fibers connecting activated primary gustatory, motor, somatosensory, auditory, and visual cortices by diffusion tensor tracking showed bundles crossing, respectively, through the genu, anterior and posterior body, and splenium, at sites harboring fMRI foci. These data confirm that the CC commissure has a topographical organization and demonstrate that its functional topography can be explored with fMRI.

  2. Infection of Brachypodium distachyon with selected grass rust pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayliffe, Michael; Singh, Davinder; Park, Robert; Moscou, Matthew; Pryor, Tony

    2013-08-01

    The model temperate grass Brachypodium distachyon is considered a nonhost for wheat rust diseases caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, P. triticina, and P. striiformis. Up to 140 Brachypodium accessions were infected with these three rust species, in addition to P. graminis ff. spp. avena and phalaridis. Related B. distachyon lines showed similar cytological nonhost resistance (NHR) phenotypes, and an inverse relationship between P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. striiformis growth was observed in many lines, with accessions that allowed the most growth of P. graminis f. sp. tritici showing the least P. striiformis development and vice versa. Callose deposition patterns during infection by all three rust species showed similarity to the wheat basal defense response while cell death that resulted in autofluorescence did not appear to be a major component of the defense response. Infection of B. distachyon with P. graminis f. sp. avena and P. graminis f. sp. phalaridis produced much greater colonization, indicating that P. graminis rusts with Poeae hosts show greater ability to infect B. distachyon than those with Triticeae hosts. P. striiformis infection of progeny from two B. distachyon families demonstrated that these NHR phenotypes are highly heritable and appear to be under relatively simple genetic control, making this species a powerful tool for elucidating the molecular basis of NHR to cereal rust pathogens. PMID:23594350

  3. Cytological and molecular analysis of nonhost resistance in rice to wheat powdery mildew and leaf rust pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yulin; Yao, Juanni; Zhang, Hongchang; Huang, Lili; Kang, Zhensheng

    2015-07-01

    Cereal powdery mildews caused by Blumeria graminis and cereal rusts caused by Puccinia spp. are constant disease threats that limit the production of almost all important cereal crops. Rice is an intensively grown agricultural cereal that is atypical because of its immunity to all powdery mildew and rust fungi. We analyzed the nonhost interactions between rice and the wheat powdery mildew fungus B. graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) and the wheat leaf rust fungus Puccinia triticina (Ptr) to identify the basis of nonhost resistance (NHR) in rice against cereal powdery mildew and rust fungi at cytological and molecular levels. No visible symptoms were observed on rice leaves inoculated with Bgt or Ptr. Microscopic observations showed that both pathogens exhibited aberrant differentiation and significantly reduced penetration frequencies on rice compared to wheat. The development of Bgt and Ptr was also completely arrested at early infection stages in cases of successful penetration into rice leaves. Attempted infection of rice by Bgt and Ptr induced similar defense responses, including callose deposition, accumulation of reactive oxygen species, and hypersensitive response in rice epidermal and mesophyll cells, respectively. Furthermore, a set of defense-related genes were upregulated in rice against Bgt and Ptr infection. Rice is an excellent monocot model for genetic and molecular studies. Therefore, our results demonstrate that rice is a useful model to study the mechanisms of NHR to cereal powdery mildew and rust fungi, which provides useful information for the development of novel and durable strategies to control these important pathogens. PMID:25547964

  4. Nonhost resistance of rice to rust pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayliffe, Michael; Devilla, Rosangela; Mago, Rohit; White, Rosemary; Talbot, Mark; Pryor, Anthony; Leung, Hei

    2011-10-01

    Rice is atypical in that it is an agricultural cereal that is immune to fungal rust diseases. This report demonstrates that several cereal rust species (Puccinia graminis f. sp tritici, P. triticina, P. striiformis, and P. hordei) can infect rice and produce all the infection structures necessary for plant colonization, including specialized feeding cells (haustoria). Some rust infection sites are remarkably large and many plant cells are colonized, suggesting that nutrient uptake occurs to support this growth. Rice responds with an active, nonhost resistance (NHR) response that prevents fungal sporulation and that involves callose deposition, production of reactive oxygen species, and, occasionally, cell death. Genetic variation for the efficacy of NHR to wheat stem rust and wheat leaf rust was observed. Unlike cereal rusts, the rust pathogen (Melampsora lini) of the dicotyledenous plant flax (Linum usitatissimum) rarely successfully infects rice due to an apparent inability to recognize host-derived signals. Morphologically abnormal infection structures are produced and appressorial-like structures often don't coincide with stomata. These data suggest that basic compatibility is an important determinate of nonhost infection outcomes of rust diseases on cereals, with cereal rusts being more capable of infecting a cereal nonhost species compared with rust species that are adapted for dicot hosts. PMID:21899436

  5. BURSTING POLLEN is required to organize the pollen germination plaque and pollen tube tip in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoedemaekers, Karin; Derksen, Jan; Hoogstrate, Suzanne W; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Oh, Sung-Aeong; Twell, David; Mariani, Celestina; Rieu, Ivo

    2015-04-01

    Pollen germination may occur via the so-called germination pores or directly through the pollen wall at the site of contact with the stigma. In this study, we addressed what processes take place during pollen hydration (i.e. before tube emergence), in a species with extra-poral pollen germination, Arabidopsis thaliana. A T-DNA mutant population was screened by segregation distortion analysis. Histological and electron microscopy techniques were applied to examine the wild-type and mutant phenotypes. Within 1 h of the start of pollen hydration, an intine-like structure consisting of cellulose, callose and at least partly de-esterified pectin was formed at the pollen wall. Subsequently, this 'germination plaque' gradually extended and opened up to provide passage for the cytoplasm into the emerging pollen tube. BURSTING POLLEN (BUP) was identified as a gene essential for the correct organization of this plaque and the tip of the pollen tube. BUP encodes a novel Golgi-located glycosyltransferase related to the glycosyltransferase 4 (GT4) subfamily which is conserved throughout the plant kingdom. Extra-poral pollen germination involves the development of a germination plaque and BUP defines the correct plastic-elastic properties of this plaque and the pollen tube tip by affecting pectin synthesis or delivery. PMID:25442716

  6. Cell wall assembly and intracellular trafficking in plant cells are directly affected by changes in the magnitude of gravitational acceleration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Chebli

    Full Text Available Plants are able to sense the magnitude and direction of gravity. This capacity is thought to reside in selected cell types within the plant body that are equipped with specialized organelles called statoliths. However, most plant cells do not possess statoliths, yet they respond to changes in gravitational acceleration. To understand the effect of gravity on the metabolism and cellular functioning of non-specialized plant cells, we investigated a rapidly growing plant cell devoid of known statoliths and without gravitropic behavior, the pollen tube. The effects of hyper-gravity and omnidirectional exposure to gravity on intracellular trafficking and on cell wall assembly were assessed in Camellia pollen tubes, a model system with highly reproducible growth behavior in vitro. Using an epi-fluorescence microscope mounted on the Large Diameter Centrifuge at the European Space Agency, we were able to demonstrate that vesicular trafficking is reduced under hyper-gravity conditions. Immuno-cytochemistry confirmed that both in hyper and omnidirectional gravity conditions, the characteristic spatial profiles of cellulose and callose distribution in the pollen tube wall were altered, in accordance with a dose-dependent effect on pollen tube diameter. Our findings suggest that in response to gravity induced stress, the pollen tube responds by modifying cell wall assembly to compensate for the altered mechanical load. The effect was reversible within few minutes demonstrating that the pollen tube is able to quickly adapt to changing stress conditions.

  7. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockout in the mouse brain using in utero electroporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinmyo, Yohei; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tsunoda, Shinichi; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Tajima, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has recently been adapted for generating knockout mice to investigate physiological functions and pathological mechanisms. Here, we report a highly efficient procedure for brain-specific disruption of genes of interest in vivo. We constructed pX330 plasmids expressing humanized Cas9 and single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs) against the Satb2 gene, which encodes an AT-rich DNA-binding transcription factor and is responsible for callosal axon projections in the developing mouse brain. We first confirmed that these constructs efficiently induced double-strand breaks (DSBs) in target sites of exogenous plasmids both in vitro and in vivo. We then found that the introduction of pX330-Satb2 into the developing mouse brain using in utero electroporation led to a dramatic reduction of Satb2 expression in the transfected cerebral cortex, suggesting DSBs had occurred in the Satb2 gene with high efficiency. Furthermore, we found that Cas9-mediated targeting of the Satb2 gene induced abnormalities in axonal projection patterns, which is consistent with the phenotypes previously observed in Satb2 mutant mice. Introduction of pX330-NeuN using our procedure also resulted in the efficient disruption of the NeuN gene. Thus, our procedure combining the CRISPR/Cas9 system and in utero electroporation is an effective and rapid approach to achieve brain-specific gene knockout in vivo. PMID:26857612

  8. Structural and Perfusion Abnormalities of Brain on MRI and Technetium-99m-ECD SPECT in Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Kamer Singh; Narwal, Varun; Chauhan, Lokesh; Singh, Giriraj; Sharma, Monica; Chauhan, Suneel

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral palsy has traditionally been associated with hypoxic ischemic brain damage. This study was undertaken to demonstrate structural and perfusion brain abnormalities. Fifty-six children diagnosed clinically as having cerebral palsy were studied between 1 to 14 years of age and were subjected to 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brain and Technetium-99m-ECD brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan. Male to female ratio was 1.8:1 with a mean age of 4.16 ± 2.274 years. Spastic cerebral palsy was the most common type, observed in 91%. Birth asphyxia was the most common etiology (69.6%). White matter changes (73.2%) such as periventricular leukomalacia and corpus callosal thinning were the most common findings on MRI. On SPECT all cases except one revealed perfusion impairments in different regions of brain. MRI is more sensitive in detecting white matter changes, whereas SPECT is better in detecting cortical and subcortical gray matter abnormalities of perfusion. PMID:26353878

  9. Getting to PTI of bacterial RNAs: Triggering plant innate immunity by extracellular RNAs from bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Soon; Lee, Boyoung; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-07-01

    Defense against diverse biotic and abiotic stresses requires the plant to distinguish between self and non-self signaling molecules. Pathogen/microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs) are pivotal for triggering innate immunity in plants. Unlike in animals and humans, the precise roles of nucleic acids in plant innate immunity are unclear. We therefore investigated the effects of infiltration of total Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pto DC3000) RNAs into Arabidopsis plants. The pathogen population was 10-fold lower in bacterial RNAs pre-treated Arabidopsis plants than in the control. Bacterial RNAs purity was confirmed by physical (sonication) and chemical (RNase A and proteinase K digestion) methods. The perception of bacterial RNAs, especially rRNAs, positively regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and induced a reactive oxygen species burst, callose deposition, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling, and defense-related genes. Therefore, bacterial RNAs function as a new MAMP that activates plant innate immunity, providing a new paradigm for plant-microbe interactions. PMID:27301792

  10. A Case of Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome Presented with Psychiatric Features

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    Amir Mufaddel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 34-year-old male who presented with an acute onset of pleomorphic psychiatric features. Upon examination we later diagnosed him with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome based on clinical and radiological findings that are characteristic for this rare autosomal dominant syndrome. His psychiatric manifestations included irritability, aggressive behavior, labile mood, hallucinations, paranoid delusions, and transient cognitive impairment. His past history indicated surgical excision of pigmented lesion in the left lower eyelid which turned out to be a basal cell carcinoma. His past visits to dermatology clinics indicated pitted keratosis involving hands, callosities, and seborrheic dermatitis. There were numerous palmar pits, and Brain CT Head scan revealed extensive calcification along falx cerebri and around the cerebellar vermis. He had low (20 ng/L vitamin D level and high parathyroid hormone level. The patient improved using antipsychotic medications and vitamin D supplementations for symptomatic management and was discharged with a plan for multispecialty outpatient follow-up. This case highlights the importance of considering rare organic etiologies in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with psychiatric symptoms. This is of vital importance for early intervention to prevent complications and for better outcomes of the coexistent diseases.

  11. Enriched Childhood Experiences Moderate Age-related Motor and Cognitive Decline

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    Gerlinde A. Metz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with deterioration of skilled manual movement. Specifically, aging corresponds with increased reaction time, greater movement duration, segmentation of movement, increased movement variability, and reduced ability to adapt to external forces and inhibit previously learned sequences. Moreover, it is thought that decreased lateralization of neural function in older adults may point to increased neural recruitment as a compensatory response to deterioration of key frontal and intra-hemispheric networks, particularly of callosal structures. However, factors that mediate age-related motor decline are not well understood. Here we show that music training in childhood is associated with reduced age-related decline of bimanual and unimanual motor skills in a MIDI keyboard motor learning task. Compared to older adults without music training, older adults with more than a year of music training demonstrated proficient bimanual and unimanual movement, evidenced by enhanced speed and decreased movement errors. Further, this group demonstrated significantly better implicit learning in the weather prediction task, a non-motor task. The performance of older adults with music training in those tasks was comparable to young adults. Older adults, however, displayed greater verbal ability compared to young adults irrespective of a past history of music training. Our results indicate that music training early in life may reduce age-associated decline of neural motor and cognitive networks.

  12. The rheumatoid forefoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Francis; Hariharan, Kartik

    2013-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) manifests itself in a variety of ways, with its effect being seen in around 90 % of sufferers' feet. The foot has been found to be the most common reason for incapacity in patients with RA, with the forefoot the most common area. The foot is second, behind only the hand, as the most common place for manifestation of RA. Pain in the foot is commonly the most debilitating condition, which causes the patient to seek specialist help. As well as pain, foot deformities such as hallux valgus and claw toes are common complaints. These symptoms often arise as a result of continued walking on an unstable foot, leading to painful callosities and dislocation of the metatarsophalangeal joints. Other conditions, such as pannus formation and Morton's neuroma, can be related to RA. This review sets out what we believe to be a successful approach to the rheumatoid forefoot, which aims at the relief of pain and the preservation of ambulation. Key to a successful outcome is appropriate medical control with a multidisciplinary approach that enables close liaison between orthopaedic surgeons, orthotists, and rheumatologists. Combined clinics provide this multidisciplinary care. Those treating RA need to be aware of the high incidence of foot involvement and how early intervention may benefit the patient. The aim of this article is to present current evidence to enable people to develop a treatment algorithm for this condition. PMID:23943297

  13. Evaluation of the effect of clinostat rotation on pollen germination and tube development as a tool for selection of plants in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micco, Veronica; Scala, Michele; Aronne, Giovanna

    2006-05-01

    The choice of species and cultivar on which rely to sustain Close Loop Environmental Systems is generally approached by analysing the behaviour of plants in presence of stress (sporophytic selection). In this paper, we investigated the possibility to conduct the selection among genotypes in Space through the male gametophytic selection. Thus, we studied the effect of simulated microgravity on pollen germination and tube development of both woody and herbaceous crop species: Prunus armeniaca (apricot), P. dulcis (almond), Malus domestica (apple) and Vicia faba (broad bean). Pollen collected from just bloomed flowers was assessed for viability and incubated on the optimal growing medium in petri dishes both on a uni-axial clinostat and stationary in 1g. Then, pollen was observed under a light microscope to detect percent germination and growth direction. Histochemical analyses were performed to verify the presence and distribution of storage substances. Moreover, specific stainings and epifluorescent microscopy were applied to count nuclei, follow the migration of sperm cells and investigate the presence, size and morphology of callose plugs. Results showed that simulated microgravity affected pollen tube development. The different response showed by the various species indicates that male-gametophytic selection could be useful for the selection of plants in microgravity.

  14. Silencing of sterol glycosyltransferases modulates the withanolide biosynthesis and leads to compromised basal immunity of Withania somnifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gaurav; Tiwari, Manish; Singh, Surendra Pratap; Singh, Surendra; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Misra, Pratibha

    2016-01-01

    Sterol glycosyltransferases (SGTs) catalyse transfer of glycon moiety to sterols and their related compounds to produce diverse glyco-conjugates or steryl glycosides with different biological and pharmacological activities. Functional studies of SGTs from Withania somnifera indicated their role in abiotic stresses but details about role under biotic stress are still unknown. Here, we have elucidated the function of SGTs by silencing SGTL1, SGTL2 and SGTL4 in Withania somnifera. Down-regulation of SGTs by artificial miRNAs led to the enhanced accumulation of withanolide A, withaferin A, sitosterol, stigmasterol and decreased content of withanoside V in Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) lines. This was further correlated with increased expression of WsHMGR, WsDXR, WsFPPS, WsCYP710A1, WsSTE1 and WsDWF5 genes, involved in withanolide biosynthesis. These variations of withanolide concentrations in silenced lines resulted in pathogen susceptibility as compared to control plants. The infection of Alternaria alternata causes increased salicylic acid, callose deposition, superoxide dismutase and H2O2 in aMIR-VIGS lines. The expression of biotic stress related genes, namely, WsPR1, WsDFS, WsSPI and WsPR10 were also enhanced in aMIR-VIGS lines in time dependent manner. Taken together, our observations revealed that a positive feedback regulation of withanolide biosynthesis occurred by silencing of SGTLs which resulted in reduced biotic tolerance. PMID:27146059

  15. A plasmodesmal glycosyltransferase-like protein.

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    Lisa Zalepa-King

    Full Text Available Plasmodesmata (Pd are plant intercellular connections that represent cytoplasmic conduits for a wide spectrum of cellular transport cargoes, from ions to house-keeping proteins to transcription factors and RNA silencing signals; furthermore, Pd are also utilized by most plant viruses for their spread between host cells. Despite this central role of Pd in the plant life cycle, their structural and functional composition remains poorly characterized. In this study, we used a known Pd-associated calreticulin protein AtCRT1 as bait to isolate other Pd associated proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. These experiments identified a beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase-like enzyme (AtGnTL. Subcellular localization studies using confocal microscopy observed AtGnTL at Pd within living plant cells and demonstrated colocalization with a Pd callose-binding protein (AtPDCB1. That AtGnTL is resident in Pd was consistent with its localization within the plant cell wall following plasmolysis. Initial characterization of an Arabidopsis T-DNA insertional mutant in the AtGnTL gene revealed defects in seed germination and delayed plant growth.

  16. Defence responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to infection by Pseudomonas syringae are regulated by the circadian clock.

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    Vaibhav Bhardwaj

    Full Text Available The circadian clock allows plants to anticipate predictable daily changes in abiotic stimuli, such as light; however, whether the clock similarly allows plants to anticipate interactions with other organisms is unknown. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis has circadian clock-mediated variation in resistance to the virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000, with plants being least susceptible to infection in the subjective morning. We suggest that the increased resistance to Pst DC3000 observed in the morning in Col-0 plants results from clock-mediated modulation of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP-triggered immunity. Analysis of publicly available microarray data revealed that a large number of Arabidopsis defence-related genes showed both diurnal- and circadian-regulation, including genes involved in the perception of the PAMP flagellin which exhibit a peak in expression in the morning. Accordingly, we observed that PAMP-triggered callose deposition was significantly higher in wild-type plants inoculated with Pst DC3000 hrpA in the subjective morning than in the evening, while no such temporal difference was evident in arrhythmic plants. Our results suggest that PAMP-triggered immune responses are modulated by the circadian clock and that temporal regulation allows plants to anticipate and respond more effectively to pathogen challenges in the daytime.

  17. Rhombencephalosynapsis – isolated anomaly or complex malformation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhombencephalosynapsis (RES) is a rare malformation of the posterior cranial fossa, characterized by fusion of the cerebellar hemispheres, medial cerebellar peduncles and dentate nuclei. Over the period of 7 years 8 cases of this anomaly have been diagnosed in two pediatric centers in Warsaw including one on the prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material consists of involves one fetus examined at the gestational age of 27 and 33 weeks and 7 children (5 girls and 2 boys) aged 8 months – 16 years. All of them underwent brain MRI with the use of 1.5T scanners. In 1 case RES was an isolated anomaly, in 1 case it was accompanied by hydrocephalus only, in the remaining 6 cases RES was an element of a complex malformation. The additional anomalies were as follows: callosal hypoplasia in 3 children, abnormalities of gyration in 2, brainstem hypoplasia in 2, isolated fourth ventricle in 1, abnormal white matter signal intensity in 4 (in 2 cases in supratentorial compartment, in 1 in the cerebellum and in 1 in the pons), abnormally dilated extraaxial fluid collections in 2, syringohydromyelia in 2. In 5 cases RES was total, in 3 – partial. Rhombencephalosynapsis has a very characteristic appearance on magnetic resonance imaging which allows diagnosis of this malformation at any age, including prenatal period

  18. Single-shot T1 mapping of the corpus callosum: A rapid characterization of fiber bundle anatomy

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    Sabine eHofer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Using diffusion-tensor MRI and fiber tractography the topographic organization of the corpus callosum (CC has been described to comprise 5 segments with fibers projecting into prefrontal (I, premotor and supplementary motor (II, primary motor (III, and primary sensory areas (IV, as well as into parietal, temporal, and occipital cortical areas (V. In order to more rapidly characterize the underlying anatomy of these segments, this study used a novel single-shot T1 mapping method to quantitatively determine T1 relaxation times in the human CC. A region-of-interest analysis revealed a tendency for the lowest T1 relaxation times in the genu and the highest T1 relaxation times in the somatomotor region of the CC. This observation separates regions dominated by myelinated fibers with large diameters (somatomotor area from densely packed smaller axonal bundles (genu with less myelin. The results indicate that characteristic T1 relaxation times in callosal profiles provide an additional means to monitor differences in fiber anatomy, fiber density, and gray matter in respective neocortical areas. In conclusion, rapid T1 mapping allows for a characterization of the axonal architecture in an individual CC in less than 10 s. The approach emerges as a valuable means for studying neocortical brain anatomy with possible implications for the diagnosis of neurodegenerative processes.

  19. Impact of in utero exposure to EtOH on corpus callosum development and paw preference in rats: protective effects of silymarin

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    Montoya Rebecca

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a rat model we have found that the bioflavonoid silymarin (SY ameliorates some of the negative consequences of in utero exposure to ethanol (EtOH. In the current study our aim was to determine if laterality preference and corpus callosum development were altered in rat offspring whose mothers were provided with a concomitant administration of SY with EtOH throughout gestation. Methods We provided pregnant Fisher/344 rats with liquid diets containing 35% ethanol derived calories (EDC throughout the gestational period. A silymarin/phospholipid compound containing 29.8% silybin was co administered with EtOH to a separate experimental group. We tested the offspring for laterality preference at age 12 weeks. After testing the rats were sacrificed and their brains perfused for later corpus callosum extraction. Results We observed incomplete development of the splenium in the EtOH-only offspring. Callosal development was complete in all other treatment groups. Rats from the EtOH-only group displayed a left paw preference; whereas control rats were evenly divided between right and left paw preference. Inexplicably both SY groups were largely right paw preferring. Conclusions The addition of SY to the EtOH liquid diet did confer some ameliorative effects upon the developing fetal rat brain.

  20. Reversible Restricted Diffusion in the Corpus Callosum in Various Pediatric Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Kyung; Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, A Leum; Cha, Jang Gyu; Lee, Hae Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Won Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    To evaluate the reversible restricted diffusion in the corpus callosum in pediatric patients with clinical findings, and to discuss the possible pathogenesis of these lesions. Between 2007 and 2011, seven children with reversible signal abnormalities in the corpus callosum were identified and retrospectively reviewed. Diseases and conditions associated with lesions included: trauma (n = 3), neonatal seizure (n = 1), clinically suspected mild encephalopathy (n = 1), multiple sclerosis (n = 1), and seizure with subdural hygroma (n = 1). The callosal lesions were located in the splenium and the genu (n = 2), the splenium and the body (n = 1), and the splenium only (n 4). The shape of the lesions was round-to-ovoid (n = 4) or linear (n = 3). Follow-up MRI scans showed completely resolved (n = 6) or persistent (n = 1) signal abnormalities on diffusion-weighted imaging as well as apparent diffusion coefficient mapping. Clinical outcomes were good in six of the patents but poor in the seventh. Reversible restricted diffusion in the corpus callosum can develop in various diseases. Knowledge of the MRI findings and associated diseases might be helpful in predicting patients' conditions and clinical outcomes.

  1. Concomitant fractional anisotropy and volumetric abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy: cross-sectional evidence for progressive neurologic injury.

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    Simon S Keller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and associated hippocampal sclerosis (TLEhs there are brain abnormalities extending beyond the presumed epileptogenic zone as revealed separately in conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI studies. However, little is known about the relation between macroscopic atrophy (revealed by volumetric MRI and microstructural degeneration (inferred by DTI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For 62 patients with unilateral TLEhs and 68 healthy controls, we determined volumes and mean fractional anisotropy (FA of ipsilateral and contralateral brain structures from T1-weighted and DTI data, respectively. We report significant volume atrophy and FA alterations of temporal lobe, subcortical and callosal regions, which were more diffuse and bilateral in patients with left TLEhs relative to right TLEhs. We observed significant relationships between volume loss and mean FA, particularly of the thalamus and putamen bilaterally. When corrected for age, duration of epilepsy was significantly correlated with FA loss of an anatomically plausible route - including ipsilateral parahippocampal gyrus and temporal lobe white matter, the thalamus bilaterally, and posterior regions of the corpus callosum that contain temporal lobe fibres - that may be suggestive of progressive brain degeneration in response to recurrent seizures. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Chronic TLEhs is associated with interrelated DTI-derived and volume-derived brain degenerative abnormalities that are influenced by the duration of the disorder and the side of seizure onset. This work confirms previously contradictory findings by employing multi-modal imaging techniques in parallel in a large sample of patients.

  2. Activation of auditory white matter tracts as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging

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    Tae, Woo Suk [Kangwon National University, Neuroscience Research Institute, School of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Yakunina, Natalia; Nam, Eui-Cheol [Kangwon National University, Neuroscience Research Institute, School of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kangwon National University, Department of Otolaryngology, School of Medicine, Chuncheon, Kangwon-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Su [Kangwon National University Hospital, Department of Otolaryngology, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sam Soo [Kangwon National University, Neuroscience Research Institute, School of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kangwon National University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    The ability of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to detect activation in brain white matter (WM) is controversial. In particular, studies on the functional activation of WM tracts in the central auditory system are scarce. We utilized fMRI to assess and characterize the entire auditory WM pathway under robust experimental conditions involving the acquisition of a large number of functional volumes, the application of broadband auditory stimuli of high intensity, and the use of sparse temporal sampling to avoid scanner noise effects and increase signal-to-noise ratio. Nineteen healthy volunteers were subjected to broadband white noise in a block paradigm; each run had four sound-on/off alternations and was repeated nine times for each subject. Sparse sampling (TR = 8 s) was used. In addition to traditional gray matter (GM) auditory center activation, WM activation was detected in the isthmus and midbody of the corpus callosum (CC), tapetum, auditory radiation, lateral lemniscus, and decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncles. At the individual level, 13 of 19 subjects (68 %) had CC activation. Callosal WM exhibited a temporal delay of approximately 8 s in response to the stimulation compared with GM. These findings suggest that direct evaluation of the entire functional network of the central auditory system may be possible using fMRI, which may aid in understanding the neurophysiological basis of the central auditory system and in developing treatment strategies for various central auditory disorders. (orig.)

  3. A Clearing Protocol for Whole Tissues: An Example Using Haustoria of Orobanchaceae

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    Jeffery J. Morawetz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Due to lack of success in clearing whole tissues using only classical clearing techniques (e.g., Heir's 4 ½ solution, KOH, NaOH, lactic acid saturated with chloral hydrate, and because tissue degradation is often a result of harsh clearing agents (e.g., KOH, NaOH, a novel combined treatment was sought to improve the removal of obscuring tannins from intact haustoria. Methods and Results: Stockwell's bleach proved to be useful in removing tannins from haustoria, usually within 3 d (up to 10 d, rendering them opaque to (rarely translucent. After bleaching, haustoria were successfully cleared in 1–3 d in a solution of lactic acid saturated with chloral hydrate at 42°C Conclusions: The two-step clearing protocol reported here will now facilitate structural studies on haustoria, such as those examining the presence and distribution of callose, and three-dimensional reconstmction using confocal microscopy. Tissues in this study did not suffer from the degradation in quality observed using harsher treatments. This protocol should be useful for other difficult-to-clear tissues that are unable to be cleared using classical protocols alone.

  4. Wounding in the plant tissue: the defense of a dangerous passage

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    Daniel Valentin Savatin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants are continuously exposed to agents such as herbivores and environmental mechanical stresses that cause wounding and open the way to the invasion by microbial pathogens. Wounding provides nutrients to pathogens and facilitates their entry into the tissue and subsequent infection. Plants have evolved constitutive and induced defense mechanisms to properly respond to wounding and prevent infection. The constitutive defenses are represented by physical barriers, i.e. the presence of cuticle or lignin, or by metabolites that act as toxins or deterrents for herbivores. Plants are also able to sense the injured tissue as an altered self and induce responses similar to those activated by pathogen infection. Endogenous molecules released from wounded tissue may act as Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs that activate the plant innate immunity. Wound-induced responses are both rapid, such as the oxidative burst and the expression of defense-related genes, and late, such as the callose deposition, the accumulation of proteinase inhibitors and of hydrolytic enzymes (i.e. chitinases and gluganases. Typical examples of DAMPs involved in the response to wounding are the peptide systemin and the oligogalacturonides, which are oligosaccharides released from the pectic component of the cell wall. Responses to wounding take place both at the site of damage (local response and systemically (systemic response and are mediated by hormones such as jasmonic acid, ethylene, salicylic acid and abscisic acid.

  5. Distribution of phytoplasmas in infected plants as revealed by real-time PCR and bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Nynne Meyn; Nicolaisen, Mogens; Hansen, Michael; Schulz, Alexander

    2004-11-01

    Phytoplasmas are cell wall-less bacteria inhabiting the phloem and utilizing it for their spread. Infected plants often show changes in growth pattern and a reduced crop yield. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) assay and a bioimaging method were developed to quantify and localize phytoplasmas in situ. According to the Q-PCR assay, phytoplasmas accumulated disproportionately in source leaves of Euphorbia pulcherrima and, to a lesser extent, in petioles of source leaves and in stems. However, phytoplasma accumulation was small or nondetectable in sink organs (roots and sink leaves). For bioimaging, infected plant tissue was stained with vital fluorescence dyes and examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy. With a DNA-sensitive dye, the pathogens were detected exclusively in the phloem, where they formed dense masses in sieve tubes of Catharanthus roseus. Sieve tubes were identified by counterstaining with aniline blue for callose and multiphoton excitation. With a potentiometric dye, not all DNA-positive material was stained, suggesting that the dye stained metabolically active phytoplasmas only. Some highly infected sieve tubes contained phytoplasmas that were either inactive or dead upon staining. PMID:15553243

  6. T2 relaxometry of brain in myotonic dystrophy

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    Di Costanzo, A.; Bonavita, V.; Tedeschi, G. [Inst. of Neurological Sciences, 2. Univ. of Naples (Italy); Di Salle, F. [Dept. of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Univ. ' ' Federico II' ' , Naples (Italy); Santoro, L. [Dept. of Neurological Sciences, University ' ' Federico II' ' , Naples (Italy)

    2001-03-01

    We investigated the nature and extent of brain involvement in myotonic dystrophy (DM), examining possible T2 relaxation abnormalities in the brain of 20 patients with adult-onset DM and 20 sex- and age-matched normal controls. Brain MRI was performed at 0.5 T, and T2 values were calculated from signal intensity in two echoes. Regions of interest included: frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital and callosal (rostral and splenial) normal-appearing white matter; frontal, occipital, insular and hippocampal cortex; caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus and thalamus. All white-matter and occipital and right frontal cortex regions showed a significantly longer T2 in the patients. Multiple regression analysis, including grey- and white-matter T2 as dependent variables, plus age at onset and at imaging, disease duration, muscular disability, brain atrophy and CTG trinucleotide repeats as independent variables, revealed that only white-matter T2 elongation and disease duration correlated positively. White-matter involvement in DM is more extensive than previously reported by MRI and neuropathological studies and seems to be progressive in the course of disease. (orig.)

  7. Ear Rachis Xylem Occlusion and Associated Loss in Hydraulic Conductance Coincide with the End of Grain Filling for Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neghliz, Hayet; Cochard, Hervé; Brunel, Nicole; Martre, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Seed dehydration is the normal terminal event in the development of orthodox seeds and is physiologically related to the cessation of grain dry mass accumulation and crop grain yield. For a better understanding of grain dehydration, we evaluated the hypothesis that hydraulic conductance of the ear decreases during the latter stages of development and that this decrease results from disruption or occlusion of xylem conduits. Whole ear, rachis, and stem nodes hydraulic conductance and percentage loss of xylem conductivity were measured from flowering to harvest-ripeness on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Récital grown under controlled environments. Flag leaf transpiration, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content and grain and ear water potentials were also measured during grain development. We show that grain dehydration was not related with whole plant physiology and leaf senescence, but closely correlated with the hydraulic properties of the xylem conduits irrigating the grains. Indeed, there was a substantial decrease in rachis hydraulic conductance at the onset of the grain dehydration phase. This hydraulic impairment was not caused by the presence of air embolism in xylem conduits of the stem internodes or rachis but by the occlusion of the xylem lumens by polysaccharides (pectins and callose). Our results demonstrate that xylem hydraulics plays a key role during grain maturation. PMID:27446150

  8. Physiological and molecular analysis of the interaction between aluminium toxicity and drought stress in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Bao; Eticha, Dejene; Albacete, Alfonso; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudana; Roitsch, Thomas; Horst, Walter Johannes

    2012-05-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity and drought are two major factors limiting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production in the tropics. Short-term effects of Al toxicity and drought stress on root growth in acid, Al-toxic soil were studied, with special emphasis on Al-drought interaction in the root apex. Root elongation was inhibited by both Al and drought. Combined stresses resulted in a more severe inhibition of root elongation than either stress alone. This result was different from the alleviation of Al toxicity by osmotic stress (-0.60 MPa polyethylene glycol) in hydroponics. However, drought reduced the impact of Al on the root tip, as indicated by the reduction of Al-induced callose formation and MATE expression. Combined Al and drought stress enhanced up-regulation of ACCO expression and synthesis of zeatin riboside, reduced drought-enhanced abscisic acid (ABA) concentration, and expression of NCED involved in ABA biosynthesis and the transcription factors bZIP and MYB, thus affecting the regulation of ABA-dependent genes (SUS, PvLEA18, KS-DHN, and LTP) in root tips. The results provide circumstantial evidence that in soil, drought alleviates Al injury, but Al renders the root apex more drought-sensitive, particularly by impacting the gene regulatory network involved in ABA signal transduction and cross-talk with other phytohormones necessary for maintaining root growth under drought. PMID:22371077

  9. Impacts of aluminum on the cytoskeleton of the maize root apex. short-term effects on the distal part of the transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaguru; Baluska; Volkmann; Felle; Horst

    1999-03-01

    Using monoclonal tubulin and actin antibodies, Al-mediated alterations to microtubules (MTs) and actin microfilaments (MFs) were shown to be most prominent in cells of the distal part of the transition zone (DTZ) of an Al-sensitive maize (Zea mays L.) cultivar. An early response to Al (1 h, 90 μM) was the depletion of MTs in cells of the DTZ, specifically in the outermost cortical cell file. However, no prominent changes to the MT cytoskeleton were found in elongating cells treated with Al for 1 h in spite of severe inhibition of root elongation. Al-induced early alterations to actin MFs were less dramatic and consisted of increased actin fluorescence of partially disintegrated MF arrays in cells of the DTZ. These tissue- and development-specific alterations to the cytoskeleton were preceded by and/or coincided with Al-induced depolarization of the plasma membrane and with callose formation, particularly in the outer cortex cells of the DTZ. Longer Al supplies (>6 h) led to progressive enhancements of lesions to the MT cytoskeleton in the epidermis and two to three outer cortex cell files. Our data show that the cytoskeleton in the cells of the DTZ is especially sensitive to Al, consistent with the recently proposed specific Al sensitivity of this unique, apical maize root zone. PMID:10069846

  10. Reversible Restricted Diffusion in the Corpus Callosum in Various Pediatric Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the reversible restricted diffusion in the corpus callosum in pediatric patients with clinical findings, and to discuss the possible pathogenesis of these lesions. Between 2007 and 2011, seven children with reversible signal abnormalities in the corpus callosum were identified and retrospectively reviewed. Diseases and conditions associated with lesions included: trauma (n = 3), neonatal seizure (n = 1), clinically suspected mild encephalopathy (n = 1), multiple sclerosis (n = 1), and seizure with subdural hygroma (n = 1). The callosal lesions were located in the splenium and the genu (n = 2), the splenium and the body (n = 1), and the splenium only (n 4). The shape of the lesions was round-to-ovoid (n = 4) or linear (n = 3). Follow-up MRI scans showed completely resolved (n = 6) or persistent (n = 1) signal abnormalities on diffusion-weighted imaging as well as apparent diffusion coefficient mapping. Clinical outcomes were good in six of the patents but poor in the seventh. Reversible restricted diffusion in the corpus callosum can develop in various diseases. Knowledge of the MRI findings and associated diseases might be helpful in predicting patients' conditions and clinical outcomes.

  11. Simultaneously cooperative, but serially antagonistic: a neuropsychological study of diagonistic dyspraxia in a case of Marchiafava-Bignami disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Kazumi; Tachibana, Kaori; Abe, Nobuhito; Manabe, Hideaki; Fuse, Takahisa; Tsukamoto, Tetsuro

    2008-01-01

    We describe a patient with Marchiafava-Bignami disease who showed, in addition to signs of callosal interruption, a peculiar form of diagonistic dyspraxia. Unlike the typical diagonistic dyspraxia, both of the patient's hands could simultaneously cooperate in a sequence of bimanual actions. More specifically, his right hand could start a commanded action with the cooperation of his left hand. However, once the action was completed, his left hand started an antagonistic action, undoing the result, with the cooperation of his right hand. Once this countermanding action was completed, the original action started again. These antagonistic actions repeated themselves alternately unless he was restrained. The patient's diagonistic dyspraxia was apparent in only some bimanual actions, and he showed no diagonistic dyspraxia when performing voluntary actions; the antagonistic actions occurred in response to oral commands or by imitation. Magnetic resonance imaging showed symmetrical demyelination with partial necrosis in the genu, body, and anterior splenium of the corpus callosum. We speculate that the bimanual coordination is possible because part of the corpus callosum is intact, whereas the antagonistic actions may be caused by conflict between the two hemispheres due to interhemispheric disinhibition elicited by the demyelinated part of the corpus callosum. PMID:18641433

  12. [A case of astrocytoma of corpus callosum presented diagnostic dyspraxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimizu, K; Takeyama, E; Takeyama, E; Kizuki, H; Tei, H; Kubo, O

    1995-08-01

    A case of astrocytoma whose first clinical presentation was diagnostic dyspraxia was reported. A 38-year-old right-handed male experienced funny motion of his left hand triggered by voluntary movement of his right hand. One day, he tried to insert a coin into the vending machine with his right hand, then the left hand was against the other. One month after that event, he experienced headache and vertigo. On admission, there were no abnormal findings on neurological examination. On neuropsychological examination, he was cooperative, well orientated and attentive, and there were no callosal disconnection symptoms. Frontal lobe function tests were slightly impaired. T1-weighted MRI demonstrated irregular mixed signal intensity mass lesion extending from the genu to the body of the corpus callosum and the cingulate gyrus. This lesion was slightly enhanced with Gd-DTPA. Biopsy was performed and histological diagnosis was fibrillary astrocytoma. After irradiation and chemotherapy, he was discharged from the hospital without evident neurological deficit. About 20 cases of diagnostic dyspraxia have been reported and almost all of them were caused by cerebro-vascular disease. This is the first case of brain tumor who presented diagnostic dyspraxia. PMID:7546921

  13. Simultaneously Cooperative, but Serially Antagonistic: A Neuropsychological Study of Diagonistic Dyspraxia in a Case of Marchiafava-Bignami Disease

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    Kazumi Hirayama

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient with Marchiafava-Bignami disease who showed, in addition to signs of callosal interruption, a peculiar form of diagonistic dyspraxia. Unlike the typical diagonistic dyspraxia, both of the patient’s hands could simultaneously cooperate in a sequence of bimanual actions. More specifically, his right hand could start a commanded action with the cooperation of his left hand. However, once the action was completed, his left hand started an antagonistic action, undoing the result, with the cooperation of his right hand. Once this countermanding action was completed, the original action started again. These antagonistic actions repeated themselves alternately unless he was restrained. The patient's diagonistic dyspraxia was apparent in only some bimanual actions, and he showed no diagonistic dyspraxia when performing voluntary actions; the antagonistic actions occurred in response to oral commands or by imitation. Magnetic resonance imaging showed symmetrical demyelination with partial necrosis in the genu, body, and anterior splenium of the corpus callosum. We speculate that the bimanual coordination is possible because part of the corpus callosum is intact, whereas the antagonistic actions may be caused by conflict between the two hemispheres due to interhemispheric disinhibition elicited by the demyelinated part of the corpus callosum.

  14. Pollen Grain Germination and Pollen Tube Growth in Pistil of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The germination of pollen grain in vitro and the growth of pollen tube in the pistil of rice were observed with a microscope.The stigma was removed at different time points after pollination to study its effect on seed setting rate.The rice pollen grain started to germinate at 2 min after pollination and the pollen tube penetrated stigma into style in 5-10 min,30 min later the end of pollen tube reached the bottom of ovary,and only some pollen tubes arrived at embryo sac at 40 min after pollination.Meanwhile,a small amount of catlose began to deposit in the pollen tubes,a great deal of callose was observed at 50 min after pollination,whereas the pollen grain began to shrink.The growing rates of pollen tube in the rice stigma,style and ovary were 1500,5000,and 5400 pm/h,respectively.The seed setting rate was quite low when the stigma was removed at about 10-15 min after pollination,gradually increased when it removed at 20 min to 50 min after pollination,and over 60%when it removed at 50 min after pollination and finally tended to be stable.

  15. Single-shot T1 mapping of the corpus callosum: a rapid characterization of fiber bundle anatomy.

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    Hofer, Sabine; Wang, Xiaoqing; Roeloffs, Volkert; Frahm, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Using diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging and fiber tractography the topographic organization of the human corpus callosum (CC) has been described to comprise five segments with fibers projecting into prefrontal (I), premotor and supplementary motor (II), primary motor (III), and primary sensory areas (IV), as well as into parietal, temporal, and occipital cortical areas (V). In order to more rapidly characterize the underlying anatomy of these segments, this study used a novel single-shot T1 mapping method to quantitatively determine T1 relaxation times in the human CC. A region-of-interest analysis revealed a tendency for the lowest T1 relaxation times in the genu and the highest T1 relaxation times in the somatomotor region of the CC. This observation separates regions dominated by myelinated fibers with large diameters (somatomotor area) from densely packed smaller axonal bundles (genu) with less myelin. The results indicate that characteristic T1 relaxation times in callosal profiles provide an additional means to monitor differences in fiber anatomy, fiber density, and gray matter in respective neocortical areas. In conclusion, rapid T1 mapping allows for a characterization of the axonal architecture in an individual CC in less than 10 s. The approach emerges as a valuable means for studying neocortical brain anatomy with possible implications for the diagnosis of neurodegenerative processes. PMID:26029059

  16. Scavenging iron: a novel mechanism of plant immunity activation by microbial siderophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Aude; Chen, Nicolas W G; Rigault, Martine; Riache, Nassima; Joseph, Delphine; Desmaële, Didier; Mouille, Grégory; Boutet, Stéphanie; Soubigou-Taconnat, Ludivine; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Thomine, Sébastien; Expert, Dominique; Dellagi, Alia

    2014-04-01

    Siderophores are specific ferric iron chelators synthesized by virtually all microorganisms in response to iron deficiency. We have previously shown that they promote infection by the phytopathogenic enterobacteria Dickeya dadantii and Erwinia amylovora. Siderophores also have the ability to activate plant immunity. We have used complete Arabidopsis transcriptome microarrays to investigate the global transcriptional modifications in roots and leaves of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants after leaf treatment with the siderophore deferrioxamine (DFO). Physiological relevance of these transcriptional modifications was validated experimentally. Immunity and heavy-metal homeostasis were the major processes affected by DFO. These two physiological responses could be activated by a synthetic iron chelator ethylenediamine-di(o-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid, indicating that siderophores eliciting activities rely on their strong iron-chelating capacity. DFO was able to protect Arabidopsis against the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000. Siderophore treatment caused local modifications of iron distribution in leaf cells visible by ferrocyanide and diaminobenzidine-H₂O₂ staining. Metal quantifications showed that DFO causes a transient iron and zinc uptake at the root level, which is presumably mediated by the metal transporter iron regulated transporter1 (IRT1). Defense gene expression and callose deposition in response to DFO were compromised in an irt1 mutant. Consistently, plant susceptibility to D. dadantii was increased in the irt1 mutant. Our work shows that iron scavenging is a unique mechanism of immunity activation in plants. It highlights the strong relationship between heavy-metal homeostasis and immunity. PMID:24501001

  17. Tractography of the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi corpus callosum using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging.

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    Diana Platas-Neri

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to describe the organization, connectivity and microstructure of the corpus callosum of the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi. Non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-tensor imaging were obtained from three subjects using a 3T Philips scanner. We hypothesized that the arrangement of fibers in spider monkeys would be similar to that observed in other non-human primates. A repeated measure (n = 3 of fractional anisotropy values was obtained of each subject and for each callosal subdivision. Measurements of the diffusion properties of corpus callosum fibers exhibited a similar pattern to those reported in the literature for humans and chimpanzees. No statistical difference was reached when comparing this parameter between the different CC regions (p = 0.066. The highest fractional anisotropy values corresponded to regions projecting from the corpus callosum to the posterior cortical association areas, premotor and supplementary motor cortices. The lowest fractional anisotropy corresponded to projections to motor and sensory cortical areas. Analyses indicated that approximately 57% of the fibers projects to the frontal cortex and 43% to the post-central cortex. While this study had a small sample size, the results provided important information concerning the organization of the corpus callosum in spider monkeys.

  18. Shifting brain asymmetry: the link between meditation and structural lateralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Florian; MacKenzie-Graham, Allan; Toga, Arthur W.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed an increased fractional anisotropy and greater thickness in the anterior parts of the corpus callosum in meditation practitioners compared with control subjects. Altered callosal features may be associated with an altered inter-hemispheric integration and the degree of brain asymmetry may also be shifted in meditation practitioners. Therefore, we investigated differences in gray matter asymmetry as well as correlations between gray matter asymmetry and years of meditation practice in 50 long-term meditators and 50 controls. We detected a decreased rightward asymmetry in the precuneus in meditators compared with controls. In addition, we observed that a stronger leftward asymmetry near the posterior intraparietal sulcus was positively associated with the number of meditation practice years. In a further exploratory analysis, we observed that a stronger rightward asymmetry in the pregenual cingulate cortex was negatively associated with the number of practice years. The group difference within the precuneus, as well as the positive correlations with meditation years in the pregenual cingulate cortex, suggests an adaptation of the default mode network in meditators. The positive correlation between meditation practice years and asymmetry near the posterior intraparietal sulcus may suggest that meditation is accompanied by changes in attention processing. PMID:24643652

  19. Expanding the spectrum of human ganglionic eminence region anomalies on fetal magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Righini, Andrea; Parazzini, Cecilia; Izzo, Giana [Children' s Hospital ' ' V. Buzzi' ' , Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Milan (Italy); Cesaretti, Claudia [Children' s Hospital ' ' V. Buzzi' ' , Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Milan (Italy); Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Medical Genetics Unit, Fondazione I.R.C.C.S. Ca' Granda, Milan (Italy); Conte, Giorgio [Children' s Hospital ' ' V. Buzzi' ' , Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Milan (Italy); University of Milan, Department of Health Sciences, Milan (Italy); Frassoni, Carolina; Inverardi, Francesca [Fondazione I.R.C.C.S. Istituto Neurologico ' ' C. Besta' ' , Clinical Epileptology and Experimental Neurophysiology Unit, Milan (Italy); Bulfamante, Gaetano; Avagliano, Laura [San Paolo Hospital, Division of Human Pathology, Milan (Italy); Rustico, Mariangela [Children' s Hospital ' ' V. Buzzi' ' , Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Prenatal Diagnosis, Milan (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Ganglionic eminence (GE) is a transient fetal brain structure that harvests a significant amount of precursors of cortical GABA-ergic interneurons. Prenatal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of GE anomalies (i.e., cavitations) have already been reported associated with severe micro-lissencephaly. The purpose of this report was to illustrate the MR imaging features of GE anomalies in conditions other than severe micro-lissencephalies. Among all the fetuses submitted to prenatal MR imaging at our center from 2005 to 2014, we collected eight cases with GE anomalies and only limited associated brain anomalies. The median gestational age at the time of MR imaging was 21 weeks ranging from 19 to 29 weeks. Two senior pediatric neuroradiologists categorized the anomalies of the GE region in two groups: group one showing cavitation in the GE region and group two showing enlarged GE region. For each fetal case, associated cranial anomalies were also reported. Five out of the eight cases were included in group one and three in group two. Besides the GE region abnormality, all eight cases had additional intracranial anomalies, such as mild partial callosal agenesis, vermian hypoplasia and rotation, cerebellar hypoplasia, ventriculomegaly, enlarged subarachnoid spaces, molar tooth malformation. Ultrasound generally detected most of the associated intracranial anomalies, prompting the MR investigation; on the contrary in none of the cases, GE anomalies had been detected by ultrasound. Our observation expands the spectrum of human GE anomalies, demonstrating that these may take place also without associated severe micro-lissencephalies. (orig.)

  20. Source to sink transport and regulation by environmental factors

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    Remi eLemoine

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Source-to-sink transport of sugar is one of the major determinants of plant growth and relies on the efficient and controlled distribution of sucrose (and some other sugars such as raffinose and polyols across plant organs through the phloem. However, sugar transport through the phloem can be affected by many environmental factors that alter source/sink relationships. In this paper, we summarize current knowledge about the phloem transport mechanisms and review the effects of several abiotic (water and salt stress, mineral deficiency, CO2, light, temperature, air and soil pollutants and biotic (mutualistic and pathogenic microbes, viruses, aphids and parasitic plants factors. Concerning abiotic constraints, alteration of the distribution of sugar among sinks is often reported, with some sinks as roots favoured in case of mineral deficiency. Many of these constraints impair the transport function of the phloem but the exact mechanisms are far from being completely known. Phloem integrity can be disrupted (e.g. by callose deposition and under certain conditions, phloem transport is affected, earlier than photosynthesis. Photosynthesis inhibition could result from the increase in sugar concentration due to phloem transport decrease. Biotic interactions (aphids, fungi, viruses… also affect crop plant productivity. Recent breakthroughs have identified some of the sugar transporters involved in these interactions on the host and pathogen sides. The different data are discussed in relation to the phloem transport pathways. When possible, the link with current knowledge on the pathways at the molecular level will be highlighted.

  1. Ectopic expression of a grape aspartic protease gene, AP13, in Arabidopsis thaliana improves resistance to powdery mildew but increases susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rongrong; Tu, Mingxing; Wang, Xianhang; Zhao, Jiao; Wan, Ran; Li, Zhi; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2016-07-01

    The grape aspartic protease gene, AP13 was previously reported to be responsive, in Chinese wild Vitis quinquangularis cv. 'Shang-24', to infection by Erysiphe necator, the causal agent of powdery mildew disease, as well as to treatment with salicylic acid in V. labrusca×V. vinifera cv. 'Kyoho'. In the current study, we evaluated the expression levels of AP13 in 'Shang-24' in response to salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and ethylene (ET) treatments, as well as to infection by the necrotrophic fungus, Botrytis cinerea, and the transcript levels of VqAP13 decreased after B. cinerea infection and MeJA treatment, but increased following ET and SA treatments. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines over-expressing VqAP13 under the control of a constitutive promoter showed enhanced resistance to powdery mildew and to the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, and accumulated more callose than wild type plants, while the resistance of transgenic A. thaliana lines to B. cinerea inoculation was reduced. In addition, the expression profiles of various disease resistance- related genes in the transgenic A. thaliana lines following infection by different pathogens were compared to the equivalent profiles in the wild type plants. The results suggest that VqAP13 action promotes the SA dependent signal transduction pathway, but suppresses the JA signal transduction pathway. PMID:27181943

  2. Altered Interhemispheric Functional Coordination in Chronic Tinnitus Patients

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    Yu-Chen Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Recent studies suggest that tinnitus may be due in part to aberrant callosal structure and interhemispheric interaction. To explore this hypothesis we use a novel method, voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC, to examine the resting-state interhemispheric functional connectivity and its relationships with clinical characteristics in chronic tinnitus patients. Materials and Methods. Twenty-eight chronic tinnitus patients with normal hearing thresholds and 30 age-, sex-, education-, and hearing threshold-matched healthy controls were included in this study and underwent the resting-state fMRI scanning. We computed the VMHC to analyze the interhemispheric functional coordination between homotopic points of the brain in both groups. Results. Compared to the controls, tinnitus patients showed significantly increased VMHC in the middle temporal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, and superior occipital gyrus. In tinnitus patients, a positive correlation was found between tinnitus duration and VMHC of the uncus. Moreover, correlations between VMHC changes and tinnitus distress were observed in the transverse temporal gyrus, superior temporal pole, precentral gyrus, and calcarine cortex. Conclusions. These results show altered interhemispheric functional connectivity linked with specific tinnitus characteristics in chronic tinnitus patients, which may be implicated in the neuropathophysiology of tinnitus.

  3. Cognitive Control Network Contributions to Memory-Guided Visual Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Maya L; Stern, Chantal E; Michalka, Samantha W; Devaney, Kathryn J; Somers, David C

    2016-05-01

    Visual attentional capacity is severely limited, but humans excel in familiar visual contexts, in part because long-term memories guide efficient deployment of attention. To investigate the neural substrates that support memory-guided visual attention, we performed a set of functional MRI experiments that contrast long-term, memory-guided visuospatial attention with stimulus-guided visuospatial attention in a change detection task. Whereas thedorsal attention networkwas activated for both forms of attention, thecognitive control network(CCN) was preferentially activated during memory-guided attention. Three posterior nodes in the CCN, posterior precuneus, posterior callosal sulcus/mid-cingulate, and lateral intraparietal sulcus exhibited the greatest specificity for memory-guided attention. These 3 regions exhibit functional connectivity at rest, and we propose that they form a subnetwork within the broader CCN. Based on the task activation patterns, we conclude that the nodes of this subnetwork are preferentially recruited for long-term memory guidance of visuospatial attention. PMID:25750253

  4. Characterization of a Thermobifida fusca beta-1,3-glucanase (Lam81A) with a potential role in plant biomass degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Colleen E; Wilson, David B

    2006-11-28

    Thermobifida fusca is a filamentous soil bacterium that plays a major role in the breakdown of plant biomass. In this paper, we report the cloning, expression, purification, and characterization of the T. fusca enzyme, Lam81A. The Carbohydrate Active Enzymes Database (http://afmb.cnrs-mrs.fr/CAZY/) indicates that Lam81A belongs to a relatively uncharacterized family of beta-1,3-glucanases, family GH-81 [Coutinho, P. M., and Henrissat, B. (1999) in Recent Advances in Carbohydrate Bioengineering (Gilbert, H. J., Davies, G., Henrissat, B., and Svensson, B., Eds.) pp 3-12, The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, U.K.]. Microarray analysis suggests that Lam81A plays a role in biomass degradation, where its natural substrate may be the plant cell wall polysaccharide, callose, which is a polymer of beta-1,3-linked glucose. Characterization of Lam81A has shown that the enzyme is specific for beta-1,3-linked glucose polysaccharides, is endohydrolytic, and utilizes an inverting mechanism for substrate hydrolysis. In addition, the enzyme has a broad pH optimum from 5.5 to 10, a temperature optimum of 50 degrees C, and demonstrates substrate inhibition, as well as showing a high basal level of expression. PMID:17115704

  5. Dermatological changes of amputation stump

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    Arora P

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatological changes of stumps of 174 amputees are presented. The commonest dermatological change recorded at the site of amputation stump was hyperpigmentation in 46 (26.4% followed by callosities in 32 (18.3%, scaling in 29 (16.7%, cutaneous atrophy in 20 (11.5%, lichenification in 19(10.9%, traumatic ulcer and bacterial infections in 18 (10.3% each, hypertrophic scar in 14 (8.1%, hypopigmentation and corns in 13 (7.4% each, verrucous hypertrophy of stump in 12 (6.9%, dermatophytic infection in 5(2.9%, stump oedema and phantom limb in 4 (2.3% each, intertriginous dermatitis in 3( 1.7%, allergic contact dermatitis (resin and frictional eczema in 2(1.1% each. Epidermoid cyst, keloid formation, anaesthesia, gangrene and cutaneous horn were recorded in 1 (0.6% each. Atrophy (epidermal and derma, anaesthesia, alopecia and elephantiasis of the stump have not been documented in the literature earlier.

  6. Characters related to higher starch accumulation in cassava storage roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, You-Zhi; Zhao, Jian-Yu; Wu, San-Min; Fan, Xian-Wei; Luo, Xing-Lu; Chen, Bao-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is valued mainly for high content starch in its roots. Our understanding of mechanisms promoting high starch accumulation in the roots is, however, still very limited. Two field-grown cassava cultivars, Huanan 124(H124) with low root starch and Fuxuan 01(F01) with high root starch, were characterised comparatively at four main growth stages. Changes in key sugars in the leaves, stems and roots seemed not to be strongly associated with the final amount of starch accumulated in the roots. However, when compared with H124, F01 exhibited a more compact arrangement of xylem vascular bundles in the leaf axils, much less callose around the phloem sieve plates in the stems, higher starch synthesis-related enzymatic activity but lower amylase activity in the roots, more significantly up-regulated expression of related genes, and a much higher stem flow rate (SFR). In conclusion, higher starch accumulation in the roots results from the concurrent effects of powerful stem transport capacity highlighted by higher SFR, high starch synthesis but low starch degradation in the roots, and high expression of sugar transporter genes in the stems. A model of high starch accumulation in cassava roots was therefore proposed and discussed. PMID:26892156

  7. Perception-related EEG is more sensitive to Alzheimer's disease effects than resting EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegaran, Elham; van Damme, Bart; Meuli, Reto; Knyazeva, Maria G

    2016-07-01

    To characterize the effects of Alzheimer's disease (AD) on cortical functional connectivity in perception, we analyzed interhemispheric lagged synchronization (ILS) in the source space of high-density EEG recorded in aged controls and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) or AD while they viewed collinear and noncollinear bilateral moving gratings. Beta-band ILS was lower in aMCI and AD compared with controls in a large region centered on BA39. As previously reported, in young adults, collinear iso-oriented gratings versus noncollinear gratings synchronizes EEG reflecting perceptual grouping. Only aged controls showed the expected beta-band ILS increase originating in the dorsal visual stream (BA18). The aMCI group only showed a theta-band increase in an adjacent region (BA19). In AD patients, there was no ILS increase. Regression analysis revealed that the posterior callosal area and EEG slowing predict reduction of beta but not emergence of theta ILS response. Considering that we found no between-group differences in resting ILS, perception-related EEG appears to be more sensitive to AD effects, including ILS signs of neurodegeneration and compensation. PMID:27255822

  8. Manipulation of the Xanthophyll Cycle Increases Plant Susceptibility to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

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    Jun Zhou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The xanthophyll cycle is involved in dissipating excess light energy to protect the photosynthetic apparatus in a process commonly assessed from non-photochemical quenching (NPQ of chlorophyll fluorescence. Here, it is shown that the xanthophyll cycle is modulated by the necrotrophic pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum at the early stage of infection. Incubation of Sclerotinia led to a localized increase in NPQ even at low light intensity. Further studies showed that this abnormal change in NPQ was closely correlated with a decreased pH caused by Sclerotinia-secreted oxalate, which might decrease the ATP synthase activity and lead to a deepening of thylakoid lumen acidification under continuous illumination. Furthermore, suppression (with dithiothreitol or a defect (in the npq1-2 mutant of violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE abolished the Sclerotinia-induced NPQ increase. HPLC analysis showed that the Sclerotinia-inoculated tissue accumulated substantial quantities of zeaxanthin at the expense of violaxanthin, with a corresponding decrease in neoxanthin content. Immunoassays revealed that the decrease in these xanthophyll precursors reduced de novo abscisic acid (ABA biosynthesis and apparently weakened tissue defense responses, including ROS induction and callose deposition, resulting in enhanced plant susceptibility to Sclerotinia. We thus propose that Sclerotinia antagonizes ABA biosynthesis to suppress host defense by manipulating the xanthophyll cycle in early pathogenesis. These findings provide a model of how photoprotective metabolites integrate into the defense responses, and expand the current knowledge of early plant-Sclerotinia interactions at infection sites.

  9. Cell Wall Composition, Biosynthesis and Remodeling during Pollen Tube Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Mollet

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The pollen tube is a fast tip-growing cell carrying the two sperm cells to the ovule allowing the double fertilization process and seed setting. To succeed in this process, the spatial and temporal controls of pollen tube growth within the female organ are critical. It requires a massive cell wall deposition to promote fast pollen tube elongation and a tight control of the cell wall remodeling to modify the mechanical properties. In addition, during its journey, the pollen tube interacts with the pistil, which plays key roles in pollen tube nutrition, guidance and in the rejection of the self-incompatible pollen. This review focuses on our current knowledge in the biochemistry and localization of the main cell wall polymers including pectin, hemicellulose, cellulose and callose from several pollen tube species. Moreover, based on transcriptomic data and functional genomic studies, the possible enzymes involved in the cell wall remodeling during pollen tube growth and their impact on the cell wall mechanics are also described. Finally, mutant analyses have permitted to gain insight in the function of several genes involved in the pollen tube cell wall biosynthesis and their roles in pollen tube growth are further discussed.

  10. A novel elicitor protein from Phytophthora parasitica induces plant basal immunity and systemic acquired resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Hsuan; Yan, Hao-Zhi; Liou, Ruey-Fen

    2015-02-01

    The interaction between Phytophthora pathogens and host plants involves the exchange of complex molecular signals from both sides. Recent studies of Phytophthora have led to the identification of various apoplastic elicitors known to trigger plant immunity. Here, we provide evidence that the protein encoded by OPEL of Phytophthora parasitica is a novel elicitor. Homologues of OPEL were identified only in oomycetes, but not in fungi and other organisms. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that OPEL is expressed throughout the development of P. parasitica and is especially highly induced after plant infection. Infiltration of OPEL recombinant protein from Escherichia coli into leaves of Nicotiana tabacum (cv. Samsun NN) resulted in cell death, callose deposition, the production of reactive oxygen species and induced expression of pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity markers and salicylic acid-responsive defence genes. Moreover, the infiltration conferred systemic resistance against a broad spectrum of pathogens, including Tobacco mosaic virus, the bacteria wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum and P. parasitica. In addition to the signal peptide, OPEL contains three conserved domains: a thaumatin-like domain, a glycine-rich protein domain and a glycosyl hydrolase (GH) domain. Intriguingly, mutation of a putative laminarinase active site motif in the predicted GH domain abolished its elicitor activity, which suggests enzymatic activity of OPEL in triggering the defence response. PMID:24965864

  11. LESSER METATARSAL SESAMOIDITIS-POTENTIAL CAUSE OF FORE FOOT PAIN?? : A PROSPECTIVE MULTICENTER EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SCREENING STUDY OF THE ODISHA POPULATION

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    Sunil Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Sesamoiditis as a cause of fore foot pain is less often thought of, patients suffer for extended periods due to misdiagnosis and analgesic abuse resulting in dissatisfaction, depression and anxiety. METHODS: We performed a multicenter prospective epidemiological screening study in Bhubaneswar, Odisha from Nov’ 2013 to July’ 2014 in patients of foot pain for the presence of lesser sesamoids to study the incidences and causes of fore foot pain in Odisha Population. RESULTS: We screened 960 patients (1920 feet in 500 male and 460 female patients. 5th Metatarsal sesamoids were present in 77 (8% patients (M/F: 1.8:1, Bilateral in 67 (86 % patients. (48% patients lesser sesamoids were bipartite and (82% were symptomatic. 52% recovered with conservative measures, 40 % patients required ultrasound guided injections and sesamoidectomy was performed in 8 % patients due to recurrence and/or failure. Other causes of fore foot pain were Rheumatoid Arthritis, Gouty Arthritis, Callosities, Hallux Valgus, Stress Fractures of the Metatarsals, Plantar Fasciitis, Infections, Morton’s Metatarsalgia and Barefoot Walking (mechanical. DISCUSSION: High incidences of lesser sesamoids is attributed to genetics, low socioeconomic status, bare foot walking and high prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus, Smoking and Gout in our country. CT and MRI provide useful information regarding the presence and pathology involving these bones, and should be used in concert with clinical findings to guide successful patient management. An initial trial of conservative measures should follow minimally invasive ultrasound guided injections of anesthetic with steroids and lastly surgical excision.

  12. Independent and collaborative contributions of the cerebral hemispheres to emotional processing

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    Elizabeth R Shobe

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Presented is a model suggesting that the RH directly mediates the identification and comprehension of positive and negative emotional stimuli, whereas the LH contributes to higher level processing of emotional information that has been shared via the corpus callosum. RH subcortical connections provide initial processing of emotional stimuli, and their innervation to cortical structures provides a secondary pathway by which the hemispheres process emotional information more fully. It is suggested that the LH contribution to emotion processing is in emotional regulation, social well-being and adaptation, and transforming the RH emotional experience into propositional and verbal codes. Lastly, it is proposed that the LH has little ability at the level of emotion identification, having a default positive bias and no ability to identify a stimulus as negative. Instead, the LH must rely on the transfer of emotional information from the RH to engage higher order emotional processing. As such, either hemisphere can identify positive emotions, but they must collaborate for complete processing of negative emotions. Evidence presented draws from behavioral, neurological, and clinical research, including discussions of subcortical and cortical pathways, callosal agenesis, commissurototomy, emotion regulation, mood disorders, interpersonal interaction, language, and handedness. Directions for future research are offered.

  13. Interference of the Histone Deacetylase Inhibits Pollen Germination and Pollen Tube Growth in Picea wilsonii Mast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yaning; Ling, Yu; Zhou, Junhui; Li, Xiaojuan

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) is a crucial component in the regulation of gene expression in various cellular processes in animal and plant cells. HDAC has been reported to play a role in embryogenesis. However, the effect of HDAC on androgamete development remains unclear, especially in gymnosperms. In this study, we used the HDAC inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate (NaB) to examine the role of HDAC in Picea wilsonii pollen germination and pollen tube elongation. Measurements of the tip-focused Ca2+ gradient revealed that TSA and NaB influenced this gradient. Immunofluorescence showed that actin filaments were disrupted into disorganized fragments. As a result, the vesicle trafficking was disturbed, as determined by FM4-64 labeling. Moreover, the distribution of pectins and callose in cell walls was significantly altered in response to TSA and NaB. Our results suggest that HDAC affects pollen germination and polarized pollen tube growth in Picea wilsonii by affecting the intracellular Ca2+ concentration gradient, actin organization patterns, vesicle trafficking, as well as the deposition and configuration of cell wall components. PMID:26710276

  14. Interference of the Histone Deacetylase Inhibits Pollen Germination and Pollen Tube Growth in Picea wilsonii Mast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaning Cui

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase (HDAC is a crucial component in the regulation of gene expression in various cellular processes in animal and plant cells. HDAC has been reported to play a role in embryogenesis. However, the effect of HDAC on androgamete development remains unclear, especially in gymnosperms. In this study, we used the HDAC inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA and sodium butyrate (NaB to examine the role of HDAC in Picea wilsonii pollen germination and pollen tube elongation. Measurements of the tip-focused Ca2+ gradient revealed that TSA and NaB influenced this gradient. Immunofluorescence showed that actin filaments were disrupted into disorganized fragments. As a result, the vesicle trafficking was disturbed, as determined by FM4-64 labeling. Moreover, the distribution of pectins and callose in cell walls was significantly altered in response to TSA and NaB. Our results suggest that HDAC affects pollen germination and polarized pollen tube growth in Picea wilsonii by affecting the intracellular Ca2+ concentration gradient, actin organization patterns, vesicle trafficking, as well as the deposition and configuration of cell wall components.

  15. Activation of Plant Innate Immunity by Extracellular High Mobility Group Box 3 and Its Inhibition by Salicylic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyong Woo; Manohar, Murli; Manosalva, Patricia; Tian, Miaoying; Moreau, Magali; Klessig, Daniel F

    2016-03-01

    Damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) signal the presence of tissue damage to induce immune responses in plants and animals. Here, we report that High Mobility Group Box 3 (HMGB3) is a novel plant DAMP. Extracellular HMGB3, through receptor-like kinases BAK1 and BKK1, induced hallmark innate immune responses, including i) MAPK activation, ii) defense-related gene expression, iii) callose deposition, and iv) enhanced resistance to Botrytis cinerea. Infection by necrotrophic B. cinerea released HMGB3 into the extracellular space (apoplast). Silencing HMGBs enhanced susceptibility to B. cinerea, while HMGB3 injection into apoplast restored resistance. Like its human counterpart, HMGB3 binds salicylic acid (SA), which results in inhibition of its DAMP activity. An SA-binding site mutant of HMGB3 retained its DAMP activity, which was no longer inhibited by SA, consistent with its reduced SA-binding activity. These results provide cross-kingdom evidence that HMGB proteins function as DAMPs and that SA is their conserved inhibitor. PMID:27007252

  16. Topographic organization of V1 projections through the corpus callosum in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, M; Fine, I

    2010-10-01

    The visual cortex in each hemisphere is linked to the opposite hemisphere by axonal projections that pass through the splenium of the corpus callosum. Visual-callosal connections in humans and macaques are found along the V1/V2 border where the vertical meridian is represented. Here we identify the topography of V1 vertical midline projections through the splenium within six human subjects with normal vision using diffusion-weighted MR imaging and probabilistic diffusion tractography. Tractography seed points within the splenium were classified according to their estimated connectivity profiles to topographic subregions of V1, as defined by functional retinotopic mapping. First, we report a ventral-dorsal mapping within the splenium with fibers from ventral V1 (representing the upper visual field) projecting to the inferior-anterior corner of the splenium and fibers from dorsal V1 (representing the lower visual field) projecting to the superior-posterior end. Second, we also report an eccentricity gradient of projections from foveal-to-peripheral V1 subregions running in the anterior-superior to posterior-inferior direction, orthogonal to the dorsal-ventral mapping. These results confirm and add to a previous diffusion MRI study (Dougherty et al., 2005) which identified a dorsal/ventral mapping of human splenial fibers. These findings yield a more detailed view of the structural organization of the splenium than previously reported and offer new opportunities to study structural plasticity in the visual system. PMID:20553894

  17. MRI of pineal region tumours: relationship between tumours and adjacent structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, H. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Uozumi, T. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Kiya, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Kurisu, K. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Arita, K. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Sumida, M. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Ikawa, F. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    A variety of tumours may arise in the pineal region; accurate diagnosis is important in the selection of treatment and prognosis. A retrospective analysis of the MRI studies of 25 patients with pathologically proven pineal region tumours was performed, focused on the relationship between the tumour and neighbouring structures. Compression of the tectal plate was classified as expansive or invasive, and compression of the corpus callosum as inferior, anterior or posterior. In 10 of the 14 patients (71 %) with germ cell tumours tectal compression was of the invasive type; 8 patients (57 %) had multiple tumours and in 13 (93 %) the tumour margins were irregular. Teratomas were readily diagnosed because of characteristic heterogeneous signal intensity. Pineal cell tumours were differentiated from germ cell tumours by their rounded shape, solid nature, sharp margins, and expansive type of tectal compression. Meningiomas were characterised by their falcotentorial attachments, posterior callosal compression, and a low-intensity rim on T2-weighted images. Gd-DTPA injection enabled clear demonstration of the site and extent of tumour spread and was useful in differentiating cystic and solid components. The appearances described, while not pathognomonic, are helpful in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumours, and valuable in planning appropriate treatment. (orig.). With 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Defence responses of arabidopsis thaliana to infection by pseudomonas syringae are regulated by the circadian clock

    KAUST Repository

    Bhardwaj, Vaibhav

    2011-10-31

    The circadian clock allows plants to anticipate predictable daily changes in abiotic stimuli, such as light; however, whether the clock similarly allows plants to anticipate interactions with other organisms is unknown. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) has circadian clock-mediated variation in resistance to the virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000), with plants being least susceptible to infection in the subjective morning. We suggest that the increased resistance to Pst DC3000 observed in the morning in Col-0 plants results from clock-mediated modulation of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity. Analysis of publicly available microarray data revealed that a large number of Arabidopsis defence-related genes showed both diurnal- and circadian-regulation, including genes involved in the perception of the PAMP flagellin which exhibit a peak in expression in the morning. Accordingly, we observed that PAMP-triggered callose deposition was significantly higher in wild-type plants inoculated with Pst DC3000 hrpA in the subjective morning than in the evening, while no such temporal difference was evident in arrhythmic plants. Our results suggest that PAMP-triggered immune responses are modulated by the circadian clock and that temporal regulation allows plants to anticipate and respond more effectively to pathogen challenges in the daytime. © 2011 Bhardwaj et al.

  19. Area-specific development of distinct projection neuron subclasses is regulated by postnatal epigenetic modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Kawssar; Magrinelli, Elia; Nicolas, Céline S; Lukianets, Nikita; Frangeul, Laura; Pietri, Mariel; Sun, Tao; Sandoz, Guillaume; Grammont, Franck; Jabaudon, Denis; Studer, Michele; Alfano, Christian

    2016-01-01

    During cortical development, the identity of major classes of long-distance projection neurons is established by the expression of molecular determinants, which become gradually restricted and mutually exclusive. However, the mechanisms by which projection neurons acquire their final properties during postnatal stages are still poorly understood. In this study, we show that the number of neurons co-expressing Ctip2 and Satb2, respectively involved in the early specification of subcerebral and callosal projection neurons, progressively increases after birth in the somatosensory cortex. Ctip2/Satb2 postnatal co-localization defines two distinct neuronal subclasses projecting either to the contralateral cortex or to the brainstem suggesting that Ctip2/Satb2 co-expression may refine their properties rather than determine their identity. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches reveal that the transcriptional adaptor Lmo4 drives this maturation program through modulation of epigenetic mechanisms in a time- and area-specific manner, thereby indicating that a previously unknown genetic program postnatally promotes the acquisition of final subtype-specific features. PMID:26814051

  20. Differential behaviour of four plant polysaccharide synthases in the presence of organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, M E; Gregory, A C; Bolwell, G P

    2001-08-01

    The behaviour of four membrane-bound glycosyl transferases involved in cell wall polysaccharide synthesis has been studied in relation to the effects of a graded series of organic solvents on their activity and type of product formed. Relative enzyme inhibition observed for some solvents was in direct relationship to the hydrophilicity of the product. This was in the order of arabinan synthase > callose synthase> xylan synthase > beta-1,4-glucan synthase. The former two were always inhibited, the xylan synthase rather less so. However, the beta-1,4-glucan synthase showed significant increases in substrate incorporation in the presence of solvents. A graded series of primary alcohols were much more effective in enhancing activity than acetone, ethyl acetate and dimethyl formamide. In the presence of the most effective solvent, methanol, there was considerable activation of beta-1,4-glucan production. This reciprocal nature of the behaviour of the beta-1,4- and beta-1,3-glucan synthases in organic solvent is supportive of recent molecular data that the two types of glucans are catalysed by separate enzyme systems. However, the results reported here do not totally negate the proposition that either enzyme is capable of synthesising the other linkage in minor amounts in vitro. PMID:11430978

  1. Expression of sphingosine kinase 1 in amoeboid microglial cells in the corpus callosum of postnatal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Eng-Ang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1, a key enzyme responsible for phosphorylating sphingosine into sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P has been shown to be expressed in monocytes and monocyte-derived peripheral macrophages. This study demonstrates SphK1 immunoexpression in amoeboid microglial cells (AMC, a nascent monocyte-derived brain macrophage in the corpus callosum of developing rat brain. SphK1 immunofluorescence expression, which appeared to be weak in AMC in normal brain, was markedly induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS or hypoxia treatment. Western blot analysis also showed increased expression level of SphK1 in the corpus callosum rich in AMC after LPS treatment. Detection of SphK1 mRNA and its upregulation after LPS treatment was confirmed in primary culture AMC by RT-PCR. Administration of N, N-dimethylsphingosine (DMS, a specific inhibitor of SphK1, effectively reduced upregulated SphK1 immunoexpression in AMC both in vivo and in vitro. This was corroborated by western blot which showed a decrease in SphK1 protein level of callosal tissue with DMS pretreatment. Remarkably, LPS-induced upregulation of the transcription factor NFκB was suppressed by DMS. We conclude that SphK1 expression in AMC may be linked to regulation of proinflammatory cytokines via an NFκB signaling pathway.

  2. Study of the Etiological Causes of Toe Web Space Lesions in Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassab-El-Naby, Hussein Mohamed; Mohamed, Yasser Fathy; Abdo, Hamed Mohamed; Kamel, Mohamed Ismail; Hablas, Wael Refaat; Mohamed, Osama Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Background. The etiology of foot intertrigo is varied. Several pathogens and skin conditions might play a role in toe web space lesions. Objective. To identify the possible etiological causes of toe web space lesions. Methods. 100 Egyptian patients were enrolled in this study (72 females and 28 males). Their ages ranged from 18 to 79 years. For every patient, detailed history taking, general and skin examinations, and investigations including Wood's light examination, skin scraping for potassium hydroxide test, skin swabs for bacterial isolation, and skin biopsy all were done. Results. Among the 100 patients, positive Wood's light fluorescence was observed in 24 and positive bacterial growth was observed in 85. With skin biopsy, 52 patients showed features characteristic for eczema, 25 showed features characteristic for fungus, 19 showed features characteristic for callosity, and 3 showed features characteristic for wart while in only 1 patient the features were characteristic for lichen planus. Conclusion. Toe web space lesions are caused by different etiological factors. The most common was interdigital eczema (52%) followed by fungal infection (25%). We suggest that patients who do not respond to antifungals should be reexamined for another primary or secondary dermatologic condition that may resemble interdigital fungal infection. PMID:26483839

  3. Study of the Etiological Causes of Toe Web Space Lesions in Cairo, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Mohamed Hassab-El-Naby

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The etiology of foot intertrigo is varied. Several pathogens and skin conditions might play a role in toe web space lesions. Objective. To identify the possible etiological causes of toe web space lesions. Methods. 100 Egyptian patients were enrolled in this study (72 females and 28 males. Their ages ranged from 18 to 79 years. For every patient, detailed history taking, general and skin examinations, and investigations including Wood’s light examination, skin scraping for potassium hydroxide test, skin swabs for bacterial isolation, and skin biopsy all were done. Results. Among the 100 patients, positive Wood’s light fluorescence was observed in 24 and positive bacterial growth was observed in 85. With skin biopsy, 52 patients showed features characteristic for eczema, 25 showed features characteristic for fungus, 19 showed features characteristic for callosity, and 3 showed features characteristic for wart while in only 1 patient the features were characteristic for lichen planus. Conclusion. Toe web space lesions are caused by different etiological factors. The most common was interdigital eczema (52% followed by fungal infection (25%. We suggest that patients who do not respond to antifungals should be reexamined for another primary or secondary dermatologic condition that may resemble interdigital fungal infection.

  4. Priming of plant resistance by natural compounds. Hexanoic acid as a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz eAranega Bou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Some alternative control strategies of currently emerging plant diseases are based on the use of resistance inducers. This review highlights the recent advances made in the characterization of natural compounds that induce resistance by a priming mechanism. These include vitamins, chitosans, oligogalacturonides, volatile organic compounds, azelaic and pipecolic acid, among others. Overall, other than providing novel disease control strategies that meet environmental regulations, natural priming agents are valuable tools to help unravel the complex mechanisms underlying the induced resistance phenomenon. The data presented in this review reflect the novel contributions made from studying these natural plant inducers, with special emphasis placed on hexanoic acid (Hx, proposed herein as a model tool for this research field. Hx is a potent natural priming agent of proven efficiency in a wide range of host plants and pathogens. It can early activate broad-spectrum defenses by inducing callose deposition and the SA and JA pathways. Later it can prime pathogen-specific responses according to the pathogen’s lifestyle. Interestingly, Hx primes redox-related genes to produce an anti-oxidant protective effect, which might be critical for limiting the infection of necrotrophs. Our Hx-induced resistance (Hx-IR findings also strongly suggest that it is an attractive tool for the molecular characterization of the plant alarmed state, with the added advantage of it being a natural compound.

  5. Cellulose synthesizing Complexes in Vascular Plants andProcaryotes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Richard M, Jr; Saxena, Inder Mohan

    2009-07-07

    Continuing the work initiated under DE-FG03-94ER20145, the following major accomplishments were achieved under DE-FG02-03ER15396 from 2003-2007: (a) we purified the acsD gene product of the Acetobacter cellulose synthase operon as well as transferred the CesA cellulose gene from Gossypium into E. coli in an attempt to crystallize this protein for x-ray diffraction structural analysis; however, crystallization attempts proved unsuccessful; (b) the Acetobacter cellulose synthase operon was successfully incorporated into Synechococcus, a cyanobacterium2; (c) this operon in Synechococcus was functionally expressed; (d) we successfully immunolabeled Vigna cellulose and callose synthase components and mapped their distribution before and after wounding; (e) we developed a novel method to produce replicas of cellulose synthases in tobacco BY-2 cells, and we demonstrated the cytoplasmic domain of the rosette TC; (f) from the moss Physcomitrella, we isolated two full-length cDNA sequences of cellulose synthase (PpCesA1 and PpCesA2) and attempted to obtain full genomic DNA sequences; (g) we examined the detailed molecular structure of a new form of non-crystalline cellulose known as nematic ordered cellulose (=NOC)3.

  6. T2 relaxometry of brain in myotonic dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the nature and extent of brain involvement in myotonic dystrophy (DM), examining possible T2 relaxation abnormalities in the brain of 20 patients with adult-onset DM and 20 sex- and age-matched normal controls. Brain MRI was performed at 0.5 T, and T2 values were calculated from signal intensity in two echoes. Regions of interest included: frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital and callosal (rostral and splenial) normal-appearing white matter; frontal, occipital, insular and hippocampal cortex; caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus and thalamus. All white-matter and occipital and right frontal cortex regions showed a significantly longer T2 in the patients. Multiple regression analysis, including grey- and white-matter T2 as dependent variables, plus age at onset and at imaging, disease duration, muscular disability, brain atrophy and CTG trinucleotide repeats as independent variables, revealed that only white-matter T2 elongation and disease duration correlated positively. White-matter involvement in DM is more extensive than previously reported by MRI and neuropathological studies and seems to be progressive in the course of disease. (orig.)

  7. Identification of plant defence regulators through transcriptional profiling of Arabidopsis thaliana cdd1 mutant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swadhin Swain; Nidhi Singh; Ashis Kumar Nandi

    2015-03-01

    A sustainable balance between defence and growth is essential for optimal fitness under pathogen stress. Plants activate immune response at the cost of normal metabolic requirements. Thus, plants that constitutively activate defence are deprived of growth. Arabidopsis thaliana mutant constitutive defence without defect in growth and development1 (cdd1) is an exception. The cdd1 mutant is constitutive for salicylic acid accumulation, signalling, and defence against biotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens, without having much impact on growth. Thus, cdd1 offers an ideal genetic background to identify novel regulators of plant defence. Here we report the differential gene expression profile between cdd1 and wild-type plants as obtained by microarray hybridization. Expression of several defence-related genes also supports constitutive activation of defence in cdd1. We screened T-DNA insertion mutant lines of selected genes, for resistance against virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000). Through bacterial resistance, callose deposition and pathogenesis-associated expression analyses, we identified four novel regulators of plant defence. Resistance levels in the mutants suggest that At2g19810 and [rom] At5g05790 are positive regulators, whereas At1g61370 and At3g42790 are negative regulators of plant defence against bacterial pathogens.

  8. Suppression of phospholipase Dγs confers increased aluminum resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhao

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is the major stress in acidic soil that comprises about 50% of the world's arable land. The complex molecular mechanisms of Al toxicity have yet to be fully determined. As a barrier to Al entrance, plant cell membranes play essential roles in plant interaction with Al, and lipid composition and membrane integrity change significantly under Al stress. Here, we show that phospholipase Dγs (PLDγs are induced by Al stress and contribute to Al-induced membrane lipid alterations. RNAi suppression of PLDγ resulted in a decrease in both PLDγ1 and PLDγ2 expression and an increase in Al resistance. Genetic disruption of PLDγ1 also led to an increased tolerance to Al while knockout of PLDγ2 did not. Both RNAi-suppressed and pldγ1-1 mutants displayed better root growth than wild-type under Al stress conditions, and PLDγ1-deficient plants had less accumulation of callose, less oxidative damage, and less lipid peroxidation compared to wild-type plants. Most phospholipids and glycolipids were altered in response to Al treatment of wild-type plants, whereas fewer changes in lipids occurred in response to Al stress in PLDγ mutant lines. Our results suggest that PLDγs play a role in membrane lipid modulation under Al stress and that high activities of PLDγs negatively modulate plant tolerance to Al.

  9. Insights into thermoregulation: A clinico-radiological description of Shapiro syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pazderska, Agnieszka

    2013-06-15

    Shapiro syndrome is a rare entity, comprising a triad of recurrent hypothermia, hyperhidrosis and congenital agenesis of the corpus callosum. Fewer than 50 cases have been described, almost invariably in patients presenting in childhood or early adulthood. We present a case of an 80year old woman presenting with recurrent bouts of shivering, sweating and profound malaise, who sought medical attention because the frequency and severity of attacks worsened in her later years. MRI Brain demonstrated agenesis of the corpus callosum; a rigorous work-up excluded other causes for her symptomatology. The intricate interplay of neuronal networks involved in thermoregulation remains to be fully elucidated and as such, little is known about the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the clinical manifestations of Shapiro syndrome. We present novel data from FDG-PET imaging of our patient, demonstrating hypermetabolism in a number of brainstem and cerebellar regions during the symptomatic phase. These findings imply that aberrant thermoregulation in Shapiro syndrome involves a number of structures remote from the callosal region. We also present neuropsychometric findings in our patient, of which there have been no reports to date. We postulate that the ageing brain may be more susceptible to the paroxysmal neurochemical fluxes implicated in the syndrome.

  10. Differences in Supratentorial Damage of White Matter in Pediatric Survivors of Posterior Fossa Tumors With and Without Adjuvant Treatment as Detected by Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To elucidate morphologic correlates of brain dysfunction in pediatric survivors of posterior fossa tumors by using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine neuroaxonal integrity in white matter. Patients and Methods: Seventeen medulloblastoma (MB) patients who had received surgery and adjuvant treatment, 13 pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) patients who had been treated only with surgery, and age-matched healthy control subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging on a 3-Tesla system. High-resolution conventional T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and DTI data sets were obtained. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics, a part of the Functional MRI of the Brain Software Library. Results: Compared with control subjects, FA values of MB patients were significantly decreased in the cerebellar midline structures, in the frontal lobes, and in the callosal body. Fractional anisotropy values of the PA patients were not only decreased in cerebellar hemispheric structures as expected, but also in supratentorial parts of the brain, with a distribution similar to that in MB patients. However, the amount of significantly decreased FA was greater in MB than in PA patients, underscoring the aggravating neurotoxic effect of the adjuvant treatment. Conclusions: Neurotoxic mechanisms that are present in PA patients (e.g., internal hydrocephalus and damaged cerebellar structures affecting neuronal circuits) contribute significantly to the alteration of supratentorial white matter in pediatric posterior fossa tumor patients.

  11. Lead deposited in the cell wall of Funaria hygrometrica protonemata is not stable - A remobilization can occur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzeslowska, Magdalena, E-mail: magdak@amu.edu.p [Laboratory of General Botany, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznan (Poland); Lenartowska, Marta [Laboratory of Developmental Biology, Institute of General and Molecular Biology, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 2, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Samardakiewicz, Slawomir [Laboratory of Electron and Confocal Microscopy, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska street 89, 61-614 Poznan (Poland); Bilski, Henryk [Laboratory of Electron Microscopy, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Pasteur Street 3, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland); Wozny, Adam [Laboratory of General Botany, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznan (Poland)

    2010-01-15

    The hypothesis that lead (Pb) can be uptake or remobilized from the cell wall (CW) by internalization withlow-esterified pectins (up to 40% - JIM5-P), was studied in tip-growing apical cell of Funaria hygrometrica protonemata. Treatment 4 h with 1 mM PbCl{sub 2} caused marked vesicular traffic intensification and the common internalization of JIM5-P from the CW. Lead bound to JIM5-P was internalized from the CW, together with this compound and entered the protoplast. It showed that Pb deposited in CW is not as safe for plant cell as previously believed. However, pulse-chase experiments (recovering 4 h and 24 h) indicated that CW and its thickenings can function as the final sequestration compartments. In Pb deposition sites, a callose layer occurred. It was localized from the protoplast site, next to Pb deposits separating sequestrated to CW and its thickenings Pb from plasma membrane almost certainly protecting the plant cell from its returning into the protoplast. - Lead bound to low-esterified pectins in cell wall can be uptake or remobilized by endocytosis together with this pectin epitope.

  12. Thiamine induced resistance to Plasmopara viticola in grapevine and elicited host-defense responses, including HR like-cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubakri, Hatem; Wahab, Mohamed Ali; Chong, Julie; Bertsch, Christophe; Mliki, Ahmed; Soustre-Gacougnolle, Isabelle

    2012-08-01

    Recently, thiamine (VitaminB1) has been shown to induce resistance against Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis plants through priming of defense responses. In this paper, we have demonstrated the efficiency of thiamine to induce resistance against downy mildew caused by the oomycete Plasmopara viticola in a susceptible Vitis vinifera cultivar "Chardonnay" under glasshouse controlled conditions by providing a dual mode of action involving direct antifungal activity and elicitation of host-defense responses. Thiamine-induced defense responses included the generation of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in both grapevine suspension cultured cells (SCC) and plant leaves, upregulation of an array of defense-related genes and the induction of other defense responses at subcellular level such as callose deposition in stomata cells, phenolic compounds accumulation and hypersensitive response (HR) like-cell death. Epifluorescence microscopy studies revealed dramatic changes in P. viticola individual developmental stages during its colonization of the intercellular space of the leaf mesophyll in thiamine-treated plants. Collectively, our report evidenced the efficiency of thiamine in the control of downy mildew in grapevine by direct and indirect effects, suggesting that thiamine could be an attractive alternative to chemical fungicides in disease management in vineyards. PMID:22698755

  13. Proteomic analysis of grapevine resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum T39 reveals specific defence pathways activated against downy mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Maria Cristina; Perazzolli, Michele; Matafora, Vittoria; Moretto, Marco; Bachi, Angela; Pertot, Ilaria

    2012-10-01

    Downy mildew is caused by the oomycete Plasmopara viticola and is one of the most serious diseases of grapevine. The beneficial microorganism Trichoderma harzianum T39 (T39) has previously been shown to induce plant-mediated resistance and to reduce the severity of downy mildew in susceptible grapevines. In order to better understand the cellular processes associated with T39-induced resistance, the proteomic and histochemical changes activated by T39 in grapevine were investigated before and 1 day after P. viticola inoculation. A comprehensive proteomic analysis of T39-induced resistance in grapevine was performed using an eight-plex iTRAQ protocol, resulting in the identification and quantification of a total of 800 proteins. Most of the proteins directly affected by T39 were found to be involved in signal transduction, indicating activation of a complete microbial recognition machinery. Moreover, T39-induced resistance was associated with rapid accumulation of reactive oxygen species and callose at infection sites, as well as changes in abundance of proteins involved in response to stress and redox balance, indicating an active defence response to downy mildew. On the other hand, proteins affected by P. viticola in control plants mainly decreased in abundance, possibly reflecting the establishment of a compatible interaction. Finally, the high-throughput iTRAQ protocol allowed de novo peptide sequencing, which will be used to improve annotation of the Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir proteome. PMID:23105132

  14. The mode of host resistance to Plasmopara viticola infection of grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Zhang, Yali; Yin, Ling; Lu, Jiang

    2012-11-01

    ABSTRACT The resistance and susceptibility of grapevines to downy mildew (DM) disease caused by Plasmopara viticola were compared among different cultivars/accessions belonging to Vitis vinifera, V. rotundifolia, and 10 oriental Vitis species. After inoculation with P. viticola pathogen, no symptom was found in V. rotundifolia grapevines at all, while oriental species V. davidii and V. piasezkii, like V. vinifera, were susceptible to DM disease. The other eight oriental Vitis species showed various resistance levels to DM disease. Intraspecific resistant variations were also observed in V. amurensis. Microscopy studies were conducted on various time courses after pathogen infection on grape leaves. P. viticola hyphae were not observed in V. rotundifolia cultivars, while symptoms with varying degrees of severity were observed among the Euvitis species. In general, the DM resistant oriental species showed a slower development of hypha and less formation of haustoria than DM susceptible V. vinifera grapevines. Cells with distinctive fluorescence were observed in V. rotundifolia and the oriental species V. pseudoreticulata, and callose deposits were observed in V. rotundifolia, V. pseudoreticulata, and V. amurensis grapevines. Based on the results of morphological observations and microscopy studies, we concluded that there were five levels of grapevine resistance to P. viticola pathogen: (i) immune, (ii) extremely resistant, (iii) resistant, (iv) partly resistant, and (v) susceptible. PMID:22877313

  15. Transient Expression of Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus Effector Induces Cell Death in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitino, Marco; Armstrong, Cheryl M; Cano, Liliana M; Duan, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus "Las" is a phloem-limited bacterial plant pathogen, and the most prevalent species of Liberibacter associated with citrus huanglongbing (HLB), a devastating disease of citrus worldwide. Although, the complete sequence of the Las genome provides the basis for studying functional genomics of Las and molecular mechanisms of Las-plant interactions, the functional characterization of Las effectors remains a slow process since remains to be cultured. Like other plant pathogens, Las may deliver effector proteins into host cells and modulate a variety of host cellular functions for their infection progression. In this study, we identified 16 putative Las effectors via bioinformatics, and transiently expressed them in Nicotiana benthamiana. Diverse subcellular localization with different shapes and aggregation patterns of the effector candidates were revealed by UV- microscopy after transient expression in leaf tissue. Intriguingly, one of the 16 candidates, Las5315mp (mature protein), was localized in the chloroplast and induced cell death at 3 days post inoculation (dpi) in N. benthamiana. Moreover, Las5315mp induced strong callose deposition in plant cells. This study provides new insights into the localizations and potential roles of these Las effectors in planta. PMID:27458468

  16. Cell division interference in newly fertilized ovules induces stenospermocarpy in cross-pollinated citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesejo, Carlos; Muñoz-Fambuena, Natalia; Reig, Carmina; Martínez-Fuentes, Amparo; Agustí, Manuel

    2014-08-01

    Seedlessness is a highly desirable characteristic in fresh fruits. However, post-fertilization seed abortion of cross-pollinated citrus fruit is uncommon. The factors regulating stenospermocarpy in citrus are unknown. In this research, we induced stenospermocarpy interfering in newly fertilized ovule cell division. The research also elucidates the most sensitive stage for ovule/seed abortion in citrus. Experiments were conducted with 'Afourer' mandarin that cross-pollinates with several cultivars and species. Cross-pollinated fruitlets were treated with maleic hydrazide (MH), a systemic growth regulator that specifically interferes in cell division. MH reduced ovule growth rate, the number of cell layers in nucella and inhibited embryo sac expansion; moreover, the treatment increased callose accumulation in nucella and surrounding the embryo sac. Fruits developed an early-aborted seed type with an immature, soft and edible seed coat. Seed number (-80%) and seed weight (-46%) were reduced in mature fruits. MH also hampered cell division in ovary walls, mesocarp and endocarp, thus reducing daily fruitlet growth and increasing fruit abscission. Stenospermocarpy could only be induced for a short period of time in the progamic phase of fertilization, specifically, when ovules are ready to be fertilized (7 days after anthesis) to early stages of embryo sac development (14 days after anthesis). PMID:25017163

  17. The Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria Type-3 Effector XopB Inhibits Plant Defence Responses by Interfering with ROS Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priller, Johannes Peter Roman; Reid, Stephen; Konein, Patrick; Dietrich, Petra

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria 85–10 (Xcv) translocates about 30 type-3 effector proteins (T3Es) into pepper plants (Capsicum annuum) to suppress plant immune responses. Among them is XopB which interferes with PTI, ETI and sugar-mediated defence responses, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and direct targets are unknown so far. Here, we examined the XopB-mediated suppression of plant defence responses in more detail. Infection of susceptible pepper plants with Xcv lacking xopB resulted in delayed symptom development compared to Xcv wild type infection concomitant with an increased formation of salicylic acid (SA) and expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Expression of xopB in Arabidopsis thaliana promoted the growth of the virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 strain. This was paralleled by a decreased SA-pool and a lower induction of SA-dependent PR gene expression. The expression pattern of early flg22-responsive marker genes indicated that MAPK signalling was not altered in the presence of XopB. However, XopB inhibited the flg22-triggered burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Consequently, the transcript accumulation of AtOXI1, a ROS-dependent marker gene, was reduced in xopB-expressing Arabidopsis plants as well as callose deposition. The lower ROS production correlated with a low level of basal and flg22-triggered expression of apoplastic peroxidases and the NADPH oxidase RBOHD. Conversely, deletion of xopB in Xcv caused a higher production of ROS in leaves of susceptible pepper plants. Together our results demonstrate that XopB modulates ROS responses and might thereby compromise plant defence. PMID:27398933

  18. Diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorders: is MRI obsolete?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downer, Jonathan James; Carter, Ranjana; Kueker, Wilhelm; Quaghebeur, Gerardine [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Leite, Maria Isabel; Palace, Jacqueline [Oxford University, Department of Clinical Neurology, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-15

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe demyelinating disease that preferentially involves spinal cord and optic nerve. It is part of a spectrum of neurological conditions associated with antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4). This study investigates the role of MRI where novel, more sensitive AQP4 antibody immunoassay techniques are being used. Retrospective review of neuroimaging in 69 patients (25 antibody positive, 44 antibody negative), investigated in the context of suspected NMO or NMO spectrum disorder, was performed independently by two consultant neuroradiologists. Longitudinally extensive, central spinal cord lesions were more frequent in AQP4 positive patients (95.2% vs 35.5%, p < 0.0001; 85.7% vs 45.2%, p = 0.015). Multiple sclerosis diagnostic criteria were less frequently fulfilled on brain MRI in antibody positive patients (5.6% vs 33.3%, p = 0.035). Juxtacortical and corpus callosal lesions were also less common in this group (16.7% vs 46.7%, p = 0.063; 5.6% vs 46.7%, p = 0.0034). Hypothalamic and periependymal disease related to the aqueduct was not seen in antibody negative patients. T1 hypointensity was more common in cord lesions of antibody positive patients (75.0% vs 35.3%, p = 0.037). However, this characteristic did not discriminate antibody positive and negative longitudinally extensive cord lesions (73.3% vs 62.5%, p = 0.66). The NMO spectrum of diseases are among an increasing number of neurological conditions defined by serological tests. However, despite improved immunoassay techniques, MRI of the brain and spinal cord continues to be among the first-line investigations in these patients, providing valuable diagnostic information that will help guide patient management. (orig.)

  19. Morphological features and associated anomalies of schizencephaly in the clinical population: detailed analysis of MR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, N. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo (Japan); Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, University of California San Francisco, CA (United States); Tsutsumi, Y. [Department of Radiology, National Okura Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Barkovich, A.J. [Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, University of California San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2002-05-01

    Although they are well documented in autopsy series, the macroscopic features and associated anomalies of schizencephalies have not been described in detail in a large clinical population. To assess the macroscopic findings of schizencephaly and the prevalence of associated findings, we conducted a retrospective MR analysis of a group of patients with schizencephaly. The MR studies of 35 patients with schizencephaly were retrospectively reviewed. The images were examined for the location and size of the schizencephalic cleft, the presence and location of associated polymicrogyria, and the presence, location, and severity of other brain anomalies. A total of 54 schizencephalic clefts were seen in the 35 patients. These clefts were unilateral in 18 (51%) patients and bilateral in 17 (49%) patients; three clefts were identified in two patients. Nine clefts (17%) had fused lips and 45 had separated-lip clefts (83%). Polymicrogyria was present inside 23 clefts (43%), while subependymal heterotopias were present at the cleft orifice in 27 clefts (50%). Polymicrogyria was identified outside the cleft, both adjacent to and remote from the cleft, in 23 patients (66%). Abnormal cerebral white-matter signal intensity was present in seven patients (20%), while white-matter volume diminution was noted in all patients. Ventricular diverticula with mass effect, roofing membranes, remnant floors, and cord-like remnants were present in 12, 1, 11, and 3 patients, respectively. Our results show that the spectrum of macroscopic findings in schizencephaly includes fused-lip and separated-lip clefts, polymicrogyric and non-polymicrogyric cleft linings, cyst-like diverticula and membranous structures, and subependymal heterotopia at the cleft. Concomitant anomalies are polymicrogyria outside the cleft, white-matter diminution, septal and optic pathway anomalies, callosal anomalies and hippocampal anomalies. Unilateral and bilateral clefts occur in a nearly equal frequency in the clinical

  20. Comprehensive analysis of genic male sterility-related genes in Brassica rapa using a newly developed Br300K oligomeric chip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangshu Dong

    Full Text Available To identify genes associated with genic male sterility (GMS that could be useful for hybrid breeding in Chinese cabbage (Brassicarapa ssp. pekinensis, floral bud transcriptome analysis was carried out using a B. rapa microarray with 300,000 probes (Br300K. Among 47,548 clones deposited on a Br300K microarray with seven probes of 60 nt length within the 3' 150 bp region, a total of 10,622 genes were differentially expressed between fertile and sterile floral buds; 4,774 and 5,848 genes were up-regulated over 2-fold in fertile and sterile buds, respectively. However, the expression of 1,413 and 199 genes showed fertile and sterile bud-specific features, respectively. Genes expressed specifically in fertile buds, possibly GMS-related genes, included homologs of several Arabidopsis male sterility-related genes, genes associated with the cell wall and synthesis of its surface proteins, pollen wall and coat components, signaling components, and nutrient supplies. However, most early genes for pollen development, genes for primexine and callose formation, and genes for pollen maturation and anther dehiscence showed no difference in expression between fertile and sterile buds. Some of the known genes associated with Arabidopsis pollen development showed similar expression patterns to those seen in this study, while others did not. BrbHLH89 and BrMYP99 are putative GMS genes. Additionally, 17 novel genes identified only in B. rapa were specifically and highly expressed only in fertile buds, implying the possible involvement in male fertility. All data suggest that Chinese cabbage GMS might be controlled by genes acting in post-meiotic tapetal development that are different from those known to be associated with Arabidopsis male sterility.

  1. Magnetic Resonance Features of Cerebral Malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Cerebral malaria is a major health hazard, with a high incidence of mortality. The disease is endemic in many developing countries, but with a greater increase in tourism, occasional cases may be detected in countries where the disease in not prevalent. Early diagnosis and evaluation of cerebral involvement in malaria utilizing modern imaging modalities have an impact on the treatment and clinical outcome. Purpose: To evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) features of patients with cerebral malaria presenting with altered sensorium. Material and Methods: We present the findings in three patients with cerebral malaria presenting with altered sensorium. MR imaging using a 1.5-Tesla unit was carried out. The sequences performed were 5-mm-thick T1-weighted, T2-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR), and T2-weighted gradient-echo axial sequences, and sagittal and coronal FLAIR. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm2, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were obtained. Results: Focal hyperintensities in the bilateral periventricular white matter, corpus callosum, occipital subcortex, and bilateral thalami were noticed on T2-weighted and FLAIR sequences. The lesions were more marked in the splenium of the corpus callosum. No enhancement on postcontrast T1-weighted MR images was observed. There was no evidence of restricted diffusion on the diffusion-weighted sequence and ADC map. Conclusion: MR is a sensitive imaging modality, with a role in the assessment of cerebral lesions in malaria. Focal white matter and corpus callosal lesions without any restricted diffusion were the key findings in our patients

  2. Corpus callosum thickness in children: an MR pattern-recognition approach on the midsagittal image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thickening of the corpus callosum is an important feature of development, whereas thinning of the corpus callosum can be the result of a number of diseases that affect development or cause destruction of the corpus callosum. Corpus callosum thickness reflects the volume of the hemispheres and responds to changes through direct effects or through Wallerian degeneration. It is therefore not only important to evaluate the morphology of the corpus callosum for congenital anomalies but also to evaluate the thickness of specific components or the whole corpus callosum in association with other findings. The goal of this pictorial review is raise awareness that the thickness of the corpus callosum can be a useful feature of pathology in pediatric central nervous system disease and must be considered in the context of the stage of development of a child. Thinning of the corpus callosum can be primary or secondary, and generalized or focal. Primary thinning is caused by abnormal or failed myelination related to the hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathies, metabolic disorders affecting white matter, and microcephaly. Secondary thinning of the corpus callosum can be caused by diffuse injury such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalopathy, hydrocephalus, dysmyelinating conditions and demyelinating conditions. Focal disturbance of formation or focal injury also causes localized thinning, e.g., callosal dysgenesis, metabolic disorders with localized effects, hypoglycemia, white matter injury of prematurity, HIV-related atrophy, infarction and vasculitis, trauma and toxins. The corpus callosum might be too thick because of a primary disorder in which the corpus callosum finding is essential to diagnosis; abnormal thickening can also be secondary to inflammation, infection and trauma. (orig.)

  3. OCCURRENCE AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ARABINOGALACTAN-LIKE PROTEINS AND HEMICELLULOSES IN MICRASTERIAS (STREPTOPHYTA)(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Magdalena; Tenhaken, Raimund; Driouich, Azeddine; Lütz-Meindl, Ursula

    2008-10-01

    The cell wall of the green alga Micrasterias denticulata Bréb. ex Ralfs (Desmidiaceae, Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) was investigated to obtain information on the composition of component polysaccharides and proteoglycans to allow comparison with higher plants and to understand cell wall functions during development. Various epitopes currently assigned to arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) of higher plants could be detected in Micrasterias by immuno TEM and immunofluorescence methods, but the walls did not bind the β-d-glycosyl-Yariv (β-GlcY) reagent. Secretory vesicles and the primary wall were labeled by antibodies against AGPs (JIM8, JIM13, JIM14). Dot and Western blot experiments indicated a proteoglycan nature of the epitopes recognized, which consisted of galactose and xylose as major sugars by high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). Epitopes of alkali-soluble polysaccharides assigned to noncellulosic polysaccharides in higher plants could be detected and located in the wall during its formation. The polyclonal anti-xyloglucan (anti-XG) antibody labeled primary and secondary wall of Micrasterias, whereas the monoclonal antibody CCRC-M1, directed against the fucose/galactose side chain of xyloglucan (XyG), did not recognize any structures. Labeling by anti-XG antibody at the trans-sites of the dictyosomes and at wall material containing vesicles indicated that secretion of the epitopes occurred similar to higher plants. The presence of (1→3, 1→4)-β-glucan (mixed linked glucan) in the secondary cell wall but not in the primary cell wall of Micrasterias could be demonstrated by an antibody recognizing this glucan type, whereas (1→3)-β-glucan (callose) could not be detected. The analytical results revealed that alkali-soluble polysaccharides in the secondary wall of Micrasterias consist mostly of (1→3, 1→4)-β-d-glucan. PMID:27041719

  4. Neurochemical phenotype of corticocortical connections in the macaque monkey: quantitative analysis of a subset of neurofilament protein-immunoreactive projection neurons in frontal, parietal, temporal, and cingulate cortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hof, P. R.; Nimchinsky, E. A.; Morrison, J. H.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The neurochemical characteristics of the neuronal subsets that furnish different types of corticocortical connections have been only partially determined. In recent years, several cytoskeletal proteins have emerged as reliable markers to distinguish subsets of pyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex of primates. In particular, previous studies using an antibody to nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein (SMI-32) have revealed a consistent degree of regional and laminar specificity in the distribution of a subpopulation of pyramidal cells in the primate cerebral cortex. The density of neurofilament protein-immunoreactive neurons was shown to vary across corticocortical pathways in macaque monkeys. In the present study, we have used the antibody SMI-32 to examine further and to quantify the distribution of a subset of corticocortically projecting neurons in a series of long ipsilateral corticocortical pathways in comparison to short corticocortical, commissural, and limbic connections. The results demonstrate that the long association pathways interconnecting the frontal, parietal, and temporal neocortex have a high representation of neurofilament protein-enriched pyramidal neurons (45-90%), whereas short corticocortical, callosal, and limbic pathways are characterized by much lower numbers of such neurons (4-35%). These data suggest that different types of corticocortical connections have differential representation of highly specific neuronal subsets that share common neurochemical characteristics, thereby determining regional and laminar cortical patterns of morphological and molecular heterogeneity. These differences in neuronal neurochemical phenotype among corticocortical circuits may have considerable influence on cortical processing and may be directly related to the type of integrative function subserved by each cortical pathway. Finally, it is worth noting that neurofilament protein-immunoreactive neurons are dramatically affected in the course of

  5. Transcriptional profiling of the Arabidopsis abscission mutant hae hsl2 by RNA-Seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niederhuth Chad E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abscission is a mechanism by which plants shed entire organs in response to both developmental and environmental signals. Arabidopsis thaliana, in which only the floral organs abscise, has been used extensively to study the genetic, molecular and cellular processes controlling abscission. Abscission in Arabidopsis requires two genes that encode functionally redundant receptor-like protein kinases, HAESA (HAE and HAESA-LIKE 2 (HSL2. Double hae hsl2 mutant plants fail to abscise their floral organs at any stage of floral development and maturation. Results Using RNA-Seq, we compare the transcriptomes of wild-type and hae hsl2 stage 15 flowers, using the floral receptacle which is enriched for abscission zone cells. 2034 genes were differentially expressed with a False Discovery Rate adjusted p INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION (ida mutants shows that many of the same genes are co-regulated by IDA and HAE HSL2 and support the role of IDA in the HAE and HSL2 signaling pathway. Comparison to microarray data from stamen abscission zones show distinct patterns of expression of genes that are dependent on HAE HSL2 and reveal HAE HSL2- independent pathways. Conclusion HAE HSL2-dependent and HAE HSL2-independent changes in genes expression are required for abscission. HAE and HSL2 affect the expression of cell wall modifying and defense related genes necessary for abscission. The HAE HSL2-independent genes also appear to have roles in abscission and additionally are involved in processes such as hormonal signaling, senescence and callose deposition.

  6. Inheritance of prehaustorial resistance to Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracatos, Peter M; Ayliffe, Michael; Khatkar, Mehar S; Fetch, Tom; Singh, Davinder; Park, Robert F

    2014-11-01

    Rust pathogens within the genus Puccinia cause some of the most economically significant diseases of crops. Different formae speciales of P. graminis have co-evolved to mainly infect specific grass hosts; however, some genotypes of other closely related cereals can also be infected. This study investigated the inheritance of resistance to three diverse pathotypes of the oat stem rust pathogen (P. graminis f. sp. avenae) in the 'Yerong' ✕ 'Franklin' (Y/F) barley doubled haploid (DH) population, a host with which it is not normally associated. Both parents, 'Yerong' and 'Franklin', were immune to all P. graminis f. sp. avenae pathotypes; however. there was transgressive segregation within the Y/F population, in which infection types (IT) ranged from complete immunity to mesothetic susceptibility, suggesting the presence of heritable resistance. Both QTL and marker-trait association (MTA) analysis was performed on the Y/F population to map resistance loci in response to P. graminis f. sp. avenae. QTL on chromosome 1H ('Yerong' Rpga1 and Rpga2) were identified using all forms of analysis, while QTL detected on 5H ('Franklin' Rpga3 and Rpga4) and 7H (Rpga5) were only detected using MTA or composite interval mapping-single marker regression analysis respectively. Rpga1 to Rpga5 were effective in response to all P. graminis f. sp. avenae pathotypes used in this study, suggesting resistance is not pathotype specific. Rpga1 co-located to previously mapped QTL in the Y/F population for adult plant resistance to the barley leaf scald pathogen (Rhynchosporium secalis) on chromosome 1H. Histological evidence suggests that the resistance observed within parental and immune DH lines in the population was prehaustorial and caused by callose deposition within the walls of the mesophyll cells, preventing hyphal penetration. PMID:25025780

  7. Adaptive algorithms to map how brain trauma affects anatomical connectivity in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Emily L.; Prasad, Gautam; Babikian, Talin; Kernan, Claudia; Mink, Richard; Babbitt, Christopher; Johnson, Jeffrey; Giza, Christopher C.; Asarnow, Robert F.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-12-01

    Deficits in white matter (WM) integrity occur following traumatic brain injury (TBI), and often persist long after the visible scars have healed. Heterogeneity in injury types and locations can complicate analyses, making it harder to discover common biomarkers for tracking recovery. Here we apply a newly developed adaptive connectivity method, EPIC (evolving partitions to improve connectomics) to identify differences in structural connectivity that persist longitudinally. This data comes from a longitudinal study, in which we scanned participants (aged 8-19 years) with anatomical and diffusion MRI in both the post-acute and chronic phases (1-6 months and 13-19 months post-injury). To identify patterns of abnormal connectivity, we trained a model on data from 32 TBI patients in the post-acute phase and 45 well-matched healthy controls, reducing an initial 68x68 connectivity matrix to a 14x14 matrix. We then applied this reduced parcellation to the chronic data in participants who had returned for their chronic assessment (21 TBI and 26 healthy controls) and tested for group differences. We found significant differences in two connections, comprising callosal fibers and long anterior-posterior fibers, with the TBI group showing increased fiber density relative to controls. Longitudinal analysis revealed that these were connections that were decreasing over time in the healthy controls, as is a common developmental phenomenon, but they were increasing in the TBI group. While we cannot definitively tell why this may occur with our current data, this study provides targets for longitudinal tracking, and poses questions for future investigation.

  8. The value of fast MR imaging as an adjunct to ultrasound in prenatal diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of MR imaging of the fetus to improve sonographic prenatal diagnosis of congenital anomalies. In 40 fetuses (not consecutive cases) with an abnormality diagnosed with ultrasound, additional MR imaging was performed. The basic sequence was a T2-weighted single-shot half Fourier (HASTE) technique. Head, neck, spinal, thoracic, urogenital, and abdominal fetal pathologies were found. This retrospective, observational study compared MR imaging findings with ultrasonographic findings regarding detection, topography, and etiology of the pathology. The MR findings were evaluated as superior, equal to, or inferior compared with US, in consent with the referring gynecologists. The role of these findings in relation to pregnancy management was studied and compared with postnatal follow-up in 30 of 40 babies. Fetal MRI technique was successful in 36 of 39 examinations and provided additional information in 21 of 40 fetuses (one twin pregnancy with two members to evaluate). More precise anatomy and location of fetal pathology (20 of 40 cases) and additional etiologic information (8 of 40 cases) were substantial advantages in cerebrospinal abnormalities [ventriculomegaly, encephalocele, vein of Galen malformation, callosal malformations, meningo(myelo)cele], in retroperitoneal abnormalities (lymphangioma, renal agenesis, multicystic renal dysplasia), and in neck/thoracic pathology [cervical cystic teratoma, congenital hernia diaphragmatica, congenital cystic adenomatoid lung malformation (CCAM)]. This improved parental counseling and pregnancy management in 15 pregnancies. In 3 cases, prenatal MRI findings did not correlate with prenatal ultrasonographic findings or neonatal diagnosis. The MRI provided a more detailed description and insight into fetal anatomy, pathology, and etiology in the vast majority of these selected cases. This improved prenatal parental counseling and postnatal therapeutic planning. (orig.)

  9. Cell Wall Biomolecular Composition Plays a Potential Role in the Host Type II Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahlali, Rachid; Kumar, Saroj; Wang, Lipu; Forseille, Li; Sylvain, Nicole; Korbas, Malgorzata; Muir, David; Swerhone, George; Lawrence, John R.; Fobert, Pierre R.; Peng, Gary; Karunakaran, Chithra

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a serious disease of wheat worldwide. Cultivar resistance to FHB depends on biochemical factors that confine the pathogen spread in spikes. Breeding for cultivar resistance is considered the most practical way to manage this disease. In this study, different spectroscopy and microscopy techniques were applied to discriminate resistance in wheat genotypes against FHB. Synchrotron-based spectroscopy and imaging techniques, including focal plane array infrared and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy were used to understand changes in biochemical and nutrients in rachis following FHB infection. Sumai3 and Muchmore were used to represent resistant and susceptible cultivars to FHB, respectively, in this study. The histological comparison of rachis showed substantial differences in the cell wall thickness between the cultivars after infection. Synchrotron-based infrared imaging emphasized substantial difference in biochemical composition of rachis samples between the two cultivars prior to visible symptoms; in the resistant Sumai3, infrared bands representing lignin and hemicellulose were stronger and more persistent compared to the susceptible cultivar. These bands may be the candidates of biochemical markers for FHB resistance. Focal plane array infrared imaging (FPA) spectra from the rachis epidermis and vascular bundles revealed a new band (1710 cm−1) related to the oxidative stress on the susceptible cultivar only. XRF spectroscopy data revealed differences in nutrients composition between cultivars, and between controls and inoculated samples, with substantial increases observed for Ca, K, Mn, Fe, Zn, and Si in the resistant cultivar. These nutrients are related to cell wall stability, metabolic process, and plant defense mechanisms such as lignification pathway and callose deposition. The combination of cell wall composition and lignification plays a role in the mechanism of type II host resistance to FHB. Biochemical profiling

  10. Chromium-Induced Ultrastructural Changes and Oxidative Stress in Roots of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftherios P. Eleftheriou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chromium (Cr is an abundant heavy metal in nature, toxic to living organisms. As it is widely used in industry and leather tanning, it may accumulate locally at high concentrations, raising concerns for human health hazards. Though Cr effects have extensively been investigated in animals and mammals, in plants they are poorly understood. The present study was then undertaken to determine the ultrastructural malformations induced by hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI], the most toxic form provided as 100 μM potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7, in the root tip cells of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. A concentration-dependent decrease of root growth and a time-dependent increase of dead cells, callose deposition, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 production and peroxidase activity were found in Cr(VI-treated seedlings, mostly at the transition root zone. In the same zone, nuclei remained ultrastructurally unaffected, but in the meristematic zone some nuclei displayed bulbous outgrowths or contained tubular structures. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER was less affected under Cr(VI stress, but Golgi bodies appeared severely disintegrated. Moreover, mitochondria and plastids became spherical and displayed translucent stroma with diminished internal membranes, but noteworthy is that their double-membrane envelopes remained structurally intact. Starch grains and electron dense deposits occurred in the plastids. Amorphous material was also deposited in the cell walls, the middle lamella and the vacuoles. Some vacuoles were collapsed, but the tonoplast appeared integral. The plasma membrane was structurally unaffected and the cytoplasm contained opaque lipid droplets and dense electron deposits. All electron dense deposits presumably consisted of Cr that is sequestered from sensitive sites, thus contributing to metal tolerance. It is concluded that the ultrastructural changes are reactive oxygen species (ROS-correlated and the malformations observed are organelle specific.

  11. [Complex regional pain syndrome versus chronic regional pain syndrome (Hand-Finger Syndrome)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulle, C

    2010-02-01

    Dystrophy is a main factor of CRPS. A large number of patients do not develop dystrophy but, instead, they suffer from pain with limitation in movement, possible paraesthesia and/or swelling. This is then a chronic regional pain syndrome or (shoulder-arm-) hand-finger syndrome. These patients should never be confronted with the diagnosis Morbus Sudeck or algodystrophy, which are today also well known among non-professionals, to avoid pushing them into a status of constant severe invalidity. Histories, clinical examination, as well as a good personal understanding of the patient are indispensable. Knowing that pain, or the extent of pain, remains subjective until today, the clinical diagnosis depends on the absence of side differences in: a) the circumference of soft tissues of both upper extremities; b) the callosity of the palm; c) the bone-density. These three parameters allow verification of the consequences of the pain complaints (indirect pain verification). It is essential to find the cause for their suffering and to treat it as far as possible: 1) Too long and inappropriate immobilisation (patient's suffering not considered sufficiently). These patients can recover quickly when the right diagnosis is made in good time. 2) Limitation of movement due to scar, neuroma, or elongation pain: a) bizarre functional disabilities can develop; b) due to the patient's complaints, one or several operations would finally be performed, which will not lead to an improvement but rather to an aggravation of the pain; c) socially-induced purposeful pain increase, the typical statement of the patient will be: "I can't stand it any longer". Patients who are socially over-burdened, or have psycho-social problems, may experience a decline of performance or a post-traumatic stress disorder. Several patients will be introduced as illustrations for each of the relevant groups. PMID:20205065

  12. Spatial and temporal profiles of growth factor expression during CNS demyelination reveal the dynamics of repair priming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Gudi

    Full Text Available Demyelination is the cause of disability in various neurological disorders. It is therefore crucial to understand the molecular regulation of oligodendrocytes, the myelin forming cells in the CNS. Growth factors are known to be essential for the development and maintenance of oligodendrocytes and are involved in the regulation of glial responses in various pathological conditions. We employed the well established murine cuprizone model of toxic demyelination to analyze the expression of 13 growth factors in the CNS during de- and remyelination. The temporal mRNA expression profile during demyelination and the subsequent remyelination were analyzed separately in the corpus callosum and cerebral cortex using laser microdissection and real-time PCR techniques. During demyelination a similar pattern of growth factor mRNA expression was observed in both areas with a strong up-regulation of NRG1 and GDNF and a slight increase of CNTF in the first week of cuprizone treatment. HGF, FGF-2, LIF, IGF-I, and TGF-ß1 were up-regulated mainly during peak demyelination. In contrast, during remyelination there were regional differences in growth factor mRNA expression levels. GDNF, CNTF, HGF, FGF-2, and BDNF were elevated in the corpus callosum but not in the cortex, suggesting tissue differences in the molecular regulation of remyelination in the white and grey matter. To clarify the cellular source we isolated microglia from the cuprizone lesions. GDNF, IGF-1, and FGF mRNA were detected in the microglial fraction with a temporal pattern corresponding to that from whole tissue PCR. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis revealed IGF-1 protein expression also in the reactive astrocytes. CNTF was located in astrocytes. This study identified seven different temporal expression patterns for growth factors in white and grey matter and demonstrated the importance of early tissue priming and exact orchestration of different steps during callosal and cortical de

  13. Synthesis and characterization of N-acylaniline derivatives as potential chemical hybridizing agents (CHAs) for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Devakumar, C

    2006-09-01

    Induction of male sterility by deployment of chemical hybridizing agents (CHAs) are important in heterosis breeding of self-pollinated crops like wheat, wherein the male and female organs are in the same flower. Taking a lead from the earlier work on rice, a total of 25 N-acylanilines comprising of malonanilates, acetoacetanilides, and acetanilides (including halogenated acetanilides) were synthesized and screened as CHAs on three genotypes of wheat, viz., PBW 343, HD 2046, and HD 2733 at 1500 ppm in the winter of 2001-2002. The N-acylanilines containing variations at the acyl and aromatic domain were synthesized by condensation of substituted anilines with appropriate diesters, acid chlorides, or monoesters. The test compounds with highly electronegative groups such as F/Br at the para position of the aryl ring were identified as the most potent CHAs, causing higher induction of male sterility. A variation of N-substitution at the side chain generally furnished analogues like 4'-fluoroacetoacetanilide (7) and ethyl 4'-fluoromalonanilate (1), which induced 89.12 and 84.66% male sterility, respectively, in PBW 343. Among halogenated acetanilides, the increasing number of chlorine atoms in the side chain led to an increase in the activity of 4'-fluoro (23) and 4'-bromo (24) derivatives of trichoroacetanilides, which induced >87% male sterility. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models indicated the positive contributions of the field effect exemplified by the Swain-Lupton constant (Fp) and negative contributions of the Swain-Lupton resonance constant (R) for the aromatic substitution. The positive influences of parachor (P) for the acyl domain have been underlined. These leads will be significant in explaining the CHA fit in the macromolecular receptor site. The CHAs appeared to act by causing an imbalance in the acid-base equilibrium in pollen mother cells resulting in dissolution of the callose wall by premature callase secretion. PMID:16939342

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with partial epilepsy; Special emphasis on mesial temporal lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, Kazuhiro; Satoh, Toshio; Noda, Shingo (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1989-12-01

    Fourty-three patients with partial epilepsy were studied with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 0.5 tesla. Transverse and coronal MR imagings were carried out with long SE sequences (TR=2080 or 2000 or 2200 msec; TE=80 or 160 msec) (T{sub 2}-weighted images) and IR sequence (TR=2080 msec; TI=500 msec) (T{sub 1}-weighted image). All patients were subdivided into four groups according to abnormalities on MR images. Two patients (group a) had mesial temporal abnormalities (long T{sub 2} lesion) at both transerve and coronal views. These lesions were unifocal and in the same side of temporal lobe with the epileptogenic focus as shown by electroencephalography. CT and T{sub 1}-weighted images failed to depict the mesial temporal abnormality. These long T{sub 2} lesions may reflect the increase in tissue water contents associated with gliosis. Focal signal increase in T{sub 2}-weighted images occurred in the mesial temporal region only at transverse view in four patients (group b). All focal signal-increased areas were also unifocal. Repeat MRI studies were carried out in two patients of group b. Disappearance of signal-increased areas was shown in both patients. As to the nature of these findings, some functional changes (partly reversible) related to epileptogenicity might be reflected in these signal-increased areas. In addition, we can't ignore the possibility of artifacts. One of them might be the vascular ghost artifact and another might be the partial volume effect from the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle, hippocampal fissure and from the inferior surface of the temporal lobe. The other types of abnormal MRI were demonstrated in eleven patients (group c). Six patients in group c had organic brain diseases such as tuberous sclerosis, callosal lipoma, brain tumor, Japanese encephalitis, meningitis and Sjoegren syndrome. The remaining twenty-six patients had no abnormal MRI (group d). (J.P.N.).

  15. The Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria Type-3 Effector XopB Inhibits Plant Defence Responses by Interfering with ROS Production.

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    Johannes Peter Roman Priller

    Full Text Available The bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria 85-10 (Xcv translocates about 30 type-3 effector proteins (T3Es into pepper plants (Capsicum annuum to suppress plant immune responses. Among them is XopB which interferes with PTI, ETI and sugar-mediated defence responses, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and direct targets are unknown so far. Here, we examined the XopB-mediated suppression of plant defence responses in more detail. Infection of susceptible pepper plants with Xcv lacking xopB resulted in delayed symptom development compared to Xcv wild type infection concomitant with an increased formation of salicylic acid (SA and expression of pathogenesis-related (PR genes. Expression of xopB in Arabidopsis thaliana promoted the growth of the virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000 strain. This was paralleled by a decreased SA-pool and a lower induction of SA-dependent PR gene expression. The expression pattern of early flg22-responsive marker genes indicated that MAPK signalling was not altered in the presence of XopB. However, XopB inhibited the flg22-triggered burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Consequently, the transcript accumulation of AtOXI1, a ROS-dependent marker gene, was reduced in xopB-expressing Arabidopsis plants as well as callose deposition. The lower ROS production correlated with a low level of basal and flg22-triggered expression of apoplastic peroxidases and the NADPH oxidase RBOHD. Conversely, deletion of xopB in Xcv caused a higher production of ROS in leaves of susceptible pepper plants. Together our results demonstrate that XopB modulates ROS responses and might thereby compromise plant defence.

  16. Co-silencing of tomato S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase genes confers increased immunity against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and enhanced tolerance to drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiao Hui

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH, catalyzing the reversible hydrolysis of S-adenosylhomocysteine to adenosine and homocysteine, is a key enzyme that maintain the cellular methylation potential in all organisms. We report here the biological functions of tomato SlSAHHs in stress response. The tomato genome contains three SlSAHH genes that encode SlSAHH proteins with high level of sequence identity. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that SlSAHHs responded with distinct expression induction patterns to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000 and Botrytis cinerea as well as to defense signaling hormones such as salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and a precursor of ethylene. Virus-induced gene silencing-based knockdown of individual SlSAHH gene did not affect the growth performance and the response to Pst DC3000. However, co-silencing of three SlSAHH genes using a conserved sequence led to significant inhibition of vegetable growth. The SlSAHH-co-silenced plants displayed increased resistance to Pst DC3000 but did not alter the resistance to B. cinerea. Co-silencing of SlSAHHs resulted in constitutively activated defense responses including elevated SA level, upregulated expression of defense-related and PAMP-triggered immunity marker genes and increased callose deposition and H2O2 accumulation. Furthermore, the SlSAHH-co-silenced plants also exhibited enhanced drought stress tolerance although they had relatively small roots. These data demonstrate that, in addition to the functions in growth and development, SAHHs also play important roles in regulating biotic and abiotic stress responses in plants.

  17. Aluminum ions induce oat protoplasts to produce an extracellular (1 yields 3). beta. -D-glucan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, H.J.; Walton, J.D. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Aluminum chloride induced mesophyll protoplasts of oat (Avena sativa) to produce an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS). EPS induced by AlCl{sub 3} appeared identical to that produced in response to the phytotoxin victorin. Al ions at 1 millimolar were toxic to protoplasts, but maximum EPS production occurred at a sublethal concentration of 200 micromolar, assayed at pH 6.0. As measured by incorporation of ({sup 14}C)glucose, AlCl{sub 3} stimulated EPS production 10- to 15-fold. Pretreatment of protoplasts with cycloheximide prevented EPS production but not cell death in response to AlCl{sub 3}, indicating that protein synthesis was necessary for EPS production but not for the phytotoxicity of Al ions. The trivalent salts of Y, Yb, Gd, and In also induced EPS production but those of Sc, Fe, Ga, Cr, and La did not. Mesophyll protoplasts from an acid-soil tolerant oat cultivar produced less EPS in response to AlCl{sub 3} than the acid-soil sensitive cultivar Fla 501. EPS was also produced by wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) protoplasts in response to AlCl{sub 3}. An Al-tolerant cultivar of wheat, Atlas, produced less EPS than an Al-sensitive cultivar, Scout, but an Al-tolerant cultivar of barley, Dayton, produced more than the Al-sensitive cultivar Kearney. Therefore, production of EPS by protoplasts in response to Al ions did not appear to be related to Al ion tolerance at the level of whole plants. EPS fluoresced in the presence of Calcofluor and Sirofluor and was degraded by purified laminarinase ((1{yields}3){beta}-D-glucanase) but did not pectinase (polygalacturonase). EPS was composed solely of glucose in 1{yields}3 linkages; hence it is a (1{yields}3){beta}-D-glucan (callose).

  18. Aluminum ions induce oat protoplasts to produce an extracellular (1→3)β-D-glucan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminum chloride induced mesophyll protoplasts of oat (Avena sativa) to produce an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS). EPS induced by AlCl3 appeared identical to that produced in response to the phytotoxin victorin. Al ions at 1 millimolar were toxic to protoplasts, but maximum EPS production occurred at a sublethal concentration of 200 micromolar, assayed at pH 6.0. As measured by incorporation of [14C]glucose, AlCl3 stimulated EPS production 10- to 15-fold. Pretreatment of protoplasts with cycloheximide prevented EPS production but not cell death in response to AlCl3, indicating that protein synthesis was necessary for EPS production but not for the phytotoxicity of Al ions. The trivalent salts of Y, Yb, Gd, and In also induced EPS production but those of Sc, Fe, Ga, Cr, and La did not. Mesophyll protoplasts from an acid-soil tolerant oat cultivar produced less EPS in response to AlCl3 than the acid-soil sensitive cultivar Fla 501. EPS was also produced by wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) protoplasts in response to AlCl3. An Al-tolerant cultivar of wheat, Atlas, produced less EPS than an Al-sensitive cultivar, Scout, but an Al-tolerant cultivar of barley, Dayton, produced more than the Al-sensitive cultivar Kearney. Therefore, production of EPS by protoplasts in response to Al ions did not appear to be related to Al ion tolerance at the level of whole plants. EPS fluoresced in the presence of Calcofluor and Sirofluor and was degraded by purified laminarinase [(1→3)β-D-glucanase] but did not pectinase (polygalacturonase). EPS was composed solely of glucose in 1→3 linkages; hence it is a (1→3)β-D-glucan (callose)

  19. Evolutionary appearance of von Economo's neurons in the mammalian cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauda, Franco; Geminiani, Giuliano Carlo; Vercelli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    von Economo's neurons (VENs) are large, spindle-shaped projection neurons in layer V of the frontoinsular (FI) cortex, and the anterior cingulate cortex. During human ontogenesis, the VENs can first be differentiated at late stages of gestation, and increase in number during the first eight postnatal months. VENs have been identified in humans, chimpanzee, bonobos, gorillas, orangutan and, more recently, in the macaque. Their distribution in great apes seems to correlate with human-like social cognitive abilities and self-awareness. VENs are also found in whales, in a number of different cetaceans, and in the elephant. This phylogenetic distribution may suggest a correlation among the VENs, brain size and the "social brain." VENs may be involved in the pathogenesis of specific neurological and psychiatric diseases, such as autism, callosal agenesis and schizophrenia. VENs are selectively affected in a behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia in which empathy, social awareness and self-control are seriously compromised, thus associating VENs with the social brain. However, the presence of VENs has also been related to special functions such as mirror self-recognition. Areas containing VENs have been related to motor awareness or sense-of-knowing, discrimination between self and other, and between self and the external environment. Along this line, VENs have been related to the "global Workspace" architecture: in accordance the VENs have been correlated to emotional and interoceptive signals by providing fast connections (large axons = fast communication) between salience-related insular and cingulate and other widely separated brain areas. Nevertheless, the lack of a characterization of their physiology and anatomical connectivity allowed only to infer their functional role based on their location and on the functional magnetic resonance imaging data. The recent finding of VENs in the anterior insula of the macaque opens the way to new insights and experimental

  20. Magnetic Resonance Features of Cerebral Malaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, P.; Sharma, R.; Kumar, S.; Kumar, U. (Dept. of Radiodiagnosis and Dept. of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India))

    2008-06-15

    Background: Cerebral malaria is a major health hazard, with a high incidence of mortality. The disease is endemic in many developing countries, but with a greater increase in tourism, occasional cases may be detected in countries where the disease in not prevalent. Early diagnosis and evaluation of cerebral involvement in malaria utilizing modern imaging modalities have an impact on the treatment and clinical outcome. Purpose: To evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) features of patients with cerebral malaria presenting with altered sensorium. Material and Methods: We present the findings in three patients with cerebral malaria presenting with altered sensorium. MR imaging using a 1.5-Tesla unit was carried out. The sequences performed were 5-mm-thick T1-weighted, T2-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR), and T2-weighted gradient-echo axial sequences, and sagittal and coronal FLAIR. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm2, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were obtained. Results: Focal hyperintensities in the bilateral periventricular white matter, corpus callosum, occipital subcortex, and bilateral thalami were noticed on T2-weighted and FLAIR sequences. The lesions were more marked in the splenium of the corpus callosum. No enhancement on postcontrast T1-weighted MR images was observed. There was no evidence of restricted diffusion on the diffusion-weighted sequence and ADC map. Conclusion: MR is a sensitive imaging modality, with a role in the assessment of cerebral lesions in malaria. Focal white matter and corpus callosal lesions without any restricted diffusion were the key findings in our patients

  1. Nudging oligodendrocyte intrinsic signaling to remyelinate and repair: Estrogen receptor ligand effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaj, Anna J; Hasselmann, Jonathan; Augello, Catherine; Moore, Spencer; Tiwari-Woodruff, Seema K

    2016-06-01

    Demyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS) leads to significant, progressive axonal and neuronal degeneration. Currently existing immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory therapies alleviate MS symptoms and slow, but fail to prevent or reverse, disease progression. Restoration of damaged myelin sheath by replenishment of mature oligodendrocytes (OLs) should not only restore saltatory axon conduction, but also provide a major boost to axon survival. Our previous work has shown that therapeutic treatment with the modestly selective generic estrogen receptor (ER) β agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN) confers functional neuroprotection in a chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of MS by stimulating endogenous remyelination. Recently, we found that the more potent, selective ERβ agonist indazole-chloride (Ind-Cl) improves clinical disease and motor performance. Importantly, electrophysiological measures revealed improved corpus callosal conduction and reduced axon refractoriness. This Ind-Cl treatment-induced functional remyelination was attributable to increased OL progenitor cell (OPC) and mature OL numbers. At the intracellular signaling level, transition of early to late OPCs requires ERK1/2 signaling, and transition of immature to mature OLs requires mTOR signaling; thus, the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway plays a major role in the late stages of OL differentiation and myelination. Indeed, therapeutic treatment of EAE mice with various ERβ agonists results in increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated (p) Akt and p-mTOR levels. It is notable that while DPN's neuroprotective effects occur in the presence of peripheral and central inflammation, Ind-Cl is directly neuroprotective, as demonstrated by remyelination effects in the cuprizone-induced demyelination model, as well as immunomodulatory. Elucidating the mechanisms by which ER agonists and other directly remyelinating agents modulate endogenous OPC and OL regulatory

  2. Parallel organization of contralateral and ipsilateral prefrontal cortical projections in the rhesus monkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Subhash

    2005-05-01

    development of distinct cortical types. The preponderance of contralateral projections from layer III may be traced to the late development of the callosal system, whose function may be compromised in diseases that have their root late in ontogeny.

  3. Cell Wall Biomolecular Composition Plays a Potential Role in the Host Type II Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight in Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahlali, Rachid; Kumar, Saroj; Wang, Lipu; Forseille, Li; Sylvain, Nicole; Korbas, Malgorzata; Muir, David; Swerhone, George; Lawrence, John R; Fobert, Pierre R; Peng, Gary; Karunakaran, Chithra

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a serious disease of wheat worldwide. Cultivar resistance to FHB depends on biochemical factors that confine the pathogen spread in spikes. Breeding for cultivar resistance is considered the most practical way to manage this disease. In this study, different spectroscopy and microscopy techniques were applied to discriminate resistance in wheat genotypes against FHB. Synchrotron-based spectroscopy and imaging techniques, including focal plane array infrared and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy were used to understand changes in biochemical and nutrients in rachis following FHB infection. Sumai3 and Muchmore were used to represent resistant and susceptible cultivars to FHB, respectively, in this study. The histological comparison of rachis showed substantial differences in the cell wall thickness between the cultivars after infection. Synchrotron-based infrared imaging emphasized substantial difference in biochemical composition of rachis samples between the two cultivars prior to visible symptoms; in the resistant Sumai3, infrared bands representing lignin and hemicellulose were stronger and more persistent compared to the susceptible cultivar. These bands may be the candidates of biochemical markers for FHB resistance. Focal plane array infrared imaging (FPA) spectra from the rachis epidermis and vascular bundles revealed a new band (1710 cm(-1)) related to the oxidative stress on the susceptible cultivar only. XRF spectroscopy data revealed differences in nutrients composition between cultivars, and between controls and inoculated samples, with substantial increases observed for Ca, K, Mn, Fe, Zn, and Si in the resistant cultivar. These nutrients are related to cell wall stability, metabolic process, and plant defense mechanisms such as lignification pathway and callose deposition. The combination of cell wall composition and lignification plays a role in the mechanism of type II host resistance to FHB. Biochemical profiling

  4. The value of fast MR imaging as an adjunct to ultrasound in prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breysem, L; Bosmans, H; Dymarkowski, S; Schoubroeck, D Van; Witters, I; Deprest, J; Demaerel, P; Vanbeckevoort, D; Vanhole, C; Casaer, P; Smet, M

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of MR imaging of the fetus to improve sonographic prenatal diagnosis of congenital anomalies. In 40 fetuses (not consecutive cases) with an abnormality diagnosed with ultrasound, additional MR imaging was performed. The basic sequence was a T2-weighted single-shot half Fourier (HASTE) technique. Head, neck, spinal, thoracic, urogenital, and abdominal fetal pathologies were found. This retrospective, observational study compared MR imaging findings with ultrasonographic findings regarding detection, topography, and etiology of the pathology. The MR findings were evaluated as superior, equal to, or inferior compared with US, in consent with the referring gynecologists. The role of these findings in relation to pregnancy management was studied and compared with postnatal follow-up in 30 of 40 babies. Fetal MRI technique was successful in 36 of 39 examinations and provided additional information in 21 of 40 fetuses (one twin pregnancy with two members to evaluate). More precise anatomy and location of fetal pathology (20 of 40 cases) and additional etiologic information (8 of 40 cases) were substantial advantages in cerebrospinal abnormalities [ventriculomegaly, encephalocele, vein of Galen malformation, callosal malformations, meningo(myelo)cele], in retroperitoneal abnormalities (lymphangioma, renal agenesis, multicystic renal dysplasia), and in neck/thoracic pathology [cervical cystic teratoma, congenital hernia diaphragmatica, congenital cystic adenomatoid lung malformation (CCAM)]. This improved parental counseling and pregnancy management in 15 pregnancies. In 3 cases, prenatal MRI findings did not correlate with prenatal ultrasonographic findings or neonatal diagnosis. The MRI provided a more detailed description and insight into fetal anatomy, pathology, and etiology in the vast majority of these selected cases. This improved prenatal parental counseling and postnatal therapeutic planning. PMID:12695920

  5. The value of fast MR imaging as an adjunct to ultrasound in prenatal diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breysem, L.; Bosmans, H.; Dymarkowski, S.; Demaerel, P.; Vanbeckevoort, D.; Smet, M. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, 3000, Leuven (Belgium); Schoubroeck, D.Van; Witters, I.; Deprest, J. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, 3000, Leuven (Belgium); Vanhole, C.; Casaer, P. [Department of Pediatrics, University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, 3000, Leuven (Belgium)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of MR imaging of the fetus to improve sonographic prenatal diagnosis of congenital anomalies. In 40 fetuses (not consecutive cases) with an abnormality diagnosed with ultrasound, additional MR imaging was performed. The basic sequence was a T2-weighted single-shot half Fourier (HASTE) technique. Head, neck, spinal, thoracic, urogenital, and abdominal fetal pathologies were found. This retrospective, observational study compared MR imaging findings with ultrasonographic findings regarding detection, topography, and etiology of the pathology. The MR findings were evaluated as superior, equal to, or inferior compared with US, in consent with the referring gynecologists. The role of these findings in relation to pregnancy management was studied and compared with postnatal follow-up in 30 of 40 babies. Fetal MRI technique was successful in 36 of 39 examinations and provided additional information in 21 of 40 fetuses (one twin pregnancy with two members to evaluate). More precise anatomy and location of fetal pathology (20 of 40 cases) and additional etiologic information (8 of 40 cases) were substantial advantages in cerebrospinal abnormalities [ventriculomegaly, encephalocele, vein of Galen malformation, callosal malformations, meningo(myelo)cele], in retroperitoneal abnormalities (lymphangioma, renal agenesis, multicystic renal dysplasia), and in neck/thoracic pathology [cervical cystic teratoma, congenital hernia diaphragmatica, congenital cystic adenomatoid lung malformation (CCAM)]. This improved parental counseling and pregnancy management in 15 pregnancies. In 3 cases, prenatal MRI findings did not correlate with prenatal ultrasonographic findings or neonatal diagnosis. The MRI provided a more detailed description and insight into fetal anatomy, pathology, and etiology in the vast majority of these selected cases. This improved prenatal parental counseling and postnatal therapeutic planning. (orig.)

  6. Phenotypic and histochemical traits of the interaction between Plasmopara viticola and resistant or susceptible grapevine varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toffolatti Silvia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grapevine downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara viticola, is a very serious disease affecting mainly Vitis vinifera cultivated varieties around the world. Breeding for resistance through the crossing with less susceptible species is one of the possible means to reduce the disease incidence and the application of fungicides. The hybrid Bianca and some of its siblings are considered very promising but their resistance level can vary depending on the pathogen strain. Moreover, virulent strains characterized by high fitness can represent a potential threat to the hybrid cultivation. Results The host response and the pathogen virulence were quantitatively assessed by artificially inoculating cv Chardonnay, cv Bianca and their siblings with P. viticola isolates derived from single germinating oospores collected in various Italian viticultural areas. The host phenotypes were classified as susceptible, intermediate and resistant, according to the Area Under the Disease Progress Curve caused by the inoculated strain. Host responses in cv Bianca and its siblings significantly varied depending on the P. viticola isolates, which in turn differed in their virulence levels. The fitness of the most virulent strain did not significantly vary on the different hybrids including Bianca in comparison with the susceptible cv Chardonnay, suggesting that no costs are associated with virulence. Among the individual fitness components, only sporangia production was significantly reduced in cv Bianca and in some hybrids. Comparative histological analysis revealed differences between susceptible and resistant plants in the pathogen diffusion and cytology from 48 h after inoculation onwards. Defence mechanisms included callose depositions in the infected stomata, increase in peroxidase activity, synthesis of phenolic compounds and flavonoids and the necrosis of stomata and cells immediately surrounding the point of invasion and determined alterations in

  7. Development of human white matter fiber pathways: From newborn to adult ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Andrew H; Wang, Rongpin; Wilkinson, Molly; MacDonald, Patrick; Lim, Ashley R; Takahashi, Emi

    2016-05-01

    Major long-range white matter pathways (cingulum, fornix, uncinate fasciculus [UF], inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus [IFOF], inferior longitudinal fasciculus [ILF], thalamocortical [TC], and corpus callosal [CC] pathways) were identified in eighty-three healthy humans ranging from newborn to adult ages. We tracked developmental changes using high-angular resolution diffusion MR tractography. Fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient, number, length, and volume were measured in pathways in each subject. Newborns had fewer, and more sparse, pathways than those of the older subjects. FA, number, length, and volume of pathways gradually increased with age and reached a plateau between 3 and 5 years of age. Data were further analyzed by normalizing with mean adult values as well as with each subject's whole brain values. Comparing subjects of 3 years old and under to those over 3 years old, the studied pathways showed differential growth patterns. The CC, bilateral cingulum, bilateral TC, and the left IFOF pathways showed significant growth both in volume and length, while the bilateral fornix, bilateral ILF and bilateral UF showed significant growth only in volume. The TC and CC took similar growth patterns with the whole brain. FA values of the cingulum and IFOF, and the length of ILF showed leftward asymmetry. The fornix, ILF and UF occupied decreased space compared to the whole brain during development with higher FA values, likely corresponding to extensive maturation of the pathways compared to the mean whole brain maturation. We believe that the outcome of this study will provide an important database for future reference. PMID:26948153

  8. Genotypical differences in aluminum resistance of maize are expressed in the distal part of the transition zone. Is reduced basipetal auxin flow involved in inhibition of root elongation by aluminum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmeier, M; Felle, H H; Horst, W J

    2000-03-01

    Short-term Al treatment (90 microM Al at pH 4.5 for 1 h) of the distal transition zone (DTZ; 1-2 mm from the root tip), which does not contribute significantly to root elongation, inhibited root elongation in the main elongation zone (EZ; 2.5-5 mm from the root tip) to the same extent as treatment of the entire maize (Zea mays) root apex. Application of Al to the EZ had no effect on root elongation. Higher genotypical resistance to Al applied to the entire root apex, and specifically to the DTZ, was expressed by less inhibition of root elongation, Al accumulation, and Al-induced callose formation, primarily in the DTZ. A characteristic pH profile along the surface of the root apex with a maximum of pH 5.3 in the DTZ was demonstrated. Al application induced a substantial flattening of the pH profile moreso in the Al-sensitive than in the Al-resistant cultivar. Application of indole-3-acetic acid to the EZ but not to the meristematic zone significantly alleviated the inhibition of root elongation induced by the application of Al to the DTZ. Basipetal transport of exogenously applied [(3)H]indole-3-acetic acid to the meristematic zone was significantly inhibited by Al application to the DTZ in the Al-sensitive maize cv Lixis. Our results provide evidence that the primary mechanisms of genotypical differences in Al resistance are located within the DTZ, and suggest a signaling pathway in the root apex mediating the Al signal between the DTZ and the EZ through basipetal auxin transport. PMID:10712559

  9. Addition of Phenylboronic Acid to Malus domestica Pollen Tubes Alters Calcium Dynamics, Disrupts Actin Filaments and Affects Cell Wall Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Kefeng; Gao, Sai; Zhang, Weiwei; Xing, Yu; Cao, Qingqin; Qin, Ling

    2016-01-01

    A key role of boron in plants is to cross-link the cell wall pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) through borate diester linkages. Phenylboronic acid (PBA) can form the same reversible ester bonds but cannot cross-link two molecules, so can be used as an antagonist to study the function of boron. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of PBA on apple (Malus domestica) pollen tube growth and the underlying regulatory mechanism. We observed that PBA caused an inhibition of pollen germination, tube growth and led to pollen tube morphological abnormalities. Fluorescent labeling, coupled with a scanning ion-selective electrode technique, revealed that PBA induced an increase in extracellular Ca2+ influx, thereby elevating the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]c and disrupting the [Ca2+]c gradient, which is critical for pollen tube growth. Moreover the organization of actin filaments was severely perturbed by the PBA treatment. Immunolocalization studies and fluorescent labeling, together with Fourier-transform infrared analysis (FTIR) suggested that PBA caused an increase in the abundance of callose, de-esterified pectins and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) at the tip. However, it had no effect on the deposition of the wall polymers cellulose. These effects are similar to those of boron deficiency in roots and other organs, indicating that PBA can induce boron deficiency symptoms. The results provide new insights into the roles of boron in pollen tube development, which likely include regulating [Ca2+]c and the formation of the actin cytoskeleton, in addition to the synthesis and assembly of cell wall components. PMID:26886907

  10. Diagonistic dyspraxia. Clinical characteristics, responsible lesion and possible underlying mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Y; Yoshida, A; Kawahata, N; Hashimoto, R; Obayashi, T

    1996-06-01

    We present three patients who showed, in addition to signs of callosal interruption, a variety of abnormal motor behaviour of the left hand dissociated from conscious volition, in the absence of pathological grasping phenomena. The abnormal movements of the left hand consisted of (i) antagonistic movements to the right; (ii) non-antagonistic, irrelevant movements to the right; (iii) symmetric movements to the right in which the left hand sometimes preceded the right, and (iv) occasional inability to move at will during a bimanual task. From these observations and a review of previous publications, we propose that, in most right-handed subjects; diagonistic dyspraxia could be defined as abnormal motor behaviour of the left hand activated by voluntary movements of the right hand. Motor phenomena similar to diagonistic dyspraxia but attributable to impulsive groping movements induced by medial frontal lobe pathology should be excluded from diagonistic dyspraxia. Comparison of MRIs of the three patients with those of five patients who developed no diagonistic dyspraxia following an infarction of the corpus callosum, with or without medial hemispheric involvement, revealed that damage to the ventral part of the posterior end of the body of the corpus callosum was crucial for the development of diagonistic dyspraxia. Since the commissural fibres between the superior parietal lobules pass through the caudal part of the body of the corpus callosum, and also since there is accumulating evidence that the human superior parietal lobule is concerned with selection of movement based on the integration of visual and/or somatosensory information, we infer that diagonistic dyspraxia is produced by a disconnection of the right superior parietal lobule from the left which is dominant for volitional control of movement in most right-handed subjects. PMID:8673498

  11. Abnormal white matter properties in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Travis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anorexia nervosa (AN is a serious eating disorder that typically emerges during adolescence and occurs most frequently in females. To date, very few studies have investigated the possible impact of AN on white matter tissue properties during adolescence, when white matter is still developing. The present study evaluated white matter tissue properties in adolescent girls with AN using diffusion MRI with tractography and T1 relaxometry to measure R1 (1/T1, an index of myelin content. Fifteen adolescent girls with AN (mean age = 16.6 years ± 1.4 were compared to fifteen age-matched girls with normal weight and eating behaviors (mean age = 17.1 years ± 1.3. We identified and segmented 9 bilateral cerebral tracts (18 and 8 callosal fiber tracts in each participant's brain (26 total. Tract profiles were generated by computing measures for fractional anisotropy (FA and R1 along the trajectory of each tract. Compared to controls, FA in the AN group was significantly decreased in 4 of 26 white matter tracts and significantly increased in 2 of 26 white matter tracts. R1 was significantly decreased in the AN group compared to controls in 11 of 26 white matter tracts. Reduced FA in combination with reduced R1 suggests that the observed white matter differences in AN are likely due to reductions in myelin content. For the majority of tracts, group differences in FA and R1 did not occur within the same tract. The present findings have important implications for understanding the neurobiological factors underlying white matter changes associated with AN and invite further investigations examining associations between white matter properties and specific physiological, cognitive, social, or emotional functions affected in AN.

  12. The single functional blast resistance gene Pi54 activates a complex defence mechanism in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Santosh Kumar; Rai, Amit Kumar; Kanwar, Shamsher Singh; Chand, Duni; Singh, Nagendera Kumar; Sharma, Tilak Raj

    2012-01-01

    The Pi54 gene (Pi-k(h)) confers a high degree of resistance to diverse strains of the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. In order to understand the genome-wide co-expression of genes in the transgenic rice plant Taipei 309 (TP) containing the Pi54 gene, microarray analysis was performed at 72 h post-inoculation of the M. oryzae strain PLP-1. A total of 1154 differentially expressing genes were identified in TP-Pi54 plants. Of these, 587 were up-regulated, whereas 567 genes were found to be down-regulated. 107 genes were found that were exclusively up-regulated and 58 genes that were down- regulated in the case of TP-Pi54. Various defence response genes, such as callose, laccase, PAL, and peroxidase, and genes related to transcription factors like NAC6, Dof zinc finger, MAD box, bZIP, and WRKY were found to be up-regulated in the transgenic line. The enzymatic activities of six plant defence response enzymes, such as peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, β-glucosidase, β-1,3-glucanase, and chitinase, were found to be significantly high in TP-Pi54 at different stages of inoculation by M. oryzae. The total phenol content also increased significantly in resistant transgenic plants after pathogen inoculation. This study suggests the activation of defence response and transcription factor-related genes and a higher expression of key enzymes involved in the defence response pathway in the rice line TP-Pi54, thus leading to incompatible host-pathogen interaction. PMID:22058403

  13. Chromium-Induced Ultrastructural Changes and Oxidative Stress in Roots of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriou, Eleftherios P; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S; Panteris, Emmanuel; Fatsiou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Chromium (Cr) is an abundant heavy metal in nature, toxic to living organisms. As it is widely used in industry and leather tanning, it may accumulate locally at high concentrations, raising concerns for human health hazards. Though Cr effects have extensively been investigated in animals and mammals, in plants they are poorly understood. The present study was then undertaken to determine the ultrastructural malformations induced by hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], the most toxic form provided as 100 μM potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), in the root tip cells of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. A concentration-dependent decrease of root growth and a time-dependent increase of dead cells, callose deposition, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and peroxidase activity were found in Cr(VI)-treated seedlings, mostly at the transition root zone. In the same zone, nuclei remained ultrastructurally unaffected, but in the meristematic zone some nuclei displayed bulbous outgrowths or contained tubular structures. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was less affected under Cr(VI) stress, but Golgi bodies appeared severely disintegrated. Moreover, mitochondria and plastids became spherical and displayed translucent stroma with diminished internal membranes, but noteworthy is that their double-membrane envelopes remained structurally intact. Starch grains and electron dense deposits occurred in the plastids. Amorphous material was also deposited in the cell walls, the middle lamella and the vacuoles. Some vacuoles were collapsed, but the tonoplast appeared integral. The plasma membrane was structurally unaffected and the cytoplasm contained opaque lipid droplets and dense electron deposits. All electron dense deposits presumably consisted of Cr that is sequestered from sensitive sites, thus contributing to metal tolerance. It is concluded that the ultrastructural changes are reactive oxygen species (ROS)-correlated and the malformations observed are organelle specific. PMID:26204828

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with partial epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourty-three patients with partial epilepsy were studied with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 0.5 tesla. Transverse and coronal MR imagings were carried out with long SE sequences (TR=2080 or 2000 or 2200 msec; TE=80 or 160 msec) (T2-weighted images) and IR sequence (TR=2080 msec; TI=500 msec) (T1-weighted image). All patients were subdivided into four groups according to abnormalities on MR images. Two patients (group a) had mesial temporal abnormalities (long T2 lesion) at both transerve and coronal views. These lesions were unifocal and in the same side of temporal lobe with the epileptogenic focus as shown by electroencephalography. CT and T1-weighted images failed to depict the mesial temporal abnormality. These long T2 lesions may reflect the increase in tissue water contents associated with gliosis. Focal signal increase in T2-weighted images occurred in the mesial temporal region only at transverse view in four patients (group b). All focal signal-increased areas were also unifocal. Repeat MRI studies were carried out in two patients of group b. Disappearance of signal-increased areas was shown in both patients. As to the nature of these findings, some functional changes (partly reversible) related to epileptogenicity might be reflected in these signal-increased areas. In addition, we can't ignore the possibility of artifacts. One of them might be the vascular ghost artifact and another might be the partial volume effect from the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle, hippocampal fissure and from the inferior surface of the temporal lobe. The other types of abnormal MRI were demonstrated in eleven patients (group c). Six patients in group c had organic brain diseases such as tuberous sclerosis, callosal lipoma, brain tumor, Japanese encephalitis, meningitis and Sjoegren syndrome. The remaining twenty-six patients had no abnormal MRI (group d). (J.P.N.)

  15. TOPOISOMERASE 6B is involved in chromatin remodelling associated with control of carbon partitioning into secondary metabolites and cell walls, and epidermal morphogenesis in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Amandeep; Balasubramanian, Rajagopal; Cao, Jin; Singh, Prabhjeet; Subramanian, Senthil; Hicks, Glenn; Nothnagel, Eugene A; Abidi, Noureddine; Janda, Jaroslav; Galbraith, David W; Rock, Christopher D

    2014-08-01

    Plant growth is continuous and modular, a combination that allows morphogenesis by cell division and elongation and serves to facilitate adaptation to changing environments. The pleiotropic phenotypes of the harlequin (hlq) mutant, isolated on the basis of ectopic expression of the abscisic acid (ABA)- and auxin-inducible proDc3:GUS reporter gene, were previously characterized. Mutants are skotomorphogenic, have deformed and collapsed epidermal cells which accumulate callose and starch, cell walls abundant in pectins and cell wall proteins, and abnormal and reduced root hairs and leaf trichomes. hlq and two additional alleles that vary in their phenotypic severity of starch accumulation in the light and dark have been isolated, and it is shown that they are alleles of bin3/hyp6/rhl3/Topoisomerase6B. Mutants and inhibitors affecting the cell wall phenocopy several of the traits displayed in hlq. A microarray analysis was performed, and coordinated expression of physically adjacent pairs/sets of genes was observed in hlq, suggesting a direct effect on chromatin. Histones, WRKY and IAA/AUX transcription factors, aquaporins, and components of ubiquitin-E3-ligase-mediated proteolysis, and ABA or biotic stress response markers as well as proteins involved in cellular processes affecting carbon partitioning into secondary metabolites were also identified. A comparative analysis was performed of the hlq transcriptome with other previously published TopoVI mutant transcriptomes, namely bin3, bin5, and caa39 mutants, and limited concordance between data sets was found, suggesting indirect or genotype-specific effects. The results shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the det/cop/fus-like pleiotropic phenotypes of hlq and support a broader role for TopoVI regulation of chromatin remodelling to mediate development in response to environmental and hormonal signals. PMID:24821950

  16. Validation of Ponseti method for clubfoot deformity correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Idiopathic Congenital Talipes Equino-Varus (CTEV is a complex deformity of foot that is difficult to treat. The goal of treatment is to gain a functional, pain free, plantigrade foot, with good mobility and without callosities. Currently, the most accepted and popular method is the Ponseti method which allows correction of all components of CTEV by manipulation and serial casting without any major surgical intervention. This prospective study was done in a tertiary care centre to statistically assess the efficacy of Ponseti method. Methods: We treated 150 children (210 feet with idiopathic clubfoot deformity, using Ponseti technique. The severity of foot deformities were assessed by Pirani scoring system and were also recorded clinically, radiologically and podographically. The changes in the mean Catterall-Pirani scores at different follow ups were evaluated statistically. Results: The mean number of casts that were applied to obtain correction was 7.86 (range 5 to 11 casts. Percutaneous tendoachilles tenotomy was done in 70% of feet. All children were given foot abduction orthosis after the correction. The results were graded according to Ponseti and Smoley criteria. Good results were obtained in 83% of feet, acceptable results in 7% of feet and poor results in 10% of cases. Statistically significant correction was achieved in manipulation and casting stage which was maintained during bracing phase. The recurrences of the deformity were primarily due to poor compliance in the use of orthosis in post correction phase. Conclusion: The Ponseti method of correction is a safe and effective treatment for congenital idiopathic clubfoot and radically decreases the need for extensive corrective surgery. Non-compliance with orthotics is the main factor causing relapse of the deformity. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 650-655

  17. Foliar response of an Ailanthus altissima clone in two sites with different levels of ozone-pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone sensitivity of Ailanthus altissima leaves is due to low leaf density and large intercellular spaces. - Potted plants of Ailanthus altissima, produced by root suckers coming from a single symptomatic mother tree, were placed in two sites in the vicinity of Florence (central Italy), with different levels of ozone pollution. These plants were kept in well watered conditions during the period May-September 1999. In the high pollution site (Settignano-SET) the level of ozone exposure (AOT40) reached at the end of the season a value of 31 ppm h, whereas in the 'low pollution' site (Cascine-CAS) the exposure to ozone was 11 ppm h. A. altissima showed foliar symptoms in early July at SET and in the second half of July at CAS when exposure values reached 5 ppm h at both sites. However, at the end of August the conditions of the plantlets were rather similar in both sites. Microscopic and ultrastructural analysis were performed at the first onset of symptoms at SET (the CAS leaflets were asymptomatic). Observing the upper leaf surface where the brown stipples were visible, it was found that the cells of the palisade mesophyll displayed loss of chlorophyll and the organelles in the cytoplasm were damaged. Swelling of thylacoids was observed in the CAS leaflets, thus indicating the possible onset of a pre-visual damage. The injured cells were separated from the healthy ones by a layer of callose. We conclude that the sensitivity to ozone of A. altissima leaves is related to its leaf structure, with low leaf density and large intercellular spaces. Cell walls, as well as acting as mechanical barriers against the spread of ozone within the cell, also provide important detoxifying processes

  18. Acupuncture inhibits cue-induced heroin craving and brain activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinghui Cai; Xiaoge Song; Chuanfu Li; Chunsheng Xu; Xiliang Li; Qi Lu

    2012-01-01

    Previous research using functional MRI has shown that specific brain regions associated with drug dependence and cue-elicited heroin craving are activated by environmental cues.Craving is an important trigger of heroin relapse,and acupuncture may inhibit craving.In this study,we performed functional MRI in heroin addicts and control subjects.We compared differences in brain activation between the two groups during heroin cue exposure,heroin cue exposure plus acupuncture at the Zusanli point(ST36)without twirling of the needle,and heroin cue exposure plus acupuncture at the Zusanli point with twirling of the needle.Heroin cue exposure elicited significant activation in craving-related brain regions mainly in the frontal lobes and callosal gyri.Acupuncture without twirling did not significantly affect the range of brain activation induced by heroin cue exposure,but significantly changed the extent of the activation in the heroin addicts group.Acupuncture at the Zusanli.point with twirling of the needle significantly decreased both the range and extent of activation induced by heroin cue exposure compared with heroin cue exposure plus acupuncture without twirling of the needle.These experimental findings indicate that presentation of heroin cues can induce activation in craving-related brain regions,which are involved in reward,learning and memory,cognition and emotion.Acupuncture at the Zusanli point can rapidly suppress the activation of specific brain regions related to craving,supporting its potential as an intervention for drug craving.

  19. Purification and characterization of a novel hypersensitive response-inducing elicitor from Magnaporthe oryzae that triggers defense response in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjia Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Magnaporthe oryzae, the rice blast fungus, might secrete certain proteins related to plant-fungal pathogen interactions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we report the purification, characterization, and gene cloning of a novel hypersensitive response-inducing protein elicitor (MoHrip1 secreted by M. oryzae. The protein fraction was purified and identified by de novo sequencing, and the sequence matched the genomic sequence of a putative protein from M. oryzae strain 70-15 (GenBank accession No. XP_366602.1. The elicitor-encoding gene mohrip1 was isolated; it consisted of a 429 bp cDNA, which encodes a polypeptide of 142 amino acids with a molecular weight of 14.322 kDa and a pI of 4.53. The deduced protein, MoHrip1, was expressed in E. coli. And the expression protein collected from bacterium also forms necrotic lesions in tobacco. MoHrip1 could induce the early events of the defense response, including hydrogen peroxide production, callose deposition, and alkalization of the extracellular medium, in tobacco. Moreover, MoHrip1-treated rice seedlings possessed significantly enhanced systemic resistance to M. oryzae compared to the control seedlings. The real-time PCR results indicated that the expression of some pathogenesis-related genes and genes involved in signal transduction could also be induced by MoHrip1. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The results demonstrate that MoHrip1 triggers defense responses in rice and could be used for controlling rice blast disease.

  20. Activation of Shikimate, Phenylpropanoid, Oxylipins, and Auxin Pathways in Pectobacterium carotovorum Elicitors-Treated Moss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Alfonso; Montesano, Marcos; Schmelz, Eric; Ponce de León, Inés

    2016-01-01

    Plants have developed complex defense mechanisms to cope with microbial pathogens. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are perceived by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), leading to the activation of defense. While substantial progress has been made in understanding the activation of plant defense by PAMPs and DAMPs recognition in tracheophytes, far less information exists on related processes in early divergent plants like mosses. The aim of this study was to identify genes that were induced in P. patens in response to elicitors of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, using a cDNA suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. A total of 239 unigenes were identified, including genes involved in defense responses related to the shikimate, phenylpropanoid, and oxylipin pathways. The expression levels of selected genes related to these pathways were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR, confirming their rapid induction by P.c. carotovorum derived elicitors. In addition, P. patens induced cell wall reinforcement after elicitor treatment by incorporation of phenolic compounds, callose deposition, and elevated expression of Dirigent-like encoding genes. Small molecule defense markers and phytohormones such as cinnamic acid, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, and auxin levels all increased in elicitor-treated moss tissues. In contrast, salicylic acid levels decreased while abscisic acid levels remained unchanged. P. patens reporter lines harboring an auxin-inducible promoter fused to β-glucuronidase revealed GUS activity in protonemal and gametophores tissues treated with elicitors of P.c. carotovorum, consistent with a localized activation of auxin signaling. These results indicate that P. patens activates the shikimate, phenylpropanoid, oxylipins, and auxin pathways upon treatment with P.c. carotovorum derived elicitors. PMID:27047509

  1. Pseudomonas evades immune recognition of flagellin in both mammals and plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart W Bardoel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The building blocks of bacterial flagella, flagellin monomers, are potent stimulators of host innate immune systems. Recognition of flagellin monomers occurs by flagellin-specific pattern-recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5 in mammals and flagellin-sensitive 2 (FLS2 in plants. Activation of these immune systems via flagellin leads eventually to elimination of the bacterium from the host. In order to prevent immune activation and thus favor survival in the host, bacteria secrete many proteins that hamper such recognition. In our search for Toll like receptor (TLR antagonists, we screened bacterial supernatants and identified alkaline protease (AprA of Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a TLR5 signaling inhibitor as evidenced by a marked reduction in IL-8 production and NF-κB activation. AprA effectively degrades the TLR5 ligand monomeric flagellin, while polymeric flagellin (involved in bacterial motility and TLR5 itself resist degradation. The natural occurring alkaline protease inhibitor AprI of P. aeruginosa blocked flagellin degradation by AprA. P. aeruginosa aprA mutants induced an over 100-fold enhanced activation of TLR5 signaling, because they fail to degrade excess monomeric flagellin in their environment. Interestingly, AprA also prevents flagellin-mediated immune responses (such as growth inhibition and callose deposition in Arabidopsis thaliana plants. This was due to decreased activation of the receptor FLS2 and clearly demonstrated by delayed stomatal closure with live bacteria in plants. Thus, by degrading the ligand for TLR5 and FLS2, P. aeruginosa escapes recognition by the innate immune systems of both mammals and plants.

  2. Diffusion tensor imaging detects early cerebral cortex abnormalities in neuronal architecture induced by bilateral neonatal enucleation: An experimental model in the ferret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Bock

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI is a technique that non-invasively provides quantitative measures of water translational diffusion, including fractional anisotropy (FA, that are sensitive to the shape and orientation of cellular elements, such as axons, dendrites and cell somas. For several neurodevelopmental disorders, histopathological investigations have identified abnormalities in the architecture of pyramidal neurons at early stages of cerebral cortex development. To assess the potential capability of DTI to detect neuromorphological abnormalities within the developing cerebral cortex, we compare changes in cortical FA with changes in neuronal architecture and connectivity induced by bilateral enucleation at postnatal day 7 (BEP7 in ferrets. We show here that the visual callosal pattern in BEP7 ferrets is more irregular and occupies a significantly greater cortical area compared to controls at adulthood. To determine whether development of the cerebral cortex is altered in BEP7 ferrets in a manner detectable by DTI, cortical FA was compared in control and BEP7 animals on postnatal day 31. Visual cortex, but not rostrally-adjacent non-visual cortex, exhibits higher FA than control animals, consistent with BEP7 animals possessing axonal and dendritic arbors of reduced complexity than age-matched controls. Subsequent to DTI, Golgi staining and analysis methods were used to identify regions, restricted to visual areas, in which the orientation distribution of neuronal processes is significantly more concentrated than in control ferrets. Together, these findings suggest that DTI can be of utility for detecting abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders at early stages of cerebral cortical development, and that the neonatally-enucleated ferret is a useful animal model system for systematically assessing the potential of this new diagnostic strategy.

  3. A myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase gene, IbMIPS1, enhances salt and drought tolerance and stem nematode resistance in transgenic sweet potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hong; Wang, Feibing; Si, Zengzhi; Huo, Jinxi; Xing, Lei; An, Yanyan; He, Shaozhen; Liu, Qingchang

    2016-02-01

    Myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (MIPS) is a key rate limiting enzyme in myo-inositol biosynthesis. The MIPS gene has been shown to improve tolerance to abiotic stresses in several plant species. However, its role in resistance to biotic stresses has not been reported. In this study, we found that expression of the sweet potato IbMIPS1 gene was induced by NaCl, polyethylene glycol (PEG), abscisic acid (ABA) and stem nematodes. Its overexpression significantly enhanced stem nematode resistance as well as salt and drought tolerance in transgenic sweet potato under field conditions. Transcriptome and real-time quantitative PCR analyses showed that overexpression of IbMIPS1 up-regulated the genes involved in inositol biosynthesis, phosphatidylinositol (PI) and ABA signalling pathways, stress responses, photosynthesis and ROS-scavenging system under salt, drought and stem nematode stresses. Inositol, inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3 ), phosphatidic acid (PA), Ca(2+) , ABA, K(+) , proline and trehalose content was significantly increased, whereas malonaldehyde (MDA), Na(+) and H2 O2 content was significantly decreased in the transgenic plants under salt and drought stresses. After stem nematode infection, the significant increase of inositol, IP3 , PA, Ca(2+) , ABA, callose and lignin content and significant reduction of MDA content were found, and a rapid increase of H2 O2 levels was observed, peaked at 1 to 2 days and thereafter declined in the transgenic plants. This study indicates that the IbMIPS1 gene has the potential to be used to improve the resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. PMID:26011089

  4. MRI and {sup 1}H MRS findings in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, P.A. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Poussaint, T.Y. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital, 300 Longwood Avenue, MA 02115, Boston (United States); Tzika, A.A.; Astrakas, L.G. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Zurakowski, D. [Department of Biostatistics, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Elias, E.R. [Department of Pediatrics and Genetics, Children' s Hospital, Denver, CO (United States); School of Medicine, University of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States); Bay, C. [Department of Medical Genetics, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Irons, M.B. [Division of Clinical Genetics and Metabolism, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a defect in cholesterol biosynthesis, associated with mental retardation and multisystem structural abnormalities. This study investigated the prevalence of congenital CNS abnormalities by MRI in a large series of patients with SLOS and the correlation of the clinical and biochemical findings with the results of MRI and {sup 1}H MRS. Eighteen patients were studied; all underwent MRI of the brain, and 16 had {sup 1}H MRS of the cerebral white matter. The ratios choline:NAA, lipid:NAA, and lipid:choline metabolite were found to be correlated with the clinical degree of disease severity, serum total sterol ratios (cholesterol/cholesterol + 7-dehydrocholesterol + 8-dehydrocholesterol) and in two cases with the effect of cholesterol therapy. Abnormal CNS findings were noted in five patients, including callosal abnormalities (n=4), Dandy-Walker variant (n=1), and arachnoid cyst (n=1). Holoprosencephaly was noted in one patient with a prevalence of 6%. Choline:NAA was elevated in seven patients. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the lipid:choline ratio and the serum cholesterol precursor, 8-dehydrocholesterol. In two patients {sup 1}H MRS demonstrated abnormally elevated lipids prior to cholesterol therapy, which improved on therapy. The use of MRI and {sup 1}H MRS is an effective way to demonstrate brain structural abnormalities in patients with SLOS and may prove to be an effective method for the assessment of the effects of cholesterol replacement therapy in the brain. (orig.)

  5. Molecular Scanning and Morpho-Physiological Dissection of Component Mechanism in Lens Species in Response to Aluminium Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dharmendra; Pal, Madan; Singh, Chandan Kumar; Taunk, Jyoti; Jain, Priyanka; Chaturvedi, Ashish Kumar; Maurya, Sadhana; Karwa, Sourabh; Singh, Rajendra; Tomar, Ram Sewak Singh; Nongthombam, Rita; Chongtham, Nandini; Singh, Moirangthem Premjit

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) stress was imposed on 285 lentil genotypes at seedling stage under hydroponics to study its effects on morpho-physiological traits where resistant cultigens and wilds showed minimum reduction in root and shoot length and maximum root re-growth (RRG) after staining. Molecular assortment based on 46 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers clustered the genotypes into 11 groups, where wilds were separated from the cultigens. Genetic diversity and polymorphism information content (PIC) varied between 0.148-0.775 and 0.140-0.739, respectively. Breeding lines which were found to be most resistant (L-7903, L-4602); sensitive cultivars (BM-4, L-4147) and wilds ILWL-185 (resistant), ILWL-436 (sensitive) were grouped into different clusters. These genotypes were also separated on the basis of population structure and Jaccard's similarity index and analysed to study Al resistance mechanism through determination of different attributes like localization of Al and callose, lipid peroxidation, secretion of organic acids and production of antioxidant enzymes. In contrast to sensitive genotypes, in resistant ones most of the Al was localized in the epidermal cells, where its movement to apoplastic region was restricted due to release of citrate and malate. Under acidic field conditions, resistant genotypes produced maximum seed yield/plant as compared to sensitive genotypes at two different locations i.e. Imphal, Manipur, India and Basar, Arunanchal Pradesh, India during 2012-13, 2013-14 and 2014-15. These findings suggest that Al stress adaptation in lentil is through exclusion mechanism and hybridization between the contrasting genotypes from distinct clusters can help in development of resistant varieties. PMID:27467074

  6. Host specificity in Sporisorium reilianum is determined by distinct mechanisms in maize and sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poloni, Alana; Schirawski, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Smut fungi are biotrophic plant pathogens that exhibit a very narrow host range. The smut fungus Sporisorium reilianum exists in two host-adapted formae speciales: S. reilianum f. sp. reilianum (SRS), which causes head smut of sorghum, and S. reilianum f. sp. zeae (SRZ), which induces disease on maize. It is unknown why the two formae speciales cannot form spores on their respective non-favoured hosts. By fungal DNA quantification and fluorescence microscopy of stained plant samples, we followed the colonization behaviour of both SRS and SRZ on sorghum and maize. Both formae speciales were able to penetrate and multiply in the leaves of both hosts. In sorghum, the hyphae of SRS reached the apical meristems, whereas the hyphae of SRZ did not. SRZ strongly induced several defence responses in sorghum, such as the generation of H2 O2 , callose and phytoalexins, whereas the hyphae of SRS did not. In maize, both SRS and SRZ were able to spread through the plant to the apical meristem. Transcriptome analysis of colonized maize leaves revealed more genes induced by SRZ than by SRS, with many of them being involved in defence responses. Amongst the maize genes specifically induced by SRS were 11 pentatricopeptide repeat proteins. Together with the microscopic analysis, these data indicate that SRZ succumbs to plant defence after sorghum penetration, whereas SRS proliferates in a relatively undisturbed manner, but non-efficiently, on maize. This shows that host specificity is determined by distinct mechanisms in sorghum and maize. PMID:26419898

  7. Evolutionary appearance of Von Economo’s Neurons in the mammalian cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco eCauda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Von Economo’s neurons (VENs are large, spindle-shaped projection neurons in layer V of the frontoinsular (FI cortex, and the anterior cingulate cortex. During human ontogenesis, the VENs can first be differentiated at late stages of gestation, and increase in number during the first eight postnatal months.VENs have been identified in humans, chimpanzee, bonobos, gorillas, orangutan and, more recently, in the macaque. Their distribution in great apes seems to correlate with human-like social cognitive abilities and self-awareness. VENs are also found in whales, in a number of different cetaceans, and in the elephant. This phylogenetic distribution may suggest a correlation among the VENs, brain size and the social brain. VENs may be involved in the pathogenesis of specific neurological and psychiatric diseases, such as autism, callosal agenesis and schizophrenia. VENs are selectively affected in a behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia in which empathy, social awareness and self-control are seriously compromised, thus associating VENs with the social brain.However, the presence of VENs has also been related to special functions such as mirror self-recognition. Areas containing VENs have been related to motor awareness or sense-of-knowing, discrimination between self and other, and between self and the external environment. Along this line, VENs have been related to the global Workspace architecture: in accordance the VENs have been correlated to emotional and interoceptive signals by providing fast connections (large axons = fast communication between salience-related insular and cingulate and other widely separated brain areas.Nevertheless, the lack of a characterization of their physiology and anatomical connectivity allowed only to infer their functional role based on their location and on the fMRI data. The recent finding of VENs in the anterior insula of the macaque opens the way to new insights and experimental investigatio

  8. Corpus callosum thickness in children: an MR pattern-recognition approach on the midsagittal image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Pillay, Tanyia; Gabuza, Lungile; Mahomed, Nasreen; Naidoo, Jaishree; Tebogo Hlabangana, Linda [University of the Witwatersrand, Radiology Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, Johannesburg (South Africa); Du Plessis, Vicci [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Radiology Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, Durban (South Africa); Prabhu, Sanjay P. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-08-31

    Thickening of the corpus callosum is an important feature of development, whereas thinning of the corpus callosum can be the result of a number of diseases that affect development or cause destruction of the corpus callosum. Corpus callosum thickness reflects the volume of the hemispheres and responds to changes through direct effects or through Wallerian degeneration. It is therefore not only important to evaluate the morphology of the corpus callosum for congenital anomalies but also to evaluate the thickness of specific components or the whole corpus callosum in association with other findings. The goal of this pictorial review is raise awareness that the thickness of the corpus callosum can be a useful feature of pathology in pediatric central nervous system disease and must be considered in the context of the stage of development of a child. Thinning of the corpus callosum can be primary or secondary, and generalized or focal. Primary thinning is caused by abnormal or failed myelination related to the hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathies, metabolic disorders affecting white matter, and microcephaly. Secondary thinning of the corpus callosum can be caused by diffuse injury such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalopathy, hydrocephalus, dysmyelinating conditions and demyelinating conditions. Focal disturbance of formation or focal injury also causes localized thinning, e.g., callosal dysgenesis, metabolic disorders with localized effects, hypoglycemia, white matter injury of prematurity, HIV-related atrophy, infarction and vasculitis, trauma and toxins. The corpus callosum might be too thick because of a primary disorder in which the corpus callosum finding is essential to diagnosis; abnormal thickening can also be secondary to inflammation, infection and trauma. (orig.)

  9. Derivative chromosome 1 and GLUT1 deficiency syndrome in a sibling pair

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    Akarsu Nurten

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic imbalances constitute a major cause of congenital and developmental abnormalities. GLUT1 deficiency syndrome is caused by various de novo mutations in the facilitated human glucose transporter 1 gene (1p34.2 and patients with this syndrome have been diagnosed with hypoglycorrhachia, mental and developmental delay, microcephaly and seizures. Furthermore, 1q terminal deletions have been submitted in the recent reports and the absence of corpus callosum has been related to the deletion between C1orf100 and C1orf121 in 1q44. Results This study reports on a sibling pair with developmental delay, mental retardation, microcephaly, hypotonia, epilepsy, facial dysmorphism, ataxia and impaired speech. Chromosome analysis revealed a derivative chromosome 1 in both patients. FISH and MCB analysis showed two interstitial deletions at 1p34.2 and 1q44. SNP array and array-CGH analysis also determined the sizes of deletions detailed. The deleted region on 1p34.2 encompasses 33 genes, among which is GLUT1 gene (SLC2A1. However, the deleted region on 1q44 includes 59 genes and distal-proximal breakpoints were located in the ZNF672 gene and SMYD3 gene, respectively. Conclusion Haploinsufficiency of GLUT1 leads to GLUT1 deficiency syndrome, consistent with the phenotype in patients of this study. Conversely, in the deleted region on 1q44, none of the genes are related to findings in these patients. Additionally, the results confirm previous reports on that corpus callosal development may depend on the critical gene(s lying in 1q44 proximal to the SMYD3 gene.

  10. Multiple Xanthomonas euvesicatoria Type III Effectors Inhibit flg22-Triggered Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Georgy; Fraiture, Malou; Brunner, Frederic; Sessa, Guido

    2016-08-01

    Xanthomonas euvesicatoria is the causal agent of bacterial spot disease in pepper and tomato. X. euvesicatoria bacteria interfere with plant cellular processes by injecting effector proteins into host cells through the type III secretion (T3S) system. About 35 T3S effectors have been identified in X. euvesicatoria 85-10, and a few of them were implicated in suppression of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). We used an Arabidopsis thaliana pathogen-free protoplast-based assay to identify X. euvesicatoria 85-10 effectors that interfere with PTI signaling induced by the bacterial peptide flg22. Of 33 tested effectors, 17 inhibited activation of a PTI-inducible promoter. Among them, nine effectors also interfered with activation of an abscisic acid-inducible promoter. However, effectors that inhibited flg22-induced signaling did not affect phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases acting downstream of flg22 perception. Further investigation of selected effectors revealed that XopAJ, XopE2, and XopF2 inhibited activation of a PTI-inducible promoter by the bacterial peptide elf18 in Arabidopsis protoplasts and by flg22 in tomato protoplasts. The effectors XopF2, XopE2, XopAP, XopAE, XopH, and XopAJ inhibited flg22-induced callose deposition in planta and enhanced disease symptoms caused by attenuated Pseudomonas syringae bacteria. Finally, selected effectors were found to localize to various plant subcellular compartments. These results indicate that X. euvesicatoria bacteria utilize multiple T3S effectors to suppress flg22-induced signaling acting downstream or in parallel to MAP kinase cascades and suggest they act through different molecular mechanisms. PMID:27529660

  11. Bacillus cereus AR156 Extracellular Polysaccharides Served as a Novel Micro-associated Molecular Pattern to Induced Systemic Immunity to Pst DC3000 in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chun-Hao; Fan, Zhi-Hang; Xie, Ping; Guo, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Non-host resistance (NHR) is a broad-spectrum plant defense. Upon colonizing on the surface on the root or leaves of non-host species, pathogens initial encounter preform and induce defense response in plant, such as induced hypersensitive response, PAMPs triggered immunity (PTI), and effector triggered immunity (ETI). The ability of plants to develop an induced systemic response (ISR) in reaction to the colonization by non-pathogenic rhizobacterium depends on interactions between host plants and the colonizing rhizobacterium, and the ISR also can be defined as a NHR. However, how the colonization signal is and how systemic resistance to pathogens is developed is still unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that the extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) of Bacillus cereus AR156 could act as novel microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and function in the early perception status of the ISR of B. cereus AR156. The results revealed that B. cereus AR156 EPS could induce systemic resistance to Pst DC3000 in Arabidopsis. Cellular defense response markers such as hydrogen peroxide accumulation, callose deposition, and defense-associated enzyme were induced upon challenge inoculation in the leaves primed by EPS. Moreover, the defense-related genes PR1, PR2, and PR5 and mitogen-activated kinases (MAPK) cascade marker gene MPK6 were concurrently expressed in the leaves of EPS-treated plants and induced higher resistance to Pst DC3000 in Col-0 than that in the jar1 or etr1 mutants. The protection was absent in the NahG transgenic plants and npr1 mutant, suggesting an activation of the salicylic acid (SA)- and the MAPK-dependent signaling pathways with NPR1-dependent by B. cereus AR156 EPS. In conclusion, B. cereus AR156 EPS play an important role in MAMP perception during the process of rhizobacteria-triggered NHR. This study is the first to illustrate how AR156 induces systemic resistance to Pst DC3000 in Arabidopsis. It also provides the first explanation of how

  12. Analysis of the MRI Features of the Complications after Augmentation Mammoplasty with Polyacrylamide Hydrophilic Gel Injection%PAHG注射隆乳术后并发症的MRI表现分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁雯雯; 张雪林; 张海捷

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨聚丙烯酰胺水凝胶(PAHG)注射隆乳术后并发症的MRI特点及其诊断价值.方法 回顾性分析32例PAHG注射隆乳术后患者的临床和MRI资料.结果 32例中,17例(30只)乳腺假体包膜破裂,表现为多发的团块状长T1长T2信号,内可见低信号影分隔;6例(12只)硬结形成,表现为皮下、腺体内或肌间隙内散在的T2WI明亮高信号结节影;2例(4只)乳腺MRI可见假体严重变形、不对称;2例(4只)乳腺伴发无菌性炎症,表现为乳腺腺体结构紊乱,腺体内可见线条样稍长T1长T2信号影,增强扫描未见异常强化灶.MRI表现与临床表现相符.结论 聚丙烯酰胺水凝胶隆乳术后各种并发症的MRI表现有一定特点,乳腺MRI扫描可指导临床诊断和治疗.%Objective To investigate the clinical value of MRI in the diagnosis of the complications after breast augmentation with polyacrylamide hydrophilic gel(PAHG) injection. Methods The MR imaging and clinical data of 32 patients who had breast augmentation with polyacrylamide hydrophilic gel injection were retrospcctivcly revicwed. Results In the 32 patients,there were 17 cases (30 breasts) with envelope rupture, which appeared as mass- like long T1 and long T2 signal with hypointcnse septa; 6 cases (12 breasts) with callosity,the images showed sporadic nodules with high signal on T2 WI; prosthesis asymmetry occurred in 2 cases( 4 breasts ) ; aseptic inflammation in 2 cases ( 4 breasts) with pieces of slightly long T1 and long T2 signals , and none abnormal reinforcement was seen after enhancement. MRI findings were corresponded to the clinic manifcstations. Conclusion Since each complication after breast augmentation with PAHG has its own MR features,breast imaging plays important role in guiding clinical diagnosis and treatment for the complications after mammoplasty.

  13. Direct and Indirect Targeting of PP2A by Conserved Bacterial Type-III Effector Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lin; Ham, Jong Hyun; Hage, Rosemary; Zhao, Wanying; Soto-Hernández, Jaricelis; Lee, Sang Yeol; Paek, Seung-Mann; Kim, Min Gab; Boone, Charles; Coplin, David L; Mackey, David

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial AvrE-family Type-III effector proteins (T3Es) contribute significantly to the virulence of plant-pathogenic species of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Ralstonia, Erwinia, Dickeya and Pectobacterium, with hosts ranging from monocots to dicots. However, the mode of action of AvrE-family T3Es remains enigmatic, due in large part to their toxicity when expressed in plant or yeast cells. To search for targets of WtsE, an AvrE-family T3E from the maize pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, we employed a yeast-two-hybrid screen with non-lethal fragments of WtsE and a synthetic genetic array with full-length WtsE. Together these screens indicate that WtsE targets maize protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) heterotrimeric enzyme complexes via direct interaction with B' regulatory subunits. AvrE1, another AvrE-family T3E from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pto DC3000), associates with specific PP2A B' subunit proteins from its susceptible host Arabidopsis that are homologous to the maize B' subunits shown to interact with WtsE. Additionally, AvrE1 was observed to associate with the WtsE-interacting maize proteins, indicating that PP2A B' subunits are likely conserved targets of AvrE-family T3Es. Notably, the ability of AvrE1 to promote bacterial growth and/or suppress callose deposition was compromised in Arabidopsis plants with mutations of PP2A genes. Also, chemical inhibition of PP2A activity blocked the virulence activity of both WtsE and AvrE1 in planta. The function of HopM1, a Pto DC3000 T3E that is functionally redundant to AvrE1, was also impaired in specific PP2A mutant lines, although no direct interaction with B' subunits was observed. These results indicate that sub-component specific PP2A complexes are targeted by bacterial T3Es, including direct targeting by members of the widely conserved AvrE-family. PMID:27191168

  14. [Neuropsychology, plasticity and childhood epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassonde, Maryse; Sauerwein, Hannelore C

    2007-11-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most frequent childhood disorders. While most cases are well controlled, approximately 30-50% are resistant to medical treatment. In these cases, neurosurgery may be an option. Since 1979, our team at the Sainte-Justine Hospital in Montreal has studied the impact of epilepsy on the psycho-motor and cognitive development of the affected children. The aim of a first series of studies was to explore the extent and limits of cerebral plasticity by investigating the neuropsychological sequelae of early versus late callosotomy and hemispherectomy. In keeping with the plasticity hypothesis, the results revealed that the children who were operated before puberty showed fewer deficits than those operated during adolescence or adulthood. However, the compensatory mechanisms available to them appeared to be limited with respect to the nature and complexity of the information they can process. For instance, young children having undergone section of the corpus callosum resembled individuals born without a corpus callosum (callosal agenesis) in that there did not show the typical disconnection deficits seen in adult ''split-brain'' patients. However, they exhibited deficits on tasks requiring interhemispheric integration of motor and visuo-motor information. By the same token, hemispherectomy patients were still able to make visual judgements in their ''blind'' visual field but they were found to be impaired on a variety of visual and auditory tasks (localization of a sound sources in space) requiring the participation of both hemispheres. In a second series of studies, carried out in collaboration with a Parisian team, we intended to describe the neuropsychological profile of focal epilepsies, specifically frontal and temporal epilepsy. Contrary to the common belief that childhood epilepsy would result in diffuse impairments, we were able to demonstrate that children manifest the same localized deficits as adult patients. In studies presently underway in

  15. Transcriptional profile of maize roots under acid soil growth

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    Mattiello Lucia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aluminum (Al toxicity is one of the most important yield-limiting factors of many crops worldwide. The primary symptom of Al toxicity syndrome is the inhibition of root growth leading to poor water and nutrient absorption. Al tolerance has been extensively studied using hydroponic experiments. However, unlike soil conditions, this method does not address all of the components that are necessary for proper root growth and development. In the present study, we grew two maize genotypes with contrasting tolerance to Al in soil containing toxic levels of Al and then compared their transcriptomic responses. Results When grown in acid soil containing toxic levels of Al, the Al-sensitive genotype (S1587-17 showed greater root growth inhibition, more Al accumulation and more callose deposition in root tips than did the tolerant genotype (Cat100-6. Transcriptome profiling showed a higher number of genes differentially expressed in S1587-17 grown in acid soil, probably due to secondary effects of Al toxicity. Genes involved in the biosynthesis of organic acids, which are frequently associated with an Al tolerance response, were not differentially regulated in both genotypes after acid soil exposure. However, genes related to the biosynthesis of auxin, ethylene and lignin were up-regulated in the Al-sensitive genotype, indicating that these pathways might be associated with root growth inhibition. By comparing the two maize lines, we were able to discover genes up-regulated only in the Al-tolerant line that also presented higher absolute levels than those observed in the Al-sensitive line. These genes encoded a lipase hydrolase, a retinol dehydrogenase, a glycine-rich protein, a member of the WRKY transcriptional family and two unknown proteins. Conclusions This work provides the first characterization of the physiological and transcriptional responses of maize roots when grown in acid soil containing toxic levels of Al. The

  16. Somatosensory cortical efferent neurons of the awake rabbit: latencies to activation via supra--and subthreshold receptive fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swadlow, H A; Hicks, T P

    1996-04-01

    1. Latencies to peripheral sensory stimulation were examined in four classes of antidromically identified efferent neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) of awake rabbits. Both suprathreshold responses (action potentials) and subthreshold responses were examined. Subthreshold responses were examined by monitoring the thresholds of efferent neurons to juxtasomal current pulses (JSCPs) delivered through the recording microelectrode (usually 1-3 microA). Through the use of this method, excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) were manifested as decreases and increases in threshold, respectively. Efferent populations examined included callosal (CC) neurons, ipsilateral corticocortical (C-IC) neurons, and descending corticofugal neurons of layer 5 (CF-5) and layer 6 (CF-6). Very brief air puffs (rise and fall times 0.6 ms) were delivered to the receptor periphery via a high-speed solenoid valve. 2. Whereas all CF-5 neurons had demonstrable suprathreshold excitatory and/or inhibitory responses to peripheral stimulation, most CC, C-IC, and CF-6 neurons did not. CC and CF-6 neurons that yielded no suprathreshold response to the stimulus had lower axonal conduction velocities than those that did respond (P JSCP) and a subsequent long-duration (> 80 ms) inhibitory component. A few neurons (1 CC, 1 C-IC, and 5 CF-6) showed an initial short latency inhibitory response in the absence of any excitatory component. 3. Some CC and C-IC neurons yielded supra- and/or subthreshold responses to peripheral stimulation at latencies of 6.1-7 ms. All such neurons were found at intermediate cortical depths (thought to correspond to deep layer 2-3 through layer 5). It is argued that such latencies are indicative of monosynaptic activation via thalamic afferents. Very superficial CC and C-IC neurons, and all CF-6 neurons responded to latencies of > 7 ms. All CF-5 neurons responded to latencies of > 8 ms, although many were found at

  17. Monitoring the excitability of neocortical efferent neurons to direct activation by extracellular current pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swadlow, H A

    1992-08-01

    1. Extracellular action potentials were recorded from antidromically activated efferent neurons in visual, somatosensory, and motor cortex of the awake rabbit using low-impedance metal microelectrodes. Efferent neurons were also activated by current pulses delivered near the soma [juxtasomal current pulses (JSCPs)] through the recording microelectrode. Action potentials generated by JSCPs were not directly observed (because of the stimulus artifact), but were inferred with the use of a collision paradigm. Efferent populations studied include callosal neurons [CC (n = 80)], ipsilateral corticocortical neurons [C-IC (n = 21)], corticothalamic neurons of layer 6 [CF-6 (n = 57)], and descending corticofugal neurons of layer 5 [CF-5, corticotectal neurons of the visual cortex (n = 48)]. 2. Most CC neurons (45/46) and all C-IC (8/8) and CF-6 neurons (39/39) were directly activated by JSCPs at near-threshold intensities. Some CF-5 neurons (9/38), however, showed evidence of indirect activation. All efferent classes had similar current thresholds (means 1.85-2.10 microA) to direct activation by JSCPs, and thresholds were inversely related to extracellular spike amplitude. For each neuron, the range of JSCP intensities that generated response probabilities of between 0.2 and 0.8 was measured, and this "range of uncertainty" was significantly greater in CF-5 neurons (mean 32.7% of threshold) than in CC (mean 19.0%) or CF-6 (mean 20.4%) neurons. 3. Several factors indicate that the threshold of efferent neurons to JSCPs is very sensitive to excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. Iontophoretic applications of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) increased the threshold to JSCPs, and glutamate reduced the threshold. Electrical stimulation of afferent pathways at intensities just below threshold for eliciting action potentials resulted in a dramatic decrease in JSCP threshold. This initial short-latency threshold decrease was specific to stimulation of particular afferent pathways

  18. Diagnosis, characterisation and evaluation of treatment response of frostbite using pertechnetate scintigraphy: a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, we performed early blood pool scintigraphy with technetium-99m pertechnetate in 20 patients (10-180 days after frostbite injury; 71 clinical lesions) referred for a topical treatment protocol for mild to moderately severe frostbite, and in 22 asymptomatic controls. The aims of the study were to define the ''normal'' microcirculation of the hands and feet, to characterise the appearances of frostbite lesions on scintigraphy and correlate these with the clinical presentation, and to evaluate the usefulness of scintigraphy for assessing the treatment response. Six patients were ''fresh'', 12 had been undergoing conservative treatment (topical homeopathic) for several weeks and two had permanent fibrotic hand phalanges. Nine patients on treatment underwent serial scintigraphy a total of 22 times. Eleven patients were imaged only once, including the two with permanent fixed defects. Three distinct physiological microcirculation patterns were evident in control hands or feet: right- or left-handedness (seven subjects), subclinical inflammatory foci correlating with callosity or pressure points (36 lesions) and distinctly increased pooling of radiotracer at the thenar or hypothenar region (eight subjects). In frostbite patients, 128 lesions (48 inflammatory, 80 ischaemic) were seen on the scan. This number included all 71 lesions identified clinically, the rest being subclinical. Subclinical frostbite lesion as an entity has not been described previously. Microvasculature of normal muscle groups (in the hands, elbow or feet) was shown on scintigraphy to improve after topical treatment. The treatment resulted in improved or normalised perfusion scan in 25 of 45 ischaemic segments with matching clinical improvement, and reduction or normalisation of uptake in inflammatory lesions (n=30). The data confirm the vasodilator and anti-inflammatory action of the topical preparation, and the sensitivity of the radionuclide method in monitoring treatment

  19. Double Cortex Syndrome (Subcortical Band Heterotopia: A Case Report

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    Ali Akbar MOMEN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectiveApproximately 5–10% of preschool age children are considered developmentally disabled. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI plays a key role in the diagnostic evaluation in these children. Many congenital or acquired brain anomalies are revealed with MRIs. Although the majority of these abnormalities are sporadic but patients with subcortical band heterotopia or double cortex syndrome have sex-linked inheritance. We are going to present the first case in Iran from Ahvaz city, which was presented with status epilepticus associated with developmental delay and finally diagnosed as double cortex syndrome, because band heterotopia cases especially for continuous or generalized form is rare.A 4.5-year-old developmentally delayed girl was admitted for generalized tonic clonic seizure attack of 1 hr, upward gaze, locked mouth, and urinary incontinence (status epilepticus in the child neurology ward. She had a history of recurrent seizures that started as febrile seizures since she was 12 months of age and had frequent admissions for having recurrent seizure attacks. She was the only child of consanguineous parents with negative family history of any neurologic problems. She was a product of uneventful term pregnancy, vaginal delivery with a low Apgar score at birth who was admitted for six days in the neonatal ward for hypotonia and cyanosis. At 4.5 years of age, she had HC: 45cm (<3% Length: 102 cm (25–75%, and BW: 18kg (75%.She was able to sit, walk with support, speak a few words, and communicate with others. A physical exam was unremarkable. Lab data including CBC, blood biochemical, and urinalysis results were all within normal limits, but the electroencephalography (EEG revealed generalized poly spike-wave discharges. A brain MRI showed corpus callosal dysplasia, generalized band heterotopia, and polymicrogyria. She was discharged home with oral valproate and regular outpatient follow-ups.In the diagnostic evaluation of

  20. Sexual dimorphism of the human corpus callosum: Digital morphometric study

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    Spasojević Goran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Changes in the morphology and the size of the corpus callosum, are related to various pathological conditions. An analysis of these changes requires data about sexual dimorphism of the corpus callosum, which we tried to obtain in our study. We also investigated the method of digital morphometry and compared the obtained results with the results of other authors obtained by magnetic resonance imaging or by planimetry. Methods. A morphological research included 34 human brains (cadavers of both sexes − 19 female and 15 male aged 26−72 years. By digital morphometry using an AutoCAD software we performed measurements in the corpus callosum: the length (L, width in the half of its length (WW’, length of its cortical margin (LCM, area and perimeter of the anterior and posterior callosal segments, as well as the area and perimeter of the corpus callosum section area. The investigated parameters were analyzed and compared between the females and males. Results. There was not a statistically significant difference between the males and females in the investigated parameters of the corpus callosum (t test; p > 0.05, including the mean values of the two most important parameters, the surface of its midsagittal section area (males 654.11 mm2; females 677.40 mm2 and of its perimeter (males 19.61 cm; females 19.72 cm. The results obtained by digital morphometry were in the range of the results of other authors obtained by magnetic resonance and by planimetry. However, the value of Pearson coefficient of linear correlation between the section surface area and perimeter of the corpus callosum in the males was highly significant (rxy = 0.6943, p < 0.01, while in the females this value was statistically insignificant. Conclusion. Digital morphometry is accurate method in encephalometric investigations. Our results suggest that the problem of sexual dimorphism of the corpus callosum is very complex, because the identical variables (section

  1. Direct and Indirect Targeting of PP2A by Conserved Bacterial Type-III Effector Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial AvrE-family Type-III effector proteins (T3Es contribute significantly to the virulence of plant-pathogenic species of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Ralstonia, Erwinia, Dickeya and Pectobacterium, with hosts ranging from monocots to dicots. However, the mode of action of AvrE-family T3Es remains enigmatic, due in large part to their toxicity when expressed in plant or yeast cells. To search for targets of WtsE, an AvrE-family T3E from the maize pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, we employed a yeast-two-hybrid screen with non-lethal fragments of WtsE and a synthetic genetic array with full-length WtsE. Together these screens indicate that WtsE targets maize protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A heterotrimeric enzyme complexes via direct interaction with B' regulatory subunits. AvrE1, another AvrE-family T3E from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pto DC3000, associates with specific PP2A B' subunit proteins from its susceptible host Arabidopsis that are homologous to the maize B' subunits shown to interact with WtsE. Additionally, AvrE1 was observed to associate with the WtsE-interacting maize proteins, indicating that PP2A B' subunits are likely conserved targets of AvrE-family T3Es. Notably, the ability of AvrE1 to promote bacterial growth and/or suppress callose deposition was compromised in Arabidopsis plants with mutations of PP2A genes. Also, chemical inhibition of PP2A activity blocked the virulence activity of both WtsE and AvrE1 in planta. The function of HopM1, a Pto DC3000 T3E that is functionally redundant to AvrE1, was also impaired in specific PP2A mutant lines, although no direct interaction with B' subunits was observed. These results indicate that sub-component specific PP2A complexes are targeted by bacterial T3Es, including direct targeting by members of the widely conserved AvrE-family.

  2. Multiple candidate effectors from the oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis suppress host plant immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Fabro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Oomycete pathogens cause diverse plant diseases. To successfully colonize their hosts, they deliver a suite of effector proteins that can attenuate plant defenses. In the oomycete downy mildews, effectors carry a signal peptide and an RxLR motif. Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa causes downy mildew on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis. We investigated if candidate effectors predicted in the genome sequence of Hpa isolate Emoy2 (HaRxLs were able to manipulate host defenses in different Arabidopsis accessions. We developed a rapid and sensitive screening method to test HaRxLs by delivering them via the bacterial type-three secretion system (TTSS of Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000-LUX (Pst-LUX and assessing changes in Pst-LUX growth in planta on 12 Arabidopsis accessions. The majority (~70% of the 64 candidates tested positively contributed to Pst-LUX growth on more than one accession indicating that Hpa virulence likely involves multiple effectors with weak accession-specific effects. Further screening with a Pst mutant (ΔCEL showed that HaRxLs that allow enhanced Pst-LUX growth usually suppress callose deposition, a hallmark of pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI. We found that HaRxLs are rarely strong avirulence determinants. Although some decreased Pst-LUX growth in particular accessions, none activated macroscopic cell death. Fewer HaRxLs conferred enhanced Pst growth on turnip, a non-host for Hpa, while several reduced it, consistent with the idea that turnip's non-host resistance against Hpa could involve a combination of recognized HaRxLs and ineffective HaRxLs. We verified our results by constitutively expressing in Arabidopsis a sub-set of HaRxLs. Several transgenic lines showed increased susceptibility to Hpa and attenuation of Arabidopsis PTI responses, confirming the HaRxLs' role in Hpa virulence. This study shows TTSS screening system provides a useful tool to test whether

  3. Foot deformities, function in the lower extremities, and plantar pressure in patients with diabetes at high risk to develop foot ulcers

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    Ulla Hellstrand Tang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Foot deformities, neuropathy, and dysfunction in the lower extremities are known risk factors that increase plantar peak pressure (PP and, as a result, the risk of developing foot ulcers in patients with diabetes. However, knowledge about the prevalence of these factors is still limited. The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence of risk factors observed in patients with diabetes without foot ulcers and to explore possible connections between the risk factors and high plantar pressure. Patients and methods: Patients diagnosed with type 1 (n=27 or type 2 (n=47 diabetes (mean age 60.0±15.0 years were included in this cross-sectional study. Assessments included the registration of foot deformities; test of gross function at the hip, knee, and ankle joints; a stratification of the risk of developing foot ulcers according to the Swedish National Diabetes Register; a walking test; and self-reported questionnaires including the SF-36 health survey. In-shoe PP was measured in seven regions of interests on the sole of the foot using F-Scan®. An exploratory analysis of the association of risk factors with PP was performed. Results: Neuropathy was present in 28 (38%, and 39 (53% had callosities in the heel region. Low forefoot arch was present in 57 (77%. Gait-related parameters, such as the ability to walk on the forefoot or heel, were normal in all patients. Eighty percent had normal function at the hip and ankle joints. Gait velocity was 1.2±0.2 m/s. All patients were stratified to risk group 3. Hallux valgus and hallux rigidus were associated with an increase in the PP in the medial forefoot. A higher body mass index (BMI was found to increase the PP at metatarsal heads 4 and 5. Pes planus was associated with a decrease in PP at metatarsal head 1. Neuropathy did not have a high association with PP. Conclusions: This study identified several potential risk factors for the onset of diabetic foot ulcers (DFU. Hallux valgus

  4. Contact dermatitis and other skin conditions in instrumental musicians

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    Freitag Marcus

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The skin is important in the positioning and playing of a musical instrument. During practicing and performing there is a permanent more or less intense contact between the instrument and the musician's skin. Apart from aggravation of predisposed skin diseases (e.g., atopic eczema or psoriasis due to music-making, specific dermatologic conditions may develop that are directly caused by playing a musical instrument. Methods To perform a systematic review on instrument-related skin diseases in musicians we searched the PubMed database without time limits. Furthermore we studied the online bibliography "Occupational diseases of performing artist. A performing arts medicine bibliography. October, 2003" and checked references of all selected articles for relevant papers. Results The most prevalent skin disorders of instrumental musicians, in particular string instrumentalists (e.g., violinists, cellists, guitarists, woodwind players (e.g., flautists, clarinetists, and brass instrumentalists (e.g., trumpeters, include a variety of allergic contact sensitizations (e.g., colophony, nickel, and exotic woods and irritant (physical-chemical noxae skin conditions whose clinical presentation and localization are usually specific for the instrument used (e.g., "fiddler's neck", "cellist's chest", "guitar nipple", "flautist's chin". Apart from common callosities and "occupational marks" (e.g., "Garrod's pads" more or less severe skin injuries may occur in musical instrumentalists, in particular acute and chronic wounds including their complications. Skin infections such as herpes labialis seem to be a more common skin problem in woodwind and brass instrumentalists. Conclusions Skin conditions may be a significant problem not only in professional instrumentalists, but also in musicians of all ages and ability. Although not life threatening they may lead to impaired performance and occupational hazard. Unfortunately, epidemiological

  5. Influence of corpus callosum damage on cognition and physical disability in multiple sclerosis: a multimodal study.

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    Sara Llufriu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Corpus callosum (CC is a common target for multiple sclerosis (MS pathology. We investigated the influence of CC damage on physical disability and cognitive dysfunction using a multimodal approach. METHODS: Twenty-one relapsing-remitting MS patients and 13 healthy controls underwent structural MRI and diffusion tensor of the CC (fractional anisotropy; mean diffusivity, MD; radial diffusivity, RD; axial diffusivity. Interhemisferic transfer of motor inhibition was assessed by recording the ipsilateral silent period (iSP to transcranial magnetic stimulation. We evaluated cognitive function using the Brief Repeatable Battery and physical disability using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS and the MS Functional Composite (MSFC z-score. RESULTS: The iSP latency correlated with physical disability scores (r ranged from 0.596 to 0.657, P values from 0.004 to 0.001, and with results of visual memory (r = -0.645, P = 0.002, processing speed (r = -0.51, P = 0.018 and executive cognitive domain tests (r = -0.452, P = 0.039. The area of the rostrum correlated with the EDSS (r = -0.442, P = 0.045. MD and RD correlated with cognitive performance, mainly with results of visual and verbal memory tests (r ranged from -0.446 to -0.546, P values from 0.048 to 0.011. The iSP latency correlated with CC area (r = -0.345, P = 0.049, volume (r = -0.401, P = 0.002, MD (r = 0.404, P = 0.002 and RD (r = 0.415, P = 0.016. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence for structural and microstructural CC abnormalities associated with impairment of motor callosal inhibitory conduction in MS. CC damage may contribute to cognitive dysfunction and in less extent to physical disability likely through a disconnection mechanism.

  6. Influence of Corpus Callosum Damage on Cognition and Physical Disability in Multiple Sclerosis: A Multimodal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llufriu, Sara; Blanco, Yolanda; Martinez-Heras, Eloy; Casanova-Molla, Jordi; Gabilondo, Iñigo; Sepulveda, Maria; Falcon, Carles; Berenguer, Joan; Bargallo, Nuria; Villoslada, Pablo; Graus, Francesc; Valls-Sole, Josep; Saiz, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Background Corpus callosum (CC) is a common target for multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology. We investigated the influence of CC damage on physical disability and cognitive dysfunction using a multimodal approach. Methods Twenty-one relapsing-remitting MS patients and 13 healthy controls underwent structural MRI and diffusion tensor of the CC (fractional anisotropy; mean diffusivity, MD; radial diffusivity, RD; axial diffusivity). Interhemisferic transfer of motor inhibition was assessed by recording the ipsilateral silent period (iSP) to transcranial magnetic stimulation. We evaluated cognitive function using the Brief Repeatable Battery and physical disability using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and the MS Functional Composite (MSFC) z-score. Results The iSP latency correlated with physical disability scores (r ranged from 0.596 to 0.657, P values from 0.004 to 0.001), and with results of visual memory (r = −0.645, P = 0.002), processing speed (r = −0.51, P = 0.018) and executive cognitive domain tests (r = −0.452, P = 0.039). The area of the rostrum correlated with the EDSS (r = −0.442, P = 0.045). MD and RD correlated with cognitive performance, mainly with results of visual and verbal memory tests (r ranged from −0.446 to −0.546, P values from 0.048 to 0.011). The iSP latency correlated with CC area (r = −0.345, P = 0.049), volume (r = −0.401, P = 0.002), MD (r = 0.404, P = 0.002) and RD (r = 0.415, P = 0.016). Conclusions We found evidence for structural and microstructural CC abnormalities associated with impairment of motor callosal inhibitory conduction in MS. CC damage may contribute to cognitive dysfunction and in less extent to physical disability likely through a disconnection mechanism. PMID:22606347

  7. Direct and Indirect Targeting of PP2A by Conserved Bacterial Type-III Effector Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lin; Ham, Jong Hyun; Hage, Rosemary; Zhao, Wanying; Soto-Hernández, Jaricelis; Lee, Sang Yeol; Paek, Seung-Mann; Kim, Min Gab; Boone, Charles; Coplin, David L.; Mackey, David

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial AvrE-family Type-III effector proteins (T3Es) contribute significantly to the virulence of plant-pathogenic species of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Ralstonia, Erwinia, Dickeya and Pectobacterium, with hosts ranging from monocots to dicots. However, the mode of action of AvrE-family T3Es remains enigmatic, due in large part to their toxicity when expressed in plant or yeast cells. To search for targets of WtsE, an AvrE-family T3E from the maize pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, we employed a yeast-two-hybrid screen with non-lethal fragments of WtsE and a synthetic genetic array with full-length WtsE. Together these screens indicate that WtsE targets maize protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) heterotrimeric enzyme complexes via direct interaction with B’ regulatory subunits. AvrE1, another AvrE-family T3E from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pto DC3000), associates with specific PP2A B’ subunit proteins from its susceptible host Arabidopsis that are homologous to the maize B’ subunits shown to interact with WtsE. Additionally, AvrE1 was observed to associate with the WtsE-interacting maize proteins, indicating that PP2A B’ subunits are likely conserved targets of AvrE-family T3Es. Notably, the ability of AvrE1 to promote bacterial growth and/or suppress callose deposition was compromised in Arabidopsis plants with mutations of PP2A genes. Also, chemical inhibition of PP2A activity blocked the virulence activity of both WtsE and AvrE1 in planta. The function of HopM1, a Pto DC3000 T3E that is functionally redundant to AvrE1, was also impaired in specific PP2A mutant lines, although no direct interaction with B’ subunits was observed. These results indicate that sub-component specific PP2A complexes are targeted by bacterial T3Es, including direct targeting by members of the widely conserved AvrE-family. PMID:27191168

  8. A complementary bioinformatics approach to identify potential plant cell wall glycosyltransferase-encoding genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egelund, Jack; Skjøt, Michael; Geshi, Naomi; Ulvskov, Peter; Petersen, Bent Larsen

    2004-09-01

    Plant cell wall (CW) synthesizing enzymes can be divided into the glycan (i.e. cellulose and callose) synthases, which are multimembrane spanning proteins located at the plasma membrane, and the glycosyltransferases (GTs), which are Golgi localized single membrane spanning proteins, believed to participate in the synthesis of hemicellulose, pectin, mannans, and various glycoproteins. At the Carbohydrate-Active enZYmes (CAZy) database where e.g. glucoside hydrolases and GTs are classified into gene families primarily based on amino acid sequence similarities, 415 Arabidopsis GTs have been classified. Although much is known with regard to composition and fine structures of the plant CW, only a handful of CW biosynthetic GT genes-all classified in the CAZy system-have been characterized. In an effort to identify CW GTs that have not yet been classified in the CAZy database, a simple bioinformatics approach was adopted. First, the entire Arabidopsis proteome was run through the Transmembrane Hidden Markov Model 2.0 server and proteins containing one or, more rarely, two transmembrane domains within the N-terminal 150 amino acids were collected. Second, these sequences were submitted to the SUPERFAMILY prediction server, and sequences that were predicted to belong to the superfamilies NDP-sugartransferase, UDP-glycosyltransferase/glucogen-phosphorylase, carbohydrate-binding domain, Gal-binding domain, or Rossman fold were collected, yielding a total of 191 sequences. Fifty-two accessions already classified in CAZy were discarded. The resulting 139 sequences were then analyzed using the Three-Dimensional-Position-Specific Scoring Matrix and mGenTHREADER servers, and 27 sequences with similarity to either the GT-A or the GT-B fold were obtained. Proof of concept of the present approach has to some extent been provided by our recent demonstration that two members of this pool of 27 non-CAZy-classified putative GTs are xylosyltransferases involved in synthesis of pectin

  9. Integrated Metabolo-Transcriptomics Reveals Fusarium Head Blight Candidate Resistance Genes in Wheat QTL-Fhb2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhokane, Dhananjay; Karre, Shailesh; Kushalappa, Ajjamada C.; McCartney, Curt

    2016-01-01

    Background Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum not only causes severe losses in yield, but also reduces quality of wheat grain by accumulating mycotoxins. Breeding for host plant resistance is considered as the best strategy to manage FHB. Resistance in wheat to FHB is quantitative in nature, involving cumulative effects of many genes governing resistance. The poor understanding of genetics and lack of precise phenotyping has hindered the development of FHB resistant cultivars. Though more than 100 QTLs imparting FHB resistance have been reported, none discovered the specific genes localized within the QTL region, nor the underlying mechanisms of resistance. Findings In our study recombinant inbred lines (RILs) carrying resistant (R-RIL) and susceptible (S-RIL) alleles of QTL-Fhb2 were subjected to metabolome and transcriptome profiling to discover the candidate genes. Metabolome profiling detected a higher abundance of metabolites belonging to phenylpropanoid, lignin, glycerophospholipid, flavonoid, fatty acid, and terpenoid biosynthetic pathways in R-RIL than in S-RIL. Transcriptome analysis revealed up-regulation of several receptor kinases, transcription factors, signaling, mycotoxin detoxification and resistance related genes. The dissection of QTL-Fhb2 using flanking marker sequences, integrating metabolomic and transcriptomic datasets, identified 4-Coumarate: CoA ligase (4CL), callose synthase (CS), basic Helix Loop Helix (bHLH041) transcription factor, glutathione S-transferase (GST), ABC transporter-4 (ABC4) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) as putative resistance genes localized within the QTL-Fhb2 region. Conclusion Some of the identified genes within the QTL region are associated with structural resistance through cell wall reinforcement, reducing the spread of pathogen through rachis within a spike and few other genes that detoxify DON, the virulence factor, thus eventually reducing disease severity. In conclusion, we

  10. Inhalant Dependence and its Medical Consequences

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    Mehmet Hamid Boztaş

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The term of inhalants is used for matters easily vapors. Inhalants are preferred for rapid, positive reinforcement and mild high effects. Products including inhalants are cheap, accessible, legal substances and are prevalently used in community. The prevalence of inhalant use in secondary schools in Turkey is about 5.1%. Inhalant substance dependence is generally observed within 14-15 age group. Age at first use could be as low as 5 to 6 years of age. Substance dependence is more probable in adults working in substance existing places. Inhalant usage is common in disadvantaged groups, children living in street, people with history of crimes, prison, depression, suicide, antisocial attitudes and conflict of family, history of abuse, violence and any other drug dependence and isolated populations. Inhalants are absorbed from lungs, after performing their quick and short effect metabolized by cytochrom P450 enzyme system except inhalant nitrites group which has a depressing effect like alcohol. In chronic use general atrophy, ventricular dilatation and wide sulcus were shown in cerebrum, cerebellum and pons by monitoring brain. Defects are mostly in periventricular, subcortical regions and in white matter. Demyelinization, hyperintensity, callosal slimming and wearing off in white and gray matter margins was also found. Ravages of brain shown by brain monitorisation are more and serious in inhalant dependence than in other dependences. It is important to decrease use of inhalants. Different approaches should be used for subcultures and groups in prevention. Prohibiting all the matters including inhalant is not practical as there are too many substances including inhalants. Etiquettes showing harmful materials can be used but this approach can also lead the children and adolescents recognize these substances easily.. Despite determintal effects of inhalant dependence, there are not yet sufficient number of studies conducted on prevention and

  11. Lack of serotonin reuptake during brain development alters rostral raphe-prefrontal network formation

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    Josefine Storm Witteveen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Besides its ‘classical’ neurotransmitter function, serotonin (5-HT has been found to also act as a neurodevelopmental signal. During development, the 5-HT projection system represents one of the earliest neurotransmitter systems to innervate the brain. One of the targets of the 5-HT projection system, originating in the brainstem raphe nuclei, is the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, an area involved in higher cognitive functions and important in the etiology of many neurodevelopmental disorders. Little is known however about the exact role of 5-HT and its signaling molecules in the formation of the raphe-prefrontal network. Using explant essays, we here studied the role of the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT, an important modulator of the 5-HT signal, in rostral raphe-prefrontal network formation. We found that the chemotrophic nature of the interaction between the origin (rostral raphe cluster and a target (mPFC of the 5-HT projection system was affected in rats lacking the 5-HTT (5-HTT-/-. While 5-HTT deficiency did not affect the dorsal raphe 5-HT-positive outgrowing neurites, the median raphe 5-HT neurites switched from a strong repulsive to an attractive interaction when co-cultured with the mPFC. Furthermore, the fasciculation of the mPFC outgrowing neurites was dependent on the amount of 5-HTT. In the mPFC of 5-HTT-/- pups, we observed clear differences in 5-HT innervation and the identity of a class of projection neurons of the mPFC. In the absence of the 5-HTT, the 5-HT innervation in all subareas of the early postnatal mPFC increased dramatically and the number of Satb2-positive callosal projection neurons was decreased. Together, these results suggest a 5-HTT dependency during early development of these brain areas and in the formation of the raphe-prefrontal network. The tremendous complexity of the 5-HT projection system and its role in several neurodevelopmental disorders highlights the need for further research in this largely

  12. Lack of serotonin reuptake during brain development alters rostral raphe-prefrontal network formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteveen, Josefine S.; Middelman, Anthonieke; van Hulten, Josephus A.; Martens, Gerard J. M.; Homberg, Judith R.; Kolk, Sharon M.

    2013-01-01

    Besides its “classical” neurotransmitter function, serotonin (5-HT) has been found to also act as a neurodevelopmental signal. During development, the 5-HT projection system, besides an external placental source, represents one of the earliest neurotransmitter systems to innervate the brain. One of the targets of the 5-HT projection system, originating in the brainstem raphe nuclei, is the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), an area involved in higher cognitive functions and important in the etiology of many neurodevelopmental disorders. Little is known, however, about the exact role of 5-HT and its signaling molecules in the formation of the raphe-prefrontal network. Using explant essays, we here studied the role of the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT), an important modulator of the 5-HT signal, in rostral raphe-prefrontal network formation. We found that the chemotrophic nature of the interaction between the origin (rostral raphe cluster) and a target (mPFC) of the 5-HT projection system was affected in rats lacking the 5-HTT (5-HTT−/−). While 5-HTT deficiency did not affect the dorsal raphe 5-HT-positive outgrowing neurites, the median raphe 5-HT neurites switched from a strong repulsive to an attractive interaction when co-cultured with the mPFC. Furthermore, the fasciculation of the mPFC outgrowing neurites was dependent on the amount of 5-HTT. In the mPFC of 5-HTT−/− pups, we observed clear differences in 5-HT innervation and the identity of a class of projection neurons of the mPFC. In the absence of the 5-HTT, the 5-HT innervation in all subareas of the early postnatal mPFC increased dramatically and the number of Satb2-positive callosal projection neurons was decreased. Together, these results suggest a 5-HTT dependency during early development of these brain areas and in the formation of the raphe-prefrontal network. The tremendous complexity of the 5-HT projection system and its role in several neurodevelopmental disorders highlights the need for

  13. Análise histoquímica foliar do amendoim: genótipos 'Tatu' e SO-909 Leaf histochemical analyses of peanut: genotypes 'Tatu' and SO-909

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    Renato Ferraz de Arruda Veiga

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por finalidade a análise histoquímica foliar de dois genótipos de amendoim (Arachis hypogaea L., do tipo botânico Valência: SO-53 ('Tatu' e SO-909 (PI-259747, cuja literatura demonstra apresentarem respostas diferentes de resistência às principais moléstias fúngicas foliares do Brasil. Seções transversais das seguintes estruturas - pulvino, haste peciolar, raque, pulvínulo e folíolo - e seções paradérmicas de folíolos coletados em dois anos agrícolas consecutivos, foram analisadas quanto à presença de alcalóides, amido, calose, celulose pura, celulose com pectina, cera, cristais, cutina, lignina, mucilagem, óleo, resina, tanino e ureídeos (micrograma por folíolo (grama. As diferenças qualitativas histoquímicas observadas nos diversos tecidos, como a freqüência de tanino, alcalóide, pectina e óleo, supostamente, podem ser responsáveis pela resistência ou suscetibilidade dos genótipos às moléstias fúngicas foliares. Para fins de caracterização, mostrou-se eficiente a avaliação de pureza de celulose.Leaf histochemical analyses were made in two genotypes of Arachis hypogaea L., of the Valencia group, which present different responses to some of the peanut foliar diseases. The analyses were performed on cross sections of the pulvini, petiole, rachis, pulvinulus and leaflets. The following constituents were observed: alkaloids, callose, cellulose with pectin, cristal, cutin, lignin, mucilage, oil, pure cellulose, resin, starch, tannin, wax and weight of ureides by leaflets. Some histochemical characteristics such the amount of tannin, alkaloids, pectin and oil can be produce different responses of peanut to foliar fungal diseases, and can be used in the characterization of peanut genotypes like the amount of pure cellulose and cellulose with pectin.

  14. Glucomannan synthesis in pea epicotyls: the mannose and glucose transferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, G; Zuppa, A; Dalessandro, G; Northcote, D H

    1993-01-01

    Membrane fractions and digitonin-solubilized enzymes prepared from stem segments isolated from the third internode of etiolated pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) catalyzed the synthesis of a beta-1,4-[14C]mannan from GDP-D-[U-14C]-mannose, a mixed beta-1,3- and beta-1,4-[14C]glucan from GDP-D-[U-14C]-glucose and a beta-1,4-[14C]-glucomannan from both GDP-D-[U-14C]mannose and GDP-D-[U-14C]glucose. The kinetics of the membrane-bound and soluble mannan and glucan synthases were determined. The effects of ions, chelators, inhibitors of lipid-linked saccharides, polyamines, polyols, nucleotides, nucleoside-diphosphate sugars, acetyl-CoA, group-specific chemical probes, phospholipases and detergents on the membrane-bound mannan and glucan synthases were investigated. The beta-glucan synthase had different properties from other preparations which bring about the synthesis of beta-1,3-glucans (callose) and mixed beta-1,3- and beta-1,4- glucans and which use UDP-D-glucose as substrate. It also differed from xyloglucan synthase because in the presence of several concentrations of UDP-D-xylose in addition to GDP-D-glucose no xyloglucan was formed. Using either the membrane-bound or the soluble mannan synthase, GDP-D-glucose acted competitively in the presence of GDP-D-mannose to inhibit the incorporation of mannose into the polymer. This was not due to an inhibition of the transferase activity but was a result of the incorporation of glucose residues from GDP-D-glucose into a glucomannan. The kinetics and the composition of the synthesized glucomannan depended on the ratio of the concentrations of GDP-D-glucose and GDP-D-mannose that were available. Our data indicated that a single enzyme has an active centre that can use both GDP-D-mannose and GDP-D-glucose to bring about the synthesis of the heteropolysaccharide. PMID:7685647

  15. Characterizing multisegment foot kinematics during gait in diabetic foot patients

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    Denti Paolo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions, this condition may result in multiple and chronic invalidating long term complications. Among these, the diabetic foot, is determined by the simultaneous presence of both peripheral neuropathy and vasculopathy that alter the biomechanics of the foot with the formation of callosity and ulcerations. To diagnose and treat the diabetic foot is crucial to understand the foot complex kinematics. Most of gait analysis protocols represent the entire foot as a rigid body connected to the shank. Nevertheless the existing multisegment models cannot completely decipher the impairments associated with the diabetic foot. Methods A four segment foot and ankle model for assessing the kinematics of the diabetic foot was developed. Ten normal subjects and 10 diabetics gait patterns were collected and major sources of variability were tested. Repeatability analysis was performed both on a normal and on a diabetic subject. Direct skin marker placement was chosen in correspondence of 13 anatomical landmarks and an optoelectronic system was used to collect the data. Results Joint rotation normative bands (mean plus/minus one standard deviation were generated using the data of the control group. Three representative strides per subject were selected. The repeatability analysis on normal and pathological subjects results have been compared with literature and found comparable. Normal and pathological gait have been compared and showed major statistically significant differences in the forefoot and midfoot dorsi-plantarflexion. Conclusion Even though various biomechanical models have been developed so far to study the properties and behaviour of the foot, the present study focuses on developing a methodology for the functional assessment of the foot-ankle complex and for the definition of a functional model of the diabetic neuropathic foot. It is, of course, important to evaluate

  16. An Immunity-Triggering Effector from the Barley Smut Fungus Ustilago hordei Resides in an Ustilaginaceae-Specific Cluster Bearing Signs of Transposable Element-Assisted Evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Shawkat

    2014-07-03

    The basidiomycete smut fungus Ustilago hordei was previously shown to comprise isolates that are avirulent on various barley host cultivars. Through genetic crosses we had revealed that a dominant avirulence locus UhAvr1 which triggers immunity in barley cultivar Hannchen harboring resistance gene Ruh1, resided within an 80-kb region. DNA sequence analysis of this genetically delimited region uncovered the presence of 7 candidate secreted effector proteins. Sequence comparison of their coding sequences among virulent and avirulent parental and field isolates could not distinguish UhAvr1 candidates. Systematic deletion and complementation analyses revealed that UhAvr1 is UHOR_10022 which codes for a small effector protein of 171 amino acids with a predicted 19 amino acid signal peptide. Virulence in the parental isolate is caused by the insertion of a fragment of 5.5 kb with similarity to a common U. hordei transposable element (TE), interrupting the promoter of UhAvr1 and thereby changing expression and hence recognition of UhAVR1p. This rearrangement is likely caused by activities of TEs and variation is seen among isolates. Using GFP-chimeric constructs we show that UhAvr1 is induced only in mated dikaryotic hyphae upon sensing and infecting barley coleoptile cells. When infecting Hannchen, UhAVR1p causes local callose deposition and the production of reactive oxygen species and necrosis indicative of the immune response. UhAvr1 does not contribute significantly to overall virulence. UhAvr1 is located in a cluster of ten effectors with several paralogs and over 50% of TEs. This cluster is syntenous with clusters in closely-related U. maydis and Sporisorium reilianum. In these corn-infecting species, these clusters harbor however more and further diversified homologous effector families but very few TEs. This increased variability may have resulted from past selection pressure by resistance genes since U. maydis is not known to trigger immunity in its corn host.

  17. Bacillus cereus AR156 Extracellular Polysaccharides Served as a Novel Micro-associated Molecular Pattern to Induced Systemic Immunity to Pst DC3000 in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chun-Hao; Fan, Zhi-Hang; Xie, Ping; Guo, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Non-host resistance (NHR) is a broad-spectrum plant defense. Upon colonizing on the surface on the root or leaves of non-host species, pathogens initial encounter preform and induce defense response in plant, such as induced hypersensitive response, PAMPs triggered immunity (PTI), and effector triggered immunity (ETI). The ability of plants to develop an induced systemic response (ISR) in reaction to the colonization by non-pathogenic rhizobacterium depends on interactions between host plants and the colonizing rhizobacterium, and the ISR also can be defined as a NHR. However, how the colonization signal is and how systemic resistance to pathogens is developed is still unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that the extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) of Bacillus cereus AR156 could act as novel microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and function in the early perception status of the ISR of B. cereus AR156. The results revealed that B. cereus AR156 EPS could induce systemic resistance to Pst DC3000 in Arabidopsis. Cellular defense response markers such as hydrogen peroxide accumulation, callose deposition, and defense-associated enzyme were induced upon challenge inoculation in the leaves primed by EPS. Moreover, the defense-related genes PR1, PR2, and PR5 and mitogen-activated kinases (MAPK) cascade marker gene MPK6 were concurrently expressed in the leaves of EPS-treated plants and induced higher resistance to Pst DC3000 in Col-0 than that in the jar1 or etr1 mutants. The protection was absent in the NahG transgenic plants and npr1 mutant, suggesting an activation of the salicylic acid (SA)- and the MAPK-dependent signaling pathways with NPR1-dependent by B. cereus AR156 EPS. In conclusion, B. cereus AR156 EPS play an important role in MAMP perception during the process of rhizobacteria-triggered NHR. This study is the first to illustrate how AR156 induces systemic resistance to Pst DC3000 in Arabidopsis. It also provides the first explanation of how

  18. Stereotactic multi-target limbic leucotomy for treating intractable psychiatric disease in 30 patients Three-year follow-up of memory, intelligence, and psychiatric symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Song; Zheng Wang; Qiang Liang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The biochemical hypothesis of dopamine hyperfunction in the brain can explain the pathological mechanisms of schizophrenia. Surgery is performed based on limbic system circuit theory correspondence to above-mentioned hypothesis. Stereotactic surgery for the treatment of mental disorders is related to stereotactic surgery that influences the Papez circuit.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of stereotactic multi-target limbic leucotomy on the improvements in memory, intelligence and psychiatric symptoms in the treatment of intractable psychiatric disease. DESIGN: Self-control case analysis and follow-up of therapeutic effects. SETTING: Department of Neurosurgery, First Hospital, Hebei Medical University. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty patients with intractable psychiatric disease, who received stereotactic surgery in the Department of Neurosurgery, First Hospital, Hebei Medical University between July 2002 and August 2005, were included in this study. The patients, 21 males and 9 females, all met the diagnostic criteria of intractable psychiatric disease, determined by the national psychosurgery cooperation team in 1998. Informed consents for surgery and clinical follow-up exams were obtained from patients and/or patients' relatives (guardians). METHODS: In 30 patients with intractable psychiatric disease, limbic leucotomy was performed by stereotactic technique. Multi-target radiofrequency hyperthermia was performed in the intracranial amygdaloid nucleus, anterior limb of internal capsule, callosal gyrus, among other regions. The therapeutic effects of patients were evaluated by Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) before surgery, and 6 months, 1, and 3 years after surgery. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and Clinical Memory Scale (CMS) were used to assess memory and intelligence before and after surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Memory, intelligence, and psychiatric symptoms of patients before and after operation. RESULTS: Thirty patients were included

  19. Skin conditions in figure skaters, ice-hockey players and speed skaters: part I - mechanical dermatoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlougan, Brook E; Mancini, Anthony J; Mandell, Jenny A; Cohen, David E; Sanchez, Miguel R

    2011-09-01

    bite is centred on reducing compression by the skate tongue of the extensor tendons of the anterior ankle, which can be accomplished by use of proper lacing techniques, increasing pliability of the skate tongue and using protective padding, such as Bunga Pads™. Anti-inflammatory medications and cold compresses can also help reduce inflammation. Friction bullae are best managed by careful lancing of painful blisters and application of petrolatum or protective dressings to accelerate healing; preventative measures include the use of well fitting skates, proper lacing techniques and moisture-wicking socks. Corns and calluses are similarly best prevented by the use of well fitted skates and orthotic devices. Symptomatic, debridement reduces the irritant effect of the thick epidermis, and can be accomplished by soaking the area in warm water followed by paring. Application of creams with high concentrations of urea or salicylic acid can also soften callosities. Cases of onychocryptosis benefit from warm soaks, antibiotic ointments and topical steroids to reduce inflammation, but sometimes chemical or surgical matricectomies are required. Preventative measures of both onychocryptosis and skater's toe include cutting toenails straight across to allow for a more equal distribution of forces within the toe box. Finally, the prevention and treatment of lacerations, which constitute a potentially fatal type of mechanical injury, require special protective gear and acute surgical intervention with appropriate suturing. The subsequent companion review of skin conditions in ice skaters will discuss infectious, inflammatory and cold-induced dermatoses, with continued emphasis on clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. PMID:21846161

  20. 艳丽耳草的二型花柱及异型自交不亲和系统%Distyly and heteromorphic self-incompatibility of Hedyotis pulcherrima (Rubiaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣欣; 吴小琴; 张奠湘

    2012-01-01

    . However, pollen tube growth was arrested in the stigma with the accumulation of callose in the swollen tips in two morphs with self and intramorph pollination, indicating strict hetero-morphic self-incompatibility in H. pulcherrima. No fruit was produced in emasculated netted flowers, suggesting the absence of apomixis. Artificial intermorph pollination resulted in 100% of fruit set, significantly higher than those with open pollination. Our results indicate that H. pulcherrima is a typically distylous species with heteromorphic self-incompatibility.

  1. Exposure to serotonin adversely affects oligodendrocyte development and myelination in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lir-Wan; Bhatt, Abhay; Tien, Lu-Tai; Zheng, Baoying; Simpson, Kimberly L; Lin, Rick C S; Cai, Zhengwei; Kumar, Praveen; Pang, Yi

    2015-05-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) has been implicated to play critical roles in early neural development. Recent reports have suggested that perinatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) resulted in cortical network miswiring, abnormal social behavior, callosal myelin malformation, as well as oligodendrocyte (OL) pathology in rats. To gain further insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying SSRIs-induced OL and myelin abnormalities, we investigated the effect of 5-HT exposure on OL development, cell death, and myelination in cell culture models. First, we showed that 5-HT receptor 1A and 2A subtypes were expressed in OL lineages, using immunocytochemistry, Western blot, as well as intracellular Ca(2+) measurement. We then assessed the effect of serotonin exposure on the lineage development, expression of myelin proteins, cell death, and myelination, in purified OL and neuron-OL myelination cultures. For pure OL cultures, our results showed that 5-HT exposure led to disturbance of OL development, as indicated by aberrant process outgrowth and reduced myelin proteins expression. At higher doses, such exposure triggered a development-dependent cell death, as immature OLs exhibited increasing susceptibility to 5-HT treatment compared to OL progenitor cells (OPC). We showed further that 5-HT-induced immature OL death was mediated at least partially via 5-HT2A receptor, since cell death could be mimicked by 5-HT2A receptor agonist 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane hydrochloride, (±)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine hydrochloride, but atten-uated by pre-treatment with 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ritanserin. Utilizing a neuron-OL myelination co-culture model, our data showed that 5-HT exposure significantly reduced the number of myelinated internodes. In contrast to cell injury observed in pure OL cultures, 5-HT exposure did not lead to OL death or reduced OL density in neuron-OL co-cultures. However, abnormal

  2. Histopathologic characterization of the BTBR mouse model of autistic-like behavior reveals selective changes in neurodevelopmental proteins and adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephenson Diane T

    2011-05-01

    doublecortin, PSA-NCAM and NeuroD immunoreactive cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus, and a marked reduction in the number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU positive progenitors. Furthermore, a significant and profound reduction in BDNF mRNA was seen in the BTBR dentate gyrus. No significant differences were seen in the expression of AchE, mossy fiber synapses or immunoreactivities of microtubule-associated protein MAP2, parvalbumin and glutamate decarboxylase GAD65 or GAD67 isoforms. Conclusions We documented modest and selective alterations in glia, neurons and synapses in BTBR forebrain, along with reduced neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. Of all markers examined, the most distinctive changes were seen in the neurodevelopmental proteins NG2, PSA-NCAM, NeuroD and DCX. Our results are consistent with aberrant development of the nervous system in BTBR mice, and may reveal novel substrates to link callosal abnormalities and autistic behaviors. The changes that we observed in the BTBR mice suggest potential novel therapeutic strategies for intervention in autism spectrum disorders.

  3. A Preliminary Study on Intergeneric Cross-Incompatibility Between Pistacia vera L. and Pistacia chinensis Bunge%阿月浑子与黄连木远缘杂交不亲和原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭新; 常越霞; 屈平; 郭智涛; 陈芳; 白志英; 路丙社

    2013-01-01

    male parents was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The pollen germination and the viability were tested by means of in vitro cultivation and the progress of pollen tube growth was observed by fluorescence microscopy. [Result]There are two and four apertures in pollen surface of P. vera and P. chinensis, respectively, and more dense thorn-like particle in P. chinensis pollen grain than in P. vera. The length of polar axis and equatorial axis of P. chinensis pollen grain were 53.84μm and 44.85μm, respectively, which is slightly longer than P. vera pollen grain. The pollen germination rate of P. chinensis Bunge and T-491 were 77.30%and 84.38%respectively, and the pollen viability of P. chinensis Bunge and T-491 were 82.4%and 89.14%, respectively. The pollen of P. chinensis begin to germinate at 4 h, the pollen tubes reached ovary at 48 h and enter embryo sac at 72 h in interspecific-cross after pollination, while the pollen of P. vera T-491 begin to germinate at 2 h, the pollen tubes reached the base of stigma at 12 h and reach to ovary at 24 h. The incompatibility characters such as the pollen tubes bending, swollen and lots of irregular callose depositing in stigma and style were observed in interspecific cross. The percentage of final fruit set was 57%in the self-pollination, while the value was 26%in interspecific-cross which is lower than the former.[Conclusion]A few pollen tubes of P. chinensis could enter the style of P. vera and reached to the ovary. There were some pollen tube elongation growth barriers at interspecific-cross between P. vera and P. chinensis. Abnormal pollen tube growth after pollination may be one of the reasons led to low fruiting rate in intergeneric cross between P. vera and P. chinensis.

  4. 亚甲蓝用于会阴部术后镇痛的临床研究%Clinical Research of Methylene Blue for Postoperative Analgesia of Perineum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵萍; 王伟芝

    2013-01-01

    Objective To research EC95 of the subcutaneous injection of methylene blue ,ropivacaine compound fluid preparation in postoperative analgesia of perineum ,and to explore the best concentration for clinical use .Methods One hundred and eighty cases of mixed hemorrhoid,anal fistula and anal fissure patients with exactly effect of sacral hemp were chosen ,methylene blue and ropivacaine com-pound fluid was injected along the cutting edge subcutaneous ring after surgery .First 30 patients were set to group Ⅰaccording to the sequen-tial test method to determine the concentration of methylene blue .Initial concentration was 0.1%,and the adjacent concentration ratio was 1. 5 until the end of the experiment .Probability unit regression method was used to calculate EC 95 .The latter 150 patients were randomly divided into groupⅡ,ⅢandⅣwith two concentration gradient interval ,and EC95 ,contrasting analgesia effect and side effects among the groups were measured.Results Methylene blue for postoperative analgesia of perineum EC 95 was 0.105%,and 95%confidence interval was 0.08%~0. 137%.Group Ⅱ,Ⅲ,Ⅳcan achieve the immediate and long-term effective analgesia,average VAS score was below 5 points,the score of groupⅡwas higher than group Ⅲ,Ⅳ(P<0.05).In group Ⅳthere was local callosity postoperatively ,and the local feel abnormal rate was higher than the previous two groups .Conclusion Methylene blue EC95 is 0.105%.Methylene blue and ropivacaine bromide mixture subcu-taneous ring injection used in perineum postoperative has good immediate and long -term analgesic effect.The recommended concentration of methylene blue is 0.15%.%  目的 观察皮下注射亚甲蓝、罗哌卡因复合液用于会阴部术后镇痛的EC95,并探讨最佳临床使用浓度。方法 选取骶麻效果确切的180例混合痔、肛瘘、肛裂患者,术毕沿切缘皮下环形注射亚甲蓝、罗哌卡因复合液。前30例患者设定为Ⅰ组,按序贯试验法确定亚