Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) on organically grown Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae) Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) e Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) sobre Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae) cultivada organicamente
Costa, M A; W de S Tavares; A.I.A. Pereira; I. Cruz; J.E Serrão; J.C Zanuncio
Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) larvae can avoid foraging on plants of Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae) after the issuance of floral buds, when the prey of Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) incorporate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids from this plant. This reduces the predation and favors increasing the number of adults and eggs of this defoliator on crops of this plant. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate some biological and ecological aspects of C. externa and U. o...
Rugno, Gabriel Rodrigo; Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Bajonero Cuervo, Johanna; de Morais, Matheus Rovere; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao
The generalist predator Ceraeochrysa cincta (Schneider) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) is an important biological control agent of several arthropod pests in different agroecosystems. This study assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of six insect growth regulators sprayed on first-instar larvae of C. cincta. Lufenuron and diflubenzuron were highly harmful to first-instar larvae of C. cincta, causing 100 % of mortality before they reached the second instar. Buprofezin caused ~25 % mortality of the larvae and considerably reduced the fecundity and longevity of the insects, but substantially increased the proportion of females in the surviving population of C. cincta. Methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide did not affect the duration and survival of the immature stages, but methoxyfenozide significantly reduced the fecundity and longevity of the insects. Pyriproxyfen reduced the survival of the larval stage by 19.5 %, but did not affect the development, survival and reproduction of the surviving individuals. Based on reduction coefficient, the insecticides diflubenzuron and lufenuron were considered harmful to C. cincta, whereas buprofezin and methoxyfenozide were slightly harmful and tebufenozide and pyriproxyfen were harmless. The estimation of life-table parameters indicated that buprofezin and methoxyfenozide significantly reduced the R o , r and λ of C. cincta, whereas pyriproxyfen and tebufenozide caused no adverse effect on population parameters, indicating that these insecticides could be suitable for use in pest management programs towards the conservation and population increase of the predator in agroecosystems. However, more studies should be conducted to evaluate the compatibility of these insecticides with the predator C. cincta under semi-field and field conditions. PMID:27137778
EFECTOS TOXICOLÓGICOS DE EXTRACTOS DE MOLLE (Schinus molle) Y LANTANA (Lantana camara) SOBRE Chrysoperla externa (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE), Trichogramma pintoi (HYMENOPTERA: TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE) Y Copidosoma koehleri (HYMENOPTERA: ENCYRTIDAE) EN EL PERÚ Toxicological effects of extracts of Peruvian peppertree (Schinus molle) and lantana (Lantana camara) on Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), Trichogramma pintoi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and Copidosoma koehleri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in Peru
José Iannacone O.; Gerardo Lamas M.
Extractos de dos plantas; el molle (Schinus molle L., Anacardiaceae) y la lantana (Lantana camara L., Verbenaceae), se evaluaron sobre huevos, larvas de primer estadio y pupas de Chrysoperla externa Hagen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), y sobre estados inmaduros y adultos de los microhimenopteros Trichogramma pintoi Voegelé (Trichogrammatidae) y Copidosoma koehleri Blanchard (Encyrtidae), en bioensayos toxicológicos bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Los extractos acuosos (F1) del molle y la lantana...
Monserrat, V. J.; Freitas, S
New data on the morphology, distribution and biology of five species of green-lacewings (Insecta, Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) collected from samplings made in Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego and Coquimbo (Argentina, Chile) are given. The general morphology and the preimaginal stages of Ungla argentina (Navás, 1911), Ungla binaria (Navás, 1922) and Chrysopodes (Neosuarius) porterina (Navás, 1910) are described. This last species and Ch...
Biology and feeding potential of the predator, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were studied on different hosts with particular reference to cotton crop. Various hosts viz., aphids (nymphs/ adults) and the eggs of cotton bollworms were used for the rearing of C. carnea and compared with the factitious host, Angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella) eggs on which the culture of the predator is maintained for the last many generations at the laboratory. The studies indicated that larval and pupal durations of the predator were significantly affected by the change of the hosts and the total developmental period was significantly shorter when the predator was offered with aphids for feeding. The fecundity, fertility, pupation, hatch ability and longevity of the predator were also higher on aphids followed by pink bollworm, spotted bollworm, Angoumois grain moth and American bollworm eggs. However, the sex ratio was not affected due to change in the type of hosts. An identical trend in all the observed parameters was recorded in parental and first filial generations on all the tested hosts. Based on the studies, aphids appeared to be the most promising host for mass rearing of the predator. Further, successful predation on the cotton bollworm eggs manifested the potential of C. carnea for the management of cotton bollworms in the field. (author)
Monserrat, V. J.
Full Text Available New data on the morphology, distribution and biology of five species of green-lacewings (Insecta, Neuroptera, Chrysopidae collected from samplings made in Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego and Coquimbo (Argentina, Chile are given. The general morphology and the preimaginal stages of Ungla argentina (Navás, 1911, Ungla binaria (Navás, 1922 and Chrysopodes (Neosuarius porterina (Navás, 1910 are described. This last species and Chrysoperla defreitasi Brooks, 1994 are recorded from Argentina for the first time.
Se anotan nuevos datos sobre la morfología, distribución y biología de cinco especies de crisópidos (Insecta, Neuroptera, Chrysopidae capturadas durante los muestreos realizados en Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego y Coquimbo (Argentina, Chile. Se describen los estadios juveniles y los adultos de Ungla argentina (Navás, 1911, Ungla binaria (Navás, 1922 y Chrysopodes (Neosuarius porterina (Navás, 1910. Esta última especie y Chrysoperla defreitasi Brooks, 1994 se citan por primera vez de Argentina.
Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae and Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae on organically grown Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae e Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae sobre Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae cultivada organicamente
Full Text Available Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae larvae can avoid foraging on plants of Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae after the issuance of floral buds, when the prey of Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae incorporate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids from this plant. This reduces the predation and favors increasing the number of adults and eggs of this defoliator on crops of this plant. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate some biological and ecological aspects of C. externa and U. ornatrix on the organic crop of C. juncea in the EMBRAPA Maize and Sorghum in Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Chrysoperla externa and U. ornatrix were more abundant in the vegetative and flowering stages of C. juncea, respectively, with caterpillars of this defoliator feeding on leaves and seeds of this plant. The duration of the stages/instars, survival, lifetime fecundity, and oviposition showed that the branches of C. juncea are a suitable food for U. ornatrix. The abundance of adults and larvae of C. externa was lower in the flowering and pods stages of C. juncea, respectively, when the postures of U. ornatrix are present, probably due to the toxicity of the eggs of this prey to this predator. During these stages, C. externa may be reared with alternative hosts, and when the crops of C. juncea are scarce, an artificial diet should be used for rearing this defoliator in the laboratory for biological research and the development of biological control tactics.Larvas de Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae podem evitar o forrageamento sobre plantas de Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae após a emissão de botões florais, quando presas de Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae incorporam alcalóides pirrolizidínicos tóxicos dessa planta. Isso reduz a predação e favorece o aumento do número de adultos e ovos desse desfolhador sobre cultivos dessa planta. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar alguns aspectos biológicos e ecológicos de C
Hesler, Louis S
This study reports on the attractiveness of volatile chemicals to green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and flower flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) as measured by catch on yellow sticky traps within corn [Zea mays L. (Cyperales: Poaceae)] and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabales: Fabaceae)] plots. Green lacewings were attracted to eugenol-baited traps in two tests in soybean plots. Follow-up testing in corn showed that catch of green lacewings was enhanced when traps were baited with eugenol, its structural analog isoeugenol, or 2-phenylethanol; trap catch of green lacewings was greater with these compounds than with structural analog, 4-alllylanisole. In a follow-up test in soybean, more green lacewings were caught on traps baited with isoeugenol than with 4-allylanisole. Catch did not differ among traps baited with eugenol, isoeugenol, or 2-phenylethanol or among those baited with eugenol, 2-phenylethanol, or the ethanol control. In a 6-wk experiment in soybean, green lacewings were attracted to eugenol-baited traps in 5 of 6 wks but to traps baited with structural analog methyl eugenol in only 1 wk. Flower flies were attracted to 2-phenylethanol in initial tests in corn and soybean plots. Subsequent testing in soybeans with 2-phenylethanol and structural analogs confirmed attraction to 2-phenylethanol and also showed attractancy of 2-phenylacetaldehyde but not benzylamine. A 6-wk test in soybean found that flower flies were also attracted to traps baited with either eugenol or methyl eugenol. This is the first report of green lacewing attraction to eugenol and isoeugenol and first report of flower fly attraction to eugenol. Structure-activity relationships among attractants and practical aspects of their use are discussed. PMID:27531905
Full Text Available Two North American species of green lacewings have undergone a number of changes in their generic assignments and are currently classified as incertae sedis. Here we demonstrate that adults (both sexes and larvae of these species share a set of features that distinguishes them from currently described genera. Thus, to promote nomenclatural stability in Chrysopidae, we describe Kymachrysa, a gen. n. that contains the two species – Kymachrysa intacta (Navás, comb. n. and Kymachrysa placita (Banks, comb. n. Also, we present modifications for the current generic-level key, illustrations, as well as biological information for identifying the genus and its known species.
Seletividade de agrotóxicos utilizados em pomares de pêssego a adultos do predador Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae Selectivity of pesticides used in peach orchard on adults of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae
Rodolfo Vargas Castilhos
Full Text Available A seletividade de dezesseis agrotóxicos utilizados na produção integrada e convencional de pêssego foi avaliada sobre a fase adulta de Chrysoperla externa através de bioensaios de exposição residual conduzidos em laboratório (temperatura de 25±1ºC, umidade relativa 70±10% e fotofase 14 horas, utilizando-se de metodologia prescrita pela "International Organization for Biological Control" (IOBC. Os agrotóxicos (% de ingrediente ativo na calda azoxystrobina (0,016, captana (0,192, dodina (0,126, folpete (0,200, mancozebe (0,256, mancozebe + oxicloreto de cobre (0,140 + 0,096, tebuconazole (0,320, abamectina (0,002, óleo mineral 1 (2,420, óleo mineral 2 (1,920, dicloreto de paraquate (0,300 e glifosato (1,440 foram inócuos; deltametrina (0,002 foi levemente nocivo e dimetoato (0,160, fosmete (0,160 e malationa (0,240 foram nocivos a adultos de C. externa.The selectivity of sixteen pesticides used in integrated and conventional peach production was evaluated on adults of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen,1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae under bioassays in laboratory conditions (temperature of 25±1ºC, relative humidity 70±10% and 14 hours photophase, using the "International Organization for Biological Control" (IOBC methodology. The pesticides (% active ingredient azoxystrobin (0.016, captan (0.192, dodine (0.126, pholpet (0.200, mancozeb (0.256, mancozeb + cooper oxichloride (0.140 + 0.096, tebuconazole (0.320, abamectin (0.002, mineral oil 1 (2.420, mineral oil 2 (1.920, paraquat dichloride (0.300 and gliphosate (1.440 were harmless; deltametrin (0.002 was slightly harmful and dimetoate (0.160, phosmet (0.160 and malathion (0.240, were harmful to C. externa adults.
Rui-E Nie; Atsushi Mochizuki; Stephen J.Brooks; Zhi-Qi Liu; Xing-Ke Yang
Several studies have indicated that the green lacewing,Chrysoperla nipponensis (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) may include more than one valid species.We investigated the phylogenetic status of Chrysoperla nipponensis s.l.in China and Japan using mitochondrial sequences and AFLP data.The molecular phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial genes showed that the C.nipponensis species-complex comprises four clades,each having high support values.In addition,the phylogenetic tree based on AFLP data indicates that the species-complex comprises three groups.These results confirm that C.nipponensis s.l.comprises at least three genetically distinct clades and suggests that two of these clades may be closely related to populations of C.nipponensis in Japan.However,these clades cannot be recognized as species until analysis of their courtship songs has been completed.
Josiane T. Cardoso
Full Text Available The giant conifer aphids Cinara pinivora (Wilson, 1919 and Cinara atlantica (Wilson, 1919 (Hemiptera: Aphididae are pests on Pinus spp. (Pinaceae in the South and Southeast regions of Brazil. Larvae of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae were observed feeding voraciously on these aphid colonies. In order to evaluate their potential as biological control agents, some biological parameters and their consumption capacity were studied in laboratory. Ten larvae were isolated in plastic vials and fed with aphids of small size (nymphs of 1st and 2nd instars and 10 with aphids of medium size (nymphs of 3rd and 4th instars, maintained at 15ºC, 20ºC and 25ºC, under 12:12 h photoperiod and 70 ± 10% RH, and observed daily. The egg incubation period was nine days at 20ºC and four days at 25ºC. The mean larval development period for C. externa was 59.5 days; 22.3 days and 10.9 days, respectively at 15ºC, 20ºC and 25ºC. The pupal stage last 23.2 at 20ºC and 11.1 days at 25ºC. Unfortunately, data of egg and pupal development at 15ºC are not available because the rearing chamber overheated. The mortality rate from egg to adult was 46.2% 46.6% and 20.2% at 15ºC, 20ºC and 25ºC, respectively. The average aphid consumption of each C. externa larva to complete its development was 499.1; 341.7 and 215.1 small aphids, and 126.4; 105.6 and 67.0 medium aphids, at 15ºC, 20ºC and 25ºC, respectively. About 80% of the total food consumption was by the 3rd instar larvae. Although the development was faster and viability higher at 25ºC than at the other two temperatures, the consumption was the highest at 15ºC because the larval period was much longer. Therefore, the larvae of C. externa can be regarded as potential biological control agents of Cinara spp. throughout the year and even in cool areas of Southern Brazil during some periods o the year.
Alexander M. Auad
Full Text Available Searching and handling time of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae larvae fed on Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878 (Hemiptera, Aphididae. The objective of this research was to determine the searching and handling times of three larval instars of C. externa fed on U. ambrosiae at densities of 30, 40 and 50 per vial, with the feeding of the larvae at the preceding instars being U. ambrosiae nymphs or Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier, 1819 eggs. The larvae were maintained at 25 ± 2 ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and a 14-h photophase. A completely randomized design in a 6 x 3 factorial scheme with 12 replicates was adopted. The shortest searching time was found for the 2nd and 3rd instar larvae of C. externa, and this parameter was variable depending on the feeding given to the larvae previously. The handling time was similar for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instar larvae. The longest searching time was found at an aphid density of 30, as compared to densities of 40 and 50 prey, with which there were no significant differences. Prey density did not have any influence on handling time.
Silva Rogério Antônio
Full Text Available Avaliou-se a ação de produtos fitossanitários usados em cafeeiros sobre pupas e adultos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae. Os bioensaios foram conduzidos no Departamento de Entomologia da Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, Lavras, MG, Brasil. Os tratamentos avaliados, em g i.a.L-1 de água, foram: 1- endosulfan (Thiodan 350 CE - 1,75, 2- chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 480 CE -1,2, 3- betacyfluthrin (Turbo 50 CE - 0,013, 4- enxofre (Kumulus 800 PM - 4,0, 5- azocyclotin (Peropal 250 PM - 0,31, 6- oxicloreto de cobre (Cuprogarb 500 PM - 5,0 e 7- Testemunha (água. As pulverizações foram realizadas diretamente sobre pupas e adultos do crisopídeo por meio de torre de Potter. As pupas foram colocadas em tubos de vidro e os adultos em gaiolas de PVC, e mantidos em sala climatizada a 25 ? 2degreesC, UR de 70 ? 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos e dez repetições, sendo cada parcela formada por quatro pupas ou um casal de C. externa. Os produtos foram distribuídos nas quatro classes de toxicidade conforme escala estabelecida pela IOBC. O chlorpyrifos mostrou-se levemente nocivo para pupas (classe 2, 30?E?79%, e os demais produtos foram inócuos (classe 1, E99%. Os produtos testados à base de endosulfan, enxofre, azocyclotin e oxicloreto de cobre podem ser recomendados em programas de manejo de pragas do cafeeiro em associação com C. externa, em função da baixa toxidade apresentada por esses compostos ao predador.
EFECTOS TOXICOLÓGICOS DE EXTRACTOS DE MOLLE (Schinus molle Y LANTANA (Lantana camara SOBRE Chrysoperla externa (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE, Trichogramma pintoi (HYMENOPTERA: TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE Y Copidosoma koehleri (HYMENOPTERA: ENCYRTIDAE EN EL PERÚ Toxicological effects of extracts of Peruvian peppertree (Schinus molle and lantana (Lantana camara on Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae, Trichogramma pintoi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae and Copidosoma koehleri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae in Peru
José Iannacone O.
Full Text Available Extractos de dos plantas; el molle (Schinus molle L., Anacardiaceae y la lantana (Lantana camara L., Verbenaceae, se evaluaron sobre huevos, larvas de primer estadio y pupas de Chrysoperla externa Hagen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae, y sobre estados inmaduros y adultos de los microhimenopteros Trichogramma pintoi Voegelé (Trichogrammatidae y Copidosoma koehleri Blanchard (Encyrtidae, en bioensayos toxicológicos bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Los extractos acuosos (F1 del molle y la lantana a las concentraciones aplicadas no causaron efectos significativos en la mortalidad de las larvas (ensayo de residualidad y pupas (ensayo de inmersión de C. externa, pero los extractos hexánicos (F2; 10% de molle y lantana, y el acetónico (F3; 10% de lantana tuvieron efectos ovicidas por inmersión. Los adultos de T. pintoi fueron sensibles a casi todas las fracciones en ensayos de contacto-residualidad y los adultos de C. koehleri fueron sensibles al F1 de molle y a la F3 de lantana. La emergencia de ambas microavispas fue afectada principalmente por el F2 de molle y de lantana, y por el F3 de lantana en comparación con el control (agua destilada. Las fracciones F2 y F3 de lantana causaron los mayores efectos en los tres insectos. T. pintoi fue ligeramente más sensible a los extractos botánicos en comparación con C. koehleri. Se discute la posibilidad de uso de estos insecticidas botánicos en programas de Manejo Integrado de Plagas.Extracts of two plants, lantana (Lantana camara L., Verbenaceae and the Peruvian peppertree (Schinus molle L., Anacardiaceae, were evaluated on eggs, first stage larvae and pupae of Chrysoperla externa Hagen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae, and on the immature and adult phases of the microhymenopterans Trichogramma pintoi Voegelé (Trichogrammatidae and Copidosoma koehleri Blanchard (Encyrtidae in toxicological bioassays under laboratory conditions. At the concentrations applied, aqueous extracts (F1 of lantana and Peruvian
Roč. 107, č. 1 (2010), s. 65-72. ISSN 1210-5759 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5007102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Neuroptera * Chrysopidae * Chrysopa oculata Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.945, year: 2010 http://www.eje.cz/scripts/viewabstract.php?abstract=1510
Monserrat, V. J.
Full Text Available After a brief historical introduction to the knowledge of chrysopid immature stages, their biology, behaviour, and especially interesting morphological features, we review the preimaginal stages of the Iberian species (38 of the 49 Iberian species, belonging to the 13 Iberian genera. Our presentation includes information from the literature and new descriptions by the authors after collecting gravid females, obtaining eggs and rearing larvae. Specifically, it provides new information on the biology, behavior, appearance, pigmentation and detailed chaetotaxy of the neonate and mature larvae of these 38 species, and describes for the first time the preimaginal stages of Chrysopa dorsalis, Nineta guadarramensis, Suarius iberiensis and Italochrysa stigmatica. We propose a series of morphological characters that differentiate the Iberian larvae at subfamilial, tribal, generic, and species levels. At the subfamilial level: morphology of the antenna and sensilla number of the last segment of labial palp. At the generic level: cephalic chaetotaxy, presence or absence of a transverse row of setae on the mesonotum, number of dorsal and laterodorsal tubercles on the abdomen, morphology and size of the lateral tubercles of the thorax, and morphology of the setae. And at the species level: cephalic pigmentation, morphology of the claw, shape of the mesothoracic spiracle, shape of the prothoracic laterodorsal sclerite, number and length of the setae on lateral and laterodorsal abdominal tubercles, number of setae of the posteroventral row on the tenth abdominal segment, and integumentary coloration. Based on these characters, the article offers a key that enables the identification of subfamilies, genera and Iberian species of Chrysopidae. We found that the use of larval morphological characters supports, in general, the current classification based on imagoes, but the study of the larval morphology of these species, has allowed us to detect a
Full Text Available The Neotropical green lacewing genus Chrysopodes includes two described subgenera: Chrysopodes and Neosuarius with 30 and 19 named species, respectively. This paper, which initiates a revision of the genus, focuses on Neosuarius. First, the paper re-defines the suite of traits that characterizes the subgenus; in doing so, it limits the taxon to a smaller, and more cohesive set of species than was included earlier. Then, because most previous descriptions are brief and have no reference to the genitalia, it re-describes and illustrates the adults of species assigned to the newly re-defined subgenus. For each species, it also provides a diagnosis, complete synonymy and list of literature citations, and information on the known biology and distribution. To stabilize the subgenus and reduce nomenclatural problems in the future, special emphasis is placed on the type specimens of all species in the subgenus and their synonyms. Taxonomic changes include: (1 The previous synonymization of Chrysopa krugii Kolbe, 1888 with Chrysopodes (Neosuarius collaris (Schneider is reversed, and Chrysopodes (Neosuarius krugii (Kolbe is recognized as a distinct biological entity. (2 Five species [C. (N. apurinus (Navas, 1935, C. (N. divisus (Walker, 1853, C. (N. placitus (Banks, 1908, C. (N. poujadei (Navas, 1910 and C. (N. karinae Freitas & Penny, 2001] are removed from the subgenus. (3 Three C. (Neosuarius species are synonymized with previously described C. (Neosuarius species – jaffuelinus (Navas, 1918 and nosinus (Navas, 1913 with Chrysopodes (Neosuarius flavescens (Blanchard, 1851, and tristellus (Navas, 1920 with Chrysopodes (Neosuarius porterinus (Navas, 1910. (4 Three species that were previously designated as “Chrysopa (incertae sedis” are synonymized with C. (Neosuarius species – Chrysopa bullocki Navas, 1933, with C. (N. flavescens (Blanchard, 1851]; Chrysopa ruizi Navas, 1934, with C. (N. porterinus (Navas, 1910; and Chrysopa tacorensis Navas , 1934, with C. (N. figuralis (Banks, 1915. Chrysopa dampfina Navas, 1927, is moved from synonymy with C. (N. figuralis to synonymy with C. (N. collaris. Lectotypes or holotypes are identified for all species and synonyms. As a result of this study, the subgenus Chrysopodes (Neosuarius now contains 10 species in two distinct species-groups: (1 the collaris species-group: C. (N. collaris (Schneider, 1851, C. (N. figuralis (Banks, 1915, C. (N. krugii (Kolbe, 1888, and C. (N. oswaldi Penny, 2002; (2 the flavescens species-group: C. (N. escomeli (Navas, 1922, C. (N. flavescens (Blanchard, 1857, C. (N. nigricubitus Tauber & Tauber, 2010, C. (N. nigripilosus (Banks, 1924, C. (N. pecki Tauber & Tauber, 2010, and C. (N. porterinus (Navas, 1910.
Robério de Oliveira
Full Text Available This study evaluated the development and reproduction of Ceraeochrysa cubana when fed the citrus blackfly Aleurocanthus woglumi. The study was carried out at the Laboratory of Entomology, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Federal University of Paraíba – Areia/PB. It used a completely randomized design. The study was conducted in climate chambers, regulated to 26 ± 2°C and a relative humidity of 70 ± 10% with a 12 h photoperiod. The treatments were as follows: eggs, nymphs of only the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, or 4th instars, and nymphs of multiple instars (1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars of A. woglumi, with eggs of Sitotroga cerealella as a control. The 1st instar of C. cubana lasted 5.8 to 10.7 days, the 2nd instar lasted 6.0 to 13.3 days, and the 3rd instar lasted 8.2 to 18.5 days. The larvae of C. cubana did not survive when the food provided was only the eggs of A. woglumi, since the predator could not eat them. C. cubana, when provided nymphs of multiple instars (1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars of the citrus blackfly, had a shorter pre-pupal period and lower longevity than when consuming the eggs of S. cerealella, but the sex ratio and oviposition period were not affected. However, changes occurred in the pre-oviposition period, the total number of eggs, and the number of viable eggs.
Toxicidade de acaricidas a ovos e adultos de Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae Toxicity of acaricides to eggs and adults of Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae
Geraldo Andrade Carvalho
Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito de treze acaricidas sobre ovos e adultos de Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen, 1861. Os acaricidas foram pulverizados por meio de torre de Potter, nas concentrações recomendadas para o controle de ácaros na cultura dos citros. Os ensaios foram conduzidos sob condições controladas de 25 ± 2º C, umidade relativa de 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Os acaricidas não foram tóxicos ao predador em sua fase de ovo. Em relação aos adultos, o carbosulfan e o triazophos foram altamente tóxicos (100% de mortalidade, enquanto que os piretróides bifenthrin e fenpropathrin causaram mortalidade aproximadamente de 60%. Os acaricidas dicofol, bromopropylate, tetradifon, clofentezine, abamectin, hexythiazox, cyhexatin e óxido de fenbutatin não provocaram mortalidade dos adultos de C. cubana. Flufenoxuron inibiu a capacidade de oviposição e provocou a inviabilização dos ovos. Baseando-se na escala da IOBC, os acaricidas carbosulfan, triazophos e flufenoxuron foram enquadrados na classe 4 = nocivos; bifenthrin e fenpropathrin na classe 2 = levemente nocivos, e dicofol, bromopropylate, tetradifon, clofentezine, abamectin, hexythiazox, cyhexatin e óxido de fenbutatin na classe 1 = inócuos a C. cubana. Os compostos enquadrados na classe 1 podem ser recomendados em programas de manejo integrado de pragas de citros objetivando a integração entre os métodos químico e biológico por meio dessa espécie de predador.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of thirteen acaricides on eggs and adults of the lacewing Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen, 1861. The acaricides were sprayed using a Potter's tower at the rate recommended for mite control in citrus orchard. The trials were performed in climatic chamber at 25 ± 2º C, 70 ± 10% RH and photophase of 12 hours. The egg stage showed high tolerance to the tested acaricides. Carbosulfan and triazophos caused 100% adult mortality, whereas bifenthrin and fenpropathrin caused around 60%. All other acaricides, dicofol, bromopropylate, tetradifon, clofentezine, abamectin, hexythiazox, cyhexatin and fenibutatin oxide did not cause mortality of C. cubana adult. Flufenoxuron reduced adult egg laying and all eggs were nonviable. According to IOBC scale, the acaricides carbosulfan, triazophos and flufenoxuron were classified into class 4 = harmful; bifenthrin and fenpropathrin into class 2 = slightly toxic; and dicofol, clofentezine, abamectin, hexythiazox, cyhexatin, and fenbutatin oxide into class 1 = harmless to C. cubana. The compounds classified as first class may be recommended in programs of integrated pest management of citrus aiming at the integration between the biological and chemical control through this kind of predator.
Taís Carmona Lavagnini
Full Text Available Os crisopídeos são importantes predadores e são encontrados em diversos agroecossistemas. A temperatura é um dos fatores determinantes para o desenvolvimento dos insetos, sendo que existe um gradiente de variação aceitável para cada espécie. Portanto, objetivou-se com este estudo verificar a influência de diferentes temperaturas sobre o desenvolvimento embrionário e pós-embrionário de C. raimundoi assim como verificar as conseqüências nas diferentes gerações. As fases jovens foram criadas em três ambientes com temperaturas constantes de 19,0, 25,0 e 31,0ºC e em um ambiente externo sem controle dos fatores abióticos. Foram observados a duração do período embrionário, do primeiro, segundo e terceiro ínstares, a duração do período larval, pupal e ovo-adulto, assim como, a sobrevivência em cada estágio, estádio e a porcentagem de emergência. O desenvolvimento embrionário e pós-embrionário diferiu entre as gerações F2 e F4. Quanto à influência de diferentes temperaturas para a geração F2, os indivíduos criados a 31,0ºC demonstraram redução na taxa de desenvolvimento com relação aos outros dois ambientes. Para a geração F4, observou-se que as diferentes temperaturas influenciaram no desenvolvimento, sendo que a 19,0ºC houve prolongamento do mesmo.The green lacewings are important predators and are found in several agroecosystems. The temperature is one of the decisive factors for the development of insects, and there is an acceptable variation gradient for each species. Therefore, the purpose of this study was not only to check the influence of different temperatures on the embryonic and post-embryonic development of Chrysoperla raimundoi, as well as check the consequences in the different generations. The immature stages were reared at four different environmental conditions, three of them with constant temperatures (19,0, 25,0 e 31,0ºC and the fourth rearing place was external to the laboratory without control of the abiotic factors. The duration of the embryonic period, first, second and third larval instar, pupal stage, and from egg to adult were evaluated; also the survival rate of each instar and stage and the emergence rate were calculated. The embryonic and post embryonic development differed between the generations F2 and F4. Also, the influence of different temperatures for the generation F2 among individuals created at 31,0ºC showed reduction on the development rate regarding the other two environments. It was possible to observe that the generation F4 has its development influenced by different temperatures, and the 19,0ºC temperature prolonged its development.
Full Text Available The first complete mitochondrial genome of the lacewing family Osmylidae (Thyridosmylus langii (McLachlan, 1870 (Neuroptera was sequenced in this study. The genome is a circular molecule of 16,221 bp containing the typical 37 genes but is arranged in the same order as that of the putative ancestor of hexapod and lacks translocation of trnC as shared by all previously sequenced neuropteran mtDNAs. This reveals that trnC translocation does not represent an organizational synapomorphy in the mitochondrion for the entire Neuroptera clade. Comparative analysis of neuropteran tRNA genes reveals a relatively slow and conserved evolution of the mitochondrion throughout the order. Secondary structure models of the ribosomal RNA genes of T. langii largely agree with those proposed for other insect orders. Nevertheless, domain I of T. langii rrnL is consisted of nine helices rather than eight helices which is typical for neuropteran rrnL. Protein-coding genes have typical mitochondrial start codons, with the exception of COI, which uses the TCG start codon also found in Ithonidae and Chrysopidae. Like other neuropteran insects, the control region is the most AT-rich region and comparatively simple, with little evidence of conserved blocks or long tandem repeats. Considering the issues of base-compositional and branch length heterogeneity, we used a range of phylogenetic approaches to recover neuropteridan relationships and explored the effect of method choice on recovery of monophyly of Neuropterida: ((Neuroptera + Megaloptera + Raphidioptera. The monophyly of Neuroptera and the more basal position of Osmylidae were also recovered by different datasets and phylogenetic methods.
Scudeler, Elton Luiz; Garcia, Ana Silvia Gimenes; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Santos, Daniela Carvalho
Neem oil is a biopesticide that disturbs the endocrine and neuroendocrine systems of pests and may interfere with molting, metamorphosis and cocoon spinning. The cocoon serves protective functions for the pupa during metamorphosis, and these functions are dependent on cocoon structure. To assess the changes in cocoon spinning caused by neem oil ingestion, Ceraeochrysa claveri larvae, a common polyphagous predator, were fed with neem oil throughout the larval period. When treated with neem oil, changes were observed on the outer and inner surfaces of the C. claveri cocoon, such as decreased wall thickness and impaired ability to attach to a substrate. These negative effects may reduce the effectiveness of the mechanical and protective functions of cocoons during pupation, which makes the specimen more vulnerable to natural enemies and environmental factors. PMID:23993219
Full Text Available Two new species that were previously undistinguished from the Galapagos endemic Chrysopodes (Neosuarius nigripilosus (Banks, are described. These descriptions double, from two to four, the number of endemic green lacewing species known from the archipelago. The four species include: Chrysoperla galapagoensis (Banks, Chrysopodes (N. nigricubitus sp. n.; C. (N. nigripilosus; and C. (N. pecki sp. n. Three of these species – C. (N. nigripilosus, C. (N. nigricubitus and Chrysoperla galapagoensis – each occur on more than one island, whereas C. (N. pecki is known only from the summits of two craters on Isabela Island. A suite of very distinctive features differentiates the three Galapagos Chrysopodes (N. species from their congeners on mainland South America. Subtle, but consistent characteristics separate the three Galapagos species from each other. The small degree of morphological divergence among the Galapagos lacewings is in marked contrast to the spectacular radiation of Hawaiian lacewings; the processes of diversification and speciation may differ significantly between the two island archipelagos.
Schneider, M I; Sanchez, N; Pineda, S; Chi, H; Ronco, A
Few ecotoxicological studies have used life table analysis to evaluate the toxicity of pesticides on beneficial organisms. This study is the first report of the effect of the herbicide glyphosate on a predator insect, Chrysoperla externa, using a demographic approach. This predator is associated to soybean pests and has a potential role as a biological control agent in the Neotropical Region. The objective of this work was to evaluate the side-effects of glyphosate on the development, fertility and demography of C. externa, treated orally by ingestion of glyphosate-dipped eggs of Sitotroga cerealella in laboratory conditions. The data were analyzed using the age-stage, two-sex life table. Development from third larval instar to pupae and adult longevity were shorter in glyphosate-treatment than in the control. Adult pre-reproductive period was longer in glyphosate-treatment than in the control. Fecundity and fertility were deeply reduced, as well, being fertility greater affected. A high important reduction was registered in all population parameters. Most eggs from glyphosate-treated cohort looked abnormal, smaller than control, dehydrated and became black 2d after oviposition. In addition, adults developed tumours in the abdomen region at 20d after emergence, being the effect more drastic in females than males. It is beyond the scope of our study to speculate on the effects of this herbicide on C. externa field populations. However, it seems likely that populations under continuous use of glyphosate would be exposed at greater detrimental effects in the long term. PMID:19577273
Mansoor, Muhammad Mudassir; Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Pathan, Attaullah Khan; Razaq, Muhammad
The common green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea is a key biological control agent employed in integrated pest management (IPM) programs for managing various insect pests. A field collected population of C. carnea was selected for emamectin benzoate resistance in the laboratory and fitness costs and realized heritability were investigated. After five generations of selection with emamectin benzoate, C. carnea developed a 318-fold resistance to the insecticide. The resistant population had a relative fitness of 1.49, with substantially higher emergence rate of healthy adults, fecundity and hatchability and shorter larval duration, pupal duration, and development time compared to the susceptible population. Mean population growth rates; such as the intrinsic rate of natural population increase and biotic potential were higher for the emamectin benzoate selected population compared to the susceptible population. The realized heritability (h(2)) value of emamectin benzoate resistance was 0.34 in emamectin benzoate selected population of C. carnea. Chrysoperla species which show resistance to insecticides makes them compatible with those IPM systems where emamectin benzoate is employed. PMID:23975538
Porcel, M; Ruano, F; Cotes, B; Peña, A; Campos, M
Green lacewings are generalist predators whose conservation is important for pest control in olive orchards (Olea europaea L.) Sustainable farming practices, as opposed to conventional management techniques, are believed to foster the presence of natural enemies. This study therefore aims to analyze the effect of 1) herbicidal weed cover removal and insecticide applications, and 2) the general management systems used in the olive orchards of southern Spain on chrysopid assemblages and abundance. Green lacewing adults and larvae were collected from olive orchards under conventional, integrated, and organic management systems. In addition, chemical analyses of residues were carried out to determine the presence of insecticidal and herbicidal residues. Eight adult species and three genera of larvae were identified. No rare species were captured from the most intensively farmed orchard, which therefore recorded the most limited chrysopid diversity with a very marked dominance of Chrysoperla carnea s.l.. No effect of dimethoate treatments on Chrysoperla larvae or C. carnea s.l. adults was observed. However, the presence of insecticide residues was associated with the depletion of Dichochrysa larvae. The absence of herbicide treatments favored C. carnea s.l. adult presence on olive trees while larval abundance decreased. Dichochrysa larvae were more abundant when weed cover received no treatment. In relation to the management systems studied, no difference in Chrysoperla larval abundance was observed between conventional and organic orchards. However, Dichochrysa larvae were more abundant in orchards under organic management. PMID:23339790
Abbas, N; Mansoor, M M; Shad, S A; Pathan, A K; Waheed, A; Ejaz, M; Razaq, M; Zulfiqar, M A
The common green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea is a key biological control agent employed in integrated pest management (IPM) programs for managing various insect pests. Spinosad is used for the management of pests in ornamental plants, fruit trees, vegetable and field crops all over the world, including Pakistan. A field-collected population of C. carnea was selected with spinosad and fitness costs and realized heritability were investigated. After selection for five generations, C. carnea developed 12.65- and 73.37-fold resistance to spinosad compared to the field and UNSEL populations. The resistant population had a relative fitness of 1.47, with substantially higher emergence rate of healthy adults, fecundity and hatchability and shorter larval duration, pupal duration, and development time as compared to a susceptible laboratory population. Mean relative growth rate of larvae, intrinsic rate of natural population increase and biotic potential was higher for the spinosad-selected population compared to the susceptible laboratory population. Chrysoperla species are known to show resistance to insecticides which makes the predator compatible with most IPM systems. The realized heritability (h 2) value of spinosad resistance was 0.37 in spinosad-selected population of C. carnea. PMID:25033090
Zhang, Qing-He; Sheng, Maoling; Chen, Guofa; Aldrich, Jeffrey R.; Chauhan, Kamlesh R.
The lacewing Chrysopa septempunctata Wesmael is an important, common predator of several insects in China, Japan, Russia, and many parts of Europe. Our field trapping experiments in northeast China showed that males of this green lacewing are strongly attracted to the lacewing pheromone of Chrysopa oculata Say, (1 R,2 S,5 R,8 R)-iridodial. The induced plant volatile, methyl salicylate, was unattractive to C. septempunctata by itself at the concentration tested, but synergistic when combined with iridodial where the lacewing population was high. (1 R,4a S,7 S,7a R)-Nepetalactol and (4a S,7 S,7a R)-nepetalactone (aphid sex pheromone components) caught significantly more males of C. septempunctata than did blank control traps, but were inferior to iridodial dispensers, which remained strongly attractive to C. septempunctata males for at least 2.5 months. These results indicate that (1 R,2 S,5 R,8 R)-iridodial is a powerful attractant for C. septempunctata, and may have great potential for enhanced biological control of garden, agricultural, and forest insect pests.
Leonardo Rodrigues Barbosa
Full Text Available A knowledge of the behavior and biological aspects of natural enemies is extremely important for the establishment of biological control programs. Biological aspects of the larvae, pre-pupae and pupae of the predator Ceraeochrysa everes (Banks were studied. Larvae of the adult F1 generation were reared in the laboratory (25 ± 2°C, 65 ± 10 % RH and 14h photophase on eggs of the Angoumois grain moth Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier. The duration and viability of the embryonic period, development of the immature stages and egg-adult period were evaluated. The mean embryonic period was 5.0 days, while the mean durations of the first, second and third instars were: 5.1 ± 0.03; 4.3 ± 0.05 and 4.5 ± 0.05 days, respectively, with viability exceeding 90%. Duration of the larval, pre-pupal and pupal stages averaged 13.9 ± 0.07; 5.7 ± 0.07 and 9.6 ± 0.12 days, respectively. Duration of the biological cycle was 34 ± 0.11 days on average. S. cerealella eggs were not suitable for rearing C. everes under laboratory conditions because they affected predator development.Para o estabelecimento de um programa de controle biológico, o conhecimento de alguns aspectos biológicos e de comportamento dos inimigos naturais é de extrema importância. Os aspectos biológicos do desenvolvimento larval e pupal do predador Ceraeochrysa everes (Banks foram estudados. Larvas oriundas de adultos da geração F1 foram mantidas em laboratório a 25 ± 21°C, 70 ± 10 % UR e fotofase 14 horas, sendo alimentadas com ovos de Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier. A duração e viabilidade do período embrionário, estágios imaturos de desenvolvimento e o período de ovo a adulto foram avaliados. O período embrionário foi em média de 5,0 dias, enquanto que as durações médias para o primeiro, segundo e terceiro instares foram de 5,1 ± 0,03; 4,3 ± 0,05 e 4,5 ± 0,05 dias, respectivamente, com viabilidade superior a 90 %. Os estágios larval, pré-pupal e pupal apresentaram duração média de 13,9 ± 0,07; 5,7 ± 0,07 e 9,6 ± 0,12 dias, respectivamente. A duração do ciclo biológico foi de 34 ± 0,11 dias em média. Ovos de S. cerelella não foram adequados para a manutenção de C. everes em laboratório, por interferir no desenvolvimento do predador.
Sergio Antonio De Bortoli
Full Text Available Ceraeochrysa paraguaria do not has its life history well known, despite its description do not berecent. The present work aimed to evaluate morphometric aspects of C. paraguaria larvae werefeeding on Diatraea saccharalis, Sitotroga cerealella e Anagasta kuehniella eggs with the objectiveto determine the mandibule length, head capsule length, torax + head length, and larvae weight.By the results it was possible to conclude: to the morphometrical parameters, only larvae weight wasinfluenced by the food consumed by the predator, being the nymphal development shorter.
Venzon, Madelaine; Rosado, Maria C.; Euzébio, Denise E.; Souza, Brígida; Schoereder, José H.
Diversification of crops with species that provide suitable pollen for predators may reduce pest population on crops by enhancing predator effectiveness. In this paper we evaluated the suitability of leguminous cover crop pollens to the predatory green lacewing Chrysoperla externa (Hagen). The predator is commonly found in coffee agroecosystems and the plant species tested were pigeon pea and sunn hemp, which are used in organic coffee systems. Newly emerged females and males of C. externa we...
AYUBI, Aida; Moravvej, Gholamhossein; Karimi, Javad
Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) is a general biocontrol agent of several insect pests in greenhouses. The lethal effects of four compounds, imidacloprid, lufenuron, thiametoxam and thiodicarb, on the eggs and 1st instar larvae of C. carnea were studied in laboratory conditions. Dipping bioassay tests were used for eggs and the residual contact method for larvae. Positive relationships were detected between the concentrations of insecticides and mortality rates of various stages. However, there ...
Yan, Yan; Wang, Yuyu; Liu, Xingyue; Winterton, Shaun L; Yang, Ding
In the holometabolous insect order Neuroptera (lacewings), the cosmopolitan Myrmeleontidae (antlions) are the most species-rich family, while the closely related Nymphidae (split-footed lacewings) are a small endemic family from the Australian-Malesian region. Both families belong to the suborder Myrmeleontiformia, within which controversial hypotheses on the interfamilial phylogenetic relationships exist. Herein, we describe the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of an antlion (Myrmeleon immanis Walker, 1853) and a split-footed lacewing (Nymphes myrmeleonoides Leach, 1814), representing the first mt genomes for both families. These mt genomes are relatively small (respectively composed of 15,799 and 15,713 bp) compared to other lacewing mt genomes, and comprise 37 genes (13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNA genes and two rRNA genes). The arrangement of these two mt genomes is the same as in most derived Neuroptera mt genomes previously sequenced, specifically with a translocation of trnC. The start codons of all PCGs are started by ATN, with an exception of cox1, which is ACG in the M. immanis mt genome and TCG in N. myrmeleonoides. All tRNA genes have a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA, with the exception of trnS1(AGN). The secondary structures of rrnL and rrnS are similar with those proposed insects and the domain I contains nine helices rather than eight helices, which is common within Neuroptera. A phylogenetic analysis based on the mt genomic data for all Neuropterida sequenced thus far, supports the monophyly of Myrmeleontiformia and the sister relationship between Ascalaphidae and Myrmeleontidae. PMID:25170303
Rodolfo Vargas Castilhos
Full Text Available A seletividade de dezesseis agrotóxicos utilizados na produção integrada e convencional de pêssego foi avaliada sobre a fase adulta de Chrysoperla externa através de bioensaios de exposição residual conduzidos em laboratório (temperatura de 25±1ºC, umidade relativa 70±10% e fotofase 14 horas, utilizando-se de metodologia prescrita pela "International Organization for Biological Control" (IOBC. Os agrotóxicos (% de ingrediente ativo na calda azoxystrobina (0,016, captana (0,192, dodina (0,126, folpete (0,200, mancozebe (0,256, mancozebe + oxicloreto de cobre (0,140 + 0,096, tebuconazole (0,320, abamectina (0,002, óleo mineral 1 (2,420, óleo mineral 2 (1,920, dicloreto de paraquate (0,300 e glifosato (1,440 foram inócuos; deltametrina (0,002 foi levemente nocivo e dimetoato (0,160, fosmete (0,160 e malationa (0,240 foram nocivos a adultos de C. externa.
Cheng, Ling Lan; Nechols, James R; Margolies, David C; Campbell, James F; Yang, Ping Shih; Chen, Chien Chung; Lu, Chiu Tung
Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and Panonychus citri (McGregor) are two major acarine pests of the principal papaya variety in Taiwan, and they often co-occur in the same papaya screenhouses. This study measured prey acceptability, foraging schedule, short-term consumption rate, and handling time of larvae of a domesticated line of the green lacewing, Mallada basalis (Walker), in no-choice tests with different life stages of these two mite pests. After a period of prey deprivation, all three larval instars of M. basalis exhibited a high rate of acceptance of all life stages of both T. kanzawai and P. citri. In 2-h trials, second- and third-instar predators foraged actively most of the time, whereas first instars spent approximately 40% of the time at rest. Consumption increased and prey handling time decreased as predator life stage advanced and prey stage decreased. Third-instar lacewings consumed an average of 311.4 T. kanzawai eggs (handling time: 6.7 s/egg) and 68.2 adults (handling time: 58.8 s/adult), whereas first instars consumed 19.6 eggs (handling time: 23.6 s/egg) and 4.0 adults (handling time: 633.4 s/adult). M. basalis generally consumed more P. citri than T. kanzawai. Except for prey eggs, handling times of T. kanzawai were generally longer than those of P. citri by all M. basalis instars. Handling times were shorter, and consumption were greater, at the higher P. citri density than at the lower one, whereas there were generally no significant differences in prey acceptability and foraging time between those two densities. This study suggests that M. basalis larvae may have high potential for augmentative biological control of mites on papayas. PMID:19508780
Maia, Jader Braga; Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade; Medina, Pilar; Garzón, Agustín; Gontijo, Pablo da Costa; Viñuela, Elisa
The predator Chrysoperla carnea is a model species for the study of non-target effects of pesticides under different scenarios: registration of plant protection products under the European Union and effects of the Bt toxin. Laboratory and persistence studies were carried out with six pesticides currently used in corn crops in Spain that were applied at their maximum field recommended concentrations. The assessed end-points were larval mortality, survivorship until adult stage, duration of the larval and pupal periods, fecundity, fertility and sex ratio of the emerged adults. Based on the total effect (lethal and sublethal) caused to L3 larvae in contact with fresh residues in the laboratory, pendimethalin was harmless (IOBC 1), lambda-cyhalothrin, abamectin, and hexythiazox were slightly harmful (IOBC 2), deltamethrin was moderately harmful (IOBC 3) and chlorpyrifos was harmful (IOBC 4). Afterwards, the residues of the two most toxic pesticides in the lab (deltamethrin and chlorpyrifos) were aged under greenhouse conditions (22 ± 2 °C, 40 ± 10 % R.H., 16.9 μmol m(-2) s(-1) UV radiation) in the presence and absence of artificial rainfall (10 l m(-2) h(-1), applied 24 h after pesticide application). Deltamethrin was classified as short lived (IOBC A) in both cases. However, degradation of chlorpyrifos residues was accelerated in the presence of rainfall, leading to the classification as slightly persistent (IOBC B), while in absence of rainfall it behaved as persistent (IOBC D). Every pesticide can be recommended for inclusion in corn IPM programs where the predator is present except chlorpyrifos that exhibited high direct toxicity in the lab and prolonged residual action even in the presence of rainfall. PMID:26975320
Scudeler, E L; Santos, D C
We described the ultrastructure of Ceraeochrysa claveri (Navás) midgut endocrine cells in larva, pupa, and adult, and evaluated the side effects of ingested neem oil, a botanical insecticide obtained from the seeds of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica), on these cells. During the larval period, C. claveri were fed (ad libitum) Diatraea saccharalis (F.) eggs treated with neem oil at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, or 2%. Transmission electron microscopy showed that two subtypes of endocrine cells, namely granular and vesicular, occurred in the midgut epithelium during the three stages of the life cycle. Both cell types did not reach the midgut lumen and were positioned basally in the epithelium. The endocrine cells did not show extensive infoldings of the basal plasma membrane, and there were numerous secretory granules in the basal region of the cytoplasm. In the granular endocrine cells, the granules were completely filled with a dense matrix. In the vesicular endocrine cells, the main secretory products consisted of haloed vesicles. Ultrastructural examination indicated that only the granular endocrine cells exhibited signs of morphologic changes of cell injury present in all life cycle stages after the larvae were chronically exposed to neem oil by ingestion. The major cellular damage consisted of dilatation and vesiculation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the development of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial swelling. Our data suggest that cytotoxic effects on midgut endocrine cells can contribute to a generalized disruption of the physiological processes in this organ due to a general alteration of endocrine function. PMID:27193522
Scudeler, Elton Luiz; dos Santos, Daniela Carvalho
The effects of ingested neem oil, a botanical insecticide obtained from the seeds of the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, on the midgut cells of predatory larvae Ceraeochrysa claveri were analyzed. C. claveri were fed on eggs of Diatraea saccharalis treated with neem oil at a concentration of 0.5%, 1% and 2% during throughout the larval period. Light and electron microscopy showed severe damages in columnar cells, which had many cytoplasmic protrusions, clustering and ruptured of the microvilli, swollen cells, ruptured cells, dilatation and vesiculation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, development of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, enlargement of extracellular spaces of the basal labyrinth, intercellular spaces and necrosis. The indirect ingestion of neem oil with prey can result in severe alterations showing direct cytotoxic effects of neem oil on midgut cells of C. claveri larvae. Therefore, the safety of neem oil to non-target species as larvae of C. claveri was refuted, thus the notion that plants derived are safer to non-target species must be questioned in future ecotoxicological studies. PMID:22739123
Hassanpour, Mehdi; Mohaghegh, Jafar; Iranipour, Shahzad; Nouri-Ganbalani, Gadir; Enkegaard, Annie
Understanding predator–prey interactions has a pivotal role in biological control programs. This study evaluated the functional response of three larval instars of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens), preying upon eggs and first instar larvae of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa...
Toxicity and sublethal effects of six insecticides to last instar larvae and adults of the biocontrol agents Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).
Garzón, A; Medina, P; Amor, F; Viñuela, E; Budia, F
To further develop Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies against crop pests, it is important to evaluate the effects of insecticides on biological control agents. Therefore, we tested the toxicity and sublethal effects (fecundity and fertility) of flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone, spirotetramat, sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin on the natural enemies Chrysoperla carnea and Adalia bipunctata. The side effects of the active ingredients of the insecticides were evaluated with residual contact tests for the larvae and adults of these predators in the laboratory. Flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone and spirotetramat were innocuous to last instar larvae and adults of C. carnea and A. bipunctata. Sulfoxaflor was slightly toxic to adults of C. carnea and was highly toxic to the L4 larvae of A. bipunctata. For A. bipunctata, sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin were the most damaging compounds with a cumulative larval mortality of 100%. Deltamethrin was also the most toxic compound to larvae and adults of C. carnea. In accordance with the results obtained, the compounds flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone and spirotetramat might be incorporated into IPM programs in combination with these natural enemies for the control of particular greenhouse pests. Nevertheless, the use of sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin in IPM strategies should be taken into consideration when releasing either of these biological control agents, due to the toxic behavior observed under laboratory conditions. The need for developing sustainable approaches to combine the use of these insecticides and natural enemies within an IPM framework is discussed. PMID:25828251
Toxicity and sublethal effects of six insecticides to last instar larvae and adults of the biocontrol agents Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
Garzón Hidalgo, Agustín; Medina Velez, Maria Pilar; Amor Parrilla, Fermín; Viñuela Sandoval, Elisa; Budia Marigil, Maria Flor
To further develop Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies against crop pests, it is important to evaluate the effects of insecticides on biological control agents. Therefore, we tested the toxicity and sublethal effects (fecundity and fertility) of flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone, spirotetramat, sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin on the natural enemies Chrysoperla carnea and Adalia bipunctata. The side effects of the active ingredients of the insecticides were evaluated with residual ...
Mansoor, Muhammad Mudassir; Afzal, Muhammad; Raza, Abu Bakar M.; Akram, Zeeshan; Waqar, Adil; Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad
Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) is an important biological control agent currently being used in many integrated pest management (IPM) programs to control insect pests. The effect of post-treatment temperature on insecticide toxicity of a spinosyn (spinosad), pyrethroid (lambda cyhalothrin), organophosphate (chlorpyrifos) and new chemistry (acetamiprid) to C. carnea larvae was investigated under laboratory conditions. Temperature coefficients of each insecticide tested were evaluated. From 20 t...
Huerta, A; Medina, P; Smagghe, G; Castañera, P; Viñuela, E
The toxicity of botanical origin compounds such as two acetonic fractions of the seed kernels of the Meliacea Trichilia havanensis Jacq with insecticide properties (azadirone (F12) and the mixture F18 [1,7+3,7-di-O-acethylhavanensin (4:1)], three insecticides commercially available (imidacloprid, natural pyrethrins+PBO, triflumuron) and phloxine B, were tested in the laboratory. Topical bioassays using third instar and newly emerged adults of the lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) at the maximum field recommended rate in Spain for commercials and at 1,000 ppm of active ingredient for T. havanensis acetone fractions and phloxine-B, were carried out. Imidacloprid and triflumuron were very toxic to third instar larvae inhibiting adult emergence, being the rest of insecticides harmless. Fecundity and fertility were not affected by the non-toxic compounds. Concerning adults, only imidacloprid and natural pyrethrins killed them significantly 24 hours after treatment. Phloxine B, triflumuron and T. havanensis fractions were harmless and did not cause any effect on fecundity and fertility with the exception of triflumuron, which reduced considerably the egg hatch. It can be concluded that T. havanensis acetonic fractions and phloxine B were non-toxic to larvae and adults of C. carnea when treated topically, whereas triflumuron, natural pyrethrins and imidacloprid affected one or more of the evaluated parameters under our conditions. PMID:15149120
Alexandre Pinho de Moura
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of (g a.i. L-1 abamectin (0.02, carbaryl (1.73, sulphur (4.8, fenitrothion (0.75, methidathion (0.4, and trichlorfon (1.5 on the survival of larvae and pupae, on the oviposition of adults and hatching of eggs from treated Chrysoperla externa third-instar larvae from two different populations (Bento Gonçalves and Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Morphological changes caused by abamectin to eggs laid by C. externa from Vacaria population were evaluated by mean of ultrastructural analysis. The pesticides were applied on glass plates. Distilled water was used as control. For the evaluation of larvae mortality, a fully randomized experimental design in a 2 x 7 (two populations x seven treatments factorial scheme was used, whereas for the effects of the compounds on oviposition capacity and egg viability, a 2 x 4 factorial scheme was used. Carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion caused 100% mortality of larvae. Abamectin reduced the hatching of eggs from treated third-instar larvae of both populations; however, this pesticide presented highest toxicity on insects from Vacaria. The ultrastructural analysis showed that abamectin caused malformations in micropyle and in chorion external surface of C. externa eggs. Based in the total effect (E, carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion are harmful to C. externa; trichlorfon is harmless to third-instar larvae, while abamectin and sulphur are harmless and slightly harmful to third-instar larvae from Bento Gonçalves and Vacaria, respectively.
Mansoor, Muhammad Mudassir; Afzal, Muhammad; Raza, Abu Bakar M; Akram, Zeeshan; Waqar, Adil; Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad
Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) is an important biological control agent currently being used in many integrated pest management (IPM) programs to control insect pests. The effect of post-treatment temperature on insecticide toxicity of a spinosyn (spinosad), pyrethroid (lambda cyhalothrin), organophosphate (chlorpyrifos) and new chemistry (acetamiprid) to C. carnea larvae was investigated under laboratory conditions. Temperature coefficients of each insecticide tested were evaluated. From 20 to 40 °C, toxicity of lambda cyhalothrin and spinosad decreased by 2.15- and 1.87-fold while toxicity of acetamiprid and chlorpyrifos increased by 2.00 and 1.79-fold, respectively. The study demonstrates that pesticide effectiveness may vary according to environmental conditions. In cropping systems where multiple insecticide products are used, attention should be given to temperature variation as a key factor in making pest management strategies safer for biological control agents. Insecticides with a negative temperature coefficient may play a constructive role to conserve C. carnea populations. PMID:25972753
Consumo de Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878 (Hemiptera: Aphididae por larvas de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae em casa-de-vegetação Consumption of Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878 (Hemiptera: Aphididae BY Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae larvae in greenhouse
Alexander M. Auad
Full Text Available Com esta pesquisa objetivou-se verificar o consumo de Uroleucon ambrosiae em diferentes densidades, por larvas de Chrysoperla externa provenientes de diferentes regimes alimentares, em casa-de-vegetação. Ninfas de 3º e 4º ínstares do afídeo foram separadas nas densidades 30, 40 e 50, e colocadas nas plantas de alface (35 dias de idade, as quais, foram envolvidas por gaiola de armação de ferro de 27x27x26 cm cobertas com tecido “voil” e acoplada nos tubos de PVC do cultivo hidropônico. Quatro horas após, uma larva de C. externa, de diferentes ínstares e previamente alimentadas com U. ambrosiae ou ovos de Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier, 1819, foi liberada próximo à colônia de afídeos, sendo a gaiola fechada imediatamente; o mesmo procedimento foi adotado sem que a larva fosse confinada. Após quarenta e oito horas, realizou-se a contagem do número de afídeos consumidos em cada densidade de presa disponível. A eficiência do predador, confinado em gaiola, foi de 12,46%, 13,63% e 25,76% para larvas de 1º, 2º e 3º ínstares previamente alimentadas com ovos de S. cerealella; 9,59% e 17,63% para aquelas de 2º e 3º ínstares alimentadas anteriormente com ninfas de U. ambrosiae, respectivamente e de 18,62% para larvas de 3º ínstar previamente alimentadas com ovos do lepidóptero no 1º ínstar e ninfas dos afídeos no 2º instar; no entanto, para larvas não confinadas, não foram verificadas diferenças significativas na eficiência. Nas densidades de 40 e 50 afídeos, as porcentagens de predação (18,30 e 18,72, respectivamente foram significativamente superiores quando comparada à densidade 30 (11,79; para testes sem confinamento, não houve influência da densidade da presa na resposta do predador. Assim, o alimento fornecido às larvas de C. externa antes de serem liberadas em casa-de-vegetação, o confinamento das mesmas e a densidade de U. ambrosiae disponível influenciaram o potencial de consumo do predador.The objective of this research was to evaluate the consumption of Uroleucon ambrosiae in different densities by Chrysoperla externa larvae derived from different alimentary regimes, in greenhouse conditions. The 3rd and 4th instars nymphs of the aphid were separated in the densities 30, 40, 50 and put on the lettuce plants (35 days old which were kepted in a voil cage of 27x27x26 cm connected to the PVC tube used for hydroponic cultivation. After four hours, one larva of C. externa previously fed with U. ambrosiae or eggs of Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier, 1819 was released near the aphid colony, with the lettuce plant being immediately covered. The same procedure was adopted without confinement of the larvae. The different instars of C. externa were evaluated, through counting of the aphids after forty eight hours. The efficiencies of the predator, confined in a cage, were 12.46, 13.63 and 25.76% for 1st, 2nd and 3th instars which were previously fed with eggs of S. cerealella. For 2nd and 3rd instar larvae fed with aphids, the efficiencies were 9.59 and 17.63%, respectively. Efficiency was 18.62% for 3th instar larvae fed previously with eggs of the lepidopterous in the 1st instar and with nymphs of aphids in the 2nd ínstar.However, for larvae without confinement, there were no differences among the instars or alimentary regimes. In the densities of 40 and 50 aphids, the percentages of predation (18.3 and 18.72, respectively were significantly superior as compared with density 30 (11.79. There was no influence of density of prey in response to predator in the experiments without confinement. Thus, the food provided to C. externa larvae before releasing into a greenhouse, their confinement and available density of U. ambrosiae influenced the potential of consumption of the predator.
Post-embryonic development of Ceraeochrysa cincta (Schneider, 1851 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae fed with eggs of Diatraea saccharallis (Fabricius, 1794 (Lepidoptera: CrambidaeDesenvolvimento pós-embrionário de Ceraeochrysa cincta (Schneider, 1851 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae alimentada com ovos de Diatraea saccharallis (Fabricius, 1794 (Lepidoptera: Crambidae
Luis Gustavo Amorim Pessoa
Full Text Available The lacewings (Ceraeochrysa cincta are important predators found associated to many pests in several agroecosystems. Eggs of Sitotroga cerealella and Anagasta kuehniella are used traditionally for massal rearing of these predators. Other foods can be used in substitution to the traditional ones, but little is known about the biology of lacewings and other alternative foods. So, this work was carried out to evaluate the effect of different diets on the post-embryonic development of C. cincta in laboratory. After been individualized in glass tubes, each larva was fed with S. cereallella and Diatraea saccharallis. It was evaluated the larvae duration, weight and viability in each instar, the duration, weight and viability of the pupa and pre-pupa stages and the duration of the post-embryonic period. It was adopted a completely randomized design with ten replications per treatment, each consisting of five eggs or larvae of C. cincta. Larvae were weighed 48 hours after hatching and 48 hours after each molt, and pre-pupae and pupae, 48 hours after starting these stages. There was no effect of the kind of food provided on the parameters evaluated. Therefore, D. saccharallis eggs can be used to feed C. cincta.Os crisopídeos são importantes predadores encontrados associados a diversos artrópodes-praga em diversos agroecossistemas. Para a criação massal desses predadores são utilizados tradicionalmente ovos de Sitotroga cerealella e de Anagasta kuehniella. Outros alimentos podem ser utilizados em substituição aos tradicionais, mas pouco se conhece sobre a biologia de crisopídeos e outros alimentos alternativos. Assim, este trabalho objetivou verificar o efeito de diferentes dietas sobre o desenvolvimento pós-embrionário dessa espécie em laboratório. Após a individualização em tubos de vidro, cada larva foi alimentada com ovos de S. cerealella e Diatraea saccharallis. Avaliou-se a duração, o peso e a viabilidade das larvas em cada ínstar, a duração o peso e viabilidade das fases de pré-pupa e pupa e a duração do período pós-embrionário. Adotou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com dez repetições por tratamento, cada uma constituída por cinco ovos ou larvas de C. cincta. As larvas foram pesadas 48 horas após a eclosão e 48 horas após cada ecdise, e as pré-pupas e pupas, 48 horas após iniciarem esses estágios Não houve interferência do tipo de alimento fornecido sobre os parâmetros avaliados. Desta forma, ovos de D. saccharallis podem ser utilizados para alimentação de C. cincta.
Efeito da escassez de alimento no desenvolvimento pós-embrionário e no potencial reprodutivo de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae em laboratório Effect of food shortage on the post-embryonic development and reproductive potential of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae in the laboratory
Marina Robles Angelini
Full Text Available As conseqüências da escassez alimentar no período pós-embrionário e potencial reprodutivo de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen em laboratório foram avaliadas. Larvas de 1.°, 2.º e 3.° ínstares receberam alimento apenas no 1.°, 2.º ou 3.° dia após a ecdise. Nos períodos em que antecederam ou sucederam os testes com os respectivos ínstares, as larvas receberam uma, duas e três unidades de alimentação (UA a cada dois dias para o 1.°, 2.º e 3.° ínstares, respectivamente. Cada UA constou de um disco de cartolina contendo ovos de Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. Diariamente, avaliou-se a viabilidade nos diferentes ínstares, da fase larval e pupal, assim como os períodos de pré-oviposição e oviposição, o número e a viabilidade de ovos. A escassez de alimento durante o 1.° ínstar pode ser suprida no decorrer do desenvolvimento larval. Entretanto, as larvas precisam encontrar alimento nas primeiras 48 horas de vida, pois a viabilidade nesse ínstar foi decrescendo com a ausência de alimento, podendo ocorrer 100% de mortalidade quando as larvas não se alimentam em até 48 horas após a eclosão. Os períodos de pré-oviposição e oviposição, assim como a fecundidade, não foram influenciados pela escassez de alimento durante o 1.° ínstar larval. Durante os 2.° e 3.° ínstares larvais, C. externa necessita de alimentação rica em proteína, pois a ingestão de apenas água e açúcares nesses estádios ocasionou alta mortalidade. Entretanto, a fecundidade e viabilidade dos ovos não foram afetadas pela escassez de alimento nesses ínstares.The consequences of food shortage on the post-embryonic development and reproductive potential of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen in the laboratory were evaluated. First, second, and third instar larvae received only food on the 1.st, 2.nd, or 3.rd day after ecdysis. During the periods that preceded or followed the tests in the corresponding instars, the larvae received one, two, and three feeding units (FU at every two days for the 1.st, 2.nd, and 3.rd instars, respectively. Each FU consisted of a cardstock disc containing Sitotroga cerealella eggs (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. Daily evaluations included survival in the different instars and in the larval and pupal stages, as well as the pre-oviposition and oviposition periods, plus number and viability of eggs. The results showed that food shortage during the 1st instar could be offset during larval development. However, the larvae must find food in their first 48 hours of age, because survival in that instar gradually decreased in the absence of food, and 100% mortality may occur when the larvae do not feed until 48 hours after hatching. The pre-oviposition and oviposition periods, as well as fecundity, were not influenced by food shortage during the 1st larval instar. C. externa larvae require a protein-rich diet during the 2.nd and 3.rd instars, since the ingestion of water and sugars alone during these stages caused high larval mortality. However, fecundity and egg viability were not affected by food shortage during the studied instars.
Toxicological and ultrastructural analysis of the impact of pesticides used in temperate fruit crops on two populations of Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae Análises toxicológica e ultra-estrutural do impacto de agrotóxicos usados no cultivo de frutíferas de clima temperado sobre duas populações de Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae
Alexandre Pinho de Moura
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of (g a.i. L-1 abamectin (0.02, carbaryl (1.73, sulphur (4.8, fenitrothion (0.75, methidathion (0.4, and trichlorfon (1.5 on the survival of larvae and pupae, on the oviposition of adults and hatching of eggs from treated Chrysoperla externa third-instar larvae from two different populations (Bento Gonçalves and Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Morphological changes caused by abamectin to eggs laid by C. externa from Vacaria population were evaluated by mean of ultrastructural analysis. The pesticides were applied on glass plates. Distilled water was used as control. For the evaluation of larvae mortality, a fully randomized experimental design in a 2 x 7 (two populations x seven treatments factorial scheme was used, whereas for the effects of the compounds on oviposition capacity and egg viability, a 2 x 4 factorial scheme was used. Carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion caused 100% mortality of larvae. Abamectin reduced the hatching of eggs from treated third-instar larvae of both populations; however, this pesticide presented highest toxicity on insects from Vacaria. The ultrastructural analysis showed that abamectin caused malformations in micropyle and in chorion external surface of C. externa eggs. Based in the total effect (E, carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion are harmful to C. externa; trichlorfon is harmless to third-instar larvae, while abamectin and sulphur are harmless and slightly harmful to third-instar larvae from Bento Gonçalves and Vacaria, respectively.Avaliaram-se os efeitos de (g i.a. L-1 abamectina (0,02, carbaril (1,73, enxofre (4,8 fenitrotiona (0,75, metidationa (0,4 e triclorfom (1,5 sobre a sobrevivência de larvas e pupas, na oviposição de adultos e viabilidade de ovos de Chrysoperla externa de duas populações (Bento Gonçalves e Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul. Alterações morfológicas causadas por abamectina em ovos depositados por C. externa da população de Vacaria foram avaliadas por meio de análises ultra-estruturais. Os agrotóxicos foram aplicados sobre placas de vidro. Água destilada foi utilizada como testemunha. Para avaliação da mortalidade de larvas utilizou-se delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2 x 7 (duas populações x sete tratamentos e para avaliação dos efeitos dos compostos sobre a capacidade de oviposição e viabilidade de ovos utilizou-se esquema fatorial 2 x 4. Carbaril, fenitrotiona e metidationa causaram 100% de mortalidade das larvas. Abamectina reduziu a viabilidade de ovos de C. externa, provenientes de larvas de terceiro ínstar de ambas as populações; entretanto, apresentou toxicidade mais elevada sobre insetos de Vacaria. Análises ultra-estruturais evidenciaram que abamectina causou deformações na micrópila e na superfície externa do córion de ovos de C. externa. Baseando-se no efeito total (E, carbaril, fenitrotiona e metidationa são prejudiciais a C. externa; triclorfom é inócuo, enquanto abamectina e enxofre são inócuos e levemente prejudiciais a larvas de terceiro ínstar oriundas de Bento Gonçalves e Vacaria, respectivamente.
Residual action of insecticides to larvae of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae under greenhouse conditions Ação residual de inseticidas para larvas de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae em condições de casa-de-vegetação
Denilson Bezerra Costa
Full Text Available ABSTRACT - This work was designed to evaluate the residual action of the insecticides trichlorfon, triflumuron, endosulfan, fenpropathrin, chlorpirifos, tebufenozide and esfenvalerate, sprayed on cotton plants, to second-instar larvae of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861, under greenhouse conditions. The experimental design was completely randomized with ten replicates. Three larvae were released on each plant, in the 1st, 12th and 23rd day after pesticides spray. Tebufenozide and esfenvalerate were little persistent (class one, while trichlorfon, triflumuron and endosulfan were slightly persistent, decreasing the survival of C. externa larvae over 30%, up to 14 days after spray. Fenpropathrin and chlorpirifos caused mortality over 30%, up to 25 days after spray, being classified as fairly persistent.RESUMO - Avaliou-se a ação residual dos inseticidas trichlorfon, triflumuron, endosulfan, fenpropathrin, chlorpirifos, tebufenozide e esfenvalerate para larvas de segundo ínstar de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 aplicados em plantas de algodoeiro. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com oito tratamentos e dez repetições. As larvas do predadorforam liberadas no 1o, 12o e 23o dias após as pulverizações, em número de três por planta. O tebufenozide e esfenvalerate foram enquadrados na classe 1 (pouco persistente. O trichlorfon, endosulfan e triflumuron foram classificados como levemente persistentes, reduzindo a porcentagem de sobrevivência das larvas de C. externa em mais de 30%, até 14 dias após aplicação. Fenpropathrin e chlorpirifos causaram mortalidade superior a 30% por até 25 dias, sendo classificados como moderadamente persistentes.
Residual action of insecticides to larvae of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) under greenhouse conditions Ação residual de inseticidas para larvas de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) em condições de casa-de-vegetação
Denilson Bezerra Costa; Brígida de Souza; Geraldo Andrade Carvalho; César Freire Carvalho
ABSTRACT - This work was designed to evaluate the residual action of the insecticides trichlorfon, triflumuron, endosulfan, fenpropathrin, chlorpirifos, tebufenozide and esfenvalerate, sprayed on cotton plants, to second-instar larvae of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861), under greenhouse conditions. The experimental design was completely randomized with ten replicates. Three larvae were released on each plant, in the 1st, 12th and 23rd day after pesticides spray. Tebufenozide and esfenvalera...
Aspectos biológicos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae alimentada com Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae criada em três hospedeiros Biological aspects of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae fed on Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae reared in three hosts
Cláudio Gonçalves Silva
Full Text Available Estudaram-se alguns aspectos biológicos de adultos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen oriundos de larvas alimentadas com ninfas da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B, criadas em folhas de pepino (Cucumis sativus var. caipira, couve (Brassica oleraceae var. acephala e na planta invasora leiteiro (Euphorbia heterophylla. Discos foliares dos hospedeiros contendo ninfas de terceiro e quarto estádios da mosca-branca foram acondicionados em placas de Petri contendo ágar-água a 1%. Em cada placa foi colocada uma larva de C. externa recém-eclodida, onde permaneceram até a emergência dos adultos. Foram avaliados o peso logo após a emergência, os períodos de pré-oviposição, oviposição, efetivo de oviposição, pós-oviposição, número total de ovos produzidos por fêmea e longevidade. Avaliaram-se, também, o período embrionário e a viabilidade dos ovos, coletando-se, uma vez por semana, uma amostra de 10% do total de ovos produzidos no dia, ao longo de todo o período reprodutivo. O peso de machos e fêmeas não diferiu significativamente em função do hospedeiro da presa, sendo em média de 4,7 mg. De maneira geral, adultos de C. externa oriundos de larvas alimentadas com ninfas de B. tabaci biótipo B criadas em leiteiro apresentaram performance inferior em relação àqueles oriundos do pepino e da couve. O período de oviposição foi, em média, de 49,5 dias para o pepino e a couve, e de 31,6 dias para o leiteiro. A produção de ovos foi reduzida em aproximadamente 50% em leiteiro, sendo de 293,8 ovos; no pepino e couve, a média foi de 591,3 ovos. Ninfas de B. tabaci biótipo B criadas em leiteiro causaram uma redução da viabilidade dos ovos de C. externa, que foi 62,8% e 57,7% inferior ao verificado para o pepino e a couve, respectivamente.The aim was to study some biological aspects of adults of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, from larvae fed on nymphs of third and fourth stages of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B, and reared on leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus, kale (Brassica oleracea and wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla. Leaf discs from the hosts containing third and fourth stage nymphs of whitefly, were placed in Petri dishes containing 1% agar. One recently hatched larvae of C. externa was placed in each dish, until adult emergence. The weight after emergence,eoviposition, oviposition, effective oviposition and postoviposition periods, the total number of eggs per female and longevity were evaluated. The embryonic period and the survival rate of the eggs were also recorded by collecting weekly samples of 10% of the daily egg production, throughout the reproductive period. The weights of males and females did not differ in relation to the hosts, the average being 4.7 mg. In general, adults of C. externa, coming from larvae fed on B. tabaci biotype B nymphs reared on leaves of the host wild poinsettia, had their biological characters affected, in comparison with those on leaves of cucumber and kale. The oviposition period averaged 49.5 days for cucumber and kale, and 31.6 days for wild poinsettia. Egg laying capacity was reduced by 50% on wild poinsettia, its being 293.8 eggs. In cucumber and kale, the average was 591.3 eggs. Nymphs of B. tabaci biotype B reared on wild poinsettia caused increase of the embrionic period and a reduction of the survival rate of the eggs, its being 62.8% and 57.7% lower than that presented by the ones reared on cucumber and kale, respectively.
Wang, Yuyu; Liu, Xingyue; Winterton, Shaun L.; Yan, Yan; Chang, Wencheng; Yang,Ding
Rapisma McLachlan, 1866 (Neuroptera: Ithonidae) is a rarely encountered genus of lacewings found inmontane tropical or subtropical forests in Oriental Asia. In Xizang Autonomous Region (Tibet) of China there are two sympatrically distributed species of Rapisma, i.e. Rapisma xizangense Yang, 1993 and Rapisma zayuanum Yang, 1993, in which R. xizangense is only known as male and has dull brownish body and wing coloration, while R. zayuanum is only known as female and has bright green body and wi...
Full Text Available Rapisma McLachlan, 1866 (Neuroptera: Ithonidae is a rarely encountered genus of lacewings found inmontane tropical or subtropical forests in Oriental Asia. In Xizang Autonomous Region (Tibet of China there are two sympatrically distributed species of Rapisma, i.e. Rapisma xizangense Yang, 1993 and Rapisma zayuanum Yang, 1993, in which R. xizangense is only known as male and has dull brownish body and wing coloration, while R. zayuanum is only known as female and has bright green body and wing coloration. In order to clarify the relationship between these two species, we determined the complete mitochondrial (mt genomes of R. xizangense and R. zayuanum for the first time. The mt genomes are 15,961 and 15,984 bp in size, respectively, and comprised 37 genes (13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNA genes and 2 rRNA genes. A major noncoding (control region was 1,167 bp in R. xizangense and 1,193 bp in R. zayuanum with structural organizations simpler than that reported in other Neuropterida species, notably lacking conserved blocks or long tandem repeats. Besides similar mitogenomic structure, the genetic distance between R. xizangense and R. zayuanum based on two rRNAs and 13 protein coding genes (PCGs as well as the genetic distance between each of these two Tibetan Rapisma species and a Thai Rapisma species (R. cryptunum based on partial rrnL show that R. xizangense and R. zayuanum are most likely conspecific. Thus, R. zayuanum syn. nov. is herein treated as a junior synonym of R. xizangense. The present finding represents a rare example of distinct sexual dimorphism in lacewings. This comparative mitogenomic analysis sheds new light on the identification of rare species with sexual dimorphism and the biology of Neuroptera.
Cardoso Josiane Teresinha
Full Text Available The lacewings are very voracious predators of aphids. The objective of this research was to evaluate the occurrence of adult chrysopids in areas of Pinus reforestation where the giant conifer aphid Cinara spp. (Hemiptera: Aphididae is causing severe damages. A total of 47 specimens were collected during one year and identified as: Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861, Leucochrysa (Nodita intermedia (Scheneir, 1851 and Leucochrysa (Nodita vieirana (Navás, 1913. The captures in the area where the plants were one year old represented about 75% of the adults probably due to the high Cinara infestation on the trees in this area. The chrysopids were recorded mostly during the summer, possibly influenced by temperature.
El Manejo Integrado de Plagas (MIP) es un sistema de toma de decisiones para la selección de estrategias de manera armoniosa para el control de artrópodos fitófagos. Este manejo se basa en el análisis del costo/beneficio, teniendo en cuenta los intereses y el impacto en los productores, la sociedad y el medio ambiente. Entre las diferentes estrategias implementadas por el MIP, se encuentran: el control cultural (métodos mecánicos de labranza, manejo de suelos, rotación de cultivos, etc.), el ...
Full Text Available Saucrosmylids are characterized by the typically large body size, complicated venation and diverse wing markings, which were only discovered in Middle Jurassic of Daohugou, Ningcheng county, Inner Mongolia, China.Saucrosmylinae Ren, 2003, originally included as a subfamily in the Osmylidae, was transferred and elevated to family rank based on the definitive synapomorphic character. The updated definition of Saucrosmylidae stat. nov. was outlined in detail: presence of nygma and trichosors; diverse markings on membrane; complicated cross-veins; distal fusion of Sc and R1; expanded space between R1 and Rs having 2-7 rows of cells that should be a synapomorphic character of the family; proximal MP fork. And the previous misuses of Saucrosmylidae are also clarified. Furthermore, a new genus with a new species and an indeterminate species of Saucrosmylidae are described as Ulrikezza aspoeckae gen. et sp. nov. and Ulrikezza sp. from the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. A key to genera of Saucrosmylidae is provided.The intriguing group represents a particular lineage of Neuroptera in the Mesozoic Era. The familial status of Saucrosmylidae was firstly advanced that clarified the former incorrect citation and use of the family name. As an extinct clade, many species of the saucrosmylids were erected just based on a single fore- or hindwing, and it should be realized that providing more stable characters is necessary when describing new lacewing taxa just based on an isolated hindwing. It is vital for the systematics of Saucrosmylidae.
V. N. Makarkin
Full Text Available Lacewings (Neuroptera normally bear four well-developed wings. There are a few brachypterous, micropterous or apterous species, found in several extant families; this wing reduction is usually associated with flightlessness. The only documented fossil neuropteran with reduced hind wings (modified to small haltere-like structures is the enigmatic minute genus Mantispidiptera Grimaldi from the Late Cretaceous amber of New Jersey. In this paper, we report a new genus and species from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of China (Dipteromantispa brevisubcosta n. gen. et n. sp. resembling Mantispidiptera. We place these two genera in the new family Dipteromantispidae, n. fam. They bear well-developed forewings with reduced venation, and hind wings that are extremely modified as small structures resembling the halteres of Diptera. Dipteromantispidae n. fam. might be specialized descendants of some early Berothidae or of stem group Mantispidae + Berothidae. We presume that dipteromantispids were active fliers. This is a remarkable example of parallel evolution of wing structures in this neuropteran family and Diptera. doi:10.1002/mmng.201300002
Michaud, J.P.; A.K. Grant
A series of compounds representing four major pesticide groups were tested for toxicity to beneficial insects representing four different insect orders: Coleoptera (Coccinellidae), Hemiptera (Anthocoridae), Hymenoptera (Aphelinidae), and Neuroptera (Chrysopidae). These materials included organophosphates (methidathion, esfenvalerate and phosmet), carbamates (carbofuran, methomyl and carbaryl), pyrethroids (bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, zeta-cypermethrin, cyfluthrin and permethrin) and the oxadia...
Ardila-Camacho, Adrian; García, Alexander
This study revises the Mantispidae of Colombia. 151 adult specimens of 12 entomological museums of Colombia were examined and identified. On the basis of the specimens studied and a comprehensive literature search, it is determined that 20 nominal species (including two doubtful records) plus four proposed as new to science, in ten genera (Anchieta, Plega, Trichoscelia, Gerstaeckerella, Buyda, Climaciella, Dicromantispa, Entanoneura, Leptomantispa, and Zeugomantispa) and, three subfamilies (Symphrasinae, Drepanicinae, and Mantispinae) occur in Colombia. In addition, A. eurydella (Westwood), C. amapaensis Penny and P. fasciatella (Westwood) are redescribed, providing complementary information to the original descriptions. A list of Colombian Mantispidae, distribution maps and taxonomic keys to subfamilies, genera and species are included. Illustrations of the external morphology and male genitalia are provided for selected species. The taxonomic status of P. hagenella (Westwood) is discussed, and its diagnostic characters are redefined. Anchieta remipes (Gerstaecker) is newly transferred to this genus from Trichoscelia. PMID:25947479
Petko, Olga; Smith, Paul; Stange, Lionel; Rios, Sergio D.
New records of Myrmeleontidae from Paraguay are presented: Dimares elegans (Perty, 1833), Glenurus croesus Banks, 1922, Glenurus penningtoni (Navás, 1918a) and Vella fallax (Rambur, 1842). The total number of species now recorded from the country is fourteen among 11 genera. Specimens of Dimares elegans from east (Cerrado) and west (Chaco) of the Paraguay River are phenotypically distinct; those west of the Paraguay River are assigned to the form “lepida” Navás, 1912. More research is require...
Eisner, T; Attygalle, A B; Conner, W E; Eisner, M; MacLeod, E; Meinwald, J
The green lacewing Ceraeochrysa smithi (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae), like other members of its family, lays its eggs on stalks, but it is unusual in that it coats these stalks with droplets of an oily fluid. The liquid consists of a mixture of fatty acids, an ester, and a series of straight-chain aldehydes. Relative to the eggs of a congeneric chrysopid that lacks stalk fluid, the eggs of C. smithi proved well protected against ants. Components of the fluid, in an assay with a cockroach, proved potently irritant. Following emergence from the egg, C. smithi larvae imbibe the stalk fluid, thereby possibly deriving nutritive benefit, defensive advantage, or both. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8622928
Bowles, David E.
Distributional data are presented for Neotropical spongillafl ies (Sisyridae). New country records from Uruguay are presented for Climacia carpenteri Parfi n and Gurney, C. insolita Flint, C. versicolor Flint. Climacia desordentata Monserrat is synonymized with Climacia basalis Banks, NEW SYNONOMY. For the fi rst time, Sisyra apicalis Banks is reported from Guatemala, Suriname, and Uruguay, and S. panama Parfi n and Gurney is reported from Peru. Additional distributional data are presented fo...
Duração e viabilidade das fases pré-imaginais de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen alimentadas com Aphis gossypii Glover e Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier Duration and viability of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen pre-imago phases, fed with Aphis gossypii (Glover and Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier
Luciano Pacelli Medeiros Macedo
Full Text Available Estudou-se a duração e a viabilidade das fases imaturas de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae alimentadas com o pulgão do algodoeiro, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera, Aphididae, e com a traça do milho, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. A pesquisa foi conduzida no Laboratório de Entomologia da Embrapa - CNPA, em Campina Grande, Paraíba, em 1998/99 em condições controladas sob temperatura de 25±2ºC, 70±10% UR e fotofase de 12 horas. O desenvolvimento pré-imaginal de C. externa decorreu normalmente: fase larval com três ínstares, pré-pupa e pupa. De acordo com os resultados, pode-se concluir que as larvas de C. externa alimentadas com A. gossypii apresentam uma duração significativamente maior para o primeiro e terceiro ínstares, que às alimentadas com S. cerealella. Entretanto, não há efeito dessas presas na viabilidade das fases desse predador, exceto para a de pré-pupa. C. externa pode ser criado em A. gossypii ou S. cerealella sem risco de perda de viabilidade, embora algumas fases possam ser mais longas.This work was carried out at the Laboratório de Entomologia da Embrapa - CNPA, in Campina Grande, state of Paraíba, Brazil, in 1998/99, to study the duration and viability of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae larvae, fed with Aphis gossypii (Homoptera, Aphididae and Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, under controlled conditions. The temperature was 25+-2º C, 70+-10% UR and 12-hour photophase. The C. externa pre-imaginal development was normal: larval phase with three instars, pre-pupa and pupa. The results showed that C. externa larvae fed on A. gossypii had a first and third instar longer than the ones fed with S. cerealella. However, no effect was observed in the phases' viability, excepting the pre-pupa. C. externa can feed on both preys without viability loss, although this may enhance some phases' duration.
Jian-weiSu; Xiang-huiLiu; Neng-wenXiao; FengGe
The present study examined intraspecific interference and searching behavior of Chrysopa phyllochroma Wesmael (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) for Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) nymphs under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. The results were shown as follow: 1) In four different arenas (i.e. Petri dish, glass vessel, glass vessel with barriers in it, and cage with potted cotton plant), the predaceous efficiency of C. phyllochroma larvae varied with the predator density, the hunt constant (Q) and the intraspecific interference (m)increased with the prey density but decreased with the space heterogeneity; 2) In cage with potted cotton plant, the first- and second-instar green lacewing larvae consumed 13.6 and 29.4 cotton aphids/day respectively. The number of cotton aphids consumed by C. phyllochroma on lower leaves was significantly less than that on upper leaves; and 3) In cage with potted cotton plant, the percentage of the first- and second-instar green lacewing larvae located on upper leaves was significant less than that on lower leaves.
Nave, A; Gonçalves, F; Crespí, A L; Campos, M; Torres, L
Several studies have shown that manipulating flowering weeds within an agroecosystem can have an important role in pest control by natural enemies, by providing them nectar and pollen, which are significant sources of nutrition for adults. The aim of this study was to assess if the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard, 1788) (Lepidoptera: Praydidae), and five of its main natural enemies, the parasitoid species Chelonus elaeaphilus Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Apanteles xanthostigma (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Ageniaspis fuscicollis (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Elasmus flabellatus (Fonscolombe) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), as well as the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), can theoretically access the nectar from 21 flowering weeds that naturally occur in olive groves. Thus, the architecture of the flowers as well as the mouthpart structure and/or the head and thorax width of the pest and its enemies were analyzed. The results suggested that all beneficial insects were able to reach nectar of the plant species from Apiaceae family, i.e. Conopodium majus (Gouan) Loret, Daucus carota L. and Foeniculum vulgare Mill., as well as Asparagus acutifolius L., Echium plantagineum L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Lonicera hispanica Boiss. et Reut., Silene gallica L., Spergula arvensis L., Hypericum perforatum L., Calamintha baetica Boiss. et Reut, Malva neglecta Wallr. and Linaria saxatilis (L.) Chaz. P. oleae was not able to access nectar from five plant species, namely: Andryala integrifolia L., Chondrilla juncea L., Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter, Sonchus asper (L.) Hill and Lavandula stoechas L. PMID:26780918
Insecticides are commonly used by Honduran farmers to control pest insects in agricultural crops such as corn, melons and tomatoes. However, the insecticides have the potential for toxicity to the natural enemies of the pest insects also. Therefore, efforts are being made to identify insecticides which, when used within the Inegerated Pest Management (IPM) programme, are selectively more toxic to the pest insects than their natural enemies. A number of selected chemical insecticides and a biological insecticide (NPV) were tested in three different tests to determine toxicity to two beneficial insects: Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) and Chrysoperla carnea Steph. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). All insecticides were toxic to T. remus which suffered high mortality. There was no significant difference in mortality of the insect due to the method of exposure to the insecticides. There were some differences in the toxicity of the insecticides to C. carnea, and abamectin, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, diafenthiuron, imidacloprid and fenpropathrin were relatively less toxic and could be used in IPM for the control of pest insects. (author)
Acevedo, Fernando; Badano, Davide; Monserrat, Víctor J
The larva of Tricholeon relictus, a Spanish endemic antlion of Afrotropical affinities, is described and illustrated for the first time also providing a comparison with the only other European member of the tribe Dendroleontini, Dendroleon pantherinus. The larva of this species is synanthropic but probably originally lived in cave-like habitats. PMID:25081458
Monserrat, V. J.
Full Text Available New data on the taxonomy, biology, distribution and/or morphology of eight dusty wing species from Senegal are given. None had previously been recorded from this country. In this African area (where the Afrotropical and Palaearctic Biogeographical Regions contact a great number of species can be found, mostly afrotropical elements, but also some palaearctic elements and species with a wide circumsaharan distribution are present. A great faunistic similarity between the Senegalese Fauna and the SW Arabian Peninsula fauna is noted, and both areas show many common elements present in the East-West Afrotropical northern borders. Some new synonymies are proposed as follow: Aleuropteryx felix Meinander, 1977 = (Aleuropteryx teleki Sziráki, 1990 = Aleuropteryx transvaalensis Meinander, 1998, Aleuropteryx Arabica Meinander, 1977 = (Aleuropteryx cruciata Sziráki, 1990, Coniocompsa silvestriana Enderlein, 1914 = (Coniocompsa arabica Sziráki, 1992 = Coniocompsa fimbrata Tjeder, 1957, Coniopteryx (Coniopteryx greenpeace Monserrat, 1995 = (Coniopteryx (Coniopteryx sclerotica Meinander, 1998, Coniopteryx (Xeroconiopteryx triantennata Monserrat, 1995 = (Coniopteryx (Xeroconiopteryx sestertia Meinander, 1998 and Nimboa marroquina Monserrat, 1985 = (Nimboa manselli Meinander, 1998. Also a replacement name: Coniopteryx (Xeroconiopteryx conviventibus nom. nov. is proposed for Coniopteryx (Xeroconiopteryx furcata Meinander, 1998 nec Coniopteryx (Scotoconiopteryx furcata Meinander, 1983.
Se anotan nuevos datos sobre la taxonomía, biología, distribución y /o morfología de ocho especies de coniopterígidos recolectados en Senegal. Ninguna de ellas había sido citada en este país. Al igual que ocurre en el SO de la Península Arábiga, esta zona del Continente Africano (donde confluyen las Regiones Biogeográficas Afrotropical y Paleártica es especialmente rica en especies, la mayoría son afrotropicales, pero también están presentes algunos elementos paleárticos y otros de amplia distribución circumsahariana. Se anota una marcada similitud faunística entre ambas zonas con elementos comunes que alcanzan las zonas septentrionales que al este y el oeste limitan la Región Afrotropical. Se proponen como nuevas sinonimias a: Aleuropteryx felix Meinander, 1977 = (Aleuropteryx teleki Sziráki, 1990 = Aleuropteryx transvaalensis Meinander, 1998, Aleuropteryx arabica Meinander, 1977 = (Aleuropteryx cruciata Sziráki, 1990, Coniocompsa silvestriana Enderlein, 1914 = (Coniocompsa arabica Sziráki, 1992 = Coniocompsa fimbrata Tjeder, 1957, Coniopteryx (Coniopteryx greenpeace Monserrat, 1995 = (Coniopteryx (Coniopteryx sclerotica Meinander, 1998, Coniopteryx (Xeroconiopteryx triantennata Monserrat, 1995 = (Coniopteryx (Xeroconiopteryx sestertia Meinander, 1998 y Nimboa marroquina Monserrat, 1985 = (Nimboa manselli Meinander, 1998 y se propone un nombre de reemplazo a: Coniopteryx (Xeroconiopteryx conviventibus nom. nov. para Coniopteryx (Xeroconiopteryx furcata Meinander, 1998 nec Coniopteryx (Scotoconiopteryx furcata Meinander, 1983.
Full Text Available Basing upon all available information on type material of Dilar turcicus Hagen, 1858, Dilar syriacus Navás, 1909, and Dilar lineolatus Navás, 1909, together with a large number of dilarid specimens, the pleasing lacewings of Anatolia and Southeast Europe are revised. The current taxonomic concept of D. turcicus is confirmed, and a lectotype is designated. Dilar turcicus is widely distributed in the southeast of Europe (being the only representative of Dilaridae in this region, in Anatolia, and, most probably, in the Caucasus region. Dilar syriacus and D. lineolatus remain nomina dubia. Dilar syriacus might occur in Anatolia, while D. lineolatus is a species occurring in western Central Asia. Two new species, Dilar anatolicus sp. n. and Dilar fuscus sp. n. are described from Anatolia. Wings and genital segments of the three species occurring in Anatolia are illustrated, and a map documenting the known distribution of these species is provided.
Julian F.PETRULEVI(C)IUS; Dany AZAR; André NEL
A new genus and species of Rhachiberothidae,Raptorapax terribilissima gen.et sp.nov.from the Cretaceous amber of Lebanon is described.The new genus is assigned to the subfamily Paraberothinae.The new material confirms the great diversity of the group in the Cretaceous age and its decrease in diversity in recent times.
Germano Leão Demolin Leite
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of total rainfall, mean temperature, natural enemies, chemical composition of leaves, levels of nitrogen and potassium on leaves and density of leaf trichomes on attack intensity of Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae and Aphis gossypii (Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae on plantations of the eggplant (Solanum melongena in two regions of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Higher numbers of A. gossypii/leaf and T. palmi/leaf were observed in plantations of this eggplant in the Municipalities of Viçosa and Guidoval, respectively. Guidoval had a rainy and hotter weather than Viçosa. T. palmi was almost positivelly correlated with rainfall (r= 0.49, P= 0.0538 while A. gossypii seemed to be more affected by mean temperature (r= -0.31; P= 0.1134. Higher number of aphids in eggplants in Viçosa than in Guidoval could be explained by the higher number of natural enemies such as Adialytus spp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Cycloneda sanguinea (L. and Exochomus bimaculosus Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae and Chrysoperla spp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae in this municipality. However, only Adialytus spp. was significativelly correlated with aphid populations. Higher number of T. palmi in eggplant plantations of Guidoval than in Viçosa could be due to the absence of its possible Eulophidae parasitoid in the first municipality. The spiders were significativelly correlated with this pest in both municipalities.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de pluviosidade total, temperatura média, inimigos naturais, composição química foliar, níveis de nitrogênio e potássio foliar e densidade de tricomas na intensidade de ataque de Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae e Aphis gossypii (Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae em plantações de berinjela (Solanum melongena em dois municípios de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Observou-se maiores números de A. gossypii e T. palmi por folha em plantações de berinjela nos
Full Text Available Planococcus vovae (Nassonov (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is an important pest on plants of the family Cupressaceae. Its numerous populations have been present in recent years on Juniperus spp. in Belgrade. Feeding by sap-sucking on all aboveground plant organs, it causes growth stagnation, chlorosis, drying of needles and branches, and even of entire plants under heavy infestation. Additionally, the scale excretes large quantities of honeydew, on which sooty mold develops, reducing photosynthesis and causing faster plant deterioration. Throughout 2007 and 2008, P. vovae was recorded on Juniperus spp. in 12 localities in Belgrade, and on Thuja sp. in a single locality. The pest was found to develop three generations per year and overwinter on branches at the egg or second instar stages. The first generation adults were observed at the end of May, the second generation at the beginning of August, while the third generation was recorded at the beginning of October. Different overwintering modes, and variable oviposition, embryonic and larval development periods led to an overlapping of generations and continuous presence of all developmental stages on plants. In different localities the infestation of plants varied in abundance from a few individual specimens to very large colonies. The highest infestation intensity was recorded in the localities Bežanija, Dorćol and Voždovac. The predatory species Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae and Nephus bipunctatus (Kugelann (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae were found in the scale colonies. Regarding N. bipunctatus, this was its first record as a new species in the Serbian fauna.
Rosado, Jander F; Picanço, Marcelo C; Sarmento, Renato A; da Silva, Ricardo Siqueira; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; Carvalho, Marcos Alberto; Erasmo, Eduardo A L; Silva, Laila Cristina Rezende
Studies on the seasonal variation of agricultural pest species are important for the establishment of integrated pest control programs. The seasonality of pest attacks on crops is affected by biotic and abiotic factors, for example, climate and natural enemies. Besides that, characteristics of the host plant, crop management, location and the pests' bioecology also affect this seasonality. The mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae) and Tetranychus bastosi (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) are the most important pests in the cultivation of physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae). All parts of J. curcas can be used for a wide range of purposes. In addition many researchers have studied its potential for use as neat oil, as transesterified oil (biodiesel), or as a blend with diesel. However studies about physic nut pests have been little known. The objective of this study was to assess the seasonal variation of P. latus and T. bastosi in physic nut. This study was conducted at three sites in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. We monitored climatic elements and the densities of the two mite species and of their natural enemies for a period of 2 years. Attack by P. latus occurred during rainy seasons, when the photoperiod was short and the physic nut had new leaves. In contrast, attack by T. bastosi occurred during warmer seasons with longer photoperiods and stronger winds. Populations of both mites and their natural enemies were greater in sites with greater plant diversity adjacent to the plantations. The predators found in association with P. latus and T. bastosi were Euseius concordis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), spiders, Stethorus sp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Chrysoperla sp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). PMID:25910991
Amostragem, diversidade e sazonalidade de Hemerobiidae (Neuroptera em Coffea arabica L. cv. Obatã (Rubiaceae Sampling, diversity and seasonal occurrence of Hemerobiidae (Neuroptera in Coffea arabica L. cv. Obatã (Rubiaceae
Rogéria Inês Rosa Lara
Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar métodos de amostragem, abundância sazonal e diversidade da população de Hemerobiidae associada a cultivo de café Coffea arabica L. cv. Obatã em Cravinhos, São Paulo, Brasil. Para tanto foram realizadas amostragens semanais no período de maio de 2005 a abril de 2006. Os métodos de amostragem utilizados foram: rede de varredura e armadilhas de Möericke e luminosa. Foram coletados 491 exemplares de Hemerobiidae pertencentes a quatro gêneros: Nusalala (231 espécimes / 47,2% do total de hemerobiídeos coletados, Megalomus (110 / 22,5%, Hemerobius (104 / 21,3% e Sympherobius (44 / 9%. A rede de varredura foi a mais eficiente para a captura de Hemerobiidae e a armadilha de Möericke foi o método de amostragem que apresentou os maiores valores de diversidade (H'= 0,56 e de equitabilidade (J= 0,93. Os hemerobiídeos estiveram presentes na área estudada durante o ano todo; as maiores freqüências foram registradas entre agosto e março (final do inverno, primavera e verão e o maior pico populacional ocorreu em janeiro (na metade do verão. Megalomus apresentou correlação positiva e significativa (pThis study evaluated sampling methods, seasonality and diversity of the hemerobiids associated to Coffea arabica L. cv. Obatã over a one-year period in Cravinhos, São Paulo, Brazil. The collecting methods were: sweeping net, light trap and Möericke trap. 489 hemerobiids belonging to four genera, were collected: Nusalala (231 individuals / 47.2% of the hemerobiids collected, Megalomus (110 / 22.5%, Hemerobius (104 / 21.3% and Sympherobius (44 / 9%. The sweeping net seems to be the most efficient method of sampling to capture Hemerobiidae and the Möericke trap presented the higher value of diversity (H'= 0,56 and equitability (J= 0,93. The hemerobiids were recorded in the area along the entire year. The highest abundance occurred from August to March (end of winter, spring and summer and the population peak was in January (mid-summer. Megalomus presented positive and significant correlations (p< 0.05 with the rainfall and maximum and minimum temperatures; Nusalala with the maximum and minimum temperatures and Sympherobius only with the maximum temperature.
Hesler, Louis S
Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of soybean in northern production regions of North America, and insecticides have been the primary management approach while alternative methods are developed. Knowledge of arthropod natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is critical for developing biological control as a management tool. Soybean is a major field crop in South Dakota, but information about its natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is lacking. Thus, this study was conducted in field plots in eastern South Dakota during July and August of 2004 and 2005 to characterize foliar-dwelling, arthropod natural enemies of soybean aphid, and it used exclusion techniques to determine impact of natural enemies and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on soybean aphid densities. In open field plots, weekly soybean aphid densities reached a plateau of several hundred aphids per plant in 2004, and peaked at roughly 400 aphids per plant in 2005. Despite these densities, a relatively high frequency of aphid-infested plants lacked arthropod natural enemies. Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were most abundant, peaking at 90 and 52% of all natural enemies sampled in respective years, and Harmonia axyridis Pallas was the most abundant lady beetle. Green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were abundant in 2005, due mainly to large numbers of their eggs. Abundances of arachnids and coccinellid larvae correlated with soybean aphid densities each year, and chrysopid egg abundance was correlated with aphid density in 2005. Three-week cage treatments of artificially infested soybean plants in 2004 showed that noncaged plants had fewer soybean aphids than caged plants, but abundance of soybean aphid did not differ among open cages and ones that provided partial or total exclusion of natural enemies. In 2005, plants within open cages had fewer soybean aphids than those within cages that excluded natural enemies, and aphid
Monserrat, Víctor J.
New data on the biology and distribution of 10 species of brown-lacewings collected in 48 localities of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego are given. Larvae of Hemerobius bolivari Banks, 1910, Hemerobius chilensis Nakahara, 1965, Hemerobius stenopterus Monserrat, 1996, Sympherobius gayi Navás, 1910, Nomerobius cuspidatus Oswald, 1990 and Gayomyia falcata (Blanchard in Gay, 1851) are d...
Belusic, Gregor; Pirih, Primoz; Stavenga, Doekele G.; Belušič, Gregor; Pirih, Primož
The owlfly Libelloides macaronius (Insecta: Neuroptera) has large bipartite eyes of the superposition type. The spatial resolution and sensitivity of the photoreceptor array in the dorsofrontal eye part was studied with optical and electrophysiological methods. Using structured illumination microsco
Nedvěd, Oldřich; Fois, X.; Ungerová, D.; Kalushkov, P.
Roč. 66, č. 1 (2013), s. 73-78. ISSN 1721-8861 Grant ostatní: Mze ČR(CZ) QH82047 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Coccinellidae * Chrysopidae * Syrphidae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.722, year: 2013 http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/pdfarticles/vol66-2013-073-078nedved.pdf
Caracterização morfológica de espécies de Hemerobius Linnaeus, 1758 (Neuroptera, Hemerobiidae associadas a cultivos de café (Coffea arabica L., milho (Zea mays L. e erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hill.
Lara Rogéria Inês Rosa
Full Text Available The predators were collected in mate crop in Cascavel and São Mateus do Sul, Paraná, Brazil and some other additional specimens in coffee and maize crops in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Illustrations obtained by SEM are given by the first time to the principal structures. Three species of Hemerobius were identified: H. bolivari Banks, 1910; H. domingensis Banks, 1941 and H. gaitoi Monserrat, 1996. H. domingensis is recorded for the first time to Brazil.
ALAOĞLU, Özdemir; ÖZBEK, Hikmet
özetBu araştırma ile patateslerde 6 Coccinellidae, 4 Anthocoridae, 1 Nabidae, 1Miridae, 4 Syrphidae ve 1 Chrysopidae türü olmak üzere 17 avcıböcek türü bulunmuştur.Bunlardan Nabis pseudoferus Rem. ve Chrvsoperla camca Steph, diğer türlereoranla daha yoğun populasyon oluşturmaktadırlar. Bunlar, patateslerdeki zararlıhomopter ve heteropter türlerini baskı altında tutmada etkili olmaktadırlar.SummaryPredatory Insects on Patatoes in Erzurum Province-Tu...
刘卫敏; 张英伟; 赵常胜; 谢映平; 薛皎亮; 张艳峰; 田芬; 杨钤; 吴俊; 唐喜军; 耿以龙
,the insect body became enlarged and exposed to outside of the bark. The insects with white wax secretions were easily visible and were called“patent period”. The 3 rd-instar nymphs possessed developed antennae and legs,and could crawl freely to search for pupation place. Then the nymphs secreted white wax filaments from the wax glands on the body surface to form wax cocoon. In the wax cocoon,the insects underwent two stages,prepupa and pupa. The male adults had a pair of antennae and compound eyes on head,and a pair of fore wings,while the hind wings degraded into poisers at thorax. There was a cluster of long wax filaments secreted from a group of columnar tubular ducts at the tergum of abdominal segment VII,and a copulatory organ at the posterior of the abdomen. The female adults were similar to the 3 rd-instar nymph in morphology,but their thorax and abdomen were larger. At the initial stage,the female adults were not covered by obvious wax secretion,after mating,they secreted wax filaments to form egg sacs. 3 ) There were 59 species in 14 families of the predators of M. matsumurae listed in China,of which,Anthocoridae in Hemiptera, Chrysopidae in Neuroptera and Coccinellidae in Coleoptera were preponderant.[Conclusion]The present study described the developmental process and morphological changes of M. matsumurae in all instars,especially,the characteristics of the pearl-shape stage and patent period of the 2 nd-instar nymphs,wax filament secretion,cocoon construction and pupation of the male 3rd-instar nymphs,eclosion,courtship and mating behavior of the male adults,egg sac formation and oviposition of the female adults. It was found that the developmental duration of each stage of M. matsumurae in the three climatic regions was different. The time for post-hibernant and overwintering varied dependent on the local temperature changes. The critical period for controlling the insect is from the emergence period of the 2 nd-instar nymphs to the active period of the
Zhang, H-H; Shen, Y-H; Xiong, X-M; Han, M-J; Qi, D-W; Zhang, X-G
Horizontal transfer (HT), the exchange of genetic material between species, plays important roles in transposon biology and genome evolution. In this study, we provide the first documented example of a new Academ transposon involved in recent and distant HTs into the genomes of species belonging to seven different orders of insects: Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Neuroptera, Embioptera, Dermaptera, Trichoptera and Zoraptera. These results suggest that HT of DNA transposons amongst insects has occurred on a broader scale than previously appreciated. The Academ transposon discovered in the Lepidoptera and parasitic wasps is of particular interest because the intimate association between wasps and their lepidopteran hosts might provide an opportunity for HT of transposons. PMID:26959720
卜翠萍; 施保国; 徐建明; 胡晨曦; 赵祥祥
Through investigation and identification, there are 58 species belonging to 32 families in 8 orders of flower-visiting insects in Huai an rape fields, including Mantodea, Homoptera, Hemiptera, Neuroptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera. The main pollinating insects include Apis cerana Fabricius, Micrapis florea Fabricius, Pieris rapae Linnaeus, Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer).%经过调查与鉴定,发现淮安市油菜田中访花昆虫包括膜翅目、双翅目、鳞翅目、鞘翅目、半翅目、同翅目、脉翅目、螳螂目等8目、32科的58种昆虫,其中主要传粉昆虫为中华蜜蜂、小蜜蜂、菜粉蝶、黑带食蚜蝇(成虫).
Strong, Elizabeth; Jawed, Mohammad; Reis, Pedro
Insects of the orders Neuroptera and Hymenoptera locomote via flapping flight with reticulated wings that have porous structures that confers them with remarkable lightweight characteristics. Yet these porous wings still perform as contiguous plates to provide the necessary aerodynamic lift and drag required for flight. Even though the fluid flow past the bulk of these insects may be in high Reynolds conditions, viscosity can dominate over inertia in the flow through the porous sub-features. Further considering the flexibility of these reticulated wings yields a highly nonlinear fluid-structure interaction problem. We perform a series of dynamically-scaled precision model experiments to gain physical insight into this system. Our experiments are complemented with computer simulations that combine the Discrete Elastic Rods method and a model for the fluid loading that takes into account the `leakiness' through the porous structure. Our results are anticipated to find applications in micro-air vehicle aerodynamics.
Full Text Available We revise the genus Acanthaegilips, a genus of anacharitine figitids ocurring in South America. Members of this genus are characterized by having a long scutellar spine, a unique character in the Anacharitinae. The only previously known species (A. brasiliensis is redescribed and eleven new species are described: A. macropennis, A. ashmeadi, A. levis, A. masneri, A. diazi, A. dentis, A. occultus, A. alienus, A. exiguus, A. huggerti, and A. carinatus. A key to species is presented and distribution records are given for each species. The known records of the genus extend from the southern Neotropics to Mexico. The biology of Acanthaegilips remains unknown; other members of the Anacharitinae are parasitoids of aphid-feeding Neuroptera larvae.Revisamos Acanthaegilips, um gênero de figitídeos anacharitíneos que ocorre na América do Sul. Membros desse gênero são caracterizados por apresentar um longo espinho escutelar, caráter único entre os Anacharitinae. A única espécie conhecida anteriormente (A. brasiliensis é redescrita e onze espécies novas descritas: A. macropennis, A. ashmeadi, A. levis, A. masneri, A. diazi, A. dentis, A. occultus, A. alienus, A. exiguus, A. huggerti e A. carinatus. Uma chave para a identificação das espécies é apresentada e registros de distribuição apresentados para cada espécie. Os registros para o gênero estendem-se do Sul da Neotrópica ao México. A biologia de Acanthaegilips permanece desconhecida; outros membros de Anacharitinae são parasitóides de larvas de Neuroptera que alimentam-se de afídeos.
Influência de sistemas de produção sobre a ocorrência de inimigos naturais de afídeos em pomares de pessegueiros em Araucária-PR Influence of systems of production on the occurrence of natural enemies of aphids on orchards of peach trees in Araucaria-PR
Joselia Maria Schuber
Full Text Available A pressão da sociedade tem forçado a adoção de sistemas de produção de frutas mais sustentáveis e de menor impacto ambiental. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência dos sistemas de produção de Boas Práticas Agrícolas (BPA e Convencional (PC sobre a diversidade de inimigos naturais de afídeos presentes em seis pomares de pessegueiros no município de Araucária-PR, de julho de 2005 a setembro de 2006. O levantamento do número de inimigos naturais foi realizado por meio de cinco métodos de amostragens: visual em plantas de pessegueiros e em plantas invasoras; armadilhas Möericke; funil e adesivas. No sistema BPA, foram coletados mais espécimes de inimigos naturais (53%, em relação aos pomares PCs (46%, havendo a ocorrência, em ambos, de predadores das famílias Syrphidae, Coccinellidae e Chrysopidae e parasitóides da ordem Hymenoptera. Do total de inimigos naturais coletados, verificou-se a ocorrência de maior quantidade de predadores de afídeos.The pressure of the society has forced the adoption of more sustainable fruit production systems and with less environmental impact. The objective of this work was to verify the influence of production systems of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP and Conventional Production (CP, about the diversity of natural enemies of aphids present on six orchards of peach trees in the city of Araucaria, PR, from July 2005 to September 2006. The evaluation of the number of natural enemies of aphid's species was made by means of five sampling methods: visual in plants of peach trees; visual in invading plants; yellow water traps of Möericke type; funnel and adhesive traps. In the system GPA, more specimens of natural enemies had been collected (53% in relation to orchards CP (46%, having the occurrence, in both orchards, of predators of the Syrphidae, Coccinellidae and Chrysopidae family and parasitoids of Hymenoptera order. Concerning the total of collected natural enemies, it was
Luis F. Aristizábal
Full Text Available We conducted a survey of insects and pest management practices on 34 farms growing ornamental tropical foliage plants in the central coffee region of Colombia over two years. Tropical foliage provided habitat for a diverse range of insects. In total, phytophagous or detritivorous insects from six orders, 40 families and 62 genera were collected. The most common were Hemiptera (29 genera from 16 families, followed by Coleoptera (17 genera from 4 families, Diptera (5 genera from 5 families, Lepidoptera (5 genera from 4 families, Hymenoptera (3 genera from 2 families and Orthoptera (2 genera from 2 families. The most common phytophagous species were leaf cutting ants (Atta and Acromyrmex spp., leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae, leafhoppers (Cicadellidae, stinkbugs (Pentatomidae, squash bugs (Coreidae, tree hoppers (Membracidae and plant hoppers (Fulgoridae. Beneficial insects identified from tropical foliage included predators and parasitoids amongst 5 orders, 12 families and 22 genera. The most abundant were predators among the Coccinellidae, Chrysopidae, Reduviidae, Lycidae and Formicidae but only low numbers of parasitoids (Ichneumonidae, Braconidae and Tachinidae were collected. A pest management questionnaire given to growers revealed a preponderance of reliance on broad spectrum insecticides with a smaller number of growers (approximately one third also using some biological control methods. Our survey contributes basic information regarding diversity of Neotropical insects associated with ornamental foliage plants.
傅彤; 师超凡; 王永杰; 高太平
拟态是一种生物模拟另一种生物或环境中的其它物体从而使自身获得好处的现象,是昆虫在进化过程中特化出的一种极为重要和有效的防御策略.脉翅目昆虫是一类完全变态性昆虫,在其超过2.7亿年的演化历史中,出现了形态多样的翅斑.美翼蛉属Bellinympha Wang,Ren,Liu,Shih&Engel,2010是脉翅目溪蛉科丽翼蛉亚科的一个绝灭属,发现于中国内蒙古道虎沟地区中侏罗世九龙山组地层.该属的发现代表了迄今报道的最古老的叶状拟态现象,也是唯一报道的昆虫模拟裸子植物或蕨类植物叶片.本文简要概述了脉翅目昆虫研究概况,总结了中生代脉翅目翅斑的多样性,对美翼蛉属进行了描述,并对其叶状拟态及其生物学意义进行了探讨.%Mimicry, the means by which an animal resembles another animal or object in order to mislead its natural enemies, is one of the most important and effective defensive strategies. The \\europtera are an order of holometabolous insects with a diverse range of wing marking patterns in their over 270 million year history. Bellinympha Wang, Ren, Liu, Shih & Engel, 2010 is an extinct genus assigned to the Saucrosmylinae (Neuroptera, Osmylidae). Fossils of this genus date from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation in China. This genus represents the most ancient pinnate leaf mimesis so far discovered and the only documented example of insects mimicking the leaves of gymnosperm plants. We here review progress in research on the Neuroptera and summarize the diverse wing markings of Mesozoic lacewings. Bellinympha is reviewed and the biological significance of pinnate leaf mimesis is discussed.
Najmeh SAMIN; Hamid SAKENIN; Hassan GHAHARI; Reza MONAEM
本文根据伊朗食虫虻科AsiLidae的文献资料，记录了伊朗104种食虫虻的130种猎物。这些猎物隶属昆虫纲Insecta的7个目（膜翅目Hymenoptera，双翅目Diptera，鞘翅目CoLeoptera，直翅目Orthoptera，鳞翅目Lepidoptera，半翅目异翅亚目Heteroptera和脉翅目Neuroptera）37科，此外，还有1种蜘蛛也是食虫虻的猎物。%Up on the revising of the pubLished data on Iranian AsiLidae,in a totaL 130 insect species are Listed in this paper as the preys for 104 species of Iranian AsiLidae. These preys beLong to 37 famiLies of 7 orders incLuding Hyme-noptera,Diptera,CoLeoptera,Orthoptera,Lepidoptera,Heteroptera and Neuroptera. In addition to the diverse preys in the cLass Insecta,one spider species( Aranei)was determined as prey too.
Porcel, M.; Ruano, F.; Sanllorente, O.; Caballero, J. A.; Campos, M.
Due to the widespread of mass-trapping systems for Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae) control in organic olive cropping, an assessment of the impact on arthropods of the olive agroecosystem was undertaken for the OLIPE trap type. The sampling was carried out in Los Pedroches valley (Cordoba, southern Spain) in three different organic orchard sites. Six OLIPE traps baited with diammonium phosphate were collected from each site (18 in total) from July to November 2002 every 15 days on average. Additionally, in the latest sampling dates, half the traps were reinforced with pheromone to assess its impact on non-target arthropods. From an average of 43.0 catches per trap (cpt) of non-target arthropods during the whole sampling period, the highest number of captures corresponds to the Order Diptera (that represents a 68.5%), followed distantly by the family Formicidae (12.9%) and the Order Lepidoptera (10.4%). Besides the impact on ant populations, other beneficial groups were recorded such as parasitoids (Other Hymenoptera: 2.6%) and predators (Araneae: 1.0%; Neuroptera s.l.: 0.4%). Concerning the temporal distribution of catches, total captures peaked on July and had a slight increase at the beginning of autumn. No significant differences were observed between traps with and without pheromone. The results evidence that a considerable amount of non-specific captures could be prevented by improving the temporal planning of the mass-trapping system. (Author) 25 refs.
Shao-Jian Li; Xia Xue; Muhammad Z.Ahmed; Shun-Xiang Ren; Yu-Zhou Du; Jian-Hui Wu; Andrew G.S.Cuthbertson; Bao-Li Qiu
The sweetpotato whitefly,Bemisia tabaci,has been a destructive pest in China for over the past two decades.It is an extremely polyphagous insect,being recorded feeding on hundreds of host plants around the world.Potential host plants and natural enemies of B.tabaci in the south,southeast,middle,north and northwest of China were investigated during the last decade.In total 361 plant species from 89 families were recorded in our surveys.Plants in the families Compositae,Cruciferae,Cucurbitaceae,Solanaceae and Leguminosae were the preferred host species for B.tabaci,which therefore suffered much damage from this devastating pest due to their high populations.In total,56 species of parasitoids,54 species of arthropod predators and seven species of entomopathogenic fungi were recorded in our surveys.Aphelinid parasitoids from Encarsia and Eretmocerus genera,lady beetles and lacewings in Coleoptera and Neuroptera were found to be the dominant arthropod predators of B.tabaci in China.The varieties of host plant,their distribution and the dominant species of natural enemies of B.tabaci in different regions of China are discussed.
Labandeira, Conrad C.; Yang, Qiang; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A.; Hotton, Carol L.; Monteiro, Antónia; Wang, Yong-Jie; Goreva, Yulia; Shih, ChungKun; Siljeström, Sandra; Rose, Tim R.; Dilcher, David L.; Ren, Dong
Mid-Mesozoic kalligrammatid lacewings (Neuroptera) entered the fossil record 165 million years ago (Ma) and disappeared 45 Ma later. Extant papilionoid butterflies (Lepidoptera) probably originated 80–70 Ma, long after kalligrammatids became extinct. Although poor preservation of kalligrammatid fossils previously prevented their detailed morphological and ecological characterization, we examine new, well-preserved, kalligrammatid fossils from Middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous sites in northeastern China to unravel a surprising array of similar morphological and ecological features in these two, unrelated clades. We used polarized light and epifluorescence photography, SEM imaging, energy dispersive spectrometry and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry to examine kalligrammatid fossils and their environment. We mapped the evolution of specific traits onto a kalligrammatid phylogeny and discovered that these extinct lacewings convergently evolved wing eyespots that possibly contained melanin, and wing scales, elongate tubular proboscides, similar feeding styles, and seed–plant associations, similar to butterflies. Long-proboscid kalligrammatid lacewings lived in ecosystems with gymnosperm–insect relationships and likely accessed bennettitalean pollination drops and pollen. This system later was replaced by mid-Cretaceous angiosperms and their insect pollinators. PMID:26842570
Marais, Elrike; Klok, C Jaco; Terblanche, John S; Chown, Steven L
Most investigations of insect gas exchange patterns and the hypotheses proposed to account for their evolution have been based either on small-scale, manipulative experiments, or comparisons of a few closely related species. Despite their potential utility, no explicit, phylogeny-based, broad-scale comparative studies of the evolution of gas exchange in insects have been undertaken. This may be due partly to the preponderance of information for the endopterygotes, and its scarcity for the apterygotes and exopterygotes. Here we undertake such a broad-scale study. Information on gas exchange patterns for the large majority of insects examined to date (eight orders, 99 species) is compiled, and new information on 19 exemplar species from a further ten orders, not previously represented in the literature (Archaeognatha, Zygentoma, Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Mantodea, Mantophasmatodea, Phasmatodea, Dermaptera, Neuroptera, Trichoptera), is provided. These data are then used in a formal, phylogeny-based parsimony analysis of the evolution of gas exchange patterns at the order level. Cyclic gas exchange is likely to be the ancestral gas exchange pattern at rest (recognizing that active individuals typically show continuous gas exchange), and discontinuous gas exchange probably originated independently a minimum of five times in the Insecta. PMID:16339869
Labandeira, Conrad C; Yang, Qiang; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A; Hotton, Carol L; Monteiro, Antónia; Wang, Yong-Jie; Goreva, Yulia; Shih, ChungKun; Siljeström, Sandra; Rose, Tim R; Dilcher, David L; Ren, Dong
Mid-Mesozoic kalligrammatid lacewings (Neuroptera) entered the fossil record 165 million years ago (Ma) and disappeared 45 Ma later. Extant papilionoid butterflies (Lepidoptera) probably originated 80-70 Ma, long after kalligrammatids became extinct. Although poor preservation of kalligrammatid fossils previously prevented their detailed morphological and ecological characterization, we examine new, well-preserved, kalligrammatid fossils from Middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous sites in northeastern China to unravel a surprising array of similar morphological and ecological features in these two, unrelated clades. We used polarized light and epifluorescence photography, SEM imaging, energy dispersive spectrometry and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry to examine kalligrammatid fossils and their environment. We mapped the evolution of specific traits onto a kalligrammatid phylogeny and discovered that these extinct lacewings convergently evolved wing eyespots that possibly contained melanin, and wing scales, elongate tubular proboscides, similar feeding styles, and seed-plant associations, similar to butterflies. Long-proboscid kalligrammatid lacewings lived in ecosystems with gymnosperm-insect relationships and likely accessed bennettitalean pollination drops and pollen. This system later was replaced by mid-Cretaceous angiosperms and their insect pollinators. PMID:26842570
Full Text Available Weeds and non-cultivated plants have a great impact on abundance and diversity of beneficial arthropods in agriculture. The main aim of this work was to study the influence of the ecological infrastructure (meadows and weedy margins on the arthropod composition in vineyard surrounding landscape. Research was carried out from May to October during three years. Sampling took place in the ecological infrastructure of three differently managed vineyards (organic, integrated and extensive. Three zones were chosen in each vineyard (3 m, 10 m, and 30 m from the edge of the vineyard. Samples were taken using a standardised sweep net method. In total, we captured 6032 spiders and 1309 insects belonging to 4 orders and 10 families. Arthropod fauna was numerically dominated by Aranea (82.1%; among insects, Coleoptera was the most abundant taxonomic group (10.6%; Neuroptera showed the lowest value (0.88%. Significant differences were found between sites and zones. Organic vineyard showed the highest abundance of arthropods (92.41% were spiders and in the integrated vineyard there was a 23% of insects. Both the highest abundance of arthropods and the highest Shannon Index value (2.46 was found 3 m away from the edge of the vineyard. Results showed that spiders were the dominant arthropods and ladybugs the dominant insects. Weedy strips near the edge of the vineyard contained a high number of insects and spiders. Our results support the importance of weedy margins in enhancing the population of arthropods as well as in biodiversity promotion. Well-managed field margins could play important role in biological control of vineyard pests.
Soto-Adames, Felipe N; Alvarez-Ortiz, Pedro; Vigoreaux, Jim O
Flightin is a thick filament protein that in Drosophila melanogaster is uniquely expressed in the asynchronous, indirect flight muscles (IFM). Flightin is required for the structure and function of the IFM and is indispensable for flight in Drosophila. Given the importance of flight acquisition in the evolutionary history of insects, here we study the phylogeny and distribution of flightin. Flightin was identified in 69 species of hexapods in classes Collembola (springtails), Protura, Diplura, and insect orders Thysanura (silverfish), Dictyoptera (roaches), Orthoptera (grasshoppers), Pthiraptera (lice), Hemiptera (true bugs), Coleoptera (beetles), Neuroptera (green lacewing), Hymenoptera (bees, ants, and wasps), Lepidoptera (moths), and Diptera (flies and mosquitoes). Flightin was also found in 14 species of crustaceans in orders Anostraca (water flea), Cladocera (brine shrimp), Isopoda (pill bugs), Amphipoda (scuds, sideswimmers), and Decapoda (lobsters, crabs, and shrimps). Flightin was not identified in representatives of chelicerates, myriapods, or any species outside Pancrustacea (Tetraconata, sensu Dohle). Alignment of amino acid sequences revealed a conserved region of 52 amino acids, referred herein as WYR, that is bound by strictly conserved tryptophan (W) and arginine (R) and an intervening sequence with a high content of tyrosines (Y). This motif has no homologs in GenBank or PROSITE and is unique to flightin and paraflightin, a putative flightin paralog identified in decapods. A third motif of unclear affinities to pancrustacean WYR was observed in chelicerates. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of the conserved motif suggests that paraflightin originated before the divergence of amphipods, isopods, and decapods. We conclude that flightin originated de novo in the ancestor of Pancrustacea > 500 MYA, well before the divergence of insects (~400 MYA) and the origin of flight (~325 MYA), and that its IFM-specific function in Drosophila is a more
Sixteen representative species of Pterygota are selected to analyse the development of morphological characteristics of metathoracic pleural sclerites in different taxa. A well-resolved cladogram of preliminary evolutionary relationships is produced with the topology: [Ephemeroptera + (Odonata + Neoptera)]+ [Plec-optera+(Megaloptera+Neuroptera+(Orthoptera+(Hemiptera+(Coleoptera+(Mecoptera +Lepidoptera+(Hymenoptera+Diptera))))))]. This analysis indicates that Palaeoptera and Neoptera are clearly separated. Ephemeroptera is more distantly related to Neoptera while Odonata has a closer relationship. The taxonomic status and evolutionary relationships of Neoptera are discussed and some arguments are made that are in conflict with the current classification system.%从12目具翅昆虫中选出16个代表种,对其后足基骨片的形态特征在不同类群中的衍变进行分析比较,据此构建反映下列初步进化关系的系统树:[Ephemeroptera+(Odonata+Neoptera)]+[Plecoptera+(Megaloptera+Neuroptera+(Orthoptera+(Hemiptera+(Coleoptera+(Mecoptera+Lepidoptera+(Hymenoptera+D iptera))))))].该树的关系表明,古翅类(Palaeoptera)与新翅类(Neoptera)的界限分明,Ephemeroptera与其他具翅昆虫类群的关系较远,而Odonata与其它具翅昆虫类群的关系较近;探讨了后者之间的分类地位和进化关系,对现有分类系统的一些地方提出质疑.
Hayashi, Masayuki; Watanabe, Masaya; Yukuhiro, Fumiko; Nomura, Masashi
For maternally transmitted microbes, a female-biased host sex ratio is of reproductive advantage. Here we found a strong female bias in a field population of the green lacewing, Mallada desjardinsi (Insecta; Neuroptera). This bias was attributed to the predominance of individuals harboring a maternally inherited male-killing bacterium that was phylogenetically closely related to the plant-pathogenic Spiroplasma phoeniceum and Spiroplasma kunkelii. Among 35 laboratory-reared broods produced by wild-caught females, 21 broods (60%)—all infected with Spiroplasma—consisted of only females (940 individuals). Among 14 broods consisting of both males and females (516 and 635 individuals, respectively), 4 broods were doubly infected with Spiroplasma and Rickettsia, 6 broods were singly infected with Rickettsia, and 3 broods were uninfected (remaining one brood was unknown). Mortality during embryonic and larval development was prominent in all-female broods but not in normal sex ratio broods. Following antibiotic treatment on all-female broods, mortality was significantly reduced and the sex ratio was restored to 1:1. Strong expression and high prevalence of this male-killer is remarkable considering its low density (~10−5–10−4 cells per host mitochondrial gene copy based on quantitative PCR). In addition, a bacterium closely related to Rickettsia bellii was present in 25 of 34 broods (73.5%), irrespective of the sex ratio, with the infection density comparable to other cases of endosymbiosis (~10−2–10−1 cells per mitochondrial gene copy). Higher density of Rickettsia than Spiroplasma was also demonstrated by electron microscopy which visualized both Spiroplasma-like cells and Rickettsia-like cells inside and outside the ovarian cells. PMID:27304213
为了探索云南烟叶生产中害虫防治的有效方法,在火木龙现代烟草示范区利用频振式杀虫灯开展了烟草主要害虫防治示范试验,结果表明:该杀虫灯把杀虫工作日常化,能有效防止爆发大面积虫害；对蚜茧蜂、食蚜、蝇草蛉等天敌有一定的保护作用,对烟青虫、斜纹夜蛾、金龟子等害虫防效显著；投入成本低,控制面积大,操作简便；通过物理方法诱杀害虫,大大减少农药用量,同时不会使害虫产生抗药性,降低了烟叶农药残留,提高烟叶品质,减少对环境的污染,避免人畜中毒事件发生.这说明频振式杀虫灯具有较好的经济效益、社会效益和生态效益,可在烟草害虫防治中大面积推广使用.%In order to find effective method for controlling insect pests during production of tobacco leaves, a demonstrating experiment for controlling insect pests of tobacco by using frequency trembler lamp were conducted in Huomulong modern tobacco test area. The results showed that this frequency trembler lamp makes the killing insect pests to be routinized, and it can prevent the occurrence of large scale insect pests efficiently. The lamp has certain protection effect for the natural enemy of tobacco insect pests, such as Aphid, Syrphidae and Chrysopidae; meanwhile, it has significant control effect on tobacco insect pests, such as Heliothis assulta Guenee, Prodenia litura and Cheirotonus. The lamp has lots of good characteristics, such as low input and cost, large controlling area, easy use, etc. Using this frequency trembler lamp is a physical way to trapping and killing insect pests, so it will help to reduce pesticide consumption and pesticide residue greatly, and the insects would not have drug resistance, therefore, it can improve tobacco quality, reduce contamination on environment, and avoid poisoning of human and livestock. Therefore, the frequency trembler lamp can be popularized in a large scale for it has good
安瑞军; 石凯; 李嫒嫒; 张冬梅
为探讨稻田害虫的生物防治及生态控制技术,以稻田捕食性天敌为研究材料,采用田间调查、采集标本、室内鉴定的方法,对稻田捕食性天敌进行了初步研究。研究结果表明：在通辽地区稻田生态系统中,有捕食性天敌20科59种,其中捕食性昆虫属于蜻蜓目、螳螂目、脉翅目、半翅目、鞘翅目5个目的10科32种,捕食性蜘蛛9科25种。优势种主要是黑肩绿盲蝽、青翅隐翅虫、龟纹瓢虫、草间小黑蛛、机敏漏斗蛛,占捕食性天敌总量的45.5%。%In order to explore the biological control and ecological control techniques to paddy pests,the predatory natural enemy of paddy field was studied in 2005-2008 in Tongliao,Inner Mongolia,China by using field survey,collecting specimens and indoor identification method.It is found that there were 59 predator species belonging to 20 families in paddy ecosystem of Tongliao Areas.Among of them,32 species of insect belonged to 10 families and 5 orders,25 species of spider belonged to 9 families,and 2 species of frog belonged to Ranidae were identified.The five insect orders were Odonata,Mantodea,Neuroptera,Hemiptera and Coleoptera.The dominant species were Cyrtorrhinus lividipennis Reuter,Paederus fuscipes Curtis,Propylea japonica（Thunberg）,Erigonidium graminicolum（Sundevall） and Agelena difficilis Fox,and they accounted for 45.5% of the total number of predatory natural enemy.
Marinêz Isaac Marques
Full Text Available Terrestrial arthropods from tree canopies in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. This study represents a contribution to the knowledge of the diversity of arthropods associated to the canopy of Vochysia divergens Pohl (Vochysiaceae. Three trees individuals were sampled during two seasonal periods in this region: a by spraying one tree canopy during high water (February; b by fogging two tree canopies during low water (September/October. The 15,744 arthropods (183.2±38.9 individuals/m² obtained from all three trees (86 m² represented 20 taxonomic orders, 87.1% were Insecta, and 12.9% Arachnida. The dominant groups were Hymenoptera (48.5%; 88.9 individuals/m², mostly Formicidae (44.5%; 81.4 individuals/m², followed by Coleoptera (14.0%; 25.5 individuals/m² and Araneae (10.2%; 19.5 individuals/m², together representing 62.5% of the total catch. Fourteen (70% of all orders occurred on three trees. Dermaptera, Isoptera, Neuroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera and Trichoptera were collected from only one tree. Of the total, 2,197 adult Coleoptera collected (25.5±11.3 individuals/m², 99% were assigned to 32 families and 256 morphospecies. Nitidulidae (17.9% of the total catch; 4.6 individuals/m², Anobiidae (16.7%; 4.3 individuals/m², Curculionidae (13.2%; 3.4 individuals/m² and Meloidae (11.4%; 2.9 individuals/m² dominated. The communitiy of adult Coleoptera on V. divergens indicated a dominance of herbivores (37.8% of the total catch, 127 spp. and predators (35.2%, 82 spp., followed by saprophages (16.2%, 32 spp. and fungivores (10.8%, 15 spp.. The influence of the flood pulse on the community of arboreal arthropods in V. divergens is indicated by the seasonal variation in evaluated groups, causing changes in their structure and composition.Artrópodes terrestres associados a copas de árvores no Pantanal de Mato Grosso, Brasil. Este estudo representa uma contribuição ao conhecimento da diversidade de artrópodes associados à copa de Vochysia
André Luiz Gomes da Silva
generalists. Pollen grains are the only floral resource (classified as pollen-flowers. The stigma is dry, minute and made up of delicate papillae. Anthesis is diurnal. The flowers last only one day and are visited by a wide range of insects, including Hymenoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera and Neuroptera, for a total of 29 species. Bees are the most common visitors, with Apis mellifera L., a species introduced by human activities, the most frequent and abundant. This bee is regarded as the true pollinator of the species studied here. Flowering is yearly and massive. E. uniflora blooms from August to October, and fruits from September to November. E. neonitida blooms from late August to early December, and fruits from October to the first week in January. E. punicifolia bloomed twice in 2003, first in June and July, with fruiting in August, and second, from September to October, fruiting in November and December. In 2004, it bloomed only in August with fruiting from October to December. E. rotundifolia bloomed in March, with fruiting from May to June.