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Sample records for californium compounds

  1. Magnetism in californium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.R.

    1988-03-01

    A SQUID-based magnetic susceptometer has been constructed for studying small radioactive samples at temperatures below 350 K and in magnetic fields up to 50 kilogauss. The device has been used to study californium (element 98) in a number of solid-state forms: the dhcp metal, several oxides (Cf 2 O 3 in both the bcc and monoclinic structures, Cf 7 O 12 , CfO 2 and BaCfO 3 ), several monopnictides (CfN, CfAs and CfSb) and the trichloride (in both the hexagonal and orthorhombic structures). All of these materials were studied in polycrystalline form, and hexagonal CfCl 3 was studied in single-crystal form as well. The susceptometer has the sensitivity to measure samples containing less than 10 micrograms of californium. The magnetic susceptibilities of all of the californium materials at temperatures above about 100 K are described well by the Curie-Weiss relationship. This behavior is consistent with the assumption that the magnetic 5f electrons are localized and that the paramagnetic behavior can be interpreted in terms of the properties of the free ion. The measured values of the effective paramagnetic moment, μ/sub eff/, for all the californium materials that were studied are reasonably consistent with theoretical values based on intermediate coupling models. All of the californium materials showed some indications of cooperative magnetic effects. The dhcp metal was observed to order ferromagnetically at 52 K, and all of the californium compounds studied showed signs of antiferromagnetic ordering, mostly at temperatures below 25 K. 91 refs., 50 figs., 19 tabs

  2. Californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This meeting constituted the third phase of a project initiated by the Dosimetry Section of the IAEA in 1973. The first step, early in 1973, consisted of the development of a programme for the loan of Cf-252 sources to the Member States in support of education, training and some limited research. To date, 14 institutions in 13 Member States have participated in this loan programme. In August last year, the Agency published an instructional syllabus and laboratory manual authored by Professors Eric J. Hall and Harald H. Rossi of Columbia University (Californium-252 in Teaching and Research, Technical Reports Series No. 159). The appearance of this publication, including guidance on the design and construction of a storage and use facility, was the second phase of this programme aimed at providing some support to potential users in the fields of radiation biology and dosimetry. The objective of the programme's third phase - the convening of an Educational Seminar - was to provide a forum to bring together participants in the Agency's loan programme and experts in various scientific fields. Specifically, the Seminar consisted of a series of expert presentations in spectrometry, activation and prompt gamma analyses, on-stream analysis, dosimetry, health physics, radiology and radiotherapy. (author)

  3. Medical applications of californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, G.D. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Primarily, californium-252 sources have been utilized in medicine for the treatment of neoplastic lesions. For five years, a coordinated effort between several cancer research institutions and national laboratories has developed the necessary physics, radiobiology, and engineering skills to establish an evaluation program for californium. Several more years of combined effort are required before it is known whether californium therapy is as good as or better than conventional therapy with sources like radium. Recently, development of diagnostic applications of californium in medicine has received attention. Studies comparing neutron decay activation analysis versus prompt capture gamma ray analysis are in progress. A hopeful application of prompt analysis with reasonable quantities (200 μg) of californium is the elemental analysis of bone in the human body. (U.S.)

  4. Californium loan programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The offer of the United States to loan Californium-252 sources to the IAEA was made by Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg, then chairman of the USAEC, in his opening statement at the 15th. General Conference of the IAEA held in Vienna in 1971. The purpose of this loan was to make neutron emitting sources available to universities in the Member States for use in educational programmes. The sources, in the form of small needles designed for medical use in radiation therapy, were judged highly suitable for didactic applications due to their small size, limited activity and well documented radiological parameters. Subsequently, in May 1973, the Director General announced the availability of the Californium sources to the Member States. To date, numerous sources have been loaned to universities in Czechoslovakia, Costa Rica, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ghana, India, Iran, Israel, Japan, South Africa, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and Uruguay; additional applications for loans are being processed. It is anticipated that the loan programme will be terminated in 1975 once all the available sources have been distributed. n order to provide guidance for the Member States on the safe exploitation of these sources, a prototype use and storage facility was designed by IAEA staff of the Dosimetry Section of the Division of Life Sciences, and constructed at the IAEA laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria. Figures 2-5 illustrate some of the details of this container, which is being given to the Ghana Nuclear Centre in support of a training programme for students at the university in Accra. Further advice to users of these sources will be provided by the publication of an instructional syllabus, a laboratory manual for experiments and the safety precautions inherent in the proper handling of neutron emitting radionuclides, authored by Professors Erich J. Hall and Harald H. Rossi of Columbia University. The syllabus and manual will be published as part of the IAEA Technical Series in September

  5. Californium source transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    In early 1995, the receipt of four sealed californium-252 sources from Oak Ridge National Lab was successfully accomplished by a team comprised of Radiological Engineering, Radiological Operations and Health Physics Instrumentation personnel. A procedure was developed and walked-down by the participants during a Dry Run Evolution. Several special tools were developed during the pre-planning phases of the project which reduced individual and job dose to minimal levels. These included a mobile lifting device for attachment of a transfer ball valve assembly to the undercarriage of the Cannonball Carrier, a transfer tube elbow to ensure proper angle of the source transfer tube, and several tools used during emergency response for remote retrieval and handling of an unshielded source. Lessons were learned in the areas of contamination control, emergency preparedness, and benefits of thorough pre-planning, effectiveness of locally creating and designing special tools to reduce worker dose, and methods of successfully accomplishing source receipt evolutions during extreme or inclement weather

  6. Californium-252 progress, report No. 7, April 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1971-12-31

    This report contains discusses of the following topics on Californium-252: First sales of californium-252; encapsulation services discussed; three new participants in market evaluation program; summer training programs to use californium; Californium-252 shipping casks available; Californium-252 questions and answers, radiotherapy; neutron radiography; natural resources exploration; nuclear safeguards; process control; dosimetry; neutron radiography; neutron shielding; and nuclear safeguards.

  7. Uranium standards for Californium Shuffler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, A.; Boynton, S.P.

    1978-10-01

    The Laboratories Department analyzed pieces of a U-Al log which were to be canned and used as a set of standards for the nondestructive Californium Shuffler instrument. Evaluation of this instrument is part of an on-going Safeguards Program and is a joint project between LASL and SRP. A U-Al casting of a nominal 30% to 70% composition was made with enriched uranium (56 wt % 235 U). The log was 6 in. in diameter and approximately 2 ft long. A 1/4-in. slice was made before and after each 1-in. slice taken for use as a standard. The 1-in. slices were scanned nondestructively by collimated gamma pulse height analysis. The 1/4-in. slices were divided into quadrants and one quadrant for each slice was destructively analyzed. Results from these tests showed an approximate 1.5% relative variation in uranium concentration from the high to the low point. Successive pieces showed less than 1% relative difference. The 1-in. pieces have been canned and shipped to LASL for testing and will be returned with the Californium Shuffler. The remaining 1/4-in. slices have been sent to NBL and LASL for destructive analysis

  8. Biomedical neutron research at the Californium User Facility for Neutron Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.C.; Byrne, T.E.; Miller, L.F.

    1998-01-01

    The Californium User Facility for Neutron Science has been established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The Californium User Facility (CUF) is a part of the larger Californium Facility, which fabricates and stores compact 252 Cf neutron sources for worldwide distribution. The CUF can provide a cost-effective option for research with 252 Cf sources. Three projects at the CUF that demonstrate the versatility of 252 Cf for biological and biomedical neutron-based research are described: future establishment of a 252 Cf-based neutron activation analysis system, ongoing work to produce miniature high-intensity, remotely afterloaded 252 Cf sources for tumor therapy, and a recent experiment that irradiated living human lung cancer cells impregnated with experimental boron compounds to test their effectiveness for boron neutron capture therapy. (author)

  9. Biomedical neutron research at the Californium User Facility for neutron science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.C.; Byrne, T.E.; Miller, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    The Californium User Facility for Neutron Science has been established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The Californium User Facility (CUF) is a part of the larger Californium Facility, which fabricates and stores compact 252 Cf neutron sources for worldwide distribution. The CUF can provide a cost-effective option for research with 252 Cf sources. Three projects at the CUF that demonstrate the versatility of 252 Cf for biological and biomedical neutron-based research are described: future establishment of a 252 Cf-based neutron activation analysis system, ongoing work to produce miniature high-intensity, remotely afterloaded 252 Cf sources for tumor therapy, and a recent experiment that irradiated living human lung cancer cells impregnated with experimental boron compounds to test their effectiveness for boron neutron capture therapy

  10. Study of the shielding for spontaneous fission sources of Californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davila R, I.

    1991-06-01

    A shielding study is made to attenuate, until maximum permissible levels, the neutrons radiation and photons emitted by spontaneous fission coming from a source of Californium-252. The compound package by a database (Library DLC-23) and the ANISNW code is used, in it version for personal computer. (Author)

  11. Radiography using californium-252 neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    The current status in the technology of neutron radiography using californium-252 neutron sources is summarized. Major emphasis is on thermal neutron radiography since it has the widest potential applicability at the present time. Attention is given to four major factors which affect the quality and useability of thermal neutron radiography: source neutron thermalization, neutron beam extraction geometry, neutron collimator dimensions, and neutron imaging methods. Each of these factors has a major effect on the quality of the radiographs which are obtained from a californium source neutron radiography system and the exposure times required to obtain the radiographs; radiograph quality and exposure time in turn affect the practicality of neutron radiography for specific nondestructive inspection applications. A brief discussion of fast neutron radiography using californium-252 neutron sources is also included. (U.S.)

  12. Local Structure in Americium and Californium Hexa-cyanoferrates - Comparison with Their Lanthanide Analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupouy, G.; Bonhoure, I.; Dumas, Th.; Moisy, Ph.; Petit, S.; Den Auwer, Ch.; Conradson, St.D.; Hennig, Ch.; Scheinost, A.C.; Le Naour, C.; Simoni, E.

    2011-01-01

    Metal hexa-cyanoferrates are well known molecular solids for a large variety of cations, although very little has been described for actinide adducts. Two new members of actinide(III) hexa-cyanoferrates were synthesized with the cations americium and californium. They were structurally characterized by infrared and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Combined EXAFS data at the iron K edge and actinide L 3 edge provide evidence for a three-dimensional model for these two new compounds. Structural data in terms of bond lengths were compared to those reported for the parent lanthanide(III) compounds, neodymium and gadolinium hexa-cyanoferrates, respectively: the americium compound with (KNd(III)Fe(II)-Fe-III(CN) 6 .4H 2 O and the californium compound with (KGd(III)Fe(II)(CN) . 3.5H 2 O and (KGd(III)Fe(II)(CN) 6 .3H 2 O. This comparison between actinide and lanthanide homologues has been carried out on the basis of ionic radii considerations. The americium and neodymium environments appear to be very similar and are arranged in a tri-capped trigonal prism polyhedron of coordination number 9 (CN: 9), in which the americium atom is bonded to six nitrogen atoms and to three water molecules. For the californium adduct, a similar comparison and bond length and angle values derived from EXAFS studies suggest that the californium cation sits in a bi-capped trigonal prism (CN: 8) as in (KGd(III)Fe(II)(CN) 6 . 3H 2 O. This arrangement differs from that in the structure of (KGd(III)Fe(II)(CN) 6 .3.5H 2 O, in which the gadolinium atom is surrounded by 9 atoms. This is one of the rare pieces of information revealed by EXAFS spectroscopy for americium and californium in comparison to lanthanide atoms in molecular solid compounds. A discussion on the decrease in bond length and coordination number from americium to californium is also provided, on the basis of crystallographic results reported in the literature for actinide(III) and lanthanide(III) hydrate series. (authors)

  13. Californium-252 radiotherapy sources for interstitial afterloading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permar, P.H.; Walker, V.W.

    1976-01-01

    Californium-252 neutron sources for interstitial afterloading were developed to investigate the value of this radionuclide in cancer therapy. Californium-252 seed assemblies contain essentially point sources of 252 Cf permanently sealed on 1-cm centers within a flexible plastic tube. The seed assemblies are fabricated with remotely operated, specially designed machines. The fabrication process involves the production of a Pt-10 percent Ir-clad wire with a 252 Cf 2 O 3 -Pd cermet core. The wire is swaged and drawn to size, cut to length, and welded in a Pt-10 percent Ir capsule 0.8 mm in diameter and 6 mm long. Each seed capsule contains approximately 0.5 microgram of 252 Cf. Because the effective half-life of 252 Cf is 2.6 years, the seed assemblies are not disposable and must be reused until their activities have decreased to unsuitable levels. The flexible plastic components must therefore have sufficient resistance to radiation damage to survive the neutron-plus-gamma radiation from 252 Cf. On the basis of accelerated irradiation tests with a large 252 Cf source, a recently developed fluoropolymer, ''Tefzel'' (trademark of E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company) has adequate radiation resistance for this application. Californium-252 seed assembly systems are loaned by the United States Energy Research and Development Administration for clinical investigations under a protocol of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, U.S. National Cancer Institute

  14. Historical review of californium-252 discovery and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddard, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the discovery and history of californium 252. This isotope may be synthesized by irradiating plutonium 239, plutonium 242, americium 243, or curium 244 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Various experiments and inventions involving 252 Cf conducted at the Savannah River Plant are discussed. The evolution of radiotherapy using californium 252 is reviewed

  15. Californium-252: a remarkable versatile radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Alexander, C.W.

    1995-01-01

    A product of the nuclear age, Californium-252 ( 252 Cf) has found many applications in medicine, scientific research, industry, and nuclear science education. Californium-252 is unique as a neutron source in that it provides a highly concentrated flux and extremely reliable neutron spectrum from a very small assembly. During the past 40 years, 252 Cf has been applied with great success to cancer therapy, neutron radiography of objects ranging from flowers to entire aircraft, startup sources for nuclear reactors, fission activation for quality analysis of all commercial nuclear fuel, and many other beneficial uses, some of which are now ready for further growth. Californium-252 is produced in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and processed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), both of which are located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The REDC/HFIR facility is virtually the sole supplier of 252 Cf in the western world and is the major supplier worldwide. Extensive exploitation of this product was made possible through the 252 Cf Market Evaluation Program, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) [then the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and later the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)]. This program included training series, demonstration centers, seminars, and a liberal loan policy for fabricated sources. The Market Evaluation Program was instituted, in part, to determine if large-quantity production capability was required at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). Because of the nature of the product and the means by which it is produced, 252 Cf can be produced only in government-owned facilities. It is evident at this time that the Oak Ridge research facility can meet present and projected near-term requirements. The production, shipment, and sales history of 252 Cf from ORNL is summarized herein

  16. Californium-252: a remarkable versatile radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Alexander, C.W.

    1995-10-10

    A product of the nuclear age, Californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) has found many applications in medicine, scientific research, industry, and nuclear science education. Californium-252 is unique as a neutron source in that it provides a highly concentrated flux and extremely reliable neutron spectrum from a very small assembly. During the past 40 years, {sup 252}Cf has been applied with great success to cancer therapy, neutron radiography of objects ranging from flowers to entire aircraft, startup sources for nuclear reactors, fission activation for quality analysis of all commercial nuclear fuel, and many other beneficial uses, some of which are now ready for further growth. Californium-252 is produced in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and processed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), both of which are located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The REDC/HFIR facility is virtually the sole supplier of {sup 252}Cf in the western world and is the major supplier worldwide. Extensive exploitation of this product was made possible through the {sup 252}Cf Market Evaluation Program, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) [then the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and later the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)]. This program included training series, demonstration centers, seminars, and a liberal loan policy for fabricated sources. The Market Evaluation Program was instituted, in part, to determine if large-quantity production capability was required at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). Because of the nature of the product and the means by which it is produced, {sup 252}Cf can be produced only in government-owned facilities. It is evident at this time that the Oak Ridge research facility can meet present and projected near-term requirements. The production, shipment, and sales history of {sup 252}Cf from ORNL is summarized herein.

  17. Californium-252 sales and loans at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    The production and distribution in the United States of 252 Cf has recently been consolidated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The 252 Cf Industrial Sales/Loan Program and the 252 Cf University Load Program, which were formerly located at the Savannah River Plant (SRP), have been combined with the californium production and distribution activities of the Transuranium Element Production Program at ORNL. Californium-252 is sold to commercial users in the form of bulk californium oxide, palladium-californium alloy pellets, or alloy wires. Neutron source capsules, which are fabricated for loans to DOE or other US government agencies, are still available in all forms previously available. The consolidation of all 252 Cf distribution activities at the production site is expected to result in better service to users. In particular, customers for neutrons sources will be ale to select from a wider range of neutron source forms, including custom designs, through a single contact point

  18. Californium oxygen system for 1.50 < O/Cf < 1.72

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, R.P.; Haire, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    The californium-oxygen system was studied as a function of temperature, oxygen pressure, and stoichiometry by manometric and x-ray diffraction methods. The results establish rhombohedral Cf 7 O 12 as the stable compound obtained by heating Cf 2 O 3 in air. The isobaric oxidation-reduction cycles Cf 2 O 3 → Cf 7 O 12 → Cf 2 O 3 , observed in constant rate of heating (cooling) experiments, occur with large hysteresis. A close parallel to other fluorite related lanthanide and actinide oxide systems is established. (auth)

  19. Study of the shielding for spontaneous fission sources of Californium-252; Estudio de blindaje para fuentes de fision espontanea de Californio-252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila R, I

    1991-06-15

    A shielding study is made to attenuate, until maximum permissible levels, the neutrons radiation and photons emitted by spontaneous fission coming from a source of Californium-252. The compound package by a database (Library DLC-23) and the ANISNW code is used, in it version for personal computer. (Author)

  20. Calibration of a Modified Californium Shuffler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, E.T.; Armstrong, F.; Oldham, R.; Ceo, R.; Williams, N.

    1995-01-01

    A californium shuffler originally designed to assay hollow cylindrical pieces of UA1 has been modified to assay solid cylinders. Calibration standards were characterized via chemical analysis of the molten UA1 taken during casting of the standards. The melt samples yielded much more reliable characterization data than drill samples taken from standards after the standards had solidified. By normalizing one well-characterized calibration curve to several standards at different enrichments, a relatively small number of standards was required to develop an enrichment-dependent calibration. The precision of this shuffler is 0.65%, and the typical random and systematic uncertainties are 0.53% and 0.73%, respectively, for a six minute assay of an ingot containing approximately 700 grams of 235 U. This paper will discuss (1) the discrepancies encountered when UA1 standards were characterized via melt samples versus drill samples, (2) a calibration methodology employing a small number of standards, and (3) a comparison of results from a previously unused shuffler with an existing shuffler. A small number of UA1 standards have been characterized using samples from the homogeneous molten state and have yielded enrichment-dependent and enrichment-independent calibration curves on two different shufflers

  1. Californium production at the transuranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Transuranium Processing Plant (TRU) at ORNL, which is the production, storage, and distribution center for the ERDA heavy element research program, is described. About 0.5 percent of 252 Cf is currently being produced. TRU is a hot-cell, chemical processing facility of advanced design. New concepts have been incorporated into the facility for absolute containment, remote operation, remote equipment installation, and remote maintenance. The facilities include a battery of nine heavily shielded process cells served by master-slave manipulators and eight laboratories, four on each of two floors. Processing includes chemical dissolution of the targets followed by a series of solvent extraction, ion exchange, and precipitation steps to separate and purify the transuranium elements. The transcurium elements Bk, Cf, Es, and Fm are distributed to users. Remote techniques are used to fabricate the Am and Cm into target rods for reirradiation in the HFIR. Californium-252 that is in excess of the needs of the heavy element research program and the Cf sales program is stored at TRU and processed repeatedly to recover the daughter product 248 Cm, which is a highly desirable research material

  2. Fabrication of californium-252 sources in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, A.; Brady, M.W.; Thornett, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    The advent of californium-252 in weighable quantities and at a reasonable price has caused some rethinking among neutron source suppliers. To explore this market the Radiochemical Center Ltd. has purchased 2 mg of californium-252, and subdivided this into a wide range of sources. To take advantage of its high specific neutron emission, a small double welded stainless steel capsule 7.8mm diameter x 10mm high was chosen for stock sources and this entailed the use of a microdispensing technique which had to be specially developed. The apparatus and procedure for subdividing milligram amounts of californium-252 are described. Some details of our experience in processing these one milligram shipments are given. 100 sources with activities from 200 microgram to 0.01 microgram have been produced. Losses have been small. Measurement of neutron spectra gamma spectra and dose rates from encapsulated sources has confirmed published data. Though it is early days, little industrial interest in californium-252 sources has been detected, most of the sources have so far been required for research into activation analysis and two examples of this are given. (U.S.)

  3. Californium Multiplier. Part I. Design for neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, K.L.; Preskitt, C.A.; John, J.; Hastings, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The Californium Multiplier (CFX) is a subcritical assembly of enriched uranium surrounding a californium-252 neutron source. The function of the CFX is to multiply the neutrons emitted by the source to a number sufficient for neutron radiography. The CFX is designed to provide a collimated beam of thermal neutrons from which the gamma radiation is filtered, and the scattered neutrons are reduced to make it suitable for high resolution radiography. The entire system has inherent safety features, which provide for system and personnel safety, and it operates at moderate cost. In Part I, the CFX and the theory of its operation are described in detail. Part II covers the performance of the Mound Facility CFX

  4. Production, Distribution, and Applications of Californium-252 Neutron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balo, P.A.; Knauer, J.B.; Martin, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    The radioisotope 252 Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10 11 neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells 252 Cf to commercial reencapsulators domestically and internationally. Sealed 252 Cf sources are also available for loan to agencies and subcontractors of the U.S. government and to universities for educational, research, and medical applications. The REDC has established the Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science to make its large inventory of 252 Cf sources available to researchers for irradiations inside uncontaminated hot cells. Experiments at the CUF include a land mine detection system, neutron damage testing of solid-state detectors, irradiation of human cancer cells for boron neutron capture therapy experiments, and irradiation of rice to induce genetic mutations

  5. Prompt neutron spectrum of the spontaneous fission of californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamyatnin, Yu.S.; Kroshkin, N.I.; Korostylev, V.A.; Nefedov, V.N.; Ryazanov, D.K.; Starostov, B.I.; Semenov, A.F.

    1976-01-01

    The californium-252 spontaneous fission neutron spectrum was measured in the energy range of 0.01 to 10 MeV by the time-of-flight technique using various neutron detectors. The measurements of 252 Cf neutron spectrum at energies of 0.01 to 5 MeV were performed as a function of fission fragment kinetic energy. The mean neutron spectrum energy in the range of 0.7 to 10 MeV was found from the results of measurements. The irregularity in the 252 Cf neutron spectrum in the neutron energy range of less than 0.7 MeV compared to theoretical values is discussed. The mechanism of 252 Cf neutron emission is also discussed on the basis of neutron yield angle measurements. 12 references

  6. A californium-252 source for radiobiological studies at Hiroshima University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kazuo; Takeoka, Seiji; Kuroda, Tokue; Tsujimura, Tomotaka; Kawami, Masaharu; Hoshi, Masaharu; Sawada, Shozo

    1987-01-01

    A 1.93 Ci (3.6 mg) californium-252 source was installed in the radiation facility of the Research Institute for Nuclear Medicine and Biology, Hiroshima University. This source produces fission neutrons (8.7 x 10 9 n/s at the time of its installation), which are similar to neutron spectrum of the atomic bombs. It is useful for studying biological effects of fission neutrons and neutron dosimetry. An apparatus was dosigned to accomodate this source and to apply it to such studies. It has resulted in profitable fission neutron exposures, while suppressing scattered neutrons and secondary gamma rays. This apparatus incorporates many safety systems, including one which interlocks with all of doors and an elevator serving the exposure room, so as to prevent accidents involving users. (author)

  7. Application of californium-252 neutron sources for analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Daido

    1976-01-01

    The researches made for the application of Cf-252 neutron sources to analytical chemistry during the period from 1970 to 1974 including partly 1975 are reviewed. The first part is the introduction to the above. The second part deals with general review of symposia, publications and the like. Attention is directed to ERDA publishing the periodical ''Californium-252 Progress'' and to a study group of Cf-252 utilization held by Japanese Radioisotope Association in 1974. The third part deals with its application for radio activation analysis. The automated absolute activation analysis (AAAA) of Savannha River is briefly explained. The joint experiment of Savannha River operation office with New Brunswick laboratory is mentioned. Cf-252 radiation source was used for the non-destructive analysis of elements in river water. East neutrons of Cf-252 were used for the quantitative analysis of lead in paints. Many applications for industrial control processes have been reported. Attention is drawn to the application of Cf-252 neutron sources for the field search of neutral resources. For example, a logging sonde for searching uranium resources was developed. the fourth part deals with the application of the analysis with gamma ray by capturing neutrons. For example, a bore hole sonde and the process control analysis of sulfur in fuel utilized capture gamma ray. The prompt gamma ray by capturing neutrons may be used for the nondestructive analysis of enrivonment. (Iwakiri, K.)

  8. Teratogenic effect of Californium-252 irradiation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satow, Yukio; Lee, Juing-Yi; Hori, Hiroshi; Okuda, Hiroe; Tsuchimoto, Shigeo; Sawada, Shozo; Yokoro, Kenjiro

    1989-01-01

    The teratogenicity of Californium-252 (Cf-252) irradiation which generates approximately 70% 2.3 MeV fast neutron and 30% gamma rays was evaluated. A single whole body exposure of Cf-252 at various doses was given to pregnant rats on day 8 or 9 of pregnancy, followed by microscopic autopsy of the fetuses at the terminal stage of pregnancy to search for external and internal malformations. For comparison, pregnant rats were irradiated with various doses of Cobalt-60 (Co-60) standard gamma rays at the same dose rate (1 rad/min.). The doses were 20-120 rad of Cf-252 and 80-220 rad of Co-60. Using frequency of radiation induced malformations observed on day 8 of pregnancy as an index, relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 2.3-2.7 was obtained from the straight line obtained by modifying by the least squares method the frequency curves of malformed fetuses in total implants and in surviving fetuses. The types of malformations induced by Cf-252 and Co-60 irradiation were alike. Using fetal LD 50 as an index, 2.4 was obtained as RBE when irradiated on day 8 of pregnancy and 3.1 as that when irradiated on day 9. The results showed that Cf-252 had stronger a teratogenic effect than Co-60 gamma rays. (author)

  9. Experimental studies on californium bioavailability to marine benthic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.; Carvalho, F.P.; Aston, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    252 Cf is readily taken up by benthic invertebrates from sea water, reaching whole-body concentration factors of 763 in the polychaete Hermione hystrix, 220 in the shrimp Lysmata seticaudata, 665 in the crab Pilumnus hirtellus and 78 in the bivalve mollusc Venerupis decussata after 3 weeks exposure. Surface sorption plays a predominant role in the uptake process. Depuration in clean sea water was a relatively slow process. The shrimp Lysmata eliminated 252 Cf very rapidly due to moulting. Absorption coefficients for ingested 252 Cf were high, approx. 23% in crabs and approx. 97% in brittlestars. The absorbed fraction was excreted twice as fast from crabs as brittlestars. Exposure of organisms to labelled sediment resulted in low transfer factors that were species dependent. There is some evidence to suggest that uptake from sediments is primarily due to 252 Cf transfer from the pore water. Comparison of these results with published experimental data on other transuranic nuclides in the same or similar species suggests that californium bioavailability is roughly equivalent to that of plutonium and americium. (author)

  10. Proposed Californium-252 User Facility for Neutron Science at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.C.; Laxson, R.R.; Knauer, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at ORNL has petitioned to establish a Californium-252 User Facility for Neutron Science for academic, industrial, and governmental researchers. The REDC Californium Facility (CF) stores the national inventory of sealed 252 Cf neutron source for university and research loans. Within the CF, the 252 Cf storage pool and two uncontaminated hot cells currently in service for the Californium Program will form the physical basis for the User Facility. Relevant applications include dosimetry and experiments for neutron tumor therapy; fast and thermal neutron activation analysis of materials; experimental configurations for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis; neutron shielding and material damage studies; and hardness testing of radiation detectors, cameras, and electronics. A formal User Facility simplifies working arrangements and agreements between US DOE facilities, academia, and commercial interests

  11. Ab initio full-potential study of mechanical properties and magnetic phase stability of californium monopnictides (CfN and CfP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amari, S., E-mail: siham_amari@yahoo.fr [Faculté des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie, Université Hassiba Benbouali, Chlef, 02000 (Algeria); Bouhafs, B. [Laboratoire de Modélisation et Simulation en Sciences des Matériaux, Université Djillali Liabès de Sidi Bel-Abbés, Sidi Bel-Abbés, 22000 (Algeria)

    2016-09-15

    Based on the first-principles methods, the structural, elastic, electronic, properties and magnetic ordering of californium monopnictides CfX (X = P) have been studied using the full-potential augmented plane wave plus local orbitals (FP-L/APW + lo) method within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). The electronic exchange correlation energy is described by generalized gradient approximation GGA and GGA+U (U is the Hubbard correction). The GGA+U method is applied to the rare-earth 5f states. We have calculated the lattice parameters, bulk modulii and the first pressure derivatives of the bulk modulii. The elastic properties of the studied compounds are only investigated in the most stable calculated phase. In order to gain further information, we have calculated Young’s modulus, shear modulus, anisotropy factor and Kleinman parameter by the aid of the calculated elastic constants. The results mainly show that californium monopnictides CfX (X = P) have an antiferromagnetic spin ordering. Density of states (DOS) and charge densities for both compounds are also computed in the NaCl (B1) structure.

  12. X-ray-diffraction study of californium metal to 16 GPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.R.; Benedict, U.; Dufour, C.; Birkel, I.; Haire, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    The first series of measurements to determine the structural behavior of californium (Cf) metal under pressure has been carried out. The initial dhcp structure transformed sluggishly with increasing pressure to a fcc structure. A bulk modulus of 50(5) GPa was derived for dhcp Cf metal from the relative volume (V/V 0 ) data to 10 GPa

  13. Assessment of the neutron component in a neutron-gamma field of a californium-252 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetteh, G.K.

    1978-12-01

    Experiments have been performed to determine the percentages of the different components in the radiation field of californium-252 which has now some clinical applications. Using Rossi Chambers in conjunction with absorption investigations involving lead and aluminium thimbles, it is observed that the dose rates due to the different components are: neutrons 54%; gammas 30%; betas 16%

  14. Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company californium multiplier/delayed neutron counter safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, W.H.

    1976-08-01

    The Californium Multiplier (CFX) is a subcritical assembly of uranium surrounding 252 Cf spontaneously fissioning neutron sources; its function is to multiply the neutron flux to a level useful for activation analysis. This document summarizes the safety analysis aspects of the CFX, DNC, pneumatic transfer system, and instrumentation and to detail all the aspects of the total facility as a starting point for the ARHCO Safety Analysis Review. Recognized hazards and steps already taken to neutralize them are itemized

  15. Instrumental neutron activation determination of gold in mineral raw materials using a californium neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilo, N.A.; Ippolitov, E.G.; Ivanenko, V.V.; Kustov, B.N.; Zheleznov, V.V.; Aristov, G.N.; Kovalenko, V.V.; Kondrat'ev, N.B.

    1983-01-01

    A facility using a californium neutron source and a method for the neutron activation analysis of gold were developed. The sensitivity of the determination is 0.1 g/t. The causes of random and systematic errors have been studied. It is concluded that in prospection and evaluation of gold ore deposists, the traditional test tube analysis for gold may be replaced with the developed method. (author)

  16. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU Californium Shipping Container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Box, W.D.; Shappert, L.B.; Seagren, R.D.; Klima, B.B.; Jurgensen, M.C.; Hammond, C.R.; Watson, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    An analytical evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU Californium Shipping Container was made in order to demonstrate its compliance with the regulations governing off-site shipment of packages that contain radioactive material. The evaluation encompassed five primary categories: structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding, nuclear criticality safety, and quality assurance. The results of this evaluation demonstrate that the container complies with the applicable regulations

  17. Spectroscopic and redox properties of curium and californium ions in concentrated aqueous carbonate-bicarbonate media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobart, D.E.; Varlashkin, P.G.; Samhoun, K.; Haire, R.G.; Peterson, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Multimilligram quantities of trivalent curium-248 and californium-249 were investigated by absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and bulk solution electrolysis in concentrated aqueous carbonate-bicarbonate solution. Actinide concentrations between 10 -4 and 10 -2 M were studied in 2 M sodium carbonate and 5.5 M potassium carbonate solutions at pH values from 8 to 14. The solution absorption spectra of Cm(III) and Cf(III) in carbonate media are presented for the first time and compared to literature spectra of these species in noncomplexing aqueous solution. It was anticipated that carbonate complexation of the actinide ions could provide a sufficient negative shift in the formal potentials of the M(IV)/M(III) couples of Cm and Cf to permit the generation and stabilization of their tetravalent states in aqueous carbonate-bicarbonate medium. No conclusive evidence was found in the present work to indicate the existence of any higher oxidation states of curium or californium in carbonate solution. Some possible reasons for our inability to generate and detect oxidized species of curium and californium in this medium are discussed

  18. Convenient method of simultaneously analyzing aluminum and magnesium in pharmaceutical dosage forms using californium-252 thermal neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landolt, R.R.; Hem, S.L.

    1983-01-01

    A commercial antacid suspension containing aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide products was used as a model sample to study the use of a californium-252 thermal neutron activation as a method for quantifying aluminum content as well as for the simultaneous assay of aluminum and magnesium. A 3.5-micrograms californium-252 source was used for the activation, and the induced aluminum-28 and magnesium-27 activity was simultaneously measured by sodium iodide crystal gamma-ray spectrometry using dual single-channel analyzers and scalers. The antacid suspension was contained in a chamber designed with the unique capability of serving as the container for counting the induced radioactivity in addition to being the irradiation chamber itself. This pilot study demonstrated that use of more intense californium-252 sources, which are commonly available, would provide a method that is competitive with the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid titration method in precision and in other aspects as well

  19. Measurement of californium-252 gamma photons depth dose distribution in tissue equivalent material. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadel, M A; El-Fiki, M A; Eissa, H M; Abdel-Hafez, A; Naguib, S H [National Institute of Standards, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Phantom of tissue equivalent material with and without bone was used measuring depth dose distribution of gamma-rays from californium-252 source. The source was positioned at center of perspex walled phantom. Depth dose measurements were recorded for X, Y and Z planes at different distances from source. TLD 700 was used for measuring the dose distribution. Results indicate that implantation of bone in tissue equivalent medium cause changes in the gamma depth dose distribution which varies according to variation in bone geometry. 9 figs.

  20. Measurements of integral cross sections in the californium-252 fission neutron spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, W.G.; Guenther, E.; Matzke, M.; Rassl, G.

    1977-01-01

    In a low-scattering arrangement cross sections averaged over the californium-252 spontaneous fission neutron spectrum were measured. The reactions 27 Al(n,α) 46 Ti, 47 Ti, 48 Ti(n,p), 54 Fe, 56 Fe(n,p), 58 Ni(n,p), 64 Zn(n,p), 115 In(n,n') were studied in order to obtain a consistent set of threshold detectors used in fast neutron flux density measurements. Overall uncertainties between 2 and 2.5% could be achieved; corrections due to neutron scattering in source and samples are discussed

  1. Neutron emission in fission of highly excited californium nuclei (E*=76 MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, M.V.; Bordyug, V.M.; Kozulin, Eh.M.; Mozhaev, A.N.; Levitovich, M.; Muzychka, Yu.A.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.Eh.; Pustyl'nik, B.I.

    1990-01-01

    The differential cross sections for neutron production in the fission of highly excited californium nuclei formed in the 238 U+ 12 C (105 MeV) reaction have been measured. From the analysis of the experimental data is follows that the number of pre-fission neutrons substantially exceeds the value obtained in the framework of the standard statistical model. The saddle-to-scission time of the excited nucleus is estimated on the basis of the neutron multiplicity. The dependences of the neutron number and neutron average energies upon the fragment mass are determined

  2. Neutron emission in fission of highly excited californium nuclei (E* = 76 MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, M.V.; Bordyug, V.M.; Kozulin, E.M.; Levitovich, M.; Mozhaev, A.N.; Muzychka, Yu.A.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.E.; Pustyl'nik, B.I.

    1990-01-01

    Differential cross sections for neutron production have been measured in fission of excited californium nuclei produced in the reaction 238 U + 12 C (105 MeV). It follows from analysis of the experimental results that the number of neutrons emitted before fission considerably exceeds the number obtained in the framework of the standard statistical model. On the basis of the multiplicity of neutrons they authors have estimated the time of fission of the excited nucleus. The dependence of the number of neutrons and their average energies on the mass of the fragments is determined

  3. Possible stabilization of the tetravalent oxidation state of berkelium and californium in acetonitrile with triphenylarsine oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, G.F.; Peterson, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    It appears that we may have prepared Bk(IV) nitrate.nTPAs0 and Bk(IV) perchlorate.nTPAs0 complexes which formed the corresponding Cf(IV) complexes through the beta decay of Bk-249. Definitive proof should come from similar experiments with quantities of Bk-249 large enough to allow spectrophotometric detection of the characteristic f→f transitions in these berkelium and californium species. It is clear, however, that TPAs0 and acetonitrile can play a pivotal role in the stabilization of lanact(IV) species

  4. Comparison of the Savannah River Site billet active well coincidence counter and two Californium Shufflers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, E.T.; Griffin, J.C.; Rinard, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    A Scrap Californium Shuffler at the Savannah River Site (SRS) was calibrated to assay the U-Al cores of billets (an intermediate step in the SRS reactor fuel fabrication cycle.) The precision of the Scrap Shuffler over several years has been approximately 0.50%. A typical total uncertainty for the assay of a core on the Scrap Shuffler is approximately 0.33% for a twelve minute assay. The precision over several months and a typical total uncertainty for the Billet Active Well (neutron) Coincidence Counter (BAWCC) are approximately 1.0% and 1.9%, respectively, for a fifteen minute assay. A new Billet Californium Shuffler specifically designed for assaying SRS billets has yielded precision (over one month) and total uncertainty results of 0.40% and 0.69%, respectively, for an eight minute assay. The introduction of a measurement point into the fuel fabrication cycle to replace estimates based upon material weight will greatly enhance material and process control in the Reactor Materials area of SRS. The use of all three instruments provides a comparison of the relative merits of Active Well (neutron) Coincidence Counters (AWCCs) and shufflers for assay of homogeneous and geometrically simple material containing 235 U. The measurement precisions, systematic and random uncertainties, as well as the procurement and operation of each instrument will be compared. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  5. Spectral investigation of neutron radiation in three-sectional concrete labyrinth from a californium-252 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belogorlov, E.A.; Britvich, G.I.; Getmanov, V.B.

    1985-01-01

    Construction of labyrinths in points of communication output from the storage-ring under construction is accompanied by numerous difficulties due to a considerable number of gas and cryogenic pipelines, which require large cross sections at the minimal length of the pipelines proper for their location. It results in unfavourable for radiation attenuation ratios between cross section and length of the labyrinth separate sections. Neutron spectra in a model concrete labyrinth, at the entrance to which a neutron source with fission spectrum (californium-252) and the same source in a polyethylene moderator are located, are measured. On the basis of the spectra obtained the formation of fluence and equivalent dose along the labyrinth geometric axis is analyzed. Conditions permitting actually to reduce radiation dose in the labyrinth (dead end provision, the use of cover materials, construction of diaphragms and shielding plates) are simulated

  6. Transport calculations of. gamma. -ray flux density and dose rate about implantable californium-252 sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, A; Lin, B I [Cincinnati Univ., Ohio (USA). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Windham, J P; Kereiakes, J G

    1976-07-01

    ..gamma.. flux density and dose rate distributions have been calculated about implantable californium-252 sources for an infinite tissue medium. Point source flux densities as a function of energy and position were obtained from a discrete-ordinates calculation, and the flux densities were multiplied by their corresponding kerma factors and added to obtain point source dose rates. The point dose rates were integrated over the line source to obtain line dose rates. Container attenuation was accounted for by evaluating the point dose rate as a function of platinum thickness. Both primary and secondary flux densities and dose rates are presented. The agreement with an independent Monte Carlo calculation was excellent. The data presented should be useful for the design of new source configurations.

  7. Fast and efficient charge breeding of the Californium rare isotope breeder upgrade electron beam ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostroumov, P. N.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C. A.; Perry, A.; Sharamentov, S. I.; Vondrasek, R. C.; Zinkann, G. P.; Pikin, A. I.

    2015-01-01

    The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), developed to breed Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) radioactive beams at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), is being tested off-line. A unique property of the EBIS is a combination of short breeding times, high repetition rates, and a large acceptance. Overall, we have implemented many innovative features during the design and construction of the CARIBU EBIS as compared to the existing EBIS breeders. The off-line charge breeding tests are being performed using a surface ionization source that produces singly charged cesium ions. The main goal of the off-line commissioning is to demonstrate stable operation of the EBIS at a 10 Hz repetition rate and a breeding efficiency into single charge state higher than 15%. These goals have been successfully achieved and exceeded. We have measured (20% ± 0.7%) breeding efficiency into the single charge state of 28+ cesium ions with the breeding time of 28 ms. In general, the current CARIBU EBIS operational parameters can provide charge breeding of any ions in the full mass range of periodic table with high efficiency, short breeding times, and sufficiently low charge-to-mass ratio, 1/6.3 for the heaviest masses, for further acceleration in ATLAS. In this paper, we discuss the parameters of the EBIS and the charge breeding results in a pulsed injection mode with repetition rates up to 10 Hz

  8. Manganese determination om minerals by activation analysis, using the californium-252 as a neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Antonio

    1976-01-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis, using a Californium-252 neutron source, has been applied for the determination of manganese in ores such as pyrolusite, rodonite (manganese silicate)' and blending used in dry-batteries The favorable nuclear properties of manganese, such as high thermal neutron cross-section for the reaction 55 Mn (n.gamma) 56 Mn, high concentration of manganese in the matrix and short half - life of 56 Mn, are an ideal combination for non-destructive analysis of manganese in ores. Samples and standards of manganese dioxide were irradiated for about 20 minutes, followed by a 4 to 15 minutes decay and counted in a single channel pulse-height discrimination using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Counting time was equal to 10 minutes. The interference of nuclear reactions 56 Fe(n,p) 56 Mn and 59 Co (n, α) 56 were studied, as well as problems in connection with neutron shadowing during irradiation, gamma-rays attenuation during counting and influence of granulometry of samples. One sample,was also analysed by wet-chemical method (sodium bismuthate) in order to compare results. As a whole, i t was shown that the analytical method of neutron activation for manganese in ores and blending, is a method simple, rapid and with good precision and accuracy. (author)

  9. Long-term effects of an intracavitary treatment with californium-252 on normal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Beamer, J.L.; Mahony, T.D.; Cross, F.T.; Lund, J.E.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1976-01-01

    About one hundred fifty swine were exposed to either radium-226 or californium-252 sources in the uterine cervix to determine an RBE for both acute and long-term effects. That value for early changes in the tissues at risk in the treatment of cervical cancer was between 6.2 and 6.8. The incidence of complications increased with time after exposure, especially among animals treated with 252 Cf. Analysis of rectal injury showed that ulceration occurred frequently within a year postexposure at doses between 1600 and 2400 rad calculated at 2 cm lateral to the source midline. Fat necrosis and smooth muscle atrophy, resulting in a local rectal stricture, were delayed changes observed in some animals. The lower ureter was the site for a greater frequency of complications than the GI tract. Ureteral stricture often occurred at doses of 1200 rad from 252 Cf and 7000 rad from 226 Ra. Observation of delayed effects in the uterine-cervix in animals held up to 4 years postexposure indicate that the RBE for 252 Cf may be increased to a value as high as 18, while repair may have even decreased it to about 5.6 in the rectum. Fifty swine are still being observed for long-term effects after doses above 800 rad from 252 Cf and 5000 rad from 226 Ra

  10. Neutron activation analysis at the Californium User Facility for Neutron Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.C.; Smith, E.H.; Glasgow, D.C.; Jerde, E.A.; Marsh, D.L.; Zhao, L.

    1997-12-01

    The Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science has been established to provide 252 Cf-based neutron irradiation services and research capabilities including neutron activation analysis (NAA). A major advantage of the CUF is its accessibility and controlled experimental conditions compared with those of a reactor environment The CUF maintains the world's largest inventory of compact 252 Cf neutron sources. Neutron source intensities of ≤ 10 11 neutrons/s are available for irradiations within a contamination-free hot cell, capable of providing thermal and fast neutron fluxes exceeding 10 8 cm -2 s -1 at the sample. Total flux of ≥10 9 cm -2 s -1 is feasible for large-volume irradiation rabbits within the 252 Cf storage pool. Neutron and gamma transport calculations have been performed using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP to estimate irradiation fluxes available for sample activation within the hot cell and storage pool and to design and optimize a prompt gamma NAA (PGNAA) configuration for large sample volumes. Confirmatory NAA irradiations have been performed within the pool. Gamma spectroscopy capabilities including PGNAA are being established within the CUF for sample analysis

  11. Feasibility and market potential of protein determination of wheat using californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, T.C. Jr.; Eckhoff, N.D.; Clack, R.W.; Roberts, T.C. Sr.

    1976-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of protein determination by capture gamma-ray analysis using californium-252 neutrons, an in-situ protein analysis system for use by grain handlers has been examined. Three 227 kilogram (approximately) lots of wheat were used to determine the amount of nitrogen present. Protein analyses by the Kjeldahl method were obtained from samples taken before and after the capture gamma-ray analyses. The 5.267-MeV gamma-ray was selected for use in this study as a compromise between efficiency and interference from other elements. The associated counting equipment was a multichannel analyzer with pulse shaping electronic and analysis computing equipment. A linear regression program was used to compare the regions of interest to the Kjeldahl protein averages. The counts composing each peak were summed and normalized using the total count of the hydrogen peak. The normalized nitrogen percentages indicate a significant correlation between the spectral regions and the Kjeldahl analyses. To a first approximation, the value of wheat is the wheat protein. At the present time, protein testing of wheat is destructive, cumbersome, and time-consuming as compared to the potential for capture gamma-ray analysis testing. Assuming that such a protein analysis unit can analyze 42 tonne of wheat per hour, over 120 units would be needed to monitor one-half the U.S. annual wheat production. A 0.5% improvement in processor realizations and grain throughput value of $167.00 per tonne will result in a projected savings of $150,000 per year per unit

  12. Neutron reflector design with Californium 252 neutron for Boron neutron chapter therapy facility using MCNP5 simulation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Fakhrurreza; Kusminanto; Y Sardjono

    2014-01-01

    In this research has made a reflector design to provide beams of Neutron for BNCT with Californium-252 radioactive source. This collimator is useful to obtain optimum epithermal neutron flux with the smallest impurity radiation (thermal neutron, fast neutron, and gamma). The design process is done using Monte Carlo N-Particle simulation version 5 (MCNP5) code to calculate the neutron flux tally form. The chosen reflector design is the reflectors which use material such as BeO ceramic with 13 cm thick. Moderator use sulfur material with the slope angle of the cone is 30°. From the calculation result, it is obtained that Reflector with 1 gram Californium-252 source can produce a neutron output thermal which has thermal neutron specification 2.23189 x 10 9 n/s.cm 2 , epithermal neutron 3.51548 x 10 9 n/s.cm 2 , and fast neutron 4.82241 x 10 9 n/s.cm 2 From the result, it needs additional collimator because the BNCT requirement. (author)

  13. Hypoxic versus normoxic external-beam irradiation of cervical carcinoma combined with californium-252 neutron brachytherapy. Comparative treatment results of a 5-year randomized study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tačev, T.; Vacek, Antonín; Ptáčková, B.; Strnad, V.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 181, č. 5 (2005), s. 273-284 ISSN 0179-7158 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : cervical carcinoma * hypoxyradiotherapy * californium-252 Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.490, year: 2005

  14. Simulation and design of an electron beam ion source charge breeder for the californium rare isotope breeder upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Dickerson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An electron beam ion source (EBIS will be constructed and used to charge breed ions from the californium rare isotope breeder upgrade (CARIBU for postacceleration into the Argonne tandem linear accelerator system (ATLAS. Simulations of the EBIS charge breeder performance and the related ion transport systems are reported. Propagation of the electron beam through the EBIS was verified, and the anticipated incident power density within the electron collector was identified. The full normalized acceptance of the charge breeder with a 2 A electron beam, 0.024π  mm mrad for nominal operating parameters, was determined by simulating ion injection into the EBIS. The optics of the ion transport lines were carefully optimized to achieve well-matched ion injection, to minimize emittance growth of the injected and extracted ion beams, and to enable adequate testing of the charge bred ions prior to installation in ATLAS.

  15. Neutron activation analysis of the calcium content in vivo, using a 50μg source of californium 252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guey, A.; Zech, P.Y.; Meary, M.F.; Leitienne, P.

    1975-01-01

    Owing to the recent commercialisation of californium 252 it is now possible to obtain neutron fluxes strong enough for precise activation of the calcium content of biological targets. After the preliminary measurements necessary to establish the most suitable conditions for irradiating 3 to 5cm thick targets, two parallel sets of experiments were developed. In the first the medium-term total calcium variation was studied in 20 rats, 16 suffering from chronic kidney deficiency. In the second the precision expected as a function of the calcium content of the irradiated target was examined, using 3 sets of tissue equivalent standards of calcium contents 5, 20 and 50g respectively. The first results obtained on calcium 49 in vivo show that a calcium content variation can be followed with a sensitivity threshold below that obtained by conventional methods [fr

  16. Extraction of Trivalent Actinides and Lanthanides from Californium Campaign Rework Solution Using TODGA-based Solvent Extraction System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benker, Dennis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Delmau, Laetitia Helene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dryman, Joshua Cory [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report presents the studies carried out to demonstrate the possibility of quantitatively extracting trivalent actinides and lanthanides from highly acidic solutions using a neutral ligand-based solvent extraction system. These studies stemmed from the perceived advantage of such systems over cationexchange- based solvent extraction systems that require an extensive feed adjustment to make a low-acid feed. The targeted feed solutions are highly acidic aqueous phases obtained after the dissolution of curium targets during a californium (Cf) campaign. Results obtained with actual Cf campaign solutions, but highly diluted to be manageable in a glove box, are presented, followed by results of tests run in the hot cells with Cf campaign rework solutions. It was demonstrated that a solvent extraction system based on the tetraoctyl diglycolamide molecule is capable of quantitatively extracting trivalent actinides from highly acidic solutions. This system was validated using actual feeds from a Cf campaign.

  17. Californium-252 Brachytherapy Combined With External-Beam Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer: Long-Term Treatment Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Xin; Qian Chengyuan; Qing Yi; Zhao Kewei; Yang Zhengzhou; Dai Nan; Zhong Zhaoyang; Tang Cheng; Li Zheng; Gu Xianqing; Zhou Qian; Feng Yan; Xiong Yanli; Shan Jinlu; Wang Dong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To observe, by retrospective analysis, the curative effects and complications due to californium-252 ( 252 Cf) neutron intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) combined with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in the treatment of cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: From February 1999 to December 2007, 696 patients with cervical cancer (Stages IB to IIIB) were treated with 252 Cf-ICBT in combination of EBRT. Of all, 31 patients were at Stage IB, 104 at IIA, 363 at IIB, 64 at IIIA, and 134 at IIIB. Californium-252 ICBT was delivered at 7–12 Gy per insertion per week, with a total dose of 29–45 Gy to reference point A in three to five insertions. The whole pelvic cavity was treated with 8-MV X-ray external irradiation at 2 Gy per fraction, four times per week. After 16–38 Gy of external irradiation, the center of the whole pelvic field was blocked with a 4-cm-wide lead shield, with a total external irradiation dose of 44–56 Gy. The total treatment course was 5 to 6 weeks. Results: Overall survival rate at 3 and 5 years for all patients was 76.0% and 64.9%, respectively. Disease-free 3- and 5-year survival rates of patients were 71.2% and 58.4%, respectively. Late complications included vaginal contracture and adhesion, radiation proctitis, radiation cystitis, and inflammatory bowel, which accounted for 5.8%, 7.1%, 6.2%, and 4.9%, respectively. Univariate analysis results showed significant correlation of stage, age, histopathologic grade, and lymph node status with overall survival. Cox multiple regression analysis showed that the independent variables were stage, histopathologic grade, tumor size, and lymphatic metastasis in all patients. Conclusion: Results of this series suggest that the combined use of 252 Cf-ICBT with EBRT is an effective method for treatment of cervical cancer.

  18. Beyond Californium-A Neutron Generator Alternative for Dosimetry and Instrument Calibration in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Roman K; Mozhayev, Andrey V; Murphy, Mark K; Thompson, Alan K

    2017-09-01

    Evaluations of neutron survey instruments, area monitors, and personal dosimeters rely on reference neutron radiations, which have evolved from the heavy reliance on (α,n) sources to a shared reliance on (α,n) and the spontaneous fission neutrons of californium-252 (Cf). Capable of producing high dose equivalent rates from an almost point source geometry, the characteristics of Cf are generally more favorable when compared to the use of (α,n) and (γ,n) sources or reactor-produced reference neutron radiations. Californium-252 is typically used in two standardized configurations: unmoderated, to yield a fission energy spectrum; or with the capsule placed within a heavy-water moderating sphere to produce a softened spectrum that is generally considered more appropriate for evaluating devices used in nuclear power plant work environments. The U.S. Department of Energy Cf Loan/Lease Program, a longtime origin of affordable Cf sources for research, testing and calibration, was terminated in 2009. Since then, high-activity sources have become increasingly cost-prohibitive for laboratories that formerly benefited from that program. Neutron generators, based on the D-T and D-D fusion reactions, have become economically competitive with Cf and are recognized internationally as important calibration and test standards. Researchers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are jointly considering the practicality and technical challenges of implementing neutron generators as calibration standards in the U.S. This article reviews the characteristics of isotope-based neutron sources, possible isotope alternatives to Cf, and the rationale behind the increasing favor of electronically generated neutron options. The evaluation of a D-T system at PNNL has revealed characteristics that must be considered in adapting generators to the task of calibration and testing where accurate determination of a dosimetric quantity is

  19. Use of californium-252 neutron irradiator for in-vivo analysis of the bone calcium content of the hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guey, A.; Leitienne, P.; Zech, P.Y.; Traeger, J.; Doyen, J.B.; Breton, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    With californium-252 it is easy to obtain a high neutron flux of the order of 10 9 n/s. The mean energy of this radiation, which is close on 2 MeV, activates calcium very well. The authors describe a storage and irradiator unit with a 100 μg californium source, with which it will henceforth be possible to develop this technique of measuring the calcium of the hand in a hospital. The test programme has three distinct phases: (1) irradiation of the biological target for 10 min; (2) after a transfer period of 30 s, detection of the radiation emitted by the 49 Ca for 600 s; (3) processing of the numerical data received, which are transmitted on line to a T 1600 calculator. The weight is found by comparing the activity induced in the unknown calcium mass with that induced in a phantom chosen as the activity standard. The reproducibility of the method is of the order of 3% (5% at the worst). The gross standardized result is edited automatically. For physical and clinical reasons, the hand is chosen as the reference part of the body in 70 control subjects. The local irradiation dose is less than 2 rem. The bone calcium content is 14.3+-1.9 g in men and 10.1+-1.3 g in women. In clinical application of the technique it is necessary to differentiate between the normal calcium content and the calcium content found with a pathological state. This makes it necessary to express the measurement in the form of a volume mass (rho). The volume of the hand skeleton (V in cm 3 ) is calculated from the corresponding bone surface (S in cm 2 ) measured by planimetry with the relationship V=8.925 exp 0.0205.S, found after studying 80 hand skeletons. In our control subjects the calcium bone volume mass was 0.288 g/cm 3 in men and 0.282 g/cm 3 in women. There is a very significant difference (p<0.001) in a population of 88 subjects with chronic renal insufficiencies at the terminal stage: rho=0.233 in men and 0.235 in women

  20. Long-term effects of an intracavitary treatment with californium-252 on normal tissue. [Swine, /sup 226/Ra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Beamer, J.L.; Mahony, T.D.; Cross, F.T.; Lund, J.E.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1976-01-01

    About one hundred fifty swine were exposed to either radium-226 or californium-252 sources in the uterine cervix to determine an RBE for both acute and long-term effects. That value for early changes in the tissues at risk in the treatment of cervical cancer was between 6.2 and 6.8. The incidence of complications increased with time after exposure, especially among animals treated with /sup 252/Cf. Analysis of rectal injury showed that ulceration occurred frequently within a year postexposure at doses between 1600 and 2400 rad calculated at 2 cm lateral to the source midline. Fat necrosis and smooth muscle atrophy, resulting in a local rectal stricture, were delayed changes observed in some animals. The lower ureter was the site for a greater frequency of complications than the GI tract. Ureteral stricture often occurred at doses of 1200 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 7000 rad from /sup 226/Ra. Observation of delayed effects in the uterine-cervix in animals held up to 4 years postexposure indicate that the RBE for /sup 252/Cf may be increased to a value as high as 18, while repair may have even decreased it to about 5.6 in the rectum. Fifty swine are still being observed for long-term effects after doses above 800 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 5000 rad from /sup 226/Ra.

  1. Neutron flux characterization of californium-252 Neutron Research Facility at the University of Texas - Pan American by nuclear analytical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Kareem; Sanchez, Patrick; Hannan, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    In the field of nuclear science, neutron flux is an intrinsic property of nuclear reaction facilities that is the basis for experimental irradiation calculations and analysis. In the Rio Grande Valley (Texas), the UTPA Neutron Research Facility (NRF) is currently the only neutron facility available for experimental research purposes. The facility is comprised of a 20-microgram californium-252 neutron source surrounded by a shielding cascade containing different irradiation cavities. Thermal and fast neutron flux values for the UTPA NRF have yet to be fully investigated and may be of particular interest to biomedical studies in low neutron dose applications. Though a variety of techniques exist for the characterization of neutron flux, neutron activation analysis (NAA) of metal and nonmetal foils is a commonly utilized experimental method because of its detection sensitivity and availability. The aim of our current investigation is to employ foil activation in the determination of neutron flux values for the UTPA NSRF for further research purposes. Neutron spectrum unfolding of the acquired experimental data via specialized software and subsequent comparison for consistency with computational models lends confidence to the results.

  2. Use of polyethylene pellets in the design and construction of a storage safe, a transport vessel and a portable shield for californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.

    1986-01-01

    A storage and shielding facility for 300 μg of Californium-252 sources was designed and constructed. Though the safe was in a permanent location, the fact that it consisted of a lead bucket surrounded by polyethylene pellets made it simple, movable and inexpensive. If need be, more quantities of Cf-252 could be added without altering the basic design and sacrificing the radiation protection guidelines. The measured radiation levels from 300 μg of stored Cf-252 in and around the storage vault were lower than the expected dose rates by a factor of 5. The measured radiation levels around the occupied environs of the facility were below the maximum permissible yearly dose of 500mrem for non-occupational workers. A transport vessel was designed and constructed to carry up to 50 μg of Californium-252 sources. It consisted of a standard 55 gallon steel drum on casters containing cylindrical lead shield surrounded by polyethylene pellets. The measured maximum surface dose rates on the drum and at one meter away were within the radiation protection guidelines and were less than the expected dose rates. A portable shield was designed and constructed to protect the body in afterloading operations and handling of the sources. It consisted of polyethylene pellets in an aluminum box and an attached 10 cm thick plexiglass eye shield. The simple design, with the ease of using polyethylene pellets can be extended to construct bedside shields

  3. Californium interrogation prompt neutron (CIPN) instrument for non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel—Design concept and experimental demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzlova, D., E-mail: henzlova@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Menlove, H.O.; Rael, C.D.; Trellue, H.R.; Tobin, S.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Park, Se-Hwan; Oh, Jong-Myeong; Lee, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Kwon, In-Chan; Kim, Ho-Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-11

    This paper presents results of the first experimental demonstration of the Californium Interrogation Prompt Neutron (CIPN) instrument developed within a multi-year effort launched by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel Project of the United States Department of Energy. The goals of this project focused on developing viable non-destructive assay techniques with capabilities to improve an independent verification of spent fuel assembly characteristics. For this purpose, the CIPN instrument combines active and passive neutron interrogation, along with passive gamma-ray measurements, to provide three independent observables. This paper describes the initial feasibility demonstration of the CIPN instrument, which involved measurements of four pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies with different levels of burnup and two initial enrichments. The measurements were performed at the Post-Irradiation Examination Facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute in the Republic of Korea. The key aim of the demonstration was to evaluate CIPN instrument performance under realistic deployment conditions, with the focus on a detailed assessment of systematic uncertainties that are best evaluated experimentally. The measurements revealed good positioning reproducibility, as well as a high degree of insensitivity of the CIPN instrument's response to irregularities in a radial burnup profile. Systematic uncertainty of individual CIPN instrument signals due to assembly rotation was found to be <4.5%, even for assemblies with fairly extreme gradients in the radial burnup profile. These features suggest that the CIPN instrument is capable of providing a good representation of assembly average characteristics, independent of assembly orientation in the instrument.

  4. Californium interrogation prompt neutron (CIPN) instrument for non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel—Design concept and experimental demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henzlova, D.; Menlove, H.O.; Rael, C.D.; Trellue, H.R.; Tobin, S.J.; Park, Se-Hwan; Oh, Jong-Myeong; Lee, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Kwon, In-Chan; Kim, Ho-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results of the first experimental demonstration of the Californium Interrogation Prompt Neutron (CIPN) instrument developed within a multi-year effort launched by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel Project of the United States Department of Energy. The goals of this project focused on developing viable non-destructive assay techniques with capabilities to improve an independent verification of spent fuel assembly characteristics. For this purpose, the CIPN instrument combines active and passive neutron interrogation, along with passive gamma-ray measurements, to provide three independent observables. This paper describes the initial feasibility demonstration of the CIPN instrument, which involved measurements of four pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies with different levels of burnup and two initial enrichments. The measurements were performed at the Post-Irradiation Examination Facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute in the Republic of Korea. The key aim of the demonstration was to evaluate CIPN instrument performance under realistic deployment conditions, with the focus on a detailed assessment of systematic uncertainties that are best evaluated experimentally. The measurements revealed good positioning reproducibility, as well as a high degree of insensitivity of the CIPN instrument's response to irregularities in a radial burnup profile. Systematic uncertainty of individual CIPN instrument signals due to assembly rotation was found to be <4.5%, even for assemblies with fairly extreme gradients in the radial burnup profile. These features suggest that the CIPN instrument is capable of providing a good representation of assembly average characteristics, independent of assembly orientation in the instrument.

  5. Californium-252 Program Equipment Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattin, Fred Rhea [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Kenton [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ezold, Julie G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-12-01

    To successfully continue the 252Cf production and meet the needs of the customers, a comprehensive evaluation of the Building 7920 processing equipment was requested to identify equipment critical to the operational continuity of the program.

  6. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  7. Organolanthanoid compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, H.

    1984-01-01

    Up to little more than a decade ago organolanthanoid compounds were still a curiosity. Apart from the description of an isolated number of cyclopentadienyl and indenyl derivatives, very few significant contributions had been made to this interesting sector of organometallic chemistry. However, subsequent systematic studies using modern preparative and analytical techniques, together with X-ray single crystal structure determinations, enabled the isolation and characterization of a large number of very interesting homoleptic and heteroleptic compounds in which the lanthanoid is bound to hydrogen, to substituted or unsubstituted cyclopentadienyl groups, to allyl or alkynyl groups, or even to phosphorus ylides, trimethylsilyl, and carbonylmetal groups. These compounds, which are all extremely sensitive to oxygen and water, open up new possibilities in the field of catalysis and have great potential in organic synthesis - as recent studies with pentamethylcyclopentadienyl derivatives, organolanthanoid(II) compounds, and hexamethyllanthanoid complexes have already shown. (orig.) [de

  8. Multipurpose Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  9. Manganese determination om minerals by activation analysis, using the californium-252 as a neutron source; Determinacao de manganes em minerios, por analise por ativacao, usando californio-252 como fonte de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Antonio

    1976-07-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis, using a Californium-252 neutron source, has been applied for the determination of manganese in ores such as pyrolusite, rodonite (manganese silicate)' and blending used in dry-batteries The favorable nuclear properties of manganese, such as high thermal neutron cross-section for the reaction {sup 55}Mn (n.gamma){sup 56} Mn, high concentration of manganese in the matrix and short half - life of {sup 56}Mn, are an ideal combination for non-destructive analysis of manganese in ores. Samples and standards of manganese dioxide were irradiated for about 20 minutes, followed by a 4 to 15 minutes decay and counted in a single channel pulse-height discrimination using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Counting time was equal to 10 minutes. The interference of nuclear reactions {sup 56}Fe(n,p){sup 56}Mn and {sup 59} Co (n, {alpha}){sup 56} were studied, as well as problems in connection with neutron shadowing during irradiation, gamma-rays attenuation during counting and influence of granulometry of samples. One sample,was also analysed by wet-chemical method (sodium bismuthate) in order to compare results. As a whole, i t was shown that the analytical method of neutron activation for manganese in ores and blending, is a method simple, rapid and with good precision and accuracy. (author)

  10. Design of a homogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor based on thorium with a source of californium 252; Diseno de un reactor nuclear subcritico homogeneo a base de Torio con una fuente de Californio 252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado H, C. E.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Sajo B, L., E-mail: ce_delgado89@hotmail.com [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Apdo. 89000, 1080A Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: One of the energy alternatives to fossil fuels which do not produce greenhouse gases is the nuclear energy. One of the drawbacks of this alternative is the generation of radioactive wastes of long half-life and its relation to the generation of nuclear materials to produce weapons of mass destruction. An option to these drawbacks of nuclear energy is to use Thorium as part of the nuclear fuel which it becomes in U{sup 233} when capturing neutrons, that is a fissile material. In this paper Monte Carlo methods were used to design a homogeneous subcritical reactor based on thorium. As neutron reflector graphite was used. The reactor core is homogeneous and is formed of 70% light water as moderator, 12% of enriched uranium UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} and 18% of thorium Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} as fuel. To start the nuclear fission chain reaction an isotopic source of californium 252 was used with an intensity of 4.6 x 10{sup 7} s{sup -1}. In the design the value of the effective multiplication factor, whose value turned out k{sub eff} <1 was calculated. Also, the neutron spectra at different distances from the source and the total fluence were calculated, as well as the values of the ambient dose equivalent in the periphery of the reactor. (Author)

  11. Manganese determination om minerals by activation analysis, using the californium-252 as a neutron source; Determinacao de manganes em minerios, por analise por ativacao, usando californio-252 como fonte de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Antonio

    1976-07-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis, using a Californium-252 neutron source, has been applied for the determination of manganese in ores such as pyrolusite, rodonite (manganese silicate)' and blending used in dry-batteries The favorable nuclear properties of manganese, such as high thermal neutron cross-section for the reaction {sup 55}Mn (n.gamma){sup 56} Mn, high concentration of manganese in the matrix and short half - life of {sup 56}Mn, are an ideal combination for non-destructive analysis of manganese in ores. Samples and standards of manganese dioxide were irradiated for about 20 minutes, followed by a 4 to 15 minutes decay and counted in a single channel pulse-height discrimination using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Counting time was equal to 10 minutes. The interference of nuclear reactions {sup 56}Fe(n,p){sup 56}Mn and {sup 59} Co (n, {alpha}){sup 56} were studied, as well as problems in connection with neutron shadowing during irradiation, gamma-rays attenuation during counting and influence of granulometry of samples. One sample,was also analysed by wet-chemical method (sodium bismuthate) in order to compare results. As a whole, i t was shown that the analytical method of neutron activation for manganese in ores and blending, is a method simple, rapid and with good precision and accuracy. (author)

  12. Polymer compound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1995-01-01

    A Polymer compound comprising a polymer (a) that contains cyclic imidesgroups and a polymer (b) that contains monomer groups with a 2,4-diamino-1,3,5-triazine side group. According to the formula (see formula) whereby themole percentage ratio of the cyclic imides groups in the polymer compoundwith

  13. Mesoionic Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Organic Chemistry. Kamatak University,. Dharwad. Her research interests are synthesis, reactions and synthetic utility of sydnones. She is currently working on electrochemical and insecticidal/antifungal activities for some of these compounds. Keywords. Aromaticity, mesoionic hetero- cycles, sydnones, tandem re- actions.

  14. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas have been extensively reported in the dental literature, and the term refers to tumors of odontogenic origin. Though the exact etiology is still unknown, the postulated causes include: local trauma, infection, inheritance and genetic mutation. The majority of the lesions are asymptomatic; however, may be accompanied with pain and swelling as secondary complaints in some cases. Here, we report a case of a compound odontome in a 14 year old patient.

  15. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

  16. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcelo Vargas Pinto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are the most common types of odontogenic tumors, as they are considered more as a developmental anomaly (hamartoma than as a true neoplasia. The aim of the present study is to describe a clinical case of compound odontoma, analyzing its most commonsigns, its region of location, the decade of life and patient’s gender, disorders that may occur as well as the treatment proposed. In order to attain this objective, the method was description of the present clinical case and bibliographic revision, arriving at the result that the treatment for this type of lesion invariably is surgical removal (enucleation and curettage and the prognosis is excellent. The surgical result was followed up in the post-operative period by radiographic exam, and it was possible to conclude that there was complete cicatrization and tissue repair.

  17. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  18. Isotopically modified compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter the nomenclature of isotopically modified compounds in Slovak language is described. This chapter consists of following parts: (1) Isotopically substituted compounds; (2) Specifically isotopically labelled compounds; (3) Selectively isotopically labelled compounds; (4) Non-selectively isotopically labelled compounds; (5) Isotopically deficient compounds.

  19. Rubber compounding and processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, MJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This chapter presents an overview on the compounding and processing techniques of natural rubber compounds. The introductory portion deals with different types of rubbers and principles of rubber compounding. The primary and secondary fillers used...

  20. Sanskrit Compound Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Mittal, Vipul; Kulkarni, Amba

    Sanskrit is very rich in compound formation. Typically a compound does not code the relation between its components explicitly. To understand the meaning of a compound, it is necessary to identify its components, discover the relations between them and finally generate a paraphrase of the compound. In this paper, we discuss the automatic segmentation and type identification of a compound using simple statistics that results from the manually annotated data.

  1. Preparation and study of elemental californium-249

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noe, M.; Peterson, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    Bulk samples of 249 Cf metal were prepared on the 10 μg scale via the Li metal vapor reduction of 249 CfF 3 . Above about 725 0 C elemental Cf exhibits a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure with an average, room-temperature lattice parameter of 5.75(1)A. Between about 600 0 C and 725 0 C, the stable form of Cf metal is another fcc structure with an average, room-temperature lattice parameter of 4.94(1)A. Below 600 0 C metallic Cf exhibits a double hexagonal closest packed (dhcp) structure with average, room temperature lattice parameters of a 0 = 3.39(1)A and c 0 = 11.01(5)A. By comparison of the metallic radii calculated for these three forms with those of the receding transuranium elements, it is suggested that the two, lower temperature modifications represent Cf with a metallic valence of three, while the highest temperature form represents a metallic valence of two. Although the data reported here are from the most complete study to date of elemental Cf, the limitations accompanying such microscale research are duly noted. (U.S.)

  2. Californium Cf-252 for pelvic radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Y; Feola, J M; Tai, D; Wilson, L C; Van Nagell, J R; Yoneda, J

    1978-01-01

    Clinical data about therapy concerning tumors of the female gynecological cancers of the cervix, vagina and uterus are reviewed. Dosimetric, laboratory and radiobiological research data form the basis for an approach to such tumors using Cf-252 as a form of boost brachytherapy. Extreme personnel hazards are a real and important consideration and indicate that maximal containment and isolation procedures should be exercised in its use.

  3. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  4. Compounding around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounding is universal in its prevalence. Variations in disease patterns, culture, and tradition; the role of government in health care; and the availability of essential equipment and required agents shape a compounding profile unique to each country worldwide. In the following reflections, pharmacists form Argentina, Belgium, Colombia, Germany, Puerto Rico, Spain, and the United States describe their experiences in the compounding setting unique to their practice and their nation. The unifying theme in their comments is the dedication of each contributor to enabling recovery and ensuring the good health of his or her clients.

  5. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolutio...

  6. Hexavalent Chromium Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about chromium, exposure to which can increase your risk of lung cancer and cancer of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. Hexavalent chromium compounds have been used as corrosion inhibitors in a wide variety of products and processes.

  7. MEA 86 Compound data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data file contains the full raw parameter data for the 86 compounds tested in the developmental MEA assay, as well as Area Under the Curve (AUC) calculations...

  8. Unlock your Compound Management

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen Eller

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical industry faces the increased demand for innovative medicines against various diseases. In this regard, the compound library in pharmaceutical industry is the most valuable asset. However, the compound distribution from the library into the screening plates is often still done manually and binds highly qualified resources to very time-consuming, tedious and error-prone tasks. To overcome these challenges, Chemspeed launched the first automated true one-to-one gravimetric "pi...

  9. Phenolic Molding Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Koji; Charles, Ted; de Keyser, Hendrik

    Phenolic Molding Compounds continue to exhibit well balanced properties such as heat resistance, chemical resistance, dimensional stability, and creep resistance. They are widely applied in electrical, appliance, small engine, commutator, and automotive applications. As the focus of the automotive industry is weight reduction for greater fuel efficiency, phenolic molding compounds become appealing alternatives to metals. Current market volumes and trends, formulation components and its impact on properties, and a review of common manufacturing methods are presented. Molding processes as well as unique advanced techniques such as high temperature molding, live sprue, and injection/compression technique provide additional benefits in improving the performance characterisitics of phenolic molding compounds. Of special interest are descriptions of some of the latest innovations in automotive components, such as the phenolic intake manifold and valve block for dual clutch transmissions. The chapter also characterizes the most recent developments in new materials, including long glass phenolic molding compounds and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic molding compounds exhibiting a 10-20-fold increase in Charpy impact strength when compared to short fiber filled materials. The role of fatigue testing and fatigue fracture behavior presents some insight into long-term reliability and durability of glass-filled phenolic molding compounds. A section on new technology outlines the important factors to consider in modeling phenolic parts by finite element analysis and flow simulation.

  10. Fluorine-18 labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleijn, J.P. de

    1978-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis deals with the problems involved in the adaption of reactor-produced fluorine-18 to the synthesis of 18 F-labelled organic fluorine compounds. Several 18 F-labelling reagents were prepared and successfully applied. The limitations to the synthetic possibilities of reactor-produced fluoride- 18 become manifest in the last part of the thesis. An application to the synthesis of labelled aliphatic fluoro amino acids has appeared to be unsuccessful as yet, although some other synthetic approaches can be indicated. Seven journal articles (for which see the availability note) are used to compose the four chapters and three appendices. The connecting text gives a survey of known 18 F-compounds and methods for preparing such compounds. (Auth.)

  11. Chloric organic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moalem, F.

    2000-01-01

    Since many years ago, hazardous and toxic refuses which are results of human activities has been carelessly without any Biological and Engineering facts and knowledge discharged into our land and water. The effects of discharging those materials in environment are different. Some of refuse materials shows short and other has long-time adverse effects in our environment, Among hazardous organic chemical materials, chlorine, consider, to be the main element. Organic materials with chlorine is called chlorine hydrocarbon as a hazardous compound. This paper discuss the hazardous materials especially chloric organic compound and their misuse effects in environment and human being

  12. Medicinal gold compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parish, R.V.; Cottrill, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    A major use of gold compounds in the pharmaceutical industry is for anti-arthritic agents. The disease itself is not understood and little is known about the way in which the drugs act, but detailed pictures of the distribution of gold in the body are available, and some of the relevant biochemistry is beginning to emerge. The purpose of this article is to give a survey of the types of compounds presently employed in medicine, of the distribution of gold in the body which results from their use, and of some relevant chemistry. Emphasis is placed on results obtained in the last few years

  13. Compound semiconductor device physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Sandip

    2013-01-01

    This book provides one of the most rigorous treatments of compound semiconductor device physics yet published. A complete understanding of modern devices requires a working knowledge of low-dimensional physics, the use of statistical methods, and the use of one-, two-, and three-dimensional analytical and numerical analysis techniques. With its systematic and detailed**discussion of these topics, this book is ideal for both the researcher and the student. Although the emphasis of this text is on compound semiconductor devices, many of the principles discussed will also be useful to those inter

  14. Prediction of intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhanov, Gennady S; Kiselyova, N N

    2009-01-01

    The problems of predicting not yet synthesized intermetallic compounds are discussed. It is noted that the use of classical physicochemical analysis in the study of multicomponent metallic systems is faced with the complexity of presenting multidimensional phase diagrams. One way of predicting new intermetallics with specified properties is the use of modern processing technology with application of teaching of image recognition by the computer. The algorithms used most often in these methods are briefly considered and the efficiency of their use for predicting new compounds is demonstrated.

  15. Compound floating pivot micromechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ernest J.

    2001-04-24

    A new class of tilting micromechanical mechanisms have been developed. These new mechanisms use compound floating pivot structures to attain far greater tilt angles than are practical using other micromechanical techniques. The new mechanisms are also capable of bi-directional tilt about multiple axes.

  16. The Onium Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarevsky, Nicolay V.; Slaveykova, Vera; Manev, Stefan; Lazarov, Dobri

    1997-06-01

    The onium salts are of a big interest for theoretical and structural chemistry, and for organic synthesis. Some representatives of the group (e.g. ammonium salts) were known from the oldest times. Many onium salts are met the nature: ammonium salts (either as inorganic salts, and organic derivatives, e.g. aminoacids, salts of biogenic amines and alkaloids, etc.); oxonium salts (plant pigments as anthocyans are organic oxonium compounds), etc. In 1894 C. Hartmann and V. Meyer prepared the first iodonium salts - 4-iododiphenyliodonium hydrogensulfate and diphenyliodonium salts, and suggested the ending -onium for all compounds with properties similar to those of ammonium salts. Nowadays onium compounds of almost all nonmetals are synthesised and studied. A great variety of physical methods: diffraction (e.g. XRD) and spectral methods (IR-, NMR-, and UV-spectra), as well as the chemical properties and methods of preparation of onium salts have been used in determination of the structure of these compounds. The application of different onium salts is immense. Ammonium, phosphonium and sulfonium salts are used as phase-transfer catalysts; diazonium salts - for the preparation of dyes, metalochromic and pH-indicators. All the onium salts and especially diazonium and iodonium salts are very useful reagents in organic synthesis.

  17. Forecasting of superconducting compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitskii, E.M.; Gribulya, V.G.; Kiseleva, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    In forecasting new superconducting intermetallic compounds of the A15 and Mo 3 Se types most promising from the viewpoint of high critical temperature Tsub(c), high critical magnetic fields Hsub(c), and high critical currents and in estimating their transition temperature it is proposed to apply cybernetic methods of computer learning

  18. NATURAL POLYACETYLENE COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Nasukhova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the review of the initial stage of researches of natural polyacetylene compounds is resulted. The high reactionary ability leading to fast oxidation and degradation of these compounds, especially at influence of Uf-light, oxygen of air, pH and other factors, has caused the serious difficulties connected with an establishment of structure and studying of their physical and chemical properties. Therefore the greatest quantity of works of this stage is connected with studying of essential oils of plants from families Apiaceae, Araliaceae, Asteraceae, Campanulaceae, Olacaceae, Pittosporaceae and Santalaceae where have been found out, basically, diacetylene compounds. About development of physical and chemical methods of the analysis of possibility of similar researches have considerably extended. More than 2000 polyacetylenes are known today, from them more than 1100 are found out in plants fam. Asteraceae. Revolution in the field of molecular biology has allowed to study processes of biosynthesis of these compounds intensively.

  19. Aminopropyl thiophene compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, M.M.; Knapp, F.F.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes radiopharmaceuticals useful in brain imaging comprising radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives. The compounds are 5-halo-thiophene-2-isopropyl amines able to cross the blood-brain barrier and be retained for a sufficient length of time to allow the evaluation of regional blood flow by radioimaging of the brain

  20. Aminopropyl thiophene compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1990-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals useful in brain imaging comprising radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives. The compounds are 5-halo-thiophene-2-isopropyl amines able to cross the blood-brain barrier and be retained for a sufficient length of time to allow the evaluation of regional blood flow by radioimaging of the brain.

  1. Hyperon compound nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Toshimitsu.

    1987-11-01

    The formation of various hypernuclei from K - absorption at rest is discussed from the viewpoints of compound decay of highly excited hypernuclei in contrast to the direct reaction mechanism. Recent (stopped K - , π) experiments at KEK as well as old data of emulsion and bubble chamber experiments are discussed. Some future direction of hypernuclear spectroscopy is suggested. (author)

  2. Toxicology of perfluorinated compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, Thorsten [Hessian State Laboratory, Wiesbaden (Germany); Mattern, Daniela; Brunn, Hubertus [Hessian State Laboratory, Giessen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Perfluorinated compounds [PFCs] have found a wide use in industrial products and processes and in a vast array of consumer products. PFCs are molecules made up of carbon chains to which fluorine atoms are bound. Due to the strength of the carbon/fluorine bond, the molecules are chemically very stable and are highly resistant to biological degradation; therefore, they belong to a class of compounds that tend to persist in the environment. These compounds can bioaccumulate and also undergo biomagnification. Within the class of PFC chemicals, perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorosulphonic acid are generally considered reference substances. Meanwhile, PFCs can be detected almost ubiquitously, e.g., in water, plants, different kinds of foodstuffs, in animals such as fish, birds, in mammals, as well as in human breast milk and blood. PFCs are proposed as a new class of 'persistent organic pollutants'. Numerous publications allude to the negative effects of PFCs on human health. The following review describes both external and internal exposures to PFCs, the toxicokinetics (uptake, distribution, metabolism, excretion), and the toxicodynamics (acute toxicity, subacute and subchronic toxicities, chronic toxicity including carcinogenesis, genotoxicity and epigenetic effects, reproductive and developmental toxicities, neurotoxicity, effects on the endocrine system, immunotoxicity and potential modes of action, combinational effects, and epidemiological studies on perfluorinated compounds). (orig.)

  3. Chemical compounds in teak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Viana da Silva Leonardo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Quinone compounds are largely generated at extractive fraction of the woods in a complex and variable biological system. The literature has indications for many segments from food industry to pharmaceutical industry. Within the field of industrial use of wood, they are less desirable since they are treated only as incidental substances in production strings of pulp, paper, charcoal, and sawmill. In spite of its small amount, compared to other chemical compounds called essential, these substances have received special attention from researchers revealing a diverse range of offerings to market products textiles, pharmaceuticals, colorants, and other polymers, for which are being tested and employed. Quinones are found in fungi, lichens, and mostly in higher plants. Tectona grandis, usually called teak, is able to biosynthesize anthraquinones, which is a quinone compound, byproduct of secondary metabolism. This species provides wood that is much prized in the furniture sector and can also be exploited for metabolites to supply the market in quinone compounds and commercial development of new technologies, adding value to the plantations of this species within our country.

  4. Selenium-75-labelled foliate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A saturation method to analyze a foliate is presented; it uses competitive reaction of the compound to be measured and of a radioactive-labelled version of this compound with a reagent specific to this compound present in insufficient quantity to combine with the whole of the compound and its labelled version, separation of the bound compound from its non-bound homologue and measurement of the radioactivity concentration in the bound compound, the non-bound compound or both. The radioactive isotope used in the labelled foliate is selenium 75 [fr

  5. Compound semiconductor device modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Compound semiconductor devices form the foundation of solid-state microwave and optoelectronic technologies used in many modern communication systems. In common with their low frequency counterparts, these devices are often represented using equivalent circuit models, but it is often necessary to resort to physical models in order to gain insight into the detailed operation of compound semiconductor devices. Many of the earliest physical models were indeed developed to understand the 'unusual' phenomena which occur at high frequencies. Such was the case with the Gunn and IMPATI diodes, which led to an increased interest in using numerical simulation methods. Contemporary devices often have feature sizes so small that they no longer operate within the familiar traditional framework, and hot electron or even quantum­ mechanical models are required. The need for accurate and efficient models suitable for computer aided design has increased with the demand for a wider range of integrated devices for operation at...

  6. Tripolar Mesoionic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Shuki, Araki; Jiro, Mizuya; Naomitsu, Aoyama; Yasuo, Butsugan

    1995-01-01

    Tripolar mesoionic compounds have been synthesized by the reaction of (1,3-diphenyltetrazol-5-ylio)cyclopentadienide (or -indenide) with the dicationic ether salts derived from mesoionic olates and trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride. The structures of the newly prepared mesoionic systems are discussed on the basis of spectroscopic analysis; it is shown that the tripolar [tetrazolium-cyclopentadienide (or indenide)-tetrazolium] canonical structure contributes significantly to the ground state ...

  7. Oligosilanylated Antimony Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Zitz, Rainer; Gatterer, Karl; Reinhold, Crispin R. W.; M?ller, Thomas; Baumgartner, Judith; Marschner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    By reactions of magnesium oligosilanides with SbCl3, a number of oligosilanylated antimony compounds were obtained. When oligosilanyl dianions were used, either the expected cyclic disilylated halostibine was obtained or alternatively the formation of a distibine was observed. Deliberate formation of the distibine from the disilylated halostibine was achieved by reductive coupling with C8K. Computational studies of Sb?Sb bond energies, barriers of pyramidal inversion at Sb, and the conformati...

  8. Labelled compounds. (Pt. B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buncel, E.; Jones, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Since the end of World War II there has been a tremendous increase in the number of compounds that have been synthesized with radioactive or stable isotopes. They have found application in many diverse fields, so much so, that hardly a single area in pure and applied science has not benefited. Not surprisingly it has been reflected in appearance of related publications. The early proceedings of the Symposia on Advances in Trace Methodology were soon followed by various Euratom sponsored meetings in which methods of preparing and storing labelled compounds featured prominently. In due course a resurgence of interest in stable isotopes, brought about by their greater availability (also lower cost) and partly by development of new techniques such as gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (gc-ms), led to the publication of proceedings of several successful conferences. More recently conferences dealing with the synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds have been established on a regular basis. In addition to the proceedings of conferences and journal publications individuals left their mark by producing definitive texts, usually on specific nuclides. Only the classic two volume publication of Murray and Williams (Organic syntheses with isotopes, New York 1985), now over 30 years old and out of print, attempted to do justice to several nuclides. With the large amount of work that has been undertaken since then it seems unlikely that an updated edition could be produced. The alternative strategy was to ask scientists currently active to review specific areas and this is the approach adopted in the present series of monographs. In this way it is intended to cover the broad advances that have been made in the synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds in the physical and biomedical sciences. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  9. Process for compound transformation

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-12-29

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of using a catalytic system to chemically transform a compound (e.g., a hydrocarbon). In an embodiment, the method does not employ grafting the catalyst prior to catalysis. In particular, embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a process of hydrocarbon (e.g., C1 to C20 hydrocarbon) metathesis (e.g., alkane, olefin, or alkyne metathesis) transformation, where the process can be conducted without employing grafting prior to catalysis.

  10. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. K.; Park, S. H.; Lee, W. G.; Ha, J. H.

    2005-01-01

    In 1945, Van Heerden measured α, β and γ radiations with the cooled AgCl crystal. It was the first radiation measurement using the compound semiconductor detector. Since then the compound semiconductor has been extensively studied as radiation detector. Generally the radiation detector can be divided into the gas detector, the scintillator and the semiconductor detector. The semiconductor detector has good points comparing to other radiation detectors. Since the density of the semiconductor detector is higher than that of the gas detector, the semiconductor detector can be made with the compact size to measure the high energy radiation. In the scintillator, the radiation is measured with the two-step process. That is, the radiation is converted into the photons, which are changed into electrons by a photo-detector, inside the scintillator. However in the semiconductor radiation detector, the radiation is measured only with the one-step process. The electron-hole pairs are generated from the radiation interaction inside the semiconductor detector, and these electrons and charged ions are directly collected to get the signal. The energy resolution of the semiconductor detector is generally better than that of the scintillator. At present, the commonly used semiconductors as the radiation detector are Si and Ge. However, these semiconductor detectors have weak points. That is, one needs thick material to measure the high energy radiation because of the relatively low atomic number of the composite material. In Ge case, the dark current of the detector is large at room temperature because of the small band-gap energy. Recently the compound semiconductor detectors have been extensively studied to overcome these problems. In this paper, we will briefly summarize the recent research topics about the compound semiconductor detector. We will introduce the research activities of our group, too

  11. Bronzes and relative compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehlls, A.

    1987-01-01

    Preparation and the crystal structure of bronzes based on complex oxides of transition (Ti, V, Nb, Ta, Mo, W, Re, Ru and etc.) and alkali metals, as well as oxides of some other elements (Sr, In, La and etc.) are described. Peculiarities of formation of the structure of tetragonal, tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium bronzes and their analogs depending on the chemical composition of these compounds are considered

  12. Compound Wiretap Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo Shamai (Shitz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the compound wiretap channel, which generalizes Wyner's wiretap model to allow the channels to the (legitimate receiver and to the eavesdropper to take a number of possible states. No matter which states occur, the transmitter guarantees that the receiver decodes its message and that the eavesdropper is kept in full ignorance about the message. The compound wiretap channel can also be viewed as a multicast channel with multiple eavesdroppers, in which the transmitter sends information to all receivers and keeps the information secret from all eavesdroppers. For the discrete memoryless channel, lower and upper bounds on the secrecy capacity are derived. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded channel and the semideterministic channel with one receiver. The parallel Gaussian channel is further studied. The secrecy capacity and the secrecy degree of freedom (s.d.o.f. are derived for the degraded case with one receiver. Schemes to achieve the s.d.o.f. for the case with two receivers and two eavesdroppers are constructed to demonstrate the necessity of a prefix channel in encoder design. Finally, the multi-antenna (i.e., MIMO compound wiretap channel is studied. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded case and an achievable s.d.o.f. is given for the general case.

  13. Antifungal compounds from cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishido, Tânia K; Humisto, Anu; Jokela, Jouni; Liu, Liwei; Wahlsten, Matti; Tamrakar, Anisha; Fewer, David P; Permi, Perttu; Andreote, Ana P D; Fiore, Marli F; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2015-04-13

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders.

  14. Toxic compounds in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Antifungal Compounds from Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia K. Shishido

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders.

  16. Compound Wiretap Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper considers the compound wiretap channel, which generalizes Wyner's wiretap model to allow the channels to the (legitimate receiver and to the eavesdropper to take a number of possible states. No matter which states occur, the transmitter guarantees that the receiver decodes its message and that the eavesdropper is kept in full ignorance about the message. The compound wiretap channel can also be viewed as a multicast channel with multiple eavesdroppers, in which the transmitter sends information to all receivers and keeps the information secret from all eavesdroppers. For the discrete memoryless channel, lower and upper bounds on the secrecy capacity are derived. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded channel and the semideterministic channel with one receiver. The parallel Gaussian channel is further studied. The secrecy capacity and the secrecy degree of freedom ( are derived for the degraded case with one receiver. Schemes to achieve the for the case with two receivers and two eavesdroppers are constructed to demonstrate the necessity of a prefix channel in encoder design. Finally, the multi-antenna (i.e., MIMO compound wiretap channel is studied. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded case and an achievable is given for the general case.

  17. Nomenclature on an inorganic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    This book contains eleven chapters : which mention nomenclature of an inorganic compound with introduction and general principle on nomenclature of compound. It gives the description of grammar for nomenclature such as brackets, diagonal line, asterisk, and affix, element, atom and groups of atom, chemical formula, naming by stoichiometry, solid, neutral molecule compound, ion, a substituent, radical and name of salt, oxo acid and anion on introduction and definition of oxo acid, coordination compound like symbol of stereochemistry , boron and hydrogen compound and related compound.

  18. Offset Compound Gear Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

  19. Toxicology of alkylmercury compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschner, Michael; Onishchenko, Natalia; Ceccatelli, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Methylmercury is a global pollutant and potent neurotoxin whose abundance in the food chain mandates additional studies on the consequences and mechanisms of its toxicity to the central nervous system. Formulation of our new hypotheses was predicated on our appreciation for (a) the remarkable affinity of mercurials for the anionic form of sulfhydryl (-SH) groups, and (b) the essential role of thiols in protein biochemistry. The present chapter addresses pathways to human exposure of various mercury compounds, highlighting their neurotoxicity and potential involvement in neurotoxic injury and neurodegenerative changes, both in the developing and senescent brain. Mechanisms that trigger these effects are discussed in detail.

  20. Compound composite odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kailasam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are the most common type of odontogenic tumors and generally they are asymptomatic. Frequently, it may interfere with the eruption of the teeth. This is a case report of a compound composite odontoma in a 10-year-old girl, which results in failure of eruption of the permanent upper right central incisor while the contralateral tooth had erupted. A calcified mass was seen in the radiograph and was provisionally diagnosed as odontoma following which the odontoma was enucleated. Routine follow-up was done for more than a year and no recurrence was seen. This case report indicates that early diagnosis and management ensures better prognosis.

  1. Flavour Compounds in Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravasio, Davide Antonio

    . This selection of strains was used in fermentations with the aim of identifying new interesting flavour producers. Fermentation profiles, volatile analyses, off-flavour identification and resistance to osmotic/oxidative stress have been addressed to highlight new candidates to use for industrial applications....... This resulted in the identification of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Pichia kluyveri as high producers of esters fruity compounds, which contribute to enhance the complexity of wine and beer product. In addition the strain Debaromyces subglobosus showed high yields of aldehydes and fruity ketones, which...

  2. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shu-Hua; Ma, Xuan

    2017-08-28

    In this review, a comprehensive overview about the antifouling compounds from marine invertebrates is described. In total, more than 198 antifouling compounds have been obtained from marine invertebrates, specifically, sponges, gorgonian and soft corals.

  3. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Shu-Hua; Ma, Xuan

    2017-01-01

    In this review, a comprehensive overview about the antifouling compounds from marine invertebrates is described. In total, more than 198 antifouling compounds have been obtained from marine invertebrates, specifically, sponges, gorgonian and soft corals.

  4. Catalytic properties of niobium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, K.; Iizuka, T.

    1983-04-01

    The catalytic activity and selectivity of niobium compounds including oxides, salts, organometallic compounds and others are outlined. The application of these compounds as catalysts to diversified reactions is reported. The nature and action of niobium catalysts are characteristic and sometimes anomalous, suggesting the necessity of basic research and the potential use as catalysts for important processes in the chemical industry. (Author) [pt

  5. Molecular modeling of inorganic compounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Comba, Peter; Hambley, Trevor W; Martin, Bodo

    2009-01-01

    ... mechanics to inorganic and coordination compounds. Initially, simple metal complexes were modeled, but recently the field has been extended to include organometallic compounds, catalysis and the interaction of metal ions with biological macromolecules. The application of molecular mechanics to coordination compounds is complicated by the numbe...

  6. Organometallic compounds in the environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Craig, P. J

    2003-01-01

    ... of Organometallic Species in the Environment 20 1.10 Stability of Organometallic Compounds in Biological Systems 1.11 G eneral Comments on the Toxicities of Organometallic Compounds 22 1.12 General Considerations on Environmental R eactivity of Organometallic Compounds 24 1.13 Microbial Biotransformation of Metals and M etalloids 25 1.13.1 Introduction 25 1...

  7. Goldenphilicity: Luminescent gold compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansores, L.E.

    2002-01-01

    In the solids and molecules different types of bonds are presented depending on the involved atoms, covalent bonds are common among elements of open shell, where more bond orbitals are filled than anti bond orbitals. It is expected that ionic bonds among closed shell atoms which have charges of opposite sign. Bonds type Van der Waals are presented among molecules which have a bipolar moment. It would not be expected bonds among zero charge species, or more generally with the same nominal charge and in any case the attractive forces would be very small. In fact it is expected that two metallic cations to be repelled each other. There recently is evidence that in organic or organometallic compounds could exist attractive interactions between two cations of the d 8 -d 10 -s 2 families. These bonds are weak but stronger than those of Van der Waals. They are compared with the hydrogen bonds. In this work it was reviewed some examples in which the goldenphilicity plays an important role in the luminescence that the gold complexes present. Examples of mono, bi and trinuclear and the structures that these organometallic compounds could take are examined. (Author)

  8. Semiconducting III-V compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hilsum, C; Henisch, Heinz R

    1961-01-01

    Semiconducting III-V Compounds deals with the properties of III-V compounds as a family of semiconducting crystals and relates these compounds to the monatomic semiconductors silicon and germanium. Emphasis is placed on physical processes that are peculiar to III-V compounds, particularly those that combine boron, aluminum, gallium, and indium with phosphorus, arsenic, and antimony (for example, indium antimonide, indium arsenide, gallium antimonide, and gallium arsenide).Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an assessment of the crystal structure and binding of III-V compounds, f

  9. Volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silseth, May Liss

    1998-01-01

    The goal is: Not more emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) than necessary. The items discussed in this presentation are the VOCs, how to calculate emission of VOCs, how to reduce or avoid them, and different recovery processes. The largest source of Norwegian emissions of non methane VOCs (NMVOCs) is offshore loading of raw petroleum. Emissions of VOCs should be reduced mainly for two reasons: (1) on sunny days NMVOCs may react with NOx to form ozon and smog close to the surface, (2) ozone and smog close to the surface may be harmful to plants and animals, and they are hazardous to human health. As for the calculation of VOC emissions, the VOCON project will release the calculation program HCGASS in 1999. This project is a cooperative project headed by SINTEF/Marintek

  10. Synthesis of labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, T.W.

    1977-01-01

    Intermediate compounds labeled with 13 C included methane, sodium cyanide, methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile. A new method for synthesizing 15 N-labeled 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide was developed. Studies were conducted on pathways to oleic-1- 13 C acid and a second pathway investigated was based on carbonation of 8-heptadecynylmagnesium bromide with CO 2 to prepare sterolic acid. Biosynthetic preparations included glucose- 13 C from starch isolated from tobacco leaves following photosynthetic incubation with 13 CO 2 and galactose- 13 C from galactosylglycerol- 13 C from kelp. Research on growth of organisms emphasized photosynthetic growth of algae in which all cellular carbon is labeled. Preliminary experiments were performed to optimize the growth of Escherichia coli on sodium acetate- 13 C

  11. Deposition of acidifying compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, D.; Cape, J.N.; Sutton, M.A.; Mourne, R.; Hargreaves, K.J.; Duyzer, J.H.; Gallagher, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    Inputs of acidifying compounds to terrestrial ecosystems include deposition of the gases NO 2 , NO, HNO 2 , HNO 3 , NH 3 and SO 2 and the ions NO 3- , NH 4+ , SO 4 2- and H + in precipitation, cloud droplets and particles. Recent research has identified particular ecosystems and regions in which terrestrial effects are closely linked with specific deposition processes. This review paper identifies areas in which important developments have occurred during the last five years and attempts to show which aspects of the subject are most important for policy makers. Amongst the conclusions drawn, the authors advise that current uncertainties in estimates of S and N inputs by dry deposition should be incorporated in critical load calculations, and that, in regions dominated by wet deposition, spatial resolution of total inputs should be improved to match the current scales of information on landscape sensitivity to acidic inputs. 44 refs., 9 figs

  12. TSTA compound cryopump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzer, T.H.; Patrick, R.E.; Call, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    The Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA), at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, is intended to demonstrate realistic fuel supply and cleanup scenarios for future fusion reactors. The vacuum pumps must be capable of handling large quantities of reactor exhaust gases consisting largely of mixtures of hydrogen and helium isotopes. Cryocondensing pumps will not pump helium at 4.2 K; while cryosorption pumps using molecular sieves or charcoal have good helium pumping speed, the adsorbent clogs with condensed hydrogen while pumping mixtures of both. A solution to this problem is a compound design whereby the first stage condenses the hydrogen and the second, or sorption, stage pumps the helium. The TSTA pump designed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory uses argon gas to cryotrap the helium in the helium-hydrogen mixture. The argon is sprayed directly onto the 4.2 K surface at a rate proportional to the helium flow rate, permitting continuous pumping of the helium-hydrogen mixtures in a single-stage pump. However, the possibility of differential desorption as a first stage in the TSTA gas separation cycle required the inclusion of a first-stage hydrogen isotope condenser. The design, performance, and operating characteristics are discussed

  13. Pluto's Nonvolatile Chemical Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, William M.; Binzel, Richard; Cook, Jason C.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Dalle Ore, Cristina M.; Earle, Alissa M.; Ennico, Kimberly; Jennings, Donald; Howett, Carly; Kaiser, Ralf-Ingo; Linscott, Ivan; Lunsford, A. W.; Olkin, Catherine B.; Parker, Alex Harrison; Parker, Joel Wm.; Philippe, Sylvain; Protopapa, Silvia; Quirico, Eric; Reuter, D. C.; Schmitt, Bernard; Singer, Kelsi N.; Spencer, John R.; Stansberry, John A.; Stern, S. Alan; Tsang, Constantine; Verbiscer, Anne J.; Weaver, Harold A.; Weigle, G. E.; Young, Leslie

    2016-10-01

    Despite the migration of Pluto's volatile ices (N2, CO, and CH4) around the surface on seasonal timescales, the planet's non-volatile materials are not completely hidden from view. They occur in a variety of provinces formed over a wide range of timescales, including rugged mountains and chasms, the floors of mid-latitude craters, and an equatorial belt of especially dark and reddish material typified by the informally named Cthulhu Regio. NASA's New Horizons probe observed several of these regions at spatial resolutions as fine as 3 km/pixel with its LEISA imaging spectrometer, covering wavelengths from 1.25 to 2.5 microns. Various compounds that are much lighter than the tholin-like macromolecules responsible for the reddish coloration, but that are not volatile at Pluto surface temperatures such as methanol (CH3OH) and ethane (C2H6) have characteristic absorption bands within LEISA's wavelength range. This presentation will describe their geographic distributions and attempt to constrain their origins. Possibilities include an inheritance from Pluto's primordial composition (the likely source of H2O ice seen on Pluto's surface) or ongoing production from volatile precursors through photochemistry in Pluto's atmosphere or through radiolysis on Pluto's surface. New laboratory data inform the analysis.This work was supported by NASA's New Horizons project.

  14. Affixation and compounding in Hakka

    OpenAIRE

    Ungsitipoonporn, Siriopen

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to present the internal structures of words in the Hakka language. Similar to other languages, affixation and compounding are outstanding in Hakka. In general, prefixes and suffixes are bound morphemes which do not occur independently, but in Hakka they sometimes appear as independent forms. Apart from single words, identifying compound words is of particular interest. Compound nouns can be made up of two or three words (characters) which ...

  15. Natural compounds with herbicidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Fracchiolla

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Research about phytotoxic activity of natural compounds could lead both to find new herbicidal active ingredients and to plan environmental friendly weed control strategies. Particularly, living organisms could be a source of compounds that are impossible, for their complexity, to synthesize artificially. More over, they could have alternative sites of action respect to the known chemical herbicides and, due to their origin, they should be more environmental safe. Many living organism, such as bacteria, fungi, insects, lichens and plants, are able to produce bioactive compounds. They generally are secondary metabolites or simply waste molecules. In this paper we make a review about these compounds, highlighting potential and constraints.

  16. Natural compounds with herbicidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Montemurro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Research about phytotoxic activity of natural compounds could lead both to find new herbicidal active ingredients and to plan environmental friendly weed control strategies. Particularly, living organisms could be a source of compounds that are impossible, for their complexity, to synthesize artificially. More over, they could have alternative sites of action respect to the known chemical herbicides and, due to their origin, they should be more environmental safe. Many living organism, such as bacteria, fungi, insects, lichens and plants, are able to produce bioactive compounds. They generally are secondary metabolites or simply waste molecules. In this paper we make a review about these compounds, highlighting potential and constraints.

  17. Antimicrobial compounds in tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Alison M

    2013-12-01

    The tear film coats the cornea and conjunctiva and serves several important functions. It provides lubrication, prevents drying of the ocular surface epithelia, helps provide a smooth surface for refracting light, supplies oxygen and is an important component of the innate defense system of the eye providing protection against a range of potential pathogens. This review describes both classic antimicrobial compounds found in tears such as lysozyme and some more recently identified such as members of the cationic antimicrobial peptide family and surfactant protein-D as well as potential new candidate molecules that may contribute to antimicrobial protection. As is readily evident from the literature review herein, tears, like all mucosal fluids, contain a plethora of molecules with known antimicrobial effects. That all of these are active in vivo is debatable as many are present in low concentrations, may be influenced by other tear components such as the ionic environment, and antimicrobial action may be only one of several activities ascribed to the molecule. However, there are many studies showing synergistic/additive interactions between several of the tear antimicrobials and it is highly likely that cooperativity between molecules is the primary way tears are able to afford significant antimicrobial protection to the ocular surface in vivo. In addition to effects on pathogen growth and survival some tear components prevent epithelial cell invasion and promote the epithelial expression of innate defense molecules. Given the protective role of tears a number of scenarios can be envisaged that may affect the amount and/or activity of tear antimicrobials and hence compromise tear immunity. Two such situations, dry eye disease and contact lens wear, are discussed here. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. II-VI semiconductor compounds

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    For condensed matter physicists and electronic engineers, this volume deals with aspects of II-VI semiconductor compounds. Areas covered include devices and applications of II-VI compounds; Co-based II-IV semi-magnetic semiconductors; and electronic structure of strained II-VI superlattices.

  19. Compound-heterozygous Marfan syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, F. S.; Hamel, B. C.; Hilhorst-Hofstee, Y.; Mulder, B. J. M.; Timmermans, J.; Pals, G.; Cobben, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    We report two families in which the probands have compound-heterozygous Marfan syndrome (MFS). The proband of family I has the R2726W FBN1 mutation associated with isolated skeletal features on one allele and a pathogenic FBN1 mutation on the other allele. The phenotype of the compound-heterozygous

  20. Radioactive decay and labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter on radioactive decay and labeled compounds has numerous intext equations and worked, sample problems. Topics covered include the following: terms and mathematics of radioactive decay; examples of calculations; graphs of decay equations; radioactivity or activity; activity measurements; activity decay; half-life determinations; labeled compounds. A 20 problem set is also included. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. Radiolysis of other organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    Peculiarities of radiolysis of organic halogen, phosphorus, sulfur and nitrogen (including amines, amides, nitriles et al.) compounds in liquid phase are discussed. Intermediate and stable finish products of radiolysis of the given compounds, properties and radiochemical yields of these products are considered

  2. 2. Intermetallic compounds with lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemans, J.B.A.A.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical considerations are given concerning the structures of intermetallic compounds of the lanthanides and thorium (R) on the one hand, and with Fe, Co or Ni (M) on the other. They all derive from the parent composition RM 5 with the CaCu 5 hexagonal structure. This consists of alternate layers in which the M atoms are distinguished as M 1 and M 2 . The other compounds whose structures are studied are obtained by systematic replacement of R by M, or vice versa. In the first type, every third R is replaced by two M's yielding R 2 M 17 compounds. The substitution may be truly random or structured in two ways: so that either the hexagonal structure is maintained or that it is converted into a rhombihedral one. In the second type, one M (in a M 1 position) out of every five is replaced by one R, giving rise to RM 2 compounds which form Laves phases. In the third type, the M 1 's are replaced by R's, resulting in compounds RM 3 . In the fourth type, every third M is replaced by R, yielding R 2 M 7 compounds. With M = Co and R a light lanthanide, the compounds are ferromagnets; with R yttrium, thorium, or a heavy lanthanide, they are ferrimagnets. The preparation of the compounds in an arc-melting apparatus under an Ar-atmosphere followed by annealing is described

  3. Xenobiotic organic compounds in wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Baun, Anders; Henze, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    hundred of XOCs, among them mainly originating from hygiene products: chlorophenols, detergents and phthalates. Several compounds not deriving from hygiene products were also identified e.g. flame-retardants and drugs. A environmental hazard identification showed that a large number of compounds with high...

  4. Devices for collecting chemical compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R; Groenewold, Gary S

    2013-12-24

    A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from a fixed surface so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

  5. Multi-angle compound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Søren Kragh; Wilhjelm, Jens Erik; Sillesen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on a scanning technique, denoted multi-angle compound imaging (MACI), using spatial compounding. The MACI method also contains elements of frequency compounding, as the transmit frequency is lowered for the highest beam angles in order to reduce grating lobes. Compared to conve......This paper reports on a scanning technique, denoted multi-angle compound imaging (MACI), using spatial compounding. The MACI method also contains elements of frequency compounding, as the transmit frequency is lowered for the highest beam angles in order to reduce grating lobes. Compared...... to conventional B-mode imaging MACI offers better defined tissue boundaries and lower variance of the speckle pattern, resulting in an image with reduced random variations. Design and implementation of a compound imaging system is described, images of rubber tubes and porcine aorta are shown and effects...... on visualization are discussed. The speckle reduction is analyzed numerically and the results are found to be in excellent agreement with existing theory. An investigation of detectability of low-contrast lesions shows significant improvements compared to conventional imaging. Finally, possibilities for improving...

  6. EPR investigations on technetium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abram, U.; Munze, R.; Kirmse, R.; Stach, J.

    1986-01-01

    Stimulated by the widespread use of the isotope /sup 99m/Tc in the field of nuclear medicine, there has been a substantial growth of interest in the chemistry of this man-made element. A particular need emerges for analytical methods allowing solution investigations of coordination compounds of technetium with low substance use. Considering these facts, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (EPR) appears to be a very suitable method because only very small amounts of the compounds are needed (lower than 1 mg). The resulting spectra give information regarding the valence state, symmetry and bonding properties of the compounds under study

  7. Savannah River Plant californium-252 Shuffler electronics manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourret, S.C.; Crane, T.W.; Eccleston, G.W.; Gallegos, E.A.; Garcia, D.L.

    1980-03-01

    Detailed information is presented in this report, an electronics manual for the Savannah River Plant Shuffler, about the electronics associated with the various control and data acquisition functions of the Shuffler subsystems. Circuit diagrams, interconnection information, and details about computer control and programming are included

  8. Survey of potential markets for devices using Californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permar, P.H.

    1975-01-01

    Potential applications for devices or systems containing 252 Cf in the years from 1975 to 1980 are estimated. The estimated number of devices and associated business value were derived from a survey of 46 industrial, educational and governmental organizations conducted from Jan. to May, 1975. Applications for devices and systems based on 252 Cf are expected to increase by a factor of 7 in the 6-y period from 1975 to 1980. The annual business value of 252 Cf devices should increase from 1.5 million dollars in 1975 to 10.8 million dollars in 1980. The potential European market should be several times as large as the US market, based on actual sales of 252 Cf, which have been two to four times greater in Europe than in the US

  9. The protective cell petrus for the production of californium 252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sontag, R.; Berger, R.

    1967-01-01

    The alpha, beta, gamma, neutron cell which is described in the present paper is devoted to the transplutonium element production and study. It is located at the CEN in Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). The 4 feet ordinary concrete shielding made of stacked blocs allows the manipulation of radioactive sources as high as 1000 curies of 1 MeV gamma rays and with a fast neutrons flux of 10 9 n.cm -2 .s -1 . The airtight alpha containment box is equipped with two transfer systems, one consists of a parallelepiped shaped airtight box located in a turntable, the other uses standard cylindrical containers made of polyethylene. The general equipment and the main setting up are also described. (authors) [fr

  10. Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMurdo, K.W.; Bowman, W.W.

    1978-09-01

    A 100-mg 252 Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from 17 O. Detection sensitivities of 239 Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level

  11. Savannah River Plant Californium-252 Shuffler software manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.S.; Crane, T.W.; Eccleston, G.W.

    1979-03-01

    A software manual for operating the Savannah River Plant Shuffler nondestructive assay instrument is presented. The procedures for starting up the instrument, making assays, calibrating, and checking the performance of the hardware units are described. A list of the error messages with an explanation of the circumstances prompting the message and possible corrective measures is given. A summary of the software package is included showing the names and contents of the files and subroutines. The procedure for modifying the software package is outlined

  12. Californium-252 interstitial implants in carcinoma of the tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vtyurin, B.M.; Ivanov, V.N.; Medvedev, V.S.; Galantseva, G.F.; Abdulkadyrov, S.A.; Ivanova, L.F.; Petrovskaya, G.A.; Plichko, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    A clinical study using 252 Cf sources in brachytherapy of tumors began in the Research Institute of Medical Radiology of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR in 1973. 252 Cf afterloading cells were utilized by the method of simple afterloading. Dosimetry and radiation protection of medical personnel were developed. To substantiate optimal therapeutic doses of 252 Cf neutrons, a correlation of dose, time, and treatment volume factors with clinical results of 252 Cf interstitial implants in carcinoma of the tongue for 47 patients with a minimum follow-up period of 1 year was studied. Forty-nine interstitial implants have been performed. Seventeen patients received 252 Cf implants alone (Group I), 17 other patients received 252 Cf implants in combination with external radiation (Group II), and 15 patients were treated with interstitial implants for recurrent or residual tumors (Groups III). Complete regression of carcinoma of the tongue was obtained in 48 patients (98%). Thirteen patients (27%) developed radiation necrosis. The therapeutic dose of neutron radiation from 252 Cf sources in interstitial radiotherapy of primary tongue carcinomas (Group I) was found to be 7 to 9 Gy. Optimal therapeutic neutron dose in combined interstitial and external radiotherapy of primary tumors (Group II) was 5 to 6 Gy with an external radiation dose of 40 Gy. For recurrent and residual tumors (Group III), favorable results were obtained with tumor doses of 6.5 to 7 Gy

  13. Undergraduate experiments using the neutron radiation from californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossel, J.; Golecki, I.

    1976-01-01

    Three experiments designed to demonstrate and measure several properties of the neutron radiation emitted by a 3μg 252 Cf source are described. The experiments constitute a special project carried out by a third-year undergraduate student at the Institute of Physics of the University of Neuchatel. The 252 Cf source is enclosed in a shield which allows a pencil of fast neutrons to pass through a central tube, while reducing the ambient radiation below the tolerance level. The shield consists of layers of borated paraffin wax, iron and cadmium. The first experiment uses an air-alcohol diffusion cloud chamber for the demonstration of tracks of recoil protons produced by the neutrons. Semi-quantitative measurements of track lengths give the correct order of magnitude of the proton energies. In the second experiment a liquid scintillator detector is used to scan the beam profile across the radiation shield enclosing the source. A pulse-shape-discrimination system discriminates between neutrons and gamma photons. The third experiment makes use of the nuclear emulsion technique to study the neutron energy distribution of 252 Cf. Preliminary results are compared with published values. (author)

  14. Industrial uses of boron compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor, H [Eurotungstene; Thevenot, F

    1978-06-01

    A review includes a section on the use in the chemical industry of some transition-metal borides as heterogeneous catalysts in the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of organic compounds and in fuel cells.

  15. The demise of compound houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jørgen; Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    of compound housing and analyses the advantages and disadvantages of life within such housing in Kumasi. Issues of privacy, image and communal life are usually cited by occupants dissatiesfied with life in compound houses, and the difficulty of extending them without spoiling the open spaces...... perceptions of what is acceptable urban life to the growing cohort of young African households. In addition, there is a need to explore innovative forms of tenure in order to secure the majority of Kumasi's population access to land for housing.......The compound house has long provided the accomodation required by low income households in West African cities. In Kumasi, Ghana, evidence suggests that no new compounds are being built. Instead, the city is being ringed by relatively affluent villa-style development while neighbourhoods dominated...

  16. Detection of chlorinated aromatic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1996-02-06

    A method for making a composition for measuring the concentration of chlorinated aromatic compounds in aqueous fluids, and an optical probe for use with the method are disclosed. The composition comprises a hydrophobic polymer matrix, preferably polyamide, with a fluorescent indicator uniformly dispersed therein. The indicator fluoresces in the presence of the chlorinated aromatic compounds with an intensity dependent on the concentration of these compounds in the fluid of interest, such as 8-amino-2-naphthalene sulfonate. The probe includes a hollow cylindrical housing that contains the composition in its distal end. The probe admits an aqueous fluid to the probe interior for exposure to the composition. An optical fiber transmits excitation light from a remote source to the composition while the indicator reacts with chlorinated aromatic compounds present in the fluid. The resulting fluorescence light signal is reflected to a second optical fiber that transmits the light to a spectrophotometer for analysis. 5 figs.

  17. Third Symposium on Macrocyclic Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    At the Third Symposium on Macrocyclic Compounds there were sessions on facilitated transport, analytical applications, organic synthesis and reactions, phase transfer catalysis, and metal complexation. Abstracts of the individual presentations are included

  18. Quality control of labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matucha, M.

    1979-01-01

    Some advantages and disadvantages of methods used for quality control of organic labelled compounds (1 31 I, 14 C) are shortly discussed. The methods used are electrophoresis, ultraviolet and infrared spectrometry, radiogas and thin-layer chromatography. (author)

  19. Compound cueing in free recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cueing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity effect should be greater when the two most recently recalled items were studied in contiguous list positions. A meta-analysis of published free recall experiments demonstrates evidence for compound cueing in both conditional response probabilities and inter-response times. To help rule out a rehearsal-based account of these compound cueing effects, we conducted an experiment with immediate, delayed and continual-distractor free recall conditions. Consistent with retrieved context theory but not with a rehearsal-based account, compound cueing was present in all conditions, and was not significantly influenced by the presence of interitem distractors. PMID:23957364

  20. Compound cuing in free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohnas, Lynn J; Kahana, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cuing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity effect should be greater when the 2 most recently recalled items were studied in contiguous list positions. A meta-analysis of published free recall experiments demonstrates evidence for compound cuing in both conditional response probabilities and interresponse times. To help rule out a rehearsal-based account of these compound cuing effects, we conducted an experiment with immediate, delayed, and continual-distractor free recall conditions. Consistent with retrieved context theory but not with a rehearsal-based account, compound cuing was present in all conditions, and was not significantly influenced by the presence of interitem distractors.

  1. Crystallographic properties of fertilizer compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, A.W.; Dillard, E.F.; Thrasher, R.D.; Waerstad, K.R.; Hunter, S.R.; Kohler, J.J.; Scheib, R.M.

    1991-02-01

    This bulletin is a compilation of crystallographic data collected at NFERC on 450 fertilizer-related compounds. In TVA's fertilizer R and D program, petrographic examination, XRD, and infrared spectroscopy are combined with conventional chemical analysis methods in identifying the individual compounds that occur in fertilizer materials. This handbook brings together the results of these characterization studies and supplemental crystallographic data from the literature. It is in one-compound-per-page, loose-leaf format, ordered alphabetically by IUPAC name. Indexes provided include IUPAC name, formula, group, alternate formula, synonyms, x-ray data, optical data. Tables are given for solids, compounds in commercial MAP and DAP, and matrix materials in phosphate rock.

  2. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a polishing compound for plastic materials. The compound includes approximately by approximately by weight 25 to 80 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 12 parts mineral spirits, 50 to 155 parts abrasive paste, and 15 to 60 parts water. Preferably, the compound includes approximately 37 to 42 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, up to 8 parts mineral spirits, 95 to 110 parts abrasive paste, and 50 to 55 parts water. The proportions of the ingredients are varied in accordance with the particular application. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  3. Phenolic Compounds in Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Velasco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are a large group of phytochemicals widespread in the plant kingdom. Depending on their structure they can be classified into simple phenols, phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Phenolic compounds have received considerable attention for being potentially protective factors against cancer and heart diseases, in part because of their potent antioxidative properties and their ubiquity in a wide range of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. The Brassicaceae family includes a wide range of horticultural crops, some of them with economic significance and extensively used in the diet throughout the world. The phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables has been recently investigated and, nowadays, the profile of different Brassica species is well established. Here, we review the significance of phenolic compounds as a source of beneficial compounds for human health and the influence of environmental conditions and processing mechanisms on the phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables.

  4. Fourth symposium on macrocyclic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, J.J.; Izatt, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Both theoretical and experimental aspects of the properties and behavior of synthetic and naturally occurring macrocyclic compounds are covered in this symposium. This document contains abstracts of the papers

  5. Radiation curable hydantoin diacrylate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seltzer, R.; DiPrima, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    The diacrylate compounds are liquid at room temperature, easily processable as adhesives, casting and laminating resins and when cured possess excellent resistance to water. These compositions are easily cured exposure to ionizing radiations

  6. Inorganic, coordination and organometallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jursik, F.

    1978-01-01

    Separation of cations and anions of inorganic, coordination and metalloorganic compounds by the method of liquid column chromatography is considered. Common scheme of multicomponent cation mixture is suggesteed. Separation conditions, adsrbents, eluents, pH value solution concenstration, elution rate are also suggested. Separation of rare earth elements Cs, Be, Cd, Te, Th, U, Mo, Re, V, Ru, Zr, In compounds is considered as an example of liquid column chromatography application. Data on column chromatography application are summarized in a table

  7. Compound Odontoma in young girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurwahida Nurwahida

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Odontomas are the most common type of odontogenic tumors and generally they are asymptomatic. These tumors are formed from enamel and dentin, and can have variable amounts of cement and pulp tissues. According to radiographic, microscopic, and clinical features, two types of odontomas are recognized: Complex and compound odontomas. Complex odontomas occur mostly in the posterior part of the mandible and compound odontomas in the anterior maxilla. Case Report. A young girl patient, 9 years old came to Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery with a slow growing and asymptomatic swelling in her left posterior mandible for 5 years in his history taking. The panoramic radiograph show  a radioopacity and radiolucent lesion at the lower second molar region, with well-corticated limits. An insisional biopsi   confirmed  as compound odontoma. The surgery  performed with simple enucleation and curettage under general anaesthesia. Discussion. Compound odontomas are usually located in the anterior maxilla, over the crowns of unerupted teeth, or between the roots of erupted teeth. In this case report, Compound odontomas are found in the posterior mandible. Conclusion. Compound odontomas in the posterior mandible is a rare. The treatment of odontomas depends on the size of the lesion. The early diagnosis, the treatment of choice is conservative surgical enucleation and curettage and prognosis is excellent.

  8. Diazo compounds in the chemistry of fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuktarov, Airat R; Dzhemilev, Usein M

    2010-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical data on the reactions of different diazo compounds (diazomethane, its derivatives, cyclic diazo compounds and diazocarbonyl compounds) with fullerenes are summarized. The structures and stereochemistry of cycloadducts formed in these reactions are considered.

  9. Diazo compounds in the chemistry of fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuktarov, Airat R.; Dzhemilev, Usein M.

    2010-09-01

    Experimental and theoretical data on the reactions of different diazo compounds (diazomethane, its derivatives, cyclic diazo compounds and diazocarbonyl compounds) with fullerenes are summarized. The structures and stereochemistry of cycloadducts formed in these reactions are considered.

  10. Diazo compounds in the chemistry of fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuktarov, Airat R; Dzhemilev, Usein M [Institute of Petrochemistry and Catalysis, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa (Russian Federation)

    2010-09-14

    Experimental and theoretical data on the reactions of different diazo compounds (diazomethane, its derivatives, cyclic diazo compounds and diazocarbonyl compounds) with fullerenes are summarized. The structures and stereochemistry of cycloadducts formed in these reactions are considered.

  11. Method for purifying bidentate organophosphorus compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.W.

    1977-01-01

    Bidentate organophosphorus compounds useful for extracting actinide elements from acidic nuclear waste solutions are purified of undesirable acidic impurities by contacting the compounds with ethylene glycol which preferentially extracts the impurities found in technical grade bidentate compounds

  12. Extraterrestrial Organic Compounds in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Oliver; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Many organic compounds or their precursors found in meteorites originated in the interstellar or circumstellar medium and were later incorporated into planetesimals during the formation of the solar system. There they either survived intact or underwent further processing to synthesize secondary products on the meteorite parent body. The most distinct feature of CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites, two types of stony meteorites, is their high carbon content (up to 3% of weight), either in the form of carbonates or of organic compounds. The bulk of the organic carbon consists of an insoluble macromolecular material with a complex structure. Also present is a soluble organic fraction, which has been analyzed by several separation and analytical procedures. Low detection limits can be achieved by derivatization of the organic molecules with reagents that allow for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. The CM meteorite Murchison has been found to contain more than 70 extraterrestrial amino acids and several other classes of compounds including carboxylic acids, hydroxy carboxylic acids, sulphonic and phosphonic acids, aliphatic, aromatic and polar hydrocarbons, fullerenes, heterocycles as well as carbonyl compounds, alcohols, amines and amides. The organic matter was found to be enriched in deuterium, and distinct organic compounds show isotopic enrichments of carbon and nitrogen relative to terrestrial matter.

  13. Vanadium Compounds as PTP Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Irving

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphotyrosine signaling is regulated by the opposing actions of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs. Here we discuss the potential of vanadium derivatives as PTP enzyme inhibitors and metallotherapeutics. We describe how vanadate in the V oxidized state is thought to inhibit PTPs, thus acting as a pan-inhibitor of this enzyme superfamily. We discuss recent developments in the biological and biochemical actions of more complex vanadium derivatives, including decavanadate and in particular the growing number of oxidovanadium compounds with organic ligands. Pre-clinical studies involving these compounds are discussed in the anti-diabetic and anti-cancer contexts. Although in many cases PTP inhibition has been implicated, it is also clear that many such compounds have further biochemical effects in cells. There also remain concerns surrounding off-target toxicities and long-term use of vanadium compounds in vivo in humans, hindering their progress through clinical trials. Despite these current misgivings, interest in these chemicals continues and many believe they could still have therapeutic potential. If so, we argue that this field would benefit from greater focus on improving the delivery and tissue targeting of vanadium compounds in order to minimize off-target toxicities. This may then harness their full therapeutic potential.

  14. The structures of binary compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hafner, J; Jensen, WB; Majewski, JA; Mathis, K; Villars, P; Vogl, P; de Boer, FR

    1990-01-01

    - Up-to-date compilation of the experimental data on the structures of binary compounds by Villars and colleagues. - Coloured structure maps which order the compounds into their respective structural domains and present for the first time the local co-ordination polyhedra for the 150 most frequently occurring structure types, pedagogically very helpful and useful in the search for new materials with a required crystal structure. - Crystal co-ordination formulas: a flexible notation for the interpretation of solid-state structures by chemist Bill Jensen. - Recent important advances in unders

  15. Catalytic applications of niobium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, C.J.; England, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    This article examines the potential uses of niobium, and its compounds, as catalysts in chemical processing. The word potential is deliberately chosen because in 1978 none of the world's twenty-five major catalysts (1) contained niobium. On the other hand, catalysts containing molybdenum and vanadium, neighbors of niobium in the periodic table, realized over 80 x 10 6 of sales in that same year. At the same time many of the patents for niobium catalysts cover applications in which niobium improves the activity of, or substitutes for, molybdenum based compounds. With favorable cost differentials and improvements in understanding, niobium may be able to replace molybdenum in some its traditional uses

  16. Cytotoxic Compounds from Aloe megalacantha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negera Abdissa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the roots of Aloe megalacantha led to the isolation of four new natural products—1,8-dimethoxynepodinol (1, aloesaponarin III (2, 10-O-methylchrysalodin (3 and methyl-26-O-feruloyl-oxyhexacosanate (4—along with ten known compounds. All purified metabolites were characterized by NMR, mass spectrometric analyses and comparison with literature data. The isolates were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against a human cervix carcinoma cell line KB-3-1 and some of them exhibited good activity, with aloesaponarin II (IC50 = 0.98 µM being the most active compound.

  17. Antiprotozoal compounds from Asparagus africanus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oketch-Rabah, H A; Dossaji, S F; Christensen, S B

    1997-01-01

    Two antiprotozoal compounds have been isolated from the roots of Asparagus africanus Lam. (Liliaceae), a new sapogenin, 2 beta, 12 alpha-dihydroxy-(25R)-spirosta-4,7-dien-3-one (1), which was named muzanzagenin, and the lignan (+)-nyasol (2), (Z)-(+)-4,4'-(3-ethenyl-1-propene-1,3-diyl)-bisphenol.......Two antiprotozoal compounds have been isolated from the roots of Asparagus africanus Lam. (Liliaceae), a new sapogenin, 2 beta, 12 alpha-dihydroxy-(25R)-spirosta-4,7-dien-3-one (1), which was named muzanzagenin, and the lignan (+)-nyasol (2), (Z)-(+)-4,4'-(3-ethenyl-1-propene-1,3-diyl...

  18. Compound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Selen Bilgea,*, Zeynel Kılıça, Zeliha Hayvalıa, Tuncer Hökelekb and Serap Safranb. aDepartment of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, Tandoğan, Ankara 06100, Turkey. bDepartment of Physics, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, Ankara 06800, Turkey. e-mail: sbilge@science.ankara.edu.tr. Contents: Tables.

  19. Bacterial degradation of fluorinated compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, Maria Isabel Martins

    2007-01-01

    Fluorine was produced for the first time by Henri Moissan in 1886, for which he received the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1906. The unique properties of fluorine have led to the development of fluorine chemistry and numerous synthetic fluorinated compounds have been prepared and tested for different

  20. Moessbauer spectroscopy in neptunium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamoto, Tadahiro; Nakada, Masami; Masaki, Nobuyuki; Saeki, Masakatsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Moessbauer effects are observable in seven elements of actinides from {sup 232}Th to {sup 247}Cm and Moesbauer spectra have been investigated mainly with {sup 237}Np and {sup 238}U for the reasons of availability and cost of materials. This report describes the fundamental characteristics of Moessbauer spectra of {sup 237}Np and the correlation between the isomer shift and the coordination number of Np(V) compounds. The isomer shifts of Np(V) compounds had a tendency to increase as an increase of coordination number and the isomer shifts of Np(V) compounds showed broad distribution as well as those of Np(VI) but {delta} values of the compounds with the same coordination number were distributed in a narrow range. The {delta} values of Np(VI) complexes with O{sub x} donor set suggest that the Np atom in its hydroxide (NpO{sub 2}(OH){center_dot}4H{sub 2}O)might have pentagonal bipyramidal structure and at least, pentagonal and hexagonal bipyramidal structures might coexist in its acetate and benzoate. Really, such coexistence has been demonstrated in its nitrate, (NpO{sub 2}){sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O. (M.N.)

  1. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahms, Hans Uwe; Dobretsov, Sergey

    2017-08-28

    Marine macroalgae produce a wide variety of biologically-active metabolites that have been developed into commercial products, such as antibiotics, immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic agents, and cosmetic products. Many marine algae remain clean over longer periods of time, suggesting their strong antifouling potential. Isolation of biogenic compounds and the determination of their structure could provide leads for the development of environmentally-friendly antifouling paints. Isolated substances with potent antifouling activity belong to fatty acids, lipopeptides, amides, alkaloids, lactones, steroids, terpenoids, and pyrroles. It is unclear as yet to what extent symbiotic microorganisms are involved in the synthesis of these compounds. Algal secondary metabolites have the potential to be produced commercially using genetic and metabolic engineering techniques. This review provides an overview of publications from 2010 to February 2017 about antifouling activity of green, brown, and red algae. Some researchers were focusing on antifouling compounds of brown macroalgae, while metabolites of green algae received less attention. Several studies tested antifouling activity against bacteria, microalgae and invertebrates, but in only a few studies was the quorum sensing inhibitory activity of marine macroalgae tested. Rarely, antifouling compounds from macroalgae were isolated and tested in an ecologically-relevant way.

  2. Students' Categorizations of Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domin, Daniel S.; Al-Masum, Mohammad; Mensah, John

    2008-01-01

    Categorization is a fundamental psychological ability necessary for problem solving and many other higher-level cognitive tasks. In organic chemistry, students must establish groupings of different chemical compounds in order not only to solve problems, but also to understand course content. Classic models of categorization emphasize similarity as…

  3. Compound Cuing in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cuing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity…

  4. First flush of dissolved compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, P.; Holzer, P.; Huisman, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    . It is known that since the wave celerity is higher than the flow velocity of the water, the increase of flow rate induced through rain runoff is recognised earlier at a certain downstream section of the combined sewer than the concentration increase of typical rain-water compounds originating from surface...

  5. Use of labeled compounds in tracer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The use of radiotracers in research has become common. This chapter looks at some of the underlying assumptions and advantages of labeled compounds: advantages of radiotracers; availability of suitable tracers and labeled compounds; purity of labeled compounds; autoradiolysis; storage of labeled compounds; detection systems for chromatography and electrophoretic methods. 14 refs., 2 figs

  6. Peroxide organometallic compounds and their transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razuvaev, G.A.; Brilkina, T.G.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given experimental works on synthesis and reactions of peroxide organometallic compounds. Reactions have been considered of organometallic compounds with oxygen and organic peroxides which result in formation of both peroxide and non-peroxide products. Possible routes and mechanisms of chemical transformations of peroxide organometallic compounds have been discussed. Reactions of organometallic compounds with oxygen and peroxides have been considered

  7. Response of Bioluminescent Bacteria to Alkyltin Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    found in the butyltiri series of compounds; tributyltin was (’Stimes more toxic than dibutyltin and (- 50 times more toxic than (mono)butyltin. When...correlations between compounds, tributyltin was -35 tine more Kicrotxit and fish bLoessays for pure toxic than dibutyltin end -750 times More compounds and...the compounds as a decrease in toxicity (5) tributyltin compounds ea -150 tines more and a method to study synergistic andtoxic than trinethyltia

  8. Bacterial Degradation of Aromatic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing X. Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic compounds are among the most prevalent and persistent pollutants in the environment. Petroleum-contaminated soil and sediment commonly contain a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and heterocyclic aromatics. Aromatics derived from industrial activities often have functional groups such as alkyls, halogens and nitro groups. Biodegradation is a major mechanism of removal of organic pollutants from a contaminated site. This review focuses on bacterial degradation pathways of selected aromatic compounds. Catabolic pathways of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene are described in detail. Bacterial catabolism of the heterocycles dibenzofuran, carbazole, dibenzothiophene, and dibenzodioxin is discussed. Bacterial catabolism of alkylated PAHs is summarized, followed by a brief discussion of proteomics and metabolomics as powerful tools for elucidation of biodegradation mechanisms.

  9. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1989-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  10. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1989-07-18

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  11. The Electrochemistry of Organophosphorus Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-20

    of hydrogen on the electrode surface. Mechanistkc views are further developed with the addition of water resulting in the formation of...the exclusive vlide product. Furthermore, carbonvl compounds were added to the electrolyses to react with the electrochemically-generated ylides via...the Wittig reaction. The resulting olefins were found to catalytically isomerize from the Z isomer to the E isomer upon reduction. The role of water

  12. Compound semiconductor optical waveguide switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Olga B.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2003-06-10

    An optical waveguide switch is disclosed which is formed from III-V compound semiconductors and which has a moveable optical waveguide with a cantilevered portion that can be bent laterally by an integral electrostatic actuator to route an optical signal (i.e. light) between the moveable optical waveguide and one of a plurality of fixed optical waveguides. A plurality of optical waveguide switches can be formed on a common substrate and interconnected to form an optical switching network.

  13. A bitumen compound for pavements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanadzava, K.; Simagata, R.

    1982-08-17

    A bitumen compound is proposed which is produced through addition of finely ground coal ash to a bituminous material and subsequent homogenization of the mixture. The following may be used as the bituminous material: solid petroleum bitumen (a penetration of 10 to 150), soft petroleum bitumen (a penetration of 150 to 500), a semioxidized bitumen, a mixture of semioxidized and directly distilled bitumen, bitumen diluted by a petroleum distillate, bituminous mixtures which include rubber, tar, synthetic resins and so on. It is best to use wastes from central thermal electric power plants (TETs), which operate on coal, with a great content of oxides of aluminum, iron and calcium, as the coal ash. The ash is added to the bitumen in a volume of 10 to 40 percent. The compound may include a surfactant (PAV), dispersers, additives which increase the stability to layering and others. The compound is marked by increased resistance to softening in the summer, reduced brittleness at low temperatures and good adhesion to a filler.

  14. Polyfluoroalkyl compounds in landfill leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Jan; Ahrens, Lutz; Sturm, Renate; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) are widely used in industry and consumer products. These products could end up finally in landfills where their leachates are a potential source for PFCs into the aqueous environment. In this study, samples of untreated and treated leachate from 22 landfill sites in Germany were analysed for 43 PFCs. ΣPFC concentrations ranged from 31 to 12,819 ng/L in untreated leachate and 4-8060 ng/L in treated leachate. The dominating compounds in untreated leachate were perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) (mean contribution 27%) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) (24%). The discharge of PFCs into the aqueous environment depended on the cleaning treatment systems. Membrane treatments (reverse osmosis and nanofiltrations) and activated carbon released lower concentrations of PFCs into the environment than cleaning systems using wet air oxidation or only biological treatment. The mass flows of ΣPFCs into the aqueous environment ranged between 0.08 and 956 mg/day. - The first comprehensive survey of polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in landfill leachates.

  15. Studying the propensity of compounds to supersaturate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmelund, Henrik; Madsen, Cecilie Maria; Christensen, Jakob Plum

    2016-01-01

    Supersaturating drug delivery systems can enhance the oral bioavailability of poorly soluble drug compounds. Supersaturation of such compounds has been studied in many different ways; however, a more standardized method is required. The rationale of choosing suitable concentrations of supersatura......Supersaturating drug delivery systems can enhance the oral bioavailability of poorly soluble drug compounds. Supersaturation of such compounds has been studied in many different ways; however, a more standardized method is required. The rationale of choosing suitable concentrations...... of supersaturation to study has previously been very inconsistent. This makes comparisons between studies and compounds difficult, as the propensity of compounds to supersaturate varies greatly. This study presents a standardized method to study the supersaturation of drug compounds. The method allows, both......, for a ranking of compounds according to their supersaturation propensity and the effectiveness of precipitation inhibitors. The time-concentration profile of supersaturation and precipitation was studied in situ for 4 different concentrations for 6 model compounds (albendazole, aprepitant, danazol, felodipine...

  16. Investigations on organogermanium compounds XII. Reactions of trialkylgermylalkalimetal compounds in hexamethylphosphoric triamide (HMPT) with some inorganic and organic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulten, E.J.; Noltes, J.G.

    1971-01-01

    Trialkylgermyl alkali metal compounds in HMPT have been found to be highly reactive nucleophiles. Reactions with some inorganic and organic compounds, such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, inorganic and orgaanic halides, aldehydes, ketones, epoxides and lactones are described. Several new

  17. Volatile flavor compounds in yogurt: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa

    2010-11-01

    Considerable knowledge has been accumulated on the volatile compounds contributing to the aroma and flavor of yogurt. This review outlines the production of the major flavor compounds in yogurt fermentation and the analysis techniques, both instrumental and sensory, for quantifying the volatile compounds in yogurt. The volatile compounds that have been identified in plain yogurt are summarized, with the few key aroma compounds described in detail. Most flavor compounds in yogurt are produced from lipolysis of milkfat and microbiological transformations of lactose and citrate. More than 100 volatiles, including carbonyl compounds, alcohols, acids, esters, hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, sulfur-containing compounds, and heterocyclic compounds, are found in yogurt at low to trace concentrations. Besides lactic acid, acetaldehyde, diacetyl, acetoin, acetone, and 2-butanone contribute most to the typical aroma and flavor of yogurt. Extended storage of yogurt causes off-flavor development, which is mainly attributed to the production of undesired aldehydes and fatty acids during lipid oxidation. Further work on studying the volatile flavor compounds-matrix interactions, flavor release mechanisms, and the synergistic effect of flavor compounds, and on correlating the sensory properties of yogurt with the compositions of volatile flavor compounds are needed to fully elucidate yogurt aroma and flavor.

  18. Nitrogen Compounds in Radiation Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, H.E.; Dey, G.R.; Vaudey, C.E.; Peaucelle, C.; Boucher, J.L.; Toulhoat, N.; Bererd, N.; Koppenol, W.H.; Janata, E.; Dauvois, V.; Durand, D.; Legand, S.; Roujou, J.L.; Doizi, D.; Dannoux, A.; Lamouroux, C.

    2009-01-01

    Water radiolysis in presence of N 2 is probably the topic the most controversy in the field of water radiolysis. It still exists a strong discrepancy between the different reports of ammonia formation by water radiolysis in presence of N 2 and moreover in absence of oxygen there is no agreement on the formation or not of nitrogen oxide like NO 2 - and NO 3 -. These discrepancies come from multiple sources: - the complexity of the reaction mechanisms where nitrogen is involved - the experimental difficulties - and, the irradiation conditions. The aim of the workshop is to capitalize the knowledge needed to go further in simulations and understanding the problems caused (or not) by the presence of nitrogen / water in the environment of radioactive materials. Implications are evident in terms of corrosion, understanding of biological systems and atmospheric chemistry under radiation. Topics covered include experimental and theoretical approaches, application and fundamental researches: - Nitrate and Ammonia in radiation chemistry in nuclear cycle; - NOx in biological systems and atmospheric chemistry; - Formation of Nitrogen compounds in Nuclear installations; - Nitrogen in future power plant projects (Gen4, ITER...) and large particle accelerators. This document gathers the transparencies available for 7 of the presentations given at this workshop. These are: - H.E SIMS: 'Radiation Chemistry of Nitrogen Compounds in Nuclear Power Plant'; - G.R. DEY: 'Nitrogen Compounds Formation in the Radiolysis of Aqueous Solutions'; - C.E. VAUDEY et al.: 'Radiolytic corrosion of nuclear graphite studied with the dedicated gas irradiation cell of IPNL'; - J.L. BOUCHER: 'Roles and biosynthesis of NO in eukaryotes and prokaryotes'; - W.H. KOPPENOL: 'Chemistry of NOx'; - E. JANATA: 'Yield of OH in N 2 O saturated aqueous solution'; - V. DAUVOIS: 'Analytical strategy for the study of radiolysis gases'

  19. DNA modification by alkylating compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruglyakova, E.E.

    1985-09-01

    Results are given for research on the physico-chemical properties of alkylating compounds - nitroso alkyl ureas (NAU) which possess a broad spectrum of biological activity, such as mutagenic, carcinogenic, and anti-tumor action that is due to the alkylation and carbamoylation of DNA as well as other cellular components. Identified chemical products of NAU interaction with DNA and its components are cited. Structural conversions of a DNA macromolecule resulting from its chemical modification are examined. NAU are used to discuss possible biological consequences of DNA modification. 148 references.

  20. Unpacking Noun-Noun Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Viktor; Barratt, Daniel; Zlatev, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    In two complementary experiments we took an integrated approach to a set of tightly interwoven, yet rarely combined questions concerning the spontaneous interpretation of novel (unfamiliar) noun-noun compounds (NNCs) when encountered in isolation, and possible (re)interpretations of novel as well...... concerning the relations between semantics and pragmatics, as well as system and usage, and psycholinguistic issues concerning the processing of NNCs. New insights and methodological tools are also provided for supporting future best practices in the field of food naming and labelling...

  1. Raman spectra of lithium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Bi, Dongxue; Voinov, Y. P.; Vodchits, A. I.; Gorshunov, B. P.; Yurasov, N. I.; Yurasova, I. I.

    2017-11-01

    The paper is devoted to the results of investigating the spontaneous Raman scattering spectra in the lithium compounds crystals in a wide spectral range by the fibre-optic spectroscopy method. We also present the stimulated Raman scattering spectra in the lithium hydroxide and lithium deuteride crystals obtained with the use of powerful laser source. The symmetry properties of the lithium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide monohydrate and lithium deuteride crystals optical modes were analyzed by means of the irreducible representations of the point symmetry groups. We have established the selection rules in the Raman and infrared absorption spectra of LiOH, LiOH·H2O and LiD crystals.

  2. Selenium-containing indolyl compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casaril, Angela M; Ignasiak, Marta T; Chuang, Christine Y

    2017-01-01

    materials, including extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, within the artery wall. Here we investigated the potential of selenium-containing indoles to afford protection against these oxidants, by determining rate constants (k) for their reaction, and quantifying the extent of damage on isolated ECM proteins......Tyr on HCAEC-ECM were also reduced. These data demonstrate that the novel selenium-containing compounds show high reactivity with oxidants and may modulate oxidative and nitrosative damage at sites of inflammation, contributing to a reduction in tissue dysfunction and atherogenesis....

  3. Benzimidazoles: A biologically active compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahuddin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of commercially available benzimidazole involves condensation of o-phenylenediamine with formic acid. The most prominent benzimidazole compound in nature is N-riosyldimethylbenzimidazole, which serves as a axial ligand for cobalt in vitamin B12. The benzimidazole and its derivatives play a very important role as a therapeutic agent e.g. antiulcer and anthelmintic drugs. Apart from this the benzimidazole derivatives exhibit pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, etc. The substituted benzimidazoles are summarized in this review to know about the chemistry as well as pharmacological activities.

  4. Characterisation of selected volatile organic compounds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GCMS), was used to identify volatile compounds at three different temperatures. Fifty volatile compounds, inclusive of 14 acids, 14 alcohols, and 22 esters were identified and quantified in the two brands of indigenous banana beer samples. Only 12 ...

  5. Genetic effects of organic mercury compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramel, C

    1967-01-01

    Studies on the genetic and developmental effects of organic mercury compounds on lilies, drosophila, and ice were carried out. It was found that chromosomal and developmental abnormalities were correlated with the administration of mercury compounds.

  6. Butyl Rubber: Compound Development and Characterization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sloan, James

    2000-01-01

    ...), to develop the standard butyl rubber compound. The strategy of this work was to compound- and compression-mold high-quality, uniform butyl rubber experimental sheets and to evaluate their cure properties, mechanical properties...

  7. Potent antifouling compounds produced by marine Streptomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Ying; He, Hongping; Schulz, Stefan; Liu, Xin; Fusetani, Nobushino; Xiong, Hairong; Xiao, Xiang; Qian, Peiyuan

    2010-01-01

    of a marine Streptomyces strain obtained from deep-sea sediments. Antifouling activities of these five compounds and four other structurally-related compounds isolated from a North Sea Streptomyces strain against major fouling organisms were compared

  8. Aroma compounds in fresh cut pomegranate arils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little published information exists regarding flavor and aroma compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum). Although arils have fruity and sweet characteristics, we found no publications describing actual compounds responsible for their typical flavor. Since most commercial usage of pomegranates in...

  9. Two new acetylenic compounds from Asparagus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Mei; Cai, Jin-Long; Wang, Wen-Xiang; Ai, Hong-Lian; Mao, Zi-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Two new acetylenic compounds, asparoffins A (1) and B (2), together with two known compounds, nyasol (3) and 3″-methoxynyasol (4), were isolated from stems of Asparagus officinalis. The structures of two new compounds were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, MS, 1D, and 2D NMR). All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicities against three human cancer cell lines.

  10. Semiconducting compounds and devices incorporating same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Tobin J.; Facchetti, Antonio; Boudreault, Pierre-Luc; Miyauchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-19

    Disclosed are molecular and polymeric compounds having desirable properties as semiconducting materials. Such compounds can exhibit desirable electronic properties and possess processing advantages including solution-processability and/or good stability. Organic transistor and photovoltaic devices incorporating the present compounds as the active layer exhibit good device performance.

  11. Separation of compounds differing in isotopic composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievers, R.E.; Brooks, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    Compounds differing in isotopic composition are separated by introducing a mixture of the compounds into a chromatographic column containing a lanthanide chelate as a stationary phase and eluting from the column a fraction which is at least enriched with one of the compounds of the mixture. 17 claims, no drawings

  12. Separation of compounds differing in isotopic composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievers, R.E.; Brooks, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    Compounds differing in isotopic composition are separated by introducing a mixture of the compounds into a chromatographic column containing a lanthanide chelate as a stationary phase and eluting from the column a fraction that is at least enriched with one of the compounds of the mixture. (U.S.)

  13. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelsen, Reid A.; Chen, Wen S.

    1985-01-01

    A compositionally uniform thin film of a mixed metal compound is formed by simultaneously evaporating a first metal compound and a second metal compound from independent sources. The mean free path between the vapor particles is reduced by a gas and the mixed vapors are deposited uniformly. The invention finds particular utility in forming thin film heterojunction solar cells.

  14. Superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Robert P. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Weller, Thomas E.; Howard, Christopher A. [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom); Dean, Mark P.M. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Rahnejat, Kaveh C. [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom); Saxena, Siddharth S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Ellerby, Mark, E-mail: mark.ellerby@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Historical background of graphite intercalates. • Superconductivity in graphite intercalates and its place in the field of superconductivity. • Recent developments. • Relevant modeling of superconductivity in graphite intercalates. • Interpretations that pertain and questions that remain. - Abstract: The field of superconductivity in the class of materials known as graphite intercalation compounds has a history dating back to the 1960s (Dresselhaus and Dresselhaus, 1981; Enoki et al., 2003). This paper recontextualizes the field in light of the discovery of superconductivity in CaC{sub 6} and YbC{sub 6} in 2005. In what follows, we outline the crystal structure and electronic structure of these and related compounds. We go on to experiments addressing the superconducting energy gap, lattice dynamics, pressure dependence, and how these relate to theoretical studies. The bulk of the evidence strongly supports a BCS superconducting state. However, important questions remain regarding which electronic states and phonon modes are most important for superconductivity, and whether current theoretical techniques can fully describe the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on pressure and chemical composition.

  15. Superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Robert P.; Weller, Thomas E.; Howard, Christopher A.; Dean, Mark P.M.; Rahnejat, Kaveh C.; Saxena, Siddharth S.; Ellerby, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Historical background of graphite intercalates. • Superconductivity in graphite intercalates and its place in the field of superconductivity. • Recent developments. • Relevant modeling of superconductivity in graphite intercalates. • Interpretations that pertain and questions that remain. - Abstract: The field of superconductivity in the class of materials known as graphite intercalation compounds has a history dating back to the 1960s (Dresselhaus and Dresselhaus, 1981; Enoki et al., 2003). This paper recontextualizes the field in light of the discovery of superconductivity in CaC 6 and YbC 6 in 2005. In what follows, we outline the crystal structure and electronic structure of these and related compounds. We go on to experiments addressing the superconducting energy gap, lattice dynamics, pressure dependence, and how these relate to theoretical studies. The bulk of the evidence strongly supports a BCS superconducting state. However, important questions remain regarding which electronic states and phonon modes are most important for superconductivity, and whether current theoretical techniques can fully describe the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on pressure and chemical composition

  16. Antimicrobial compounds of porcine mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotenkova, E. A.; Lukinova, E. A.; Fedulova, L. V.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate porcine oral cavity mucosa (OCM), nasal cavity mucosa (NCM), rectal mucosa (RM) and tongue mucosa (TM) as sources of antimicrobial compounds. Ultrafiltrates with MW >30 kDa, MW 5-30 kDa and MW 30 kDa, the zone of microbial growth inhibition was 7.5 mm, for the MW<5 kDa fraction, it was 7 mm, and for MW 5-30 kDa fraction, it was 4.5 mm. No significant differences were found in high molecular weight proteomic profile, while qualitative and quantitative differences were observed in the medium and low molecular weight areas, especially in OCM and NCM. HPLC showed 221 tissue-specific peptides in OCM, 156 in NCM, 225 in RM, but only 5 in TM. The results observed confirmed porcine mucous tissues as a good source of antimicrobial compounds, which could be an actual alternative for reduction of microbial spoilage of foods.

  17. Antioxidant Phenolic Compounds from Pu-erh Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Shan Du

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Eight compounds were isolated from the water extract of Pu-erh tea and their structures were elucidated by NMR and MS as gallic acid (1, (+-catechin (2, (−-epicatechin (3, (−-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (4, (−-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (5, (−-epiafzelechin- 3-O-gallate (6, kaempferol (7, and quercetin (8. Their in vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by the DPPH and ABTS scavenging methods with microplate assays. The relative order of DPPH scavenging capacity for these compounds was compound 8 > compound 7 > compound 1 > compound 6 > compound 4 ≈ compound 5 > compound 2 > VC (reference > compound 3, and that of ABTS scavenging capacity was compound 1 > compound 2 > compound 7 ≈ compound 8 > compound 6 > compound 5 > compound 4 > VC (reference > compound 3. The results showed that these phenolic compounds contributed to the antioxidant activity of Pu-erh tea.

  18. Bioavailability of dietary phenolic compounds: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Gutiérrez-Grijalva Paul Gutiérrez-Grijalva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are ubiquitous in plant-based foods. High dietary intake of fruits, vegetables and cereals is related to a decreased rate in chronic diseases. Phenolic compounds are thought to be responsible, at least in part, for those health effects. Nonetheless, phenolic compounds bioaccessibility and biotransformation is often not considered in these studies; thus, a precise mechanism of action of phenolic compounds is not known. In this review we aim to present a comprehensive knowledge of the metabolic processes through which phenolic compounds go after intake.

  19. The formation of lithium diarylargentates from arylsilver compounds and the corresponding aryllithium compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blenkers, J.; Hofstee, H.K.; Boersma, J.; Kerk, G.J.M. van der

    1979-01-01

    Diarylsilverlithium compounds of the type Ar2AgLi are formed by treating arylsilver compounds with the corresponding aryllithium compounds. Cryoscopy in benzene shows that the Ar2AgLi compounds are associated into dimers. NMR spectroscopic data indicate that only one type of aryl group is present in

  20. Diffusion mechanisms in intermetallic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larikov, L N [ANU, Inst. Metallofiziki, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1992-08-01

    Recent research aimed at the identification of the principal mechanisms of diffusion in intermetallics is reviewed. In particular, attention is given to the effect of the type of interatomic bond on the contribution of different mechanisms to diffusion in ordered metallic compounds. Results of an analysis of experimental determinations of diffusion coefficients D(A) and D(B) in binary intermetallics (CuZn, Cu3Sn, AuCd, AgZn, AgMg, InSb, GaSb, AlSb, Fe3Al, FeAl, FeAl3, Ni3Al, Ni3Nb, FeSn, FeSn2, Ni3Sn2, Ni3Sn4, Co3Sn2, CoSn, CoSn2, and CoGa) are presented, and it is shown that the D(A)/D(B) ratio differs substantially for different diffusion mechanisms. 60 refs.

  1. Antimicrobial compounds from Alpinia conchigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Ahmad Nazif; Ibrahim, Halijah; Rosmy Syamsir, Devi; Mohtar, Mastura; Vejayan, Jaya; Awang, Khalijah

    2013-02-13

    The rhizome of Alpinia conchigerahas been used as a condiment in the northern states of Peninsular Malaysia and occasionally in folk medicine in the east coast to treat fungal infections. In some states of Peninsular Malaysia, the rhizomes are consumed as a post-partum medicine and the young shoots are prepared into a vegetable dish. This study aimed to investigate the chemical constituents of the pseudostems and rhizomes of Malaysian Alpinia conchigera and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of the pseudostems, rhizomes and the isolated compounds against three selected fungi and five strains of Staphylococcus aureus. The dried and ground pseudostems (0.8kg) and rhizomes (1.0kg) were successively extracted in Soxhlet extractor using n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol. The n-hexane and DCM extracts of the pseudostem and rhizome were subjected to isolation and purification using column chromatography on silica gel using a stepwise gradient system (n-hexane to methanol). Briefly, a serial two fold dilutions of the test materials dissolved in DMSO were prepared prior to addition of 100μl overnight microbial suspension (108 cfu/ml) followed by incubation at 37°C (bacteria) or 26°C (dermatophytes and candida) for 24h. The highest concentration of DMSO remaining after dilution (5%, v/v) caused no inhibition to bacterial/candida/dermatophytes' growth. Antibiotic cycloheximide was used as reference for anticandidal and antidermatophyte comparison while oxacilin was used as reference for antibacterial testing. DMSO served as negative control. Turbidity was taken as indication of growth, thus the lowest concentration which remains clear after macroscopic evaluation was taken as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The isolation of n-hexane and DCM extracts of the rhizomes and pseudostems of Alpinia conchigera via column chromatography yielded two triterpenes isolated as a mixture of stigmasterol and

  2. Compound induction electric rotating machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decesare, D

    1987-07-28

    The present invention generally relates to dynamo-electric machines cabable of operating in a generator mode or in a motor mode and more specifically, to increased efficiency compound interaction AC and/or DC dynamo-electric machines. This patent describes such a machine having a distributed armature winding in a cylindrical rotor wound to form axial and substantially radial winding portions and including permanent and/or electromagnets to couple magnetic flux into the peripheral or circumferential surface of the rotor, and to provide interaction between a magnetic field formed beyond the rotor axial surfaces and the rotor to thereby enhance the total induction of flux into the rotor for improved, more efficient operation. 28 figs.,

  3. METHOD OF RECOVERING URANIUM COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, R.H.

    1957-10-29

    S>The recovery of uranium compounds which have been adsorbed on anion exchange resins is discussed. The uranium and thorium-containing residues from monazite processed by alkali hydroxide are separated from solution, and leached with an alkali metal carbonate solution, whereby the uranium and thorium hydrorides are dissolved. The carbonate solution is then passed over an anion exchange resin causing the uranium to be adsorbed while the thorium remains in solution. The uranium may be recovered by contacting the uranium-holding resin with an aqueous ammonium carbonate solution whereby the uranium values are eluted from the resin and then heating the eluate whereby carbon dioxide and ammonia are given off, the pH value of the solution is lowered, and the uranium is precipitated.

  4. Compound verbs in English revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bagasheva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Compound verbs (CVs raise a number of puzzling questions concerning their classification, their word formation properties, their basic onomasiological function and their transitory status between “relations” and “conceptual-cores”. Using the constructionist framework in the context of a usage-based network model of language, the paper develops a proposal for the classification of CVs and an account of the semantics of word formation niches of CVs created by analogy, which yield unified semantic analyses. A hypothesis is formulated concerning the acategorial nature of CV internal constituents, which naturally accommodates the proposed classification and word formation niche analyses. A hypothesis is formulated in this context concerning the intermediary status of CVs as language-cognition interface units collapsing the “relation-conceptual core” distinction. Conclusions are drawn relating to the transitory nature of most CVs as nonce creations performing a special function in communicative interaction.

  5. Compound verbs in English revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bagasheva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Compound verbs (CVs raise a number of puzzling questions concerning their classification, their word formation properties, their basic onomasiological function and their transitory status between “relations” and “conceptual-cores”. Using the constructionist framework in the context of a usage-based network model of language, the paper develops a proposal for the classification of CVs and an account of the semantics of word formation niches of CVs created by analogy, which yield unified semantic analyses. A hypothesis is formulated concerning the acategorial nature of CV internal constituents, which naturally accommodates the proposed classification and word formation niche analyses. A hypothesis is formulated in this context concerning the intermediary status of CVs as language-cognition interface units collapsing the “relation-conceptual core” distinction. Conclusions are drawn relating to the transitory nature of most CVs as nonce creations performing a special function in communicative interaction.

  6. The toxicology of uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brickner, D.

    1988-11-01

    This review of literature presents and criticises the current knowledge relevant to risk assessment in cases of human exposure to natural uranium compounds due to industrial accidents. The major risk of high uranium exposure is renal-tubular damage which may lead to acute renal insufficiency and death. Radiation damage is not expected in these circumstances. In this review the metabolism of uranium in the body, the health effects and the possible medical treatment are discussed, with an emphasis on relatively large exposure of short duration. The current ICRP lung model does not represent all the factors affecting the kinetics of uranium oxides in the respiratory tract. The significance of these factors, not represented by the model, for risk assessment in such exposures, is not known. The current recommendations for treatment are not scientifically based. Further investigations are urgently needed to enable a rational medical preparadness

  7. Compound process fuel cycle concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami, Tetsuo

    2005-01-01

    Mass flow of light water reactor spent fuel for a newly proposed nuclear fuel cycle concept 'Compound Process Fuel Cycle' has been studied in order to assess the capacity of the concept for accepting light water reactor spent fuels, taking an example for boiling water reactor mixed oxide spent fuel of 60 GWd/t burn-up and for a fast reactor core of 3 GW thermal output. The acceptable heavy metal of boiling water reactor mixed oxide spent fuel is about 3.7 t/y/reactor while the burn-up of the recycled fuel is about 160 GWd/t and about 1.6 t/y reactor with the recycled fuel burn-up of about 300 GWd/t, in the case of 2 times recycle and 4 times recycle respectively. The compound process fuel cycle concept has such flexibility that it can accept so much light water reactor spent fuels as to suppress the light water reactor spent fuel pile-up if not so high fuel burn-up is expected, and can aim at high fuel burn-up if the light water reactor spent fuel pile-up is not so much. Following distinctive features of the concept have also been revealed. A sort of ideal utilization of boiling water reactor mixed oxide spent fuel might be achieved through this concept, since both plutonium and minor actinide reach equilibrium state beyond 2 times recycle. Changes of the reactivity coefficients during recycles are mild, giving roughly same level of reactivity coefficients as the conventional large scale fast breeder core. Both the radio-activity and the heat generation after 4 year cooling and after 4 times recycle are less than 2.5 times of those of the pre recycle fuel. (author)

  8. Organic electronic devices using phthalimide compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Azad M.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2010-09-07

    Organic electronic devices comprising a phthalimide compound. The phthalimide compounds disclosed herein are electron transporters with large HOMO-LUMO gaps, high triplet energies, large reduction potentials, and/or thermal and chemical stability. As such, these phthalimide compounds are suitable for use in any of various organic electronic devices, such as OLEDs and solar cells. In an OLED, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as a host in the emissive layer, as a hole blocking material, or as an electron transport material. In a solar cell, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as an exciton blocking material. Various examples of phthalimide compounds which may be suitable for use in the present invention are disclosed.

  9. Insecticidal Activity of Cyanohydrin and Monoterpenoid Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel R. Coats

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal activities of several cyanohydrins, cyanohydrin esters and monoterpenoid esters (including three monoterpenoid esters of a cyanohydrin were evaluated. Topical toxicity to Musca domestica L. adults was examined, and testing of many compounds at 100 mg/fly resulted in 100% mortality. Topical LD50 values of four compounds for M. domestica were calculated. Testing of many of the reported compounds to brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana Kellog resulted in 100% mortality at 10 ppm, and two compounds caused 100% mortality at 1 ppm. Aquatic LC50 values were calculated for five compounds for larvae of the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti (L.. Monoterpenoid esters were among the most toxic compounds tested in topical and aquatic bioassays.

  10. The content of compound conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Justin A; Andrew, Benjamin J; Livesey, Evan J

    2012-04-01

    In three experiments using Pavlovian conditioning of magazine approach, rats were trained with a compound stimulus, AB, and were concurrently trained with stimulus B on its own. The reinforcement rate of B, rB, was either 1/2, 2/3, or 2/5 of rAB. After extended training, the conditioning strength of A was assessed using probe trials in which A was presented alone. Responding during A was compared with that during AB, B, and a third stimulus, C, for which rC = rAB - rB. In each experiment, the rats' response rate during A was almost identical to that during C (and during B, when rB = 1/2rAB). This suggests that, during AB conditioning, the rats had learned about rA as being equal to [rAB - rB], and implies that the content of their learning was a linear function of r. The findings provide strong support for rate-based models of conditioning (e.g., Gallistel & Gibbon, 2000). They are also consistent with the associative account of learning defined in the Rescorla and Wagner (1972) model, but only if the learning rate during reinforcement equals that during nonreinforcement. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Technetium complexation by macrocyclic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fan Yu.

    1983-01-01

    Research in nuclear medicine are directed towards the labelling of biological molecules, however, sup(99m)Tc does not show sufficient affinity for these molecules. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of macrocyclic compounds to bind strongly technetium in order to be used as complexation intermediate. The reducing agents used were a stannous complex and sodium dithionite. Cryptates and polyesters are not good complexing agents. They form two complexes: a 2:1 sandwich complex or 3:2 and a 1:1 complex. Cyclams are good complexing agents for technetium their complexations strength was determined by competition with pyrophosphate, gluconate and DTPA. Using the method of ligand exchange, the oxidation state of technetium in the Tc-cyclam complex was IV or V. They are 1:1 cationic complexes, the complex charge is +1. The biodistribution in rats of labelling solutions containing (cyclam 14 ane N 4 ) C 12 H 25 shows a good urinary excretion without intoxication risks [fr

  12. Properties of tritium and its compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belovodskij, L.F.; Gaevoj, V.K.; Grishmanovskij, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    Ways of tritium preparation and different aspects of its application are considered. Physicochemical properties of this isotope and some compounds of it - tritium oxides, lithium, titanium, zirconium, uranium tritides, tritium organic compounds - are discussed. In particular, diffusion of tritium and its oxide through different materials, tritium oxidation processes, decomposition of tritium-containing compounds under the action of self-radiation are considered. Main radiobiological tritium properties are described

  13. Complex fragment emission from hot compound nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.

    1986-03-01

    The experimental evidence for compound nucleus emission of complex fragments at low energies is used to interpret the emission of the same fragments at higher energies. The resulting experimental picture is that of highly excited compound nuclei formed in incomplete fusion processes which decay statistically. In particular, complex fragments appear to be produced mostly through compound nucleus decay. In the appendix a geometric-kinematic theory for incomplete fusion and the associated momentum transfer is outlined. 10 refs., 19 figs

  14. Antibacterial Compounds from Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyta)

    OpenAIRE

    Noer Kasanah; Triyanto Triyanto; Drajad Sarwo Seto; Windi Amelia; Alim Isnansetyo

    2015-01-01

    Seaweeds produce great variety of metabolites benefit for human. Red seaweeds (Rhodophyta) are well known as producer of phycocolloids such agar, agarose, carragenan and great variety of secondary metabolites. This review discusses the red algal secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity. The chemical constituents of red algae are steroid, terpenoid, acetogenin and dominated by halogenated compounds mainly brominated compounds. Novel compounds with intriguing skeleton are also reported...

  15. Nitrogen compounds behavior under irradiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Nagayoshi; Takagi, Junichi; Yotsuyanagi, Tadasu

    1991-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate nitrogen compounds behavior in liquid phase under irradiation environments. Nitrogen compounds take a chemical form of ammonium ion under reducing condition by gamma irradiation, whereas ammonium ions are rather stable even under oxidizing conditions. Key reactions were pointed out and their reaction rate constants and activation energies were estimated through computer code simulation. A reaction scheme for nitrogen compounds including protonate reaction was proposed. (author)

  16. Technetium compounds and their field of application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaitseva, L.L.; Velichko, A.V.; Vinogradov, I.V.

    1988-02-01

    This chapter reviews the different applications of technetium and technetium compounds in catalysis, corrosion inhibition, superconductivity of technetium alloys, diagnostic techniques, radioisotope generators and radiopharmaceuticals. 649 refs [fr

  17. Diazo Compounds: Versatile Tools for Chemical Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mix, Kalie A; Aronoff, Matthew R; Raines, Ronald T

    2016-12-16

    Diazo groups have broad and tunable reactivity. That and other attributes endow diazo compounds with the potential to be valuable reagents for chemical biologists. The presence of diazo groups in natural products underscores their metabolic stability and anticipates their utility in a biological context. The chemoselectivity of diazo groups, even in the presence of azido groups, presents many opportunities. Already, diazo compounds have served as chemical probes and elicited novel modifications of proteins and nucleic acids. Here, we review advances that have facilitated the chemical synthesis of diazo compounds, and we highlight applications of diazo compounds in the detection and modification of biomolecules.

  18. Molecular mechanism of radiosensitization by nitro compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagiya, T.; Wada, T.; Nishimoto, S.I.

    1984-01-01

    In this chapter a molecular mechanism of radiosensitization by electron-affinic nitro compounds is discussed, mainly on the basis of the results of the radiation-induced chemical studies of DNA-related compounds in aqueous solutions. In Section II the general aspects of the radiation chemistry of organic compounds in the absence and presence of oxygen in aqueous solution are shown in order to demonstrate characteristic differences between radiation chemical reactions in hypoxic and oxic cells. The effects of nitro compounds on the radiolysis yields of DNA-related compounds in aqueous solutions are described in Section III. In Section IV the retardation effects of misonidazole on the radiation chemical processes of DNA-related compounds are shown along with the reaction characteristics of misonidazole with hydroxyl radical ( . OH) and hydrated electron (e/sub aq/-bar) produced by the radiolysis of water. The promotion of radiation-induced oxidation of thymine into thymine glycol (TG) by nitro radiosensitizers in deoxygenated solution and the relations between the activity of nitro compound for the thymine glycol formation and the enhancement activity measured in vitro are described in Section V. Finally, the protection against radiation-induced damage of thymine by a sulfhydryl compound of glutathione and the ability of electron-affinic compounds to decompose the intracellular radioprotector are described in Section VI

  19. Microbial growth on C1 compounds: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, R.L.; Hanson, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains individual papers prepared for the 4th International Symposium on Microbial Growth on One Carbon Compounds. Individual reports were abstracted and indexed for EDB. Topics presented were in the areas of the physiology and biochemistry of autotraps, physiology and biochemistry of methylotrophs and methanotrops, physiology and biochemistry of methanogens, genetics of microbes that use C 1 compounds, taxonomy and ecology of microbes tht grow on C 1 compounds, applied aspects of microbes that grow on C 1 compounds, and new directions in C 1 metabolism. (DT)

  20. Potent antifouling compounds produced by marine Streptomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Ying

    2010-02-01

    Biofouling causes huge economic loss and a recent global ban on organotin compounds as antifouling agents has increased the need for safe and effective antifouling compounds. Five structurally similar compounds were isolated from the crude extract of a marine Streptomyces strain obtained from deep-sea sediments. Antifouling activities of these five compounds and four other structurally-related compounds isolated from a North Sea Streptomyces strain against major fouling organisms were compared to probe structure-activity relationships of compounds. The functional moiety responsible for antifouling activity lies in the 2-furanone ring and that the lipophilicity of compounds substantially affects their antifouling activities. Based on these findings, a compound with a straight alkyl side-chain was synthesized and proved itself as a very effective non-toxic, anti-larval settlement agent against three major fouling organisms. The strong antifouling activity, relatively low toxicity, and simple structures of these compounds make them promising candidates for new antifouling additives. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neurotoxicity of fragrance compounds: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkas, Adi; Gonçalves, Cinara Ludvig; Aschner, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Fragrance compounds are chemicals belonging to one of several families, which are used frequently and globally in cosmetics, household products, foods and beverages. A complete list of such compounds is rarely found on the ingredients-list of such products, as "fragrance mixtures" are defined as "trade secrets" and thus protected by law. While some information regarding the general toxicity of some of these compounds is available, their neurotoxicity is known to a lesser extent. Here, we discuss the prevalence and neurotoxicity of fragrance compounds belonging to the three most common groups: phthalates, synthetic musks and chemical sensitizers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Four new compounds from Imperata cylindrica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Zhang, Bin-Feng; Yang, Li; Chou, Gui-Xin; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2014-04-01

    Four new compounds, impecylone (1), deacetylimpecyloside (2), seguinoside K 4-methylether (3) and impecylenolide (4), were isolated from Imperata cylindrica along with two known compounds, impecyloside (5) and seguinoside K (6). Their structures were elucidated mainly by spectroscopic analyses including 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques, and the absolute configuration of 1 was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. In calcium assay, the result indicated that compounds 1, 2, 4 and 5 cannot obviously inhibit the calcium peak value compared with the negative control, and suggested that the four compounds could not have anti-inflammatory activity.

  3. Prioritizing pesticide compounds for analytical methods development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Julia E.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Nowell, Lisa H.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a periodic need to re-evaluate pesticide compounds in terms of priorities for inclusion in monitoring and studies and, thus, must also assess the current analytical capabilities for pesticide detection. To meet this need, a strategy has been developed to prioritize pesticides and degradates for analytical methods development. Screening procedures were developed to separately prioritize pesticide compounds in water and sediment. The procedures evaluate pesticide compounds in existing USGS analytical methods for water and sediment and compounds for which recent agricultural-use information was available. Measured occurrence (detection frequency and concentrations) in water and sediment, predicted concentrations in water and predicted likelihood of occurrence in sediment, potential toxicity to aquatic life or humans, and priorities of other agencies or organizations, regulatory or otherwise, were considered. Several existing strategies for prioritizing chemicals for various purposes were reviewed, including those that identify and prioritize persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic compounds, and those that determine candidates for future regulation of drinking-water contaminants. The systematic procedures developed and used in this study rely on concepts common to many previously established strategies. The evaluation of pesticide compounds resulted in the classification of compounds into three groups: Tier 1 for high priority compounds, Tier 2 for moderate priority compounds, and Tier 3 for low priority compounds. For water, a total of 247 pesticide compounds were classified as Tier 1 and, thus, are high priority for inclusion in analytical methods for monitoring and studies. Of these, about three-quarters are included in some USGS analytical method; however, many of these compounds are included on research methods that are expensive and for which there are few data on environmental samples. The remaining quarter of Tier 1

  4. Medicinal Uses of Inorganic Compounds - 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the first part of this article, we described medicinal uses of inorganic compounds relating to cancer care, infection and diabetic control, neurological, cardiovascular and in- flammatory diseases. This article contains further infor- mation on the medicinal uses of inorganic compounds as therapeutic and diagnostic in ...

  5. Lattice anisotropy in uranium ternary compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maskova, S.; Adamska, A.M.; Havela, L.

    2012-01-01

    Several U-based intermetallic compounds (UCoGe, UNiGe with the TiNiSi structure type and UNiAl with the ZrNiAl structure type) and their hydrides were studied from the point of view of compressibility and thermal expansion. Confronted with existing data for the compounds with the ZrNiAl structure...

  6. Bioautography indicates the multiplicity of antifungal compounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-09-18

    Sep 18, 2006 ... 199 active compounds, followed by methanol (189) and hexane (73). This difference is apparently not related to the sectional division of the species (Carr, 1988). Comparison of eluent systems. Lastly we determined which TLC solvent system separa- ted the highest number of active compounds (Table 27).

  7. Compound sums and their applications in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Helmers (Roelof); B. Tarigan

    2003-01-01

    textabstractCompound sums arise frequently in insurance (total claim size in a portfolio) and in accountancy (total error amount in audit populations). As the normal approximation for compound sums usually performs very badly, one may look for better methods for approximating the distribution of a

  8. Preparation and properties of compound Arnebiae radix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to prepare a compound Arnebiae radix microemulsion gel for transdermal delivery system and evaluate its characteristics. Materials and Methods: Based on ... previous used formulations. Keywords: Compound Arnebiae radix oil, microemulsion gel, pseudo-ternary phase diagram, characterization ...

  9. Comparative analysis of technical efficiencies between compound ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to compare the level of technical efficiency in the compound and non compound farms in Imo state. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 food crop farmers from two out of the three agricultural zones in Imo state. Using the Chow (1960) analysis of covariance technique ...

  10. Health promoting compounds in vegetables and fruits:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, K.; Christensen, L.P.; Hansen-Møller, J.

    2004-01-01

    Vegetables contain unknown compounds with important health promoting effect. The described project defined and tested a two-step screening procedure for identification of such compounds. Step 1 is initial screening according to three criteria: 1.1, chemically reactive functional groups; 1...

  11. Improvements in or relating to compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    The invention provides a process for the preparation of a dispersible product containing a cerium compound which comprises heating a cerium (IV) oxide hydrate in the presence of a salt to cause deaggregation of aggregated crystallites in the cerium (IV) oxide hydrate and produce a dispersible product containing a cerium compound. (author)

  12. Organic halogen compounds in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    There are 20 research reports on selected problems concerning the analysis, the occurence, and the behaviour of a wide spectrum of organic halogen compounds. The work was carried out in the framework of the project 'Organic Halogen Compounds in the Environment', financed by the BMFT, between 1975 and 1978. (orig.) [de

  13. Extraction, Isolation And Characterization Of Bioactive Compounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural products from medicinal plants, either as pure compounds or as standardized extracts, provide unlimited opportunities for new drug leads because of the ... The analysis of bioactive compounds present in the plant extracts involving the applications of common phytochemical screening assays, chromatographic ...

  14. Lichens as source of versatile bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović, T.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lichens represent unique symbiosis of fungi (mycobionts and algae (photobionts. Living in extreme conditions they developed various compounds to survive. Many of these original compounds have proven biological activities (antibiotic, antimycotic, antiviral, antitumor, antioxidant, etc . This paper is synthesis of currently known data about lichens extracts and their potential use in pharmaceutics and medicine.

  15. Bis(1,3-dithiole) Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Rud; Engler, E. M.; Green, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    There is described the preparation of bis-1,3-dithiole compounds (I) which are key synthetic precursors for the preparation of new polymeric metal bis(dithiolene) (i.e., II) and tetrathiafulvalene compounds (i.e., III): (Image Omitted)...

  16. Sulfamides in the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazieva, Galina A; Kravchenko, Angelina N; Lebedev, Oleg V

    2000-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the structures and physicochemical properties of sulfamides and ureas has been performed. New procedures for the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds containing the sulfamide fragment are surveyed and the properties of the resulting compounds are described. The bibliography includes 112 references.

  17. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much

  18. Pickpocket compounds from Latin to Romance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen Whitehead, Benedicte

    2012-01-01

    This thesis discusses the development in Proto–Indo–European, Latin and Romance of a word–formation pattern which the most adequate terminology in use dubs ‘verbal government compounds with a governing first member’; I use the shorthand ‘pickpocket compounds’. The first member of such compounds

  19. Semantics vs Pragmatics of a Compound Word

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Elena A.; Biktemirova, Ella I.; Davletbaeva, Diana N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of correlation between semantic and pragmatic potential of a compound word, which functions in informal speech, and the mechanisms of secondary nomination, which realizes the potential of semantic-pragmatic features of colloquial compounds. The relevance and the choice of the research question is based on the…

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility assessment of compound from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethyl acetate extract of the culture filtrate of Aspergillus fumigatus on chromatographic analysis has led to the isolation of the compound, AF-1 which exhibited a significant in vitro antimicrobial activity against the tested pathogenic microorganism. The structure of the isolated compound, AF-1 was identified as ...

  1. Perfluorinated Compounds: Emerging POPs with Potential Immunotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been recognized as an important class of environmental contaminants commonly detected in blood samples of both wildlife and humans. These compounds have been in use for more than 60 years as surface treatment chemicals, polymerization aids, an...

  2. Intercalated compounds of niobium and tantalum dicalcogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wypych, F.

    1988-01-01

    The synthesis of niobium and tantalum lamellar compounds and its intercalated derivatives is described. The intercalated compounds with lithium, with alkaline metal and with metals of the first-row transition are studied, characterized by X-ray diffraction. (C.G.C.) [pt

  3. Genetic effects of organic mercury compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramel, C

    1967-01-01

    Organic mercury compounds have a c-mitotic effect on plant cells that cause polyploidi. Studies were performed on Allium root cells. These investigations involved methyl mercury dicyandiamide, methyl mercury hydroxide, and phenyl mercury hydroxide. The lowest concentration necessary for a cytologically observable effect was about 0.05 ppM Hg for the methyl compounds. For the phenyl compound, the value was lower. Experiments were performed on Drosophila melanogaster. The question was whether the mercury would reach the gonads. Experimental data with mercury treated larvae indicated a chromosome disjunction. Data indicated a preferential segregation at the meiotic division might be involved. Experiments are being performed on mice inbred (CBA) in order to investigate teratogenic effects and dominant lethality caused by organic mercury compounds. The mutagenic effects of these compounds are studied on Neurospora Drosophila. No conclusive data is now available.

  4. Integrated modelling of two xenobiotic organic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, Erik Ulfson; Gernaey, K.V.; Henze, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic mathematical model that describes the fate and transport of two selected xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) in a simplified representation. of an integrated urban wastewater system. A simulation study, where the xenobiotics bisphenol A and pyrene are used as reference...... compounds, is carried out. Sorption and specific biological degradation processes are integrated with standardised water process models to model the fate of both compounds. Simulated mass flows of the two compounds during one dry weather day and one wet weather day are compared for realistic influent flow...... rate and concentration profiles. The wet weather day induces resuspension of stored sediments, which increases the pollutant load on the downstream system. The potential of the model to elucidate important phenomena related to origin and fate of the model compounds is demonstrated....

  5. New uranium compounds preparation and use as catalyst for hydrogenation of non-saturated organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaudet, L.; Folcher, G.

    1985-01-01

    Preparation of new organic uranium compounds and their use as catalysts for hydrogenation of non-saturated organic compounds are described. These compounds include Uranium III, a cyclopentadienic group, an alkyl group and an acetylenic derivative C 6 H 5 C triple bonds CR fixed by a π bond. Catalysts can be prepared with depleted uanium for hydrogenation of olefins for example [fr

  6. Spin polarization in rare earth intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenwijk, F.J. van

    1976-01-01

    In this thesis the results of Moessbauer experiments performed on a series of intermetallic compounds of europium and gadolinium are reported. For each of these compounds the magnetic hyperfine field, the electric field gradient at the nuclear site and the isomer shift were determined. For most of the compounds the magnetic ordering temperature was also measured. For some of the europium compounds (e.g. EuAu 5 , EuAg 5 , and EuCu 5 ) it could be derived from the measurements that the easy direction of magnetization falls along the crystallographic c-axis. In a number of compounds (e.g. EuCu 5 , EuZn 5 , EuAu 2 and GdCu 5 ), the various contributions to the magnetic hyperfine field were disentangled by the investigation of suitable pseudobinary compounds that are dilute in Eu. The neighbour contribution Hsub(N) and the paramagnetic Curie temperature thetasub(p) were compared with each other in terms of the RKKY model for EuCu 5 and GdCu 5 . Since the correspondence was found to be poor it was concluded that the magnetic behaviour in these compounds cannot be described by a simple free electron picture as is the basis for the RKKY model

  7. Aroma compounds in sweet whey powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, S S; Goddik, L; Qian, M C

    2004-12-01

    Aroma compounds in sweet whey powder were investigated in this study. Volatiles were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation. Fractionation was used to separate acidic from nonacidic volatiles. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/olfactometry were used for the identification of aroma compounds. Osme methodology was applied to assess the relative importance of each aroma compound. The most aroma-intense free fatty acids detected were acetic, propanoic, butanoic, hexanoic, heptanoic, octanoic, decanoic, dodecanoic, and 9-decenoic acids. The most aroma-intense nonacidic compounds detected were hexanal, heptanal, nonanal, phenylacetaldehyde, 1-octen-3-one, methional, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine, furfuryl alcohol, p-cresol, 2-acetylpyrrole, maltol, furaneol, and several lactones. This study suggested that the aroma of whey powder could comprise compounds originating from milk, compounds generated by the starter culture during cheese making, and compounds formed during the manufacturing process of whey powder.

  8. Phenolic compounds in Ross Sea water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangrando, Roberta; Barbaro, Elena; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo; Corami, Fabiana; Kehrwald, Natalie; Capodaglio, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Phenolic compounds are semi-volatile organic compounds produced during biomass burning and lignin degradation in water. In atmospheric and paleoclimatic ice cores studies, these compounds are used as biomarkers of wood combustion and supply information on the type of combusted biomass. Phenolic compounds are therefore indicators of paleoclimatic interest. Recent studies of Antarctic aerosols highlighted that phenolic compounds in Antarctica are not exclusively attributable to biomass burning but also derive from marine sources. In order to study the marine contribution to aerosols we developed an analytical method to determine the concentration of vanillic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, syringic acid, isovanillic acid, homovanillic acid, syringaldehyde, acetosyringone and acetovanillone present in dissolved and particle phases in Sea Ross waters using HPLC-MS/MS. The analytical method was validated and used to quantify phenolic compounds in 28 sea water samples collected during a 2012 Ross Sea R/V cruise. The observed compounds were vanillic acid, vanillin, acetovanillone and p-coumaric acid with concentrations in the ng/L range. Higher concentrations of analytes were present in the dissolved phase than in the particle phase. Sample concentrations were greatest in the coastal, surficial and less saline Ross Sea waters near Victoria Land.

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of Thallium and Compounds ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thallium compounds are used in the semiconductor industry, the manufacture of optic lenses and low-melting glass, low-temperature thermometers, alloys, electronic devices, mercury lamps, fireworks, and imitation germs, and clinically as an imaging agent in the diagnosis of certain tumors. EPA's assessment of noncancer health effects and carcinogenic potential of thallium compounds was last prepared and added to the IRIS database between 1988 and 1990. The IRIS program is preparing an assessment that will incorporate current health effects information available for thallium and compounds, and current risk assessment methods. The IRIS assessment for thallium compounds will consist of a Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary. The Toxicological Review is a critical review of the physiochemical and toxicokinetic properties of a chemical, and its toxicity in humans and experimental systems. The assessment will present reference values for the noncancer effects of thallium compounds (RfD and Rfc), and a cancer assessment. The Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary have been subject to Agency review, Interagency review, and external scientific peer review. The final product will reflect the Agency opinion on the overall toxicity of thallium and compounds. EPA is undertaking an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for thallium and compounds. IRIS is an EPA database containing Agency scientific positions on potential adverse human health effec

  10. Biodegradable compounds: Rheological, mechanical and thermal properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Maria Rossella; Lucia, G.; Santella, M.; Malinconico, M.; Cerruti, P.; Pantani, R.

    2015-12-01

    Recently great attention from industry has been focused on biodegradable polyesters derived from renewable resources. In particular, PLA has attracted great interest due to its high strength and high modulus and a good biocompatibility, however its brittleness and low heat distortion temperature (HDT) restrict its wide application. On the other hand, Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) is a biodegradable polymer with a low tensile modulus but characterized by a high flexibility, excellent impact strength, good thermal and chemical resistance. In this work the two aliphatic biodegradable polyesters PBS and PLA were selected with the aim to obtain a biodegradable material for the industry of plastic cups and plates. PBS was also blended with a thermoplastic starch. Talc was also added to the compounds because of its low cost and its effectiveness in increasing the modulus and the HDT of polymers. The compounds were obtained by melt compounding in a single screw extruder and the rheological, mechanical and thermal properties were investigated. The properties of the two compounds were compared and it was found that the values of the tensile modulus and elongation at break measured for the PBS/PLA/Talc compound make it interesting for the production of disposable plates and cups. In terms of thermal resistance the compounds have HDTs high enough to contain hot food or beverages. The PLA/PBS/Talc compound can be, then, considered as biodegradable substitute for polystyrene for the production of disposable plates and cups for hot food and beverages.

  11. Molecular basis of biodegradation of chloroaromatic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangodkar, U M.X.; Aldrich, T L; Haugland, R A; Johnson, J; Rothmel, R K; Chakrabarty, A M [Illinois Univ., Chicago (USA). Coll. of Medicine; Chapman, P J [Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL (USA). Microbial Ecology and Biotechnology

    1989-01-01

    Chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons are widely used in industry and agriculture, and comprise the bulk of environmental pollutants. Although simple aromatic compounds are biodegradable by a variety of degradative pathways, their halogenated counterparts are more resistant to bacterial attack and often necessitate evolution of novel pathways. An understanding of such evolutionary processes is essential for developing genetically improved strains capable of mineralizing highly chlorinated compounds. This article provides an overview of the genetic aspects of dissimilation of chloroaromatic compounds and discusses the potential of gene manipulation to promote enhanced evolution of the degradation pathways. (orig.).

  12. Endocannabinoids, Related Compounds and Their Metabolic Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena Fezza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Endocannabinoids are lipid mediators able to bind to and activate cannabinoid receptors, the primary molecular targets responsible for the pharmacological effects of the Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. These bioactive lipids belong mainly to two classes of compounds: N-acylethanolamines and acylesters, being N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, respectively, their main representatives. During the last twenty years, an ever growing number of fatty acid derivatives (endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-like compounds have been discovered and their activities biological is the subject of intense investigations. Here, the most recent advances, from a therapeutic point of view, on endocannabinoids, related compounds, and their metabolic routes will be reviewed.

  13. Antibacterial Compounds from Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Kasanah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds produce great variety of metabolites benefit for human. Red seaweeds (Rhodophyta are well known as producer of phycocolloids such agar, agarose, carragenan and great variety of secondary metabolites. This review discusses the red algal secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity. The chemical constituents of red algae are steroid, terpenoid, acetogenin and dominated by halogenated compounds mainly brominated compounds. Novel compounds with intriguing skeleton are also reported such as bromophycolides and neurymenolides. In summary, red seaweeds are potential sources for antibacterial agents and can serve as lead in synthesis of new natural medicines.

  14. Degradation of based EPDM dielectric compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galembeck, F.

    1988-01-01

    The stability of an EPDM compound used as power cables insulation was studied under various conditions of thermal stress. Changes in the dielectric and tensile strenght of the samples were found after the aging. Samples of the EPDM compound were analysed by spectroscopic (photoacoustic, IR) methods showing alterations in its components: Pb 3 O 4 is reduced to PbO and exsuded paraffin is oxidized. Methane is prevalent in the gaseous mixture released by the heated compound and analysed by Gas Chromatography. (author) [pt

  15. Thermal conductivity of REIn3 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucha, J

    2006-01-01

    The results of measurements of the thermal conductivity of REIn 3 (RE Pr, Nd, Dy, Ho, Tm) compounds as a function of the temperature in the interval 4-300 K in the absence and in the presence of an external magnetic field of 8 T are presented. Except for PRIn 3 all the compounds are antiferromagnetic. YIn 3 was also measured as a reference compound. The results were analysed in the paramagnetic phase, where an influence of the crystalline electric field on the thermal conductivity was found. Drastic changes in the thermal conductivity were observed and analysed in the vicinity of the Neel temperature and in the antiferromagnetic phases of the compounds. Below the Neel temperature an additional magnon contribution to the thermal conductivity was separated out

  16. SELKIRK'S THEORY OF VERBAL COMPOUNDING: A CRITICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selkirk presents her theory of verbal compounding as part of a more general theory ... typical lexicalist vein, words are assigned a dual status (Selkirk 1981: 230), On ..... nonhead and a deverbal head ~s an extremely product~ve process. Con-.

  17. Food applications of natural antimicrobial compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucera, Annalisa; Costa, Cristina; Conte, Amalia; Del Nobile, Matteo A.

    2012-01-01

    In agreement with the current trend of giving value to natural and renewable resources, the use of natural antimicrobial compounds, particularly in food and biomedical applications, becomes very frequent. The direct addition of natural compounds to food is the most common method of application, even if numerous efforts have been made to find alternative solutions to the aim of avoiding undesirable inactivation. Dipping, spraying, and coating treatment of food with active solutions are currently applied to product prior to packaging as valid options. The aim of the current work is to give an overview on the use of natural compounds in food sector. In particular, the review will gather numerous case-studies of meat, fish, dairy products, minimally processed fruit and vegetables, and cereal-based products where these compounds found application. PMID:23060862

  18. Organolead compounds shown to be genetically active

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlberg, J; Ramel, C; Wachtmeister, C A

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether alkyllead compounds would cause a genetic effect similar to that caused by alkyl mercury compounds. Experiments were conducted on Allium cepa (onion) in order to determine the effect of lead compounds on the spindle fiber mechanism. Results indicate that disturbances of the spindle fiber mechanism occur even at very low concentrations. The lowest concentration at which such effects are observed seems to be between 10/sup -6/ and 10/sup -7/ M for the organic compounds. Although no effect can be observed on the spindle fibers at lower dosages, the mitotic index is changed even at a dose of 10/sup -7/ M with dimethyllead. A preliminary experiment was made on Drosophila with triethyllead in order to investigate whether the effects which were observed on mitoses in Allium would also be observed in a meiotic cell system in an animal.

  19. Thermodynamic Analysis of Ionic Compounds: Synthetic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Claude H.

    1986-01-01

    Shows how thermodynamic cycles can be used to understand trends in heats of formation and aqueous solubilities and, most importantly, how they may be used to choose synthetic routes to new ionic compounds. (JN)

  20. Expatriate Compound Living: An Ethnographic Field Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2009-01-01

    In certain countries, closed expatriate compounds have developed.  They serve to provide resident expatriates and accompanying family members with a comfortable and safe environment. Unfortunately, not much is known about compound life since associated empirical research is scarce. Through...... ethnographic field-work methodology, including interviews and participant observation during a period of three months, this exploratory study investigated 16 Danish business expatriates of a large Danish corporation and their families living in the same compound in Saudi Arabia. They shared their spare time...... and the expatriates had the same working hours in the same subsidiary. Results show that a Danish national group was established and maintained. This in-group dominated life in the compound and at work it may have contributed to the perceptual bias and discriminatory behaviour demonstrated by the Danish expatriates...

  1. Pyridinium Oxime Compounds as Antimicrobial Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berger, Bradley J; Knodel, Marvin H

    2007-01-01

    ... (as a model for Leishmania spp.). In general, the compounds were found to have little to no antimicrobial effect, with KJD-2-11, a thiourea derivative, being the most active in all the test systems.

  2. Techniques for Analysis of Plant Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H. Roberts

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are well-known phytochemicals found in all plants. They consist of simple phenols, benzoic and cinnamic acid, coumarins, tannins, lignins, lignans and flavonoids. Substantial developments in research focused on the extraction, identification and quantification of phenolic compounds as medicinal and/or dietary molecules have occurred over the last 25 years. Organic solvent extraction is the main method used to extract phenolics. Chemical procedures are used to detect the presence of total phenolics, while spectrophotometric and chromatographic techniques are utilized to identify and quantify individual phenolic compounds. This review addresses the application of different methodologies utilized in the analysis of phenolic compounds in plant-based products, including recent technical developments in the quantification of phenolics.

  3. using stereochemistry models in teaching organic compounds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of stereochemistry models on students' ... consistent with the names given to organic compounds. Some of ... Considering class level, what is the performance of the students in naming organic.

  4. Chemical Reductive Transformations of Synthetic Organic Compounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peyton, Gary

    2001-01-01

    Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) can be used to selectively remove DNT (2,4-dinitrotoluene) from a complex waste stream by adding a precursor compound such as ethanol which forms a reducing radical upon reaction with hydroxyl radical...

  5. Food applications of natural antimicrobial compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Alessandro eDel Nobile

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In agreement with the current trend of giving value to natural and renewable resources, the use of natural antimicrobial compounds, particularly in food and biomedical applications, becomes very frequent. The direct addition of natural compounds to food is the most common method of application, even if numerous efforts have been made to find alternative solutions to the aim of avoiding undesirable inactivation. Dipping, spraying and coating treatment of food with active solutions are currently applied to product prior to packaging as valid options. The aim of the current work is to give an overview on the use of natural compounds in food sector. In particular, the review will gather numerous case-studies of meat, fish, dairy products, minimally processed fruit and vegetables and cereal-based products where these compounds found application.

  6. New heterocyclic compounds: Synthesis and antitrypanosomal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomel, S; Dubar, F; Forge, D; Loiseau, P M; Biot, C

    2015-08-15

    Three new series of quinoline, quinolone, and benzimidazole derivatives were synthesized and evaluated in vitro against Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. In the quinoline series, the metallo antimalarial drug candidate (ferroquine, FQ) and its ruthenium analogue (ruthenoquine, RQ, compound 13) showed the highest in vitro activities with IC50 values around 0.1 μM. Unfortunately, both compounds failed to cure Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected mice in vivo. The other heterocyclic compounds were active in vitro with IC50 values varying from 0.8 to 34 μM. One of the most interesting results was a fluoroquinolone derivative (compound 2) that was able to offer a survival time of 8 days after a treatment at the single dose of 100 μmol/kg by intraperitoneal route. Although no clear-cut structure-activity relationships emerged, further pharmacomodulations are worth to be developed in this series. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Three coordination compounds based on benzene tetracarboxylate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    YUNLONG WU

    nescence, considerable attention has been focused on the construction of coordination .... measurements were performed on ground powder samples at .... Figure 2. (a) Coordination environment of Co1 ion in compound 2. (b) Coordination.

  8. Food applications of natural antimicrobial compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucera, Annalisa; Costa, Cristina; Conte, Amalia; Del Nobile, Matteo A

    2012-01-01

    In agreement with the current trend of giving value to natural and renewable resources, the use of natural antimicrobial compounds, particularly in food and biomedical applications, becomes very frequent. The direct addition of natural compounds to food is the most common method of application, even if numerous efforts have been made to find alternative solutions to the aim of avoiding undesirable inactivation. Dipping, spraying, and coating treatment of food with active solutions are currently applied to product prior to packaging as valid options. The aim of the current work is to give an overview on the use of natural compounds in food sector. In particular, the review will gather numerous case-studies of meat, fish, dairy products, minimally processed fruit and vegetables, and cereal-based products where these compounds found application.

  9. Stochastic interest rates model in compounding | Galadima ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stochastic interest rates model in compounding. ... in finance, real estate, insurance, accounting and other areas of business administration. The assumption that future rates are fixed and known with certainty at the beginning of an investment, ...

  10. Compound Option Pricing under Fuzzy Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiandong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the uncertainty of a financial market includes two aspects: risk and vagueness; in this paper, fuzzy sets theory is applied to model the imprecise input parameters (interest rate and volatility. We present the fuzzy price of compound option by fuzzing the interest and volatility in Geske’s compound option pricing formula. For each α, the α-level set of fuzzy prices is obtained according to the fuzzy arithmetics and the definition of fuzzy-valued function. We apply a defuzzification method based on crisp possibilistic mean values of the fuzzy interest rate and fuzzy volatility to obtain the crisp possibilistic mean value of compound option price. Finally, we present a numerical analysis to illustrate the compound option pricing under fuzzy environment.

  11. Volatile sulfur compounds in tropical fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Cannon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Global production and demand for tropical fruits continues to grow each year as consumers are enticed by the exotic flavors and potential health benefits that these fruits possess. Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs are often responsible for the juicy, fresh aroma of tropical fruits. This poses a challenge for analytical chemists to identify these compounds as most often VSCs are found at low concentrations in most tropical fruits. The aim of this review is to discuss the extraction methods, enrichment techniques, and instrumentation utilized to identify and quantify VSCs in natural products. This will be followed by a discussion of the VSCs reported in tropical and subtropical fruits, with particular attention to the odor and taste attributes of each compound. Finally, the biogenesis and enzymatic formation of specific VSCs in tropical fruits will be highlighted along with the contribution each possesses to the aroma of their respective fruit. Keywords: Tropical fruits, Volatile sulfur compounds, Extraction methods

  12. Chemistry of tin compounds and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Mazhar, M.; Mahmood, S.; Bhatti, M.H.; Chaudhary, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Of the large volume of tin compounds reported in the literature, possible only 100 are commercially important. Tin compounds are a wide variety of purposes such as catalysts, stabilizers for many materials including polymer, biocidal agents, bactericides, insecticides, fungicides, wood preservatives, acaricides and anti fouling agents in paints, anticancer and antitumour agents, ceramic opacifiers, as textile additives, in metal finishing operations, as food additives and in electro conductive coating. All these applications make the environment much exposed to tin contamination. The application of organotin compounds as biocides account for about 30% of total tin consumption suggesting that the main environmental effects are likely to originate from this sector. Diorgano tins and mono-organo tins are used mainly in plastic industry which is the next big source for environmental pollution. In this presentation all environmental aspects of the use of tin compounds and the recommended preventive measures are discussed. (author)

  13. Characterisation of selected volatile organic compounds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kshale

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... have entered the commercial market, both in rural areas ... nation of volatile compounds include: gas chromate- graphy (GC) ... prior to the actual analysis, various extraction methods ..... traditional and industrial 'orujo' spirits.

  14. Agricultural Compounds in Water and Birth Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, Jean D; Weyer, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    Agricultural compounds have been detected in drinking water, some of which are teratogens in animal models. The most commonly detected agricultural compounds in drinking water include nitrate, atrazine, and desethylatrazine. Arsenic can also be an agricultural contaminant, although arsenic often originates from geologic sources. Nitrate has been the most studied agricultural compound in relation to prenatal exposure and birth defects. In several case-control studies published since 2000, women giving birth to babies with neural tube defects, oral clefts, and limb deficiencies were more likely than control mothers to be exposed to higher concentrations of drinking water nitrate during pregnancy. Higher concentrations of atrazine in drinking water have been associated with abdominal defects, gastroschisis, and other defects. Elevated arsenic in drinking water has also been associated with birth defects. Since these compounds often occur as mixtures, it is suggested that future research focus on the impact of mixtures, such as nitrate and atrazine, on birth defects.

  15. Atmospheric Chemistry of Micrometeoritic Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, M. E.; Belle, C. L.; Pevyhouse, A. R.; Iraci, L. T.

    2011-01-01

    Micrometeorites approx.100 m in diameter deliver most of the Earth s annual accumulation of extraterrestrial material. These small particles are so strongly heated upon atmospheric entry that most of their volatile content is vaporized. Here we present preliminary results from two sets of experiments to investigate the fate of the organic fraction of micrometeorites. In the first set of experiments, 300 m particles of a CM carbonaceous chondrite were subject to flash pyrolysis, simulating atmospheric entry. In addition to CO and CO2, many organic compounds were released, including functionalized benzenes, hydrocarbons, and small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the second set of experiments, we subjected two of these compounds to conditions that simulate the heterogeneous chemistry of Earth s upper atmosphere. We find evidence that meteor-derived compounds can follow reaction pathways leading to the formation of more complex organic compounds.

  16. Diazo Compounds: Versatile Tools for Chemical Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Mix, Kalie A.; Aronoff, Matthew R.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2016-01-01

    Diazo groups have broad and tunable reactivity. That and other attributes endow diazo compounds with the potential to be valuable reagents for chemical biologists. The presence of diazo groups in natural products underscores their metabolic stability and anticipates their utility in a biological context. The chemoselectivity of diazo groups, even in the presence of azido groups, presents many opportunities. Already, diazo compounds have served as chemical probes and elicited novel modificatio...

  17. Medical Applications and Toxicities of Gallium Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Chitambar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two to three decades, gallium compounds have gained importance in the fields of medicine and electronics. In clinical medicine, radioactive gallium and stable gallium nitrate are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. In addition, gallium compounds have displayed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity in animal models of human disease while more recent studies have shown that gallium compounds may function as antimicrobial agents against certain pathogens. In a totally different realm, the chemical properties of gallium arsenide have led to its use in the semiconductor industry. Gallium compounds, whether used medically or in the electronics field, have toxicities. Patients receiving gallium nitrate for the treatment of various diseases may benefit from such therapy, but knowledge of the therapeutic index of this drug is necessary to avoid clinical toxicities. Animals exposed to gallium arsenide display toxicities in certain organ systems suggesting that environmental risks may exist for individuals exposed to this compound in the workplace. Although the arsenic moiety of gallium arsenide appears to be mainly responsible for its pulmonary toxicity, gallium may contribute to some of the detrimental effects in other organs. The use of older and newer gallium compounds in clinical medicine may be advanced by a better understanding of their mechanisms of action, drug resistance, pharmacology, and side-effects. This review will discuss the medical applications of gallium and its mechanisms of action, the newer gallium compounds and future directions for development, and the toxicities of gallium compounds in current use.

  18. Measurement of lead compound in stack gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Y; Hori, M; Tanikawa, N

    1979-01-01

    The concentration and particle-size distribution of lead compounds in the exhaust gas from various stationary sources are examined. The stationary sources concern lead production from battery scraps, lead smelting of cable mold, steel production from iron scraps, plastic combustion furnace, and a heavy oil boiler. A lead concentration of 0.2-100 mg/cu m in exhaust gas is detected. Furthermore, exhaust gas lead compounds are affected by the raw materials used.

  19. Enthalpies of vaporization of organometallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, N.T.; Sevast'yanov, V.G.; Mitin, V.A.; Krasnodubskaya, S.V.; Zakharov, L.N.; Domrachev, G.A.; AN SSSR, Gor'kij. Inst. Khimii)

    1987-01-01

    A possibility to use the method of additive schemes for the calculation of vaporizaton enthalpies of uranium organometallic compounds is discussed while comparing the values obtained using the method with experimental data. The possibility of apriori evaluation of evaporation enthalpy values of different uranium compounds using the method of additive schemes and structural characteristics of molecules, such as the sum of ligand solid angles, is shown

  20. Two new compounds from Xanthium strumarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Rong-Hua; Bai, Xue; Feng, Tao; Dong, Ze-Jun; Li, Zheng-Hui; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2016-01-01

    One new lignan, fructusol A (1), and one new thiazine derivative, 2-hydroxy-xanthiazone (2), along with eight known ones, were isolated from the seeds of Xanthium strumarium. The structures of new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods. Meanwhile, compounds 1-3 were tested for their antifungal activities against Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) in vitro. No one showed obvious inhibitions (MIC90 > 128 μg/ml).

  1. Diffraction limit of refractive compound lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolchevsky, N.N.; Petrov, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    A compound X-ray and neutron lenses is an array of lenses with a common axis. The resolution limited by aberration and by diffraction. Diffraction limit comes from theory based on absorption aperture of the compound refractive lenses. Beam passing through transparent lenses form Airy pattern. Results of calculation of diffraction resolution limit for non-transparent X-ray and neutron lenses are discussed. (authors)

  2. Veterinary Compounding: Regulation, Challenges, and Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Gigi

    2017-01-01

    The spectrum of therapeutic need in veterinary medicine is large, and the availability of approved drug products for all veterinary species and indications is relatively small. For this reason, extemporaneous preparation, or compounding, of drugs is commonly employed to provide veterinary medical therapies. The scope of veterinary compounding is broad and focused primarily on meeting the therapeutic needs of companion animals and not food-producing animals in order to avoid human exposure to ...

  3. Respiratory carcinogenicity assessment of soluble nickel compounds.

    OpenAIRE

    Oller, Adriana R

    2002-01-01

    The many chemical forms of nickel differ in physicochemical properties and biological effects. Health assessments for each main category of nickel species are needed. The carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds has proven particularly difficult. Epidemiologic evidence indicates an association between inhalation exposures to nickel refinery dust containing soluble nickel compounds and increased risk of respiratory cancers. However, the nature of this association is unclear...

  4. Organic astatine compounds, their preparation and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasaros, L; Berei, K

    1985-01-01

    Aromatic astatine compounds of possible medical application were prepared by high energy substitutions, by astatine-halogen, and by electrophil astatine-hydrogen substitutions at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Researches, Dubna. Physico-chemical properties of organic astatine compounds such as boiling point and evaporation heat, and the refraction and dissociation energy of carbon-astatine bonds were determined experimentally by gas chromatography. The results are compared with extrapolated data. (V.N.). 41 refs.; 7 figs.; 5 tables.

  5. Composition of atmospheric precipitation. I. Nitrogen compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, E

    1952-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a survey of published data on chemical analysis of atmospheric precipitation to discuss different cycles proposed for inorganic compounds in atmospheric precipitation and, finally, to assess the importance of these compounds from different points of view. Investigations of rainwater with a view to determine atmospheric pollution in industrial areas are mentioned incidentally but no results are detailed.

  6. Compound transstyloid, transscaphoid, perilunate fracture dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Compound fracture dislocations of proximal carpal bones are very rare. We report a 26-year-old male, Defense personnel by profession, who sustained a compound Gustilo Anderson type IIIA transstyloid, transscaphoid, perilunate dislocation. The patient underwent primary proximal row carpectomy and stabilization with uni-planar, uni-lateral external fixator, and K-Wires. On follow-up after a year, the patient had almost negligible range of motion around wrist without any significant discomfort.

  7. Carbonyl Compounds Generated from Electronic Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanae Bekki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarettes products as the chemical compounds inhaled from e-cigarettes are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those from tobacco cigarettes. Therefore, continuous careful monitoring and risk management of e-cigarettes should be implemented, with the aim of protecting and promoting public health worldwide. Moreover, basic scientific data are required for the regulation of e-cigarette. To date, there have been reports of many hazardous chemical compounds generated from e-cigarettes, particularly carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal, which are often found in e-cigarette aerosols. These carbonyl compounds are incidentally generated by the oxidation of e-liquid (liquid in e-cigarette; glycerol and glycols when the liquid comes in contact with the heated nichrome wire. The compositions and concentrations of these compounds vary depending on the type of e-liquid and the battery voltage. In some cases, extremely high concentrations of these carbonyl compounds are generated, and may contribute to various health effects. Suppliers, risk management organizations, and users of e-cigarettes should be aware of this phenomenon.

  8. Ultrasound assisted extraction of bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Drmić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many novel and innovative techniques are nowadays researched and explored in order to replace or improve classical, thermal processing technologies. One of newer technique is technique of minimal food processing, under what we assume ultrasound processing. Ultrasound technology can be very useful for minimal food processing because transmission of acoustic energy through product is fast and complete, which allows reduction in total processing time, and therefore lower energy consumption. Industrial processing is growing more and more waste products, and in desire of preservation of global recourses and energy efficiency, several ways of active compounds extraction techniques are now explored. The goal is to implement novel extraction techniques in food and pharmaceutical industry as well in medicine. Ultrasound assisted extraction of bioactive compounds offers increase in yield, and reduction or total avoiding of solvent usage. Increase in temperature of treatment is controlled and restricted, thereby preserving extracted bioactive compounds. In this paper, several methods of ultrasound assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from plant materials are shown. Ultrasound can improve classic mechanisms of extraction, and thereby offer novel possibilities of commercial extraction of desired compounds. Application of sonochemistry (ultrasound chemistry is providing better yield in desired compounds and reduction in treatment time.

  9. Compounds interaction on biodegradation of toluene and methyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MEK) mixtures in a composite bead biofilter was investigated. The biodegradation rate of two compounds in the exponential growth phase and stationary phase for the single compound and two compounds mixing systems was determined.

  10. Air sparging of organic compounds in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    Soils and aquifers containing organic compounds have been traditionally treated by excavation and disposal of the soil and/or pumping and treating the groundwater. These remedial options are often not practical or cost effective solutions. A more favorable alternative for removal of the adsorbed/dissolved organic compounds would be an in situ technology. Air sparging will remove volatile organic compounds from both the adsorbed and dissolved phases in the saturated zone. This technology effectively creates a crude air stripper below the aquifer where the soil acts as the ''packing''. The air stream that contacts dissolved/adsorbed phase organics in the aquifer induces volatilization. A case history illustrates the effectiveness of air sparging as a remedial technology for addressing organic compounds in soil and groundwater. The site is an operating heavy equipment manufacturing facility in central Florida. The soil and groundwater below a large building at the facility was found to contain primarily diesel type petroleum hydrocarbons during removal of underground storage tanks. The organic compounds identified in the groundwater were Benzene, Xylenes, Ethylbenzene and Toluenes (BTEX), Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) and naphthalenes in concentrations related to diesel fuel

  11. Determination of arsenic compounds in earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiszinger, A.; Goessler, W.; Kuehnelt, D.; Kosmus, W. [Karl-Franzens-Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. for Analytical Chemistry; Francesconi, K. [Odense Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Biology

    1998-08-01

    Earthworms and soil collected from six sites in Styria, Austria, were investigated for total arsenic concentrations by ICP-MS and for arsenic compounds by HPLC-ICP-MS. Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 3.2 to 17.9 mg/kg dry weight in the worms and from 5.0 to 79.7 mg/kg dry weight in the soil samples. There was no strict correlation between the total arsenic concentrations in the worms and soil. Arsenic compounds were extracted from soil and a freeze-dried earthworm sample with a methanol/water mixture (9:1, v/v). The extracts were evaporated to dryness, redissolved in water, and chromatographed on an anion- and a cation-exchange column. Arsenic compounds were identified by comparison of the retention times with known standards. Only traces of arsenic acid could be extracted from the soil with the methanol/water (9:1, v/v) mixture. The major arsenic compounds detected in the extracts of the earthworms were arsenous acid and arsenic acid. Arsenobetaine was present as a minor constituent, and traces of dimethylarsinic acid were also detected. Two dimethylarsinoyltribosides were also identified in the extracts by co-chromatography with standard compounds. This is the first report of the presence of dimethylarsinoylribosides in a terrestrial organism. Two other minor arsenic species were present in the extract, but their retention times did not match with the retention times of the available standards.

  12. Arsenic compounds in a marine food chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goessler, W.; Irgolic, K.J.; Kuehnelt, D.; Schlagenhaufen, C. [Institute for Analytical Chemistry, Karl-Franzens-Universitaet Graz, Universitaetsplatz 1, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Maher, W. [CRC for Freshwater Ecology, University of Canberra, PO Box 1, Belconnen ACT. 2616 (Australia); Kaise, T. [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry, School of Life Science, University of Pharmacy and Life Science, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachijoji, Tokyo 192-03 (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A three-organism food chain within a rock pool at Rosedale, NSW, Australia, was investigated with respect to arsenic compounds by high performance liquid chromatography - hydraulic high pressure nebulization - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-HHPN-ICP-MS). Total arsenic concentration was determined in the seaweed Hormosira banksii (27.2 {mu}g/g dry mass), in the gastropod Austrocochlea constricta (74.4 {mu}g/g dry mass), which consumes the seaweed, and in the gastropod Morula marginalba (233 {mu}g/g dry mass), which eats Austrocochlea constricta. The major arsenic compounds in the seaweed were (2`R)-dimethyl[1-O-(2`,3`-dihydroxypropyl)-5-deoxy-{beta}-d-ribofuranos-5-yl]arsine oxide and an unidentified compound. The herbivorous gastropod Austrocochlea constricta transformed most of the arsenic taken up with the seaweed to arsenobetaine. Traces of arsenite, arsenate, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenocholine, the tetramethylarsonium cation, and several unknown arsenic compounds were detected. Arsenobetaine accounted for 95% of the arsenic in the carnivorous gastropod Morula marginalba. In Morula marginalba the concentration of arsenocholine was higher, and the concentrations of the minor arsenic compounds lower than in the herbivorous gastropod Austrocochlea constricta. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs.

  13. Process for production of a borohydride compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Nathan Tait; Butterick, III, Robert; Chin, Arthur Achhing; Millar, Dean Michael; Molzahn, David Craig

    2014-08-19

    A process for production of a borohydride compound M(BH.sub.4).sub.y. The process has three steps. The first step combines a compound of formula (R.sup.1O).sub.yM with aluminum, hydrogen and a metallic catalyst containing at least one metal selected from the group consisting of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, vanadium, tantalum and iron to produce a compound of formula M(AlH.sub.3OR.sup.1).sub.y, wherein R.sup.1 is phenyl or phenyl substituted by at least one alkyl or alkoxy group; M is an alkali metal, Be or Mg; and y is one or two; wherein the catalyst is present at a level of at least 200 ppm based on weight of aluminum. The second step combines the compound of formula M(AlH.sub.3OR.sup.1).sub.y with a borate, boroxine or borazine compound to produce M(BH.sub.4).sub.y and a byproduct mixture containing alkali metal and aluminum aryloxides. The third step separates M(BH.sub.4).sub.y from the byproduct mixture.

  14. In vitro disposition profiling of heterocyclic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keemink, Janneke; Wuyts, Benjamin; Nicolaï, Johan; Jonghe, Steven De; Stella, Alessandro; Herdewijn, Piet; Augustijns, Patrick; Annaert, Pieter

    2015-08-01

    Compound libraries that are screened for biological activity commonly contain heterocycles. Besides potency, drug-like properties need to be evaluated to ensure in vivo efficacy of test compounds. In this context, we determined hepatic and intestinal disposition profiles for 17 heterocyclic compounds. All studied compounds showed rapid uptake in suspended rat hepatocytes, whereas metabolism was poor and the rate-limiting step in hepatic elimination. In vitro assays demonstrated a relatively low solubility and high intestinal permeability. Based on these in vitro data, heterocycles were categorized in the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) and the biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system (BDDCS) to predict disposition characteristics before clinical data are available. Our findings emphasized the importance to use hepatocytes in addition to microsomes to study metabolism, since the latter lack non-microsomal enzymes and cellular context. Moreover, intracellular exposure should be considered to gain insight in the relevant fraction of the compound available at the enzymatic site. Finally, the study reveals discrepancies associated with the classification of heterocycles in BCS versus BDDCS. These probably originate from the binary character of both systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Behaviour of organic sulfur compounds in HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyholdt, T.

    1982-01-01

    The retention behaviour of organic sulfur compounds in the reverse-bonded-phase chromatography is characterized by determining the retention indices according to Kovats. The results of these studies show that the solubility of organic compounds in the eluting agent and the molar sorption surfaces of the solutes are the main factors determining the retention behaviour. Knowledge of the retention indices of above-mentioned compounds allows a quick interpretation of chromatograms obtained through a product analysis of γ-irradiated aqueous solutions of organic sulfur compounds. Dithia compounds of the type CH 3 -S-(CH 2 )sub(n)-S-Ch 3 (1 1. 2,4-Dithiapentane (n = 1) however will yield primarily monothio-S-methyl formate as a stable end product. The formation of oxygenic reaction products proceeds via sulfur-centred radical kations. Spin trapping experiments with nitroxyl radicals show that it is possible to trap radiation-chemically produced radicals of sulfurous substrates, but the thus obtained adducts with half-life periods of 4-5 min. cannot be identified by means of NMR, IR or mass spectroscopy. (orig.) [de

  16. Evolutionary Structure Prediction of Stoichiometric Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang; Oganov, Artem

    2014-03-01

    In general, for a given ionic compound AmBn\\ at ambient pressure condition, its stoichiometry reflects the valence state ratio between per chemical specie (i.e., the charges for each anion and cation). However, compounds under high pressure exhibit significantly behavior, compared to those analogs at ambient condition. Here we developed a method to solve the crystal structure prediction problem based on the evolutionary algorithms, which can predict both the stable compounds and their crystal structures at arbitrary P,T-conditions, given just the set of chemical elements. By applying this method to a wide range of binary ionic systems (Na-Cl, Mg-O, Xe-O, Cs-F, etc), we discovered a lot of compounds with brand new stoichimetries which can become thermodynamically stable. Further electronic structure analysis on these novel compounds indicates that several factors can contribute to this extraordinary phenomenon: (1) polyatomic anions; (2) free electron localization; (3) emergence of new valence states; (4) metallization. In particular, part of the results have been confirmed by experiment, which warrants that this approach can play a crucial role in new materials design under extreme pressure conditions. This work is funded by DARPA (Grants No. W31P4Q1210008 and W31P4Q1310005), NSF (EAR-1114313 and DMR-1231586).

  17. Reflectance spectroscopy of organic compounds: 1. Alkanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R.N.; Curchin, J.M.; Hoefen, T.M.; Swayze, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Reflectance spectra of the organic compounds comprising the alkane series are presented from the ultraviolet to midinfrared, 0.35 to 15.5 /??m. Alkanes are hydrocarbon molecules containing only single carbon-carbon bonds, and are found naturally on the Earth and in the atmospheres of the giant planets and Saturn's moon, Titan. This paper presents the spectral properties of the alkanes as the first in a series of papers to build a spectral database of organic compounds for use in remote sensing studies. Applications range from mapping the environment on the Earth, to the search for organic molecules and life in the solar system and throughout the. universe. We show that the spectral reflectance properties of organic compounds are rich, with major diagnostic spectral features throughout the spectral range studied. Little to no spectral change was observed as a function of temperature and only small shifts and changes in the width of absorption bands were observed between liquids and solids, making remote detection of spectral properties throughout the solar system simpler. Some high molecular weight organic compounds contain single-bonded carbon chains and have spectra similar to alkanes even ' when they fall into other families. Small spectral differences are often present allowing discrimination among some compounds, further illustrating the need to catalog spectral properties for accurate remote sensing identification with spectroscopy.

  18. Electronic structure of A15 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    For the past twenty-five years compounds with the A15 crystal structure have dominated the class of high temperature superconductors. The crystal structure of an A15 compound A 3 B is cubic (space group O/sub h/ 3 ). However, the site symmetry (D/sub 2d/) of the A atoms is much lower than cubic, an unusual occurrence in cubic binary compounds. Variations on this theme have supplied the basis of many theoretical models of the anomalous temperature (T) dependence of normal state properties and the low temperature cubic reversible tetragonal structural transformations which accompany high values of T/sub c/ in A15 compounds. In this paper results of self-consistent pseudopotential band structure calculations are used to assess some important aspects of the unique and unusual behavior in A15 compounds: (1) the role of the B atom in determining the overall electronic structure will be shown to be important; (2) the effect of the low site symmetry of the A atom on the charge density and potential will be assessed; and (3) the bonding will be shown to be metallic-covalent with no significant A-B charge transfer

  19. Diazo compounds in continuous-flow technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Simon T R; Wirth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Diazo compounds are very versatile reagents in organic chemistry and meet the challenge of selective assembly of structurally complex molecules. Their leaving group is dinitrogen; therefore, they are very clean and atom-efficient reagents. However, diazo compounds are potentially explosive and extremely difficult to handle on an industrial scale. In this review, it is discussed how continuous flow technology can help to make these powerful reagents accessible on large scale. Microstructured devices can improve heat transfer greatly and help with the handling of dangerous reagents safely. The in situ formation and subsequent consumption of diazo compounds are discussed along with advances in handling diazomethane and ethyl diazoacetate. The potential large-scale applications of a given methodology is emphasized. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Decomposition of the compound Atwood machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Coelho, R.

    2017-11-01

    Non-standard solving strategies for the compound Atwood machine problem have been proposed. The present strategy is based on a very simple idea. Taking an Atwood machine and replacing one of its bodies by another Atwood machine, we have a compound machine. As this operation can be repeated, we can construct any compound Atwood machine. This rule of construction is transferred to a mathematical model, whereby the equations of motion are obtained. The only difference between the machine and its model is that instead of pulleys and bodies, we have reference frames that move solidarily with these objects. This model provides us with the accelerations in the non-inertial frames of the bodies, which we will use to obtain the equations of motion. This approach to the problem will be justified by the Lagrange method and exemplified by machines with six and eight bodies.

  1. [Phenolic compounds in branches of Tamarix rasissima].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Li, Wei-Qi; Zheng, Ping; Wang, Rui; Yu, Jian-Qiang; Yang, Jian-Hong; Yao, Yao

    2014-06-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the branches of Tamarix rasissima, repeated silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and recrystallization were applied for chemical constituents isolation and purification. Ten phenolic compounds were isolated from the n-BuOH fraction and their structures were elucidated by physical properties and spectra analysis such as UV, ESI-MS and NMR as monodecarboxyellagic acid (1), ellagic acid (2), 3, 3'-di-O-methylellagic acid (3), 3, 3'-di-O-methylellagic acid-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), 3, 3'-di-O-methylellagic acid-4'-O-alpha-D-arabinfuranoside (5), ferulic acid (6), isoferulic acid (7), caffeic acid (8), 4-O-acetyl-caffeic acid (9), and 4-methyl-1, 2-benzenediol (10). All compounds except for isoferulic acid were isolated firstly from this plant except for isoferulic acid, and compounds 5, 9 and 10 were obtained from Tamarix genus for the first time.

  2. Spontaneous magnetoelastic effects in gadolinium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindbaum, A.; Rotter, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: This poster is a short summary of a recently published handbook chapter, where the spontaneous magnetoelastic effects in Gd compounds are reviewed showing that the strain dependence of the magnetic exchange interactions leads to significant effects. These effects are equal in magnitude to well established single ion contributions in other rare earth compounds with non vanishing orbital momentum (coming from the strain dependence of the crystal field). In some cases the exchange contribution can produce giant magnetostriction (GMS) or induce structural phase transitions. In order to extract the influence of the Gd- Gd exchange interactions, we consider only Gd compounds with partner elements showing no or only weak induced magnetic moments. The current status of the theory is presented and compared to measurements performed by temperature dependent x-ray diffraction and results of dilatometric measurements. (author)

  3. Phenolic Compounds from Belamcanda chinensis Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Ying Song

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new sucrose derivatives, namely, belamcanosides A (1 and B (2, together with five other known compounds (3−7, were isolated from the seeds of Belamcanda chinensis (L. DC. Their structures were identified based on spectroscopic data. Especially, the absolute configurations of fructose and glucose residues in 1 and 2 were assigned by acid hydrolysis, followed by derivatization and gas chromatography (GC analysis. Among the known compounds, (−-hopeaphenol (3, (+-syringaresinol (4, and quercetin (5, were isolated from B. chinensis for the first time. In addition, biological evaluation of 1 and 2 against cholesterol synthesis and metabolism at the gene level was carried out. The results showed that compounds 1 and 2 could regulate the expression of cholesterol synthesis and metabolism-associated genes, including 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR, squalene epoxidase (SQLE, low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR, and sortilin (SORT1 genes in HepG2 cells.

  4. Modern materials based on refractory compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosolapova, T.Ya.

    1979-01-01

    Discussed are the existing methods for synthesizing powders of binary refractory compounds and high-productivity techniques which hold promise as regards the manufacture of highly disperse and pure powders. Plasmochemical synthesis is shown to be an effective method for obtaining practically all carbides, nitrides and borides. A description is given of three main methods for obtaining single crystals of refractory compounds (TiN, TiC, ZrC, ZrB 2 , NbC) fairly perfect in structure and composition. These processes include deposition from vapour-gas phase, melting in arc plasma and crystallization from solutions in metallic melts. The advantages have been shown of the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of refractory compounds, ensuring the manufacture of products, close in composition to stoichiometric ones simultaneously with forming of items. Mechanical, thermal, abrasive, and resistive characteristics of the above materials are presented

  5. New heterocyclic compounds from Ranunculus ternatus Thunb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zi-Ming; Zhan, Zhi-Lai; Yang, Ya-Nan; Jiang, Jian-Shuang; Zhang, Pei-Cheng

    2017-10-01

    Five new heterocyclic compounds, 5-α-d-fructofuranosylmethyl-furfural (1), 5-β-d-fructofuranosylmethyl-furfural (2), 5-β-d-fructopyranosylmethyl-furfural (3), 4-(2-((2S-2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)methyl)-5-formyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)butanoic acid (4), and 3S,4S-4,5,8-trihydroxy-3-(prop-1-en-2-yl)isochroman-1-one (5), were obtained from the root of Ranunculus ternatus Thunb., which is a traditional Chinese anti-tuberculosis medicine. Their structures were elucidated by UV, IR, HRESIMS, NMR data, and the comparison of experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Notably, compounds 1-3 are rarely occurring furfural fructosides in natural sources. These heterocyclic compounds could be further studied for the synthetic chemists and pharmacologists due to the source and structural properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-10-09

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here.

  7. Radiation synthesis of materials and compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Kharisov, Boris Ildusovich; Ortiz Méndez, Ubaldo

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and engineers working in nuclear laboratories, nuclear electric plants, and elsewhere in the radiochemical industries need a comprehensive handbook describing all possible radiation-chemistry interactions between irradiation and materials, the preparation of materials under distinct radiation types, the possibility of damage of materials under irradiation, and more. Radiation nanotechnology is still practically an undeveloped field, except for some achievements in the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles under ionizing flows. Radiation Synthesis of Materials and Compounds presents the state of the art of the synthesis of materials, composites, and chemical compounds, and describes methods based on the use of ionizing radiation. It is devoted to the preparation of various types of materials (including nanomaterials) and chemical compounds using ionizing radiation (alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, x-rays, and neutron, proton, and ion beams). The book presents contributions from leaders ...

  8. Chord length distribution for a compound capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitřík, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Chord length distribution is a factor important in the calculation of ionisation chamber responses. This article describes Monte Carlo calculations of the chord length distribution for a non-convex compound capsule. A Monte Carlo code was set up for generation of random chords and calculation of their lengths based on the input number of generations and cavity dimensions. The code was written in JavaScript and can be executed in the majority of HTML viewers. The plot of occurrence of cords of different lengths has 3 peaks. It was found that the compound capsule cavity cannot be simply replaced with a spherical cavity of a triangular design. Furthermore, the compound capsule cavity is directionally dependent, which must be taken into account in calculations involving non-isotropic fields of primary particles in the beam, unless equilibrium of the secondary charged particles is attained. (orig.)

  9. Pickpocket compounds from Latin to Romance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitehead, Benedicte Nielsen

    This thesis discusses the development in Proto–Indo–European, Latin and Romance of a word–formation pattern which the most adequate terminology in use dubs ‘verbal government compounds with a governing first member’; I use the shorthand ‘pickpocket compounds’. The first member of such compounds...... derives from a verb, while the second mostly represents its direct object: thus English pickpocket. Most English examples are functionally agent–nouns, referring to the agent of the implied verbal act. Nevertheless, they lack a suffix indicating this. By contrast, the more prolific type of compound agent....... It contains a cursory discussion of Homeric Greek, Indo–Iranian and Germanic representatives. This comparative perspective on the morphology of the type is continued in chapters 3–5 on Latin and Romance. An important conclusion, and an answer to one of the most–discussed questions in the debate...

  10. Chemosensors for detection of nitroaromatic compounds (explosives)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyryanov, G. V.; Kopchuk, D. S.; Kovalev, I. S.; Nosova, E. V.; Rusinov, V. L.; Chupakhin, O. N.

    2014-09-01

    The key types of low-molecular-mass chemosensors for the detection of nitroaromatic compounds representing energetic substances (explosives) are analyzed. The coordination and chemical properties of these chemosensors and structural features of their complexes with nitroaromatic compounds are considered. The causes and methods for attaining high selectivity of recognition are demonstrated. The primary attention is paid to the use of low-molecular-mass chemosensors for visual detection of explosives of this class by colorimetric and photometric methods. Examples of using photo- and chemiluminescence for this purpose are described. A separate section is devoted to electrochemical methods of detection of nitroaromatic compounds. Data published from 2000 to 2014 are mainly covered. The bibliography includes 245 references.

  11. Chemosensors for detection of nitroaromatic compounds (explosives)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyryanov, G V; Kopchuk, D S; Rusinov, V L; Chupakhin, O N; Kovalev, I S; Nosova, E V

    2014-01-01

    The key types of low-molecular-mass chemosensors for the detection of nitroaromatic compounds representing energetic substances (explosives) are analyzed. The coordination and chemical properties of these chemosensors and structural features of their complexes with nitroaromatic compounds are considered. The causes and methods for attaining high selectivity of recognition are demonstrated. The primary attention is paid to the use of low-molecular-mass chemosensors for visual detection of explosives of this class by colorimetric and photometric methods. Examples of using photo- and chemiluminescence for this purpose are described. A separate section is devoted to electrochemical methods of detection of nitroaromatic compounds. Data published from 2000 to 2014 are mainly covered. The bibliography includes 245 references

  12. Volatile compounds in meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika KOSOWSKA

    Full Text Available Abstract Meaty flavor is composed of a few hundreds of volatile compounds, only minor part of which are responsible for the characteristic odor. It is developed as a result of multi-directional reactions proceeding between non-volatile precursors contained in raw meat under the influence of temperature. The volatile compounds are generated upon: Maillard reactions, lipid oxidation, interactions between Maillard reaction products and lipid oxidation products as well as upon thiamine degradation. The developed flavor is determined by many factors associated with: raw material (breed, sex, diet and age of animal, conditions and process of slaughter, duration and conditions of meat storage, type of muscle, additives applied and the course of the technological process. The objective of this review article is to draw attention to the issue of volatile compounds characteristic for meat products and factors that affect their synthesis.

  13. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi, Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru, Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita, Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga, Genipa americana L. (jenipapo, Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba, Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti, Myrciaria cauliflora (DC Berg (jabuticaba, Psidium guajava L. (goiaba, Psidium spp. (araçá, Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira, Spondias mombin L. (cajá, Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, among others are reported here.

  14. Reliability and radiation effects in compound semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, Allan

    2010-01-01

    This book discusses reliability and radiation effects in compound semiconductors, which have evolved rapidly during the last 15 years. Johnston's perspective in the book focuses on high-reliability applications in space, but his discussion of reliability is applicable to high reliability terrestrial applications as well. The book is important because there are new reliability mechanisms present in compound semiconductors that have produced a great deal of confusion. They are complex, and appear to be major stumbling blocks in the application of these types of devices. Many of the reliability problems that were prominent research topics five to ten years ago have been solved, and the reliability of many of these devices has been improved to the level where they can be used for ten years or more with low failure rates. There is also considerable confusion about the way that space radiation affects compound semiconductors. Some optoelectronic devices are so sensitive to damage in space that they are very difficu...

  15. Environmentally acceptable thread compounds: Requirements defined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringfellow, W.D.; Hendriks, R.V.; Jacobs, N.L.

    1993-01-01

    New environmental regulations on thread compounds are now being enforced in several areas with strong maritime tradition and a sensitive environment. These areas include Indonesia, Alaska and portions of Norway. The industry generally recognizes the environmental concerns but, with wider enforcement of regulations imminent, has not been able to define clearly the requirements for environmental compliance. This paper, written in collaboration with The Netherlands State Supervision of Mines, is based on the National Policy on Thread Compounds of The Netherlands. This national policy is representative of policies being followed by other North Sea governments. Similar policies might well be adopted by other governments worldwide. These policies will affect the operator, drilling contractor, and supplier. This paper provides a specific and detailed definition of thread compound requirements by addressing four relevant categories. The categories of interest are regulatory approval, environmental, health, and performance

  16. Identification of isomers of organometallic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbue, Sona Peter; Cho, Kwang Hwi [Dept. of Bioinformatics and Life Science, School of Systems Biomedical Science, Soongsil University,Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The yaChI is a newly suggested chemical naming system. However, yaChI is a derivative of the IUPAC InChI with a modified algorithm that includes additional layers of chemical structure information. Consequently, yaChI string contains more structure details while preserving the original structure file information and can distinctively identify very closely related compounds reducing the chances of ambiguity in chemical compound databases as opposed to the general SMILES, InChI, and InChIKey. This study examines the relative performances of yaChI, SMILES, InChI, and InChIKey in duplication check for isomers. For simplicity, a small data set of 28 organometallic compounds (structural isomers of Rh-containing compounds) subdivided into three major groups (A, B, and C) based on the number and the type of ligands attached to the center atom was used to study the performances of each encoding scheme in describing chemical structures. SMILES, InChI, and InChIKey were generated using Openbabel and RDkit, whereas yaChI strings were generated with in-house program. Strings generated from SMILES, InChI, and InChIKey though different, resulted to only three unique chemical identifiers, with each belonging to one group indicating the presence of only three unique compounds in the study data. However, yaChI results depicted that all structures in each group are indeed unique and differ among themselves as well as those from other groups, mapping each structure with a unique identifier given a total number of 28 unique structures in the study data. This high perception of yaChI probe justifies its accuracy and reliability in duplication check among closely related compounds especially structures exhibiting stereo properties.

  17. Antiviral lead compounds from marine sponges

    KAUST Repository

    Sagar, Sunil

    2010-10-11

    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of pharmacologically active compounds found in the marine environment. These bioactive molecules are often secondary metabolites, whose main function is to enable and/or modulate cellular communication and defense. They are usually produced by functional enzyme clusters in sponges and/or their associated symbiotic microorganisms. Natural product lead compounds from sponges have often been found to be promising pharmaceutical agents. Several of them have successfully been approved as antiviral agents for clinical use or have been advanced to the late stages of clinical trials. Most of these drugs are used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV). The most important antiviral lead of marine origin reported thus far is nucleoside Ara-A (vidarabine) isolated from sponge Tethya crypta. It inhibits viral DNA polymerase and DNA synthesis of herpes, vaccinica and varicella zoster viruses. However due to the discovery of new types of viruses and emergence of drug resistant strains, it is necessary to develop new antiviral lead compounds continuously. Several sponge derived antiviral lead compounds which are hopedto be developed as future drugs are discussed in this review. Supply problems are usually the major bottleneck to the development of these compounds as drugs during clinical trials. However advances in the field of metagenomics and high throughput microbial cultivation has raised the possibility that these techniques could lead to the cost-effective large scale production of such compounds. Perspectives on biotechnological methods with respect to marine drug development are also discussed. 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

  18. Behaviour of mercury compounds in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booer, J R

    1944-01-01

    The uses of inorganic compounds of mercury for the control of plant pests is reviewed, and a summary of the relevant chemical and physical properties of the compounds concerned is given. On chemical evidence a working hypothesis is propounded showing that all compounds may be expected to decompose into metallic mercury. A pot technique is described by means of which a correlation can be obtained between the effective mercury content of a given soil sample and the rate of growth of wheat seedlings. The mathematical treatment of the results is described, and the validity of the pot technique is verified by statistical analysis of results. Using the pot technqiue it is shown that volatilization losses are insignificant but that mercury is slowly rendered ineffective by the formation of mercuric sulphide. The effect of sulphur-reducing bacteria is considered and the influence of Vibrio desulphuricans on mercury is studied in detail. Experimental evidence obtained by the pot technique is produced to show that mercurous chloride slowly decomposes in the soil giving mercury and mercuric chloride, mercuric chloride rapidly decomposes into mercury and mercurous chloride, and other inorganic compounds decompose directly into mercury. The working hypothesis is substantiated in all major aspects. The uses and properties of the organo-mercury compounds are then discussed. Type compounds selected are ethyl mercury phosphate, phenyl mercury acetate and methoxyethyl mercury acetate. Using the pot technique it is shown that the formation of organo-mercury clays takes place and that these clays decompose giving metallic mercury. A mechanism is suggested.

  19. Respiratory carcinogenicity assessment of soluble nickel compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oller, Adriana R

    2002-10-01

    The many chemical forms of nickel differ in physicochemical properties and biological effects. Health assessments for each main category of nickel species are needed. The carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds has proven particularly difficult. Epidemiologic evidence indicates an association between inhalation exposures to nickel refinery dust containing soluble nickel compounds and increased risk of respiratory cancers. However, the nature of this association is unclear because of limitations of the exposure data, inconsistent results across cohorts, and the presence of mixed exposures to water-insoluble nickel compounds and other confounders that are known or suspected carcinogens. Moreover, well-conducted animal inhalation studies, where exposures were solely to soluble nickel, failed to demonstrate a carcinogenic potential. Similar negative results were seen in animal oral studies. A model exists that relates respiratory carcinogenic potential to the bioavailability of nickel ion at nuclear sites within respiratory target cells. This model helps reconcile human, animal, and mechanistic data for soluble nickel compounds. For inhalation exposures, the predicted lack of bioavailability of nickel ion at target sites suggests that water-soluble nickel compounds, by themselves, will not be complete human carcinogens. However, if inhaled at concentrations high enough to induce chronic lung inflammation, these compounds may enhance carcinogenic risks associated with inhalation exposure to other substances. Overall, the weight of evidence indicates that inhalation exposure to soluble nickel alone will not cause cancer; moreover, if exposures are kept below levels that cause chronic respiratory toxicity, any possible tumor-enhancing effects (particularly in smokers) would be avoided.

  20. Erupted Compound Odontomas: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Tejasvi M.L.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The tumors in which odontogenic differentiation is fully expressed are the odontomas. Odontomas are considered as hamartomas rather than a true neoplasm. These tumors are composed of enamel, dentine, cementum and pulp tissue. It is most commonly associated with the eruption of the teeth. They are usually discovered on routine radiographic examination. In exceptional cases, the odontoma erupts in to the mouth. Nine cases of erupted compound odontomas are reported in the English literature, and the present paper reports another case of an erupted compound odontoma in a 22-year-old female patient.

  1. Magnetic behaviour of new Ce compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampathkumaran, E V [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India); Mallik, R [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India)

    1996-07-01

    We report initial results of our investigation on the magnetic behaviour of some new Ce compounds. The compounds, CeIr{sub 2}B{sub 2}C and CeIr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}, do not appear to exhibit bulk magnetic ordering down to 2 K. The alloys, Ce{sub 2}Pd{sub 2}In and Ce{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}In, order magnetically below 4 and 6 K, respectively, and a marginal change in the Pd(Cu)/In composition does not significantly influence the ordering temperatures. (orig.).

  2. Photovoltaic applications of Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, R.

    1975-01-01

    The use of a compound parabolic concentrator as field collector, in conjunction with a primary focusing concentrator for photovoltaic applications is studied. The primary focusing concentrator can be a parabolic reflector, an array of Fresnel mirrors, a Fresnel lens or some other lens. Silicon solar cell grid structures are proposed that increase efficiency with concentration up to 10 suns. A ray tracing program has been developed to determine energy distribution at the exit of a compound parabolic concentrator. Projected total cost of a CPC/solar cell system will be between 4 and 5 times lower than for flat plate silicon cell arrays.

  3. Antiosteoporotic compounds from seeds of Cuscuta chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lijuan; Chen, Qianfeng; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Guolin

    2011-05-17

    The seeds of Cuscuta chinensis (Tu-Si-Zi, TSZ) have long been used for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and some Asian countries. The compounds in TSZ responsible for the antiosteoporotic activity are still poorly understood. The present study was designed to investigate the osteogenic compounds in TSZ, and to evaluate their antiosteoporotic effects in osteoblastic cells. Osteoblast-like UMR-106 cells were used for bioactivity-guided isolation of the active compounds. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in UMR-106 cells was measured by p-nitrophenyl sodium phosphate assay. The proliferation of UMR-106 cells was assayed by Alamar-Blue method. Estrogenic activity of the extracts and isolated compounds was evaluated by activation of estrogen response element (ERE) luciferase reporter expression in HeLa cells co-transfected with human estrogen receptor subtypes (ERα or ERβ) expression vectors and 5×ERE luciferase reporter plasmid. Antiestrogenic activity of the extracts and isolated compounds were evaluated by activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) luciferase reporter expression in HeLa cells co-transfected with human estrogen receptor subtypes (ERα or ERβ) expression vectors and 6×AP-1 luciferase reporter plasmid. ALP-guided fractionation led to the isolation of five known flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, hyperoside and astragalin from the crude ethanolic extract of TSZ. Further study showed that kaempferol and hyperoside significantly increased the ALP activity in UMR-106 cells. Astragalin promoted the proliferation of UMR-106 cells whereas other compounds had no such effect. The isolated compounds showed estrogenic activity but quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin showed more potent ERβ agonist activity. However, compared with their ER agonist activity, only quercetin and kaempferol showed potent ER antagonist activity by activating ERα/β-mediated AP-1 reporter expression. Our findings validated the clinical use of TSZ in

  4. Catalytic Kinetic Resolution of Biaryl Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Gaoyuan; Sibi, Mukund P

    2015-08-10

    Biaryl compounds with axial chirality are very common in synthetic chemistry, especially in catalysis. Axially chiral biaryls are important due to their biological activities and extensive applications in asymmetric catalysis. Thus the development of efficient enantioselective methods for their synthesis has attracted considerable attention. This Minireview discusses the progress made in catalytic kinetic resolution of biaryl compounds and chronicles significant advances made recently in catalytic kinetic resolution of biaryl scaffolds. © 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Nominal compound acquisition in 10 languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dressler, Wolfgang U.; Kilani-Schoch, Marianne; Ketrez, Nihan

    phases which usually differ among the participants in tests and are limited to single morphological patterns, whereas our study shows that first compound patterns emerge simultaneously or quasi-simultaneously with first inflection and derivation patterns. Finally it will be discussed whether and to which...... degree findings of test results from single languages are supported or not by our typological comparison of longitudinal studies. Examples are inversion of compound constituents [5], postulated non-occurrence of “regular” inflection of left-hand constituents [6], status of interfixes (linking elements...

  6. Unusual bond paths in organolithium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachrach, S.M.; Ritchie, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    We have applied the topological method to a number of organolithium compounds. The wavefunctions were determined with GAUSSIAN-82 using 3-21G basis set and fully optimized geometries. Gradient paths were obtained using the RHODER package and critical points were located using EXTREME. These results indicate the unusual nature of organolithium compounds. The strange bond paths arise mainly from the ionic nature of the C-Li interaction. We suggest that the term ''bond path'' may best be suited for covalent bonds. 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Phonological Processes in Complex and Compound Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alieh Kord Zaferanlu Kambuziya

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research at making a comparison between phonological processes in complex and compound Persian words. Data are gathered from a 40,000-word Persian dictionary. To catch some results, 4,034 complex words and 1,464 compound ones are chosen. To count the data, "excel" software is used. Some results of the research are: 1- "Insertion" is the usual phonological process in complex words. More than half of different insertions belongs to the consonant /g/. Then /y/ and // are in the second and the third order. The consonant /v/ has the least percentage of all. The most percentage of vowel insertion belongs to /e/. The vowels /a/ and /o/ are in the second and third order. Deletion in complex words can only be seen in consonant /t/ and vowel /e/. 2- The most frequent phonological processes in compounds is consonant deletion. In this process, seven different consonants including /t/, //, /m/, /r/, / ǰ/, /d, and /c/. The only deleted vowel is /e/. In both groups of complex and compound, /t/ deletion can be observed. A sequence of three consonants paves the way for the deletion of one of the consonants, if one of the sequences is a sonorant one like /n/, the deletion process rarely happens. 3- In complex words, consonant deletion causes a lighter syllable weight, whereas vowel deletion causes a heavier syllable weight. So, both of the processes lead to bi-moraic weight. 4- The production of bi-moraic syllable in Persian is preferable to Syllable Contact Law. So, Specific Rules have precedence to Universals. 5- Vowel insertion can be seen in both groups of complex and compound words. In complex words, /e/ insertion has the most fundamental part. The vowels /a/ and /o/ are in the second and third place. Whenever there are two sequences of ultra-heavy syllables. By vowel insertion, the first syllable is broken into two light syllables. The compounds that are influenced by vowel insertion, can be and are pronounced without any insertion

  8. Fragrance compounds and amphiphilic association structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, S E

    1998-05-01

    Fragrance formulations have traditionally been based on alcohol as the solvent, but the recent legal restrictions on volatile organic solvents have prompted the industry to change to aqueous solubilized systems. The article reviews the fundamental factors in the application of such systems evaluating the influence by different amphiphilic association structures on the vapor pressure of fragrance compounds. This information is subsequently used to estimate the variation of fragrance compound vapor pressures during evaporation. The results reveal that the vapor pressure versus time variation is improved compared to solvent-based formulations.

  9. Organic compounds in the Murchison meteorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnamperuma, C.

    1972-01-01

    Impressive supporting evidence for the concept of the chemical evolution of life has appeared in the discovery of biologically important compounds in extraterrestrial samples. The approaches pursued to detect extraterrestrial organic compounds include the study of interstellar space by radioastronomy, the evaluation of the Apollo lunar samples, and the analysis of meteorites, both ancient and recent. It has been found that the clouds of gas in the interstellar medium contain a wide variety of molecules, most of which are organic in nature. The carbonaceous chondrites contain polymeric organic matter. Amino acids have been detected in the Murchison meteorite.

  10. Design of Fluorescent Compounds for Scintillation Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pla-Dalmau, Anna [Northern Illinois U.

    1990-01-01

    Plastic scintillation detectors for high energy physics applications require the development of new fluorescent compounds to meet the demands set by the future generation of particle accelerators such as the Superconducting Supercollider (SSe). Plastic scintillators are commonly based on a polymer matrix doped with two fluorescent compounds: the primary dopant and the wavelength shifter. Their main characteristics are fast response time and high quantum efficiency. The exposure to larger radiation doses and demands for larger light output questions their survivability in the future experiments. A new type of plastic scintillator - intrinsic scintillator - has been suggested. It uses a single dopant as primary and wavelength shifter, and should be less susceptible to radiation damage....

  11. Cantilever torque magnetometry on coordination compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perfetti, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    compounds, such as quantum computation or information storage. This review enlightens that CTM offers a unique combination of accuracy and precision to disentangle noncollinear contributions inside Single Crystals as well as the sensitivity to detect molecular order of thin films. CTM can also detect......Cantilever Torque Magnetometry (CTM) is one of the leading techniques to deeply understand magnetic anisotropy of coordination compounds. The knowledge of magnetic anisotropy is a mandatory requirement before proceeding with any future application related to the magnetic properties of coordination...... quantum phenomena such as magnetization steps and molecular hysteresis curves. Moreover, it can also provide the energy levels splitting and avefunctions composition, especially if coupled with microwave radiation....

  12. Thin film Heusler compounds manganese nickel gallium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Catherine Ann

    Multiferroic Heusler compounds Mn3--xNi xGa (x=0,1,2) have a tetragonal unit cell that can variously be used for magneto-mechanically coupled shape memory ( x=1,2) and spin-mechanical applications (x=0). The first fabrication of fully epitaxial thin films of these and electronically related compounds by sputtering is discussed. Traditional and custom lab characterization of the magnetic and temperature driven multiferroic behavior is augmented by more detailed synchrotron-based high energy photoemission spectroscopic techniques to describe the atomic and electronic structure. Integration of the MnNi2Ga magnetic shape memory compound in microwave patch antennas and active free-standing structures represents a fraction of the available and promising applications for these compounds. Prototype magnetic tunnel junctions are demonstrated by Mn3Ga electrodes with perpendicular anisotropy for spin torque transfer memory structures. The main body of the work concentrates on the definition and exploration of the material series Mn3--xNi xGa (x=0,1,2) and the relevant multiferroic phenomena exhibited as a function of preparation and external stimuli. Engineering results on each x=0,1,2 are presented with device prototypes where relevant. In the appendices the process of the materials design undertaken with the goal of developing new ternary intermetallics with enhanced properties is presented with a full exploration of the road from band structure calculations to device implementation. Cobalt based compounds in single crystal and nanoparticle form are fabricated with an eye to developing the production methods for new cobalt- and iron-based magnetic shape memory compounds for device applications in different forms. Mn2CoSn, a compound isolectronic and with similar atomic ordering to Mn2NiGa is experimentally determined to be a nearly half-metallic ferromagnet in contrast to the metallic ferrimagnetism in the parent compound. High energy photoemission spectroscopy is shown to

  13. Dissolution behavior of lithium compounds in ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Furukawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to exchange the components which received irradiation damage during the operation at the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility, the adhered lithium, which is partially converted to lithium compounds such as lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide, should be removed from the components. In this study, the dissolution experiments of lithium compounds (lithium nitride, lithium hydroxide, and lithium oxide were performed in a candidate solvent, allowing the clarification of time and temperature dependence. Based on the results, a cleaning procedure for adhered lithium on the inner surface of the components was proposed.

  14. Structural studies of novel coordination compounds run in the Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipin, M.Yu.; Starikova, Z.A.; Yanovskij, A.I.; Dolgushin, F.M.; Lysenko, K.A.; Khrustalev, V.N.; Vorontsov, I.I.; Korlyukov, A.A.; Andreev, G.B.; Neretin, I.S.

    2001-01-01

    The results of the investigation into structural chemistry of coordination compounds taking place in the X-ray Laboratory of the Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences are given. The review gives an idea on the tendencies to structural researches of complexes of varying categories of coordination compounds, among which are lithium, strontium, cadmium compounds, rare earth compounds, transuranium compounds, transition element compounds, carboranes, fullerenes. An attempt was made to prove the structure and reveal the novel structural and crystallochemical regularities in the studied series of relative compounds. The outlooks for the following progress of studies on this field are determined [ru

  15. The protective cell petrus for the production of californium 252; Cellule blindee petrus pour la production et l'etude du californium 252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sontag, R; Berger, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The alpha, beta, gamma, neutron cell which is described in the present paper is devoted to the transplutonium element production and study. It is located at the CEN in Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). The 4 feet ordinary concrete shielding made of stacked blocs allows the manipulation of radioactive sources as high as 1000 curies of 1 MeV gamma rays and with a fast neutrons flux of 10{sup 9} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1}. The airtight alpha containment box is equipped with two transfer systems, one consists of a parallelepiped shaped airtight box located in a turntable, the other uses standard cylindrical containers made of polyethylene. The general equipment and the main setting up are also described. (authors) [French] La cellule alpha, beta, gamma, neutron, qui fait l'objet du present article, est destinee a la production et a l'etude des elements transplutoniens. Elle est construite au C.E.N. de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). La protection biologique, calculee pour une activite de 1000 curies de rayonnement gamma d'energie 1 MeV accompagnee d'un flux de neutrons rapides de 10{sup 9}/cm{sup 2}s, est constituee par des parois en beton de 1,20 m d'epaisseur. L'enceinte alpha est une boite etanche qui comporte devx systemes de transferts: l'un consiste en une boite parallelepipedique etanche logee dans un barillet, l'autre fait appel a des recipients cylindriques standard en polyethylene. L'equipement general et les installations les plus importantes sont ensuite decrits. (auteurs)

  16. Magnetic moment densities in selected UTX compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Javorský, P.; Schweizer, J.; Givord, F.; Boucherle, J.-X.; Andreev, Alexander V.; Diviš, M.; Lelievre-Berna, E.; Sechovský, V.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 350, - (2004), e131-e134 ISSN 0921-4526 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/03/0550 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : uranium compound * polarized neutron scattering * magnetic moment Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.679, year: 2004

  17. Atmospheric degradation mechanism of organic sulfur compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benter, T; Arsene, C

    2002-02-01

    In the present work a detailed product study has been performed on the OH radical initiated oxidation of dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl sulphoxide, under different conditions of temperature, partial pressure of oxygen and NO{sub x} concentration, in order to better define the degradation mechanism of the above compounds under conditions which prevail in the atmosphere. (orig.)

  18. Fast Screening of Antibacterial Compounds from Fusaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sondergaard, Teis Esben; Fredborg, Marlene; Christensen, Ann-Maria Oppenhagen

    2016-01-01

    Bio-guided screening is an important method to identify bioactive compounds from fungi. In this study we applied a fast digital time-lapse microscopic method for assessment of the antibacterial properties of secondary metabolites from the fungal genus Fusarium. Here antibacterial effects could...

  19. Mutagenic activities of metal compounds in bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, H

    1975-01-01

    Environmental contaminations by certain metal compounds are bringing about serious problems to human health, including genetic hazards. It has been reported that some compounds of iron, manganese and mercury induce point mutations in microorganisms. Also it has been observed that those of aluminum, antimony, arsenic, cadmium, lead and tellurium cause chromosome aberrations in plants, insects and cultured human cells. The mechanism of mutation induction by these metals remains, however, still obscure. For screening of chemical mutagens, Kada et al, recently developed a simple and efficient method named rec-assay by observing differential growth sensitivities to drugs in wild and recombination-deficient strains of Bacillus subtilis. When a chemical is more inhibitory for Rec/sup -/ than for Rec/sup +/ cells, it is reasonable to suspect mutagenicity based on its DNA-damaging capacity. In the present report, 56 metal compounds were tested by the rec-assay. Compounds showing positive results in the assay such as potassium dichromate (K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/), ammonium molybdate ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 6/Mo/sub 7/O/sub 24/) and sodium arsenite (NaAsO/sub 2/) were then examined as to their capacities to induce reversions in E. coli Trp/sup -/ strains possessing different DNA repair pathways. 11 references, 3 tables.

  20. Chemical Compounds and Extraction Methods of "Maollahm".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghpoor, Omid; Dayeni, Manijeh; Razi, Samane

    2016-05-01

    Maollahm or meat juice, a by-product of meat, is a traditional remedy in Persian medicine. This product was used as a nourishment or treatment substance for sick people. According to the ancient Persian medicine, animal meat has more affinity with the human body and the body easily absorbs its nutrition. Therefore, one could resort to maollahm for patients requiring urgent nourishment to boost and strengthen their body. In this work, different ways of preparing maollahm from poultry, goat, cow, and sheep meat are studied. Most of these methods are based on distillation or barbecue before distillation, as prescribed by traditional medicine books. The reactions, chemical processes, and volatile compounds related to different types of cooked meat are also compared with the outcome of recent research studies. The difference between various types of meat is related to their compounds. Different cooking processes such as barbecuing, roasting, cooking, and boiling have an effect on the taste, smell and the chemical constituents of maollahm. Additionally, the type of meat, animal feed, as well as using or removing the fat during the cooking process, have an effect on the produced volatile compounds. Cooking process and the type of meat have a direct effect on the compounds of maollahm. Possible reactions in the preparation process of maollahm are investigated and presented according to the new research studies.

  1. Bioactive Compounds And Encapsulation Of Yanang ( Tiliacora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, this paper reports the design of the experimental method for optimization of Yanang encapsulation using three independent variables: the ratio of core material (Yanang), to wall material (gum Arabic), gum Arabic concentration and inlet temperature of spray drying on bioactive compounds stability. The stability ...

  2. Process for uranium recovery in phosphorus compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarthe, J.M.; Solar, Serge.

    1980-01-01

    Process for uranium recovery in phosphorus compounds with an organic phase containing a dialkylphosphoric acid. A solubilizing agent constituted of an heavy alcohol or a phosphoric acid ester or a tertiary phosphine oxide or octanol-2, is added to the organic phase for solubilization of the uranium and ammonium dialkyl pyrophosphate [fr

  3. Convenient Reduction of Carbonyl Compounds to their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Alcohols and their derivatives occupy an important position in organic synthesis. ... review also reveals that the reduction of carbonyl compounds ..... 1 H.B. Ji and Y.B. She, Green Oxidation and Reduction, China Petrochemi- cal Press, Beijing ...

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Furanic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Furanamine. Solvent 2-Furanamine Acetone — Chloroform — Dimethylacetamide (DMAc) — Dimethylsulfoxide ( DMSO ) + Methanol ± Tetrahydrofuran (THF...4 Figure 4. 1 H NMR of 2-Furanamine in D2O solvent ...Spectra for the furanic compounds were obtained in a 0.1%–0.5% deuterated solvent solutions. 3. Synthesis 3.1 General The following monomers and

  5. Effects of uranium compounds on skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, B.M. de

    1982-12-01

    The following uranium compounds were topically applied to the dorsal skin of 35 day-old Wistar rats (60 g, male): uranium dioxide, uranyl nitrate, uranyl acetate, ammonium uranyl tricarbonate and ammonium diuranate. Percutaneous absorption was mediated with the aid of a vehicle and known quantities of various particle-sized batches of uranium compounds were directly implanted in the subcutaneous tissue. Animals were sacrificed 3, 6, 24 and 48 hours after implantation. Subcutaneous tissue and muscle underneath the implantation site were anlaysed by light and electron microscopy. A Cameca 322 X-ray microanalyzer was used to analyze uranium traces in calcified tissue (bones and teeth) and kidneys. A steady loss in body weight was observed in animals given high concentration of uranyl nitrate and ammonium uranyl tricarbonate. All animals died five days after the onset of the experiment due to renal failure. Slightly soluble compounds, ammonium diuranate and uranyl acetate, caused only a slight decrease in body weight. Uranium dioxide, the most insoluble compound used, induced only a transitory slight body weight decrease. Histopathological study revealed damages to the tissues of topicated skin, hair follicles and adnexal glands. High concentration of uranium was indicated in bone, teeth and kidneys by X-ray scanning

  6. Synthesis and characterization of volatile technetium compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, Bradley C.; Poineau, Frederic; Czerwinski, Ken R.

    2013-01-01

    Technetium-99 is an important fission (T 1/2 = 2.13.105 y) product of the nuclear industry. Technetium in its highest oxidation state (VII) is highly mobile and can represent a threat to the environment. There are over 55 million gallons of high level mixed waste located at the Hanford site. Waste tanks at the Hanford site contain Tc that could potentially leak, and in the context of management of technetium, a glass waste form was proposed to counteract the issue. In the process of synthesizing melt glass between the temperatures of 600°C and 1100°C, volatile technetium compounds were observed in the reaction tube. These compounds displayed characteristic colors based upon the reaction environments of either breathing air or nitrogen gas. A breathing air atmosphere produces a red compound that adheres to the walls of the reaction tube. An atmosphere of nitrogen gas produces a white compound that was observed on the walls of the reaction tube. (author)

  7. Moessbauer study of the YFe3 compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, W.G.; Kuzmin, R.N.; Vardapetyan, R.P.

    1975-01-01

    Nuclear Gamma Recoilless Resonance measurement was carried out on iron sites in the YFe 3 compound at 80 and 295 K to obtain information on the iron sublattice in the absence of rare-earth magnetic moment. The results of the measurement are reported. (Z.S.)

  8. Quantum chemical studies of estrogenic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantum chemical methods are potent tools to provide information on the chemical structure and electronic properties of organic molecules. Modern computational chemistry methods have provided a great deal of insight into the binding of estrogenic compounds to estrogenic receptors (ER), an important ...

  9. Xeno-estrogenic compounds in precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.J.B.; Beeltje, H.; Delft, R.J. van

    2008-01-01

    The exposure to some chemicals can lead to hormone disrupting effects. Presently, much attention is focused on so-called xeno-estrogens, synthetic compounds that interact with hormone receptors causing a number of reactions that eventually lead to effects related to reproduction and development. The

  10. Insecticidal and fungicidal compounds from Isatis tinctoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, K; Unger, W

    1994-01-01

    Tryptanthrin (1), indole-3-acetonitrile (2) and p-coumaric acid methylester (3) were isolated from the aerial parts of Isatis tinctoria L. The compounds show insecticidal and anti-feedant activity against termites (Reticulitermis santonensis), insect preventive and control activity against larvae of the house longhorn beetle (Hylotrupes bajulus) and fungicidal activity against the brown-rot fungus (Coniophora puteana).

  11. Separation and characterization of phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Combretaceae) is an Ivorian medicinal plant. There is little ethnobotanical and almost no chemical information available for this species. The aim of this study was to isolate phenolic compounds from T. ivoriensis. In this way, its ethyl acetate extract (Ea) was fractionated by silica gel column chromatography followed by ...

  12. Harmonic force field for nitro compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido, Edson P; Seminario, Jorge M

    2012-06-01

    Molecular simulations leading to sensors for the detection of explosive compounds require force field parameters that can reproduce the mechanical and vibrational properties of energetic materials. We developed precise harmonic force fields for alanine polypeptides and glycine oligopeptides using the FUERZA procedure that uses the Hessian tensor (obtained from ab initio calculations) to calculate precise parameters. In this work, we used the same procedure to calculate generalized force field parameters of several nitro compounds. We found a linear relationship between force constant and bond distance. The average angle in the nitro compounds was 116°, excluding the 90° angle of the carbon atoms in the octanitrocubane. The calculated parameters permitted the accurate molecular modeling of nitro compounds containing many functional groups. Results were acceptable when compared with others obtained using methods that are specific for one type of molecule, and much better than others obtained using methods that are too general (these ignore the chemical effects of surrounding atoms on the bonding and therefore the bond strength, which affects the mechanical and vibrational properties of the whole molecule).

  13. Fluorescent compounds for plastic scintillation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla-Dalmau, A.; Bross, A.D.

    1994-04-01

    Several 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole, -benzoxazole, and -benzimidazole derivatives have been prepared. Transmittance, fluorescence, light yield, and decay time characteristics of these compounds have been studied in a polystyrene matrix and evaluated for use in plastic scintillation detectors. Radiation damage studies utilizing a 60 C source have also been performed

  14. Antiplasmodial activity of some phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Plasmodium falciparum, one of the causative agents of malaria, has high adaptability through mutation and is resistant to many types of anti-malarial drugs. This study presents an in vitro assessment of the antiplasmodial activity of some phenolic compounds isolated from plants of the genus Allanblackia.

  15. On statistical analysis of compound point process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Volf, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 35, 2-3 (2006), s. 389-396 ISSN 1026-597X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA402/04/1294 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : counting process * compound process * hazard function * Cox -model Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  16. Visualizing Compound Rotations with Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, Megan; Kavanagh, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    Mental rotations are among the most difficult of all spatial tasks to perform, and even those with high levels of spatial ability can struggle to visualize the result of compound rotations. This pilot study investigates the use of the virtual reality-based Rotation Tool, created using the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) together with…

  17. Certain Aliphatic Nitramines and Related Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1944-11-29

    compounds are ruite unstable. It has beer , impossible to prepare N-iodcmifcramines by any synthesis thus far attempted and the N-bromonitramines...end of tb’f. tine the solution v;as soured over 1500 g. of crac3:cd ice end neutralised with about GOO z» ot sodium bicarbonate. After extraction

  18. Compositional differences in the phenolics compounds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates phenolic composition of commercial and experimental wines derived from bunch (Vitis vinifera) and muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia) grapes to determine compositional differences in phenolics. HPLC analysis of wines showed that majority of phenolic compounds eluted during the first 30 min. Of the red ...

  19. Compounds for the treatment of calcific tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, M D; Tofe, A J; Lampe, H W

    1974-05-21

    The preparation of a radioactive polyphosphonate compound tagged with either /sup 32/P or /sup 33/P radionuclide is described. The radiopharmaceutical is effective for producing therapeutic or pain relieving doses of radiation that can be directed toward bone tumor sites without a substantial risk of radiation damage to the remainder of the body.

  20. Semivolatile organic compounds in indoor environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, W.W.

    2008-01-01

    Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are ubiquitous in indoor environments, redistributing from their original sources to all indoor surfaces. Exposures resulting from their indoor presence contribute to detectable body burdens of diverse SVOCs, including pesticides, plasticizers, and flame ret...... remarkably well with levels measured in dermal hand wipes for SVOCs possessing a wide range of octanol-air partition coefficients....

  1. Unconventional superconductivity in heavy-fermion compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, B.D. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Center for Advanced Nanoscience, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Thompson, J.D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Maple, M.B., E-mail: mbmaple@ucsd.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Center for Advanced Nanoscience, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Quasiparticles in heavy-fermion compounds are much heavier than free electrons. • Superconductivity involves pairing of these massive quasiparticles. • Quasiparticle pairing mediated by magnetic or quadrupolar fluctuations. • We review the properties of superconductivity in heavy-fermion compounds. - Abstract: Over the past 35 years, research on unconventional superconductivity in heavy-fermion systems has evolved from the surprising observations of unprecedented superconducting properties in compounds that convention dictated should not superconduct at all to performing explorations of rich phase spaces in which the delicate interplay between competing ground states appears to support emergent superconducting states. In this article, we review the current understanding of superconductivity in heavy-fermion compounds and identify a set of characteristics that is common to their unconventional superconducting states. These core properties are compared with those of other classes of unconventional superconductors such as the cuprates and iron-based superconductors. We conclude by speculating on the prospects for future research in this field and how new advances might contribute towards resolving the long-standing mystery of how unconventional superconductivity works.

  2. New hydrotalcite-like compounds containing yttrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.M.; Barriga, C.; Ulibarri, M.A. [Universidad de Cordoba (Spain)] [and others

    1997-01-01

    The synthesis of hydrotalcite-type compounds containing yttrium was carried out by the coprecipitation of Mg(II), Al(III), and Y(III) cations at 60 degrees C with strong alkaline solutions. Thermal treatments were applied and changes studied.

  3. Hybridization and pressure effects in UTX compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alsmadi, A. M.; Sechovský, V.; Lacerda, A. H.; Prokes, K.; Kamarád, Jiří; Chang, S.; Jung, M. H.; Nakotte, H.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 91, - (2002), s. 8123-8125 ISSN 0021-8979 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : UTX intermetallic compounds * pressure effects magnetoresistance Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.281, year: 2002

  4. Separation and characterization of phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attioua

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... (Theobroma cacao). J. Mass Spectrom. 38:35-42. Sanchez R, Jauregui LR, Viladomat B, Codina (2004). Qualitative analysis of phenolic compounds in apple Pomace using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in tandem mode. Rapid Communun Mass Spectrom. 18:553-563. Saulo LDS ...

  5. Microbiological disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finster, Kai

    2008-01-01

    The disproportionation of inorganic sulfur intermediates at moderate temperatures (0-80 °C) is a microbiologically catalyzed chemolithotrophic process in which compounds like elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and sulfite serve as both electron donor and acceptor, and generate hydrogen sulfide and su...

  6. Pectolinarigenin - A Flavonoid Compound from Cirsium Japonicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    /tjpr.v13i2.9. Original Research Article. Pectolinarigenin - A Flavonoid Compound from Cirsium. Japonicum with Potential Anti-proliferation Activity in MCF-. 7 Breast Cancer Cell. Mingqian Lu. 1,2,3. , Qingzhi Kong. 1,4. *, Xinhua Xu. 2,3.

  7. Atmospheric nitrogen compounds: Occurrence, composition and deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.; Pilegaard, K.; Egeløv, A.H.

    1996-01-01

    Traffic in cities and on highways is an important contributor to NOy atmospheric pollution in open areas. In this situation both the concentration and composition of NOy compounds show a wide variation and are dependent on meteorological and atmospheric chemical conditions. The proportion of NOz ...

  8. Teachers’ knowledge for teaching compound interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Pournara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing acknowledgement that teachers’ knowledge for teaching mathematics is multifaceted and topic specific. Given the paucity of research on the teaching and learning of financial mathematics in general, little can be known about teachers’ knowledge for teaching compound interest. However, since financial mathematics is a component of the school curriculum in South Africa, and an important element of financial literacy more broadly, attention needs to be given to knowledge for teaching financial mathematics, and compound interest in particular. Drawing from a larger study in which the author taught a financial mathematics course to pre-service secondary mathematics teachers, a theoretical elaboration is provided of the underlying mathematics of compound interest, and connections with the world of banking. Based on findings from the study, two key student errors are identified: the over-generalisation of linear thinking in multiplicative scenarios, and the over-generalisation of reversible operations in percentage-change scenarios. Taken together, teachers’ knowledge of relevant mathematics, of the banking context and of learners’ conceptions will contribute to building a knowledge-base for teachers’ knowledge for teaching compound interest.

  9. Legume bioactive compounds: influence of rhizobial inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Legumes consumption has been recognized as beneficial for human health, due to their content in proteins, fiber, minerals and vitamins, and their cultivation as beneficial for sustainable agriculture due to their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with soil bacteria known as rhizobia. The inoculation with these baceria induces metabolic changes in the plant, from which the more studied to date are the increases in the nitrogen and protein contents, and has been exploited in agriculture to improve the crop yield of several legumes. Nevertheless, legumes also contain several bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides, bioactive peptides, isoflavones and other phenolic compounds, carotenoids, tocopherols and fatty acids, which makes them functional foods included into the nutraceutical products. Therefore, the study of the effect of the rhizobial inoculation in the legume bioactive compounds content is gaining interest in the last decade. Several works reported that the inoculation of different genera and species of rhizobia in several grain legumes, such as soybean, cowpea, chickpea, faba bean or peanut, produced increases in the antioxidant potential and in the content of some bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, flavonoids, organic acids, proteins and fatty acids. Therefore, the rhizobial inoculation is a good tool to enhance the yield and quality of legumes and further studies on this field will allow us to have plant probiotic bacteria that promote the plant growth of legumes improving their functionality.

  10. Sea cucumbers, the ocean of bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Ebrahimi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers are one of the most echinoderms and from the class Holothuroidea. Some of their specific biological activities are including anti-cancer, anticoagulant, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-atherosclerosis and anti-tumor properties, as well as accelerate wound healing. The presence of different compounds such as saponins, chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycans, sulfated Polysaccharides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential and non essential fatty acids, are the causes of their biological properties. Saponins, which are produced for compatibility with the environment, are as theire secondary metabolites. These active compounds have biological properties like hemolytic, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, ichthyotoxic, cytostatic, anti neogenic, antineoplastic, and uric acid lowering effects. Sea cucumber, have high economic value. In East Asia, Since ancient times, it have been traditionally used for the treatment of fatigue, sexual impotence, impotence caused by aging, constipation due to intestinal dryness, urinary incontinence, asthma, hypertension, arthritis and anemia. Also, toxins obtained from sea cucumber, have anti-viral, anti-tumor, anti-cancer and anti-pregnancy properties. According to literatures, the aqueous extract and high molecular weight compounds from sea cucumbers can inhibit tumor activity, via the apoptosis induction. Sea cucumbers because of the high percentage of protein and the absence of cholesterol, classified as an invigorating food. Because of different species of sea cucumbers in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea the identification of compounds and biological properties of sea cucumber species in these regions is recommended to the researchers.

  11. Compound nucleus studies withy reverse kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.

    1985-06-01

    Reverse kinematics reactions are used to demonstrate the compound nucleus origin of intermediate mass particles at low energies and the extension of the same mechanism at higher energies. No evidence has appeared in our energy range for liquid-vapor equilibrium or cold fragmentation mechanisms. 11 refs., 12 figs

  12. Mutagenesis of metal compounds in bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, H

    1974-01-01

    The mutagenic activity of 41 metal compounds was examined by applying the Rec-assay method with Bacillus subtilis H17 (rec/sup +/) and M45 (rec/sup -/) strains. Among these compounds, Na/sub 2/HAsO/sub 4/, CdCl/sub 2/, K/sub 2/CrO/sub 4/, K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/, CH/sub 3/HgCl, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/HgCl, CH/sub 3/COOHgC/sub 6/H/sub 5/, MnCl/sub 2/, MnNO/sub 3/, MnSO/sub 4/, Mn(CH/sub 3/COO)/sub 2/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/ and KMoO/sub 4/ showed positive results. The reactions of K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/ and (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/ were especially strong in the assay. Therefore, mutation induction to reversion (try/sup +/) and streptomycin resistance (SM/sup r/) of E. coli B/r WP2 try/sup -/ (hcl/sup +/ and hcr/sup -/) by the two compounds were examined by the following two experimental procedures. Stationary phase bacteria were exposed to the compounds at high concentrations (6.9 x 10/sup -3/ approx. 3.44 x 10/sup -2/M) in M9 buffer for 15 min at 37/sup -/ with shaking. After incubation at 37/sup 0/ for 48 h visible colonies on the plates were scored. Bacteria in M9 buffer were plated in media supplemented with low concentrations (1.7 x 10/sup -5/ approx. 3.4 x 10/sup -5/M) of the compounds. K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/ and (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/ increased the mutation rate of SM/sup r/ and try/sup +/ in both strains treated with either procedure. No marked differences in mutation rate were found between hcr/sup +/ and hcr/sup -/. After treatment with high concentrations of compounds one can imagine that a peroxidation state produced by these peroxides in the media might affect the killing and mutation induction. These results suggest the possibility that the mutagenesis of the metals relate to their atomic values, rather than the peroxidation state as far as these two compounds are concerned.

  13. Special Heusler compounds for spintronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balke, B.

    2007-07-01

    This work emphasizes the potential of Heusler compounds in a wide range of spintronic applications. Using electronic structure calculations it is possible to design compounds for specific applications. Examples for GMR and TMR applications, for spin injection into semiconductors, and for spin torque transfer applications will be shown. After a detailed introduction about spintronics and related materials chapter 5 reports about the investigation of new half-metallic compounds where the Fermi energy is tuned in the middle of the gap to result in more stable compounds for GMR and TMR applications. The bulk properties of the quaternary Heusler alloy Co{sub 2}Mn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}Si with the Fe concentration ranging from x=0 to 1 are reported and the results suggest that the best candidate for applications may be found at an iron concentration of about 50%. Due to the effect that in the Co{sub 2}Mn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}Si series the transition metal carrying the localized moment is exchanged and this might lead to unexpected effects on the magnetic properties if the samples are not completely homogeneous chapter 6 reports about the optimization of the Heusler compounds for GMR and TMR applications. The structural and magnetic properties of the quaternary Heusler alloy Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 1-x}Si{sub x} with varying Si concentration are reported. From the combination of experimental (better order for high Si content) and theoretical findings (robust gap at x=0.5) it is concluded that a compound with an intermediate Si concentration close to x=0.5-0.7 would be best suited for spintronic applications, especially for GMR and TMR applications. In chapter 7 the detailed investigation of compounds for spin injection into semiconductors is reported. It is shown that the diluted magnetic semiconductors based on CoTiSb with a very low lattice mismatch among each other are interesting materials for spintronics applications like Spin-LEDs or other spin injection devices. Chapter 8 refers

  14. New compounds as potential radio diagnosticians Alzheimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera Marrero, S.; Sablón Carrazana, M.; Bencomo Martinez, A.; Merceron Martínez, D.; Jimenez Martín, J.; Pérez Perera, R.; Díaz García, O.; Rodríguez Tanty, Ch.; Prats Capote, A.; Perera Pintado, A; Fernández Maza, L.; Balcerzyk, M; Fernández Gómez, I.; Parrado Gallego, Á; León Chaviano, S.; Acosta Medina, E.

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in Cuba and all over the World. According to demographic trends it has been called the epidemic of the century. It is characterized by the presence of neuropathological brain deposits: senile plaques, formed by neurofibrillary tangles (NT) and deposits of β-amyloid protein (Aß). Aß plaques could appear even 20 years before the establishment of first clinical symptoms of the disease. The aim of this study was to synthesize new naphthalene derivatives, feasible to be labeled with radionuclides emitters of either gamma radiation or positrons. These labeled compounds should be able to cross blood–brain barrier (BBB) in healthy and AD transgenic animals. As a result of this work, several synthetic precursors were synthesized, which were labeled with iodine-131, carbon-11 and fluorine-18 with a satisfactory radiochemical purity. The corresponding non-radioactive control compounds were also synthesized.In in vitro and in silico studies, obtained compounds showed affinity for the β-amyloid protein. According to SPECT and PET-CT images in healthy laboratory animals, obtained labeled compounds crossed BBB in a bi-directional way without any sign of brain uptake.Furthermore, evaluation of the biodistribution of the [ 18 F] -2- (3-fluoropropyl) -6-methoxynaphthalene ([[ 18 F] Amyloid® was performed in healthy animals.[[ 18 F]Amylovis crossed blood brain barrier. Renal and hepatic pathways were the main excretion routes. On the other hand, in transgenic mice with AD, its uptake and its retention time were higher in comparison with healthy mice. Immunohistochemistry and Congo red staining of control and transgenic mice brain slices were performed to identify β-amyloid plaques.Conclusions: Obtained compounds were able to bi-directionally cross BBB.[[ 18 F]Amylovis® could be a promising PET radiotracer for amyloid plaques visualization. (author)

  15. THE COMPOUND NOUNS BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ALBANIAN LANGUAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Shkelqim Millaku; Xhevahire Topanica

    2016-01-01

    The compound words are all the words that are compound from two or more words and both of them creative the new words with the new meaning. In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem. Compounding or composition is the word-formation that creates compound lexemes (the other word-formation process being derivation). Compounding or Word-compounding refers to the faculty and device of language to form new words by combining or putting toget...

  16. Raman scattering in transition metal compounds: Titanium and compounds of titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, J.; Ederer, D.L.; Shu, T. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The transition metal compounds form a very interesting and important set of materials. The diversity arises from the many states of ionization the transition elements may take when forming compounds. This variety provides ample opportunity for a large class of materials to have a vast range of electronic and magnetic properties. The x-ray spectroscopy of the transition elements is especially interesting because they have unfilled d bands that are at the bottom of the conduction band with atomic like structure. This group embarked on the systematic study of transition metal sulfides and oxides. As an example of the type of spectra observed in some of these compounds they have chosen to showcase the L{sub II, III} emission and Raman scattering in some titanium compounds obtained by photon excitation.

  17. Preparation of radioactive labelled compounds Pt.1. 82Br labelled organic bromine compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, R.

    1988-05-01

    A simple method allowing the preparation of 82 Br labelled organic bromine compounds from olefins with chemical and radiochemical yields between 75 and 95% and the specific activities required, is described [fr

  18. Chemical Reductive Transformations of Synthetic Organic Compounds. Probe Compound Studies and Mechanistic Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peyton, Gary

    2001-01-01

    Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) can be used to selectively remove DNT (2,4-dinitrotoluene) from a complex waste stream by adding a precursor compound such as ethanol, which forms a reducing radical upon reaction with hydroxyl radical...

  19. Degradation of air polluted by organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoyo O, E.L.; Lizama S, B.E.; Vazquez A, O.; Luna C, P.C.; Arredondo H, S.

    1999-01-01

    According to the Mexican standard NOM-010-STPS-1994 it has been established concentrations of maximum permissible levels in workable air for styrene in the range 420-1710 mg/m 3 and for xylene between 218-870 mg/m 3 . In this work it is studied a biological treatment (bio filtration) for air polluted by xylene and styrene where the microorganisms are adhered at synthetic fiber, these degrade to the organic compounds that across in gaseous state and they are mineralized toward CO 2 and H 2 O. The characteristics of temperature, p H, concentration of organic compound and mineral parameters, as well as, the biomass quantity have been optimized for that bio filters efficiency were greater than those reported in other works. (Author)

  20. Homologation Reaction of Ketones with Diazo Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candeias, Nuno R; Paterna, Roberta; Gois, Pedro M P

    2016-03-09

    This review covers the addition of diazo compounds to ketones to afford homologated ketones, either in the presence or in the absence of promoters or catalysts. Reactions with diazoalkanes, aryldiazomethanes, trimethylsilyldiazomethane, α-diazo esters, and disubstituted diazo compounds are covered, commenting on the complex regiochemistry of the reaction and the nature of the catalysts and promoters. The recent reports on the enantioselective version of ketone homologation reactions are gathered in one section, followed by reports on the use of cyclic ketones ring expansion in total synthesis. Although the first reports of this reaction appeared in the literature almost one century ago, the recent achievements, in particular, for the asymmetric version, forecast the development of new breakthroughs in the synthetically valuable field of diazo chemistry.

  1. Compound Composite Odontoma and Its Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morawala Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are odontogenic benign tumors composed of dental tissue. Majority of these lesions are asymptomatic and are often detected on routine radiographs. They can be thought of as “tooth hamartomas" with the lesion consisting of various tooth components. They are divided histologically into complex odontomas and compound odontomas. This paper describes the case of a compound odontoma in a 13-year-old girl diagnosed due to the retention of the primary right mandibular second molar. A surgical excision was performed without disturbing the unerupted premolar. The results achieved indicate that early diagnosis of odontomas enables adoption of less complex treatment, a better prognosis, and displacement or devitalisation of adjacent tooth.

  2. Optical spectroscopy of f-element compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnall, W.T.

    1978-01-01

    It is noted that the energies and intensities of transitions observed in the optical spectra of lanthanide (Ln) and actinide (An) compounds can typically be measured with a high degree of accuracy. The observed transitions can then be directly represented as upper state energy levels where the structure is induced by the environment. A discussion is presented of the systematic theoretical interpretation of these transitions both in terms of energy level structure and transition probability. Particularly for the trivalent lanthanides and actinides, the detail to which the interpretation can be carried is unique in the periodic table. The electronic structure of organometallic lanthanides and actinides is emphasized in the discussion. It is made clear that this type of ligand does not present any unique interpretive problems. The basic framework of the interpretation is not dependent upon the specific ionic environment. On the other hand, organometallic compounds represent a particularly interesting group in which to study excited state relaxation

  3. Sublimation thermodynamics of four fluoroquinolone antimicrobial compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhina, Svetlana; Sharapova, Angelica; Ol’khovich, Marina; Perlovich, German

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The vapor pressures of ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin and levofloxacin were measured. • The values of enthalpies, entropies and Gibbs energies of sublimation were calculated at T = 298.15 K. • Thermophysical characteristics of the studied compounds were determined. • The influence hydrogen bonds in crystal lattices on the sublimation enthalpy was discussed. - Abstract: The transpiration method was used to measure the vapor pressures as a function of temperature of the following antimicrobial drugs: ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin and levofloxacin. Based on these results standard molar enthalpies, entropies and Gibbs energies of sublimation at T = 298.15 K were calculated and a correlation between the crystal lattice energy and the saturation vapor pressure in a number of fluoroquinolones was found. The thermophysical characteristics of the compounds studied were determined by DSC. The influence of different structural fragments of molecules substituents and the effects of hydrogen bonds in crystal lattices on the sublimation enthalpy was discussed.

  4. Screening Some Plants for their Antiproliferative Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Kolak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers the screening of the secondary plant products to find a cure against cancer which were piled up during the years. In early stages of these studies highly active antitumor glycoproteins were obtained from native Arizona (USA plants. Later smaller molecules were isolated showing antitumor activity in different test systems. Among these compounds sesquiterpene lactones with an exo-methylene group in the lactone ring, unsaturated diterpenoids and some triterpenoids exhibited activity in vivo and in vitro test systems. A few Colchicum alkaloids showed high activity against murine lymphocytic leukemia (P388. Activity also established in some flavonoidal compounds. Today all around the world research on Natural Products is still going on.

  5. Parity violation in the compound nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.D.; Frankle, C.M.; Green, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    The status of parity violation in the compound nucleus is reviewed. The results of previous experimental results obtained by scattering polarized epithermal neutrons from heavy nuclei in the 3-p and 4-p p-wave strength function peaks are presented. Experimental techniques are presented. The extraction of the mean squared matrix element of the parity-violating interaction, M 2 , between compound-nuclear levels and the relationship of M 2 to the coupling strengths in the meson exchange weak nucleon-nucleon potential are discussed. The tendency of measured asymmetries to have a common sign and theoretical implications are discussed. New experimental results are presented that show that the common sign phenomenon is not universal, as theoretical models developed up to now would predict

  6. Quaternary ammonium compounds – New occupational hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Lipińska-Ojrzanowska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs, quats belong to organic ionic chemical agents which display unique properties of both surfactants and disinfectants. Their wide distribution in the work environment and also in private households brings about new occupational hazards. This paper reviews reports about the health effects of QACs. QACs could play a role of sensitizers and irritants to the skin and mucous membranes. It is suspected that particular QACs can display an immunologic crossreactivity between each other and with other chemical compounds containing ammonium ion, such as muscle relaxants widely used in anesthesia. They may promote the development of airway allergy, however, the background mechanisms are still unclear and need to be further investigated. Until now, a few cases of occupational asthma induced by QACs have been described and their involvement in contact dermatitis has been documented. The possibility of anaphylaxis due to QACs cannot be excluded as well. Med Pr 2014;65(5:675–682

  7. Synthesis of organic compounds 15 N enriched

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Claudineia Raquel de; Bendassolli, Jose Albertino; Prestes, Clelber Vieira; Tavares, Glauco Arnold

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop urea- 15 N and glycine- 15 N synthesis for agronomic and biological studies. The production of these compounds was evaluated due to the fact of increasing use of urea, comparing to others solid fertilizers and the importance of glycine in the studies of protein metabolism. A non-conventional method was carried out to synthesize urea. The process involved reaction among Co, NH 3 anidrid and S at low temperature (100 deg C) and of pressure (0,81 mPa) compared to the conventional method. Monolise halets reaction was carried out for glycine synthesis with chloroacetic and ammonia 2 deg C. Both compounds are economic viable, they can be produced at a lower price than the trade market one. (author)

  8. Intercalation compounds involving inorganic layered structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTINO VERA R. L.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional inorganic networks can shown intracrystalline reactivity, i.e., simple ions, large species as Keggin ions, organic species, coordination compounds or organometallics can be incorporated in the interlayer region. The host-guest interaction usually causes changes in their chemical, catalytic, electronic and optical properties. The isolation of materials with interesting properties and making use of soft chemistry routes have given rise the possibility of industrial and technological applications of these compounds. We have been using several synthetic approaches to intercalate porphyrins and phthalocyanines into inorganic materials: smectite clays, layered double hydroxides and layered niobates. The isolated materials have been characterized by elemental and thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, surface area measurements, scanning electronic microscopy, electronic and resonance Raman spectroscopies and EPR. The degree of layer stacking and the charge density of the matrices as well their acid-base nature were considered in our studies on the interaction between the macrocycles and inorganic hosts.

  9. Analysis of cell death inducing compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spicker, Jeppe; Pedersen, Henrik Toft; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2007-01-01

    Biomarkers for early detection of toxicity hold the promise of improving the failure rates in drug development. In the present study, gene expression levels were measured using full-genome RAE230 version 2 Affymetrix GeneChips on rat liver tissue 48 h after administration of six different compounds......), ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) and Cytochrome P450, subfamily IIC (mephenytoin 4-hydroxylase) (Cyp2C29). RT-PCR for these three genes was performed and four additional compounds were included for validation. The quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed the findings based on the microarray data and using...... the three genes a classification rate of 55 of 57 samples was achieved for the classification of not toxic versus toxic. The single most promising biomarker (OAT) alone resulted in a surprisingly 100% correctly classified samples. OAT has not previously been linked to toxicity and cell death...

  10. Magnetic resonance studies of intercalation compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.R.

    1990-01-01

    During the last three or four years, nearly tow hundred papers have been published that used NMR or ESR spectroscopy to study compounds formed by the intercalation of molecules or ions into the van der Waals gap of a layered hast compound. The host lattices have ranged from the simple, such as graphite, to the complex, such as clay. In many cases, magnetic resonance techniques now enable one to obtain quite detailed information on even fairly complex intercalated species, on the nature of the changes in the host lattice accompanying intercalation, and on the nature of the interactions between the intercalant species and the host lattice. Magnetic resonance is used in conunction with many other techniques to obtain a fuller picture of these interesting systems, but this review will limit its focus to the use of NMR and ESR techniques. (author). 51 refs

  11. Selective Oxidation of Lignin Model Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruili; Li, Yanding; Kim, Hoon; Mobley, Justin K; Ralph, John

    2018-05-02

    Lignin, the planet's most abundant renewable source of aromatic compounds, is difficult to degrade efficiently to welldefined aromatics. We developed a microwave-assisted catalytic Swern oxidation system using an easily prepared catalyst, MoO 2 Cl 2 (DMSO) 2 , and DMSO as the solvent and oxidant. It demonstrated high efficiency in transforming lignin model compounds containing the units and functional groups found in native lignins. The aromatic ring substituents strongly influenced the selectivity of β-ether phenolic dimer cleavage to generate sinapaldehyde and coniferaldehyde, monomers not usually produced by oxidative methods. Time-course studies on two key intermediates provided insight into the reaction pathway. Owing to the broad scope of this oxidation system and the insight gleaned with regard to its mechanism, this strategy could be adapted and applied in a general sense to the production of useful aromatic chemicals from phenolics and lignin. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Thermodynamic Properties of Actinides and Actinide Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konings, Rudy J. M.; Morss, Lester R.; Fuger, Jean

    The necessity of obtaining accurate thermodynamic quantities for the actinide elements and their compounds was recognized at the outset of the Manhattan Project, when a dedicated team of scientists and engineers initiated the program to exploit nuclear energy for military purposes. Since the end of World War II, both fundamental and applied objectives have motivated a great deal of further study of actinide thermodynamics. This chapter brings together many research papers and critical reviews on this subject. It also seeks to assess, to systematize, and to predict important properties of the actinide elements, ions, and compounds, especially for species in which there is significant interest and for which there is an experimental basis for the prediction.

  13. Brazilian gorgonians: a source of odoriferous compounds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Siag Oigman

    Full Text Available Abstract The gorgonian Phyllogorgia dilatata Esper is an octocoral known to be source of biologically active terpenes. In this study, odoriferous compounds present in P. dilatata tissues were investigated, due to their exotic olfactory notes. The search of volatile compounds was performed in a dichloromethane/methanol extract submitted to a silica gel vacuum chromatography and HPLC, yielding the isomers (Z,E and (E,E-germacrones, identified by GC/MS, 1 and 2D NMR. The stereochemistry of (E,E-germacrone, as well as its preferred conformation, was confirmed by NOESY. Sensory analysis of the two isomers revealed a fragrant, citrus, woody and weak marine odor, similar to the odor of the natural gorgonian, and (E,E-germacrone has a three times more intense aroma than the (Z,E isomer.

  14. Oxyfluoride Chemistry of Layered Perovskite Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Tsujimoto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review recent progress and new challenges in the area of oxyfluoride perovskite, especially layered systems including Ruddlesden-Popper (RP, Dion-Jacobson (DJ and Aurivillius (AV type perovskite families. It is difficult to synthesize oxyfluoride perovskite using a conventional solid-state reaction because of the high chemical stability of the simple fluoride starting materials. Nevertheless, persistent efforts made by solid-state chemists have led to a major breakthrough in stabilizing such a mixed anion system. In particular, it is known that layered perovskite compounds exhibit a rich variety of O/F site occupation according to the synthesis used. We also present the synthetic strategies to further extend RP type perovskite compounds, with particular reference to newly synthesized oxyfluorides, Sr2CoO3F and Sr3Fe2O5+xF2−x (x ~ 0.44.

  15. Organochlorine compounds: Progress and results to date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villeneuve, J.P.; Marchand, M.; Elder, D.; Fowler, S.W.; LaRosa, J.; Duursma, E.K.; Vas, D.; Parsi, P.

    1976-01-01

    Following preparation of reference materials 1 through 4 (1. Oyster homogenate (MA-M-1), 2. Sea Plant homogenate (SP-M-1), 3. Sediment (SD-M-1), 4. XAD-2 resin (AB-M-1)), homogeneity tests were conducted at the Monaco Laboratory by analyzing sample sizes that would yield sufficient amounts of organochlorine compounds for quantitation. In the case of the oyster sample, 10 samples weighing 10 grams each showed acceptable homogeneity for all compounds determined, i.e. a standard deviation of ≈ ± 20% from the mean value obtained. The highest standard deviation was observed for pp'DDE (23%) while the lowest standard deviation was recorded for pp'DDT (2.8%)

  16. Radiation damage calculations for compound materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the SPECOMP computer code, developed to calculate neutron-induced displacement damage cross sections for compound materials such as alloys, insulators, and ceramic tritium breeders for fusion reactors. These new calculations rely on recoil atom energy distributions previously computed with the DISCS computer code, the results of which are stored in SPECTER computer code master libraries. All reaction channels were considered in the DISCS calculations and the neutron cross sections were taken from ENDF/B-V. Compound damage calculations with SPECOMP thus do not need to perform any recoil atom calculations and consequently need no access to ENDF or other neutron data bases. The calculations proceed by determining secondary displacements for each combination of recoil atom and matrix atom using the Lindhard partition of the recoil energy to establish the damage energy

  17. Radiation damage calculations for compound materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, L.R.

    1989-01-01

    Displacement damage calculations can be performed for 40 elements in the energy range up to 20 MeV with the SPECTER computer code. A recent addition to the code, called SPECOMP, can intermix atomic recoil energy distributions for any four elements to calculate the proper displacement damage for compound materials. The calculations take advantage of the atomic recoil data in the SPECTER libraries, which were determined by the DISCS computer code, using evaluated neutron cross section and angular distribution data in ENDF/B-V. Resultant damage cross sections for any compound can be added to the SPECTER libraries for the routine calculation of displacements in any given neutron field. Users do not require access to neutron cross section files. Results are presented for a variety of fusion materials and a new ceramic superconductor material. Future plans and nuclear data needs are discussed. 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  18. Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Proestos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Wine contains natural antioxidants such as phenolic compounds also known as bioactive compounds. Samples of commercially available Greek wines were analyzed in order to determine this phenolic content. For the analysis, Reversed Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC coupled with a multiwavelength Ultraviolet/visible (UV/vis detector was used. The most abundant phenolic substances detected were (+-catechin (13.5-72.4 mg L-1 , gallic acid (0.40-99.47 mg L-1 and caffeic acid (0.87-33.48 mg L-1. The principal component analysis (PCA technique was used to study differentiation among wines according to their production area. Red wines contained more phenolic substances than white ones. Differences of the phenolic composition in wines of the same cultivar were investigated too.

  19. Partial purification of endogenous digitalis-like compound(s) in cord blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balzan, S.; Ghione, S.; Biver, P.; Gazzetti, P.; Montali, U. (C.N.R. Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy))

    1991-02-01

    Increasing evidence indicates the presence of endogenous digitalis-like compound(s) in human body fluids. In this preliminary report, we describe a study of the partial purification by HPLC of these compounds in the plasma of neonates (who have particularly high concentrations of this substance) and adults. Plasma samples from neonates (cord blood) and adults, lyophilized and extracted with methanol, were applied on a 300 x 3.9 mm C18 Nova Pak column and eluted with a mobile phase of acetonitrile/methanol/water (17/17/66 or 14/14/72 by vol) and, after 30 min, with 100% methanol. We assayed eluted fractions for inhibitory activity of 86Rb uptake and for digoxin-like immunoreactivity. The elution profile revealed a first peak of inhibitory activity of 86Rb uptake at the beginning of the chromatography; another peak was eluted with the 100% methanol. The two peaks also cross-reacted with antidigoxin antibodies. Because the second peak could possibly reflect the nonspecific interference of various lipophilic compounds, we focused our attention on the first peak. For these fractions dose-response curves for 86Rb uptake and for displacement of digoxin were parallel, respectively, to those of ouabain and digoxin, suggesting similarities of digoxin-like immunoreactive substance to cardiac glycosides. Similar chromatographic profiles were also obtained for plasma from adults, suggesting that the endogenous glycoside-like compound(s) in the neonate may be the same as those in the adult.

  20. Analysis of isoelectron isonuclear series of holovalent tetraelectron compounds as a system of bicomponent chemical compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigdorovich, V.N.; Dzhuraev, T.D.

    1985-03-01

    Analogs and prototypes of the compounds supplementing the system of isoelectron isonuclear series of holovalent tetraelectron compounds by Gorunova are revealed. The investigation of all series of tetraelectron ovalenthol compounds allows one to supplement the variety of known series used for regular tracing and forecasting of compound properties (series of cation and anion substitutions by isonuclear series of the A/sup 4/B/sup 4/, A/sup 3/B/sup 5/, A/sup 1/B/sup 7/ type and others compounds. The above series for medium ordinal numbers anti Z equal 10, 14, 18, 23 and 36 permit to illustrate the possibility of existence of such analogs or series, for example for the compounds of the type A/sup 3/-- B/sup 5/:AlN-BP or Z=1(f AlP-ScN-BV (for Z=14), ScP-AlV (for Z=18), GaP-AlAs-YN-BNb (for Z=23) and YAs-GaNb-InV-ScSb-LaP-AlPr (for Z=36).

  1. Analysis of isoelectron isonuclear series of holovalent tetraelectron compounds as a system of bicomponent chemical compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigdorovich, V.N.; Dzhuraev, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    Analogs and prototypes of the compounds supplementing the system of isoelectron isonuclear series of holovalent tetraelectron compounds by Gorunova are revealed. The investigation of all series of tetraelectron ovalenthol compounds allows one to supplement the variety of known series used for regular tracing and forecasting of compound properties (series of cation and anion substitutions by isonuclear series of the A 4 B 4 , A 3 B 5 , A 1 B 7 type and others compounds. The above series for medium ordinal numbers anti Z equal 10, 14, 18, 23 and 36 permit to illustrate the possibility of existence of such analogs or series, for example for the compounds of the type A 3 -- B 5 :AlN-BP or Z=1(f AlP-ScN-BV (for Z=14), ScP-AlV (for Z=18), GaP-AlAs-YN-BNb ( for Z=23) and YAs-GaNb-InV-ScSb-LaP-AlPr (for Z=36)

  2. Nanoencapsulation of bioactive compounds for food applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sessa, Mariarenata

    2012-01-01

    2010 - 2011 The increase in dietary-intake-related illnesses, such as obesity, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes and cancer, have made in recent years the development of health-and-wellness promoting foods a priority of the food industry. Clinical studies have demonstrated tangible health benefits that may be derived from the intake of bioactive compounds. However many difficulties are associated with their inclusion in food matrices, due to a very low solubility in water and...

  3. Measure of absorption in multistep compound processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, B.V.; Hussein, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The Moldauer-Simonius theorem, that relates the modulus of the determinant of the average, optical, S-matrix, to the average width and spacing of the compound nucleus resonances, is generalized to the multiclass resonances situation encountered in pre-equilibrium reactions. Corrections to the generalized M/S theorem are seen to be connected primarily to the width distribution of the widest doorway class. (Author) [pt

  4. Multivariate fractional Poisson processes and compound sums

    OpenAIRE

    Beghin, Luisa; Macci, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present multivariate space-time fractional Poisson processes by considering common random time-changes of a (finite-dimensional) vector of independent classical (non-fractional) Poisson processes. In some cases we also consider compound processes. We obtain some equations in terms of some suitable fractional derivatives and fractional difference operators, which provides the extension of known equations for the univariate processes.

  5. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Andrea Nastri de Luca; Batista Junior, Joao Marcos; Lopez, Silvia Noeli; Furlan, Maysa; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica; Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Produtos Naturais; Yoshida, Massayoshi [Centro de Biotecnologia da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  6. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, Andrea Nastri de Luca; Batista Junior, Joao Marcos; Lopez, Silvia Noeli; Furlan, Maysa; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  7. Voltammetric determination of zirconium using azo compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orshulyak, O.O.; Levitskaya, G.D.

    2008-01-01

    The optimum conditions for zirconium complexation with azo compounds are found. The applicability of Eriochrome Red B, Calcon, and Calcion to the voltammetric determination of zirconium, total Zr(IV) and Hf(IV), and Zr(IV) in the presence of Zn(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Ni(II), or Ti(IV) is demonstrated. The developed procedures are used to determine zirconium in a terbium alloy and in an alloy for airplane wheel drums [ru

  8. Bioactive Compounds in Functional Meat Products

    OpenAIRE

    Ewelina Pogorzelska-Nowicka; Atanas G. Atanasov; Jarosław Horbańczuk; Agnieszka Wierzbicka

    2018-01-01

    Meat and meat products are a good source of bioactive compounds with positive effect on human health such as vitamins, minerals, peptides or fatty acids. Growing food consumer awareness and intensified global meat producers competition puts pressure on creating new healthier meat products. In order to meet these expectations, producers use supplements with functional properties for animal diet and as direct additives for meat products. In the presented work seven groups of key functional cons...

  9. Nuclear alignment following compound nucleus reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, P.A.; Nolan, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure for calculating the alignment of a nuclear state populated by a compound nucleus reaction is given and used to investigate how alignment varies for different types of population mechanisms. The calculations are compared to both predictions of Gaussian models for the state population distribution and to experimental data, for a variety of types of nuclear reactions. The treatment of alignment in the analysis of γ-ray angular distribution is discussed. (orig.)

  10. REVIEW PAPER-MARINE MICROBIAL BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyani. P*, Hemalatha. K. P. J

    2016-01-01

    Oceans have borne most of the biological activities on our planet. A number of biologically active compounds with varying degrees of action, such as anti-tumor, anti-cancer, anti-microtubule, anti-proliferative, cytotoxic, photo protective, as well as antibiotic and antifouling properties, have been isolated to date from marine sources. The marine environment also represents a largely unexplored source for isolation of new microbes (bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, microalgae-cyanobacteria and...

  11. Debye classes in A15 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudenmann, J.; DeFacio, B.; Testardi, L.R.; Werner, S.A.; Fluekiger, R.; Muller, J.

    1981-01-01

    The comparison between electron charge-density distribution of V 3 Si, Cr 3 Si, and V 3 Ge at room temperature leads us to study the Debye temperatures at 0 0 K THETA 0 from specific-heat measurements for over 100 A15 compounds. A phenomenological THETA 0 (M), M the molecular mass, is obtained from the static scaling relation THETA 0 (M) = aM/sup b/ and this organizes all of the data into five Debye classes: V(V 3 Si), V-G, G(V 3 Ge), G-C, and C(Cr 3 Si). In contrast, the Debye temperature THETA 0 (V), with V as the unit-cell volume does not relate alloys as THETA 0 (M) does, with the exception of the C class. This latter case leads to the surprising result MproportionalV/sup approximately1/3/ and to a Grueneisen constant of 1.6 +- 0.1 for all compounds of this class. In the V class where V 3 Si and Nb 3 Sn are found, THETA 0 (V) labels these two alloys differently, as does their martensitic c/a ratios. With T-bar/sub c/ denoting the average superconducting transition temperature within a Debye class, interesting correlations are shown. One is the maximum of T-bar/sub c/ which exists in the V class where the strongest anharmonicity occurs. Another is the case of compounds formed only by transition elements up to and including Au. This interesting case shows that approx.3.2< T-bar/sub c/< approx.5.0 K in all of the five classes and that there is no correlation between T/sub c/ and the thermal properties. The implications of these observations for creating better models for the A15 compounds are briefly discussed

  12. Applications of chiroptical spectroscopy to coordination compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wu, Tao; You, X. Z.; Bouř, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 284, SI (2015), s. 1-18 ISSN 0010-8545 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-03978S; GA ČR GAP208/11/0105 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M200550902 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : chirality * coordination compounds * chiroptical spectroscopy * new materials Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 12.994, year: 2015

  13. Photocatalytic fluoroalkylation reactions of organic compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Barata Vallejo, Sebastian; Bonesi, Sergio Mauricio; Postigo, Jose Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Photocatalytic methods for fluoroalkyl-radical generation provide more convenient alternatives to the classical perfluoroalkyl-radical (Rf) production through chemical initiators, such as azo or peroxide compounds or the employment of transition metals through a thermal electron transfer (ET) initiation process. The mild photocatalytic reaction conditions tolerate a variety of functional groups and, thus, are handy to the late-stage modification of bioactive molecules. Transition metal-photoc...

  14. Minor lipophilic compounds in edible insects

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Sabolová; Anna Adámková; Lenka Kouřimská; Diana Chrpová; Jan Pánek

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary society is faced with the question how to ensure suffiecient nutrition (quantity and quality) for rapidly growing population. One solution can be consumption of edible insect, which can have very good nutritional value (dietary energy, protein, fatty acids, fibers, dietary minerals and vitamins composition). Some edible insects species, which contains a relatively large amount of fat, can have a potential to be a „good" (interesting, new) source of minor lipophilic compound...

  15. Methanogenic Transformation of Methylfurfural Compounds to Furfural

    OpenAIRE

    Boopathy, R.

    1996-01-01

    The metabolic conversion of 5-methylfurfural and 2-methylfurfural to furfural by a methanogenic bacterium, Methanococcus sp. strain B, was studied. This bacterium was found to use methylfurfural compounds as a growth substrate and to convert them stoichiometrically to furfural. For every mole of methylfurfurals metabolized, almost 1 mol of furfural and 0.7 mol of methane were produced. Several methanogenic bacteria did not carry out this conversion. The metabolic conversion of methylfurfurals...

  16. Two new compounds from Helichrysum arenarium (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Wei; Sun, Wu-Xing; Li, Xian; Zhao, Chun-Chao; Meng, Da-Li; Li, Ning

    2009-01-01

    Two new compounds were isolated from the whole plant of Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench. By means of spectroscopic data (IR, UV, 1D and 2D NMR, HR-MS, ESI-MS, and NOESY) and chemical evidence, the structures were established as 6,7-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid (1) and (Z)-5-hydroxy-7-methoxy-4-[3-methyl-4-(O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)but-2-enyl]isobenzofuran-1(3H)-one (2).

  17. Parity violation in the compound nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, G. E.; Crawford, B. E.; Grossmann, C. A.; Lowie, L. Y.; Bowman, J. D.; Knudson, J.; Penttilae, S.; Seestrom, S. J.; Smith, D. A.; Yen, Yi-Fen; Yuan, V. W.; Delheij, P. P. J.; Haseyama, T.; Masaike, A.; Matsuda, Y.; Postma, H.; Roberson, N. R.; Sharapov, E. I.; Stephenson, S. L.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements have been performed on the helicity dependence of the neutron resonance cross section for many nuclei by our TRIPLE Collaboration. A large number of parity violations are observed. Generic enhancements amplify the signal for symmetry breaking and the stochastic properties of the compound nucleus permit the strength of the symmetry-breaking interaction to be determined without knowledge of the wave functions of individual states. A total of 15 nuclei have been analyzed with this statistical approach. The results are summarized

  18. Preparation of 125I labelled compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafii, H.; Beiki, D.; Matlubi, M.; Jalilian, A.R.; Motamedi, F.; Karimian, A.R.; Najafi, R.; Babaei, M.; Kamali Dehghan, M.; Shah-Hossaini, G.R.; Shafahi, S.K.; Keshavarzi, F.

    2002-01-01

    Iodinated compounds with 131 I, 125 I and 123 I have been widely used for biochemical function studies. In conjunction with SPECT, [ 123 I] labelled proteins have various diagnostic and therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine. In this study, synthesis and quality control of [ 18 F]radiofluorinated and radioiodinated of some proteins and peptides as well as their biological behaviors are considered to be investigated. (author)

  19. Infrared spectroscopy of some organocobalt (III) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetti, A.V.; Mauro, A.E.

    1982-01-01

    The compounds [MeCo(DH) 2 py], [MeCo(DH) 2 H 2 O] (M = methyl; DH = dimethyl-glyoxymate; py = pyridine) and others of general formulae [Co(L)(H 2 O) 2 ] ClO 4 , where L = SALOPHEN = bis (salicylaldehyde)-o-phenylenediimine; SALCN = 1,2-bis (salicylaldehyde) cyclohexylenediimine; SALEN = bis (salicylaldehyde) ethylenediimine; BAE = bis (acetylacetone)-ethylenediimine were synthesized and studied by infrared spectroscopy. The frequencies observed have been assigned to specific group vibrations. (Author) [pt

  20. Compounds of Fe-Zn bond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauro, A.E.; Mancini, M.N.G.

    1981-01-01

    The compounds of the type L 1 L 2 ZnFe(CO) 4 , not yet reported, are synthesized and studied by infrared spectroscopy. The data are interpreted based on a monomeric structure with a local C sub(3v) symmetry around the iron atom. L 1 = methylamine (Mea), dimethylamine (diMea), trimethylamine (triMea) L 2 = ethylenediamine (en), N-methylethylenediamine (N,Meen), N,N-dimethylenthylenediamines, (s-diMeen). (Author) [pt

  1. Steroidal Compounds in Commercial Parenteral Lipid Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhidong; Harvey, Kevin A.; Pavlina, Thomas; Dutot, Guy; Hise, Mary; Zaloga, Gary P.; Siddiqui, Rafat A.

    2012-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions made from various plant oils contain steroidal compounds, called phytosterols. During parenteral administration of lipid emulsions, phytosterols can reach levels in the blood that are many fold higher than during enteral administration. The elevated phytosterol levels have been associated with the development of liver dysfunction and the rare development of liver failure. There is limited information available in the literature related to phytosterol concentrations in lipid emulsions. The objective of the current study was to validate an assay for steroidal compounds found in lipid emulsions and to compare their concentrations in the most commonly used parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions: Liposyn® II, Liposyn® III, Lipofundin® MCT, Lipofundin® N, Structolipid®, Intralipid®, Ivelip® and ClinOleic®. Our data demonstrates that concentrations of the various steroidal compounds varied greatly between the eight lipid emulsions, with the olive oil-based lipid emulsion containing the lowest levels of phytosterols and cholesterol, and the highest concentration of squalene. The clinical impression of greater incidences of liver dysfunction with soybean versus MCT/LCT and olive/soy lipid emulsions may be reflective of the levels of phytosterols in these emulsions. This information may help guide future studies and clinical care of patients with lipid emulsion-associated liver dysfunction. PMID:23016123

  2. Bioactive compounds in different acerola fruit cultivares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Aparecida de Carvalho Mariano-Nasser

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The increased consumption of acerola in Brazil was triggered because it is considered as a functional food mainly for its high ascorbic acid content, but the fruit also has high nutritional value, high levels of phenolic compounds, total antioxidant activity, anthocyanins and carotenoids in its composition. The objective was to evaluate the chemical, physical-chemical and antioxidant activity of eight varieties of acerola tree. The acerolas used in the research were the harvest 2015, 8 varieties: BRS 235 - Apodi, Mirandópolis, Waldy - CATI 30, BRS 238 - Frutacor, Okinawa, BRS 236 - Cereja, Olivier and BRS 237 - Roxinha, from the Active Bank Germplasm APTA Regional Alta Paulista in Adamantina - SP. Avaluated the following attributes: pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, reducing sugar, instrumental color, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity. The design was completely randomized, 8 varieties and 3 replications of 20 fruits each. Acerola fruit of the analyzed varieties prove to be good sources of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity, ensuring its excellent nutritional quality relative to combat free radicals. The variety BRS 236 - Cereja presents higher ascorbic acid content, antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds, and the lowest value for flavonoid, which was higher than the other cultivars, especially Olivier and Waldy CATI-30.

  3. Aldose reductase inhibitory compounds from Xanthium strumarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ha Na; Lee, Min Young; Kim, Jin-Kyu; Suh, Hong-Won; Lim, Soon Sung

    2013-09-01

    As part of our ongoing search for natural sources of therapeutic and preventive agents for diabetic complications, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of components of the fruit of Xanthium strumarium (X. strumarium) on aldose reductase (AR) and galactitol formation in rat lenses with high levels of glucose. To identify the bioactive components of X. strumarium, 7 caffeoylquinic acids and 3 phenolic compounds were isolated and their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and comparison with published data. The abilities of 10 X. strumarium-derived components to counteract diabetic complications were investigated by means of inhibitory assays with rat lens AR (rAR) and recombinant human AR (rhAR). From the 10 isolated compounds, methyl-3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinate showed the most potent inhibition, with IC₅₀ values of 0.30 and 0.67 μM for rAR and rhAR, respectively. In the kinetic analyses using Lineweaver-Burk plots of 1/velocity and 1/substrate, methyl-3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinate showed competitive inhibition of rhAR. Furthermore, methyl-3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinate inhibited galactitol formation in the rat lens and in erythrocytes incubated with a high concentration of glucose, indicating that this compound may be effective in preventing diabetic complications.

  4. Technology developments for a compound cycle engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobula, George A.; Wintucky, William T.; Castor, J. G.

    1988-01-01

    The Compound Cycle Engine (CCE) is a highly turbocharged, power compounded power plant which combines the light weight pressure rise capability of a gas turbine with the high efficiency of a diesel. When optimized for a rotorcraft, the CCE will reduce fuel burned for a typical 2 hour (plus 30 min reserve) mission by 30 to 40 percent when compared to a conventional advanced technology gas turbine. The CCE can provide a 50 percent increase in range-payload product on this mission. Results of recent activities in a program to establish the technology base for a CCE are presented. The objective of this program is to research and develop those critical technologies which are necessary for the demonstration of a multicylinder diesel core in the early 1990s. A major accomplishment was the initial screening and identification of a lubricant which has potential for meeting the material wear rate limits of the application. An in-situ wear measurement system also was developed to provide accurate, readily obtainable, real time measurements of ring and liner wear. Wear data, from early single cylinder engine tests, are presented to show correlation of the in-situ measurements and the system's utility in determining parametric wear trends. A plan to demonstrate a compound cycle engine by the mid 1990s is included.

  5. Glyoxylic compounds as radiosensitizers of hypoxic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornago, M.P.; Lopez Zumel, M.C.; Alvarez, M.V.; Izquierdo, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    The radiosensitizing effect of five glyoxal derivatives on the survival of TC-SV40 cells has been measured, under aerobic and hypoxic conditions. A toxicity study was previously performed in order to use nontoxic concentrations. The OER for the TC-SV40 cells was 2.74. None of the glyoxylic compounds showed radiosensitizing activity under aerobic conditions while in hypoxia their radiosensitizing factors decreased in the order phenylglyoxylic acid (1.68 at 8 x 10(-3) mole dm-3) greater than phenylglyoxal (1.55 at 5 x 10(-6) mole dm-3) greater than 2-2' furil (1.48 at 5 x 10(-5) mole dm-3) greater than glyoxylic acid (1.39 at 1 x 10(-3) mole dm-3) greater than glyoxal (1.30 at 5 x 10(-5) mole dm-3). The dose-modifying factors were also determined at two equimolar concentrations 5 x 10(-5) and 5 x 10(-6) mole dm-3. A concentration effect was noticed for all the compounds although their relative radiosensitizing activity kept, independently of the concentration, the same order noted above. Glyoxals with aromatic or heterocyclic rings exert a greater radiosensitization than the others. The acidic compounds have less radiosensitizing activity than their aldehydic counterparts. Interaction of these glyoxals with NPSH cellular groups was tested and the low degree of inhibition shows that this mechanism would contribute very little, if any, to the radiosensitization effect

  6. Special syntheses of certain organic iodine compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.; Debuchy, D.; Junod, E.

    1960-01-01

    The technical difficulties encountered in working on radioactive products force us to choose the simplest methods of chemical synthesis possible. For iodine compounds, two special methods have been chosen: - by using fission recoil, we can prepare simple iodine compounds such as iodobenzene or methyl iodide in high yields and having a good degree of purity. The method consists in the irradiation of mixtures of uranium oxide and benzoic acid or ammonium acetate. The iodised product is separated by distillation, after dissolving the recoil medium in a solvent. - by isotopic exchange between the inorganic iodine of different valencies and complex molecules such as Bengal pink, and diodone, it is also possible to obtain satisfactory labelling yields. These reactions have been adapted so as to give a minimum time for isotopic exchange. In the case of Bengal pink, we have found a yield of 90 per cent after 60 minutes by exchange between Nal and the organic molecule in aqueous solution in presence of hydrogen peroxide. For diodone the method proposed by Liebster has been modified so as to reduce losses during purification. The analytical methods adopted for these different compounds are described. (author) [fr

  7. Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Wine Lees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhijing, Ye; Shavandi, Amin; Harrison, Roland; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A

    2018-03-25

    The effect of vinification techniques on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of wine lees are poorly understood. The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of white and red wine lees generated at early fermentation and during aging. In this study, the total phenol content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC), mean degree of polymerization (mDP), and antioxidant activities of five white and eight red wine lees samples from different vinification backgrounds were determined. The results showed that vinification techniques had a significant ( p tannin content of the samples. White wine lees had high mDP content compared with red ones. Catechin (50-62%) and epicatechin contents were the predominant terminal units of polymeric proanthocyanidin extracted from examined samples. Epigallocatechin was the predominant extension unit of white wine lees, whereas epicatechin was the predominant compound in red wine marc. The ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) assay was strongly correlated with the DPPH (α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) assay, and the results showed the strong antioxidant activities associated with red wine lees (PN > 35 mg Trolox/g FDM) (PN: Pinot noir lees; FDM: Freeze-dried Material). This study indicates that tannin is one of the major phenolic compounds available in wine lees that can be useful in human and animal health applications.

  8. Compound refractive X-ray lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, D.R.; Cahn, R.; Cederstrom, B.; Danielsson, M.; Vestlund, J.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for focusing X-rays. In one embodiment, his invention is a commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens. The commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a volume of low-Z material. The volume of low-Z material has a first surface which is adapted to receive X-rays of commercially-applicable power emitted from a commercial-grade X-ray source. The volume of low-Z material also has a second surface from which emerge the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which were received at the first surface. Additionally, the commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a plurality of openings which are disposed between the first surface and the second surface. The plurality of openings are oriented such that the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which are received at the first surface, pass through the volume of low-Z material and through the plurality openings. In so doing, the X-rays which emerge from the second surface are refracted to a focal point

  9. of polyphenolic compounds in Ilex Sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwyrzykowska Anna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural compounds are an important source of desired biological activity which help to improve nutritional status, enhance productivity and bring many health benefits. The leaves of the Ilex paraguariensis (Aquifoliaceae are used for preparing a beverage known as yerba mate and represent a proven source of natural polyphenols which are known to foster biological activity with the emphasis on antioxidant properties. In present work we focused on the polyphenolic content of air-dried leaves of Ilex aquifolium L., Ilex aquifolium ‘Argentea Mariginata’, Ilex meserveae ‘Blue Angel’, and a commercially available mate as the reference product. Liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (HPLC and LC-MS and thin layer chromatography (TLC, were used to establish polyphenolic substances content in aqueous methanolic extracts obtained from the biological matter. Up to 20 polyphenolic compounds were identified in the extracts, including rutin, quinic acid and its caffeoyl esters, i.e. chlorogenic acid and its isomers as well as dicaffeoyl derivatives. We took chlorogenic acid and rutin as reference compounds to quantify their levels in the extracts. It was determined that in all tested plants, high levels of these antioxidants were present. This led us to the conclusion that their leaves might serve as valuable food additives.

  10. Unstable magnetic moments in Ce compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarts, J.

    1984-01-01

    The problems which are connected with the appearance or disappearance of local moments in metals are well reflected in the magnetic behaviour of Ce intermetallic compounds. This work describes experiments on two Ce compounds which are typical examples of unstable moment systems. The first of these is CeAl 2 which at low temperatures, shows coexistence of antiferromagnetic order and the Kondo effect. Measurements are presented of the magnetization and the susceptibility in different magnetic field and temperature regions. An analysis of these measurements, using a model for the crystal field effects, shows the agreement between the measurements and the calculations to be reasonably good for CeAl 2 , but this agreement becomes worse upon decreasing Ce concentration. A phenomenological description of the observations is given. The second compound reported on is CeCu 2 Si 2 , the first 'heavy-fermion' superconductor to be investigated. The superconducting state is possibly formed by the quasi-particles of a non-magnetic many body singlet state, and not simply by the (sd) conduction electrons. This being a novel phenomenon, a number of experiments were performed to test this picture and to obtain a detailed description of the behaviour of CeCu 2 Si 2 . Measurements of the Meissner volume, confirmed the superconductivity to be intrinsic. (Auth.)

  11. Activity of Polyphenolic Compounds against Candida glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Salazar-Aranda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic mycoses increase the morbidity and mortality of immuno-compromised patients. Five Candida species have been shown to be responsible for 97% of worldwide cases of invasive candidiasis. Resistance of C. glabrata and C. krusei to azoles has been reported, and new, improved antifungal agents are needed. The current study was designed to evaluatethe activity of various polyphenolic compounds against Candida species. Antifungal activity was evaluated following the M27-A3 protocol of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH assay. Myricetin and baicalein inhibited the growth of all species tested. This effect was strongest against C. glabrata, for which the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC value was lower than that of fluconazole. The MIC values against C. glabrata for myricitrin, luteolin, quercetin, 3-hydroxyflavone, and fisetin were similar to that of fluconazole. The antioxidant activity of all compounds was confirmed, and polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity had the greatest activity against C. glabrata. The structure and position of their hydroxyl groups appear to influence their activity against C. glabrata.

  12. Toxic organic compounds from energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hites, R.A.

    1991-09-20

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) has supported work in our laboratory since 1977. The general theme of this program has been the identification of potentially toxic organic compounds associated with various combustion effluents, following the fates of these compounds in the environment, and improving the analytical methodology for making these measurements. The projects currently investigation include: an improved sampler for semi-volatile compounds in the atmosphere; the wet and dry deposition of dioxins and furans from the atmosphere; the photodegradation and mobile sources of dioxins and furans; and the bioaccumulation of PAH by tree bark. These projects are all responsive to OHER's interest in the pathways and mechanisms by which energy-related agents move through and are modified by the atmosphere''. The projects on gas chromatographic and liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry are both responsive to OHER's interest in new and more sensitive technologies for chemical measurements''. 35 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Compound refractive X-ray lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, David R.; Cahn, Robert; Cederstrom, Bjorn; Danielsson, Mats; Vestlund, Jonas

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for focusing X-rays. In one embodiment, his invention is a commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens. The commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a volume of low-Z material. The volume of low-Z material has a first surface which is adapted to receive X-rays of commercially-applicable power emitted from a commercial-grade X-ray source. The volume of low-Z material also has a second surface from which emerge the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which were received at the first surface. Additionally, the commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a plurality of openings which are disposed between the first surface and the second surface. The plurality of openings are oriented such that the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which are received at the first surface, pass through the volume of low-Z material and through the plurality openings. In so doing, the X-rays which emerge from the second surface are refracted to a focal point.

  14. Modulation of leptin resistance by food compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonès, Gerard; Ardid-Ruiz, Andrea; Ibars, Maria; Suárez, Manuel; Bladé, Cinta

    2016-08-01

    Leptin is mainly secreted by white adipose tissue and regulates energy homeostasis by inhibiting food intake and stimulating energy expenditure through its action in neuronal circuits in the brain, particularly in the hypothalamus. However, hyperleptinemia coexists with the loss of responsiveness to leptin in common obese conditions. This phenomenon has been defined as leptin resistance and the restoration of leptin sensitivity is considered to be a useful strategy to treat obesity. This review summarizes the existing literature on potentially valuable nutrients and food components to reverse leptin resistance. Notably, several food compounds, such as teasaponins, resveratrol, celastrol, caffeine, and taurine among others, are able to restore the leptin signaling in neurons by overexpressing anorexigenic peptides (proopiomelanocortin) and/or repressing orexigenic peptides (neuropeptide Y/agouti-related peptide), thus decreasing food intake. Additionally, some nutrients, such as vitamins A and D, can improve leptin transport through the blood-brain barrier. Therefore, food components can improve leptin resistance by acting at different levels of the leptin pathway; moreover, some compounds are able to target more than one feature of leptin resistance. However, systematic studies are necessary to define the actual effectiveness of each compound. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Steroidal compounds in commercial parenteral lipid emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhidong; Harvey, Kevin A; Pavlina, Thomas; Dutot, Guy; Hise, Mary; Zaloga, Gary P; Siddiqui, Rafat A

    2012-08-01

    Parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions made from various plant oils contain steroidal compounds, called phytosterols. During parenteral administration of lipid emulsions, phytosterols can reach levels in the blood that are many fold higher than during enteral administration. The elevated phytosterol levels have been associated with the development of liver dysfunction and the rare development of liver failure. There is limited information available in the literature related to phytosterol concentrations in lipid emulsions. The objective of the current study was to validate an assay for steroidal compounds found in lipid emulsions and to compare their concentrations in the most commonly used parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions: Liposyn(®) II, Liposyn(®) III, Lipofundin(®) MCT, Lipofundin(®) N, Structolipid(®), Intralipid(®), Ivelip(®) and ClinOleic(®). Our data demonstrates that concentrations of the various steroidal compounds varied greatly between the eight lipid emulsions, with the olive oil-based lipid emulsion containing the lowest levels of phytosterols and cholesterol, and the highest concentration of squalene. The clinical impression of greater incidences of liver dysfunction with soybean versus MCT/LCT and olive/soy lipid emulsions may be reflective of the levels of phytosterols in these emulsions. This information may help guide future studies and clinical care of patients with lipid emulsion-associated liver dysfunction.

  16. Steroidal Compounds in Commercial Parenteral Lipid Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat A. Siddiqui

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions made from various plant oils contain steroidal compounds, called phytosterols. During parenteral administration of lipid emulsions, phytosterols can reach levels in the blood that are many fold higher than during enteral administration. The elevated phytosterol levels have been associated with the development of liver dysfunction and the rare development of liver failure. There is limited information available in the literature related to phytosterol concentrations in lipid emulsions. The objective of the current study was to validate an assay for steroidal compounds found in lipid emulsions and to compare their concentrations in the most commonly used parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions: Liposyn® II, Liposyn® III, Lipofundin® MCT, Lipofundin® N, Structolipid®, Intralipid®, Ivelip® and ClinOleic®. Our data demonstrates that concentrations of the various steroidal compounds varied greatly between the eight lipid emulsions, with the olive oil-based lipid emulsion containing the lowest levels of phytosterols and cholesterol, and the highest concentration of squalene. The clinical impression of greater incidences of liver dysfunction with soybean versus MCT/LCT and olive/soy lipid emulsions may be reflective of the levels of phytosterols in these emulsions. This information may help guide future studies and clinical care of patients with lipid emulsion-associated liver dysfunction.

  17. Neuroinhibitory meroterpenoid compounds from Cordia oncocalyx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Taynara S; Silva, Ana Karine O; Quintela, Amanda L; Francisco das Chagas Pinto, L; Canuto, Kirley M; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Fonseca, Maria Júlia S; Luna-Costa, Angélica Maria; Paz, Iury A; Nascimento, Nilberto Robson F; Silveira, Edilberto R; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdênia L

    2017-11-01

    Five new meroterpenoid compounds designed as rel-10β,11β-epoxy-2,11-dimethoxy-8α-hydroxy-8aβ-methyl-5α,6,7,8,8a,9,10,10aβ-octahydro-1,4-anthracendione (1), rel-10β,11β-epoxy-8α,5-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-8aβ-methyl-5,6,7,8,8a,9,10,10aβ-octahydro -1.4-anthracendione (2), rel-1,4,8α-trihydroxy-5-furanyl-2-methoxy-8aβ-methyl-6,7,8, 8a,9,10-hexahydro-10-anthracenone (3), rel-10α,11α-epoxy-8α,11β-dihydroxy-8aβ-methyl-5β,6,7,8,8a,9,10,10aβ-octahydro-1,4-anthracenediol (4) and rel-1,4,8α-trihydroxy-5-carboxyethyl-2-methoxy-8aβ-methyl-6,7,8,8a,9,10-hexahydro-10-anthra-cenone (5), besides seven (6-12) known compounds were isolated from the heartwood and sapwood ethanol extracts of Cordia oncocalyx. Moreover, the main isolated compounds were screened using the electrically driven mice vas deferens bioassay, which has a rich pharmacological receptors diversity. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. [Chemotherapeutic characterization of new nitrosourea compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, W J; Berger, M R; Eisenbrand, G; Petru, E

    1988-01-01

    The development of new nitrosoureas is described using selected examples. Results obtained with water-soluble analogs and with compounds linked to biomolecules as for instance amino acids, oligopeptides and steroids, are presented. The pronounced antineoplastic effect of some water-soluble analogs is paralleled by an increased rate of DNA-interstrand cross-links and by an increased suppression of hematopoietic stem cells. The suppression of bone marrow stem cells is followed by their rapid regeneration. Water-soluble nitrosoureas induce significant less inhibition of glutathione reductase as compared with established compounds. With regard to long-term toxicity and carcinogenicity water-soluble are superior to established compounds as for instance BCNU. Linking of the nitrosourea moiety to amino acids and oligopeptides led to some analogs with outstanding therapeutic ratio. Out of a group of steroid-linked nitrosoureas, CNC-L-alanine-estradiol-17-ester (CNC-ala-17-E2) is chosen to demonstrate the possibility of reducing bone marrow toxicity despite unchanged or increased therapeutic activity by attachment of the nitrosourea moiety to a steroid. Results of a comparative interspecies in vitro evaluation of CNC-ala-17-E2 in transplanted MXT mammary carcinoma of the mouse, MNU-induced autochthonous rat mammary carcinoma and primary human mammary carcinomas are presented and the question is discussed to what extent in vitro activity of such receptor agents using the tumor stem cell assay reflects their in vivo activity.

  19. Transitions between compound states of spherical nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadmenskii, S.G.; Markushev, V.P.; Furman, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    Wigner's statistical matrices are used to study the average reduced g widths and their dispersion for g transitions from a compound state c to another state f, with a lower excitation energy but of arbitrary complexity, for spherical nuclei. It is found that the Porter--Thomas distribution holds for the g widths for all cases of practical interest. In g transitions between compound states c and c' with E/sub g/< or =2 MeV, the most important transitions are M1 transitions involving the major many-quasiparticle components of state c and E1 transitions involving the minor components of state c. It is shown that the strength functions predicted by the various theories for M1 and E1 transitions between compound states with E/sub g/< or =2 MeV are similar. Preference is assigned to the M1-transition version because of experimental results on (n,ga) reactions with thermal and resonance neutrons

  20. Lattice anisotropy in uranium ternary compounds: UTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mašková, S.; Adamska, A.M.; Havela, L.; Kim-Ngan, N.-T.H.; Przewoźnik, J.; Daniš, S.; Kothapalli, K.; Kolomiets, A.V.; Heathman, S.; Nakotte, H.; Bordallo, H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Compressibility and thermal expansion of several U-based compounds were established. ► The direction of the U–U bonds is the “soft” crystallographic direction. ► Highest coefficient of linear thermal expansion is in the direction of the U–U bonds. ► The closer the U atoms are together the better they can be compressed together. - Abstract: Several U-based intermetallic compounds (UCoGe, UNiGe with the TiNiSi structure type and UNiAl with the ZrNiAl structure type) and their hydrides were studied from the point of view of compressibility and thermal expansion. Confronted with existing data for the compounds with the ZrNiAl structure type a common pattern emerges. The direction of the U–U bonds with participation of the 5f states is distinctly the “soft” crystallographic direction, exhibiting also the highest coefficient of linear thermal expansion. The finding leads to an apparent paradox: the closer the U atoms are together in a particular direction the better they can be additionally compressed together by applied hydrostatic pressure.

  1. Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Wine Lees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Zhijing

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of vinification techniques on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of wine lees are poorly understood. The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of white and red wine lees generated at early fermentation and during aging. In this study, the total phenol content (TPC, total tannin content (TTC, mean degree of polymerization (mDP, and antioxidant activities of five white and eight red wine lees samples from different vinification backgrounds were determined. The results showed that vinification techniques had a significant (p < 0.05 impact on total phenol and tannin content of the samples. White wine lees had high mDP content compared with red ones. Catechin (50–62% and epicatechin contents were the predominant terminal units of polymeric proanthocyanidin extracted from examined samples. Epigallocatechin was the predominant extension unit of white wine lees, whereas epicatechin was the predominant compound in red wine marc. The ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay was strongly correlated with the DPPH (α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl assay, and the results showed the strong antioxidant activities associated with red wine lees (PN > 35 mg Trolox/g FDM (PN: Pinot noir lees; FDM: Freeze-dried Material. This study indicates that tannin is one of the major phenolic compounds available in wine lees that can be useful in human and animal health applications.

  2. Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Wine Lees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhijing, Ye; Shavandi, Amin; Harrison, Roland; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of vinification techniques on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of wine lees are poorly understood. The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of white and red wine lees generated at early fermentation and during aging. In this study, the total phenol content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC), mean degree of polymerization (mDP), and antioxidant activities of five white and eight red wine lees samples from different vinification backgrounds were determined. The results showed that vinification techniques had a significant (p wine lees had high mDP content compared with red ones. Catechin (50–62%) and epicatechin contents were the predominant terminal units of polymeric proanthocyanidin extracted from examined samples. Epigallocatechin was the predominant extension unit of white wine lees, whereas epicatechin was the predominant compound in red wine marc. The ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) assay was strongly correlated with the DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) assay, and the results showed the strong antioxidant activities associated with red wine lees (PN > 35 mg Trolox/g FDM) (PN: Pinot noir lees; FDM: Freeze-dried Material). This study indicates that tannin is one of the major phenolic compounds available in wine lees that can be useful in human and animal health applications. PMID:29587406

  3. Applying Quality by Design Concepts to Pharmacy Compounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timko, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Compounding of medications is an important part of the practice of the pharmacy profession. Because compounded medications do not have U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval, a pharmacist has the responsibility to ensure that compounded medications are of suitable quality, safety, and efficacy. The Federal Government and numerous states have updated their laws and regulations regarding pharmacy compounding as a result of recent quality issues. Compounding pharmacists are expected to follow good preparation prodecures in their compounding practices in much the same way pharmaceutical manufacturers are required to follow Current Good Manufacturing Procedures as detailed in the United States Code of Federal Regulations. Application of Quality by Design concepts to the preparation process for a compounded medication can help in understanding the potential pitfalls and the means to mitigate their impact. The goal is to build quality into the compounding process to ensure that the resultant compounded prescription meets the human or animal patients' requirements.

  4. Biogenic volatile organic compounds - small is beautiful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S. M.; Asensio, D.; Li, Q.; Penuelas, J.

    2012-12-01

    While canopy and regional scale flux measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds (bVOCs) are essential to obtain an integrated picture of total compound reaching the atmosphere, many fascinating and important emission details are waiting to be discovered at smaller scales, in different ecological and functional compartments. We concentrate on bVOCs below ground to plant species, and can be extracted from decaying litter. Naturally occurring monoterpenes in the rhizosphere provide a specialised carbon source for micro-organisms, helping to define the micro-organism community structure, and impacting on nutrient cycles which are partly controlled by microorganisms. Naturally occurring monoterpenes in the soil system could also affect the aboveground structure of ecosystems because of their role in plant defence strategies and as mediating chemicals in allelopathy. A gradient of monoterpene concentration was found in soil around Pinus sylvestris and Pinus halepensis, decreasing with distance from the tree. Some compounds (α-pinene, sabinene, humulene and caryophyllene) in mineral soil were linearly correlated with the total amount of each compound in the overlying litter, indicating that litter might be the dominant source of these compounds. However, α-pinene did not fall within the correlation, indicating a source other than litter, probably root exudates. We also show that rhizosphere bVOCs can be a carbon source for soil microbes. In a horizontal gradient from Populus tremula trees, microbes closest to the tree trunk were better enzymatically equipped to metabolise labeled monoterpene substrate. Monoterpenes can also increase the degradation rate in soil of the persistant organic pollutants, likely acting as analogues for the cometabo-lism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) Flowers of a ginger species (Alpinia kwangsiensis) and a fig species (Ficus hispida) showed different bVOC signals pre- and post pollination. For Ficus hispida, there are three

  5. Synthesis of novel ionic liquids from lignin-derived compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socha, Aaron; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A.; Bergeron, Maxime

    2017-09-19

    Methods and compositions are provided for synthesizing ionic liquids from lignin derived compounds comprising: contacting a starting material comprising lignin with a depolymerization agent to depolymerize the lignin and form a mixture of aldehyde containing compounds; contacting the mixture of aldehyde containing compounds with an amine under conditions suitable to convert the mixture of aldehyde containing compounds to a mixture of amine containing compounds; and contacting the mixture of amine containing compounds with an acid under conditions suitable to form an ammonium salt, thereby preparing the ionic liquid.

  6. Fig volatile compounds--a first comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison-Pigé, Laure; Hossaert-McKey, Martine; Greeff, Jaco M; Bessière, Jean-Marie

    2002-09-01

    We analysed the compounds of volatile blends released by receptive figs of twenty Ficus species to attract their specific pollinating wasps. In all, 99 different compounds were identified. The compounds are mainly terpenoids, aliphatic compounds and products from the shikimic acid pathway. In each species blend, there are few major compounds, which are generally common among floral fragrances. Most species blends also include rare compounds, but generally their proportion in the blend is low. A possible basis for species-specificity of Ficus-wasp interactions is discussed in relation to the patterns of volatiles found in this interspecies comparison. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  7. An introduction to the chemistry of complex compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Grinberg, Aleksander Abramovich; Trimble, R F

    1962-01-01

    An Introduction to the Chemistry of Complex Compounds discusses the fundamental concepts that are essential in understanding the underlying principles of complex compounds. The coverage of the book includes the compounds of the hexa, penta, and tetrammine type; compounds of the tri, dl, monoamine and hexacido types for the coordination number of 6; and complex compounds with a coordination number of 4. The text also covers the effects and chemical properties of complex compounds, such as the nature of the force of complex formation; the mutual effects of coordinated groups; and acid-base prope

  8. Thermodynamic stability studies of Ce-Sb compounds with Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yi; Zhang, Jinsuo; Benson, Michael T.; Mariani, Robert D.

    2018-02-01

    Lanthanide fission products can migrate to the fuel periphery and react with cladding, causing fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI). Adding a fuel additive dopant, such as Sb, can bind lanthanide, such as Ce, into metallic compounds and thus prevent migration. The present study focuses on the thermodynamic stability of Ce-Sb compounds when in contact with the major cladding constituent Fe by conducting diffusion couple tests. Ce-Sb compounds have shown high thermodynamic stability as they did not react with Fe. When Fe-Sb compounds contacted with Ce, Sb was separated out of Fe-Sb compounds and formed the more stable Ce-Sb compounds.

  9. Analytic Methods Used in Quality Control in a Compounding Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Loyd V

    2017-01-01

    Analytical testing will no doubt become a more important part of pharmaceutical compounding as the public and regulatory agencies demand increasing documentation of the quality of compounded preparations. Compounding pharmacists must decide what types of testing and what amount of testing to include in their quality-control programs, and whether testing should be done in-house or outsourced. Like pharmaceutical compounding, analytical testing should be performed only by those who are appropriately trained and qualified. This article discusses the analytical methods that are used in quality control in a compounding pharmacy. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  10. Resistance to phenicol compounds following adaptation to quaternary ammonium compounds in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumet, C; Fourreau, E; Legrandois, P; Maris, P

    2012-07-06

    Bacterial adaptation to quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) is mainly documented for benzalkonium chloride (BC) and few data are available for other QACs. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of repeated exposure to different quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) on the susceptibility and/or resistance of bacteria to other QACs and antibiotics. Escherichia coli strains (n=10) were adapted by daily exposure to increasingly sub-inhibitory concentrations of a QAC for 7 days. Three QACs were studied. Following adaptation, we found similar levels of reduction in susceptibility to QACs with a mean 3-fold increase in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) compared to initial MIC values, whatever the QAC used during adaptation. No significant differences in antibiotic susceptibility were observed between the tested QACs. Antibiotic susceptibility was reduced from 3.5- to 7.5-fold for phenicol compounds, β lactams, and quinolones. Increased MIC was associated with a shift in phenotype from susceptible to resistant for phenicol compounds (florfenicol and chloramphenicol) in 90% of E. coli strains. Regardless of the QAC used for adaptation, exposure to gradually increasing concentrations of this type of disinfectant results in reduced susceptibility to QACs and antibiotics as well as cross-resistance to phenicol compounds in E. coli strains. Extensive use of QACs at sub-inhibitory concentrations may lead to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and may represent a public health risk. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Cascaded processing in written compound word production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond eBertram

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the intricate interplay between central linguistic processing and peripheral motor processes during typewriting. Participants had to typewrite two-constituent (noun-noun Finnish compounds in response to picture presentation while their typing behavior was registered. As dependent measures we used writing onset time to assess what processes were completed before writing and inter-key intervals to assess what processes were going on during writing. It was found that writing onset time was determined by whole word frequency rather than constituent frequencies, indicating that compound words are retrieved as whole orthographic units before writing is initiated. In addition, we found that the length of the first syllable also affects writing onset time, indicating that the first syllable is fully prepared before writing commences. The inter-key interval results showed that linguistic planning is not fully ready before writing, but cascades into the motor execution phase. More specifically, inter-key intervals were largest at syllable and morpheme boundaries, supporting the view that additional linguistic planning takes place at these boundaries. Bigram and trigram frequency also affected inter-key intervals with shorter intervals corresponding to higher frequencies. This can be explained by stronger memory traces for frequently co-occurring letter sequences in the motor memory for typewriting. These frequency effects were even larger in the second than in the first constituent, indicating that low-level motor memory starts to become more important during the course of writing compound words. We discuss our results in the light of current models of morphological processing and written word production.

  12. Cascaded processing in written compound word production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Raymond; Tønnessen, Finn Egil; Strömqvist, Sven; Hyönä, Jukka; Niemi, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the intricate interplay between central linguistic processing and peripheral motor processes during typewriting. Participants had to typewrite two-constituent (noun-noun) Finnish compounds in response to picture presentation while their typing behavior was registered. As dependent measures we used writing onset time to assess what processes were completed before writing and inter-key intervals to assess what processes were going on during writing. It was found that writing onset time was determined by whole word frequency rather than constituent frequencies, indicating that compound words are retrieved as whole orthographic units before writing is initiated. In addition, we found that the length of the first syllable also affects writing onset time, indicating that the first syllable is fully prepared before writing commences. The inter-key interval results showed that linguistic planning is not fully ready before writing, but cascades into the motor execution phase. More specifically, inter-key intervals were largest at syllable and morpheme boundaries, supporting the view that additional linguistic planning takes place at these boundaries. Bigram and trigram frequency also affected inter-key intervals with shorter intervals corresponding to higher frequencies. This can be explained by stronger memory traces for frequently co-occurring letter sequences in the motor memory for typewriting. These frequency effects were even larger in the second than in the first constituent, indicating that low-level motor memory starts to become more important during the course of writing compound words. We discuss our results in the light of current models of morphological processing and written word production.

  13. Compounded Apixaban Suspensions for Enteral Feeding Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo, Maria L; Donmez, Seda; Nathan, Kobi; Zhao, Fang

    2017-07-01

    Objective: There is limited information on compounded apixaban formulations for administration via enteral feeding tubes. This study was designed to identify a suitable apixaban suspension formulation that is easy to prepare in a pharmacy setting, is compatible with commonly used feeding tubes, and has a beyond-use date of 7 days. Methods: Apixaban suspensions were prepared from commercially available 5-mg Eliquis tablets. Several vehicles and compounding methods were screened for ease of preparation, dosage accuracy, and tube compatibility. Two tubing types, polyurethane and polyvinyl chloride, with varying lengths and diameters, were included in the study. They were mounted on a peg board during evaluation to mimic the patient body position. A 7-day stability study of the selected formulation was also conducted. Results: Vehicles containing 40% to 60% Ora-Plus in water all exhibited satisfactory flowability through the tubes. The mortar/pestle compounding method was found to produce more accurate and consistent apixaban suspensions than the pill crusher or crushing syringe method. The selected formulation, 0.25 mg/mL apixaban in 50:50 Ora-Plus:water, was compatible with both tubing types, retaining >98% drug in posttube samples. The stability study also confirmed that this formulation was stable physically and chemically over 7 days of storage at room temperature. Conclusions: A suitable apixaban suspension formulation was identified for administration via enteral feeding tubes. The formulation consisted of 0.25 mg/mL apixaban in 50:50 Ora-Plus:water. The stability study results supported a beyond-use date of 7 days at room temperature.

  14. Bioactive compounds: historical perspectives, opportunities, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Bhimanagouda S; Jayaprakasha, G K; Chidambara Murthy, K N; Vikram, Amit

    2009-09-23

    Mom's conventional wisdom of eating fruits and vegetables to lead a healthy life has evolved with scientific, fact-finding research during the past four decades due to advances in science of "Foods for Health". Epidemiological and prospective studies have demonstrated the vital role of fruits, vegetables, and nuts in reducing the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. In recent years, several meta-analyses strongly suggested that by adding one serving of fruits and vegetables to daily diet, the risk of cardiovascular diseases will be decreased up to 7%. The multidisciplinary and partnership efforts of agriculture and medical scientists across the globe stimulated interest in establishing certain interdisciplinary centers and institutes focusing on "Foods for Health". While the consumption of various healthy foods continues, several questions about toxicity, bioavailability, and food-drug interactions of bioactive compounds are yet to be fully understood on the basis of scientific evidence. Recent research on elucidation of the molecular mechanisms to understand the "proof of the concept" will provide the perfect answer when consumers are ready for a "consumer-to-farm" rather than the current "farm-to-consumer" approach. The multidisciplinary research and educational efforts will address the role of healthy foods to improve eye, brain, and heart health while reducing the risk of cancer. Through this connection, this review is an attempt to provide insight and historical perspectives on some of the bioactive compounds from the day of discovery to their current status. The bioactive compounds discussed in this review are flavonoids, carotenoids, curcumin, ascorbic acid, and citrus limonoids.

  15. Fragrance compounds: The wolves in sheep's clothings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Seema

    2017-05-01

    In the past few decades, synthetic fragrance compounds have become ubiquitous components of personal care and household cleaning products. Overwhelming consumerism trends have led to the excess usage of these chemicals. It has been observed that this fragrance-laden unhealthy lifestyle runs parallel with the unprecedented rates of diabetes, cancer, neural ailments, teratogenicity, and transgender instances. The link between fragrances as and the multiplicity of pathogens remained latent for decades. However, now this health hazard and its role in homeostasis breakdown is getting attention. The adverse effects of the fragrance constituents as phthalates, paraben, glutaraldehyde, hydroperoxides, oil of turpentine, metals, nitro musks, and essential oils, among others, are being identified. The endocrine-immune-neural axis perturbation pathways of these chemicals are being proven. Despite the revelations of cause-effect nexus, a majority of the vulnerable populations are unaware and unmotivated to avoid these 'slow poisons'. Hence, the researchers need to further validate the toxicity of fragrance compounds, and raise awareness towards the health risks. In this regard, a number of pathologies triggered by fragrance exposure, yet proven only scantily have been hypothesized. Analysis of the health issues from multiple facets, including the pivotal 'stressors - extracellular acidosis - aromatase upregulation - estrogen hyperproduction - inflammation' link has been proposed. Fragrance compounds share configurational similarity with carcinogenic environmental hydrocarbons and they provoke the expression of cytochrome group monooxygenase enzyme aromatase. This enzyme aromatizes androgens to form estrogen, the powerful signaling hormone, which underlies the majority of morbidities. This holistic review with a repertoire of preliminary evidences and robust hypotheses is expected to usher in deserving extent of research on this pervasive health risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  16. Negative pion capture in chemical compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butsev, V.S.; Chultem, D.; Gavrilov, Yu.K.; Ganzorig, Dz.; Norseev, Yu.V.; Presperin, V.

    1976-01-01

    The results are reported of an experiment of determination of the probability of capture of resting negative pions by iodine nuclei in alkali metal iodides (LiI, NaI, KI, RbI, CsI). The yield of an isomer sup(116m)(Sb/8 - ) with a high spin number, formed in the reaction 127 I(π - , lp 10n) allows to determine the relative probability of the nuclear capture of pions in the above compounds. The results obrained are compared with the predictions of the Fermi-Teller Z-law

  17. Compound odontoma associated with impacted maxillary incisors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sreedharan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are considered to be the most common odontogenic tumors of the oral cavity. Some authors consider it as malformations rather than true neoplasms. The exact etiology of odontomes is still not known. Most odontomes are asymptomatic and are discovered during routine radiographic investigations. Odontomes generally cause disturbances in the eruption of the teeth, most commonly delayed eruption or deflection. The present report describes the surgical management of a case of compound odontoma in a 10-year-old boy who presented with a complaint of swelling in the maxillary right anterior region and retained deciduous incisors. The related literature is also being reviewed in this article.

  18. Modeling Compound Flood Hazards in Coastal Embayments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moftakhari, H.; Schubert, J. E.; AghaKouchak, A.; Luke, A.; Matthew, R.; Sanders, B. F.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal cities around the world are built on lowland topography adjacent to coastal embayments and river estuaries, where multiple factors threaten increasing flood hazards (e.g. sea level rise and river flooding). Quantitative risk assessment is required for administration of flood insurance programs and the design of cost-effective flood risk reduction measures. This demands a characterization of extreme water levels such as 100 and 500 year return period events. Furthermore, hydrodynamic flood models are routinely used to characterize localized flood level intensities (i.e., local depth and velocity) based on boundary forcing sampled from extreme value distributions. For example, extreme flood discharges in the U.S. are estimated from measured flood peaks using the Log-Pearson Type III distribution. However, configuring hydrodynamic models for coastal embayments is challenging because of compound extreme flood events: events caused by a combination of extreme sea levels, extreme river discharges, and possibly other factors such as extreme waves and precipitation causing pluvial flooding in urban developments. Here, we present an approach for flood risk assessment that coordinates multivariate extreme analysis with hydrodynamic modeling of coastal embayments. First, we evaluate the significance of correlation structure between terrestrial freshwater inflow and oceanic variables; second, this correlation structure is described using copula functions in unit joint probability domain; and third, we choose a series of compound design scenarios for hydrodynamic modeling based on their occurrence likelihood. The design scenarios include the most likely compound event (with the highest joint probability density), preferred marginal scenario and reproduced time series of ensembles based on Monte Carlo sampling of bivariate hazard domain. The comparison between resulting extreme water dynamics under the compound hazard scenarios explained above provides an insight to the

  19. Vapor deposition of tantalum and tantalum compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trkula, M.

    1996-01-01

    Tantalum, and many of its compounds, can be deposited as coatings with techniques ranging from pure, thermal chemical vapor deposition to pure physical vapor deposition. This review concentrates on chemical vapor deposition techniques. The paper takes a historical approach. The authors review classical, metal halide-based techniques and current techniques for tantalum chemical vapor deposition. The advantages and limitations of the techniques will be compared. The need for new lower temperature processes and hence new precursor chemicals will be examined and explained. In the last section, they add some speculation as to possible new, low-temperature precursors for tantalum chemical vapor deposition

  20. Structural and electronic properties of thallium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paliwal, Neetu; Srivastava, Vipul

    2016-01-01

    The tight binding linear muffin-tin-orbital (TB-LMTO) method within the local density approximation (LDA has been used to calculate structural and electronic properties of thallium pnictides TlX (X=Sb, Bi) at high pressure. As a function of volume, the total energy is evaluated. Apart from this, the lattice parameter (a_0), bulk modulus (B_0), band structure (BS) and density of states (DOS) are calculated. From energy band diagram we observed metallic behaviour in TlSb and TlBi compounds. The values of equilibrium lattice constants and bulk modulus are agreed well with the available data.

  1. Structural and electronic properties of thallium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paliwal, Neetu, E-mail: neetumanish@gmail.com [Department of Physics, AISECT University Bhopal, 464993 (India); Srivastava, Vipul [Department of Engineering Physics, NRI Institute of Research & Technology, Raisen Road, Bhopal, 462021 (India)

    2016-05-06

    The tight binding linear muffin-tin-orbital (TB-LMTO) method within the local density approximation (LDA has been used to calculate structural and electronic properties of thallium pnictides TlX (X=Sb, Bi) at high pressure. As a function of volume, the total energy is evaluated. Apart from this, the lattice parameter (a{sub 0}), bulk modulus (B{sub 0}), band structure (BS) and density of states (DOS) are calculated. From energy band diagram we observed metallic behaviour in TlSb and TlBi compounds. The values of equilibrium lattice constants and bulk modulus are agreed well with the available data.

  2. Organic compounds preparation with 14 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirvani, Gholam Hossein.

    1996-09-01

    Active urea is a basic reagent for the synthesis of active uric-8- 14 C acid. In our manner, activated Barium carbonate with specified activity was placed in a special furnace with ability of passing gases. Then, ammonia gas was passed through it at about 850 Degree C to obtain Barium Cyanamide. Reaction of the produced compound with CO 2 , and then acidification of the mixture, gave activated urea. Condensation of the urea with Ethylcyanoacetate, produce 6-Aminouracil which upon nitrosation, reduction and then condensation with urea, the desired Uric-8- 14 C acid was synthesized. (author). 148 refs.,

  3. Chemical predictive modelling to improve compound quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, John G; Davis, Andrew M; Muresan, Sorel; Haeberlein, Markus; Chen, Hongming

    2013-12-01

    The 'quality' of small-molecule drug candidates, encompassing aspects including their potency, selectivity and ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity) characteristics, is a key factor influencing the chances of success in clinical trials. Importantly, such characteristics are under the control of chemists during the identification and optimization of lead compounds. Here, we discuss the application of computational methods, particularly quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs), in guiding the selection of higher-quality drug candidates, as well as cultural factors that may have affected their use and impact.

  4. Transformations of Aromatic Compounds by Nitrosomonas europaea

    OpenAIRE

    Keener, William K.; Arp, Daniel J.

    1994-01-01

    Benzene and a variety of substituted benzenes inhibited ammonia oxidation by intact cells of Nitrosomonas europaea. In most cases, the inhibition was accompanied by transformation of the aromatic compound to a more oxidized product or products. All products detected were aromatic, and substituents were often oxidized but were not separated from the benzene ring. Most transformations were enhanced by (NH4)2SO4 (12.5 mM) and were prevented by C2H2, a mechanism-based inactivator of ammonia monoo...

  5. Spin and orbital moments in actinide compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, B.; Wulff, M.; Lander, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    The extended spatial distribution of both the transition-metal 3d electrons and the actinide 5f electrons results in a strong interaction between these electron states when the relevant elements are alloyed. A particular interesting feature of this hybridization, which is predicted by single...... experiments designed to determine the magnetic moments at the actinide and transition-metal sublattice sites in compounds such as UFe2, NpCo2, and PuFe2 and to separate the spin and orbital components at the actinide sites. The results show, indeed, that the ratio of the orbital to spin moment is reduced...

  6. SEQUENTIAL ELECTRODIALYTIC EXTRACTION OF PHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for electrodialytic extraction of phosphorus from a particulate material in suspension and to a method for electrodialytic phosphorus recovery, which uses the apparatus. The method may be applied for wastewater treatment, and/or treatment of particulate...... material rich in phosphorus. The present invention provides an apparatus for electrodialytic extraction of phosphorus from a particulate material comprising acidic and/or alkaline soluble phosphorus compounds, in suspension, comprising: • a first electrodialytic cell comprising a first anolyte compartment...

  7. The fight against Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper strikes the balance of the fight against organic volatile compounds emissions in France and in Europe. The first part describes the influence of VOC on production of Ozone in troposphere and gives numerical data on permissive emission values in atmosphere. The second part describes french and european policy and regulations. The third part gives the principle methods and devices for COV measurement in the atmosphere. In the last part, effluents treatment is given: thermal incineration, catalytic incineration, adsorption on active carbon, biologic purification, condensation and separative processes on membrane

  8. Mechanism of the oxidation of diphenylamine compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankratov, A.N.; Shmakov, S.L.; Mushtakova, S.P.; Gribov, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    A spectrophotometric, radiospectroscopic, and quantum chemical study of the oxidation of compounds of the diphenylamine series in acid medium has made it possible to establish a common reaction scheme for amines with different types of substituents and to determine certain details of the reaction mechanism: the participation of protonated amine molecules in the interaction with the oxidizing agent; intermediate formation of radical cations of the type of diphenylamine and N,N'-diarylbenzidine; the concrete directions of the dimerization of radical cations of diarylamines with the participation of the para-carbon atoms of the aromatic rings

  9. Carbon determination in uranium and its compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Queiroz, C.A. da; Abrao, A.

    1982-01-01

    Carbon content in uranium and its compounds, especially ceramic grade UO 2 , must be controlled rigorously. A method for the determination of carbon with the aid of commercial equipment which uses platinum as a catalyst for the oxidation of CO, and infrared cells for CO 2 measurement is described. The detection limit is 5μg C/g U and the determination range is 0.0005 to 5% C/U. The method is being used routinely to control the carbon content in nuclear fuel materials. (Author) [pt

  10. Reduction of Compound Lotteries with Objective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    2015-01-01

    -stages compound lotteries, and their actuarially equivalent one-stage lotteries. We find violations of ROCL and that behavior is better characterized by a source-dependent version of the Rank-Dependent Utility model rather than Expected Utility Theory. Since we use the popular “1-in-K” random lottery incentive....... These results are supported by both structural estimation of latent preferences as well as non-parametric analysis of choice patterns. The random lottery incentive mechanism, used as payment protocol, itself induces an additional layer of “compounding” by design that might create confounds in tests of ROCL...

  11. Quercetin - A Flavonoid Compound from Sarcopyramis bodinieri var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The flavonoid compound was identified as quercetin by 1H-. NMR and ESI-MS ... phenolic compounds were isolated, and their .... scored under a fluorescence microscope (Carl. Zeiss .... Antioxidant Properties of Sarcopyramis bodinieri.

  12. Surface passivation process of compound semiconductor material using UV photosulfidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Carol I. H.

    1995-01-01

    A method for passivating compound semiconductor surfaces by photolytically disrupting molecular sulfur vapor with ultraviolet radiation to form reactive sulfur which then reacts with and passivates the surface of compound semiconductors.

  13. Biotransformation of major ginsenosides into compound K by a new ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotransformation of major ginsenosides into compound K by a new Penicillium dipodomyicola ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... ginsenoside Rb1 to minor ginsenosides compound K. The transformation products were identified by thin ...

  14. Neoclassical compounds and final combining forms in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Díaz-Negrillo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available English neoclassical compounds rely on a distinct vocabulary stock and present morphological features which raise a number of theoretical questions. Generalisations about neoclassical compounds are also problematic because the output is by no means homogeneous, that is, defining features of neoclassical compounds sometimes co-exist with features that are not prototypical of these formations. The paper looks at neoclassical compounds with a view to exploring patterns of morphological behaviour and development in this class of compounds. The approach is both synchronic and diachronic: it researches whether the morphological behaviour of recently formed compounds is different from that of earlier compounds and, if so, in which respects. This is assessed on data from the BNC with respect to some of the features that are cited in the literature as defining properties of neoclassical compounds, specifically, their internal configuration, the occurrence or not of a linking vowel, and their productivity.

  15. Isolation of volatile compounds of Aloe excelsa (Berger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Industrial and pharmacological applications of volatile and non-volatile compounds isolated ... Three commercially important compounds, namely: phenylacetonitrile, carvone and limonene were identified using gas ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  16. Composition and method for stabilizing radiolabelled compounds using thiocarbonylated diethylenetriamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzodikov, N.R.

    1984-01-01

    Radiolabelled compounds, such as amino acids, nucleosides, vitamins and drugs, are stabilised against radiolytic decomposition by adding a solution of a thiocarbonylated diethylenetriamine to a solution of the radiolabelled compound. (author)

  17. Microbial degradation of furanic compounds : Biochemistry, genetics, and impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierckx, N.; Koopman, F.; Ruijssenaars, H.J.; De Winde, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Microbial metabolism of furanic compounds, especially furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), is rapidly gaining interest in the scientific community. This interest can largely be attributed to the occurrence of toxic furanic aldehydes in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. However, these compounds

  18. Antimicrobial compounds as side products from the agricultural processing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumthong, Pattarawadee

    2007-01-01

    Antimicrobial compounds have many applications, in medicines, food, agriculture, livestock, textiles, paints, and wood protectants. Microorganisms resistant to most antibiotics are rapidly spreading. Consequently there is an urgent and continuous need for novel antimicrobial compounds. Most

  19. PRN 88-2: Clustering of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Notice announces that EPA has clustered the Quaternary Ammonium Compounds into four groups for the purpose of testing chemicals to build a database that will support continued registration of the entire family of quaternary ammonium compounds

  20. Photometabolism of Heterocyclic Aromatic Compounds by Rhodopseudomonas palustris OU 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikala, C.; Ramana, C. V.; Rao, P. Raghuveer

    1994-01-01

    Rhodopseudomonas palustris OU 11 (ATCC 51186; DSM 7375) isolated from a pond of chemical industry effluent could anaerobically photometabolize heterocyclic aromatic compounds belonging to the pyridine and pyrazine groups only after a period of adaptation on pyrazinoic acid of 5 to 6 weeks. Growth on heterocyclic compounds was light dependent. The effects of various concentrations of heterocyclic compounds on growth suggest that higher concentrations of these compounds inhibit growth and are toxic. PMID:16349307