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Sample records for californium 256

  1. Magnetism in californium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A SQUID-based magnetic susceptometer has been constructed for studying small radioactive samples at temperatures below 350 K and in magnetic fields up to 50 kilogauss. The device has been used to study californium (element 98) in a number of solid-state forms: the dhcp metal, several oxides (Cf2O3 in both the bcc and monoclinic structures, Cf7O12, CfO2 and BaCfO3), several monopnictides (CfN, CfAs and CfSb) and the trichloride (in both the hexagonal and orthorhombic structures). All of these materials were studied in polycrystalline form, and hexagonal CfCl3 was studied in single-crystal form as well. The susceptometer has the sensitivity to measure samples containing less than 10 micrograms of californium. The magnetic susceptibilities of all of the californium materials at temperatures above about 100 K are described well by the Curie-Weiss relationship. This behavior is consistent with the assumption that the magnetic 5f electrons are localized and that the paramagnetic behavior can be interpreted in terms of the properties of the free ion. The measured values of the effective paramagnetic moment, μ/sub eff/, for all the californium materials that were studied are reasonably consistent with theoretical values based on intermediate coupling models. All of the californium materials showed some indications of cooperative magnetic effects. The dhcp metal was observed to order ferromagnetically at 52 K, and all of the californium compounds studied showed signs of antiferromagnetic ordering, mostly at temperatures below 25 K. 91 refs., 50 figs., 19 tabs

  2. Californium Multiplier (CFX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of 252Cf as an economical high-intensity neutron source has made it possible to construct compact neutron irradiation devices with widespread applications. The simplest such device consists of a single 252Cf source within a moderating and shielding medium. Higher neutron flux levels can be attained either through the use of more 252Cf or through source multiplication by means of a subcritical uranium assembly. Although the use of larger 252Cf sources to achieve higher neutron flux is technically straightforward, an economic penalty is paid as the source strength is increased. Larger californium sources imply larger initial investments to cover the cost of source material and larger operating costs resulting from the decay of the 252Cf source. A Californium Multiplier, the CFX, which produces a flux enhancement of 30 when compared to a conventional moderated 252Cf system has been designed, licensed, built, and tested by IRT Corporation. Such systems are now available on a commercial basis for both neutron radiography and neutron activation analysis. The first commercial CFX system was installed at the Research Laboratories of Eastman Kodak Company in Rochester, NY, in March 1975. This device, using 1 mg of 252Cf, is very stable and the neutron flux generated by the CFX is very reproducible. The performance characteristics of this system are summarized

  3. Californium--palladium metal neutron source material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, B.L.; Mosly, W.C. Jr.; Smith, P.K.; Albenesius, E.L.

    1974-01-22

    Californium, as metal or oxide, is uniformly dispersed throughout a noble metal matrix, provided in compact, rod or wire form. A solution of californium values is added to palladium metal powder, dried, blended and pressed into a compact having a uni-form distribution of californium. The californium values are decomposed to californium oxide or metal by heating in an inert or reducing atmosphere. Sintering the compact to a high density closes the matrix around the dispersed californium. The sintered compact is then mechanically shaped into an elongated rod or wire form. (4 claims, no drawings) (Official Gazette)

  4. Californium-252 progress, report No. 7, April 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1971-12-31

    This report contains discusses of the following topics on Californium-252: First sales of californium-252; encapsulation services discussed; three new participants in market evaluation program; summer training programs to use californium; Californium-252 shipping casks available; Californium-252 questions and answers, radiotherapy; neutron radiography; natural resources exploration; nuclear safeguards; process control; dosimetry; neutron radiography; neutron shielding; and nuclear safeguards.

  5. Californium Electrodepositions at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boll, Rose Ann [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Electrodepositions of californium isotopes were successfully performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the past year involving two different types of deposition solutions, ammonium acetate (NH4C2H3O2) and isobutanol ((CH3)2CHCH2OH). A californium product that was decay enriched in 251Cf was recovered for use in super-heavy element (SHE) research. This neutron-rich isotope, 251Cf, provides target material for SHE research for the potential discovery of heavier isotopes of Z=118. The californium material was recovered from aged 252Cf neutron sources in storage at ORNL. These sources have decayed for over 30 years, thus providing material with a very high 251Cf-to-252Cf ratio. After the source capsules were opened, the californium was purified and then electrodeposited using the isobutanol method onto thin titanium foils for use in an accelerator at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. Another deposition method, ammonium acetate, was used to produce a deposition containing 1.7 0.1 Ci of 252Cf onto a stainless steel substrate. This was the largest single electrodeposition of 252Cf ever prepared. The 252Cf material was initially purified using traditional ion exchange media, such as AG50-AHIB and AG50-HCl, and further purified using a TEVA-NH4SCN system to remove any lanthanides, resulting in the recovery of 3.6 0.1 mg of purified 252Cf. The ammonium acetate deposition was run with a current of 1.0 amp, resulting in a 91.5% deposition yield. Purification and handling of the highly radioactive californium material created additional challenges in the production of these sources.

  6. Historical Review of Californium-252 Discovery and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the discovery and history of californium 252. This isotope may be synthesized by irradiating plutonium 239, plutonium 242, americium 243, or curium 244 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Various experiments and inventions involving Cf conducted at the Savannah River Plant are discussed. The evolution of radiotherapy using californium 252 is reviewed. (PLG)

  7. Historical review of californium-252 discovery and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the discovery and history of californium 252. This isotope may be synthesized by irradiating plutonium 239, plutonium 242, americium 243, or curium 244 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Various experiments and inventions involving 252Cf conducted at the Savannah River Plant are discussed. The evolution of radiotherapy using californium 252 is reviewed

  8. Californium-252: a remarkable versatile radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Alexander, C.W.

    1995-10-10

    A product of the nuclear age, Californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) has found many applications in medicine, scientific research, industry, and nuclear science education. Californium-252 is unique as a neutron source in that it provides a highly concentrated flux and extremely reliable neutron spectrum from a very small assembly. During the past 40 years, {sup 252}Cf has been applied with great success to cancer therapy, neutron radiography of objects ranging from flowers to entire aircraft, startup sources for nuclear reactors, fission activation for quality analysis of all commercial nuclear fuel, and many other beneficial uses, some of which are now ready for further growth. Californium-252 is produced in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and processed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), both of which are located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The REDC/HFIR facility is virtually the sole supplier of {sup 252}Cf in the western world and is the major supplier worldwide. Extensive exploitation of this product was made possible through the {sup 252}Cf Market Evaluation Program, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) [then the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and later the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)]. This program included training series, demonstration centers, seminars, and a liberal loan policy for fabricated sources. The Market Evaluation Program was instituted, in part, to determine if large-quantity production capability was required at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). Because of the nature of the product and the means by which it is produced, {sup 252}Cf can be produced only in government-owned facilities. It is evident at this time that the Oak Ridge research facility can meet present and projected near-term requirements. The production, shipment, and sales history of {sup 252}Cf from ORNL is summarized herein.

  9. Californium-252: a remarkable versatile radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A product of the nuclear age, Californium-252 (252Cf) has found many applications in medicine, scientific research, industry, and nuclear science education. Californium-252 is unique as a neutron source in that it provides a highly concentrated flux and extremely reliable neutron spectrum from a very small assembly. During the past 40 years, 252Cf has been applied with great success to cancer therapy, neutron radiography of objects ranging from flowers to entire aircraft, startup sources for nuclear reactors, fission activation for quality analysis of all commercial nuclear fuel, and many other beneficial uses, some of which are now ready for further growth. Californium-252 is produced in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and processed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), both of which are located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The REDC/HFIR facility is virtually the sole supplier of 252Cf in the western world and is the major supplier worldwide. Extensive exploitation of this product was made possible through the 252Cf Market Evaluation Program, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) [then the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and later the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)]. This program included training series, demonstration centers, seminars, and a liberal loan policy for fabricated sources. The Market Evaluation Program was instituted, in part, to determine if large-quantity production capability was required at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). Because of the nature of the product and the means by which it is produced, 252Cf can be produced only in government-owned facilities. It is evident at this time that the Oak Ridge research facility can meet present and projected near-term requirements. The production, shipment, and sales history of 252Cf from ORNL is summarized herein

  10. Californium-252 Neutron Therapy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Californium-252 brachytherapy, believed to be the most successful source for neutron therapy, gives most of the cures as well as long-term and complication-free survivals. Chinese radiation oncologists were interested in californium neutron therapy (Cf-NT) in the early 1980s, but 252Cf sources for medical use were not available in China until 1992 when a californium joint venture was established by the China Institute of Atomic Energy (Beijing) and the Research Institute for Nuclear Reactors (Dimitrovgrad) of Russia. In 1995, 25 seeds of 252Cf with a strength of 3 μg each were sent to China for preclinical investigation. Three years later, a high dose rate (HDR) 252Cf source was imported and transferred into a home-made remote after-loader for intracavitary treatment in Chongqing, and a clinical trail was started in February 1999. This is the first time that Cf-NT was performed for cancer patients in China. Since then, Cf-NT in China has developed rapidly. It is estimated that one-tenth of those radiation oncology centers with brachytherapy practice will be equipped with californium units in 5 yr. That means more than 30 units will be in use in hospitals. That is significant compared with other countries, but it is just one, on average, for each province or one per 40 million people in China. Progress also has been achieved in the 252Cf treatment delivery equipment. Preliminary clinical trails showed complete response observed in all cases treated, with a rapid clearance of tumors and mild reactions in normal tissues. The short-term results are quite encouraging. To deal with problems due to the demand for Cf-NT in China, attention should be paid to the following particulars: (1) A high-strength miniature source is needed for HDR/MDR interstitial therapy to extend the Cf-NT coverage. (2) Basic work on radiophysics and radiobiology needs to be done, including source calibration, clinical dosimetry, clinical RBE determination, and Cf-NT quality assurance

  11. Californium-252 sales and loans at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production and distribution in the United States of 252Cf has recently been consolidated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The 252Cf Industrial Sales/Loan Program and the 252Cf University Load Program, which were formerly located at the Savannah River Plant (SRP), have been combined with the californium production and distribution activities of the Transuranium Element Production Program at ORNL. Californium-252 is sold to commercial users in the form of bulk californium oxide, palladium-californium alloy pellets, or alloy wires. Neutron source capsules, which are fabricated for loans to DOE or other US government agencies, are still available in all forms previously available. The consolidation of all 252Cf distribution activities at the production site is expected to result in better service to users. In particular, customers for neutrons sources will be ale to select from a wider range of neutron source forms, including custom designs, through a single contact point

  12. Californium-252 encapsulation at the Savannah River Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 1 g of the neutron-emitting isotope californium-252 has been encapsulated at SRL for worldwide medical, industrial, and research uses. Bulk sales packages have been prepared for the USDOE sales program since 1971. Doubly-encapsulated sources have been prepared for USDOE's market evaluation program since 1968. Californium-252 sources for loan and sales packages satisfy the criteria for Special Form Radioactive Material. Encapsulation is performed in special neutron-shielded containment facilities at SRL. Development of improved source and shipping package designs and processes is continuing. 17 figures

  13. Production, distribution and applications of californium-252 neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotope 252Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-yr half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 1011 neutrons s-1. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, land mines and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 yr of experience and by US Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells 252Cf to commercial reencapsulators domestically and internationally. Sealed 252Cf sources are also available for loan to agencies and subcontractors of the US government and to universities for educational, research and medical applications. The REDC has established the Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science to make its large inventory of 252Cf sources available to researchers for irradiations inside uncontaminated hot cells. Experiments at the CUF include a land mine detection system, neutron damage testing of solid-state detectors, irradiation of human cancer cells for boron neutron capture therapy experiments and irradiation of rice to induce genetic mutations

  14. Production, distribution and applications of californium-252 neutron sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R C; Knauer, J B; Balo, P A

    2000-01-01

    The radioisotope 252Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-yr half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10(11) neutrons s(-1). Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, land mines and unexploded military ordinance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 yr of experience and by US Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells 252Cf to commercial reencapsulators domestically and internationally. Sealed 252Cf sources are also available for loan to agencies and subcontractors of the US government and to universities for educational, research and medical applications. The REDC has established the Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science to make its large inventory of 252Cf sources available to researchers for irradiations inside uncontaminated hot cells. Experiments at the CUF include a land mine detection system, neutron damage testing of solid-state detectors, irradiation of human cancer cells for boron neutron capture therapy experiments and irradiation of rice to induce genetic mutations. PMID:11003521

  15. Production, Distribution, and Applications of Californium-252 Neutron Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balo, P.A.; Knauer, J.B.; Martin, R.C.

    1999-10-03

    The radioisotope {sup 252}Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10{sup 11} neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells The radioisotope {sup 252}Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6- year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10 neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory(ORNL). DOE sells {sup 252}Cf to commercial

  16. Production of extra pure curium and californium preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparations of curium-244,245,248 and californium-249,252 are used for the production of ionizing radiation sources for different applications and fundamental nuclear-physical investigations, placing high requirements on the radiochemical and chemical purity of the preparations. Extraction chromatography using di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as extractant was chosen to prepare extra pure curium and californium preparations. In order to identify the optimal conditions of Cm-Cf separation and to remove impurities from them (reagent and other impurities), investigations were performed into the effect of impurities (Na+, Ca2+, Al3+, Fe2+, Fe3+ taken as example), extractant and eluent concentration and solution flow rate on the efficiency of mutual purification of Cm and Cf. Both theoretical and experimental estimations were made of the maximum concentration at which the impurities do not affect the process. The conditions chosen allow mutual purification of milligram amounts of Cm and Cf from impurity elements at E(pur) =102 - 103 during a single chromatographic cycle (E(pur) =>103) using a column with 5 - 10 cm3 volume. In this case the production yield exceeds 98%. The purification of milligram amounts of curium and californium from fission products (lanthanides in general, cerium in particular) was performed in D2EHPA-decane-PbO2-HNO3 and D2EHPA-decane-DTPA-H3-Cit extraction chromatography systems. In order to establish the optimal conditions, the effect of [D2EHPA] and eluent on the mutual purification of Cm and Cf and on their purification from cerium and impurity elements was studied in the D2EHPA-decane-PbO2-HNO3 system. During a single chromatographic cycle the mutual purification factors of TPE and of their purification from impurity cations achieve 102-103, from cerium - E(pur) > 10. In the D2EHPA-decane-DTPA-H3Cit system, the effect of concentration of extractant and eluent pH on the efficiency of Cm and Cf purification from lanthanides was

  17. Prompt neutron spectrum of the spontaneous fission of californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The californium-252 spontaneous fission neutron spectrum was measured in the energy range of 0.01 to 10 MeV by the time-of-flight technique using various neutron detectors. The measurements of 252Cf neutron spectrum at energies of 0.01 to 5 MeV were performed as a function of fission fragment kinetic energy. The mean neutron spectrum energy in the range of 0.7 to 10 MeV was found from the results of measurements. The irregularity in the 252Cf neutron spectrum in the neutron energy range of less than 0.7 MeV compared to theoretical values is discussed. The mechanism of 252Cf neutron emission is also discussed on the basis of neutron yield angle measurements. 12 references

  18. Separation of californium from actinides and lanthanides in aqueous solution by electrochemical formation of amalgams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrochemical reduction of transneptunium elements (Pu to Cf) and rare earths (Eu, Tm) from aqueous complexing solutions to amalgams was studied over a wide range of cathodic potentials in order to achieve optimal separation of californium. The reduction in acetate media (pH 4.5-4.6) at potentials around -1.7 to -1.9 V1 leads to a quantitative extraction of californium into the mercury phase, while more negative potentials are required for the reduction of the lighter transuranium elements and of the lanthanides. Hence, the optimal conditions for the separation of californium from the investigated actinides and lanthanides were determined. Separation factors α between 25 and 90 were found except in the case of Cf/Eu, where poor values (α varying from 7 to 12) were observed. More negative cathodic potentials decrease the selectivity of the reduction process. A similar study with lithium citrate solutions (pH ∝6) shows that satisfactory separation of californium from lighter and heavier actinides is achievable. A separation factor of 88 is obtained for Cf/Am at -1.98 V. The anodic stripping of mixed amalgams (Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Tm and Cf) Hg in nitric and acetic acid soultions at potentials ranging from +0.1 to -0.7 V proceeds slowly and proved to be ineffective for the separation of californium from light actinides under conditions described. (orig.)

  19. Solving the Hydration Structure of the Heaviest Actinide Aqua Ion Known: The Californium(III) Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Auwer, Ch.; Guillaumont, D. [CEA Marcoule, Nucl Energy Div, Radiochem Proc Dept, SCPS LILA, 30 (France); Galbis, E.; Pappalardo, Rafael R.; Marcos Sanchez, E. [Univ Seville, Dept Quim Fis, E-41012 Seville (Spain); Hernandez-Cobos, J. [Inst Ciencias Fis, Cuernavaca 62251, Morelos (Mexico); Le Naour, C.; Simoni, E. [Univ Paris Sud, Inst Phys Nucl Orsay, Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    In summary, the first MC simulation of the trivalent cation of californium, based on an exchangeable hydrated ion-water intermolecular potential, has been shown to extend and improve the hydrated ion model. Likewise, the CfL{sub III}-edge EXAFS spectrum of an acidic 1 mm Cf(ClO{sub 4}){sub 3} aqueous solution recorded under optimized experimental conditions has greatly improved the signal/noise ratio of the only previously recorded spectrum. The comparison of the experimental EXAFS spectrum with the two computed ones, obtained from two different intermolecular potentials that predict eight (BP86) or nine (MP2) water molecules in the first coordination shell, leads to the conclusion that the lowest hydration number is preferred. Then, as Cf{sup III} is the heaviest actinide aqua ion for which there is experimental information, the actinide contraction is supported by the present study. (For U{sup III}, R{sub U-O}=2.56 Angstroms, and CN=9{+-}1; for Pu{sup III}, R{sub Pu-O}=2.51 Angstroms and CN=9{+-}1; for Cm{sup III}, R{sub Cm-O}=2.47 Angstroms and CN=9{+-}1). The role of the second hydration shell is important in defining the structure and dynamics of the Cf{sup III} aqua ion, but the contribution of second-shell water molecules to the EXAFS signal as back-scatters is marginal. Finally, this work gives an illustrative example of the benefits which can be achieved from the combination of experimental X-ray absorption spectroscopy and computer simulations. The usefulness of the simultaneous analysis of the results as well as the importance of the structural statistical average has been clearly demonstrated herein. Each technique independently was not adequate. We believe that this study traces out a still poorly explored combined methodology which may be extremely useful for many other complexes and chemical problems. A systematic theoretical and experimental examination of the other known actinide cations on the same basis should be undertaken to confirm the

  20. 17 CFR 256.307 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment. 256.307 Section 256... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Service Company Property Accounts § 256.307 Equipment. This account shall include the cost of equipment owned by the service company and used in rendering services such as...

  1. 30 CFR 256.49 - Lease form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lease form. 256.49 Section 256.49 Mineral... IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Issuance of Leases § 256.49 Lease form. Oil and gas leases and leases for sulphur shall be issued on forms approved by the Director. Other mineral leases shall be issued...

  2. 30 CFR 256.37 - Lease term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lease term. 256.37 Section 256.37 Mineral... IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Issuance of Leases § 256.37 Lease term. (a)(1) All oil and gas leases... unusually deep water or other unusually adverse conditions. (2) If your oil and gas lease is in water...

  3. Biomedical neutron research at the Californium User Facility for neutron science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Californium User Facility for Neutron Science has been established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The Californium User Facility (CUF) is a part of the larger Californium Facility, which fabricates and stores compact 252Cf neutron sources for worldwide distribution. The CUF can provide a cost-effective option for research with 252Cf sources. Three projects at the CUF that demonstrate the versatility of 252Cf for biological and biomedical neutron-based research are described: future establishment of a 252Cf-based neutron activation analysis system, ongoing work to produce miniature high-intensity, remotely afterloaded 252Cf sources for tumor therapy, and a recent experiment that irradiated living human lung cancer cells impregnated with experimental boron compounds to test their effectiveness for boron neutron capture therapy

  4. Biomedical neutron research at the Californium User Facility for neutron science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Byrne, T.E. [Roane State Community College, Harriman, TN (United States); Miller, L.F. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Californium User Facility for Neutron Science has been established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The Californium User Facility (CUF) is a part of the larger Californium Facility, which fabricates and stores compact {sup 252}Cf neutron sources for worldwide distribution. The CUF can provide a cost-effective option for research with {sup 252}Cf sources. Three projects at the CUF that demonstrate the versatility of {sup 252}Cf for biological and biomedical neutron-based research are described: future establishment of a {sup 252}Cf-based neutron activation analysis system, ongoing work to produce miniature high-intensity, remotely afterloaded {sup 252}Cf sources for tumor therapy, and a recent experiment that irradiated living human lung cancer cells impregnated with experimental boron compounds to test their effectiveness for boron neutron capture therapy.

  5. Emergence of californium as the second transitional element in the actinide series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Samantha K; Vasiliu, Monica; Baumbach, Ryan E; Stritzinger, Jared T; Green, Thomas D; Diefenbach, Kariem; Cross, Justin N; Knappenberger, Kenneth L; Liu, Guokui; Silver, Mark A; DePrince, A Eugene; Polinski, Matthew J; Van Cleve, Shelley M; House, Jane H; Kikugawa, Naoki; Gallagher, Andrew; Arico, Alexandra A; Dixon, David A; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    A break in periodicity occurs in the actinide series between plutonium and americium as the result of the localization of 5f electrons. The subsequent chemistry of later actinides is thought to closely parallel lanthanides in that bonding is expected to be ionic and complexation should not substantially alter the electronic structure of the metal ions. Here we demonstrate that ligation of californium(III) by a pyridine derivative results in significant deviations in the properties of the resultant complex with respect to that predicted for the free ion. We expand on this by characterizing the americium and curium analogues for comparison, and show that these pronounced effects result from a second transition in periodicity in the actinide series that occurs, in part, because of the stabilization of the divalent oxidation state. The metastability of californium(II) is responsible for many of the unusual properties of californium including the green photoluminescence. PMID:25880116

  6. Imaging by photon counting with 256 x 256 pixel matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Tlustos, Lukas; Heijne, Erik H M; Llopart-Cudie, Xavier

    2004-01-01

    Using 0.25 mum standard CMOS we have developed 2-D semiconductor matrix detectors with sophisticated functionality integrated inside each pixel of a hybrid sensor module. One of these sensor modules is a matrix of 256 multiplied by 256 square 55mum pixels intended for X- ray imaging. This device is called 'Medipix2' and features a fast amplifier and two-level discrimination for signals between 1000 and 100000 equivalent electrons, with overall signal noise similar to 150 e- rms. Signal polarity and comparator thresholds are programmable. A maximum count rate of nearly 1 MHz per pixel can be achieved, which corresponds to an average flux of 3 multiplied by 10exp10 photons per cm2. The selected signals can be accumulated in each pixel in a 13- bit register. The serial readout takes 5-10 ms. A parallel readout of similar to 300 mus could also be used. Housekeeping functions such as local dark current compensation, test pulse generation, silencing of noisy pixels and threshold tuning in each pixel contribute to t...

  7. Imaging by photon counting with 256x256 pixel matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlustos, Lukas; Campbell, Michael; Heijne, Erik H. M.; Llopart, Xavier

    2004-09-01

    Using 0.25µm standard CMOS we have developed 2-D semiconductor matrix detectors with sophisticated functionality integrated inside each pixel of a hybrid sensor module. One of these sensor modules is a matrix of 256x256 square 55µm pixels intended for X-ray imaging. This device is called 'Medipix2' and features a fast amplifier and two-level discrimination for signals between 1000 and 100000 equivalent electrons, with overall signal noise ~150 e- rms. Signal polarity and comparator thresholds are programmable. A maximum count rate of nearly 1 MHz per pixel can be achieved, which corresponds to an average flux of 3x10exp10 photons per cm2. The selected signals can be accumulated in each pixel in a 13-bit register. The serial readout takes 5-10 ms. A parallel readout of ~300 µs could also be used. Housekeeping functions such as local dark current compensation, test pulse generation, silencing of noisy pixels and threshold tuning in each pixel contribute to the homogeneous response over a large sensor area. The sensor material can be adapted to the energy of the X-rays. Best results have been obtained with high-resistivity silicon detectors, but also CdTe and GaAs detectors have been used. The lowest detectable X-ray energy was about 4 keV. Background measurements have been made, as well as measurements of the uniformity of imaging by photon counting. Very low photon count rates are feasible and noise-free at room temperature. The readout matrix can be used also with visible photons if an energy or charge intensifier structure is interposed such as a gaseous amplification layer or a microchannel plate or acceleration field in vacuum.

  8. Fissile analysis of Hanford waste using Californium Multiplier/Delayed Neutron Counter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of low-level (10 ng/g or lower) fissile material (mainly plutonium) in Hanford waste and process samples is becoming increasingly important. A system has been designed consisting of a Californium Multiplier (CFX) and a Delayed Neutron Counter (DNC) to characterize these samples. This report describes hardware and analytical capability of the CFX/DNC system

  9. 17 CFR 256.409 - Income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income taxes. 256.409 Section... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Income and Expense Accounts § 256.409 Income taxes. (a) This account shall include the amount of local, State and Federal taxes on income properly accruable during the period covered by...

  10. Improved security analysis of Fugue-256

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauravaram, Praveen; Bagheri, Nasour; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde;

    2011-01-01

    in the G transform. Next we improve the designers’ meet-in-the-middle preimage attack on Fugue-256 from 2480 time and memory to 2416. Next we study the security of Fugue-256 against free-start distinguishers and free-start collisions. In this direction, we use an improved variant of the differential...

  11. 30 CFR 256.11 - Helium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Helium. 256.11 Section 256.11 Mineral Resources... Helium. (a) Each lease issued or continued under these regulations shall be subject to a reservation by the United States, under section 12(f) of the Act, of the ownership of and the right to extract...

  12. 17 CFR 256.924 - Property insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Property insurance. 256.924... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 2. Expense § 256.924 Property insurance. (a) This account shall include the cost of insurance premiums to protect the service company against losses and damages to owned or leased...

  13. Improved security analysis of Fugue-256 (poster)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauravaram, Praveen; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Bagheri, Nasoor;

    2011-01-01

    We present some improved analytical results as part of the ongoing work on the analysis of Fugue-256 hash function, a second round candidate in the NIST's SHA3 competition. First we improve Aumasson and Phans' integral distinguisher on the 5.5 rounds of the final transformation of Fugue-256 to 16...

  14. 17 CFR 256.301 - Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Organization. 256.301 Section... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Service Company Property Accounts § 256.301 Organization. This account shall include... incident to organizing a corporation or other form of organization and putting it into readiness to...

  15. Emergence of californium as the second transitional element in the actinide series

    OpenAIRE

    Cary, Samantha K.; Vasiliu, Monica; Baumbach, Ryan E.; Stritzinger, Jared T.; GREEN, THOMAS D.; Diefenbach, Kariem; Cross, Justin N.; Knappenberger, Kenneth L.; Liu, Guokui; Silver, Mark A.; DePrince, A. Eugene; Polinski, Matthew J.; Van Cleve, Shelley M.; House, Jane H.; Kikugawa, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    A break in periodicity occurs in the actinide series between plutonium and americium as the result of the localization of 5f electrons. The subsequent chemistry of later actinides is thought to closely parallel lanthanides in that bonding is expected to be ionic and complexation should not substantially alter the electronic structure of the metal ions. Here we demonstrate that ligation of californium(III) by a pyridine derivative results in significant deviations in the properties of the resu...

  16. 30 CFR 256.12 - Supplemental sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for the supplemental sale not held. (3) Development blocks. Development blocks (including blocks... as development blocks. ... part, except § 256.22. (c) Supplemental sales shall be limited to blocks falling into one or more...

  17. Spontaneous fission of 256Rf, new data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirikhin, A. I.; Yeremin, A. V.; Izosimov, I. N.; Isaev, A. V.; Kuznetsov, A. N.; Malyshev, O. N.; Popeko, A. G.; Popov, Yu. A.; Sokol, E. A.; Chelnokov, M. L.; Chepigin, V. I.; Andel, B.; Asfari, M. Z.; Gall, B.; Yoshihiro, N.; Kalaninova, Z.; Mullins, S.; Piot, J.; Stefanova, E.; Tonev, D.

    2016-07-01

    Spontaneous fission properties of the short-lived neutron-deficient 256Rf nucleus produced in the complete fusion reaction with a beam of multiply charged heavy 50Ti ions from the U-400 cyclotron (FLNR, JINR) are experimentally investigated. Its half-life and decay branching ratio are measured. The average number of neutrons per spontaneous fission of 256Rf (bar v = 4.47 ± 0.09) is determined for the first time.

  18. Dicty_cDB: VSI256 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 256F (Link to Original site) VSI256F 546 - - - - - - Show VSI256 Library VS (Link to library) Clone ID VSI...Representative seq. ID VSI256F (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VSI256 (VSI256Q) /CSM/VS/VSI2-C/VSI...-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value VSI256 (VSI256Q) /CSM/VS/VSI2-C/VSI25...VS (Link to library) VSI256 (Link to dictyBase) - G21492 DDB0204751 Contig-U06933-1 VSI...256 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID G21492 dictyBase ID DDB0204751 Link to Contig Contig-U06933-1 Original si

  19. Dicty_cDB: SSB256 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSB256 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16341-1 SSB256F (Link to Original site) SS...B256F 162 - - - - - - Show SSB256 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSB256 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SS/SSB2-C/SSB256Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SSB25...6F (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSB256 (SSB256Q) /CSM/SS/SSB2-C/SSB256Q.Seq.d/ ATTTA... 2 Number of Hits to DB: 930 Number of Sequences: 97611 Number of extensions: 930 Number of successful exten

  20. Cache Timing Analysis of HC-256

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenner, Erik

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an abstract model of cache timing attacks that can be used for designing ciphers. We then analyse HC-256 under this model, demonstrating a cache timing attack under certain strong assumptions. From the observations made in our analysis, we derive a number of design prin...

  1. 40 CFR 256.11 - Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... solid waste types listed in § 256.02(a)(1). (b) Responsibilities should be identified for each of the... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF STATE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS Identification of...

  2. 17 CFR 256.124 - Other investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 2. Investments § 256.124 Other investments. This account shall include the cost or current value of investments, whichever is less, in securities, club memberships, associations, life... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other investments....

  3. A Cache Timing Analysis of HC-256

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenner, Erik

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a cache-timing attack against the stream cipher HC-256, which is the strong version of eStream winner HC-128. The attack is based on an abstract model of cache timing attacks that can also be used for designing stream ciphers. From the observations made in our analysis,...

  4. Evaluation of a 256 x 256 Si:As IBC detector array for astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckelvey, M. E.; Mcmurray, Robert E., Jr.; Mccreight, C. R.; Forrest, W. J.; Garnett, J. D.; Lum, N.; Asbrock, J.; White, R.; Kelchner, R.; Lum, L.

    1994-01-01

    256 x 256-element IBC Si:As arrays have been evaluated for applications in IR astronomy from space-borne platforms. Basic figures of merit were measured at IR flux levels simulating those expected in space-based astronomical observations. Results include dark current less than 20 e(-)/s, G-eta as high as 3.8, eta/beta of 20%, and read noise below 100 rms(e(-)).

  5. Spontaneous Partitioning of Californium from Curium: Curious Cases from the Crystallization of Curium Coordination Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, Samantha K.; Silver, Mark A.; Liu, Guokui; Wang, Jamie C.; Bogart, Justin A.; Stritzinger, Jared T.; Arico, Alexandra A.; Hanson, Kenneth; Schelter, Eric J.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2015-12-07

    The reaction of 248CmCl3 with excess 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (DPA) under mild solvothermal conditions results in crystallization of the tris-chelate complex Cm(HDPA)3·H2O. Approximately half of the curium remains in solution at the end of this process, and evaporation of the mother liquor results in crystallization of the bis-chelate complex [Cm(HDPA)- (H2DPA)(H2O)2Cl]Cl·2H2O. 248Cm is the daughter of the α decay of 252Cf and is extracted in high purity from this parent. However, trace amounts of 249,250,251Cf are still present in all samples of 248Cm. During the crystallization of Cm(HDPA)3·H2O and [Cm(HDPA)(H2DPA)(H2O)2Cl]Cl·2H2O, californium(III) spontaneously separates itself from the curium complexes and is found doped within crystals of DPA in the form of Cf(HDPA)3. These results add to the growing body of evidence that the chemistry of californium is fundamentally different from that of earlier actinides.

  6. 17 CFR 256.255 - Accumulated deferred investment tax credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... investment tax credits. 256.255 Section 256.255 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 8. Deferred Credits § 256.255 Accumulated deferred investment tax credits. (a) This account shall be credited and account 411.5, Investment tax credit,...

  7. 27 CFR 25.6 - Delegations of the Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 CFR Part 25, Beer. You may obtain a copy of this order by accessing the TTB Web site (http://www... Administrator. 25.6 Section 25.6 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.6 Delegations of the Administrator....

  8. 17 CFR 256.123 - Investment in associate companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 2. Investments § 256.123 Investment in associate companies. This... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investment in associate companies. 256.123 Section 256.123 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE...

  9. 32 CFR 256.7 - Accident potential zone guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accident potential zone guidelines. 256.7 Section 256.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS AIR INSTALLATIONS COMPATIBLE USE ZONES § 256.7 Accident potential zone...

  10. 17 CFR 256.234 - Accounts payable to associate companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... companies. 256.234 Section 256.234 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 7. Current and Accrued Liabilities § 256.234 Accounts payable...

  11. 17 CFR 256.146 - Accounts receivable from associate companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... associate companies. 256.146 Section 256.146 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 3. Current and Accrued Assets § 256.146...

  12. 17 CFR 256.457 - Services rendered to associate companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... companies. 256.457 Section 256.457 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Income and Expense Accounts § 256.457 Services rendered to...

  13. 17 CFR 256.233 - Notes payable to associate companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... companies. 256.233 Section 256.233 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 7. Current and Accrued Liabilities § 256.233 Notes payable...

  14. 17 CFR 256.458 - Services rendered to nonassociate companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... nonassociate companies. 256.458 Section 256.458 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Income and Expense Accounts § 256.458...

  15. 17 CFR 256.223 - Advances from associate companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... companies. 256.223 Section 256.223 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 6. Long-Term Debt § 256.223 Advances from associate companies....

  16. 30 CFR 256.8 - Leasing maps and diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leasing maps and diagrams. 256.8 Section 256.8 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR..., General § 256.8 Leasing maps and diagrams. (a) Any area of the OCS which has been appropriately platted...

  17. 30 CFR 256.65 - Attorney General review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attorney General review. 256.65 Section 256.65... OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Assignments, Transfers, and Extensions § 256.65 Attorney... give due consideration to the views of the Attorney General. The Secretary may act on an assignment...

  18. 256 x 256 hybrid HgCdTe infrared focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Robert B.; Kozlowski, Lester J.; Chen, Jenkon; Bui, Duc Q.; Vural, Kadri

    1991-05-01

    Hybrid HgCdTe 256 x 256 focal plane arrays have been developed to meet the sensitivity, resolution, and field-of-view requirements of high-performance medium-wavelength infrared (MWIR) imaging systems. The detector arrays for these hybrids are fabricated on substrates that reduce or eliminate the thermal expansion mismatch to the silicon readout circuit. The readouts are foundry-processed CMOS switched-FET circuits that have charge capacities greater than 107 electrons and a single video output capable of 10-MHz data rates. The high quantum efficiency, tunable absorption wavelength, and broad operating temperature range of these large HgCdTe staring focal plane arrays give them significant advantages over competing sensors. The mature Producible Alternative to CdTe for Epitaxy-1 (PACE-1) technology, using sapphire detector substrates, has demonstrated 256 x 256 MWIR arrays with mean laboratory noise equivalent temperature difference (NETO) of 9 mK for a 4.9-micron cutoff wavelength, 40-micron pixel size, and 80-K operating temperature. RMS detector response nonuniformities are less than 4 percent, and pixel yields are greater than 99 percent. The newly developed PACE-3 process uses silicon for the detector substrate to eliminate completely the thermal mismatch with the silicon readout circuit. It has the potential for similar performance in even larger array sizes. A 640 x 480 hybrid array is under development.

  19. 42 CFR 84.256 - Quality control requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quality control requirements. 84.256 Section 84.256... § 84.256 Quality control requirements. (a) In addition to the construction and performance requirements specified in §§ 84.251, 84.252, 84.253, 84.254, and 84.255, the quality control requirements in...

  20. 50 CFR 216.256 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND... in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.256 Applications for Letters of Authorization. To incidentally...

  1. 17 CFR 256.253 - Other deferred credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other deferred credits. 256... HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 8. Deferred Credits § 256.253 Other deferred credits. This account shall include advance billings and receipts and other deferred credit items, not provided for...

  2. 17 CFR 256.411.5 - Investment tax credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investment tax credit. 256.411... HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Income and Expense Accounts § 256.411.5 Investment tax credit. (a) This account shall be debited with the amounts of investment tax credits related to service company...

  3. 17 CFR 256.211 - Miscellaneous paid-in capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Miscellaneous paid-in capital. 256.211 Section 256.211 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... capital. This account shall include the balance of all other credits for paid-in capital which are...

  4. 17 CFR 256.101 - Service company property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Service company property. 256...) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Balance Sheet Accounts: Assets and Other Debit Accounts § 256.101...

  5. 17 CFR 256.01-11 - Methods of allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of allocation. 256.01... HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 General Instructions § 256.01-11 Methods of allocation. Indirect costs and... applicable and currently effective methods of allocation filed with the Commission. Both direct and...

  6. 17 CFR 256.201 - Common stock issued.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Common stock issued. 256.201... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Liabilities and Other Credit Accounts § 256.201 Common stock issued. This account shall include the par or stated value of all common capital stock issued and outstanding....

  7. 17 CFR 256.922 - Administrative expenses transferred-credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative expenses transferred-credit. 256.922 Section 256.922 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... transferred—credit. This account shall be credited with administrative expenses recorded in accounts 920...

  8. 42 CFR 403.256 - Loss ratio supporting data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loss ratio supporting data. 403.256 Section 403.256 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... general marketing method and the underwriting criteria used for the selection of applicants to...

  9. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging...

  10. 30 CFR 256.56 - Lease-specific abandonment accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lease-specific abandonment accounts. 256.56... OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Bonding § 256.56 Lease-specific abandonment accounts. (a) The Regional Director may authorize you to establish a lease-specific abandonment account...

  11. Manganese determination om minerals by activation analysis, using the californium-252 as a neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron Activation Analysis, using a Californium-252 neutron source, has been applied for the determination of manganese in ores such as pyrolusite, rodonite (manganese silicate)' and blending used in dry-batteries The favorable nuclear properties of manganese, such as high thermal neutron cross-section for the reaction 55Mn (n.gamma)56 Mn, high concentration of manganese in the matrix and short half - life of 56Mn, are an ideal combination for non-destructive analysis of manganese in ores. Samples and standards of manganese dioxide were irradiated for about 20 minutes, followed by a 4 to 15 minutes decay and counted in a single channel pulse-height discrimination using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Counting time was equal to 10 minutes. The interference of nuclear reactions 56Fe(n,p)56Mn and 59 Co (n, α)56 were studied, as well as problems in connection with neutron shadowing during irradiation, gamma-rays attenuation during counting and influence of granulometry of samples. One sample,was also analysed by wet-chemical method (sodium bismuthate) in order to compare results. As a whole, i t was shown that the analytical method of neutron activation for manganese in ores and blending, is a method simple, rapid and with good precision and accuracy. (author)

  12. Long-term effects of an intracavitary treatment with californium-252 on normal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About one hundred fifty swine were exposed to either radium-226 or californium-252 sources in the uterine cervix to determine an RBE for both acute and long-term effects. That value for early changes in the tissues at risk in the treatment of cervical cancer was between 6.2 and 6.8. The incidence of complications increased with time after exposure, especially among animals treated with 252Cf. Analysis of rectal injury showed that ulceration occurred frequently within a year postexposure at doses between 1600 and 2400 rad calculated at 2 cm lateral to the source midline. Fat necrosis and smooth muscle atrophy, resulting in a local rectal stricture, were delayed changes observed in some animals. The lower ureter was the site for a greater frequency of complications than the GI tract. Ureteral stricture often occurred at doses of 1200 rad from 252Cf and 7000 rad from 226Ra. Observation of delayed effects in the uterine-cervix in animals held up to 4 years postexposure indicate that the RBE for 252Cf may be increased to a value as high as 18, while repair may have even decreased it to about 5.6 in the rectum. Fifty swine are still being observed for long-term effects after doses above 800 rad from 252Cf and 5000 rad from 226Ra

  13. A reconfigurable 256 × 256 image sensor controller that is compatible for depth measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhe, Chen; Shan, Di; Cong, Shi; Liyuan, Liu; Nanjian, Wu

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents an image sensor controller that is compatible for depth measurement, which is based on the continuous-wave modulation time-of-flight technology. The image sensor controller is utilized to generate reconfigurable control signals for a 256 × 256 high speed CMOS image sensor with a conventional image sensing mode and a depth measurement mode. The image sensor controller generates control signals for the pixel array to realize the rolling exposure and the correlated double sampling functions. An refined circuit design technique in the logic level is presented to reduce chip area and power consumption. The chip, with a size of 700 × 3380 μm2, is fabricated in a standard 0.18 μm CMOS image sensor process. The power consumption estimated by the synthesis tool is 65 mW under a 1.8 V supply voltage and a 100 MHz clock frequency. Our test results show that the image sensor controller functions properly.

  14. Application of TSH bioindicator for studying the biological efficiency of neutrons from californium-252 source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.; Rekas, K. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Kim, J.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The effectiveness of neutrons from a Californium-252 source in the induction of various abnormalities in the Tradescantia clone 4430 stamen hair cells (TSH-assay) was studied. The special attention was paid to check whether any enhancement in effects caused by process of boron neutron capture is visible in the cells enriched with boron ions. Two chemicals (borax and BSH) were applied to introduce boron-10 ions into cells. Inflorescence, normal or pretreated with chemicals containing boron, were irradiated in the air with neutrons from a Cf-252 source at KAERI, Taejon, Korea. To estimate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in the induction of gene mutations of the neutron beam under the study, Tradescantia inflorescences, without any chemical pretreatment, were irradiated with various doses of X-rays. The ranges of radiation doses used were 0-0.1 Gy in neutrons and 0-0.5 Gy in X-rays. After the time needed to complete the postirradiation repair Tradescantia cuttings were transferred to Cracow, where screening of gene and lethal; mutations, cell cycle alterations in somatic cells have been done, and dose response relationships were figured. The maximal RBE values were estimated in the range of 4.6-6.8. Alterations of RBE value were observed; from 6.8 to 7.8 in the case of plants pretreated with 240 ppm of B-10 from borax, and 4.6 to 6.1 in the case of 400 ppm of B-10 from BSH. Results showed a slight, although statistically insignificant increase in biological efficacy of radiation from the Cf-252 source in samples pretreated with boron containing chemicals. (author)

  15. Application of TSH bioindicator for studying the biological efficiency of neutrons from californium-252 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of neutrons from a Californium-252 source in the induction of various abnormalities in the Tradescantia clone 4430 stamen hair cells (TSH-assay) was studied. The special attention was paid to check whether any enhancement in effects caused by process of boron neutron capture is visible in the cells enriched with boron ions. Two chemicals (borax and BSH) were applied to introduce boron-10 ions into cells. Inflorescence, normal or pretreated with chemicals containing boron, were irradiated in the air with neutrons from a Cf-252 source at KAERI, Taejon, Korea. To estimate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in the induction of gene mutations of the neutron beam under the study, Tradescantia inflorescences, without any chemical pretreatment, were irradiated with various doses of X-rays. The ranges of radiation doses used were 0-0.1 Gy in neutrons and 0-0.5 Gy in X-rays. After the time needed to complete the postirradiation repair Tradescantia cuttings were transferred to Cracow, where screening of gene and lethal; mutations, cell cycle alterations in somatic cells have been done, and dose response relationships were figured. The maximal RBE values were estimated in the range of 4.6-6.8. Alterations of RBE value were observed; from 6.8 to 7.8 in the case of plants pretreated with 240 ppm of B-10 from borax, and 4.6 to 6.1 in the case of 400 ppm of B-10 from BSH. Results showed a slight, although statistically insignificant increase in biological efficacy of radiation from the Cf-252 source in samples pretreated with boron containing chemicals. (author)

  16. Oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) and therapeutic gain factor (GF) for californium-252 at low dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential benefit of the introduction of californium-252 in interstitial and intracavitary therapy is related to the greater efficiency of its neutron emission against anoxic cancer cells. In that respect, the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) of the 252Cf emission has been determined for a continuous low dose rate irradiation. The biological system is growth inhibition in Vicia faba bean roots. A new Vicia faba ''BelB'' strain has been used, which better tolerates long periods (up to about 10 hours) of anoxia. In a first series of experiments, for a 252Cf (Dsub(n+γ)) dose rate of 0.11 Gy.h-1, an OER of 1.4+-0.1 was observed (the γ contribution Dγ to the total absorbed dose Dsub(n+γ) was 0.35 at the position of the root tips). In a second series of experiments, in somewhat different geometrical conditions with a 252Cf (Dsub(n+γ)) dose rate of 0.13 Gy.h-1, an OER of 1.5+-0.1 was observed (Dγ/Dsub(n+γ)=0.42). The OER values observed for similar irradiation times, with iridium-192 γ-rays, were 2.3+-0.2 and 2.6+-0.1 respectively, which leads to therapeutic gain factors (GF) of 1.6 and 1.7 respectively. These GF values are slightly lower than those previously obtained (GF=1.8) on the same system, with d(50)-Be p(75)-Be and 15 MeV neutron beams

  17. Clinical Report on Californium-252 Neutron Intraluminal Brachytherapy Combined with External Irradiation for Cervical Carcinoma Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanyu Zhao; Keming Wang; Jian Sun; Xin Geng; Weiming Zhang

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe the curative effects and complications of californium-252 (252Cf) neutron intraluminal brachytherapy (IBT) combined with external irradiation (El) for treatment of cervical carcinoma.METHODS From December 2000 to December 2004, 128 cases of cervical carcinoma staged into ⅡA~ⅢB according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) standards were treated with 252Cf neutron IBT using 8~10 Gy per fraction, once a week. The total dose at reference A point was 36~40 Gy in 4~5 fractions. From the second day after 252Cf neutron IBT treatment, the whole pelvic cavity was treated with 60Co γ-ray El, applying 2 Gy per fraction, 4 times per week. After 20~25 Gy of El, the center of the whole pelvic field was blocked with 4 cm of lead in width. The total dose of El was 45~50 Gy.RESULTS The short-term therapeutic effects were CR 95.3% and PR 4.7%. The 3 and 5-year local control rates were 93.5% and 87.9%. The overall 3-year survival rate was 87.5% and for Stages Ⅱ and Ⅲ , 90.9%and 81.5% respectively; the overall 5-year survival rate was 70% and for Stages Ⅱ and Ⅲ, 76.2% and 61% respectively. The rate of radiation complications was 4.7% for radiation cystitis, 7.8% for radiation proctitis, 6.3%for vagina contracture and adhesion and 5.5% for protracted radiation proctitis.CONCLUSION An combination of 252Cf neutron IBT with El for treatment of cervical carcinoma can be well-tolerated by cervical carcinoma patients. The rate of local tumor control is high and radiation complications are few.

  18. Algebraic Fault Attack on the SHA-256 Compression Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronglin Hao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The cryptographic hash function SHA-256 is one member of the SHA-2 hash family, which was proposed in 2000 and was standardized by NIST in 2002 as a successor of SHA-1. Although the differential fault attack on SHA-1compression function has been proposed, it seems hard to be directly adapted to SHA-256. In this paper, an efficient algebraic fault attack on SHA-256 compression function is proposed under the word-oriented random fault model. During the attack, an automatic tool STP is exploited, which constructs binary expressions for the word-based operations in SHA-256 compression function and then invokes a SAT solver to solve the equations. The simulation of the new attack needs about 65 fault injections to recover the chaining value and the input message block with about 200 seconds on average. Moreover, based on the attack on SHA-256 compression function, an almost universal forgery attack on HMAC-SHA-256 is presented. Our algebraic fault analysis is generic, automatic and can be applied to other ARX-based primitives.

  19. Divalent and trivalent gas-phase coordination complexes of californium: evaluating the stability of Cf(ii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dau, Phuong D; Shuh, David K; Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Abergel, Rebecca J; Gibson, John K

    2016-08-01

    The divalent oxidation state is increasingly stable relative to the trivalent state for the later actinide elements, with californium the first actinide to exhibit divalent chemistry under moderate conditions. Although there is evidence for divalent Cf in solution and solid compounds, there are no reports of discrete complexes in which Cf(II) is coordinated by anionic ligands. Described here is the divalent Cf methanesulfinate coordination complex, Cf(II)(CH3SO2)3(-), prepared in the gas phase by reductive elimination of CH3SO2 from Cf(III)(CH3SO2)4(-). Comparison with synthesis of the corresponding Sm and Cm complexes reveals reduction of Cf(III) and Sm(III), and no evidence for reduction of Cm(III). This reflects the comparative 3+/2+ reduction potentials: Cf(3+) (-1.60 V) ≈ Sm(3+) (-1.55 V) ≫ Cm(3+) (-3.7 V). Association of O2 to the divalent complexes is attributed to formation of superoxides, with recovery of the trivalent oxidation state. The new gas-phase chemistry of californium, now the heaviest element to have been studied in this manner, provides evidence for Cf(II) coordination complexes and similar chemistry of Cf and Sm. PMID:27424652

  20. 76 FR 11433 - Federal Transition To Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA)-256

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... Hash Algorithm (SHA)-256 AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration (GSA... agencies about ways for the acquisition community to transition to Secure Hash Algorithm SHA-256. SHA-256... Hash Algorithm SHA-256'' in all correspondence related to this public meeting. FOR FURTHER...

  1. Implementation of cryptographic hash function SHA256 in C++

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Akash

    2012-02-01

    This abstract explains the implementation of SHA Secure hash algorithm 256 using C++. The SHA-2 is a strong hashing algorithm used in almost all kinds of security applications. The algorithm consists of 2 phases: Preprocessing and hash computation. Preprocessing involves padding a message, parsing the padded message into m-bits blocks, and setting initialization values to be used in the hash computation. It generates a message schedule from padded message and uses that schedule, along with functions, constants, and word operations to iteratively generate a series of hash values. The final hash value generated by the computation is used to determine the message digest. SHA-2 includes a significant number of changes from its predecessor, SHA-1. SHA-2 consists of a set of four hash functions with digests that are 224, 256, 384 or 512 bits. The algorithm outputs a 256 bits message block with an internal state block of 256 bits and initial block size of 512 bits. Maximum message length in bit is generated is 2^64 -1, over all computed over a series of 64 rounds consisting or several operations such as and, or, Xor, Shr, Rot. The code will provide clear understanding of the hash algorithm and generates hash values to retrieve message digest.

  2. 17 CFR 256.930.1 - General advertising expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General advertising expenses... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 2. Expense § 256.930.1 General advertising expenses. This account shall include the cost of materials used and expenses incurred in advertising and related...

  3. 17 CFR 256.311 - Other service company property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other service company property... (CONTINUED) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Service Company Property Accounts § 256.311 Other service...

  4. 17 CFR 256.154 - Materials and supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 3. Current and Accrued Assets § 256.154 Materials and supplies. (a) The service company may utilize this account, where appropriate, to include the costs of materials and supplies held for use by the service company in performing its services. The cost of material and...

  5. 17 CFR 256.107 - Construction work in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Construction work in progress... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Balance Sheet Accounts: Assets and Other Debit Accounts § 256.107 Construction work in progress. This account shall include the total of the balances of work orders for...

  6. 17 CFR 256.403 - Depreciation and amortization expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Depreciation and amortization... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Income and Expense Accounts § 256.403 Depreciation and amortization expense. This account shall include the amount of depreciation and amortization for all service plant,...

  7. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(b) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  8. 25 CFR 256.24 - Will I need flood insurance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOUSING HOUSING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM § 256.24... identified as having special flood hazards under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Pub. L. 93-234, 87 Stat. 977). Your servicing housing office will advise you....

  9. Etiological analysis of postmenopausal vaginal bleeding among 256 patients%绝经后阴道出血256例的病因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽君

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨绝经后阴道出血的病因及相关因素.方法:对256例绝经后阴道出血病例的临床资料进行分析.结果:256例中,宫颈炎77例(占30.08%),阴道炎52例(20.31%),功能性子宫出血34例(13.28%),子宫内膜炎23例(8.98%),恶性肿瘤21例(8.20%),子宫内膜不典型增生20例(7.81%),子宫肌瘤16例(6.25%),宫内节育器10例(3.91%),外伤3例(1.17%).结论:炎症是绝经后出血的最主要原因;出血距绝经时间越长,恶性肿瘤的发生率越高.%Objective: To analysis the etiological factors of postmenopausal vaginal bleeding.Methods: 256 patients with postmenopausal vaginal bleeding were retrospectively analyzed.Results: The etiological factors of postmenopausal vaginal bleeding in 256 patients included cervieitis ( 30.08%, 77/256 ), vaginitis ( 20.31%,52/256), functional uterus bleeding ( 13.28%, 34/256 ), endometritis ( 8.98%, 23/256 ), malignant tumor ( 8.20% ,21/256 ) , atypical hyperplasia of endometrium ( 7.81% , 20/256 ), hysteromyoma ( 6.25% , 16/256 ) ,intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) ( 3.91%, 10/256 ), trauma ( 1.17 % ,3/256 ).Conclusion: Inflammation is the prior cause for postmenopausal vaginal bleeding.The longer time from menopause to postmenopausal vaginal bleeding, the higher the rate of malignant tumour.

  10. 17 CFR 256.01-12 - Compensation for use of capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... capital. 256.01-12 Section 256.01-12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 General Instructions § 256.01-12 Compensation for use of capital... of expenses plus reasonable compensation for necessary capital procured through the issuance...

  11. 17 CFR 256.226 - Unamortized discount on long-term debt-debit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 6. Long-Term Debt § 256.226 Unamortized discount on... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unamortized discount on long-term debt-debit. 256.226 Section 256.226 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...

  12. 17 CFR 256.01-2 - Application to service companies doing business with nonassociate companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... companies doing business with nonassociate companies. 256.01-2 Section 256.01-2 Commodity and Securities... COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 General Instructions § 256.01-2 Application to service companies doing business with nonassociate companies. While...

  13. 17 CFR 256.108 - Accumulated provision for depreciation and amortization of service company property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... depreciation and amortization of service company property. 256.108 Section 256.108 Commodity and Securities... Accounts: Assets and Other Debit Accounts § 256.108 Accumulated provision for depreciation and amortization... 403, Depreciation and amortization expense. (b) At the time of retirement of depreciable...

  14. 17 CFR 256.01-4 - Construction or service contracts, and centralized procurement accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contracts, and centralized procurement accounting. 256.01-4 Section 256.01-4 Commodity and Securities... COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 General Instructions § 256.01-4 Construction or service contracts, and centralized procurement accounting. (a)...

  15. 6 CFR 25.6 - Procedures for designation of qualified anti-terrorism technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-terrorism technologies. 25.6 Section 25.6 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REGULATIONS TO SUPPORT ANTI-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.6 Procedures for designation of qualified anti-terrorism technologies. (a) Application Procedure. Any person, firm or...

  16. Development of electron beam ion source charge breeder for rare isotopes at Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondrashev, S.; Dickerson, C.; Levand, A.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Pardo, R. C.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kuznetsov, G. I.; Batazova, M. A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2012-02-15

    Recently, the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) was commissioned and became available for production of rare isotopes. Currently, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used as a charge breeder for CARIBU beams. To further increase the intensity and improve the purity of neutron-rich ion beams accelerated by ATLAS, we are developing a high-efficiency charge breeder for CARIBU based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS). The CARIBU EBIS charge breeder will utilize the state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The electron beam current density in the CARIBU EBIS trap will be significantly higher than that in existing operational charge-state breeders based on the EBIS concept. The design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder is nearly complete. Long-lead components of the EBIS such as a 6-T superconducting solenoid and an electron gun have been ordered with the delivery schedule in the fall of 2011. Measurements of expected breeding efficiency using the BNL Test EBIS have been performed using a Cs{sup +} surface ionization ion source for external injection in pulsed mode. In these experiments we have achieved {approx}70% injection/extraction efficiency and breeding efficiency into the most abundant charge state of {approx}17%.

  17. Development of electron beam ion source charge breeder for rare isotopes at Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondrashev S.; Alessi J.; Dickerson, C.; Levand, A.; Ostroumov, P.N.; Pardo, R.C.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A.; Kuznetsov, G.I.; Batazova, M.A.

    2012-02-03

    Recently, the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) was commissioned and became available for production of rare isotopes. Currently, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used as a charge breeder for CARIBU beams. To further increase the intensity and improve the purity of neutron-rich ion beams accelerated by ATLAS, we are developing a high-efficiency charge breeder for CARIBU based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS). The CARIBU EBIS charge breeder will utilize the state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The electron beam current density in the CARIBU EBIS trap will be significantly higher than that in existing operational charge-state breeders based on the EBIS concept. The design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder is nearly complete. Long-lead components of the EBIS such as a 6-T superconducting solenoid and an electron gun have been ordered with the delivery schedule in the fall of 2011. Measurements of expected breeding efficiency using the BNL Test EBIS have been performed using a Cs{sup +} surface ionization ion source for external injection in pulsed mode. In these experiments we have achieved {approx}70% injection/extraction efficiency and breeding efficiency into the most abundant charge state of {approx}17%.

  18. Long-term effects of an intracavitary treatment with californium-252 on normal tissue. [Swine, /sup 226/Ra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Beamer, J.L.; Mahony, T.D.; Cross, F.T.; Lund, J.E.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1976-01-01

    About one hundred fifty swine were exposed to either radium-226 or californium-252 sources in the uterine cervix to determine an RBE for both acute and long-term effects. That value for early changes in the tissues at risk in the treatment of cervical cancer was between 6.2 and 6.8. The incidence of complications increased with time after exposure, especially among animals treated with /sup 252/Cf. Analysis of rectal injury showed that ulceration occurred frequently within a year postexposure at doses between 1600 and 2400 rad calculated at 2 cm lateral to the source midline. Fat necrosis and smooth muscle atrophy, resulting in a local rectal stricture, were delayed changes observed in some animals. The lower ureter was the site for a greater frequency of complications than the GI tract. Ureteral stricture often occurred at doses of 1200 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 7000 rad from /sup 226/Ra. Observation of delayed effects in the uterine-cervix in animals held up to 4 years postexposure indicate that the RBE for /sup 252/Cf may be increased to a value as high as 18, while repair may have even decreased it to about 5.6 in the rectum. Fifty swine are still being observed for long-term effects after doses above 800 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 5000 rad from /sup 226/Ra.

  19. 单向Hash函数SHA-256的研究与改进%One-way Hash function research and improved SHA-256

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何润民

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the study of the Hash SHA-256 algorithm,analyzes the logic and the compression function of the SHA-256 algorithm.On the basis of the study,it designs an improved Hash function SHA-256,using VC ++ development tools,completed the software implementation.It verifies the improved Hash function SHA-256 has better nonlinearity,one-way,collision resistance,randommess and avalanche effect by the theoretical analysis,realization of software for the string of text file Hash and comparison of the calculation results.%对Hash函数SHA-256进行了研究,分析了SHA-256的算法逻辑,以及它所采用的压缩函数的构造,在此基础上研究设计了一个改进的Hash函数SHA-256,应用VC++开发工具对改进的Hash函数SHA-256完成了软件实现.利用理论分析和实现软件对字符串、文本文件进行Hash计算结果的比较,结果证实改进的Hash函数具有更好的非线性性、单向性、抗碰撞性、伪随机性和雪崩效应.

  20. Ab initio full-potential study of mechanical properties and magnetic phase stability of californium monopnictides (CfN and CfP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, S.; Bouhafs, B.

    2016-09-01

    Based on the first-principles methods, the structural, elastic, electronic, properties and magnetic ordering of californium monopnictides CfX (X = P) have been studied using the full-potential augmented plane wave plus local orbitals (FP-L/APW + lo) method within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). The electronic exchange correlation energy is described by generalized gradient approximation GGA and GGA+U (U is the Hubbard correction). The GGA+U method is applied to the rare-earth 5f states. We have calculated the lattice parameters, bulk modulii and the first pressure derivatives of the bulk modulii. The elastic properties of the studied compounds are only investigated in the most stable calculated phase. In order to gain further information, we have calculated Young's modulus, shear modulus, anisotropy factor and Kleinman parameter by the aid of the calculated elastic constants. The results mainly show that californium monopnictides CfX (X = P) have an antiferromagnetic spin ordering. Density of states (DOS) and charge densities for both compounds are also computed in the NaCl (B1) structure.

  1. 人脑胶质瘤256层CT灌注成像%Perfusion 256-Slice CT Imaging of Human Gliomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆娜; Haleena Ramsahye; 冯晓源; 强金伟; 廖治河; 蒋玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the feasibility of using perfusion 256-slice CT imaging in the examination of human gliomas and to investigate the perfusion characteristics of gliomas.Methods:From Jan 2010 to Feb 2012,among 55 subjects who underwent perfusion 256-slice CT imaging,there were 40 patients with gliomas(25 patients with high grade gliomas,15 patients with low grade gliomas) and 15 healthy volunteers served as controls.The raw data including cerebral blood flow(CBF),cerebral blood volume(CBV),mean transit time(MTT) and permeability surface-area product of region of interest(ROD were processed using CT perfusion software.The statistical analysis was performed to compare the difference among controls,low grade gliomas and high grade gliomas using ANOVA test.Results:A total of 40 patients with gliomas have been proved by the histopathological results.CBF,CBV and permeability surface-area product in high grade gliomas were (51.41 ± 11.60)mL/(100 g · min),(6.26 ± 1.67)mL/100 g and (5.71 ± 2.22)mL/(min · 100 g),respectively; in low grade gliomas they were (32.73 ± 7.06)mL/(100 g · min),(2.98 ± 0.73) mL/100 g and (2.33 ± 0.47) mL/(min · 100 g),respectively; and in controls they were (21.06 ± 2.06)mL/(100 g · min),(1.76 ± 0.17)mL/100 g and (0.90 ± 0.07)mL/(min · 100 g) respectively.Significant differences of CBF,CBV and permeability surface-area product were observed among high grade gliomas,low grade gliomas and controls(P all<0.01).There were no difference in MTT among 3 groups.When cutoff value of permeability surface-area product was 2.88 mL/(min · 100 g),the sensitivity and specificity were 96 % and 93 %.When cutoff value of CBV was 3.91 mL/100 g,the sensitivity and specificity were 92 % and 93 %.When cutoff value of CBF was 38.90 mL/(100g· min),the sensitivity and specificity were 92 % and 86 %.Conclusions:Perfusion 256-slice CT imaging can provide useful parameters for glioma hemodynamics.%目的:探讨人脑胶质瘤256层CT灌注

  2. 40 CFR 264.256 - Special requirements for ignitable or reactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reactive waste. 264.256 Section 264.256 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE... applicable requirements of 40 CFR part 268, and: (a) The waste is treated, rendered, or mixed before...

  3. 17 CFR 256.01-3 - General structure of accounting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... accounting system. 256.01-3 Section 256.01-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... accounting system. (a) The accounts provided herein are in two general categories: Balance sheet accounts and... account numbers in the Uniform System of Accounts for Public Utilities and Licensees (18 CFR Part 101)...

  4. Bidirectional regulation of AQP2 trafficking and recycling: involvement of AQP2-S256 phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Lene Niemann; Zelenina, Marina; Aperia, Anita;

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the role of PKA and serine256 (S256) phosphorylation for AQP2 trafficking and recycling using cells transfected with wild-type AQP2 (AQP2-WT) or mutant AQP2 and high-resolution confocal microscopic techniques. In transiently transfected MDCK-C7 cells, stimulation with f...

  5. 17 CFR 256.01-5 - Determination of service cost accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... accounting. Service at cost and fair allocation of costs require, first of all, an accurate accounting for... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of service cost accounting. 256.01-5 Section 256.01-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE...

  6. 42 CFR 441.256 - Additional condition for Federal financial participation (FFP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... participation (FFP). 441.256 Section 441.256 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT... financial participation (FFP). (a) FFP is not available in expenditures for any sterilization or... through November 2, 1982, FFP is available in expenditures for those services if the documentation...

  7. 30 CFR 256.62 - Assignment of lease or interest in lease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assignment of lease or interest in lease. 256... § 256.62 Assignment of lease or interest in lease. This section explains how to assign record title and other interests in OCS oil and gas or sulphur leases. (a) MMS may approve the assignment to you of...

  8. Feasibility of Free-breathing CCTA using 256-MDCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuo; Sun, Ye; Zhang, Zhuolu; Chen, Lei; Hong, Nan

    2016-07-01

    Usually, coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is performed during breath-holding to reduce artifact caused by respiration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of free-breathing CCTA compared to breath-holding using CT scanner with wide detector. To evaluate the feasibility of CCTA during free-breathing using a 256-MDCT. In 80 patients who underwent CCTA, 40 were performed during breath-holding (group A), and the remaining 40 during free-breathing (group B). The quality scores for coronary arteries were analyzed and defined as: 3 (excellent), 2 (good), and 1 (poor). The image noise, signal-to-noise ratio and effective radiation dose as well as the heart rate variation were compared. The noise, signal-to-noise ratio, and effective radiation dose were not significantly different between the 2 groups. The mean heart rate variation between planning and scanning for group A was 7 ± 7.6 bpm, and larger than 3 ± 2.6 bpm for group B (P = 0.012). Quality scores of the free-breathing group were better than those of the breath-holding group (group A: 2.55 ± 0.64, group B: 2.85 ± 0.36, P = 0.018). Free-breathing CCTA is feasible on wide detector CT scanner to provide acceptable image quality with reduced heart rate variation and better images for certain patients. PMID:27399104

  9. Anatomy of a controversy: Application of the Langevin technique to the analysis of the Californium-252 Source-Driven Noise Analysis method for subcriticality determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expressions for the power spectral density of the noise equivalent sources have been calculated explicitly for the (a) stochastic transport equation, (b) the one-speed transport equaton, (c) the one-speed P1 equations, (d) the one-speed diffusion equation and (e) the point kinetic equation. The stochastic nature of Fick's law in (d) has been emphasized. The Langevin technique has been applied at various levels of approximation to the interpretation of the Californium-252 Source-Driven Noise Analysis (CSDNA) experiment for determining the reactivity in subcritical media. The origin of the controversy surrounding this method has been explained. The foundations of the CSDNA method as a viable experimental technique to infer subcriticality from a measured ratio of power spectral densities of the outputs of two neutron detectors and a third external source detector has been examined by solving the one-speed stochastic diffusion equation for a point external Californium-252 source and two detectors in an infinite medium. The expression relating reactivity to the measured ratio of PSDs was found to depend implicitly on k itself. Through a numerical analysis fo this expression, the authors have demonstrated that for a colinear detector-source-detector configuration for neutron detectors far from the source, the expression for the subcritical multiplication factor becomes essentially insensitive to k, hence, demonstrating some possibility for the viability of this technique. However, under more realistic experimental conditions, i.e., for finite systems in which diffusion theroy is not applicable, the measurement of the subcritical multiplication factor from a single measured ratio of PSDs, without extensive transport calculations, remains doubtful

  10. In vivo pharmacokinetics of triazinate in L-1210 and W-256 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, J G; Jain, R K; Cashmore, A R

    1982-10-01

    A pharmacokinetic model for triazinate uptake in L-1210 cells in mice and W-256 cells in rats was developed to describe the observed concentration profiles with time in these cells following a 36 mg/m2 ip injection. The L-1210 cell permeability to triazinate was found to the approximately or 15 times smaller compared with W-256 cells. Similarly, the partition coefficient for L-1210 cells was calculated to be approximately or 175 times smaller than for W-256 cells. Cell membrane permeability appears to be the key parameter determining the drug transport at a short time after injection. PMID:7143204

  11. 32 CFR 256.9 - Real estate interests to be considered for clear zones and accident potential zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Real estate interests to be considered for clear zones and accident potential zone. 256.9 Section 256.9 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS AIR INSTALLATIONS COMPATIBLE USE ZONES § 256.9 Real estate interests to...

  12. 40 CFR 256.27 - Recommendation for schedules leading to compliance with the prohibition of open dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommendation for schedules leading to compliance with the prohibition of open dumping. 256.27 Section 256.27 Protection of Environment... SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS Solid Waste Disposal Programs § 256.27 Recommendation for schedules...

  13. High-Speed, Low Power 256 Channel Gamma Radiation Array Detector ASIC Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Building on prior success in detector electronics, we propose to design and fabricate a 256 channel readout ASIC for solid state gamma radiation array detectors...

  14. Californium-252 neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major production programs for the Savannah River reactors and the High Flux Isotopes Reactor at Oak Ridge have made 252Cf one of the most available and, at the USAEC's sales price of $10/μg, one of the least-expensive isotopic neutron sources. Reactor production has totaled approximately 2 g, and, based on expected demand, an additional 10 g will be produced in the next decade. The approximately 800 mg chemically separated to date has been used to prepare over 600 neutron sources. Most, about 500, have been medical sources containing 1 to 5 μg of 252Cf plated in needles for experimental cancer therapy studies. The remainder have generally been point sources containing 10 μg to 12 mg of oxide for activation, well logging, or radiography uses. Bulk sources have also been supplied to the commercial encapsulators. The latest development has been the production of 252Cf cermet wire which can be cut into almost contamination-free lengths of the desired 252Cf content. Casks are available for transport of sources up to 50 mg. Subcritical assemblies have been developed to multiply the source neutrons by a factor of 10 to 40, and collimators and thermalizers have also been extensively developed to shape the neutron flux and energy distributions for special applications. (U.S.)

  15. Investigation of antioxidative and anticancer potentials of Streptomyces sp. MUM256 isolated from Malaysia mangrove soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Loh eTeng Hern

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A Streptomyces strain, MUM256 was isolated from Tanjung Lumpur mangrove soil in Malaysia. Characterization of the strain showed that it has properties consistent with those of the members of the genus Streptomyces. In order to explore the potential bioactivities, extract of the fermented broth culture of MUM256 was prepared with organic solvent extraction method. DPPH and SOD activity were utilized to examine the antioxidant capacity and the results have revealed the potency of MUM256 in superoxide anion scavenging activity in dose-dependent manner. The cytotoxicity of MUM256 extract was determined using cell viability assay against 8 different panels of human cancer cell lines. Among all the tested cancer cells, HCT116 was the most sensitive toward the extract treatment. At the highest concentration of tested extract, the result showed 2.3, 2.0 and 1.8 folds higher inhibitory effect against HCT116, HT29 and Caco-2 respectively when compared to normal cell line. This result has demonstrated that MUM256 extract was selectively cytotoxic towards colon cancer cell lines. In order to determine the constituents responsible for its bioactivities, the extract was then subjected to chemical analysis using GC-MS. The analysis resulted in the identification of chemical constituents including phenolic and pyrrolopyrazine compounds which may responsible for antioxidant and anticancer activities observed. Based on the findings of this study, the presence of bioactive constituents in MUM256 extract could be a potential source for the development of antioxidative and chemopreventive agents.

  16. Effects of celecoxib and ibuprofen on metabolic disorders induced by Walker-256 tumor in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Camila Oliveira; Kurauti, Mirian Ayumi; de Fatima Silva, Flaviane; de Morais, Hely; Borba-Murad, Glaucia Regina; de Andrade, Fábio Goulart; de Souza, Helenir Medri

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of anti-inflammatory property of celecoxib in the improvement of metabolic disorders in cancer is unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of celecoxib and ibuprofen, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), on several metabolic changes observed in Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats. The effects of these NSAIDs on the tumor growth were also assessed. Celecoxib or ibuprofen (both at 25 mg/Kg) was administered orally for 12 days, beginning on the day the rats were inoculated with Walker-256 tumor cells. Celecoxib treatment prevented the losses in body mass and mass of retroperitoneal adipose tissue, gastrocnemius, and extensor digitorum longus muscles in tumor-bearing rats. Celecoxib also prevented the rise in blood levels of triacylglycerol, urea, and lactate, the inhibition of peripheral response to insulin and hepatic glycolysis, and tended to attenuate the decrease in the food intake, but had no effect on the reduction of glycemia induced by the tumor. In addition, celecoxib treatment increased the number of Walker-256 cells with signs of apoptosis and the tumor necrosis area and prevented the tumor growth. In contrast, ibuprofen treatment had no effect on metabolic parameters affected by the Walker-256 tumor or tumor growth. It can be concluded that celecoxib, unlike ibuprofen, ameliorated several metabolic changes in rats with Walker-256 tumor due to its anti-tumor effect and not its anti-inflammatory property.

  17. PERBANDINGAN APLIKASI MENGGUNAKAN METODE CAMELLIA 128 BIT KEY DAN 256 BIT KEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanny Sutanto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of the Internet today to easily exchange data. This leads to high levels of risk in the data piracy. One of the ways to secure data is using cryptography camellia. Camellia is known as a method that has the encryption and decryption time is fast. Camellia method has three kinds of scale key is 128 bit, 192 bit, and 256 bit.This application is created using the C++ programming language and using visual studio 2010 GUI. This research compare the smallest and largest key size used on the file extension .Txt, .Doc, .Docx, .Jpg, .Mp4, .Mkv and .Flv. This application is made to comparing time and level of security in the use of 128-bit key and 256 bits. The comparison is done by comparing the results of the security value of avalanche effect 128 bit key and 256 bit key.

  18. Californium interrogation prompt neutron (CIPN) instrument for non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel-Design concept and experimental demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henzlova, D.; Menlove, H. O.; Rael, C. D.; Trellue, H. R.; Tobin, S. J.; Park, Se-Hwan; Oh, Jong-Myeong; Lee, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Kwon, In-Chan; Kim, Ho-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results of the first experimental demonstration of the Californium Interrogation Prompt Neutron (CIPN) instrument developed within a multi-year effort launched by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel Project of the United States Department of Energy. The goals of this project focused on developing viable non-destructive assay techniques with capabilities to improve an independent verification of spent fuel assembly characteristics. For this purpose, the CIPN instrument combines active and passive neutron interrogation, along with passive gamma-ray measurements, to provide three independent observables. This paper describes the initial feasibility demonstration of the CIPN instrument, which involved measurements of four pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies with different levels of burnup and two initial enrichments. The measurements were performed at the Post-Irradiation Examination Facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute in the Republic of Korea. The key aim of the demonstration was to evaluate CIPN instrument performance under realistic deployment conditions, with the focus on a detailed assessment of systematic uncertainties that are best evaluated experimentally. The measurements revealed good positioning reproducibility, as well as a high degree of insensitivity of the CIPN instrument's response to irregularities in a radial burnup profile. Systematic uncertainty of individual CIPN instrument signals due to assembly rotation was found to be orientation in the instrument.

  19. 17 CFR 256.01-1 - Companies for which this system of accounts is prescribed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 General Instructions § 256.01-1... for use by: (1) Any company operating, or organized to operate, as a mutual service company under the provisions of section 13 of the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935, and (2) any subsidiary...

  20. 24 CFR 203.256 - Insurance of open-end advance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance of open-end advance. 203... Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF... Insurance § 203.256 Insurance of open-end advance. Insurance on an open-end advance will be evidenced...

  1. New related-key rectangle attacks on reduced AES-192 and AES-256

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI YongZhuang; HU YuPu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the security of reduced AES-192 and AES-256 against related-key rectangle attacks by exploiting the weakness in the AES key schedule. We find the following two new attacks: 9-round reduced AES-192 with 4 related keys, and 10-round reduced AES-256 with 4 related keys. Our results show that related-key rectangle attack with 4 related keys on 9-round reduced AES-192 requires a data complexity of about 2101 chosen plaintexts and a time complexity of about 2174.8 encryptions, and moreover, related-key rectangle attack with 4 related keys on 10-round reduced AES-256 requires a data complexity of about 297.5 chosen plaintexts and a time complexity of about 2254 encryptions. These attacks are the first known attacks on 9-round reduced AES-192 and 10-round reduced AES-256 with only 4 related keys. Furthermore, we give an improvement of the 10-round reduced AES-192 attack presented at FSE2007, which reduces both the data complexity and the time complexity.

  2. 17 CFR 256.309 - Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automobiles, other vehicles... § 256.309 Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment. This account shall include the delivered cost of all service company owned automobiles, vans, trucks, and other vehicles used by...

  3. 42 CFR 422.256 - Review, negotiation, and approval of bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., benefits, or cost-sharing structure. (ii) Transition period for MA organizations with new acquisitions... Information and Plan Approval § 422.256 Review, negotiation, and approval of bids. (a) Authority. Subject to paragraphs (a)(2), (d), and (e) of this section, CMS has the authority to review the aggregate bid...

  4. 40 CFR 256.02 - Scope of the State solid waste management plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF STATE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS Purpose, General Requirements, Definitions § 256.02 Scope of the State solid waste management plan. (a)(1) The... plan shall consider the following aspects of solid waste management: (i) Resource conservation;...

  5. Genetic Fingerprinting of Wheat and Its Progenitors by Mitochondrial Gene orf256

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona M. Elseehy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available orf256 is a wheat mitochondrial gene associated with cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS that has different organization in various species. This study exploited the orf256 gene as a mitochondrial DNA marker to study the genetic fingerprint of Triticum and Aegilops species. PCR followed by sequencing of common parts of the orf256 gene were employed to determine the fingerprint and molecular evolution of Triticum and Aegilops species. Although many primer pairs were used, two pairs of orf256 specific primers (5:-94/C: 482, 5:253/C: 482, amplified DNA fragments of 576 bp and 230 bp respectively in all species were tested. A common 500 bp of nine species of Triticum and Aegilops were aligned and showed consistent results with that obtained from other similar chloroplast or nuclear genes. Base alignment showed that there were various numbers of base substitutions in all species compared to S. cereal (Sc (the outgroup species. Phylogenetic relationship revealed similar locations and proximity on phylogenetic trees established using plastid and nuclear genes. The results of this study open a good route to use unknown function genes of mitochondria in studying the molecular relationships and evolution of wheat and complex plant genomes.

  6. 30 CFR 256.91 - How much bonus or royalty credit will MMS grant in exchange for a lease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How much bonus or royalty credit will MMS grant in exchange for a lease? 256.91 Section 256.91 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Bonus or Royalty Credits for Exchange of...

  7. 78 FR 62329 - Special Local Regulation; Tennessee River, Miles 255.0 to 256.5, Florence, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-17

    ... Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The... CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Tennessee River, Miles 255.0 to 256.5, Florence... Special Local Regulation; Tennessee River, Miles 255.0 to 256.5, Florence, AL. (a) Location. The...

  8. Biological Efficiency of Californium-252 Source Evaluated by Comet Assay, Classical Cytogenetics and FISH in Human Lymphocytes Irradiated without and with BSH Pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological effectiveness of californium-252 source was evaluated after irradiations in vitro of normal or pre-treated with compound enriched in B-10 ion cells. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were used as a model for human cells. DNA and chromosomal damage were studied to compare biological effectiveness of irradiation. Human blood samples or isolated lymphocytes were irradiated with the isotopic source of 252Cf, at the Faculty of Physics and Nuclear Techniques at the University of Mining and Metallurgy (both neutron source and samples were placed in ''infinite'' polyethylene block). Chemical pretreatment with Na210B12H11SH (BSH) was performed to introduce boron-10 ion into cells in order to check any enhancement effect due to the process of boron neutron capture. Single cell gel electrophoresis also known as the Comet assay was done to investigate the DNA damage. Classical cytogenetic analysis was applied to assess the frequencies of unstable aberrations (dicentrics, rings and a centric fragments). To evaluate the frequencies of stable aberrations the fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with probes for chromosomes 1, 4 (14.3% of the whole genome) was performed. Linear (or close to linear) increase with radiation dose were observed for the DNA damage and aberration frequencies in lymphocytes both untreated or pre-treated with BSH. Levels of translocations evaluated for the whole genome were comparable with the frequencies of dicentrics and rings. No significant differences were detected due to radiation dose in the frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) detected in the second mitosis. No statistically significant differences were observed in various biological end-points between normal or boron pre-treated cells. (author)

  9. 256例急性胰腺炎的心电图分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴梅丽; 李根武

    2004-01-01

    目的:分析急性胰腺炎(AP)患者心电图(ECG)的改变及其临床意义.方法:回顾性分析256例AP患者的ECG资料.结果:256例AP患者中有138例(53.9%)出现ECG异常.ECG异常主要表现为窦性心动过速、ST段降低和T波的改变等.结论:AP患者常伴有ECG的异常改变,ECG监测对判断病情发展及给予相应处理有帮助.

  10. Discovery of a 7.6-hour high-spin isomer of einsteinium-256

    CERN Document Server

    Lougheed, R W; Daniels, W R; Hoffman, D C; Jackson, S V; Landrum, J H; Starner, J W; Wilhelmy, J B

    1976-01-01

    A 7.6-hour, beta-emitting isomer of /sup 256/Es has been produced via the (t, p) reaction by bombarding /sup 254g/Es with 16-MeV tritons. No evidence for an alpha branch has been found. A number of gamma rays have been observed, on the basis of which a partial decay scheme is proposed. It is concluded that the isomer has spin 7 or 8. (2 refs).

  11. CHARACTERIZING THE COOL KOIs. V. KOI-256: A MUTUALLY ECLIPSING POST-COMMON ENVELOPE BINARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muirhead, Philip S.; Shporer, Avi; Becker, Juliette; Swift, Jonathan J.; Hinkley, Sasha; Pineda, J. Sebastian; Bottom, Michael; Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Bui, Khanh [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Vanderburg, Andrew [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lloyd, James P.; Fuller, Jim [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States); Zhao, Ming [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Howard, Andrew W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Von Braun, Kaspar [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, MC 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Boyajian, Tabetha S. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Law, Nicholas [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto M5S 3H4, Ontario (Canada); Ramaprakash, A. N. [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); and others

    2013-04-20

    We report that Kepler Object of Interest 256 (KOI-256) is a mutually eclipsing post-common envelope binary (ePCEB), consisting of a cool white dwarf (M{sub *} = 0.592 {+-} 0.089 M{sub Sun }, R{sub *} = 0.01345 {+-} 0.00091 R{sub Sun }, T{sub eff} = 7100 {+-} 700 K) and an active M3 dwarf (M{sub *} = 0.51 {+-} 0.16 M{sub Sun }, R{sub *} = 0.540 {+-} 0.014 R{sub Sun }, T{sub eff} = 3450 {+-} 50 K) with an orbital period of 1.37865 {+-} 0.00001 days. KOI-256 is listed as hosting a transiting planet-candidate by Borucki et al. and Batalha et al.; here we report that the planet-candidate transit signal is in fact the occultation of a white dwarf as it passes behind the M dwarf. We combine publicly-available long- and short-cadence Kepler light curves with ground-based measurements to robustly determine the system parameters. The occultation events are readily apparent in the Kepler light curve, as is spin-orbit synchronization of the M dwarf, and we detect the transit of the white dwarf in front of the M dwarf halfway between the occultation events. The size of the white dwarf with respect to the Einstein ring during transit (R{sub Ein} = 0.00473 {+-} 0.00055 R{sub Sun }) causes the transit depth to be shallower than expected from pure geometry due to gravitational lensing. KOI-256 is an old, long-period ePCEB and serves as a benchmark object for studying the evolution of binary star systems as well as white dwarfs themselves, thanks largely to the availability of near-continuous, ultra-precise Kepler photometry.

  12. Progress towards a 256 channel multi-anode microchannel plate photomultiplier system with picosecond timing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapington, J.S., E-mail: jsl12@star.le.ac.uk [Space Research Centre, University of Leicester (United Kingdom); Ashton, T.J.R.; Ross, D. [Space Research Centre, University of Leicester (United Kingdom); Conneely, T. [Space Research Centre, University of Leicester (United Kingdom); Photek Ltd., St. Leonards-on-sea, East Sussex (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-11

    Despite the rapid advances in solid state technologies such as the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM), microchannel plate (MCP) photomultipliers still offer a proven and practical technological solution for high channel count pixellated photon-counting systems with very high time resolution. We describe progress towards a 256 channel optical photon-counting system using CERN-developed NINO and HTDC ASICs, and designed primarily for time resolved spectroscopy in life science applications. Having previously built and demonstrated a 18 mm diameter prototype tube with an 8 Multiplication-Sign 8 channel readout configuration and <43 ps rms single photon timing resolution, we are currently developing a 40 mm device with a 32 Multiplication-Sign 32 channel readout. Initially this will be populated with a 256 channel electronics system comprising four sets of modular 64 channel preamplifier/discriminator, and time-to-digital converter units, arranged in a compact three dimensional configuration. We describe the detector and electronics design and operation, and present performance measurements from the 256 channel development system. We discuss enhancements to the system including higher channel count and the use of application specific on-board signal processing capabilities.

  13. 125kHz可读写AT88RF256-12芯片简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中山市达华智能科技有限公司技术部

    2004-01-01

    芯片简介:AT88RF256-12卡是美国ATMEL公司出品的一款基于125kHz频率工作的RFID感应卡芯片,数据存储空间为256位,有密码设置和写保护,是一款适合普通场合使用而又廉价的低频、加密、可读写ID卡,AT88RF256-12在低端市场上有着很大的应用前景。

  14. Design of the 256x1 Element Linear Infrared Thermistor Bolometer Array Parallel Pre-amplifiers%256元线列热敏探测器并行前置放大器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马庆梅; 陆段军

    2010-01-01

    256通道并行前置放大器是静止轨道地球辐射探测仪的一项关键技术.对256元线列热敏探测器前放设计方案、电阻跨导放大器设计及前放噪声模型进行了详细论述,并给出了仿真计算结果.

  15. The influence of septal lesions on sodium and water retention induced by Walker 256 tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Guimarães

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the course of studies on the effects of septal area lesions on neuroimmunomodulation and Walker 256 tumor development, it was observed that tumor-induced sodium and water retention was less marked in lesioned than in non-lesioned rats. In the present study possible mechanisms involved in this phenomenon were investigated. The experiments were performed in septal-lesioned (LW; N = 15 and sham-operated (SW; N = 7 8-week-old male Wistar rats, which received multifocal simultaneous subcutaneous (sc inoculations of Walker 256 tumor cells about 30 days after the stereotaxic surgery. Control groups (no tumor, sham-operated food-restricted (SFR, N = 7 and lesioned food-restricted (LFR, N = 10 were subjected to a feeding pattern similar to that observed in tumor-bearing animals. Multifocal inoculation of Walker 256 tumor rapidly induces anorexia, which is paradoxically accompanied by an increase in body weight, as a result of renal Na+ and fluid retention. These effects of the tumor were also seen in LW rats, although the rise in fractional sodium balance during the early clinical period was significantly smaller than in SW rats (day 4: SW = 47.6 ± 6.4% and LW = 13.8 ± 5.2%; day 5: SW = 57.5 ± 3.5% and LW = 25.7 ± 4.8%; day 6: SW = 54.4 ± 3.8% and LW = 32.1 ± 4.4%; P<0.05, suggesting a temporary reduction in tumor-induced sodium retention. In contrast, urine output was significantly reduced in SW rats and increased in LW rats (LW up to -0.85 and SW up to 4.5 ml/100 g body weight, with no change in osmolar excretion. These temporary changes in the tumor's effects on LW rats may reflect a "reversal" of the secondary central antidiuretic response induced by the tumor (from antidiuretic to diuretic.

  16. Modelo experimental de tumor na cavidade oral de ratos com carcinossarcoma de Walker 256 Experimental model of Walker 256 carcinosarcoma developed in the oral cavity of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes Alves

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estabelecer um modelo experimental de desenvolvimento tumoral na cavidade oral de ratos, permitindo, assim, o estudo da osteólise induzida pelo tumor nos ossos do complexo maxilomandibular como também nas estruturas dentais, através da caracterização histomorfológica da reabsorção óssea e dentária. MÉTODOS: Uma suspensão de células tumorais (0,1mL do Carcinossarcoma de Walker 256, na concentração de 10(6 células/mL foi implantado na cavidade alveolar de ratos previamente aberta por exodontia. Os animais foram observados durante 12 (doze dias consecutivos para determinação da curva de peso corpóreo, sendo posteriormente sacrificados e as mandíbulas removidas para exames radiográfico e histológico. RESULTADOS: No exame radiográfico foi verificada área lítica, sem evidência de reparo, na região dos alvéolos. No exame microscópico foi identificada infiltração óssea, periférica e central, de pequenas células hipercromáticas e pleomórficas, com leve infiltrado inflamatório mononuclear associado e áreas de necrose. O índice de pega foi de 100%. CONCLUSÃO: O modelo animal de invasão óssea, do tumor de Walker na cavidade oral, possibilita a avaliação in vivo de drogas antitumorais e esquemas terapêuticos no tratamento do câncer bucal.PURPOSE: To estabilish an experimental model of tumor development in the oral cavity of rats, that would enable to study the tumor-induced autolysis in the maxillomandibular bone complex as well as of the dental structures, through histomorphological characterization of bone and dental resorption. METHODS: Walker 256 carcinossarcoma cell suspension (0,1 mL containing 10(6 cell/mL was implanted in the alveoli of first and second molars. The animals were observed during twelve consecutive days and the body weigth were determined. Later, the animals were sacrificed and their mandibles removed to radiographic and hystologic analysis. RESULTS: The radiographic image

  17. Treatment of 256 cases of Osteoarthritis of Knee Joint with Guo Jianhua's Four-step Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yusong; Guo Liang; Ma Shanzhi; Zhu Hanting

    2008-01-01

    @@ 256 cases of osteoarthritis of knee joint were treated with Professor Guo Jianhua's four-step therapy,i.e.acupuncture at five points in the knee to remove obstruction of collaterals and stop pain,massotherapy to separate adhesion and relieve spasm,fumigation and steaming with hot decoction to promote blood circulation and expel swelling,and functional exercises to consolidate the therapeutic effects.121 cases were cured,117 cases markedly effective,and 18 cases ineffective,with a total effective rate of 92.97%.

  18. In vitro evaluation of 56 coronary artery stents by 256-slice multi-detector coronary CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, Henning, E-mail: henning.steen@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Department of Cardiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Andre, Florian, E-mail: Florian.Andre@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Department of Cardiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Korosoglou, Grigorios, E-mail: Grigorios.Korosoglou@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Department of Cardiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Mueller, Dirk, E-mail: Dirk.Mueller@philips.com [Philips GmbH Healthcare Division, Luebeckertordamm 5, Hamburg 20099 (Germany); Hosch, Waldemar, E-mail: Waldemar.Hosch@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich, E-mail: Hans-Ulrich.Kauczor@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Giannitsis, Evangelos, E-mail: Evangelos.Giannitsis@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Department of Cardiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Katus, Hugo A., E-mail: Hugo.Katus@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Department of Cardiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Objective: We sought to investigate stent lumen visibility of 56 coronary stents with the newest 256-multi-slice-CT (256-MDCT) technology for different reconstruction algorithms in an in vitro model. Background: Early identification of in-stent restenosis (ISR) is important to avoid recurrent ischemia and prevent acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Since angiography has the disadvantage of high costs and its invasiveness, MDCT could be a convenient and safe non-invasive alternative for detection of ISR. Material and methods: Percentages of in-stent lumen diameter and in-stent signal attenuation (measured as contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR)) of 56 coronary stents (group A {<=}2.5 mm; group B = 2.75-3.0 mm; group C = 3.5-4.0 mm) were evaluated in a coronary vessel in vitro phantom (iodine-filled plastic tubes) employing four different reconstruction algorithms (XCD, CC, CD, XCB) on a novel 256-MDCT (Philips-iCT, collimation = 128 mm x 0.625 mm; rotation time = 270 ms; tube current = 800 mA s with 120 kV). Analysis was conducted with the semi-automatical full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) method. P-values <0.05 were regarded statistically significant. Results: In-stent lumen diameter >60% for group C stents was significantly larger and CNR was significantly lower (both p < 0.05) for sharp kernels (CD; XCD) when compared to groups A/B. The FWHM-method showed significantly smaller in-stent lumen diameter (p < 0.05) when compared to the manual method. Conclusion: 256-MDCT could potentially be employed for clinical assessment of stent patency in stents >3.0 mm when analysed with cardio-dedicated sharp kernels, although clinical studies corroborating this claim should be performed. However, stents {<=}3.0 mm reconstructed by soft kernels revealed insufficient in-stent lumen visualisation and should not be used in clinical practice. Further improvements in spatial and temporal image resolution as well as reductions of radiation exposure and image noise have to be accomplished

  19. 地塞米松对大鼠 Walker 256乳腺癌骨转移癌痛的作用%Effect of dexamethasone on rat bone metastasis pain induced by Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凡; 李毅; 丁杰; 张海林

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish a rat model of bone metastasis pain induced by Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells and observe the effect of dexamethasone on bone cancer pain. Methods Ascitic tumour cells were made from Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells injected to tibia of rats.Then,the withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulus and withdrawal time in response to radiant thermal stimulus were tested before and after operation.Results The withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulus and withdrawal time in response to radiant thermal stimulus were significantly reduced in the tibia bone inoculated with Walker 256 cells.The pathology results showed the evidence of tibia bone structure was destructed by tumor.It is suggested that the model of bone metastasis pain induced by Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cell was successfully established.Dexamethasone (5 mg/kg ) elevated withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulus in rat model of bone metastasis pain induced by Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cell.Conclusion Dexamethasone could alleviate bone cancer pain.%目的:建立大鼠 Walker 256乳腺癌骨转移癌痛模型,观察地塞米松对骨转移癌疼痛痛阈的影响。方法制备 Walker 256乳腺癌细胞的大鼠腹腔积液瘤细胞,将其注射入大鼠胫骨,测量术前及术后机械刺痛阈和辐射热痛阈。结果接种 Walker 256乳腺癌大鼠术侧机械刺激痛觉和辐射热痛觉阈值显著降低,且病理学结果显示骨质受到肿瘤破坏,提示 Walker 256大鼠乳腺癌骨转移癌疼痛模型成功建立。地塞米松(5 mg/kg)能够显著提高骨转移癌疼痛模型刺痛痛阈。结论地塞米松能够缓解大鼠骨转移癌疼痛。

  20. Walker 256 Tumor Growth Suppression by Crotoxin Involves Formyl Peptide Receptors and Lipoxin A4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigatte, Patrícia; Faiad, Odair Jorge; Ferreira Nocelli, Roberta Cornélio; Landgraf, Richardt G.; Palma, Mario Sergio; Cury, Yara; Curi, Rui; Sampaio, Sandra Coccuzzo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Crotoxin (CTX), the main toxin of South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom, on Walker 256 tumor growth, the pain symptoms associated (hyperalgesia and allodynia), and participation of endogenous lipoxin A4. Treatment with CTX (s.c.), daily, for 5 days reduced tumor growth at the 5th day after injection of Walker 256 carcinoma cells into the plantar surface of adult rat hind paw. This observation was associated with inhibition of new blood vessel formation and decrease in blood vessel diameter. The treatment with CTX raised plasma concentrations of lipoxin A4 and its natural analogue 15-epi-LXA4, an effect mediated by formyl peptide receptors (FPRs). In fact, the treatment with Boc-2, an inhibitor of FPRs, abolished the increase in plasma levels of these mediators triggered by CTX. The blockage of these receptors also abolished the inhibitory action of CTX on tumor growth and blood vessel formation and the decrease in blood vessel diameter. Together, the results herein presented demonstrate that CTX increases plasma concentrations of lipoxin A4 and 15-epi-LXA4, which might inhibit both tumor growth and formation of new vessels via FPRs. PMID:27190493

  1. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  2. Histopathological aspects of walker 256 tumor using the multifocal technique of inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Garcez Novaes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer has been considered one of the most serious calamities all over the world producing tremendous economic and social losses. Considering the increasing incidence of these health disturbances, the variable efficacy and frequent adverse events commonly notified with the existing chemotherapy protocols and the new events currently in progress in the world it´s urgent to develop new strategies to prevent and treat cancer. It is well known that Walker 256 tumor is the most common experimental tumor model to study cancer but public health personnel still has little information about it. The aim of this study is not only to review the important aspects of this experimental tumor but also to increase the knowledge and comprehension about it among health professionals.

  3. A 256-TES Array for the Detection of CMB B-Mode Polarisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perbost, C.; Marnieros, S.; Bélier, B.; Piat, M.; Prêle, D.; Voisin, F.; Decourcelle, T.

    2016-08-01

    As part of the Q&U Bolometric Interferometer for Cosmology instrument targeting the cosmic microwave background primordial B-modes, two kilo-pixel focal planes have been designed for a NEP of ˜ 3 × 10^{-17} W√{Hz} adapted for ground-based observations. Those pixels are transition edge sensors (TESs) made of voltage-biased NbSi thin films with a critical temperature T_c ˜ 400 mK and TiV absorbing grids. The TESs are coupled to a time-domain multiplexed electronics based on superconducting quantum interference devices and an additional SiGe cryogenic integrated circuit which provides a second multiplexing stage. In this paper, we briefly discuss the instrumental context of a quarter of focal plane (a 256-TES sub-array). Then, we present its typical manufacturing process and first test results at cryogenic temperature.

  4. Fabrication and total dose testing of a 256Kx1 radiation hardened SRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a 256Kx1 radiation hard SRAM, the process enhancements which resulted in its successful fabrication, and presents total dose exposure results. Typical measured performance values include an address-activated access time of 36 nsec and a write time of 34 nsec. Soft-error studies predict the memory cell to be SEU insensitive and rail-span collapse simulations estimate transient dose immunity to greater than 4E9 rads(Si)/sec. The basic technology used was a standard 1.0μm two-level metal, non-SORT CMOS, radiation hard process. SORT refers to Selective Oxidation to Reduce Topography, a process which uses silicon nitride masking of active device areas during field oxide growth to reduce vertical dimensions

  5. 华硕Extreme N6600/TD/256M显卡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    近日华硕发布一款中端显卡Extreme N6600/TD/256M。产品采用了NVIDIA的全新GeForce6600GPU,核心频率为300MHz。显存频率为500MHz.采用PCI-E接口。并具有华硕特有的Game Face Live和Video Security Online功能。可以支持最多8个视频窗口.通过Webcam在游戏中直接和最多8人进行交流Video Security Online通过摄像头或小型摄影机可以监控可视区域内的任何微小变化,如有不明身份者进入监控区域自动发出警报。

  6. Radiation dose to patients and image quality evaluation from coronary 256-slice computed tomographic angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Liang-Kuang [Department of Radiology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); College of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiological Technology, Yuan Pei University, Taiwan (China); Wu, Tung-Hsin [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, 155 Li-Nong St., Section 2, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Yang, Ching-Ching [Department of Radiological Technology, Tzu Chi College of Technology, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Chia-Jung [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, 155 Li-Nong St., Section 2, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jason J.S., E-mail: jslee@ym.edu.t [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, 155 Li-Nong St., Section 2, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China)

    2010-07-21

    The aim of this study is to assess radiation dose and the corresponding image quality from suggested CT protocols which depends on different mean heart rate and high heart rate variability by using 256-slice CT. Fifty consecutive patients referred for a cardiac CT examination were included in this study. All coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) examinations were performed on a 256-slice CT scanner with one of five different protocols: retrospective ECG-gating (RGH) with full dose exposure in all R-R intervals (protocol A), RGH of 30-80% pulsing window with tube current modulation (B), RGH of 78{+-}5% pulsing window with tube current modulation (C), prospective ECG-triggering (PGT) of 78% R-R interval with 5% padding window (D) and PGT of 78% R-R interval without padding window (E). Radiation dose parameters and image quality scoring were determined and compared. In this study, no significant differences were found in comparison on image quality of the five different protocols. Protocol A obtained the highest radiation dose comparing with those of protocols B, C, D and E by a factor of 1.6, 2.4, 2.5 and 4.3, respectively (p<0.001), which were ranged between 2.7 and 11.8 mSv. The PGT could significantly reduce radiation dose delivered to patients, as compared to the RGH. However, the use of PGT has limitations and is only good in assessing cases with lower mean heart rate and stable heart rate variability. With higher mean heart rate and high heart rate variability circumstances, the RGH within 30-80% of R-R interval pulsing window is suggested as a feasible technique for assessing diagnostic performance.

  7. LED显示屏256级灰度控制芯片的FPGA设计%Design of 256 Level Gray Scale in LED Display Screen Based on FPGA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张公礼; 任健钱

    2008-01-01

    介绍了一种基于DVI接口的LED视频显示系统,包括系统设计框架、LED显示驱动方法的介绍,重点介绍了基于FPGA的LED显示屏256级灰度控制芯片的设计原理与过程.

  8. 40 CFR 256.26 - Requirement for schedules leading to compliance with the prohibition of open dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement for schedules leading to... SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS Solid Waste Disposal Programs § 256.26 Requirement for schedules leading to... schedule of remedial measures, and an enforceable sequence of actions, leading to compliance within...

  9. A COMPARATIVE PET STUDY USING DIFFERENT C-11 LABELED AMINO-ACIDS IN WALKER 256 CARCINOSARCOMA-BEARING RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DAEMEN, BJG; ELSINGA, PH; ISHIWATA, K; PAANS, AMJ; VAALBURG, W

    1991-01-01

    In Walker 256 carcinosarcoma-bearing rats, the dynamic distribution of L-[1-C-11]tyrosine, L-[methyl-C-11]methionine, L-[1-C-11]methionine and D-[1-C-11]methionine has been measured by PET. An equivalent tumor-imaging potential was observed for each of the three L-amino acids. Thirty minutes after i

  10. Full-duplex transmission of 256-QAM WiMAX signals over an 80-km long-reach PON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prince, Kamau; Osadchiy, Alexey Vladimirovich; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2009-01-01

    We present bi-directional transmission of WiMAXcompliant signaling over an 80-km PON, using a single optical wavelength. Colorless, bi-directional transmission of 256-QAM modulation on a 2.4-GHz RF carrier was achieved at 100- Mb/s (downlink) and 64-Mb/s (uplink)....

  11. 37 CFR 1.324 - Correction of inventorship in patent, pursuant to 35 U.S.C. 256.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to 35 U.S.C. 256. (a) Whenever through error a person is named in an issued patent as the inventor, or through error an inventor is not named in an issued patent and such error arose without any..., issue a certificate naming only the actual inventor or inventors. A petition to correct inventorship...

  12. Assessment of Patency and Lumen Visibility of Various Coronary Stents by 256-slice Computed Tomography%256层极速CT对冠状动脉不同类型支架通畅性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林祥腾; 纪凤颖; 张琳焓; 常燃

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the in-stent lumen visibility and image quality of various coronary stents by 256-slice computed tomography angiography( CTA ), and explore the diagnostic accuracy of 256-slice computed tomography angiography in detecting coronary in-stent restenosis(ISR ). Methods 44 patients after stent implantation were examined with Philips Brilliance iCT and CTA image of stents were assessed by semi-quantitative method. All of these patients underwent conventional coronary angiography ( CAG ) within three months after CTA. The patency of stents was independently evaluated by two blinded readers. CTA findings were compared with CAG results to analyze the diagnostic accuracy for detection of restenosis(≥50% ) with 256-slice computed tomography coronary angiography. Results A total of 44 pa-tients( 71 stents ) were identified in 256-slice computed tomography angiography( CTA ),the rate of identification was 100%( 71/71 ). Sensitivity,specificity,positive predictive value and negative predictive value was 86.2% ,83.3% ,78% , and 89. 7% of 256-slice CT to identify in-stent restenosis, respectively. CT image quality of Cobalt-chromium alloy group was better than stainless steel stent group, of thin-wall stent was better than thick-wall stent, of large-diameter stent was better than small-diameter stent. The diagnostic accuracy of Cobalt-chromium alloy group was higher than stainless steel stent group; of large-diameter stent was higher than small-diameter stent; of thin-wall stent was better than thick-wall stent( P <0. 05 ). Conclusion 256-slice CTA has high diagnostic accuracy for detecting in-stent restenosis, and is suggested as an important tool for the follow up after coronary stenting. Materials, wall thickness and diameter of coronaiy stent may influence imaging quality of 256-slice CT evaluation.%目的 评估256层极速CT冠状动脉造影(CTA),显示不同支架类型的图像质量及支架内腔的可视效果,探讨256层极速CT诊断冠状动

  13. 24 CFR 221.256 - Interest rate increase and payment of mortgage insurance premiums on mortgages under § 221.60 and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... balance of the mortgage on the first day of the month following the date on which such right first accrued... of mortgage insurance premiums on mortgages under § 221.60 and § 221.65. 221.256 Section 221.256... MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND...

  14. 25 CFR 162.256 - What will BIA do if a tenant holds over after the expiration or cancellation of an agricultural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... expiration or cancellation of an agricultural lease? 162.256 Section 162.256 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... What will BIA do if a tenant holds over after the expiration or cancellation of an agricultural lease? If a tenant remains in possession after the expiration or cancellation of an agricultural lease,...

  15. Clinical characteristics analysis of 256 cases with acute myocardial infarction%256例急性心肌梗死临床特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡华龙; 张卫

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解急性心肌梗死(AMI)的非典型临床表现,以期提高早期诊断,减少漏、误诊率及降低死亡率.方法:对256例AMI患者进行回顾性总结分析.结果:非典型AMI患者共72例(28.1%);与典型AMI患者相比,非典型患者年龄高(69.8岁:58.5岁,P<0.01),女性比例高(43.1%:30.4%,P<0.01),伴发糖尿病(33.3%:23.9%,P<0.01)和心力衰竭(20.8%:13.6%,P<0.01)比例高,住院期间死亡率高(33.3%:5.2%,P<0.01),平均就诊时间显著延迟(24.5 h:9.8h,P<0.01),入院时确诊率显著降低(20.6%:53.4%,P<0.01).结论:AMI的非典型临床表现相当普遍,导致较高的漏、误诊率,且住院期间病死率显著增加,早期识别能有效提高确诊率,对改善预后有极其重要的意义.%Objective:To explore the atypical clinical manifestations of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), for improving the early diagnosis and reducing the false negative, false positive and fatality rate. Method:Two hundred and fifty-six patients with AMI were chosen to go through the retrospective summary and analysis. Result:There were 72 patients with atypical AMI, and the prevalence rate was 28. 1%. Compared with the typical patients, the atypical patients were characterized with old age (69. 8 vs 58. 5, P<0. 01), higher percentage of women patients (43.1% vs30.4%, P<0.01), combined higher percentage of diabetes history (33. 3% vs23.9%, P<0.01) and cardiac failure history (20.8% vs 13.6%, P<0.01) and higher in-hospital mortality (33.3% vs 5.2%, P< 0. 01). The average treatment time of the atypical patients was significantly delayed (24. 5 h vs 9. 8 h, P<0. 01) and the correct diagnose rate on admission was significantly decreased (20. 6% vs 53. 4%, P<0. 01). Conclusion: The atypical clinical manifestation of AMI is fairly common and results in higher false negative and positive rates. Moreover, the in-hospital fatality rate of patients with atypical AMI significantly increases. Therefore, early

  16. Discovery of Hydrogen Fluoride in the Cloverleaf Quasar at z = 2.56

    CERN Document Server

    Monje, R R; Peng, R; Lis, D C; Neufeld, D A; Emprechtinger, M; 10.1088/2041-8205/742/2/L21

    2012-01-01

    We report the first detection of hydrogen fluoride (HF) toward a high redshift quasar. Using the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) we detect the HF J = 1 - 0 transition in absorption toward the Cloverleaf, a broad absorption line (BAL) quasi-stellar object (QSO) at z=2.56. The detection is statistically significant at the ~ 6 sigma level. We estimate a lower limit of 4 \\times 1014 cm-2 for the HF column density and using a previous estimate of the hydrogen column density, we obtain a lower limit of 1.7 \\times 10-9 for the HF abundance. This value suggests that, assuming a Galactic N(HF)/NH ratio, HF accounts for at least ~10% of the fluorine in the gas phase along the line of sight to the Cloverleaf quasar. This observation corroborates the prediction that HF should be a good probe of the molecular gas at high redshift. Measurements of the HF abundance as a function of redshift are urgently needed to better constrain the fluorine nucleosynthesis mechanism(s).

  17. DISCOVERY OF HYDROGEN FLUORIDE IN THE CLOVERLEAF QUASAR AT z = 2.56

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monje, R. R.; Phillips, T. G.; Lis, D. C.; Emprechtinger, M. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125-4700 (United States); Peng, R. [Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, 111 Nowelo Street, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Neufeld, D. A., E-mail: raquel@caltech.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    We report the first detection of hydrogen fluoride (HF) toward a high-redshift quasar. Using the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, we detect the HF J = 1-0 transition in absorption toward the Cloverleaf, a broad absorption line quasi-stellar object at z = 2.56. The detection is statistically significant at the {approx}6{sigma} level. We estimate a lower limit of 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} for the HF column density and using a previous estimate of the hydrogen column density, we obtain a lower limit of 1.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} for the HF abundance. This value suggests that, assuming a Galactic N(HF)/N{sub H} ratio, HF accounts for at least {approx}10% of the fluorine in the gas phase along the line of sight to the Cloverleaf quasar. This observation corroborates the prediction that HF should be a good probe of the molecular gas at high redshift. Measurements of the HF abundance as a function of redshift are urgently needed to better constrain the fluorine nucleosynthesis mechanism(s).

  18. Spatial mapping and statistical reproducibility of an array of 256 one-dimensional quantum wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Taie, H., E-mail: ha322@cam.ac.uk; Kelly, M. J. [Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, 9 J. J. Thomson Avenue, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Smith, L. W.; Lesage, A. A. J.; Griffiths, J. P.; Beere, H. E.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Smith, C. G. [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); See, P. [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-21

    We utilize a multiplexing architecture to measure the conductance properties of an array of 256 split gates. We investigate the reproducibility of the pinch off and one-dimensional definition voltage as a function of spatial location on two different cooldowns, and after illuminating the device. The reproducibility of both these properties on the two cooldowns is high, the result of the density of the two-dimensional electron gas returning to a similar state after thermal cycling. The spatial variation of the pinch-off voltage reduces after illumination; however, the variation of the one-dimensional definition voltage increases due to an anomalous feature in the center of the array. A technique which quantifies the homogeneity of split-gate properties across the array is developed which captures the experimentally observed trends. In addition, the one-dimensional definition voltage is used to probe the density of the wafer at each split gate in the array on a micron scale using a capacitive model.

  19. Effect of trans-arterial chemo-embolization on angiogenesis of rat walker-256 transplanted hepatoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate intra-tumor microvessel density (MVD), expression of VEGF and bFGF in survival cancerous tissue after chemo-embolization and evaluate their significance. Methods: Sixty rats bearing walker-256 transplanted hepatoma were randomly divided into control group, chemotherapy group and chemo-embolization group. Each group included 20 rats. Saline, 5-Fu, 5-Fu and lipiodol were infused through hepatic artery, respectively. Two weeks after the infusion, stain of factor VIII, VEGF and bFGF were performed by the immunohistochemical method in routine paraffin-embedded section. MVD was counted by endothelial cells which were highlighted by factor VIII. Their expression levels were analyzed in conjunction with the pathological feature. Results: MVD of control group, chemotherapy group and chemo-embolization group was 80.84 +- 24.24, 83.05 +- 20.29 and 85.20 +- 23.91, respectively. The positive express of VEGF and bFGF was 75%, 75%, 85% and 30%, 25%, 30%, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed a positive correlation between the express of VEGF and MVD. Conclusion: Embolization by lipiodol cannot thoroughly eliminate the angiogenesis of the tumor. Formation of neo-vascularity and express of VEGF may play an important role in re-establishment of blood supply of the survival tumor tissues after chemo-embolization

  20. The Walker 256 Breast Cancer Cell- Induced Bone Pain Model in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyank Ashok Shenoy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The majority of patients with terminal breast cancer show signs of bone metastasis, the most common cause of pain in cancer. Clinically available drug treatment options for the relief of cancer-associated bone pain are limited due to either inadequate pain relief and/or dose-limiting side-effects. One of the major hurdles in understanding the mechanism by which breast cancer causes pain after metastasis to the bones is the lack of suitable preclinical models. Until the late twentieth century, all animal models of cancer induced bone pain involved systemic injection of cancer cells into animals, which caused severe deterioration of animal health due to widespread metastasis. In this mini-review we have discussed details of a recently developed and highly efficient preclinical model of breast cancer induced bone pain: Walker 256 cancer cell- induced bone pain in rats. The model involves direct localized injection of cancer cells into a single tibia in rats, which avoids widespread metastasis of cancer cells and hence animals maintain good health throughout the experimental period. This model closely mimics the human pathophysiology of breast cancer induced bone pain and has great potential to aid in the process of drug discovery for treating this intractable pain condition.

  1. Effect of methotrexate on perfusion and nitrogen-13 glutamate uptake in the Walker-256 carcinosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tissue uptake of [13N]glutamate (glu) was related to that of [11C]butanol (but), a highly diffusible perfusion tracer. In 25 rats bearing Walker-256 carcinomas tumor-to-muscle glu uptake averaged 6.34 +/- 2.84 (s.d.) prior to interventions and the respective uptake of but was 6.79 +/- 3.08 (y = 0.03 + 0.94x). One hour after selective intraarterial administration of methotrexate (mtx), glu uptake fell by 47%, whereas blood flow remained within the pretreatment range (N = 9). Four hours after mtx, perfusion was reduced by approximately 40%, and 2 days later both perfusion and glu uptake reached extremely low levels. No significant difference in the effect of 10 and 50 mg/kg mtx was observed. Regional tissue mtx uptake estimations using 77Br-labeled bromomethotrexate did not reveal any significant uptake in muscle. The relationship between tumor-to-muscle uptake of glu and but (13N/11C-index) was 0.94 +/- 0.015 (s.e.m., N = 25) before intervention. After methotrexate (1 hr, 4 hr, and 2 days) this index was 0.58 +/- 0.06 (N = 9), and 0.85 +/- 0.04 (N = 11) and 1.03 +/- 0.05 (N = 5), respectively. These values demonstrate an early mtx-induced uncoupling of glu uptake with respect to perfusion

  2. A 256 channel portable MCA for field application [Paper No.:I3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-situ gamma-spectrometry is a very important tool to characterise the contamination resulting due to radioactive fall out. Even in reactor environment this technique is helpful in analysing contaminations and the leakages on the spot. A battery powered 256 channel portable pulse height analyser has been developed to meet this requirement. The analyser consists of a single card Wilkinson type 8 bit ADC cum linear amplifier interfaced to an 8085 based micro computer. The MCA uses 2x2 inch NaI(Tl) detector and provides minimal necessary front panel controls for field use. A built-in DC to DC converter generates EHT for detector system and all the necessary DC voltages (+5V, ± 12V) from a 6V (7AH) battery. The MCA is capable of storing around 60 spectrums sequentially which can be down-loaded into a PC for further processing through built in serial RS-232 port. The paper describes the hardware and software developed for the system, and its performance evaluations. (author). 3 figs

  3. Spatial mapping and statistical reproducibility of an array of 256 one-dimensional quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Taie, H.; Smith, L. W.; Lesage, A. A. J.; See, P.; Griffiths, J. P.; Beere, H. E.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Kelly, M. J.; Smith, C. G.

    2015-08-01

    We utilize a multiplexing architecture to measure the conductance properties of an array of 256 split gates. We investigate the reproducibility of the pinch off and one-dimensional definition voltage as a function of spatial location on two different cooldowns, and after illuminating the device. The reproducibility of both these properties on the two cooldowns is high, the result of the density of the two-dimensional electron gas returning to a similar state after thermal cycling. The spatial variation of the pinch-off voltage reduces after illumination; however, the variation of the one-dimensional definition voltage increases due to an anomalous feature in the center of the array. A technique which quantifies the homogeneity of split-gate properties across the array is developed which captures the experimentally observed trends. In addition, the one-dimensional definition voltage is used to probe the density of the wafer at each split gate in the array on a micron scale using a capacitive model.

  4. Design of a homogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor based on thorium with a source of californium 252; Diseno de un reactor nuclear subcritico homogeneo a base de Torio con una fuente de Californio 252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado H, C. E.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Sajo B, L., E-mail: ce_delgado89@hotmail.com [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Apdo. 89000, 1080A Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: One of the energy alternatives to fossil fuels which do not produce greenhouse gases is the nuclear energy. One of the drawbacks of this alternative is the generation of radioactive wastes of long half-life and its relation to the generation of nuclear materials to produce weapons of mass destruction. An option to these drawbacks of nuclear energy is to use Thorium as part of the nuclear fuel which it becomes in U{sup 233} when capturing neutrons, that is a fissile material. In this paper Monte Carlo methods were used to design a homogeneous subcritical reactor based on thorium. As neutron reflector graphite was used. The reactor core is homogeneous and is formed of 70% light water as moderator, 12% of enriched uranium UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} and 18% of thorium Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} as fuel. To start the nuclear fission chain reaction an isotopic source of californium 252 was used with an intensity of 4.6 x 10{sup 7} s{sup -1}. In the design the value of the effective multiplication factor, whose value turned out k{sub eff} <1 was calculated. Also, the neutron spectra at different distances from the source and the total fluence were calculated, as well as the values of the ambient dose equivalent in the periphery of the reactor. (Author)

  5. Health-related quality of life of 256 recipients after liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-Xian Chen; Lu-Nan Yan; Wen-Tao Wang

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate health-related quality of life (HRQoL)and psychological outcomes in 256 adults who had undergone liver transplantation (LT).METHODS:A stratified random sampling method was used in this follow-up multicenter study to select a representative sample of recipients undergoing either living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) or deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT).HRQoL was measured by using the Chinese version of Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36 (SF-36),and psychological outcomes by using the beck anxiety inventory (BAI)and the self-rating depression scale (SDS).Clinical and demographic data were collected from the records of the Chinese Liver Transplant Registry and via questionnaires.RESULTS:A total of 256 patients were sampled,including 66 (25.8%) receiving LDLT and 190 (74.2%)undergoing DDLT; 15 (5.9%) recipients had anxiety and four (1.6%) developed severe depression after the operation.Compared with LDLT recipients,DDLT patients had higher scores in general health (60.33± 16.97 vs 66.86 ± 18.42,P =0.012),role-physical (63.64 ± 42.55 vs 74.47 ± 36.46,P =0.048),roleemotional (61.11 ± 44.37 vs 78.95 ± 34.31,P =0.001),social functioning (78.60 ± 22.76 vs 88.16 ± 21.85,P =0.003),vitality (70.30 ± 15.76 vs 75.95 ± 16.40,P =0.016),mental health (65.88 ± 12.94 vs 71.85 ±15.45,P =0.005),physical component summary scale (PCS,60.07 ± 7.36 vs 62.58 ± 6.88,P =0.013) and mental component summary scale (MCS,52.65 ± 7.66vs 55.95 ± 10.14,P =0.016).Recipients > 45 years old at the time of transplant scored higher in vitality (77.33 ± 15.64 vs 72.52 ± 16.66,P =0.020),mental health (73.64 ± 15.06 vs 68.00 ± 14.65,P =0.003)and MCS (56.61 ± 10.00 vs 54.05 ± 9.30,P =0.037)than those aged ≤ 45 years.MCS was poorer in recipients with than in those without complications (52.92± 12.21 vs 56.06 ± 8.16,P =0.017).Regarding MCS (55.10 ± 9.66 vs 50.0 ± 10.0,P < 0.05) and PCS (61.93± 7.08 vs 50.0 ± 10.0,P < 0.05),recipients

  6. A 256 channel 8-Bit current digitizer ASIC for the Belle-II PXD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international DEPFET collaboration is developing a silicon pixel vertex detector (PXD), based on monolithic arrays of DEPFET transistors, for the future physics experiment Belle-II at the SuperKEKB particle accelerator in Japan. The matrix elements are read out in a 'rolling shutter mode', i.e. rows are selected consecutively and all columns are read out in each cycle of < 100 ns. One of the major parts in the front-end electronics chain is the DEPFET Current Digitizer ASIC (DCDB). It is now in a close-to-final state. The chip provides 256 channels of analog-to-digital converters with a resolution of six to eight bits. Each converter features an individual dynamic offset correction circuit as well as programmable gain and bandwidth. Several operation modes using single sampling or double correlated sampling are possible. A large synthesized digital block is used for decoding and derandomization of the conversion results. The data is put out on eight 8-bit links, operating at a speed of 400 MHz. Additionally, a JTAG compatible interface is implemented for configuration and debugging purpose. Significant effort was made to reduce the power consumption of the DCDB, since both, voltage drop on the internal power buses and heat sources in the Belle-II experiment are a concern. The chip was realized on a 3.2mm x 5mm die using the UMC 180nm CMOS technology in a multi-project wafer run, provided by EuroPractice. An extra redistribution metal layer with bump bond pads is used, allowing for flipping the chip onto the final all-silicon DEPFET sensor module. Several tests have been performed in order to prove the chip's operation and its quality in terms of noise. The results are presented.

  7. Contribution of radiosensitivity study for Walker 256 tumor in rats. Association of early immunization with action of ionized radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The suspension of tumoral cells from Walker 256 were irradiated with doses of 2.500, 4.500, 5.000, 5.500 and 7.500 rad for determining the attenuation dose. The suspension of inactives tumoral cells were injected in rats for verifying the immunized effects in relation of active Walker tumor. After be certified the growth of tumor, the rats were irradiated with cobalt 60 and was verified the decrease of tumor. (author)

  8. Structure properties of ${}^{226}$Th and ${}^{256,258,260}$Fm fission fragments: mean field analysis with the Gogny force

    OpenAIRE

    Dubray, N.; Goutte, H.; Delaroche, J.-P.

    2007-01-01

    The constrained Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov method is used with the Gogny interaction D1S to calculate potential energy surfaces of fissioning nuclei ${}^{226}$Th and ${}^{256,258,260}$Fm up to very large deformations. The constraints employed are the mass quadrupole and octupole moments. In this subspace of collective coordinates, many scission configurations are identified ranging from symmetric to highly asymmetric fragmentations. Corresponding fragment properties at scission are derived yield...

  9. Fission of 255,256Es, 255-257Fm, and 258Md at moderate excitation energies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Britt, H.C.; Hoffman, D.C.; Plicht, J. van der; Wilhelmy, J.; Cheifetz, E.; Dupzyk, R.J.; Lougheed, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The fission of 255,256Es, 255-257Fm, and 258Md has been studied in the excitation energy range from threshold to 25 MeV. A target of 254Es was used in the direct reaction studies; (d,pf), (t,pf), (3He,df), (3He,pf), and in the compound induced fission reactions formed with p, d, t, and α particle pr

  10. 儿童胃肠道轮状病毒感染256例调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静

    2011-01-01

    <正>轮状病毒(rotavirus RV)是小儿常见的胃肠疾病之一,尤其在秋冬季短期内发生大量流行,直接影响小儿健康。现将库尔勒垦区2009年至2010年来我院诊治的256例小儿轮状病毒肠炎的临床流行病

  11. 256层螺旋CT在肺动脉栓塞诊断及溶栓治疗效果评价%Evaluation of Diagnosis and Thrombolysis Effect on Pulmonary Embolism by 256 Slice Spiral Computed Tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周涛; 潘爱珍

    2015-01-01

    Objective To Evaluation of diagnosis and thrombolysis effect on pulmonary embolism by 256 slice spiral computed Tomography.Methods 33 patients were analyzed with pulmonary embolism 256 slice spiral CT pulmonary angiography, including 18 cases who were reviewed after thrombolytic therapy.Results 215 embolism pulmonary artery were detected in the group of 33 patients.They located in respectively the pulmonary artery: left/right pulmonary artery: lobe pulmonary artery: period of pulmonary artery branch: the period of the pulmonary artery = 3:35:40:114-23. Meanwhile, there were 25 cases of bilateral pulmonary embolism, 8 cases of unilateral pulmonary embolism, and only 18 cases turned up the presence of pulmonary intravascular filling defect to dissolution or disappear in some extent after thrombolytic therapy.Conclusion MSCTA can be a kind of fast safe and effective inspection method to clearly show the shape, size and range which are formed by endovascular thrombosis embolism, and has important clinical value to diagnose of PE guiding treatment and judging curative effect.%目的:探讨256层螺旋CT(iCT)在肺动脉栓塞的诊断和溶栓效果评价的应用价值。方法分析33例肺动脉栓塞患者的256层螺旋CT肺动脉造影资料,其中18例溶栓治疗后复查。结果本组33例患者,共发现栓塞肺动脉215支,分别为肺动脉干:左/右肺动脉:叶肺动脉:段肺动脉支:亚段肺动脉=3:35:40:114:23支。25例双侧肺动脉栓塞,8例仅单侧肺动脉栓塞;18溶栓治疗后复查肺动脉血管内充盈缺损均有不同程度缩小或消失。结论256层螺旋CT肺动脉造影能清晰显示栓塞血管内血栓的形态、大小、范围,是一种快速安全有效的检查方法,在PE的诊断、指导治疗及判断疗效方面具有重要临床应用价值。

  12. Caliste 256: A CdTe imaging spectrometer for space science with a 580 {mu}m pixel pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limousin, O., E-mail: olimousin@cea.fr [CEA/Saclay, DSM/Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lugiez, F.; Gevin, O. [CEA/Saclay, DSM/Irfu/Service d' Electronique Detecteurs et Informatique, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Meuris, A.; Blondel, C. [CEA/Saclay, DSM/Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Delagnes, E. [CEA/Saclay, DSM/Irfu/Service d' Electronique Detecteurs et Informatique, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Donati, M.; Le Mer, I.; Martignac, J.; Pinsard, F. [CEA/Saclay, DSM/Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vassal, M.C.; Bocage, R.; Soufflet, F. [3D Plus, 641 rue Helene Boucher, F-78532 Buc (France)

    2011-08-11

    Caliste project aims at hybridizing 1 cm{sup 2} CdTe or CdZnTe pixel detectors with low-noise full custom front-end electronics, in a single component standing in a 1x1x2 cm{sup 3} volume. Caliste device is 4-side buttable and can be used as elementary detection unit of a large mosaic to form a hard X-ray focal plane of any size and shape. Caliste is especially designed to match astronomical space mission requirements and its design takes into account environmental constraints, radiation environment in particular. This new imaging spectrometer for hard X-rays detection offers high spectral and spatial resolution together with accurate time-tagging capability and low dead time. Caliste concept relies on a 3D hybridization technology that consists in stacking full custom ASICs perpendicular to the detection surface into a single component. This technique simultaneously permits to realize a buttable imager and to enhance performance and uniformity response. Our last prototype is called Caliste 256 and integrates 16x16 pixels array, 580 {mu}m pitch and 256 corresponding independent spectroscopy channels. This paper presents Caliste 256 design and properties. We emphasize spectral performance and demonstrate spectral resolution capabilities better than 1 keV FWHM at 60 keV.

  13. Caliste 256: A CdTe imaging spectrometer for space science with a 580 μm pixel pitch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caliste project aims at hybridizing 1 cm2 CdTe or CdZnTe pixel detectors with low-noise full custom front-end electronics, in a single component standing in a 1x1x2 cm3 volume. Caliste device is 4-side buttable and can be used as elementary detection unit of a large mosaic to form a hard X-ray focal plane of any size and shape. Caliste is especially designed to match astronomical space mission requirements and its design takes into account environmental constraints, radiation environment in particular. This new imaging spectrometer for hard X-rays detection offers high spectral and spatial resolution together with accurate time-tagging capability and low dead time. Caliste concept relies on a 3D hybridization technology that consists in stacking full custom ASICs perpendicular to the detection surface into a single component. This technique simultaneously permits to realize a buttable imager and to enhance performance and uniformity response. Our last prototype is called Caliste 256 and integrates 16x16 pixels array, 580 μm pitch and 256 corresponding independent spectroscopy channels. This paper presents Caliste 256 design and properties. We emphasize spectral performance and demonstrate spectral resolution capabilities better than 1 keV FWHM at 60 keV.

  14. 基于SHA256散列算法的比特币挖矿优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雷; 王文国

    2015-01-01

    自2009年成立以来,比特币已经拥有了大量的用户,这种虚拟货币的受欢迎程度与日俱增.多年来,军备竞赛般的采矿硬件导致需要更多的采矿股,因此散列率仍然活跃在比特币采矿舞台上,而散列率对所使用的挖掘装置的能耗直接关系到Bitcoin开采的利润率的高低.比特币挖掘是从根本上计算关于双输入某一流的SHA256多次散列,大量的研究也都在对SHA256散列标准实现硬件的优化.但并没有尝试优化特定比特币的SHA256算法.本文介绍Bitcoin的领域,Bitcoin的挖掘以及一点改进的建议,重点是对比特币挖掘方法从根本上进行优化.

  15. Genome Anatomy of Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis UM 256, a Multidrug Resistant Strain Isolated from Skin Scraping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Yue Fen; Yew, Su Mei; Chan, Chai Ling; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2016-01-01

    Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis is a rare human pathogen that causes infection in human skin and nail. P. unguis-hominis has received little attention, and thus, the basic biology and pathogenicity of this fungus is not fully understood. In this study, we performed in-depth analysis of the P. unguis-hominis UM 256 genome that was isolated from the skin scraping of a dermatitis patient. The isolate was identified to species level using a comprehensive multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the genus Pyrenochaeta. The assembled UM 256 genome has a size of 35.5 Mb and encodes 12,545 putative genes, and 0.34% of the assembled genome is predicted transposable elements. Its genomic features propose that the fungus is a heterothallic fungus that encodes a wide array of plant cell wall degrading enzymes, peptidases, and secondary metabolite biosynthetic enzymes. Antifungal drug resistance genes including MDR, CDR, and ERG11/CYP51 were identified in P. unguis-hominis UM 256, which may confer resistance to this fungus. The genome analysis of P. unguis-hominis provides an insight into molecular and genetic basis of the fungal lifestyles, understanding the unrevealed biology of antifungal resistance in this fungus. PMID:27626635

  16. A customizable commercial miniaturized 320×256 indium gallium arsenide shortwave infrared camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Che; O'Grady, Matthew; Groppe, Joseph V.; Ettenberg, Martin H.; Brubaker, Robert M.

    2004-10-01

    The design and performance of a commercial short-wave-infrared (SWIR) InGaAs microcamera engine is presented. The 0.9-to-1.7 micron SWIR imaging system consists of a room-temperature-TEC-stabilized, 320x256 (25 μm pitch) InGaAs focal plane array (FPA) and a high-performance, highly customizable image-processing set of electronics. The detectivity, D*, of the system is greater than 1013 cm-√Hz/W at 1.55 μm, and this sensitivity may be adjusted in real-time over 100 dB. It features snapshot-mode integration with a minimum exposure time of 130 μs. The digital video processor provides real time pixel-to-pixel, 2-point dark-current subtraction and non-uniformity compensation along with defective-pixel substitution. Other features include automatic gain control (AGC), gamma correction, 7 preset configurations, adjustable exposure time, external triggering, and windowing. The windowing feature is highly flexible; the region of interest (ROI) may be placed anywhere on the imager and can be varied at will. Windowing allows for high-speed readout enabling such applications as target acquisition and tracking; for example, a 32x32 ROI window may be read out at over 3500 frames per second (fps). Output video is provided as EIA170-compatible analog, or as 12-bit CameraLink-compatible digital. All the above features are accomplished in a small volume < 28 cm3, weight < 70 g, and with low power consumption < 1.3 W at room temperature using this new microcamera engine. Video processing is based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) platform with a soft-embedded processor that allows for ease of integration/addition of customer-specific algorithms, processes, or design requirements. The camera was developed with the high-performance, space-restricted, power-conscious application in mind, such as robotic or UAV deployment.

  17. Simultaneous transmission of 256-QAM WIMAX at 5.7GHz and optically generated impulse radio UWB over fiber for indoor wireless multi-services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Yin, Xiaoli; Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood;

    2010-01-01

    Fiber transmission of simultaneous optically generated FCC compliant 625Mbps impulse radio UWB and 80Mbps 256-QAM IEEE 802.16 WIMAX signals is experimentally demonstrated by using a single directly modulated light source.......Fiber transmission of simultaneous optically generated FCC compliant 625Mbps impulse radio UWB and 80Mbps 256-QAM IEEE 802.16 WIMAX signals is experimentally demonstrated by using a single directly modulated light source....

  18. Respiratory-gated segment reconstruction for radiation treatment planning using 256-slice CT-scanner during free breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Shinichiro; Endo, Masahiro; Kohno, Ryosuke; Minohara, Shinichi; Kohno, Kazutoshi; Asakura, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Hideaki; Murase, Kenya

    2005-04-01

    The conventional respiratory-gated CT scan technique includes anatomic motion induced artifacts due to the low temporal resolution. They are a significant source of error in radiotherapy treatment planning for the thorax and upper abdomen. Temporal resolution and image quality are important factors to minimize planning target volume margin due to the respiratory motion. To achieve high temporal resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio, we developed a respiratory gated segment reconstruction algorithm and adapted it to Feldkamp-Davis-Kress algorithm (FDK) with a 256-detector row CT. The 256-detector row CT could scan approximately 100 mm in the cranio-caudal direction with 0.5 mm slice thickness in one rotation. Data acquisition for the RS-FDK relies on the assistance of the respiratory sensing system by a cine scan mode (table remains stationary). We evaluated RS-FDK in phantom study with the 256-detector row CT and compared it with full scan (FS-FDK) and HS-FDK results with regard to volume accuracy and image noise, and finally adapted the RS-FDK to an animal study. The RS-FDK gave a more accurate volume than the others and it had the same signal-to-noise ratio as the FS-FDK. In the animal study, the RS-FDK visualized the clearest edges of the liver and pulmonary vessels of all the algorithms. In conclusion, the RS-FDK algorithm has a capability of high temporal resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore it will be useful when combined with new radiotherapy techniques including image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) and 4D radiation therapy.

  19. 基于 MC9 S12 XS256的物料含量监测系统设计%Design on Material Percentage Observation System based on MC9S12XS256

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴业钦; 张阳

    2015-01-01

    Freescale MC9S12XS256 microcontroller as the main chip is used in this paper, and the observation system of rotating machinery material content is designed.The sound signal collected from the industrial scene is amplified and fil-tered, after the analog to digital converter, the signal is converted into a single chip microcomputer for frequency analysis. In software design , fast Fourier transform and the least squares fitting algorithm are efficiently adopted.%本文采用飞思卡尔 MC9S12XS256单片机为主控芯片,设计旋转机械设备物料含量监测系统,对工业现场采集到的声音信号进行放大和滤波,模数转换后的信号送入单片机进行频率分析,软件设计中采用了快速傅里叶变换和最小二乘拟合算法。

  20. 320 × 256 InGaAs Short Wave Infrared Focal Plane Arrays Detector%320 × 256 InGaAs短波红外焦平面阵列探测器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高新江; 张秀川; 唐遵烈; 陈扬; 蒋利群; 陈红兵

    2009-01-01

    研制了320×256 InGaAs焦平面阵列(FPA)探测器,它由InGaAs光电二极管阵列(PDA)与Si CMOS集成读出电路(ROIC)通过In凸点倒焊技术混合集成.背照射工作方式下其响应光谱范围为0.9~1.7 μm.为实现InGaAs PDA与所设计的可调积分电容跨阻抗反馈放大器接口电路良好匹配,分析讨论了InGaAs光电二极管响应度、暗电流、结电容等光电特性对表征InGaAs FPA的主要性能指标的影响,优化了InGaAs光电二极管单元结构设计.采用优化结果研制的320×256 InGaAs FPA,在室温下的峰值探测率达到6×1012cm·Hz1/2·W-1,动态范围达到68 dB.

  1. 基于MC9S12DG256的汽车ABS液压控制系统设计%Design of vehicle ABS hydraulic control system based on Mcgs12DG256

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张搏; 安悦

    2012-01-01

    Through the deep analysis of the structure principle and the working characteristics of vehicle ABS system, design a vehicle ABS hydraulic control system based on the microcontroller Freescale company production MC9S12DG256, based on the adjustment of brake pressure control, makes the braking process more smoothly, to improve ABS system hydraulic brake precision and reliability, has very extensive application prospect.%通过对汽车ABS系统的结构原理及工作特点的深入分析,设计了基于Freescale公司生产的MC9S12DG256微处理器的汽车ABS液压控制系统,通过对制动压力的调节控制,使得制动过程更加的平稳,提高了ABS系统液压制动精度和可靠性,具有非常广泛的应用前景。

  2. The Classification of Musa L.Based on mtDNA ccb256 Sequence%芭蕉属植物基于线粒体ccb256序列的分类研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓长娟; 王静毅; 陈友; 冯慧敏; 徐小雄; 武耀廷

    2011-01-01

    The phylogeny and relationship among 42 accessions were investigated by analyzing DNA sequence obtained from mtDNA cytochrome c biogenesis orf256 (ccb256). The phylogenetic tree was constructed following maximum parsimony (MP) method using MEGA4. The results indicated that Australimusa and Callimusa section grouped together; AA and other species from Eumusa clustered with Rhodochlamys section. BB species from Eumusa section were placed a outgroup which revealed its primitive position in evolution of Musa L. In addition, Ice cream (ABB) and M. Balbisiana formed one group which showed that M. Balbisiana may be male parent providing B genotype for Ice cream. Except for Improved lady finger (AAB), other cultivated accessions and M. Acuminata formed a group. It was inferred that M. Acuminata provided A genotype for these accessions as a paternal plant. M. Acumlnata.ssp.banksii, which was considered to be the original parent of cultivars, grouped with almost all the cultivated accessions. It had a close relationship with cultivars. The results also showed that ccb256 sequence had a moderate evolutional rate, which should assist in gaining a better understanding of the evolution of wild and cultivated bananas and of the relationships between diploid and triploid bananas.%利用PCR和PCR产物直接序列分析技术,获得了芭蕉属42份材料ccb256线粒体DNA片段的序列.采用MEGA4软件构建了芭蕉属植物的MP树.结果表明,Australimusa组和Callimusa组聚到一起,真蕉组的AA、其它种和观赏蕉组聚到一起,无法明显区分.真蕉组的BB单独聚到一起,且位于MP的基部,揭示了其在芭蕉属植物进化中占据着最原始的地位.另外,栽培蕉Ice cream(ABB)与M.balbisiana聚到一起,可能是由M.balbisiana为父本提供B型供体杂交而来,而除Improved lady finger(AAB)外,其它的栽培蕉均与M.acuminata的亚(变)种聚到一起,推测由M.acuminata为父本提供A型供体杂交而来.被认为是所有栽培蕉

  3. Analysis of endoscopic and pathological characteristics of 256 cases of colon aberrant crypt foci%256例大肠异常隐窝灶的内镜与病理特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩明; 郭文; 文剑波; 文萍; 龚敏; 李兴; 赖丽霞; 付云辉; 刘立玺

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解大肠异常隐窝灶的内镜和病理特点,探讨ACF与结直肠肿瘤的关系.方法 随机选择2011年8月-2012年3月就诊于江西省萍乡市人民医院准备接受结肠镜检查的患者370例,在距肛门25~30cm以下给予0.4%靛胭脂染色后观察、记录发现远端大肠ACF病例数及ACF数目,并且行病理检查.结果 370例患者共发现256例ACF病例(69.19%).正常黏膜组、增生性息肉组、腺瘤组、结肠癌组ACF患病率分别为58.21%、78.18%、82.05%、88.89%.256例ACF患者Ⅰ级106例(41.41%)、Ⅱ级82例(32.03%)、Ⅲ级68例(26.56%).病理有异型增生病例数39例(10.54%),均为轻度异型增生;病理无异型增生217例(58.65%).有ACF组增生性息肉的发生率为16.8%,腺瘤的发生率25.0%,结直肠癌的发生率12.5%;而无ACF组分别为10.53%、12.58%、3.51%.结论 异常隐窝灶是常见结肠镜下病变,异型增生ACF病变并不少见.ACF可能是结肠腺瘤和大肠癌的独立预测因素.%Objective To analyze endoscopic and pathological characteristics of colon aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and to investigate their relationship with carcinoma.Methods 370 outpatients undergoing routine colonoscopy were selected from Jiangxi Pingxiang People' s Hospital from Aug.2011 to Mar.2012.0.4% indigocarmine was applied to stain colon mucosa 25 ~30 cm away from anus to search colon ACF,biopsy was performed to count ACF number.Resuits ACF were found in 256 cases (69.19%).In groups of normal colon mucosa,hyperplastic polyp,adenoid tumor,carcinoma,the morbidity rates of ACF were 58.21%,78.18%,82.05%,88.89% respectively.In 256 cases of ACF,there were 106 cases (41.41%) in grade Ⅰ,82 cases (32.03%) in grade Ⅱ,68 cases (26.56%) in grade Ⅲ.For pathological characteristics,39 cases (10.54%) with dysplasia were in light degree,217 cases (58.65%) with no dysplasia.In 256 cases of ACF,16.8% was hyperplastic polyp,25.0% was

  4. The extremely broad odorant response profile of mouse olfactory sensory neurons expressing the odorant receptor MOR256-17 includes trace amine-associated receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazir, Bassim; Khan, Mona; Mombaerts, Peter; Grosmaitre, Xavier

    2016-03-01

    The mouse olfactory system employs ~1100 G-protein-coupled odorant receptors (ORs). Each mature olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) is thought to express just one OR gene, and the expressed OR determines the odorant response properties of the OSN. The broadest odorant response profile thus far demonstrated in native mouse OSNs is for OSNs that express the OR gene SR1 (also known as Olfr124 and MOR256-3). Here we showed that the odorant responsiveness of native mouse OSNs expressing the OR gene MOR256-17 (also known as Olfr15 and OR3) is even broader than that of OSNs expressing SR1. We investigated the electrophysiological properties of green fluorescent protein (GFP)+ OSNs in a MOR256-17-IRES-tauGFP gene-targeted mouse strain, in parallel with GFP+ OSNs in the SR1-IRES-tauGFP gene-targeted mouse strain that we previously reported. Of 35 single chemical compounds belonging to distinct structural classes, MOR256-17+ OSNs responded to 31 chemicals, compared with 10 for SR1+ OSNs. The 10 compounds that activated SR1+ OSNs also activated MOR256-17+ OSNs. Interestingly, MOR256-17+ OSNs were activated by three amines (cyclohexylamine, isopenthylamine, and phenylethylamine) that are typically viewed as ligands for chemosensory neurons in the main olfactory epithelium that express trace amine-associated receptor genes, a family of 15 genes encoding G-protein-coupled receptors unrelated in sequence to ORs. We did not observe differences in membrane properties, indicating that the differences in odorant response profiles between the two OSN populations were due to the expressed OR. MOR256-17+ OSNs appear to be at one extreme of odorant responsiveness among populations of OSNs expressing distinct OR genes in the mouse. PMID:26666691

  5. Brain perfusion CT for acute stroke using a 256-slice CT: improvement of diagnostic information by large volume coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorn, F. [Technical University, Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Institut fuer Radiologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Muenzel, D.; Meier, R.; Rummeny, E.J.; Huber, A. [Technical University, Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Poppert, H. [Technical University, Department of Neurology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    To compare a 256-slice CT with a simulated standard CT for brain CT perfusion (CTP). CTP was obtained in 51 patients using a 256-slice CT (128 detector rows, flying z-focus, 8-cm detector width, 80 kV, 120mAs, 20 measurements, 1 CT image/2.5 s). Signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) were compared in grey and white matter. Perfusion maps were evaluated for cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) in hypoperfused areas and corresponding contralateral regions. Two reconstructed 10-mm slices for simulation of a standard CT (SDCT) were compared with the complete data sets (large-volume CT, LVCT). Adequate image quality was achieved in 50/51 cases. SNR were significantly different in grey and white matter. A perfusion deficit was present in 27 data sets. Differences between the hypoperfusions and the control regions were significant for MTT and CBF, but not for CBV. Three lesions were missed by SDCT but detected by LVCT; 24 lesions were covered incompletely by SDCT, and 6 by LVCT. 21 lesions were detected completely by LVCT, but none by SDCT. CTP imaging of the brain using an increased detector width can detect additional ischaemic lesions and cover most ischaemic lesions completely. (orig.)

  6. Al(x)Ga(1-x)N-based deep-ultraviolet 320×256 focal plane array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicek, Erdem; Vashaei, Zahra; Huang, Edward Kwei-wei; McClintock, Ryan; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2012-03-01

    We report the synthesis, fabrication, and testing of a 320×256 focal plane array (FPA) of back-illuminated, solar-blind, p-i-n, Al(x)Ga(1-x)N-based detectors, fully realized within our research laboratory. We implemented a pulse atomic layer deposition technique for the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth of thick, high-quality, crack-free, high Al composition Al(x)Ga(1-x)N layers. The FPA is hybridized to a matching ISC 9809 readout integrated circuit and operated in a SE-IR camera system. Solar-blind operation is observed throughout the array with peak detection occurring at wavelengths of 256 nm and lower, and falling off three orders of magnitude by ~285 nm. By developing an opaque masking technology, the visible response of the ROIC is significantly reduced; thus the need for external filtering to achieve solar- and visible-blind operation is eliminated. This allows the FPA to achieve high external quantum efficiency (EQE); at 254 nm, average pixels showed unbiased peak responsivity of 75 mA/W, which corresponds to an EQE of ~37%. Finally, the uniformity of the FPA and imaging properties are investigated. PMID:22378430

  7. Evaluation of radiation dose of triple rule-out coronary angiography protocols with different scan length using 256-slice CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Chia-Jung; Lee, Jason J.S. [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, 155 Li-Nong St., Sec. 2, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Chen, Liang-Kuang [Department of Radiology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); College of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Mok, Greta S.P. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau (Macau) and Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong); Hsu, Shih-Ming, E-mail: smhsu@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, China Medical University No. 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Wu, Tung-Hsin, E-mail: tung@ym.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, 155 Li-Nong St., Sec. 2, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China)

    2011-10-01

    Triple rule-out coronary CT angiography (TRO-CTA) is a new approach for providing noninvasive visualization of coronary arteries with simultaneous evaluation of pulmonary arteries, thoracic aorta and other intrathoracic structures. The increasing use of TRO-CTA examination with longer scan length is associated with the concerns about radiation dose and their corresponding cancer risk. The purpose of this study is to evaluate organ dose and effective dose for the TRO-CTA examination with 2 scan lengths: TRO{sub std} and TRO{sub ext}, using 256-slice CT. TRO-CTA examinations were performed on a 256-slice CT scanner without ECG-based tube current modulation. Absorbed organ doses were measured using an anthropomorphic phantom and thermal-luminance dosimeters (TLDs). Effective dose was determined by taking a sum of the measured absorbed organ doses multiplied with the tissue weighting factor based on ICRP-103, and compared to that calculated using the dose-length product (DLP) method. We obtained high organ doses in the thyroid, esophagus, breast, heart and lung in both TRO-CTA protocols. Effective doses of the TRO{sub std} and TRO{sub ext} protocols with the phantom method were 26.37 and 42.49 mSv, while those with the DLP method were 19.68 and 38.96 mSv, respectively. Our quantitative dose information establishes a relationship between radiation dose and scanning length, and can provide a practical guidance to best clinical practice.

  8. 摩托罗拉16位单片机MC9S12DP256在汽车电子中的应用%The Application of Motorola 16 bit MCU MC9S12P256 in Auto Electonics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚宁; 汪至中

    2003-01-01

    介绍了摩托罗拉16位单片机MC9S12DP256的结构、特点及其区别于其它单片机的优势.通过MC9S12DP256在汽车电子门控汽车电子系统的应用实例,简单介绍了MC9S12DP256单片机在汽车电子领域的应用方法.

  9. Application of indirect 256-slice computed tomography venography (MSCTV) in diagnosing lower extremity deep vein diseases%256层螺旋CT间接法静脉造影在下肢静脉疾病中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏飞; 龚金山

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the application value of indirect 256‐slice computed tomography venography (MSCTV) in diagnosing lower extremity deep vein diseases .Methods 30 patients highly suspected deep vein diseases un‐derwent indirect CTV .The original data were put into EBWworkstation and reconstructed with maximum intensity projec‐tion (MIP) ,multiplanar reformation (MPR) ,volume representation (VR) ,and the CT diagnoses were compared with DSA venography .Results Indirect CTV shows reconstruction images clearly in all patients .In the 30 cases ,18 cases dis‐play different parts and different degrees of thrombosis ,20 cases display varicosity of lower extremity ,4 cases display ste‐nosis or occluded of the lower extremity ,1 case displays arteriosclerosis of the lower extremity ,5 cases display collateral circulation .The CTV results conform DSA venography .Conclusion Indirect CTV of lower extremity deep vein diseases has an important value ,which is non‐invasive and highly corresponded to DSA venography .%目的:探讨256层螺旋C T间接静脉造影在下肢静脉疾病的临床应用价值。方法对30例患者进行间接法静脉造影,采集数据导入EBW工作站进行后处理,均进行最大密度投影(M IP )、多平面重组(M PR )、容积再现(V R )重建,得出CT诊断,并与DSA下肢静脉造影(作为金标准)结果对比。结果所有患者靶血管显示良好,30例患者中深静脉血栓形成18例,下肢静脉曲张20例,下肢静脉狭窄4例,下肢静脉硬化1例,侧枝循环5例。MSCTV 诊断结果与DSA造影基本相符。结论256层螺旋CT间接法静脉造影是一种无创性,在下肢静脉疾病中具有重要的临床价值。

  10. 256层螺旋CT血管造影在蛛网膜下腔出血诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高灵; 陈伟明; 夏鹰

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨256层螺旋CT血管造影(256-CTA)在蛛网膜下腔出血(SAH)诊断中的应用价值.方法 对2010年12月到2011年12月54例SAH患者行MSCTA检查与数字减影血管造影(DSA)检查,分析256-CTA与DSA检查结果并相互比较.结果 54例患者中256-CTA检出动脉瘤42例,静脉窦血栓2例,动静脉畸形6例,阴性4例;DSA结果显示动脉瘤44例,动静脉畸形5例,静脉窦血栓2例,阴性3例,其中经临床与DSA证实1例CTA假阳性.结论 256-CTA是一种无创、快速、便捷的影像学检查方法,可清晰显示血管的空间立体结构与周边关系,对治疗方法的选择和难度的评估有利,且对SAH的病因诊断具有重大意义.

  11. Initial experience of whole-brain perfusion imaging performed with 256-slice CT%256层螺旋CT全脑灌注成像的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐健; 姜建威; 常军; 侯海燕; 姜旭栋; 堵红群

    2011-01-01

    目的:初步评价256层螺旋CT全脑灌注成像对正常脑血流动力学测定的可行性和价值.方法:从拟诊缺血性脑病行头颅平扫、头颅灌注成像及头颈部血管成像的114例患者中选取检查结果正常者35例,记录头颅灌注成像的辐射剂量,由两名高年资神经放射科医生分别对灌注图像进行分析,选择基底节层面和侧脑室体部层面的两侧大脑中动脉供血区的颞叶皮质进行测定,通过手动勾画选定层面的感兴趣区,CT灌注软件自动生成感兴趣区的脑血流量(CBF)、脑血容量(CBV)、平均通过时间(MTr)、达峰时间(TTP)值,测得的灌注参数均值进行单因素方差分析.结果:35例正常人的辐射剂量为(2.307±0.008)mSv.2名分析者所测得侧脑室体部层面和基底节层面的颞叶灰质的CBF、CBV、MTr、TTP值之间无明显统计学差异(P>0.05).2名分析者测得的两个层面的颞叶灰质的CBV、CBF值之间均有统计学差异(P<0.05).结论:256层螺旋CT全脑灌注成像辐射剂量低,脑灌注参数稳定,能够更真实的反应全脑血流动力学改变.%Objective;To preliminarily evaluate the feasibility and potential values of whole-brain perfusion imaging performed with 256-slice CT to assess normal adult cerebral hemodynamics. Methods; Thirty-five normal results were selected from one hundred and fourteen patients who underwent brain CT unenhanced scan.CT perfusion imaging and CT angiography in head and neck for suspicion of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The radiation dosage of CT perfusion imaging was recorded. Two senior neuroradiologic doctors independently analyzed the CT perfusion maps. Region of interest (ROI) was placed on bilateral temporal gray matter of two slices (the basal ganglia slice and body of lateral cerebral ventricle slice) supplied by middle cerebral artery,and the cerebral blood flow(CBF),cerebral blood volume(CBV),mean transiting time(MTT), and time to peak(TTP) values of ROI

  12. Designing of a diagnostic device based on MC9S12XET256%基于MC9S12XET256的电动汽车UDS诊断仪设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄强

    2015-01-01

    本文结合当前应用广泛的车载CAN总线UDS协议,在飞思卡尔的16位车载平台MC9S12XET256上,实现了一款应用于新能源电动汽车的UDS远程故障诊断仪。文章首先对系统使用的关键器件进行了简单说明,然后对接口电路进行了描述,接着介绍了UDS诊断相关内容,并且介绍了使用的具体场景,最后对设计进行了总结。本文网络版地址:http://www.eepw.com.cn/article/274755.htm

  13. Analysis of 256 patients with Nevus of Ota treated by MedliteC3 system%MedliteC3激光治疗太田痣256例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李任; 金岚; 陈朗

    2009-01-01

    目的:观察MedliteC3激光治疗太田痣的临床疗效,总结治疗体会.方法:对256例太田痣患者以1064nm波长激光进行治疗.结果:显效率在治疗3次以后达到91.41%,治愈率在治疗5次以后达到72.27%,7次以后达97.27%.结论:MedilteC3激光对于太田痣治疗具有良好的效果,值得推广应用.

  14. Diagnostic Accuracy of 256-Slice CT for Detecting Isolated Superior Mesenteric Artery Lesions%256层CT对孤立性肠系膜上动脉病变的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶自青; 王珏; 范占明; 刘英峰

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨孤立性肠系膜上动脉病变(isolated superior mesenteric artery lesions,ISMAL)的256层CT的影像特征。方法回顾性分析12例ISMAL患者的影像及临床资料,以平扫横轴位、增强扫描横轴位、容积再现(VR)、曲面重建(CPR)、最大密度投影(MIP)等重建方法对肠系膜上动脉病变进行分析观察,总结其影像学特征。结果 ISMAL患者平均年龄为(50.1±2.7)岁,男性9例占75%,女性3例占25%,男性发生率高于女性。肠系膜上动脉栓塞(superior mesenteric artery embolism, SMAE)共8例,其中男性5例,女性3例;肠系膜上动脉夹层(superior mesenteric artery dissection, SMAD)共4例,均为男性;管腔局部增宽、腔内充盈缺损是SMAE典型征象;腔内条形低密度影并双腔的显示是SMAD的典型表现。结论256层CT平扫及CTA图像后处理技术可清晰显示肠系膜上动脉病变,确定其病变性质,了解其累及范围,为临床诊治提供有力的影像学依据。%Objective To evaluate the image features of isolated superior mesenteric artery lesion (ISMAL) by using 256 slice CT.Methods The images and clinical data of 12 patients were analyzed retrospectively. Every case was analyzed by the methods of vascular reconstruction, such as plain scan transverse axial, enhanced scan transverse axis, the volume rendering (VR), curved planar reformation (CPR), maximum intensity projection (MIP), and summarize the imaging characterization.Results The average age of ISMAL patients was (50.1±2.7)years old, 9 male (75%), 3 female (25%), the prevalence's of SMAD are higher among men than women. 8 patients were superior mesenteric artery embolism (SAME) including5 male and 3 female. 4 patients were superior mesenteric artery dissection (SMAD), all of them were male. The appearance of SMAE were filling defect in arteries and luminal local broadening. The typical manifestation of SMAD was the double chamber display of the strip and

  15. 256层螺旋CT一站式重建诊断颈椎病的临床应用%Clinical Application of 256-Slice CT One-stop Reconstruction Examines in Cervical Spondylosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田树平; 王占宇; 王守海; 林井副; 张燕群; 郭勇

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical application value of 256 slices CT onestop reconstruction exanunes in cervical spondylosis. Materials and Methods 500 patients with clinical suspicious cervical spondylosis undertook CT volumetric scanning. Then imitation routine intervertebral discs examination and one-stop reconstruction including VR, MPR and CMPR were performed at EBW4.0 workstation. 15 signs related to cervical spondylosis including cervical curvature abnormalitie, cervical sequences abnormalities, cervical vertebral bone hyperplasia, abnormal facet joints, Luschka joint hyperplasia, bony spinal stenosis. abnormal transverse foramen, intervertebral space narrowing, lateral recess stenosis, vertebral Schmorl's nodules, intervertebral disc abnormalities, paraspinal soft tissue abnormalities, nerve root compression, anterior /posterior longitudinal ligament ossification, and nuchal ligament ossification were observed and compared in two modes, χ2 test was used to detect the differences between the two modes. Results There were no statistic differences of paraspinal soft tissue abnormalities (P =0.500), cervical sequences abnormalitie (P = 0.499), abnormal transverse foramen (P = 0.685), lateral recess stenosis (P = 0.447), and nuchal ligament ossification (P = 0.346) between the two modes (P > 0.05).There were statistic differences of other indexes (P < 0.05). Conclusion 256-slice CT one-stop reconstruction examines can accurately detect more signs of cervical spondylosis compared with CT conventional examinations.%目的 探讨256层螺旋CT一站式重建诊断颈椎病的应用价值.资料与方法 对500例临床拟诊为颈椎病的患者进行颈椎容积扫描后在EBW4.0工作站进行模拟常规椎问盘扫描重建及一站式重建[包括容积再现(VR)、多平面重组(MPR)及曲而重组(CMPR)],分别观察并比较两种扣描模式对颈椎曲度、颈椎序列、颈椎椎体骨质增生、椎小关节异常、钩椎关节增生、骨性椎

  16. ESD Design for Radiation-hardened SOI 256kB Read-only Memory%抗辐照SOI256kB只读存储器的ESD设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗静; 颜燕; 罗晟; 洪根深; 胡永强

    2011-01-01

    ESD设计技术已成为业界提升SOI电路可靠性的一个瓶颈技术。文章介绍了一款具有抗辐照能力、基于SOI/CMOS工艺技术研制的容量为256kB只读存储器电路的ESD设计方案。结合电路特点详细分析了其ESD设计的难点,阐述了从工艺、器件和电路三个方面如何密切配合,进行SOI电路ESD设计的分析思路和解决方法。电路基于0.8μm单多晶三层铝部分耗尽SOI/CMOS工艺技术研制成功,采用文中提出的SOI电路的ESD设计思路、方法以及网络,ESD试验结果显示该电路的人体模型ESD等级已经超过了4kV的水平。%ESD design technology has become a SOI bottleneck technology to enhance the reliability of the SOI circuit. The ESD protection design solution of radiation-hardened 256kB ROM based on SOI/CMOS process is proposed in this paper. Combined with circuit features, detailed analyses for the ESD design difficulties of this chip are proposed in the paper. The analysis and the solving method how to closely cooperate process, components and circuits three aspects for ESD design of SOI circuit are described. Based on 0.8 μ m 1P3M partially-depletion SOI/CMOS process, its HBM ESD level reaches 4kV by using the ESD design methods and networks.

  17. Alterations caused by physical training in pulmonary edema and loss of muscle mass in rats with Walker-256 tumor
    Alterações promovidas pelo treinamento físico no edema pulmonar e perda de massa muscular em ratos portadores de tumor Walker-256

    OpenAIRE

    Rubens Cecchini; Eleonora Elísia Abra Blanco; Samantha Bagolan de Abreu; Aida Mehanna; Igor Fernando Scanfelli da Silva; Rosiane Batista Mastelari; Marli Cardoso Martins Pinge

    2008-01-01

    Walker-256 tumor is a fast-growing tumor and has been studied under several metabolic aspects associated or not to cachexia. It was observed in our laboratory that animals with Walker-256 tumor, after spontaneous death (usually around the fifteenth day), showed significant pulmonary edema with fluid in the pleural cavity. Some studies have suggested that physical training improves the survival of animals with tumor and minimizes the effects of cachexia. The purpose of our work was to assess t...

  18. The preliminary study of 256-slice spiral CT for coronary artery angiography%256层螺旋CT冠状动脉成像技术初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马荣希; 王祺; 李晓辉; 孙伯章; 李林萌; 樊淑青; 朱晓伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility and clinical value of non-invasive 256-slice spiral CT angiography (CTA) in the large-scale population screening and patients reviewing. Methods 2 200 patients who were suspected or confirmed the diagnosis of coronary heart disease underwent 256-slice spiral CTA examination. The image quality was e-valuated and graded, also the possible influencing factors were analyzed. Results Of all 2 200 cases, there were 2 000 cases (group A) with suspected coronary atherosclerotic heart diseases and 200 reviewed cases (group B) after surgery of which 16 cases with coronary artery bypass surgery and 184 cases with stent implantation. For 2 200 cases, the overall success rate was 98. 0% , image quality as excellent, good, fair and poor were 41. 6% , 40. 3%, 16. 1 % and 2. 0% respectively. For group A, success rate was 98. 2% , image quality as excellent in 846 cases, accounting for 42. 3% , good in 797 cases, accounting for 39. 85% , fair in 321 cases, accounting for 16. 05% , and poor in 36 cases, accounting for 1. 8%. For group B, success rate was 96. 5% , excellent in 70 cases (35. 0%), good in 89 cases (44. 5%), fair in 34 cases (17. 0%) , and poor in 7 cases (3. 5%). The influences of breathing, heart rate, calcification and obesity on image quality were 53.8%, 20.9%, 13.4%, 11.9% respectively. Conclusion The quality of breath holding and emotional stability were the primary factors that affect the image quality, and well preparation before scanning is the key to success. The coronary CTA imaging technology with 256-slice CT could meet the clinical needs and can be used for screening, diagnosing and reassessing of coronary heart disease in the large-scale population.%目的 探讨利用256层螺旋CT冠状动脉成像进行冠心病大范围筛查及复查的可行性及临床价值.方法 使用飞利浦256层螺旋CT对临床拟诊冠心病及已确诊冠心病的复查患者共2 200例进行冠脉CTA扫描,对图像质量进行评

  19. Increase in IS256 transposition in invasive vancomycin heteroresistant Staphylococcus aureus isolate belonging to ST100 and its derived VISA mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gregorio, Sabrina; Fernandez, Silvina; Perazzi, Beatriz; Bello, Natalia; Famiglietti, Angela; Mollerach, Marta

    2016-09-01

    In Staphylococcus aureus, transposition of IS256 has been described to play an important role in biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance. This study describes the molecular characterization of two clinical heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) isolates recovered from the same patient (before and after antibiotic treatment) and two VISA derivatives obtained by serial passages in the presence of vancomycin. Our results showed that antibiotic treatment (in vivo and in vitro) could enhance IS256 transposition, being responsible for the eventual loss of agr function. As far as we know this is the first study that reports the increase of IS256 transposition in isogenic strains after antibiotic treatment in a clinical setting. PMID:27154328

  20. A voltage-tunable multispectral 320 × 256 InAs/GaAs quantum-dot infrared focal plane array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A voltage-tunable multispectral 320 × 256 infrared imaging focal plane array (FPA) is reported. It is based on InAs/GaAs quantum dots infrared phototdetctors (QDIP) with GaAs and In0.20Ga0.80As capping layers, corresponding to the extended middle-wave infrared (5–8 µm) and long-wave infrared (8–12 µm) detection bands, respectively. The FPA shows a noise-equivalent temperature difference of 172 mK at an operating temperature of 67 K. Voltage-tunable multispectral imaging was also achieved. Since each of the detection spectra of the QD FPA can be individually tuned by engineering its QD capping layer, this approach offers great flexibility in designing of a multispectral FPA

  1. 基于FPGA的256位CPU中定点算术逻辑器件的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱伟

    2016-01-01

    文章首次提出了一种由FPGA构成的256位定点算术逻辑ALU,此ALU器件运行速度快结构简单,而且占用硬件资源少,此ALU器件基于现场可编程门阵列来构成,使用VHDL语言模块化的设计实现,可以将器件设计为独立的IP核,能够嵌入到各种宽位CPU中完成高性能计算机内核的设计。

  2. Effect of Walker 256 tumor growth on intestinal absorption of leucine, methionine and glucose in newly weaned and mature rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.C. Gomes-Marcondes

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available In tumor-bearing rats, most of the serum amino acids are used for synthesis and oxidation processes by the neoplastic tissue. In the present study, the effect of Walker 256 carcinoma growth on the intestinal absorption of leucine, methionine and glucose was investigated in newly weaned and mature rats. Food intake and carcass weight were decreased in newly weaned (NT and mature (MT rats bearing Walker 256 tumor in comparison with control animals (NC and MC. The tumor/carcass weight ratio was higher in NT than in MT rats, whereas nitrogen balance was significantly decreased in both as compared to control animals. Glucose absorption was significantly reduced in MT rats (MT = 47.3 ± 4.9 vs MC = 99.8 ± 5.3 nmol min-1 cm-1, Kruskal-Wallis test, P<0.05 but this fact did not hamper the evolution of cancer. There was a significant increase in methionine absorption in both groups (NT = 4.2 ± 0.3 and MT = 2.0 ± 0.1 vs NC = 3.7 ± 0.1 and MC = 1.2 ± 0.2 nmol min-1 cm-1, Kruskal-Wallis test, P<0.05, whereas leucine absorption was increased only in young tumor-bearing rats (NT = 8.6 ± 0.2 vs NC = 7.7 ± 0.4 nmol min-1 cm-1, Kruskal-Wallis test, P<0.05, suggesting that these metabolites are being used for synthesis and oxidation processes by the neoplastic cells, which might ensure their rapid proliferation especially in NT rats.

  3. 256-pixel microcalorimeter array for high-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy of mixed-actinide materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of cryogenic microcalorimeter detectors to γ-ray spectroscopy allows for measurements with unprecedented energy resolution. These detectors are ideally suited for γ-ray spectroscopy applications for which the measurement quality is limited by the spectral overlap of many closely spaced transitions using conventional detector technologies. The non-destructive analysis of mixed-isotope Pu materials is one such application where the precision can be potentially improved utilizing microcalorimeter detectors compared to current state-of-the-art high-purity Ge detectors (HPGe). The LANL-NIST γ-ray spectrometer, a 256-pixel microcalorimeter array based on transition-edge sensors (TESs), was recently commissioned and used to collect data on a variety of Pu isotopic standards to characterize the instrument performance. These measurements represent the first time the simultaneous readout of all 256 pixels for measurements of mixed-isotope Pu materials has been achieved. The LANL-NIST γ-ray spectrometer has demonstrated an average pixel resolution of 55 eV full-width-at-half-maximum at 100 keV, nearly an order of magnitude better than HPGe detectors. Some challenges of the analysis of many-channel ultra-high resolution data and the techniques used to produce quality spectra for isotopic analysis will be presented. The LANL-NIST γ-ray spectrometer has also demonstrated stable operation and obtained high resolution measurements at total array event rates beyond 1 kHz. For a total event rate of 1.25 kHz, approximately 5.6 cps/pixel, a 72.2 eV average FWHM for the 103 keV photopeak of 153Gd was achieved

  4. 256层 CT 冠状动脉成像在肥胖患者的应用%Application of 256-slice coronary CT angiography in the obesity patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍蛟; 杨小军; 姚晓群; 杨广夫; 姚果林; 高艳妮; 裘晟; 王飞; 杨欢; 张静; 杨俊雅; 陈向飞

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究256层冠状动脉 CT 成像在肥胖患者的应用。方法回顾性分析2011-2013在本院进行冠状动脉 CT 成像的166例肥胖患者(体质量指数 BMI≥30)临床和影像资料(166例中前瞻性心电门控扫描109例,回顾性心电门控扫描57例)。将冠状动脉成像图像分为优、良、可、差4等级,由2位医生独立观察 CT 冠状动脉图像质量。使用χ2或 t 检验比较分析不同门控方法、不同心率(≤70次/min、>71次/min)、不同 kV 值(120 kV、140 kV)对图像质量的影响。结果前瞻性心电门控和回顾性心电门控在显示优秀图像、合格图像(优+良图像)方面无显著性差异(P >0.05)。前瞻性心电门控在心率≤70次/min 组显示优秀图像优于心率>71次/min 组(P 0.05)。回顾性心电门控不同心率组对显示优秀图像、合格图像方面无显著性差异(P >0.05)。前瞻性心电门控和回顾性心电门控在120 kV、140 kV 组内对显示成像质量均无显著性差异(P >0.05)。前瞻性心电门控扫描患者接受射线剂量明显低于回顾性心电门控扫描。结论肥胖患者冠状动脉256层 CT 成像检查应采用前瞻性心电门控扫描,应维持患者心率≤70次/min,采用120 kV 扫描,降低患者接受射线剂量。%Objective To study the application of 256-slice coronary CT angiography in the obesity patient.Methods Clinical and image date of 1 66 obesity cases (BIM≥30)from 201 1 to 2013 in our hospital were retrospectively analysed.Among the 1 66 cases, prospective and retrospective electrocardiography gated group accounted for 109,57 respectively.According to the coronary CT an-giographic findings,image qualities were divided into four grades (the best,better,good and bad),by the two radiologists independ-ently observation.The image qualities under different electrocardiography gated,different heart rate(≤70 beats per minute and >71 beats per minute)and different kV (120 kV and 140 k

  5. Experimental Comparison of Gains in Achievable Information Rates from Probabilistic Shaping and Digital Backpropagation for DP-256QAM/1024QAM WDM Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porto da Silva, Edson; Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Da Ros, Francesco;

    2016-01-01

    Gains in achievable information rates from probabilistic shaping and digital backpropagation are compared for WDM transmission of 5 × 10 GBd DP-256QAM/1024QAM up to 1700 km of reach. The combination of both techniques its shown to provide gains of up to ∼0.5 bits/QAM symbol...

  6. 25 CFR 256.17 - What will the servicing housing office do to identify what work is to be done on my dwelling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOUSING HOUSING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM § 256.17 What will the servicing housing... are to be done under the Housing Improvement Program. The representative must ensure that flood... SWIFT. If the dwelling is located in Alaska, documented, reasonable, substantiated freight costs,...

  7. 利用256iCT对正常人左心房相关参数定量研究%The application of 256 iCT in quantitative study on the left atrial related parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敬民; 李彩英; 李庆啸; 赵爽; 刘晓伟; 王伟

    2013-01-01

    目的 应用256 iCT对左心房结构和功能相关参数定量研究.方法选择506例行256 iCT冠状动脉CTA检查结果正常的患者影像资料,所选患者近6个月之内均无心血管疾病病史.确定左心室收缩末期和舒张末期,分别测量左心房最大容积(LAVmax)、左心房最小容积(LAVmin)、左心房最大前后径(LADmax)、左心房最小前后径(LADmin),左心房前壁厚度(LAT),并计算出左心房容积指数(LAVI)和左心房射血分数(LAEF),进行相关统计学处理.结果 正常人LAVmax、LAVmin、LADmax、LADmin、LAT、LAVI以及LAEF的95%医学参考值范围分别为:15.64~82.78 mL、9.78~51.34 mL、25.75~50.87 mm、20.99~45.34 mm、1.17~3.15 mm、18.90~39.32 mL/m2 、24.65%~52.63%.LAVmax、LAVmin、LADmin值在不同年龄组之间有统计学差异(P<0.05),40岁以上人群>40岁以下人群.不同性别之间LAVmax、LAVmin有统计学差异(P<0.05),男性大于女性,其余各参数男女之间均无差异(P>0.05).LAVmax、LAVmin与年龄相关,随着年龄增长有增大趋势(P<0.05).LAVI、LAEF在不同年龄、性别之间均无明显差异.结论 本研究初步建立了正常人左心房相关参数的医学参考值,为临床评估左心房解剖结构和功能提供了参考标准.%Objective To assess the reference values for the normal left atrial construction and function using by 256 iCT. Methods 506 patients who underwent 256 iCT coronary artery CTA with negative results and normal physical examination were selected. All individuals had no history of cardiac disease in the past six months. After confirming left ventricular end-systole and end-diastole, the following parameters were measured: left atrial maximal volume ( LAVmax) , left atrial minimal volume (LAVmin) , left atrial maximal anterior posterior diameter (LADmax) , left atrial minimal anterior posterior diameter (LADmin) , left atrial wall thickness (LAT),then left atrial volume index( LAVI) and left atrial ejection

  8. 256-MSCT image acquisition with sequential axial scans. Evaluation of image quality and resolution in a phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klink, T.; Schwartz, B.; Regier, M.; Adam, G. [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Nagel, H. [Dr. HD Nagel - Wissenschaft und Technik fuer die Radiologie, Buchholz (Germany); Begemann, P.G. [Roentgeninstitut Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Evaluation of image quality and resolution of varying sequential axial scan protocols utilizing two resolution phantoms with a 256-MSCT scanner. Sequential axial scans were performed on a z-axis and an axial-plane resolution phantom with varying acquisition and reconstruction parameters. Two independent observers evaluated the image quality and resolution, and analyzed quantitative image quality parameters and radiation doses. The best image quality and resolution were achieved with an activated z-flying focal spot (zFFS) and overlapping reconstruction. With an activated zFFS, image degradation was significantly minimized in marginal or overlapping zones of the beam, but the maximum effective detector width was reduced to 82 % and 75 %, respectively depending on the field of view. With a deactivated zFFS, the effective detector width was not restricted, but the image quality decreased and the artifacts increased as the collimation increased. For sequential axial CT data acquisition with multi-planar image reformation, the zFFS technique is crucial to achieve the best image quality and resolution. Major advantages are minimized image degradation and increased spatial resolution along the z-axis, but the zFFS reduces the maximum effective detector width. (orig.)

  9. A Re-configurable On-line Learning Spiking Neuromorphic Processor comprising 256 neurons and 128K synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eQiao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Implementing compact, low-power artificial neural processing systems with real-time on-line learning abilities is still an open challenge. In this paper we present a full-custom mixed-signal VLSI device with neuromorphic learning circuits that emulate the biophysics of real spiking neurons and dynamic synapses for exploring the properties of computational neuroscience models and for building brain-inspired computing systems. The proposed architecture allows the on-chip configuration of a wide range of network connectivities, including recurrent and deep networks with short-term and long-term plasticity. The device comprises 128 K analog synapse and 256 neuron circuits with biologically plausible dynamics and bi-stable spike-based plasticity mechanisms that endow it with on-line learning abilities. In addition to the analog circuits, the device comprises also asynchronous digital logic circuits for setting different synapse and neuron properties as well as different network configurations. This prototype device, fabricated using a 180 nm 1P6M CMOS process, occupies an area of 51.4 mm 2 , and consumes approximately 4 mW for typical experiments, for example involving attractor networks. Here we describe the details of the overall architecture and of the individual circuits and present experimental results that showcase its potential. By supporting a wide range of cortical-like computational modules comprising plasticity mechanisms, this device will enable the realization of intelligent autonomous systems with on-line learning capabilities.

  10. A low noise low power 512×256 ROIC for extended wavelength InGaAs FPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Songlei; Huang, Zhangcheng; Chen, Yu; Li, Tao; Fang, Jiaxiong

    2015-05-01

    A low noise low power 512×256 readout integrated circuit (ROIC) based on Capacitance Trans-impedance Amplifier (CTIA) was designed in this paper. The ROIC with 30μm pixel-pitch and 70 fF integrated capacitance as normal structure and test structure capacitance from 5 to 60 fF, was fabricated in 0.5μm DPTM CMOS process. The results showed that output voltage was larger than 2.0V and power consumption was about 150mW, output ROIC noise was about 3.6E-4V which equivalent noise was 160e-, and the test structure noise was from 20e- to 140 e-. Compared the readout noises in Integration Then Readout (ITR) mode and Integration While Readout (IWR) mode, it indicated that in IWR mode, readout noise comes mainly from both integration capacitance and sampling capacitance, while in ITR mode, readout noise comes mostly from sampling capacitance. Finally the ROIC was flip-chip bonded with Indium bumps to extended wavelength InGaAs detectors with cutoff wavelength 2.5μm at 200K. The peak detectivity exceeded 5E11cmHz1/2/w with 70nA/cm2 dark current density at 200K.

  11. 256层极速CT肾动脉血管成像图像质量影响分析%Analysis of the Quality Influence Factors of Renal Artery Imaging by Speed CT 256

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华建东; 陈伟斌; 杨小兰; 刘孜卓; 张惠英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe impact of the 256 speed CTA on the imaging quality of renal artery and its branches by applying different concentrations of contrast agent and adopting different injection rate. Method 336 cases with renal artery CTA examination in our hospital were observed, and they were divided, according to different concentration and the injection rate, into 3 groups with 112 cases in each group. The injection rate of Group A, Group B and Group C was 5 mL/s (iopamidol, 350), 4 mL/s (iopamidol, 350) and 5 mL/s (ioversol, 370) respectively. The dosage was 50 mL for each group. The image quality and display rate of blood vessels were compared through the classification of renal artery branch. Results With the same concentration of contrast agent, renal artery branch of Level II, III, IV, V, VI of Group A was better than that of Group B, with statistically significant difference. At the same injection rate, renal artery branch of Level IV, V, VI of Group C was better than that of Group A, with statistical difference as well. Conclusion As for the CTA image quality and of vascular imaging display rate of the renal artery branches, the greater dosing speed and the higher concentration can cause better effect.%目的:研究256层极速CTA应用不同浓度对比剂及采取不同注药速率,对肾动脉及其分支成像质量的影响。方法观察本院行肾动脉CTA检查患者336例,按注药浓度和速率分组,每组112例。 A组:注药速率5.0 mL/s (碘帕醇350); B组:注药速率4.0 mL/s (碘帕醇350); C组:注药速率5.0 mL/s (碘佛醇370),用药剂量均为50 mL。通过对肾动脉分支分级比较图像质量及血管显示率效果。结果在对比剂浓度相同情况下,肾动脉分支II、 III、 IV、 V、 VI级A组均优于B组,具有统计学差异。在注药速率相同情况下,肾动脉分支IV、 V、 VI级C组均优于A组,具有统计学差异。结论对肾动脉细小分支CTA 图像质量及血

  12. 320×256 GaAs/AlGaAs long-wavelength quantum well infrared photodetector focal plane array%320×256GaAs/AlGaAs长波红外量子阱焦平面探测器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金巨鹏; 刘丹; 王建新; 吴云; 曹菊英; 曹妩媚; 林春

    2012-01-01

    量子阱红外探测器(Quantum well infrared photodetector,QWIP)已经经历了20多年的深入研究,各种QWIP器件,包括量子阱红外探测器焦平面阵列(FPA)的研制也已经相当成熟.但是在国内,受制于整体工业水平,QWIP焦平面阵列器件的研制仍然处于起步阶段.研制了基于GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs材料、峰值响应波长为9.9 μm的长波320×256n型QWIP焦平面阵列器件,其像元中心距25μm,光敏元面积为22 μm×22 μm.GaAs衬底减薄后的QWIP焦平面阵列,与Si基CMOS读出电路(ROIC)通过铟柱倒焊互连,并且在65K工作温度下进行了室温环境目标成像.该焦平面器件的规模和成像质量相比之前国内报道的结果都有较大提高.焦平面平均峰值探测率达1.5×1010 cm·Hz1/2/W.%Quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) has been comprehensively and thoroughly studied for more than 20 years. The research and preparation of many kinds of QWIP devices including QWIP focal plane array (FPA) become quite mature. However, restrained by the whole domestic industrial development level, the research and fabrication of QWIP FPA's is still on relatively low level in home. We fabricated 320×256 n-type QWIP FPA based on GaAs/ AlxGa1-xAs. The cutoff wavelength was 9.9 μm, mesa center distance was 25 μm and active sensitive area was 22 μm×22 μm. After GaAs-substrate thinning, the QWIP FPA was flip-chip bonded to a silicon based CMOS read out integrated circuit (ROIC) by indium bump. Infrared images of targets at room temperature background were taken at 65 K operating temperature. The scale of the FPA and the quality of images were improved comparing with the former interior result. The mean peak detectivity of the FPA reached 1.5×1010 cm·Hz1/2/W.

  13. 256层CT灌注成像和三维重建对乳腺疾病诊断的临床价值%The clinical value of 256 slice CT perfusion imaging and three-dimensional reconstruction of breast disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜敏; 张刚庆; 高鹏; 李武铭; 温建燔; 张国伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the significance of 256 slice CT perfusion imaging and three-dimensional reconstruction technology for diagnosis and preoperative evaluation of breast disease. Methods 50 patients found breast tumors by color doppler ultrasound or mammography underwent 256 slice CT perfusion scan, combined with the postoperative pathological results, analyzed the perfusion imaging indexes of different nature of breast neoplasm tissue and normal breast tissue, and three-dimensional reconstruction of guidance for clinical surgery. Results The perfusion imaging indexes of 256 slice CT had important reference value in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant breast tumors, three- dimensional reconstruction model could observe lesions in all situations, and provided the basis for preoperative assessment. Conclusion 256 slice CT perfusion imaging can be helpful to differentiate the breast cancer from benign breast tumor from the aspects of hemodynamics. three-dimensional reconstruction can provide more information for clinical diagnosis, treatment, and help to preoperative evaluation of breast cancer.%目的:探讨256层CT灌注成像和三维重建技术对乳腺疾病诊断和术前评估的意义。方法采用256层CT对50例经彩超或钼靶发现有乳腺肿物的患者进行灌注扫描,结合术后病理结果,分析不同性质乳腺肿瘤组织和正常乳腺组织的灌注成像指标,以及乳腺三维重建对临床手术的指导作用。结果256层CT灌注成像指标值对鉴别诊断乳腺良恶性肿瘤具有重要的参考价值;三维重建模型可以全方位地观察病灶情况,为术前评估提供了依据。结论256层CT灌注成像能从血流动力学方面鉴别诊断乳腺良恶性肿瘤;三维重建可为临床诊断、治疗提供更多的信息,有助于乳腺癌的术前评估。

  14. Application of 256 Multi-Detector Computed Tomography Enterography in Small Bowel Inflammatory Diseases%256层多排螺旋CT小肠成像对小肠炎症性病变的临床应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解骞; 窦娅芳; 梁宗辉; 朱全东; 祝瑞江

    2013-01-01

    To discuss the utility of MDCTE for evaluating inflammatory diseases of the small bowel. Materials and methods: At our institution, 118 patients (male 53; female 65; mean age 48.5 years) with symptoms of suspected small bowel diseases underwent 256-MDCTE. Pertinent MDCTE and histopathology reports were reviewed. The CT appearances characteristic of small-bowel inflammatory bowel disease are described and illustrated in detail. Associated complications and extraenteric manifestations also are described. Results: Of 118 MDCTEs performed, there were 25 cases of small bowel inflammations (male 13; female 12; mean age 45.5 years). In all 12 cases of Crohn's diseases, small bowel involvement was typically transmural, with characteristic skip lesions. CT features of active Crohn^s disease include mucosal hyper-enhancement, irregular wall thickening, mural stratification with a prominent vasa recta (comb sign), and mesenteric fat stranding. 2 cases of ulceratiiwe colitis characterized by a continuous pattern of bowel wall involvement, starting from the rectum, without evidence of skip lesions. Ulcerative colitis predominantly involved the large bowel but may extend to the terminal ileum. Extra-intestinal manifestations may occur but were uncommon. Mucosal hyper-enhancement along with circumferential and symmetric boweli wall thickening was- present. There was mural stratification witto enhancement of the inner mucosa and outer muscularis propria. Mesenteric hyperemia was present in the pericolonic fat; MDCTE demonstrated findings suggestive of intestinal tuberculosis in one patient by depicting ulcero-nodular with strictures, edema and thickening of the ileocecal region, the presence of neexotic mesenteric lymph nodes that were adjacent to a small-bowel thickening; There-was 1 case of viral gastroenteritis and 7 cases of generalized small bowel enteritis withsnon-specific MDCTE features include bowej thickening and submucosai edema appreciable in the entire intestine

  15. Optimisation of vascular input and output functions in CT-perfusion imaging using 256(or more)-slice multidetector CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niesten, Joris M.; Schaaf, Irene C. van der; Riordan, Alan J.; Jong, Hugo W.A.M. de; Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Velthuis, Birgitta K. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    To evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of CT-perfusion (CTP) by finding the optimal artery for the arterial input function (AIF) and re-evaluating the necessity of the venous output function (VOF). Forty-four acute ischaemic stroke patients who underwent non-enhanced CT, CTP and CT-angiography using 256-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) were evaluated. The anterior cerebral artery (ACA), middle cerebral artery (MCA), internal carotid artery (ICA) and basilar artery were selected as the AIF. Subsequently the resulting area under the time-enhancement curve of the AIF (AUC{sub AIF}) and quantitative perfusion measurements were analysed by repeated measures ANOVA and subsequently the paired t test. To evaluate reproducibility we examined if the VOF could be deleted by comparing the perfusion measurements using versus not using the VOF (paired t test). The AUC{sub AIF} and perfusion measurements resulting from the different AIFs showed significant group differences (all P < 0.0001). The ICA had the largest AUC{sub AIF} and resulted in the highest mean transient time (MTT) and lowest cerebral blood flow (CBF), whereas the basilar artery showed the lowest cerebral blood volume (CBV). Not using the VOF showed significantly higher CBV and CBF in 66 % of patients on the ipsilateral (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.007, respectively) and contralateral hemisphere (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.019, respectively). Selecting the ICA as the AIF and continuing the use of the VOF would improve the accuracy of CTP. (orig.)

  16. Prospective ECG triggering reduces prosthetic heart valve-induced artefacts compared with retrospective ECG gating on 256-slice CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symersky, Petr [Academic Medical Center, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Habets, Jesse; Budde, Ricardo P.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Westers, Paul [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Biostatistics, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); Mol, Bas A.J.M. de [Academic Medical Center, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Technology Eindhoven, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Prokop, Mathias [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has diagnostic value for the evaluation of prosthetic heart valve (PHV) dysfunction but it is hampered by artefacts. We hypothesised that image acquisition using prospective triggering instead of retrospective gating would reduce artefacts related to pulsating PHV. In a pulsatile in vitro model, a mono- and bileaflet PHV were imaged using 256 MDCT at 60, 75 and 90 beats per minute (BPM) with either retrospective gating (120 kV, 600 mAs, pitch 0.2, CTDI{sub vol} 39.8 mGy) or prospective triggering (120 kV, 200 mAs, CTDI{sub vol} 13.3 mGy). Two thresholds (>175 and <-45HU), derived from the density of surrounding structures, were used for quantification of hyper- and hypodense artefacts. Image noise and artefacts were compared between protocols. Prospective triggering reduced hyperdense artefacts for both valves at every BPM (P = 0.001 all comparisons). Hypodense artefacts were reduced for the monoleaflet valve at 60 (P = 0.009), 75 (P = 0.016) and 90 BPM (P = 0.001), and for the bileaflet valves at 60 (P = 0.001), 90 (P = 0.001) but not at 75 BPM (P = 0.6). Prospective triggering reduced image noise at 60 (P = 0.001) and 75 (P < 0.03) but not at 90 BPM. Compared with retrospective gating, prospective triggering reduced most artefacts related to pulsating PHV in vitro. circle Computed tomographic images are often degraded by prosthetic heart valve-induced artefacts circle Prospective triggering reduces prosthetic heart valve-induced artefacts in vitro circle Artefact reduction at 90 beats per minute occurs without image noise reduction circle Prospective triggering may improve CT image quality of moving hyperdense structures. (orig.)

  17. Interpretations of systematic errors in the NCEP Climate Forecast System at lead times of 2, 4, 8, ..., 256 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwon Song

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The climatology of mean bias errors (relative to 1-day forecasts was examined in a 20-year hindcast set from version 1 of the Climate Forecast System (CFS, for forecast lead times of 2, 4, 8, 16, ... 256 days, verifying in different seasons. Results mostly confirm the simple expectation that atmospheric model biases should be evident at short lead (2–4 days, while soil moisture errors develop over days-weeks and ocean errors emerge over months. A further simplification is also evident: surface temperature bias patterns have nearly fixed geographical structure, growing with different time scales over land and ocean. The geographical pattern has mostly warm and dry biases over land and cool bias over the oceans, with two main exceptions: (1 deficient stratocumulus clouds cause warm biases in eastern subtropical oceans, and (2 high latitude land is too cold in boreal winter. Further study of the east Pacific cold tongue-Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ complex shows a possible interaction between a rapidly-expressed atmospheric model bias (poleward shift of deep convection beginning at day 2 and slow ocean dynamics (erroneously cold upwelling along the equator in leads > 1 month. Further study of the high latitude land cold bias shows that it is a thermal wind balance aspect of the deep polar vortex, not just a near-surface temperature error under the wintertime inversion, suggesting that its development time scale of weeks to months may involve long timescale processes in the atmosphere, not necessarily in the land model. Winter zonal wind errors are small in magnitude, but a refractive index map shows that this can cause modest errors in Rossby wave ducting. Finally, as a counterpoint to our initial expectations about error growth, a case of non-monotonic error growth is shown: velocity potential bias grows with lead on a time scale of weeks, then decays over months. It is hypothesized that compensations between land and ocean errors may

  18. Low-noise, fast frame-rate InGaAs 320 x 256 FPA for hyperspectral applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeiren, Jan; Van Bogget, Urbain; Van Horebeek, Guido; Bentell, Jonas; Verbeke, Peet; Colin, Thierry

    2009-05-01

    InGaAs is the material of preference for uncooled imaging in the [0.9-1.7 μm] SWIR range, as it can be manufactured on low cost InP substrates in a mainstream technology for optical telecommunications. By removing the substrate the spectral range can be extended to the [0.6 - 1.7 μm] range. In this way low cost, room temperature operated FPAs cameras for imaging and hyperspectral applications can be developed. The FPA is built around a low power CTIA stage with 3 S&H capacitors in the 20*20 um2 unit cell. This approach results in a synchronous shutter operation, which will support both ITR and IWR operation. In IWR mode the integration dead time is limited to max. 10 μsec. The CDS operation yields in a high sensitivity combined with a low noise: This presentation will focus on the development of a 20 μm pitch 320*256 device, with the following main characteristics: 20 μV/e-sensitivity and 30 pF at 40 Msamples/sec each, resulting in a > 1700 Hz frame rate, while at the same time the overall nominal power dissipation is ROIC is realized in a 0.35 um technology and the outputs are designed to drive directly a 3.3 V, 1.5 V VCM differential AD convertor. The circuit also supports a NDR operating mode to further reduce the noise of the FPA. A small from factor camera with Cameralink output is built around this FPA.

  19. 2.56 Tbit/s/ch (640 Gbaud) polarization-multiplexed DQPSK non-coherent Nyquist pulse transmission over 525 km.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harako, Koudai; Seya, Daiki; Suzuki, Daiki; Hirooka, Toshihiko; Nakazawa, Masataka

    2015-11-30

    We demonstrate a single-channel 2.56 Tbit/s polarization-multiplexed DQPSK transmission using 640 Gbaud non-coherent optical Nyquist pulses. By virtue of a large tolerance to polarization-mode dispersion, the detrimental depolarization-induced crosstalk was reduced by 3.8 dB compared with RZ pulses. As a result, the transmission distance was substantially extended to 525 km compared with the distance of 300 km obtained with a Gaussian pulse.

  20. Whole-brain CT perfusion and CT angiography assessment of Moyamoya disease before and after surgical revascularization: preliminary study with 256-slice CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: The 256-slice CT enables the entire brain to be scanned in a single examination. We evaluated the application of 256-slice whole-brain CT perfusion (CTP in determining graft patency as well as investigating cerebral hemodynamic changes in Moyamoya disease before and after surgical revascularization. METHODS: Thirty-nine cases of Moyamoya disease were evaluated before and after surgical revascularization with 256-slice CT. Whole-brain perfusion images and dynamic 3D CT angiographic images generated from perfusion source data were obtained in all patients. Cerebral blood flow (CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV, time to peak (TTP and mean transit time (MTT of one hemisphere in the region of middle cerebral artery (MCA distribution and contralateral mirroring areas were measured. Relative CTP values (rCBF, rCBV, rTTP, rMTT were also obtained. Differences in pre- and post- operation perfusion CT values were assessed with paired t test or matched-pairs signed-ranks test. RESULTS: Preoperative CBF, MTT and TTP of potential surgical side were significantly different from those of contralateral side (P<0.01 for all. All graft patencies were displayed using the 3D-CTA images. Postoperative CBF, rCBF and rCBV values of surgical side in the region of MCA were significantly higher than those before operation (P<0.01 for all. Postoperative MTT, TTP, rMTT and rTTP values of the surgical side in the region of MCA were significantly lower than those before operation (P<0.05 for all. CONCLUSION: The 256-slice whole-brain CTP can be used to evaluate cerebral hemodynamic changes in Moyamoya disease before and after surgery and the 3D-CTA is useful for assessing the abnormalities of intracranial arteries and graft patencies.

  1. Fish oil administration mediates apoptosis of Walker 256 tumor cells by modulation of p53, Bcl-2, caspase-7 and caspase-3 protein expression

    OpenAIRE

    Borghetti, Gina; Yamaguchi, Adriana Aya; Aikawa, Julia; Yamazaki, Ricardo Key; de Brito, Gleisson Alisson Pereira; Fernandes, Luiz Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have been shown pro-apoptotic effects of fish oil (FO), rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on cancer cells. Nevertheless, few in vivo experiments have provided data of its ability on apoptosis protein expression in tumor tissue. Thus, in this study we investigate the effect of FO supplementation on apoptosis protein expression in Walker 256 tumor bearing rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to three groups: fed with regular chow (W); fed reg...

  2. Celecoxib and Ibuprofen Restore the ATP Content and the Gluconeogenesis Activity in the Liver of Walker-256 Tumor-Bearing Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Oliveira de Souza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of celecoxib and ibuprofen, both non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, on the decreased gluconeogenesis observed in liver of Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats. Methods: Celecoxib and ibuprofen (both at 25 mg/Kg were orally administered for 12 days, beginning on the same day when the rats were inoculated with Walker-256 tumor cells. Results: Celecoxib and ibuprofen treatment reversed the reduced production of glucose, pyruvate, lactate and urea from alanine as well as the reduced production of glucose from pyruvate and lactate in perfused liver from tumor-bearing rats. Besides, celecoxib and ibuprofen treatment restored the decreased ATP content, increased triacylglycerol levels and reduced mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1, while ibuprofen treatment restored the reduced mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα in the liver of tumor-bearing rats. Both treatments tended to decrease TNFα, IL6 and IL10 in the liver of tumor-bearing rats. Finally, the treatment with celecoxib, but not with ibuprofen, reduced the growth of Walker-256 tumor. Conclusion: Celecoxib and ibuprofen restored the decreased gluconeogenesis in the liver of Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats. These effects did not involve changes in tumor growth and probably occurred by anti-inflammatory properties of these NSAIDs, which increased expression of genes associated with fatty acid oxidation (PPARα and CPT1 and consequently the ATP production, normalizing the energy status in the liver of tumor-bearing rats.

  3. Effect of a high-intensity exercise training on the metabolism and function of macrophages and lymphocytes of walker 256 tumor bearing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacurau, Aline Villa Nova; Belmonte, Mônica Aparecida; Navarro, Francisco; Moraes, Milton Rocha; Pontes, Francisco Luciano; Pesquero, Jorge Luiz; Araújo, Ronaldo Carvalho; Bacurau, Reury Frank Pereira

    2007-11-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that moderately intense training promotes augmented immune function, whereas strenuous exercise can cause immunosupression. Because the combat of cancer requires high immune function, high-intensity exercise could negatively affect the host organism; however, despite the epidemiologic data, there is a lack of experimental evidence to show that high-intensity training is harmful to the immune system. Therefore, we tested the influence of high-intensity treadmill training (10 weeks, 5 days/week, 30 mins/day, 85% VO(2)max) on immune system function and tumor development in Walker 256 tumor-bearing Wistar rats. The metabolism of glucose and glutamine in lymphocytes and macrophages was assessed, in addition to some functional parameters such as hydrogen peroxide production, phagocytosis, and lymphocyte proliferative responses. The metabolism of Walker 256 cells was also investigated. Results demonstrated that high-intensity training increased the life span of tumor-bearing rats, promoted a reduction in tumor mass, and prevented indicators of cachexia. Several changes, such as a reduction in body weight and food intake and activation of glutamine metabolism in macrophages and lymphocytes induced by the presence of Walker 256 tumor, were prevented by high intensity training. The reduction in tumor growth was associated with an impairment of tumor cell glucose and glutamine metabolism. These data suggest that high-intensity exercise training may be a viable strategy against tumors. PMID:17959841

  4. 17 bit 4.35 mW 1 kHz Delta Sigma ADC and 256-to-1 multiplexer for remote handling instrumentation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We present a radiation hard 17 bit-1 kHz 4.35 mW Delta Sigma ADC. ► A radiation tolerant 256-to-1 multiplexer is shown. ► We propose a generic radiation tolerant ASIC for use in an instrumentation link. ► The ASIC can interface more than hundred pressure or resistive sensors. ► All building blocks have a simulated radiation tolerance of more than 1 MGy. -- Abstract: A radiation tolerant Delta-Sigma Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) and multiplexer is presented. The design features a 1.5 V, 17 bit ADC consuming 4.35 mW at a sample frequency of 1 MHz. The ADC features a bandwidth of 1 kHz and utilizes a Correlated Double Sampling technique (CDS) to remove offset and 1/f noise. The circuit maintains its 17 bit resolution upon a simulated radiation dose exceeding 1 MGy and varying temperatures between 0 °C and 85 °C. Next a multiplexer is presented. It can multiplex 256 channels at a clock frequency of 128 MHz or has a data throughput of 256 MSample/s. In addition the bit period of the multiplexer varies less then 1.5% due to the influence of temperature or radiation, which proves the temperature and radiation tolerance

  5. Low dose 256-slice spiral CT of coronary combined with carotid and cerebrovascular angiography%256层螺旋CT低剂量心脑血管联合成像初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓东; 赖紫霞; 唐秉航; 李芳云; 李良才; 黄晖; 何亚奇; 吴任国; 黄德成; 梁健雄

    2011-01-01

    目的 初步探讨256层螺旋CT前瞻性心电门控心脑血管联合成像的图像质量与辐射剂量.方法 回顾性分析57例患者CTA资料.组1:心脑血管联合CTA(n=17),应用大范围前瞻性心电门控行冠状动脉、颈动脉及脑血管一站式扫描;组2:冠状动脉CTA(n=20):前瞻性心电门控行常规冠状动脉成像;组3:常规颈脑血管CTA(n =20).分别测量各组升主动脉根部、双侧颈总动脉起始部、椎动脉起始部、颈内动脉(蝶鞍层面)图像CT值与图像噪声;采用4分法评估冠状动脉图像质量,3分法评估颈脑血管图像质量;分别计算各组的辐射剂量.采用t检验比较组间的图像CT值与噪声;采用Mann-Whitney U检验比较组1与组2冠状动脉图像质量及组1与组3颈脑血管图像质量.结果 组1与组2升主动脉根部CT值[分别为(427±50)、(426±86) HU]、噪声[分别为(30±9)、(31±9)HU]差异均无统计学意义(t值分别为0.058、-0.325,P值均>0.05);冠状动脉图像质量评分组1与组2均满足诊断需要冠状动脉节段,优良分别达到98.1%( 202/206)、99.6%(244/245);两组间图像质量比较差异无统计学意义(Z=- 0.572,P>0.05).组1与组3颈总动脉起始部CT值[分别为(474±70)、(348±81)HU]、椎动脉起始部CT值[分别为(447±83)、(328±66) HU]差异均有统计学意义(t值分别为5.043、4.869,P值均<0.05);颈内动脉(蝶鞍层面)CT值[分别为(370±92)、(367±97)HU]两组比较差异无统计学意义(t=0.111,P>0.05).组1颈脑血管图像质量评分1分1例,2分14例,3分2例;组3颈脑血管图像质量评分2分7例,3分13例;两组图像质量评分比较差异有统计学意义(Z=-3.306,P<0.05).组1、组2、组3有效辐射剂量分别为(7.0±0.8)、(3.1±0.4)、(5.0±0.3) mSv.结论 256层螺旋CT大范围前瞻性心电门控心脑血管联合成像可获得满足临床诊断需要的冠状动脉、颈动脉及脑血管图像质量,具有简便、快捷、

  6. Biological, chemical and other data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN256 in the Coastal Waters of SE Alaska from 2010-10-23 to 2010-11-03 (NODC Accession 0104361)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0104361 includes biological, chemical, optical, physical and underway data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN256 in the Coastal...

  7. A new reading for the Abbasid dinar in the name of caliph Al-Mu tamid Ala Allah (AH 256-279) minted in Al-Ma Suq 271 AH

    OpenAIRE

    Atef Mansour, M. Ramadan

    2016-01-01

    The case of a dinar minted ill 271 AH recording the he Caliph al-Mu'tainid 'ala Allah (256-279 AH), al-Mufawwatj ila Allah (256-278 H), and an enigmatic mint place is discussed in the paper. The Author attempts to offer a new reading of the toponym of the mint using literary sources. The love story between al-Mu'tamid and a Bedouin girl, seems to unveil the identity of the mysterious mint.

  8. Anti-Inflammatory and Cytoprotective Effects of TMC-256C1 from Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp. SF-6354 via up-Regulation of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Murine Hippocampal and Microglial Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Cheol Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the course of searching for bioactive secondary metabolites from marine fungi, TMC-256C1 was isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. SF6354. TMC-256C1 displayed anti-neuroinflammatory effect in BV2 microglial cells induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS as well as neuroprotective effect against glutamate-stimulated neurotoxicity in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. TMC-256C1 was shown to develop a cellular resistance to oxidative damage caused by glutamate-induced cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in HT22 cells, and suppress the inflammation process in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Furthermore, the neuroprotective and anti-neuroinflammatory activities of TMC-256C1 were associated with upregulated expression of heme oxygenase (HO-1 and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 in HT22 and BV2 cells. We also found that TMC-256C1 activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in HT22 and BV2 cells. These results demonstrated that TMC-256C1 activates HO-1 protein expression, probably by increasing nuclear Nrf2 levels via the activation of the p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways.

  9. Determination of electron-heated temperatures of petawatt laser-irradiated foil targets with 256 and 68 eV extreme ultraviolet imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of plasma temperature at the rear surface of foil targets due to heating by hot electrons, which were produced in short pulse high intensity laser matter interactions using the 150 J, 0.5 ps Titan laser, are reported. Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) imaging at 256 and 68 eV energies is used to determine spatially resolved target rear surface temperature patterns by comparing absolute intensities to radiation hydrodynamic modeling. XUV mirrors at these two energies were absolutely calibrated at the Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Temperatures deduced from both imagers are validated against each other within the range of 75-225 eV.

  10. Quantitative assessment of right ventricular function and pulmonary regurgitation in surgically repaired tetralogy of Fallot using 256-slice CT: comparison with 3-Tesla MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, Yuzo; Yonezawa, Masato; Matsuo, Yoshio; Kamitani, Takeshi; Higuchi, Ko; Honda, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Nagao, Michinobu; Kawanami, Satoshi [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Department of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Yamamura, Kenichiro [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Department of Pediatrics, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Sakamoto, Ichiro [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Shiokawa, Yuichi [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Yabuuchi, Hidetake [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Department of Health Sciences, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    To compare 256-slice cardiac computed tomography (CCT) with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging to assess right ventricular (RV) function and pulmonary regurgitant fraction (PRF) in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Thirty-three consecutive patients with repaired TOF underwent retrospective ECG-gated CCT and 3-Tesla CMR. RV and left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV) and ejection fraction (EF) were measured using CCT and CMR. PRF-CCT (%) was defined as (RVSV - LVSV)/RVSV. PRF-CMR (%) was measured by the phase-contrast method. Repeated measurements were performed to determine intra- and interobserver variability. CCT measurements, including PRF, correlated highly with the CMR reference (r = 0.71-0.96). CCT overestimated RVEDV (mean difference, 17.1 ± 2.9 ml), RVESV (12.9 ± 2.1 ml) and RVSV (4.2 ± 2.0 ml), and underestimated RVEF (-2.6 ± 1.0 %) and PRF (-9.1 ± 2.0 %) compared with CMR. The limits of agreement between CCT and CMR were in a good range for all measurements. The variability in CCT measurements was lower than those in CMR. The estimated effective radiation dose was 7.6 ± 2.6 mSv. 256-slice CCT can assess RV function and PRF with relatively low dose radiation exposure in patients with repaired TOF, but overestimates RV volume and underestimates PRF. (orig.)

  11. 256-slice CT coronary angiography in atrial fibrillation: The impact of mean heart rate and heart rate variability on image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the image quality of 256-MDCT in atrial fibrillation and to compare the findings with those among patients in sinus rhythm. Materials: All reconstructed images were evaluated by two independent experienced readers blinded to patient information, heart rate, and ECG results to assess the diagnostic quality of images of the coronary artery segments using axial images, multi-planar reformations, maximum intensity projections, and volume rendering technique. Results: No statistical significance was detected in terms of the overall image quality between patients in sinus rhythm and with atrial fibrillation. Pearson's correlation analysis showed no significant association between image quality and mean heart rate no matter for patients in sinus rhythm or with atrial fibrillation. Similarly, there was no correlation between image quality and heart rate variability for either patients in sinus rhythm or with atrial fibrillation. Our results showed that the optimal reconstruction window depends on patient's HR, and the pattern for patients in atrial fibrillation is similar to that obtained from non-atrial fibrillation patients. Conclusion: This study shows the potential of using 256-MDCT coronary angiography in patients with atrial fibrillation. Our results suggest that when appropriate reconstruction timing window is applied, patients with atrial fibrillation do not have to be excluded from MDCT coronary angiographic examinations.

  12. 256-slice CT coronary angiography in atrial fibrillation: The impact of mean heart rate and heart rate variability on image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Liang-Kuang [Department of Radiology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); College of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Shih-Ming [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Mok, Greta S.P. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Macau (China); Law, Wei-Yip; Lu, Kun-Mu [Department of Radiology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yang, Ching-Ching, E-mail: g39220003@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Radiological Technology, Tzu Chi College of Technology, 880, Sec.2, Chien-kuo Rd. Hualien 970, Taiwan (China); Wu, Tung-Hsin, E-mail: tung@ym.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, 155 Li-Nong St., Sec. 2, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-21

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the image quality of 256-MDCT in atrial fibrillation and to compare the findings with those among patients in sinus rhythm. Materials: All reconstructed images were evaluated by two independent experienced readers blinded to patient information, heart rate, and ECG results to assess the diagnostic quality of images of the coronary artery segments using axial images, multi-planar reformations, maximum intensity projections, and volume rendering technique. Results: No statistical significance was detected in terms of the overall image quality between patients in sinus rhythm and with atrial fibrillation. Pearson's correlation analysis showed no significant association between image quality and mean heart rate no matter for patients in sinus rhythm or with atrial fibrillation. Similarly, there was no correlation between image quality and heart rate variability for either patients in sinus rhythm or with atrial fibrillation. Our results showed that the optimal reconstruction window depends on patient's HR, and the pattern for patients in atrial fibrillation is similar to that obtained from non-atrial fibrillation patients. Conclusion: This study shows the potential of using 256-MDCT coronary angiography in patients with atrial fibrillation. Our results suggest that when appropriate reconstruction timing window is applied, patients with atrial fibrillation do not have to be excluded from MDCT coronary angiographic examinations.

  13. Quantitative assessment of right ventricular function and pulmonary regurgitation in surgically repaired tetralogy of Fallot using 256-slice CT: comparison with 3-Tesla MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare 256-slice cardiac computed tomography (CCT) with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging to assess right ventricular (RV) function and pulmonary regurgitant fraction (PRF) in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Thirty-three consecutive patients with repaired TOF underwent retrospective ECG-gated CCT and 3-Tesla CMR. RV and left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV) and ejection fraction (EF) were measured using CCT and CMR. PRF-CCT (%) was defined as (RVSV - LVSV)/RVSV. PRF-CMR (%) was measured by the phase-contrast method. Repeated measurements were performed to determine intra- and interobserver variability. CCT measurements, including PRF, correlated highly with the CMR reference (r = 0.71-0.96). CCT overestimated RVEDV (mean difference, 17.1 ± 2.9 ml), RVESV (12.9 ± 2.1 ml) and RVSV (4.2 ± 2.0 ml), and underestimated RVEF (-2.6 ± 1.0 %) and PRF (-9.1 ± 2.0 %) compared with CMR. The limits of agreement between CCT and CMR were in a good range for all measurements. The variability in CCT measurements was lower than those in CMR. The estimated effective radiation dose was 7.6 ± 2.6 mSv. 256-slice CCT can assess RV function and PRF with relatively low dose radiation exposure in patients with repaired TOF, but overestimates RV volume and underestimates PRF. (orig.)

  14. 256-slice CT coronary angiography in atrial fibrillation: The impact of mean heart rate and heart rate variability on image quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Kuang; Hsu, Shih-Ming; Mok, Greta S. P.; Law, Wei-Yip; Lu, Kun-Mu; Yang, Ching-Ching; Wu, Tung-Hsin

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the image quality of 256-MDCT in atrial fibrillation and to compare the findings with those among patients in sinus rhythm.MaterialsAll reconstructed images were evaluated by two independent experienced readers blinded to patient information, heart rate, and ECG results to assess the diagnostic quality of images of the coronary artery segments using axial images, multi-planar reformations, maximum intensity projections, and volume rendering technique.ResultsNo statistical significance was detected in terms of the overall image quality between patients in sinus rhythm and with atrial fibrillation. Pearson's correlation analysis showed no significant association between image quality and mean heart rate no matter for patients in sinus rhythm or with atrial fibrillation. Similarly, there was no correlation between image quality and heart rate variability for either patients in sinus rhythm or with atrial fibrillation. Our results showed that the optimal reconstruction window depends on patient's HR, and the pattern for patients in atrial fibrillation is similar to that obtained from non-atrial fibrillation patients.ConclusionThis study shows the potential of using 256-MDCT coronary angiography in patients with atrial fibrillation. Our results suggest that when appropriate reconstruction timing window is applied, patients with atrial fibrillation do not have to be excluded from MDCT coronary angiographic examinations.

  15. Development and utilization of a Walker 256 tumor-induced osteogenic small animal model for study of (Tc-99m)diphosphonate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this research was to develop and utilize a Walker 256 tumor induced osteogenic small animal model to study /sup 99m/Tc(NaBH4)HEDP complexes. A solid tumor was induced in muscles adjacent to the tibia of Fischer-344 rats by the implantation of Walker 256 carcinoma cells. Histopathological studies confirmed the induction of discrete osteogenesis on the periosteal surface of the tibia. The biodistribution of [/sup 99m/Tc]HMDP and [/sup 99m/Tc]MDP was determined in 18 tumor bearing animals and in the same number of normal animals. The results of the study were found to be comparable with clinical findings in humans. The model was proved to be valid for studying bone imaging agents. Seven /sup 99m/Tc(NaBH4)HEDP complexes were obtained from the separation of a reaction mixture by anion exchange HPLC. Two complexes were treated as a single entity. Six biodistribution studies of /sup 99m/Tc(NaBH4)HEDP complexes were conducted. Results indicated that each complex had a distinct biodistribution pattern

  16. Evaluation of image quality and radiation dose at prospective ECG-triggered axial 256-slice multi-detector CT in infants with congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Mei-ping; Liang, Chang-hong; Zhao, Zhen-jun; Liu, Hui; Li, Jing-lei; Zhang, Jin-e; Cui, Yan-hai; Yang, Lin; Liu, Qi-shun [Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangdong General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Guangzhou (China); Ivanc, Thomas B.; Vembar, Mani [Philips Healthcare, CT Clinical Science, Highland Heights, OH (United States)

    2011-07-15

    There are a limited number of reports on the technical and clinical feasibility of prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) in infants with congenital heart disease (CHD). To evaluate image quality and radiation dose at weight-based low-dose prospectively gated 256-slice MDCT angiography in infants with CHD. From November 2009 to February 2010, 64 consecutive infants with CHD referred for pre-operative or post-operative CT were included. All were scanned on a 256-slice MDCT system utilizing a low-dose protocol (80 kVp and 60-120 mAs depending on weight: 60 mAs for {<=}3 kg, 80 mAs for 3.1-6 kg, 100 mAs for 6.1-10 kg, 120 mAs for 10.1-15 kg). No serious adverse events were recorded. A total of 174 cardiac deformities, confirmed by surgery or heart catheterization, were studied. The sensitivity of MDCT for cardiac deformities was 97.1%; specificity, 99.4%; accuracy, 95.9%. The mean heart rate during scan was 136.7 {+-} 14.9/min (range, 91-160) with a corresponding heart rate variability of 2.8 {+-} 2.2/min (range, 0-8). Mean scan length was 115.3 {+-} 11.7 mm (range, 93.6-143.3). Mean volume CT dose index, mean dose-length product and effective dose were 2.1 {+-} 0.4 mGy (range, 1.5-2.8), 24.7 {+-} 5.9 mGy.cm (range, 14.7-35.8) and 1.6 {+-} 0.3 mSv (range, 1.1-2.5), respectively. Diagnostic-quality images were achieved in all cases. Satisfactory diagnostic quality for visualization of all/proximal/distal coronary artery segments was achieved in 88.4/98.8/80.0% of the scans. Low-dose prospectively gated axial 256-slice CT angiography is a valuable tool in the routine clinical evaluation of infants with CHD, providing a comprehensive three-dimensional evaluation of the cardiac anatomy, including the coronary arteries. (orig.)

  17. Whole-organ CT perfusion of the pancreas: impact of iterative reconstruction on image quality, perfusion parameters and radiation dose in 256-slice CT-preliminary findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was performed to assess whether iterative reconstruction can reduce radiation dose while maintaining acceptable image quality, and to investigate whether perfusion parameters vary from conventional filtered back projection (FBP at the low-tube-voltage (80-kVp during whole-pancreas perfusion examination using a 256-slice CT. METHODS: 76 patients with known or suspected pancreatic mass underwent whole-pancreas perfusion by a 256-slice CT. High- and low-tube-voltage CT images were acquired. 120-kVp image data (protocol A and 80-kVp image data (protocol B were reconstructed with conventional FBP, and 80-kVp image data were reconstructed with iDose(4 (protocol C iterative reconstruction. The image noise; contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR relative to muscle for the pancreas, liver, and aorta; and radiation dose of each protocol were assessed quantitatively. Overall image quality was assessed qualitatively. Among 76 patients, 23 were eventually proven to have a normal pancreas. Perfusion parameters of normal pancreas in each protocol including blood volume, blood flow, and permeability-surface area product were measured. RESULTS: In the quantitative study, protocol C reduced image noise by 36.8% compared to protocol B (P<0.001. Protocol C yielded significantly higher CNR relative to muscle for the aorta, pancreas and liver compared to protocol B (P<0.001, and offered no significant difference compared to protocol A. In the qualitative study, protocols C and A gained similar scores and protocol B gained the lowest score for overall image quality (P<0.001. Mean effective doses were 23.37 mSv for protocol A and 10.81 mSv for protocols B and C. There were no significant differences in the normal pancreas perfusion values among three different protocols. CONCLUSION: Low-tube-voltage and iDose(4 iterative reconstruction can dramatically decrease the radiation dose with acceptable image quality during whole-pancreas CT perfusion and have no

  18. High breakdown voltage InGaAs/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistors withfmax =256 GHz and BVCEO =8.3V

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Wei; Zhao Yan; Gao Hanchao; Chen Chen; Yang Naibin

    2012-01-01

    An InGaAs/InP DHBT with an InGaAsP composite collector is designed and fabricated using triple mesa structural and planarization technology.All processes are on 3-inch wafers.The DHBT with an emitter area of 1 × 15μm2 exhibits a current cutofffrequency ft =170 GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency fmax =256 GHz.The breakdown voltage is 8.3 V,which is to our knowledge the highest BVCEO ever reported for InGaAs/InP DHBTs in China with comparable high frequency performances.The high speed InGaAs/InP DHBTs with high breakdown voltage are promising for voltage-controlled oscillator and mixer applications at W band or even higher frequencies.

  19. A novel chromatic dispersion monitoring method for 400 Gbit/s 256 QAM fiber-optic system based on asynchronous amplitude sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui-jun; Zhu, Bo; Liu, Guo-qing; Shen, Jia-wei; Hu, Fang-ren

    2015-11-01

    A novel chromatic dispersion (CD) monitoring technique based on asynchronous amplitude sampling (AAS) is proposed for a higher modulation format and higher rate system. The dispersion and other impairment factors can be separated with the definition of monitoring parameter M. A 400 Gbit/s 256 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) system is built using Optisystem13.0 beta software. Simulations of CD monitoring technique for different bandwidths of sampling Gaussian filter, optical signal to noise ratios ( OSNRs) and duty cycles are investigated, and the tolerance is also discussed. Simulation results show that the method can be less affected by noise, and a higher accuracy of 600 ps/(nm·km) can be achieved. The technique supports a wide range of data traffic and enhances operation flexibility of optical networks.

  20. High breakdown voltage InGaAs/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistors with fmax = 256 GHz and BVCEO = 8.3 V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An InGaAs/InP DHBT with an InGaAsP composite collector is designed and fabricated using triple mesa structural and planarization technology. All processes are on 3-inch wafers. The DHBT with an emitter area of 1 × 15 μm2 exhibits a current cutoff frequency ft = 170 GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency fmax = 256 GHz. The breakdown voltage is 8.3 V, which is to our knowledge the highest BVCEO ever reported for InGaAs/InP DHBTs in China with comparable high frequency performances. The high speed InGaAs/InP DHBTs with high breakdown voltage are promising for voltage-controlled oscillator and mixer applications at W band or even higher frequencies. (semiconductor devices)

  1. Tumor growth reduction is regulated at the gene level in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats supplemented with fish oil rich in EPA and DHA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghetti, G.; Yamazaki, R.K.; Coelho, I.; Pequito, D.C.T.; Schiessel, D.L.; Kryczyk, M.; Mamus, R.; Naliwaiko, K.; Fernandes, L.C. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Setor de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-08-23

    We investigated the effect of fish oil (FO) supplementation on tumor growth, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and RelA gene and protein expression in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats. Male Wistar rats (70 days old) were fed with regular chow (group W) or chow supplemented with 1 g/kg body weight FO daily (group WFO) until they reached 100 days of age. Both groups were then inoculated with a suspension of Walker 256 ascitic tumor cells (3×10{sup 7} cells/mL). After 14 days the rats were killed, total RNA was isolated from the tumor tissue, and relative mRNA expression was measured using the 2{sup -ΔΔCT} method. FO significantly decreased tumor growth (W=13.18±1.58 vs WFO=5.40±0.88 g, P<0.05). FO supplementation also resulted in a significant decrease in COX-2 (W=100.1±1.62 vs WFO=59.39±5.53, P<0.001) and PPARγ (W=100.4±1.04 vs WFO=88.22±1.46, P<0.05) protein expression. Relative mRNA expression was W=1.06±0.022 vs WFO=0.31±0.04 (P<0.001) for COX-2, W=1.08±0.02 vs WFO=0.52±0.08 (P<0.001) for PPARγ, and W=1.04±0.02 vs WFO=0.82±0.04 (P<0.05) for RelA. FO reduced tumor growth by attenuating inflammatory gene expression associated with carcinogenesis.

  2. Tumor growth reduction is regulated at the gene level in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats supplemented with fish oil rich in EPA and DHA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghetti, G; Yamazaki, R K; Coelho, I; Pequito, D C T; Schiessel, D L; Kryczyk, M; Mamus, R; Naliwaiko, K; Fernandes, L C

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the effect of fish oil (FO) supplementation on tumor growth, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and RelA gene and protein expression in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats. Male Wistar rats (70 days old) were fed with regular chow (group W) or chow supplemented with 1 g/kg body weight FO daily (group WFO) until they reached 100 days of age. Both groups were then inoculated with a suspension of Walker 256 ascitic tumor cells (3 × 10(7) cells/mL). After 14 days the rats were killed, total RNA was isolated from the tumor tissue, and relative mRNA expression was measured using the 2(-ΔΔCT) method. FO significantly decreased tumor growth (W=13.18 ± 1.58 vs WFO=5.40 ± 0.88 g, Psupplementation also resulted in a significant decrease in COX-2 (W=100.1 ± 1.62 vs WFO=59.39 ± 5.53, Pprotein expression. Relative mRNA expression was W=1.06 ± 0.022 vs WFO=0.31 ± 0.04 (P<0.001) for COX-2, W=1.08 ± 0.02 vs WFO=0.52 ± 0.08 (P<0.001) for PPARγ, and W=1.04 ± 0.02 vs WFO=0.82 ± 0.04 (P<0.05) for RelA. FO reduced tumor growth by attenuating inflammatory gene expression associated with carcinogenesis.

  3. Radiographic and histological evaluation of bisphosphonate alendronate and metotrexate effects on rat mandibles inoculated with Walker 256 carcinosarcoma Avaliação radiográfica e histológica do efeito do bisfosfonato alendronato e do metotrexato na mandíbula de ratos inoculados com carcinossarcoma 256 de Walker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes Alves

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of bisphosphosnate alendronate (ALD and metotrexate (MTX on an experimental model of Walker 256 carcinosarcoma developed in the oral cavity of rats. METHODS Walker 256 carcinosarcoma cell suspension (0,1 mL containing 10(6 cell/mL was implanted in the alveoli of the first and second molars. The animals were divided and treated with saline, MTX, ALD, and MTX plus ALD. Later, the animals were sacrificed, the tumors were measured and the mandibles were removed for radiographic and histological analysis. RESULTS: In the control group, the radiographic images demonstrated radioluscency with poorly defined borders, and the microscopic examination revealed tumor infiltration into the peripheral and central regions of the bone. Areas of necrosis were commonly seen. In the treated groups with ALD, associated or not with MTX, the radiographic analysis revealed circumscribed tumor-induced osteolysis and various degrees of radiotransparence; while, histologically, preserved bone trabeculae with osteoid formation was observed among malignant cells. CONCLUSION: The bisphosphonate alendronate exherted an osteoprotective effect and induced bone neoformation on the Walker 256 carcinosarcoma inoculated in rat mandibles. The combination of metotrexate with bisphosphonate alendronate is more successful than treatment with the agents alone in controlling the growth of neoplastic cells and in stimulating reactive new bone. Therefore, this may be an alternative treatment to malignant lesions of maxillaries with osteolysis.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do bisfosfonato alendronato (ALD e do metotrexato (MTX em modelo do carcinossarcoma 256 de Walker na mandíbula de ratos. MÉTODOS: Uma suspensão de células tumorais do carcinossarcoma 256 de Walker (0,1mL, na concentração de 10(6 células/mL, foi implantada nos alvéolos de ratos previamente abertos por exodontia. Os animais foram divididos em grupos e tratados com salina, MTX, ALD e

  4. 256层螺旋CT对颈动脉狭窄程度与性别及年龄关系的初步研究%A preliminary study in the relationship carotid stenosis and age or gender by 256 -slice carotid ;CTA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔桂荣; 杨海庆; 李彩英; 刘晓伟; 宋登浩; 尹兰英

    2016-01-01

    Objective To quantitatively analyze the relationship between carotid stenosis and gender or age by 256 -slice carotid CTA .Method A retrospective analysis of 573 cases image data of 256 iCT carotid angiography, male 332 cases, female 241 cases, with an average age of 57.22 ± 13.02 years old. Multi- planar reconstruction (MPR), maximum density image (MIP), volume rendering (VR) technology were used in post-processing workstations, carotid artery , internal carotid artery atherosclerotic plaque location and degree of stenosis were measured. Results Men were more likely than women with mild stenosis . However, there was no difference between males and females in internal carotid artery(P = 0.027) . Males were more often than females either in carotid arteries or in internal carotid artery with moderate or severe (P = 0.013, P = 0.000) . There were correlated among carotid artery stenosis degree with different age group(P = 0.000), with age increases the degree of stenosis increased.Conclusion 256 iCTA can be objectively display carotid artery stenosis degree and plaque, gender and age are very important factors of carotid stenosis .%目的:采用256iCT血管造影对颈动脉狭窄定量分析,探讨颈动脉狭窄程度与性别及年龄的关系。方法分析于本院接受256iCT颈动脉造影检查患者的影像资料573例,男性332例,女性241例,平均年龄57.22±13.02岁。采用多平面重建(MPR)、最大密度图像(MIP)、容积再现(VR)等技术分别测量及统计颈总动脉、颈内动脉动脉粥样硬化斑块部位及狭窄程度。结果颈总动脉轻度狭窄有性别分布差异,男性轻度狭窄者较女性多(P=0.027);颈内动脉轻度狭窄无性别分布差异;颈总动脉及颈内动脉中度及以上狭窄均有性别分布差异(P=0.013,P=0.000),男性中度以上狭窄者较女性多;颈总动脉及颈内动脉动脉狭窄程度与年龄均有相关性(P=0.000),随年龄增加

  5. THE 256 CTA IMAGING CHARACTERISTICS AND THE RELATED RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETIC LOWER EXTREMITY VASCULAR DISEASE%2型糖尿病下肢血管病变256层CTA成像特点及危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳治; 周静; 薛连彬; 杨冬生

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨糖尿病下肢血管病变(Lower extremity arterial disease,LEAD)患者下肢血管256层螺旋CT血管造影(CT angiography,CTA)成像特点及发生危险因素.方法 回顾性分析2型糖尿病150例的临床及下肢动脉256层CTA资料,分析糖尿病LEAD病变特点,比较LEAD与非LEAD一般资料差异,并对糖尿病LEAD相关危险因素进行Logistic回归分析.结果 256层CTA诊断LEAD 112例,动脉狭窄程度Ⅰ级26例,Ⅱ级33例,Ⅲ级40例,Ⅳ级13例;狭窄节段血管1 156支,发生在髂总动脉89支,髂外动脉94支,髂内动脉85支,股总动脉76支,股浅动脉89支,股深动脉57支,腘动脉129支,胫前动脉165支,胫腓干77支,胫后动脉152支,腓动脉143支.LEAD组和非LEAD组性别、病程、收缩压(SBP)、舒张压(DBP)、餐后2h血糖(PBG2h)、糖化血红蛋白(HbA1C)、C反应蛋白(CRP)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)及同型半胱氨酸(Hey)比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).Logistic回归分析结果显示,HbA1C、SBP、CRP、Hcy及LDL-C与2型糖尿病LEAD明显相关.结论 256层CTA是一种简便、安全、准确的早期检出糖尿病LEAD的手段,糖尿病患者应综合管理血糖、血压、血脂等多种危险因素,以预防和延缓LEAD发生、发展.%Objective To study the 256 slice CT angiography (256-CTA) imaging characteristics in patierts with diabetic lower extremity vascular disease and its risk factors Methods A retrospective analysis on the 256-CTA imaging data of 130 type 2 diabetes with lower extremity arterial was performed.The DLEAD characteristics were analyzed,and clinical data were compared between the LEAD group and no LEAD group,the relative risk factors were analyzed by the logistic regression.Results The 256-CTA could early diagnosis DLEAD and visually evaluate the severity,and 112 cases were diagnosed.Grade I stenosis degree of carotid artery was 26 cases,grade Ⅱ in 33,grade Ⅲ in 40,and grade Ⅳ in 13.Narrow segmental blood vessels were 1156

  6. 慢性应激性抑郁对大鼠皮下种植性肿瘤Walker256的影响及其作用机制%Effect of Chronic Stress-induced Depression on Subcutaneously Implanted Walker 256 Tumors in Rats and Its Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王双彪; 姜达; 张增叶

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察不同程度的慢性应激性抑郁对大鼠皮下种植性肿瘤Walker256的影响,并探讨其可能的作用机制.方法 构建大鼠慢性应激性抑郁模型及皮下种植性肿瘤模型,将48只SD雌性大鼠按随机数字表法分为4组,每组12只.单纯种瘤组(A组)只给予大鼠接种Walker256癌肉瘤细胞,种瘤前后均不给予应激;种瘤后给予应激性抑郁组(B组)接种Walker256癌肉瘤细胞后给予16 d各种不同应激;种瘤前给予应激性抑郁组(C组)接种Walker256癌肉瘤细胞前给予16 d各种不同的应激;种瘤前后均给予应激性抑郁组(D组)接种Walker256癌肉瘤细胞前后均给予16 d各种不同的应激.观察各组大鼠接种Walker256癌肉瘤细胞后的生存期,检测各组大鼠行为学指标以及脾重、瘤重、血清皮质醇、白细胞介素-6(IL-6)等指标.结果 大鼠行为学指标的比较:与A组相比,B、C、D组大鼠活动时间、活动总路程、中央区域活动时间显著减少(P<0.05),休息时间、四周区域活动时间显著增加(P<0.05);D组与B、C组相比,活动总路程亦显著减少(P<0.05),而活动时间、中央区域活动时间减少、休息时间、四周区域活动时间延长,但其差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).大鼠生存期的比较:与A组相比,D组明显缩短(P<0.05),而其他各组大鼠差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).大鼠脾重的比较:与A组相比,D组明显减轻(P<0.05),其余各组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).大鼠瘤重的比较:A、B、C、D组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).大鼠血清皮质醇的比较:与A组相比,B、C、D组显著升高(P<0.05);D组较B、C组亦显著升高(P<0.05).各组大鼠血清IL-6的比较:与A组相比,D组显著升高(P<0.05),其余各组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 慢性应激能使大鼠表现出较明显的抑郁症状,自发活动减少,探究行为降低,且应激性抑郁时间越长,抑郁症状越严重.较长

  7. Bilateral downregulation of Nav1.8 in dorsal root ganglia of rats with bone cancer pain induced by inoculation with Walker 256 breast tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid and effective treatment of cancer-induced bone pain remains a clinical challenge and patients with bone metastasis are more likely to experience severe pain. The voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.8 plays a critical role in many aspects of nociceptor function. Therefore, we characterized a rat model of cancer pain and investigated the potential role of Nav1.8. Adult female Wistar rats were used for the study. Cancer pain was induced by inoculation of Walker 256 breast carcinosarcoma cells into the tibia. After surgery, mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and ambulation scores were evaluated to identify pain-related behavior. We used real-time RT-PCR to determine Nav1.8 mRNA expression in bilateral L4/L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) at 16-19 days after surgery. Western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to compare the expression and distribution of Nav1.8 in L4/L5 DRG between tumor-bearing and sham rats. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) against Nav1.8 were administered intrathecally at 14-16 days after surgery to knock down Nav1.8 protein expression and changes in pain-related behavior were observed. Tumor-bearing rats exhibited mechanical hyperalgesia and ambulatory-evoked pain from day 7 after inoculation of Walker 256 cells. In the advanced stage of cancer pain (days 16-19 after surgery), normalized Nav1.8 mRNA levels assessed by real-time RT-PCR were significantly lower in ipsilateral L4/L5 DRG of tumor-bearing rats compared with the sham group. Western-blot showed that the total expression of Nav1.8 protein significantly decreased bilaterally in DRG of tumor-bearing rats. Furthermore, as revealed by immunofluorescence, only the expression of Nav1.8 protein in small neurons down regulated significantly in bilateral DRG of cancer pain rats. After administration of antisense ODNs against Nav1.8, Nav1.8 protein expression decreased significantly and tumor-bearing rats showed alleviated mechanical hyperalgesia and ambulatory-evoked pain. These

  8. Alterations caused by physical training in pulmonary edema and loss of muscle mass in rats with Walker-256 tumor Alterações promovidas pelo treinamento físico no edema pulmonar e perda de massa muscular em ratos portadores de tumor Walker-256

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Cecchini

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Walker-256 tumor is a fast-growing tumor and has been studied under several metabolic aspects associated or not to cachexia. It was observed in our laboratory that animals with Walker-256 tumor, after spontaneous death (usually around the fifteenth day, showed significant pulmonary edema with fluid in the pleural cavity. Some studies have suggested that physical training improves the survival of animals with tumor and minimizes the effects of cachexia. The purpose of our work was to assess the pulmonary edema index as well as the cardiac and skeletal muscle mass, besides the survival of rats with Walker-256 tumor submitted previously to physical training through swimming (N. For this study male Wistar rats (200 to 220 g were used, submitted to physical training through swimming (1 hour; 5 days a week, four weeks. One day after the training, sedentary rats (C or trained ones (N were submitted to inoculation on the right flank of 8 x 107 Walker-256 tumor cells (T. Immediately after spontaneous death of these animals, the pulmonary edema index (PEI, cardiac and skeletal muscle mass (gastrocnemius and soleus were evaluated. Pulmonary edema was evaluated through the index calculated by the relation between lung and body weights of each animal, and multiplied by 100 (PP/PC x 100 (LEE et al., 2001. Muscle mass (MM index was calculated similarly. In normal animals the PEI is equal to 0,53±0,02 (n=20. In tumor-bearing rats after spontaneous death the PEI was significantly higher (2,62±0,31, n=18. After the physical training in rats without tumor, the PEI was 0,55±0,03 (n=5. Whereas in tumor-bearing rats previously trained, it was obtained a pulmonary edema index lower than that of the control group with tumor (1,46±0,16, n=5; pO tumor Walker-256 é um carcinoma de crescimento rápido e tem sido estudado sob vários aspectos metabólicos, associados ou não, à caquexia. Foi observado, em nosso laboratório, que em animais portadores de tumor Walker

  9. The theory and experiment of very-long-wavelength 256×1 GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs quantum well infrared detector linear arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The 256×1 linear array of multiple quantum wells infrared photodetector (QWIP) is designed and fabricated for the peak response wavelength at λP=14.6 μm. The response spectral width is bigger than 2.2 μm. The two-dimensional (2D) diffractive coupling grating has been formed on the top QWIP photosensitive pixel for coupling the infrared radiation to the infrared detective layers. The performance of the device at VB=3 V and T=45 K has the responsibility 4.28×10-2 (A/W), the blackbody detectivity Db*=5.14×109 (cm·Hz1/2/W), and the peak detectivity Dλ*=4.24× 1010 (cm·Hz1/2/W). The sensor pixels are connected with CMOS read out circuit (ROC) hybridization by indium bumps. When integral time is 100 μs, the linear array has the effective pixel of QWIP FPA Nef of 99.2%, the average responsibility  (V/W) of 3.48×106 (V/W), the average peak detectivity Dλ* of 8.29×109 (cm·Hz1/2/W), and the non-uniformity UR of 5.83%. This device is ready for the thermal image application.

  10. Infections During Induction Therapy of Protocol CCLG-2008 in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Single-center Experience with 256 Cases in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Dan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infections remain a major cause of therapy-associated morbidity and mortality in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the medical charts of 256 children treated for ALL under the CCLG-2008 protocol in Beijing Children′s Hospital. Results: There were 65 infectious complications in 50 patients during vincristine, daunorubicin, L-asparaginase and dexamethasone induction therapy, including microbiologically documented infections (n = 12; 18.5%, clinically documented infections (n = 23; 35.3% and fever of unknown origin (n = 30; 46.2%. Neutropenia was present in 83.1% of the infectious episodes. In all, most infections occurred around the 15 th day of induction treatment (n = 28, and no patients died of infection-associated complications. Conclusions: The infections in this study was independent of treatment response, minimal residual diseases at the end of induction therapy, gender, immunophenotype, infection at first visit, risk stratification at diagnosis, unfavorable karyotypes at diagnosis and morphologic type. The infection rate of CCLG-2008 induction therapy is low, and the outcome of patients is favorable.

  11. Infections During Induction Therapy of Protocol CCLG-2008 in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Single-center Experience with 256 Cases in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-Dan Li; Yong-Bing Chen; Zhi-Gang Li; Run-Hui Wu; Mao-Quan Qin; Xuan Zhou; Jin Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Infections remain a major cause of therapy-associated morbidity and mortality in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).Methods:We retrospectively analyzed the medical charts of 256 children treated for ALL under the CCLG-2008 protocol in Beijing Children's Hospital.Results:There were 65 infectious complications in 50 patients during vincristine,daunorubicin,L-asparaginase and dexamethasone induction therapy,including microbiologically documented infections (n =12; 18.5%),clinically documented infections (n =23; 35.3%) and fever of unknown origin (n =30; 46.2%).Neutropenia was present in 83.1% of the infectious episodes.In all,most infections occurred around the 15t1h day of induction treatment (n =28),and no patients died of infection-associated complications.Conclusions:The infections in this study was independent of treatment response,minimal residual diseases at the end of induction therapy,gender,immunophenotype,infection at first visit,risk stratification at diagnosis,unfavorable karyotypes at diagnosis and morphologic type.The infection rate of CCLG-2008 induction therapy is low,and the outcome of patients is favorable.

  12. Molecular Dynamics Studies of the Kinetics of Phase Changes in Clusters IV: Crystal Nucleation from Molten (NaCl)256 and (NaCl)500 Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小华; 黄锦凡

    2003-01-01

    Molecular dynamics computer simulation based on the Born-Mayer-Huggins potential function has been carried out to study the effects of duster size and temperature on the nucleation rate of sodium chloride dusters in the temperature range of 580 K to 630 K. Clusters with 256 and 500 NaCl molecules have been studied and the results have been compared with those obtained from 108 molecule dusters. The melting point (MP) of the clusters were observed to increase with the size of the clusters and can be well described by a linear equation MP =1107(37)-1229(23)N-1/3(N is the number of molecules in the duster).The nucleation rate was found to decrease with increasing the duster size or temperature. Various nucleation theories have been used to interpret the nucleation rates obtained from this molecular dynamics simulation. It is possible to use a constant diffuse interface thickness to interpret the nucleation rate from the diffuse interface theory in the temperature range of this study. However, the interfacinl free energy estimated from classical nucleation theory and diffuse interface theory increases too fast with increasing the temperature while that from Gran-Gunton theory does not change with changing temperatures.The sizes of critical nuclei estimated from all the theories are smaller than those estimated from our simulations.

  13. Flexible non-volatile optical memory thin-film transistor device with over 256 distinct levels based on an organic bicomponent blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leydecker, Tim; Herder, Martin; Pavlica, Egon; Bratina, Gvido; Hecht, Stefan; Orgiu, Emanuele; Samorì, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    Organic nanomaterials are attracting a great deal of interest for use in flexible electronic applications such as logic circuits, displays and solar cells. These technologies have already demonstrated good performances, but flexible organic memories are yet to deliver on all their promise in terms of volatility, operational voltage, write/erase speed, as well as the number of distinct attainable levels. Here, we report a multilevel non-volatile flexible optical memory thin-film transistor based on a blend of a reference polymer semiconductor, namely poly(3-hexylthiophene), and a photochromic diarylethene, switched with ultraviolet and green light irradiation. A three-terminal device featuring over 256 (8 bit storage) distinct current levels was fabricated, the memory states of which could be switched with 3 ns laser pulses. We also report robustness over 70 write-erase cycles and non-volatility exceeding 500 days. The device was implemented on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate, validating the concept for integration into wearable electronics and smart nanodevices.

  14. 256层ICT探测冠状动脉钙化在不稳定心绞痛与稳定心绞痛患者中的对比%Detection of Coronary Artery Calcification Score and Compare it in Patients Diagnosed Clinically as Stable and Unstable Angina by 256 ICT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱大光

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨256层ICT在探测冠状动脉钙化积分中的意义。方法:采用256层ICT对2组患者进行冠状动脉钙化积分扫描,钙化积分由工作站软件自动获得,132例患者分为2组,55例稳定心绞痛,77不例稳定心绞痛。结果:不稳定心绞痛患者的钙化积分要显著大于稳定心绞痛患者(p<0.05),不稳定心绞痛患者的血管钙化数目要明显多于稳定心绞痛组。结论:不稳定心绞痛患者的钙化更明显,因此预测冠状动脉情况冠状动脉钙化积分可以作为重要指标。%Objective:To detect Coronary calcification score and compare it in patients diagnosed clinically of having stable and unsta -ble angina and they being more prone for cardiovascular risk .Methods:Coronary artery calcification was scanned and its scores ( CACS) were measured through 256-slice ICT in 132 patients diagnosed of having stable and unstable angina .(55 stable and 77 unstable angi-na).the result were analyzed statistically by 2-grouped test.Also some associated risk factors were also taken into concideraton (HTN, total cholesterol ,Triglycerides etc ) .Results:The calcification scores in patients with unstable angina were comparatively more than those with patients having stable angina (p<0.05).Also it found that 3-vesssel calcification was more significant with unstable angina ,where as 1-vesssel calcification was more significant with stable angina cases .Conclusion:Coronary artery calcification scores is of great value in predicting cardiovascular enets .

  15. Feasibility of low tube voltage and low volume contrast medium protocol in cerebral and carotid angiography with 256-slice CT%采用低管电压技术和低剂量对比剂行256层 螺旋 CT 头颈部动脉成像的可行性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡莹莹; 孙宏亮; 王玉丽; 王武

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of low tube voltage and low volume contrast medium protocol for cerebral and carotid CTA with 256-slice spiral CT scanner. Methods Totally 60 patients underwent cerebral and carotid CTA were included. Patients were randomly divided into three groups (A, B, C group) , consisted of a voltage of 120, 120, 100 kV, and contrast medium of 70, 50, 50 ml, respectively. Image quality, segmental vascular enhancement,venous enhancement and artifacts as well as the radiation dose values were independently evaluated in 3 groups. Results ①There was no significant difference of image quality of the cerebral and carotid arteries except for the right subclavian artery among 3 groups. ② The CT value in group C was the highest, and that in group B was the lowest, there were statistical differences among 3 groups on CT values of arteries (all P0. 05) . The radiation dose in group A and B were significantly higher than that in group C (both P0. 05). Conclusion Using 256-slice CT scanner, low tube voltage and low volume contrast medium protocol for cerebral and carotid CTA can result in high quality images which can meet clinical diagnostic needs.%目的 探讨采用低管电压技术和低剂量对比剂进行256层螺旋CT头颈部动脉检查的可行性.方法 将60例接受头颈部CTA检查的患者随机分为A、B、C组,管电压和对比剂用量分别为120 kV、70 ml,120 kV、50 ml,100 kV、50ml,对比分析图像质量、血管增强情况、静脉伪影及辐射剂量.结果 ①除右侧锁骨下动脉外,各主要动脉节段影像评分三组间差异无统计学意义;②B组血管CT值最低,C组最高,3组间差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.05);③A组静脉伪影较B组、C组明显(P均<0.05),B组与C组间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).A、B组辐射剂量高于C组(P均<0.05),A组与B组间差异无统计学意义(P均>0.05).结论 采用低管电压、低剂量对比剂进行头颈部256层螺旋CTA可获得较

  16. 个体化对比剂注射方案在256层CT冠状动脉成像中的应用%Application of the individual protocol of contrast medium injection in coronary angiography by 256-slice CT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹希明; 黄美萍; 郑君惠; 巫梓斌; 温孟皇

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨个体化对比剂注射方案在256层CT冠状动脉成像中的应用价值.方法 100例临床怀疑冠心病需接受冠状动脉CT(CTA)检查者,按照对比剂注射方案个体化原则,对比剂总量(ml)=患者体重(kg),对比剂流率ml/s=对比剂总量/(扫描时间+8)ml/s,同样流率追加30ml生理盐水}进行冠脉CTA检查,测量升主动脉根部左冠开口处CT值并对冠状动脉的显示进行评分,分析对比剂注射方案个体化的可行性.结果 按照个体化对比剂注射方案行冠脉CTA检查后,100例检查者升主动脉根部左冠开口处平均强化程度为(420.19±56.59) HU,冠状动脉显示评分得3分比例为88.78%,得2分比例为11.22%,无得1分者.结论 个体化对比剂注射方案在256层CT冠状动脉成像中具有良好的应用价值.%Objective To investigate the application value of individual protocol of contrast medium injection in coronary angiography by 256-slice CT. Methods 100 subjects with clinically suspected coronary disease underwent coronary artery CT inspection, according to the individual principle of contrast agent injection plan, that is, total amount of contrast agent (ml) equals to patients body weight (kg), discharge rate of contrast agent (ml/s) equals to total amount of contrast agent /(trace time +8) ml/s, and 30 ml physiological saline is supplemented if the discharge rate is similar. Subsequently, the CT value of left crown jaw opening in ascending aorta root was measured and the coronary artery's demonstration was graded so as to analyze the feasibility of individual plan of contrast agent injection. Results After the CTA inspection via the individuation of contrast agent injection plan, the mean strengthening degree of left crown jaw opening in ascending aorta root of these 100 patients was (420. 19±56. 59) HU. The coronary artery demonstrated scale was 3 in 88. 78%, 2 in 11. 22%, and 1 in none. Conclusion Individuation of contrast media injection protocol

  17. Inhibitory Effects of 99 Tc-MDP Injection on Bone Invasion by Walker256 Carcinoma in Rats%99锝亚甲基二膦酸盐对Walker256癌荷瘤大鼠骨侵袭的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英茂; 张锦明; 田嘉禾; 姚树林; 丁为民

    2003-01-01

    目的:研究99锝亚甲基二膦酸盐(99Tc-MDP)注射液对大鼠骨侵袭的抑制作用.方法:建立Walker256癌荷瘤大鼠模型.分空白对照组、骨膦对照组及99Tc-MDP 8,4,2,1 mg 4个剂量组.腹腔内注射药物10 d后,处死大鼠取瘤组织称重,剥离左、右腿胫骨称重,摄胫骨X线片,作组织切片.结果:与对照组比较:99Tc-MDP 8和4 mg组及骨膦对照组对减轻荷瘤侧胫骨增重及骨侵袭程度均差异有显著性(P<0.05);99Tc-MDP 8和4 mg组与骨膦对照组相比差异无显著性(P>0.05);99Tc-MDP 2和1 mg组对癌细胞骨侵袭的抑制作用均差异无显著性(P>0.05).结论:99Tc-MDP及骨膦注射液对Walker256癌荷瘤大鼠均有抑制癌细胞骨侵袭的作用;在抑制程度上,骨膦注射液与99Tc-MDP作用相当;99Tc-MDP 4个剂量组的抑制程度与剂量呈正相关.

  18. The hemolytic component of cancer anemia: effects of osmotic and metabolic stress on the erythrocytes of rats bearing multifocal inoculations of the Walker 256 tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vido A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer anemia is classified as an anemia of chronic diseases, although it is sometimes the first symptom of cancer. Cancer anemia includes a hemolytic component, important in the terminal stage when even transfused cells are rapidly destroyed. The presence of a chronic component and the terminal complications of the illness limit studies of the hemolytic component. A multifocal model of tumor growth was used here to simulate the terminal metastatic dissemination stage (several simultaneous inoculations of Walker 256 cells. The hemolytic component of anemia began 3-4 days after inoculation in 100% of the rats and progressed rapidly thereafter: Hb levels dropped from 14.9 ± 0.02 to 8.7 ± 0.06 from days 7 to 11 (~5 times the physiologically normal rate in rats in the absence of bleeding. The development of anemia was correlated (r2 = 0.86 with the development of other systemic effects such as anorexia. There was a significant decrease in the osmotic fragility of circulating erythrocytes: the NaCl concentration causing 50% lysis was reduced from 4.52 ± 0.06 to 4.10 ± 0.01 (P<0.01 on day 7, indicating a reduction in erythrocyte volume. However, with mild metabolic stress (4-h incubation at 37oC, the erythrocytes showed a greater increase in osmotic fragility than the controls, suggesting marked alteration of erythrocyte homeostasis. These effects may be due to primary plasma membrane alterations (transport and/or permeability and/or may be secondary to metabolic changes. This multifocal model is adequate for studying the hemolytic component of cancer anemia since it is rapid, highly reproducible and causes minimal animal suffering.

  19. Uncaria tomentosa exerts extensive anti-neoplastic effects against the Walker-256 tumour by modulating oxidative stress and not by alkaloid activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Alejandro Dreifuss

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the anti-neoplastic effects of an Uncaria tomentosa (UT brute hydroethanolic (BHE extract with those of two fractions derived from it. These fractions are choroformic (CHCl3 and n-butanolic (BuOH, rich in pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids (POA and antioxidant substances, respectively. The cancer model was the subcutaneous inoculation of Walker-256 tumour cells in the pelvic limb of male Wistar rat. Subsequently to the inoculation, gavage with BHE extract (50 mg.kg(-1 or its fractions (as per the yield of the fractioning process or vehicle (Control was performed during 14 days. Baseline values, corresponding to individuals without tumour or treatment with UT, were also included. After treatment, tumour volume and mass, plasma biochemistry, oxidative stress in liver and tumour, TNF-α level in liver and tumour homogenates, and survival rates were analysed. Both the BHE extract and its BuOH fraction successfully reduced tumour weight and volume, and modulated anti-oxidant systems. The hepatic TNF-α level indicated a greater effect from the BHE extract as compared to its BuOH fraction. Importantly, both the BHE extract and its BuOH fraction increased the survival time of the tumour-bearing animals. Inversely, the CHCl3 fraction was ineffective. These data represent an in vivo demonstration of the importance of the modulation of oxidative stress as part of the anti-neoplastic activity of UT, as well as constitute evidence of the lack of activity of isolated POAs in the primary tumour of this tumour lineage. These effects are possibly resulting from a synergic combination of substances, most of them with antioxidant properties.

  20. Uncaria tomentosa exerts extensive anti-neoplastic effects against the Walker-256 tumour by modulating oxidative stress and not by alkaloid activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreifuss, Arturo Alejandro; Bastos-Pereira, Amanda Leite; Fabossi, Isabella Aviles; Lívero, Francislaine Aparecida Dos Reis; Stolf, Aline Maria; Alves de Souza, Carlos Eduardo; Gomes, Liana de Oliveira; Constantin, Rodrigo Polimeni; Furman, Aline Emmer Ferreira; Strapasson, Regiane Lauriano Batista; Teixeira, Simone; Zampronio, Aleksander Roberto; Muscará, Marcelo Nicolás; Stefanello, Maria Elida Alves; Acco, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the anti-neoplastic effects of an Uncaria tomentosa (UT) brute hydroethanolic (BHE) extract with those of two fractions derived from it. These fractions are choroformic (CHCl3) and n-butanolic (BuOH), rich in pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids (POA) and antioxidant substances, respectively. The cancer model was the subcutaneous inoculation of Walker-256 tumour cells in the pelvic limb of male Wistar rat. Subsequently to the inoculation, gavage with BHE extract (50 mg.kg(-1)) or its fractions (as per the yield of the fractioning process) or vehicle (Control) was performed during 14 days. Baseline values, corresponding to individuals without tumour or treatment with UT, were also included. After treatment, tumour volume and mass, plasma biochemistry, oxidative stress in liver and tumour, TNF-α level in liver and tumour homogenates, and survival rates were analysed. Both the BHE extract and its BuOH fraction successfully reduced tumour weight and volume, and modulated anti-oxidant systems. The hepatic TNF-α level indicated a greater effect from the BHE extract as compared to its BuOH fraction. Importantly, both the BHE extract and its BuOH fraction increased the survival time of the tumour-bearing animals. Inversely, the CHCl3 fraction was ineffective. These data represent an in vivo demonstration of the importance of the modulation of oxidative stress as part of the anti-neoplastic activity of UT, as well as constitute evidence of the lack of activity of isolated POAs in the primary tumour of this tumour lineage. These effects are possibly resulting from a synergic combination of substances, most of them with antioxidant properties.

  1. Efeito da suplementação com óleo de peixe sobre a expressão Gênica de Cox-2 em ratos portadores de tumor de Walker 256

    OpenAIRE

    Borghetti, Gina

    2010-01-01

    Resumo: Evidencias epidemiologicas e experimentais tem demonstrado o potencial farmacologico e o valor nutricional de uma dieta enriquecida com oleo de peixe. Estudos previos do Laboratorio de Metabolismo Celular, UFPR, demonstraram que o oleo de peixe, rico em AGPI n-3, e capaz de reduzir o crescimento tumoral e o grau de caquexia em ratos portadores de tumor de Walker 256. Apesar de inumeras pesquisas sobre a eficacia dos AGPI n-3 no tratamento de doencas inflamatorias, muitos mecanismos mo...

  2. Iterative model reconstruction: Improved image quality of low-tube-voltage prospective ECG-gated coronary CT angiography images at 256-slice CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Seitaro, E-mail: seisei0430@nifty.com [Department of Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, 110 Irving Street, NW, Washington, DC 20010 (United States); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjyo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, 860-8556 (Japan); Weissman, Gaby, E-mail: Gaby.Weissman@medstar.net [Department of Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, 110 Irving Street, NW, Washington, DC 20010 (United States); Vembar, Mani, E-mail: mani.vembar@philips.com [CT Clinical Science, Philips Healthcare, c595 Miner Road, Cleveland, OH 44143 (United States); Weigold, Wm. Guy, E-mail: Guy.Weigold@MedStar.net [Department of Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, 110 Irving Street, NW, Washington, DC 20010 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of a new model-based type of iterative reconstruction (M-IR) technique, the iterative model reconstruction, on image quality of prospectively gated coronary CT angiography (CTA) acquired at low-tube-voltage. Methods: Thirty patients (16 men, 14 women; mean age 52.2 ± 13.2 years) underwent coronary CTA at 100-kVp on a 256-slice CT. Paired image sets were created using 3 types of reconstruction, i.e. filtered back projection (FBP), a hybrid type of iterative reconstruction (H-IR), and M-IR. Quantitative parameters including CT-attenuation, image noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were measured. The visual image quality, i.e. graininess, beam-hardening, vessel sharpness, and overall image quality, was scored on a 5-point scale. Lastly, coronary artery segments were evaluated using a 4-point scale to investigate the assessability of each segment. Results: There was no significant difference in coronary arterial CT attenuation among the 3 reconstruction methods. The mean image noise of FBP, H-IR, and M-IR images was 29.3 ± 9.6, 19.3 ± 6.9, and 12.9 ± 3.3 HU, respectively, there were significant differences for all comparison combinations among the 3 methods (p < 0.01). The CNR of M-IR was significantly better than of FBP and H-IR images (13.5 ± 5.0 [FBP], 20.9 ± 8.9 [H-IR] and 39.3 ± 13.9 [M-IR]; p < 0.01). The visual scores were significantly higher for M-IR than the other images (p < 0.01), and 95.3% of the coronary segments imaged with M-IR were of assessable quality compared with 76.7% of FBP- and 86.9% of H-IR images. Conclusions: M-IR can provide significantly improved qualitative and quantitative image quality in prospectively gated coronary CTA using a low-tube-voltage.

  3. 可兼容AES-128、AES-192、AES-256串行AES加密解密电路设计%Compatible AES-128、AES-192、AES-256 Serial AES Encryption and Decryption Circuit Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩少男; 李晓江

    2010-01-01

    通过分析AES算法的基本原理,对算法中的AES-128、AES-192、AES-256三种不同的加密解密模式进行了综合设计,有效地利用了公共模块,与单个分别实施各个加密解密模式相比,大大减少了硬件电路面积.针对目前AES实现方法中的key产生模块进行了理论分析,提出了一种新的实现电路结构.设计出的串行AES硬件加密解密电路经综合后得到的芯片面积为31 286门,最高工作频率为66MHz,可以满足目前的大部分无线传感网络的数据交换速率的需求.

  4. 256层螺旋计算机断层摄影术对右心耳及其毗邻形态结构的定量研究%Quantitative Study for Morphological Structure and Parameter of Right Atrial Appendage By 256-slice Spiral Computed Tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘彤; 李彩英; 刘晓伟; 杨海庆; 尹兰英; 廖琦彬

    2016-01-01

    目的:采用256层螺旋计算机断层摄影术(MSCT)对右心耳及其毗邻的形态结构进行定量研究,为右心耳临床介入和外科治疗提供影像学依据。方法:回顾性分析我院行计算机断层摄影术血管造影(CTA)检查结果阴性者200例,男96例,女104例,60岁者57例。将原始扫描数据进行右心耳重建,对右心耳容积及径线等参数进行测量,并从性别和年龄方面进行比较,提出右心耳各参数95%正常参考值范围。结果:(1)右心耳容积、高度、基底部长径、基底部周长、正位展距男性均大于女性,差异均有统计学意义(P均60岁者大(P60岁者间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。(3)提出右心耳各参数95%正常参考值范围:容积4.83~19.97 ml、高度21.46~41.80 mm、基底部长径25.89~41.65 mm、基底部短径19.34~36.24 mm、基底部面积459.30~1093.28 mm2、基底部周长86.16~147.04 mm、正位展角1.67°~31.23°、正位展距8.07~34.37 mm。结论:256层MSCT可以对右心耳解剖结构相关参数进行定量研究,并初步建立右心耳各参数95%正常参考值范围,为临床治疗右心耳相关疾病提供影像学参考。%Objective: To quantitatively study the morphological structure and parameter of right atrial appendage (RAA) by 256-slice spiral CT to provide RAA imaging reference for interventional or surgical therapy in clinical practice. Methods: A total of 200 patients with negative CTA results examined in our hospital were studied including 96 male and 104 female; by age division, Age≤40 years group,n=29, Age (40-60) years group,n=114 and Age>60 years group,n=57. The original scanning data was reconstructed for RAA establishment, indexes of volume, radial lines were measured and compared between different gender and age groups to obtain 95% normal imaging references of RAA. Results:①The volume, height, basilar part circumference, anteroposterior spread of RAA

  5. Survey of potential markets for devices using Californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential applications for devices or systems containing 252Cf in the years from 1975 to 1980 are estimated. The estimated number of devices and associated business value were derived from a survey of 46 industrial, educational and governmental organizations conducted from Jan. to May, 1975. Applications for devices and systems based on 252Cf are expected to increase by a factor of 7 in the 6-y period from 1975 to 1980. The annual business value of 252Cf devices should increase from 1.5 million dollars in 1975 to 10.8 million dollars in 1980. The potential European market should be several times as large as the US market, based on actual sales of 252Cf, which have been two to four times greater in Europe than in the US

  6. Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacMurdo, K.W.; Bowman, W.W.

    1978-09-01

    A 100-mg /sup 252/Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from /sup 17/O. Detection sensitivities of < or = 400 ppB for natural uranium and 8 ppB (< or = 0.5 (nCi/g)) for /sup 239/Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level.

  7. Californium-252 neutron activation facility at the Savannah River Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron irradiation facility has been established to develop new analytical methods and for the support of research programs. A major component of this facility is a 252Cf source which provides both fission spectrum and thermal neutrons. (U.S.)

  8. Role of electrostatics at the catalytic metal binding site in xylose isomerase action: Ca(2+)-inhibition and metal competence in the double mutant D254E/D256E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuxreiter, M; Böcskei, Z; Szeibert, A; Szabó, E; Dallmann, G; Naray-Szabo, G; Asboth, B

    1997-06-01

    The catalytic metal binding site of xylose isomerase from Arthrobacter B3728 was modified by protein engineering to diminish the inhibitory effect of Ca2+ and to study the competence of metals on catalysis. To exclude Ca2+ from Site 2 a double mutant D254E/D256E was designed with reduced space available for binding. In order to elucidate structural consequences of the mutation the binary complex of the mutant with Mg2+ as well as ternary complexes with bivalent metal ions and the open-chain inhibitor xylitol were crystallized for x-ray studies. We determined the crystal structures of the ternary complexes containing Mg2+, Mn2+, and Ca2+ at 2.2 to 2.5 A resolutions, and refined them to R factors of 16.3, 16.6, and 19.1, respectively. We found that all metals are liganded by both engineered glutamates as well as by atoms O1 and O2 of the inhibitor. The similarity of the coordination of Ca2+ to that of the cofactors as well as results with Be2+ weaken the assumption that geometry differences should account for the catalytic noncompetence of this ion. Kinetic results of the D254E/D256E mutant enzyme showed that the significant decrease in Ca2+ inhibition was accompanied by a similar reduction in the enzymatic activity. Qualitative argumentation, based on the protein electrostatic potential, indicates that the proximity of the negative side chains to the substrate significantly reduces the electrostatic stabilization of the transition state. Furthermore, due to the smaller size of the catalytic metal site, no water molecule, coordinating the metal, could be observed in ternary complexes of the double mutant. Consequently, the proton shuttle step in the overall mechanism should differ from that in the wild type. These effects can account for the observed decrease in catalytic efficiency of the D254E/D256E mutant enzyme. PMID:9188736

  9. Whole-brain perfusion imaging and angiography performed with 256-slice CTin evaluation of cerebrovascular reserve capacity in unilateral carotid artery stenosis%256层CT全脑灌注成像联合CTA评估单侧颈动脉狭窄的脑血管储备能力的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐健; 常军; 侯海燕; 姜旭栋; 堵红群; 姜建威

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the value of combination of whole-brain perfusion imaging and CTA in evaluating cerebrovascular reserve capacity in unilateral carotid artery stenosis. Methods Twenty-seven patients with unilateral carotid artery stenosis of ≥50% were divided into 2 groups according to CTA results: carotid moderate stenosis groupfcarotid stenosis of 50%-69%, group A) and carotid severe stenosis or occlusion group(carotid stenosis of ≥70% , group B). The relative cerebral blood volume(rCBV) , the relative cerebral blood folw(rCBF) , the difference in mean transit time(dMTT) and the difference in time to peak(dTTP) in bilateral temporal white matter and gray matter supplied by middle cerebral artery were measured and calculated. CTA was used to assess the configuration of the circle of Willis and if primary collaterals were patent. Differences in perfusion parameters between group A and group B, and between patients with patent primary collaterals or not were determined by using one way ANOVA test. Results There were statistical differences in rCBV, rCBF, dMTT and dTTP between two groups in white matter. Statistical difference of dMTT and dTTP was found between two groups in gray matter. There was significant increase in dTTP in the group B of the patients without patent primary collaterals. Conclusion Combined whole-brain perfusion imaging and CTA is a good way to evaluate cerebrovascular reserve capacity in unilateral carotid artery stenosis, and to provide a reliable method for choice of clinic treatments.%目的 探讨256层CT全脑灌注成像联合CTA评估单侧颈动脉狭窄的脑血管储备能力的价值.方法 单侧颈动脉狭窄≥50%的患者27例,根据CTA结果 按颈动脉狭窄程度划分为第一组中度狭窄组(血管阻塞50%~69%)和第二组重度狭窄或闭塞组(血管阻塞≥70%).测量并计算2组大脑中动脉供血区的白质和灰质的相对脑血容量(relative cerebral blood volume,r

  10. 低剂量256排螺旋 CT肺灌注扫描对非小细胞肺癌化疗疗效的评估%Evaluation of Low-dose 256 Spiral CT Lung Perfusion Scan for the Efficacy of Chemo-therapy for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒圣捷; 王全; 周航; 刘白鹭; 李大庆; 李里; 娄阁; 王梓鹏

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨低剂量256排螺旋CT肺灌注扫描对非小细胞肺癌化疗疗效的评估意义。方法对45例晚期非小细胞肺癌患者,在化疗前和化疗后40天分别进行CT灌注扫描。计算表面通透性( permeability surface,PS)、血流量(blood flow,BF)、血容量(blood volume,BV)和平均通过时间(mean transit time,MTT)、达峰时间(time to peak)。用RE-CIST( Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors)标准测量和比较化疗前后灌注值的均数间的差异。结果 Pearson相关检验结果显示BV和BF呈显著相关性(γ=0.48,P=0.001),达峰时间与PS相关(γ=0.31,P=0.04)、与血流量相关(γ=20.66,P,0.001)、与血容量相关(γ=20.39,P=0.007)。缓解组患者的BF、BV和PS高于其他组患者。结论 CT灌注成像可以评价晚期非小细胞肺癌患者化疗前后的血管生成,进而评估疗效。%Objective To explore the evaluation of the low-dose 256 spiral CT lung perfusion scan for the efficacy of chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer( NSCLC) .Methods 45 advanced NSCLC patients undergone CT perfusion scan be-fore chemotherapy and 40 days after chemotherapy respectively.To calculate the permeability surface (PS),blood flow (BF), blood volume ( BV) and mean transit time ( MTT) ,and time to peak.RECIST standard was used for measuring and calculating the difference of the mean perfusion value before and after chemotherapy.Results Pearson correlation test results showed that the BV and BF had significant correlation(γ=0.48,P=0.001),and time to peak was related with PS(γ=0.31,P=0.04),blood flow(γ=20.66,P=0.001),and blood volume(γ=20.39,P=0.007).BF,BV,and PS of ease group were higher than the other patients.Conclusion CT perfusion imaging can evaluate angiogenesis in patients with advanced NSCLC before and after chemo-therapy,and assess the efficacy.

  11. Comparative analysis of 256-slice CT angiography and 3D digital subtraction angiography in the diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms%256层螺旋CT三维血管成像与三维DSA诊断颅内动脉瘤的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张政; 韩剑虹; 李迎春; 曹毅; 朱剑萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the values of 256-slice CT angiography (3D-CTA) and 3D digital subtraction angiography (3D-DSA) in the diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms. Methods Forty-six patients whose clinical manifestations were highly suspected as subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) or suspected as aneurysms on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) were analyzed retrospectively. Both head 3D-CTA and 3D-DSA were performed in all the patients. Two radiologists independently interpreted the 3D-DSA images of all the patients using double blind method, and the 3D-DSA was interpreted and judged by a neurologist and a radiologist. With the number of aneurysms detected by 3D-DSA as the standard, the sensitivity and specificity of 3D-CTA as well as the consistency of the number of aneurysms detected between the two 3D-CTA readers and between 3D-CTA and 3D-DSA techniques were assessed. In the measurement of the maximum diameter of aneurysms, the measured values of 3D-DSA images were used as thestandard to compare the differences of the maximum diameter of aneurysms in the 3D-CTA VR images between the two 3D-CTA readers and to compare those between the 3D-CTA VR images and the 3D-DSA images. Results Among the 46 patients, 3D-DSA revealed 49 aneurysms in 37 patients and no aneurysm was revealed in the remaining 9 patients. ①The sensitivity and specificity of 3D-CTA in detecting the number of intracranial aneurysms were 91.8% -93.9% and 77. 8% - 100% respectively. ②As for the aneurysms less than 3 mm, the sensitivity were 83. 3% and specificity of 3D-CTA were 77. 8% -100% respectively. ③From the aspect of the detection rate of aneurysms, the consistency was high between the 3D-CTA readers and between the techniques of 3D-CTA and 3D-DSA( k =0.730 and k =0.686 -0.777 respective-ly) . ④The maximum diameter of aneurysms detected with CTA and the measured values of DSA, as well as the measured values of CTA between the two doctors had a high correlation ( r = 0.996, all P < 0

  12. The Value of Diagnosing Rabbit VX2 Peritoneal Implantation Metastasis Tumor by 256 Line CT JOG-H Perfusion Scan%256排CT JOG-H模式灌注扫描诊断兔VX2腹膜腔移植瘤的诊断价值评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟元涛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of diagnosing rabbit VX2 peritoneal implantation metastasis tumor by 256 line CT JOG-H perfusion scan. Method The rabbits were induced into tumor models by injecting suspended particle, then CT perfusion scan were used to scan the abdomen of rabbit model. Pathological result was taken as gold standard to evaluate CT perfusion scan.Results CT perfusion scan was superior than CT enhanced scan in detecting the metastatic tumor less than 10mm,10-20 mm by CT enhanced scan.Conclusion CT perfusion scan was superior than CT enhanced scan in detecting the metastatic tumor less than 20 mm. In the focus greater than 20 mm, CT perfusion scan was equal to CT enhanced scan .%目的:评估CT灌注对腹腔内移植瘤的诊断价值。方法制作兔VX2腹膜腔移植瘤模型,对瘤兔腹部进行CT灌注扫描获得影像学结果,以病理结果为金标准评价CT增强加CT灌注的诊断价值。结果在对<10 mm及对10~20 mm的腹腔种植瘤进行扫描对于病灶检出能力CT增强加CT灌注扫描要优于单纯CT增强扫描。结论对于20 mm以下的病灶CT增强加CT灌注扫描检出能力在敏感度、特异度、准确度方面优于单纯CT增强,而对于>20 mm的病灶CT增强与CT增强加CT灌注检出结果相同均与病理结果一致。

  13. Automated threshold-based segmentation method versus Simpson method for assessment of left ventricular function with 256 iCT%256 iCT辛普森法及自动阈值分割法在左心室功能定量评估中的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨全; 张翱; 李雪娇; 马进; 王兴兰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of automated threshold-based segmentation method in compari-son with Simpson method for measurement of left ventricular (LV) function in Philips 256 iCT. Methods Forty eight patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease underwent coronary CT angiography. End-systolic volume (ESV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF) and left ventricular myocardial mass (LVMM) at end diastole were post-processed separately by Simpson method and automated threshold-based segmenta-tion method. Statistical methods used included paired t test, Person correlation analysis and Bland-Altman analysis. Results Automated threshold-based segmentation method had significant correlation with Simpson method for mea-surement of left ventricular function, and the r values of ESV, EDV, SV, EF, LVMM were 0.996, 0.998, 0.982, 0.986, 0.988, respectively. Bland-Altman analysis showed that the mean difference of ESV, EDV, SV, EF, LVMM between Simpson method and automated threshold-based segmentation method were 1.4 ml, 3.2 ml, 1.8 ml, 0.0%,-10.3 g. Comparison of Simpson method, automated threshold-based segmentation method and echocardiography showed EF value with P>0.05 and SV value with P0.05,SV值<0.01。结论 iCT测量左心室功能无创、准确、可靠,Simpson法、Threshold-Based Segmentation法测量左心功能具有较好的一致性,临床上推荐采用Simpson法进行心脏功能评估。

  14. Complete Circular Genome Sequence of Successful ST8/SCCmecIV Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (OC8) in Russia: One-Megabase Genomic Inversion, IS256’s Spread, and Evolution of Russia ST8-IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Tsai-Wen; Higuchi, Wataru; Hung, Wei-Chun; Reva, Ivan V.; Singur, Olga A.; Gostev, Vladimir V.; Sidorenko, Sergey V.; Peryanova, Olga V.; Salmina, Alla B.; Reva, Galina V.; Teng, Lee-Jene; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    ST8/SCCmecIV community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has been a common threat, with large USA300 epidemics in the United States. The global geographical structure of ST8/SCCmecIV has not yet been fully elucidated. We herein determined the complete circular genome sequence of ST8/SCCmecIVc strain OC8 from Siberian Russia. We found that 36.0% of the genome was inverted relative to USA300. Two IS256, oppositely oriented, at IS256-enriched hot spots were implicated with the one-megabase genomic inversion (MbIN) and vSaβ split. The behavior of IS256 was flexible: its insertion site (att) sequences on the genome and junction sequences of extrachromosomal circular DNA were all divergent, albeit with fixed sizes. A similar multi-IS256 system was detected, even in prevalent ST239 healthcare-associated MRSA in Russia, suggesting IS256’s strong transmission potential and advantage in evolution. Regarding epidemiology, all ST8/SCCmecIVc strains from European, Siberian, and Far Eastern Russia, examined had MbIN, and geographical expansion accompanied divergent spa types and resistance to fluoroquinolones, chloramphenicol, and often rifampicin. Russia ST8/SCCmecIVc has been associated with life-threatening infections such as pneumonia and sepsis in both community and hospital settings. Regarding virulence, the OC8 genome carried a series of toxin and immune evasion genes, a truncated giant surface protein gene, and IS256 insertion adjacent to a pan-regulatory gene. These results suggest that unique single ST8/spa1(t008)/SCCmecIVc CA-MRSA (clade, Russia ST8-IVc) emerged in Russia, and this was followed by large geographical expansion, with MbIN as an epidemiological marker, and fluoroquinolone resistance, multiple virulence factors, and possibly a multi-IS256 system as selective advantages. PMID:27741255

  15. Predictive factors for acute symptomatic esophagitis in 256 patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy%256例局部晚期NSCLC患者IMRT后急性症状性食管炎预测因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙帅; 肖泽芬; 吕纪马; 王小震; 张福泉; 殷蔚伯; 王绿化; 王静波; 吉喆; 陈辛元; 毕楠; 周宗玫; 冯勤付; 惠周光; 梁军

    2015-01-01

    目的:探索局部晚期NSCLC患者IMRT后急性症状性食管炎的发生率及相关预测因素。方法2007—2011年间在本院治疗的256例未手术的Ⅲ期NSCLC患者。放疗靶区包括原发肺肿瘤及受累淋巴引流区,中位剂量为60 Gy分30次(50~70 Gy)。109例(42.6%)接受同期化疗。放疗期间及放疗结束后3个月内出现≥2级急性食管炎(症状性食管炎)作为终点事件,采用CTCAE3.0评估急性食管炎级别。采用Logistic回归模型对预测因素进行分析。结果174例患者(68%)出现治疗相关的≥2级急性食管炎,其中154例(60.2%)为2级、20例(7.8%)为3级。≥2级急性食管炎发生时的中位剂量为30 Gy (11~68 Gy)。食管V5—V60、食管平均剂量及年龄是≥2级急性食管炎的预测因素(P=0.021、0、0.010),其中高龄是保护性因素;食管V50—V60、同期化疗、体重指数是≥3级急性食管炎的预测因素(P=0.010、0.003、0.019),其中高体重指数是保护性因素。结论局部晚期NSCLC患者IMRT后食管V50—V60和同期化疗是≥3级急性食管炎的预测因素,食管V50对预测≥2级、≥3级急性食管炎都有较高价值。%Objective To explore the incidence and related predictive factors for acute symptomatic esophagitis in patients with locally advanced non⁃small cell lung cancer ( NSCLC ) treated with intensity⁃modulated radiation therapy ( IMRT) . Methods Data were collected retrospectively from 256 patients with inoperable or unresectable stage Ⅲ NSCLC treated in our hospital between January 2007 and December 2011. The radiotherapy target volume included primary lung cancer and lymphatic drainage area involved,with a median dose of 60 Gy in 30 fractions (50-70 Gy).Of all the patients,109 patients (42.6%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Grade ≥2 acute esophagitis ( AE ) ( symptomatic esophagitis ) which occurred during radiotherapy

  16. Novel Nonsense Variants c.58C>T (p.Q20X) and c.256G>T (p.E85X) in the CHEK2 Gene Identified dentified in Breast Cancer Patients from Balochistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Abdul Hameed; Khosa, Ahmad Nawaz; Bangulzai, Nasrullah; Shuja, Jamila; Naseeb, Hafiz Khush; Jan, Mohammad; Marghazani, Illahi Bakhsh; Kakar, Masood-Ul-Haq; Baloch, Dost Mohammad; Cheema, Abdul Majeed; Ahmad, Jamil

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly occurring and leading cause of cancer deaths among women globally. Hereditary cases account 5-10% of all the cases and CHEK2 is considered as a moderate penetrance breast cancer risk gene. CHEK2 plays a crucial role in response to DNA damage to promote cell cycle arrest and repair DNA damage or induce apoptosis. Our objective in the current study was to analyze mutations in the CHEK2 gene related to breast cancer in Balochistan. A total of 271 individuals including breast cancer patients and normal subjects were enrolled. All 14 exons of CHEK2 were amplified and sequenced. The majority of the patients (>95%) had invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs), 52.1% were diagnosed with tumor grade III and 56.1% and 27.5% were diagnosed with advance stages III and IV. Two novel nonsense variants i.e. c.58C>T (P.Q20X) and c.256G>T (p.E85X) at exon 1 and 2 in two breast cancer patients were identified in the current study. Both the variants identified were novel and have not been reported elsewhere.

  17. Novel Nonsense Variants c.58C>T (p.Q20X) and c.256G>T (p.E85X) in the CHEK2 Gene Identified in Breast Cancer Patients from Balochistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Abdul Hameed; Khosa, Ahmad Nawaz; Bangulzai, Nasrullah; Shuja, Jamila; Naseeb, Hafiz Khush; Jan, Mohammad; Marghazani, Illahi Bakhsh; Kakar, MasoodulHaq; Baloch, Dost Mohammad; Cheema, Abdul Majeed; Ahmad, Jamil

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is very common and the leading cause of cancer deaths among women globally. Hereditary cases account for 510% of the total burden and CHEK2, which plays crucial role in response to DNA damage to promote cell cycle arrest and repair or induce apoptosis, is considered as a moderate penetrance breast cancer risk gene. Our objective in the current study was to analyze mutations in related to breast cancer. A total of 271 individuals including breast cancer patients and normal subjects were enrolled and all 14 exons of CHEK2 were amplified and sequenced. The majority of the patients (>95%) were affected with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), 52.1% were diagnosed with grade III tumors and 56.2% and 27.5% with advanced stages III and IV. Two novel nonsense variants i.e. c.58C>T (P.Q20X) and c.256G>T (p.E85X) at exon 1 and 2 in two breast cancer patients were identified, both novel and not reported elsewhere.

  18. Action of tacrolimus on Wistar rat kidneys implanted with Walker 256 carcinosarcoma Estudo da ação do tacrolimus em rins de ratos Wistar implantados com carcinossarcoma de Walker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Machado Inácio

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the development of Walker 256 tumor in male Wistar rats treated with tacrolimus using an experimental kidney tumor model. METHODS: 40 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Tumor group (TU (n=10, Tacrolimus-Tumor group (TT (n=10, Tacrolimus group (TC (n=10 and Control group (C (n=10. Treatment with tacrolimus was performed in groups TT and TC. Under anesthesia, the right kidney of each animal of TU and TT was accessed through a supraumbilical incision and inoculated with a 0.1mL solution containing 2x10(6 tumor cells (Walker 256 carcinosarcoma tumor cells. Group TC was treated with a saline solution. All the animals of groups TC and TT were treated with tacrolimus (5mg/kg/day by gavage for 15 days. TU group animals received saline by gavage for 15 days. On the 15th postoperative day, all animals were submitted to euthanasia and blood sampling for analysis of serum creatinine (Cr and blood urea nitrogen (BUN. Abdominal gross examination was performed, the right kidney removed and prepared for histological analysis by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The resulting data were submitted to statistical analysis by ANOVA. RESULTS: Statistical significance was found when comparing creatinine level between groups TU, TT and TC -TT group culminated with a marked increased in creatinine levels (Cr=1.013 ± 0.3028 mg/mL, TU group (Cr=0.5670 ± 0.03536 mg/dL P=0.00256, TC group (Cr =0.711 ± 0.1653 mg/mL P= 0.02832. Statistical significance was found when comparing BUN levels in TT group (71.32 ± 17.14 mg/mL, compared with TU group (45.83 ± 5.046 mg/dL, P=0.000318. There were no statistically significant differences between groups TT and TC (61.23 ± 9.503 mg/mL P=0.7242. Histological analysis showed a poor evolution in TT group with multiple foci of hemorrhage and cortical invasion by the Walker tumor. CONCLUSION: The Tacrolimus-treated group developed a more aggressive tumor and a drug-related nephrotoxic effect.OBJETIVO: Avaliar

  19. BDML Metadata: 256 [SSBD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available C BY-NC-SA 0.150 dd417ead-6cde-4952-8f16-a377db1adb9b 0.105 x 0.105 x 0.5 (micrometer), 40 (second) http://ssbd.qbic.riken.jp/data.../source/Ce_KK_P002/RNAi_Y47D3A.d_040930_02/ http://ssbd.qbic.riken.jp/data.../bdml/Ce_KK_P002/RNAi_Y47D3A.d_040930_02.bdml0.15.xml http://ssbd.qbic.riken.jp/data/pdpml/Ce..._KK_P002.pdpml0.05.xml http://ssbd.qbic.riken.jp/search/dd417ead-6cde-4952-8f16-a377db1adb9b/ http://ssbd.qbic.riken.jp/omero/webclient/?show=dataset-208 ...

  20. 30 CFR 256.26 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS... for environmental analysis and consideration for leasing. The Director, on his/her own motion, may...-use conflicts, resource potential, industry interest and other relevant information. Comments...

  1. 24 CFR 983.256 - Lease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the unit is subject to 24 CFR 982.312, except that the HAP contract is not terminated if the family is... the tenant. (2) If the owner uses a standard lease form for rental to unassisted tenants in the...) of this section. If the owner does not use a standard lease form for rental to unassisted...

  2. 49 CFR 256.11 - Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Program Narrative) of the form: (1) A list of all organizations which will participate in the planning... coordinated with the metropolitan planning organization, designated by the Governor of the State in which the... with the metropolitan planning organization, designated by the Governor of the State in which...

  3. 40 CFR 256.06 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., treatment or disposal of solid waste, including hazardous waste, whether such facility is associated with... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF STATE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS Purpose, General Requirements,...

  4. 17 CFR 256.236 - Taxes accrued.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... be kept so as to show for each class of taxes the amount accrued, the basis for the accrual, the... credited with the amount of taxes accrued during the accounting period, corresponding debits being made...

  5. 76 FR 256 - Informed Consent Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    .... References I. Introduction In the Federal Register of December 29, 2009 (74 FR 68750), FDA issued a notice of... elements which align with various ethics codes and apply to all clinical investigations regulated by FDA... subject to the regulations governing documentation of informed consent (Sec. 50.27) and...

  6. 17 CFR 256.01-8 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING... system means any holding company, together with all of its subsidiary companies and all mutual service companies of which such holding company or any subsidiary company thereof is a member......

  7. 30 CFR 256.40 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., natural gasoline, and other natural gas products recovered by a process of absorption, adsorption, compression, or refrigeration cycling, or a combination of such processes. (h) Natural gas means a mixture...

  8. 25 CFR 256.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... must include a properly installed system of piping and fixtures; (v) The electrical system must include... companion to aid in basic needs, such as dressing, preparing food, etc.; or severe heart and/or respiratory... tribes listed in the Federal Register pursuant to 25 CFR part 83, as recognized by and receiving...

  9. 32 CFR 256.3 - Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection Agency notified all Federal agencies of intent to implement the Day-Night Average Sound Level (Ldn) noise descriptor, and this was subsequently adopted by the DoD. This Ldn system will be used for air... may be published and continued in use. However, in such cases, data necessary for conversion to...

  10. A workflow for multiclass determination of 256 pesticides in essential oils by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using evaporation and dilution approaches: Application to lavandin, lemon and cypress essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillatre, Yoann; Rondeau, David; Daguin, Antoine; Communal, Pierre-Yves

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the determination of 256 multiclass pesticides in cypress and lemon essential oils (EOs) by the way of liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MS) analysis using the scheduled selected reaction monitoring mode (sSRM) available on a hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap (QLIT) mass spectrometer. The performance of a sample preparation of lemon and cypress EOs based on dilution or evaporation under nitrogen assisted by a controlled heating were assessed. The best limits of quantification (LOQs) were achieved with the evaporation under nitrogen method giving LOQs≤10µgL(-1) for 91% of the pesticides. In addition the very satisfactory results obtained for recovery, repeatability and linearity showed that for EOs of relatively low evaporation temperature, a sample preparation based on evaporation under nitrogen is well adapted and preferable to dilution. By compiling these results with those previously published by some of us on lavandin EO, we proposed a workflow dedicated to multiresidue determination of pesticides in various EOs by LC-ESI/sSRM. Among the steps involved in this workflow, the protocol related to mass spectrometry proposes an alternative confirmation method to the classical SRM ratio criteria based on a sSRM survey scan followed by an information-dependent acquisition using the sensitive enhanced product ion (EPI) scan to generate MS/MS spectra then compared to a reference. The submitted workflow was applied to the case of lemon EOs samples highlighting for the first time the simultaneous detection of 20 multiclass pesticides in one EO. Some pesticides showed very high concentration levels with amounts greatly exceeding the mgL(-1).

  11. 256x256 switched-FET multiplexer for spaceborne astronomical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmurray, Robert E., Jr.; Mckelvey, M. E.; Mccreight, C. R.; Kleinhans, W. A.; Low, F. J.; Moseley, S. H., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A novel cryogenic design of a source follower per detector (SFD) direct readout multiplexer is demonstrated. This design has proven to be a good prototype for the development of new low-noise large-area cryogenic multiplexers. In the absence of clocking noise, the readout demonstrates as low as about 30 electrons of rms read noise. There is still an excess noise component feeding through when the array is clocked, which manifests itself only at the lower temperatures. The shape of this component is dependent on a number of the bias voltages, and especially on the temperature of the chip. Analysis of the noise spectral density of the unit cell under various bias conditions shows that there is an excess spectral noise component at the lower temperatures.

  12. OER of californium-252 at low dose rate for growth inhibition in Vicia faba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OER of 252Cf, at low dose rate, has been determined for growth inhibition in Vicia faba roots. A new strain ''BelB'' was used; it was found to be more resistant to prolonged anoxia. Two sets of linear 252Cf sources were used (linear activity 0.31 and 0.47 (μg.cm-1)) in somewhat different geometrical arrangements. The (n+γ) 252Cf dose rates at the level of the root tips were 0.11 and 0.13 Gy.h-1 respectively. The relative contribution of the γ component Dsub(γ) to the total absorbed dose Dsub(n+γ) at the level of the root tips was evaluated Dsub(γ)/Dsub(n+γ)=0.35 for the first source-geometry and 0.42 for the second source-geometry. The reference radiation was the γ emission of 192Ir, used in the same geometrical conditions and for similar irradiation times. Irradiations performed in aerobic and anoxic conditions were alternated. OER values of 1.4 +- 0.1 and 1.5 +- 0.1 were observed for the 252Cf emission with the first and second source-geometry respectively. The corresponding OER values for 192Ir were 2.3 +- 0.2 and 2.6 +- 0.1; the derived oxygen gain factors were then equal to 1.6 and 1.7 repectively

  13. Multi-element neutron activation analysis of sediment using a californium-252 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of a 252Cf source to the neutron activation analysis of several elements in small (approximately 1.5 in. in dia) cores was studied using high-resolution gamma ray spectroscopy and manual data reduction. (U.S.)

  14. Dicty_cDB: SHA256 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available subtracted cDNA library Ctenocephalides felis cDNA clone 2154-85, mRNA sequence. 92 3e-14 1 DR447725 |DR4477...94 hindgut and Malpighian tubule subtracted cDNA library Ctenocephalides felis cD...acted cDNA library Ctenocephalides felis cDNA clone 2191-29, mRNA sequence. 90 1e-13 1 dna update 2005.12. 5

  15. 28 CFR 25.6 - Accessing records in the system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... law enforcement and other relevant record systems, and may provide a unique State-Assigned Transaction... “Denied” response. (h) POC Determination Messages. POCs shall transmit electronic NICS transaction... FFL. For transactions where a determination has not been communicated to the FFL, the...

  16. 40 CFR 60.256 - Continuous monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... bags or filter media, or any other condition that may cause an increase in PM emissions; (ii) Sealing off defective bags or filter media; (iii) Replacing defective bags or filter media or otherwise... filter. (viii) Where multiple detectors are required, the system's instrumentation and alarm may...

  17. Dicty_cDB: SLA256 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available oducing significant alignments: (bits) Value N BD092935 |BD092935.1 Methods and compositions for synthesis o...f longfatty acids in plants. 1479 0.0 1 BD082645 |BD082645.1 Methods and compositions for synthesis of long ...chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. 1479 0.0 1 BD082630 |BD082630.1 Methods and composition

  18. Dicty_cDB: CFC256 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nificant alignments: (bits) Value N BD092935 |BD092935.1 Methods and compositions... for synthesis of longfatty acids in plants. 1306 0.0 1 BD082645 |BD082645.1 Methods and compositions for sy...nthesis of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. 1306 0.0 1 BD082630 |BD082630.1 Methods and compositions

  19. 17 CFR 256.921 - Office supplies and expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., newsletters, tax service, etc. 4. Building service expenses for customer accounts, sales, and administrative..., entertainment and incidental expenses. (c) Records shall be so maintained to permit ready analysis by...

  20. Dicty_cDB: SSL256 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available no Acid sequence rtw*fiipkhrirkt*t*ikeigpstklllygyqlsrl*nhhyrfltrpkrchlqfmfnc ycstnwwsc*NHCRLSFKTKIRLRLPSNRT...RARITAGCRLRQKSD*gyrpiaptlsifflienkq*kkmlcae**y Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: rtw*fiipkhrirkt*t*ikeigps...pslpfshtpktlsfavhvqll llnqlvvvleslpvvv*dknptkvtvqshqrfqff--- ---rtw*fiipkhrirkt*t*ikeigpstklllygyqlsrl*nhhyr

  1. 30 CFR 256.64 - How to file transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... court action is necessary, the statements of two disinterested parties having knowledge of the facts or... otherwise. (i) Where the proposed assignment or transfer is by a person who, at the time of acquisition of... of the assignment, of all agreements applicable to the acquisition of that lease or a...

  2. 24 CFR 207.256a - Reinstatement of defaulted mortgage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Commissioner, in the manner prescribed in 24 CFR part 200, subpart B. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reinstatement of defaulted mortgage... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND...

  3. 24 CFR 207.256b - Modification of mortgage terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Modification of mortgage terms. 207... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MULTIFAMILY HOUSING MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Rights and Duties...

  4. The automatic radiation monitor distributed System SRM-256C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Controlled and Supervised Areas (CSA) of UNK proton accelerator built in Protvino (IHEP, Russia), borrows the significant area (more than 15 sq.km). Submitted in work results of accounts show, that by major factors, influencing to a radioecological conditions in region at the expense of work UNK are: 1) the output of pulsing radiation on day-time surface; 2) the radionuclides receipts with drinking water; 3) the pollution of radioactive air from system of ventilation. At normal mode of UNK operation the equivalent dose rates on daytime surface of pulsing radiation will changes in limits from 0.5 mcSv/hours near overmines buildings up to 0.1 mcSv / hour on the CSA border. The average equivalent dose rates per year due to internal irradiation at use (intakes) of drinking water will not exceed 5 - 50 mcSv/years. The Maximum equivalent dose rates on day-time surface, caused by pollution of radioactive air does not exceed 0.01... 0.03 mcSv/hour in limits of CSA, and the average equivalent dose per year caused by internal irradiation does not exceed 0.05 mcSv/years. At emergency-free operation the maximum degree of the UNK influence in limits of CSA is estimated in terms of average equivalent dose per year at levels, not exceeding 0.05... 0.10 mSv/year. For maintenance of integral environmental monitoring of total external radiation levels in limits of CSA network of passive monitor stations will be developed

  5. Dicty_cDB: VHD256 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available QGG23F15, mRNA sequence. 44 2e-04 2 BQ793980 |BQ793980.1 EST 2918 Veraison Grape berries Lambda Zap II Libra...e. 44 0.035 2 BQ793878 |BQ793878.1 EST 2816 Veraison Grape berries Lambda Zap II Library Vitis vinifera cDNA

  6. 17 CFR 256.304 - Land and land rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... shall include the cost of any right, title, or interest to land held by the service company, including... included in the general tax levy, the amount thereof shall be charged to the appropriate tax account. (c... right. A record shall be maintained showing the nature of ownership, full legal description, area,...

  7. 40 CFR 98.256 - Data reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements under subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources). (b) For hydrogen plants... this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources). (7) If you use Equation Y-6 of this subpart, the annual average exhaust gas flow rate, %CO2, and %CO. (8) If you use Equation Y-7 of this...

  8. Dicty_cDB: SSJ256 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SGDGLYEGLDWLSNTLTSSSK*mt*evnliefirffnylii *lnycclilk*kkkkpclyk***ik*****kkkkkknplkilcdctqk Translated Amino ...RSRKWYIQSTCATSGDGLYEGLDWLSNTLTSSSK*mt*evnliefirffnylii *lnycclilk*kkkkpclyk***ik*

  9. 38 CFR 21.256 - Incentives for employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... expenses as a result of hiring the veteran and generally may not exceed one-half of the wage paid to other... limitations of the veteran; (5) Significant loss of productivity of the employer caused by using the...

  10. Dicty_cDB: SHD256 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hkkkii*n**rklxv*itntntyq*liiiiitiikiiiilxks*i*ikyniqi innn*likkk--- Frame C: ilqqlyrtkkk*yrinken*xfk*qiqihin...n******q**k***y*xnhkfklniifk* *iiin*lkk--- Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alig

  11. 256层CT上肢血管成像对血液透析患者自体动静脉内瘘功能不全的评价%Multi-slice CT angiography evaluation of autogenous arteriovenous fistula dysfunction in hemodialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金文韬; 李斌; 刘洪超; 刘士远; 郝楠馨; 于红

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical value of CT angiography (CTA) using 256-slicc CT scanner for autogenous arteriovenous fistula dysfunction in hemodialysis patients. Methods A total of 20 hemodialysis patients with autogenous arteriovenous fistula dysfunction underwent CTA of the affected upper limbs. A total of 80-100 ml- of noniodinatcd contrast agent (iopamidol) was injected at a rate of 3-1. 5 mL/s into the antccubital vein of contralatcral limb. A contrast agent concentration tracking technology was utilized. Aortic arch was regarded as the region of interest (ROI) and the threshold was set at 150 HU. Imaging commenced after a delay of 18 s when ROI arrived at the threshold. In two patients, the delay phase scanning was started at 30 s after the first scanning . The images were reconstructed with standard algorithm, with 0. 625 mm slice thickness and 0. 625 mm slice gap, using different postprocessing techniques such as surface reconstruction, multiple planar reconstruction, maximum intensity projection and volume rendering on the EBW workstation. The cross sectional area of the fistula anastomotic stoma was measured using the vessel analysis and measurement function of the EBW workstation, and compared with the supplying artery. Results The blood vessels in affected limb were clearly displayed on CTA. Of 94 vascular segments in 20 hemodialysis patients, 29 were of stenosis, including 15 at arteriovenous anastomotic stoma (51.7%), 8 at venous outflow in forearm (27.5%), 3 at venous outflow in upper arm ( 10. 3 % ) and 3 at subclavian vein ( 10. 3%). Five cases exhibited collateral circulation formation; 10 had draining vein dilatation; 9 had supplying artery variation and 1 had hematoma in the elbow. Conclusion Autogenous arteriovenous fistula can be accurately evaluated by using CT angiography, which is helpful for guiding management clinically of the patients with chronic renal failure fistula dysfunction.%目的 研究256层CT血管成像对于血液透

  12. Slovak Republic Act of 1 April 1998 on the peaceful use of nuclear energy and on alterations and amendments to Act No. 174/1968 Zb. on State supervision of work safety as amended by Act of the National Council of the Slovak Republic No. 256/1994 Z.z

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    provision; P40: List of executive regulations that shall remain in force. Part II. Amends and supplements in Act No. 256/1994 Coll.Acts. Part III. This act has been entered into effect on 1. July 1998

  13. Raman and absorption spectrophotometric studies of selected lanthanide, californium-doped lanthanide, and actinide trihalides in the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solid-state absorption spectra of Cf(III) ions as a dopant in lanthanide trihalide hosts (LnCl3: Ln = Ce, Sm, and Y; LnBr3: Ln = Ce, Sm, Tb, and Y; LnI3: Ln = Ce and Y) have been recorded. The spectra of Cf(III) have been correlated with the various crystal structures. The phonon Raman spectra and solid-state absorption spectra of PmF3, PmCl3, PmBr3, and two crystal modifications of PmI3 have been recorded. Symmetry assignments have been made for the Raman-active bands for these trihalides and also the sesquioxide. The room-temperature absorption spectra have been correlated to crystal field effects. The symmetry assignments of the Raman-active phonon modes have been made based on polarized Raman spectra from single crystals of YF3-type orthorhombic TbF3 and PuBr3-type orthorhombic NdBr3. Raman spectra of other isostructural lanthanide compounds have been recorded and compared. Symmetry assignments for these compounds have been made by analogy to the single-crystal assignments. Raman spectra have been obtained and catalogued for a number of actinide compounds. Symmetry assignments have been made for the observed Raman-active phonon bands in this work based on the assignments made for isostructural lanthanide compounds. 29 figs., 22 tabs

  14. Oxidation-reduction properties of americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium and fermium, and thermodynamic consequences for the 5f series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amalgamation of 5f elements from Am to Fm has been studied by using 241Am, 244Cm, 249Bk, 249Cf, 252Cf, 253Es, 254Es, 252Fm and 255Fm with two electrochemical methods, radiocoulometry and radiopolarography, perfectly adapted to investigate extremely diluted solutions when the concentration of electroactive species is as low as 10-16M. The theory of radiocoulometry has been developed in the general cases of reversible and irreversible electrode process. It has been used to interpret the experimental data on the kinetic curves of amalgamation, and to estimate the standard rate constant of the electrode process in complexing medium (citric). On the other hand the radiopolarographic method has been applied to study the mechanism of reduction at the dropping mercury electrode of cations M3+ in aqueous medium to the metal M with formation of amalgam. The results are exploited into two directions: 1- Acquisition of some data concerning the oxidation-reduction properties of elements from Am to Fm. Therefore the standard electrode E0 [M(III-0)] potentials for Bk, Cf and Es, and the standard electrode E0 [M(II-0)] potential for Fm are estimated and the relative stability of each oxidation state (from II to VII) of 5f elements is discussed; 2- Acquisition of unknown thermodynamic data on transcalifornium elements. Correlations between 4f and 5f elements are precised and some divergences appear for the second half of 4f and 5f series (i.e. for 65<=Z<=71 and 97<=Z<=103)

  15. Determination of the optimum-size californium-252 neutron source for borehole capture gamma-ray analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senftle, F.E.; Macy, R.J.; Mikesell, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    The fast- and thermal-neutron fluence rates from a 3.7 ??g 252Cf neutron source in a simulated borehole have been measured as a function of the source-to-detector distance using air, water, coal, iron ore-concrete mix, and dry sand as borehole media. Gamma-ray intensity measurements were made for specific spectral lines at low and high energies for the same range of source-to-detector distances in the iron ore-concrete mix and in coal. Integral gamma-ray counts across the entire spectrum were also made at each source-to-detector distance. From these data, the specific neutron-damage rate, and the critical count-rate criteria, we show that in an iron ore-concrete mix (low hydrogen concentration), 252Cf neutron sources of 2-40 ??g are suitable. The source size required for optimum gamma-ray sensitivity depends on the energy of the gamma ray being measured. In a hydrogeneous medium such as coal, similar measurements were made. The results show that sources from 2 to 20 ??g are suitable to obtain the highest gamma-ray sensitivity, again depending on the energy of the gamma ray being measured. In a hydrogeneous medium, significant improvement in sensitivity can be achieved by using faster electronics; in iron ore, it cannot. ?? 1979 North-Holland Publishing Co.

  16. Research and experimental work at Groote Schuur Hospital and the University of Cape Town using californium-252 sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments have been undertaken to determine the high-LET and low-LET components of the absorbed dose from neutron beams. This is achieved by measuring the fluxes of the high-LET and low-LET radiations in a tissue-equivalent phantom individually and simultaneously using a scintillation probe fitted with a pulse shape discriminator. This system was successfully used with a 22 MeV neutron beam from the T(d,n) reaction and has been employed with 252Cf sources. Results obtained in the low-energy ranges (up to 3 MeV) indicate that the electron counts exceed the high-LET counts by a factor of 2 to 3. These results are related to the absorbed dose. Calculations have also been undertaken to establish whether the Paterson-Parker system could be used for the design of 252Cf treatments and the optimum needle activities to yield the desired dose. Experiments are under way to determine the variation of RBE and OER for 252Cf radiations around the source. The inhibition of root growth in Vicia Faba is being used to determine any such effects. Dose rates comparable to that employed in interstitial radiotherapy are being aimed at. A study of dose fractionation effects is also being undertaken. (author)

  17. Radiological Characterization Technical Report on Californium-252 Sealed Source Transuranic Debris Waste for the Off-Site Source Recovery Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-04-24

    This document describes the development and approach for the radiological characterization of Cf-252 sealed sources for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The report combines information on the nuclear material content of each individual source (mass or activity and date of manufacture) with information and data on the radionuclide distributions within the originating nuclear material. This approach allows for complete and accurate characterization of the waste container without the need to take additional measurements. The radionuclide uncertainties, developed from acceptable knowledge (AK) information regarding the source material, are applied to the summed activities in the drum. The AK information used in the characterization of Cf-252 sealed sources has been qualified by the peer review process, which has been reviewed and accepted by the Environmental Protection Agency.

  18. Accurate determination of Curium and Californium isotopic ratios by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) in 248Cm samples for transmutation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French Atomic Energy Commission has carried out several experiments including the mini-INCA (INcineration of Actinides) project for the study of minor-actinide transmutation processes in high intensity thermal neutron fluxes, in view of proposing solutions to reduce the radiotoxicity of long-lived nuclear wastes. In this context, a Cm sample enriched in 248Cm (∼97 %) was irradiated in thermal neutron flux at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) of the Laue-Langevin Institute (ILL). This work describes a quadrupole ICP-MS (ICP-QMS) analytical procedure for precise and accurate isotopic composition determination of Cm before sample irradiation and of Cm and Cf after sample irradiation. The factors that affect the accuracy and reproducibility of isotopic ratio measurements by ICP-QMS, such as peak centre correction, detector dead time, mass bias, abundance sensitivity and hydrides formation, instrumental background, and memory blank were carefully evaluated and corrected. Uncertainties of the isotopic ratios, taking into account internal precision of isotope ratio measurements, peak tailing, and hydrides formations ranged from 0.3% to 1.3%. This uncertainties range is quite acceptable for the nuclear data to be used in transmutation studies.

  19. 2-(5,6-Diphenyl-1,2,4-triazin-3-ylaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Mojzych

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C21H16N4, obtained under standard Suzuki cross-coupling conditions, is a model compound in the synthesis and biological activity evaluation of new aza-analogues of sildenafil containing a pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazine system. An N—H...N intramolecular hydrogen bond involving the aminobenzene system and the 1,2,4-triazine moiety helps to establish a near coplanar orientation of the rings with a dihedral angle of 12.04 (4°, which is believed to be necessary for the biological activity of sildenafil analogues. The 1,2,4-triazine ring is slightly distorted from planarity [r.m.s deviation = 0.0299 (11 Å] and forms dihedral angles of 58.60 (4 and 36.35 (3° with the pendant phenyl rings. The crystal packing features bifurcated N—H...(N,N hydrogen bonds linking screw-axis-related molecules into chains parallel to the [010] direction< and π–π interactions, with a centroid–centroid separation of 3.8722 (7 Å and a slippage of 1.412 (3 Å. The crystal studied was a nonmerohedral twin with a ratio of 0.707 (2:0293 (2.

  20. 19 CFR 10.256 - Maintenance of records and submission of Certificate by importer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... same in all material respects, including physical characteristics, quality, and reputation. (c...-commercial importation of an article; or (iii) A commercial importation of an article whose value does...

  1. Constellation Shaping for WDM systems using 256QAM/1024QAM with Probabilistic Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Yankov, Metodi P; da Silva, Edson P; Forchhammer, Søren; Larsen, Knud J; Oxenløwe, Leif K; Galili, Michael; Zibar, Darko

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, probabilistic shaping is numerically and experimentally investigated for increasing the transmission reach of wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) optical communication system employing quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). An optimized probability mass function (PMF) of the QAM symbols is first found from a modified Blahut-Arimoto algorithm for the optical channel. A turbo coded bit interleaved coded modulation system is then applied, which relies on many-to-one labeling to achieve the desired PMF, thereby achieving shaping gain. Pilot symbols at rate at most 2% are used for synchronization and equalization, making it possible to receive input constellations as large as 1024QAM. The system is evaluated experimentally on a 10 GBaud, 5 channels WDM setup. The maximum system reach is increased w.r.t. standard 1024QAM by 20% at input data rate of 4.65 bits/symbol and up to 75% at 5.46 bits/symbol. It is shown that rate adaptation does not require changing of the modulation format. The performanc...

  2. 32 CFR 256.8 - Land use compatibility guidelines for accident potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... major above ground transmission lines in APZ I. 5 Low intensity office uses only. Meeting places... No structures (except airfield lighting), buildings or above ground utility/communication lines... establishment, expansion or maintenance of clear zones will be disposed of in accordance with DoD...

  3. 30 CFR 256.90 - Which leases may I exchange for a bonus or royalty credit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... coastline of the State of Florida, or (2) The Central planning area and within the Desoto Canyon OPD, the Destin Dome OPD, or the Pensacola OPD, and within 100 miles of the coastline of the State of Florida....

  4. 256Kb低功耗、高性能串口FRAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    带有I2C接口的FM24V02和带有SPI接口的FM25V02都是具有高速读/写性能、更低工作电压和可选器件功能的新型串口非易失性FRAM,工作电压范围为2.0~3.6V,采用行业标准8脚SOIC封装,具有快速访问、无延迟(NoDelay)写入、几乎无限的读/写次数及低功耗等特点。

  5. Skills for the Changing Workplace: An Automotive Repair Instructor's Guide. Research and Development Series No. 256.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaerman, Robert D.; North, Ricke A.

    This guide was developed to assist vocational instructors in automotive repair programs in presenting broadly applicable nontechnical (often called quality of work life--QWL) skills, such as interpersonal and group process skills, problem solving and decision making, planning, communications, reasoning skills, and organizational management skills.…

  6. Low-dose CT coronary angiography using iterative reconstruction with a 256-slice CT scanner

    OpenAIRE

    Carrascosa, Patricia; Rodriguez-Granillo, Gastón A; Capuñay, Carlos; Deviggiano, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To explore whether computer tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) using iterative reconstruction (IR) leads to significant radiation dose reduction without a significant loss in image interpretability compared to conventional filtered back projection (FBP).

  7. Establishment of Animal Model for Bone Metastasis of Walker 256 Breast Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG; Fang-fang; SHEN; Hong-tao; HE; Ming; DONG; Ke-jun; WU; Shao-yong; DOU; Liang; SHI; Yan-jun; ZHANG; Shuang; WANG; Xiao-ming; ZHAO; Qin-zhang; YANG; Xu-ran; XU; Yong-ning; LAN; Xiao-xi; CAI; Li; JIANG; Shan

    2013-01-01

    Bone metastasis is a common complication of cancer.It often occurs in lung,breast and prostate cancer,and may cause osteolytic lesions,or cause few osteoblastic lesions.It has already advanced cancer When cancer metastasis to bone,which usually cannot be cured.It is one of the important factors leading to the death of cancer patients.Studying animal model of bone

  8. Constellation Shaping for WDM systems using 256QAM/1024QAM with Probabilistic Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Da Ros, Francesco; Porto da Silva, Edson;

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, probabilistic shaping is numerically and experimentallyinvestigated for increasing the transmission reach of wavelength divisionmultiplexed (WDM) optical communication system employing quadrature amplitudemodulation (QAM). An optimized probability mass function (PMF) of the QAMsymb......In this paper, probabilistic shaping is numerically and experimentallyinvestigated for increasing the transmission reach of wavelength divisionmultiplexed (WDM) optical communication system employing quadrature amplitudemodulation (QAM). An optimized probability mass function (PMF...

  9. The development of a radioimmunological assay for parathormone formed from the hypercalcemic Walker carcinosarcoma 256

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific antibodies to Walker Carcinosomal tissue could be produced by immunizing goats with a hypercalcemically active extract of this tumor tissue. These served the stablishment of a radioimmunoassay. The tracer used was 125-iodine labelled borine parathormone. Various parathormone standards were measured in this system. Here it was found that with this new system a specific assay had been developed which measures immunoreactive parathormone. Preliminary serum analyses indicated that endogenous human parathormone is also detected by this new radioimmunoassay. On the basis of comparative measurements with the old antibody directed towards human extractive parathormone and the new antibody for tumor parathormone only limited conclusions are possible. It could, however, be shown that the new antibody is an anti-parathormone-antibody. (orig./MG)

  10. 40 CFR 256.63 - Requirements for public participation in the permitting of facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... solid waste disposal facility the State shall hold a public hearing to solicit public reaction and... interest in the proposed permit. (b) This hearing shall be held in accord with 40 CFR 25.5. ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for public...

  11. 11. 208 82Pb, 232 90 Th, 256 100 Fm nucleus internal structure and Parameter calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Zhenqiang and Huang Yuxiang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pass in front of the internal structure of the nucleus, chapter 7 ~ 10 nuclear force, magnetic forming principle and parameters of calculation, we not only have "assembly" the basis of atomic nuclei, and predictable "assembly" nucleus must abide by the principle of a couple of items. At the same time also will to book model, theory of thorough and the strict proof of simulatio

  12. 40 CFR 256.31 - Recommendations for developing and implementing resource conservation and recovery programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirement. (4) Development of a strategy for the consideration of the legislature to prohibit and/or remove...; and (4) Development of a strategy and plan of action for the consideration of the legislature for... requirements, pricing mechanisms and long-term contract availability. (3) Resource recovery feasibility...

  13. Generación de cuadrados latinos de orden 256 utilizando un grafo de reemplazos

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego Sagastume, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Los cuadrados Latinos (LSs) son estructuras algebraicas con aplicaciones en criptografía. Si los LSs son aleatorios y uniformemente distribuidos, pueden ser usados como claves para algoritmos de encriptación simétricos. En el contexto de un protocolo de comunicación seguro, debe generarse un nuevo LS cada cierta cantidad de tiempo o cantidad de datos transmitida para no correr el riesgo de que un atacante lo deduzca y pueda así descifrar los mensajes transmitidos. El tiempo y recursos requeri...

  14. 32 CFR 256.10 - Air installations compatible use zone noise descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... would previously have been used, data shall be collected sufficient to permit computation of Ldn 65... used, data shall be collected sufficient to permit computation of Ldn 75 noise contours and these noise... NEF, for meters of policy, noise planning and decisionmaking, areas quieter than Ldn 65 shall...

  15. 30 CFR 206.256 - Valuation standards for cents-per-ton leases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to 43 CFR part 3400 and the royalty valuation method changes from a cents-per-ton basis to an ad..., including coal which is avoidably lost as determine by BLM pursuant to 43 CFR part 3400. (c) For leases... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Valuation standards for cents-per-ton...

  16. Investigation on steam oxidation behaviour of TP347H FG Part I Exposure at 256 bar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jianmin, J; Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, OH;

    2005-01-01

    , but the subsequent growth of oxide from further exposure is slower due to the formation of a healing layer consisting of chromium rich oxide near original alloy grain boundaries. At a temperature region above 600C a thin oxide rich in chromium and manganese is formed. In addition precipitation of secondary carbides...... with the aforementioned steel in coal-fired boilers and this paper focuses on the steam oxidation behaviour for specimens tested at various metal temperatures for exposure times of 7700, 23000 and 30000 hours as investigated by light optical and scanning electron microscopy. The oxide present on the specimens is a duplex...... oxide, where the outer layer consists of two sub-layers, an iron oxide layer and an iron-nickel oxide layer; the inner layer is chromium rich chromium-iron-nickel oxide. Microstructure examination showed that for all these samples the varying grain size of subsurface metal affected the oxide thickness...

  17. Black and White and the 256 Shades of Grey in Between

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Thomas Elkjer

    Dette brief diskuterer spørgsmålet om kildeangivelse (attribution) på psykologisk operations (PSYOPS) medie produkter og budskaber i det moderne informationsmiljø. Det er briefets formål, at beskrive og diskuterer hvilke udfordringer der er forbundet med kildeangivelse på budskaber og produkter o...... afsenderens troværdighed i specielt oprørsbekæmpelses operationer (COIN) præget af en stigende anvendelse af sociale netværks medier, eller New Media....

  18. 37 CFR 256.2 - Royalty fee for compulsory license for secondary transmission by cable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... interpreted in accordance with 47 CFR 76.51, as effective June 24, 1981. ... Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES... which $263,800 exceeds such actual gross receipts, except that in no case shall a cable system's...

  19. Great waves of mobile storage market rise again,the age of 256M comes up%移动存储市场波澜再起,256M时代来临

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    作为移动存储第一品牌,爱国者一直担当着市场拉动者的领导角色,自去年下半年引领移动存储128M时代以来,移动存储市场得到了空前的繁荣。随着用户对大容量数据存储需求的不断增长,爱国者

  20. 256-Slice coronary computed tomographic angiography in patients with atrial fibrillation: optimal reconstruction phase and image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the optimal reconstruction phase and the image quality of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We performed CCTA in 60 patients with AF and 60 controls with sinus rhythm. The images were reconstructed in multiple phases in all parts of the cardiac cycle, and the optimal reconstruction phase with the fewest motion artefacts was identified. The coronary artery segments were visually evaluated to investigate their assessability. In 46 (76.7 %) patients, the optimal reconstruction phase was end-diastole, whereas in 6 (10.0 %) patients it was end-systole or mid-diastole, and in 2 (3.3 %) patients it was another cardiac phase. In 53 (88.3 %) of the controls, the optimal reconstruction phase was mid-diastole, whereas it was end-systole in 4 (6.7 %), and in 3 (5.0 %) it was another cardiac phase. There was a significant difference between patients with AF and the controls in the optimal phase (p < 0.01) but not in the visual image quality score (p = 0.06). The optimal reconstruction phase in most patients with AF was the end-diastolic phase. The end-systolic phase tended to be optimal in AF patients with higher average heart rates. (orig.)

  1. 256 Shades of Grey: Dating young lava flows using high-resolution sidescan imagery from the Kolbeinsey Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, I. A.; Rothenbeck, M.; Devey, C. W.

    2013-12-01

    We present high-resolution (1 m) sidescan data from the slow-spreading (1.8 cm/yr) Kolbeinsey Ridge between 71°45'N and 70°30'N collected using an Edgetech 2200-MP 120 kHz sidescan sonar. Comparing the sound intensity between flat, heavily sedimented, off-axis areas and flat, brightly reflective, on-axis lava flows yields a difference of 20 - 30 dB and therefore a detection depth for basaltic lava flows of 30 - 60 cm of sediment burial at a grazing angle of 30 degrees. The single sensor does not allow for the extraction of phase bathymetry from the sidescan, however hummocks covered by the surveys were characterized by relatively flat summits (as seen in profiles extracted from the AUV depth and altitude measurements), and so summit regions could be considered comparable to flatter areas of seafloor. As volcanic hummocks are likely to be monogenetic edifices, sediment thicknesses extracted for the summits should be equivalent to those for the whole edifice. Using only flat areas also removes the problems of sediment slumping downslope. Ground truthing of actual sediment thicknesses will be carried out on cruises in November/December 2013 and September/October 2014 and will open up the potential for in-cruise estimation of the actual ages of young volcanic features covered by sidescan surveys, where good estimates of sedimentation rates are available.

  2. SU-E-J-256: Dual Energy Planar Image Based Localization in the Absence of On-Board CT Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop a tool enabling soft tissue based image guidance using dual energy radiographs for cases when on-board CT is not available. Method: Dual energy planar radiographs can be applied to image guidance for targeting lung lesions because the bone based alignment only may not be sufficient as the lesions move. We acquired images of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom at 120 and 60 KVp respectively. Using a weighted logarithmic subtraction of these dual energy images, a soft tissue enhanced and a bone enhanced image were generated and they could be used for the image guidance purpose. Similar processing was also applied to a dual energy image set acquired for a patient undergoing a proton therapy. Results: The soft tissue enhanced images suppressed bones (ribs and scapula) overlying on lung, thus enabling a better visualization of soft tissue and lesion, while the bone enhanced image suppressed the soft tissue. These enhanced effects were visually apparent without further processing for display enhancements, such as using histogram or edge enhancement technique. Conclusions: The phantom image processing was encouraging. The initial test on the patient image set showed that other post processing might still be able to add value in visualizing soft tissues in addition to the dual energy soft tissue enhancement. More evaluations are needed to determine the potential benefit of this technique in the clinic

  3. SU-E-J-256: Dual Energy Planar Image Based Localization in the Absence of On-Board CT Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadagopan, R; Yang, J; Li, H [M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a tool enabling soft tissue based image guidance using dual energy radiographs for cases when on-board CT is not available. Method: Dual energy planar radiographs can be applied to image guidance for targeting lung lesions because the bone based alignment only may not be sufficient as the lesions move. We acquired images of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom at 120 and 60 KVp respectively. Using a weighted logarithmic subtraction of these dual energy images, a soft tissue enhanced and a bone enhanced image were generated and they could be used for the image guidance purpose. Similar processing was also applied to a dual energy image set acquired for a patient undergoing a proton therapy. Results: The soft tissue enhanced images suppressed bones (ribs and scapula) overlying on lung, thus enabling a better visualization of soft tissue and lesion, while the bone enhanced image suppressed the soft tissue. These enhanced effects were visually apparent without further processing for display enhancements, such as using histogram or edge enhancement technique. Conclusions: The phantom image processing was encouraging. The initial test on the patient image set showed that other post processing might still be able to add value in visualizing soft tissues in addition to the dual energy soft tissue enhancement. More evaluations are needed to determine the potential benefit of this technique in the clinic.

  4. Simple hadronic matrix elements with Wilson valence quarks and dynamical staggered fermions at 6/g2=5.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured some simple matrix elements for pseudoscalar and vector mesons made of Wilson valance quarks and staggered sea quarks at β=5.6 at sea quark masses amq=0.01 and 0.025. Our measurements include the decay constants of pseudoscalars (including fD), the wave function at the origin (or decay constant) of vector mesons, and the calculation of quark masses from current algebra. The effects of sea quarks on the simulations are small. We make comparisons to quenched simulations at similar values of the lattice spacing (1/a congruent 2 GeV)

  5. 256-Slice coronary computed tomographic angiography in patients with atrial fibrillation: optimal reconstruction phase and image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Seitaro; Yuki, Hideaki; Kidoh, Masafumi; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Nakaura, Takeshi; Namimoto, Tomohiro; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Kumamoto University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Chuou-ku, Kumamoto (Japan); Honda, Keiichi; Yoshimura, Akira; Katahira, Kazuhiro [Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Minami-ku, Kumamoto (Japan); Noda, Katsuo; Oshima, Shuichi [Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Minami-ku, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    To assess the optimal reconstruction phase and the image quality of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We performed CCTA in 60 patients with AF and 60 controls with sinus rhythm. The images were reconstructed in multiple phases in all parts of the cardiac cycle, and the optimal reconstruction phase with the fewest motion artefacts was identified. The coronary artery segments were visually evaluated to investigate their assessability. In 46 (76.7 %) patients, the optimal reconstruction phase was end-diastole, whereas in 6 (10.0 %) patients it was end-systole or mid-diastole, and in 2 (3.3 %) patients it was another cardiac phase. In 53 (88.3 %) of the controls, the optimal reconstruction phase was mid-diastole, whereas it was end-systole in 4 (6.7 %), and in 3 (5.0 %) it was another cardiac phase. There was a significant difference between patients with AF and the controls in the optimal phase (p < 0.01) but not in the visual image quality score (p = 0.06). The optimal reconstruction phase in most patients with AF was the end-diastolic phase. The end-systolic phase tended to be optimal in AF patients with higher average heart rates. (orig.)

  6. Visions of Mughal India: An Anthology of European Travel Writing. London, I.B. Tauris, 2007, 256 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Colin P.

    2013-01-01

    ed. Our understanding of Mughal India is to no small degree bolstered by a significant number of European travel accounts produced in the 16th-18th centuries. While we depend on court chronicles and religio-philosophical treatises to better understand the ‘elite’ narrative of Mughal India, the day-to-day, quotidian details of life in early modern South Asia are largely absent in such ‘indigenous’ documents. For this reason, historians of social, gender, urban and economic history are often dr...

  7. Hadron Spectrum in QCD with Valence Wilson Fermions and Dynamical Staggered Fermions at $6/g^2=5.6$

    CERN Document Server

    Bitar, K M; Edwards, R G; Gottlieb, S; Heller, U M; Kennedy, A D; Kogut, J B; Krasnitz, A; Liu, W; Ogilvie, M C; Renken, R L; Rossi, P; Sinclair, D K; Sugar, R L; Toussaint, D; Wang, K C

    1992-01-01

    We present an analysis of hadronic spectroscopy for Wilson valence quarks with dynamical staggered fermions at lattice coupling $6/g^2 = \\beta=5.6$ at sea quark mass $am_q=0.01$ and 0.025, and of Wilson valence quarks in quenched approximation at $\\beta=5.85$ and 5.95, both on $16^3 \\times 32$ lattices. We make comparisons with our previous results with dynamical staggered fermions at the same parameter values but on $16^4$ lattices doubled in the temporal direction.

  8. Prospective ECG triggering reduces prosthetic heart valve-induced artefacts compared with retrospective ECG gating on 256-slice CT.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Symersky, P.; Habets, J.; Westers, P.; Mol, B.A. de; Prokop, M.; Budde, R.P.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has diagnostic value for the evaluation of prosthetic heart valve (PHV) dysfunction but it is hampered by artefacts. We hypothesised that image acquisition using prospective triggering instead of retrospective gating would reduce artefacts related

  9. 2-(5,6-Dibromo-7-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-ylphenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixia Wang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C13H9Br2N3O, the molecular skeleton, influenced by an intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen bond, is roughly planar, with a mean deviation of 0.033 Å. In the crystal, intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into chains propagating in [100]. Weak intermolecular π–π interactions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.760 (3 and 3.723 (3 Å] further consolidate the packing.

  10. Un método para la generación de cuadrados latinos de orden 256

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego Sagastume, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Los quasigroups son estructuras algebraicas con aplicaciones en seguridad informática, en particular en criptografía. Sus tablas de multiplicación son matrices de dos dimensiones, llamadas "latin squares" (LSs) o "cuadrados latinos". Si los LSs son aleatorios, pueden ser usados como generadores de claves para algoritmos de encriptación. En el contexto de un protocolo de comunicación seguro, debe generarse un nuevo LS cada cierta cantidad de tiempo o cantidad de datos transmitida. El tiempo y ...

  11. Draft Genome Sequences of Three Northern German Epidemic Staphylococcus aureus (ST247) Strains Containing Multiple Copies of IS256

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinert, Franziska; Kallies, René; Zweynert, Annegret

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of three multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus strains of sequence type 247 (ST247). The methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) SA1450/94 is vancomycin susceptible, while the clinical MRSA isolate S. aureus SA137/93A and its spontaneous laboratory mutant SA137/93G are characterized by intermediate vancomycin susceptibility. PMID:27609917

  12. Review of RBE and OER values for Cf-neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Californium-252, an isotope emitting neutrons, gamma photons and alpha particles, is being investigated for its practical use in intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy. A review of published RBE and OER values for californium neutrons as a function of dose rate for a variety of biological endpoints is given. (Auth.)

  13. Identifying plant species using mid-wave infrared (2.5-6µm) and thermal infrared (8-14µm) emissivity spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ullah, S.; Schlerf, M.; Skidmore, A.K.; Hecker, C.

    2012-01-01

    Plant species discrimination using remote sensing is generally limited by the similarity of their reflectance spectra in the visible, NIR and SWIR domains. Laboratory measured emissivity spectra in the mid infrared (MIR; 2.5µm-6µm) and the thermal infrared (TIR; 8µm-14µm) domain of different plant s

  14. Efraín Kristal. Temptation of the Word. The Novels of Mario Vargas Llosa. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1998. 256 pp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Esparza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de Efraín Kiistal sobre las novelas de Mario VargasLlosa se centra en el análisis del proceso creativo del autor, en losdiálogos que entabla con otros trabajos literarios y en la transformaciónde la experiencia vital en sus textos ficcionales.

  15. Beta Decay Study of the Tz=−256Zn Nucleus and the Determination of the Half-Lives of a Few fp-shell Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper concerns the experimental study of the β decay properties of few proton-rich fp-shell nuclei. The nuclei were produced at GANIL in fragmentation reactions, separated with the LISE spectrometer and stopped in an implantation detector surrounded by Ge detectors. The β-delayed gammas, β-delayed protons and the exotic β-delayed gamma-proton emission have been studied. Preliminary results are presented. The decay of the Tz=−2 nucleus 56Zn has been studied in detail. Information from the β-delayed protons and β-delayed gammas has been used to deduce the decay scheme. The exotic beta-delayed gamma-proton decay has been observed for the first time in the fp-shell. The interpretation of the data was made possible thanks to the detailed knowledge of the mirror Charge Exchange (CE) process and the gamma de-excitation of the states in 56Co, the mirror nucleus of 56Cu

  16. 25 CFR 256.14 - What are the steps that must be taken to process my application for the Housing Improvement Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Children: Must be under the age of 18 or such other age established for purposes of parental support by... Persons: For the benefit of persons age 55 or older, and Must be living in the dwelling Years of Age: Points: Less than 5555 and older 01 point per year of age over 54 3 Disabled Individual: Any one...

  17. Infant Cardiac CT Angiography with 64-Slice and 256-Slice CT: Comparison of Radiation Dose and Image Quality Using a Pediatric Phantom

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yi-Wei; Yang, Ching-Ching; Mok, Greta S. P.; Wu, Tung-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to investigate the image quality and radiation exposure of pediatric protocols for cardiac CT angiography (CTA) in infants under one year of age. Methodology/Principal Findings Cardiac CTA examinations were performed using an anthropomorphic phantom representing a 1-year-old child scanned with non-electrocardiogram-gated (NG), retrospectively electrocardiogram-gated helical (RGH) and prospectively electrocardiogram-gated axial (PGA) techniques in 64-slic...

  18. Crystal structure of hexaaquanickel(II bis{2-[(5,6-dihydroxy-3-sulfonatoquinolin-1-ium-7-yloxy]acetate} dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Le Thi Hong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Ni(H2O6](C11H8NO8S2·2H2O, features a half-hexaaquanickel(II complex cation with the NiII ion on an inversion center, one deprotonated 5,6-dihydroxy-3-sulfoquinolin-7-yloxyacetic acid (QOH molecule appearing in its zwitterionic form and one lattice water molecule. The sulfonate group is disordered over two positions with occupancy factors of 0.655 (5 and 0.345 (5. The hexaaquanickel(II cation interacts through hydrogen bonding with eight QOH molecules and two water molecules. The six-membered rings of quinoline show π–π stacking [centroid-to-centroid distances of 3.679 (2 Å and 3.714 (2 Å].

  19. Response to "Comment on ‘Electric Multipole Moments for Some First-Row Diatomic Hydride Molecules' [Commun. Theor. Phys. 38 (2002) 256]"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Metin Orbay; Telhat Ozdogan

    2003-01-01

    The comment of Guseinov is irrelevant and also unjust. In contrast to his comment, we show that theobtained electric multipole moment values for some first-row diatomic molecules are original and better than his values(I.I. Guseinov, E. Akin, and A.M. Rzaeva, J. Mol. Struct. (Theochem) 453 (1998) 163) with respect to Hartree-Fockvalues. Moreover, it must be noted that all the formulas are cited in our paper (M. Orbay and T. Ozdogan, Commun.Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 35 (2001) 585) and corrigendum (M. Orbay and T. Ozdogan, Commun. Theor. Phys.(Beijing, China) 37 (2002) 768).

  20. Ácido graxo a-linolênico causa o mesmo efeito que seus derivados de cadeia longa em ratos portadores de tumor de Walker 256?

    OpenAIRE

    Schiessel, Dalton Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: Alteracoes na dieta estabelecidas nos ultimos 200 anos causaram reducao no consumo de acidos graxos poliinsaturados (AGPI) n-3, aumento do consumo de gordura total, saturada e rica em AGPI n-6. Estas mudancas foram fatores determinantes para o aumento da incidencia de doencas cronicas nao transmissiveis entre estas o cancer. Estima-se que um terco de todos os canceres pode ser prevenido pelo estilo de vida saudavel e dieta saudavel. AGPI n-3, em especial o acido graxo eicosapentaenoic...

  1. Wilderness record, Semidi wilderness proposal involving Semidi Island (256,422) acres in the Semidi National Wildlife Refuge, Third Judicial District, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Wilderness study report; mineral appraisal; refuge objective statement; Federal Register notice; materials sent to news media; and public hearing package, mailing...

  2. 256层螺旋CT全肝灌注成像对正常肝脏血流状态的评价研究%Evaluation of the blood flow in normal liver by 256 Slices MSCT whole liver perfusion imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高知玲; 李梦迪; 朱凯; 陈勇

    2015-01-01

    目的 通过多层螺旋CT全肝灌注模式,探讨正常肝脏各段血流状态.方法 选择胃癌患者43例,男28例,女15例;年龄35~ 81岁,中位年龄为55.6岁;应用多层螺旋CT(MSCT)进行全肝灌注增强扫描,并分别测定肝脏各段灌注参数值,包括动脉灌注量(HAP)、门静脉灌注量(PVP)、总肝灌注量(TLP)和肝动脉灌注指数(HPI),以评价正常肝脏各段的血流动力学状态.结果 正常肝脏S3段HAP与S6、S7、S8以及S4与S7段差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),S3段HPI与S7段差异亦有统计学意义(P<0.05).不同性别正常肝脏Couinaud 8段之间灌注参数值差异无统计学意义.结论 正常肝脏部分肝段之间血流存在差异,多螺旋CT全肝脏灌注成像能更全面地评价肝脏的血流状态.

  3. 256排螺旋CT灌注成像对肝细胞型肝癌与局灶性结节增生的鉴别诊断价值%The Differential Diagnosis Value of 256 Slices Spiral CT Perfusion Imaging in Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Focal Nodular Hyperplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李靖翊; 刘建滨; 史凤霞; 谢安

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨CT灌注成像对肝细胞型肝癌(HCC)与局灶性结节增生(FNH)的鉴别诊断价值。方法比较14例HCC(A组)、10例FNH(B组)的实性成分的CT灌注值;比较FNH实性成分与远处肝组织CT灌注值;比较HCC实性成分、灶周组织及远处肝组织的CT灌注值。结果 A组的实性部分肝动脉灌注量(hepatic arterial perfusion,HAP)、总肝灌注量(total liver perfusion,TLP)、肝动脉灌注指数(hepatic artery perfusion index, HPI)都低于B组,门静脉灌注量(portal venous perfusion,PVP)高于B组,其中HAP、PVP及HPI存在统计学差异。A组病灶实性部分的HAP、HPI高于灶周、远处肝组织,并存在统计学意义;病灶实性部分的PVP低于灶周、远处肝组织,存在统计学差异。B组中病灶实性部分的HAP、HPI、TLP高于远处肝组织,PVP低于远处肝组织,其中HAP、HPI及PVP存在统计学差异。结论 CT灌注成像对肝癌及局灶性结节增生的诊断及鉴别诊断具有重要临床意义。%Objective To investigate the differential diagnosis value of CT perfusion imaging in hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) and focal nodular hyperplasia(FNH). Methods Comparison of 14 cases of HCC (group A) and 10 cases of FNH (group B) CT perfusion value of solid part; Comparison of FNH of solid composition and the distant liver tissue CT perfusion value; Comparison of HCC solid component, Lesions surrounding tissue and distant liver tissue CT perfusion value. Results The group A solid part of the hepatic artery perfusion (HAP), the total amount of liver perfusion (TLP), hepatic artery perfusion index (HPI) is lower than that of group B, portal venous perfusion (PVP) higher than that of group B, the HAP, PVP and HPI statistical differences. Group A solid lesions component of HAP, HPI above focal weeks, liver tissue in the distance, and there is statistical significance; Solid lesions component of PVP below focal weeks, distant liver tissue, statistical differences. Solid lesions in group B component of HAP, the HPI, TLP is higher than the distant liver tissue, PVP is lower than the distant liver tissue, HAP, HPI and PVP statistical differences among them. Conclusion CT perfusion imaging of HCC and FNH of the diagnosis and differential diagnosis has important clinical significance.

  4. A new shipping container for an intense neutron emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Californium-252 is an intense neutron emitter (2.34 x 1012 n/s·g) used in medicine, research, and industry. The western world's sole source of this rare radioisotope is the Californium Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC). A project has been initiated at the REDC to design a new Type B Californium Shipping Container. This effort is essential for future transportation of californium to meet the needs of users all over the world. The shipping container must meet all requirements for transport by motor freight, air, vessel, and rail, both domestic and foreign. There are unique problems in the design, fabrication, and licensing of a new Type B shipping container that will accommodate up to 60 milligrams of californium-252. One of the first challenges in the design phase of the project is the selection of a material to shield the high neutron flux. The more stringent safety precautions of today's world impel us to consider more exotic materials for such a purpose. The candidate materials must be examined not just for their neutron shielding properties, but also in conjunction with other properties such as thermal and structural requirements to withstand the hypothetical accident conditions. The design and building of such a container is a formidable task requiring much planning. The licensing process, with the complex, interactive federal codes, is a special challenge and may be the biggest on the project in terms of time and money

  5. Application of Cf for the quantitative measurement of nuclear reactor fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitive and rapid measurements of the quantity and geometric distribution of nuclear reactor fuel materials can be made using neutrons from californium. The neutron-induced fission rate in these materials may be measured by detection of either prompt radiations from fission or delayed radiations from radioactive fission products. A number of californium-based instruments are presently in use by the nuclear industry for purposes of process control, quality control, nuclear materials safeguards, and environmentl assessment. An Automated Fuel Rod Scanner (AFRS) is used for high-speed measurement of the uniformity of loading and total fissile content of reactor fuel rods. The fuel rods are moved first through an irradiator containing about 1 mg of californium, and subsequently through high-efficiency detectors for the measurement of fission-product gamma-rays. Multiple detectors on each of two irradiation channels are used to reduce the californium source strength requirement. The fuel loading of each 15-mm-long pellet is tested to +-10% on 100% of the plant throughput. By summing the response over length, the total fissile material content of the fuel rod is measured to better than 0.5%. An on-line computer for data processing allows the instrument to measure about 150 rods per hour with a single operator. The same activation concept is used with a 25-μg californium source in a Small Sample Assay System (SSAS) which measures the fissile content of fuel pellet sized samples with a precision of 0.5%

  6. SU-E-J-256: Predicting Metastasis-Free Survival of Rectal Cancer Patients Treated with Neoadjuvant Chemo-Radiotherapy by Data-Mining of CT Texture Features of Primary Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between computed tomographic (CT) texture features of primary lesions and metastasis-free survival for rectal cancer patients; and to develop a datamining prediction model using texture features. Methods: A total of 220 rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent CT scans before CRT. The primary lesions on the CT images were delineated by two experienced oncologists. The CT images were filtered by Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) filters with different filter values (1.0–2.5: from fine to coarse). Both filtered and unfiltered images were analyzed using Gray-level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) texture analysis with different directions (transversal, sagittal, and coronal). Totally, 270 texture features with different species, directions and filter values were extracted. Texture features were examined with Student’s t-test for selecting predictive features. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed upon the selected features to reduce the feature collinearity. Artificial neural network (ANN) and logistic regression were applied to establish metastasis prediction models. Results: Forty-six of 220 patients developed metastasis with a follow-up time of more than 2 years. Sixtyseven texture features were significantly different in t-test (p<0.05) between patients with and without metastasis, and 12 of them were extremely significant (p<0.001). The Area-under-the-curve (AUC) of ANN was 0.72, and the concordance index (CI) of logistic regression was 0.71. The predictability of ANN was slightly better than logistic regression. Conclusion: CT texture features of primary lesions are related to metastasisfree survival of rectal cancer patients. Both ANN and logistic regression based models can be developed for prediction

  7. Patricia Yunge, La mirada com-unitaria. Vínculos entre la ciencia occidental post-moderna y las sabidurías ancestrales aymara y mapuche, Editorial Universidad Bolivariana, 2006, 256 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Rupailaf Maichin, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    Los años 60 del siglo XX representan para el pueblo mapuche williche una de las décadas más significativas desde la perspectiva histórica, cultural, social y económica y particularmente desde la perspectiva de la simbología mágico religiosa. El cataclismo, más conocido como el maremoto del 60, uno de los movimientos telúricos más potente que ha sacudido a la tierra en esta parte del mundo, según lo han comprobado los instrumentos creados por la ciencia moderna, ha sido acaso el fenómeno natur...

  8. Efeito da suplementação com óleo de peixe sobre a função renal de ratos Wistar controles e portadores de tumor de Walker 256

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Isabela

    2010-01-01

    Resumo: O desbalanço do consumo de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados (AGPI) n-6 em detrimento dos n-3 gera aumento da produção de substâncias com caráter próinflamatório, prótrombótico e vasoconstritor o que tem sido associado com a elevada incidência de doenças crônicas de cunho inflamatório. A suplementação com óleo de peixe, rico em AGPI n-3, apresenta efeito positivo sobre diversas patologias, entre elas o câncer, doenças renais e hipertensão essencial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a...

  9. Cooperation of invariant NKT cells and CD46+CD256+ T regulatory cells in prevention of autoimmune diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice treated with α-galactosylceramide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weipeng Li; Fang Ji; Yong Zhang; Ying Wang; Neng yang; Hailiang Ge; Fuqing Wang

    2008-01-01

    CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells and CD4+CD25+regulatory T (Treg) cells are two thymus-derived subsets of regulatory T cells that play an important role in the maintenance of self-tolerance. Yet the functional changes of the two subsets of regulatory T cells in the development of diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice remain unclear, and how NKT cells and CD4+CD25+ Treg cells cooperate functionally in the regulation of autoimmune diabetes is also uncertain.We provide evidence that in NOD mice, an animal model of human type 1 diabetes, the functions of both NKT cells and CD4+CD25+ Treg cells decrease in an age-dependent manner.We show that treatment with α-galactosylceramide increases the size of the CD4+CD25+ Treg cell compartment in NOD mice, and augments the expression of forkhead/winged helix transcription factor and the potency of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells to inhibit proliferation of CD4+CD25- T cells. Our data indicate that NKT cells and CD4+CD25+ Treg cells might cooperate in the prevention of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice treated with α-galactosylceramide. Induced cooperation of NKT cells and CD4+CD25+ Treg cells could serve as a strategy to treat human autoimmune disease, such as type 1 diabetes.

  10. SU-E-J-256: Predicting Metastasis-Free Survival of Rectal Cancer Patients Treated with Neoadjuvant Chemo-Radiotherapy by Data-Mining of CT Texture Features of Primary Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, H; Wang, J; Shen, L; Hu, W; Wan, J; Zhou, Z; Zhang, Z [Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between computed tomographic (CT) texture features of primary lesions and metastasis-free survival for rectal cancer patients; and to develop a datamining prediction model using texture features. Methods: A total of 220 rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent CT scans before CRT. The primary lesions on the CT images were delineated by two experienced oncologists. The CT images were filtered by Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) filters with different filter values (1.0–2.5: from fine to coarse). Both filtered and unfiltered images were analyzed using Gray-level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) texture analysis with different directions (transversal, sagittal, and coronal). Totally, 270 texture features with different species, directions and filter values were extracted. Texture features were examined with Student’s t-test for selecting predictive features. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed upon the selected features to reduce the feature collinearity. Artificial neural network (ANN) and logistic regression were applied to establish metastasis prediction models. Results: Forty-six of 220 patients developed metastasis with a follow-up time of more than 2 years. Sixtyseven texture features were significantly different in t-test (p<0.05) between patients with and without metastasis, and 12 of them were extremely significant (p<0.001). The Area-under-the-curve (AUC) of ANN was 0.72, and the concordance index (CI) of logistic regression was 0.71. The predictability of ANN was slightly better than logistic regression. Conclusion: CT texture features of primary lesions are related to metastasisfree survival of rectal cancer patients. Both ANN and logistic regression based models can be developed for prediction.

  11. Research on the Present Situation of Rural Water Facilities in Southwest China%西南地区农村用水设施研究——基于四川省256位农民的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐向峰; 陈殊

    2012-01-01

    基于西南地区是我国水资源较为丰富的地区,但近年来水旱灾害频繁发生,农业生产及农民生活用水困难的现状,对四川省农民问卷调查及相关数据进行分析,研究西南地区农村用水设施的现状与满意度,以完善农村用水设施,解决农村用水问题.%Southwest China is abounded with water resources, but the frequent occurrence of floods and drought seriously affects the agricultural production and domestic water utilization. Through questionnaire survey and data analysis, the status and satisfaction of rural water facilities in Southwest China were studied to improve rural water facilities and solve rural water use problems.

  12. Multibeam collection for TN256: Multibeam data collected aboard Thomas G. Thompson from 2010-10-23 to 2010-11-03, departing from Seattle, WA and returning to Seattle, WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  13. Inclusive Leadership in Social Work Hafford-Letchfield Trish et al Inclusive Leadership in Social Work 256pp £19.99 Policy Press 9781447300250 1447300254 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-27

    THE TITLE implies a specific readership for leaders in social work and those in this field looking to develop their leadership potential. But this book has a much wider appeal, and nurses will learn a great deal from it, particularly with regard to theories of leadership and how they can be incorporated into working lives. PMID:25428312

  14. Magnetic measurements of the transuranium elements. Progress report, January 1, 1984-December 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the magnetic properties of dhcp californium-249 metal indicated the presence of three regions of differing magnetic character. Additional measurements are also reported. Magnetic moments and valence states of terbium in TbF3, BaTbO3, and TbO18 are discussed. Progress on high-field operation of the micro-magnetic susceptometer is reported

  15. Application of PGNAA to preincineration assay of combustible waste for chlorine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, R.J.; Pawelko, R.J.; Greenwood, R.C. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A prompt gamma neutron activation analysis method is being developed for on-stream pre-incineration assay of low level radioactive combustible waste for it`s chlorine content. The assay system consists of three californium 252 sources and a germanium or scintillation gamma-ray spectrometer.

  16. Discovery of Isotopes of the Transuranium Elements with 93 <= Z <= 98

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, C

    2012-01-01

    One hundred and five isotopes of the transuranium elements neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium and californium have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  17. Source storage and transfer cask: Users Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The storage and shield cask for the dual californium source is designed to shield and transport up to 3.7 mg (2 Ci) of 252Cf. the cask meets Department of Transportation (DOT) license requirements for Type A materials (DOT-7A). The cask is designed to transfer sources to and from the Flourinel and Fuel Storage (FAST) facility delayed-neutron interrogator. Californium sources placed in the cask must be encapsulated in the SR-CF-100 package and attached to Teleflex cables. The cask contains two source locations. Each location contains a gear box that allows a Teleflex cable to be remotely moved by a hand crank into and out of the cask. This transfer procedure permits sources to be easily removed and inserted into the delayed-neutron interrogator and reduces personnel radiation exposure during transfer. The radiation dose rate with the maximum allowable quantity of californium (3.7 mg) in the cask is 30 mR/h at the surface and less than 2 mR/h 1 m from the cask surface. This manual contains information about the cask, californium sources, describes the method to ship the cask, and how to insert and remove sources from the cask. 28 figs

  18. Characterization of berkelium(III) dipicolinate and borate compounds in solution and the solid state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Mark A; Cary, Samantha K; Johnson, Jason A; Baumbach, Ryan E; Arico, Alexandra A; Luckey, Morgan; Urban, Matthew; Wang, Jamie C; Polinski, Matthew J; Chemey, Alexander; Liu, Guokui; Chen, Kuan-Wen; Van Cleve, Shelley M; Marsh, Matthew L; Eaton, Teresa M; van de Burgt, Lambertus J; Gray, Ashley L; Hobart, David E; Hanson, Kenneth; Maron, Laurent; Gendron, Frédéric; Autschbach, Jochen; Speldrich, Manfred; Kögerler, Paul; Yang, Ping; Braley, Jenifer; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2016-08-26

    Berkelium is positioned at a crucial location in the actinide series between the inherently stable half-filled 5f(7) configuration of curium and the abrupt transition in chemical behavior created by the onset of a metastable divalent state that starts at californium. However, the mere 320-day half-life of berkelium's only available isotope, (249)Bk, has hindered in-depth studies of the element's coordination chemistry. Herein, we report the synthesis and detailed solid-state and solution-phase characterization of a berkelium coordination complex, Bk(III)tris(dipicolinate), as well as a chemically distinct Bk(III) borate material for comparison. We demonstrate that berkelium's complexation is analogous to that of californium. However, from a range of spectroscopic techniques and quantum mechanical calculations, it is clear that spin-orbit coupling contributes significantly to berkelium's multiconfigurational ground state. PMID:27563098

  19. Measurement of the energy spectra of fission fragments using nuclear track detectors and digital image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy spectra of fission fragments were determined using a Nuclear Track Methodology (NTM) supported by digital image analysis and numerical data processing using a standard personal computer. The analysis of a californium (252Cf) spectrum with this approach shows improvement compared with the values reported previously using the standard procedure, in terms of resolution and accuracy. This new method adds full automation to the technical advantages and cost effectiveness of an NTM.

  20. Neutron multiplicities for the transplutonium nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper continues, with respect to the transplutonium nuclides, earlier efforts to collate and evaluate data from the scientific literature on the prompt neutron multiplicity distribution from fission and its first moment = ΣnuPnu. The isotopes considered here for which P/sub nu/ and or data (or both) were found in the literature are of americium (Am), curium (Cm), berkelium (Bk), californium (Cf), einsteinium (Es), fermium (Fm), and nobelium (No)

  1. Study of heavy particle decay from superheavy elements by SK model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy nuclei usually decay by alpha decay or spontaneous fission. These two decay modes are generally the most probable competing processes. Another less probable decay process is cluster radioactivity in which nuclei from carbon to silicon are emitted from Radium to Californium leading to the most stable daughter nucleus, lead. This work reports such a study using the cubic plus Yukawa plus exponential model of Shanmugam and Kamalaharan (SK)

  2. Properties of neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Conference presentations were divided into sessions devoted to the following topics: white neutron sources, primarily pulsed (6 papers); fast neutron fields (5 papers); Californium-252 prompt fission neutron spectra (14 papers); monoenergetic sources and filtered beams (11 papers); 14 MeV neutron sources (10 papers); selected special application (one paper); and a general interest session (4 papers). Individual abstracts were prepared separately for the papers

  3. Novel Single Photon Counting Readout Circuits and APD Arrays with Capability from UV to IR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the proposed Phase I SBIR project is to develop and demonstrate 256x256 segmented readout integrated circuits (ROICs) that can read, digitize...

  4. Religious Experience and Lay Society in T’ang China: A Reading of Tai Fu’s Kuang-i chi, by Glen Dudbridge. Cambridge Studies in Chinese History, Literature and Institutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. ix+256 pp. Maps. ISBN: 0521482232

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Ying Qin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drawing upon his knowledge and understanding of literature, book culture, and vernacular culture of pre-modern China, Glen Dudbridge offers, in his unique reading of Kuang-i chi 廣異記 (The great book of marvels, insights into the religious experiences of lay society individuals of eighth century China. However, an inquisitive reader must ask the following questions: Can Kuang-i chi, a medieval collection of tales of encounters with the other world by the minor T’ang Dynasty official Tai Fu 戴孚 (fl. 760-780, chin-shih 757, be used for the purpose of the study of religious culture? How? and to what extent? What approaches would be effective in inquiring such a text and what kinds of conclusions can be drawn? Though not explicitly setting forth these questions, Dudbridge’s work serves as answers to them through explicitly defining the nature of Kuang-i chi to his study, discarding conventional categories and establishing new ones in his analysis, and associating Kuang-i chi to the “vernacular,” instead of official, or “centralized,” religious culture (p.63-4. Using a sharp historical focus on the collection, Dudbridge concentrates on the dynamics of change in religious practices of T’ang Dynasty that is rooted and reflected in such a vernacular religious culture....

  5. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Uncorrected, Aerial photography for Rhode Island for 1981 consisted of 256 B/W unrectified photopositive 9"X9"prints at a photo scale of 1" = 1667' consisting of every other print in each flight line, Published in 2002, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aerial Photography and Imagery, Uncorrected dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Uncorrected Imagery information as...

  6. 76 FR 7817 - Announcing Draft Federal Information Processing Standard 180-4, Secure Hash Standard, and Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... 180-3 specifies five secure hash algorithms (SHAs): SHA-1, SHA- 224, SHA-256, SHA-384 and SHA-512. These algorithms produce 160, 224, 256, 384, and 512-bit outputs, respectively, which are called message... initialization hash value, ] adding two additional secure hash algorithms, SHA-512/224 and SHA-512/ 256, to...

  7. Neutron nondestructive essay of the plutonium metal parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the principle of neutron multiplicity and data unfolding mathematics, this paper developed the software which can execute the neutron multiplicity analysis, neutron attenuation analysis, parameter calibration, Pu mass solution with the neutron pulse sequence acquisition method. The measurement system consisted of detector,nuclear electronic apparatus, pulsed sequence acquisition and analysis software was tested and calibrated by californium source. Three mental plutonium components with different mass were used for experimental assay and validation, which showed that the assay bias was within 15% against the nominal value of the samples. (authors)

  8. Physical-chemical studies of transuranium elements. Progress report, April 1, 1982-March 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported on the following topics: electrochemical and spectroscopic studies of less-stable higher oxidation states of transuranium elements in complexing aqueous media; spectroscopic and electrochemical studies of selected lanthanides and actinides in molten dimethyl sulfone; spectroelectronchemical studies of the Ce(IV)/Ce(III) couple in aqueous carbonate solutions; characterization of actinide orthophosphates by Raman and absorption spectrophotometries and by x-ray diffraction; relativistic multiple scattering calculations on transuranium element compounds; Raman spectroscopic studies of natural minerals containing the uranyl ion; and solution calorimetry of californium metal

  9. Composition containing transuranic elements for use in the homeopathic treatment of aids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustig, D.

    1996-04-18

    A homeopathic remedy consisting of a composition containing one or more transuranic elements, particularly plutonium, for preventing and treating acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans, as well as seropositivity for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Said composition is characterized in that it uses any chemical or isotopic form of one or more transuranic elements (neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium or einsteinium), particularly plutonium, said form being diluted and dynamized according to conventional homeopathic methods, particularly the so-called Hahnemann and Korsakov methods, and provided preferably but not exclusively in the form of lactose and/or saccharose globules or granules impregnated with the active principle of said composition. (author).

  10. TOWARD AN IMPROVED UNDERSTANDING OF STRUCTURE AND MAGNETISM IN NEPTUNIUM AND PLUTONIUM PHOSPHONATES AND SULFONATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    This grant supported the exploratory synthesis of new actinide materials with all of the actinides from thorium to californium with the exceptions of protactinium and berkelium. We developed detailed structure-property relationships that allowed for the identification of novel materials with selective ion-exchange, selective oxidation, and long-range magnetic ordering. We found novel bonding motifs and identified periodic trends across the actinide series. We identified structural building units that would lead to desired structural features and novel topologies. We also characterized many different spectroscopic trends across the actinide series. The grant support the preparation of approximately 1200 new compounds all of which were structurally characterized.

  11. NONDESTRUCTIVE IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND EXPLOSIVES BY NEUTRON GENERATOR-DRIVEN PGNAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. R. Twomey; A. J. Caffrey; D. L. Chichester

    2007-02-01

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is now a proven method for the identification of chemical warfare agents and explosives in military projectiles and storage containers. Idaho National Laboratory is developing a next-generation PGNAA instrument based on the new Ortec Detective mechanically-cooled HPGe detector and a neutron generator. In this paper we review PGNAA analysis of suspect chemical warfare munitions, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of replacing the californium-252 radioisotopic neutron source with a compact accelerator neutron generator.

  12. Detection of rare earth elements in Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal ash using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Phuoc [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State; Mcintyre, Dustin [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State

    2015-10-01

    We reported our preliminary results on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to analyze the rare earth elements contained in ash samples from Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal (PRB-coal). We have identified many elements in the lanthanide series (cerium, europium, holmium, lanthanum, lutetium, praseodymium, promethium, samarium, terbium, ytterbium) and some elements in the actinide series (actinium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, berkelium, californium) in the ash samples. In addition, various metals were also seen to present in the ash samples

  13. Composition containing transuranic elements for use in the homeopathic treatment of aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A homeopathic remedy consisting of a composition containing one or more transuranic elements, particularly plutonium, for preventing and treating acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans, as well as seropositivity for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Said composition is characterized in that it uses any chemical or isotopic form of one or more transuranic elements (neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium or einsteinium), particularly plutonium, said form being diluted and dynamized according to conventional homeopathic methods, particularly the so-called Hahnemann and Korsakov methods, and provided preferably but not exclusively in the form of lactose and/or saccharose globules or granules impregnated with the active principle of said composition. (author)

  14. NONDESTRUCTIVE IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND EXPLOSIVES BY NEUTRON GENERATOR-DRIVEN PGNAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is now a proven method for the identification of chemical warfare agents and explosives in military projectiles and storage containers. Idaho National Laboratory is developing a next-generation PGNAA instrument based on the new Ortec Detective mechanically-cooled HPGe detector and a neutron generator. In this paper we review PGNAA analysis of suspect chemical warfare munitions, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of replacing the californium-252 radioisotopic neutron source with a compact accelerator neutron generator

  15. Use of trioctylphosphine oxide for transplutonium element extraction and purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigated was extraction of tri-valent curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium as well as cerium and europium with trioctylphosphin oxide from lactic acid solutions, containing DTPA and aluminium nitrate depending on the aluminium nitrate and TOPO concentrations and nitric acid solutions of variable concentration as well. Under optimum conditions of extraction chromatography of berkelium studied was the distribution of cobalt, nickel, chromium, iron, aluminium, titanium, zirconium and niobium ions, and the coefficients of berkelium purification from cations investigated were determined. The effect of weight quantities of cation impurities on extraction chromatographic yield of berkelium has been investigated. Examples of practice application of the extraction chromatography with the use of TOPO are given

  16. PROCEEDINGS OF THE SYMPOSIUM COMMEMORATING THE 25th ANNIVERSARY OF ELEMENTS 97 and 98 HELD ON JAN. 20, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.; Street Jr., Kenneth; Thompson, Stanley G.; Ghiorso, Albert

    1976-07-01

    This volume includes the talks given on January 20, 1975, at a symposium in Berkeley on the occasion of the celebration of the 25th anniversary of the discovery of berkelium and californium. Talks were given at this symposium by the four people involved in the discovery of these elements and by a number of people who have made significant contributions in the intervening years to the investigation of their nuclear and chemical properties. The papers are being published here, without editing, in the form in which they were submitted by the authors in the months following the anniversary symposium, and they reflect rather faithfully the remarks made on that occasion.

  17. Neutron crosstalk between liquid scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbeke, J. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Prasad, M. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Snyderman, N. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    We propose a method to quantify the fractions of neutrons scattering between liquid scintillators. Using a spontaneous fission source, this method can be utilized to quickly characterize an array of liquid scintillators in terms of crosstalk. The point model theory due to Feynman is corrected to account for these multiple scatterings. Using spectral information measured by the liquid scintillators, fractions of multiple scattering can be estimated, and mass reconstruction of fissile materials under investigation can be improved. Monte Carlo simulations of mono-energetic neutron sources were performed to estimate neutron crosstalk. A californium source in an array of liquid scintillators was modeled to illustrate the improvement of the mass reconstruction.

  18. Study by thermochromatography of fluorides of transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermochromatography was made suitable for fluoride study. So, an investigation of actinide tetrafluorides was accomplished from uranium to californium. Pentavalent and hexavalent fluorospecies of uranium, neptunium, plutonium and ruthenium were studied. Some new compounds have been identified in gaseous phase, whose: PuF5, PuOF3 and PaOF3. Furthermore, some presomptions as for the existence in gaseous phase of EsF4 and of an heptavalent fluorospecies of plutonium have been established. An important analogy between plutonium and ruthenium behaviour with fluorine have been shown, these results could explain the difficulties encountered in the fluoride-volatility processes

  19. Method for measuring multiple scattering corrections between liquid scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, J. M.; Glenn, A. M.; Keefer, G. J.; Wurtz, R. E.

    2016-07-01

    A time-of-flight method is proposed to experimentally quantify the fractions of neutrons scattering between scintillators. An array of scintillators is characterized in terms of crosstalk with this method by measuring a californium source, for different neutron energy thresholds. The spectral information recorded by the scintillators can be used to estimate the fractions of neutrons multiple scattering. With the help of a correction to Feynman's point model theory to account for multiple scattering, these fractions can in turn improve the mass reconstruction of fissile materials under investigation.

  20. Kuritegevusehirm, sotsiaalkontroll ja kommunitarism : kas kriminaalõiguse suund suuremale ühiskondlikkusele? / Jaan Sootak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sootak, Jaan, 1948-

    2000-01-01

    Positiivsest üldpreventsioonist, ubikviteedipreventsioonist, nulltolerantsist ja kommunitaristlikust karistusteooriast. Ilmunud ka: Sootak, Jaan. Kuri karjas : [artiklite kogumik]. Tartu, 2009, lk. 225-256

  1. Does Family Structure Matter in the Relationships between Youth Assets and Youth Alcohol, Drug and Tobacco Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Roy F.; Vesely, Sara K.; Tolma, Eleni; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated significant relationships between youth assets and youth alcohol, tobacco, and drug use that differ according to family structure (one- or two-parent households). Data were collected from a randomly sampled inner-city population (n=1,256 teenagers and 1,256 parents of the teenagers) using in-home, in-person interviews.…

  2. Drug: D05341 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D05341 Drug Palmitic acid (NF) C16H32O2 256.2402 256.4241 D05341.gif Ingredient in ...a diagnostic aid [ultrasound contrast medium] Same as: C00249 Component of Leovist (TN) CAS: 57-10-3 PubChem

  3. Protein (Viridiplantae): 297852222 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 24:3181 3398:3181 71240:3723 91827:3723 71275:1324 91836:455 3699:455 3700:455 980083:455 3701:455 59689:256 81972:256 universa...l stress protein family protein Arabidopsis lyrata subsp. lyrata MQFSRNSILRQLSRKEGWRSASKR

  4. The Impact of Assistive Technology on the Educational Performance of Students with Visual Impairments: A Synthesis of the Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Stacy M.; Smith, Derrick W.

    2011-01-01

    This synthesis examined the research literature from 1965 to 2009 on the assistive technology that is used by individuals with visual impairments. The authors located and reviewed 256 articles for evidence-based research on assistive technology that had a positive impact on educational performance. Of the 256 studies, only 2 provided promising…

  5. Converged delivery of WiMAX and wireline services over an extended reach passive optical access network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osadchiy, Alexey Vladimirovich; Prince, Kamau; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present long-reach fiber access links supporting transmission of Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) compliant signals. We present bi-directional full-duplex transmission of 256-state quadrature amplitude modulation (256-QAM) modulated WiMAX-compliant signals...

  6. Facultative Sterol Uptake in an Ergosterol-Deficient Clinical Isolate of Candida glabrata Harboring a Missense Mutation in ERG11 and Exhibiting Cross-Resistance to Azoles and Amphotericin B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hull, Claire M.; Parker, Josie E.; Bader, Oliver; Weig, Michael; Gross, Uwe; Warrilow, Andrew G. S.; Kelly, Diane E.; Kelly, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    We identified a clinical isolate of Candida glabrata (CG156) exhibiting flocculent growth and cross-resistance to fluconazole (FLC), voriconazole (VRC), and amphotericin B (AMB), with MICs of >256, >256, and 32 mu g ml(-1), respectively. Sterol analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC

  7. Algorithms for Generating Convex Polyhedrons Over Three Dimensional Rectangular Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ramesh Chandra

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses various algorithms related to generation of 3-D convex polyhedrons. These convexpolyhedrons can be used as structuring elements in the mathematical morphological processing of 3-Ddigital images. The first algorithm proposes a new way of automatic construction of 256 convexpolyhedrons in a 3-D rectangular grid by removing the duplicate subsets. The second algorithm proposes away for hierarchy construction in visualizing the relationships between sets and their correspondingsubsets of all 256 convex polyhedrons. The third algorithm proposes a way of visualizing all 256 convexpolyhedrons depending on user selection.

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16055-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9822 Start point 2742478 End point 2740389 Strand (PLUS/MINUS) MINUS Number of clones 9 Number of EST 15 Lin...055-1Q) /CSM_Contig/Contig-U16055-1Q.Seq.d Length = 2100 Score = 551 bits (278), Expect = e-156 Identities = 278/278 (100%) Strand...actccaatcactaccactaccacc 278 Score = 507 bits (256), Expect = e-143 Identities = 256/256 (100%) Strand...2 bits (228), Expect = e-126 Identities = 228/228 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 1373 ttagctgaaattgagaag...371 bits (187), Expect = e-102 Identities = 193/193 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Q

  9. Robotics and remote systems applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is a review of numerous remote inspection techniques in use at the Savannah River (and other) facilities. These include: (1) reactor tank inspection robot, (2) californium waste removal robot, (3) fuel rod lubrication robot, (4) cesium source manipulation robot, (5) tank 13 survey and decontamination robots, (6) hot gang valve corridor decontamination and junction box removal robots, (7) lead removal from deionizer vessels robot, (8) HB line cleanup robot, (9) remote operation of a front end loader at WIPP, (10) remote overhead video extendible robot, (11) semi-intelligent mobile observing navigator, (12) remote camera systems in the SRS canyons, (13) cameras and borescope for the DWPF, (14) Hanford waste tank camera system, (15) in-tank precipitation camera system, (16) F-area retention basin pipe crawler, (17) waste tank wall crawler and annulus camera, (18) duct inspection, and (19) deionizer resin sampling

  10. Preparation of actinide targets by electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, N.; Folger, H.

    1989-10-01

    Actinide targets with varying thicknesses on different substrates have been prepared by electrodeposition either from aqueous solutions or from solutions of their nitrates in isopropyl alcohol. With these techniques the actinides can be deposited almost quantitatively on various backing materials within 15 to 30 min. Targets of thorium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium and californium with areal densities from almost carrier-free up to 1.4 mg/cm 2 on thin beryllium, carbon, titanium, tantalum and platinum foils have been prepared. In most cases, prior to the deposition, the actinides had to be purified chemically and for some of them, due to the limited amount of material available, recycling procedures were required. Applications of actinide targets in heavy-ion reactions are briefly discussed.

  11. An atomic beam source for actinide elements: concept and realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For ultratrace analysis of actinide elements and studies of their atomic properties with resonance ionization mass spectroscopy (RIMS), efficient and stable sources of actinide atomic beams are required. The thermodynamics and kinetics of the evaporation of actinide elements and oxides from a variety of metals were considered, including diffusion, desorption, and associative desorption. On this basis various sandwich-type filaments were studied. The most promising system was found to consist of tantalum as the backing material, an electrolytically deposited actinide hydroxide as the source of the element, and a titanium covering layer for its reduction to the metal. Such sandwich sources were experimentally proven to be well suited for the production of atomic beams of plutonium, curium, berkelium and californium at relatively low operating temperatures and with high and reproducible yields. (orig.)

  12. Environmental assessment of the thermal neutron activation explosive detection system for concourse use at US airports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is an environmental assessment of a system designed to detect the presence of explosives in checked airline baggage or cargo. The system is meant to be installed at the concourse or lobby ticketing areas of US commercial airports and uses a sealed radioactive source of californium-252 to irradiate baggage items. The major impact of the use of this system arises from direct exposure of the public to scattered or leakage radiation from the source and to induced radioactivity in baggage items. Under normal operation and the most likely accident scenarios, the environmental impacts that would be created by the proposed licensing action would not be significant. 44 refs., 19 figs., 18 tabs

  13. Experimental survey of the potential energy surfaces associated with fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in the experimental determination of the properties of the potential energy surface associated with fission is reviewed. The importance of nuclear symmetry effects on the calculation of fission widths is demonstrated. Evidence is presented for the fragmentation of the mass-asymmetric second barrier in the thorium region and the axial asymmetric first barrier in the californium region. Detailed analyses of experimental data suggest the presence of two parallel second barriers; the normal mass-asymmetric, axial-symmetric barrier and a slightly higher mass-symmetric, axial-asymmetric barrier. Experimental barrier parameters are determined systematically and compared with calculations from various theoretical models. Techniques for expanding fission probability measurements to higher energies are discussed. (author)

  14. Populations of selected microbial and fungal species growing on the surface of rape seeds following treatment with desiccants or plant growth regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frac, Magdalena; Jezierska-Tys, Stefania; Tys, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of desiccants and plant growth regulators on selected microbial species affecting rape seeds, with special emphasis on the growth of fungi and identification of the genus and species composition. The experimental material in the study was seeds of winter rape cv. Californium that were collected from the field during combine harvest. The chemical agents applied, both desiccants and growth regulators, generally decreased the populations of bacteria occurring on the surface of rape seeds. The responses of fungi depended upon the type of agent applied and were manifested as either stimulation or inhibition of the growth of the fungal species. The fungi isolated from the surface of rape seeds were characteristic of those found in the field environment (Cladosporium and Penicillium) and typical for those present on the surface of rape seeds (Alternaria).

  15. Effects of 252Cf neutrons, transmitted through an iron block on human lymphocyte chromosome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosome aberration of human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to californium-252 (252Cf) neutrons transmitted through a 15 cm thick iron block was analysed. The spectrum of the filtered neutrons ranged from 0.1 to 2MeV with a peak at 0.7 MeV, simulating the Hiroshima atomic bomb neutron spectrum as shown in the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86). Chromosome aberration frequencies after exposure to filtered and unfiltered 252Cf radiation were compared. Acentric ring chromosomes were significantly increased (p 0.1). The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the neutrons with respect to the formation of dicentrics and centric rings was 10.9 and 12.3 in the filtered and unfiltered conditions respectively, but the difference was not statistically significant. These results provide useful information for the re-evaluation of the biological effect of the Hiroshima atomic bomb radiations. (Author)

  16. Reliability of semiconductor and gas-filled diodes for over-voltage protection exposed to ionizing radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Koviljka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide-spread use of semiconductor and gas-filled diodes for non-linear over-voltage protection results in a variety of possible working conditions. It is therefore essential to have a thorough insight into their reliability in exploitation environments which imply exposure to ionizing radiation. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of irradiation on over-voltage diode characteristics by exposing the diodes to californium-252 combined neutron/gamma radiation field. The irradiation of semiconductor over-voltage diodes causes severe degradation of their protection characteristics. On the other hand, gas-filled over-voltage diodes exhibit a temporal improvement of performance. The results are presented with the accompanying theoretical interpretations of the observed changes in over-voltage diode behaviour, based on the interaction of radiation with materials constituting the diodes.

  17. Potential nuclear safeguards applications for neutron generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many nuclear safeguards inspection instruments use neutron sources to interrogate the fissile material (commonly 235U and 239Pu) to be measured. The neutron sources currently used in these instruments are isotopics such as Californium-252, Americium-Lithium, etc. It is becoming increasingly more difficult to transport isotopic sources from one measurement location to another. This represents a significant problem for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards inspectors because they must take their safeguards instruments with them to each nuclear installation to make an independent measurement. Purpose of this paper is to review the possibility of replacing isotopic neutron sources now used in IAEA safeguards instruments with electric neutron sources such as deuterium-tritium (D-T, 14-MeV neutrons) or deuterium-deuterium (D-D, 2-MeV neutrons). The potential for neutron generators to interrogate spent-light water reactor fuel assemblies in storage pools is also reviewed

  18. Off-line commissioning of EBIS and plans for its integration into ATLAS and CARIBU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroumov, P N; Barcikowski, A; Dickerson, C A; Mustapha, B; Perry, A; Sharamentov, S I; Vondrasek, R C; Zinkann, G

    2016-02-01

    An Electron Beam Ion Source Charge Breeder (EBIS-CB) has been developed at Argonne to breed radioactive beams from the CAlifornium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). The EBIS-CB will replace the existing ECR charge breeder to increase the intensity and significantly improve the purity of reaccelerated radioactive ion beams. The CARIBU EBIS-CB has been successfully commissioned offline with an external singly charged cesium ion source. The performance of the EBIS fully meets the specifications to breed rare isotope beams delivered from CARIBU. The EBIS is being relocated and integrated into ATLAS and CARIBU. A long electrostatic beam transport system including two 180° bends in the vertical plane has been designed. The commissioning of the EBIS and the beam transport system in their permanent location will start at the end of this year. PMID:26932059

  19. Measurements of the neutron capture cross sections and incineration potentials of minor-actinides in high thermal neutron fluxes: Impact on the transmutation of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis comes within the framework of minor-actinide nuclear transmutation studies. First of all, we have evaluated the impact of minor actinide nuclear data uncertainties within the cases of 241Am and 237Np incineration in three different reactor spectra: EFR (fast), GT-MHR (epithermal) and HI-HWR (thermal). The nuclear parameters which give the highest uncertainties were thus highlighted. As a result of fact, we have tried to reduce data uncertainties, in the thermal energy region, for one part of them through experimental campaigns in the moderated high intensity neutron fluxes of ILL reactor (Grenoble). These measurements were focused onto the incineration and transmutation of the americium-241, the curium-244 and the californium-249 isotopes. Finally, the values of 12 different cross sections and the 241Am isomeric branching ratio were precisely measured at thermal energy point. (author)

  20. Environmental assessment of the thermal neutron activation explosive detection system for concourse use at US airports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.G.

    1990-08-01

    This document is an environmental assessment of a system designed to detect the presence of explosives in checked airline baggage or cargo. The system is meant to be installed at the concourse or lobby ticketing areas of US commercial airports and uses a sealed radioactive source of californium-252 to irradiate baggage items. The major impact of the use of this system arises from direct exposure of the public to scattered or leakage radiation from the source and to induced radioactivity in baggage items. Under normal operation and the most likely accident scenarios, the environmental impacts that would be created by the proposed licensing action would not be significant. 44 refs., 19 figs., 18 tabs.

  1. Triton and alpha-particle contribution from LiF converter for neutron dosimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho, M E; Balcazar, M

    1999-01-01

    A personnel neutron dosimeter prototype based on chemical and electrochemical etched CR-39 detector, combined with LiF converter, has been calibrated using an ICRP-like phantom, under a heavy-water moderated Californium source neutron spectra; A conversion factor of 1.052+-126 spots cm sup - sup 2 mSv sup - sup 1 was obtained. The sealing properties of the detector holder showed a ten-fold reduction in radon background when it was tested in a high radon atmosphere. A convenient mechanical shock resistance was achieved in LiF converters by sintering to 11 tons pressure LiF powder at 650 deg. C, during one hour.

  2. Nuclear fission and the transuranium elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1989-02-01

    Many of the transuranium elements are produced and isolated in large quantities through the use of neutrons furnished by nuclear fission reactions: plutonium (atomic number 94) in ton quantities; neptunium (93), americium (95), and curium (96) in kilogram quantities; berkelium (97) in 100 milligram quantities; californium (98) in gram quantities; and einsteinium (99) in milligram quantities. Transuranium isotopes have found many practical applications---as nuclear fuel for the large-scale generation of electricity, as compact, long-lived power sources for use in space exploration, as means for diagnosis and treatment in the medical area, and as tools in numerous industrial processes. Of particular interest is the unusual chemistry and impact of these heaviest elements on the periodic table. This account will feature these aspects. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Measurements of the neutron capture cross sections and incineration potentials of minor-actinides in high thermal neutron fluxes: Impact on the transmutation of nuclear wastes; Mesures des sections efficaces de capture et potentiels d'incineration des actinides mineurs dans les hauts flux de neutrons: Impact sur la transmutation des dechets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringer, O

    2007-10-15

    This thesis comes within the framework of minor-actinide nuclear transmutation studies. First of all, we have evaluated the impact of minor actinide nuclear data uncertainties within the cases of {sup 241}Am and {sup 237}Np incineration in three different reactor spectra: EFR (fast), GT-MHR (epithermal) and HI-HWR (thermal). The nuclear parameters which give the highest uncertainties were thus highlighted. As a result of fact, we have tried to reduce data uncertainties, in the thermal energy region, for one part of them through experimental campaigns in the moderated high intensity neutron fluxes of ILL reactor (Grenoble). These measurements were focused onto the incineration and transmutation of the americium-241, the curium-244 and the californium-249 isotopes. Finally, the values of 12 different cross sections and the {sup 241}Am isomeric branching ratio were precisely measured at thermal energy point. (author)

  4. Study of reproducibility of measurements with the spectrometer of Bonner multispheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, G.A.; Pereira, W.W.; Patrao, K.C.S.; Fonseca, E.S., E-mail: geisadeazevedo@gmail.com, E-mail: walsan@ird.gov.br, E-mail: karla@ird.gov.br, E-mail: evaldo@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radionprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This work aims to study the metrological behavior of the Bonner Multisphere Spectrometer (BMS) of the LN / LNMRI / IRD - Laboratorio Metrologia de Neutrons / Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia e Radiacao Ionizante / Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, for measurements in repeatability and reproducibility conditions. Initially, a simulation was done by applying the Monte Carlo method, using the MCNP code and respecting the ISO 8529-1 (2001), using the sources of Californium ({sup 252} Cf), Americium-Beryllium ({sup 241} AmBe) and californium in heavy water (Cf + D{sub 2}O), all located at a distance of 100 cm from the neutron detector ({sup 6}Li (Eu) - crystal scintillator). In this program, the counting of neutrons that are captured by the detector was made. The source is located in the center of a sphere of radius 300 cm. Analyzes the impact of these neutrons in a point of the sphere wall, which in this case acted as a neutron detector and from there, it is estimated the number of neutrons that collide in the whole sphere. The purpose is to obtain the neutron count for different energy bands in a solid field of neutrons, since they have a spectrum ranging from a low to a high energy that can also vary within a particular environment. Wishes to obtain new fields with different sources and moderators materials to be used as new reference fields. Measurements are being conducted for these fields, with the aim of analyzing the variability conditions of the measurement (repeatability and reproducibility) in LEN - Laboratorio de Espectrometria de Neutrons of the LN/LMNRI/IRD. Thus, the spectrometer will be used to improve both the knowledge of the spectrum as the standard of neutrons of the lab, proving that a spectrometry is essential for correct measurement.

  5. Test of charge injection device, phase 1. [prospective star tracker application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradinger, A.; Sayles, M. B.; Peters, D.; Buckley, P.

    1981-01-01

    A computer-controlled automatic facility containing two interactive microprocessors, peripherals, and an optical bench was used to obtain device characteristics for use in evaluating CID's as the sensor element in a prospective star tracker application. Each of the ST-256 chips tested contains a 256 x 256 pixel element array with 65536 picture elements. Two ST-256 devices were tested at 20 C under light levels of 10%, 0.1%, and 0.01% saturation, and in darkness. The saturation level was established at 0.95 microwatts sq cm as measured by the radiometeric sensor. Two test runs under each condition were performed for each chip. Two complete sets of data for each of the devices were thus obtained. A separate data field was used to store the results of each test condition. Repetitive runs of a test condition were stored sequentially in the same file. Examination of the data using print-outs is shown in examples.

  6. A Medipix2-based imaging system for digital mammography with silicon pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bisogni, M G; Fantacci, M E; Mettivier, G; Montesi, M C; Novelli, M; Quattrocchi, M; Rosso, V; Russo, P; Stefanini, A

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present the first tests of a digital imaging system based on a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to an integrated circuit operating in single photon counting mode. The X-rays sensor is a 300 mu m thick silicon, 14 by 14 mm/sup 2/, upon which a matrix of 256 * 256 pixels has been built. The read-out chip, named MEDIPIX2, has been developed at CERN within the MEDIPIX2 Collaboration and it is composed by a matrix of 256 * 256 cells, 55 * 55 mu m/sup 2/. The spatial resolution properties of the system have been assessed by measuring the square wave resolution function (SWRF) and first images of a standard mammographic phantom were acquired using a radiographic tube in the clinical irradiation condition. (5 refs).

  7. NODC Standard Product: Climatic Atlas of the Barents Sea 1998: Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen (NODC Accession 0000300)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This NODC CD-ROM product (NODC-121) contains the time and space distribution of 74,256 ocean stations (temperature, salinity, and oxygen) occupied in the Barents...

  8. Review: Leonard and Virginia Woolf, the Hogarth Press and the Networks of Modernism, Ed. Helen Southworth (Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlyn Tierney Caldwell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of Helen Southworth (Editor, Leonard and Virginia Woolf, the Hogarth Press and the Networks of Modernism. ix + 256 pp., notes, appendix, index. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2010. £75

  9. 77 FR 58982 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC256 New England Fishery Management Council... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; public meeting. SUMMARY: The New England Fishery Management... INFORMATION CONTACT: Paul J. Howard, Executive Director, New England Fishery Management Council;...

  10. The Knowledge Based Information Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Eliasson, Gunnar; Fölster, Stefan; Lindberg, Thomas; Pousette, Tomas; Erol TAYMAZ

    1990-01-01

    Working Paper No. 256 is published as "The Knowledge Based Information Economy" (authors: Gunnar Eliasson, Stefan Fölster, Thomas Lindberg, Tomas Pousette and Erol Taymaz). Stockholm: Industrial Institute for Economic and Social Research and Telecon, 1990.

  11. Review: Abdul Raufu Mustapha (ed., Sects & Social Disorder: Muslim Identities & Conflict in Northern Nigeria (2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Bergstresser

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the edited volume:Abdul Raufu Mustapha (ed., Sects & Social Disorder: Muslim Identities & Conflict in Northern Nigeria, Martlesham: James Currey, 2014, ISBN 9781847011077, 256 pages

  12. Prenatal Tests for Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    PRENATAL TESTS FOR DOWN SYNDROME S HARE W ITH W OMEN PRENATAL TESTS FOR DOWN SYNDROME What Is Down Syndrome? ... suggests that you consult your health care provider. PRENATAL TESTS FOR DOWN SYNDROME 256 Volume 50, No. ...

  13. Attosecond nanotechnology: NEMS of energy storage and nanostructural transformations in materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The attosecond technology of the nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS) energy storage as active center fast transformation of nanostructures in materials is considered. The self-organizing relaxation of the NEMS active center containing nanocube of 256-atoms limited by planes (100) in the FCC lattice matrix of 4d-transition metals (Ru, Rh, Pd) is described by the quantum NEMS-kinetics (NK) method. Typical for these metals change of the NEMS active center physicochemical characteristics during the time of relaxation is presented. There are three types of intermediate quasistationary states of the NEMS active center. Their forms are plainly distinguishable. The full relaxed NEMS active centers (Ru256, Rh256, Pd256) accumulate next storage energies: ERu = 2.27 eV/at, ERh = 1.67 eV/at, EPd = 3.02 eV/at

  14. A New Method for Impossible Differential Cryptanalysis of 8-Round Advanced Encryption Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; HU Yupu; WEI Yongzhuang

    2006-01-01

    This paper first presents an impossible differential property for 5-round Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) with high probability. Based on the property and the impossible differential cryptanalytic method for the 5-round AES, a new method is proposed for cryptanalyzing the 8-round AES-192 and AES-256. This attack on the reduced 8-round AES-192 demands 2121 words of memory, and performs 2148 8-round AES-192 encryptions. This attack on the reduced 8-round AES-256 demands 2153 words of memory, and performs 2180 8-round AES-256 encryptions. Furthermore, both AES-192 and AES-256 require about 298 chosen plaintexts for this attack, and have the same probability that is only 2-3 to fail to recover the secret key.

  15. Potentiated cyclophosphane: experimental study of the effect on tumor development and efficiency of cytostatic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosova, E N; Zueva, E P; Razina, T G; Krylova, S G; Shilova, N V; Epstein, O I

    2003-01-01

    Experiments on animals with transplanted tumors (Lewis lung carcinoma and carcinosarcoma Walker-256) showed that combination treatment with cyclophosphane and its homeopathically potentiated forms increases antiblastic activity of the preparation.

  16. Attosecond nanotechnology: NEMS of energy storage and nanostructural transformations in materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beznosyuk, Sergey A., E-mail: bsa1953@mail.ru; Maslova, Olga A., E-mail: maslova-o.a@mail.ru [Altai State University, Barnaul, 656049 (Russian Federation); Zhukovsky, Mark S., E-mail: zhukovsky@list.ru [Altai State Technical University, Barnaul, 656038 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    The attosecond technology of the nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS) energy storage as active center fast transformation of nanostructures in materials is considered. The self-organizing relaxation of the NEMS active center containing nanocube of 256-atoms limited by planes (100) in the FCC lattice matrix of 4d-transition metals (Ru, Rh, Pd) is described by the quantum NEMS-kinetics (NK) method. Typical for these metals change of the NEMS active center physicochemical characteristics during the time of relaxation is presented. There are three types of intermediate quasistationary states of the NEMS active center. Their forms are plainly distinguishable. The full relaxed NEMS active centers (Ru{sub 256}, Rh{sub 256}, Pd{sub 256}) accumulate next storage energies: E{sub Ru} = 2.27 eV/at, E{sub Rh} = 1.67 eV/at, E{sub Pd} = 3.02 eV/at.

  17. Sulfur and strontium isotopic compositions of carbonate and evaporite rocks from the late Neoproterozoic–early Cambrian Bilara Group (Nagaur-Ganganagar Basin, India): Constraints on intrabasinal correlation and global sulfur cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mazumdar, A.; Strauss, H.

    . The silicified evaporite syndrome ? two aspects of silicification history of former evaporite nodules from southern Kentucky and northern Tennessee. Jour. Sed. Petrol. 49, 245-256. Mishra, A,1998. Mineralogy and petrography of the Hanseran Evaporite Group...

  18. Attosecond nanotechnology: NEMS of energy storage and nanostructural transformations in materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beznosyuk, Sergey A.; Zhukovsky, Mark S.; Maslova, Olga A.

    2015-10-01

    The attosecond technology of the nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS) energy storage as active center fast transformation of nanostructures in materials is considered. The self-organizing relaxation of the NEMS active center containing nanocube of 256-atoms limited by planes (100) in the FCC lattice matrix of 4d-transition metals (Ru, Rh, Pd) is described by the quantum NEMS-kinetics (NK) method. Typical for these metals change of the NEMS active center physicochemical characteristics during the time of relaxation is presented. There are three types of intermediate quasistationary states of the NEMS active center. Their forms are plainly distinguishable. The full relaxed NEMS active centers (Ru256, Rh256, Pd256) accumulate next storage energies: ERu = 2.27 eV/at, ERh = 1.67 eV/at, EPd = 3.02 eV/at.

  19. Sõlmes alumiiniummaja = Aluminium House in a Knot

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Alumiiniumplaatidega kaetud sõlmekujulise plaaniga eramu (256 m2). Arhitektid: Peeter Pere, Urmas Muru. Projektbüroo: Muru & Pere. Konsultant Katrin Kaevats. Valmis: 2007. 2 plaani, 4 värv. välisvaadet, sisevaade

  20. 78 FR 43180 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... Bottle, GS High Dilution 256 Neutral Disinfectant, Silk Screened, 12-32oz bottles NPA: Susquehanna... and Printing, 9000 Blue Mound Road, Fort Worth, TX NPA: Goodwill Industrial Services of Fort...

  1. The Decision to Produce Altcoins: Miners' Arbitrage in Cryptocurrency Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Hayes

    2015-01-01

    Bitcoin has become the de facto 'gold' standard among cryptocurrencies as it is the most widely accepted in commerce, has the largest mining network, and greatest volume of transactions. Because of this, miners of other SHA-256 cryptocurrencies will tend to convert those altcoins into bitcoin in order to transact in a meaningful way with the real economy. The result is that bitcoin mining regulates that of all other SHA-256 blockchains. Specifically, what matters is the expected number of bit...

  2. New Encryption Standard AES%一种新的加密标准 AES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单玉峰; 潘孟贤

    2002-01-01

    AES是一种新的加密标准,它是分组加密算法,分组长度为128位,密钥长度为128bits、192bits、256bits三种,分别称为AES-128、AES-192、AES-256.本文介绍了AES的加密算法的加密过程,函数定义,密钥扩展过程.

  3. Isolation, characterization, and cloning of a plasmid-borne gene encoding a phosphotransferase that confers high-level amikacin resistance in enteric bacilli.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaynes, R.; Groisman, E; Nelson, E.; Casadaban, M; Lerner, S A

    1988-01-01

    Clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Serratia marcescens at a hospital that had used amikacin as its principal aminoglycoside for the preceding 42 months demonstrated high-level resistance to amikacin (greater than or equal to 256 micrograms/ml), kanamycin (greater than or equal to 256 micrograms/ml), gentamicin (greater than or equal to 64 micrograms/ml), netilmicin (64 micrograms/ml), and tobramycin (greater than or equal to 16 micrograms/ml). The resistant strains contained an id...

  4. A new algorithm for multiplying two Dirac numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Cariow, Aleksandr; Cariowa, Galina

    2015-01-01

    In this work a rationalized algorithm for Dirac numbers multiplication is presented. This algorithm has a low computational complexity feature and is well suited to FPGA implementation. The computation of two Dirac numbers product using the na\\"ive method takes 256 real multiplications and 240 real additions, while the proposed algorithm can compute the same result in only 88 real multiplications and 256 real additions. During synthesis of the discussed algorithm we use the fact that Dirac nu...

  5. Structure-guided modification of Rhizomucor miehei lipase for production of structured lipids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hui Zhang

    Full Text Available To improve the performance of yeast surface-displayed Rhizomucor miehei lipase (RML in the production of human milk fat substitute (HMFS, we mutated amino acids in the lipase substrate-binding pocket based on protein hydrophobicity, to improve esterification activity. Five mutants: Asn87Ile, Asn87Ile/Asp91Val, His108Leu/Lys109Ile, Asp256Ile/His257Leu, and His108Leu/Lys109Ile/Asp256Ile/His257Leu were obtained and their hydrolytic and esterification activities were assayed. Using Discovery Studio 3.1 to build models and calculate the binding energy between lipase and substrates, compared to wild-type, the mutant Asp256Ile/His257Leu was found to have significantly lower energy when oleic acid (3.97 KJ/mol decrease and tripalmitin (7.55 KJ/mol decrease were substrates. This result was in accordance with the esterification activity of Asp256Ile/His257Leu (2.37-fold of wild-type. The four mutants were also evaluated for the production of HMFS in organic solvent and in a solvent-free system. Asp256Ile/His257Leu had an oleic acid incorporation of 28.27% for catalyzing tripalmitin and oleic acid, and 53.18% for the reaction of palm oil with oleic acid. The efficiency of Asp256Ile/His257Leu was 1.82-fold and 1.65-fold that of the wild-type enzyme for the two reactions. The oleic acid incorporation of Asp256Ile/His257Leu was similar to commercial Lipozyme RM IM for palm oil acidolysis with oleic acid. Yeast surface-displayed RML mutant Asp256Ile/His257Leu is a potential, economically feasible catalyst for the production of structured lipids.

  6. AcEST: DK951934 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ate synthase OS=Vitis vinifera G... 257 4e-67 tr|B8QGG4|B8QGG4_KOCSC Acetolactate synthase OS=Kochia scoparia... ... 256 9e-67 tr|B8QGG3|B8QGG3_KOCSC Acetolactate synthase OS=Kochia scoparia ... 256 9e-67 >tr|B8LK99|B8L

  7. Deoxyribozymes inhibit the expression of periodl gene in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Wei; WANG Yueqi; LIU Yanyou; PENG Wenzhen; XIAO Jing; ZHU Bin; WANG Zhengrong

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effect of two deoxyribozymes targeting periodl (perl) mRNA in vitro for exploring a novel gene therapy approach about circadian rhythm diseases, the specific deoxyribozymes targeting perl were designed and synthesized chemically following MFold analysis according to its mRNA secondary structure, perl RNA fragments were prepared by in vitro transcription of pcDNA3.1 (+)-perl164:256. The cleavage reactions containing deoxyribozymes and perl RNA fragments were performed under certain conditions. With the transfection technique mediated by LipofectAMINETM, pcDNA3-perl and DRz164 or DRz256 were introduced into NIH3T3 cells. The effects of deoxyribozymes on perl were studied by reverse transcript-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and flow cytometry (FCM). When deoxyribozymes and RNA transcripts were incubated under the adopted conditions at 37℃ for 2 h, about 63% of perl164:256 RNA transcripts were cleaved by DRz164 and about 50.5% by DRz256. After cotransfecting pcDNA3-perl with DRz164 or DRz256, the expression of perl mRNA was decreased, as indicated by RT-PCR semi-quantity analysis. FCM analysis showed that Perl protein was inhibited. Both DRz164 and DRz256 targeting perl have the specific cleavage activity toward perl mRNA in vitro and can highly block the expression of perl gene in cellular milieu.

  8. Improvement on detectability of early ischemic changes for acute stroke using nonenhanced computed tomography: Effect of matrix size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: It has recently been reported that intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator improves the clinical outcome after acute stroke. Computed tomography (CT) is the standard imaging method used to determine the indication for thrombolysis. However, detection of early ischemic change often results in an increase in local radiation exposure. Therefore, the effects of decreased matrix size and use of a noise reduction filter were evaluated. Materials and methods: The low contrast resolution was compared for different matrix sizes and imaging filters using a contrast-detail phantom. In addition, early ischemic change in clinical images with matrix sizes of 256 x 256 and 128 x 128 processed using three imaging filters (Gaussian, smoothing, and unsharp mask) from 11 patients within 3 h of stroke onset was evaluated by seven radiologists in a blind manner. Results: The use of images with a matrix size of 256 x 256 and processed with the Gaussian filter increased the detection of early signs of acute stroke. Conclusions: This study was performed to determine whether the converted matrix size and use of imaging filters could improve the detectability of early ischemic change on CT images in acute stroke. To reduce the dose of radiation exposure for patients, it was effective to use an optimal noise reduction filter and reasonable matrix size. In particular, changing the matrix size to 256 x 256 was the most effective for detection of early ischemic change in examinations using clinical images.

  9. Imaging thrombus with radiolabelled monoclonal antibody to platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indium-111-hydroxyquinoline labelled platelets, though useful in the detection of thrombus, have not gained widespread use owing to the time and technical skill required for their preparation. A study was therefore conducted evaluating a new method of imaging thrombus with platelets radiolabelled with a 111In labelled monoclonal antibody, P256, directed to the platelet surface glycoprotein complex IIb/IIIa. When the number of receptors occupied by P256 was less than 3% of the total available on the platelet surface platelet function, as assessed by platelet aggregometry, was undisturbed. P256 was radiolabelled with 111In using diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid, which achieved a specific activity of 185 MBq (5 mCi)/mg. No impairment of immunoreactivity was detected at this specific activity. Platelets were labelled with radiolabelled monoclonal antibody in vitro in two patients at a receptor occupancy of 6% and in vivo - that is, by direct intravenous injection of P256 - in six patients at a receptor occupancy of 1%. In vivo recovery and biodistribution kinetics suggested that after in vitro labelling platelets were minimally activated. The 111In kinetics recorded after intravenous P256 suggested rapid and efficient radiolabelling of platelets and gave no indication of platelet activation. Of the six patients who received intravenous P256, three had documented thrombus, tow of whom gave positive results on P256 platelet scintigraphy. The third subject had chromic deep venous thrombosis and was scintigraphically negative. Imaging thrombus using a radiolabelled monoclonal antibody directed to platelets appears to offer great potential as a simple, non-invasive approach to the diagnosis of thrombosis. 3 refs. (Author)

  10. The Development of Neutron Radiography and Tomography on a SLOWPOKE-2 Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, L. G. I.; Lewis, W. J.; Hungler, P. C.

    Development of neutron radiography at the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC) started by trying to interest the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) in this new non-destructive testing (NDT) technique. A Californium-252 based device was ordered and then installed at RMC for development of applicable techniques for aircraft by the first author. A second and transportable device was then designed, modified and used in trials at RCAF Bases and other locations for one year. This activity was the only foreign loan of the U.S. Californium Loan Program. Around this time, SLOWPOKE-2 reactors were being installed at four Canadian universities, while a new science and engineering building was being built at RMC. A reactor pool was incorporated and efforts to procure a reactor succeeded a decade later with a SLOWPOKE-2 reactor being installed at RMC. The only modification by the vendor for RMC was a thermal column replacing an irradiation site inside the reactor container for a later installation of a neutron beam tube (NBT). Development of a working NBT took several years, starting with the second author. A demonstration of the actual worth of neutron radiography took place with a CF-18 Hornet aircraft being neutron and X-radiographed at McClellan Air Force Base, Sacramento, CA. This inspection was followed by one of the rudders that had indications of water ingress being radiographed successfully at RMC just after the NBT became functional. The next step was to develop a neutron radioscopy system (NRS), initially employing film and then digital imaging, and is in use today for all flight control surfaces (FCS). With the third author, a technique capable of removing water from affected FCS was developed at RMC. Heating equipment and a vacuum system were utilized to carefully remove the water. This technique was proven using a sequence of near real time neutron images obtained during the drying process. The results of the drying process were correlated with a relative humidity

  11. Comparison of tests for the detection of circulating filarial antigen (Og4C3-ELISA and AD12-ICT and ultrasound in diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis in individuals with microfilariae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Rocha

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Significant advances were made in the diagnosis of filariasis in the 1990s with the emergence of three new alternative tools: ultrasound and tests to detect circulating antigen using two monoclonal antibodies, Og4C3 and AD12-ICT-card. This study aimed to identify which of these methods is the most sensitive for diagnosis of infection. A total of 256 individuals, all male and carrying microfilariae (1-15,679 MF/mL, diagnosed by nocturnal venous blood samples, were tested by all three techniques. The tests for circulating filarial antigen concurred 100% and correctly identified 246/256 (96.69% of the positive individuals, while ultrasound detected only 186/256 (73.44%. Of the circulating antigen tests, ICT-card was the most convenient method for identification of Wuchereria bancrofti carriers. It was easy to perform, practical and quick.

  12. Role of multiple phosphorylation sites in the COOH-terminal tail of aquaporin-2 for water transport: evidence against channel gating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeller, Hanne B; Macaulay, Nanna; Knepper, Mark A;

    2009-01-01

    in the COOH-terminal tail of AQP2 on protein function. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, prevention of AQP2 phosphorylation at S256A (S256A-AQP2) reduced osmotic water permeability threefold compared with wild-type (WT) AQP2-injected oocytes. In contrast, prevention of AQP2 single phosphorylation at S...... demonstrated that lack of phosphorylation at S256, S261, S264, or S269 had no effect on AQP2 unit water transport. Similarly, no effect on AQP2 unit water transport was observed for the 264D and 269D forms, indicating that phosphorylation of the COOH-terminal tail of AQP2 is not involved in gating...

  13. EST Table: AU002251 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AU002251 mg0674 11/12/09 GO hit GO:0005856(cytoskeleton) 10/09/28 66 %/256 aa ref|XP_001658316.1| myosin vii... [Aedes aegypti] sp|Q17LW0.1|MYO7A_AEDAE RecName: Full=Myosin-VIIa; AltName: Full=P...rotein crinkled gb|EAT47711.1| myosin vii [Aedes aegypti] 10/08/28 64 %/256 aa FBpp0247210|DwilGK18067-PA 10...B15578-PA 10/09/10 64 %/256 aa gi|189237589|ref|XP_975112.2| PREDICTED: similar to myosin-VIIa [Tribolium castaneum] AU002251 mg ...

  14. Impossible differential cryptanalysis of advanced encryption standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; HU YuPu; ZHANG YueYu

    2007-01-01

    Impossible differential cryptanalysis is a method recovering secret key, which gets rid of the keys that satisfy impossible differential relations. This paper concentrates on the impossible differential cryptanalysis of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)and presents two methods for impossible differential cryptanalysis of 7-round AES-192 and 8-round AES-256 combined with time-memory trade-off by exploiting weaknesses in their key schedule. This attack on the reduced to 7-round AES-192 requires about 294.5 chosen plaintexts, demands 2129 words of memory, and performs 2157 7-round AES-192 encryptions. Furthermore, this attack on the reduced to 8-round AES-256 requires about 2101 chosen plaintexts, demands 2201 words of memory, and performs 2228 8-round AES-256 encryptions.

  15. Improved Impossible Differential Attacks on Large-Block Rijndael

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qingju; Gu, Dawu; Rijmen, Vincent;

    2012-01-01

    . The improvement can lead to 10-round attack on Rijndael-256 as well. With 2198.1 chosen plaintexts, an attack is demonstrated on 9-round Rijndael-224 with 2 195.2 encryptions and 2140.4 bytes memory. Increasing the data complexity to 2216 plaintexts, the time complexity can be reduced to 2130 encryptions...... and the memory requirements to 2 93.6 bytes. For 9-round Rijndael-256, we provide an attack requiring 2229.3 chosen plaintexts, 2194 encryptions, and 2 139.6 bytes memory. Alternatively, with 2245.3 plaintexts, an attack with a reduced time of 2127.1 encryptions and a memory complexity of 290.9 bytes can...... be mounted. With 2244.2 chosen plaintexts, we can attack 10-round Rijndael-256 with 2253.9 encryptions and 2186.8 bytes of memory....

  16. Image Binarization Using Multi-Layer Perceptron: A Semi-Supervised Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlan Raychaudhuri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have discussed the Image Binarization technique using Multilayer Perceptron (MLP. The purpose of Image Binarization is to extract the lightness (brightness, density as a feature amount from the Image. It converts a gray-scale image of up to 256 gray levels to a black and white image. We use Backpropagation algorithm for training MLP. It is a supervised learning technique. Here Kmeans clustering algorithm has been used for clustering a 256 × 256 gray-level image. The dataset obtained by this is fed to the MLP and processed in a Semi-Supervised way where some training samples are taken as Known patterns (for training and others as Unknown patterns. Finally through this approach a Binarized image is produced.

  17. A novel chemical footprinting approach identifies critical lysine residues involved in the binding of receptor-associated protein to cluster II of LDL receptor-related protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Esther; Ebberink, Eduard H T M; van den Biggelaar, Maartje; van der Zwaan, Carmen; Mertens, Koen; Meijer, Alexander B

    2015-05-15

    Tandem mass tags (TMTs) were utilized in a novel chemical footprinting approach to identify lysine residues that mediate the interaction of receptor-associated protein (RAP) with cluster II of LDL (low-density lipoprotein) receptor (LDLR)-related protein (LRP). The isolated RAP D3 domain was modified with TMT-126 and the D3 domain-cluster II complex with TMT-127. Nano-LC-MS analysis revealed reduced modification with TMT-127 of peptides including Lys(256), Lys(270) and Lys(305)-Lys(306) suggesting that these residues contribute to cluster II binding. This agrees with previous findings that Lys(256) and Lys(270) are critical for binding cluster II sub-domains [Fisher, Beglova and Blacklow (2006) Mol. Cell 22, 277-283]. Cluster II-binding studies utilizing D3 domain variants K(256)A, K(305)A and K(306)A now showed that Lys(306) contributes to cluster II binding as well. For full-length RAP, we observed that peptides including Lys(60), Lys(191), Lys(256), Lys(270) and Lys(305)-Lys(306) exhibited reduced modification with TMT in the RAP-cluster II complex. Notably, Lys(60) has previously been implicated to mediate D1 domain interaction with cluster II. Our results suggest that also Lys(191) of the D2 domain contributes to cluster II binding. Binding studies employing the RAP variants K(191)A, K(256)A, K(305)A and K(306)A, however, revealed a modest reduction in cluster II binding for the K(256)A variant only. This suggests that the other lysine residues can compensate for the absence of a single lysine residue for effective complex assembly. Collectively, novel insight has been obtained into the contribution of lysine residues of RAP to cluster II binding. In addition, we propose that TMTs can be utilized to identify lysine residues critical for protein complex formation. PMID:25728577

  18. The charge pump PLL clock generator designed for the 1.56 ns bin size time-to-digital converter pixel array of the Timepix3 readout ASIC

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Y et al.

    2014-01-01

    Timepix3 is a newly developed pixel readout chip which is expected to be operated in a wide range of gaseous and silicon detectors. It is made of 256×256 pixels organized in a square pixel-array with 55 µm pitch. Oscillators running at 640 MHz are distributed across the pixel-array and allow for a highly accurate measurement of the arrival time of a hit. This paper concentrates on a low-jitter phase locked loop (PLL) that is located in the chip periphery. This PLL provides a control voltage which regulates the actual frequency of the individual oscillators, allowing for compensation of process, voltage, and temperature variations.

  19. Epidemiological and Serological Aspects in Canine Toxoplasmosis in Animals with Nervous Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Brito Adriana Falco de; Souza Luiz Carlos de; Silva Aristeu Vieira da; Langoni Helio

    2002-01-01

    The presence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM and IgG antibodies was studied in samples of blood serum taken from eighty dogs with nervous symptoms at the Serviço de Enfermidades Infecciosas dos Animais, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Unesp, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. The frequency of IgG titers were 16 (13.7%), 64 (13.7%), and 256 (5%), and for IgM titers were 16 (7.5%), 64 (15%), and 256 (8.7%). Positive reactions were more frequent in the older animals, males, from a rural e...

  20. Population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi in a malaria-endemic region of Eastern Amazonian Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conn, Jan E.; Vineis, Joseph H.; Bollback, Jonathan Paul;

    2006-01-01

    Anopheles darlingi is the primary malaria vector in Latin America, and is especially important in Amazonian is the primary malaria vector in Latin America, and is especially important in Amazonian Brazil. Historically, control efforts have been focused on indoor house spraying using a variety....... darlingi including evidence for a population bottleneck in Peixoto, we analyzed eight microsatellite loci of 256 individuals including evidence for a population bottleneck in Peixoto, we analyzed eight microsatellite loci of 256 individuals from seven locations in Brazil: three in Amapa State, three...

  1. The Grindahl Hash Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Rechberger, Christian; Thomsen, Søren Steffen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we propose the Grindahl hash functions, which are based on components of the Rijndael algorithm. To make collision search sufficiently difficult, this design has the important feature that no low-weight characteristics form collisions, and at the same time it limits access...... to the state. We propose two concrete hash functions, Grindahl-256 and Grindahl-512 with claimed security levels with respect to collision, preimage and second preimage attacks of 2^128 and 2^256, respectively. Both proposals have lower memory requirements than other hash functions at comparable speeds...

  2. Compressive wavefront sensing with weak values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Gregory A; Lum, Daniel J; Howell, John C

    2014-08-11

    We demonstrate a wavefront sensor that unites weak measurement and the compressive-sensing, single-pixel camera. Using a high-resolution spatial light modulator (SLM) as a variable waveplate, we weakly couple an optical field's transverse-position and polarization degrees of freedom. By placing random, binary patterns on the SLM, polarization serves as a meter for directly measuring random projections of the wavefront's real and imaginary components. Compressive-sensing optimization techniques can then recover the wavefront. We acquire high quality, 256 × 256 pixel images of the wavefront from only 10,000 projections. Photon-counting detectors give sub-picowatt sensitivity.

  3. 1×4 Optical packet switching of variable length 640 Gbit/s data packets using in-band optical notch-filter labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medhin, Ashenafi Kiros; Kamchevska, Valerija; Galili, Michael;

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally perform 1×4 optical packet switching of variable length 640 Gbit/s OTDM data packets using in-band notch-filter labeling with only 2.7-dB penalty. Up to 8 notches are employed to demonstrate scalability of the labeling scheme to 1×256 switching operation.......We experimentally perform 1×4 optical packet switching of variable length 640 Gbit/s OTDM data packets using in-band notch-filter labeling with only 2.7-dB penalty. Up to 8 notches are employed to demonstrate scalability of the labeling scheme to 1×256 switching operation....

  4. Fission in Rapidly Rotating Nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Rhine Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the effect of rotation in fission of the atomic nucleus 256Fm using an independent-particle shell model with the mean field represented by a deformed Woods-Saxon potential and the shapes defined through the Cassinian oval parametrization. The variations of barrier height with increasing angular momentum, appearance of double hump in fission path are analysed. Our calculations explain the appearance of double hump in fission path of 256Fm nucleus. The second minimum vanishes with increase in angular momentum which hints that the fission barrier disappears at large spin.

  5. Cryptanalysis of SIMON Variants with Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alizadeh, Javad; Alkhzaimi, Hoda A.; Aref, Mohammad Reza;

    2014-01-01

    for a key-recovery attack and extend them further to attack other variants of SIMON. Moreover, we provide results of key recovery analysis using several impossible differential characteristics starting from 14 out of 32 rounds for SIMON32/64 to 22 out of 72 rounds for SIMON128/256. In some cases...... attacks extend to all variants of SIMON covering more rounds compared to any known results using linear cryptanalysis. We present a key recovery attack against SIMON128/256 which covers 35 out of 72 rounds with data complexity 2123. We have implemented our attacks for small scale variants of SIMON and our...

  6. Structure-Guided Modification of Rhizomucor miehei Lipase for Production of Structured Lipids

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jun-Hui; Jiang, Yu-Yan; Lin, Ying; Sun, Yu-Fei; Zheng, Sui-Ping; Han, Shuang-Yan

    2013-01-01

    To improve the performance of yeast surface-displayed Rhizomucor miehei lipase (RML) in the production of human milk fat substitute (HMFS), we mutated amino acids in the lipase substrate-binding pocket based on protein hydrophobicity, to improve esterification activity. Five mutants: Asn87Ile, Asn87Ile/Asp91Val, His108Leu/Lys109Ile, Asp256Ile/His257Leu, and His108Leu/Lys109Ile/Asp256Ile/His257Leu were obtained and their hydrolytic and esterification activities were assayed. Using Discovery St...

  7. The Temperature Dependence of the Debye-Waller Factor of Magnesium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sledziewska-Blocka, D.; Lebech, Bente

    1976-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the average Debye-Waller factor for magnesium was measured by means of neutron diffraction spectrometry. The experimental results obtained in the temperature range from 5 to 256 K are compared with theoretical calculations, using the harmonic and quasi-harmonic appro......The temperature dependence of the average Debye-Waller factor for magnesium was measured by means of neutron diffraction spectrometry. The experimental results obtained in the temperature range from 5 to 256 K are compared with theoretical calculations, using the harmonic and quasi...

  8. Le monete di Turgar (738-750), ultimo re di Samarcanda

    OpenAIRE

    Gariboldi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The case of a dinar minted in 2 71 AH recording the name of the heir of the Caliph al-Mu'tamid ‘alà Allah (256-279 AH), al-Mufawwad Uà Allah (256-278 H), and an enigmatic mint place is discussed in the paper. The Author attempts to offer a new reading of the toponym of the mint using literary sources. The love- story between al-Mu ‘tamid and a Bedouin girl, seems to unveil the identity of the mysterious mint.

  9. Rebound Attacks on the Reduced Grøstl Hash Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendel, Florian; Rechberger, C.; Schlaffer, Martin;

    2010-01-01

    -512 has not been analyzed yet. In this paper, we show the first cryptanalytic attacks on reduced-round versions of the Grøstl hash functions. These results are obtained by several extensions of the rebound attack. We present a collision attack on 4/10 rounds of the Grøstl-256 hash function and 5....../14 rounds of the Grøstl- 512 hash functions. Additionally, we give the best collision attack for reduced-round (7/10 and 7/14) versions of the compression function of Grøstl-256 and Grøstl-512....

  10. Research from an Operatonal Space Weather Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    STEREO real-time white-light images, or beacon images, are heavily compressed, 256x256 pixel images. And yet, they show the same transient features that are in the STEREO science images, which are up to 2048x2048 pixels. Based on our experience with STEREO beacon images, we demonstrate that operational images can be used to do good quality science. We also discuss the limitations of operational data for scientific research. Finally, we discuss ways in which a predominantly operational mission could be combined with science mission, to further enhance research.

  11. AcEST: DK950225 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... 256 5e-67 tr|A1Y9I8|A1Y9I8_TOBAC Chloroplast post-illumination chlorophyll... 254 3e-66 tr|A9PFG9|A9PFG9...a m... 245 2e-63 tr|A1Y9I7|A1Y9I7_MAIZE Chloroplast post-illumination chlorophyll...YANVD 255 Query: 549 DGSCPYISDESSD 587 DGSCP +S + Sbjct: 256 DGSCPLELSDSDE 268 >tr|A1Y9I8|A1Y9I8_TOBAC Chloroplast post-illuminati

  12. WiMAX radio-on-fibre in 118-km long-reach PON with deployed fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prince, Kamau; Osadchiy, Alexey Vladimirovich; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a radio over fibre link supporting 256-QAM / 12 Mbaud WiMAX signalling over 118-km long-reach PON with deployed fibre. Our colourless implementation uses commercially-available, low-complexity devices typically used in TDM-PON or WDM-PON.......We demonstrate a radio over fibre link supporting 256-QAM / 12 Mbaud WiMAX signalling over 118-km long-reach PON with deployed fibre. Our colourless implementation uses commercially-available, low-complexity devices typically used in TDM-PON or WDM-PON....

  13. Pulsatile microvascular blood flow imaging by short-time Fourier transform analysis of ultrafast laser holographic interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Puyo, L; Rancillac, A; Simonutti, M; Paques, M; Sahel, J A; Fink, M; Atlan, M

    2015-01-01

    We report on wide-field imaging of pulsatile microvascular blood flow in the exposed cerebral cortex of a mouse by holographic interferometry. We recorded interferograms of laser light backscattered by the tissue, beating against an off-axis reference beam with a 50 kHz framerate camera. Videos of local Doppler contrasts were rendered numerically by Fresnel transformation and short-time Fourier transform analysis. This approach enabled instantaneous imaging of pulsatile blood flow contrasts in superficial blood vessels over 256 x 256 pixels with a spatial resolution of 10 microns and a temporal resolution of 20 ms.

  14. Use of ampicillin-sulbactam for treatment of experimental meningitis caused by a beta-lactamase-producing strain of Escherichia coli K-1.

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra-Romero, L; Kennedy, S L; Fournier, M A; Tureen, J H; Täuber, M G

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated the pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy of ampicillin combined with sulbactam in a rabbit model of meningitis due to a beta-lactamase-producing strain of Escherichia coli K-1. Ceftriaxone was used as a comparison drug. The MIC and MBC were 32 and greater than 64 micrograms/ml (ampicillin), greater than 256 and greater than 256 micrograms/ml (sulbactam), 2.0 and 4.0 micrograms/ml (ampicillin-sulbactam [2:1 ratio, ampicillin concentration]) and 0.125 and 0.25 micrograms/ml (c...

  15. Retroreflector field tracker. [noncontact optical position sensor for space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargocki, F. E.; Ray, A. J.; Hall, G. E.

    1984-01-01

    An electrooptical position-measuring instrument, the Retroreflector Field Tracker or RFT, is described. It is part of the Dynamic Augmentation Experiment - a part of the payload of Space Shuttle flight 41-D in Summer 1984. The tracker measures and outputs the position of 23 reflective targets placed on a 32-m solar array to provide data for determination of the dynamics of the lightweight structure. The sensor uses a 256 x 256 pixel CID detector; the processor electronics include three Z-80 microprocessors. A pulsed laser diode illuminator is used.

  16. First Overtone Frequency Stimulated Quartz Tuning Fork Used for Shear-Force Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晟; 孙家林; 孙红三; 谭晓靖; 时硕; 郭继华; 赵钧

    2003-01-01

    The conventional 32.768 kHz tuning fork is stimulated at its first overtone resonant frequency of ~190 kHz for shear-force distance control.The time constant is measured to be 0.54 ms and it decreases about 40 times faster than that of the fundamental frequency(20.76ms).The cross section of a corn root with a height difference of ~ 3μm is imaged at a scan speed of 12μm/s for 256 × 256 pixels.

  17. About a new Smarandache-type sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Biro, Csaba

    1997-01-01

    The computers can operate with 256 characters and all of them has an ASCII code which is an integer from 0 to 255. If you press ALT key and you type a number, the character of the number will appear. But if you type a number that is greater than 255, the computer will calculate the remainder after division by 256, and the corresponding character will appear. "Can you show each character by pressing the same number key k-times?"

  18. Comparative Study of MSCT with DR for Rib Fracture%MSCT与DR诊断肋骨骨折的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚晓虹; 孟祥志; 付传明; 刘超; 吴杰

    2012-01-01

    目的:比较数字X线摄影(DR)和多层螺旋CT(MSCT)在肋骨骨折诊断中的确诊率,评价其在法医临床鉴定中的作用。方法:观察80例肋骨骨折患者的DR正、斜位片,MSCT容积再现(VR)、最大密度投影(MIP)、多平面重组(MPR)及薄层轴位图像,对比分析两种影像学检查方法在肋骨骨折确诊率、漏诊率和疑诊率方面的差异。结果:DR确诊65例188处,确诊率73.44%(188/256);可疑19处,疑诊率7.44%(19/256);漏诊49处,漏诊率为19.14%(49/256)。MSCT确诊79例253处,确诊率98.05%(251/256);可疑3处,疑诊率1.17%(3/256);漏诊2处,漏诊率为0.78%。DR组与MSCT组对肋骨骨折的确诊率、漏诊率具有明显统计学意义。结论:MSCT对肋骨骨折的确诊率明显高于DR,是法医临床鉴定的可靠检查方法。%Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of multi-slice spiral CT (MSCT) for rib fracture with digital radiography (DR) in comparison, and further to assess its potential application value in forensic identification. Methods: For 80 patients with rib fructures, th frontal and oblique DR film and MSCT with varied 3D-reconstruction techniques such as volume rendering (VR), maximum intensity projection (MIP), multi-planar reformation (MPR) and thin axial images were analyzed retrospectively. The rates of indenified, suspected and missed diagnosis in rib fracture were compared between MSCT and DR. Results: 65 cases with 188 fractures were correctly diagnosed by DR, with the indenified diagnosis rate 73.44% (188/256), the suspect diagnosis rate 7.44% (19/256) and the missed diagnosis rate 19.14% (49/256). 79 cases with 253 fractures were correctly diagnosed by MSCT, with the indenified diagnosis rate 98.05% (251/256), the suspect diagnosis rate 1.17% (3/256) and the missed diagnosis rate 0.78% (2/256). There is significant statistic difference between DR and MSCT (P〈 0.01) for diagnosis of rib fracture. Conclusion

  19. Odd-even effects in the nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By the adopted way it succeeded without a completely free parameter to reproduce the experimental values for the odd-even effect for all those nuclei for which data were present. These are all even-charged nuclei from thorium to californium. Partly the OE-effect was studied in spontaneous fission, partly in neutron induced fission with thermal, 1.9-, and 3.0- MeV neutrons. It was shown that the calculated values depend very strongly from the one-particle model which is assumed in order to calculate the probabilities for pairing excitations. Thereby not only the steepness plays a role with which the one-particle energies cross the Fermi edge, but also the deformation velocity, and finally the remaining time until the scission point. That means that the whole procedure depends extremely from details of the one-particle model. Different one-particle models can be excluded because they contain simply too many crossings and then the OE effect tends to O. (orig./HSI)

  20. Fast neutron tomography with real-time pulse-shape discrimination in organic scintillation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Malcolm J.; Agar, Stewart; Aspinall, Michael D.; Beaumont, Jonathan S.; Colley, Edmund; Colling, Miriam; Dykes, Joseph; Kardasopoulos, Phoevos; Mitton, Katie

    2016-10-01

    A fast neutron tomography system based on the use of real-time pulse-shape discrimination in 7 organic liquid scintillation detectors is described. The system has been tested with a californium-252 source of dose rate 163 μSv/h at 1 m and neutron emission rate of 1.5×107 per second into 4π and a maximum acquisition time of 2 h, to characterize two 100×100×100 mm3 concrete samples. The first of these was a solid sample and the second has a vertical, cylindrical void. The experimental data, supported by simulations with both Monte Carlo methods and MATLAB®, indicate that the presence of the internal cylindrical void, corners and inhomogeneities in the samples can be discerned. The potential for fast neutron assay of this type with the capability to probe hydrogenous features in large low-Z samples is discussed. Neutron tomography of bulk porous samples is achieved that combines effective penetration not possible with thermal neutrons in the absence of beam hardening.

  1. γ -soft Ba146 and the role of nonaxial shapes at N90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, A. J.; Lister, C. J.; McCutchan, E. A.; Albers, M.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Bertone, P. F.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chiara, C. J.; Chowdhury, P.; Clark, J. A.; Copp, P.; David, H. M.; Deo, A. Y.; DiGiovine, B.; D' Olympia, N.; Dungan, R.; Harding, R. D.; Harker, J.; Hota, S. S.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Kondev, F. G.; Liu, S. H.; Ramayya, A. V.; Rissanen, J.; Savard, G.; Seweryniak, D.; Shearman, R.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Tabor, S. L.; Walters, W. B.; Wang, E.; Zhu, S.

    2016-01-01

    Low-spin states in the neutron-rich, N=90 nuclide Ba146 were populated following β decay of Cs146, with the goal of clarifying the development of deformation in barium isotopes through delineation of their nonyrast structures. Fission fragments of Cs146 were extracted from a 1.7-Ci Cf252 source and mass selected using the CAlifornium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility. Low-energy ions were deposited at the center of a box of thin β detectors, surrounded by a highly efficient high-purity Ge array. The new Ba146 decay scheme now contains 31 excited levels extending up to ~2.5 MeV excitation energy, double what was previously known. These data are compared to predictions from the interacting boson approximation (IBA) model. It appears that the abrupt shape change found at N=90 in Sm and Gd is much more gradual in Ba and Ce, due to an enhanced role of the γ degree of freedom.

  2. Use of plasma desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry to screen for products of prohormone processing in crude tissue extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Californium-252 plasma desorption mass spectrometry (252Cf PDMS) of a crude, desalted, extract of piscine endocrine pancreas provided mass information for the major biologically active peptide hormones present in this tissue. An extraction procedure compatible with 252Cf PDMS analysis was developed. In extracts of catfish pancreas, strong molecular ions were identified in the positive mode for somatostatin-14 (1638 amu), O-glycosylated somatostatin-22 (2944 amu), glucagon (3512 amu), glucagon-like peptide (3785 amu), insulin (ca. 5550 amu), and other prohormone-derived peptides. Both protonated species and sodium adducts were apparent in the mass spectrum. A number of other molecular ions were observed including somatostatin-26, 1-10 (1014 amu) and the entire portion of prosomatostatin-22 remaining after removal of somatostatin-22 (6465 amu). The data obtained by this method also resulted in the identification of the third major product of proglucagon processing in catfish pancreas, glicentin-related polypeptide. Subtractive Edman degradation analyzed by 252Cf PDMS was also used to confirm a mass assignment

  3. Nuclear Chemistry Institute, Mainz University. Annual Report 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of the Institut fuer Kernchemie addresses inter alia three main research activities. The first belongs to the area of basic research, covering studies in the fields of nuclear fission, chemistry of the super-heavy elements and of heavy-ion reactions extending from the Coulomb barrier to relativistic energies, and nuclear astrophysics in connection with the ''r process''. By means of laser technology, high-precision data could be measured of the ionization energies of berkelium and californium. Studies of atomic clusters in the vacuum of an ionization trap revealed interesting aspects. The second major activity was devoted to the analysis of environmental media, applying inter alia neutron activation analysis and resonance ionization mass spectroscopy (RIMS). The third activity resulted in the development of novel processes, or the enhancement of existing processes or methods, for applications in basic research work and in environmental analytics. Another item of interest is the summarizing report on the operation of the TRIGA research reactor. (orig./SR)

  4. About possibilities of obtaining focused beams of thermal neutrons of radionuclide source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In the last years significant progress is achieved in development of neutron focusing methods (concentrating neutrons in a given direction and a small area). In this, main attention is given to focusing of neutron beams of reactor, particularly cold neutrons and their applications. [1,2]. However, isotope sources also let obtain intensive neutron beams and solve quite important (tasks) problems (e.g. neutron capture therapy for malignant tumors) [3], and an actual problems is focusing of neutrons. We developed a device on the basis of californium source of neutrons, allowing to obtain focused (preliminarily) beam of thermal neutrons with the aid of respective choice of moderators, reflectors and geometry of their disposition. Here, fast neutrons and gamma rays in the beam are minimized. With the aid of the model we developed on the basis of Monte-Carlo method, it is possible to modify aforementioned device and dynamics of output neutrons in wide energy range and analyze ways of optimization of neutron beams of isotope sources with different neutron outputs. Device of preliminary focusing of thermal neutrons can serve as a basis for further focus of neutrons using micro- and nano-capillar systems. It is known that, capillary systems performed with certain technology can form beam of thermal neutrons increasing its density by more than two orders of magnitude and effectively divert beams up to 20o with length of system 15 cm

  5. Production of Medical Radioisotopes in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) for Cancer Treatment and Arterial Restenosis Therapy after PTCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, F. F. Jr.; Beets, A. L.; Mirzadeh, S.; Alexander, C. W.; Hobbs, R. L.

    1998-06-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) represents an important resource for the production of a wide variety of medical radioisotopes. In addition to serving as a key production site for californium-252 and other transuranic elements, important examples of therapeutic radioisotopes which are currently routinely produced in the HFIR for distribution include dysprosium-166 (parent of holmium-166), rhenium-186, tin-117m and tungsten-188 (parent of rhenium-188). The nine hydraulic tube (HT) positions in the central high flux region permit the insertion and removal of targets at any time during the operating cycle and have traditionally represented a major site for production of medical radioisotopes. To increase the irradiation capabilities of the HFIR, special target holders have recently been designed and fabricated which will be installed in the six Peripheral Target Positions (PTP), which are also located in the high flux region. These positions are only accessible during reactor refueling and will be used for long-term irradiations, such as required for the production of tin-117m and tungsten-188. Each of the PTP tubes will be capable of housing a maximum of eight HT targets, thus increasing the total maximum number of HT targets from the current nine, to a total of 57. In this paper the therapeutic use of reactor-produced radioisotopes for bone pain palliation and vascular brachytherapy and the therapeutic medical radioisotope production capabilities of the ORNL HFIR are briefly discussed.

  6. Neutron activation determination of gold in technogenic raw materials with different mineral composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudakov Aleksandr A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The methods used to determine the gold content in the technogenic objects of gold mining were analyzed regarding their non-homogeneity and complexity of chemical and mineral compositions. A possible application of the neutron activation analysis with the use of the californium source of neutrons for determining the content of fine-grained and extra-fine-grained gold in the technogenic objects, including the bottom-ash waste of energy providers, is considered. It was demonstrated that the chemical composition of the sample affects the neuron flux distribution in the sample, which can essentially distort the results of the neutron activation analysis. In order to eliminate possible systematic errors investigations of the effect of the sample mineral composition on the results of the gold determination using the neutron activation analysis were carried out. Namely, a large mass of rock (3-5 kg was loaded into an activation zone using four matrix types such as silicate, carbon-containing, iron-containing, and titanium magnetite. It was shown that there wereno significant difference between the dispersal of the fluxes of thermal and resonance neutrons emitted from 252Cf during activation of the gold-containing technogenic samples with different mineral compositions.

  7. On-line charge breeding using ECRIS and EBIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondrasek, Richard

    2016-06-01

    The efficient and rapid production of a high-quality, pure beam of highly charged ions is at the heart of any radioactive ion beam facility. Whether an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source or an electron beam ion source (EBIS) is used to produce these highly charged ions, their operating characteristics will set the boundaries on the range of experiments which can be performed. In addition, time structure and duty cycle have to be considered when defining the operating parameters of the accelerator system as a whole. At Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), an ECR charge breeder was developed as part of the Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) program. The charge breeding efficiency and high charge state production of the source is at the forefront of ECR charge breeders, but its overall performance as part of the accelerator system is limited by pervasive background and relatively long breeding times. As such, an EBIS charge breeder has been developed and is running in an off-line configuration. It has already demonstrated good breeding efficiencies, shorter residence times, and reduced background and is scheduled to replace the ECR charge breeder in late 2015. The resultant change in duty cycle and time structure necessitates changes to the overall operation of the facility. The experiences with these breeders, as well as from several other facilities which already utilize an ECR or EBIS for charge breeding, help to define the operational characteristics of each technology - their strengths, their weaknesses, and the possible paths to improvement.

  8. Report on the workshop "Decay spectroscopy at CARIBU: advanced fuel cycle applications, nuclear structure and astrophysics". 14-16 April 2011, Argonne National Laboratory, USA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondev, F.; Carpenter, M.P.; Chowdhury, P.; Clark, J.A.; Lister, C.J.; Nichols, A.L.; Swewryniak, D. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (Univ. of Massachusetts); (Univ. of Surrey)

    2011-10-06

    A workshop on 'Decay Spectroscopy at CARIBU: Advanced Fuel Cycle Applications, Nuclear Structure and Astrophysics' will be held at Argonne National Laboratory on April 14-16, 2011. The aim of the workshop is to discuss opportunities for decay studies at the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the ATLAS facility with emphasis on advanced fuel cycle (AFC) applications, nuclear structure and astrophysics research. The workshop will consist of review and contributed talks. Presentations by members of the local groups, outlining the status of relevant in-house projects and availabile equipment, will also be organized. time will also be set aside to discuss and develop working collaborations for future decay studies at CARIBU. Topics of interest include: (1) Decay data of relevance to AFC applications with emphasis on reactor decay heat; (2) Discrete high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy following radioactive decya and related topics; (3) Calorimetric studies of neutron-rich fission framgents using Total ABsorption Gamma-Ray Spectrometry (TAGS) technique; (4) Beta-delayed neutron emissions and related topics; and (5) Decay data needs for nuclear astrophysics.

  9. Preliminary Identification of Three New Isolates in Genus Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) from China Sea Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Lijing; SUI Zhenghong; MAO Yunxiang; GUO Hao

    2007-01-01

    The 5.8 S ribosomal DNA sequences (5.8S rDNA) and their flanking regions, internal transcribed spacer 1 and spacer 2(ITS1 and ITS2) of three new isolates in genus Alexandrium (Alexandrium sp. qdl, Alexandrium sp. qd2, Alexandrium sp. gz) from China were amplified, sequenced, and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Alexandrium sp. gz and Alexandrium sp. qdl were grouped with high bootstrap values with four strains/species, i.e., A. catenella South Korea strain, A. catenella Japan strain, and two from China, Alexandrium sp. AC03 and Alexandrium sp. AN01 being proposed to be A. catenalla in a previous study. Then Alexandrium sp. gz and Alexandrium sp. qdl were identified as Alexandrium catenella. As A. catenella was isolated from Qingdao and Guangzhou sea areas, it supposedly distributed at least in these two areas and was genetically different. Alexandrium sp. qd2 differed greatly from species in Alexandrium. It clustered with Symbiodinium californium, Symbiodinium sp. Gl5 and Gymnodinium sp. Zhao 01 with 100% bootstrap value; so Alexandrium sp. qd2 affiliates to genus Symbiodinium, and is probably a free-living Symbiodinium species.

  10. Extraction studies of selected actinide ions from aqueous solutions with 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannink, N.J.; Hoffman, D.C. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Smith, B.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1991-11-01

    The first measurements of distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) for Cm(III), Bk(III), Cf(III), Es(III), and Fm(III) between aqueous perchlorate solutions and solutions of 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT) and the synergist tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in toluene are reported. Curium-243, berkelium-250, californium-249, einsteinium-254, and fermium-253 were used in these studies. The K{sub d} for {sup 241}Am was also measured and is in agreement with previously published results. Our new results show that the K{sub d}`s decrease gradually with increasing atomic number for the actinides with a dip at Cf. In general, the K{sub d}`s for these actinides are about a factor of 5 to 10 greater than the K{sub d}`s for the homologous lanthanides at a pH of 2.9, a BMPPT concentration of 0.2 M, and a TOPO concentration of 0.04 M. The larger K{sub d}`s for the actinides are consistent with greater covalent bonding between the actinide metal ion and the sulfur bonding site in the ligand.

  11. Extraction studies of selected actinide ions from aqueous solutions with 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannink, N.J.; Hoffman, D.C. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry); Smith, B.F. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1991-11-01

    The first measurements of distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) for Cm(III), Bk(III), Cf(III), Es(III), and Fm(III) between aqueous perchlorate solutions and solutions of 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT) and the synergist tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in toluene are reported. Curium-243, berkelium-250, californium-249, einsteinium-254, and fermium-253 were used in these studies. The K{sub d} for {sup 241}Am was also measured and is in agreement with previously published results. Our new results show that the K{sub d}'s decrease gradually with increasing atomic number for the actinides with a dip at Cf. In general, the K{sub d}'s for these actinides are about a factor of 5 to 10 greater than the K{sub d}'s for the homologous lanthanides at a pH of 2.9, a BMPPT concentration of 0.2 M, and a TOPO concentration of 0.04 M. The larger K{sub d}'s for the actinides are consistent with greater covalent bonding between the actinide metal ion and the sulfur bonding site in the ligand.

  12. Extraction studies of selected actinide ions from aqueous solutions with 4-benzoyl-2,4-Dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione and Tri-n-octylphosphine oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannink, N.J.; Hoffman, D.C. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Smith, B.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The first measurements of distribution coefficients (k{sub d}) for Cm(III), Bk(III), Cf(III), Es(III), and Fm(III) between aqueous perchlorate solutions and solutions of 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT) and the synergist tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in toluene are reported. Curium-243, berkelium-250, californium-249, einsteinium-254, and fermium-253 were used in these studies. The K{sub d} for {sup 241}Am was also measured and is in agreement with previously published results. Our new results show that the K{sub d}`s decrease gradually with increasing atomic number for the actinides with a dip at Cf. In general, the K{sub d}`s for these actinides are about about a factor of 10 greater than the K{sub d}`s for the homologous lanthanides at a pH of 2.9, a BMPPT concentration of 0.2 M, and a TOPO concentration of 0.04 M. The larger K{sub d}`s for the actinides are consistent with greater covalent bonding between the actinide metal ion and the sulfur bonding site in the ligand. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. A carbon cluster ion source for mass calibration at TRIGA-TRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRIGA-TRAP is a high-precision penning trap mass spectrometer installed at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz in order to determine the masses of short-lived fission products and - in addition to that - also the masses of actinide elements ranging from uranium up to californium. In order to determine precisely the masses of the nuclides of interest, the superconducting magnet providing the strong magnetic field for the Penning trap has to be calibrated by measuring the cyclotron frequency of an ion with well-known mass, which is, if possible, an isobaric nuclide of the ion of interest. Therefore, the best possible choice for mass calibration is to use carbon clusters as mass references, as demonstrated at the ISOLTRAP facility at ISOLDE/CERN. A laser ablation ion source for the production of carbon clusters has been developed using a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. The design, current status, and results of the production of carbon cluster ions, using C60 and Sigradure registered samples, as well as other ions are presented

  14. Perspectives for online analysis of raw material by pulsed neutron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Pierre; Le Tourneur, P.; Poumarede, B.

    1997-02-01

    On-line analysis by pulsed neutron irradiation is an example of an advanced technology application of nuclear techniques, concerning real problems in the cement, mineral and coal industries. The most significant of these nuclear techniques is their capability of continuous measurement without contact and without sampling, which can lead to improved control of processes and resultant large financial savings. Compared to Californium neutron sources, the use of electrical pulsed neutron generators allows to obtain a higher signal/noise ratio for a more sensitive measurement, and allows to overcome a number of safety problems concerning transportation, installation and maintenance. An experiment related to a possible new on-line raw material analyzer is described, using a pulsed neutron generator. The key factors contributing to an accurate measurement are related to a suitable generator, to a high count rate gamma ray spectroscopy electronics, and to computational tools. Calculation and results for the optimization of the neutron irradiation time diagram are reported. One of the operational characteristics of such an equipment is related to neutron flux available: it is possible to adjust it to the requested accuracy, i.e. for a high accuracy during a few hours/day and for a lower accuracy the rest of the time. This feature allows to operate the neutron tube during a longer time, and then to reduce the cost of analysis.

  15. A review of neutron scattering correction for the calibration of neutron survey meters using the shadow cone method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang In; Kim, Bong Hwan; Kim, Jang Lyul; Lee, Jung Il [Health Physics Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The calibration methods of neutron-measuring devices such as the neutron survey meter have advantages and disadvantages. To compare the calibration factors obtained by the shadow cone method and semi-empirical method, 10 neutron survey meters of five different types were used in this study. This experiment was performed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI; Daejeon, South Korea), and the calibration neutron fields were constructed using a {sup 252}Californium ({sup 252}Cf) neutron source, which was positioned in the center of the neutron irradiation room. The neutron spectra of the calibration neutron fields were measured by a europium-activated lithium iodide scintillator in combination with KAERI's Bonner sphere system. When the shadow cone method was used, 10 single moderator-based survey meters exhibited a smaller calibration factor by as much as 3.1 - 9.3% than that of the semi-empirical method. This finding indicates that neutron survey meters underestimated the scattered neutrons and attenuated neutrons (i.e., the total scatter corrections). This underestimation of the calibration factor was attributed to the fact that single moderator-based survey meters have an under-ambient dose equivalent response in the thermal or thermal-dominant neutron field. As a result, when the shadow cone method is used for a single moderator-based survey meter, an additional correction and the International Organization for Standardization standard 8529-2 for room-scattered neutrons should be considered.

  16. Review of the accomplishments and promise of US transplutonium research, 1940-1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been just over 40 years since the identification of plutonium by Seaborg, McMillan, Kennedy, and Wahl at the University of California, Berkeley. This discovery, and the isolation of plutonium-239 a year later by Kennedy, Seaborg, Segre, and Wahl, laid the cornerstone of one of the most exciting and productive eras of research in American history - research on the transplutonium elements. This research was to span all fields of natural science, and indeed was to have many implications and applications in the biological sciences. In this brief document, we have attempted to touch on only some of the many achievements of the US heavy element program. Many of those whose work has been at the heart of this research have contributed to this report. They have summarized some of what was scientifically important and exciting and they have suggested some of the topics of important research remaining to be done. The following topics are covered in this review: historical account; plutonium; synthesis of transplutonium isotopes; nuclear fission and stability, heavy ion reactions and nuclear structure; chemistry of the transplutonium elements; optical and magnetic properties; electronic structure and solid state properties; environmental and biological behavior of transplutonium elements; heavy element production; application of californium-252

  17. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry with desorption-ionization multiprobes (UV photons and KeV and MeV particles). Cluster atoms are used as projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new time-of-flight mass spectrometer, Super-Depil, is used to study secondary ion emission from solid surfaces bombarded by various kinds of primary particles. Three different desorption probes were set up on this machine: a 252 californium source, providing by spontaneous fission about 1 MeV/u energy heavy ions, a 5 to 30 keV energy pulsed caesium ion gun and a pulsed nitrogen laser, which wavelength is 337 mm. A two stages electrostatic mirror was added to the spectrometer. The time spread due to the initial kinetic energy of secondary ions leaving the surface was minimized. The mass resolution is greater than 5000. The analysis of glycosidic terpenes showed the complementarity of the three probes. The study of such metastable ions, with the electrostatic mirror, showed that some fragment ions may conserve the memory of the stereochemistry of the neutral lost. Clusters ions were used as projectiles in the energy range 5-60 keV. A strong non linear enhancement was observed in the secondary ion yield from various targets

  18. Compensated bismuth-loaded plastic scintillators for neutron detection using low-energy pseudo-spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumazert, Jonathan; Coulon, Romain; Bertrand, Guillaume H. V.; Normand, Stéphane; Méchin, Laurence; Hamel, Matthieu

    2016-05-01

    Gadolinium-covered modified plastic scintillators show a high potential for the deployment of cost-effective neutron detectors. Taking advantage of the low-energy photon and electron signature of thermal neutron captures in gadolinium-155 and gadolinium-157 however requires a background correction. In order to display a trustable rate, dual compensation schemes appear as an alternative to Pulse Shape Discrimination. This paper presents the application of such a compensation scheme to a two-bismuth loaded plastic scintillator system. A detection scintillator interacts with incident photon and fast neutron radiations and is covered with a gadolinium converter to become thermal neutron-sensitive as well. In the meantime, an identical compensation scintillator, covered with terbium, solely interacts with the photon and fast neutron part of incident radiations. After the acquisition and the treatment of the counting signals from both sensors, a hypothesis test determines whether the resulting count rate after subtraction falls into statistical fluctuations or provides a robust image of neutron activity. A laboratory prototype is tested under both photon and neutron radiations, allowing us to investigate the performance of the overall compensation system. The study reveals satisfactory results in terms of robustness to a cesium-137 background and in terms of sensitivity in presence of a californium-252 source.

  19. Neutron spectra at the outlet from the labyrinths in the IHEP proton synchrotron biological shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron spectra in transport and cable labyrinths of concrete shielding were measured. It was related with planned increase of proton beam intensity in the IHEP synchrotron and the necessity of searching isotope radiation sources suitable for simulation of fields of neutron radiation in the accelerator biological shield. Multisphere Bonner spectrometer with 6LiI(Eu) monocrystal of 10x10 mm size as thermal neutron detector and a set of seven cadmium-plated polyethylene thermalizing spheres 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 12 and 18 inch in diameter was used for measurement. Measurements were conducted at 100 MeV, 8 and 70 GeV proton energies. Analysis of obtained data shows that the average energy of neutron spectra increases at the outlet from the labyrinths from 110 up to 390 keV with growth of accelerated proton energy from 100 MeV up to 70 GeV. Neutron spectra are similar with respect to form and component composition at one and the same energy of accelerated particles and the same shield material regardless of labyrinth configuration. The shares of fast and interiediate neutrons equal about 10 and 90% respectively. It was concluded that neutron radiation fields typical for the labyrinths of the IHEP synchrotron yield can be simulated in model labyrinths with the use of californium-252 source

  20. 1982 US-CEC neutron personnel dosimetry intercomparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron personnel dosimetry intercomparison study was conducted during April 19-23, 1982, as a joint effort between the United States and the Commission of European Communities. Dosimeters from 48 participating agencies were mounted on cylindrical phantoms and exposed to a range of low-level dose equivalents (0.48-13.91 mSv neutron and 0.02-1.32 mSv gamma) in nine different radiation fields. Exposure conditions considered in this study included four mixed-field spectra produced using the Health Physics Research Reactor, four monoenergetic neutron fields generated by accelerators, and one 15-cm D2O-moderated californium source spectrum. In general, neutron results reported by the participating agencies were consistent with expected dosimeter performance based on energy response characteristics of the detection systems. Albedo dosimeters, which were the most popular neutron monitoring systems used in this study, provided the best overall accuracy for all exposure conditions. Film, Cr-39 recoil track, and Th-232 fission track systems generally underestimated dose equivalents relative to reference values. Associated gamma measurements showed that TLD monitors produced more accurate results than film dosimeters although both systems overestimated gamma dose equivalents in mixed radiation fields. 24 references, 10 figures, 19 tables