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Sample records for californium 254 target

  1. Metabolism and toxicity of californium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabolism of californium can be compared with that of other transplutonium elements. The most important points are as follows: a fast blood clearance and fast bone uptake more important than liver uptake, a relatively high urinary excretion and kidney retention. Blood clearance of californium can be compared with that of americium. Distribution of californium 252 nitrate after intramuscular injection in rats was studied. There are very few experimental data on acute or long term toxicity of californium. (28 references)

  2. Magnetism in californium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A SQUID-based magnetic susceptometer has been constructed for studying small radioactive samples at temperatures below 350 K and in magnetic fields up to 50 kilogauss. The device has been used to study californium (element 98) in a number of solid-state forms: the dhcp metal, several oxides (Cf2O3 in both the bcc and monoclinic structures, Cf7O12, CfO2 and BaCfO3), several monopnictides (CfN, CfAs and CfSb) and the trichloride (in both the hexagonal and orthorhombic structures). All of these materials were studied in polycrystalline form, and hexagonal CfCl3 was studied in single-crystal form as well. The susceptometer has the sensitivity to measure samples containing less than 10 micrograms of californium. The magnetic susceptibilities of all of the californium materials at temperatures above about 100 K are described well by the Curie-Weiss relationship. This behavior is consistent with the assumption that the magnetic 5f electrons are localized and that the paramagnetic behavior can be interpreted in terms of the properties of the free ion. The measured values of the effective paramagnetic moment, μ/sub eff/, for all the californium materials that were studied are reasonably consistent with theoretical values based on intermediate coupling models. All of the californium materials showed some indications of cooperative magnetic effects. The dhcp metal was observed to order ferromagnetically at 52 K, and all of the californium compounds studied showed signs of antiferromagnetic ordering, mostly at temperatures below 25 K. 91 refs., 50 figs., 19 tabs

  3. Californium Multiplier (CFX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of 252Cf as an economical high-intensity neutron source has made it possible to construct compact neutron irradiation devices with widespread applications. The simplest such device consists of a single 252Cf source within a moderating and shielding medium. Higher neutron flux levels can be attained either through the use of more 252Cf or through source multiplication by means of a subcritical uranium assembly. Although the use of larger 252Cf sources to achieve higher neutron flux is technically straightforward, an economic penalty is paid as the source strength is increased. Larger californium sources imply larger initial investments to cover the cost of source material and larger operating costs resulting from the decay of the 252Cf source. A Californium Multiplier, the CFX, which produces a flux enhancement of 30 when compared to a conventional moderated 252Cf system has been designed, licensed, built, and tested by IRT Corporation. Such systems are now available on a commercial basis for both neutron radiography and neutron activation analysis. The first commercial CFX system was installed at the Research Laboratories of Eastman Kodak Company in Rochester, NY, in March 1975. This device, using 1 mg of 252Cf, is very stable and the neutron flux generated by the CFX is very reproducible. The performance characteristics of this system are summarized

  4. Californium--palladium metal neutron source material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, B.L.; Mosly, W.C. Jr.; Smith, P.K.; Albenesius, E.L.

    1974-01-22

    Californium, as metal or oxide, is uniformly dispersed throughout a noble metal matrix, provided in compact, rod or wire form. A solution of californium values is added to palladium metal powder, dried, blended and pressed into a compact having a uni-form distribution of californium. The californium values are decomposed to californium oxide or metal by heating in an inert or reducing atmosphere. Sintering the compact to a high density closes the matrix around the dispersed californium. The sintered compact is then mechanically shaped into an elongated rod or wire form. (4 claims, no drawings) (Official Gazette)

  5. Californium Electrodepositions at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boll, Rose Ann [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Electrodepositions of californium isotopes were successfully performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the past year involving two different types of deposition solutions, ammonium acetate (NH4C2H3O2) and isobutanol ((CH3)2CHCH2OH). A californium product that was decay enriched in 251Cf was recovered for use in super-heavy element (SHE) research. This neutron-rich isotope, 251Cf, provides target material for SHE research for the potential discovery of heavier isotopes of Z=118. The californium material was recovered from aged 252Cf neutron sources in storage at ORNL. These sources have decayed for over 30 years, thus providing material with a very high 251Cf-to-252Cf ratio. After the source capsules were opened, the californium was purified and then electrodeposited using the isobutanol method onto thin titanium foils for use in an accelerator at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. Another deposition method, ammonium acetate, was used to produce a deposition containing 1.7 0.1 Ci of 252Cf onto a stainless steel substrate. This was the largest single electrodeposition of 252Cf ever prepared. The 252Cf material was initially purified using traditional ion exchange media, such as AG50-AHIB and AG50-HCl, and further purified using a TEVA-NH4SCN system to remove any lanthanides, resulting in the recovery of 3.6 0.1 mg of purified 252Cf. The ammonium acetate deposition was run with a current of 1.0 amp, resulting in a 91.5% deposition yield. Purification and handling of the highly radioactive californium material created additional challenges in the production of these sources.

  6. Californium-252 Neutron Sources for Medical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Californium-252 neutron sources are being prepared to investigate the value of this radionuclide in diagnosing and treating diseases. A source resembling a cell-loaded radium needle was developed for neutron therapy. Since therapy needles are normally implanted in the body, very conservative design criteria were established to prevent leakage of radioactive. Methods are being developed to prepare very intense californium sources that could be used eventually for neutron radiography and for diagnosis by neutron activation analysis. This paper discusses these methods

  7. Historical review of californium-252 discovery and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the discovery and history of californium 252. This isotope may be synthesized by irradiating plutonium 239, plutonium 242, americium 243, or curium 244 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Various experiments and inventions involving 252Cf conducted at the Savannah River Plant are discussed. The evolution of radiotherapy using californium 252 is reviewed

  8. Californium-252: a remarkable versatile radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Alexander, C.W.

    1995-10-10

    A product of the nuclear age, Californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) has found many applications in medicine, scientific research, industry, and nuclear science education. Californium-252 is unique as a neutron source in that it provides a highly concentrated flux and extremely reliable neutron spectrum from a very small assembly. During the past 40 years, {sup 252}Cf has been applied with great success to cancer therapy, neutron radiography of objects ranging from flowers to entire aircraft, startup sources for nuclear reactors, fission activation for quality analysis of all commercial nuclear fuel, and many other beneficial uses, some of which are now ready for further growth. Californium-252 is produced in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and processed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), both of which are located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The REDC/HFIR facility is virtually the sole supplier of {sup 252}Cf in the western world and is the major supplier worldwide. Extensive exploitation of this product was made possible through the {sup 252}Cf Market Evaluation Program, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) [then the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and later the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)]. This program included training series, demonstration centers, seminars, and a liberal loan policy for fabricated sources. The Market Evaluation Program was instituted, in part, to determine if large-quantity production capability was required at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). Because of the nature of the product and the means by which it is produced, {sup 252}Cf can be produced only in government-owned facilities. It is evident at this time that the Oak Ridge research facility can meet present and projected near-term requirements. The production, shipment, and sales history of {sup 252}Cf from ORNL is summarized herein.

  9. Californium-252: a remarkable versatile radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A product of the nuclear age, Californium-252 (252Cf) has found many applications in medicine, scientific research, industry, and nuclear science education. Californium-252 is unique as a neutron source in that it provides a highly concentrated flux and extremely reliable neutron spectrum from a very small assembly. During the past 40 years, 252Cf has been applied with great success to cancer therapy, neutron radiography of objects ranging from flowers to entire aircraft, startup sources for nuclear reactors, fission activation for quality analysis of all commercial nuclear fuel, and many other beneficial uses, some of which are now ready for further growth. Californium-252 is produced in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and processed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), both of which are located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The REDC/HFIR facility is virtually the sole supplier of 252Cf in the western world and is the major supplier worldwide. Extensive exploitation of this product was made possible through the 252Cf Market Evaluation Program, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) [then the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and later the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)]. This program included training series, demonstration centers, seminars, and a liberal loan policy for fabricated sources. The Market Evaluation Program was instituted, in part, to determine if large-quantity production capability was required at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). Because of the nature of the product and the means by which it is produced, 252Cf can be produced only in government-owned facilities. It is evident at this time that the Oak Ridge research facility can meet present and projected near-term requirements. The production, shipment, and sales history of 252Cf from ORNL is summarized herein

  10. Californium-252 Neutron Therapy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Californium-252 brachytherapy, believed to be the most successful source for neutron therapy, gives most of the cures as well as long-term and complication-free survivals. Chinese radiation oncologists were interested in californium neutron therapy (Cf-NT) in the early 1980s, but 252Cf sources for medical use were not available in China until 1992 when a californium joint venture was established by the China Institute of Atomic Energy (Beijing) and the Research Institute for Nuclear Reactors (Dimitrovgrad) of Russia. In 1995, 25 seeds of 252Cf with a strength of 3 μg each were sent to China for preclinical investigation. Three years later, a high dose rate (HDR) 252Cf source was imported and transferred into a home-made remote after-loader for intracavitary treatment in Chongqing, and a clinical trail was started in February 1999. This is the first time that Cf-NT was performed for cancer patients in China. Since then, Cf-NT in China has developed rapidly. It is estimated that one-tenth of those radiation oncology centers with brachytherapy practice will be equipped with californium units in 5 yr. That means more than 30 units will be in use in hospitals. That is significant compared with other countries, but it is just one, on average, for each province or one per 40 million people in China. Progress also has been achieved in the 252Cf treatment delivery equipment. Preliminary clinical trails showed complete response observed in all cases treated, with a rapid clearance of tumors and mild reactions in normal tissues. The short-term results are quite encouraging. To deal with problems due to the demand for Cf-NT in China, attention should be paid to the following particulars: (1) A high-strength miniature source is needed for HDR/MDR interstitial therapy to extend the Cf-NT coverage. (2) Basic work on radiophysics and radiobiology needs to be done, including source calibration, clinical dosimetry, clinical RBE determination, and Cf-NT quality assurance

  11. Californium-252 sales and loans at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production and distribution in the United States of 252Cf has recently been consolidated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The 252Cf Industrial Sales/Loan Program and the 252Cf University Load Program, which were formerly located at the Savannah River Plant (SRP), have been combined with the californium production and distribution activities of the Transuranium Element Production Program at ORNL. Californium-252 is sold to commercial users in the form of bulk californium oxide, palladium-californium alloy pellets, or alloy wires. Neutron source capsules, which are fabricated for loans to DOE or other US government agencies, are still available in all forms previously available. The consolidation of all 252Cf distribution activities at the production site is expected to result in better service to users. In particular, customers for neutrons sources will be ale to select from a wider range of neutron source forms, including custom designs, through a single contact point

  12. Californium-252 encapsulation at the Savannah River Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 1 g of the neutron-emitting isotope californium-252 has been encapsulated at SRL for worldwide medical, industrial, and research uses. Bulk sales packages have been prepared for the USDOE sales program since 1971. Doubly-encapsulated sources have been prepared for USDOE's market evaluation program since 1968. Californium-252 sources for loan and sales packages satisfy the criteria for Special Form Radioactive Material. Encapsulation is performed in special neutron-shielded containment facilities at SRL. Development of improved source and shipping package designs and processes is continuing. 17 figures

  13. Production, distribution and applications of californium-252 neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotope 252Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-yr half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 1011 neutrons s-1. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, land mines and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 yr of experience and by US Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells 252Cf to commercial reencapsulators domestically and internationally. Sealed 252Cf sources are also available for loan to agencies and subcontractors of the US government and to universities for educational, research and medical applications. The REDC has established the Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science to make its large inventory of 252Cf sources available to researchers for irradiations inside uncontaminated hot cells. Experiments at the CUF include a land mine detection system, neutron damage testing of solid-state detectors, irradiation of human cancer cells for boron neutron capture therapy experiments and irradiation of rice to induce genetic mutations

  14. Production, distribution and applications of californium-252 neutron sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R C; Knauer, J B; Balo, P A

    2000-01-01

    The radioisotope 252Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-yr half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10(11) neutrons s(-1). Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, land mines and unexploded military ordinance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 yr of experience and by US Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells 252Cf to commercial reencapsulators domestically and internationally. Sealed 252Cf sources are also available for loan to agencies and subcontractors of the US government and to universities for educational, research and medical applications. The REDC has established the Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science to make its large inventory of 252Cf sources available to researchers for irradiations inside uncontaminated hot cells. Experiments at the CUF include a land mine detection system, neutron damage testing of solid-state detectors, irradiation of human cancer cells for boron neutron capture therapy experiments and irradiation of rice to induce genetic mutations. PMID:11003521

  15. Production, Distribution, and Applications of Californium-252 Neutron Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balo, P.A.; Knauer, J.B.; Martin, R.C.

    1999-10-03

    The radioisotope {sup 252}Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10{sup 11} neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells The radioisotope {sup 252}Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6- year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10 neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory(ORNL). DOE sells {sup 252}Cf to commercial

  16. Design, construction, and characterization of a facility for neutron capture gamma ray analysis of sulfur in coal using californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of neutron capture gamma ray analysis of sulfur in coal using californium-252 as a neutron source is reported. Both internal and external target geometries are investigated. The facility designed for and used in this study is described. The external target geometry is found to be inappropriate because of the low thermal neutron flux at the sample location, which must be outside the biological shielding. The internal target geometry is found to have a sufficient thermal neutron flux, but an excessive gamma ray background. A water filled plastic facility, rather than the paraffin filled steel one used in this study, is suggested as a means of increasing flexibility and decreasing the beackground in the internal target geometry

  17. Production of extra pure curium and californium preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparations of curium-244,245,248 and californium-249,252 are used for the production of ionizing radiation sources for different applications and fundamental nuclear-physical investigations, placing high requirements on the radiochemical and chemical purity of the preparations. Extraction chromatography using di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as extractant was chosen to prepare extra pure curium and californium preparations. In order to identify the optimal conditions of Cm-Cf separation and to remove impurities from them (reagent and other impurities), investigations were performed into the effect of impurities (Na+, Ca2+, Al3+, Fe2+, Fe3+ taken as example), extractant and eluent concentration and solution flow rate on the efficiency of mutual purification of Cm and Cf. Both theoretical and experimental estimations were made of the maximum concentration at which the impurities do not affect the process. The conditions chosen allow mutual purification of milligram amounts of Cm and Cf from impurity elements at E(pur) =102 - 103 during a single chromatographic cycle (E(pur) =>103) using a column with 5 - 10 cm3 volume. In this case the production yield exceeds 98%. The purification of milligram amounts of curium and californium from fission products (lanthanides in general, cerium in particular) was performed in D2EHPA-decane-PbO2-HNO3 and D2EHPA-decane-DTPA-H3-Cit extraction chromatography systems. In order to establish the optimal conditions, the effect of [D2EHPA] and eluent on the mutual purification of Cm and Cf and on their purification from cerium and impurity elements was studied in the D2EHPA-decane-PbO2-HNO3 system. During a single chromatographic cycle the mutual purification factors of TPE and of their purification from impurity cations achieve 102-103, from cerium - E(pur) > 10. In the D2EHPA-decane-DTPA-H3Cit system, the effect of concentration of extractant and eluent pH on the efficiency of Cm and Cf purification from lanthanides was

  18. Prompt neutron spectrum of the spontaneous fission of californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The californium-252 spontaneous fission neutron spectrum was measured in the energy range of 0.01 to 10 MeV by the time-of-flight technique using various neutron detectors. The measurements of 252Cf neutron spectrum at energies of 0.01 to 5 MeV were performed as a function of fission fragment kinetic energy. The mean neutron spectrum energy in the range of 0.7 to 10 MeV was found from the results of measurements. The irregularity in the 252Cf neutron spectrum in the neutron energy range of less than 0.7 MeV compared to theoretical values is discussed. The mechanism of 252Cf neutron emission is also discussed on the basis of neutron yield angle measurements. 12 references

  19. 20 CFR 632.254 - Program startup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program startup. 632.254 Section 632.254 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.254 Program...

  20. 27 CFR 44.254 - Shipping containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44.254 Section 44.254 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Requirements § 44.254 Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container, in which cigars...

  1. 36 CFR 254.25 - Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Survey. 254.25 Section 254.25... National Forest Townsites § 254.25 Survey. The authorized Forest Service official shall conduct or provide for the necessary tract survey and boundary posting of National Forest System land....

  2. Separation of californium from actinides and lanthanides in aqueous solution by electrochemical formation of amalgams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrochemical reduction of transneptunium elements (Pu to Cf) and rare earths (Eu, Tm) from aqueous complexing solutions to amalgams was studied over a wide range of cathodic potentials in order to achieve optimal separation of californium. The reduction in acetate media (pH 4.5-4.6) at potentials around -1.7 to -1.9 V1 leads to a quantitative extraction of californium into the mercury phase, while more negative potentials are required for the reduction of the lighter transuranium elements and of the lanthanides. Hence, the optimal conditions for the separation of californium from the investigated actinides and lanthanides were determined. Separation factors α between 25 and 90 were found except in the case of Cf/Eu, where poor values (α varying from 7 to 12) were observed. More negative cathodic potentials decrease the selectivity of the reduction process. A similar study with lithium citrate solutions (pH ∝6) shows that satisfactory separation of californium from lighter and heavier actinides is achievable. A separation factor of 88 is obtained for Cf/Am at -1.98 V. The anodic stripping of mixed amalgams (Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Tm and Cf) Hg in nitric and acetic acid soultions at potentials ranging from +0.1 to -0.7 V proceeds slowly and proved to be ineffective for the separation of californium from light actinides under conditions described. (orig.)

  3. On-line slurry analyses by californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In chemical processing technology on-line activation methods gain an increasing importance for process monitoring and control. A method is described according to which the different fluorspar contents at various strategic points of a flotation plant are determined through neutron activation by 100 μg californium-252. A continuous analytical system for onstream process control of slurries was designed and constructed. A compact facility, called SUSAC, allows continuous application of the method on an industrial scale. The main components of the SUSAC facility are the irradiation and measurement cells. The cells are equipped with multistage countercurrent stirrers ensuring a proper radial and vertical distribution of the sample. The hollow shaft of the stirrer of the irradiation cell houses the Cf-source. The NaI-detector has been installed in a recess in the bottom of the measuring cell. The volumes are 9 dm3 for the irradiation cell, 7.5 dm3 for the measuring cell, 1/2 dm3 for the vonnection line and 4 dm3 for feed and drainage lines including the pump. Investigations on the following topics are discussed: selection of stirrers, residence time, flow rate, pulp density, calibration measurements. (T.G.)

  4. Biomedical neutron research at the Californium User Facility for neutron science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Californium User Facility for Neutron Science has been established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The Californium User Facility (CUF) is a part of the larger Californium Facility, which fabricates and stores compact 252Cf neutron sources for worldwide distribution. The CUF can provide a cost-effective option for research with 252Cf sources. Three projects at the CUF that demonstrate the versatility of 252Cf for biological and biomedical neutron-based research are described: future establishment of a 252Cf-based neutron activation analysis system, ongoing work to produce miniature high-intensity, remotely afterloaded 252Cf sources for tumor therapy, and a recent experiment that irradiated living human lung cancer cells impregnated with experimental boron compounds to test their effectiveness for boron neutron capture therapy

  5. Biomedical neutron research at the Californium User Facility for neutron science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Byrne, T.E. [Roane State Community College, Harriman, TN (United States); Miller, L.F. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Californium User Facility for Neutron Science has been established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The Californium User Facility (CUF) is a part of the larger Californium Facility, which fabricates and stores compact {sup 252}Cf neutron sources for worldwide distribution. The CUF can provide a cost-effective option for research with {sup 252}Cf sources. Three projects at the CUF that demonstrate the versatility of {sup 252}Cf for biological and biomedical neutron-based research are described: future establishment of a {sup 252}Cf-based neutron activation analysis system, ongoing work to produce miniature high-intensity, remotely afterloaded {sup 252}Cf sources for tumor therapy, and a recent experiment that irradiated living human lung cancer cells impregnated with experimental boron compounds to test their effectiveness for boron neutron capture therapy.

  6. Proposed Californium-252 User Facility for Neutron Science at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at ORNL has petitioned to establish a Californium-252 User Facility for Neutron Science for academic, industrial, and governmental researchers. The REDC Californium Facility (CF) stores the national inventory of sealed 252Cf neutron source for university and research loans. Within the CF, the 252Cf storage pool and two uncontaminated hot cells currently in service for the Californium Program will form the physical basis for the User Facility. Relevant applications include dosimetry and experiments for neutron tumor therapy; fast and thermal neutron activation analysis of materials; experimental configurations for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis; neutron shielding and material damage studies; and hardness testing of radiation detectors, cameras, and electronics. A formal User Facility simplifies working arrangements and agreements between US DOE facilities, academia, and commercial interests

  7. Emergence of californium as the second transitional element in the actinide series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Samantha K; Vasiliu, Monica; Baumbach, Ryan E; Stritzinger, Jared T; Green, Thomas D; Diefenbach, Kariem; Cross, Justin N; Knappenberger, Kenneth L; Liu, Guokui; Silver, Mark A; DePrince, A Eugene; Polinski, Matthew J; Van Cleve, Shelley M; House, Jane H; Kikugawa, Naoki; Gallagher, Andrew; Arico, Alexandra A; Dixon, David A; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    A break in periodicity occurs in the actinide series between plutonium and americium as the result of the localization of 5f electrons. The subsequent chemistry of later actinides is thought to closely parallel lanthanides in that bonding is expected to be ionic and complexation should not substantially alter the electronic structure of the metal ions. Here we demonstrate that ligation of californium(III) by a pyridine derivative results in significant deviations in the properties of the resultant complex with respect to that predicted for the free ion. We expand on this by characterizing the americium and curium analogues for comparison, and show that these pronounced effects result from a second transition in periodicity in the actinide series that occurs, in part, because of the stabilization of the divalent oxidation state. The metastability of californium(II) is responsible for many of the unusual properties of californium including the green photoluminescence. PMID:25880116

  8. Fissile analysis of Hanford waste using Californium Multiplier/Delayed Neutron Counter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of low-level (10 ng/g or lower) fissile material (mainly plutonium) in Hanford waste and process samples is becoming increasingly important. A system has been designed consisting of a Californium Multiplier (CFX) and a Delayed Neutron Counter (DNC) to characterize these samples. This report describes hardware and analytical capability of the CFX/DNC system

  9. Study of the shielding for spontaneous fission sources of Californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A shielding study is made to attenuate, until maximum permissible levels, the neutrons radiation and photons emitted by spontaneous fission coming from a source of Californium-252. The compound package by a database (Library DLC-23) and the ANISNW code is used, in it version for personal computer. (Author)

  10. 48 CFR 53.303-DD-254 - Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security Classification Specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security Classification Specification. 53.303-DD-254 Section 53.303-DD-254 Federal... Illustrations of Forms 53.303-DD-254 Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security...

  11. Californium (252Cf) and its use as neutron source in science medicine and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of radionuclides in science and nuclear techniques basically is related to unstable isotopes, which are produced from stable elements in nuclear reactor. Their specifications are various from view point of application . Using of physical and chemical properties of radionuclides in chemistry, for with marking the organic compounds we can exactly explain the mechanism of chemical reactions in medical, biology and bio-chemistry. In these cases the behaviour of radionuclides is very important and the selection of the suitable radionuclides is determined between the elements for investigation aims. The special specification of radio-nuclides analysis such as, half-life, kind of ray and energy should be considered with an special accuracy as well as the laws security regulations from view point of ray-protection should be completely observed mean time working these radio-nuclides. It should be considered that application of radio-isotopes is very important from their special specifications point of view. Applying the radionuclides from technology point of view in sciences and nuclear techniques aren't only limited to three analyses of α, β, and γ, but we can use the share of neutron which are produced from spli ting of heavy nucleus such as Californium252 as a neutron source in the depths of the sea and also determining the concentration of low quantity elements on moon and other spheres. The radioisotope of Californium252 is a neutron useful radiator for investigation in nuclear medical and technology because of automatically rapid split to 3.2% Californium252 radiates 1.34 * 109N/m in each mil/GH which suitable replacement for neutron sources based on (a, n) reaction, for example, Radium-Brellium or Amersium-Brellium. The energy distribution of radiated neutrons from analyzing of Californium252 like the spectrum of neutron which is produced from splitting of U235, Pu239 nucleus has the maximum energy in quantity, En=1 MeV in the range of 1.5 MeV. The

  12. Contribution to clinical dosimetry of californium 252 sources used at Gustave Roussy institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main characteristics of californium 252 sources are presented in the first part of the report. Dose measurements around Californium sources were performed with a pair of ionization multiplication chambers: the first one has an Aluminium wall and is filled with Argon, the second one a plastic tissue-equivalent gas. A set of experiments was performed in order to investigate the relative influence of beta rays on the response of both chambers. Besides the experimental work a computer program was written to calculate the dose distribution around the actual sources made of a series of small active sources placed in catheters. Theoretical data around small sources can be found in the litterature. The comparison between experimental results and theoretical ones has shown a good agreement. The computer program will be included as a sub-routine in the more general computer program used for patients treated with interstitial therapy

  13. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU Californium Shipping Container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU Californium Shipping Container was made in order to demonstrate its compliance with the regulations governing off-site shipment of packages that contain radioactive material. The evaluation encompassed five primary categories: structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding, nuclear criticality safety, and quality assurance. The results of this evaluation demonstrate that the container complies with the applicable regulations

  14. Emergence of californium as the second transitional element in the actinide series

    OpenAIRE

    Cary, Samantha K.; Vasiliu, Monica; Baumbach, Ryan E.; Stritzinger, Jared T.; GREEN, THOMAS D.; Diefenbach, Kariem; Cross, Justin N.; Knappenberger, Kenneth L.; Liu, Guokui; Silver, Mark A.; DePrince, A. Eugene; Polinski, Matthew J.; Van Cleve, Shelley M.; House, Jane H.; Kikugawa, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    A break in periodicity occurs in the actinide series between plutonium and americium as the result of the localization of 5f electrons. The subsequent chemistry of later actinides is thought to closely parallel lanthanides in that bonding is expected to be ionic and complexation should not substantially alter the electronic structure of the metal ions. Here we demonstrate that ligation of californium(III) by a pyridine derivative results in significant deviations in the properties of the resu...

  15. Measurements of integral cross sections in the californium-252 fission neutron spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a low-scattering arrangement cross sections averaged over the californium-252 spontaneous fission neutron spectrum were measured. The reactions 27Al(n,α)46Ti, 47Ti, 48Ti(n,p), 54Fe,56Fe(n,p), 58Ni(n,p), 64Zn(n,p), 115In(n,n') were studied in order to obtain a consistent set of threshold detectors used in fast neutron flux density measurements. Overall uncertainties between 2 and 2.5% could be achieved; corrections due to neutron scattering in source and samples are discussed

  16. Measurement of californium-252 gamma photons depth dose distribution in tissue equivalent material. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phantom of tissue equivalent material with and without bone was used measuring depth dose distribution of gamma-rays from californium-252 source. The source was positioned at center of perspex walled phantom. Depth dose measurements were recorded for X, Y and Z planes at different distances from source. TLD 700 was used for measuring the dose distribution. Results indicate that implantation of bone in tissue equivalent medium cause changes in the gamma depth dose distribution which varies according to variation in bone geometry. 9 figs

  17. 42 CFR 403.254 - Calculation of premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of premiums. 403.254 Section 403.254... Ratio Provisions § 403.254 Calculation of premiums. (a) General provisions. To calculate the amount of “premiums”, calculate the present value on the initial calculation date of expected earned premiums for...

  18. 36 CFR 254.42 - Valuation of tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Valuation of tracts. 254.42 Section 254.42 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Conveyance of Small Tracts § 254.42 Valuation of tracts. (a) Approximately equal value shall...

  19. 7 CFR 868.254 - Broken kernels determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Broken kernels determination. 868.254 Section 868.254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... Governing Application of Standards § 868.254 Broken kernels determination. Broken kernels shall...

  20. Spontaneous Partitioning of Californium from Curium: Curious Cases from the Crystallization of Curium Coordination Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, Samantha K.; Silver, Mark A.; Liu, Guokui; Wang, Jamie C.; Bogart, Justin A.; Stritzinger, Jared T.; Arico, Alexandra A.; Hanson, Kenneth; Schelter, Eric J.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2015-12-07

    The reaction of 248CmCl3 with excess 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (DPA) under mild solvothermal conditions results in crystallization of the tris-chelate complex Cm(HDPA)3·H2O. Approximately half of the curium remains in solution at the end of this process, and evaporation of the mother liquor results in crystallization of the bis-chelate complex [Cm(HDPA)- (H2DPA)(H2O)2Cl]Cl·2H2O. 248Cm is the daughter of the α decay of 252Cf and is extracted in high purity from this parent. However, trace amounts of 249,250,251Cf are still present in all samples of 248Cm. During the crystallization of Cm(HDPA)3·H2O and [Cm(HDPA)(H2DPA)(H2O)2Cl]Cl·2H2O, californium(III) spontaneously separates itself from the curium complexes and is found doped within crystals of DPA in the form of Cf(HDPA)3. These results add to the growing body of evidence that the chemistry of californium is fundamentally different from that of earlier actinides.

  1. A multidetector scintillation camera with 254 channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdottir, E; Larsen, B; Rommer, P;

    1977-01-01

    A computer-based scintillation camera has been designed for both dynamic and static radionuclide studies. The detecting head has 254 independent sodium iodide crystals, each with a photomultiplier and amplifier. In dynamic measurements simultaneous events can be recorded, and 1 million total counts...... per second can be accommodated with less than 0.5% loss in any one channel. This corresponds to a calculated deadtime of 5 nsec. The multidetector camera is being used for 133Xe dynamic studies of regional cerebral blood flow in man and for 99mTc and 197 Hg static imaging of the brain....

  2. Dicty_cDB: SLJ254 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLJ2-C/SLJ254Q.Seq.d/ Representati...ve seq. ID SLJ254P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLJ254 (SLJ254Q) /CSM/SL/SLJ2-C/SLJ2...---PPERKYSVWIGGSILASLSTFQQMWISKEEYDESGPSIVHRKCF*tiktsdesasht nkyi*mynnnki*lflmvvdlyptikkkk Translated Amino ...psntqlntvllptgmiwkksgi--- ---PPERKYSVWIGGSILASLSTFQQMWISKEEYDESGPSIVHRKCF*tiktsdesasht nkyi*mynnnki*lflmvvdl...3b: 0.00 m_ : 1.00 36.0 %: cytoplasmic 36.0 %: nuclear 24.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: mitochondrial >> predicti

  3. Dicty_cDB: CFF254 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CF (Link to library) CFF254 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16373-1 CFF254P (Link to Original ... -fnssfkf****y***w*y***rinkk*www**i**qi*kskttt**kr**skw ***q ****kfk*kpcck***iyitii*lssfr*irkgkretrl*nhl*y* ...

  4. Fast and efficient charge breeding of the Californium rare isotope breeder upgrade electron beam ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostroumov, P. N., E-mail: ostroumov@anl.gov; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C. A.; Perry, A.; Sharamentov, S. I.; Vondrasek, R. C.; Zinkann, G. P. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Pikin, A. I. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), developed to breed Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) radioactive beams at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), is being tested off-line. A unique property of the EBIS is a combination of short breeding times, high repetition rates, and a large acceptance. Overall, we have implemented many innovative features during the design and construction of the CARIBU EBIS as compared to the existing EBIS breeders. The off-line charge breeding tests are being performed using a surface ionization source that produces singly charged cesium ions. The main goal of the off-line commissioning is to demonstrate stable operation of the EBIS at a 10 Hz repetition rate and a breeding efficiency into single charge state higher than 15%. These goals have been successfully achieved and exceeded. We have measured (20% ± 0.7%) breeding efficiency into the single charge state of 28+ cesium ions with the breeding time of 28 ms. In general, the current CARIBU EBIS operational parameters can provide charge breeding of any ions in the full mass range of periodic table with high efficiency, short breeding times, and sufficiently low charge-to-mass ratio, 1/6.3 for the heaviest masses, for further acceleration in ATLAS. In this paper, we discuss the parameters of the EBIS and the charge breeding results in a pulsed injection mode with repetition rates up to 10 Hz.

  5. Fast and efficient charge breeding of the Californium rare isotope breeder upgrade electron beam ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), developed to breed Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) radioactive beams at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), is being tested off-line. A unique property of the EBIS is a combination of short breeding times, high repetition rates, and a large acceptance. Overall, we have implemented many innovative features during the design and construction of the CARIBU EBIS as compared to the existing EBIS breeders. The off-line charge breeding tests are being performed using a surface ionization source that produces singly charged cesium ions. The main goal of the off-line commissioning is to demonstrate stable operation of the EBIS at a 10 Hz repetition rate and a breeding efficiency into single charge state higher than 15%. These goals have been successfully achieved and exceeded. We have measured (20% ± 0.7%) breeding efficiency into the single charge state of 28+ cesium ions with the breeding time of 28 ms. In general, the current CARIBU EBIS operational parameters can provide charge breeding of any ions in the full mass range of periodic table with high efficiency, short breeding times, and sufficiently low charge-to-mass ratio, 1/6.3 for the heaviest masses, for further acceleration in ATLAS. In this paper, we discuss the parameters of the EBIS and the charge breeding results in a pulsed injection mode with repetition rates up to 10 Hz

  6. Design of a homogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor based on thorium with a source of californium 252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of the energy alternatives to fossil fuels which do not produce greenhouse gases is the nuclear energy. One of the drawbacks of this alternative is the generation of radioactive wastes of long half-life and its relation to the generation of nuclear materials to produce weapons of mass destruction. An option to these drawbacks of nuclear energy is to use Thorium as part of the nuclear fuel which it becomes in U233 when capturing neutrons, that is a fissile material. In this paper Monte Carlo methods were used to design a homogeneous subcritical reactor based on thorium. As neutron reflector graphite was used. The reactor core is homogeneous and is formed of 70% light water as moderator, 12% of enriched uranium UO2(NO3)4 and 18% of thorium Th(NO3)4 as fuel. To start the nuclear fission chain reaction an isotopic source of californium 252 was used with an intensity of 4.6 x 107 s-1. In the design the value of the effective multiplication factor, whose value turned out keff <1 was calculated. Also, the neutron spectra at different distances from the source and the total fluence were calculated, as well as the values of the ambient dose equivalent in the periphery of the reactor. (Author)

  7. Fast and efficient charge breeding of the Californium rare isotope breeder upgrade electron beam ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroumov, P N; Barcikowski, A; Dickerson, C A; Perry, A; Pikin, A I; Sharamentov, S I; Vondrasek, R C; Zinkann, G P

    2015-08-01

    The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), developed to breed Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) radioactive beams at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), is being tested off-line. A unique property of the EBIS is a combination of short breeding times, high repetition rates, and a large acceptance. Overall, we have implemented many innovative features during the design and construction of the CARIBU EBIS as compared to the existing EBIS breeders. The off-line charge breeding tests are being performed using a surface ionization source that produces singly charged cesium ions. The main goal of the off-line commissioning is to demonstrate stable operation of the EBIS at a 10 Hz repetition rate and a breeding efficiency into single charge state higher than 15%. These goals have been successfully achieved and exceeded. We have measured (20% ± 0.7%) breeding efficiency into the single charge state of 28+ cesium ions with the breeding time of 28 ms. In general, the current CARIBU EBIS operational parameters can provide charge breeding of any ions in the full mass range of periodic table with high efficiency, short breeding times, and sufficiently low charge-to-mass ratio, 1/6.3 for the heaviest masses, for further acceleration in ATLAS. In this paper, we discuss the parameters of the EBIS and the charge breeding results in a pulsed injection mode with repetition rates up to 10 Hz. PMID:26329185

  8. Neutron activation analysis at the Californium User Facility for Neutron Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science has been established to provide 252Cf-based neutron irradiation services and research capabilities including neutron activation analysis (NAA). A major advantage of the CUF is its accessibility and controlled experimental conditions compared with those of a reactor environment The CUF maintains the world's largest inventory of compact 252Cf neutron sources. Neutron source intensities of ≤ 1011 neutrons/s are available for irradiations within a contamination-free hot cell, capable of providing thermal and fast neutron fluxes exceeding 108 cm-2 s-1 at the sample. Total flux of ≥109 cm-2 s-1 is feasible for large-volume irradiation rabbits within the 252Cf storage pool. Neutron and gamma transport calculations have been performed using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP to estimate irradiation fluxes available for sample activation within the hot cell and storage pool and to design and optimize a prompt gamma NAA (PGNAA) configuration for large sample volumes. Confirmatory NAA irradiations have been performed within the pool. Gamma spectroscopy capabilities including PGNAA are being established within the CUF for sample analysis

  9. Long-term effects of an intracavitary treatment with californium-252 on normal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About one hundred fifty swine were exposed to either radium-226 or californium-252 sources in the uterine cervix to determine an RBE for both acute and long-term effects. That value for early changes in the tissues at risk in the treatment of cervical cancer was between 6.2 and 6.8. The incidence of complications increased with time after exposure, especially among animals treated with 252Cf. Analysis of rectal injury showed that ulceration occurred frequently within a year postexposure at doses between 1600 and 2400 rad calculated at 2 cm lateral to the source midline. Fat necrosis and smooth muscle atrophy, resulting in a local rectal stricture, were delayed changes observed in some animals. The lower ureter was the site for a greater frequency of complications than the GI tract. Ureteral stricture often occurred at doses of 1200 rad from 252Cf and 7000 rad from 226Ra. Observation of delayed effects in the uterine-cervix in animals held up to 4 years postexposure indicate that the RBE for 252Cf may be increased to a value as high as 18, while repair may have even decreased it to about 5.6 in the rectum. Fifty swine are still being observed for long-term effects after doses above 800 rad from 252Cf and 5000 rad from 226Ra

  10. Manganese determination om minerals by activation analysis, using the californium-252 as a neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron Activation Analysis, using a Californium-252 neutron source, has been applied for the determination of manganese in ores such as pyrolusite, rodonite (manganese silicate)' and blending used in dry-batteries The favorable nuclear properties of manganese, such as high thermal neutron cross-section for the reaction 55Mn (n.gamma)56 Mn, high concentration of manganese in the matrix and short half - life of 56Mn, are an ideal combination for non-destructive analysis of manganese in ores. Samples and standards of manganese dioxide were irradiated for about 20 minutes, followed by a 4 to 15 minutes decay and counted in a single channel pulse-height discrimination using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Counting time was equal to 10 minutes. The interference of nuclear reactions 56Fe(n,p)56Mn and 59 Co (n, α)56 were studied, as well as problems in connection with neutron shadowing during irradiation, gamma-rays attenuation during counting and influence of granulometry of samples. One sample,was also analysed by wet-chemical method (sodium bismuthate) in order to compare results. As a whole, i t was shown that the analytical method of neutron activation for manganese in ores and blending, is a method simple, rapid and with good precision and accuracy. (author)

  11. Five-year cure of cervical cancer treated using californium-252 neutron brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Female pelvic carcinoma is one of the common malignancies seen at the University of Kentucky Medical Center and often presents in an advanced stage. In 1976, the authors began to test californium-252 neutron brachytherapy (NT) for its efficacy for control of primary and recurrent advanced uterine, cervix, and vaginal cancers. The first protocol used was 5000-5500 rad of whole pelvis irradiation followed by 1-2 Cf-252 insertions using a single tandem placed in the utero-cervico-vaginal region. Of 27 patients with primary carcinomas treated, 10 are alive and well 5 year later (37%). Two of two recurrent tumors were locally controlled but failed later. These patients had advanced cervical, vaginal, or endometrial carcinomas. In 1977, a transitional year, treatment of only unfavorable stages and presentations with NT was initiated. Similar results were obtained with NT as compared to conventional photon therapy (PT). Further improvement in treatment results can be anticipated as NT brachytherapy is used for advanced cancer therapy by more effective treatment schedules and radiation doses. Cf-252 can be used as a radium substitute and achieved similar rates of tumor control and 5-year survivals. 21 references, 2 tables

  12. Uptake and distribution of californium-252 chloride administered intraperitoneally, intravenously or intratracheally and the effect of in vivo DTPA chelation on intratracheal instillation in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first phase of this investigation, comprising of three groups of animals, was designed to study the fate of californium-252 chloride administered intraperitoneally, intravenously or intratracheally. The second phase, which consisted of two groups of animals, was designed to examine the effectiveness of DTPA chelation therapy in accelerating the excretion and preventing the deposition of californium-252 chloride instilled into the lungs of rats. Immediately following the dose administration of 2 uCi of californium-252 chloride which was dissolved in 0.2 ml of 0.9% NaCl at pH 3.5, each rat was placed in a metabolism cage. Each rat in the first group of phase II was given intraperitoneal injection of CaNa3 DTPA (50 mg/kg) and each rat in the second group was given intraperitoneal injections of 0.9% NaCl. Injections of the DTPA or the NaCl sham were initiated immediately after the intratracheal administration of californium-252 chloride and were continued every three days until sacrifice. Following intraperitoneal, intravenous or intratracheal administration, the whole body retention of californium as a function of time was described by a three component exponential equation. For each mode of administration the short term component exhibited a biological half-life of between 5 and 10 hours; the intermediate component between 4 and 6 days; and the long term component between 200 and 300 days. The organ data obtained following intraperitoneal and intravenous administration were indistinguishable. On day one, the liver retained about 9% of the administered dose and the kidneys retained 2.4%. Retention for these organs decreased to about 1% by day 32. The femurs maintained an almost constant level of 4.5% of the injected dose over the 32 days. The lungs, spleen, heart, and testes showed significant retention of californium

  13. Dicty_cDB: CFC254 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ce kylflflfffiifqhnni*l*FGINSVIFVFFFFXKGGXWVX--- Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: iniyfyfyffl*fsnit...s) Value N L16578 |L16578.1 Dictyostelium discoideum HIV1 TAT-binding protein homologous protein mRNA, complete...CF (Link to library) CFC254 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15589-1 CFC254F (Link to Original site...ctyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U15589-1 Original site URL http://dict...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CF/CFC2-C/CFC254Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CFC254F (Link to Original site

  14. Dicty_cDB: CHP254 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP254 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15541-1 - (Link to Original site) ... qvlf*rivftlkiakemkf*lnnghqlnqmletslkilfykv*dhqnmkh vtl *ll*fhvlvllkfhtqcgkn*sqhylktlkvvqkvlnnllfkhlvifvkkl ...

  15. 36 CFR 254.1 - Scope and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-521i) (36 CFR part 254, subpart C), and as otherwise noted. These rules also apply to other methods of... to all applicable exchange laws, except the cash equalization provisions of the Sisk Act of...

  16. Dicty_cDB: SSB254 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSB254 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U04520-1 SSB254F (Link to Original ... 154, com... 33 4.0 EU545988_1( EU545988 |pid:none) Zika ... virus polyprotein gene, compl... 32 5.3 AY632535_1 ... ( AY632535 |pid:none) Zika ... virus strain MR 766, complete... 32 5.3 AE014298_1 ...

  17. Dicty_cDB: SHF254 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SH (Link to library) SHF254 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16371-1 SHF254P (Link to Original ... Oryzias latipes DNA, clone: ola1-242I19.F, genomic survey ... sequence. 54 0.004 1 DE092915 |DE092915.1 Oryzias ... latipes DNA, clone: ola1-209J09.R, genomic survey ... sequence. 54 0.004 1 DE086252 |DE086252.1 Oryzias ...

  18. ENEA results in the international comparison organized by BIPM for the measurament of neutron fluxes of a Californium source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period between May 1978 and August 1984 under the auspices of Section III of CCEMRI of CIPM it has been carried out the international intercomparison of Californium neutron source emission rate. The previous intercomparison was based on Ra-Be (α -n) source measuraments, which took place between 1959 and 1965, and the results showed a total spread of +- 3%. Owing to the better accuracy achived over the following decade the Ra-Be intercomparison was no longer representative of the state of the art, therefore it was decided to arrange the intercomparison based on Californium which in the meantime reached a wide use in the world. Contributions to the intercomparison were received from fourteen laboratories representative of twelve Nations plus the BIPM. The results put into evidence a considerable advance on accuracy in the neutron source emission rate measuraments. The standard deviation of the residuals obtained from least square fit of normalized data resulted +- 0,57%. In the present report it is widely described the Manganese bath method used at ENEA, CRE Casaccia in Roma, and the experimental procedure followed for its absolute calibration. All measuraments are reported and analysed, including those effectuated for corrective factors determination. The final results obtained at ENEA for the circulated Californium source is (3,457 +- 0,013) 10*H7 neutron/s. The analysis of data from all partecipantes has been effectuated and concluded by J. Axton in March 1986 and the conclusions which have been showed in the present report put in evidence the satisfactory results achived by the ENEA

  19. Feasibility and market potential of protein determination of wheat using californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the feasibility of protein determination by capture gamma-ray analysis using californium-252 neutrons, an in-situ protein analysis system for use by grain handlers has been examined. Three 227 kilogram (approximately) lots of wheat were used to determine the amount of nitrogen present. Protein analyses by the Kjeldahl method were obtained from samples taken before and after the capture gamma-ray analyses. The 5.267-MeV gamma-ray was selected for use in this study as a compromise between efficiency and interference from other elements. The associated counting equipment was a multichannel analyzer with pulse shaping electronic and analysis computing equipment. A linear regression program was used to compare the regions of interest to the Kjeldahl protein averages. The counts composing each peak were summed and normalized using the total count of the hydrogen peak. The normalized nitrogen percentages indicate a significant correlation between the spectral regions and the Kjeldahl analyses. To a first approximation, the value of wheat is the wheat protein. At the present time, protein testing of wheat is destructive, cumbersome, and time-consuming as compared to the potential for capture gamma-ray analysis testing. Assuming that such a protein analysis unit can analyze 42 tonne of wheat per hour, over 120 units would be needed to monitor one-half the U.S. annual wheat production. A 0.5% improvement in processor realizations and grain throughput value of $167.00 per tonne will result in a projected savings of $150,000 per year per unit

  20. Oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) and therapeutic gain factor (GF) for californium-252 at low dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential benefit of the introduction of californium-252 in interstitial and intracavitary therapy is related to the greater efficiency of its neutron emission against anoxic cancer cells. In that respect, the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) of the 252Cf emission has been determined for a continuous low dose rate irradiation. The biological system is growth inhibition in Vicia faba bean roots. A new Vicia faba ''BelB'' strain has been used, which better tolerates long periods (up to about 10 hours) of anoxia. In a first series of experiments, for a 252Cf (Dsub(n+γ)) dose rate of 0.11 Gy.h-1, an OER of 1.4+-0.1 was observed (the γ contribution Dγ to the total absorbed dose Dsub(n+γ) was 0.35 at the position of the root tips). In a second series of experiments, in somewhat different geometrical conditions with a 252Cf (Dsub(n+γ)) dose rate of 0.13 Gy.h-1, an OER of 1.5+-0.1 was observed (Dγ/Dsub(n+γ)=0.42). The OER values observed for similar irradiation times, with iridium-192 γ-rays, were 2.3+-0.2 and 2.6+-0.1 respectively, which leads to therapeutic gain factors (GF) of 1.6 and 1.7 respectively. These GF values are slightly lower than those previously obtained (GF=1.8) on the same system, with d(50)-Be p(75)-Be and 15 MeV neutron beams

  1. Application of TSH bioindicator for studying the biological efficiency of neutrons from californium-252 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of neutrons from a Californium-252 source in the induction of various abnormalities in the Tradescantia clone 4430 stamen hair cells (TSH-assay) was studied. The special attention was paid to check whether any enhancement in effects caused by process of boron neutron capture is visible in the cells enriched with boron ions. Two chemicals (borax and BSH) were applied to introduce boron-10 ions into cells. Inflorescence, normal or pretreated with chemicals containing boron, were irradiated in the air with neutrons from a Cf-252 source at KAERI, Taejon, Korea. To estimate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in the induction of gene mutations of the neutron beam under the study, Tradescantia inflorescences, without any chemical pretreatment, were irradiated with various doses of X-rays. The ranges of radiation doses used were 0-0.1 Gy in neutrons and 0-0.5 Gy in X-rays. After the time needed to complete the postirradiation repair Tradescantia cuttings were transferred to Cracow, where screening of gene and lethal; mutations, cell cycle alterations in somatic cells have been done, and dose response relationships were figured. The maximal RBE values were estimated in the range of 4.6-6.8. Alterations of RBE value were observed; from 6.8 to 7.8 in the case of plants pretreated with 240 ppm of B-10 from borax, and 4.6 to 6.1 in the case of 400 ppm of B-10 from BSH. Results showed a slight, although statistically insignificant increase in biological efficacy of radiation from the Cf-252 source in samples pretreated with boron containing chemicals. (author)

  2. Divalent and trivalent gas-phase coordination complexes of californium: evaluating the stability of Cf(ii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dau, Phuong D; Shuh, David K; Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Abergel, Rebecca J; Gibson, John K

    2016-08-01

    The divalent oxidation state is increasingly stable relative to the trivalent state for the later actinide elements, with californium the first actinide to exhibit divalent chemistry under moderate conditions. Although there is evidence for divalent Cf in solution and solid compounds, there are no reports of discrete complexes in which Cf(II) is coordinated by anionic ligands. Described here is the divalent Cf methanesulfinate coordination complex, Cf(II)(CH3SO2)3(-), prepared in the gas phase by reductive elimination of CH3SO2 from Cf(III)(CH3SO2)4(-). Comparison with synthesis of the corresponding Sm and Cm complexes reveals reduction of Cf(III) and Sm(III), and no evidence for reduction of Cm(III). This reflects the comparative 3+/2+ reduction potentials: Cf(3+) (-1.60 V) ≈ Sm(3+) (-1.55 V) ≫ Cm(3+) (-3.7 V). Association of O2 to the divalent complexes is attributed to formation of superoxides, with recovery of the trivalent oxidation state. The new gas-phase chemistry of californium, now the heaviest element to have been studied in this manner, provides evidence for Cf(II) coordination complexes and similar chemistry of Cf and Sm. PMID:27424652

  3. Hypoxic versus normoxic external-beam irradiation of cervical carcinoma combined with californium-252 neutron brachytherapy. Comparative treatment results of a 5-year randomized study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tačev, T.; Vacek, Antonín; Ptáčková, B.; Strnad, V.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 181, č. 5 (2005), s. 273-284. ISSN 0179-7158 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : cervical carcinoma * hypoxyradiotherapy * californium-252 Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.490, year: 2005

  4. Susceptibility to Stress Corrosion Cracking of 254SMO SS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Micheli Lorenzo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC of solubilized and sensitized 254SMO SS was studied in sodium chloride, and sodium fluoride solutions at 80 °C and sulfuric acid solutions in presence of sodium chloride at 25 °C. The influence of salt concentration, pH values and the addition of thiosulfate was examined. The susceptibility to SCC was evaluated by Slow Strain Rate Tests (SSRT, at 1.5 x 10-6 s-1 strain rate. The behavior of 254SMO was compared to those of AISI 316L SS and Hastelloy C276. 254SMO showed an excellent resistance to SCC in all conditions, except in the more acidic solutions (pH <= 1 where, in the sensitized conditions, intergranular stress corrosion cracking occurred.

  5. Susceptibility to Stress Corrosion Cracking of 254SMO SS

    OpenAIRE

    De Micheli Lorenzo; Agostinho Silvia Maria Leite; Trabanelli Giordano; Zucchi Fabrizio

    2002-01-01

    The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of solubilized and sensitized 254SMO SS was studied in sodium chloride, and sodium fluoride solutions at 80 °C and sulfuric acid solutions in presence of sodium chloride at 25 °C. The influence of salt concentration, pH values and the addition of thiosulfate was examined. The susceptibility to SCC was evaluated by Slow Strain Rate Tests (SSRT), at 1.5 x 10-6 s-1 strain rate. The behavior of 254SMO was compared to those of AISI 316L SS and ...

  6. Solving the Hydration Structure of the Heaviest Actinide Aqua Ion Known: The Californium(III) Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Auwer, Ch.; Guillaumont, D. [CEA Marcoule, Nucl Energy Div, Radiochem Proc Dept, SCPS LILA, 30 (France); Galbis, E.; Pappalardo, Rafael R.; Marcos Sanchez, E. [Univ Seville, Dept Quim Fis, E-41012 Seville (Spain); Hernandez-Cobos, J. [Inst Ciencias Fis, Cuernavaca 62251, Morelos (Mexico); Le Naour, C.; Simoni, E. [Univ Paris Sud, Inst Phys Nucl Orsay, Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    In summary, the first MC simulation of the trivalent cation of californium, based on an exchangeable hydrated ion-water intermolecular potential, has been shown to extend and improve the hydrated ion model. Likewise, the CfL{sub III}-edge EXAFS spectrum of an acidic 1 mm Cf(ClO{sub 4}){sub 3} aqueous solution recorded under optimized experimental conditions has greatly improved the signal/noise ratio of the only previously recorded spectrum. The comparison of the experimental EXAFS spectrum with the two computed ones, obtained from two different intermolecular potentials that predict eight (BP86) or nine (MP2) water molecules in the first coordination shell, leads to the conclusion that the lowest hydration number is preferred. Then, as Cf{sup III} is the heaviest actinide aqua ion for which there is experimental information, the actinide contraction is supported by the present study. (For U{sup III}, R{sub U-O}=2.56 Angstroms, and CN=9{+-}1; for Pu{sup III}, R{sub Pu-O}=2.51 Angstroms and CN=9{+-}1; for Cm{sup III}, R{sub Cm-O}=2.47 Angstroms and CN=9{+-}1). The role of the second hydration shell is important in defining the structure and dynamics of the Cf{sup III} aqua ion, but the contribution of second-shell water molecules to the EXAFS signal as back-scatters is marginal. Finally, this work gives an illustrative example of the benefits which can be achieved from the combination of experimental X-ray absorption spectroscopy and computer simulations. The usefulness of the simultaneous analysis of the results as well as the importance of the structural statistical average has been clearly demonstrated herein. Each technique independently was not adequate. We believe that this study traces out a still poorly explored combined methodology which may be extremely useful for many other complexes and chemical problems. A systematic theoretical and experimental examination of the other known actinide cations on the same basis should be undertaken to confirm the

  7. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YBR254C, YKR068C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available on of ER to Golgi transport vesicles; component of the TRAPP (transport protein particle) complex Rows wit...njunction with SNARE proteins in targeting and fusion of ER to Golgi transport vesicles; compon...rt protein particle (TRAPP) complex of the cis-Golgi which mediates vesicle docking and fusi...rvening proteins (YPD) 1 IST hit 4 IST hit in the opposite bait/prey orientation - ... ...YBR254C TRS20 One of 10 subunits of the transport protein particle (TRAPP) complex

  8. Transuranium element production. II. Chemical processing of targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical processing described concerns small experimental targets irradiated in OSIRIS or EL-III and industrial targets irradiated in the CELESTIN reactors. In view of the difficulties encountered when processing highly irradiated targets (760MWd.kg-1) by liquid-liquid extraction (interface sludges leading to stable emulsion) the new processes developed are based on inverse phase chromatography. This technique applied to targets of americium 241, plutonium 239 and a plutonium mixture rich in isotope 242 has given tens of milligrams of curium 242, grams of americium 243 and curium 244 and micrograms of californium 252

  9. 40 CFR 180.254 - Carbofuran; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inadvertent residues. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 180.254, see the List of CFR... Parts per million (ppm) Expiration/Revocation date Alfalfa, forage (of which no more than 5 ppm are carbamates) 10 12/31/09 Alfalfa, hay (of which no more than 20 ppm are carbamates) 40 12/31/09 Banana 0.1...

  10. 7 CFR 1220.254 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Miscellaneous § 1220.254 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights..., franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, inure to the benefit...

  11. Radiation trapping of the Hg 254 nm resonance line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herd, M T [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53705 (United States); Lawler, J E [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53705 (United States); Menningen, K L [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, WI 54481 (United States)

    2005-09-07

    The decay rate of Hg 6 {sup 3}P{sub 1} atoms, due primarily to the escape of trapped 254 nm resonance radiation, was measured as a function of both Hg and Ar density in cylindrical, sealed fused silica cells. Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence at 254 nm was used to obtain the decay rates for Hg densities from 5 x 10{sup 13} to 7 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3} (22-101 deg. C cold spot temperatures) and Ar densities from 0 to 9.7 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} in a cell of inner radius 1.05 cm. These new experimental data are compared to Monte Carlo results from a highly realistic code for simulating radiation trapping. This code includes Voigt profiles from a combination of Doppler, resonance, buffer gas and radiative line broadening, as well as hyperfine and isotopic structure with proper collisional redistribution. Upper limits on the rate constants for the quenching of Hg 6 {sup 3} P{sub 1} atoms by collisions with ground level Ar and Hg atoms were derived. Additional Monte Carlo simulations covering cell radii from 0.1 to 3.0 cm were performed. A broadly applicable engineering formula is derived from this study, which predicts the Hg 6 {sup 3}P{sub 1} decay rate from 254 nm resonance radiation trapping as a function of Hg and Ar densities and cell radius.

  12. 47 CFR 1.254 - Nature of the hearing; burden of proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nature of the hearing; burden of proof. 1.254 Section 1.254 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Hearing Proceedings Hearing and Intermediate Decision § 1.254 Nature of the hearing; burden of proof. Any hearing...

  13. Stability of trans-fermium elements at high spin: Measuring the fission barrier of 254No

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Super heavy nuclei provide opportunities to study nuclear structure near three simultaneous limits: in charge Z, spin I and excitation energy E*. These nuclei exist only because of a fission barrier, created by shell effects. It is therefore important to determine the fission barrier and its spin dependence Bf(I), which gives information on the shell energy E(shell)(I). Theoretical calculations predict different fission barrier heights from Bf(I = 0) = 6.8 MeV for a macro-microscopic model to 8.7 MeV for Density Functional Theory calculations using the Gogny or Skyrme interactions. Hence, a measurement of Bf provides a test for theories.To investigate the fission barrier, an established method is to measure the rise of fission with excitation energy, characterized by the ratio of decay widths Γ(fission)/Γ(total), using transfer reactions. However, for heavy elements such as 254No, there is no suitable target for a transfer reaction. We therefore rely on the complementary decay widths ratio Γγ/Γ(fission) and its spin dependence, deduced from the entry distribution (I, E*).Measurements of the gamma-ray multiplicity and total energy for 254No have been performed with beam energies of 219 and 223 MeV in the reaction 208Pb(48Ca,2n) at ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System). The 254No gamma rays were detected using the Gammasphere array as a calorimeter - as well as the usual high resolution γ-ray detector. Coincidences with evaporation residues at the Fragment Mass Analyzer focal plane separated 254No gamma rays from those from fission fragments, which are ≥ 106 more intense. From this measurement, the entry distribution - i.e. the initial distribution of I and E* - is constructed. Each point (I,E*) of the entry distribution is a point where gamma decay wins over fission and, therefore, gives information on the fission barrier. The measured entry distributions show an increase in the maximum spin and excitation energy from 219 to 223 MeV of beam energy

  14. Operational experience with the Argonne National Laboratory Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade facility and electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondrasek, R.; Clark, J.; Levand, A.; Palchan, T.; Pardo, R.; Savard, G.; Scott, R.

    2014-02-01

    The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the Argonne National Laboratory Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) facility provides low-energy and accelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams to address key nuclear physics and astrophysics questions. A 350 mCi 252Cf source produces fission fragments which are thermalized and collected by a helium gas catcher into a low-energy particle beam with a charge of 1+ or 2+. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source functions as a charge breeder in order to raise the ion charge sufficiently for acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The ECR charge breeder has achieved stable beam charge breeding efficiencies of 10.1% for 23Na7+, 17.9% for 39K10+, 15.6% for 84Kr17+, and 12.4% for 133Cs27+. For the radioactive beams, a charge breeding efficiency of 11.7% has been achieved for 143Cs27+ and 14.7% for 143Ba27+. The typical breeding times are 10 ms/charge state, but the source can be tuned such that this value increases to 100 ms/charge state with the best breeding efficiency corresponding to the longest breeding times—the variation of efficiencies with breeding time will be discussed. Efforts have been made to characterize and reduce the background contaminants present in the ion beam through judicious choice of q/m combinations. Methods of background reduction are being investigated based upon plasma chamber cleaning and vacuum practices.

  15. Long-term effects of an intracavitary treatment with californium-252 on normal tissue. [Swine, /sup 226/Ra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Beamer, J.L.; Mahony, T.D.; Cross, F.T.; Lund, J.E.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1976-01-01

    About one hundred fifty swine were exposed to either radium-226 or californium-252 sources in the uterine cervix to determine an RBE for both acute and long-term effects. That value for early changes in the tissues at risk in the treatment of cervical cancer was between 6.2 and 6.8. The incidence of complications increased with time after exposure, especially among animals treated with /sup 252/Cf. Analysis of rectal injury showed that ulceration occurred frequently within a year postexposure at doses between 1600 and 2400 rad calculated at 2 cm lateral to the source midline. Fat necrosis and smooth muscle atrophy, resulting in a local rectal stricture, were delayed changes observed in some animals. The lower ureter was the site for a greater frequency of complications than the GI tract. Ureteral stricture often occurred at doses of 1200 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 7000 rad from /sup 226/Ra. Observation of delayed effects in the uterine-cervix in animals held up to 4 years postexposure indicate that the RBE for /sup 252/Cf may be increased to a value as high as 18, while repair may have even decreased it to about 5.6 in the rectum. Fifty swine are still being observed for long-term effects after doses above 800 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 5000 rad from /sup 226/Ra.

  16. Human Factors evaluation of LCS 254 and 255

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report includes the results of the Human Factors evaluation of the local control stations (LCS) 254 and 255 performed by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Human Factors. Recommendations are included in order that the panel designs will be upgraded to comply with human engineering design guidelines. Figures 1 and 2 are included as examples of recommended changes. Also, consideration was given to including the proposed engineering changes which are currently on-going for LCS 255. Appendix A identifies the human engineering requirements from NUREG-0700 which were used in the evaluation process, and the areas of the design which do not comply with the guidelines. Those areas of the panel design which fail to comply with the human engineering guidelines are label location, label content, location aids, panel layout, and control display integration. Each of these design deficiencies and proposed corrections are described in this report

  17. Exploring the stability of super heavy elements: First Measurement of the Fission Barrier of 254No

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning G.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The gamma-ray multiplicity and total energy emitted by the heavy nucleus 254No have been measured at 2 different beam energies. From these measurements, the initial distributions of spin I and excitation energy E∗ of 254No were constructed. The distributions display a saturation in excitation energy, which allows a direct determination of the fission barrier. 254No is the heaviest shell-stabilized nucleus with a measured fission barrier.

  18. Results with the electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder for the 252Cf fission source project (Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade) at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of the Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade, a new radioactive beam facility for the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), is nearing completion. The facility will use fission fragments from a 1 Ci 252Cf source; thermalized and collected into a low-energy particle beam by a helium gas catcher. In order to reaccelerate these beams, an existing ATLAS electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source was redesigned to function as an ECR charge breeder. Thus far, the charge breeder has been tested with stable beams of rubidium and cesium achieving charge breeding efficiencies of 9.7% into 85Rb17+ and 2.9% into 133Cs20+.

  19. Preparation of actinide targets by electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, N.; Folger, H.

    1989-10-01

    Actinide targets with varying thicknesses on different substrates have been prepared by electrodeposition either from aqueous solutions or from solutions of their nitrates in isopropyl alcohol. With these techniques the actinides can be deposited almost quantitatively on various backing materials within 15 to 30 min. Targets of thorium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium and californium with areal densities from almost carrier-free up to 1.4 mg/cm 2 on thin beryllium, carbon, titanium, tantalum and platinum foils have been prepared. In most cases, prior to the deposition, the actinides had to be purified chemically and for some of them, due to the limited amount of material available, recycling procedures were required. Applications of actinide targets in heavy-ion reactions are briefly discussed.

  20. Ab initio full-potential study of mechanical properties and magnetic phase stability of californium monopnictides (CfN and CfP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, S.; Bouhafs, B.

    2016-09-01

    Based on the first-principles methods, the structural, elastic, electronic, properties and magnetic ordering of californium monopnictides CfX (X = P) have been studied using the full-potential augmented plane wave plus local orbitals (FP-L/APW + lo) method within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). The electronic exchange correlation energy is described by generalized gradient approximation GGA and GGA+U (U is the Hubbard correction). The GGA+U method is applied to the rare-earth 5f states. We have calculated the lattice parameters, bulk modulii and the first pressure derivatives of the bulk modulii. The elastic properties of the studied compounds are only investigated in the most stable calculated phase. In order to gain further information, we have calculated Young's modulus, shear modulus, anisotropy factor and Kleinman parameter by the aid of the calculated elastic constants. The results mainly show that californium monopnictides CfX (X = P) have an antiferromagnetic spin ordering. Density of states (DOS) and charge densities for both compounds are also computed in the NaCl (B1) structure.

  1. 37 CFR 2.54 - Requirements for drawings submitted on paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... submitted on paper. 2.54 Section 2.54 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK... drawings submitted on paper. The drawing must meet the requirements of § 2.52. In addition, in a paper submission, the drawing should: (a) Be on non-shiny white paper that is separate from the application; (b)...

  2. 30 CFR 254.46 - Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? 254.46... Outer Continental Shelf Facilities § 254.46 Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? (a) You must immediately notify the National Response Center (1-800-424-8802) if you observe: (1) An oil spill from...

  3. 48 CFR 53.204-1 - Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441). 53.204-1 Section 53.204-1 Federal Acquisition....204-1 Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441). The following... specified in subpart 4.4 and the clause at 52.204-2: (a) DD Form 254 (Department of Defense (DOD)),...

  4. Nuclear Structure Measurements of Fermium-254 and Advances in Target Production Methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Gothe, Oliver Ralf

    2014-01-01

    The Berkeley Gas-filled Separator (BGS) has been upgraded with a new gas control system. It allows for accurate control of hydrogen and helium gas mixtures. This greatly increases the capabilities of the separator by reducing background signals in the focal plane detector for asymmetric nuclear reactions. It has also been shown that gas mixtures can be used to focus the desired reaction products into a smaller area, thereby increasing the experimental efficiency.A new electrodeposition cell h...

  5. Anatomy of a controversy: Application of the Langevin technique to the analysis of the Californium-252 Source-Driven Noise Analysis method for subcriticality determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expressions for the power spectral density of the noise equivalent sources have been calculated explicitly for the (a) stochastic transport equation, (b) the one-speed transport equaton, (c) the one-speed P1 equations, (d) the one-speed diffusion equation and (e) the point kinetic equation. The stochastic nature of Fick's law in (d) has been emphasized. The Langevin technique has been applied at various levels of approximation to the interpretation of the Californium-252 Source-Driven Noise Analysis (CSDNA) experiment for determining the reactivity in subcritical media. The origin of the controversy surrounding this method has been explained. The foundations of the CSDNA method as a viable experimental technique to infer subcriticality from a measured ratio of power spectral densities of the outputs of two neutron detectors and a third external source detector has been examined by solving the one-speed stochastic diffusion equation for a point external Californium-252 source and two detectors in an infinite medium. The expression relating reactivity to the measured ratio of PSDs was found to depend implicitly on k itself. Through a numerical analysis fo this expression, the authors have demonstrated that for a colinear detector-source-detector configuration for neutron detectors far from the source, the expression for the subcritical multiplication factor becomes essentially insensitive to k, hence, demonstrating some possibility for the viability of this technique. However, under more realistic experimental conditions, i.e., for finite systems in which diffusion theroy is not applicable, the measurement of the subcritical multiplication factor from a single measured ratio of PSDs, without extensive transport calculations, remains doubtful

  6. Application of SCGE assay, classical cytogenetics and FISH for studying in vitro californium-252 neutrons irradiations and BSH pretreatment on human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, there has been observed a tendency to apply various energy neutrons for tumor therapy and particularly low energy neutrons from various sources, including californium-252 source, for cancer radiotherapy based on the neutron capture. In this study peripheral blood lymphocytes were used as a model for human cells and three methods were applied to assess the effectiveness of californium-252 neutrons irradiations in vitro in normal cells or pre-treated with compound enriched in B-10 ion. Human blood samples or isolated lymphocytes were irradiated with neutrons from isotopic 252Cf source at the Faculty of Nuclear Physics and Technics at University of Mining and Metallurgy (both neutron source and samples were placed in polyethylene block). Chemical pretreatment with BSH (Na210B12H11SH) was done to introduce boron-10 ion into cells in order to check any enhancement effect due to the process of boron neutron capture. Comet assay was done to investigate the DNA damage. Classical cytogenetics was applied to assess the frequencies of unstable aberrations (dicentrics and rings). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with probes for chromosomes 1, 4 (14.3% of whole genome) and pancentromeric probe was performed to evaluate the frequencies of stable aberrations. Linear (or close to linear) increase of DNA damage and aberration frequency was observed with dose of radiation both for lymphocytes untreated or pre-treated with BSH. Very little differences (statistically insignificant) due to radiation dose and BSH pretreatment were observed in the frequencies of SCEs detected in the second mitosis. There is no significant difference between boron pre-treated and not treated cells, and even slightly higher effects were observed in case of the highest dose without BSH pretreatment. The level of translocations observed is comparable with the frequencies of dicentrics and rings. (author)

  7. Californium-252 neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major production programs for the Savannah River reactors and the High Flux Isotopes Reactor at Oak Ridge have made 252Cf one of the most available and, at the USAEC's sales price of $10/μg, one of the least-expensive isotopic neutron sources. Reactor production has totaled approximately 2 g, and, based on expected demand, an additional 10 g will be produced in the next decade. The approximately 800 mg chemically separated to date has been used to prepare over 600 neutron sources. Most, about 500, have been medical sources containing 1 to 5 μg of 252Cf plated in needles for experimental cancer therapy studies. The remainder have generally been point sources containing 10 μg to 12 mg of oxide for activation, well logging, or radiography uses. Bulk sources have also been supplied to the commercial encapsulators. The latest development has been the production of 252Cf cermet wire which can be cut into almost contamination-free lengths of the desired 252Cf content. Casks are available for transport of sources up to 50 mg. Subcritical assemblies have been developed to multiply the source neutrons by a factor of 10 to 40, and collimators and thermalizers have also been extensively developed to shape the neutron flux and energy distributions for special applications. (U.S.)

  8. Calculations of Nuclear Astrophysics and Californium Fission Neutron Spectrum Averaged Cross Section Uncertainties Using ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.1.2, JENDL-4.0 and Low-fidelity Covariances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear astrophysics and californium fission neutron spectrum averaged cross sections and their uncertainties for ENDF materials have been calculated. Absolute values were deduced with Maxwellian and Mannhart spectra, while uncertainties are based on ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.1.2, JENDL-4.0 and Low-Fidelity covariances. These quantities are compared with available data, independent benchmarks, EXFOR library, and analyzed for a wide range of cases. Recommendations for neutron cross section covariances are given and implications are discussed

  9. SMO254材料在硫酸镍生产工艺中的应用%Application of SMO254 in Nickel Sulphate Production Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯琼英; 龙梅; 李伟

    2008-01-01

    针对硫酸镍生产中板式换热器板片腐蚀严重的问题,通过对板式换热器几种材质板片耐腐蚀性能的分析与试验,选用SMO254材料取代原C-276材料,延长了板式换热器的板片寿命,降低了生产成本.

  10. Rotational properties of $^{252, 253, 254}$No. Influence of pairing correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Duguet, T.; Bonche, P.; Heenen, P. -H.

    2000-01-01

    Rotational bands of $^{252, 253, 254}$No and the fission barriers of $^{254}$No at spin 0$\\hbar$ and 20$\\hbar$ are calculated with the Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov theory and the Lipkin-Nogami approximate particle number projection. The SLy4 Skyrme force is used in the particle-hole channel. A zero-range force with and without density-dependence is used in the particle-particle channel. The experimental ground state deformation (${\\cal{Q}}_{20}$ = 32.8 b) is reproduced as well as the increase of t...

  11. Oxidation-reduction properties of americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium and fermium, and thermodynamic consequences for the 5f series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amalgamation of 5f elements from Am to Fm has been studied by using 241Am, 244Cm, 249Bk, 249Cf, 252Cf, 253Es, 254Es, 252Fm and 255Fm with two electrochemical methods, radiocoulometry and radiopolarography, perfectly adapted to investigate extremely diluted solutions when the concentration of electroactive species is as low as 10-16M. The theory of radiocoulometry has been developed in the general cases of reversible and irreversible electrode process. It has been used to interpret the experimental data on the kinetic curves of amalgamation, and to estimate the standard rate constant of the electrode process in complexing medium (citric). On the other hand the radiopolarographic method has been applied to study the mechanism of reduction at the dropping mercury electrode of cations M3+ in aqueous medium to the metal M with formation of amalgam. The results are exploited into two directions: 1- Acquisition of some data concerning the oxidation-reduction properties of elements from Am to Fm. Therefore the standard electrode E0 [M(III-0)] potentials for Bk, Cf and Es, and the standard electrode E0 [M(II-0)] potential for Fm are estimated and the relative stability of each oxidation state (from II to VII) of 5f elements is discussed; 2- Acquisition of unknown thermodynamic data on transcalifornium elements. Correlations between 4f and 5f elements are precised and some divergences appear for the second half of 4f and 5f series (i.e. for 65<=Z<=71 and 97<=Z<=103)

  12. Californium interrogation prompt neutron (CIPN) instrument for non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel-Design concept and experimental demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henzlova, D.; Menlove, H. O.; Rael, C. D.; Trellue, H. R.; Tobin, S. J.; Park, Se-Hwan; Oh, Jong-Myeong; Lee, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Kwon, In-Chan; Kim, Ho-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results of the first experimental demonstration of the Californium Interrogation Prompt Neutron (CIPN) instrument developed within a multi-year effort launched by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel Project of the United States Department of Energy. The goals of this project focused on developing viable non-destructive assay techniques with capabilities to improve an independent verification of spent fuel assembly characteristics. For this purpose, the CIPN instrument combines active and passive neutron interrogation, along with passive gamma-ray measurements, to provide three independent observables. This paper describes the initial feasibility demonstration of the CIPN instrument, which involved measurements of four pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies with different levels of burnup and two initial enrichments. The measurements were performed at the Post-Irradiation Examination Facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute in the Republic of Korea. The key aim of the demonstration was to evaluate CIPN instrument performance under realistic deployment conditions, with the focus on a detailed assessment of systematic uncertainties that are best evaluated experimentally. The measurements revealed good positioning reproducibility, as well as a high degree of insensitivity of the CIPN instrument's response to irregularities in a radial burnup profile. Systematic uncertainty of individual CIPN instrument signals due to assembly rotation was found to be orientation in the instrument.

  13. 16 CFR 254.6 - Deceptive use of diplomas, degrees, or certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... control the recognition that will be accorded the diploma by institutions of higher education, other schools, or prospective employers, and that such recognition is a matter solely within the discretion of... GUIDES FOR PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.6 Deceptive use of diplomas,...

  14. Reductive degradation of perfluoroalkyl compounds with aquated electrons generated from iodide photolysis at 254 nm

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hyunwoong; vecitis, Chad D.; Cheng, Jie; Dalleska, Nathan F; Mader, Brian T.; Hoffmann, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    The perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs), perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFXS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFXA) are environmentally persistent and recalcitrant towards most conventional water treatment technologies. Here, we complete an in depth examination of the UV-254 nm production of aquated electrons during iodide photolysis for the reductive defluorination of six aquated perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) of various headgroup and perfluorocarbon tail length. Cyclic voltammograms (CV) show tha...

  15. 6 CFR 25.4 - Designation of qualified anti-terrorism technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of qualified anti-terrorism... REGULATIONS TO SUPPORT ANTI-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.4 Designation of qualified anti-terrorism technologies. (a) General. The Under Secretary may Designate as a Qualified...

  16. Biological Efficiency of Californium-252 Source Evaluated by Comet Assay, Classical Cytogenetics and FISH in Human Lymphocytes Irradiated without and with BSH Pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological effectiveness of californium-252 source was evaluated after irradiations in vitro of normal or pre-treated with compound enriched in B-10 ion cells. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were used as a model for human cells. DNA and chromosomal damage were studied to compare biological effectiveness of irradiation. Human blood samples or isolated lymphocytes were irradiated with the isotopic source of 252Cf, at the Faculty of Physics and Nuclear Techniques at the University of Mining and Metallurgy (both neutron source and samples were placed in ''infinite'' polyethylene block). Chemical pretreatment with Na210B12H11SH (BSH) was performed to introduce boron-10 ion into cells in order to check any enhancement effect due to the process of boron neutron capture. Single cell gel electrophoresis also known as the Comet assay was done to investigate the DNA damage. Classical cytogenetic analysis was applied to assess the frequencies of unstable aberrations (dicentrics, rings and a centric fragments). To evaluate the frequencies of stable aberrations the fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with probes for chromosomes 1, 4 (14.3% of the whole genome) was performed. Linear (or close to linear) increase with radiation dose were observed for the DNA damage and aberration frequencies in lymphocytes both untreated or pre-treated with BSH. Levels of translocations evaluated for the whole genome were comparable with the frequencies of dicentrics and rings. No significant differences were detected due to radiation dose in the frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) detected in the second mitosis. No statistically significant differences were observed in various biological end-points between normal or boron pre-treated cells. (author)

  17. Stability of 248-254^Cf isotopes against alpha and cluster radioactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Santhosh, K. P.; Biju, R. K.

    2013-01-01

    Stability of 248-254^Cf nuclei against alpha and cluster emission is studied within our Coulomb and proximity potential model (CPPM). It is found that these nuclei are stable against light clusters (except alpha particle) and instable against heavy cluster emissions. For heavy cluster emissions the daughter nuclei lead to doubly magic 208^Pb or neighbouring one. The effect of quadrapole and hexadecapole deformations of parent nuclei, daughter nuclei and emitted cluster on half lives are also ...

  18. Coulomb dissociation of {sup 8}B at 254 A MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suemmerer, K.; Boue, F.; Baumann, T.; Geissel, H.; Hellstroem, M.; Koczon, P.; Schwab, E.; Schwab, W.; Senger, P.; Surowiecz, A. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Iwasa, N.; Ozawa, A. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany)]|[RIKEN Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Saitama (Japan); Surowka, G. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany)]|[Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Blank, B.; Czajkowski, S.; Marchand, C.; Pravikoff, M.S. [Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, 33 (France); Foerster, A.; Lauer, F.; Oeschler, H.; Speer, J.; Sturm, C.; Uhlig, F.; Wagner, A. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Gai, M. [Connecticut Univ., Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Physics; Grosse, E. [Inst. fuer Kern- und Hadronenphysik, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Kohlmeyer, B. [Philipps Univ., Marburg (Germany). Fachbereich Physik; Kulessa, R.; Walus, W. [Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Motobayashi, T. [Rikkyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Teranishi, T. [RIKEN Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Saitama (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    As an alternative method for determining the astrophysical S-factor for the {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B reaction we have measured the Coulomb dissociation of {sup 8}B at 254 A MeV. From our preliminary results, we obtain good agreement with both the accepted direct-reaction measurements and the low-energy Coulomb dissociation study of Iwasa et al. performed at about 50 A MeV. (orig.)

  19. Ferric ion mediated photochemical decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) by 254 nm UV light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The great enhancement of ferric ion on the photochemical decomposition of environmentally persistent perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) under 254 nm UV light was reported. In the presence of 10 μM ferric ion, 47.3% of initial PFOA (48 μM) was decomposed and the defluorination ratio reached 15.4% within 4 h reaction time. While the degradation and defluorination ratio greatly increased to 80.2% and 47.8%, respectively, when ferric ion concentration increased to 80 μM, and the corresponding half-life was shortened to 103 min. Though the decomposition rate was significantly lowered under nitrogen atmosphere, PFOA was efficiently decomposed too. Other metal ions like Cu2+ and Zn2+ also slightly improved the photochemical decomposition of PFOA under irradiation of 254 nm UV light. Besides fluoride ion, other intermediates during PFOA decomposition including formic acid and five shorter-chain perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with C7, C6, C5, C4 and C3, respectively, were identified and quantified by IC or LC/MS. The mixture of PFOA and ferric ion had strong absorption around 280 nm. It is proposed that PFOA coordinates with ferric ion to form a complex, and its excitation by 254 nm UV light leads to the decomposition of PFOA in a stepwise way

  20. 《中图法》第5版G254类目体系浅议%Discussion on Classification System of G254 in The Fifth Edition of Chinese Library Clas-sification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚新丽; 陈镁铧

    2016-01-01

    By comparing the fifth and fourth edition of the G254 classification system,the article makes a survey on the OPAC of Na-tional Library of China, then analyzes some problems in the classification system, finally it proposes some ideas and suggestion to solve the problems.%通过对《中图法》第5版与第4版 G254类目体系的比较及对国家图书馆馆藏目录 G254文献的调查、分析,发现《中图法》第5版G254类目体系中存在类目设置不合理问题,提出了整合的思路和解决问题的建议。

  1. Ultraviolet (193, 216 and 254 nm) photoinactivation of Escherichia coli strains with different repair deficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escherichia coli K12 bacteria strains AB1157 (repair-deficient wild-type, uvrA+ recA+), AB1886 (uvrA-), AB2463 (recA-) and AB2480 (uvrA- recA-) were exposed to 254 nm germicidal UV and 216 or 193 nm laser radiation. The mean lethal incident dose (D37) for AB1157 does not change significantly with wavelength, whereas it increases for the other strains on going from λirr = 254 to 193 nm, e.g., eightfold for AB2480. Quantum yields for inactivation, due to light absorbed by the chromosomal DNA, have been estimated from the D37 values. The large differences in D37 between uvrA+ and uvrA- strains indicate a significant contribution of pyrimidine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts to photodamage of DNA in the cells. The formation of dimers even with λirr = 193 nm is supported by the result that the photoreactivable sector is larger than 63%. Inactivation of E. coli upon irradiation at 193 and 216 nm is therefore due to damage to intracellular DNA rather than to membrane or protein damage as is the case for mammalian cells. The ratio of the lethal doses for AB1157 vs AB2480 is ∼900 with λirr = 254 nm, but only 160 with λirr = 193 nm. We propose that this is due to the better repair of photodimers and (6-4) photoproducts than of damage induced by photoionization via upper excited states. Irradiation at 193 nm inactivates AB1157 mainly by damage due to photoionization and AB2480 by damage due to photodimers in the chromosomal DNA. 51 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Ultraviolet (193, 216 and 254 nm) photoinactivation of Escherichia coli strains with different repair deficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurzadyan, G.G.; Goerner, H.; Schulte-Frohlinde, D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Strahlenchemie, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany)

    1995-03-01

    Escherichia coli K12 bacteria strains AB1157 (repair-deficient wild-type, uvrA{sup +} recA{sup +}), AB1886 (uvrA{sup {minus}}), AB2463 (recA{sup {minus}}) and AB2480 (uvrA{sup {minus}} recA{sup {minus}}) were exposed to 254 nm germicidal UV and 216 or 193 nm laser radiation. The mean lethal incident dose (D{sub 37}) for AB1157 does not change significantly with wavelength, whereas it increases for the other strains on going from {lambda}{sub irr} = 254 to 193 nm, e.g., eightfold for AB2480. Quantum yields for inactivation, due to light absorbed by the chromosomal DNA, have been estimated from the D{sub 37} values. The large differences in D{sub 37} between uvrA{sup +} and uvrA{sup {minus}} strains indicate a significant contribution of pyrimidine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts to photodamage of DNA in the cells. The formation of dimers even with {lambda}{sub irr} = 193 nm is supported by the result that the photoreactivable sector is larger than 63%. Inactivation of E. coli upon irradiation at 193 and 216 nm is therefore due to damage to intracellular DNA rather than to membrane or protein damage as is the case for mammalian cells. The ratio of the lethal doses for AB1157 vs AB2480 is {approx}900 with {lambda}{sub irr} = 254 nm, but only 160 with {lambda}{sub irr} = 193 nm. We propose that this is due to the better repair of photodimers and (6-4) photoproducts than of damage induced by photoionization via upper excited states. Irradiation at 193 nm inactivates AB1157 mainly by damage due to photoionization and AB2480 by damage due to photodimers in the chromosomal DNA. 51 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Cycloheximide-sensitive recovery from 254 nm UV light damage in cultured marsupial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoy, C.A.; Rupert, C.S. (Texas Univ., Dallas (USA). Programs in Biology)

    1984-08-01

    Colony-forming ability of Potorous tridactylus-kidney (PtK-2) cells was measured after exposure to 254-nm ultraviolet (UV) light and cycloheximide. Addition of 5 ..mu..M cycloheximide after exposure of the cells to UV light greatly decreased cell survival. Maximum effect of the drug was obtained by 24-h exposure after irradiation. The cycloheximide sensitivity of irradiated cells was eliminated if addition of the drug was delayed for 8-10 h after irradiation, or if the cells received photoreactivating light treatment prior to cycloheximide exposure. Thus, a major component of pyrimidine dimer removal may involve a cycloheximide-sensitive mechanism.

  4. Cycloheximide-sensitive recovery from 254 nm UV light damage in cultured marsupial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colony-forming ability of Potorous tridactylus-kidney (PtK-2) cells was measured after exposure to 254-nm ultraviolet (UV) light and cycloheximide. Addition of 5 μM cycloheximide after exposure of the cells to UV light greatly decreased cell survival. Maximum effect of the drug was obtained by 24-h exposure after irradiation. The cycloheximide sensitivity of irradiated cells was eliminated if addition of the drug was delayed for 8-10 h after irradiation, or if the cells received photoreactivating light treatment prior to cycloheximide exposure. Thus, a major component of pyrimidine dimer removal may involve a cycloheximide-sensitive mechanism. (orig.)

  5. Kinetics and mechanism investigation on the destruction of oxytetracycline by UV-254nm activation of persulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqing; He, Xuexiang; Fu, Yongsheng; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2016-03-15

    Oxytetracycline (OTC), an important broad-spectrum antibiotic, has been detected extensively in various environmental systems, which may have a detrimental impact on ecosystem and human health through the development of drug resistant bacteria and pathogens. In this study, the degradation of OTC was evaluated by UV-254nm activated persulfate (PS). The observed UV fluence based pseudo first-order rate constant (kobs) was found to be the highest at near neutral pH conditions (pH 5.5-8.5). Presence of various natural water constituents had different effects on OTC degradation, with a significant enhancement in the presence of bicarbonate or Cu(2+). Limited elimination of total organic carbon (TOC) and PS was observed during the mineralization of OTC. Transformation byproducts in the presence and absence of hydroxyl radical scavenging agent tert-butanol (t-BuOH) were identified using ultra-high definition accurate-mass quadrupole time-of-flight liquid chromatography/mass spectrometer (LC-QTOF/MS). Potential OTC degradation mechanism was subsequently proposed revealing four different reaction pathways by SO4(-) reaction including hydroxylation (+16Da), demethylation (-14Da), decarbonylation (-28Da) and dehydration (-18Da). This study suggests that UV-254nm/PS is a promising treatment technology for the control of water pollution caused by emerging contaminants such as OTC. PMID:26686482

  6. Repair of near (365 nm)- and far (254 nm)- UV damage to bacteriophage of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intact bacteriophages were irradiated at 365 nm or 254 nm and then analyzed for DNA photoproducts or injected into their bacterial host to test susceptibility of the damage to both phage and host-cell mediated repair systems. Both thymine dimers and single-strand breaks were induced in the phage DNA by 365 nm radiation. The dimers appeared to be the major lethal lesion in both repair deficient bacteriophage T4 and bacteriophage lambda after 254 nm or 365 nm irradiation. Damage induced in T4 by either wavelength was equally susceptible to x-gene reactivation. v-gene reactivation acted on a larger fraction of the near-UV damage. The host-cell mediated photo-reactivation system was only slightly less effective for near-UV damage but host-cell reactivation (survival of phage lambda on uvr+ and uvr- host) was effective against a far smaller section of near-UV damage than far-UV damage. Weigle-reactivation (far-UV induced) of near-UV damage to phage lambda was not observed. The results suggested that unless the near-UV damaged phage DNA is repaired immediately after injection, the lesions rapidly lose their susceptibility to repair with a consequent loss of activity of the phage particles. (author)

  7. Substitution of Tyr254 with Phe at the active site of flavocytochrome b2: consequences on catalysis of lactate dehydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, J.; Chapman, S.K.; Mathews, F.S.; Reid, G.A.; Lederer, F. (INSERM U 25, CNRS UA 122, Hopital Necker, Paris (France))

    1990-07-10

    A role for Tyr254 in L-lactate dehydrogenation catalyzed by flavocytochrome b2 has recently been proposed on the basis of the known active-site structure and of studies that had suggested a mechanism involving the initial formation of a lactate carbanion. This role is now examined after replacement of Tyr254 with phenylalanine. The kcat is decreased about 40-fold, Km for lactate appears unchanged, and the mainly rate-limiting step is still alpha-hydrogen abstraction, as judged from the steady-state deuterium isotope effect. Modeling studies with lactate introduced into the active site indicate two possible substrate conformations with different hydrogen-bonding partners for the substrate hydroxyl. If the hydrogen bond is formed with Tyr254, as was initially postulated, the mechanism must involve removal by His373 of the C2 hydrogen, with carbanion formation. If, in the absence of the Tyr254 phenol group, the hydrogen bond is formed with His373 N3, the substrate is positioned in such a way that the reaction must proceed by hydride transfer. Therefore the mechanism of the Y254F enzyme was investigated so as to distinguish between the two mechanistic possibilities. 2-Hydroxy-3-butynoate behaves with the mutant as a suicide reagent, as with the wild-type enzyme. Similarly, the mutant protein also catalyzes the reduction and the dehydrohalogenation of bromopyruvate under transhydrogenation conditions.

  8. Induction of sister-chromatid exchanges in ICR 2A frog cells exposed to 254 nm UV wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of ICR 2A frog cells to 254 nm UV induced the formation of sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in a fluence-dependent manner. Cells were also exposed to the UV produced by a fluorescent sunlamp that was filtered through 8C Mylar in order to simulate the mid-UV (290-320 nm) portion of sunlight reaching the earth's surface. In this instance, SCEs were induced in a linear fashion at low fluences but reached a plateau at a low level of induced SCEs. In addition, pretreatment of cells with the solar UV followed by exposure to 254 nm UV resulted in a significantly lower level of SCEs than in cells exposed to 254 nm UV alone. (author)

  9. Printed wax masks for 254 nm deep-UV pattering of PMMA-based microfluidics

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2012-01-13

    This paper reports a new technique for masking deep-UV exposure of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using a printed wax mask. This technique provides an inexpensive and bulk fabrication method for PMMA structures. The technique involves the direct printing of the mask onto a polymer sheet using a commercial wax printer. The wax layer was then transferred to a PMMA substrate using a thermal laminator, exposed using deep-UV (with a wavelength of 254 nm), developed in an IPA:water solution, and completed by bonding on a PMMA cap layer. A sample microfluidic device fabricated with this method is also presented, with the microchannel as narrow as 50 μm. The whole process is easy to perform without the requirement for any microfabrication facilities. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  10. Replication of adeno-associated virus in cells irradiated with UV light at 254 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakobson, B.; Hrynko, T.A.; Peak, M.J.; Winocour, E.

    1989-03-01

    Irradiation of simian virus 40 (ori mutant)-transformed Chinese hamster embryo cells (OD4 line) with UV light induced a cellular capacity which supported a full cycle of helper-independent adeno-associated virus replication. Monochromatic UV light at 254 nm was about 1,000-fold more effective than UV light at 313 nm, indicating that cellular nucleic acid is the primary chromophore in the UV-induced process leading to permissiveness for adeno-associated virus replication. The UV irradiation and the infection could be separated for up to 12 h without substantial loss of permissiveness. During this time interval, the induction process was partly sensitive to cycloheximide, suggesting a requirement for de novo protein synthesis.

  11. Radiochemical search for neutron-rich isotopes of nielsbohrium in the (16)O + (254)Es reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used on-line gas chromatography to search for new isotopes of element 107 near the deformed sub-shell at N = 162 and Z = 108. Enhanced nuclear stability is predicted for this region. 254gEs was irradiated with 16O at barrier energies to minimize the fusion hindrance in the entrance channel and to reduce the excitation energy of the compound nucleus to a minimum value. For half-lives between roughly two seconds and two minutes no signal for a positive identification of a new isotope of element 107 was detected. Consequently, only an upper cross-section limit of a few nanobarns was obtained. While this cross-section limit was too high to probe the influence of the predicted enhanced nuclear ground-state stability on the survival probability in the fission/evaporation competition, a very large cross-section enhancement would have been detectable. (orig.)

  12. Pressure shift and broadening of the 254-nm intercombination line of mercury by N2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used laser absorption spectroscopy to study the collisional broadening and shift of the 254-nm 6 1S0→6 3P1 intercombination line of Hg in the presence of N2 for pressures below 400 Torr. This study comprises the first measurements of the proportionality constants for pressure broadening and shift of Hg due to N2 in this pressure range, and the first high-precision measurements of these pressure effects on Hg for any foreign gas. We obtain -2.54(2) MHz/Torr for the shift and 9.01(4) MHz/Torr for the broadening (full width at half maximum) at 21 degree sign C (95% confidence interval). These results are important for ongoing experiments using optical pumping of mercury in tests of fundamental symmetries, as well as for characterization of interatomic forces and tests of the theory of collisional line broadening

  13. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  14. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Decontamination Facility is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254. CAU 254 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site and consists of a single Corrective Action Site CAS 25-23-06. CAU 254 will be closed, in accordance with the FFACO of 1996. CAU 254 was used primarily to perform radiological decontamination and consists of Building 3126, two outdoor decontamination pads, and surrounding soil within an existing perimeter fence. The site was used to decontaminate nuclear rocket test-car hardware and tooling from the early 1960s through the early 1970s, and to decontaminate a military tank in the early 1980s. The site characterization results indicate that, in places, the surficial soil and building materials exceed clean-up criteria for organic compounds, metals, and radionuclides. Closure activities are expected to generate waste streams consisting of nonhazardous construction waste. petroleum hydrocarbon waste, hazardous waste, low-level radioactive waste, and mixed waste. Some of the wastes exceed land disposal restriction limits and will require off-site treatment before disposal. The recommended corrective action was revised to Alternative 3- ''Unrestricted Release Decontamination, Verification Survey, and Dismantle Building 3126,'' in an addendum to the Correction Action Decision Document

  15. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. M. Obi

    2000-12-01

    The Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Decontamination Facility is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254. CAU 254 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site and consists of a single Corrective Action Site CAS 25-23-06. CAU 254 will be closed, in accordance with the FFACO of 1996. CAU 254 was used primarily to perform radiological decontamination and consists of Building 3126, two outdoor decontamination pads, and surrounding soil within an existing perimeter fence. The site was used to decontaminate nuclear rocket test-car hardware and tooling from the early 1960s through the early 1970s, and to decontaminate a military tank in the early 1980s. The site characterization results indicate that, in places, the surficial soil and building materials exceed clean-up criteria for organic compounds, metals, and radionuclides. Closure activities are expected to generate waste streams consisting of nonhazardous construction waste. petroleum hydrocarbon waste, hazardous waste, low-level radioactive waste, and mixed waste. Some of the wastes exceed land disposal restriction limits and will require off-site treatment before disposal. The recommended corrective action was revised to Alternative 3- ''Unrestricted Release Decontamination, Verification Survey, and Dismantle Building 3126,'' in an addendum to the Correction Action Decision Document.

  16. A continuous wave 10 W cryogenic fiber amplifier at 1015 nm and frequency quadrupling to 254 nm

    OpenAIRE

    Steinborn, R.; Koglbauer, A; Bachor, P.; Diehl, T.; Kolbe, D.; Stappel, M.; Walz, J

    2013-01-01

    A stable, continuous wave, single frequency fiber amplifier system at 1015 nm with 10W output power is presented. It is based on a large mode double clad fiber cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature. The amplified light is frequency quadrupled to 254 nm and used for spectroscopy of the 6^1S - 6^3P transition in mercury.

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptomyces albus SM254, a Potent Antagonist of Bat White-Nose Syndrome Pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalamenti, Jonathan P.; Erickson, Joshua D.

    2016-01-01

    We sequenced and annotated the complete 7,170,504-bp genome of a novel secondary metabolite-producing Streptomyces strain, Streptomyces albus SM254, isolated from copper-rich subsurface fluids at ~220-m depth within the Soudan Iron Mine (Soudan, MN, USA). PMID:27081146

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptomyces albus SM254, a Potent Antagonist of Bat White-Nose Syndrome Pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalamenti, Jonathan P; Erickson, Joshua D; Salomon, Christine E

    2016-01-01

    We sequenced and annotated the complete 7,170,504-bp genome of a novel secondary metabolite-producingStreptomycesstrain,Streptomyces albusSM254, isolated from copper-rich subsurface fluids at ~220-m depth within the Soudan Iron Mine (Soudan, MN, USA). PMID:27081146

  19. UV254 absorbance as real-time monitoring and control parameter for micropollutant removal in advanced wastewater treatment with powdered activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Johannes; Massa, Lukas; Sperlich, Alexander; Gnirss, Regina; Jekel, Martin

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the applicability of UV absorbance measurements at 254 nm (UVA254) to serve as a simple and reliable surrogate parameter to monitor and control the removal of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in advanced wastewater treatment applying powdered activated carbon (PAC). Correlations between OMP removal and corresponding UVA254 reduction were determined in lab-scale adsorption batch tests and successfully applied to a pilot-scale PAC treatment stage to predict OMP removals in aggregate samples with good accuracy. Real-time UVA254 measurements were utilized to evaluate adapted PAC dosing strategies and proved to be effective for online monitoring of OMP removal. Furthermore, active PAC dosing control according to differential UVA254 measurements was implemented and tested. While precise removal predictions based on real-time measurements were not accurate for all OMPs, UVA254-controlled dynamic PAC dosing was capable of achieving stable OMP removals. UVA254 can serve as an effective surrogate parameter for OMP removal in technical PAC applications. Even though the applicability as control parameter to adjust PAC dosing to water quality changes might be limited to applications with fast response between PAC adjustment and adsorptive removal (e.g. direct filtration), UVA254 measurements can also be used to monitor the adsorption efficiency in more complex PAC applications. PMID:26963606

  20. Cold valleys in the radioactive decay of 248-254Cf isotopes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Biju; Sabina Sahadevan; K P Santosh; Antony Joseph

    2008-04-01

    Based on the concept of cold valley in cold fission and fusion, we have investigated the cluster decay process in 248-254Cf isotopes. In addition to alpha particle minima, other deep minima occur for S, Ar and Ca clusters. It is found that inclusion of proximity potential does not change the position of minima but minima become deeper. Taking Coulomb and proximity potential as interacting barrier for post-scission region, we computed half-lives and other characteristics for various clusters from these parents. Our study reveals that these parents are stable against light clusters and unstable against heavy clusters. Computed half-lives for alpha decay agree with experimental values within two orders of magnitude. The most probable clusters from these parents are predicted to be 46Ar, 48,50Ca which indicate the role of doubly or near doubly magic clusters in cluster radioactivity. Odd A clusters are found to be favorable for emission from odd A parents. Cluster decay model is extended to symmetric region and it is found that symmetric fission is also probable which stresses the role of doubly or near doubly magic 132Sn nuclei. Geiger-Nuttal plots were studied for various clusters and are found to be linear with varying slopes and intercepts.

  1. 2-Hydroxypyridine photolytic degradation by 254 nm UV irradiation at different conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, David R; Konstantinou, Ioannis K; Karakitsou, Anastasia; Hela, Dimitra G; Papadaki, Maria

    2009-11-01

    The degradation and mineralisation of (400 mL, 3.15 mM) aqueous solutions of 2-hydroxypyridine (2-HPY), a primary intermediate formed during the photolytic degradation of 2-chloropyridine (2-CPY), 2-bromopyridine (2-BPY) and 2-iodopyridine (2-IPY), was studied at 50 degrees C, under 254 nm UV irradiation in a range of conditions. The rate of 2-HPY disappearance was found to heavily depend on agitation, dissolved oxygen, pH and hydroxyl radical scavenger presence. pH has a pronounced effect on the phototreatment of 2-HPY, i.e. 2-HPY removal is faster at lower pH, but except for their influence on the solution pH, Cl(-) or F(-) do not appear to affect 2-HPY rate of removal or mineralisation. 2-HPY removal rate increases with dissolved oxygen, thus indicating a prominent 2-HPY photooxidation pathway. Helium purging of the solution before and during the measurement reduced 2-HPY removal rate, thus supporting the existence of a photooxidation pathway. Pure photolytic 2-HPY removal, i.e. when photooxidation is limited, fits pseudo-first order kinetics, and a kinetic model was developed for 2-HPY formation and removal during 2-CPY, 2-BPY and 2-IPY photolytic degradation under laminar flow. The addition of radical scavenger (tert-butanol) had a detrimental effect on the photolytic degradation of 2-HPY. Complete total organic carbon removal was achieved. PMID:19772980

  2. A prospective study on time to recovery in 254 injured novice runners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Oestergaard Nielsen

    Full Text Available Describe the diagnoses and the time to recovery of running-related injuries in novice runners.Prospective cohort study on injured runners.This paper is a secondary data analysis of a 933-person cohort study (DANO-RUN aimed at characterizing risk factors for injury in novice runners. Among those sustaining running-related injuries, the types of injuries and time to recovery is described in the present paper. All injured runners were diagnosed after a thorough clinical examination and then followed prospectively during their recovery. If they recovered completely from injury, time to recovery of each injury was registered.A total of 254 runners were injured. The proportion of runners diagnosed with medial tibial stress syndrome was 15%, 10% for patellofemoral pain, 9% for medial meniscal injury, 7% for Achilles tendinopathy and 5% for plantar fasciitis. Among the 220 runners (87% recovering from their injury, the median time to recovery was 71 days (minimum  = 9 days, maximum  = 617 days.Medial tibial stress syndrome was the most common injury followed by patellofemoral pain, medial meniscal injury and Achilles tendinopathy. Half of the injured runners were unable to run 2×500 meters without pain after 10 weeks. Almost 5% of the injured runners received surgical treatment.

  3. Sensitivities to monochromatic 254-nm and 365-nm radiation of closely related strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with differing repair capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitivity to monochromatic 254- and 365-nm radiation was compared in closely related yeast strains with defects in one or more of the excision-repair (rad1), error-prone repair (rad18), or recombinational-repair (rad51) pathways. At 254 nm, mutants defective in a single repair pathway exhibited slight to moderate UV sensitivity;,those defective in two separate pathways were somewhat more UV sensitive, while triple mutants defective in all three pathways exhibited extreme UV sensitivity with a lethal event corresponding to 0.05 J m-2. Repair defects also rendered mutants sensitive to 365-nm radiation: strains with single defects exhibited slight sensitivity, mutants with two defective pathways were more sensitive, and triple mutants exhibited maximal sensitivity with a lethal event corresponding to 2.4 x 104 J m-2. Evidence for dimer involvement in the yeast mutant was obtained by demonstrating that lethality at both 254 and 365 nm was photoreactivated by light at 405 nm. (author)

  4. Design of a homogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor based on thorium with a source of californium 252; Diseno de un reactor nuclear subcritico homogeneo a base de Torio con una fuente de Californio 252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado H, C. E.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Sajo B, L., E-mail: ce_delgado89@hotmail.com [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Apdo. 89000, 1080A Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: One of the energy alternatives to fossil fuels which do not produce greenhouse gases is the nuclear energy. One of the drawbacks of this alternative is the generation of radioactive wastes of long half-life and its relation to the generation of nuclear materials to produce weapons of mass destruction. An option to these drawbacks of nuclear energy is to use Thorium as part of the nuclear fuel which it becomes in U{sup 233} when capturing neutrons, that is a fissile material. In this paper Monte Carlo methods were used to design a homogeneous subcritical reactor based on thorium. As neutron reflector graphite was used. The reactor core is homogeneous and is formed of 70% light water as moderator, 12% of enriched uranium UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} and 18% of thorium Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} as fuel. To start the nuclear fission chain reaction an isotopic source of californium 252 was used with an intensity of 4.6 x 10{sup 7} s{sup -1}. In the design the value of the effective multiplication factor, whose value turned out k{sub eff} <1 was calculated. Also, the neutron spectra at different distances from the source and the total fluence were calculated, as well as the values of the ambient dose equivalent in the periphery of the reactor. (Author)

  5. Manganese determination om minerals by activation analysis, using the californium-252 as a neutron source; Determinacao de manganes em minerios, por analise por ativacao, usando californio-252 como fonte de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Antonio

    1976-07-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis, using a Californium-252 neutron source, has been applied for the determination of manganese in ores such as pyrolusite, rodonite (manganese silicate)' and blending used in dry-batteries The favorable nuclear properties of manganese, such as high thermal neutron cross-section for the reaction {sup 55}Mn (n.gamma){sup 56} Mn, high concentration of manganese in the matrix and short half - life of {sup 56}Mn, are an ideal combination for non-destructive analysis of manganese in ores. Samples and standards of manganese dioxide were irradiated for about 20 minutes, followed by a 4 to 15 minutes decay and counted in a single channel pulse-height discrimination using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Counting time was equal to 10 minutes. The interference of nuclear reactions {sup 56}Fe(n,p){sup 56}Mn and {sup 59} Co (n, {alpha}){sup 56} were studied, as well as problems in connection with neutron shadowing during irradiation, gamma-rays attenuation during counting and influence of granulometry of samples. One sample,was also analysed by wet-chemical method (sodium bismuthate) in order to compare results. As a whole, i t was shown that the analytical method of neutron activation for manganese in ores and blending, is a method simple, rapid and with good precision and accuracy. (author)

  6. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YGL154C, YGL254W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YGL154C LYS5 Phosphopantetheinyl transferase involved in lysine biosynthesis; converts inactive ... target is SSU1, overexpression suppresses sulfite-sensitivity ... of many unrelated mutants due to hyperactivation o ... target is SSU1, overexpression suppresses sulfite-sensitivity ... of many unrelated mutants due to hyperactivation o ...

  7. Fission cross section measurements of Cm-247, Cf-250 and Es-254 from 0.1 eV to 80 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission cross section measurements were made with the RINS system over the neutron energy range from approximately 0.1 eV to 80 keV upon samples of Cm-247, Cf-250 and Es-254. The Cm-247 measurement was undertaken to complete the RINS fission cross section measurement sequence of the curium isotopes, Es-254 was measured because it is a very heavy odd-odd nucleus which might show interesting nuclear structure effects in its fission cross section, and Cf-250 was measured to account for its buildup as a daughter product from the 276-day halflife Es-254. 6 refs., 3 figs

  8. Study on Removal Effect of Turbidity and UV254 from water by Enhanced Coagulation%强化混凝技术去除水体中浊度和UV254的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康孟新; 董琦; 张海亚

    2014-01-01

    通过静态烧杯试验,分析了聚合硫酸铁( PFS)和硫酸铝两种混凝剂在不同投加量、pH值和助凝剂投加量条件下,对水中浊度和UV254去除效果的影响。试验结果表明:对于去除水中的浊度而言,PFS的最佳投加量为60 mg/L,最佳pH值为7,最佳助凝剂的投加量为0.1mg/L;硫酸铝的最佳投加量为50 mg/L,最佳pH值为6.5,最佳助凝剂的投加量为0.05 mg/L。对于去除水中UV254而言,UV254的去除率均随着混凝剂和助凝剂投加量的增加而增加,最佳pH值为6.5;作为混凝剂PFS的总体性能要优于硫酸铝。最后通过正交试验确定了当混凝剂为PFS时,影响强化混凝处理效果的各因素的主次顺序依次为:PFS投加量、pH值、PAM投加量,强化混凝的最佳实验条件为PFS投加量为60 mg/L,水体的pH值为6.5,助凝剂的投加量为0.10 mg/L。%Through static simulation test,the impact of polymeric ferric sulfate( PFS) and aluminum sulfate on the enhanced coagulation for the removal of turbidity and UV254 was studied under the condition of different co-agulant dosage,pH values and coagulant aid dosage. The experimental results showed that for the turbidity,the optimum value of coagulant dosage for PFS was 60mg/L,the corresponding optimal value of pH was 7,the co-agulant aid dosage was 0. 1mg/L,and for aluminum sulfate the dosage was 50mg/L,the pH was 6. 5,the coag-ulant aid dosage was 0. 05mg/L;for the UV254 ,the rate of UV254 removal increased with the increasing of the co-agulant dosage and the coagulant aid dosage,the optimal pH was 6. 5;as to be coagulant,PFS was better than aluminum sulfate. At last,through the orthogonal test,the order of the key factors for the PFS were as follows:the dosage of PFS,the pH value and the dosage of coagulant aid. And the optimized experiment conditions were that the dosage of PFS was 60mg/L,the pH was 6. 5 and the dosage of coagulant aid was 0. 10mg/L.

  9. Measurements of absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185- to 254-nm wavelength region and the temperature dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, K.; Esmond, J. R.; Freeman, D. E.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory measurements of the relative absorption cross sections of ozone at temperatures 195, 228, and 295 K have been made throughout the 185 to 254 nm wavelength region. The absolute absorption cross sections at the same temperatures have been measured at several discrete wavelengths in the 185 to 250 nm region. The absolute cross sections of ozone have been used to put the relative cross sections on a firm absolute basis throughout the 185 to 255 nm region. These recalibrated cross sections are slightly lower than those of Molina and Molina (1986), but the differences are within a few percent and would not be significant in atmospheric applications.

  10. Induction of micronuclei by 2-hydroxypyridine in water and elimination of solution genotoxicity by UVC (254 nm) photolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► 2-Hydroxypyridine (2-HPY) is the major metabolite of 2-halogenated pyridines photolysis. ► We examine the genotoxicity of 2-HPY in cultured human lymphocytes applying the micronucleus assay. ► 2-HPY was found to be genotoxic. ► Aqueous solutions of 2-HPY were irradiated by UV at 254 nm. ► Solution genotoxicity can be completely removed after prolonged phototreatment. - Abstract: 2-Hydroxypyridine (2-HPY) is a major first-stage product formed upon the photolytic destruction of 2-halogenated pyridines. Genotoxicity of 2-HPY in water was studied as a function of concentration. Aqueous solutions of 2-HPY were irradiated by ultraviolet (UV) at 254 nm. 2-HPY concentration, solution total organic carbon (TOC) concentration and solution genotoxicity were measured as a function of treatment time and their profile as a function of time is presented in this work. 2-HPY was found to be genotoxic at all concentrations in the range of 5–400 μg ml−1. 2-HPY mineralises completely upon prolonged UV irradiation. All untreated and irradiated solution samples, taken at different photo-treatment times, were tested in cultured human lymphocytes applying the cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. The genotoxicity of the solution was reduced near to the control level after prolonged UV irradiation.

  11. Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0, December 2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is an addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) that has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254, Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD) Decontamination Facility. CAU 254 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-06, Decontamination Facility. The purpose of this addendum is to provide a rationale for the recommendation of a revised preferred alternative corrective action for CAU 254. This preferred alternative corrective action, Alternative 3, consists of the removal of accessible soil/sediment and all building material above ground level from the CAU 254 Site. This alternative is being recommended because a cost-effective technology is now available to dismantle the contaminated building and ensure complete removal of all CAU 254 CADD-identified contaminants of concern and any associated contamination. This preferred closure method alternative reduces the potential for future exposure pathways. Procedures will be developed, presented in the Corrective Action Plan, and implemented to ensure worker health and safety, protection of human health and the environment, and to meet all unrestricted release requirements in accordance with applicable state and federal regulations

  12. Fission barrier of superheavy nuclei and persistence of shell effects at high spin: cases of 254No and 220Th.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Greg; Khoo, T L; Lopez-Martens, A; Seweryniak, D; Alcorta, M; Asai, M; Back, B B; Bertone, P F; Boilley, D; Carpenter, M P; Chiara, C J; Chowdhury, P; Gall, B; Greenlees, P T; Gürdal, G; Hauschild, K; Heinz, A; Hoffman, C R; Janssens, R V F; Karpov, A V; Kay, B P; Kondev, F G; Lakshmi, S; Lauritsen, T; Lister, C J; McCutchan, E A; Nair, C; Piot, J; Potterveld, D; Reiter, P; Rogers, A M; Rowley, N; Zhu, S

    2014-12-31

    We report on the first measurement of the fission barrier height in a heavy shell-stabilized nucleus. The fission barrier height of 254No is measured to be Bf=6.0±0.5  MeV at spin 15ℏ and, by extrapolation, Bf=6.6±0.9  MeV at spin 0ℏ. This information is deduced from the measured distribution of entry points in the excitation energy versus spin plane. The same measurement is performed for 220Th and only a lower limit of the fission barrier height can be determined: Bf(I)>8  MeV. Comparisons with theoretical fission barriers test theories that predict properties of superheavy elements. PMID:25615317

  13. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. N. Doyle

    2002-02-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The site is located within the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (R-MAD) compound and consists of Building 3126, two outdoor decontamination pads, and surrounding areas within an existing fenced area measuring approximately 50 x 37 meters (160 x 120 feet). The site was used from the early 1960s to the early 1970s as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station program to decontaminate test-car hardware and tooling. The site was reactivated in the early 1980s to decontaminate a radiologically contaminated military tank. This Closure Report (CR) describes the closure activities performed to allow un-restricted release of the R-MAD Decontamination Facility.

  14. CERN: Fixed target targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become

  15. Sputter target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Willard G.; Hale, Gerald J.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an improved sputter target for use in the deposition of hard coatings. An exemplary target is given wherein titanium diboride is brazed to a tantalum backing plate using a gold-palladium-nickel braze alloy.

  16. An investigation of inhibition effect of metronidazole before and after using advanced oxidation process (UV254/H2O2 on specific methanogenic activity of anaerobic biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Mirzaee

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Different concentrations of metronidazole had an inhibition effect on anaerobic digestions and therefore the efficient pretreatment method is needed to reduce this inhibition effect. The UV254/H2O2 process is an effective method for degradation and conversion of metronidazole to more biodegradable compounds for anaerobic bacteria consumption and, in turn, to increase biogasproduction in anaerobic digestions.

  17. Target capture and target ghosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Steven P.

    1996-05-01

    Optimal detection methods for small targets rely on whitened matched filters, which convolve the measured data with the signal model, and whiten the result with the noise covariance. In real-world implementations of such filters, the noise covariance must be estimated from the data, and the resulting covariance estimate may be corrupted by presence of the target. The resulting loss in SNR is called 'target capture'. Target capture is often thought to be a problem only for bright targets. This presentation shows that target capture also arises for dim targets, leading to an SNR loss which is independent of target strength and depends on the averaging method used to estimate the noise covariance. This loss is due to a 'coherent beat' between the true noise and that portion of the estimated noise covariance due to the target. This beat leads to 'ghost targets', which diminish the target SNR by producing a negative target ghost at the target's position. A quantitative estimate of this effect will be given, and shown to agree with numerical results. The effect of averaging on SNR is also discussed for data scenes with synthetic injected targets, in cases where the noise covariance is estimated using 'no target' data. For these cases, it is shown that the so-called 'optimal' filter, which uses the true noise covariance, is actually worse than a 'sub-optimal' filter which estimates the noise from scene. This apparent contradiction is resolved by showing that the optimal filter is best if the same filter is used for many scenes, but is outperformed by a filter adapted to a specific scene.

  18. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 254 is comprised of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-06, Decontamination Facility. A corrective action investigation for this CAS as conducted in January 2000 as set forth in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Samples were collected from various media throughout the CAS and sent to an off-site laboratory for analysis. The laboratory results indicated the following: radiation dose rates inside the Decontamination Facility, Building 3126, and in the storage yard exceeded the average general dose rate; scanning and static total surface contamination surveys indicated that portions of the locker and shower room floor, decontamination bay floor, loft floor, east and west decon pads, north and south decontamination bay interior walls, exterior west and south walls, and loft walls were above preliminary action levels (PALs). The investigation-derived contaminants of concern (COCs) included: polychlorinated biphenyls, radionuclides (strontium-90, niobium-94, cesium-137, uranium-234 and -235), total volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Metals). During the investigation, two corrective action objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate human exposure to COCs. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the Nevada Test Site, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Unrestricted Release Decontamination and Verification Survey; and Alternative 3 - Unrestricted

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 254 is comprised of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-06, Decontamination Facility. A corrective action investigation for this CAS as conducted in January 2000 as set forth in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Samples were collected from various media throughout the CAS and sent to an off-site laboratory for analysis. The laboratory results indicated the following: radiation dose rates inside the Decontamination Facility, Building 3126, and in the storage yard exceeded the average general dose rate; scanning and static total surface contamination surveys indicated that portions of the locker and shower room floor, decontamination bay floor, loft floor, east and west decon pads, north and south decontamination bay interior walls, exterior west and south walls, and loft walls were above preliminary action levels (PALs). The investigation-derived contaminants of concern (COCs) included: polychlorinated biphenyls, radionuclides (strontium-90, niobium-94, cesium-137, uranium-234 and -235), total volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Metals). During the investigation, two corrective action objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate human exposure to COCs. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the Nevada Test Site, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Unrestricted Release Decontamination and Verification Survey; and Alternative 3 - Unrestricted

  20. Biological responses on NIH 3T3 to 193 NM excimer laser irradiation comparison with 254 irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During conventional UV radiations, activation of genes is tightly linked to the presence of DNA damages. At 254 nm, the major cellular chromophore is the nuclear DNA, with cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers being the major photoproduct. At 193 nm, DNA is more strongly absorbing than at 254 nm. However, the quantum yields of the photoproducts induced at these two wavelengths are different and damage to cellular DNA in the form of pyrimidine dimers or single-strand breaks was reported to be only marginal or undetected. Peptide bonds, many amino acid side chains, insaturated lipids, esters, and other cellular molecules absorb at 193 nm. Consequently, the most of the energy is thought to be absorbed by proteins, leaving the DNA shielded. About 60 % of the radiation can apparently be blocked by 1 μm of cytoplasm. However, exposures of cultured human fibroblasts to subablative doses of 193 nm laser radiation resulted in changes of genes expression such as collagenase, metallothionein and c-fos. The mechanisms by which the 193 nm radiation affects gene expression are not known. The site of primary interaction of the radiation could be different from the site of the genetic response. Thus, the signal transfer could pass through the cytoplasm via the nucleus. One hypothesis is that cytokines may regulate the transduction pathway event. By example, the TNF-alpha which is induced by UV-radiations. More, it can activate transcription factors such as AP-1 or c-fos and stimulate the growth of normal fibroblasts. Moreover, TNF-alpha plays a major role in the inflammatory processes by enhancing the remodeling of extracellular matrix in which mainly matrix metalloproteinases and collagenase participate. Besides, matrix metalloproteinases are responsive to cytokines and particularly the 92 kDa gelatinate (gelatinase B or metalloproteinase 9 or MMP 9) is induced and regulated by TNF-alpha. To understand the cellular response to high energy laser radiation, we investigated cell

  1. Analysis of viral etiology of 254 acute respiratory infection cases%254例急性呼吸道感染病例病原学调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨霄星; 杨军勇; 王世斌; 董晓根; 王建芳; 李婧宇; 张建军; 赵建忠

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析急性呼吸道感染病例的病毒病原构成,掌握主要病原体活动水平及变化规律,了解丰台地区急性呼吸道感染病原谱.方法 以2010-2012年成人急性呼吸道感染病例为研究对象,收集病例基础信息,采集鼻咽拭子标本,使用多重PCR及RT-PCR对流感病毒、呼吸道合胞病毒、腺病毒、副流感病毒、偏肺病毒、冠状病毒、鼻病毒、博卡病毒和肺炎支原体等9种病原进行检测,数据分析使用SPSS 17.0软件.结果 254例标本中154例检测阳性,阳性率为60.63%,男女阳性检出率无统计学差异.冬春季致病病原体以流感病毒、副流感病毒及支原体为主,夏季仅检出副流感和支原体.流感样病例的主要病原体为流感病毒及副流感病毒;肺炎病例致病病原体主要为肺炎支原体.2010-2011年流感流行季甲型流感病毒为优势病原,2011-2012年流感流行季乙型流感病毒为优势病原.结论 2010-2012年间,北京丰台地区引起成人急性呼吸道感染的主要病原为流感病毒、支原体和副流感病毒.不同季节的优势病原不同.%Objective To analyze the viral etiology of acute respiratow infection,and to study the activity and epidemiological characteristic of main pathogens,so as to establish pathogen spectrum of acute respiratory infection in Fengtai district of Beijing.Methods Basic information and throat swabs of acute respiratory infection cases during 2010-2012 were collected.Influenza virus,respiratory syncytial virus,adenovirus,parainfluenza virus,metapneumovirus,coronavirus,rhinovirus,human Boca virus and mycoplasma pneumonia were detected by multiplex PCR and RT-PCR.SPSS 17.0 was used for data analysis.Results 154 were positive in all of the 254 samples,the positive ratio was 60.63%.Influenza viruses,parainfluenza virus and mycoplasma pneumoniae were the most frequently detected pathogens in winter and spring.Parainfluenza and mycoplasma were the only detected

  2. Antiproton Target

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Antiproton target used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). The first type of antiproton production target used from 1980 to 1982 comprised a rod of copper 3mm diameter and 120mm long embedded in a graphite cylinder that was itself pressed into a finned aluminium container. This assembly was air-cooled and it was used in conjunction with the Van der Meer magnetic horn. In 1983 Fermilab provided us with lithium lenses to replace the horn with a view to increasing the antiproton yield by about 30%. These lenses needed a much shorter target made of heavy metal - iridium was chosen for this purpose. The 50 mm iridium rod was housed in an extension to the original finned target container so that it could be brought very close to the entrance to the lithium lens. Picture 1 shows this target assembly and Picture 2 shows it mounted together with the lithium lens. These target containers had a short lifetime due to a combination of beam heating and radiation damage. This led to the design of the water-cooled target in...

  3. Determination of the total mercury in contaminated soils by direct solid sampling atomic absorption spectrometry using an AMA-254 device and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sysalová, J.; Kučera, Jan; Fikrle, Marek; Drtinová, B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 110, SEP (2013), s. 691-694. ISSN 0026-265X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/12/0682; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Mercury * contaminated soils * AMA-254 * RNAA Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.583, year: 2013

  4. Targeted Learning

    CERN Document Server

    van der Laan, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    The statistics profession is at a unique point in history. The need for valid statistical tools is greater than ever; data sets are massive, often measuring hundreds of thousands of measurements for a single subject. The field is ready to move towards clear objective benchmarks under which tools can be evaluated. Targeted learning allows (1) the full generalization and utilization of cross-validation as an estimator selection tool so that the subjective choices made by humans are now made by the machine, and (2) targeting the fitting of the probability distribution of the data toward the targe

  5. Chemical, optical and other data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN254 in the Coastal Waters of SE Alaska and North Pacific Ocean from 2010-09-09 to 2010-10-11 (NODC Accession 0104359)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0104359 includes chemical, optical and other data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN254 in the Coastal Waters of SE Alaska and...

  6. Actinide targets for the synthesis of super-heavy elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, J. B.; Alexander, C. W.; Boll, R. A.; Burns, J. D.; Ezold, J. G.; Felker, L. K.; Hogle, S. L.; Rykaczewski, K. P.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2000, six new super-heavy elements with atomic numbers 113 through 118 have been synthesized in hot fusion reactions of 48Ca beams on actinide targets. These target materials, including 242Pu, 244Pu, 243Am, 245Cm, 248Cm, 249Cf, and 249Bk, are available in very limited quantities and require specialized production and processing facilities resident in only a few research centers worldwide. This report describes the production and chemical processing of heavy actinide materials for super-heavy element research, current availabilities of these materials, and related target fabrication techniques. The impact of actinide materials in super-heavy element discovery is reviewed, and strategies for enhancing the production of rare actinides including 249Bk, 251Cf, and 254Es are described.

  7. Accelerator target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlyer, David J. (Bellport, NY); Ferrieri, Richard A. (Patchogue, NY); Koehler, Conrad (Miller Place, NY)

    1999-01-01

    A target includes a body having a depression in a front side for holding a sample for irradiation by a particle beam to produce a radioisotope. Cooling fins are disposed on a backside of the body opposite the depression. A foil is joined to the body front side to cover the depression and sample therein. A perforate grid is joined to the body atop the foil for supporting the foil and for transmitting the particle beam therethrough. A coolant is circulated over the fins to cool the body during the particle beam irradiation of the sample in the depression.

  8. Removal of benzoylecgonine from water matrices through UV254/H2O2 process: Reaction kinetic modeling, ecotoxicity and genotoxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasiano, D; Russo, D; Vaccaro, M; Siciliano, A; Marotta, R; Guida, M; Reis, N M; Li Puma, G; Andreozzi, R

    2016-11-15

    Benzoylecgonine (BE), the main cocaine metabolite, has been detected in numerous surface water and treatment plants effluents in Europe and there is urgent need for effective treatment methods. In this study, the removal of BE by the UV254/H2O2 process from different water matrices was investigated. By means of competition kinetics method, the kinetic constant of reaction between BE and the photogenerated hydroxyl radicals (OH) was estimated resulting in kOH/BE=5.13×10(9)M(-1)s(-1). By-products and water matrices scavengers effects were estimated by numerical modeling of the reaction kinetics for the UV254/H2O2 process and validated in an innovative microcapillary film (MCF) array photoreactor and in a conventional batch photoreactor. The ecotoxicity of the water before and after treatment was evaluated with four organisms Raphidocelis subcapitata, Daphnia magna, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Vicia faba. The results provided evidence that BE and its transformation by-products do not have significant adverse effects on R. subcapitata, while D. magna underwent an increase of lipid droplets. C. elegans was the most sensitive to BE and its by-products. Furthermore, a genotoxicity assay, using V. faba, showed cytogenic damages during the cell mitosis of primary roots. PMID:27450344

  9. Line width of parametric X-radiation type B measured in germanium at electron energy 25,4 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parametric X-radiation (PXR) of type B has been produced with electron beam of energy 25.4 MeV from the 40 MeV-KIPT-linear accelerator (Kharkov) and germanium crystal with thickness 54 mkm. PXR spectra was measured for(220) plane and radiation angle θ = 305.9 mrad. Results of the work for the first time show the character of functional dependence of PXR (B) line width as a function of the crystal tilt angle. Verified the theory of PXR(B) radiation grounded on perturbative theory [6] and Monte-Carlo method of calculation which takes into account electron multiply scattering, photon absorption in a crystal largest, angular acceptance and efficiency of photon detector. 15 refs., 3 figs

  10. Elastic and Thermal Properties of Double Doped Orthovanadate: Eu1- x (La0.254Y0.746) x VO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Atahar; Gaur, N. K.

    2013-12-01

    We present the effect of A-site double doping (La0.254Y0.746) on elastic and thermal properties of EuVO3 in a wide doping range (0≤ x≤1), using a modified rigid ion model (MRIM). Various lattice distortions and their relation to bulk modulus has been investigated systematically. The effect of the lattice distortions on thermodynamic properties of Eu1- x (La0.25Y0.74) x VO3 has been explored by an atomistic approach. The computed results emphasize that the Debye temperature decreases while the specific heat increases with increase in doping concentration ( x). The computed temperature dependent (1 K≤ T≤300 K) specific heat trends are in accordance with the corresponding experimental data at various compositions. Future scope of MRIM has also been discussed.

  11. Abundancias químicas de la compañera visible del agujero negro binario V4641 Sgr (XTE J1819-254)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cúneo, V. A.; Jofré, E.; Pintado, O. I.; Gómez, M. N.

    2015-08-01

    In this work we expose an analysis of the chemical abundances of the optical companion of the confirmed black hole binary V4641 Sgr (XTE J1819-254) from GMOS spectra obtained with the Gemini North telescope. This analysis allowed to observe an enhancement of N, O, Mg and Si, attributed to the contamination of heavy elements generated during the supernova explosion that gave birth to the black hole. It was also observed that Cr and Fe were subabundant. The aim of this study is to test the formation scenario of a binary system containing a black hole as remnant of the supernova explosion of a massive star, and to provide information to better understand the final stages in the evolution of massive stars and black hole progenitors.

  12. Degradation and mineralization of organic UV absorber compound 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic acid (PBSA) using UV-254 nm/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelraheem, Wael H.M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Sohag 82524 (Egypt); Environmental Engineering and Science Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); He, Xuexiang; Duan, Xiaodi [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); NIREAS-International Water Research Center, University of Cyprus, Nicosia 1678 (Cyprus); Dionysiou, Dionysios D., E-mail: dionysios.d.dionysiou@uc.edu [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); NIREAS-International Water Research Center, University of Cyprus, Nicosia 1678 (Cyprus)

    2015-01-23

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • UV-254 nm/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} AOP was utilized for the degradation and mineralization of PBSA and BSA. • Promotion of k{sub obs} with [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}]{sub 0} ≤ 4 mM and inhibition at higher [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}]{sub 0} were observed. • The S and N were released and monitored as SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and NH{sub 4}{sup +}, respectively. • Br{sup −} inhibited both the degradation and mineralization much more significantly than Cl{sup −}. • There was an increase in [NH{sub 4}{sup +}] at higher [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}]{sub 0} and its further destruction at higher UV fluence. - Abstract: Various studies have revealed the non-biodegradable and endocrine disrupting properties of sulfonated organic UV absorbers, directing people's attention toward their risks on ecological and human health and hence their removal from water. In this study, UV-254 nm/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} advanced oxidation process (AOP) was investigated for degrading a model UV absorber compound 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic acid (PBSA) and a structurally similar compound 1H-benzimidazole-2-sulfonic acid (BSA), with a specific focus on their mineralization. At 4.0 mM [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}]{sub 0}, a complete removal of 40.0 μM parent PBSA and 25% decrease in TOC were achieved with 190 min of UV irradiation; SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} was formed and reached its maximum level while the release of nitrogen as NH{sub 4}{sup +} was much lower (around 50%) at 190 min. Sulfate removal was strongly enhanced by increasing [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}]{sub 0} in the range of 0–4.0 mM, with slight inhibition in 4.0–12.0 mM. Faster and earlier ammonia formation was observed at higher [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}]{sub 0}. The presence of Br{sup −} slowed down the degradation and mineralization of both compounds while a negligible effect on the degradation was observed in the presence of Cl{sup −}. Our study provides important technical and fundamental results on the HO{sup ·} based degradation and

  13. Target Awareness: Lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Target Awareness: Lupus Jan. 15, 2009 Target Awareness: Lupus Target Awareness: Lupus provides a brief overview of ... Email Print Tags for this Story treatments symptoms Lupus FAQ What is lupus? What are the common ...

  14. Target Awareness: Lupus

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Target Awareness: Lupus Jan. 15, 2009 Target Awareness: Lupus Target Awareness: Lupus provides a brief overview of ... Email Print Tags for this Story treatments symptoms Lupus FAQ What is lupus? What are the common ...

  15. Target factory in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A target factory diagram has been constructed for an analysis of the shell coating process system in relation to target production. The number of deposition units needed to achieve the coating requirements will be a major target production operating cost

  16. Effects of UVC254 nm on the photosynthetic activity of photobionts from the astrobiologically relevant lichens Buellia frigida and Circinaria gyrosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeßen, J.; Backhaus, T.; Sadowsky, A.; Mrkalj, M.; Sánchez, F. J.; de la Torre, R.; Ott, S.

    2014-10-01

    In the past decade, various astrobiological studies on different lichen species investigated the impairment of viability and photosynthetic activity by exposure to simulated or real space parameters (as vacuum, polychromatic ultraviolet (UV)-radiation and monochromatic UVC) and consistently found high post-exposure viability as well as low rates of photosynthetic impairment (de Vera et al. 2003, 2004a; 2004b; de la Torre et al. 2010; Onofri et al. 2012; Sánchez et al. 2012, 2014; Brandt et al. 2014). To achieve a better understanding of the basic mechanisms of resistance, the present study subdued isolated and metabolically active photobionts of two astrobiologically relevant lichens to UVC254 nm, examined its effect on photosynthetic activity by chlorophyll a fluorescence and characterized the UVC-induced damages by quantum yield reduction and measurements of non-photochemical quenching. The results indicate a strong impairment of photosynthetic activity, photoprotective mechanisms and overall photobiont vitality when being irradiated in the isolated and metabolically active state. In conclusion, the present study stresses the higher susceptibility of photobionts towards extreme environmental conditions as UVC-exposure, a stressor that does not occur on the Earth. By comparison with previous studies, the present results highlight the importance of protective mechanisms in lichens, such as morphological-anatomical traits (Meeßen et al. 2013), secondary lichen compounds (Meeßen et al. 2014) and the symbiont's pivotal ability to pass into anhydrobiosis when desiccating.

  17. Photo-removal of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) by photolytic and photocatalytic processes in a batch reactor under UV-C radiation ({lambda}{sub max} = 254 nm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasuhoglu, Deniz; Yargeau, Viviane [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2B2 (Canada); Berk, Dimitrios, E-mail: dimitrios.berk@mcgill.ca [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2B2 (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    In this study, photolytic and photocatalytic removal of the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) under UVC radiation ({lambda} = 254 nm) was investigated. The light intensity distribution inside the batch photoreactor was characterized by azoxybenzene actinometry. The intensity of incident radiation was found to be a strong function of position inside the reactor. 12 mg L{sup -1} of SMX was completely removed within 10 min of irradiation under UVC photolysis, compared to 30 min under TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis. COD measurement was used as an indication of the mineralization efficiency of both processes and higher COD removal with photocatalysis was shown. After 6 h of reaction with photolysis and photocatalysis, 24% and 87% removal of COD was observed, respectively. Two of the intermediate photo-products were identified as sulfanilic acid and 3-amino-5-methylisoxazole by direct comparison of the HPLC chromatograms of standards to those of treated solutions. Ecotoxicity of treated and untreated solutions of SMX towards Daphnia magna was also investigated. It was found that a 3:1 ratio of sample to standard freshwater and a high initial concentration of 60 mg L{sup -1} of SMX were used to obtain reliable and reproducible results. The photo-products formed during photocatalytic and photolytic processes were shown to be generally more toxic than the parent compound.

  18. The minimal domain of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL ranges until leucine 254 and can be activated and inhibited by CGI-58 and G0S2, respectively.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Cornaciu

    Full Text Available Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL is the rate-limiting enzyme of lipolysis. ATGL specifically hydrolyzes triacylglycerols (TGs, thereby generating diacylglycerols and free fatty acids. ATGL's enzymatic activity is co-activated by the protein comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58 and inhibited by the protein G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2. The enzyme is predicted to act through a catalytic dyad (Ser47, Asp166 located within the conserved patatin domain (Ile10-Leu178. Yet, neither an experimentally determined 3D structure nor a model of ATGL is currently available, which would help to understand how CGI-58 and G0S2 modulate ATGL's activity. In this study we determined the minimal active domain of ATGL. This minimal fragment of ATGL could still be activated and inhibited by CGI-58 and G0S2, respectively. Furthermore, we show that this minimal domain is sufficient for protein-protein interaction of ATGL with its regulatory proteins. Based on these data, we generated a 3D homology model for the minimal domain. It strengthens our experimental finding that amino acids between Leu178 and Leu254 are essential for the formation of a stable protein domain related to the patatin fold. Our data provide insights into the structure-function relationship of ATGL and indicate higher structural similarities in the N-terminal halves of mammalian patatin-like phospholipase domain containing proteins, (PNPLA1, -2,- 3 and -5 than originally anticipated.

  19. Photo-removal of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) by photolytic and photocatalytic processes in a batch reactor under UV-C radiation (λmax = 254 nm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, photolytic and photocatalytic removal of the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) under UVC radiation (λ = 254 nm) was investigated. The light intensity distribution inside the batch photoreactor was characterized by azoxybenzene actinometry. The intensity of incident radiation was found to be a strong function of position inside the reactor. 12 mg L-1 of SMX was completely removed within 10 min of irradiation under UVC photolysis, compared to 30 min under TiO2 photocatalysis. COD measurement was used as an indication of the mineralization efficiency of both processes and higher COD removal with photocatalysis was shown. After 6 h of reaction with photolysis and photocatalysis, 24% and 87% removal of COD was observed, respectively. Two of the intermediate photo-products were identified as sulfanilic acid and 3-amino-5-methylisoxazole by direct comparison of the HPLC chromatograms of standards to those of treated solutions. Ecotoxicity of treated and untreated solutions of SMX towards Daphnia magna was also investigated. It was found that a 3:1 ratio of sample to standard freshwater and a high initial concentration of 60 mg L-1 of SMX were used to obtain reliable and reproducible results. The photo-products formed during photocatalytic and photolytic processes were shown to be generally more toxic than the parent compound.

  20. W-reactivation and W-mutagenesis in bacteriophages lambda and T7: comparison of action of ultraviolet irradiation (254nm) and furocouma photosensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When treating bacteriophage lambda with 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and light (lambda>320 nm), two types of photoproducts are formed in DNA: monoadducts and diadducts or interstrand linkings. If a wild-type strain of Escherichia coli is used as horst, W-reactivation and W-mutagenesis (clear-mutation), approximately equal in magnitude to those of UV-irradiated phage lambda, are observed in the bacteriophage lambda treated with 8-MOP plus light. If mutant strains E coli uvrA-, recA- and lexA- are used as host W-reactivation and W-mutagenesis practically do not occur in phage lambda. Using the method of ''reirradiation'', it is shown that clear-mutations in 8-MOP plus light treated phage lambda are induced in the process of W-mutagenesis mainly due to the formation of diadducts (interstrand linking) in DNA. In the phage monoadducts of derived furocoumarins also have a mutageneous character but their mutagenesis effectiveness (mutation probability calculating on one photo product) is significantly inferior to that of diadducts (approximately 15-20 times). It has been demonstrated in the experiments on the determination of W-mutagenesis of phage lambda photosensitized with angelisine - an angular derivative of furocoumarins - that mainly formi monoadducts in DNA. It is also shown that W-reactivation and W-mutagenesis effects are observed when sowing UV-irradiated (254 nm) phage lambda on E coli uvrA- and wild-type strains treated with 8-MOP plus light. As to bacteriophage T7 treated with 8-MOP plus light, W-reactivation is not observed even on a wild strain E coli. Preliminary infection of cells with phage T7 that has been strongly inactivated using photosensitizer 8-MOP decreases repair's effectiveness of interstrand linkings in DNA of phage lambda

  1. Influence of pH on the passivation behavior of 254SMO stainless steel in 3.5% NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potentiodynamic polarization measurement of 254SMO stainless steel (UNS 31254) was conducted in 3.5% NaCl solutions with pH ranging from 0.1 to 5. The results indicated that this stainless steel offered excellent pitting corrosion resistance in corrosive environments. Further, it also exhibited various features on the polarization curves in different pH solutions. The electrochemical constant-potential passivation treatment performed at different pH followed by XPS analysis revealed that the primary constituents of the outermost layer of the passive films formed in the weak (pH 5) and strong (pH 0.8) acid solutions are iron oxides and Cr2O3 and Cr(OH)3, respectively. Molybdenum oxides, primarily in the six-valence state, existed in the outermost layer of the passive film. Only very weak signals corresponding to that of nickel oxides were detected in the film formed in the weak acid (pH 5) solution. The ICP-MS analyses indicated selective dissolution of a significant amount of Fe and a few Mo and Ni ions during the passivation treatment in the strong acid (pH 0.8) solution. No Cr dissolution was observed; this indicated that the Cr in the film is relatively stable. XPS depth profiling results showed that a similar bilayer-structured film was formed in both the solutions (pH 0.8 and 5); the outer layer of this film is primarily composed of Cr(OH)3 and Mo(VI), and the inner layer, Cr2O3 and Mo(IV). The results of the examinations of passive film formations and dissolution by XPS and ICP-MS were consistent with the polarization curves

  2. Effective neutron targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the lack of a free neutron target, deuterium targets have been used extensively in studying the neutron structure. The unique spin structure of the 3He ground state wave function and the recent developments in laser technologies made polarized 3He targets widely used in many experiments from neutron electromagnetic form factor studies to nucleon spin structure function measurements at all major electron accelerator facilities. In this talk, the current status of the polarized 3He targets will be reviewed. The author will focus on neutron electromagnetic form factor studies using polarized 3He targets. The polarized nucleon spin structure function measurements using polarized 3He targets will also be discussed

  3. Molecular Targets for Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular targeted radionuclide cancer therapy is becoming of increasing importance, especially for disseminated diseases. Systemic chemotherapies often lack selectivity while targeted radionuclide therapy has important advantages as the radioactive cytotoxic unit of the targeting vector is specifically directed to the cancer, sparing normal tissues. The principle strategy to improve cancer selectivity is to couple therapeutic agents to tumour-targeting vectors. In targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT), the cytotoxic portion of the conjugates normally contains a therapeutic radiometal immobilised by a bifunctional chelator. The aim is therefore to use as ligand-targeted therapeutics vectors coupled to Auger-, alpha- and/or beta-emitting radionuclides. An advantage of using radiation instead of chemotherapeutics as the cytotoxic agent is the so called 'crossfire effect'. This allows sterilisation of tumour cells that are not directly targeted due to heterogeneity in target molecule expression or inhomogeneous vector delivery. However, before the targeting ligands can be selected, the target molecule on the tumour has to be selected. It should be uniquely expressed, or at least highly overexpressed, on or in the target cells relative to normal tissues. The target should be easily accessible for ligand delivery and should not be shed or down- regulated after ligand binding. An important property of a receptor (or antigen) is its potential to be internalized upon binding of the ligand. This provides an active uptake mechanism and allows the therapeutic agent to be trapped within the tumour cells. Molecular targets of current interest include: Receptors: G-protein coupled receptors are overexpressed on many major human tumours. The prototype of these receptors are somatostatin receptors which show very high density in neuroendocrine tumours, but there are many other most interesting receptors to be applied for TRT. The targeting ligands for these receptors are

  4. Price level targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Shukayev, Malik; Ueberfeldt, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Various papers have suggested that Price-Level targeting is a welfare improving policy relative to Inflation targeting. From a practical standpoint, this raises an important yet unanswered question: What is the optimal price index to target? This paper derives the optimal price level targeting index defined over the eight main components of the Consumer Price Index. It finds that such an index places a heavier weight, relative to the expenditure weight, on sectors with slow price adjustments....

  5. Multilayer polymer microspot targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last year the authors reported on the development of a seeded microspot x-ray diagnostic target. This target consisted of a 300-μm-diam, 2-μm-thick disk of silicon or sulfur-seeded hydrocarbon polymer nested tightly in a hole in a 2-μm-thick film of pure hydrocarbon polymer. This year they extended our work on the microspot target, fully encapsulating the microspot in what they call the multilayer polymer microspot target

  6. Target Price Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown) 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio). However, target price accuracy is positive...

  7. The Targeting of Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesh Iyer; David Soberman; J. Miguel Villas-Boas

    2005-01-01

    An important question that firms face in advertising is developing effective media strategy. Major improvements in the quality of consumer information and the growth of targeted media vehicles allow firms to precisely target advertising to consumer segments within a market. This paper examines advertising strategy when competing firms can target advertising to different groups of consumers within a market. With targeted advertising, we find that firms advertise more to consumers who have a st...

  8. TARGET COSTING FUNCTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Dimi OFILEANU

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to highlight the concept of Target Costing. Based on the characteristics of Target Costing, identified in specialized literature, the article presents its main advantages and disadvantages. Also, a comparison is being made between Target Cost and Traditional Cost (in its traditional form, the cost represents an independent variable on the basis of which the sell price is established; and in the Target Cost form the cost represents a dependent variable which is determined on ...

  9. An actionable climate target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geden, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    The Paris Agreement introduced three mitigation targets. In the future, the main focus should not be on temperature targets such as 2 or 1.5 °C, but on the target with the greatest potential to effectively guide policy: net zero emissions.

  10. Effect of Key Parameters on the Photocatalytic Oxidation of Toluene at Low Concentrations in Air under 254 + 185 nm UV Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quici, Natalia; Vera, Maria L.; Choi, Hyeok; Puma, Gianluca Li; Dionysiou, Dionysios D.; Litter, Marta I.; Destaillats, Hugo

    2009-07-01

    The effect of key experimental parameters on the removal of toluene under 254 + 185 nm irradiation was investigated using a benchtop photocatalytic flow reactor. Toluenewas introduced at low concentrations between 10 and 500 ppbv, typical of indoorenvironments, and reacted on TiO2-coated Raschig rings. Two different TiO2-coated rings were prepared: in one case, by dip-coating using a P25 aqueous suspension and, on the other, using an organic/inorganic sol-gel method that produced thin films of mesoporous anatase. Flow rates in the photoreactor varied between 4 L min-1 and 125 mL min-1, leading to residence times in the range 100 ms< tau< 2 s. For these conditions, toluene removal efficiencies were between 30 and 90percent, indicating that the system did not achieve total conversion in any case. For each air flow rate, the conversion oftoluene was significantly higher when the reactor length was 10 cm, as compared with 5 cm; however, only marginal increases in conversions were achieved in the two reactor lengths at equal residence time and different concentration of toluene, suggesting that that the reactor is effectively behaving as an ideal reactor and that the reaction is first-order in the concentration of toluene. Experiments were carried out between 0 and 66percent relative humidity (RH), the fastest reaction rate being observed at moderately low humidity conditions (10percent RH), with respect to both dry air and higher humidity levels. Formaldehyde was formed as a partial oxidation byproduct at low and at high residence times (240 and 960 ms), although higher formaldehyde molar yields (up to 20percent) were observed at low tau (240 ms) and moderate humidity conditions (10 and 33percent), suggesting that both tau and RH can be optimized toreduce the formation of harmful intermediates. Toluene removal efficiency increased with the TiO2 thickness (i.e., mass) until a maximum value of 500 nm, beyond which the removal efficiency decreased. This should be

  11. Targeted cancer therapies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yan; Neal Rosen; Carlos Arteaga

    2011-01-01

    With unprecedented understanding of molecular events underlying human cancer in this genomic era, a large number of drugs specifically targeting hypothesized oncogenic drivers to which tumors are potentially addicted to have been developed and continue to be developed. These targeted cancer therapies are being actively tested in clinical trials with mixed successes. This editorial provides an overview on successful targeted cancer drugs on the market and those drugs that are in late clinical development stages. Importantly, the article lays out main challenges in developing molecular targeted therapies and potential path forward to overcome these challenges, as well as opportunities for China in this new era of targeted agents. The editorial serves as an introduction to the Targeted Cancer Therapies serias that will review in depth of major pathways and drugs targeting these pathways to be published in the coming issues of the Chinese Journal of Cancer.

  12. Polarized targets and beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First the experimental situation of the single-pion photoproduction and the photodisintegration of the deuteron is briefly discussed. Then a description of the Bonn polarization facilities is given. The point of main effort is put on the polarized target which plays a vital role in the program. A facility for photon induced double polarization experiments at ELSA will be presented in section 4. Properties of a tensor polarized deuteron target are discussed in section 5. The development in the field of polarized targets, especially on new target materials, enables a new generation of polarized target experiments with (polarized) electrons. Some comments on the use of a polarized target in combination with electron beams will be discussed in section 6. Electron deuteron scattering from a tensor polarized deuteron target is considered and compared with other experimental possibilities. (orig./HSI)

  13. Expanding horizons in the treatment of mantle cell lymphoma: Ibrutinib a novel BTK-targeting inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Dhingra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL is a non-Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by involvement of the lymph nodes, spleen, blood, and bone marrow with short remission duration to standard therapies and a median overall survival of 4–5 years. Small molecule inhibitors targeting dysregulated pathways (MAPK/ERK, PI3K/PKB/mTOR, JAK/STAT have significantly improved clinical outcomes in cancer patients. Recently Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK, a crucial terminal kinase enzyme in the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR signaling pathway, has emerged as an attractive target for therapeutic intervention in human malignancies and autoimmune disorders. Ibrutinib, a novel first-in-human BTK-inhibitor, has demonstrated clinical effectiveness and tolerability in clinical trials, recently been approved by FDA in the treatment of MCL. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 249-254

  14. GWAS and drug targets

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Chen; Moult, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed a large number of links between genome variation and complex disease. Among other benefits, it is expected that these insights will lead to new therapeutic strategies, particularly the identification of new drug targets. In this paper, we evaluate the power of GWAS studies to find drug targets by examining how many existing drug targets have been directly 'rediscovered' by this technique, and the extent to which GWAS results may ...

  15. Deuterium high pressure target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system

  16. Inertial Confinement fusion targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are made as simple flat discs, as hollow shells or as complicated multilayer structures. Many techniques were devised for producing the targets. Glass and metal shells are made by using drop and bubble techniques. Solid hydrogen shells are also produced by adapting old methods to the solution of modern problems. Some of these techniques, problems, and solutions are discussed. In addition, the applications of many of the techniques to fabrication of ICF targets is presented.

  17. Deuterium High Pressure Target

    CERN Document Server

    Perevozchikov, V; Vinogradov, Yu I; Vikharev, M D; Ganchuk, N S; Golubkov, A N; Grishenchkin, S K; Demin, A M; Demin, D L; Zinov, V G; Kononenko, A A; Lobanov, V N; Malkov, I L; Yukhimchuk, S A

    2001-01-01

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm^3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system.

  18. The ISOLDE target robots

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilein Brice

    2002-01-01

    ISOLDE targets need to be changed frequently, around 80 times per year. The high radiation levels do not permit this to be done by human hands and the target changes are effected by 2 industrial robots (picture _01). On the left, in the distance, the front-end of the GPS (General Purpose Separator) is seen, while the HRS (High Resolution Separator) is at the right. Also seen are the doors to the irradiated-target storage.

  19. Moving Target Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff; Wang, X Sean

    2011-01-01

    Moving Target Defense: Creating Asymmetric Uncertainty for Cyber Threats was developed by a group of leading researchers. It describes the fundamental challenges facing the research community and identifies new promising solution paths. Moving Target Defense which is motivated by the asymmetric costs borne by cyber defenders takes an advantage afforded to attackers and reverses it to advantage defenders. Moving Target Defense is enabled by technical trends in recent years, including virtualization and workload migration on commodity systems, widespread and redundant network connectivity, instr

  20. Target Window Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-11

    The target window design implemented and tested in experiments at ANL have performed without failure for the available beam of 6 mm FWHM on a 12 mm diameter target. However, scaling that design to a 25 mm diameter target size for a 12 mm FWHM beam has proven problematic. Combined thermal and mechanical (pressure induced) stresses and strains are too high to maintain the small coolant gaps and provide adequate fatigue lifetime.

  1. Target Assembly Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Target Assembly Facility integrates new armor concepts into actual armored vehicles. Featuring the capability ofmachining and cutting radioactive materials, it...

  2. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  3. Bayesian multiple target tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Streit, Roy L

    2013-01-01

    This second edition has undergone substantial revision from the 1999 first edition, recognizing that a lot has changed in the multiple target tracking field. One of the most dramatic changes is in the widespread use of particle filters to implement nonlinear, non-Gaussian Bayesian trackers. This book views multiple target tracking as a Bayesian inference problem. Within this framework it develops the theory of single target tracking, multiple target tracking, and likelihood ratio detection and tracking. In addition to providing a detailed description of a basic particle filter that implements

  4. The Target Visitation Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Hildenbrandt, Achim

    2015-01-01

    The thesis considers the target visitation problem, a combinatorial optimization problem, which merges the classical traveling salesman problem with the linear ordering problem. In more detail, we are looking for a tour which visits a set of targets and which is optimal with respect to two different aspects: On the one hand, we have given a travel cost from each target to every other. On the other hand, we have preference values which tell us how much we would like to visit one target before ...

  5. Role of electrostatics at the catalytic metal binding site in xylose isomerase action: Ca(2+)-inhibition and metal competence in the double mutant D254E/D256E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuxreiter, M; Böcskei, Z; Szeibert, A; Szabó, E; Dallmann, G; Naray-Szabo, G; Asboth, B

    1997-06-01

    The catalytic metal binding site of xylose isomerase from Arthrobacter B3728 was modified by protein engineering to diminish the inhibitory effect of Ca2+ and to study the competence of metals on catalysis. To exclude Ca2+ from Site 2 a double mutant D254E/D256E was designed with reduced space available for binding. In order to elucidate structural consequences of the mutation the binary complex of the mutant with Mg2+ as well as ternary complexes with bivalent metal ions and the open-chain inhibitor xylitol were crystallized for x-ray studies. We determined the crystal structures of the ternary complexes containing Mg2+, Mn2+, and Ca2+ at 2.2 to 2.5 A resolutions, and refined them to R factors of 16.3, 16.6, and 19.1, respectively. We found that all metals are liganded by both engineered glutamates as well as by atoms O1 and O2 of the inhibitor. The similarity of the coordination of Ca2+ to that of the cofactors as well as results with Be2+ weaken the assumption that geometry differences should account for the catalytic noncompetence of this ion. Kinetic results of the D254E/D256E mutant enzyme showed that the significant decrease in Ca2+ inhibition was accompanied by a similar reduction in the enzymatic activity. Qualitative argumentation, based on the protein electrostatic potential, indicates that the proximity of the negative side chains to the substrate significantly reduces the electrostatic stabilization of the transition state. Furthermore, due to the smaller size of the catalytic metal site, no water molecule, coordinating the metal, could be observed in ternary complexes of the double mutant. Consequently, the proton shuttle step in the overall mechanism should differ from that in the wild type. These effects can account for the observed decrease in catalytic efficiency of the D254E/D256E mutant enzyme. PMID:9188736

  6. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (includes ROTC No. 1, date 01/25/1999)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    1999-07-29

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 254 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-06, Decontamination Facility. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), CAU 254 was used between 1963 through 1973 for the decontamination of test-car hardware and tooling used in the Nuclear Rocket Development Station program. The CAS is composed of a fenced area measuring approximately 119 feet by 158 feet that includes Building 3126, an associated aboveground storage tank, a potential underground storage area, two concrete decontamination pads, a generator, two sumps, and a storage yard. Based on site history, the scope of this plan is to resolve the problem statement identified during the Data Quality Objectives process that decontamination activities at this CAU site may have resulted in the release of contaminants of concern (COCs) onto building surfaces, down building drains to associated leachfields, and to soils associated with two concrete decontamination pads located outside the building. Therefore, the scope of the corrective action field investigation will involve soil sampling at biased and random locations in the yard using a direct-push method, scanning and static radiological surveys, and laboratory analyses of all soil/building samples. Historical information provided by former NTS employees indicates that solvents and degreasers may have been used in the decontamination processes; therefore, potential COCs include volatile/semivolatile organic compounds, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, asbestos, gamma-emitting radionuclides, plutonium, uranium, and strontium-90. The results of this

  7. Strategic Targeted Advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Galeotti; J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe present a strategic game of pricing and targeted-advertising. Firms can simultaneously target price advertisements to different groups of customers, or to the entire market. Pure strategy equilibria do not exist and thus market segmentation cannot occur surely. Equilibria exhibit rand

  8. Pure HD polarized targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HD polarized target project is now ready to use a target in a physics experiment. This must be done in early 1998 at LEGS (BNL). The IPN cryogenic group takes its part in this venture by doing the transfer and in-beam cryostats. (authors)

  9. The CNGS target

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) target ‘magazine’ of five target units. Each unit contains a series of 10-cm long graphite rods distributed over a length of 2 m. It is designed to maximize the number of secondary particles produced and hence the number of neutrinos. One unit is used at a time to prevent over heating.

  10. Survey of potential markets for devices using Californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential applications for devices or systems containing 252Cf in the years from 1975 to 1980 are estimated. The estimated number of devices and associated business value were derived from a survey of 46 industrial, educational and governmental organizations conducted from Jan. to May, 1975. Applications for devices and systems based on 252Cf are expected to increase by a factor of 7 in the 6-y period from 1975 to 1980. The annual business value of 252Cf devices should increase from 1.5 million dollars in 1975 to 10.8 million dollars in 1980. The potential European market should be several times as large as the US market, based on actual sales of 252Cf, which have been two to four times greater in Europe than in the US

  11. The protective cell petrus for the production of californium 252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alpha, beta, gamma, neutron cell which is described in the present paper is devoted to the transplutonium element production and study. It is located at the CEN in Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). The 4 feet ordinary concrete shielding made of stacked blocs allows the manipulation of radioactive sources as high as 1000 curies of 1 MeV gamma rays and with a fast neutrons flux of 109 n.cm-2.s-1. The airtight alpha containment box is equipped with two transfer systems, one consists of a parallelepiped shaped airtight box located in a turntable, the other uses standard cylindrical containers made of polyethylene. The general equipment and the main setting up are also described. (authors)

  12. Californium-252 neutron activation facility at the Savannah River Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron irradiation facility has been established to develop new analytical methods and for the support of research programs. A major component of this facility is a 252Cf source which provides both fission spectrum and thermal neutrons. (U.S.)

  13. Californium-252 brachytherapy for anal and ano-rectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surgery has historically been the standard treatment for anal, ano-rectal and rectal carcinoma but is prone to local or regional failure. Over the past 15 years there has been increasing interest in and success with radiation therapy and combined chemoradiotherapy for treatment of anal and ano-rectal cancers. Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with external beam teletherapy has been investigated for anal and ano-rectal lesions at the Univ. of Kentucky with encouraging results

  14. Mobile equipment for neutron radiography using a californium-252 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic requirements for successful neutron radiography are first summarised and the use of 252Cf is placed in perspective by comparing its properties with those of sources based on the Be (γ, n) and Be (α, n) reactions which have a broadly similar range of applications. The more essential design features of mobile neutron radiography equipment are next examined in some detail, to show how the often conflicting requirements of optimum beam production and adequate shielding may be reconciled. An assembly with a maximum dimension around 1 m with a source of 1 mg is used as an example. The design data used are reproduced in graphical form to permit designs to be scaled to suit the source available and the requirements. The selection of suitable image recorders for 252Cf radiography is discussed with the conclusion that the gadolinium foil-film combinations are likely to remain the normal choice. Demonstration radiographs are presented with particular reference to the location of residual casting sand in gas-cooled turbine blades. Finally, it is suggested that other applications for mobile 252Cf-based neutron radiography equipment will be found in the ordnance, aero-space, chemical and nuclear fuel manufacturing industries. (author)

  15. Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacMurdo, K.W.; Bowman, W.W.

    1978-09-01

    A 100-mg /sup 252/Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from /sup 17/O. Detection sensitivities of < or = 400 ppB for natural uranium and 8 ppB (< or = 0.5 (nCi/g)) for /sup 239/Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level.

  16. Californium-based neutron radiography for corrosion detection in aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of an overall program aimed at minimizing disassembly and reducing inspection time during aircraft maintenance, a series of projects has been carried out to determine the feasibility of applying neutron radiographic techniques to the nondestructive (NDT) inspection of aircraft and aircraft components. These investigations have clearly demonstrated the superiority of neutron radiography over all other NDT techniques in its ability to detect surface and subsurface corrosion in aircraft structure. This capability is particularly significant where the corrosion is hidden behind thick metallic structural members. The neutron radiographic technique has been applied successfully to detect corrosion in the wing tank of E-2C, C-130, and DC-9 aircraft; rear stabilators of F-4 and F-111 aircraft; aft spar, starboard and port wing, and rudder of the F-8; fuselage skin of the 727; rotary blades of AH-1 and SH-3 helicopters; rotary tail flaps of the UH-2 helicopter; and nose landing gear of A-7 aircraft

  17. Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 100-mg 252Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from 17O. Detection sensitivities of 239Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level

  18. Targeted therapy in lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavalli Franco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Discovery of new treatments for lymphoma that prolong survival and are less toxic than currently available agents represents an urgent unmet need. We now have a better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of lymphoma, such as aberrant signal transduction pathways, which have led to the discovery and development of targeted therapeutics. The ubiquitin-proteasome and the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathways are examples of pathological mechanisms that are being targeted in drug development efforts. Bortezomib (a small molecule protease inhibitor and the mTOR inhibitors temsirolimus, everolimus, and ridaforolimus are some of the targeted therapies currently being studied in the treatment of aggressive, relapsed/refractory lymphoma. This review will discuss the rationale for and summarize the reported findings of initial and ongoing investigations of mTOR inhibitors and other small molecule targeted therapies in the treatment of lymphoma.

  19. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing of stainless steel. At the entrance to the target assembly was a scintillator screen, imprinted with circles every 5 mm in radius, which allowed to precisely aim the 26 GeV high-intensity proton beam from the PS onto the centre of the target rod. The scintillator screen was a 1 mm thick plate of Cr-doped alumina. See also 7903034 and 7905091.

  20. Investigation on the removal of the major cocaine metabolite (benzoylecgonine) in water matrices by UV254/H2O2 process by using a flow microcapillary film array photoreactor as an efficient experimental tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Danilo; Spasiano, Danilo; Vaccaro, Marianna; Cochran, Kristin H; Richardson, Susan D; Andreozzi, Roberto; Li Puma, Gianluca; Reis, Nuno M; Marotta, Raffaele

    2016-02-01

    A microcapillary film reactor (MCF) was adopted to evaluate and compare the removal efficiency of benzoylecgonine (BE), an emerging micropollutant deriving from illicit drug abuse (cocaine), in different aqueous matrices: milliQ water, synthetic and real wastewater and surface water. The removal processes investigated were the direct photolysis with UV radiation at 254 nm, and the advanced oxidation process (AOP) with the same UV radiation and hydrogen peroxide. As a result of the microfluidics approach developed through an innovative experimental apparatus, full conversion of BE was reached within a few seconds or minutes of residence time in the MCF depending on the process conditions adopted. The radiation dose was estimated to be approximately 5.5 J cm(-2). The innovative MCF reactor was found to be an effective tool for photochemical studies, especially when using highly priced, uncommon, or regulated substances. The removal efficiency was affected by the nature of the aqueous matrix, due to the presence of different xenobiotics and natural compounds that act primarily as HO(•) radical scavengers and secondly as inner UV254 filters. Moreover, nano-liquid chromatography (LC)-high resolution-mass spectrometry analysis was utilized to identify the main reaction transformation products, showing the formation of hydroxylated aromatics during the photochemical treatment. PMID:26735209

  1. Detection of variants of the pRAS3, pAB5S9, and pSN254 plasmids in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida: multidrug resistance, interspecies exchanges, and plasmid reshaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Antony T; Trudel, Mélanie V; Paquet, Valérie E; Boyle, Brian; Tanaka, Katherine H; Dallaire-Dufresne, Stéphanie; Daher, Rana K; Frenette, Michel; Derome, Nicolas; Charette, Steve J

    2014-12-01

    The ubiquitous water-borne Gram-negative bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is the causative agent of furunculosis, a worldwide disease in fish farms. Plasmids carrying antibiotic resistance genes have already been described for this bacterium. The aim of the present study was to identify and characterize additional multidrug resistance plasmids in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. We sequenced the plasmids present in two multiple antibiotic-resistant isolates using high-throughput technologies. We also investigated 19 other isolates with various multidrug resistance profiles by genotyping PCR and assessed their resistance to tetracycline. We identified variants of the pAB5S9 and pSN254 plasmids that carry several antibiotic resistance genes and that have been previously reported in bacteria other than A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, which suggests a high level of interspecies exchange. Genotyping analyses and the antibiotic resistance profiles of the 19 other isolates support the idea that multiple versions of pAB5S9 and pSN254 exist in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. We also identified variants of the pRAS3 plasmid. The present study revealed that A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida harbors a wide variety of plasmids, which suggests that this ubiquitous bacterium may contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment. PMID:25267667

  2. Targeted therapies for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be untrue. Possible side effects from targeted therapies include: Diarrhea Liver problems Skin problems such as rash, dry skin, and nail changes Problems with blood clotting and wound healing High blood pressure As with any treatment, you ...

  3. SETI target selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, D. W.; Soderblom, D. R.

    1995-06-01

    The NASA High Resolution Microwave Survey consists of two complementary elements: a Sky Survey of the entire sky to a moderate level of sensitivity; and a Targeted Search of nearby stars, one at a time, to a much deeper level of sensitivity. The authors propose strategies for target selection with two goals: to improve the chances of successful detection of signals from technical civilizations that inhabit planets around solar-type stars, and to minimize the chances of missing signals from unexpected sites.

  4. High pressure gas target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbart, W.; Johnson, R. R.; Abeysekera, B.

    2012-12-01

    Compact, high pressure, high current gas target features all metal construction and semi-automatic window assembly change. The unique aspect of this target is the domed-shaped window. The Havar alloy window is electron beam welded to a metal ring, thus forming one, interchangeable assembly. The window assembly is sealed by knife-edges locked by a pneumatic toggle allowing a quick, in situ window change.

  5. An ISOLDE target unit

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    A good dozen different targets are available for ISOLDE, made of different materials and equipped with different kinds of ion-sources, according to the needs of the experiments. Each separator (GPS: general purpose; HRS: high resolution) has its own target. Because of the high radiation levels, robots effect the target changes, about 80 times per year. In the standard unit shown in picture _01, the target is the cylindrical object in the front. It contains uranium-carbide kept at a temperature of 2200 deg C, necessary for the isotopes to be able to escape. At either end, one sees the heater current leads, carrying 700 A. The Booster beam, some 3E13 protons per pulse, enters the target from left. The evaporated isotope atoms enter a hot-plasma ion source (the black object behind the target). The whole unit sits at 60 kV potential (pulsed in synchronism with the arrival of the Booster beam) which accelerates the ions (away from the viewer) towards one of the 2 separators.

  6. Radar target detection simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarig Ibrahim Osman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Standard radar detection process requires that the sensor output is compared to a predetermined threshold. The threshold is selected based on a-priori knowledge available and/or certain assumptions. However, any knowledge and/or assumptions become in adequate due to the presence of multiple targets with varying signal return and usually non stationary background. Thus, any predetermined threshold may result in either increased false alarm rate or increased track loss. Even approaches where the threshold is adaptively varied will not perform well in situations when the signal return from the target of interest is too low compared to the average level of the background .Track-before-detect techniques eliminate the need for a detection threshold and provide detecting and tracking targets with lower signal-to-noise ratios than standard methods. However, although trackbefore-detect techniques eliminate the need for detection threshold at sensor's signal processing stage, they often use tuning thresholds at the output of the filtering stage .This paper presents a computerized simulation model for target detection process. Moreover, the proposed model method is based on the target motion models, the output of the detection process can easily be employed for maneuvering target tracking.

  7. The Sinuous Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwaska, R. [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    We report on the concept for a target material comprised of a multitude of interlaced wires of small dimension. This target material concept is primarily directed at high-power neutrino targets where the thermal shock is large due to small beam sizes and short durations; it also has applications to other high-power targets, particularly where the energy deposition is great or a high surface area is preferred. This approach ameliorates the problem of thermal shock by engineering a material with high strength on the micro-scale, but a very low modulus of elasticity on the meso-scale. The low modulus of elasticity is achieved by constructing the material of spring-like wire segments much smaller than the beam dimension. The intrinsic bends of the wires will allow them to absorb the strain of thermal shock with minimal stress. Furthermore, the interlaced nature of the wires provides containment of any segment that might become loose. We will discuss the progress on studies of analogue materials and fabrication techniques for sinuous target materials.

  8. Targeted assets risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwsema, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Risk assessments utilising the consolidated risk assessment process as described by Public Safety Canada and the Centre for Security Science utilise the five threat categories of natural, human accidental, technological, human intentional and chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosive (CBRNE). The categories of human intentional and CBRNE indicate intended actions against specific targets. It is therefore necessary to be able to identify which pieces of critical infrastructure represent the likely targets of individuals with malicious intent. Using the consolidated risk assessment process and the target capabilities list, coupled with the CARVER methodology and a security vulnerability analysis, it is possible to identify these targeted assets and their weaknesses. This process can help emergency managers to identify where resources should be allocated and funding spent. Targeted Assets Risk Analysis (TARA) presents a new opportunity to improve how risk is measured, monitored, managed and minimised through the four phases of emergency management, namely, prevention, preparation, response and recovery. To reduce risk throughout Canada, Defence Research and Development Canada is interested in researching the potential benefits of a comprehensive approach to risk assessment and management. The TARA provides a framework against which potential human intentional threats can be measured and quantified, thereby improving safety for all Canadians. PMID:23615063

  9. Production Target Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olivas, Eric Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-28

    The Northstar 99Mo production target, a cylindrical length of 100Mo rod, has evolved considerably since its first conception.  The cylinder was very early sliced into disks to increase the heat transfer area, first to 1 mm thick disks then to the current 0.5 mm thick.  The coolant was changed early in the target development from water to helium to eliminate corrosion and dissolution.  The diameter has increased from initially 6 mm to 12 mm, the current diameter of the test target now at ANL, to nominally 28 mm (26-30.6 mm, depending upon optimal beam spot size and shape).  The length has also changed to improve the production to cost ratio, so now the target is nominally 41 mm long (excluding coolant gaps between disks), and irradiated on both ends.  This report summarizes the current status of the plant target design.

  10. Inflation Forecast Targeting: Implementing and Monitoring Inflation Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Lars E.O. Svensson

    1996-01-01

    Inflation targeting is shown to imply inflation forecast targeting: the central bank's inflation forecast becomes an intermediate target. Inflation forecast targeting simplifies both implementing and monitoring of monetary policy. The inflation forecast is actually an ideal intermediate target: it is most correlated with the goal, easier to control than the goal, more observable than the goal, and very transparent. Money growth targeting generally leads to higher inflation variability than in...

  11. Setting reference targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets

  12. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.

    2014-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22......% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses...... how the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish...

  13. Targeted Phototherapy (newer phototherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional phototherapy uses a whole body cabinet or body part machine such as hand, foot or scalp machines. They have many disadvantages due to which new phototherapy technique was then developed to overcome this situation. This new technique is called targeted phototherapy which includes excimer laser, intense pulse light system (IPL, photodynamic therapy and ultraviolet (UV light source with a sophisticated delivery system which is easy to be operated by hands. The mechanisms of action of targeted phototherapy systems are similar to those in conventional UVB/UVA therapy. They have many advantages like less chances of side effects, avoidance of exposure of unnecessary sites, faster response, shortening of the duration of treatments. But they have disadvantages like high costs and inability to use for extensive areas. This review article discusses targeted phototherapy in considerable to the mechanism of actions and advantages and disadvantages in comparison to the conventional phototherapy.

  14. Phoenix Color Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    These images of three Phoenix color targets were taken on sols 1 and 2 by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on board the Phoenix lander. The bottom target was imaged in approximate color (SSI's red, green, and blue filters: 600, 530, and 480 nanometers), while the others were imaged with an infrared filter (750 nanometers). All of them will be imaged many times over the mission to monitor the color calibration of the camera. The two at the top show grains 2 to 3 millimeters in size that were likely lifted to the Phoenix deck during landing. Each of the large color chips on each target contains a strong magnet to protect the interior material from Mars' magnetic dust. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Targeted polypeptide degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, George M.; Janse, Daniel M.

    2008-05-13

    This invention pertains to compositions, methods, cells and organisms useful for selectively localizing polypeptides to the proteasome for degradation. Therapeutic methods and pharmaceutical compositions for treating disorders associated with the expression and/or activity of a polypeptide by targeting these polypeptides for degradation, as well as methods for targeting therapeutic polypeptides for degradation and/or activating therapeutic polypeptides by degradation are provided. The invention provides methods for identifying compounds that mediate proteasome localization and/or polypeptide degradation. The invention also provides research tools for the study of protein function.

  16. Fine target of deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fine target of deuterium on a tantalum plate by the absorption method is obtained. In order to obtain the de gasification temperature an induction generator of high frequency is used and the deuterium pass is regulated by means of a palladium valve. Two vacuum measures are available, one to measure the high vacuum in the de gasification process of the tantalum plate and the other, for low vacuum, to measure the deuterium inlet in the installation and the deuterium pressure change in the installation after the absorption in the tantalum plate. A target of 48 μ gr/cm2 thick is obtained. (Author) 1 refs

  17. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long (actually a row of 11 rods, each 1 cm long) and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing made of stainless steel. The casing had fins for forced-air cooling. In this picture, the 26 GeV high-intensity beam from the PS enters from the right, where a scintillator screen, with circles every 5 mm in radius, permits precise aim at the target centre. See also 7903034 and 7905094.

  18. Major Targets for 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ This year, the main targets we have set for economic and social development are: increasing GDP by approximately 8 percent, creating jobs for more than 9 million people, keeping the urban registered unemployment rate no higher than 4.6 percent, holding the rise in consumer prices to around 3 percent, and improving the balance of payments.

  19. 12. Target fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This series of papers presents the requirements and critical issues for IFE (inertial fusion energy) target fabrication and injection. The critical issues for target fabrication are: -) ability to fabricate target capsules and hohlraums, -) ability to fabricate them economically, and -) ability to fabricate, assemble, fill and layer at the required rate. Potential fabrication processes or methodologies include: micro-encapsulation (for foam shells and thick ablators), phase-inversion technique (for CH foams), super-fast cooling techniques, emulsion technique, injection molding (for higher density foam shells), sputter coating (for density high-Z coating), permeation (for DT filling) and cryogenic fluidized beds (for layering of individual capsules). The cooling-induced deformation (CID) of polystyrene shells is characterized in detail (2 papers). Another paper deals with the fabrication of hollow pellets with high Z metal oxide coating of the inner surface. In order to achieve high density compression in laser experiments, the non-contact suspension of pellets is required, Japanese teams propose 2 ways to get it: magnetic suspension and the use of electromagnetic force. The last paper summarizes the major steps in cost reduction that will be taken to economically supply targets for IFE power plants. (A.C.)

  20. Target Chamber Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantillo, Anthony; Watson, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    A system has been developed to allow remote actuation of sensors in a high vacuum target chamber used with a particle accelerator. Typically, sensors of various types are placed into the target chamber at specific radial and angular positions relative to the beam line and target. The chamber is then evacuated and the experiments are performed for those sensor positions. Then, the chamber is opened, the sensors are repositioned to new angles or radii, and the process is repeated, with a separate pump-down cycle for each set of sensor positions. The new sensor positioning system allows scientists to pre-set the radii of up to a dozen sensors, and then remotely actuate their angular positions without breaking the vacuum of the target chamber. This reduces the time required to reposition sensors from 6 hours to 1 minute. The sensors are placed into one of two tracks that are separately actuated using vacuum-grade stepping motors. The positions of the sensors are verified using absolute optical rotary encoders, and the positions are accurate to 0.5 degrees. The positions of the sensors are electronically recorded and time-stamped after every change. User control is through a GUI using LabVIEW.

  1. ISOLDE back on target

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    Today, Friday 1 August, the ISOLDE installation, supplied by the beams of the PS Booster, restarted its physics programme. After a shutdown of almost a year and a half, there was a real buzz in the air as the first beam of protons hit the target of the first post-LS1 ISOLDE experiment.   One of the new target-handling robots installed by ISOLDE during LS1. Many improvements have been made to the ISOLDE installation during LS1. One of the main projects was the installation of new robots for handling the targets (see photo 1). “Our targets are bombarded by protons from the PS Booster’s beams and become very radioactive,” explains Maria Jose Garcia Borge, spokesperson for the ISOLDE collaboration. “They therefore need to be handled carefully, which is where the robots come in. The robots we had until now were already over 20 years old and were starting to suffer from the effects of radiation. So LS1 was a perfect opportunity to replace them with more moder...

  2. Enhanced target factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Akram; Abdollahi, Hamid; Maeder, Marcel

    2016-03-10

    Target testing or target factor analysis, TFA, is a well-established soft analysis method. TFA answers the question whether an independent target test vector measured at the same wavelengths as the collection of spectra in a data matrix can be excluded as the spectrum of one of the components in the system under investigation. Essentially, TFA cannot positively prove that a particular test spectrum is the true spectrum of one of the components, it can, only reject a spectrum. However, TFA will not reject, or in other words TFA will accept, many spectra which cannot be component spectra. Enhanced Target Factor Analysis, ETFA addresses the above problem. Compared with traditional TFA, ETFA results in a significantly narrower range of positive results, i.e. the chance of a false positive test result is dramatically reduced. ETFA is based on feasibility testing as described in Refs. [16-19]. The method has been tested and validated with computer generated and real data sets. PMID:26893084

  3. The targets of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongyu; Beevers, Christopher S; Huang, Shile

    2011-03-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), an orange-yellow component of turmeric or curry powder, is a polyphenol natural product isolated from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa. For centuries, curcumin has been used in some medicinal preparation or used as a food-coloring agent. In recent years, extensive in vitro and in vivo studies suggested curcumin has anticancer, antiviral, antiarthritic, anti-amyloid, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. The underlying mechanisms of these effects are diverse and appear to involve the regulation of various molecular targets, including transcription factors (such as nuclear factor-kB), growth factors (such as vascular endothelial cell growth factor), inflammatory cytokines (such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1 and interleukin 6), protein kinases (such as mammalian target of rapamycin, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and Akt) and other enzymes (such as cyclooxygenase 2 and 5 lipoxygenase). Thus, due to its efficacy and regulation of multiple targets, as well as its safety for human use, curcumin has received considerable interest as a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention and/or treatment of various malignant diseases, arthritis, allergies, Alzheimer's disease, and other inflammatory illnesses. This review summarizes various in vitro and in vivo pharmacological aspects of curcumin as well as the underlying action mechanisms. The recently identified molecular targets and signaling pathways modulated by curcumin are also discussed here. PMID:20955148

  4. Polarization discrimination between repeater false-target and radar target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI LongFei; WANG XueSong; XIAO ShunPing

    2009-01-01

    High fidelity repeater false-target badly affects a radar system's detecting, tracking, and data processing. It is an available approach of confronting false-target for radar that discriminates firstly and then eliminates. Whereas for the technique progress about the repeater false-target jam, it is more and more difficult to discriminate this jam in the time-domain, frequency-domain, or space-domain. The technique using polarization information to discriminate the target and false-target is discussed in this paper. With the difference that false-target signal vector's polarization ratio is fixed and target echo signal vector's polarization ratio is variational along with radar transmission signal's polarization, we transform the discrimination problem to beeline distinguish problem in the 2-dim complex space. The distributing characteristic expression of the false-target discrimination statistic is constructed, with which the discrimination ratio of false-target is analyzed. For the target case, the decomposed model of target scattering matrix and the concept of distinguish quantity are proposed. Then, the discrimination ratio of target can be forecasted according to target distinguish quantity. Thus, the performance of discrimination method has been analyzed integrally. The simulation results demonstrate the method in this paper is effective on the discrimination of target and false-target.

  5. Evolution with Drifting Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Kanade, Varun; Vaughan, Jennifer Wortman

    2010-01-01

    We consider the question of the stability of evolutionary algorithms to gradual changes, or drift, in the target concept. We define an algorithm to be resistant to drift if, for some inverse polynomial drift rate in the target function, it converges to accuracy 1 -- \\epsilon , with polynomial resources, and then stays within that accuracy indefinitely, except with probability \\epsilon , at any one time. We show that every evolution algorithm, in the sense of Valiant (2007; 2009), can be converted using the Correlational Query technique of Feldman (2008), into such a drift resistant algorithm. For certain evolutionary algorithms, such as for Boolean conjunctions, we give bounds on the rates of drift that they can resist. We develop some new evolution algorithms that are resistant to significant drift. In particular, we give an algorithm for evolving linear separators over the spherically symmetric distribution that is resistant to a drift rate of O(\\epsilon /n), and another algorithm over the more general prod...

  6. Physics of polarized targets

    CERN Document Server

    Niinikoski, Tapio

    2014-01-01

    For developing, building and operating solid polarized targets we need to understand several fields of physics that have seen sub stantial advances during the last 50 years. W e shall briefly review a selection of those that are important today. These are: 1) quantum statistical methods to describe saturation and relaxation in magnetic resonance; 2) equal spin temperature model for dy namic nuclear polarization; 3 ) weak saturation during NMR polarization measurement; 4 ) refrigeration using the quantum fluid properties of helium isotopes. These, combined with superconducting magnet technologies, permit today to reach nearly complete pola rization of almost any nuclear spins. Targets can be operated in frozen spin mode in rather low and inhomogeneous field of any orientation, and in DNP mode in beams of high intensity. Beyond such experiments of nuclear and particle physics, applications a re also emerging in macromolecular chemistry and in magnetic resonance imaging. This talk is a tribute to Michel Borghini...

  7. Autonomous Target Ranging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz;

    2003-01-01

    determination two ranging strategies are presented. One is an improved laser ranger with an effective range with non-cooperative targets of at least 10,000 km, demonstrated in ground tests. The accuracy of the laser ranging will be approximately 1 m. The laser ranger may furthermore be used for trajectory...... determination of nano-gravity probes, which will perform direct mass measurements of selected targets. The other is triangulation from two spacecraft. For this method it is important to distinguish between detection and tracking range, which will be different for Bering since different instruments are used for......For the deep space asteroid mission, Bering, the main goal is the detection and tracking of near Earth objects (NEOs) and asteroids. One of the key science instruments is the 0.3-m telescope used for imaging and tracking of the detected asteroidal objects. For efficient use of the observation time...

  8. Careful price level targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Waters , George A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines a class of interest rate rules that respond to public expectations and to lagged variables. Varying levels of commitment correspond to varying degrees of response to lagged output and targeting of the price level. If the response rises (unintentionally) above the optimal level, the outcome deteriorates severely. Hence, the optimal level of commitment is sensitive to the method of expectations formation and partial commitment is the robust, optimal policy.

  9. Targeting fragile X

    OpenAIRE

    Gantois, Ilse; Kooy, R. Frank

    2002-01-01

    Ten years after the identification of the gene responsible for fragile X syndrome, recent studies have revealed a list of mRNAs bound by the fragile X gene product and have identified specific sequences required for the interaction between the fragile X protein and its targets. These results are a breakthrough in understanding why absence of the fragile X protein leads to mental retardation.

  10. Inflation targeting and core inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Smith

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the interaction of core inflation and inflation targeting as a monetary policy regime. Interest in core inflation has grown because of inflation targeting. Core inflation is defined in numerous ways giving rise to many potential measures; this paper defines core inflation as the best forecaster of inflation. A cross-country study finds before the start of inflation targeting, but not after, core inflation differs between non-inflation targeters and inflation targeters. Thr...

  11. Targeted therapy for sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forscher C

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Charles Forscher,1 Monica Mita,2 Robert Figlin3 1Sarcoma Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Experimental Therapeutics Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Academic Development Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, and Division of Hematology/Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Sarcomas are tumors of mesenchymal origin that make up approximately 1% of human cancers. They may arise as primary tumors in either bone or soft tissue, with approximately 11,280 soft tissue tumors and 2,650 bone tumors diagnosed each year in the United States. There are at least 50 different subtypes of soft tissue sarcoma, with new ones described with ever-increasing frequency. One way to look at sarcomas is to divide them into categories on the basis of their genetic make-up. One group of sarcomas has an identifiable, relatively simple genetic signature, such as the X:18 translocation seen in synovial sarcoma or the 11:22 translocation seen in Ewing's sarcoma. These specific abnormalities often lead to the presence of fusion proteins, such as EWS-FLI1 in Ewing's sarcoma, which are helpful as diagnostic tools and may become therapeutic targets in the future. Another group of sarcomas is characterized by complex genetic abnormalities as seen in leiomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and undifferentiated sarcoma. It is important to keep these distinctions in mind when contemplating the development of targeted agents for sarcomas. Different abnormalities in sarcoma could be divided by tumor subtype or by the molecular or pathway abnormality. However, some existing drugs or drugs in development may interfere with or alter more than one of the presented pathways. Keywords: sarcoma, targeted agents, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mTor inhibition

  12. Low intensity beam target unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    This is a wheel fitted with many targets around its periphery (each with three longitudinally arranged thin rods) of which one is placed into the beam via a rotation of the wheel. Upstream of each target is placed a luminescent screen, aligbed on each target axis and viewed with a TV camera, to make sure that one is hitting the target. This target unit was probably used to study target's behaviour (like beam heating). Gualtiero Del Torre stands on the left, Pierre Gerdil on the right.

  13. Target Housing Material Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-11

    With gas cooling, heat transfer coefficients are low compared to water. The benefit of gas from a heat transfer point of view is that there is really no upper temperature limit for the coolant, as compared to water, which is limited ultimately by the critical point, and in practice the critical heat flux. In our case with parallel flow channels, water is limited to even lower operating limits by nucleate boiling. So gas can get as hot as the containment material will allow, but to get the density and heat transfer up to something reasonable, we must also increase pressure, thus increasing stress on the containment, namely the front and back faces. We are designing to ASME BPVC, which, for most materials allows a maximum stress of UTS/3. So we want the highest possible UTS. For reference, the front face stress in the 12 mm target at 300 psi was about 90 MPa. The inconel 718 allowable stress at 900°C is 1/3 of 517 or 172 MPa. So we are in a very safe place, but the uTS is dropping rapidly with temperature above 900°C. As we increase target diameter, the challenge will be to keep the stress down. We are probably looking at keeping the allowable at or above the present value, and at as high a temperature as possible.

  14. Some Issues in Inflation Targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Haldane

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the operational issues relevant to the implementation of an inflation-targeting regime. In particular it focuses on: whether inflation targeting is 'new'; whether (and how) the forward-looking nature of inflation-targeting helps to prevent instabilities in inflation; whether inflation-targeting potentially destabilises output; and whether it requires too much knowledge on the part of the authorities. The paper argues that none of these propositions is in general c...

  15. Targeting of Antibodies using Aptamers

    OpenAIRE

    Missailidis, Sotiris

    2003-01-01

    The chapter presents a methodology for the rapid selection of aptamers against antibody targets. It is a detailed account of the various methodological steps that describe the selection of aptamers, including PCR steps, buffers to be used, target immobilisation, partitioning and amplification of aptamers, clonning and sequencing, to results in high affinity and specificity ligands for the chosen target antibody.

  16. STRATEGIES (LEVELS) OF TARGET MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Ramakrishna Mohan Rao Munaga

    2015-01-01

    Generally target marketing can be carried out in several different levels. They are Target-Market Strategies or Mass (Undifferentiated) Marketing: Choosing the Number of Markets to Target, Multi segment (Differentiated) Marketing, Concentrated Marketing or Niche Marketing, Micro Marketing or Single or Individual Marketing. Firms that compete in the global marketplace can use any combination of the segmenting strategies or none at all.

  17. After treat-to-target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, Richard J; D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Naredo, Esperanza;

    2012-01-01

    rheumatologists who have recently formed a research network - the Targeted Ultrasound Initiative (TUI) group. The statement proposes that targeting therapy to PD activity provides superior outcomes compared with treating to clinical targets alone and introduces the rationale for a new randomised trial using...

  18. After treat-to-target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, Richard J; D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Naredo, Esperanza;

    2012-01-01

    rheumatologists who have recently formed a research network--the Targeted Ultrasound Initiative (TUI) group. The statement proposes that targeting therapy to PD activity provides superior outcomes compared with treating to clinical targets alone and introduces the rationale for a new randomised trial using...

  19. Targets for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes some of the basic principles of fusion target implosions, using some simple targets designed for irradiation by ion beams. Present estimates are that ion beams with 1-5 MJ, and 100-500 TW will be required to ignite high gain targets. (orig.)

  20. ORION laser target diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  1. ORION laser target diagnosticsa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K.; Wright, M. J.; Hood, B. A.; Kemshall, P.

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  2. ORION laser target diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, C D; Edwards, R D; Andrew, J E; James, S F; Gardner, M D; Comley, A J; Vaughan, K; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Rothman, S D; Daykin, S; Masoero, S J; Palmer, J B; Meadowcroft, A L; Williams, B M; Gumbrell, E T; Fyrth, J D; Brown, C R D; Hill, M P; Oades, K; Wright, M J; Hood, B A; Kemshall, P

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics. PMID:23126904

  3. Analysis of CBCT image registration methods and the planning target volume margins for liver cancers using lipiodol as a direct surrogate for target localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the transitional shifts between with different sets of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and the planning CT for liver cancer patients, and calculate the margins from clinical target volume (CTV) to the planning target volume (PTV) with and without image guided radiotherapy (IGRT). Methods: Five liver cancer patients received radiotherapy after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). The first CBCT images (CBCT1) were obtained with Elekta CBCT plus active breathing control (ABC) system before treatment. The second CBCT images (CBCT2) were obtained after correcting the set-up errors and the third CBCT images (CBCT3) were obtained after treatment. The CBCT images were registered and matched with the planning CT images using lipiodol as a direct surrogate for target localization. The PTV margins were calculated by comparing the shift between planning CT and CBCT according to formula M =2.5 (Σ doctor2 + Σ set-up2 + Σ transter2 )1/2. Paired t-test was used to compare the differences between the results from CBCT1, CBCT2 and CBCT3. Results: The average transition shifts in the left-right (LR), superior-inferior (SI) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions were 0.254, -0.612, 0.314 cm between planning CT and CBCT1; were 0.020, 0.014, -0.064 cm between planning CT and CBCT2; and they were -0.004, 0.042, -0.040 cm between planning CT and CBCT3. The PTV margins were LR 0.96 cm, SI 0.96 cm and AP 0.83 cm without IGRT, and LR 0.67 cm, SI 0.68 cm and AP 0.58 cm with IGRT. Conclusions: The PTV margins can be reduced by 3 mm with IGRT for liver cancer using lipiodol as a direct surrogate for target localization. (authors)

  4. Hypoxia targeting copper complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance and incidence of tumour hypoxia, its measurement and current treatments available, including pharmacological and radiopharmacological methods of targeting hypoxia, are discussed. A variety of in vitro and in vivo methods for imposing hypoxia have been developed and are reviewed. Copper, its chemistry, biochemistry and radiochemistry, the potential for use of copper radionuclides and its use to date in this field is considered with particular reference to the thiosemicarbazones. Their biological activity, metal chelation, in vitro and in vivo studies of their radiocopper complexes and the potential for their use as hypoxia targeting radiopharmaceuticals is described. The reduction of the copper(II) complex to copper(l), its pivotal importance in their biological behaviour, and the potential for manipulation of this to effect hypoxia selectivity are described. An in vitro method for assessing the hypoxia selectivity of radiopharmaceuticals is reported. The rapid deoxygenation and high viability of a mammalian cell culture in this system is discussed and factors which may affect the cellular uptake of a radiopharmaceutical are described. The design, synthesis and complexation with copper and radiocopper of a range of bis(thiosemicarbazones) is reported. Synthesis of these compounds is simple giving high yields of pure products. The characteristics of the radiocopper complexes (64Cu) including lipophilicity and redox activity are reported (reduction potentials in the range -0.314 - -0.590 V). High cellular uptakes of the radiocopper complexes of the ligands, in hypoxic and normoxic EMT6 and CHO320 cells, were observed. Extremes of selectivity are shown ranging from the hypoxia selective 64Cu(II)ATSM to normoxic cell selective 64Cu(II)GTS. The selectivities observed are compared with the physico chemical characteristics of the complexes. A good correlation exists between selectivity of the complex and its Cu(II)/Cu(I) reduction potential, with hypoxia

  5. Hypoxia targeting copper complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dearling, J.L

    1998-11-01

    The importance and incidence of tumour hypoxia, its measurement and current treatments available, including pharmacological and radiopharmacological methods of targeting hypoxia, are discussed. A variety of in vitro and in vivo methods for imposing hypoxia have been developed and are reviewed. Copper, its chemistry, biochemistry and radiochemistry, the potential for use of copper radionuclides and its use to date in this field is considered with particular reference to the thiosemicarbazones. Their biological activity, metal chelation, in vitro and in vivo studies of their radiocopper complexes and the potential for their use as hypoxia targeting radiopharmaceuticals is described. The reduction of the copper(II) complex to copper(l), its pivotal importance in their biological behaviour, and the potential for manipulation of this to effect hypoxia selectivity are described. An in vitro method for assessing the hypoxia selectivity of radiopharmaceuticals is reported. The rapid deoxygenation and high viability of a mammalian cell culture in this system is discussed and factors which may affect the cellular uptake of a radiopharmaceutical are described. The design, synthesis and complexation with copper and radiocopper of a range of bis(thiosemicarbazones) is reported. Synthesis of these compounds is simple giving high yields of pure products. The characteristics of the radiocopper complexes ({sup 64}Cu) including lipophilicity and redox activity are reported (reduction potentials in the range -0.314 - -0.590 V). High cellular uptakes of the radiocopper complexes of the ligands, in hypoxic and normoxic EMT6 and CHO320 cells, were observed. Extremes of selectivity are shown ranging from the hypoxia selective {sup 64}Cu(II)ATSM to normoxic cell selective {sup 64}Cu(II)GTS. The selectivities observed are compared with the physico chemical characteristics of the complexes. A good correlation exists between selectivity of the complex and its Cu(II)/Cu(I) reduction potential

  6. Molecularly targeted therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It is generally agreed that current focus of nuclear medicine development should be on molecular imaging and therapy. Though, the widespread use of the terminology 'molecular imaging' is quite recent, nuclear medicine has used molecular imaging techniques for more than 20 years ago. A variety of radiopharmaceuticals have been introduced for the internal therapy of malignant and inflammatory lesions in nuclear medicine. In the field of bio/medical imaging, nuclear medicine is one of the disciplines which has the privilege of organized and well developed chemistry/ pharmacy section; radio-chemistry/radiopharmacy. Fundamental principles have been developed more than 40 years ago and advanced research is going well into postgenomic era. The genomic revolution and dramatically increased insight in the molecular mechanisms underlying pathology have led to paradigm shift in drug development. Likewise does in the nuclear medicine. Here, the author will present current clinical and pre-clinical therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals based on molecular targets such as membrane-bound receptors, enzymes, nucleic acids, sodium iodide symporter, etc, in correlation with fundamentals of radiopharmacy. (author)

  7. Magnetic targeted drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Wiedmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of death from cancer in both men and women. Treatment by intravenous or oral administration of chemotherapy agents results in serious and often treatment-limiting side effects. Delivery of drugs directly to the lung by inhalation of an aerosol holds the promise of achieving a higher concentration in the lung with lower blood levels. To further enhance the selective lung deposition, it may be possible to target deposition by using external magnetic fields to direct the delivery of drug coupled to magnetic particles. Moreover, alternating magnetic fields can be used to induce particle heating, which in turn controls the drug release rate with the appropriate thermal sensitive material.With this goal, superparamagetic nanoparticles (SPNP were prepared and characterized, and enhanced magnetic deposition was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. SPNPs were also incorporated into a lipid-based/SPNP aerosol formulation, and drug release was shown to be controlled by thermal activation. Because of the inherent imaging potential of SPNPs, this use of nanotechnology offers the possibility of coupling the diagnosis of lung cancer to drug release, which perhaps will ultimately provide the “magic bullet” that Paul Ehrlich originally sought.

  8. ICF target positioning robot system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the function analysis of target positioner for inertial confinement fusion, a kind of ICF target positioning robot system is designed to realize the adjustment and the alignment of a target. The robot system includes a target storage sub-system, a target exchange subsystem, a target transport subsystem and a 6-degree of freedom precision parallel robot subsystem, the structure and principle of every subsystem are dissertated. The system realizes micro scale position by parallel structure which is in the front of the system, and has the advantages of low mass, high stiffness, small cone angle, small volume and high precision. The robot system can position a target into a very small micro scale scope around the center of the target chamber whose diameter is several meters, the precision of the position reaches micro scale. Motion parameter of the positioning robot system has been tested. Experiment proves that the robot system has realized precision target position and target exchange on the condition of vacuum. (authors)

  9. Windowless target: Design of the XT-ADS spallation target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of the XT-ADS spallation target is performed within the European integrated project EUROTRANS (FP6 Contract FI6W-516520) that has started in April 2005. At the current status of the spallation target design process, the boundary conditions for the spallation target loop with respect to the XT-ADS performance requirements and the design of the subcritical core and primary system have been established. The next steps will concentrate on further development of the spallation target nozzle, the vacuum and spallation product confinement system and the pumping, LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) and cooling system

  10. Facility target insert shielding assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-06

    Main objective of this report is to assess the basic shielding requirements for the vertical target insert and retrieval port. We used the baseline design for the vertical target insert in our calculations. The insert sits in the 12”-diameter cylindrical shaft extending from the service alley in the top floor of the facility all the way down to the target location. The target retrieval mechanism is a long rod with the target assembly attached and running the entire length of the vertical shaft. The insert also houses the helium cooling supply and return lines each with 2” diameter. In the present study we focused on calculating the neutron and photon dose rate fields on top of the target insert/retrieval mechanism in the service alley. Additionally, we studied a few prototypical configurations of the shielding layers in the vertical insert as well as on the top.

  11. Oxide Fiber Targets at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Köster, U; Carminati, D; Catherall, R; Cederkäll, J; Correia, J G; Crepieux, B; Dietrich, M; Elder, K; Fedosseev, V; Fraile-Prieto, L M; Franchoo, S; Fynbo, H O U; Georg, U; Giles, T; Joinet, A; Jonsson, O C; Kirchner, R; Lau, C; Lettry, Jacques; Maier, H J; Mishin, V I; Oinonen, M; Peräjärvi, K; Ravn, H L; Rinaldi, T; Santana-Leitner, M; Wahl, U; Weissman, L

    2003-01-01

    Many elements are rapidly released from oxide matrices. Some oxide powder targets show a fast sintering, thus losing their favorable release characteristics. Loosely packed oxyde fiber targets are less critical since they may maintain their open structure even when starting to fuse together at some contact points. The experience with various oxyde fiber targets (titania, zirconia, ceria and thoria) used in the last years at ISOLDE is reviewed. For short-lived isotopes of Cu, Ga and Xe the zirconia and ceria targets respectively provided significantly higher yields than any other target (metal foils, oxide powders, etc.) tested before. Titania fibers, which were not commercially available, were produced in a relic process by impregnation of a rayon felt in a titanium chloride solution and subsequent calcination by heating the dried felt in air. Thoria fibers were obtained either by the same process or by burning commercial gas lantern mantle cloth. In the future a beryllia fiber target could be used to produce...

  12. The OLYMPUS Internal Hydrogen Target

    CERN Document Server

    Bernauer, J C; Ciullo, G; Henderson, B S; Ihloff, E; Kelsey, J; Lenisa, P; Milner, R; Schmidt, A; Statera, M

    2014-01-01

    An internal hydrogen target system was developed for the OLYMPUS experiment at DESY, in Hamburg, Germany. The target consisted of a long, thin-walled, tubular cell within an aluminum scattering chamber. Hydrogen entered at the center of the cell and exited through the ends, where it was removed from the beamline by a multistage pumping system. A cryogenic coldhead cooled the target cell to counteract heating from the beam and increase the density of hydrogen in the target. A fixed collimator protected the cell from synchrotron radiation and the beam halo. A series of wakefield suppressors reduced heating from beam wakefields. The target system was installed within the DORIS storage ring and was successfully operated during the course of the OLYMPUS experiment in 2012. Information on the design, fabrication, and performance of the target system is reported.

  13. Target support for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General Atomics (GA) plays an important industrial support role for the US Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program in the area of target technology. This includes three major activities: target fabrication support, target handling systems development, and target chamber design. The work includes target fabrication for existing ICF experiments, target and target system development for future experiments, and target research and target chamber design for experiments on future machines, such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

  14. Target Selection and Deselection at the Berkeley StructuralGenomics Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandonia, John-Marc; Kim, Sung-Hou; Brenner, Steven E.

    2005-03-22

    At the Berkeley Structural Genomics Center (BSGC), our goalis to obtain a near-complete structural complement of proteins in theminimal organisms Mycoplasma genitalium and M. pneumoniae, two closelyrelated pathogens. Current targets for structure determination have beenselected in six major stages, starting with those predicted to be mosttractable to high throughput study and likely to yield new structuralinformation. We report on the process used to select these proteins, aswell as our target deselection procedure. Target deselection reducesexperimental effort by eliminating targets similar to those recentlysolved by the structural biology community or other centers. We measurethe impact of the 69 structures solved at the BSGC as of July 2004 onstructure prediction coverage of the M. pneumoniae and M. genitaliumproteomes. The number of Mycoplasma proteins for which thefold couldfirst be reliably assigned based on structures solved at the BSGC (24 M.pneumoniae and 21 M. genitalium) is approximately 25 percent of the totalresulting from work at all structural genomics centers and the worldwidestructural biology community (94 M. pneumoniae and 86M. genitalium)during the same period. As the number of structures contributed by theBSGC during that period is less than 1 percent of the total worldwideoutput, the benefits of a focused target selection strategy are apparent.If the structures of all current targets were solved, the percentage ofM. pneumoniae proteins for which folds could be reliably assigned wouldincrease from approximately 57 percent (391 of 687) at present to around80 percent (550 of 687), and the percentage of the proteome that could beaccurately modeled would increase from around 37 percent (254 of 687) toabout 64 percent (438 of 687). In M. genitalium, the percentage of theproteome that could be structurally annotated based on structures of ourremaining targets would rise from 72 percent (348 of 486) to around 76percent (371 of 486), with the

  15. Target properties and nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the properties of the target on nuclear data was shown. In the case of targets consisting of fissionable material, this influence was demonstrated in experiments involving fission cross-section, average number of neutrons, and prompt fission neutron spectrum. The experimental methods for determining certain corrections were analysed. The method of tritium density determination for a solid target used as neutron source was likewise demonstrated. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs

  16. 'Inflation Targeting and Inflation Persistence'

    OpenAIRE

    George J. Bratsiotis; Jakob Madsen; Christopher Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that the adoption of an inflation target reduces the persistence of inflation. We develop the theoretical literature on inflation persistence by introducing a Taylor rule for monetary policy into a model of persistence and showing that inflation targets reduce inflation persistence. We investigate changes in the time series properties of inflation in seven countries that introduced inflation targets in the late 1980s or early 1990s. We find that the persistenc...

  17. Learning About Intervention Target Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Michael W. Klein; Karen K. Lewis

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for evaluating how market participants' beliefs about foreign exchange target zones change as they learn about central bank intervention policy. In order to examine this behavior, we first generalize the standard target zone model to allow for intra-marginal intervention. Intra-marginal intervention implies that the position of market participants' beliefs about the target zone can be determined from their beliefs about the likelihood of intervention. As an app...

  18. Target repurposing for neglected diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Pollastri, Michael P.; Campbell, Robert K.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diseases are an enormous burden to global health and since drug discovery is costly, those infectious diseases that affect the developing world are often not pursued by commercial drug-discovery efforts. Therefore, pragmatic means by which new therapeutics can be discovered are needed. One such approach is target repurposing, where pathogen targets are matched with homologous human targets that have been pursued for drug discovery for other indications. In many cases, the medicinal...

  19. Targeting Nominal Income: A Note

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth D. West

    1986-01-01

    This paper compares nominal income and monetary targets in a standard aggregate demand - aggregate supply framework. If the desirability of policies is measured by their effect on the unconditional variance of output, nominal income targeting is preferable if and only if the aggregate elasticity of demand for real balances is greater than one. This is precisely the opposite of the condition that in Bean (1984) is sufficient to make nominal income targeting preferable.This points out the impor...

  20. Nominal Income and Inflation Targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Arayssi, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a macro- economic model in the area of monetary policy game theory is extended to one-sided dismissal rules concerning observed nominal output and inflation targets for the central banker. These rules specify firing the central banker if some observed policy targets have been exceeded. Such rules are shown to reduce inflationary bias if the central banker perceives her reappointment chances as being strong and is preferred to discretionary monetary policy. Various policy targets...

  1. The Bering Target Tracking Instrumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Denver, Troelz; Jørgensen, John Leif; Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn

    2003-01-01

    The key science instrument on the Bering satellite mission is a relative small telescope with an entrance aperture of 300 mm and a focal length between 500 and 1000 mm. The detection of potential targets is performed by one of the target scanning advanced stellar compasses (ASCs). This procedure results in a simple prioritized list of right ascension, declination, proper motion and intensity of each prospective target. The telescope itself has a dedicated ASC Camera Head Unit (CHU) mounted on...

  2. Inertial-confinement-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are made as simple flat discs, as hollow shells or as complicated multilayer structures. Many techniques have been devised for producing the targets. Glass and metal shells are made by using drop and bubble techniques. Solid hydrogen shells are also produced by adapting old methods to the solution of modern problems. Some of these techniques, problems and solutions are discussed. In addition, the applications of many of the techniques to fabrication of ICF targets is presented

  3. Limits of Inflation Targeting Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Niculescu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the trade-off between output volatility and the variability of the inflation rate around its target (Romanian case. The optimal choice for National Bank of Romania (NBR, in our opinion, is the flexible inflation targeting. For this purpose, NBR must explain the loss function and the optimal monetary policy rule. We then argued that this Romanian authority – NBR – can substantially improve its credibility under inflation targeting policy regime by becoming more accountable and transparent. Is the direct inflation targeting the best choice for the monetary policy regime in Romanian economy?

  4. Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for kidney cancer Targeted therapies for kidney cancer Biologic therapy (immunotherapy) for kidney cancer Chemotherapy for kidney cancer Pain control for kidney cancer Treatment choices by stage for ...

  5. The Bering Target Tracking Instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz; Jørgensen, John Leif; Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn

    2003-01-01

    's pointing direction. To achieve fast tracking over a large solid angle, the telescope pointing is achieved by means of a folding mirror in the optical pathway. When a prospective target approaches the telescope FOV, the ASC on the secondary will guide the folding mirror into position such that the target is...... inside the telescope FOV. During the telescope observation time, the ASC will constantly control the folding mirror to correctly position the target at the center of the telescope, basically performing a standard telescope tracking service. The telescope will alter the initial target acquisition track...

  6. 50 CFR 216.254 - Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... safety for marine mammals with a radius of no less than 5 nm (9.3 km) for single bombs and 10 nm (18.5 km) for double bombs and a buffer zone from the outer edge of the safety zone with a radius of at least 2.5 nm (4.6 km) for single bombs and 5 nm (18.5 km) for double bombs. (b) Prior to a JASSM or...

  7. 36 CFR 254.15 - Title standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subdivisions thereof (36 CFR part 251, subpart A). (iii) Any personal property owned by the non-Federal party... lands affected by a land exchange may be entitled to relocation benefits under 49 CFR 24.2. Unless otherwise provided by law or regulation (49 CFR 24.101(a)(1)), relocation benefits are not applicable...

  8. 36 CFR 254.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Agency regulations at 40 CFR part 302. Highest and best use means an appraiser's... public domain for national forest purposes and the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 (30 U.S.C. 1001 et seq.), but not the Materials Act of 1947 (30 U.S.C. 601 et seq.). Outstanding interests are rights...

  9. 36 CFR 254.9 - Appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 1989 (FIRREA) (12 U.S.C. 3331). In the event a State or Territory does not have approved policies... summary of facts and conclusions; (2) The purpose and/or the function of the appraisal, a definition of...) Include historic, wildlife, recreation, wilderness, scenic, cultural, or other resource values...

  10. 7 CFR 1901.254 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... buildings, schools, transportation, traffic, and law enforcement. (5) Loans to develop community irrigation... assessment. However, when the State Director or County Supervisor finds or has had communication or obtains... improve: (i) Community water, sanitary sewage, solid waste disposal, and storm waste water...

  11. 36 CFR 254.10 - Bargaining; arbitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... determine values. Bargaining or any other process must be based on an objective analysis of the valuation in... determine values. If arbitration occurs, it must be conducted in accordance with the real estate valuation... from the date of the arbitration decision. (b) Arbitration is limited to the disputed valuation of...

  12. Therapeutic Targeting of Telomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Kathrin; Walter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length and cell function can be preserved by the human reverse transcriptase telomerase (hTERT), which synthesizes the new telomeric DNA from a RNA template, but is normally restricted to cells needing a high proliferative capacity, such as stem cells. Consequently, telomerase-based therapies to elongate short telomeres are developed, some of which have successfully reached the stage I in clinical trials. Telomerase is also permissive for tumorigenesis and 90% of all malignant tumors use telomerase to obtain immortality. Thus, reversal of telomerase upregulation in tumor cells is a potential strategy to treat cancer. Natural and small-molecule telomerase inhibitors, immunotherapeutic approaches, oligonucleotide inhibitors, and telomerase-directed gene therapy are useful treatment strategies. Telomerase is more widely expressed than any other tumor marker. The low expression in normal tissues, together with the longer telomeres in normal stem cells versus cancer cells, provides some degree of specificity with low risk of toxicity. However, long term telomerase inhibition may elicit negative effects in highly-proliferative cells which need telomerase for survival, and it may interfere with telomere-independent physiological functions. Moreover, only a few hTERT molecules are required to overcome senescence in cancer cells, and telomerase inhibition requires proliferating cells over a sufficient number of population doublings to induce tumor suppressive senescence. These limitations may explain the moderate success rates in many clinical studies. Despite extensive studies, only one vaccine and one telomerase antagonist are routinely used in clinical work. For complete eradication of all subpopulations of cancer cells a simultaneous targeting of several mechanisms will likely be needed. Possible technical improvements have been proposed including the development of more specific inhibitors, methods to increase the efficacy of vaccination methods, and

  13. Therapeutic Targeting of Telomerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Kathrin; Walter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length and cell function can be preserved by the human reverse transcriptase telomerase (hTERT), which synthesizes the new telomeric DNA from a RNA template, but is normally restricted to cells needing a high proliferative capacity, such as stem cells. Consequently, telomerase-based therapies to elongate short telomeres are developed, some of which have successfully reached the stage I in clinical trials. Telomerase is also permissive for tumorigenesis and 90% of all malignant tumors use telomerase to obtain immortality. Thus, reversal of telomerase upregulation in tumor cells is a potential strategy to treat cancer. Natural and small-molecule telomerase inhibitors, immunotherapeutic approaches, oligonucleotide inhibitors, and telomerase-directed gene therapy are useful treatment strategies. Telomerase is more widely expressed than any other tumor marker. The low expression in normal tissues, together with the longer telomeres in normal stem cells versus cancer cells, provides some degree of specificity with low risk of toxicity. However, long term telomerase inhibition may elicit negative effects in highly-proliferative cells which need telomerase for survival, and it may interfere with telomere-independent physiological functions. Moreover, only a few hTERT molecules are required to overcome senescence in cancer cells, and telomerase inhibition requires proliferating cells over a sufficient number of population doublings to induce tumor suppressive senescence. These limitations may explain the moderate success rates in many clinical studies. Despite extensive studies, only one vaccine and one telomerase antagonist are routinely used in clinical work. For complete eradication of all subpopulations of cancer cells a simultaneous targeting of several mechanisms will likely be needed. Possible technical improvements have been proposed including the development of more specific inhibitors, methods to increase the efficacy of vaccination methods, and

  14. Therapeutic Targeting of Telomerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Jäger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Telomere length and cell function can be preserved by the human reverse transcriptase telomerase (hTERT, which synthesizes the new telomeric DNA from a RNA template, but is normally restricted to cells needing a high proliferative capacity, such as stem cells. Consequently, telomerase-based therapies to elongate short telomeres are developed, some of which have successfully reached the stage I in clinical trials. Telomerase is also permissive for tumorigenesis and 90% of all malignant tumors use telomerase to obtain immortality. Thus, reversal of telomerase upregulation in tumor cells is a potential strategy to treat cancer. Natural and small-molecule telomerase inhibitors, immunotherapeutic approaches, oligonucleotide inhibitors, and telomerase-directed gene therapy are useful treatment strategies. Telomerase is more widely expressed than any other tumor marker. The low expression in normal tissues, together with the longer telomeres in normal stem cells versus cancer cells, provides some degree of specificity with low risk of toxicity. However, long term telomerase inhibition may elicit negative effects in highly-proliferative cells which need telomerase for survival, and it may interfere with telomere-independent physiological functions. Moreover, only a few hTERT molecules are required to overcome senescence in cancer cells, and telomerase inhibition requires proliferating cells over a sufficient number of population doublings to induce tumor suppressive senescence. These limitations may explain the moderate success rates in many clinical studies. Despite extensive studies, only one vaccine and one telomerase antagonist are routinely used in clinical work. For complete eradication of all subpopulations of cancer cells a simultaneous targeting of several mechanisms will likely be needed. Possible technical improvements have been proposed including the development of more specific inhibitors, methods to increase the efficacy of vaccination

  15. Analysis of rubella virus infection among pregnant women in 36 254 cases%36254例妊娠期孕妇风疹病毒感染状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    索庆丽; 胡晞江; 姚婷

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the rubella virus(RV) infection and susceptibility condition among pregnant women in Wuhan maternal and child health hospital for 10 years,and to provide references for the prevention of pregnancy RV infection and congenital rubella syndrome(CRS). Methods ELISA was used to measure the RV-IgM and RV-IgG in the serum samples of 36 254 cases of RV infected pregnant women,which were divided into a variety of infection models,and we used two or more group x2 test for statistical analysis. Results The positive rate of RV-IgM among pregnant women was 1. 52%,of which the primary RV infection during pregnancy was 1. 02% ;the RV susceptibility rate during middle pregnancy was significantly higher than early pregnancy, recent RV uninfected and immunized pregnant women in early pregnancy were significantly higher than middle and later pregnancy; RV susceptible rate in pregnant women increased significantly with increasing age trend. Conclusion The recent RV infection rate of pregnant women in that hospital for 10 years is at an intermediate level. RV natural infection rate was higher among childbearing aged and pregnant women. The health care institutions at all levels should strengthen the management of RV susceptible pregnant women during early and middle pregnancy and guide the susceptible women of childbearing age to accept vaccination and prevent aged pregnant women from RV infection.%目的 调查武汉市妇幼保健院10年妊娠期孕妇风疹病毒(RV)感染和易感状况,为预防妊娠期RV感染和胎儿先天性风疹综合征(CRS)提供参考依据.方法 用酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)检测36 254例孕妇血清中RV-IgM和RV-IgG两项指标,将其分为多种感染模式,采用两组或多组比较的χ2检验进行统计分析.结果 孕妇RV-IgM阳性率为1.52%,其中,妊娠期RV原发感染孕妇为1.02%;中孕期RV易感率显著高于早孕;早孕期近期未感染RV且对其具有免疫力的孕妇显著高于中、晚孕期

  16. Radiopharmaceuticals targeting melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, T.Q.; Berghofer, P.; Liu, X.; Greguric, I.; Dikic, B.; Ballantyne, P.; Mattner, F.; Nguyen, V.; Loc' h, C.; Katsifis, A. [Radiopharmaceuticals Research Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, N.S.W., Sydney (Australia)

    2008-02-15

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers known with a high rate of mortality and increasing global incidence. So, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for either diagnostic or therapeutic purposes could make enormous contributions to melanoma patient health care. We have been studying melanoma tumours through several targeting mechanisms including melanin or specific receptor based radiopharmaceuticals Structure activity studies indicate that the substitution patterns on radioiodinated benzamides significantly influence the uptake mechanism from melanin to sigma-receptor binding. Furthermore, the position of the iodine as well as the presence of key functional groups and substituents has resulted in compounds with varying degrees of activity uptake and retention in tumours. From these results, a novel molecule 2-(2-(4-(4-iodo benzyl)piperazin-1-yl)-2-oxo-ethyl)isoindoline- 1,3-dione (M.E.L.037) was synthesized, labelled with iodine-123 and evaluated for application in melanoma tumour scintigraphy and radiotherapy. The tumour imaging potential of {sup 123}IM.E.L.037 was studied in vivo in C.57 B.L./ 6 J female mice bearing the B.16 F.0. murine melanoma tumour and in BALB/c nude mice bearing the A.375 human amelanotic melanoma tumour by biodistribution, competition studies and by SPECT imaging. {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037 exhibited high and rapid uptake in the B.16 F.0 melanoma tumour at 1 h (13 % I.D./g) increasing with time to reach 25 % I.D./g at 6 h. A significant uptake was also observed in the eyes (2% I.D., at 3-6 h p.i.) of black mice. No uptake was observed in the tumour or in the eyes of nude mice bearing the A.375 tumour. Due to high uptake and long retention in the tumour and rapid body clearance, standardized uptake values(S.U.V.) of {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037 were 30 and 60, at 24 and 48 h p.i.,respectively. SPECT imaging of mice bearing the B.16 melanoma indicated the radioactivity was predominately located in the tumour followed by the eyes, while no

  17. LAMPF polarized 13C targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethylene glycol, 1-butanol, and toluene highly enriched in 13C have been used at LAMPF to produce dynamically polarized 13C targets for scattering experiments with protons and pions. Preparation of the materials and characteristic properties of these targets are described. 17 refs., 1 fig

  18. High performance inertial fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target designs are considered which may have very high gains (approximately 1000) and low power requirements (< 100 TW) for input energies of approximately one megajoule. These include targets having very low density shells, ultra thin shells, central ignitors, magnetic insulation, and non-ablative acceleration

  19. Treating rheumatoid arthritis to target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolen, Josef S; Aletaha, Daniel; Bijlsma, Johannes W J;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aiming at therapeutic targets has reduced the risk of organ failure in many diseases such as diabetes or hypertension. Such targets have not been defined for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). OBJECTIVE: /st> To develop recommendations for achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes in RA. METHODS...

  20. Treating rheumatoid arthritis to target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolen, Josef S; Breedveld, Ferdinand C; Burmester, Gerd R;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reaching the therapeutic target of remission or low-disease activity has improved outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) significantly. The treat-to-target recommendations, formulated in 2010, have provided a basis for implementation of a strategic approach towards this...

  1. Targeted anti-cancerous therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowning decades of efforts in fundamental and applied research, the first generation of targeted anti cancerous drugs is now on the market. Drugs coming from a new approach, conceived from molecular knowledge of cancer and directed against beforehand identified targets. In theory: a miracle of precision and technical success. In practice: a new sources of questions and new problems. (N.C.)

  2. Target recognition by wavelet transform

    CERN Document Server

    Li Zheng Dong; He Wu Liang; Pei Chun Lan; Peng Wen; SongChen; Zheng Xiao Dong

    2002-01-01

    Wavelet transform has an important character of multi-resolution power, which presents pyramid structure, and this character coincides the way by which people distinguish object from coarse to fineness and from large to tiny. In addition to it, wavelet transform benefits to reducing image noise, simplifying calculation, and embodying target image characteristic point. A method of target recognition by wavelet transform is provided

  3. High-Purity Chromium Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Rudoy, A.; Milman, Yu.; Korzhova, N.

    1995-01-01

    A procedure for producing large-scale chromium ingots by means of induction-arc melting was developed. From the high-purity, low-alloyed chromium ingots obtained, chromium targets were produced by of thermoplastic treatment techniques. The method of electron-beam evaporation of high-purity chromium was also used for production of targets.

  4. Nominal GDP: Target or Benchmark?

    OpenAIRE

    Hetzel, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Some observers have argued that the Federal Reserve would best fulfill its mandate by adopting a target for nominal gross domestic product (GDP). Insights from the monetarist tradition suggest that nominal GDP targeting could be destabilizing. However, adopting benchmarks for both nominal and real GDP could offer useful information about when monetary policy is too tight or too loose.

  5. Target recognition by wavelet transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wavelet transform has an important character of multi-resolution power, which presents pyramid structure, and this character coincides the way by which people distinguish object from coarse to fineness and from large to tiny. In addition to it, wavelet transform benefits to reducing image noise, simplifying calculation, and embodying target image characteristic point. A method of target recognition by wavelet transform is provided

  6. ISOLDE target zone control room

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Operating the ISOLDE target handling robots from the dedicated control room in building 197. Monitors showing the movements of the robots (GPS in this case) in the target zone. The footage shows the actual operation by the operator as well as the different equipment such as camera electronics, camera motor controls, camera monitors and Kuka robot controls touch panel.

  7. The proteome targets of intracellular targeting antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pramod; Hsiao, Felix Shih-Hsiang; Ho, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Chien-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    Antimicrobial peptides have been considered well-deserving candidates to fight the battle against microorganisms due to their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities. Several studies have suggested that membrane disruption is the basic mechanism of AMPs that leads to killing or inhibiting microorganisms. Also, AMPs have been reported to interact with macromolecules inside the microbial cells such as nucleic acids (DNA/RNA), protein synthesis, essential enzymes, membrane septum formation and cell wall synthesis. Proteins are associated with many intracellular mechanisms of cells, thus protein targets may be specifically involved in mechanisms of action of AMPs. AMPs like pyrrhocoricin, drosocin, apidecin and Bac 7 are documented to have protein targets, DnaK and GroEL. Moreover, the intracellular targeting AMPs are reported to influence more than one protein targets inside the cell, suggesting for the multiple modes of actions. This complex mechanism of intracellular targeting AMPs makes them more difficult for the development of resistance. Herein, we have summarized the current status of AMPs in terms of their mode of actions, entry to cytoplasm and inhibition of macromolecules. To reveal the mechanism of action, we have focused on AMPs with intracellular protein targets. We have also included the use of high-throughput proteome microarray to determine the unidentified AMP protein targets in this review. PMID:26648572

  8. Oxide fiber targets at ISOLDE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, U.; Bergmann, U.C.; Carminati, D.; Catherall, R.; Cederkäll, J.; Correia, J.G.; Crepieux, B.; Dietrich, M.; Elder, K.; Fedoseyev, V.N.; Fraile, L.; Franchoo, S.; Fynbo, Hans Otto Uldall; Georg, U.; Giles, T.; Joinet, A.; Jonsson, Olle; Lau, Ch.; Lettry, J.; Oinonen, M.; Peräjärvi, K.; Ravn, H.L.; Rinaldi, T.; Santana-Leitner, M.; Weissman, L.; Mishin, V.I.; Kirchner, R.; Maier, H.J.; Wahl, U.; Rinaldi Barkat, Tania

    2003-01-01

    Many elements are rapidly released from oxide matrices. Some oxide powder targets show a fast sintering, thus losing their favorable release characteristics. Loosely packed oxide fiber targets are less critical since they may maintain their open structure even when starting to fuse together at some...... contact points. The experience with various oxide fiber targets (titania, zirconia, ceria and thoria) used in the last years at ISOLDE is reviewed. For short-lived isotopes of Cu, Ga and Xe the zirconia and ceria targets respectively provided significantly higher yields than any other target (metal foils......, oxide powders, etc.) tested before. Titania fibers, which were not commercially available, were produced in a relic process by impregnation of a rayon felt in a titanium chloride solution and subsequent calcination by heating the dried felt in air. Thoria fibers were obtained either by the same process...

  9. Target-Searching on Percolation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    We study target-searching processes on a percolation, on which a hunter tracks a target by smelling odors it emits. The odor intensity is supposed to be inversely proportional to the distance it propagates. The Monte Carlo simulation is performed on a 2-dimensional bond-percolation above the threshold. Having no idea of the location of the target, the hunter determines its moves only by random attempts in each direction. For lager percolation connectivity p (>~) 0.90, it reveals a scaling law for the searching time versus the distance to the position of the target. The scaling exponent is dependent on the sensitivity of the hunter. For smaller p, the scaling law is broken and the probability of finding out the target significantly reduces. The hunter seems trapped in the cluster of the percolation and can hardly reach the goal.

  10. Target animacy influences gorilla handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Gillian S; Leavens, David A; Quaresmini, Caterina; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the unimanual actions of a biological family group of twelve western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) using a methodological approach designed to assess behavior within social context from a bottom-up perspective. Measures of both the lateralization of unimanual actions (left, right) and the target of the action (animate, inanimate) were assessed during dual, synchronized video observations of naturalistic behavior. This paper demonstrates a corelationship between handedness and the animate quality of the target object. Analyses demonstrated a significant interaction between lateralized unimanual actions and target animacy and a right-hand bias for actions directed toward inanimate targets. We suggest that lateralized motor preference reflects the different processing capabilities of the left and right hemispheres, as influenced by the emotive (animate) and/or functional (inanimate) characteristics of the target, respectively. PMID:21562817

  11. Preparation of thin nuclear targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin film backings, sources and targets are needed for many applications in low energy nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry experiments. A survey of techniques used in the preparation of nuclear targets is first briefly discussed. These are classified as chemical, mechanical and physical preparations. Vacuum evaporation, being the most generally used technique, is discussed in detail. It is highly desirable to monitor the film thickness and control the deposition rate during evaporation and to measure the final target thickness after deposition has concluded. The relative merits of various thickness measuring techniques are described. Stages in the fabrication and mounting of self-supporting foils are described in detail, with emphasis given to the preparation of thin self-supporting carbon foils used as target backings and stripper foils. Various target backings, and the merits of the more generally used release agents are described in detail. The preparations of more difficult elemental targets are discussed, and a comprehensive list of the common targets is presented

  12. Tracking Target and Spiral Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Flemming G.; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads;

    2002-01-01

    A new algorithm for analyzing the evolution of patterns of spiral and target waves in large aspect ratio chemical systems is introduced. The algorithm does not depend on finding the spiral tip but locates the center of the pattern by a new concept, called the spiral focus, which is defined...... by the evolutes of the actual spiral or target wave. With the use of Gaussian smoothing, a robust method is developed that permits the identification of targets and spirals foci independently of the wave profile. Examples of an analysis of long image sequences from experiments with the Belousov...

  13. Mycothiol: a promising antitubercular target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilewar, S S; Kathiravan, M K

    2014-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the world's second commonest cause of death next to HIV/AIDS. The increasing emergence of multi drug resistance and the recalcitrant nature of persistent infections pose an additional challenge for the treatment of TB. Due to the development of resistance to conventional antibiotics there is a need for new therapeutic strategies to combat M. tuberculosis. One such target is Mycothiol (MSH), a major low molecular-mass thiol in mycobacteria, an important cellular anti-oxidant. MSH is present only in actinomycetes and hence is a good target. This review explores mycothiol as a potential target against tuberculosis and various research ongoing worldwide. PMID:24368170

  14. Development of targeted radiotherapy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional or external beam radiotherapy, has been a viable alternative for cancer treatment. Although this technique is effective, its use is limited if the patient has multiple malignant lesions (metastases). An alternative approach is based on the design of radiopharmaceuticals that, to be administered in the patient, are directed specifically toward the target cell producing a selective radiation delivery. This treatment is known as targeted radiotherapy. We have summarized and discussed some results related to our investigations on the development of targeted radiotherapy systems, including aspects of internal dosimetry

  15. Targeted therapy: tailoring cancer treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Yan; Quentin Qiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Targeted therapies include small-molecule inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies,have made treatment more tumor-specific and less toxic,and have opened new possibilities for tailoring cancer treatment.Nevertheless,there remain several challenges to targeted therapies,including molecular identification,drug resistance,and exploring reliable biomarkers.Here,we present several selected signaling pathways and molecular targets involved in human cancers including Aurora kinases,PI3K/mTOR signaling,FOXO-FOXM1 axis,and MDM2/MDM4-p53 interaction.Understanding the molecular mechanisms for tumorigenesis and development of drug resistance will provide new insights into drug discovery and design of therapeutic strategies for targeted therapies.

  16. Heavy flavors at fixed target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current situation of Heavy Flavor physics at fixed target experiments is reviewed. High statistics charm production and decay data are summarized and new results on beauty physics are presented. (author)

  17. Physics of Automatic Target Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Sadjadi, Firooz

    2007-01-01

    Physics of Automatic Target Recognition addresses the fundamental physical bases of sensing, and information extraction in the state-of-the art automatic target recognition field. It explores both passive and active multispectral sensing, polarimetric diversity, complex signature exploitation, sensor and processing adaptation, transformation of electromagnetic and acoustic waves in their interactions with targets, background clutter, transmission media, and sensing elements. The general inverse scattering, and advanced signal processing techniques and scientific evaluation methodologies being used in this multi disciplinary field will be part of this exposition. The issues of modeling of target signatures in various spectral modalities, LADAR, IR, SAR, high resolution radar, acoustic, seismic, visible, hyperspectral, in diverse geometric aspects will be addressed. The methods for signal processing and classification will cover concepts such as sensor adaptive and artificial neural networks, time reversal filt...

  18. Special hydrogen target (Prop. 210)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide contains a description of the electrical control and automatic vacuum systems for the Special Hydrogen Target (Prop. 210) together with the flow diagram and the mimic control panel layout for the system. (U.K.)

  19. Inertial-confinement-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much of the research in laser fusion has been done using simple ball on-stalk targets filled with a deuterium-tritium mixture. The targets operated in the exploding pusher mode in which the laser energy was delivered in a very short time (approx. 100 ps or less) and was absorbed by the glass wall of the target. The high energy density in the glass literally exploded the shell with the inward moving glass compressing the DT fuel to high temperatures and moderate densities. Temperatures achieved were high enough to produce DT reactions and accompanying thermonuclear neutrons and alpha particles. The primary criteria imposed on the target builders were: (1) wall thickness, (2) sphere diameter, and (3) fuel in the sphere

  20. IUCF liquid hydrogen target system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A liquid hydrogen or deuterium target system is described for use with intermediate energy light ion beams at IUCF. In its present use as a production target for polarized neutrons, the target cell is mounted within the beamline. Thus, certain safety features are required which prevent a possible hydrogen explosion inside the beamline or the cyclotron. These safety devices include an acoustical delay line which slows the hydrogen gas shock wave and a fast valve which closes before any large volume of escaping gas reaches it. Other safety interlocks to reduce the chances of target cell breakage and to quickly shut off ignition sources are discussed. A device involving a variable heat load which is coupled directly to the cryocondenser and is used to continually monitor and stabilize the pressure and temperature of the liquid hydrogen is described here

  1. Degradation kinetics and mechanism of β-lactam antibiotics by the activation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8} under UV-254 nm irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Xuexiang [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Nireas-International Water Research Centre, School of Engineering, University of Cyprus, PO Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Mezyk, Stephen P. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, California State University Long Beach, 1250 Bellflower Blvd., Long Beach, CA 90840 (United States); Michael, Irene; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Nireas-International Water Research Centre, School of Engineering, University of Cyprus, PO Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Dionysiou, Dionysios D., E-mail: dionysios.d.dionysiou@uc.edu [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Nireas-International Water Research Centre, School of Engineering, University of Cyprus, PO Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Removal efficiency was comparable at different UV fluence rates but same fluence. • Reducing pH to 3 or 2 did not inhibit the removal of nitrobenzene by UV/S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−}. • 1.84 × 10{sup −14} M [HO{sup •} ]{sub ss} and 3.10 × 10{sup −13} M [SO{sub 4}{sup •} {sup −}]{sub ss} in UV/S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−} were estimated. • HO{sup •} reacted faster with the β-lactams than SO{sub 4}{sup •} {sup −} but sharing similar byproducts. • Transformation pathways included hydroxylation, hydrolysis and decarboxylation. - Abstract: The extensive production and usage of antibiotics have led to an increasing occurrence of antibiotic residuals in various aquatic compartments, presenting a significant threat to both ecosystem and human health. This study investigated the degradation of selected β-lactam antibiotics (penicillins: ampicillin, penicillin V, and piperacillin; cephalosporin: cephalothin) by UV-254 nm activated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−} photochemical processes. The UV irradiation alone resulted in various degrees of direct photolysis of the antibiotics; while the addition of the oxidants improved significantly the removal efficiency. The steady-state radical concentrations were estimated, revealing a non-negligible contribution of hydroxyl radicals in the UV/S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−} system. Mineralization of the β-lactams could be achieved at high UV fluence, with a slow formation of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and a much lower elimination of total organic carbon (TOC). The transformation mechanisms were also investigated showing the main reaction pathways of hydroxylation (+16 Da) at the aromatic ring and/or the sulfur atom, hydrolysis (+18 Da) at the β-lactam ring and decarboxylation (–44 Da) for the three penicillins. Oxidation of amine group was also observed for ampicillin. This study suggests that UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and UV/S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−} advanced

  2. Degradation kinetics and mechanism of β-lactam antibiotics by the activation of H2O2 and Na2S2O8 under UV-254 nm irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Removal efficiency was comparable at different UV fluence rates but same fluence. • Reducing pH to 3 or 2 did not inhibit the removal of nitrobenzene by UV/S2O82−. • 1.84 × 10−14 M [HO• ]ss and 3.10 × 10−13 M [SO4• −]ss in UV/S2O82− were estimated. • HO• reacted faster with the β-lactams than SO4• − but sharing similar byproducts. • Transformation pathways included hydroxylation, hydrolysis and decarboxylation. - Abstract: The extensive production and usage of antibiotics have led to an increasing occurrence of antibiotic residuals in various aquatic compartments, presenting a significant threat to both ecosystem and human health. This study investigated the degradation of selected β-lactam antibiotics (penicillins: ampicillin, penicillin V, and piperacillin; cephalosporin: cephalothin) by UV-254 nm activated H2O2 and S2O82− photochemical processes. The UV irradiation alone resulted in various degrees of direct photolysis of the antibiotics; while the addition of the oxidants improved significantly the removal efficiency. The steady-state radical concentrations were estimated, revealing a non-negligible contribution of hydroxyl radicals in the UV/S2O82− system. Mineralization of the β-lactams could be achieved at high UV fluence, with a slow formation of SO42− and a much lower elimination of total organic carbon (TOC). The transformation mechanisms were also investigated showing the main reaction pathways of hydroxylation (+16 Da) at the aromatic ring and/or the sulfur atom, hydrolysis (+18 Da) at the β-lactam ring and decarboxylation (–44 Da) for the three penicillins. Oxidation of amine group was also observed for ampicillin. This study suggests that UV/H2O2 and UV/S2O82− advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are capable of degrading β-lactam antibiotics decreasing consequently the antibiotic activity of treated waters

  3. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wavrik, R W; Cox, J R; Fleming, P J

    2000-10-05

    On June 11, 1999 the Department of Energy dedicated the single largest piece of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The ten (10) meter diameter aluminum target high vacuum chamber will serve as the working end of the largest laser in the world. The output of 192 laser beams will converge at the precise center of the chamber. The laser beams will enter the chamber in two by two arrays to illuminate 10 millimeter long gold cylinders called hohlraums enclosing 2 millimeter capsule containing deuterium, tritium and isotopes of hydrogen. The two isotopes will fuse, thereby creating temperatures and pressures resembling those found only inside stars and in detonated nuclear weapons, but on a minute scale. The NIF Project will serve as an essential facility to insure safety and reliability of our nation's nuclear arsenal as well as demonstrating inertial fusion's contribution to creating electrical power. The paper will discuss the requirements that had to be addressed during the design, fabrication and testing of the target chamber. A team from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and LLNL with input from industry performed the configuration and basic design of the target chamber. The method of fabrication and construction of the aluminum target chamber was devised by Pitt-Des Moines, Inc. (PDM). PDM also participated in the design of the chamber in areas such as the Target Chamber Realignment and Adjustment System, which would allow realignment of the sphere laser beams in the event of earth settlement or movement from a seismic event. During the fabrication of the target chamber the sphericity tolerances had to be addressed for the individual plates. Procedures were developed for forming, edge preparation and welding of individual plates. Construction plans were developed to allow the field construction of the target chamber to occur parallel to other NIF construction activities. This

  4. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On June 11, 1999 the Department of Energy dedicated the single largest piece of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The ten (10) meter diameter aluminum target high vacuum chamber will serve as the working end of the largest laser in the world. The output of 192 laser beams will converge at the precise center of the chamber. The laser beams will enter the chamber in two by two arrays to illuminate 10 millimeter long gold cylinders called hohlraums enclosing 2 millimeter capsule containing deuterium, tritium and isotopes of hydrogen. The two isotopes will fuse, thereby creating temperatures and pressures resembling those found only inside stars and in detonated nuclear weapons, but on a minute scale. The NIF Project will serve as an essential facility to insure safety and reliability of our nation's nuclear arsenal as well as demonstrating inertial fusion's contribution to creating electrical power. The paper will discuss the requirements that had to be addressed during the design, fabrication and testing of the target chamber. A team from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and LLNL with input from industry performed the configuration and basic design of the target chamber. The method of fabrication and construction of the aluminum target chamber was devised by Pitt-Des Moines, Inc. (PDM). PDM also participated in the design of the chamber in areas such as the Target Chamber Realignment and Adjustment System, which would allow realignment of the sphere laser beams in the event of earth settlement or movement from a seismic event. During the fabrication of the target chamber the sphericity tolerances had to be addressed for the individual plates. Procedures were developed for forming, edge preparation and welding of individual plates. Construction plans were developed to allow the field construction of the target chamber to occur parallel to other NIF construction activities. This was

  5. Targeting cancer with peptide aptamers

    OpenAIRE

    Seigneuric, Renaud; Gobbo, Jessica; Colas, Pierre; Garrido, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    A major endeavour in cancer chemotherapy is to develop agents that specifically target a biomolecule of interest. There are two main classes of targeting agents: small molecules and biologics. Among biologics (e.g.: antibodies), DNA, RNA but also peptide aptamers are relatively recent agents. Peptide aptamers are seldom described but represent attractive agents that can inhibit a growing panel of oncotargets including Heat Shock Proteins. Potential pitfalls and coming challenges towards succe...

  6. Proactive Steering Toward Oriented Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Boulic, R

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a real-time steering controller ensuring the reach of a (possible mobile) target position and orientation, without requiring to build/update the full trajectory to that target. We name it the funnelling control. The final orientation is achieved through the continuous adjustment of the heading direction. This control mode is proactive in the sense that it anticipates the success/failure of the reach and adjusts the desired speed accordingly. Both features rely on an...

  7. Plug Off: Target Group Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Kortbaek, Allan; Neubauer, Nathalie; Carreras, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This project is a study of how a sample of defined target group of a campaign, build meaning through their introduction to such a campaign. With ethno-methodology as a focal point within the overlying context of discourse psychology and more importantly, social constructivism, the aim is to analyze how a defined target group make sense of a proto awareness raising campaign. Proto in this case denotes a planned communication effort in the form of a campaign encouraging responsible use of wirel...

  8. A Theory of Child Targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Donni, Olivier; Bargain, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    There is a large empirical literature on policy measures targeted at children but surprisingly very little theoretical foundation to ground the debate on the optimality of the different instruments. In the present paper, we examine the merit of targeting children through two general policies, namely selective commodity taxation and cash transfer to family with children. We consider a household that comprises an adult and a child. The household behavior is described by the ma...

  9. Targeted immunotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this issue of Blood, Rothe et al introduce a new principle of targeted Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) immunotherapy in their report from a phase 1 study of the bispecific anti-CD30/CD16A antibody construct AFM13.......In this issue of Blood, Rothe et al introduce a new principle of targeted Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) immunotherapy in their report from a phase 1 study of the bispecific anti-CD30/CD16A antibody construct AFM13....

  10. Twenty years of inflation targeting

    OpenAIRE

    David Baqaee; Christie Smith

    2010-01-01

    In December 2009 the Reserve Bank of New Zealand, in conjunction with Northwestern University’s Centre for International Economics and Development (CIED), hosted a monetary policy conference to mark the 20th anniversary of the Reserve Bank of New Zealand Act. Passed in December 1989, the Act was one of the seminal events in the development of inflation targeting as a monetary policy regime. As of 2009, 26 countries have explicitly adopted inflation targeting, including Canada, the UK, Austral...

  11. Inflation Targeting in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Vittorio Corbo; Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes Latin America’s recent experience with the use of inflation targeting (IT) while the region has made substantial progress toward eradicating high inflation. The paper assesses the implementation and results of inflation targeting in Latin America from a broad perspective. It starts by reviewing the issues relevant for the choice of exchange-rate regimes and monetary frameworks, documenting the evolution of exchange rate and monetary regimes in Latin America during the last...

  12. Polarized atomic beams for targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic principle of the production of polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium beams are reviewed. The status of the present available polarization, density and intensity are presented. The improvement of atomic beam density by cooling the hydrogen atoms to low velocity is discussed. The possible use of polarized atomic beams as targets in storage rings is shown. It is proposed that polarized atomic beams can be used to produce polarized gas targets with high polarization and greatly improved density

  13. Symmetric solid target transport system

    OpenAIRE

    Tomov, D.; Lawrence, L; Gaehle, G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The expansion of our PET isotope production with a new TR-19 cyclotron necessitated a suitable solid target transport system. None of the known existing and proposed solid target transport systems (STTS) was able to meet the technical and budget requirements of the MIR cyclotron facility [5]. A unique carrier design allowed us to develop a fully automated 50.8 mm inner diameter pneumatic tube STTS with an in-hot-cell compact form factor receiving station. The cyclotron or v...

  14. Ion stopping in heated targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion stopping departs from classical, cold material values as the target material heats to appreciable ionization levels. The authors are investigating this phenomenon experimentally on the Proto I accelerator with a radial, Applied-B field ion diode. When the beam is focused to 0.5 TW/cm3 on thin aluminum foil targets the time-resolved departure from cold stopping is clear. Their observations and early interpretations will be presented. 9 references, 9 figures

  15. Self-assembled "dock and lock" system for linking payloads to targeting proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, Marina V; Patel, Vimal; Jehning, Brian T; Backer, Joseph M

    2006-01-01

    Random conjugation of therapeutic or diagnostic payloads to targeting proteins generates functionally heterogeneous products. Conjugation of payloads to an adapter that binds to a peptide tag engineered into a targeting protein provides an alternative strategy. To progress into clinical development, an adapter/docking tag system should include humanized components and be stable in circulation. We describe here an adapter/docking tag system based on mutated fragments of human RNase I that spontaneously bind to each other and form a conjugate with a disulfide bond between complimentary cysteine residues. This self-assembled "dock and lock" system utilizes the previously described fusion C-tag, a 1-15 aa fragment of human RNase I with the R4C amino acid substitution, and a newly engineered adapter protein (Ad-C), a 21-127-aa fragment of human RNase I with the V118C substitution. Two vastly different C-tagged recombinant proteins, human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and a 254-aa long N-terminal fragment of anthrax lethal factor (LFn), retain functional activities after spontaneous conjugation of Ad-C to N-terminal or C-terminal C-tag, respectively. Ad-C modified with pegylated phospolipid and inserted into the lipid membrane of drug-loaded liposomes (Doxil) retained the ability to conjugate C-tagged proteins, yielding targeted liposomes decorated with functionally active proteins. To further optimize the system, we engineered an adapter with an additional cysteine residue at position 88 for site-specific modification, conjugated it to C-tagged VEGF, and labeled with a near-infrared fluorescent dye Cy5.5, yielding a unique functionally active probe for in vivo molecular imaging. We expect that this self-assembled "dock and lock" system will provide new opportunities for using functionally active proteins for biomedical purposes. PMID:16848397

  16. Target assignment for security officers to K targets (TASK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A probabilistic algorithm is developed to provide an optimal Target Assignment for Security officers to K targets (TASK) using a maximin criterion. Under the assumption of only a limited number (N) of security officers, the TASK computer model determines deployment assignments which maximize the system protection against sabotage by an adversary who may select any link in the system, including the weakest, for the point of attack. Applying the TASK model to a hypothetical nuclear facility containing a nine-level building reveals that aggregate targets covering multiple vital areas should be utilized to reduce the number of possible target assignments to a value equal to or only slightly larger than N. The increased probability that a given aggregate target is covered by one or more security officers offsets the slight decrease in interruption probability due to its occurring earlier in the adversary's path. In brief, the TASK model determines the optimal maximin deployment strategy for limited numbers of security officers and calculates a quantitative measure of the resulting system protection

  17. Unification of automatic target tracking and automatic target recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Bruce J.

    2014-06-01

    The subject being addressed is how an automatic target tracker (ATT) and an automatic target recognizer (ATR) can be fused together so tightly and so well that their distinctiveness becomes lost in the merger. This has historically not been the case outside of biology and a few academic papers. The biological model of ATT∪ATR arises from dynamic patterns of activity distributed across many neural circuits and structures (including retina). The information that the brain receives from the eyes is "old news" at the time that it receives it. The eyes and brain forecast a tracked object's future position, rather than relying on received retinal position. Anticipation of the next moment - building up a consistent perception - is accomplished under difficult conditions: motion (eyes, head, body, scene background, target) and processing limitations (neural noise, delays, eye jitter, distractions). Not only does the human vision system surmount these problems, but it has innate mechanisms to exploit motion in support of target detection and classification. Biological vision doesn't normally operate on snapshots. Feature extraction, detection and recognition are spatiotemporal. When vision is viewed as a spatiotemporal process, target detection, recognition, tracking, event detection and activity recognition, do not seem as distinct as they are in current ATT and ATR designs. They appear as similar mechanism taking place at varying time scales. A framework is provided for unifying ATT and ATR.

  18. CPHD filter derivation for extended targets

    OpenAIRE

    Orguner, Umut

    2010-01-01

    This document derives the CPHD filter for extended targets. Only the update step is derived here. Target generated measurements, false alarms and prior are all assumed to be independent identically distributed cluster processes. We also prove here that the derived CPHD filter for extended targets reduce to PHD filter for extended targets and CPHD filter for standard targets under suitable assumptions.

  19. Monoclonal antibodies in targeted therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Powroźnik

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Targeted therapy is a new therapeutic method consisting in the inhibition of specific molecular pathways. In modern therapy, the key role is played by monoclonal antibodies, included in the group of biological agents. The success of molecularly targeted therapy is to define the proper “molecular target”, selecting the right drug active against a specific “target” and selecting a group of patients who benefit from treatment. Introduction of targeted therapy resulted in improved results of the treatment of many serious and chronic diseases. In general, targeted molecular therapies have good toxicity profiles, but some patients are exquisitely sensitive to these drugs and can develop particular and severe toxicities. Patient selection and proper monitoring significantly decrease the risk of life-threatening adverse events. Data concerning late side effects are still unavailable because of the short follow-up of molecularly targeted therapy. Currently in the U.S. and Europe there are approximately 31 registered therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, while 160 are subjected to clinical trials. This paper presents an overview of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies currently used in therapy and the present state of knowledge about them. 

  20. Metabolic network analysis predicts efficacy of FDA-approved drugs targeting the causative agent of a neglected tropical disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavali Arvind K

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systems biology holds promise as a new approach to drug target identification and drug discovery against neglected tropical diseases. Genome-scale metabolic reconstructions, assembled from annotated genomes and a vast array of bioinformatics/biochemical resources, provide a framework for the interrogation of human pathogens and serve as a platform for generation of future experimental hypotheses. In this article, with the application of selection criteria for both Leishmania major targets (e.g. in silico gene lethality and drugs (e.g. toxicity, a method (MetDP to rationally focus on a subset of low-toxic Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs is introduced. Results This metabolic network-driven approach identified 15 L. major genes as high-priority targets, 8 high-priority synthetic lethal targets, and 254 FDA-approved drugs. Results were compared to previous literature findings and existing high-throughput screens. Halofantrine, an antimalarial agent that was prioritized using MetDP, showed noticeable antileishmanial activity when experimentally evaluated in vitro against L. major promastigotes. Furthermore, synthetic lethality predictions also aided in the prediction of superadditive drug combinations. For proof-of-concept, double-drug combinations were evaluated in vitro against L. major and four combinations involving the drug disulfiram that showed superadditivity are presented. Conclusions A direct metabolic network-driven method that incorporates single gene essentiality and synthetic lethality predictions is proposed that generates a set of high-priority L. major targets, which are in turn associated with a select number of FDA-approved drugs that are candidate antileishmanials. Additionally, selection of high-priority double-drug combinations might provide for an attractive and alternative avenue for drug discovery against leishmaniasis.

  1. Infrared Targeting System (IRTS) demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohair, Mark A.; Eucker, Shelly S.; Eucker, Brad A.; Lewis, Tim

    1992-02-01

    The objective of the Infrared Targeting System (IRTS) is to successfully demonstrate the mission performance that can be achieved in manned air-to-ground targeting applications utilizing a synergistic combination of state of the art active/passive infrared sensor and automatic target recognizer (ATR) technologies. The IRTS program is centered around a demonstration FLIR/Laser Radar/ATR (FLASHER). The FLASHER consists of a dual field of view (2 x 2 degree and 6 x 6 degree) second generation FLIR pixel mapped to a CO2 laser radar, with a FLIR ATR processor, a laser radar ATR processor, and a sensor fusion ATR processor. Following construction and laboratory testing of the IRTS, the system will be installed on a test aircraft and demonstrated in flight against realistic tactical, strategic, and special operations scenarios.

  2. Target-Centric Network Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Dr. William L.; Clark, Dr. Robert M.

    In Target-Centric Network Modeling: Case Studies in Analyzing Complex Intelligence Issues, authors Robert Clark and William Mitchell take an entirely new approach to teaching intelligence analysis. Unlike any other book on the market, it offers case study scenarios using actual intelligence...... reporting formats, along with a tested process that facilitates the production of a wide range of analytical products for civilian, military, and hybrid intelligence environments. Readers will learn how to perform the specific actions of problem definition modeling, target network modeling, and...... collaborative sharing in the process of creating a high-quality, actionable intelligence product. The case studies reflect the complexity of twenty-first century intelligence issues by dealing with multi-layered target networks that cut across political, economic, social, technological, and military issues...

  3. Ribosome Assembly as Antimicrobial Target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolay, Rainer; Schmidt, Sabine; Schlömer, Renate; Deuerling, Elke; Nierhaus, Knud H

    2016-01-01

    Many antibiotics target the ribosome and interfere with its translation cycle. Since translation is the source of all cellular proteins including ribosomal proteins, protein synthesis and ribosome assembly are interdependent. As a consequence, the activity of translation inhibitors might indirectly cause defective ribosome assembly. Due to the difficulty in distinguishing between direct and indirect effects, and because assembly is probably a target in its own right, concepts are needed to identify small molecules that directly inhibit ribosome assembly. Here, we summarize the basic facts of ribosome targeting antibiotics. Furthermore, we present an in vivo screening strategy that focuses on ribosome assembly by a direct fluorescence based read-out that aims to identify and characterize small molecules acting as primary assembly inhibitors. PMID:27240412

  4. Target identification by image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetz, V; Prochnow, H; Brönstrup, M; Sasse, F

    2016-05-01

    Covering: 1997 to the end of 2015Each biologically active compound induces phenotypic changes in target cells that are characteristic for its mode of action. These phenotypic alterations can be directly observed under the microscope or made visible by labelling structural elements or selected proteins of the cells with dyes. A comparison of the cellular phenotype induced by a compound of interest with the phenotypes of reference compounds with known cellular targets allows predicting its mode of action. While this approach has been successfully applied to the characterization of natural products based on a visual inspection of images, recent studies used automated microscopy and analysis software to increase speed and to reduce subjective interpretation. In this review, we give a general outline of the workflow for manual and automated image analysis, and we highlight natural products whose bacterial and eucaryotic targets could be identified through such approaches. PMID:26777141

  5. Integrin Targeted Delivery of Radiotherapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaofei Liu, Fan Wang, Xiaoyuan Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radionuclide therapy, which is based on the selective delivery of a sufficient radiation dose to tumors without significantly affecting normal tissues, is a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of a wide variety of malignancies. Integrins, a family of cell adhesion molecules, play key roles during tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. Among all the integrins, αvβ3 seems to be the most important in the process of tumor angiogenesis. Integrin αvβ3 is highly expressed on activated endothelial cells, new-born vessels as well as some tumor cells, but is not present in resting endothelial cells and most normal organ systems, making it a suitable target for anti-tumor therapy. In this review, we summarize the current development and applications of antibody-, peptide-, and other ligand-based integrin targeted radiotherapeutics for tumor radiation therapy.

  6. High-efficiency target-ion sources for RIB generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alton, G.D.

    1993-12-31

    A brief review is given of high-efficiency ion sources which have been developed or are under development at ISOL facilities which show particular promise for use at existing, future, or radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities now under construction. Emphasis will be placed on those sources which have demonstrated high ionization efficiency, species versatility, and operational reliability and which have been carefully designed for safe handling in the high level radioactivity radiation fields incumbent at such facilities. Brief discussions will also be made of the fundamental processes which affect the realizable beam intensities in target-ion sources. Among the sources which will be reviewed will be selected examples of state-of-the-art electron-beam plasma-type ion sources, thermal-ionization, surface-ionization, ECR, and selectively chosen ion source concepts which show promise for radioactive ion beam generation. A few advanced, chemically selective target-ion sources will be described, such as sources based on the use of laser-resonance ionization, which, in principle, offer a more satisfactory solution to isobaric contamination problems than conventional electromagnetic techniques. Particular attention will be given to the sources which have been selected for initial or future use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  7. Inflation Targeting at 20 - Achievements and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Roger

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of inflation targeting frameworks and macroeconomic performance under inflation targeting. Inflation targeting frameworks are generally quite similar across countries, and a broad consensus has developed in favor of "flexible" inflation targeting. The evidence shows that, although inflation target ranges are missed frequently in most countries, the inflation and growth performance under inflation targeting compares very favorably with performance under alternat...

  8. USING OPTIMAL FEEDBACK CONTROL FOR CHAOS TARGETING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG ZHAO-WANG; ZHONG TING-XIU

    2000-01-01

    Since the conventional open-loop optimal targeting of chaos is very sensitive to noise, a close-loop optimal targeting method is proposed to improve the targeting performance under noise. The present optimal targeting model takes into consideration both precision and speed of the targeting procedure. The parameters, rather than the output, of the targeting controller, are directly optimized to obtain optimal chaos targeting. Analysis regarding the mechanism is given from physics aspect and numerical experiment on the Hénon map is carried out to compare the targeting performance under noise between the close-loop and the open-loop methods.

  9. Aptamers for Targeted Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Ray

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are a class of therapeutic oligonucleotides that form specific three-dimensional structures that are dictated by their sequences. They are typically generated by an iterative screening process of complex nucleic acid libraries employing a process termed Systemic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX. SELEX has traditionally been performed using purified proteins, and cell surface receptors may be challenging to purify in their properly folded and modified conformations. Therefore, relatively few aptamers have been generated that bind cell surface receptors. However, improvements in recombinant fusion protein technology have increased the availability of receptor extracellular domains as purified protein targets, and the development of cell-based selection techniques has allowed selection against surface proteins in their native configuration on the cell surface. With cell-based selection, a specific protein target is not always chosen, but selection is performed against a target cell type with the goal of letting the aptamer choose the target. Several studies have demonstrated that aptamers that bind cell surface receptors may have functions other than just blocking receptor-ligand interactions. All cell surface proteins cycle intracellularly to some extent, and many surface receptors are actively internalized in response to ligand binding. Therefore, aptamers that bind cell surface receptors have been exploited for the delivery of a variety of cargoes into cells. This review focuses on recent progress and current challenges in the field of aptamer-mediated delivery.

  10. The Bering Autonomous Target Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz; Betto, Maurizio;

    2003-01-01

    telescopes. The method has proven robust in operation and is well suited for use onboard spacecraft. As development target for the method and the associated instrumentation the asteroid research mission Bering has been used. Onboard a spacecraft, the autonomous detection is centered around the fully...

  11. Target selection for direct marketing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bult, Jan Roelf

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis we concentrated on the use ol direct mail for targeting potential buyers. The major characteristics that influences the success of a plomotional direct mail campaign are the of-fbr,the communication elements, the timing or sequence of these communication elements, and the list of cus

  12. Particle physics using nuclear targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferbel, T.

    1978-01-01

    The use of nuclear targets in particle physics is discussed and some recent results obtained in studies of hadronic interactions on nuclei summarized. In particular experimental findings on inclusive production and on coherent dissociation of mesons and baryons at high energies are presented. 41 references.

  13. Tumor targeting via integrin ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HorstKessler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Selective and targeted delivery of drugs to tumors is a major challenge for an effective cancer therapy and also to overcome the side effects associated with current treatments. Overexpression of various receptors on tumor cells is a characteristic structural and biochemical aspect of tumors and distinguishes them from physiologically normal cells. This abnormal feature is therefore suitable for selectively directing anticancer molecules to tumors by using ligands that can preferentially recognize such receptors. Several subtypes of integrin receptors that are crucial for cell adhesion, cell signaling, cell viability and motility have been shown to have an upregulated expression on cancer cells. Thus, ligands that recognize specific integrin subtypes represent excellent candidates to be conjugated to drugs or drug carrier systems and be targeted to tumors. In this regard, integrins recognizing the RGD cell adhesive sequence have been extensively targeted for tumor specific drug delivery. Here we review key recent examples on the presentation of RGD-based integrin ligands by means of distinct drug delivery systems, and discuss the prospects of such therapies to specifically target tumor cells.

  14. Target-point formation control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mou, Shaoshuai; Cao, Ming; Morse, A. Stephen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a new distributed feedback strategy is proposed for controlling a rigid, acyclic formation of kinematic point-modeled mobile autonomous agents in the plane. The strategy makes use of a new concept called a "target point" and is applicable to any two-dimensional, acyclic formation whose

  15. Particle physics using nuclear targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of nuclear targets in particle physics is discussed and some recent results obtained in studies of hadronic interactions on nuclei summarized. In particular experimental findings on inclusive production and on coherent dissociation of mesons and baryons at high energies are presented. 41 references

  16. High power neutron production targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wender, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The author describes issues of concern in the design of targets and associated systems for high power neutron production facilities. The facilities include uses for neutron scattering, accelerator driven transmutation, accelerator production of tritium, short pulse spallation sources, and long pulse spallation sources. Each of these applications requires a source with different design needs and consequently different implementation in practise.

  17. Cooling of the ISIS target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the methods used to analyse and predict cooling of the uranium target of the ISIS facility at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory by means of a combination of computer models (using the PHOENICS finite difference package) and practical tests. (author)

  18. Multi beam laser target illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to compress matter to high densities by the application of intense pulses of laser energy it is necessary for the implosion of the target to be both stable and spherical. This imposes certain constraints on the uniformity of illumination of the target, and, this in turn places requirements on the illuminating optics and the laser beam quality. This report discusses the uniformity of illumination of a spherical target as provided by a variety of optical systems and for different numbers of laser beams and beam profiles. The results are compared with similar conclusions obtained by other workers. An alternative presentation of the calculations is given which is believed to be a more realistic estimate of the uniformity. Comments are made on the approximations that have been assumed and the results likely to be obtained from the full treatment are discussed. The effects of this non-uniform illumination on the target implosion are considered using the linear theory of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Finally, comments are made on other factors of a more practical nature which also govern the final choice of illumination system and the scope of experiments made possible by such a system. (author)

  19. Uranium briquettes for irradiation target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliba-Silva, Adonis Marcelo; Garcia, Rafael Henrique Lazzari; Martins, Ilson Carlos; Carvalho, Elita Fontenele Urano de; Durazzo, Michelangelo, E-mail: saliba@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Direct irradiation on targets inside nuclear research or multiple purpose reactors is a common route to produce {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc radioisotopes. Nevertheless, since the imposed limits to use LEU uranium to prevent nuclear armament production, the amount of uranium loaded in target meats has physically increased and new processes have been proposed for production. Routes using metallic uranium thin film and UAl{sub x} dispersion have been used for this purpose. Both routes have their own issues, either by bringing difficulties to disassemble the aluminum case inside hot cells or by generating great amount of alkaline radioactive liquid rejects. A potential route might be the dispersion of powders of LEU metallic uranium and nickel, which are pressed as a blend inside a die and followed by pulse electroplating of nickel. The electroplating provides more strength to the briquettes and creates a barrier for gas evolution during neutronic disintegration of {sup 235}U. A target briquette platted with nickel encapsulated in an aluminum case to be irradiated may be an alternative possibility to replace other proposed targets. This work uses pulse Ni-electroplating over iron powder briquette to simulate the covering of uranium by nickel. The following parameters were applied 10 times for each sample: 900Hz, -0.84A/square centimeters with duty cycle of 0.1 in Watts Bath. It also presented the optical microscopy analysis of plated microstructure section. (author)

  20. Toward targeted hypertension screening guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Buuren, S; Boshuizen, HC; Reijneveld, SA

    2006-01-01

    Background. guidelines for screening and subsequent treatment of hypertension vary widely between countries. Part Of this variation can be attributed to systematic differences between Populations, but little is known about the way in which guidelines should be targeted to the population of interest.

  1. Polarized Sources, Targets and Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciullo, Guiseppe; Contalbrigo, Marco; Lenisa, P.

    2011-01-01

    Remarks on the history of workshops on "spin tools" / E. Steffens -- Polarized proton beams in RHIC / A. Zelenski -- The COSY/Julich polarized H[symbol] and D[symbol] ion source / O. Felden -- The new source of polarized ions for the JINR accelerator complex / V. V. Fimushkin -- Resonance effects in nuclear dichroism - an inexpensive source of tensor-polarized deuterons / H. Seyfarth -- Polarized electrons and positrons at the MESA accelerator / K. Aulenbacher -- Status report of the Darmstadt polarized electron injector / Y. Poltoratska -- The Mott polarimeter at MAMI / V. Tioukine -- Proton polarimetry at the relativistic heavy ion collider / Y. Makdisi -- Polarisation and polarimetry at HERA / B. Sobloher -- Polarisation measurement at the ILC with a Compton polarimeter / C. Bartels -- Time evolution of ground motion-dependent depolarisation at linear colliders / A. Hartin -- Electron beam polarimetry at low energies and its applications / R. Barday -- Polarized solid targets: recent progress and future prospects / C. D. Keith -- HD gas distillation and analysis for HD frozen spin targets / A. D'Angelo -- Electron spin resonance study of hydrogen and alkyl free radicals trapped in solid hydrogen aimed for dynamic nuclear polarization of solid HD / T. Kumada -- Change of ultrafast nuclear-spin polarization upon photoionization by a short laser pulse / T. Nakajima -- Radiation damage and recovery in polarized [symbol]NH[symbol] ammonia targets at Jefferson lab / J. D. Maxwell.Polarized solid proton target in low magnetic field and at high temperature / T. Uesaka -- Pulse structure dependence of the proton spin polarization rate / T. Kawahara -- Proton NMR in the large COMPASS [symbol]NH[symbol] target / J. Koivuniemi -- DNP with TEMPO and trityl radicals in deuterated polystyrene / L. Wang -- The CLIC electron and positron polarized sources / L. Rinolfi -- Status of high intensity polarized electron gun at MIT-Bates / E. Tsentalovich -- Target section for spin

  2. Targeted multi-pinhole SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small-animal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with focused multi-pinhole collimation geometries allows scanning modes in which large amounts of photons can be collected from specific volumes of interest. Here we present new tools that improve targeted imaging of specific organs and tumours, and validate the effects of improved targeting of the pinhole focus. A SPECT system with 75 pinholes and stationary detectors was used (U-SPECT-II). An XYZ stage automatically translates the animal bed with a specific sequence in order to scan a selected volume of interest. Prior to stepping the animal through the collimator, integrated webcams acquire images of the animal. Using sliders, the user designates the desired volume to be scanned (e.g. a xenograft or specific organ) on these optical images. Optionally projections of an atlas are overlaid semiautomatically to locate specific organs. In order to assess the effects of more targeted imaging, scans of a resolution phantom and a mouse myocardial phantom, as well as in vivo mouse cardiac and tumour scans, were acquired with increased levels of targeting. Differences were evaluated in terms of count yield, hot rod visibility and contrast-to-noise ratio. By restricting focused SPECT scans to a 1.13-ml resolution phantom, count yield was increased by a factor 3.6, and visibility of small structures was significantly enhanced. At equal noise levels, the small-lesion contrast measured in the myocardial phantom was increased by 42%. Noise in in vivo images of a tumour and the mouse heart was significantly reduced. Targeted pinhole SPECT improves images and can be used to shorten scan times. Scan planning with optical cameras provides an effective tool to exploit this principle without the necessity for additional X-ray CT imaging. (orig.)

  3. Targeting targeted agents: open issues for clinical trial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannarelli Diana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molecularly targeted agents for the treatment of solid tumors had entered the market in the last 5 years, with a great impact upon both the scientific community and the society. Many randomized phase III trials conducted in recent years with new targeted agents, despite previous data coming from preclinical research and from phase II trials were often promising, have produced disappointingly negative results. Some other trials have actually met their primary endpoint, demonstrating a statistically significant result favouring the experimental treatment. Unfortunately, with a few relevant exceptions, this advantage is often small, if not negligible, in absolute terms. The difference between statistical significance and clinical relevance should always be considered when translating clinical trials' results in the practice. The reason why this 'revolution' did not significantly impact on cancer treatment to displace chemotherapy from the patient' bedside is in part due to complicated, and in many cases, unknown, mechanisms of action of such drugs; indeed, the traditional way the clinical investigators were used to test the efficacy of 'older' chemotherapeutics, has become 'out of date' from the methodological perspective. As these drugs should be theoretically tailored upon featured bio-markers expressed by the patients, the clinical trial design should follow new rules based upon stronger hypotheses than those developed so far. Indeed, the early phases of basic and clinical drug development are crucial in the correct process which is able to correctly identify the target (when present. Targeted trial designs can result in easier studies, with less, better selected, and supported by stronger proofs of response evidences, patients, in order to not waste time and resources.

  4. Gated viewing for target detection and target recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinvall, Ove K.; Olsson, Hakan; Bolander, Goeran; Groenwall, Christina A.; Letalick, Dietmar

    1999-05-01

    Gated viewing using short pulse lasers and fast cameras offers many new possibilities in imaging compared with passive EO imaging. Among these we note ranging capability, large target-to-background contrast also in low visibility, good penetration capability trough obscurants and vegetation as well as through shadows in buildings, cars, etc. We also note that short wavelength laser systems have better angular resolution than long-wave infrared systems of the same aperture size. This gives an interesting potential of combined IR and laser systems for target detection and classification. Beside military applications civilian applications of gated viewing for search and rescue as well as vehicle enhanced vision and other applications are in progress. This presentation investigates the performance for gated viewing systems during different atmospheric conditions, including obscurants and gives examples of experimental data. The paper also deals with signal processing of gated viewing images for target detection. This is performed in two steps. First, image frames containing information of interest are found. In a second step those frames are investigated further to evaluate if man-made objects are present. In this step a sequence of images (video frames) are set up as a 3-D volume to incorporate spatial information. The object will then be detected using a set of quadrature filters operating on the volume.

  5. Non-viral gene therapy that targets motor neurons in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Louise eRogers

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in neurological gene therapy is safe delivery of transgenes to sufficient cell numbers from the circulation or periphery. This is particularly difficult for diseases involving spinal cord motor neurons such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. We have examined the feasibility of non-viral gene delivery to spinal motor neurons from intraperitoneal injections of plasmids carried by ‘immunogene’ nanoparticles targeted for axonal retrograde transport using antibodies. PEGylated polyethylenimine (PEI-PEG12 as DNA carrier was conjugated to an antibody (MLR2 to the neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75NTR. We used a plasmid (pVIVO2 designed for in vivo gene delivery that produces minimal immune responses, has improved nuclear entry into post mitotic cells and also expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP. MLR2-PEI-PEG12 carried pVIVO2 and was specific for mouse motor neurons in mixed cultures containing astrocytes. While only 8% of motor neurons expressed GFP 72 h post transfection in vitro, when the immunogene was given intraperitonealy to neonatal C57BL/6J mice GFP specific motor neuron expression was observed in 25.4% of lumbar, 18.3% of thoracic and 17.0 % of cervical motor neurons, 72 h post transfection. PEI-PEG12 carrying pVIVO2 by itself did not transfect motor neurons in vivo, demonstrating the need for specificity via the p75NTR antibody MLR2. This is the first time that specific transfection of spinal motor neurons has been achieved from peripheral delivery of plasmid DNA as part of a non-viral gene delivery agent. These results stress the specificity and feasibility of immunogene delivery targeted for p75NTR expressing motor neurons, but suggests that further improvements are required to increase the transfection efficiency of motor neurons in vivo.

  6. Progress of gene targeting in mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Gene targeting is a powerful approach of study- ing the genefunction in vivo. Specific genetic modifications, including simple gene disruption, point mutations, large chromosomal deletions and rearrangements, targeted incor- poration of foreign genes, could be introduced into the mouse genome by gene targeting. Recent studies make it possible to do the gene targeting with temporal and spatial control.

  7. Targeted Learning in Healthcare Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Susan

    2015-12-01

    The increasing availability of Big Data in healthcare encourages investigators to seek answers to big questions. However, nonparametric approaches to analyzing these data can suffer from the curse of dimensionality, and traditional parametric modeling does not necessarily scale. Targeted learning (TL) combines semiparametric methodology with advanced machine learning techniques to provide a sound foundation for extracting information from data. Predictive models, variable importance measures, and treatment benefits and risks can all be addressed within this framework. TL has been applied in a broad range of healthcare settings, including genomics, precision medicine, health policy, and drug safety. This article provides an introduction to the two main components of TL, targeted minimum loss-based estimation and super learning, and gives examples of applications in predictive modeling, variable importance ranking, and comparative effectiveness research. PMID:27441404

  8. CNOOC Lifts 2011 Production Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC), China's top offshore oil and gas producer, has lifted its 2011 production target by up to 11 percent as new projects at home and overseas come on stream.The offshore oil giant, with a market capitalization of about US$105 billion, said in a statement released in late January 2011 that it aimed to produce between 355 and 365 million barrels of oil equivalent (BOE).Oil prices climbed 15 percent in 2010 on the back of expectations that a global economic recovery will drive the demand.Analysts are similarly bullish for 2011, predicting crude prices to trade at around US$100 for the year.CNOOC, the smallest of China's triumvirate of energy companies that also includes CNPC and Sinopee, said it targeted US$8.8 billion in capital expenditure for 2011.

  9. Recurring Utterances - Targeting a Breakthrough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Stark

    2014-05-01

    The most interesting phenomenon is KB’s production of words from former sessions indicating that they are still ‘active’ and the production of completely novel incorrect words. The observable features indicate that immediate auditory processing is possible in the form of repeating target words. However, as soon as KB must retrieve information from the (semantic lexicon, even after being able to correctly ‘repeat’ the target word several times, he responds with a RU, perseveration, or paraphasia. Several of his productions can be characterized as aphasic confabulations which stem from a memory gap. Thus, although KB’s language impairment is severe, his responses across time indicate that step-by-step a breakthrough is being made.

  10. Geometric characterization of macroshell targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are investigating methods of fabricating and characterizing large diameter, thin-walled glass capsules for Inertial Fusion (IF) experiments. Dimensional requirements for the capsules specify diameters of two to ten millimeters and a wide range of aspect ratios (diameter/wall). These shells are larger in diameter than shells made in drop towers. Because of their larger size, they have been given the designation, macroshell. Glass macroshell targets are transparent, seamless, fuel containers which are currently used in beta-heating experiments at KMSF. The capsules are also potentially useful for neutron production experiments with IF drivers like Nova. The technology developed to fabricate these fuel containers may be useful in the fabrication of polymer shells necessary for the proposed Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF); some work with polymers has started. Accurate target characterization is essential to ensure the accurate measurement of fuel layers produced by radioactively induced sublimation of cyrogenically cooled deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. 3 refs., 4 figs

  11. Targeting vaccines to dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Camilla; Sundblad, Anne; Hovgaard, Lars

    2002-01-01

    be far superior to that of B-cells and macrophages. DC are localized at strategic places in the body at sites used by pathogens to enter the organism, and are thereby in an optimal position to capture antigens. In general, vaccination strategies try to mimic the invasiveness of the pathogens. DC are...... considered to play a central role for the provocation of primary immune responses by vaccination. A rational way of improving the potency and safety of new and already existing vaccines could therefore be to direct vaccines specifically to DC. There is a need for developing multifunctional vaccine drug...... delivery systems (DDS) with adjuvant effect that target DC directly and induce optimal immune responses. This paper will review the current knowledge of DC physiology as well as the progress in the field of novel vaccination strategies that directly or indirectly aim at targeting DC....

  12. Anticancer Agents Targeted to Sirtuins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Kozako

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sirtuins are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide+-dependent deacetylases of which there are seven isoforms (SIRT1–7. Sirtuin activity is linked to gene expression, lifespan extension, neurodegeneration, and age-related disorders. Numerous studies have suggested that sirtuins could be of great significance with regard to both antiaging and tumorigenesis, depending on its targets in specific signaling pathways or in specific cancers. Recent studies have identified small chemical compounds that modulate sirtuins, and these modulators have enabled a greater understanding of the biological function and molecular mechanisms of sirtuins. This review highlights the possibility of sirtuins, especially SIRT1 and SIRT2, for cancer therapy targets, and focuses on the therapeutic potential of sirtuin modulators both in cancer prevention and treatment.

  13. Nanodelivery System for Mitochondrial Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoong, Sia Lee; Pastorin, Giorgia

    2014-02-01

    Mitochondria are indispensable in cellular functions such as energy production and death execution. They are emerging as intriguing therapeutic target as their dysregulation was found to be monumental in diseases such as neurodegenerative disease, obesity, and cancer etc. Despite tremendous interest being focused on therapeutically intervening mitochondrial function, few mito-active drugs were successfully developed, particularly due to challenges in delivering active compound to this organelle. In this review, effort in utilizing nanotechnology for targeted mitochondrial delivery of compound is expounded based on the nature of the nanomaterial used. The advantage and potential offered are discussed alongside the limitation. Finally the review is concluded with perspectives of the application of nanocarrier in mitochondrial medicine, given the unresolved concern on potential complications.

  14. Electronic warfare target location methods

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Describing the mathematical development underlying current and classical methods of geolocating electronic systems that are emitting, this newly revised and greatly expanded edition of a classic Artech House book offers practical guidance in electronic warfare target location. The Second Edition features a wealth of additional material including new chapters on time delay estimation, direction finding techniques, and the MUSIC algorithm. This practical resource provides you with critical design information on geolocation algorithms, and establishes the fundamentals of existing algorithms as a

  15. Chemotherapy targeting cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Haiguang; Lv, Lin; Yang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Conventional chemotherapy is the main treatment for cancer and benefits patients in the form of decreased relapse and metastasis and longer overall survival. However, as the target therapy drugs and delivery systems are not wholly precise, it also results in quite a few side effects, and is less efficient in many cancers due to the spared cancer stem cells, which are considered the reason for chemotherapy resistance, relapse, and metastasis. Conventional chemotherapy limitations and the cance...

  16. Aptamers and aptamer targeted delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Amy C.; Levy, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    When aptamers first emerged almost two decades ago, most were RNA species that bound and tagged or inhibited simple target ligands. Very soon after, the ‘selectionologists’ developing aptamer technology quickly realized more potential for the aptamer. In recent years, advances in aptamer techniques have enabled the use of aptamers as small molecule inhibitors, diagnostic tools and even therapeutics. Aptamers are now being employed in novel applications. We review, herein, some of the recent a...

  17. Therapeutic targeting of Janus kinases

    OpenAIRE

    Pesu, Marko; Laurence, Arian; Kishore, Nandini; Zwillich, Sam; Chan, Gary; O’Shea, John J.

    2008-01-01

    Cytokines play pivotal roles in immunity and inflammation, and targeting cytokines and their receptors is an effective means of treating such disorders. Type I and II cytokine receptors associate with Janus family kinases (JAKs) to effect intracellular signaling. These structurally unique protein kinases play essential and specific roles in immune cell development and function. One JAK, JAK3, has particularly selective functions. Mutations of this kinase underlie severe combined immunodeficie...

  18. Targeted advertising in magazine markets

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Ambarish; Kaiser, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    We examine the scope and value of targeted advertising in the magazine industry. We use data on reader characteristics at individual media, in contrast to previous work that has needed to infer this information from aggregate data. Our results show a strong relationship between subscriber characteristics and advertising prices. Advertisers clearly value more homogenous groups of readers, measured according to income, gender and age. Our results explain recent trends of declining advertising e...

  19. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venning, Freja A; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T

    2015-01-01

    extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread is...... summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-)clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression....

  20. Target Advertising and Market Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Stühmeier, Torben

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of increased transparency over online news sources, e.g. due to news aggregators, on online news outlets and the advertising industry. The role of news aggregators is controversially discussed, where the discussion widely points on user side effect. The present paper widens the discussion on the advertising side and shows that aggregators can help to better target advertising messages to a more homogenous group of users and, in turn, may both benefit advertiser...

  1. Philippines; Preparations for Inflation Targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Piyabha Kongsamut

    2001-01-01

    The Philippines is planning to shift toward adoption of an inflation targeting framework in 2001. This paper reviews key policy issues in this context, describes various operational and technical preparations, and presents an empirical analysis of the factors driving inflation. Among the key policy requirements, while central bank independence appears assured, the exchange rate has been allowed to fluctuate largely freely, and the authorities are embarking on a medium-term plan for fiscal con...

  2. The Automatic Measurement of Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhle, Joachim

    1997-01-01

    The automatic measurement of targets is demonstrated by means of a theoretical example and by an interactive measuring program for real imagery from a réseau camera. The used strategy is a combination of two methods: the maximum correlation coefficient and the correlation in the subpixel range. F...... interactive software is also part of a computer-assisted learning program on digital photogrammetry....

  3. Inflation Targeting in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Barajas, Adolfo; Steiner, Roberto; Villar, Leonardo; Pabon, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of conventional Taylor rules for Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru shows that central banks increase their repo rate in response to increases in the output gap and, except in Peru, to deviations of inflation expectations from target. Using a Markov-Switching methodology, it is found that, in the presence of external shocks, Chile, Colombia and Peru temporarily abandoned their conventional reaction function. The Taylor Rule is expanded and variables are included related to exchange r...

  4. Inflation Targeting in Dollarized Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Leiderman; Rodolfo Maino; Eric Parrado

    2006-01-01

    The shift to inflation targeting has contributed to the relatively low inflation observed in some emerging market economies although, as noted by many economists, the preconditions required for a successful implementation were not in place. The existence of managed exchange rate regimes, a narrow base of domestic nominal financial assets, the lack of market instruments to hedge exchange rate risks, together with fear of floating and dollarization, have been stressed as factors that might weak...

  5. Targeting the lysosome in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Piao, Shengfu; Amaravadi, Ravi K.

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomes are membrane-bound intracellular organelles that receive macromolecules delivered by endocytosis, phagocytosis, and autophagy for degradation and recycling. Over the last decade, advances in lysosome research have established a broad role for the lysosome in the pathophysiology of disease. In this review, we highlight the recent discoveries in lysosome biology, with an emphasis on their implications for cancer therapy. We focus on targeting the lysosome in cancer by exploring lysoso...

  6. Toward targeted hypertension screening guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Buuren, S. van; Boshuizen, HC; Reijneveld, SA

    2006-01-01

    Background. guidelines for screening and subsequent treatment of hypertension vary widely between countries. Part Of this variation can be attributed to systematic differences between Populations, but little is known about the way in which guidelines should be targeted to the population of interest. Optimal guidelines should have high yield and low complexity. The goal is to fit procedures for screening and subsequent treatment of hypertension optimally to a specific population. Methods. Simu...

  7. Anticancer Agents Targeted to Sirtuins

    OpenAIRE

    Tomohiro Kozako; Takayoshi Suzuki; Makoto Yoshimitsu; Naomichi Arima; Shin-ichiro Honda; Shinji Soeda

    2014-01-01

    Sirtuins are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide+-dependent deacetylases of which there are seven isoforms (SIRT1–7). Sirtuin activity is linked to gene expression, lifespan extension, neurodegeneration, and age-related disorders. Numerous studies have suggested that sirtuins could be of great significance with regard to both antiaging and tumorigenesis, depending on its targets in specific signaling pathways or in specific cancers. Recent studies have identified small chemical compounds that m...

  8. Target fragmentation at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the results of measurements of the average target fragment momenta and energies in the interaction of 12.0 and 18.4 MeV/u 160, and 45.4 and 83.8 MeV/u 12C with 197Au. We compare these data with previously published studies of the interaction of 380 MeV/u 20Ne and 400 and 2100 MeV/u 12C with 197Au

  9. Cancer Immunotherapy of Targeting Angiogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JianmeiHou; LingTian; YuquanWei

    2004-01-01

    Tumor growth and metastasis are angiogenesis-dependent. Anti-angiogenic therapy may be a useful approach to cancer therapy. This review discussed tumor angiogenesis and immunotherapy of targeting tumor angiogenesis from two main aspects: (1) active vaccination to induce effective anti-angiogenesis immunity; (2) passive immunotherapy with anti-pro-angiogenic molecules relevant antibody. Evidence from the recent years suggested that anti-angiogenic therapy should be one of the most promising approaches to cancer therapy.

  10. Fixed target flammable gas upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, fixed target flammable gas systems were not supported in an organized fashion. The Research Division, Mechanical Support Department began to support these gas systems for the 1995 run. This technical memo describes the new approach being used to supply chamber gasses to fixed target experiments at Fermilab. It describes the engineering design features, system safety, system documentation and performance results. Gas mixtures provide the medium for electron detection in proportional and drift chambers. Usually a mixture of a noble gas and a polyatomic quenching gas is used. Sometimes a small amount of electronegative gas is added as well. The mixture required is a function of the specific chamber design, including working voltage, gain requirements, high rate capability, aging and others. For the 1995 fixed target run all the experiments requested once through gas systems. We obtained a summary of problems from the 1990 fixed target run and made a summary of the operations logbook entries from the 1991 run. These summaries primarily include problems involving flammable gas alarms, but also include incidents where Operations was involved or informed. Usually contamination issues were dealt with by the experimenters. The summaries are attached. We discussed past operational issues with the experimenters involved. There were numerous incidents of drift chamber failure where contaminated gas was suspect. However analyses of the gas at the time usually did not show any particular problems. This could have been because the analysis did not look for the troublesome component, the contaminant was concentrated in the gas over the liquid and vented before the sample was taken, or that contaminants were drawn into the chambers directly through leaks or sub-atmospheric pressures. After some study we were unable to determine specific causes of past contamination problems, although in argon-ethane systems the problems were due to the ethane only

  11. Fixed-Target Electron Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tremendous amount of scientific insight has been garnered over the past half-century by using particle accelerators to study physical systems of sub-atomic dimensions. These giant instruments begin with particles at rest, then greatly increase their energy of motion, forming a narrow trajectory or beam of particles. In fixed-target accelerators, the particle beam impacts upon a stationary sample or target which contains or produces the sub-atomic system being studied. This is in distinction to colliders, where two beams are produced and are steered into each other so that their constituent particles can collide. The acceleration process always relies on the particle being accelerated having an electric charge; however, both the details of producing the beam and the classes of scientific investigations possible vary widely with the specific type of particle being accelerated. This article discusses fixed-target accelerators which produce beams of electrons, the lightest charged particle. As detailed in the report, the beam energy has a close connection with the size of the physical system studied. Here a useful unit of energy is a GeV, i.e., a giga electron-volt. (ne GeV, the energy an electron would have if accelerated through a billion volts, is equal to 1.6 x 10-10 joules.) To study systems on a distance scale much smaller than an atomic nucleus requires beam energies ranging from a few GeV up to hundreds of GeV and more

  12. Strategies for SETI target selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, David W.; Soderblom, David R.

    1993-08-01

    The NASA High Resolution Microwave Survey consists of two complementary elements: a Sky Survey of the entire sky to a moderate level of sensitivity; and a Targeted Search of nearby stars, one at a time, to a much deeper level of sensitivity. In this paper we present a strategy for target selection and observing. The strategy has two goals: to improve the chances of successful detection of signals from technical civilizations that inhabit planets around solar- type stars, and to minimize the chances of missing signals from unexpected sites. For the main Targeted Search survey of approximately 1000 nearby solar-type stars, we argue that the selection criteria should be heavily biased by what we know about the origin and evolution of life here on earth. We propose that observations of stars with stellar companions orbiting near the habitable zone should be de-emphasized, because such companions would prevent the formation of habitable planets. We also propose that observations of stars younger than about three billion years should be de-emphasized in favor of older stars, because our own technical civilization took longer than three billion years to evolve here on earth.

  13. Targeted gene flow for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ella; Phillips, Ben L

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic threats often impose strong selection on affected populations, causing rapid evolutionary responses. Unfortunately, these adaptive responses are rarely harnessed for conservation. We suggest that conservation managers pay close attention to adaptive processes and geographic variation, with an eye to using them for conservation goals. Translocating pre-adapted individuals into recipient populations is currently considered a potentially important management tool in the face of climate change. Targeted gene flow, which involves moving individuals with favorable traits to areas where these traits would have a conservation benefit, could have a much broader application in conservation. Across a species' range there may be long-standing geographic variation in traits or variation may have rapidly developed in response to a threatening process. Targeted gene flow could be used to promote natural resistance to threats to increase species resilience. We suggest that targeted gene flow is a currently underappreciated strategy in conservation that has applications ranging from the management of invasive species and their impacts to controlling the impact and virulence of pathogens. PMID:26332195

  14. A Cryogenic Infrared Calibration Target

    CERN Document Server

    Wollack, Edward J; Rinehart, Stephan A

    2014-01-01

    A compact cryogenic calibration target is presented that has a peak diffuse reflectance, $R \\le 0.003$, from $800-4,800\\,{\\rm cm}^{-1}$ $(12-2\\,\\mu$m). Upon expanding the spectral range under consideration to $400-10,000\\,{\\rm cm}^{-1}$ $(25-1\\,\\mu$m) the observed performance gracefully degrades to $R \\le 0.02$ at the band edges. In the implementation described, a high-thermal-conductivity metallic substrate is textured with a pyramidal tiling and subsequently coated with a thin lossy dielectric coating that enables high absorption and thermal uniformity across the target. The resulting target assembly is lightweight, has a low-geometric profile, and has survived repeated thermal cycling from room temperature to $\\sim4\\,$K. Basic design considerations, governing equations, and test data for realizing the structure described are provided. The optical properties of selected absorptive materials -- Acktar Fractal Black, Aeroglaze Z306, and Stycast 2850 FT epoxy loaded with stainless steel powder -- are character...

  15. Drug targeting to the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardridge, William M

    2007-09-01

    The goal of brain drug targeting technology is the delivery of therapeutics across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), including the human BBB. This is accomplished by re-engineering pharmaceuticals to cross the BBB via specific endogenous transporters localized within the brain capillary endothelium. Certain endogenous peptides, such as insulin or transferrin, undergo receptor-mediated transport (RMT) across the BBB in vivo. In addition, peptidomimetic monoclonal antibodies (MAb) may also cross the BBB via RMT on the endogenous transporters. The MAb may be used as a molecular Trojan horse to ferry across the BBB large molecule pharmaceuticals, including recombinant proteins, antibodies, RNA interference drugs, or non-viral gene medicines. Fusion proteins of the molecular Trojan horse and either neurotrophins or single chain Fv antibodies have been genetically engineered. The fusion proteins retain bi-functional properties, and both bind the BBB receptor, to trigger transport into brain, and bind the cognate receptor inside brain to induce the pharmacologic effect. Trojan horse liposome technology enables the brain targeting of non-viral plasmid DNA. Molecular Trojan horses may be formulated with fusion protein technology, avidin-biotin technology, or Trojan horse liposomes to target to brain virtually any large molecule pharmaceutical. PMID:17554607

  16. Aluminum-lithium target behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonell, W.R.

    1989-10-01

    Information on physical properties and irradiation behavior of aluminum-lithium target alloys employed for the production of tritium in Savannah River reactors has been reviewed to support development of technology for the New Production Reactor (NPR). Phase compositions and microstructures, thermal conductivity, mechanical properties, and constituent diffusion phenomena of the alloys, established in prior site studies, are presented. Irradiation behavior, including distributions of product tritium and helium and related exposure limits due to swelling and cracking of the target alloys is discussed, along with gas release processes occurring during subsequent product recovery operations. The property review supports designation of the aluminum-lithium alloys as ideally well-suited target materials for low-temperature, tritium-producing reactors, demonstrated over 35 years of Savannah River reactor operation. Low temperature irradiation and reaction with lithium in the alloy promotes tritium retention during reactor exposure, and the aluminum provides a matrix from which the product is readily recovered on heating following irradiation. 33 refs., 26 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. Therapeutic targets in liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallowfield, Jonathan A

    2011-05-01

    Detailed analysis of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate liver fibrosis has provided a framework for therapeutic approaches to prevent, slow down, or even reverse fibrosis and cirrhosis. A pivotal event in the development of liver fibrosis is the activation of quiescent hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to scar-forming myofibroblast-like cells. Consequently, HSCs and the factors that regulate HSC activation, proliferation, and function represent important antifibrotic targets. Drugs currently licensed in the US and Europe for other indications target HSC-related components of the fibrotic cascade. Their deployment in the near future looks likely. Ultimately, treatment strategies for liver fibrosis may vary on an individual basis according to etiology, risk of fibrosis progression, and the prevailing pathogenic milieu, meaning that a multiagent approach could be required. The field continues to develop rapidly and starts to identify exciting potential targets in proof-of-concept preclinical studies. Despite this, no antifibrotics are currently licensed for use in humans. With epidemiological predictions for the future prevalence of viral, obesity-related, and alcohol-related cirrhosis painting an increasingly gloomy picture, and a shortfall in donors for liver transplantation, the clinical urgency for new therapies is high. There is growing interest from stakeholders keen to exploit the market potential for antifibrotics. However, the design of future trials for agents in the developmental pipeline will depend on strategies that enable equal patient stratification, techniques to reliably monitor changes in fibrosis over time, and the definition of clinically meaningful end points. PMID:21233278

  18. Three Essays on Analyst Target Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Hashim, Noor

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents three essays on analyst target prices. The essays contribute to the major debate on the value of analyst target prices in the capital market by addressing the following three questions: Does a bull-bear valuation analysis increase the accuracy of analysts’ target prices? Does analyst ranking affect how informative target prices are to institutional investors? And, do analysts use their cash flow forecasts when setting target prices?In the first essay, I explore whether co...

  19. Experimental identification of microRNA targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørom, Ulf Andersson; Lund, Anders H

    microRNAs are small RNAs that regulate protein synthesis post-transcriptionally. Animal microRNAs recognize their targets by incomplete base pairing to sequence motifs most often present in the 3' untranslated region of their target mRNAs. This partial complementarity vastly expands the repertoire...... of potential targets and constitutes a problem for computational target prediction. Although computational analyses have shed light on important aspects of microRNA target recognition, several questions remain regarding how microRNAs can recognize and regulate their targets. Forward experimental...... approaches allow for an unbiased study of microRNA target recognition and may unveil novel, rare or uncommon target binding patterns. In this review we focus on animal microRNAs and the experimental approaches that have been described for identification of their targets....

  20. LIFE Target Fabrication Research Plan Sept 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, R; Biener, J; Kucheyev, S; Montesanti, R; Satcher, J; Spadaccini, C; Rose, K; Wang, M; Hamza, A; Alexander, N; Brown, L; Hund, J; Petzoldt, R; Sweet, W; Goodin, D

    2008-11-10

    The target-system for the baseline LIFE fast-ignition target was analyzed to establish a preliminary estimate for the costs and complexities involved in demonstrating the technologies needed to build a prototype LIFE plant. The baseline fast-ignition target upon which this analysis was developed is shown in Figure 1.0-1 below. The LIFE target-system incorporates requirements for low-cost, high throughput manufacture, high-speed, high accuracy injection of the target into the chamber, production of sufficient energy from implosion and recovery and recycle of the imploded target material residue. None of these functions has been demonstrated to date. Existing target fabrication techniques which lead to current 'hot spot' target costs of {approx}$100,000 per target and at a production rate of 2/day are unacceptable for the LIFE program. Fabrication techniques normally used for low-cost, low accuracy consumer products such as toys must be adapted to the high-accuracy LIFE target. This will be challenge. A research program resulting is the demonstration of the target-cycle technologies needed for a prototype LIFE reactor is expected to cost {approx}$51M over the course of 5 years. The effort will result in targets which will cost an estimated $0.23/target at a rep-rate of 20 Hz or about 1.73M targets/day.

  1. Introduction to radar target recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Tait, P

    2006-01-01

    This new text provides an overview of the radar target recognition process and covers the key techniques being developed for operational systems. It is based on the fundamental scientific principles of high resolution radar, and explains how the techniques can be used in real systems, taking into account the characteristics of practical radar system designs and component limitations. It also addresses operational aspects, such as how high resolution modes would fit in with other functions such as detection and tracking. Mathematics is kept to a minimum and the complex techniques and issues are

  2. Conotoxins: Molecular and Therapeutic Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard J.

    Marine molluscs known as cone snails produce beautiful shells and a complex array of over 50,000 venom peptides evolved for prey capture and defence. Many of these peptides selectively modulate ion channels and transporters, making them a valuable source of new ligands for studying the role these targets play in normal and disease physiology. A number of conopeptides reduce pain in animal models, and several are now in pre-clinical and clinical development for the treatment of severe pain often associated with diseases such as cancer. Less than 1% of cone snail venom peptides are pharmacologically characterised.

  3. Nova target chamber decontamination study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An engineering study was performed to determine the most effective method for decontamination of the Nova target chamber. Manual and remote decontamination methods currently being used were surveyed. In addition, a concept that may not require in-situ decontamination was investigated. Based on the presently available information concerning material and system compatibility and particle penetration, it is recommended that a system of removable aluminum shields be considered. It is also recommended that a series of tests be performed to more precisely determine the vacuum compatibility and penetrability of other materials discussed in this report

  4. Antiviral targets of human noroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Bv Venkataram; Shanker, Sreejesh; Muhaxhiri, Zana; Deng, Lisheng; Choi, Jae-Mun; Estes, Mary K; Song, Yongcheng; Palzkill, Timothy; Atmar, Robert L

    2016-06-01

    Human noroviruses are major causative agents of sporadic and epidemic gastroenteritis both in children and adults. Currently there are no licensed therapeutic intervention measures either in terms of vaccines or drugs available for these highly contagious human pathogens. Genetic and antigenic diversity of these viruses, rapid emergence of new strains, and their ability to infect a broad population by using polymorphic histo-blood group antigens for cell attachment, pose significant challenges for the development of effective antiviral agents. Despite these impediments, there is progress in the design and development of therapeutic agents. These include capsid-based candidate vaccines, and potential antivirals either in the form of glycomimetics or designer antibodies that block HBGA binding, as well as those that target essential non-structural proteins such as the viral protease and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. In addition to these classical approaches, recent studies suggest the possibility of interferons and targeting host cell factors as viable approaches to counter norovirus infection. This review provides a brief overview of this progress. PMID:27318434

  5. Multifunction sensor for target recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, William M.; Lindberg, Perry C.

    1993-09-01

    The U.S. Army has a critical need for the capability provided by a multifunction sensor. This is (in effect) a smart sensor system that can adapt to environmental conditions and adjust its mode of operation to effectively counter any threat it meets. It will have an intelligent signal processor which has all of the system's sensor signals to choose from. The processor chooses the appropriate signal information to rapidly detect, acquire, track, and automatically identify all targets in the vicinity of the sensor under a wide variety of battlefield scenarios and environmental conditions. The multiphenomenology signal information provides the flexibility to overcome the adverse effects of clutter, countermeasures (both active and passive), illumination, obscurants, target orientation, and weather. It should be noted, however, that the types of sensory information required is dependent on the mission and the operating environment. For instance, a strategic defense sensor operating in space can use (and will need) different types of sensor data than the multifunction sensor employed on an attack helicopter. In fact, the sensor configuration on a helicopter operating in Saudi Arabia may be quite different from one that is deployed to Vietnam. For the purpose of this paper we generalize about the technologies desired for an adaptable, `smart' sensor system. We do not specify a particular mission nor define a specific threat. However, in any case, we can assume the need to fuse sensor signal information in an intelligent processor to provide robust performance in the battlefield environment. 12

  6. Hypoxia-mediated tumour targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binley, K; Askham, Z; Martin, L; Spearman, H; Day, D; Kingsman, S; Naylor, S

    2003-04-01

    Hypoxia is a common physiological feature of tumours. It activates a signalling cascade that culminates in the stabilization of the HIF-1 transcription factor and activation of genes that possess a hypoxia response element (HRE). We have used an optimized hypoxia responsive promoter (OBHRE) to investigate hypoxia-targeted gene expression in vivo in the context of an adenovirus vector. The OBHRE promoter showed limited activity in the liver or spleen such that expression was 1000-fold lower than that driven by the strong CMV/IE promoter. However, in the context of the tumour microenvironment, the OBHRE promoter achieved expression levels comparable to that of the CMV/IE promoter. Next, we showed that an adenovirus expressing the human cytochrome P450 (CYP2B6) regulated by the OBHRE promoter delays tumour growth in response to the prodrug cyclophosphamide (CPA). Finally, we exploited the hepatotropism of adenovirus to investigate whether the OBHRE promoter could mitigate the hepatotoxicity of a recombinant adenovirus expressing thymidine kinase (TK) in the context of the prodrug ganciclovir (GCV). High-dose Ad.CMVTK/GCV treatment caused significant liver necrosis whereas the same dose of Ad.HRETK was well tolerated. These in vivo data demonstrate that hypoxia-targeted gene expression via the OBHRE promoter can be used to increase the therapeutic window of cytotoxic cancer gene therapy. PMID:12646859

  7. Aquaporins as potential drug targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang WANG; Xue-chao FENG; Yong-ming LI; Hong YANG; Tong-hui MA

    2006-01-01

    The aquaporins (AQP) are a family of integral membrane proteins that selectively transport water and,in some cases,small neutral solutes such as glycerol and urea.Thirteen mammalian AQP have been molecularly identified and localized to various epithelial,endothelial and other tissues.Phenotype studies of transgenic mouse models of AQP knockout,mutation,and in some cases humans with AQP mutations have demonstrated essential roles for AQP in mammalian physiology and pathophysiology,including urinary concentrating function,exocrine glandular fluid secretion,brain edema formation,regulation of intracranial and intraocular pressure,skin hydration,fat metabolism,tumor angiogenesis and cell migration.These studies suggest that AQP may be potential drug targets for not only new diuretic reagents for various forms of pathological water retention,but also targets for novel therapy of brain edema,inflammatory disease,glaucoma,obesity,and cancer.However,potent AQP modulators for in vivo application remain to be discovered.

  8. HIRFL–CSR internal cluster target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An internal cluster target was built and installed at HIRFL–CSR. • The target thickness for H2 amounts up to 6.6 × 1012 atoms/cm2. • The feasibility and stability of the internal cluster target were verified by on-line experiments. -- Abstract: Since HIRFL–CSR internal cluster target was built, it has played a key role in in-ring experiments at HIRFL–CSR. So far it have been operated with five gas species as targets for scattering experiments, i.e. hydrogen, nitrogen, argon, neon, and krypton. The obtained highest thickness for hydrogen target amounts up to 1012 atoms/cm2, and those of other targets are larger than 1013 atoms/cm2 with the background pressure of 10−11 mbar in CSR. The target thickness can be varied by regulating the nozzle temperature and pressure of the inlet gas. The first online internal target experiment dedicated to investigate radioactive electron capture (REC) process with Xe54+ ions colliding with the nitrogen target demonstrated the stability and reliability of the internal target system. In addition, hydrogen and krypton were also tested online in recent experiments, which indicate the target system can meet experimental requirements for the thickness of target, pressure in scattering chamber, and long-term stability

  9. Progress on the SNS target station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review gives progress and modifications covering the last eighteen months, under the five broad areas of target, target assembly, control system, bulk shield and remote handling. Finally a discussion of additional facilities to the SNS is presented

  10. Combinatorial microRNA target predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krek, Azra; Grün, Dominic; Poy, Matthew N.;

    2005-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that recognize and bind to partially complementary sites in the 3' untranslated regions of target genes in animals and, by unknown mechanisms, regulate protein production of the target transcript1, 2, 3. Different combinations of microRNAs are expressed in...... different cell types and may coordinately regulate cell-specific target genes. Here, we present PicTar, a computational method for identifying common targets of microRNAs. Statistical tests using genome-wide alignments of eight vertebrate genomes, PicTar's ability to specifically recover published micro......RNA targets, and experimental validation of seven predicted targets suggest that PicTar has an excellent success rate in predicting targets for single microRNAs and for combinations of microRNAs. We find that vertebrate microRNAs target, on average, roughly 200 transcripts each. Furthermore, our results...

  11. Preparation of targets by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various factors are described which are involved in target preparation by direct ion implantation and the limitations and pitfalls of the method are emphasized. Examples are given of experiments for which ion implanted targets are well suited. (author)

  12. Generating target probability sequences and events

    OpenAIRE

    Ella, Vaignana Spoorthy

    2013-01-01

    Cryptography and simulation of systems require that events of pre-defined probability be generated. This paper presents methods to generate target probability events based on the oblivious transfer protocol and target probabilistic sequences using probability distribution functions.

  13. Targets and processes for fabricating same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Jesse D; Malekos, Steven; Le Galloudec, Nathalie; Korgan, Grant; Cowan, Thomas; Sentoku, Yasuhiko

    2016-05-17

    In particular embodiments, the present disclosure provides targets including a metal layer and defining a hollow inner surface. The hollow inner surface has an internal apex. The distance between at least two opposing points of the internal apex is less than about 15 .mu.m. In particular examples, the distance is less than about 1 .mu.m. Particular implementations of the targets are free standing. The targets have a number of disclosed shaped, including cones, pyramids, hemispheres, and capped structures. The present disclosure also provides arrays of such targets. Also provided are methods of forming targets, such as the disclosed targets, using lithographic techniques, such as photolithographic techniques. In particular examples, a target mold is formed from a silicon wafer and then one or more sides of the mold are coated with a target material, such as one or more metals.

  14. HIRFL-CSR internal target system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure and the design of the HIRFL-CSR internal target system is reported. The HIRFL-CSR internal target can operate in two modes: cluster target mode and polarized target mode. The cluster target may provide the gas target of H2, N2, noble gases and small molecular gases with a density of ≥ 1013 atoms/cm2, and the polarized target may provide polarized H and D beams with a density of about 2 x 1011 atoms/cm2. The target polarization is expected to be +0.90/-0.90 for hydrogen beam, and the vector polarization is expected to +0.95/-0.95 for deuterium beam

  15. Targets and processes for fabricating same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowna, Thomas; Malekos, Steven; Korgan, Grant; Adams, Jesse; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; LeGalloudec, Nathalie

    2014-06-10

    In particular embodiments, the present disclosure provides targets including a metal layer and defining a hollow inner surface. The hollow inner surface has an internal apex. The distance between at least two opposing points of the internal apex is less than about 15 .mu.m. In particular examples, the distance is less than about 1 .mu.m. Particular implementations of the targets are free standing. The targets have a number of disclosed shaped, including cones, pyramids, hemispheres, and capped structures. The present disclosure also provides arrays of such targets. Also provided are methods of forming targets, such as the disclosed targets, using lithographic techniques, such as photolithographic techniques. In particular examples, a target mold is formed from a silicon wafer and then one or more sides of the mold are coated with a target material, such as one or more metals.

  16. Target for optically activated seekers and trackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, C. T.; Willett, N. F.

    1984-05-01

    This abstract discloses a target for optically activated seekers and trackers (TOAST) which provides for calibrated and variable target characteristics such as size, intensity, spatial position, color and interfering background. The TOAST has a first ilumination system providing a target light beam through an adjustable iris which controls image size. The target beam passes through a collimator lens which focuses the light at infinity. With the target beam focused at infinity, the motion of an elevation plate lengthens or shortens the distance from the collimator lens to a one motion mirror. The target beam is attenuated by a variable filter driven by a servo-motor, and a color selection process is provided by passing the beam through spectral filters. A background light beam with background imagery is provided to the beamsplitter mirror and mixed with the target image so as to simulate the target environment encountered by an operating optically activated seeker and tracker.

  17. A rotating target for Ra production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A target wheel with pyrolytic graphite targets is designed and constructed at the TRIμP facility to boost the production rate of Ra isotopes. Simulation, design properties and production results are discussed.

  18. Docetaxel immunonanocarriers as targeted delivery systems for HER2-positive tumor cells: preparation, characterization, and cytotoxicity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noori Koopaei M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mona Noori Koopaei1, Rassoul Dinarvand1,2, Mohsen Amini3, Hojatollah Rabbani4, Shaghayegh Emami4, Seyed Nasser Ostad5, Fatemeh Atyabi1,21Novel Drug Delivery Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmacy, 2Nanotechnology Research Center, 3Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 4Monoclonal Antibody Research Center, Avesina Research Institute, ACECR, Tehran, Iran; 5Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, IranBackground: The objective of this study was to develop pegylated poly lactide-co-glycolide acid (PLGA immunonanocarriers for targeting delivery of docetaxel to human breast cancer cells.Methods: The polyethylene glycol (PEG groups on the surface of the PLGA nanoparticles were functionalized using maleimide groups. Trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody against human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 antigens of cancer cells, used as the targeting moiety, was attached to the maleimide groups on the surface of pegylated PLGA nanoparticles. Nanoparticles prepared by a nanoprecipitation method were characterized for their size, size distribution, surface charge, surface morphology, drug-loading, and in vitro drug release profile.Results: The average size of the trastuzumab-decorated nanoparticles was 254 ± 16.4 nm and their zeta potential was -11.5 ± 1.4 mV. The average size of the nontargeted PLGA nanoparticles was 183 ± 22 nm and their zeta potential was -2.6 ± 0.34 mV. The cellular uptake of nanoparticles was studied using both HER2-positive (SKBR3 and BT-474 and HER2-negative (Calu-6 cell lines.Conclusion: The cytotoxicity of the immunonanocarriers against HER2-positive cell lines was significantly higher than that of nontargeted PLGA nanoparticles and free docetaxel.Keywords: nanoparticles, drug targeting, immunonanocarriers, trastuzumab, docetaxel, PLGA, HER2 receptor

  19. Does inflation targeting make a difference?

    OpenAIRE

    Frederic S. Mishkin; Schmidt-Hebbel, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Yes, as inferred from panel evidence for inflation-targeting countries and a control group of high-achieving industrial countries that do not target inflation. Our evidence suggests that inflation targeting helps countries achieve lower inflation in the long run, have smaller inflation response to oil-price and exchange-rate shocks, strengthen monetary policy independence, improve monetary policy efficiency, and obtain inflation outcomes closer to target levels. Some benefits of inflation tar...

  20. Targeting Nominal Income Growth or Inflation?

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Within a simple New Keynesian model emphasizing forward-looking behaviour of private agents, I evaluate optimal nominal income growth targeting versus optimal inflation targeting. When the economy under consideration is mainly subject to shocks that do not involve monetary policy trade-offs for society, inflation targeting is preferable. Otherwise, nominal income growth targeting may be superior because it induces inertial interest rate behaviour that improves the inflation-output gap trade-o...

  1. Capacitive Sensors And Targets Would Measure Alignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenstrom, Del T.

    1994-01-01

    Multiple capacitive sensors and active targets used to measure distance between, and relative orientation of, two objects. Sensed target signals processed and used by control systems to align objects to be joined. Shapes, sizes, and layouts of sensors and targets optimized for specific application. Particular layout of targets and sensors enables determination of relative position and orientation of two objects in all six degrees of freedom.

  2. The Simplest Test of Inflation Target Credibility

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Lars E.O.

    1994-01-01

    A simple test of inflation target credibility is constructed by subtracting the maximum and minimum inflation rates consistent with the inflation targets from the yields to maturity on nominal bonds. This results in a target-consistent range of real yields on nominal bonds. If expected real yields, or market real interest rates on real bonds if such are available, fall outside the range of target- consistent real yields, credibility is rejected. Two concepts of credibility, called absolute cr...

  3. Evaluation and validation of drug targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan-huaDU

    2004-01-01

    Drug target is one of the key factors for discovering and developing new drugs. To find and validate drug targets is a crucial technique required in drug discovery by the strategy of high throughput screening. Based on the knowledge of molecular biology, human genomics and proteomics, it has been predicted that 5000 to 10000 drug targets exist in human. So, it is important orocedure to evaluate and validate the drug targets.

  4. Targeting Radiotherapy to Cancer by Gene Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    R. J. Mairs; Boyd, M.

    2003-01-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is an alternative method of radiation treatment which uses a tumor-seeking agent carrying a radioactive atom to deposits of tumor, wherever in the body they may be located. Recent experimental data signifies promise for the amalgamation of gene transfer with radionuclide targeting. This review encompasses aspects of the integration of gene manipulation and targeted radiotherapy, highlighting the possibilities of gene transfer to assist the targeting of cancer ...

  5. Predicting new molecular targets for known drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Keiser, Michael J.; Setola, Vincent; Irwin, John J.; Laggner, Christian; Abbas, Atheir; Hufeisen, Sandra J.; Jensen, Niels H.; Kuijer, Michael B.; Matos, Roberto C.; Tran, Thuy B.; Whaley, Ryan; Glennon, Richard A.; Hert, Jérôme; THOMAS, KELAN L. H.; Edwards, Douglas D.

    2009-01-01

    Whereas drugs are intended to be selective, at least some bind to several physiologic targets, explaining both side effects and efficacy. As many drug-target combinations exist, it would be useful to explore possible interactions computationally. Here, we compared 3,665 FDA-approved and investigational drugs against hundreds of targets, defining each target by its ligands. Chemical similarities between drugs and ligand sets predicted thousands of unanticipated associations. Thirty were tested...

  6. Behavioral targeting: a European legal perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Zuiderveen Borgesius

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral targeting, or online profiling, is a hotly debated topic. Much of the collection of personal information on the Internet is related to behavioral targeting, although research suggests that most people don't want to receive behaviorally targeted advertising. The World Wide Web Consortium i

  7. Research and development for the SPES target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The target is one of the key issues of isotope separation on line (ISOL) facilities. SPES, now under development at LNL-INFN, is an innovative ISOL facility possessing a target characterized by seven separate uranium dicarbide thin disks. The research on the materials development and target prototyping is discussed in the following. (orig.)

  8. Automated laser fusion target production concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A target production concept is described for the production of multilayered cryogenic spherical inertial confinement fusion targets. The facility is to deliver targets to the reactor chamber at rates up to 10 per second and at costs consistent with economic production of power

  9. Communicating to heterogeneous target groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    people get out of the information provided in the pamphlet. The receivers that are subjected to the original pamphlet do not see the experimental version. Likewise the receivers that are subjected to the amended version do not see the original. I do so in order for the reception situations to be as......The paper proposal is part of a full-scale discourse analysis of a series of service information pamphlets published by the county of Ringkjøbing in Western Denmark. The project is an investigation of various aspects of the fact that government agencies as well as local and regional authorities...... very often have to communicate to rather heterogeneous target groups that have little more in common than a certain geographical habitat. That goes against most schoolbook teaching in the field of communication, but is none the less the terms with which that kind of communication has to live. In the...

  10. Performance Targets and External Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    Research on relative performance measures, transfer pricing, beyond budgeting initiatives, target costing, piece rates systems and value based management has for decades underlined the importance of external benchmarking in performance management. Research conceptualises external benchmarking as a...... market mechanism that can be brought inside the firm to provide incentives for continuous improvement and the development of competitive advances. However, whereas extant research primarily has focused on the importance and effects of using external benchmarks, less attention has been directed towards...... the conditions upon which the market mechanism is performing within organizations. This paper aims to contribute to research by providing more insight to the conditions for the use of external benchmarking as an element in performance management in organizations. Our study explores a particular type...

  11. BAD: a good therapeutic target?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major goal in cancer treatment is the eradication of tumor cells. Under stress conditions, normal cells undergo apoptosis; this property is fortunately conserved in some tumor cells, leading to their death as a result of chemotherapeutic and/or radiation-induced stress. Many malignant cells, however, have developed ways to subvert apoptosis, a characteristic that constitutes a major clinical problem. Gilmore et al. recently described the ability of ZD1839, a small-molecule inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), to induce apoptosis of mammary cells that are dependent upon growth factors for survival. Furthermore, they showed that the major effector of the EGFR-targeted therapy is BAD, a widely expressed BCL-2 family member. These results are promising in light of the role of the EGFR in breast cancer development

  12. TARGET 2 and Settlement Finality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan MANGATCHEV

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how TARGET 2 as system implements the idea of settlement finality regulated by Directive 98/26 EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 19 May 1998 on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems (Settlement Finality Directive and Directive 2009/44/EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 amending Directive 98/26/EC on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems and Directive 2002/47/EC on financial collateral arrangements as regards linked systems and credit claims (Directive 2009/44/EC. As the title of the arti and finality of the settlement in this system.

  13. Communicating to heterogeneous target groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    The paper proposal is part of a full-scale discourse analysis of a series of service information pamphlets published by the county of Ringkjøbing in Western Denmark. The project is an investigation of various aspects of the fact that government agencies as well as local and regional authorities...... very often have to communicate to rather heterogeneous target groups that have little more in common than a certain geographical habitat. That goes against most schoolbook teaching in the field of communication, but is none the less the terms with which that kind of communication has to live. In the...... identical as possible, thus creating fertile grounds for comparisons. The amendments will follow traditional advice for improving on professional communication, viz., direct address, active constructions, verbs rather than nominalizations etc., and it is my intention to refute or document the notion that...

  14. Target Points in Trastuzumab Resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) family of receptors is involved in cell growth and differentiation. The human EGF2 (HER2) lacks natural ligands, and correlation between HER2 levels and carcinogenesis makes the receptor an ideal candidate for targeted therapy in breast cancer. Trastuzumab is a humanized antibody applied against HER2-positive breast tumors in clinic. Metastatic tumors respond well to trastuzumab therapy for the first year, but development of antibody resistance helps the tumors to regrow allowing the disease to progress. Trastuzumab resistance is shaped via a range of intracellular signaling pathways that are interconnected and share in key effector molecules. Identification of a common node central to these resistance pathways could provide an ultimate solution for trastuzumab resistance in breast and other cancers

  15. Identification of Drosophila MicroRNA Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stark Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short RNA molecules that regulate gene expression by binding to target messenger RNAs and by controlling protein production or causing RNA cleavage. To date, functions have been assigned to only a few of the hundreds of identified miRNAs, in part because of the difficulty in identifying their targets. The short length of miRNAs and the fact that their complementarity to target sequences is imperfect mean that target identification in animal genomes is not possible by standard sequence comparison methods. Here we screen conserved 3' UTR sequences from the Drosophila melanogaster genome for potential miRNA targets. The screening procedure combines a sequence search with an evaluation of the predicted miRNA-target heteroduplex structures and energies. We show that this approach successfully identifies the five previously validated let-7, lin-4, and bantam targets from a large database and predict new targets for Drosophila miRNAs. Our target predictions reveal striking clusters of functionally related targets among the top predictions for specific miRNAs. These include Notch target genes for miR-7, proapoptotic genes for the miR-2 family, and enzymes from a metabolic pathway for miR-277. We experimentally verified three predicted targets each for miR-7 and the miR-2 family, doubling the number of validated targets for animal miRNAs. Statistical analysis indicates that the best single predicted target sites are at the border of significance; thus, target predictions should be considered as tentative until experimentally validated. We identify features shared by all validated targets that can be used to evaluate target predictions for animal miRNAs. Our initial evaluation and experimental validation of target predictions suggest functions for two miRNAs. For others, the screen suggests plausible functions, such as a role for miR-277 as a metabolic switch controlling amino acid catabolism. Cross-genome comparison proved essential

  16. Targeted high-throughput growth hormone 1 gene sequencing reveals high within-breed genetic diversity in South African goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, K T; Mdladla, K; Dzomba, E F; Muchadeyi, F C

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the genetic diversity in the growth hormone 1 gene (GH1) within and between South African goat breeds. Polymerase chain reaction-targeted gene amplification together with Illumina MiSeq next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to generate the full length (2.54 kb) of the growth hormone 1 gene and screen for SNPs in the South African Boer (SAB) (n = 17), Tankwa (n = 15) and South African village (n = 35) goat populations. A range of 27-58 SNPs per population were observed. Mutations resulting in amino acid changes were observed at exons 2 and 5. Higher within-breed diversity of 97.37% was observed within the population category consisting of SA village ecotypes and the Tankwa goats. Highest pairwise FST values ranging from 0.148 to 0.356 were observed between the SAB and both the South African village and Tankwa feral goat populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicated nine genetic clusters, which reflected close relationships between the South African populations and the other international breeds with the exception of the Italian Sarda breeds. Results imply greater potential for within-population selection programs, particularly with SA village goats. PMID:26919178

  17. Recombinant expression and purification of a tumor-targeted toxin in Bacillus anthracis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Non-infectious and protease-deficient Bacillus anthracis protein expression system. ► Successful expression and purification of a tumor-targeted fusion protein drug. ► Very low endotoxin contamination of purified protein. ► Efficient protein secretion simplifies purification. ► Functional anti-tumor fusion protein purified. -- Abstract: Many recombinant therapeutic proteins are purified from Escherichia coli. While expression in E. coli is easily achieved, some disadvantages such as protein aggregation, formation of inclusion bodies, and contamination of purified proteins with the lipopolysaccharides arise. Lipopolysaccharides have to be removed to prevent inflammatory responses in patients. Use of the Gram-positive Bacillus anthracis as an expression host offers a solution to circumvent these problems. Using the multiple protease-deficient strain BH460, we expressed a fusion of the N-terminal 254 amino acids of anthrax lethal factor (LFn), the N-terminal 389 amino acids of diphtheria toxin (DT389) and human transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα). The resulting fusion protein was constitutively expressed and successfully secreted by B. anthracis into the culture supernatant. Purification was achieved by anion exchange chromatography and proteolytic cleavage removed LFn from the desired fusion protein (DT389 fused to TGFα). The fusion protein showed the intended specific cytotoxicity to epidermal growth factor receptor-expressing human head and neck cancer cells. Final analyses showed low levels of lipopolysaccharides, originating most likely from contamination during the purification process. Thus, the fusion to LFn for protein secretion and expression in B. anthracis BH460 provides an elegant tool to obtain high levels of lipopolysaccharide-free recombinant protein.

  18. Recombinant expression and purification of a tumor-targeted toxin in Bacillus anthracis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachran, Christopher; Abdelazim, Suzanne; Fattah, Rasem J.; Liu, Shihui [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Leppla, Stephen H., E-mail: sleppla@niaid.nih.gov [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-infectious and protease-deficient Bacillus anthracis protein expression system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Successful expression and purification of a tumor-targeted fusion protein drug. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Very low endotoxin contamination of purified protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efficient protein secretion simplifies purification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functional anti-tumor fusion protein purified. -- Abstract: Many recombinant therapeutic proteins are purified from Escherichia coli. While expression in E. coli is easily achieved, some disadvantages such as protein aggregation, formation of inclusion bodies, and contamination of purified proteins with the lipopolysaccharides arise. Lipopolysaccharides have to be removed to prevent inflammatory responses in patients. Use of the Gram-positive Bacillus anthracis as an expression host offers a solution to circumvent these problems. Using the multiple protease-deficient strain BH460, we expressed a fusion of the N-terminal 254 amino acids of anthrax lethal factor (LFn), the N-terminal 389 amino acids of diphtheria toxin (DT389) and human transforming growth factor alpha (TGF{alpha}). The resulting fusion protein was constitutively expressed and successfully secreted by B. anthracis into the culture supernatant. Purification was achieved by anion exchange chromatography and proteolytic cleavage removed LFn from the desired fusion protein (DT389 fused to TGF{alpha}). The fusion protein showed the intended specific cytotoxicity to epidermal growth factor receptor-expressing human head and neck cancer cells. Final analyses showed low levels of lipopolysaccharides, originating most likely from contamination during the purification process. Thus, the fusion to LFn for protein secretion and expression in B. anthracis BH460 provides an elegant tool to obtain high levels of lipopolysaccharide-free recombinant protein.

  19. PLUTONIUM-238 PRODUCTION TARGET DESIGN STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurt, Christopher J [ORNL; Wham, Robert M [ORNL; Hobbs, Randall W [ORNL; Owens, R Steven [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Freels, James D [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A new supply chain is planned for plutonium-238 using existing reactors at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and existing chemical recovery facilities at ORNL. Validation and testing activities for new irradiation target designs have been conducted in three phases over a 2 year period to provide data for scale-up to production. Target design, qualification, target fabrication, and irradiation of fully-loaded targets have been accomplished. Data from post-irradiation examination (PIE) supports safety analysis and irradiation of future target designs.

  20. Targeting nominal income growth or inflation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Within a simple New Keynesian model emphasizing forward-looking behavior of private agents, I evaluate optimal nominal income growth targeting versus optimal inflation targeting. When the economy is mainly subject to shocks that do not involve monetary policy trade-offs for society, inflation...... targeting is preferable. Otherwise, nominal income growth targeting may be superior because it induces inertial policy making, which improves the inflation-output-gap trade-off. Somewhat paradoxically, inflation targeting may be relatively less favorable the more society dislikes inflation, and the more...

  1. Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) for verification of target position in early stage lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The ability to verify intrafraction tumor position is clinically useful for hypofractionated treatments. Short arc kV digital tomosynthesis (DTS) could facilitate more frequent target verification. The authors used DTS combined with triangulation to determine the mean temporal position of small-volume lung tumor targets treated with stereotactic radiotherapy. DTS registration results were benchmarked against online clinical localization using registration between free-breathing cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and the average intensity projection (AvIP) of the planning 4DCT.Methods: In this retrospective study, 76 sets of kV-projection images from online CBCT scans of 13 patients were used to generate DTS image slices (CB-DTS) with nonclinical research software (DTS Toolkit, Varian Medical Systems). Three-dimensional tumor motion was 1.3–4 mm in six patients and 6.1–25.4 mm in seven patients on 4DCT (significant difference in the mean of the groups, P 4 mm (P < 0.02) but increased Z-direction accuracy was only observed with 55° total gantry rotation. The 95th percentile deviations with this overlapping technique in X-, Y-, and Z-directions were 1.3, 2.0, and 2.5 mm, respectively. For the five patients with mobile tumors where DTS + triangulation was performed with 45° intervals, the pooled deviation from online CBCT correction showed, for X-, Y-, and Z-directions, mean of 1.1 mm, standard deviations (SD) of 0.9, 1.0, and 0.9 mm, respectively. The mean + 2 SD was <3 mm for each direction.Conclusions: Short-arc DTS verification of time averaged lung tumor position is feasible using free-breathing kV projection data and the AvIP of the 4DCT as a reference. Observed differences between DTS and online CBCT registration with AvIP were ≤3 mm (mean + 2 SD), however, the increased temporal resolution of DTS + triangulation also identified short period deviations from the average target position on the CBCT. Short-arc DTS appears promising for

  2. Automatic target tracking in FLIR image sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Abdullah; Alam, Mohammad S.

    2004-09-01

    Moving target tracking is a challenging task and is increasingly becoming important for various applications. In this paper, we have presented target detection and tracking algorithm based on target intensity feature relative to surrounding background, and shape information of target. Proposed automatic target tracking algorithm includes two techniques: intensity variation function (IVF) and template modeling (TM). The intensity variation function is formulated by using target intensity feature while template modeling is based on target shape information. The IVF technique produces the maximum peak value whereas the reference target intensity variation is similar to the candidate target intensity variation. When IVF technique fails, due to background clutter, non-target object or other artifacts, the second technique, template modeling, is triggered by control module. By evaluating the outputs from the IVF and TM techniques, the tracker determines the real coordinates of the target. Performance of the proposed ATT is tested using real life forward-looking infrared (FLIR) image sequences taken from an airborne, moving platform.

  3. Preliminary study of mercury target structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminaga, Masanori; Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kumasaka, Katsuyuki; Uchida, Shoji; Nakagawa, Toshi; Mori, Seiji; Nishikawa, Akira

    1997-11-01

    Development of a proton accelerator based neutron source (1.5 GeV, 5.3 mA (for neutron source 3.3 mA), thermal power 8 MW) is currently conducted by the Special Task Force for Neutron Science Initiative, JAERI. Preliminary design studies and related R and D of a solid metal target for the first stage (1.5 GeV, 1 mA) and a liquid metal target for both the first and second stages (1.5 GeV, 3.3 mA) are conducted by the Target Group to develop both solid and liquid metal target systems. A few kinds of target structures have been investigated in FY 1996 and the preliminary results for the target structures are described in this paper. Investigation results of alternative materials for the target container are also described in this paper. (author)

  4. Polarization of plastic targets by laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffreda, E.; Delle Side, D.; Krasa, J.; Nassisi, V.

    2016-05-01

    Charge separation in plasmas produced on plastic targets by low laser irradiance, structure of the ion front, and the current of fast electrons expanding into the vacuum chamber ahead of ions are characterized. Of particular interest is the negative current flowing through the plastic targets to the grounded vacuum chamber during the period of laser-target interaction. The subsequent multi - peaked structure of positive target current is correlated with occurrence of double sheet layers. The late-time negative charging of targets provides evidence for production of very slow ions by ionization of neutrals ablated at the target crater by radiation from plasma produced by 23 ns excimer KrF laser. The experimental setting allowing the target current observation is discussed.

  5. Molecular imaging for cancer targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Molecular-genetic imaging which has grown rapidly is currently been applied to studies of gene expression regulation, activity of signal transduction pathways, angiogenesis, tumor metastases, stem cell migration, and monitoring cells involved in different components of immune response. Our Molecular and Genetic Imaging Core (MAGIC), established in late 2002, has developed a platform of small animal functional, molecular, and morphologic quantitative imaging techniques which are providing data about biochemical, genetic or pharmacological processes in vivo, and repetitively in the same animal. We first established chimeric reporter and therapeutic gene systems for specific targeting on hepatoma of mouse model. In- vivo microPET and bioluminescence imaging demonstrated the usefulness of tissue specific chimeric tk and hNIS genes. For trafficking the stem cell and cancer cells, we also have established dual and triple reporter gene system and correspondent reporter probes for in vivo imaging by microPET or microSPECT. The second application of translational biomedical imaging of cancer targeting therapy is on the inhibitors of tyrosine kinase, the key enzyme of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Mutations in the kinase domain of EGFR have higher levels of basal receptor phosphorylation and that are associated with clinical responsiveness to Iressa in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). High mutation rate for EGFR in Taiwanese patients of adenocarcinoma of lung suggests an urgent requirement of a non-invasive imaging tool for pre-treatment and during therapy evaluation of lung cancer patients using EGFR signalling inhibitor. Our current work on radiosynthesis of the analogue of Iressa--morpholino-[124I]-IPQA and in vitro and in vivo studies of high basal EGFR-expressing H1299's derivatives (L858R and E746-A750 del cell lines) subcutaneous tumor xenografts in immunocompromised mice, has proven that [124I]-IPQA is a feasible in vivo imaging

  6. Targeted alpha therapy for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Barry J.; Raja, Chand; Rizvi, Syed; Li, Yong; Tsui, Wendy; Zhang, David; Song, Emma; Qu, Chang Fa; Kearsley, John; Graham, Peter; Thompson, John

    2004-08-01

    Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) offers the potential to inhibit the growth of micrometastases by selectively killing isolated and preangiogenic clusters of cancer cells. The practicality and efficacy of TAT is tested by in vitro and in vivo studies in melanoma, leukaemia, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers, and by a phase 1 trial of intralesional TAT for melanoma. The alpha-emitting radioisotope used is Bi-213, which is eluted from the Ac-225 generator and chelated to a cancer specific monoclonal antibody (mab) or protein (e.g. plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 PAI2) to form the alpha-conjugate (AC). Stable alpha-ACs have been produced which have been tested for specificity and cytotoxicity in vitro against melanoma (9.2.27 mab), leukaemia (WM60), colorectal (C30.6), breast (PAI2, herceptin), ovarian (PAI2, herceptin, C595), prostate (PAI2, J591) and pancreatic (PAI2, C595) cancers. Subcutaneous inoculation of 1-1.5 million human cancer cells into the flanks of nude mice causes tumours to grow in all mice. Tumour growth is compared for untreated controls, nonspecific AC and specific AC, for local (subcutaneous) and systemic (tail vein or intraperitoneal) injection models. The 213Bi-9.2.27 AC is injected into secondary skin melanomas in stage 4 patients in a dose escalation study to determine the effective tolerance dose, and to measure kinematics to obtain the equivalent dose to organs. In vitro studies show that TAT is one to two orders of magnitude more cytotoxic to targeted cells than non-specific ACs, specific beta emitting conjugates or free isotopes. In vivo local TAT at 2 days post-inoculation completely prevents tumour formation for all cancers tested so far. Intra-lesional TAT can completely regress advanced sc melanoma but is less successful for breast and prostate cancers. Systemic TAT inhibits the growth of sc melanoma xenografts and gives almost complete control of breast and prostate cancer tumour growth. Intralesional doses up to 450 µCi in human

  7. Using the Dual-Target Cost to Explore the Nature of Search Target Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Michael J.; Menneer, Tamaryn; Cave, Kyle R.; Donnelly, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Eye movements were monitored to examine search efficiency and infer how color is mentally represented to guide search for multiple targets. Observers located a single color target very efficiently by fixating colors similar to the target. However, simultaneous search for 2 colors produced a dual-target cost. In addition, as the similarity between…

  8. Effects of Participant Ethnicity, Target Physiognomy, and Target Gender on College Students' Judgments of Cheating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Margaret F.; Medlin, Jennifer; Walker, Katrina L.; Jones, Lori R.

    2002-01-01

    Studied whether white and nonwhite males and females would judge cheating by target subjects differently based on the target's physiognomy and gender. Results from a sample of 146 undergraduates show that although whites' ratings did not differ according to target physiognomy, nonwhites favored more African targets. (SLD)

  9. The utility target market model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new model (the Utility Target Market Model) is used to evaluate the economic benefits of photovoltaic (PV) power systems located at the electrical utility customer site. These distributed PV demand-side generation systems can be evaluated in a similar manner to other demand-side management technologies. The energy and capacity values of an actual PV system located in the service area of the New England Electrical System (NEES) are the two utility benefits evaluated. The annual stream of energy and capacity benefits calculated for the utility are converted to the installed cost per watt that the utility should be willing to invest to receive this benefit stream. Different discount rates are used to show the sensitivity of the allowable installed cost of the PV systems to a utility's average cost of capital. Capturing both the energy and capacity benefits of these relatively environmentally friendly distributed generators, NEES should be willing to invest in this technology when the installed cost per watt declines to ca $2.40 using NEES' rated cost of capital (8.78%). If a social discount rate of 3% is used, installation should be considered when installed cost approaches $4.70/W. Since recent installations in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District have cost between $7-8/W, cost-effective utility applications of PV are close. 22 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  10. Tensor Target Polarization at TRIUMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G

    2014-10-27

    The first measurements of tensor observables in $\\pi \\vec{d}$ scattering experiments were performed in the mid-80's at TRIUMF, and later at SIN/PSI. The full suite of tensor observables accessible in $\\pi \\vec{d}$ elastic scattering were measured: $T_{20}$, $T_{21}$, and $T_{22}$. The vector analyzing power $iT_{11}$ was also measured. These results led to a better understanding of the three-body theory used to describe this reaction. %Some measurements were also made in the absorption and breakup channels. A direct measurement of the target tensor polarization was also made independent of the usual NMR techniques by exploiting the (nearly) model-independent result for the tensor analyzing power at 90$^\\circ _{cm}$ in the $\\pi \\vec{d} \\rightarrow 2p$ reaction. This method was also used to check efforts to enhance the tensor polarization by RF burning of the NMR spectrum. A brief description of the methods developed to measure and analyze these experiments is provided.

  11. Target for a spallation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention concerns a liquid metal target for a spallation source. It is composed of a flow channel in which liquid metal flows at a sufficiently high rate. The flow channel has an aperture to let in the proton beam; it is shaped in a way as to generate by appropriately diverting the liquid flow inertial forces which are designed so that they avoid liquid metal penetrating through the aperture. This is achieved by the fact that the combined effect of inertial forces and gravitational forces causes near the aperture the formation of a liquid surface of the channel sides that is more or less parallel the channel side having the aperture. According to the invention this effect can be obtained by using a bent channel piece with the aperture placed in the side pointing towards the centre of curvature or by constricting the flow of liquid before it gets to the aperture and subsequent expansion behind it. A combination of the two methods is possible according to the invention. (orig.)

  12. Terrorist targeting and energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, Peter; Duero, Arash; Bieliauskas, Arunas [Institute of Energy, Joint Research Center of the European Commission, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    Sudden, short-term disruptions seriously endangering energy security can be triggered by a variety of events - among them attacks by terrorists. This study investigates terrorist attack practices against energy infrastructures and discusses how we may understand them. Our results indicate that attacks against energy infrastructures are comparatively few. Also, we find no strong connection between the ideologies of various terrorist groups and their proclivity to attack. In addition, the highly disproportionate number of attacks in a handful of countries highlights the strong geographic concentration of attacks. To explain these findings, we analyze terrorist targeting incentives including intimidation levels, symbolism, attack feasibility, and concerns for stakeholders. We argue that terrorists in general have comparatively few incentives to attack energy supply infrastructures based on our assessment of these factors. Moreover, higher levels of terrorist incidents in states more prone to internal violent conflict may suggest stronger incentives to attack energy infrastructures. When outlining energy security policies, the low frequency of worldwide attacks coupled with the high concentration of attacks in certain unstable countries should be taken into consideration. Energy importing countries could benefit from developing strategies to increase stability in key energy supply and/or transit countries facing risks of internal instability. (author)

  13. Terrorist targeting and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudden, short-term disruptions seriously endangering energy security can be triggered by a variety of events-among them attacks by terrorists. This study investigates terrorist attack practices against energy infrastructures and discusses how we may understand them. Our results indicate that attacks against energy infrastructures are comparatively few. Also, we find no strong connection between the ideologies of various terrorist groups and their proclivity to attack. In addition, the highly disproportionate number of attacks in a handful of countries highlights the strong geographic concentration of attacks. To explain these findings, we analyze terrorist targeting incentives including intimidation levels, symbolism, attack feasibility, and concerns for stakeholders. We argue that terrorists in general have comparatively few incentives to attack energy supply infrastructures based on our assessment of these factors. Moreover, higher levels of terrorist incidents in states more prone to internal violent conflict may suggest stronger incentives to attack energy infrastructures. When outlining energy security policies, the low frequency of worldwide attacks coupled with the high concentration of attacks in certain unstable countries should be taken into consideration. Energy importing countries could benefit from developing strategies to increase stability in key energy supply and/or transit countries facing risks of internal instability.

  14. Target for a spallation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention concerns a liquid metal target for a spallation source. It is composed of a flow channel in which liquid metal flows at a sufficiently high rate. The flow channel has an aperture to let in the proton beam; it is shaped in a way as to generate by appropriately diverting the liquid flow inertial forces which are designed so that they avoid liquid metal penetrating through the aperture. This is achieved by the fact that the combined effect of inertial forces and gravitational forces causes near the aperture the formation of a liquid surface of the channel sides that is more or less parallel to the channel side having the aperture. According to the invention this effect can be obtained by using a bent channel piece with the aperture placed in the side pointing towards the centre of curvature or by constricting the flow of liquid before it gets to the aperture and subsequent expansion behind it. A combination of the two methods is possible according to the invention. (orig./PW)

  15. Drug targeting through pilosebaceous route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourasia, Rashmi; Jain, Sanjay K

    2009-10-01

    Local skin targeting is of interest for the pharmaceutical and the cosmetic industry. A topically applied substance has basically three possibilities to penetrate into the skin: transcellular, intercellular, and follicular. The transfollicular path has been largely ignored because hair follicles constitute only 0.1% of the total skin. The hair follicle is a skin appendage with a complex structure containing many cell types that produce highly specialised proteins. The hair follicle is in a continuous cycle: anagen is the hair growth phase, catagen the involution phase and telogen is the resting phase. Nonetheless, the hair follicle has great potential for skin treatment, owing to its deep extension into the dermis and thus provides much deeper penetration and absorption of compounds beneath the skin than seen with the transdermal route. In the case of skin diseases and of cosmetic products, delivery to sweat glands or to the pilosebaceous unit is essential for the effectiveness of the drug. Increased accumulation in the pilosebaceous unit could treat alopecia, acne and skin cancer more efficiently and improve the effect of cosmetic substances and nutrients. Therefore, we review herein various drug delivery systems, including liposomes, niosomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, nanoemulsions, lipid nanocarriers, gene therapy and discuss the results of recent researches. We also review the drugs which have been investigated for pilosebaceous delivery. PMID:19663765

  16. Target Therapy in Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafarotti, Stefano; Lococo, Filippo; Froesh, Patrizia; Zappa, Francesco; Andrè, Dutly

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is an extremely heterogeneous disease, with well over 50 different histological variants recognized under the fourth revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) typing system. Because these variants have differing genetic and biological properties correct classification of lung cancer is necessary to assure that lung cancer patients receive optimum management. Due to the recent understanding that histologic typing and EGFR mutation status are important for target the therapy in lung adenocarcinoma patients there was a great need for a new classification that addresses diagnostic issues and strategic management to allow for molecular testing in small biopsy and cytology specimens. For this reason and in order to address advances in lung cancer treatment an international multidisciplinary classification was proposed by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), American Thoracic Society (ATS), and European Respiratory Society (ERS), further increasing the histological heterogeneity and improving the existing WHO-classification. Is now the beginning of personalized therapy era that is ideally finalized to treat each individual case of lung cancer in different way. PMID:26667341

  17. Double-layered target and identification method of individual target correlated with evaporation residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A double-layered target system and an identification method (target ID) for individual targets mounted on a rotating wheel using correlation with evaporation residues were newly developed for the study of superheavy elements (SHE). The target system can be used in three modes: conventional single-layered mode, double-layered mode, and energy-degrader mode. The target ID method can be utilized for masking a target, measuring an excitation function without changing the beam energy from the accelerator, and searching for SHE nuclides using multiple targets during a single irradiation

  18. Target injection methods for inertial fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzoldt, R.W.; Moir, R.W.

    1994-06-01

    We have studied four methods to inject IFE targets: the gas gun, electrostatic accelerator, induction accelerator, and rail gun. We recommend a gas gun for indirect drive targets because they can support a gas pressure load on one end and can slide along the gun barrel without damage. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable; for other types of targets, a sabot would be necessary. A cam and poppet valve arrangement is recommended for gas flow control. An electrostatic accelerator is attractive for use with lightweight spherical direct drive targets. Since there is no physical contact between the target and the injector, there will be no wear of either component during the injection process. An induction accelerator has an advantage of no electrical contact between the target and the injector. Physical contact is not even necessary, so the wear should be minimal. It requires a cylindrical conductive target sleeve which is a substantial added mass. A rail gun is a simpler device than an electrostatic accelerator or induction accelerator. It requires electrical contact between the target and the rails and may have a significant wear rate. The wear in a vacuum could be reduced by use of a solid lubricant such as MoS{sub 2}. The total required accuracy of target injection, tracking and beam pointing of {plus_minus}0.4 mm appears achievable but will require development and experimental verification.

  19. Climate targets for all countries: the options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses five options for targets that could be taken by all countries to meet the ultimate objective of the Climate Change Convention: fixed, binding targets, dynamic targets; non-binding targets; sectoral targets, policies and measures. Each is evaluated according to criteria of environmental effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, contribution to economic growth and sustainable development, and equity. While fixed, binding targets continue to be viable for industrialized countries, they do not seem suitable for many developing countries in the near future. Dynamic targets could alleviate developing countries' concerns about constraining their development as well as broader concerns about possible introduction of 'hot air' in a world trading regime; they could also be considered for some or all industrialized countries. Non-binding targets could be politically appealing to developing counties, alleviate fears about development and/or hot air, but might only allow conditional participation in emissions trading by developing countries. Sectoral targets could offer a pragmatic first step - although their cost-effectiveness might be questioned. Finally, targets based on commitments to implement specific policies and measures might drive mitigation action and be part of negotiated packages including financial and technological cooperation. All these options may coexist in the future. (authors)

  20. HIRFL-CSR internal cluster target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Caojie; Lu, Rongchun; Cai, Xiaohong; Yu, Deyang; Ruan, Fangfang; Xue, Yingli; Zhang, Jianming; Torpokov, D. K.; Nikolenko, D.

    2013-12-01

    Since HIRFL-CSR internal cluster target was built, it has played a key role in in-ring experiments at HIRFL-CSR. So far it have been operated with five gas species as targets for scattering experiments, i.e. hydrogen, nitrogen, argon, neon, and krypton. The obtained highest thickness for hydrogen target amounts up to 1012 atoms/cm2, and those of other targets are larger than 1013 atoms/cm2 with the background pressure of 10-11 mbar in CSR. The target thickness can be varied by regulating the nozzle temperature and pressure of the inlet gas. The first online internal target experiment dedicated to investigate radioactive electron capture (REC) process with Xe54+ ions colliding with the nitrogen target demonstrated the stability and reliability of the internal target system. In addition, hydrogen and krypton were also tested online in recent experiments, which indicate the target system can meet experimental requirements for the thickness of target, pressure in scattering chamber, and long-term stability.

  1. Fluid mechanics aspects of magnetic drug targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenbach, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Experiments and numerical simulations using a flow phantom for magnetic drug targeting have been undertaken. The flow phantom is a half y-branched tube configuration where the main tube represents an artery from which a tumour-supplying artery, which is simulated by the side branch of the flow phantom, branches off. In the experiments a quantification of the amount of magnetic particles targeted towards the branch by a magnetic field applied via a permanent magnet is achieved by impedance measurement using sensor coils. Measuring the targeting efficiency, i.e. the relative amount of particles targeted to the side branch, for different field configurations one obtains targeting maps which combine the targeting efficiency with the magnetic force densities in characteristic points in the flow phantom. It could be shown that targeting efficiency depends strongly on the magnetic field configuration. A corresponding numerical model has been set up, which allows the simulation of targeting efficiency for variable field configuration. With this simulation good agreement of targeting efficiency with experimental data has been found. Thus, the basis has been laid for future calculations of optimal field configurations in clinical applications of magnetic drug targeting. Moreover, the numerical model allows the variation of additional parameters of the drug targeting process and thus an estimation of the influence, e.g. of the fluid properties on the targeting efficiency. Corresponding calculations have shown that the non-Newtonian behaviour of the fluid will significantly influence the targeting process, an aspect which has to be taken into account, especially recalling the fact that the viscosity of magnetic suspensions depends strongly on the magnetic field strength and the mechanical load. PMID:26415215

  2. Multipositional internal target at the Yerevan synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main characteristics of the inner targets of three gamma-ray beams from the Erevan synchrotron are given. The accelerated electron beam is dumped on the targets by the orbit local disturbance method. Oscillograms of the beam stretching with time during extraction are given for different target operation. Some drawbacks of the design of the operating targets are pointed out, the main being the large period of time (about 3 hours) required to replace the target radiator. The comparative analysis of other known target designs is presented. The investigation was aimed at the development of a new target design that may ensure the possibility of an operative radiator replacement without breaking the accelerator vacuum with minimum effort and time. The problem has been solved by the modification of the present target design. An additional electromotor has been installed on the target chamber; the shaft pf the electromotor passes through the vacuum seal inside the chamber. The shaft has a gear at the end and it can be engaged with a gear at the main rod end of the target. 8 various radiators may be placed simulltaniously on the gear. The accuracy of installing each radiator in the radial direction is +-0.2 mm, and the accuracy of fixing if in rotation is +-0.3 degree. The replacement of the radiator takes not more than 3 min. The target may be used as an inner or an outer target in experiments in interactions of various materials with a particle beam. The relay control system for the multi-position target is described

  3. Is it wise to protect false targets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper considers a system consisting of genuine elements and false targets that cannot be distinguished by the attacker's observation. The false targets can be destroyed with much less effort than the genuine elements. We show that even when an attacker cannot distinguish between the genuine elements and the false targets, in many cases it can enhance the attack efficiency using a double attack strategy in which it tries first to eliminate with minimal effort as many false targets as possible in the first attack and then distributes its entire remaining resource among all surviving targets in the second attack. The model for evaluating the system vulnerability in the double attack is suggested for a single genuine element, and multiple genuine elements configured in parallel or in series. This model assumes that in both attacks the attacking resource is distributed evenly among the attacked targets. The defender can optimize its limited resource distribution between deploying more false targets and protecting them better. The attacker can optimize its limited resource distribution between two attacks. The defense strategy is analyzed based on a two period minmax game. A numerical procedure is suggested that allows the defender to find the optimal resource distribution between deploying and protecting the false targets. The methodology of optimal attack and defense strategies analysis is demonstrated. It is shown that protecting the false targets may reduce the efficiency of the double attack strategy and make this strategy ineffective in situations with low contest intensity and few false targets. - Highlights: ► The efficiency of the double attack tactics against using false targets is analyzed. ► The role of the false target protection in system survivability enhancement is shown. ► The resource distribution between deploying more false targets and protecting them better is optimized. ► Both series and parallel systems are considered.

  4. Should inflation targeting be abandoned in favour of nominal income targeting?

    OpenAIRE

    Stan du Plessis; Malan Rietveld

    2013-01-01

    In the wake of the international financial crisis nominal income targeting has received renewed attention from a number of leading macroeconomists as alternative to inflation targeting. The case for nominal income targeting has been built on both positive and negative arguments. The negative case relates to perceived inadequacies of inflation targeting, including: the presumed lack of robustness of inflation targeting to aggregate supply shocks, inadequate concern with financial stability, as...

  5. Non-target Markets and Viewer Distinctiveness: The Impact of Target Marketing on Advertising Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Aaker, Jennifer L.; Brumbaugh, Anne M.; Grier, Sonya A.

    2000-01-01

    This research examines the effect of target marketing on members of the advertiser's intended audience as well as members not in the target market: the "non-target market." The results of three experiments show that unfavorable non-target market effects are stronger for members of non-distinctive groups (e.g., Causasian individuals, heterosexual individuals), and that favorable target market effects are stronger fro members of distinctive groups (e.g., Africian-American individuals, homosexua...

  6. Capture cross section measurement analysis in the Californium-252 spectrum with the Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absolute average capture cross sections of gold, thorium, tantalum, molybdenum, copper and strontium in 252Cf spontaneous fission neutron spectrum were simulated for two types of experiment setups preformed by Z. Dezso and J. Csikai and by L. Green. The experiments were simulated with MCNP5 using cross section data from the ENDF/B-VII.0 library. The determination of neutron backscattering was calculated with the use of neutron flagging. Correction factors to experimentally measured values were determined to obtain average cross sections in a pure 252Cf spontaneous fission spectrum. Influence of concrete wall thickness, air moisture and room size on the average cross section was analyzed. Correction factors amounted to about 30%. Corrected values corresponding to average cross sections in a pure 252Cf spectrum were calculated for 197Au, 232Th, 181Ta, 98Mo, 65Cu and 84Sr. Average cross sections were also calculated with the RR-UNC software using IRDFF-v.1.05 and ENDF/B-VII.0 libraries. The revised average radiative capture cross sections are 75.5±0.1 mb for 197Au, 87.0±1.6 mb for 232Th , 98.0±4.5 mb for 181Ta, 21.2±0.5 mb for 98Mo, 10.3±0.3 mb for 63Cu, and 34.9±6.5 mb for 84Sr. - Highlights: • Average capture cross sections in 252Cf spontaneous fission spectrum were simulated. • Calculations were done using MCNP5 code and ENDF/B-VII.0 library. • Correction factors for self-shielding and room return effects were taken into account. • The revised average radiative capture cross sections for different materials are published

  7. Multi-element neutron activation analysis of sediment using a californium-252 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of a 252Cf source to the neutron activation analysis of several elements in small (approximately 1.5 in. in dia) cores was studied using high-resolution gamma ray spectroscopy and manual data reduction. (U.S.)

  8. OER of californium-252 at low dose rate for growth inhibition in Vicia faba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OER of 252Cf, at low dose rate, has been determined for growth inhibition in Vicia faba roots. A new strain ''BelB'' was used; it was found to be more resistant to prolonged anoxia. Two sets of linear 252Cf sources were used (linear activity 0.31 and 0.47 (μg.cm-1)) in somewhat different geometrical arrangements. The (n+γ) 252Cf dose rates at the level of the root tips were 0.11 and 0.13 Gy.h-1 respectively. The relative contribution of the γ component Dsub(γ) to the total absorbed dose Dsub(n+γ) at the level of the root tips was evaluated Dsub(γ)/Dsub(n+γ)=0.35 for the first source-geometry and 0.42 for the second source-geometry. The reference radiation was the γ emission of 192Ir, used in the same geometrical conditions and for similar irradiation times. Irradiations performed in aerobic and anoxic conditions were alternated. OER values of 1.4 +- 0.1 and 1.5 +- 0.1 were observed for the 252Cf emission with the first and second source-geometry respectively. The corresponding OER values for 192Ir were 2.3 +- 0.2 and 2.6 +- 0.1; the derived oxygen gain factors were then equal to 1.6 and 1.7 repectively

  9. Cytomegalovirus protease targeted prodrug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabit, Hairat; Dahan, Arik; Sun, Jing; Provoda, Chester J; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Hilfinger, John H; Amidon, Gordon L

    2013-04-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a prevalent virus that infects up to 90% of the population. The goal of this research is to determine if small molecular prodrug substrates can be developed for a specific HCMV encoded protease and thus achieve site-specific activation. HCMV encodes a 256 amino acid serine protease that is responsible for capsid assembly, an essential process for herpes virus production. The esterase activity of the more stable HCMV A143T/A144T protease mutant was evaluated with model p-nitrophenol (ONp) esters, Boc-Xaa-ONp (Ala, Leu, Ile, Val, Gln, Phe at the Xaa position). We demonstrate that the A143T/A144T mutant has esterase activity toward specific small ester compounds, e.g., Boc-L-Ala-ONp. Mono amino acid and dipeptide prodrugs of ganciclovir (GCV) were also synthesized and evaluated for hydrolysis by the A143T/A144T protease mutant in solution. Hydrolysis of these prodrugs was also evaluated in Caco-2 cell homogenates, human liver microsomes (HLMs), and rat and human plasma. For the selectivity potential of the prodrugs, the hydrolysis ratio was evaluated as a percentage of prodrug hydrolyzed by the HCMV protease over the percentages of prodrug hydrolyses by Caco-2 cell homogenates, HLMs, and human/rat plasma. A dipeptide prodrug of ganciclovir, Ac-l-Gln-l-Ala-GCV, emerged as a potential selective prodrug candidate. The results of this research demonstrate that targeting prodrugs for activation by a specific protease encoded by the infectious HCMV pathogen may be achievable. PMID:23485093

  10. Therapeutic targeting of replicative immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaswen, Paul; MacKenzie, Karen L; Keith, W Nicol; Hentosh, Patricia; Rodier, Francis; Zhu, Jiyue; Firestone, Gary L; Matheu, Ander; Carnero, Amancio; Bilsland, Alan; Sundin, Tabetha; Honoki, Kanya; Fujii, Hiromasa; Georgakilas, Alexandros G; Amedei, Amedeo; Amin, Amr; Helferich, Bill; Boosani, Chandra S; Guha, Gunjan; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Chen, Sophie; Mohammed, Sulma I; Azmi, Asfar S; Bhakta, Dipita; Halicka, Dorota; Niccolai, Elena; Aquilano, Katia; Ashraf, S Salman; Nowsheen, Somaira; Yang, Xujuan

    2015-12-01

    One of the hallmarks of malignant cell populations is the ability to undergo continuous proliferation. This property allows clonal lineages to acquire sequential aberrations that can fuel increasingly autonomous growth, invasiveness, and therapeutic resistance. Innate cellular mechanisms have evolved to regulate replicative potential as a hedge against malignant progression. When activated in the absence of normal terminal differentiation cues, these mechanisms can result in a state of persistent cytostasis. This state, termed "senescence," can be triggered by intrinsic cellular processes such as telomere dysfunction and oncogene expression, and by exogenous factors such as DNA damaging agents or oxidative environments. Despite differences in upstream signaling, senescence often involves convergent interdependent activation of tumor suppressors p53 and p16/pRB, but can be induced, albeit with reduced sensitivity, when these suppressors are compromised. Doses of conventional genotoxic drugs required to achieve cancer cell senescence are often much lower than doses required to achieve outright cell death. Additional therapies, such as those targeting cyclin dependent kinases or components of the PI3K signaling pathway, may induce senescence specifically in cancer cells by circumventing defects in tumor suppressor pathways or exploiting cancer cells' heightened requirements for telomerase. Such treatments sufficient to induce cancer cell senescence could provide increased patient survival with fewer and less severe side effects than conventional cytotoxic regimens. This positive aspect is countered by important caveats regarding senescence reversibility, genomic instability, and paracrine effects that may increase heterogeneity and adaptive resistance of surviving cancer cells. Nevertheless, agents that effectively disrupt replicative immortality will likely be valuable components of new combinatorial approaches to cancer therapy. PMID:25869441

  11. Quinoline: a promising antitubercular target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keri, Rangappa S; Patil, Siddappa A

    2014-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global public health problem in recent years. TB originated mainly from various strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a highly infectious and chronic disease with high infection rate since ancient times. Since the last 50 years, the same long-duration, multidrug treatment plan is being followed for the treatment of tuberculosis. Due to the development of resistance to conventional antibiotics there is a need for new therapeutic strategies to combat M. tuberculosis. Subsequently, there is an urgent need for the development of new drug molecules with newer targets and with an alternative mechanism of action. Among hetrocyclic compounds, quinoline compounds are important privileged structure in medicinal chemistry, are widely used as "parental" compounds to synthesize molecules with medical benefits, especially with anti-malarial and anti-microbial activities. Certain, quinoline-based compounds, also show effective anti-TB activity. This broad spectrum of biological and biochemical activities has been further facilitated by the synthetic versatility of quinoline, which allows the generation of a large number of structurally diverse derivatives. To pave the way for future research, there is a need to collect the latest information in this promising area. In the present review, we have collated published reports on this versatile core to provide an insight so that its full therapeutic potential can be utilized for the treatment tuberculosis. It is hoped that, this review will be helpful for new thoughts in the quest for rational designs of more active and less toxic quinoline-based anti-TB drugs. PMID:25458785

  12. Target definition for shipwreck hunting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Paul Kirsner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The research described in the present article was implemented to define the locations of two World War II shipwrecks, the German raider Kormoran, and the Australian light cruiser HMAS Sydney. The paper describes the long and complex trail that led through inefficient oceanographic prediction to ambiguous historical prediction involving a single report and on to precise cognitive prediction based on nine reports from more than 70 survivors, a process that yielded a single target position or ‘mean’ just 2.7 NM (nautical miles from the wreck of Kormoran. Prediction for the position of the wreck of Sydney opened with wishful thinking that she had somehow reached the coast more than 100 NM away when cognitive analysis of the survivor’s reports actually provided the basis for accurate prediction in a position near to the wreck of Kormoran. In the account provided below, the focus on cognitive procedures emerged from, first, a review of a sample of the shipwreck hunts, and, second, growing awareness of the extraordinarily rich database available for this search, and the extent to which it was open to cognitive analysis. This review touches on both the trans-disciplinary and the cognitive or intra-disciplinary issues that so challenged the political entities responsible for supervising of the search for the wrecks of Kormoran and Sydney. One of the theoretical questions that emerged from these debate concerns the model of expertise advanced by Collins (2013. The decomposability of alleged forms of expertise is revealed as a fundamental problem for research projects that might or might not benefit from trans-disciplinary research. Where expertise can be decomposed for operational purposes, the traditional dividing lines between experts and novices, and fools for that matter, are much harder to discern, and require advanced and scientifically informed review.

  13. CACAO facility. Radioactive targets at Orsay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CACAO, Chimie des Actinides et Cibles radioActives a Orsay (actinide chemistry and radioactive targets at Orsay), is a new laboratory dedicated to the fabrication and characterization of radioactive targets. It is supported by the radiochemistry group and the stable target service of the IPNO. The recurring needs of physicists working in the nuclear fuel cycle physics and the growing difficulties to obtain radioactive targets elsewhere were the main motivating factors behind the construction of this new laboratory. The first targets of 235,238U and 232Th have already been prepared although the full operating licenses still need to be obtained. In this paper, the installation and the equipment of CACAO will be described. An extensive study of a U test target fabricated by the CACAO laboratory has been performed and results are reported here. The different techniques used to characterize the deposit are presented and the outcome is discussed. (author)

  14. Protection Related to High-power Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M A

    2016-01-01

    Target protection is an important part of machine protection. The beam power in high-intensity accelerators is high enough that a single wayward pulse can cause serious damage. Today's high-power targets operate at the limit of available technology, and are designed for a very narrow range of beam parameters. If the beam pulse is too far off centre, or if the beam size is not correct, or if the beam density is too high, the target can be seriously damaged. We will start with a brief introduction to high-power targets and then move to a discussion of what can go wrong, and what are the risks. Next we will discuss how to control the beam-related risk, followed by examples from a few different accelerator facilities. We will finish with a detailed example of the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source target tune up and target protection.

  15. Target production for inertial fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodworth, J.G.; Meier, W.

    1995-03-01

    Inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants will require the ignition and burn of 5-10 fusion fuel targets every second. The technology to economically mass produce high-quality, precision targets at this rate is beyond the current state of the art. Techniques that are scalable to high production rates, however, have been identified for all the necessary process steps, and many have been tested in laboratory experiments or are similar to current commercial manufacturing processes. In this paper, we describe a baseline target factory conceptual design and estimate its capital and operating costs. The result is a total production cost of {approximately}16{cents} per target. At this level, target production represents about 6% of the estimated cost of electricity from a 1-GW{sub e} IFE power plant. Cost scaling relationships are presented and used to show the variation in target cost with production rate and plant power level.

  16. Target production for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants will require the ignition and burn of 5-10 fusion fuel targets every second. The technology to economically mass produce high-quality, precision targets at this rate is beyond the current state of the art. Techniques that are scalable to high production rates, however, have been identified for all the necessary process steps, and many have been tested in laboratory experiments or are similar to current commercial manufacturing processes. In this paper, we describe a baseline target factory conceptual design and estimate its capital and operating costs. The result is a total production cost of ∼16 cents per target. At this level, target production represents about 6% of the estimated cost of electricity from a 1-GWe IFE power plant. Cost scaling relationships are presented and used to show the variation in target cost with production rate and plant power level

  17. Micromachining applications for ICF target fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micromachining techniques used in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) target fabrication encompass laser drilling, single point diamond turning, and plasma as well as chemical etching. These techniques have been developed by several laboratories to produce target components with tolerances and surface finishes in the micron to submicron regime. Some of the spherical target components produced by micromachining techniques include free standing hemispherical shells (diameters 50--500 mm), micron-sized holes in thin glass shells, and plastic-coated glass microballons with surfaces which have been smoothly machined to remove a mounting stalk. Planar targets and components produced by these techniques include small disks and washers of thin brittle materials. Micromachining techniques are also used to fabricate diagnostic instruments such as x-ray mirrors and zone plates. This paper will examine micromachining techniques used to produce target components and diagnostic instruments. The relationship of each micromachining technique to presently used target configurations will also be discussed

  18. Aviation spectral camera infinity target simulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyue; Ming, Xing; Liu, Jiu; Guo, Wenji; Lv, Gunbo

    2014-11-01

    With the development of science and technology, the applications of aviation spectral camera becoming more widely. Developing a test system of dynamic target is more important. Aviation spectral camera infinity target simulation system can be used to test the resolution and the modulation transfer function of camera. The construction and work principle of infinity target simulation system were introduced in detail. Dynamic target generator based digital micromirror device (DMD) and required performance of collimation System were analyzed and reported. The dynamic target generator based on DMD had the advantages of replacing image convenient, size small and flexible. According to the requirement of tested camera, by rotating and moving mirror, has completed a full field infinity dynamic target test plan.

  19. Isotope targets prepared by vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the state of the art for producing thin films has developed, the parameters set by the experiments have in turn become more stringent. Often these targets must be of high purity, extremely thin, self-supporting, and of accurately determined thickness. In addition, the target material may be an expensive isotope which must be reduced to elemental form at the time of vapor deposition. Methods of producing some of these targets will be discussed with such examples as calcium, magnesium and boron

  20. Ion acceleration enhanced by target ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser proton acceleration can be enhanced by using target ablation, due to the energetic electrons generated in the ablation preplasma. When the ablation pulse matches main pulse, the enhancement gets optimized because the electrons' energy density is highest. A scaling law between the ablation pulse and main pulse is confirmed by the simulation, showing that for given CPA pulse and target, proton energy improvement can be achieved several times by adjusting the target ablation

  1. FOMC Targets, Base Drift and Inflationary Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Charles E. Hegji

    1989-01-01

    This paper uses a money supply-money demand model to study the effects on inflationary expectations of base drift and the Federal Open Market Committee's rebasing of its money supply targets. It is demonstrated that an averaging scheme for determining the Federal Open Market Committee's money stock target bases generates less inflationary uncertainty than no averaging. It is also shown that an alternative to target averaging is to accommodate long-run money supply strategy to changes in money...

  2. Design of liposomal formulations for cell targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, E.; Gomes, Andreia C.; Preto, Ana; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes have gained extensive attention as carriers for a wide range of drugs due to being both nontoxic and biodegradable as they are composed of substances naturally occurring in biological membranes. Active targeting for cells has explored specific modification of the liposome surface by functionalizing it with specific targeting ligands in order to increase accumulation and intracellular uptake into target cells. None of the Food and Drug Administration-licensed liposomes or lipid nanop...

  3. Advances in Targeting Signal Transduction Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    McCubrey, James A.; Steelman, Linda S.; Chappell, William H.; Sun, Lin; Davis, Nicole M.; Abrams, Stephen L.; Franklin, Richard A.; Cocco, Lucio; Evangelisti, Camilla; Chiarini, Francesca; Martelli, Alberto M.; Libra, Massimo; Candido, Saverio; Ligresti, Giovanni; Malaponte, Grazia

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, significant advances have occurred in both our understanding of the complexity of signal transduction pathways as well as the isolation of specific inhibitors which target key components in those pathways. Furthermore critical information is being accrued regarding how genetic mutations can affect the sensitivity of various types of patients to targeted therapy. Finally, genetic mechanisms responsible for the development of resistance after targeted therapy are being ...

  4. Target R and D at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We proposed a solid and a mercury target concepts through the preliminary conceptual design. To feasible these concepts, analysis and experimental works are being carried out. This paper introduces an outline of present status of target R and D such as heat transfer augmentation experiments for the solid target, mercury flow tests with a loop of maximum flow rate of 15L/min, flow pattern measurements for a cold source moderator etc. as well as preliminary conceptual design works. (author)

  5. MicroRNA Targets - How to predict?

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Nabajit

    2012-01-01

    A number of web tools are available for the prediction and identification of target microRNAs (miRNAs). The choice, availability, validity and selection of an optimal yet appropriate tool are a challenge for the design of high throughput assays with promising miRNA targets. The current trends and challenges for target microRNAs (miRNAs) prediction, identification and selection is described in this review.

  6. From monetary to exchange rate targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. ARTIS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper was presented at the Fourth International Seminar on European Economic and Monetary Union, held in Copenhagen in March of 1981. The author takes up the theoretical issues in the framework of both static and dynamic analysis. He argues, on the basis of the criterion of minimising the variance of prices around their target value, that an exchange-rate target outperforms a monetary target under most conceivable types of disturbances in a static analysis. 

  7. Applying target shadow models for SAR ATR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papson, Scott; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2007-04-01

    Recent work has suggested that target shadows in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images can be used effectively to aid in target classification. The method outlined in this paper has four steps - segmentation, representation, modeling, and selection. Segmentation is the process by which a smooth, background-free representation of the target's shadow is extracted from an image chip. A chain code technique is then used to represent the shadow boundary. Hidden Markov modeling is applied to sets of chain codes for multiple targets to create a suitable bank of target representations. Finally, an ensemble framework is proposed for classification. The proposed model selection process searches for an optimal ensemble of models based on various target model configurations. A five target subset of the MSTAR database is used for testing. Since the shadow is a back-projection of the target profile, some aspect angles will contain more discriminatory information then others. Therefore, performance is investigated as a function of aspect angle. Additionally, the case of multiple target looks is considered. The capability of the shadow-only classifier to enhance more traditional classification techniques is examined.

  8. Modeling and Filtering for Tracking Maneuvering Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiq J. Abou-Loukh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new mathematical model describing the motion of manned maneuvering targets is presented. This model is simple to be implemented and closely represents the motion of maneuvering targets. The target maneuver or acceleration is correlated in time. Optimal Kalman filter is used as a tracking filter which results in effective tracker that prevents the loss of track or filter divergency that often occurs with conventional tracking filter when the target performs a moderate or heavy maneuver. Computer simulation studies show that the proposed tracker provides sufficient accuracy.

  9. Pyrographite water-cooled target analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a study of two pyrographic water-cooled targets planned for use in the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. A steady-state thermal stress analysis was done that included a parameter study on the physical and numerical variables that affect the problem. The maximum target temperatures and stresses were calculated and compared for a variety of conditions. The comparisons show that the 0.6-cm half-width fin target proposed for the A-2 line is the most vulnerable of the targets analyzed

  10. Uncertainties in thick-target PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thick-target PIXE analysis insolves uncertainties arising from the calculation of thick-target X-ray production in addition to the usual PIXE uncertainties. The calculation demands knowledge of ionization cross-sections, stopping powers and photon attenuation coefficients. Information on these is reviewed critically and a computational method is used to estimate the uncertainties transmitted from this data base into results of thick-target PIXE analyses with reference to particular specimen types using beams of 2-3 MeV protons. A detailed assessment of the accuracy of thick-target PIXE is presented. (orig.)

  11. The potential therapeutic targets for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Priyanka Dwarampudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In case of invasive cervical carcinoma several molecular events were reported and these molecular events resulting in multiple genetic abnormalities. In order to control these tumors multiple molecular therapeutic targets are needed with different molecular mechanisms. Unfortunately, these molecular targets were in early stages of development. Because of less degree of success of conventional therapeutics for late stages of cervical cancer and lowering of prognosis of patients there is an increase in interest for the development of potential therapeutic targets for cervical cancer. This review article emphasizes the current molecular targeted agents; with special attention to estrogen receptors for human papilloma virus infected cervical cancer.

  12. Target studies for surface muon production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, F.; Desorgher, L.; Fuchs, A.; Hajdas, W.; Hodge, Z.; Kettle, P.-R.; Knecht, A.; Lüscher, R.; Papa, A.; Rutar, G.; Wohlmuther, M.

    2016-02-01

    Meson factories are powerful drivers of diverse physics programs. With beam powers already in the MW-regime attention has to be turned to target and beam line design to further significantly increase surface muon rates available for experiments. For this reason we have explored the possibility of using a neutron spallation target as a source of surface muons by performing detailed Geant4 simulations with pion production cross sections based on a parametrization of existing data. While the spallation target outperforms standard targets in the backward direction by more than a factor 7 it is not more efficient than standard targets viewed under 90°. Not surprisingly, the geometry of the target plays a large role in the generation of surface muons. Through careful optimization, a gain in surface muon rate of between 30% and 60% over the standard "box-like" target used at the Paul Scherrer Institute could be achieved by employing a rotated slab target. An additional 10% gain could also be possible by utilizing novel target materials such as, e.g., boron carbide.

  13. Physical measurements of inertial-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of inertial-fusion targets has stimulated the development of many new techniques and instruments. This paper reviews the basis for selected target measurement requirements and the development of optical interferometry, optical scattering, microradiography and scanning electron microscopy as applied to target measurement. We summarize the resolution and speed which have been achieved to date, and describe several systems in which these are traded off to fill specific measurement applications. We point out the extent to which present capabilities meet the requirements for target measurement and the key problems which remain to be solved

  14. Isomeric target for nuclear structure studies

    CERN Document Server

    Maunoury, L; Aubert, P; Aupiais, J; Baudin, M; Blier, G; Bonnereau, B; Boulin, Y; Pointurier, F; Sauvestre, J E; Sigaud, J; Szmigiel, M

    2002-01-01

    The experimental studies on nuclear structure and reactions dealing with nuclei in their isomeric state are, actually, mainly constrained by the difficulty of producing isomeric targets. The CEA/Bruyeres-le-Chatel laboratory has initiated the production of a sup 1 sup 7 sup 7 Lu sup m isomeric target. We plan to reach a 45% isomeric purity associated with a number of isomeric nuclei about 10 sup 1 sup 5. This target will be available for experiments at the end of the year 2000. The method performed to produce such targets will be discussed.

  15. Dual Target Design for CLAS12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Omair; Gilfoyle, Gerard; Christo, Steve

    2015-10-01

    An experiment to measure the neutron magnetic form factor (GnM) is planned for the new CLAS12 detector in Hall B at Jefferson Lab. This form factor will be extracted from the ratio of the quasielastic electron-neutron to electron-proton scattering off a liquid deuterium (LD2) target. A collinear liquid hydrogen (LH2) target will be used to measure efficiencies at the same time as production data is collected from the LD2 target. To test target designs we have simulated CLAS12 and the target geometry. Electron-nucleon events are produced first with the QUasiElastic Event Generator (QUEEG) which models the internal motion of the nucleons in deuterium.1 The results are used as input to the CLAS12 Monte Caro code gemc; a Geant4-based program that simulates the particle's interactions with each component of CLAS12 including the target material. The dual target geometry has been added to gemc including support structures and cryogenic transport systems. A Perl script was written to define the target materials and geometries. The output of the script is a set of database entries read by gemc at runtime. An initial study of the impact of this dual-target structure revealed limited effects on the electron momentum and angular resolutions. Work supported by the University of Richmond and the US Department of Energy.

  16. Development and Characterization of Bladder Cancer Patient-Derived Xenografts for Molecularly Guided Targeted Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Xian Pan

    Full Text Available The overarching goal of this project is to establish a patient-derived bladder cancer xenograft (PDX platform, annotated with deep sequencing and patient clinical information, to accelerate the development of new treatment options for bladder cancer patients. Herein, we describe the creation, initial characterization and use of the platform for this purpose.Twenty-two PDXs with annotated clinical information were established from uncultured unselected clinical bladder cancer specimens in immunodeficient NSG mice. The morphological fidelity was maintained in PDXs. Whole exome sequencing revealed that PDXs and parental patient cancers shared 92-97% of genetic aberrations, including multiple druggable targets. For drug repurposing, an EGFR/HER2 dual inhibitor lapatinib was effective in PDX BL0440 (progression-free survival or PFS of 25.4 days versus 18.4 days in the control, p = 0.007, but not in PDX BL0269 (12 days versus 13 days in the control, p = 0.16 although both expressed HER2. To screen for the most effective MTT, we evaluated three drugs (lapatinib, ponatinib, and BEZ235 matched with aberrations in PDX BL0269; but only a PIK3CA inhibitor BEZ235 was effective (p<0.0001. To study the mechanisms of secondary resistance, a fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 inhibitor BGJ398 prolonged PFS of PDX BL0293 from 9.5 days of the control to 18.5 days (p<0.0001, and serial biopsies revealed that the MAPK/ERK and PIK3CA-AKT pathways were activated upon resistance. Inhibition of these pathways significantly prolonged PFS from 12 day of the control to 22 days (p = 0.001. To screen for effective chemotherapeutic drugs, four of the first six PDXs were sensitive to the cisplatin/gemcitabine combination, and chemoresistance to one drug could be overcome by the other drug.The PDX models described here show good correlation with the patient at the genomic level and known patient response to treatment. This supports further evaluation of the PDXs for their

  17. Clinical target volume delineation in glioblastomas: pre-operative versus post-operative/pre-radiotherapy MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, P; Giri, M G; Meliadò, G; Amelio, D; Widesott, L; Ricciardi, G K; Dall'Oglio, S; Rizzotti, A; Sbarbati, A; Beltramello, A; Maluta, S; Amichetti, M

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Delineation of clinical target volume (CTV) is still controversial in glioblastomas. In order to assess the differences in volume and shape of the radiotherapy target, the use of pre-operative vs post-operative/pre-radiotherapy T1 and T2 weighted MRI was compared. Methods 4 CTVs were delineated in 24 patients pre-operatively and post-operatively using T1 contrast-enhanced (T1PRECTV and T1POSTCTV) and T2 weighted images (T2PRECTV and T2POSTCTV). Pre-operative MRI examinations were performed the day before surgery, whereas post-operative examinations were acquired 1 month after surgery and before chemoradiation. A concordance index (CI) was defined as the ratio between the overlapping and composite volumes. Results The volumes of T1PRECTV and T1POSTCTV were not statistically different (248 ± 88 vs 254 ± 101), although volume differences >100 cm3 were observed in 6 out of 24 patients. A marked increase due to tumour progression was shown in three patients. Three patients showed a decrease because of a reduced mass effect. A significant reduction occurred between pre-operative and post-operative T2 volumes (139 ± 68 vs 78 ± 59). Lack of concordance was observed between T1PRECTV and T1POSTCTV (CI = 0.67 ± 0.09), T2PRECTV and T2POSTCTV (CI = 0.39 ± 0.20) and comparing the portion of the T1PRECTV and T1POSTCTV not covered by that defined on T2PRECTV images (CI = 0.45 ± 0.16 and 0.44 ± 0.17, respectively). Conclusion Using T2 MRI, huge variations can be observed in peritumoural oedema, which are probably due to steroid treatment. Using T1 MRI, brain shifts after surgery and possible progressive enhancing lesions produce substantial differences in CTVs. Our data support the use of post-operative/pre-radiotherapy T1 weighted MRI for planning purposes. PMID:21045069

  18. Molecular nuclear imaging for targeting and trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress of molecular biology, genetic engineering, and polymer chemistry provide various tools to target molecules and cells in vivo. In this paper, recent achievements in targeting receptors for hepatocyte or inflammatory cells and in trafficking bacterial, immune, and stem cells using molecular nuclear imaging techniques are introduced

  19. How successful is nuclear targeting by nanocarriers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammam, Salma N; Azzazy, Hassan M E; Lamprecht, Alf

    2016-05-10

    The nucleus is ultimately the final target for many therapeutics treating various disorders including cancers, heart dysfunction and brain disorders. Owing to their specialized cell uptake and trafficking mechanisms, nanoparticles (NPs) allow drug targeting where degradation sensitive therapeutics could be delivered to their target tissues and cell in active form and sufficient concentration. However, it has recently become increasingly obvious that cytosolic internalization of a drug molecule does not entail its interaction with its subcellular target and hence careful nanoparticle design and optimization is required to enable nuclear targeting. This review, discusses the barriers to NP nuclear delivery; crossing the cell membrane, endo/lysosomal escape, cytoplasmic trafficking and finally nuclear entry focusing on how NP synthesis and modification could allow for bypassing each of the aforementioned barriers and successfully reaching the nucleus. Examples of nuclear targeted NPs are also discussed, stressing on the critical aspects of nuclear targeting and pointing out how the disease state might change the normal NP path and how such change could be exploited to increase efficiency of nuclear targeting. Finally, the criteria set for the evaluation of nanocarriers for nuclear delivery are discussed highlighting that quantitative rather than qualitative evaluation is required to evaluate how successful nanocarriers for nuclear delivery are, particularly with regards to the amount of drug delivered and released in the nucleus. PMID:26995759

  20. Target asymmetry in inclusive photoproduction of pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the target asymmetry in inclusive pion photoproduction in the photon fragmentation region using a helicity dependent Mueller-Regge model, in which the Regge cut contributions are also included. We obtained predictions for the t-dependence and the magnitude of the target asymmetry. (orig.)

  1. Liquid hydrogen target cooled by circulating helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structure and characteristics of a liquid hydrogen target, where hydrogen is liquefied with liquid helium flow using evaporation heat of liquid helium and vapour cold, are described. Good thermal insulation of liquid helium supply line permits to remove out of the target the most volumetric and heavy component - helium tank - and to supply liquid helium along spreaded pipeline from the Dewar helium flask. It results in considerable reduction of dimensions and weight, the structure simplification and work facilitation with the target. The target having a working volume of 400 mm length and 60 mm diameter was tested. Vacuum casing of the working volume was made of foam plastic, heat flow to the working volume is equal to 1.5 W. Achieving mode of operation including structure cooling and hydrogen liquefaction took approximately 3 h, liquid helium flow rate for liquefaction of 1 l hydrogen is 2.7 l. Liquid helium flow rate in the mode of operation was equal to 0.7 l/h, i.e. target operation period without adding liquid helium to the Dewar flask is 4-5 days. The target described is notable for simplicity in fabrication, reliability in operation and is very suitable for using in experiment as compared to existing targets with hydrogen liquefaction with liquid helium. Unit structure of the target enables to easily change its configuration relative to problems of concrete physical experiment

  2. Why cryogenic ICF [Inertial Confinement Fusion] targets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All advanced Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets will be built with cryogenic thermonuclear fuel configurations. This paper reviews the ICF concept with emphasis on the conditions required for efficient energy production, some details of the implosion process, along with a discussion of certain sources of potential inefficiencies, and estimates of target fabrication requirements. 4 refs., 8 figs

  3. Visual Search Asymmetry with Uncertain Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Jun; Koike, Takahiko; Takahashi, Kohske; Inoue, Tomoko

    2005-01-01

    The underlying mechanism of search asymmetry is still unknown. Many computational models postulate top-down selection of target-defining features as a crucial factor. This feature selection account implies, and other theories implicitly assume, that predefined target identity is necessary for search asymmetry. The authors tested the validity of…

  4. Receptor-targeted metalloradiopharmaceuticals. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copper (II) and platinum (II) coordination complexes were prepared and characterized. These complexes were designed to afford structural homology with steroidal and non-steroidal estrogens for possible use as receptor-targeted radiopharmaceuticals. While weak affinity for the estrogen receptor was detectable, none would appear to have sufficient receptor-affinity for estrogen-receptor-targeted imaging or therapy

  5. The fabrication of 26Al targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Targets with up to 1.4x101626Al atoms have been fabricated. The artificial production of the 26Al nuclei via the reaction 26Mg(p, n)26Al was carried out at the cyclotrons in Juelich and Muenchen. The experimental procedures in the fabrication of these targets as well as some test measurements are described. (orig.)

  6. Mathematical modelling of magnetically targeted drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grief, Andrew D. [Theoretical Mechanics, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: andrew.grief@nottingham.ac.uk; Richardson, Giles [Theoretical Mechanics, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: giles.richardson@nottingham.ac.uk

    2005-05-15

    A mathematical model for targeted drug delivery using magnetic particles is developed. This includes a diffusive flux of particles arising from interactions between erythrocytes in the microcirculation. The model is used to track particles in a vessel network. Magnetic field design is discussed and we show that it is impossible to specifically target internal regions using an externally applied field.

  7. Inflation Targeting in Emerging Market Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mishkin, Frederic S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper outlines what inflation targeting involves for emerging market/transition countries and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of this monetary policy strategy. The discussion suggests that although inflation targeting is not a panacea and may not be appropriate for many emerging market countries, it can be a highly useful monetary policy strategy in a number of them.

  8. Polarized proton target-IV. Operations manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standard operating procedures are presented for the vacuum, cryogenic, and electronic systems of a polarized proton target. The systems are comprised of (1) a target cryostat; (2) a 4He pumping system; (3) a 3He pumping system; (4) a microwave system; (5) a magnet and power supply; (6) a computerized polarization monitor; and (7) miscellaneous auxiliary equipment

  9. The spinning particle with curved target

    CERN Document Server

    Getzler, Ezra

    2016-01-01

    We extend our previous calculation [arXiv:1511.02135] of the BV cohomology of the spinning particle with a flat target to the general case, in which the target carries a non-trivial pseudo-Riemannian metric and a magnetic field.

  10. Active Targets For Capacitive Proximity Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenstrom, Del T.; Mcconnell, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    Lightweight, low-power active targets devised for use with improved capacitive proximity sensors described in "Capacitive Proximity Sensor Has Longer Range" (GSC-13377), and "Capacitive Proximity Sensors With Additional Driven Shields" (GSC-13475). Active targets are short-distance electrostatic beacons; they generate known alternating electro-static fields used for alignment and/or to measure distances.

  11. ISOLDE target zone control room HD

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Operating the ISOLDE target handling robots from the dedicated control room in building 197. Monitors showing the movements of the robots (GPS in this case) in the target zone. The footage shows the actual operation by the operator as well as the different equipment such as camera electronics, camera motor controls, camera monitors and Kuka robot controls touch panel.

  12. Target Studies for Surface Muon Production

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, F; Fuchs, A; Hajdas, W; Hodge, Z; Kettle, P -R; Knecht, A; Lüscher, R; Papa, A; Rutar, G; Wohlmuther, M

    2015-01-01

    Meson factories are powerful drivers of diverse physics programmes. With beam powers already in the MW-regime attention has to be turned to target and beam line design to further significantly increase surface muon rates available for experiments. For this reason we have explored the possibility of using a neutron spallation target as a source of surface muons by performing detailed Geant4 simulations with pion production cross sections based on a parametrization of existing data. While the spallation target outperforms standard targets in the backward direction by more than a factor 7 it is not more efficient than standard targets viewed under 90{\\deg}. Not surprisingly, the geometry of the target plays a large role in the generation of surface muons. Through careful optimization, a gain in surface muon rate of between 30 - 60% over the standard "box-like" target used at the Paul Scherrer Institute could be achieved by employing a rotated slab target. An additional 10% gain could also be possible by utilizin...

  13. Technical Design Report, Second Target Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galambos, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Anderson, David E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bechtol, D. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Bethea, Katie L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, N. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Carden, W. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chae, Steven M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Clark, A. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Counce, Deborah M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Craft, K. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Crofford, Mark T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Collins, Richard M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cousineau, Sarah M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Curry, Douglas E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cutler, Roy I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dayton, Michael J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dean, Robert A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Deibele, Craig E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Doleans, Marc [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dye, T. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Eason, Bob H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eckroth, James A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fincrock, C. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Fritts, S. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Gallmeier, Franz X. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gawne, Ken R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hartman, Steven M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Herwig, Kenneth W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hess, S. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Holmes, Jeffrey A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Horak, Charlie M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howell, Matthew P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Iverson, Erik B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jacobs, Lorelei L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jones, Larry C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, B. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Johnson, S. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Kasemir, Kay [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kim, Sang-Ho [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Laughon, Gregory J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lu, W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mahoney, Kelly L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mammosser, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McManamy, T. [McManamy Consulting, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Michilini, M. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Middendorf, Mark E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); O' Neal, Ed [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nemec, B. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Peters, Roy Cecil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Plum, Michael A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reagan, G. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Remec, Igor [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rennich, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Riemer, Bernie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Saethre, Robert B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schubert, James Phillip [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shishlo, Andrei P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, C. Craig [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Strong, William Herb [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tallant, Kathie M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tennant, David Alan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thibadeau, Barbara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Trumble, S. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Trotter, Steven M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Z. [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Webb, Steven B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Derrick C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); White, Karen S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhao, Jinkui [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Second Target Station (STS) is a proposed upgrade for SNS. It includes a doubling of the accelerator power and an additional instrument hall. The new instrument hall will receive a 467 kW 10 Hz beam. The parameters and preliminary design aspects of the STS are presented for the accelerator, target systems, instrument hall, instruments and civil construction aspects.

  14. Targeted Toxins in Brain Tumor Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter A. Hall

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Targeted toxins, also known as immunotoxins or cytotoxins, are recombinant molecules that specifically bind to cell surface receptors that are overexpressed in cancer and the toxin component kills the cell. These recombinant proteins consist of a specific antibody or ligand coupled to a protein toxin. The targeted toxins bind to a surface antigen or receptor overexpressed in tumors, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor or interleukin-13 receptor. The toxin part of the molecule in all clinically used toxins is modified from bacterial or plant toxins, fused to an antibody or carrier ligand. Targeted toxins are very effective against cancer cells resistant to radiation and chemotherapy. They are far more potent than any known chemotherapy drug. Targeted toxins have shown an acceptable profile of toxicity and safety in early clinical studies and have demonstrated evidence of a tumor response. Currently, clinical trials with some targeted toxins are complete and the final results are pending. This review summarizes the characteristics of targeted toxins and the key findings of the important clinical studies with targeted toxins in malignant brain tumor patients. Obstacles to successful treatment of malignant brain tumors include poor penetration into tumor masses, the immune response to the toxin component and cancer heterogeneity. Strategies to overcome these limitations are being pursued in the current generation of targeted toxins.

  15. Target discrimination strategies in optics detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöqvist, Lars; Allard, Lars; Henriksson, Markus; Jonsson, Per; Pettersson, Magnus

    2013-10-01

    Detection and localisation of optical assemblies used for weapon guidance or sniper rifle scopes has attracted interest for security and military applications. Typically a laser system is used to interrogate a scene of interest and the retro-reflected radiation is detected. Different system approaches for area coverage can be realised ranging from flood illumination to step-and-stare or continuous scanning schemes. Independently of the chosen approach target discrimination is a crucial issue, particularly if a complex scene such as in an urban environment and autonomous operation is considered. In this work target discrimination strategies in optics detection are discussed. Typical parameters affecting the reflected laser radiation from the target are the wavelength, polarisation properties, temporal effects and the range resolution. Knowledge about the target characteristics is important to predict the target discrimination capability. Two different systems were used to investigate polarisation properties and range resolution information from targets including e.g. road signs, optical reflexes, rifle sights and optical references. The experimental results and implications on target discrimination will be discussed. If autonomous operation is required target discrimination becomes critical in order to reduce the number of false alarms.

  16. Target system materials and engineering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the common problems of target design. As a model for the discussion, the author considers a spallation source which is fed by a high power proton beam of the order of one megawatt. The materials used for the target station and particularly for the spallation target itself depend on whether the source is built for pulsed, modulated or continuous operation. The difference of materials used is mainly determined by the neutronics considerations. Depending on the choice of materials for the target systems, the characters of material problems met, are of somewhat different nature. It is recognized that for each target version quite specific difficulties have to be overcome. On the other hand, there is a whole set of problems which is common to all target versions. These are: heat load in region of proton beam interactions; thermal stress and cycling; and radiation damage. It is shown that solutions to the whole package of problems up to a beam power of 0 (1MW) have been found. The whole effort concentrates onto the region of the first few centimeters of beam penetration. Two solutions have been proposed: (1) Keep the power of proton beam limited and produce neutrons elsewhere in the target. and (2) Dilute the power by moving mechanically the target and the window. 8 refs., 11 figs

  17. INSTRUMENT CHOICE AND BUDGET-CONSTRAINED TARGETING

    OpenAIRE

    Horan, Richard D.; Claassen, Roger; Agapoff, Jean; Zhang, Wei

    2004-01-01

    We analyze how choosing to use a particular type of instrument for agri-environmental payments, when these payments are constrained by the regulatory authority's budget, implies an underlying targeting criterion with respect to costs, benefits, participation, and income, and the tradeoffs among these targeting criteria. The results provide insight into current policy debates.

  18. What "helps" tumors evade vascular targeting treatment?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI Zhi-chao; LIU Jie

    2008-01-01

    Objective To throw a light on the possible factors which might induce resistance of vascular targeting treatment in tumors by reviewing the recent publications in the field of tumor angiogenesis and vascular targeting treatment.Data sources The data used in this review were mainly from Medline and PubMed for relevant English language articles published from 1971 to January 2008. The search terms were "angiogenesis", "vascular targeting treatment" and "endothelial progenitor cells".Study selection Articles involved in the possible influence factors during angiogenesis and vascular targeting treatment were selected, including angiogenic or anti-angiogenic mechanism, tumor vasculature, tumor cells, cancer stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells.Results As a promising strategy vascular targeting treatment still has experimental and clinical setbacks which may term tumor vasculature's resistance to anti-angiogenesis agents. There are several possible explanations for such a resistance that might account for clinical and preclinical failures of anti-angiogenic treatment against tumor.Proangiogenic effect of hypoxia, normal tumor vasculature, escape of tumor cells and tumor vasculogenesis are included.This review reveals some clues which might be helpful to direct future research in order to remove obstacles to vascular targeting treatment.Conclusions Generally and undoubtedly vascular targeting treatment remains a promising strategy. But we still have to realize the existence of a challenging future. Further research is required to enhance our knowledge of vascular targeting treatment strategy before it could make a more substantial success.

  19. Targeting hypoxia in head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The idea of 'targeting' hypoxia stems from recognition of the fact that oxygen (or its lack) is central to the practice of radiation oncology. Targeting embraces the alternative goals of trying to overcome hypoxia on the one hand and trying to exploit it on the other. This presentation briefly reviews these two approaches with major emphasis on the latter

  20. Liner target interaction experiments on Pegasus II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos High Energy Density Physics program uses capacitively driven low voltage, inductive-storage pulse power to implode cylindrical targets for hydrodynamics experiments. Once a precision driver liner was characterized an experimental series characterizing the aluminum target dynamics was performed. The target was developed for shock-induced quasi-particle ejecta experiments including holography. The concept for the Liner shock experiment is that the driver liner is used to impact the target liner which then accelerates toward a collimator with a slit in it. A shock wave is set up in the target liner and as the shock emerges from the back side of the target liner, ejecta are generated. By taking a laser hologram the particle distribution of the ejecta are hoped to be determined. The goal for the second experimental series was to characterize the target dynamics and not to measure and generate the ejecta. Only the results from the third shot, Pegasus II-26 fired April 26th, 1994, from the series is discussed in detail. The second experimental series successfully characterized the target dynamics necessary to move forward towards the planned quasi-ejecta experiments