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Sample records for californium 254 target

  1. Californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This meeting constituted the third phase of a project initiated by the Dosimetry Section of the IAEA in 1973. The first step, early in 1973, consisted of the development of a programme for the loan of Cf-252 sources to the Member States in support of education, training and some limited research. To date, 14 institutions in 13 Member States have participated in this loan programme. In August last year, the Agency published an instructional syllabus and laboratory manual authored by Professors Eric J. Hall and Harald H. Rossi of Columbia University (Californium-252 in Teaching and Research, Technical Reports Series No. 159). The appearance of this publication, including guidance on the design and construction of a storage and use facility, was the second phase of this programme aimed at providing some support to potential users in the fields of radiation biology and dosimetry. The objective of the programme's third phase - the convening of an Educational Seminar - was to provide a forum to bring together participants in the Agency's loan programme and experts in various scientific fields. Specifically, the Seminar consisted of a series of expert presentations in spectrometry, activation and prompt gamma analyses, on-stream analysis, dosimetry, health physics, radiology and radiotherapy. (author)

  2. Magnetism in californium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.R.

    1988-03-01

    A SQUID-based magnetic susceptometer has been constructed for studying small radioactive samples at temperatures below 350 K and in magnetic fields up to 50 kilogauss. The device has been used to study californium (element 98) in a number of solid-state forms: the dhcp metal, several oxides (Cf 2 O 3 in both the bcc and monoclinic structures, Cf 7 O 12 , CfO 2 and BaCfO 3 ), several monopnictides (CfN, CfAs and CfSb) and the trichloride (in both the hexagonal and orthorhombic structures). All of these materials were studied in polycrystalline form, and hexagonal CfCl 3 was studied in single-crystal form as well. The susceptometer has the sensitivity to measure samples containing less than 10 micrograms of californium. The magnetic susceptibilities of all of the californium materials at temperatures above about 100 K are described well by the Curie-Weiss relationship. This behavior is consistent with the assumption that the magnetic 5f electrons are localized and that the paramagnetic behavior can be interpreted in terms of the properties of the free ion. The measured values of the effective paramagnetic moment, μ/sub eff/, for all the californium materials that were studied are reasonably consistent with theoretical values based on intermediate coupling models. All of the californium materials showed some indications of cooperative magnetic effects. The dhcp metal was observed to order ferromagnetically at 52 K, and all of the californium compounds studied showed signs of antiferromagnetic ordering, mostly at temperatures below 25 K. 91 refs., 50 figs., 19 tabs

  3. Medical applications of californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, G.D. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Primarily, californium-252 sources have been utilized in medicine for the treatment of neoplastic lesions. For five years, a coordinated effort between several cancer research institutions and national laboratories has developed the necessary physics, radiobiology, and engineering skills to establish an evaluation program for californium. Several more years of combined effort are required before it is known whether californium therapy is as good as or better than conventional therapy with sources like radium. Recently, development of diagnostic applications of californium in medicine has received attention. Studies comparing neutron decay activation analysis versus prompt capture gamma ray analysis are in progress. A hopeful application of prompt analysis with reasonable quantities (200 μg) of californium is the elemental analysis of bone in the human body. (U.S.)

  4. Californium loan programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The offer of the United States to loan Californium-252 sources to the IAEA was made by Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg, then chairman of the USAEC, in his opening statement at the 15th. General Conference of the IAEA held in Vienna in 1971. The purpose of this loan was to make neutron emitting sources available to universities in the Member States for use in educational programmes. The sources, in the form of small needles designed for medical use in radiation therapy, were judged highly suitable for didactic applications due to their small size, limited activity and well documented radiological parameters. Subsequently, in May 1973, the Director General announced the availability of the Californium sources to the Member States. To date, numerous sources have been loaned to universities in Czechoslovakia, Costa Rica, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ghana, India, Iran, Israel, Japan, South Africa, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and Uruguay; additional applications for loans are being processed. It is anticipated that the loan programme will be terminated in 1975 once all the available sources have been distributed. n order to provide guidance for the Member States on the safe exploitation of these sources, a prototype use and storage facility was designed by IAEA staff of the Dosimetry Section of the Division of Life Sciences, and constructed at the IAEA laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria. Figures 2-5 illustrate some of the details of this container, which is being given to the Ghana Nuclear Centre in support of a training programme for students at the university in Accra. Further advice to users of these sources will be provided by the publication of an instructional syllabus, a laboratory manual for experiments and the safety precautions inherent in the proper handling of neutron emitting radionuclides, authored by Professors Erich J. Hall and Harald H. Rossi of Columbia University. The syllabus and manual will be published as part of the IAEA Technical Series in September

  5. Californium source transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    In early 1995, the receipt of four sealed californium-252 sources from Oak Ridge National Lab was successfully accomplished by a team comprised of Radiological Engineering, Radiological Operations and Health Physics Instrumentation personnel. A procedure was developed and walked-down by the participants during a Dry Run Evolution. Several special tools were developed during the pre-planning phases of the project which reduced individual and job dose to minimal levels. These included a mobile lifting device for attachment of a transfer ball valve assembly to the undercarriage of the Cannonball Carrier, a transfer tube elbow to ensure proper angle of the source transfer tube, and several tools used during emergency response for remote retrieval and handling of an unshielded source. Lessons were learned in the areas of contamination control, emergency preparedness, and benefits of thorough pre-planning, effectiveness of locally creating and designing special tools to reduce worker dose, and methods of successfully accomplishing source receipt evolutions during extreme or inclement weather

  6. Californium-252 progress, report No. 7, April 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1971-12-31

    This report contains discusses of the following topics on Californium-252: First sales of californium-252; encapsulation services discussed; three new participants in market evaluation program; summer training programs to use californium; Californium-252 shipping casks available; Californium-252 questions and answers, radiotherapy; neutron radiography; natural resources exploration; nuclear safeguards; process control; dosimetry; neutron radiography; neutron shielding; and nuclear safeguards.

  7. Uranium standards for Californium Shuffler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, A.; Boynton, S.P.

    1978-10-01

    The Laboratories Department analyzed pieces of a U-Al log which were to be canned and used as a set of standards for the nondestructive Californium Shuffler instrument. Evaluation of this instrument is part of an on-going Safeguards Program and is a joint project between LASL and SRP. A U-Al casting of a nominal 30% to 70% composition was made with enriched uranium (56 wt % 235 U). The log was 6 in. in diameter and approximately 2 ft long. A 1/4-in. slice was made before and after each 1-in. slice taken for use as a standard. The 1-in. slices were scanned nondestructively by collimated gamma pulse height analysis. The 1/4-in. slices were divided into quadrants and one quadrant for each slice was destructively analyzed. Results from these tests showed an approximate 1.5% relative variation in uranium concentration from the high to the low point. Successive pieces showed less than 1% relative difference. The 1-in. pieces have been canned and shipped to LASL for testing and will be returned with the Californium Shuffler. The remaining 1/4-in. slices have been sent to NBL and LASL for destructive analysis

  8. Californium production at the transuranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Transuranium Processing Plant (TRU) at ORNL, which is the production, storage, and distribution center for the ERDA heavy element research program, is described. About 0.5 percent of 252 Cf is currently being produced. TRU is a hot-cell, chemical processing facility of advanced design. New concepts have been incorporated into the facility for absolute containment, remote operation, remote equipment installation, and remote maintenance. The facilities include a battery of nine heavily shielded process cells served by master-slave manipulators and eight laboratories, four on each of two floors. Processing includes chemical dissolution of the targets followed by a series of solvent extraction, ion exchange, and precipitation steps to separate and purify the transuranium elements. The transcurium elements Bk, Cf, Es, and Fm are distributed to users. Remote techniques are used to fabricate the Am and Cm into target rods for reirradiation in the HFIR. Californium-252 that is in excess of the needs of the heavy element research program and the Cf sales program is stored at TRU and processed repeatedly to recover the daughter product 248 Cm, which is a highly desirable research material

  9. Radiography using californium-252 neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    The current status in the technology of neutron radiography using californium-252 neutron sources is summarized. Major emphasis is on thermal neutron radiography since it has the widest potential applicability at the present time. Attention is given to four major factors which affect the quality and useability of thermal neutron radiography: source neutron thermalization, neutron beam extraction geometry, neutron collimator dimensions, and neutron imaging methods. Each of these factors has a major effect on the quality of the radiographs which are obtained from a californium source neutron radiography system and the exposure times required to obtain the radiographs; radiograph quality and exposure time in turn affect the practicality of neutron radiography for specific nondestructive inspection applications. A brief discussion of fast neutron radiography using californium-252 neutron sources is also included. (U.S.)

  10. Californium-252 radiotherapy sources for interstitial afterloading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permar, P.H.; Walker, V.W.

    1976-01-01

    Californium-252 neutron sources for interstitial afterloading were developed to investigate the value of this radionuclide in cancer therapy. Californium-252 seed assemblies contain essentially point sources of 252 Cf permanently sealed on 1-cm centers within a flexible plastic tube. The seed assemblies are fabricated with remotely operated, specially designed machines. The fabrication process involves the production of a Pt-10 percent Ir-clad wire with a 252 Cf 2 O 3 -Pd cermet core. The wire is swaged and drawn to size, cut to length, and welded in a Pt-10 percent Ir capsule 0.8 mm in diameter and 6 mm long. Each seed capsule contains approximately 0.5 microgram of 252 Cf. Because the effective half-life of 252 Cf is 2.6 years, the seed assemblies are not disposable and must be reused until their activities have decreased to unsuitable levels. The flexible plastic components must therefore have sufficient resistance to radiation damage to survive the neutron-plus-gamma radiation from 252 Cf. On the basis of accelerated irradiation tests with a large 252 Cf source, a recently developed fluoropolymer, ''Tefzel'' (trademark of E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company) has adequate radiation resistance for this application. Californium-252 seed assembly systems are loaned by the United States Energy Research and Development Administration for clinical investigations under a protocol of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, U.S. National Cancer Institute

  11. Historical review of californium-252 discovery and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddard, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the discovery and history of californium 252. This isotope may be synthesized by irradiating plutonium 239, plutonium 242, americium 243, or curium 244 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Various experiments and inventions involving 252 Cf conducted at the Savannah River Plant are discussed. The evolution of radiotherapy using californium 252 is reviewed

  12. Californium-252: a remarkable versatile radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Alexander, C.W.

    1995-01-01

    A product of the nuclear age, Californium-252 ( 252 Cf) has found many applications in medicine, scientific research, industry, and nuclear science education. Californium-252 is unique as a neutron source in that it provides a highly concentrated flux and extremely reliable neutron spectrum from a very small assembly. During the past 40 years, 252 Cf has been applied with great success to cancer therapy, neutron radiography of objects ranging from flowers to entire aircraft, startup sources for nuclear reactors, fission activation for quality analysis of all commercial nuclear fuel, and many other beneficial uses, some of which are now ready for further growth. Californium-252 is produced in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and processed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), both of which are located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The REDC/HFIR facility is virtually the sole supplier of 252 Cf in the western world and is the major supplier worldwide. Extensive exploitation of this product was made possible through the 252 Cf Market Evaluation Program, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) [then the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and later the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)]. This program included training series, demonstration centers, seminars, and a liberal loan policy for fabricated sources. The Market Evaluation Program was instituted, in part, to determine if large-quantity production capability was required at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). Because of the nature of the product and the means by which it is produced, 252 Cf can be produced only in government-owned facilities. It is evident at this time that the Oak Ridge research facility can meet present and projected near-term requirements. The production, shipment, and sales history of 252 Cf from ORNL is summarized herein

  13. Californium-252: a remarkable versatile radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Alexander, C.W.

    1995-10-10

    A product of the nuclear age, Californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) has found many applications in medicine, scientific research, industry, and nuclear science education. Californium-252 is unique as a neutron source in that it provides a highly concentrated flux and extremely reliable neutron spectrum from a very small assembly. During the past 40 years, {sup 252}Cf has been applied with great success to cancer therapy, neutron radiography of objects ranging from flowers to entire aircraft, startup sources for nuclear reactors, fission activation for quality analysis of all commercial nuclear fuel, and many other beneficial uses, some of which are now ready for further growth. Californium-252 is produced in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and processed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), both of which are located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The REDC/HFIR facility is virtually the sole supplier of {sup 252}Cf in the western world and is the major supplier worldwide. Extensive exploitation of this product was made possible through the {sup 252}Cf Market Evaluation Program, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) [then the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and later the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)]. This program included training series, demonstration centers, seminars, and a liberal loan policy for fabricated sources. The Market Evaluation Program was instituted, in part, to determine if large-quantity production capability was required at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). Because of the nature of the product and the means by which it is produced, {sup 252}Cf can be produced only in government-owned facilities. It is evident at this time that the Oak Ridge research facility can meet present and projected near-term requirements. The production, shipment, and sales history of {sup 252}Cf from ORNL is summarized herein.

  14. Californium-252 sales and loans at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    The production and distribution in the United States of 252 Cf has recently been consolidated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The 252 Cf Industrial Sales/Loan Program and the 252 Cf University Load Program, which were formerly located at the Savannah River Plant (SRP), have been combined with the californium production and distribution activities of the Transuranium Element Production Program at ORNL. Californium-252 is sold to commercial users in the form of bulk californium oxide, palladium-californium alloy pellets, or alloy wires. Neutron source capsules, which are fabricated for loans to DOE or other US government agencies, are still available in all forms previously available. The consolidation of all 252 Cf distribution activities at the production site is expected to result in better service to users. In particular, customers for neutrons sources will be ale to select from a wider range of neutron source forms, including custom designs, through a single contact point

  15. Calibration of a Modified Californium Shuffler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, E.T.; Armstrong, F.; Oldham, R.; Ceo, R.; Williams, N.

    1995-01-01

    A californium shuffler originally designed to assay hollow cylindrical pieces of UA1 has been modified to assay solid cylinders. Calibration standards were characterized via chemical analysis of the molten UA1 taken during casting of the standards. The melt samples yielded much more reliable characterization data than drill samples taken from standards after the standards had solidified. By normalizing one well-characterized calibration curve to several standards at different enrichments, a relatively small number of standards was required to develop an enrichment-dependent calibration. The precision of this shuffler is 0.65%, and the typical random and systematic uncertainties are 0.53% and 0.73%, respectively, for a six minute assay of an ingot containing approximately 700 grams of 235 U. This paper will discuss (1) the discrepancies encountered when UA1 standards were characterized via melt samples versus drill samples, (2) a calibration methodology employing a small number of standards, and (3) a comparison of results from a previously unused shuffler with an existing shuffler. A small number of UA1 standards have been characterized using samples from the homogeneous molten state and have yielded enrichment-dependent and enrichment-independent calibration curves on two different shufflers

  16. Fabrication of californium-252 sources in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, A.; Brady, M.W.; Thornett, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    The advent of californium-252 in weighable quantities and at a reasonable price has caused some rethinking among neutron source suppliers. To explore this market the Radiochemical Center Ltd. has purchased 2 mg of californium-252, and subdivided this into a wide range of sources. To take advantage of its high specific neutron emission, a small double welded stainless steel capsule 7.8mm diameter x 10mm high was chosen for stock sources and this entailed the use of a microdispensing technique which had to be specially developed. The apparatus and procedure for subdividing milligram amounts of californium-252 are described. Some details of our experience in processing these one milligram shipments are given. 100 sources with activities from 200 microgram to 0.01 microgram have been produced. Losses have been small. Measurement of neutron spectra gamma spectra and dose rates from encapsulated sources has confirmed published data. Though it is early days, little industrial interest in californium-252 sources has been detected, most of the sources have so far been required for research into activation analysis and two examples of this are given. (U.S.)

  17. Californium Multiplier. Part I. Design for neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, K.L.; Preskitt, C.A.; John, J.; Hastings, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The Californium Multiplier (CFX) is a subcritical assembly of enriched uranium surrounding a californium-252 neutron source. The function of the CFX is to multiply the neutrons emitted by the source to a number sufficient for neutron radiography. The CFX is designed to provide a collimated beam of thermal neutrons from which the gamma radiation is filtered, and the scattered neutrons are reduced to make it suitable for high resolution radiography. The entire system has inherent safety features, which provide for system and personnel safety, and it operates at moderate cost. In Part I, the CFX and the theory of its operation are described in detail. Part II covers the performance of the Mound Facility CFX

  18. Production, Distribution, and Applications of Californium-252 Neutron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balo, P.A.; Knauer, J.B.; Martin, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    The radioisotope 252 Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10 11 neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells 252 Cf to commercial reencapsulators domestically and internationally. Sealed 252 Cf sources are also available for loan to agencies and subcontractors of the U.S. government and to universities for educational, research, and medical applications. The REDC has established the Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science to make its large inventory of 252 Cf sources available to researchers for irradiations inside uncontaminated hot cells. Experiments at the CUF include a land mine detection system, neutron damage testing of solid-state detectors, irradiation of human cancer cells for boron neutron capture therapy experiments, and irradiation of rice to induce genetic mutations

  19. Neutron activation analysis of the calcium content in vivo, using a 50μg source of californium 252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guey, A.; Zech, P.Y.; Meary, M.F.; Leitienne, P.

    1975-01-01

    Owing to the recent commercialisation of californium 252 it is now possible to obtain neutron fluxes strong enough for precise activation of the calcium content of biological targets. After the preliminary measurements necessary to establish the most suitable conditions for irradiating 3 to 5cm thick targets, two parallel sets of experiments were developed. In the first the medium-term total calcium variation was studied in 20 rats, 16 suffering from chronic kidney deficiency. In the second the precision expected as a function of the calcium content of the irradiated target was examined, using 3 sets of tissue equivalent standards of calcium contents 5, 20 and 50g respectively. The first results obtained on calcium 49 in vivo show that a calcium content variation can be followed with a sensitivity threshold below that obtained by conventional methods [fr

  20. Prompt neutron spectrum of the spontaneous fission of californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamyatnin, Yu.S.; Kroshkin, N.I.; Korostylev, V.A.; Nefedov, V.N.; Ryazanov, D.K.; Starostov, B.I.; Semenov, A.F.

    1976-01-01

    The californium-252 spontaneous fission neutron spectrum was measured in the energy range of 0.01 to 10 MeV by the time-of-flight technique using various neutron detectors. The measurements of 252 Cf neutron spectrum at energies of 0.01 to 5 MeV were performed as a function of fission fragment kinetic energy. The mean neutron spectrum energy in the range of 0.7 to 10 MeV was found from the results of measurements. The irregularity in the 252 Cf neutron spectrum in the neutron energy range of less than 0.7 MeV compared to theoretical values is discussed. The mechanism of 252 Cf neutron emission is also discussed on the basis of neutron yield angle measurements. 12 references

  1. A californium-252 source for radiobiological studies at Hiroshima University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kazuo; Takeoka, Seiji; Kuroda, Tokue; Tsujimura, Tomotaka; Kawami, Masaharu; Hoshi, Masaharu; Sawada, Shozo

    1987-01-01

    A 1.93 Ci (3.6 mg) californium-252 source was installed in the radiation facility of the Research Institute for Nuclear Medicine and Biology, Hiroshima University. This source produces fission neutrons (8.7 x 10 9 n/s at the time of its installation), which are similar to neutron spectrum of the atomic bombs. It is useful for studying biological effects of fission neutrons and neutron dosimetry. An apparatus was dosigned to accomodate this source and to apply it to such studies. It has resulted in profitable fission neutron exposures, while suppressing scattered neutrons and secondary gamma rays. This apparatus incorporates many safety systems, including one which interlocks with all of doors and an elevator serving the exposure room, so as to prevent accidents involving users. (author)

  2. Extraction of Trivalent Actinides and Lanthanides from Californium Campaign Rework Solution Using TODGA-based Solvent Extraction System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benker, Dennis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Delmau, Laetitia Helene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dryman, Joshua Cory [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report presents the studies carried out to demonstrate the possibility of quantitatively extracting trivalent actinides and lanthanides from highly acidic solutions using a neutral ligand-based solvent extraction system. These studies stemmed from the perceived advantage of such systems over cationexchange- based solvent extraction systems that require an extensive feed adjustment to make a low-acid feed. The targeted feed solutions are highly acidic aqueous phases obtained after the dissolution of curium targets during a californium (Cf) campaign. Results obtained with actual Cf campaign solutions, but highly diluted to be manageable in a glove box, are presented, followed by results of tests run in the hot cells with Cf campaign rework solutions. It was demonstrated that a solvent extraction system based on the tetraoctyl diglycolamide molecule is capable of quantitatively extracting trivalent actinides from highly acidic solutions. This system was validated using actual feeds from a Cf campaign.

  3. High transfer cross sections from reactions with 254Es

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaedel, M.; Bruechle, W.; Bruegger, M.; Gaeggeler, H.; Moody, J.; Schardt, D.; Suemmerer, K.; Hulet, E.K.; Dougan, A.D.; Dougan, R.J.; Landrum, J.H.; Lougheed, R.W.; Wild, J.F.; O'Kelly, G.D.

    1985-08-01

    We report radiochemically determined cross sections for the heaviest known actinides produced in transfer reactions of 101 MeV 16 O, 98 MeV 18 O and 127 MeV 22 Ne with 254 Es as a target. A comparison with data for similar transfers from 248 Cm targets is made. Transfer cross sections are extrapolated for the production of unknown, neutron-rich isotopes of elements 101 through 105, and the unique potential of 254 Es as a target to make these exotic nuclei accessible is demonstrated. (orig.)

  4. Application of californium-252 neutron sources for analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Daido

    1976-01-01

    The researches made for the application of Cf-252 neutron sources to analytical chemistry during the period from 1970 to 1974 including partly 1975 are reviewed. The first part is the introduction to the above. The second part deals with general review of symposia, publications and the like. Attention is directed to ERDA publishing the periodical ''Californium-252 Progress'' and to a study group of Cf-252 utilization held by Japanese Radioisotope Association in 1974. The third part deals with its application for radio activation analysis. The automated absolute activation analysis (AAAA) of Savannha River is briefly explained. The joint experiment of Savannha River operation office with New Brunswick laboratory is mentioned. Cf-252 radiation source was used for the non-destructive analysis of elements in river water. East neutrons of Cf-252 were used for the quantitative analysis of lead in paints. Many applications for industrial control processes have been reported. Attention is drawn to the application of Cf-252 neutron sources for the field search of neutral resources. For example, a logging sonde for searching uranium resources was developed. the fourth part deals with the application of the analysis with gamma ray by capturing neutrons. For example, a bore hole sonde and the process control analysis of sulfur in fuel utilized capture gamma ray. The prompt gamma ray by capturing neutrons may be used for the nondestructive analysis of enrivonment. (Iwakiri, K.)

  5. Teratogenic effect of Californium-252 irradiation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satow, Yukio; Lee, Juing-Yi; Hori, Hiroshi; Okuda, Hiroe; Tsuchimoto, Shigeo; Sawada, Shozo; Yokoro, Kenjiro

    1989-01-01

    The teratogenicity of Californium-252 (Cf-252) irradiation which generates approximately 70% 2.3 MeV fast neutron and 30% gamma rays was evaluated. A single whole body exposure of Cf-252 at various doses was given to pregnant rats on day 8 or 9 of pregnancy, followed by microscopic autopsy of the fetuses at the terminal stage of pregnancy to search for external and internal malformations. For comparison, pregnant rats were irradiated with various doses of Cobalt-60 (Co-60) standard gamma rays at the same dose rate (1 rad/min.). The doses were 20-120 rad of Cf-252 and 80-220 rad of Co-60. Using frequency of radiation induced malformations observed on day 8 of pregnancy as an index, relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 2.3-2.7 was obtained from the straight line obtained by modifying by the least squares method the frequency curves of malformed fetuses in total implants and in surviving fetuses. The types of malformations induced by Cf-252 and Co-60 irradiation were alike. Using fetal LD 50 as an index, 2.4 was obtained as RBE when irradiated on day 8 of pregnancy and 3.1 as that when irradiated on day 9. The results showed that Cf-252 had stronger a teratogenic effect than Co-60 gamma rays. (author)

  6. Experimental studies on californium bioavailability to marine benthic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.; Carvalho, F.P.; Aston, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    252 Cf is readily taken up by benthic invertebrates from sea water, reaching whole-body concentration factors of 763 in the polychaete Hermione hystrix, 220 in the shrimp Lysmata seticaudata, 665 in the crab Pilumnus hirtellus and 78 in the bivalve mollusc Venerupis decussata after 3 weeks exposure. Surface sorption plays a predominant role in the uptake process. Depuration in clean sea water was a relatively slow process. The shrimp Lysmata eliminated 252 Cf very rapidly due to moulting. Absorption coefficients for ingested 252 Cf were high, approx. 23% in crabs and approx. 97% in brittlestars. The absorbed fraction was excreted twice as fast from crabs as brittlestars. Exposure of organisms to labelled sediment resulted in low transfer factors that were species dependent. There is some evidence to suggest that uptake from sediments is primarily due to 252 Cf transfer from the pore water. Comparison of these results with published experimental data on other transuranic nuclides in the same or similar species suggests that californium bioavailability is roughly equivalent to that of plutonium and americium. (author)

  7. Biomedical neutron research at the Californium User Facility for Neutron Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.C.; Byrne, T.E.; Miller, L.F.

    1998-01-01

    The Californium User Facility for Neutron Science has been established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The Californium User Facility (CUF) is a part of the larger Californium Facility, which fabricates and stores compact 252 Cf neutron sources for worldwide distribution. The CUF can provide a cost-effective option for research with 252 Cf sources. Three projects at the CUF that demonstrate the versatility of 252 Cf for biological and biomedical neutron-based research are described: future establishment of a 252 Cf-based neutron activation analysis system, ongoing work to produce miniature high-intensity, remotely afterloaded 252 Cf sources for tumor therapy, and a recent experiment that irradiated living human lung cancer cells impregnated with experimental boron compounds to test their effectiveness for boron neutron capture therapy. (author)

  8. Proposed Californium-252 User Facility for Neutron Science at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.C.; Laxson, R.R.; Knauer, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at ORNL has petitioned to establish a Californium-252 User Facility for Neutron Science for academic, industrial, and governmental researchers. The REDC Californium Facility (CF) stores the national inventory of sealed 252 Cf neutron source for university and research loans. Within the CF, the 252 Cf storage pool and two uncontaminated hot cells currently in service for the Californium Program will form the physical basis for the User Facility. Relevant applications include dosimetry and experiments for neutron tumor therapy; fast and thermal neutron activation analysis of materials; experimental configurations for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis; neutron shielding and material damage studies; and hardness testing of radiation detectors, cameras, and electronics. A formal User Facility simplifies working arrangements and agreements between US DOE facilities, academia, and commercial interests

  9. Biomedical neutron research at the Californium User Facility for neutron science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.C.; Byrne, T.E.; Miller, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    The Californium User Facility for Neutron Science has been established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The Californium User Facility (CUF) is a part of the larger Californium Facility, which fabricates and stores compact 252 Cf neutron sources for worldwide distribution. The CUF can provide a cost-effective option for research with 252 Cf sources. Three projects at the CUF that demonstrate the versatility of 252 Cf for biological and biomedical neutron-based research are described: future establishment of a 252 Cf-based neutron activation analysis system, ongoing work to produce miniature high-intensity, remotely afterloaded 252 Cf sources for tumor therapy, and a recent experiment that irradiated living human lung cancer cells impregnated with experimental boron compounds to test their effectiveness for boron neutron capture therapy

  10. 27 CFR 44.254 - Shipping containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44.254 Section 44.254 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Requirements § 44.254 Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container, in which cigars are...

  11. 7 CFR 254.1 - General purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose. 254.1 Section 254.1 Agriculture... GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION ADMINISTRATION OF THE FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM FOR INDIAN HOUSEHOLDS IN OKLAHOMA § 254.1 General purpose. This part sets the requirement under which...

  12. 20 CFR 632.254 - Program startup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program startup. 632.254 Section 632.254 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.254 Program startup...

  13. Beyond Californium-A Neutron Generator Alternative for Dosimetry and Instrument Calibration in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Roman K; Mozhayev, Andrey V; Murphy, Mark K; Thompson, Alan K

    2017-09-01

    Evaluations of neutron survey instruments, area monitors, and personal dosimeters rely on reference neutron radiations, which have evolved from the heavy reliance on (α,n) sources to a shared reliance on (α,n) and the spontaneous fission neutrons of californium-252 (Cf). Capable of producing high dose equivalent rates from an almost point source geometry, the characteristics of Cf are generally more favorable when compared to the use of (α,n) and (γ,n) sources or reactor-produced reference neutron radiations. Californium-252 is typically used in two standardized configurations: unmoderated, to yield a fission energy spectrum; or with the capsule placed within a heavy-water moderating sphere to produce a softened spectrum that is generally considered more appropriate for evaluating devices used in nuclear power plant work environments. The U.S. Department of Energy Cf Loan/Lease Program, a longtime origin of affordable Cf sources for research, testing and calibration, was terminated in 2009. Since then, high-activity sources have become increasingly cost-prohibitive for laboratories that formerly benefited from that program. Neutron generators, based on the D-T and D-D fusion reactions, have become economically competitive with Cf and are recognized internationally as important calibration and test standards. Researchers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are jointly considering the practicality and technical challenges of implementing neutron generators as calibration standards in the U.S. This article reviews the characteristics of isotope-based neutron sources, possible isotope alternatives to Cf, and the rationale behind the increasing favor of electronically generated neutron options. The evaluation of a D-T system at PNNL has revealed characteristics that must be considered in adapting generators to the task of calibration and testing where accurate determination of a dosimetric quantity is

  14. X-ray-diffraction study of californium metal to 16 GPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.R.; Benedict, U.; Dufour, C.; Birkel, I.; Haire, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    The first series of measurements to determine the structural behavior of californium (Cf) metal under pressure has been carried out. The initial dhcp structure transformed sluggishly with increasing pressure to a fcc structure. A bulk modulus of 50(5) GPa was derived for dhcp Cf metal from the relative volume (V/V 0 ) data to 10 GPa

  15. Study of the shielding for spontaneous fission sources of Californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davila R, I.

    1991-06-01

    A shielding study is made to attenuate, until maximum permissible levels, the neutrons radiation and photons emitted by spontaneous fission coming from a source of Californium-252. The compound package by a database (Library DLC-23) and the ANISNW code is used, in it version for personal computer. (Author)

  16. Assessment of the neutron component in a neutron-gamma field of a californium-252 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetteh, G.K.

    1978-12-01

    Experiments have been performed to determine the percentages of the different components in the radiation field of californium-252 which has now some clinical applications. Using Rossi Chambers in conjunction with absorption investigations involving lead and aluminium thimbles, it is observed that the dose rates due to the different components are: neutrons 54%; gammas 30%; betas 16%

  17. 36 CFR 254.6 - Segregative effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Segregative effect. 254.6... ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.6 Segregative effect. (a) If a proposal is made to exchange Federal lands... segregative effect terminates as follows: (1) Automatically, upon issuance of a patent or other document of...

  18. 36 CFR 254.10 - Bargaining; arbitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bargaining; arbitration. 254.10 Section 254.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... determine values. Bargaining or any other process must be based on an objective analysis of the valuation in...

  19. 7 CFR 254.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 254.2 Section 254.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... (25 CFR part 81 et. seq.). (b) FNS service area means the areas over which FNS has approved the food...

  20. Local Structure in Americium and Californium Hexa-cyanoferrates - Comparison with Their Lanthanide Analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupouy, G.; Bonhoure, I.; Dumas, Th.; Moisy, Ph.; Petit, S.; Den Auwer, Ch.; Conradson, St.D.; Hennig, Ch.; Scheinost, A.C.; Le Naour, C.; Simoni, E.

    2011-01-01

    Metal hexa-cyanoferrates are well known molecular solids for a large variety of cations, although very little has been described for actinide adducts. Two new members of actinide(III) hexa-cyanoferrates were synthesized with the cations americium and californium. They were structurally characterized by infrared and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Combined EXAFS data at the iron K edge and actinide L 3 edge provide evidence for a three-dimensional model for these two new compounds. Structural data in terms of bond lengths were compared to those reported for the parent lanthanide(III) compounds, neodymium and gadolinium hexa-cyanoferrates, respectively: the americium compound with (KNd(III)Fe(II)-Fe-III(CN) 6 .4H 2 O and the californium compound with (KGd(III)Fe(II)(CN) . 3.5H 2 O and (KGd(III)Fe(II)(CN) 6 .3H 2 O. This comparison between actinide and lanthanide homologues has been carried out on the basis of ionic radii considerations. The americium and neodymium environments appear to be very similar and are arranged in a tri-capped trigonal prism polyhedron of coordination number 9 (CN: 9), in which the americium atom is bonded to six nitrogen atoms and to three water molecules. For the californium adduct, a similar comparison and bond length and angle values derived from EXAFS studies suggest that the californium cation sits in a bi-capped trigonal prism (CN: 8) as in (KGd(III)Fe(II)(CN) 6 . 3H 2 O. This arrangement differs from that in the structure of (KGd(III)Fe(II)(CN) 6 .3.5H 2 O, in which the gadolinium atom is surrounded by 9 atoms. This is one of the rare pieces of information revealed by EXAFS spectroscopy for americium and californium in comparison to lanthanide atoms in molecular solid compounds. A discussion on the decrease in bond length and coordination number from americium to californium is also provided, on the basis of crystallographic results reported in the literature for actinide(III) and lanthanide(III) hydrate series. (authors)

  1. Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company californium multiplier/delayed neutron counter safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, W.H.

    1976-08-01

    The Californium Multiplier (CFX) is a subcritical assembly of uranium surrounding 252 Cf spontaneously fissioning neutron sources; its function is to multiply the neutron flux to a level useful for activation analysis. This document summarizes the safety analysis aspects of the CFX, DNC, pneumatic transfer system, and instrumentation and to detail all the aspects of the total facility as a starting point for the ARHCO Safety Analysis Review. Recognized hazards and steps already taken to neutralize them are itemized

  2. Instrumental neutron activation determination of gold in mineral raw materials using a californium neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilo, N.A.; Ippolitov, E.G.; Ivanenko, V.V.; Kustov, B.N.; Zheleznov, V.V.; Aristov, G.N.; Kovalenko, V.V.; Kondrat'ev, N.B.

    1983-01-01

    A facility using a californium neutron source and a method for the neutron activation analysis of gold were developed. The sensitivity of the determination is 0.1 g/t. The causes of random and systematic errors have been studied. It is concluded that in prospection and evaluation of gold ore deposists, the traditional test tube analysis for gold may be replaced with the developed method. (author)

  3. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU Californium Shipping Container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Box, W.D.; Shappert, L.B.; Seagren, R.D.; Klima, B.B.; Jurgensen, M.C.; Hammond, C.R.; Watson, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    An analytical evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU Californium Shipping Container was made in order to demonstrate its compliance with the regulations governing off-site shipment of packages that contain radioactive material. The evaluation encompassed five primary categories: structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding, nuclear criticality safety, and quality assurance. The results of this evaluation demonstrate that the container complies with the applicable regulations

  4. Spectroscopic and redox properties of curium and californium ions in concentrated aqueous carbonate-bicarbonate media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobart, D.E.; Varlashkin, P.G.; Samhoun, K.; Haire, R.G.; Peterson, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Multimilligram quantities of trivalent curium-248 and californium-249 were investigated by absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and bulk solution electrolysis in concentrated aqueous carbonate-bicarbonate solution. Actinide concentrations between 10 -4 and 10 -2 M were studied in 2 M sodium carbonate and 5.5 M potassium carbonate solutions at pH values from 8 to 14. The solution absorption spectra of Cm(III) and Cf(III) in carbonate media are presented for the first time and compared to literature spectra of these species in noncomplexing aqueous solution. It was anticipated that carbonate complexation of the actinide ions could provide a sufficient negative shift in the formal potentials of the M(IV)/M(III) couples of Cm and Cf to permit the generation and stabilization of their tetravalent states in aqueous carbonate-bicarbonate medium. No conclusive evidence was found in the present work to indicate the existence of any higher oxidation states of curium or californium in carbonate solution. Some possible reasons for our inability to generate and detect oxidized species of curium and californium in this medium are discussed

  5. Use of californium-252 neutron irradiator for in-vivo analysis of the bone calcium content of the hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guey, A.; Leitienne, P.; Zech, P.Y.; Traeger, J.; Doyen, J.B.; Breton, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    With californium-252 it is easy to obtain a high neutron flux of the order of 10 9 n/s. The mean energy of this radiation, which is close on 2 MeV, activates calcium very well. The authors describe a storage and irradiator unit with a 100 μg californium source, with which it will henceforth be possible to develop this technique of measuring the calcium of the hand in a hospital. The test programme has three distinct phases: (1) irradiation of the biological target for 10 min; (2) after a transfer period of 30 s, detection of the radiation emitted by the 49 Ca for 600 s; (3) processing of the numerical data received, which are transmitted on line to a T 1600 calculator. The weight is found by comparing the activity induced in the unknown calcium mass with that induced in a phantom chosen as the activity standard. The reproducibility of the method is of the order of 3% (5% at the worst). The gross standardized result is edited automatically. For physical and clinical reasons, the hand is chosen as the reference part of the body in 70 control subjects. The local irradiation dose is less than 2 rem. The bone calcium content is 14.3+-1.9 g in men and 10.1+-1.3 g in women. In clinical application of the technique it is necessary to differentiate between the normal calcium content and the calcium content found with a pathological state. This makes it necessary to express the measurement in the form of a volume mass (rho). The volume of the hand skeleton (V in cm 3 ) is calculated from the corresponding bone surface (S in cm 2 ) measured by planimetry with the relationship V=8.925 exp 0.0205.S, found after studying 80 hand skeletons. In our control subjects the calcium bone volume mass was 0.288 g/cm 3 in men and 0.282 g/cm 3 in women. There is a very significant difference (p<0.001) in a population of 88 subjects with chronic renal insufficiencies at the terminal stage: rho=0.233 in men and 0.235 in women

  6. 48 CFR 53.303-DD-254 - Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security Classification Specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security Classification Specification. 53.303-DD-254 Section 53.303-DD-254 Federal... Illustrations of Forms 53.303-DD-254 Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security Classification...

  7. cdc-25.4, a Caenorhabditis elegans Ortholog of cdc25, Is Required for Male Mating Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmi Oh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cell division cycle 25 (cdc25 is an evolutionarily conserved phosphatase that promotes cell cycle progression. Among the four cdc25 orthologs in Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that cdc-25.4 mutant males failed to produce outcrossed progeny. This was not caused by defects in sperm development, but by defects in male mating behavior. The cdc-25.4 mutant males showed various defects during male mating, including contact response, backing, turning, and vulva location. Aberrant turning behavior was the most prominent defect in the cdc-25.4 mutant males. We also found that cdc-25.4 is expressed in many neuronal cells throughout development. The turning defect in cdc-25.4 mutant males was recovered by cdc-25.4 transgenic expression in neuronal cells, suggesting that cdc-25.4 functions in neurons for male mating. However, the neuronal morphology of cdc-25.4 mutant males appeared to be normal, as examined with several neuronal markers. Also, RNAi depletion of wee-1.3, a C. elegans ortholog of Wee1/Myt1 kinase, failed to suppress the mating defects of cdc-25.4 mutant males. These findings suggest that, for successful male mating, cdc-25.4 does not target cell cycles that are required for neuronal differentiation and development. Rather, cdc-25.4 likely regulates noncanonical substrates in neuronal cells.

  8. Convenient method of simultaneously analyzing aluminum and magnesium in pharmaceutical dosage forms using californium-252 thermal neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landolt, R.R.; Hem, S.L.

    1983-01-01

    A commercial antacid suspension containing aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide products was used as a model sample to study the use of a californium-252 thermal neutron activation as a method for quantifying aluminum content as well as for the simultaneous assay of aluminum and magnesium. A 3.5-micrograms californium-252 source was used for the activation, and the induced aluminum-28 and magnesium-27 activity was simultaneously measured by sodium iodide crystal gamma-ray spectrometry using dual single-channel analyzers and scalers. The antacid suspension was contained in a chamber designed with the unique capability of serving as the container for counting the induced radioactivity in addition to being the irradiation chamber itself. This pilot study demonstrated that use of more intense californium-252 sources, which are commonly available, would provide a method that is competitive with the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid titration method in precision and in other aspects as well

  9. Measurement of californium-252 gamma photons depth dose distribution in tissue equivalent material. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadel, M A; El-Fiki, M A; Eissa, H M; Abdel-Hafez, A; Naguib, S H [National Institute of Standards, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Phantom of tissue equivalent material with and without bone was used measuring depth dose distribution of gamma-rays from californium-252 source. The source was positioned at center of perspex walled phantom. Depth dose measurements were recorded for X, Y and Z planes at different distances from source. TLD 700 was used for measuring the dose distribution. Results indicate that implantation of bone in tissue equivalent medium cause changes in the gamma depth dose distribution which varies according to variation in bone geometry. 9 figs.

  10. Measurements of integral cross sections in the californium-252 fission neutron spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, W.G.; Guenther, E.; Matzke, M.; Rassl, G.

    1977-01-01

    In a low-scattering arrangement cross sections averaged over the californium-252 spontaneous fission neutron spectrum were measured. The reactions 27 Al(n,α) 46 Ti, 47 Ti, 48 Ti(n,p), 54 Fe, 56 Fe(n,p), 58 Ni(n,p), 64 Zn(n,p), 115 In(n,n') were studied in order to obtain a consistent set of threshold detectors used in fast neutron flux density measurements. Overall uncertainties between 2 and 2.5% could be achieved; corrections due to neutron scattering in source and samples are discussed

  11. Neutron emission in fission of highly excited californium nuclei (E*=76 MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, M.V.; Bordyug, V.M.; Kozulin, Eh.M.; Mozhaev, A.N.; Levitovich, M.; Muzychka, Yu.A.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.Eh.; Pustyl'nik, B.I.

    1990-01-01

    The differential cross sections for neutron production in the fission of highly excited californium nuclei formed in the 238 U+ 12 C (105 MeV) reaction have been measured. From the analysis of the experimental data is follows that the number of pre-fission neutrons substantially exceeds the value obtained in the framework of the standard statistical model. The saddle-to-scission time of the excited nucleus is estimated on the basis of the neutron multiplicity. The dependences of the neutron number and neutron average energies upon the fragment mass are determined

  12. Neutron emission in fission of highly excited californium nuclei (E* = 76 MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, M.V.; Bordyug, V.M.; Kozulin, E.M.; Levitovich, M.; Mozhaev, A.N.; Muzychka, Yu.A.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.E.; Pustyl'nik, B.I.

    1990-01-01

    Differential cross sections for neutron production have been measured in fission of excited californium nuclei produced in the reaction 238 U + 12 C (105 MeV). It follows from analysis of the experimental results that the number of neutrons emitted before fission considerably exceeds the number obtained in the framework of the standard statistical model. On the basis of the multiplicity of neutrons they authors have estimated the time of fission of the excited nucleus. The dependence of the number of neutrons and their average energies on the mass of the fragments is determined

  13. Californium oxygen system for 1.50 < O/Cf < 1.72

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, R.P.; Haire, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    The californium-oxygen system was studied as a function of temperature, oxygen pressure, and stoichiometry by manometric and x-ray diffraction methods. The results establish rhombohedral Cf 7 O 12 as the stable compound obtained by heating Cf 2 O 3 in air. The isobaric oxidation-reduction cycles Cf 2 O 3 → Cf 7 O 12 → Cf 2 O 3 , observed in constant rate of heating (cooling) experiments, occur with large hysteresis. A close parallel to other fluorite related lanthanide and actinide oxide systems is established. (auth)

  14. Possible stabilization of the tetravalent oxidation state of berkelium and californium in acetonitrile with triphenylarsine oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, G.F.; Peterson, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    It appears that we may have prepared Bk(IV) nitrate.nTPAs0 and Bk(IV) perchlorate.nTPAs0 complexes which formed the corresponding Cf(IV) complexes through the beta decay of Bk-249. Definitive proof should come from similar experiments with quantities of Bk-249 large enough to allow spectrophotometric detection of the characteristic f→f transitions in these berkelium and californium species. It is clear, however, that TPAs0 and acetonitrile can play a pivotal role in the stabilization of lanact(IV) species

  15. Dicty_cDB: VHK254 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHK254 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16260-1 VHK254P (Link to Original site) VHK2...54F 616 VHK254Z 744 VHK254P 1340 - - Show VHK254 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHK2...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHK2-C/VHK254Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHK2...54P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHK254 (VHK254Q) /CSM/VH/VHK2-C/VHK2...BJ446805 ) Dictyostelium discoideum cDNA clone:ddv63k21, 3' ... 1455 0.0 1 ( BJ446732 ) Dictyostelium discoi

  16. 36 CFR 254.15 - Title standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Conveyances of lands from the United States are made by patent, quitclaim deed, or deed and without express or implied warranties, except as to hazardous substances pursuant to § 254.3 of this subpart. (c) Title... of the existing use(s) authorized under the terms of the grant, permit, easement, or lease. The non...

  17. 50 CFR 216.254 - Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapon Missions in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.254... greatest extent practicable, adverse impacts on marine mammal species and stocks and their habitats. When...

  18. Comparison of the Savannah River Site billet active well coincidence counter and two Californium Shufflers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, E.T.; Griffin, J.C.; Rinard, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    A Scrap Californium Shuffler at the Savannah River Site (SRS) was calibrated to assay the U-Al cores of billets (an intermediate step in the SRS reactor fuel fabrication cycle.) The precision of the Scrap Shuffler over several years has been approximately 0.50%. A typical total uncertainty for the assay of a core on the Scrap Shuffler is approximately 0.33% for a twelve minute assay. The precision over several months and a typical total uncertainty for the Billet Active Well (neutron) Coincidence Counter (BAWCC) are approximately 1.0% and 1.9%, respectively, for a fifteen minute assay. A new Billet Californium Shuffler specifically designed for assaying SRS billets has yielded precision (over one month) and total uncertainty results of 0.40% and 0.69%, respectively, for an eight minute assay. The introduction of a measurement point into the fuel fabrication cycle to replace estimates based upon material weight will greatly enhance material and process control in the Reactor Materials area of SRS. The use of all three instruments provides a comparison of the relative merits of Active Well (neutron) Coincidence Counters (AWCCs) and shufflers for assay of homogeneous and geometrically simple material containing 235 U. The measurement precisions, systematic and random uncertainties, as well as the procurement and operation of each instrument will be compared. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  19. 7 CFR 254.4 - Application by an ITO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application by an ITO. 254.4 Section 254.4 Agriculture... INDIAN HOUSEHOLDS IN OKLAHOMA § 254.4 Application by an ITO. (a) Application to FNS Regional Office. An ITO which desires to participate in the Food Distribution Program shall file an application with the...

  20. 7 CFR 254.3 - Administration by an ITO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration by an ITO. 254.3 Section 254.3... FOR INDIAN HOUSEHOLDS IN OKLAHOMA § 254.3 Administration by an ITO. (a) Applicability of part 253. All... any claim and to settle and adjust any claim against an ITO. (d) ITO administration. The ITO, acting...

  1. 36 CFR 254.42 - Valuation of tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Valuation of tracts. 254.42 Section 254.42 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Conveyance of Small Tracts § 254.42 Valuation of tracts. (a) Approximately equal value shall be...

  2. 36 CFR 254.4 - Agreement to initiate an exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exchange. 254.4 Section 254.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.4 Agreement to initiate an exchange. (a) Exchanges may be proposed by the Forest Service or by any person, State, or local government. Initial exchange proposals...

  3. 4 CFR 25.4 - Preservation of property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preservation of property. 25.4 Section 25.4 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES CONDUCT IN THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.4 Preservation of property. The improper disposal of rubbish in the GAO...

  4. 36 CFR 254.11 - Exchanges at approximately equal value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equal value. 254.11 Section 254.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.11 Exchanges at approximately equal value. (a) The authorized officer may exchange lands which are of approximately equal value upon a determination that: (1...

  5. 29 CFR 1910.254 - Arc welding and cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arc welding and cutting. 1910.254 Section 1910.254 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Welding, Cutting and Brazing § 1910.254 Arc welding and cutting. (a... following limits shall not be exceeded: (i) Alternating-current machines (A) Manual arc welding and cutting...

  6. Spectral investigation of neutron radiation in three-sectional concrete labyrinth from a californium-252 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belogorlov, E.A.; Britvich, G.I.; Getmanov, V.B.

    1985-01-01

    Construction of labyrinths in points of communication output from the storage-ring under construction is accompanied by numerous difficulties due to a considerable number of gas and cryogenic pipelines, which require large cross sections at the minimal length of the pipelines proper for their location. It results in unfavourable for radiation attenuation ratios between cross section and length of the labyrinth separate sections. Neutron spectra in a model concrete labyrinth, at the entrance to which a neutron source with fission spectrum (californium-252) and the same source in a polyethylene moderator are located, are measured. On the basis of the spectra obtained the formation of fluence and equivalent dose along the labyrinth geometric axis is analyzed. Conditions permitting actually to reduce radiation dose in the labyrinth (dead end provision, the use of cover materials, construction of diaphragms and shielding plates) are simulated

  7. Transport calculations of. gamma. -ray flux density and dose rate about implantable californium-252 sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, A; Lin, B I [Cincinnati Univ., Ohio (USA). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Windham, J P; Kereiakes, J G

    1976-07-01

    ..gamma.. flux density and dose rate distributions have been calculated about implantable californium-252 sources for an infinite tissue medium. Point source flux densities as a function of energy and position were obtained from a discrete-ordinates calculation, and the flux densities were multiplied by their corresponding kerma factors and added to obtain point source dose rates. The point dose rates were integrated over the line source to obtain line dose rates. Container attenuation was accounted for by evaluating the point dose rate as a function of platinum thickness. Both primary and secondary flux densities and dose rates are presented. The agreement with an independent Monte Carlo calculation was excellent. The data presented should be useful for the design of new source configurations.

  8. Uretritis masculina Estudio prospectivo de 254 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Diaz G.

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available La uretritis no gonocócica (UNG fue la forma predominante (78,0% en una serie de 254 hombres con síndrome de uretritis, estudiados prospectivamente en 1982. La Trichomonas vaginalis estuvo presente en el 4.0% de los casos de UNG. Con base en la comparación entre los pacientes de uretritis gonocócica (UG y los de UNO, puede proponerse un perfil de los segundo que oriente al médico en su sospecha diagnóstica: mayor probabilidad de no hallar secreción uretral o de que Ésta sea escasa y de las modalidades acuosa, mucoide o mixta; también mayor probabilidad de un período de incubación por encima de 9 días y de una evolución superior a un mes. A pesar de tales indicios hay mucha superposición clínica entre las dos formas de uretritis por lo que sigue siendo valedera la recomendación de recurrir al Gram como procedimiento confiable y económico para establecer el diagnóstico diferencial. Se llama la atención hacia la necesidad de disponer de datos sobre uretritis en otros grupos socioeconómicos y de investigar aspectos como la frecuencia en nuestro medio del síndrome de uretritis postgonocócica (U PG.

  9. Fast and efficient charge breeding of the Californium rare isotope breeder upgrade electron beam ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostroumov, P. N.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C. A.; Perry, A.; Sharamentov, S. I.; Vondrasek, R. C.; Zinkann, G. P.; Pikin, A. I.

    2015-01-01

    The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), developed to breed Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) radioactive beams at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), is being tested off-line. A unique property of the EBIS is a combination of short breeding times, high repetition rates, and a large acceptance. Overall, we have implemented many innovative features during the design and construction of the CARIBU EBIS as compared to the existing EBIS breeders. The off-line charge breeding tests are being performed using a surface ionization source that produces singly charged cesium ions. The main goal of the off-line commissioning is to demonstrate stable operation of the EBIS at a 10 Hz repetition rate and a breeding efficiency into single charge state higher than 15%. These goals have been successfully achieved and exceeded. We have measured (20% ± 0.7%) breeding efficiency into the single charge state of 28+ cesium ions with the breeding time of 28 ms. In general, the current CARIBU EBIS operational parameters can provide charge breeding of any ions in the full mass range of periodic table with high efficiency, short breeding times, and sufficiently low charge-to-mass ratio, 1/6.3 for the heaviest masses, for further acceleration in ATLAS. In this paper, we discuss the parameters of the EBIS and the charge breeding results in a pulsed injection mode with repetition rates up to 10 Hz

  10. Manganese determination om minerals by activation analysis, using the californium-252 as a neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Antonio

    1976-01-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis, using a Californium-252 neutron source, has been applied for the determination of manganese in ores such as pyrolusite, rodonite (manganese silicate)' and blending used in dry-batteries The favorable nuclear properties of manganese, such as high thermal neutron cross-section for the reaction 55 Mn (n.gamma) 56 Mn, high concentration of manganese in the matrix and short half - life of 56 Mn, are an ideal combination for non-destructive analysis of manganese in ores. Samples and standards of manganese dioxide were irradiated for about 20 minutes, followed by a 4 to 15 minutes decay and counted in a single channel pulse-height discrimination using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Counting time was equal to 10 minutes. The interference of nuclear reactions 56 Fe(n,p) 56 Mn and 59 Co (n, α) 56 were studied, as well as problems in connection with neutron shadowing during irradiation, gamma-rays attenuation during counting and influence of granulometry of samples. One sample,was also analysed by wet-chemical method (sodium bismuthate) in order to compare results. As a whole, i t was shown that the analytical method of neutron activation for manganese in ores and blending, is a method simple, rapid and with good precision and accuracy. (author)

  11. Long-term effects of an intracavitary treatment with californium-252 on normal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Beamer, J.L.; Mahony, T.D.; Cross, F.T.; Lund, J.E.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1976-01-01

    About one hundred fifty swine were exposed to either radium-226 or californium-252 sources in the uterine cervix to determine an RBE for both acute and long-term effects. That value for early changes in the tissues at risk in the treatment of cervical cancer was between 6.2 and 6.8. The incidence of complications increased with time after exposure, especially among animals treated with 252 Cf. Analysis of rectal injury showed that ulceration occurred frequently within a year postexposure at doses between 1600 and 2400 rad calculated at 2 cm lateral to the source midline. Fat necrosis and smooth muscle atrophy, resulting in a local rectal stricture, were delayed changes observed in some animals. The lower ureter was the site for a greater frequency of complications than the GI tract. Ureteral stricture often occurred at doses of 1200 rad from 252 Cf and 7000 rad from 226 Ra. Observation of delayed effects in the uterine-cervix in animals held up to 4 years postexposure indicate that the RBE for 252 Cf may be increased to a value as high as 18, while repair may have even decreased it to about 5.6 in the rectum. Fifty swine are still being observed for long-term effects after doses above 800 rad from 252 Cf and 5000 rad from 226 Ra

  12. Neutron activation analysis at the Californium User Facility for Neutron Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.C.; Smith, E.H.; Glasgow, D.C.; Jerde, E.A.; Marsh, D.L.; Zhao, L.

    1997-12-01

    The Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science has been established to provide 252 Cf-based neutron irradiation services and research capabilities including neutron activation analysis (NAA). A major advantage of the CUF is its accessibility and controlled experimental conditions compared with those of a reactor environment The CUF maintains the world's largest inventory of compact 252 Cf neutron sources. Neutron source intensities of ≤ 10 11 neutrons/s are available for irradiations within a contamination-free hot cell, capable of providing thermal and fast neutron fluxes exceeding 10 8 cm -2 s -1 at the sample. Total flux of ≥10 9 cm -2 s -1 is feasible for large-volume irradiation rabbits within the 252 Cf storage pool. Neutron and gamma transport calculations have been performed using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP to estimate irradiation fluxes available for sample activation within the hot cell and storage pool and to design and optimize a prompt gamma NAA (PGNAA) configuration for large sample volumes. Confirmatory NAA irradiations have been performed within the pool. Gamma spectroscopy capabilities including PGNAA are being established within the CUF for sample analysis

  13. 30 CFR 254.41 - Training your response personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... procedures; (3) Oil-spill trajectory analysis and predicting spill movement; and (4) Any other... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training your response personnel. 254.41 Section 254.41 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL...

  14. 36 CFR 254.34 - Mineral survey fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mineral survey fractions. 254... LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Conveyance of Small Tracts § 254.34 Mineral survey fractions. (a) Mineral survey fractions subject to conveyance under this subpart are limited to those tracts which: (1) Cannot be...

  15. 40 CFR 52.254 - Organic solvent usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organic solvent usage. 52.254 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.254 Organic solvent usage. (a) This... (d) of this section and the architectural coatings and solvent disposal emission limitations...

  16. Feasibility and market potential of protein determination of wheat using californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, T.C. Jr.; Eckhoff, N.D.; Clack, R.W.; Roberts, T.C. Sr.

    1976-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of protein determination by capture gamma-ray analysis using californium-252 neutrons, an in-situ protein analysis system for use by grain handlers has been examined. Three 227 kilogram (approximately) lots of wheat were used to determine the amount of nitrogen present. Protein analyses by the Kjeldahl method were obtained from samples taken before and after the capture gamma-ray analyses. The 5.267-MeV gamma-ray was selected for use in this study as a compromise between efficiency and interference from other elements. The associated counting equipment was a multichannel analyzer with pulse shaping electronic and analysis computing equipment. A linear regression program was used to compare the regions of interest to the Kjeldahl protein averages. The counts composing each peak were summed and normalized using the total count of the hydrogen peak. The normalized nitrogen percentages indicate a significant correlation between the spectral regions and the Kjeldahl analyses. To a first approximation, the value of wheat is the wheat protein. At the present time, protein testing of wheat is destructive, cumbersome, and time-consuming as compared to the potential for capture gamma-ray analysis testing. Assuming that such a protein analysis unit can analyze 42 tonne of wheat per hour, over 120 units would be needed to monitor one-half the U.S. annual wheat production. A 0.5% improvement in processor realizations and grain throughput value of $167.00 per tonne will result in a projected savings of $150,000 per year per unit

  17. Neutron reflector design with Californium 252 neutron for Boron neutron chapter therapy facility using MCNP5 simulation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Fakhrurreza; Kusminanto; Y Sardjono

    2014-01-01

    In this research has made a reflector design to provide beams of Neutron for BNCT with Californium-252 radioactive source. This collimator is useful to obtain optimum epithermal neutron flux with the smallest impurity radiation (thermal neutron, fast neutron, and gamma). The design process is done using Monte Carlo N-Particle simulation version 5 (MCNP5) code to calculate the neutron flux tally form. The chosen reflector design is the reflectors which use material such as BeO ceramic with 13 cm thick. Moderator use sulfur material with the slope angle of the cone is 30°. From the calculation result, it is obtained that Reflector with 1 gram Californium-252 source can produce a neutron output thermal which has thermal neutron specification 2.23189 x 10 9 n/s.cm 2 , epithermal neutron 3.51548 x 10 9 n/s.cm 2 , and fast neutron 4.82241 x 10 9 n/s.cm 2 From the result, it needs additional collimator because the BNCT requirement. (author)

  18. Hypoxic versus normoxic external-beam irradiation of cervical carcinoma combined with californium-252 neutron brachytherapy. Comparative treatment results of a 5-year randomized study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tačev, T.; Vacek, Antonín; Ptáčková, B.; Strnad, V.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 181, č. 5 (2005), s. 273-284 ISSN 0179-7158 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : cervical carcinoma * hypoxyradiotherapy * californium-252 Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.490, year: 2005

  19. Study of the shielding for spontaneous fission sources of Californium-252; Estudio de blindaje para fuentes de fision espontanea de Californio-252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila R, I

    1991-06-15

    A shielding study is made to attenuate, until maximum permissible levels, the neutrons radiation and photons emitted by spontaneous fission coming from a source of Californium-252. The compound package by a database (Library DLC-23) and the ANISNW code is used, in it version for personal computer. (Author)

  20. Structure and formation mechanism of the transfermium isotope 254No

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, P.

    1998-01-01

    The ground-state band of the Z=102 isotope 254 No has been identified up to spin 14, indicating that the nucleus is deformed. The deduced quadruple deformation, β = 0.27, is in agreement with theoretical predictions. These observations confirm that the shell-correction energy responsible for the stability of transfermium nuclei is partly derived from deformation. The survival of 254 No up to spin 14 means that its fission barrier persists at least up to that spin

  1. Simulation and design of an electron beam ion source charge breeder for the californium rare isotope breeder upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Dickerson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An electron beam ion source (EBIS will be constructed and used to charge breed ions from the californium rare isotope breeder upgrade (CARIBU for postacceleration into the Argonne tandem linear accelerator system (ATLAS. Simulations of the EBIS charge breeder performance and the related ion transport systems are reported. Propagation of the electron beam through the EBIS was verified, and the anticipated incident power density within the electron collector was identified. The full normalized acceptance of the charge breeder with a 2 A electron beam, 0.024π  mm mrad for nominal operating parameters, was determined by simulating ion injection into the EBIS. The optics of the ion transport lines were carefully optimized to achieve well-matched ion injection, to minimize emittance growth of the injected and extracted ion beams, and to enable adequate testing of the charge bred ions prior to installation in ATLAS.

  2. Susceptibility to Stress Corrosion Cracking of 254SMO SS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Micheli Lorenzo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC of solubilized and sensitized 254SMO SS was studied in sodium chloride, and sodium fluoride solutions at 80 °C and sulfuric acid solutions in presence of sodium chloride at 25 °C. The influence of salt concentration, pH values and the addition of thiosulfate was examined. The susceptibility to SCC was evaluated by Slow Strain Rate Tests (SSRT, at 1.5 x 10-6 s-1 strain rate. The behavior of 254SMO was compared to those of AISI 316L SS and Hastelloy C276. 254SMO showed an excellent resistance to SCC in all conditions, except in the more acidic solutions (pH <= 1 where, in the sensitized conditions, intergranular stress corrosion cracking occurred.

  3. Californium-252 Brachytherapy Combined With External-Beam Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer: Long-Term Treatment Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Xin; Qian Chengyuan; Qing Yi; Zhao Kewei; Yang Zhengzhou; Dai Nan; Zhong Zhaoyang; Tang Cheng; Li Zheng; Gu Xianqing; Zhou Qian; Feng Yan; Xiong Yanli; Shan Jinlu; Wang Dong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To observe, by retrospective analysis, the curative effects and complications due to californium-252 ( 252 Cf) neutron intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) combined with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in the treatment of cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: From February 1999 to December 2007, 696 patients with cervical cancer (Stages IB to IIIB) were treated with 252 Cf-ICBT in combination of EBRT. Of all, 31 patients were at Stage IB, 104 at IIA, 363 at IIB, 64 at IIIA, and 134 at IIIB. Californium-252 ICBT was delivered at 7–12 Gy per insertion per week, with a total dose of 29–45 Gy to reference point A in three to five insertions. The whole pelvic cavity was treated with 8-MV X-ray external irradiation at 2 Gy per fraction, four times per week. After 16–38 Gy of external irradiation, the center of the whole pelvic field was blocked with a 4-cm-wide lead shield, with a total external irradiation dose of 44–56 Gy. The total treatment course was 5 to 6 weeks. Results: Overall survival rate at 3 and 5 years for all patients was 76.0% and 64.9%, respectively. Disease-free 3- and 5-year survival rates of patients were 71.2% and 58.4%, respectively. Late complications included vaginal contracture and adhesion, radiation proctitis, radiation cystitis, and inflammatory bowel, which accounted for 5.8%, 7.1%, 6.2%, and 4.9%, respectively. Univariate analysis results showed significant correlation of stage, age, histopathologic grade, and lymph node status with overall survival. Cox multiple regression analysis showed that the independent variables were stage, histopathologic grade, tumor size, and lymphatic metastasis in all patients. Conclusion: Results of this series suggest that the combined use of 252 Cf-ICBT with EBRT is an effective method for treatment of cervical cancer.

  4. 36 CFR 254.33 - Road rights-of-way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... parcels subject to conveyance under this subpart are limited to those which are substantially surrounded by lands not owned by the United States. (b) Forest Service officials shall consider public road... Section 254.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP...

  5. 40 CFR 264.254 - Monitoring and inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Waste Piles § 264.254 Monitoring and inspection. (a) During construction or installation, liners (except in the case of existing portions of piles exempt from § 264.251(a)) and cover systems (e.g... increase in the permeability of the liner or cover. (b) While a waste pile is in operation, it must be...

  6. 36 CFR 254.12 - Value equalization; cash equalization waiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Value equalization; cash... AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.12 Value equalization; cash equalization waiver. (a..., either with or without adjustments of relative values as compensation for various costs, the parties to...

  7. 24 CFR 221.254 - Mortgage insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage insurance premiums. 221... Cost Homes § 221.254 Mortgage insurance premiums. (a) All of the provisions of §§ 203.260 through 203.295 of this chapter relating to mortgage insurance premiums shall apply to mortgages insured under...

  8. In-beam spectroscopy of 253,254No

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzberg, R.D.; Amzal, N.; Bastin, J.E.; Brew, P.M.T.; Butler, P.A.; Chewter, A.J.C.; Hammond, N.J.; Humphreys, R.D.; Jones, G.D.; Becker, F.; Hauschild, K.; Houry, M.; Huerstel, A.; Cocks, J.F.C.; Dorvaux, O.; Greenlees, P.T.; Eskola, K.; Gerl, J.; Hessberger, F.; Helariutta, K.; Jones, P.M.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Kankaanpaeae, H.; Kettunen, H.; Khoo, T.L.; Korten, W.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Le Coz, Y.; Leino, M.; Leppaenen, C.J.; Lister, A.P.; Lucas, R.; Muikku, M.; Nieminen, P.; Page, R.D.; Page, T.; Rahkila, P.; Reiter, P.; Schlegel, Ch.; Scholey, C.; Sletten, G.; Stezowski, O.; Theisen, Ch.; Trzaska, W.H.; Uusitalo, J.; Wollersheim, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    In-beam conversion electron spectroscopy experiments have been performed on the transfermium nuclei 253, 254 No using the conversion electron spectrometer SACRED in nearly collinear geometry in conjunction with the gas-filled separator RITU at the University of Jyvaeskylae. The experimental setup is discussed and the spectra are compared to Monte Carlo simulations. The implications for the ground-state configuration of 253 No are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Long-term effects of an intracavitary treatment with californium-252 on normal tissue. [Swine, /sup 226/Ra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Beamer, J.L.; Mahony, T.D.; Cross, F.T.; Lund, J.E.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1976-01-01

    About one hundred fifty swine were exposed to either radium-226 or californium-252 sources in the uterine cervix to determine an RBE for both acute and long-term effects. That value for early changes in the tissues at risk in the treatment of cervical cancer was between 6.2 and 6.8. The incidence of complications increased with time after exposure, especially among animals treated with /sup 252/Cf. Analysis of rectal injury showed that ulceration occurred frequently within a year postexposure at doses between 1600 and 2400 rad calculated at 2 cm lateral to the source midline. Fat necrosis and smooth muscle atrophy, resulting in a local rectal stricture, were delayed changes observed in some animals. The lower ureter was the site for a greater frequency of complications than the GI tract. Ureteral stricture often occurred at doses of 1200 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 7000 rad from /sup 226/Ra. Observation of delayed effects in the uterine-cervix in animals held up to 4 years postexposure indicate that the RBE for /sup 252/Cf may be increased to a value as high as 18, while repair may have even decreased it to about 5.6 in the rectum. Fifty swine are still being observed for long-term effects after doses above 800 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 5000 rad from /sup 226/Ra.

  10. Neutron flux characterization of californium-252 Neutron Research Facility at the University of Texas - Pan American by nuclear analytical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Kareem; Sanchez, Patrick; Hannan, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    In the field of nuclear science, neutron flux is an intrinsic property of nuclear reaction facilities that is the basis for experimental irradiation calculations and analysis. In the Rio Grande Valley (Texas), the UTPA Neutron Research Facility (NRF) is currently the only neutron facility available for experimental research purposes. The facility is comprised of a 20-microgram californium-252 neutron source surrounded by a shielding cascade containing different irradiation cavities. Thermal and fast neutron flux values for the UTPA NRF have yet to be fully investigated and may be of particular interest to biomedical studies in low neutron dose applications. Though a variety of techniques exist for the characterization of neutron flux, neutron activation analysis (NAA) of metal and nonmetal foils is a commonly utilized experimental method because of its detection sensitivity and availability. The aim of our current investigation is to employ foil activation in the determination of neutron flux values for the UTPA NSRF for further research purposes. Neutron spectrum unfolding of the acquired experimental data via specialized software and subsequent comparison for consistency with computational models lends confidence to the results.

  11. 17 CFR 230.254 - Solicitation of interest document for use prior to an offering statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... subject to the antifraud provisions of the federal securities laws. No solicitation or acceptance of money... document for use prior to an offering statement. 230.254 Section 230.254 Commodity and Securities Exchanges...-Conditional Small Issues Exemption § 230.254 Solicitation of interest document for use prior to an offering...

  12. 47 CFR 1.254 - Nature of the hearing; burden of proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nature of the hearing; burden of proof. 1.254 Section 1.254 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Hearing Proceedings Hearing and Intermediate Decision § 1.254 Nature of the hearing; burden of proof. Any hearing upon...

  13. 3C 254: the alignment effect and unification schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, M. N.

    1997-01-01

    3C 254 is a radio-loud quasar at z=0.734. Optical line and continuum emission from the underlying galaxy is clearly extended and aligned with the radio axis; the object shows the so-called `alignment effect' which is often seen in powerful radio galaxies. This is the clearest case yet of the continuum alignment effect in a radio-loud quasar. The object is one of the most lobe-dominated 3C quasars; the significance of the aligned emission in this source is discussed in terms of orientation-based unification schemes for radio-loud quasars and radio galaxies. 3C 254 is a very asymmetric radio source and it is shown that the radio structure on the side with the shortest nucleus-hotspot distance is interacting with the emission-line gas surrounding the quasar. It is also shown that the quasar is surrounded by an overdensity of faint objects, consistent with a cluster or group of galaxies around the object.

  14. Human Factors evaluation of LCS 254 and 255

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goffe, L.; Held, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    This report includes the results of the Human Factors evaluation of the local control stations (LCS) 254 and 255 performed by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Human Factors. Recommendations are included in order that the panel designs will be upgraded to comply with human engineering design guidelines. Figures 1 and 2 are included as examples of recommended changes. Also, consideration was given to including the proposed engineering changes which are currently on-going for LCS 255. Appendix A identifies the human engineering requirements from NUREG-0700 which were used in the evaluation process, and the areas of the design which do not comply with the guidelines. Those areas of the panel design which fail to comply with the human engineering guidelines are label location, label content, location aids, panel layout, and control display integration. Each of these design deficiencies and proposed corrections are described in this report

  15. Photooxidation of polystyrene: irradiation at 254 and 365 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otocka, E.P.; Curran, S.; Porter, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    Studies have been made of the near surface photooxidation of atactic polystyrene films prepared in the absence of air. The samples were photooxidized on exposure to air at two frequencies, 254 and 365 nm, using a calibrated mercury irradiation source with filters. Most studies were made at 40 0 C and as a function of irradiation time with the reactions characterized by changes in molecular weight and composition. The former was evaluated by gel permeation chromatography and the latter by transmission Fourier transform infrared ir spectroscopy and by multiple-internal-reflectance ir spectra using different angles and different crystals to evaluate compositions as a function of film depth. Species identified in photooxidation include the generation of hydroperoxides and the appearance of carbonyl bands with the latter identified by the spectral shift associated with the exposure of the photooxidized polystyrene surface to ammonia. These results suggest that principal products of near-surface oxidation of polystyrene are carboxylic acids. 6 figures, 1 table

  16. Ab initio full-potential study of mechanical properties and magnetic phase stability of californium monopnictides (CfN and CfP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amari, S., E-mail: siham_amari@yahoo.fr [Faculté des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie, Université Hassiba Benbouali, Chlef, 02000 (Algeria); Bouhafs, B. [Laboratoire de Modélisation et Simulation en Sciences des Matériaux, Université Djillali Liabès de Sidi Bel-Abbés, Sidi Bel-Abbés, 22000 (Algeria)

    2016-09-15

    Based on the first-principles methods, the structural, elastic, electronic, properties and magnetic ordering of californium monopnictides CfX (X = P) have been studied using the full-potential augmented plane wave plus local orbitals (FP-L/APW + lo) method within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). The electronic exchange correlation energy is described by generalized gradient approximation GGA and GGA+U (U is the Hubbard correction). The GGA+U method is applied to the rare-earth 5f states. We have calculated the lattice parameters, bulk modulii and the first pressure derivatives of the bulk modulii. The elastic properties of the studied compounds are only investigated in the most stable calculated phase. In order to gain further information, we have calculated Young’s modulus, shear modulus, anisotropy factor and Kleinman parameter by the aid of the calculated elastic constants. The results mainly show that californium monopnictides CfX (X = P) have an antiferromagnetic spin ordering. Density of states (DOS) and charge densities for both compounds are also computed in the NaCl (B1) structure.

  17. Use of polyethylene pellets in the design and construction of a storage safe, a transport vessel and a portable shield for californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.

    1986-01-01

    A storage and shielding facility for 300 μg of Californium-252 sources was designed and constructed. Though the safe was in a permanent location, the fact that it consisted of a lead bucket surrounded by polyethylene pellets made it simple, movable and inexpensive. If need be, more quantities of Cf-252 could be added without altering the basic design and sacrificing the radiation protection guidelines. The measured radiation levels from 300 μg of stored Cf-252 in and around the storage vault were lower than the expected dose rates by a factor of 5. The measured radiation levels around the occupied environs of the facility were below the maximum permissible yearly dose of 500mrem for non-occupational workers. A transport vessel was designed and constructed to carry up to 50 μg of Californium-252 sources. It consisted of a standard 55 gallon steel drum on casters containing cylindrical lead shield surrounded by polyethylene pellets. The measured maximum surface dose rates on the drum and at one meter away were within the radiation protection guidelines and were less than the expected dose rates. A portable shield was designed and constructed to protect the body in afterloading operations and handling of the sources. It consisted of polyethylene pellets in an aluminum box and an attached 10 cm thick plexiglass eye shield. The simple design, with the ease of using polyethylene pellets can be extended to construct bedside shields

  18. Stability of trans-fermium elements at high spin: Measuring the fission barrier of 254No

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Super heavy nuclei provide opportunities to study nuclear structure near three simultaneous limits: in charge Z, spin I and excitation energy E*. These nuclei exist only because of a fission barrier, created by shell effects. It is therefore important to determine the fission barrier and its spin dependence B f (I), which gives information on the shell energy E(shell)(I). Theoretical calculations predict different fission barrier heights from B f (I = 0) = 6.8 MeV for a macro-microscopic model to 8.7 MeV for Density Functional Theory calculations using the Gogny or Skyrme interactions. Hence, a measurement of B f provides a test for theories.To investigate the fission barrier, an established method is to measure the rise of fission with excitation energy, characterized by the ratio of decay widths Γ(fission)/Γ(total), using transfer reactions. However, for heavy elements such as 254 No, there is no suitable target for a transfer reaction. We therefore rely on the complementary decay widths ratio Γ γ /Γ(fission) and its spin dependence, deduced from the entry distribution (I, E*).Measurements of the gamma-ray multiplicity and total energy for 254 No have been performed with beam energies of 219 and 223 MeV in the reaction 208 Pb( 48 Ca,2n) at ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System). The 254 No gamma rays were detected using the Gammasphere array as a calorimeter - as well as the usual high resolution γ-ray detector. Coincidences with evaporation residues at the Fragment Mass Analyzer focal plane separated 254 No gamma rays from those from fission fragments, which are ≥ 10 6 more intense. From this measurement, the entry distribution - i.e. the initial distribution of I and E* - is constructed. Each point (I,E*) of the entry distribution is a point where gamma decay wins over fission and, therefore, gives information on the fission barrier. The measured entry distributions show an increase in the maximum spin and excitation energy from 219 to 223 Me

  19. 75 FR 6319 - Proposed Amendment of Low Altitude Area Navigation Route T-254; Houston, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... Amendment of Low Altitude Area Navigation Route T-254; Houston, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... altitude Area Navigation (RNAV) route T-254 in the Houston, TX, terminal area by eliminating the segment... safety and the efficient use of the navigable airspace in the Houston, TX, terminal area. DATES: Comments...

  20. 75 FR 18047 - Amendment of Low Altitude Area Navigation Route T-254; Houston, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ...-254; Houston, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends low altitude Area Navigation (RNAV) route T-254 in the Houston, TX, terminal area by... Houston, TX, terminal area. DATES: Effective Dates: 0901 UTC, June 3, 2010. The Director of the Federal...

  1. 37 CFR 2.54 - Requirements for drawings submitted on paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... submitted on paper. 2.54 Section 2.54 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK... drawings submitted on paper. The drawing must meet the requirements of § 2.52. In addition, in a paper submission, the drawing should: (a) Be on non-shiny white paper that is separate from the application; (b) Be...

  2. 48 CFR 53.204-1 - Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441). 53.204-1 Section 53.204-1 Federal Acquisition....204-1 Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441). The following... specified in subpart 4.4 and the clause at 52.204-2: (a) DD Form 254 (Department of Defense (DOD)), Contract...

  3. 37 CFR 254.2 - Definition of coin-operated phonorecord player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-OPERATED PHONORECORD PLAYERS § 254.2 Definition of coin-operated phonorecord player. As used in this part..., currency, tokens, or other monetary units or their equivalent; (b) Is located in an establishment making no...

  4. Structure and formation mechanism of the transfermium isotope {sup 254}No.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, P.

    1998-12-17

    The ground-state band of the Z=102 isotope {sup 254}No has been identified up to spin 14, indicating that the nucleus is deformed. The deduced quadruple deformation, {beta} = 0.27, is in agreement with theoretical predictions. These observations confirm that the shell-correction energy responsible for the stability of transfermium nuclei is partly derived from deformation. The survival of {sup 254}No up to spin 14 means that its fission barrier persists at least up to that spin.

  5. c-Abl phosphorylation of Yin Yang 1's conserved tyrosine 254 in the spacer region modulates its transcriptional activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daraiseh, Susan I; Kassardjian, Ari; Alexander, Karen E; Rizkallah, Raed; Hurt, Myra M

    2018-05-25

    Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a multifunctional transcription factor that can activate or repress transcription depending on the promotor and/or the co-factors recruited. YY1 is phosphorylated in various signaling pathways and is critical for different biological functions including embryogenesis, apoptosis, proliferation, cell-cycle regulation and tumorigenesis. Here we report that YY1 is a substrate for c-Abl kinase phosphorylation at conserved residue Y254 in the spacer region. Pharmacological inhibition of c-Abl kinase by imatinib, nilotinib and GZD824, knock-down of c-Abl using siRNA, and the use of c-Abl kinase-dead drastically reduces tyrosine phosphorylation of YY1. Both radioactive and non-radioactive in vitro kinase assays, as well as co-immunoprecipitation in different cell lines, show that the target of c-Abl phosphorylation is tyrosine residue 254. c-Abl phosphorylation has little effect on YY1 DNA binding ability or cellular localization in asynchronous cells. However, functional studies reveal that c-Abl mediated phosphorylation of YY1 regulates YY1's transcriptional ability in vivo. In conclusion, we demonstrate the novel role of c-Abl kinase in regulation of YY1's transcriptional activity, linking YY1 regulation with c-Abl tyrosine kinase signaling pathways. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Oxidation-reduction properties of americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium and fermium, and thermodynamic consequences for the 5f series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samhoun, K.

    1976-01-01

    The amalgamation of 5f elements from Am to Fm has been studied by using 241 Am, 244 Cm, 249 Bk, 249 Cf, 252 Cf, 253 Es, 254 Es, 252 Fm and 255 Fm with two electrochemical methods, radiocoulometry and radiopolarography, perfectly adapted to investigate extremely diluted solutions when the concentration of electroactive species is as low as 10 -16 M. The theory of radiocoulometry has been developed in the general cases of reversible and irreversible electrode process. It has been used to interpret the experimental data on the kinetic curves of amalgamation, and to estimate the standard rate constant of the electrode process in complexing medium (citric). On the other hand the radiopolarographic method has been applied to study the mechanism of reduction at the dropping mercury electrode of cations M 3+ in aqueous medium to the metal M with formation of amalgam. The results are exploited into two directions: 1- Acquisition of some data concerning the oxidation-reduction properties of elements from Am to Fm. Therefore the standard electrode E 0 [M(III-0)] potentials for Bk, Cf and Es, and the standard electrode E 0 [M(II-0)] potential for Fm are estimated and the relative stability of each oxidation state (from II to VII) of 5f elements is discussed; 2- Acquisition of unknown thermodynamic data on transcalifornium elements. Correlations between 4f and 5f elements are precised and some divergences appear for the second half of 4f and 5f series (i.e. for 65 [fr

  7. Ground-State Band and Deformation of the Z = 102 Isotope N 254

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, P.; Khoo, T.L.; Lister, C.J.; Seweryniak, D.; Ahmad, I.; Alcorta, M.; Carpenter, M.P.; Cizewski, J.A.; Davids, C.N.; Gervais, G.; Greene, J.P.; Henning, W.F.; Janssens, R.V.; Lauritsen, T.; Siem, S.; Sonzogni, A.A.; Sullivan, D.; Uusitalo, J.; Wiedenhoever, I.; Amzal, N.; Butler, P.A.; Chewter, A.J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Herzberg, R.; Jones, G.D.; Cizewski, J.A.; Ding, K.Y.; Fotiades, N.; Fox, J.D.; Korten, W.; Leino, M.; Vetter, K.; Siem, S.

    1999-01-01

    The ground-state band of the Z=102 isotope 254 No has been identified up to spin 14, indicating that the nucleus is deformed. The deduced quadrupole deformation, β=0.27 , is in agreement with theoretical predictions. These observations confirm that the shell-correction energy responsible for the stability of transfermium nuclei is partly derived from deformation. The survival of 254 No up to spin 14 means that its fission barrier persists at least up to that spin. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  8. Optical and near-infrared study of the AM Herculis-type binary CW 1103 + 254

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J [Anglo-Australian Observatory, Epping (Australia); Watts, D J [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay (Australia). Dept. of Physics; Sherrington, M R [Leicester Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astronomy

    1985-07-15

    The AM Herculis-type binary CW 1103+254 has been observed using optical and near-infrared photometry and polarimetry, and optical spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry. It is found that from such a set of observations it is relatively easy to distinguish all the main components of the system.

  9. 6 CFR 25.4 - Designation of qualified anti-terrorism technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of qualified anti-terrorism... REGULATIONS TO SUPPORT ANTI-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.4 Designation of qualified anti-terrorism technologies. (a) General. The Under Secretary may Designate as a Qualified Anti-Terrorism...

  10. Enhanced escape rate for Hg 254 nm resonance radiation in fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawler, James E; Raizen, Mark G

    2013-01-01

    The potential of the low-cost MAGIS isotopic separation method to improve fluorescent lamp efficacy is explored using resonance radiation transport simulations. New Hg isotopic mixes are discovered that yield escape rates for 254 nm Hg I resonance radiation equal to 117% to 122% of the rate for a natural isotopic mix under the same lamp conditions. (paper)

  11. Californium interrogation prompt neutron (CIPN) instrument for non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel—Design concept and experimental demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzlova, D., E-mail: henzlova@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Menlove, H.O.; Rael, C.D.; Trellue, H.R.; Tobin, S.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Park, Se-Hwan; Oh, Jong-Myeong; Lee, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Kwon, In-Chan; Kim, Ho-Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-11

    This paper presents results of the first experimental demonstration of the Californium Interrogation Prompt Neutron (CIPN) instrument developed within a multi-year effort launched by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel Project of the United States Department of Energy. The goals of this project focused on developing viable non-destructive assay techniques with capabilities to improve an independent verification of spent fuel assembly characteristics. For this purpose, the CIPN instrument combines active and passive neutron interrogation, along with passive gamma-ray measurements, to provide three independent observables. This paper describes the initial feasibility demonstration of the CIPN instrument, which involved measurements of four pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies with different levels of burnup and two initial enrichments. The measurements were performed at the Post-Irradiation Examination Facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute in the Republic of Korea. The key aim of the demonstration was to evaluate CIPN instrument performance under realistic deployment conditions, with the focus on a detailed assessment of systematic uncertainties that are best evaluated experimentally. The measurements revealed good positioning reproducibility, as well as a high degree of insensitivity of the CIPN instrument's response to irregularities in a radial burnup profile. Systematic uncertainty of individual CIPN instrument signals due to assembly rotation was found to be <4.5%, even for assemblies with fairly extreme gradients in the radial burnup profile. These features suggest that the CIPN instrument is capable of providing a good representation of assembly average characteristics, independent of assembly orientation in the instrument.

  12. Californium interrogation prompt neutron (CIPN) instrument for non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel—Design concept and experimental demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henzlova, D.; Menlove, H.O.; Rael, C.D.; Trellue, H.R.; Tobin, S.J.; Park, Se-Hwan; Oh, Jong-Myeong; Lee, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Kwon, In-Chan; Kim, Ho-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results of the first experimental demonstration of the Californium Interrogation Prompt Neutron (CIPN) instrument developed within a multi-year effort launched by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel Project of the United States Department of Energy. The goals of this project focused on developing viable non-destructive assay techniques with capabilities to improve an independent verification of spent fuel assembly characteristics. For this purpose, the CIPN instrument combines active and passive neutron interrogation, along with passive gamma-ray measurements, to provide three independent observables. This paper describes the initial feasibility demonstration of the CIPN instrument, which involved measurements of four pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies with different levels of burnup and two initial enrichments. The measurements were performed at the Post-Irradiation Examination Facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute in the Republic of Korea. The key aim of the demonstration was to evaluate CIPN instrument performance under realistic deployment conditions, with the focus on a detailed assessment of systematic uncertainties that are best evaluated experimentally. The measurements revealed good positioning reproducibility, as well as a high degree of insensitivity of the CIPN instrument's response to irregularities in a radial burnup profile. Systematic uncertainty of individual CIPN instrument signals due to assembly rotation was found to be <4.5%, even for assemblies with fairly extreme gradients in the radial burnup profile. These features suggest that the CIPN instrument is capable of providing a good representation of assembly average characteristics, independent of assembly orientation in the instrument.

  13. Coulomb dissociation of {sup 8}B at 254 A MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suemmerer, K; Boue, F; Baumann, T; Geissel, H; Hellstroem, M; Koczon, P; Schwab, E; Schwab, W; Senger, P; Surowiecz, A [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Iwasa, N; Ozawa, A [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); [RIKEN Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Saitama (Japan); Surowka, G [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); [Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Blank, B; Czajkowski, S; Marchand, C; Pravikoff, M S [Centre d` Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, 33 (France); Foerster, A; Lauer, F; Oeschler, H; Speer, J; Sturm, C; Uhlig, F; Wagner, A [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Gai, M [Connecticut Univ., Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Physics; Grosse, E [Inst. fuer Kern- und Hadronenphysik, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Kohlmeyer, B [Philipps Univ., Marburg (Germany). Fachbereich Physik; Kulessa, R; Walus, W [Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Motobayashi, T [Rikkyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Teranishi, T [RIKEN Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Saitama (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    As an alternative method for determining the astrophysical S-factor for the {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B reaction we have measured the Coulomb dissociation of {sup 8}B at 254 A MeV. From our preliminary results, we obtain good agreement with both the accepted direct-reaction measurements and the low-energy Coulomb dissociation study of Iwasa et al. performed at about 50 A MeV. (orig.)

  14. Ferric ion mediated photochemical decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) by 254 nm UV light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuan; Zhang Pengyi; Pan Gang; Chen Hao

    2008-01-01

    The great enhancement of ferric ion on the photochemical decomposition of environmentally persistent perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) under 254 nm UV light was reported. In the presence of 10 μM ferric ion, 47.3% of initial PFOA (48 μM) was decomposed and the defluorination ratio reached 15.4% within 4 h reaction time. While the degradation and defluorination ratio greatly increased to 80.2% and 47.8%, respectively, when ferric ion concentration increased to 80 μM, and the corresponding half-life was shortened to 103 min. Though the decomposition rate was significantly lowered under nitrogen atmosphere, PFOA was efficiently decomposed too. Other metal ions like Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ also slightly improved the photochemical decomposition of PFOA under irradiation of 254 nm UV light. Besides fluoride ion, other intermediates during PFOA decomposition including formic acid and five shorter-chain perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with C7, C6, C5, C4 and C3, respectively, were identified and quantified by IC or LC/MS. The mixture of PFOA and ferric ion had strong absorption around 280 nm. It is proposed that PFOA coordinates with ferric ion to form a complex, and its excitation by 254 nm UV light leads to the decomposition of PFOA in a stepwise way

  15. Comparative functional analysis of two fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) mutations affecting the same residue (R254W and R254Q) in isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koika, Vasiliki; Varnavas, Petros; Valavani, Helen; Sidis, Yisrael; Plummer, Lacey; Dwyer, Andrew; Quinton, Richard; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christine; Pitteloud, Nelly; Sertedaki, Amalia; Dacou-Voutetakis, Catherine; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A

    2013-03-01

    FGFR1 mutations have been identified in both Kallmann syndrome and normosmic HH (nIHH). To date, few mutations in the FGFR1 gene have been structurally or functionally characterized in vitro to identify molecular mechanisms that contribute to the disease pathogenesis. We attempted to define the in vitro functionality of two FGFR1 mutants (R254W and R254Q), resulting from two different amino acid substitutions of the same residue, and to correlate the in vitro findings to the patient phenotypes. Two unrelated GnRH deficient probands were found to harbor mutations in FGFR1 (R254W and R254Q). Mutant signaling activity and expression levels were evaluated in vitro and compared to a wild type (WT) receptor. Signaling activity was determined by a FGF2/FGFR1 dependent transcription reporter assay. Receptor total expression levels were assessed by Western blot and cell surface expression was measured by a radiolabeled antibody binding assay. The R254W maximal receptor signaling capacity was reduced by 45% (p<0.01) while R254Q activity was not different from WT. However, both mutants displayed diminished total protein expression levels (40 and 30% reduction relative to WT, respectively), while protein maturation was unaffected. Accordingly, cell surface expression levels of the mutant receptors were also significantly reduced (35% p<0.01 and 15% p<0.05, respectively). The p.R254W and p.R254Q are both loss-of-function mutations as demonstrated by their reduced overall and cell surface expression levels suggesting a deleterious effect on receptor folding and stability. It appears that a tryptophan substitution at R254 is more disruptive to receptor structure than the more conserved glutamine substitution. No clear correlation between the severity of in vitro loss-of-function and phenotypic presentation could be assigned. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Understanding the different rotational behaviors of $^{252}$No and $^{254}$No in terms of high-order deformation

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, H L; Walker, P M

    2012-01-01

    Total Routhian surface calculations have been performed to investigate rapidly rotating transfermium nuclei, the heaviest nuclei accessible by detailed spectroscopy experiments. The observed fast alignment in $^{252}$No and slow alignment in $^{254}$No are well reproduced by the calculations incorporating high-order deformations. The different rotational behaviors of $^{252}$No and $^{254}$No can be understood for the first time in terms of $\\beta_6$ deformation that decreases the energies of the $\

  17. Coulomb dissociation of 8B at 254 MeV/u

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surowka, G.; Iwasa, N.; Boue, F.

    1999-01-01

    As an alternative method to determine the cross section of 7 Be (p, γ) 8 B, the Coulomb dissociation reaction 8 B → 7 Be + p at E inc = 254 MeV/u was measured. Our preliminary results show the dominant role of the dipole excitation in the Coulomb break-up process. The extracted astrophysical S 17 factor is consistent with the lower-value results both of the direct-capture studies, and the RIKEN Coulomb-dissociation experiment at ∼ 50 MeV/u. (author)

  18. Crítica textual y estilo: nota a Farsalia I 254

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Holgado Redondo

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Almost every Lucan's manuscript has in Pharsalia I 254 the variant furentem (only one gives ruentem, but almost every one of the editors prefers ruentem. The acceptance of ruentem is due to the nearby presence of a furentum and a furoris. Here we maintain furentem as the right reading, on grounds of Lucan's familiar stylistic procedure of repetition of the key terms of a passage. The poetic value of this repetition is endorsed in modern times by R. Jakobson and S. R. Levin.

  19. The O-GlcNAc Transferase Intellectual Disability Mutation L254F Distorts the TPR Helix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Mehmet; Llabrés, Salomé; Gorelik, Andrii; Ferenbach, Andrew T; Zachariae, Ulrich; van Aalten, Daan M F

    2018-05-17

    O-linked β-N-acetyl- D -glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) regulates protein O-GlcNAcylation, an essential post-translational modification that is abundant in the brain. Recently, OGT mutations have been associated with intellectual disability, although it is not understood how they affect OGT structure and function. Using a multi-disciplinary approach we show that the L254F OGT mutation leads to conformational changes of the tetratricopeptide repeats and reduced activity, revealing the molecular mechanisms contributing to pathogenesis. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Decay and Fission Hindrance of Two- and Four-Quasiparticle K Isomers in ^{254}Rf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, H M; Chen, J; Seweryniak, D; Kondev, F G; Gates, J M; Gregorich, K E; Ahmad, I; Albers, M; Alcorta, M; Back, B B; Baartman, B; Bertone, P F; Bernstein, L A; Campbell, C M; Carpenter, M P; Chiara, C J; Clark, R M; Cromaz, M; Doherty, D T; Dracoulis, G D; Esker, N E; Fallon, P; Gothe, O R; Greene, J P; Greenlees, P T; Hartley, D J; Hauschild, K; Hoffman, C R; Hota, S S; Janssens, R V F; Khoo, T L; Konki, J; Kwarsick, J T; Lauritsen, T; Macchiavelli, A O; Mudder, P R; Nair, C; Qiu, Y; Rissanen, J; Rogers, A M; Ruotsalainen, P; Savard, G; Stolze, S; Wiens, A; Zhu, S

    2015-09-25

    Two isomers decaying by electromagnetic transitions with half-lives of 4.7(1.1) and 247(73) μs have been discovered in the heavy ^{254}Rf nucleus. The observation of the shorter-lived isomer was made possible by a novel application of a digital data acquisition system. The isomers were interpreted as the K^{π}=8^{-}, ν^{2}(7/2^{+}[624],9/2^{-}[734]) two-quasineutron and the K^{π}=16^{+}, 8^{-}ν^{2}(7/2^{+}[624],9/2^{-}[734])⊗8^{-}π^{2}(7/2^{-}[514],9/2^{+}[624]) four-quasiparticle configurations, respectively. Surprisingly, the lifetime of the two-quasiparticle isomer is more than 4 orders of magnitude shorter than what has been observed for analogous isomers in the lighter N=150 isotones. The four-quasiparticle isomer is longer lived than the ^{254}Rf ground state that decays exclusively by spontaneous fission with a half-life of 23.2(1.1) μs. The absence of sizable fission branches from either of the isomers implies unprecedented fission hindrance relative to the ground state.

  1. Kinetics and mechanism investigation on the destruction of oxytetracycline by UV-254nm activation of persulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqing; He, Xuexiang; Fu, Yongsheng; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2016-03-15

    Oxytetracycline (OTC), an important broad-spectrum antibiotic, has been detected extensively in various environmental systems, which may have a detrimental impact on ecosystem and human health through the development of drug resistant bacteria and pathogens. In this study, the degradation of OTC was evaluated by UV-254nm activated persulfate (PS). The observed UV fluence based pseudo first-order rate constant (kobs) was found to be the highest at near neutral pH conditions (pH 5.5-8.5). Presence of various natural water constituents had different effects on OTC degradation, with a significant enhancement in the presence of bicarbonate or Cu(2+). Limited elimination of total organic carbon (TOC) and PS was observed during the mineralization of OTC. Transformation byproducts in the presence and absence of hydroxyl radical scavenging agent tert-butanol (t-BuOH) were identified using ultra-high definition accurate-mass quadrupole time-of-flight liquid chromatography/mass spectrometer (LC-QTOF/MS). Potential OTC degradation mechanism was subsequently proposed revealing four different reaction pathways by SO4(-) reaction including hydroxylation (+16Da), demethylation (-14Da), decarbonylation (-28Da) and dehydration (-18Da). This study suggests that UV-254nm/PS is a promising treatment technology for the control of water pollution caused by emerging contaminants such as OTC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Californium-252 Program Equipment Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattin, Fred Rhea [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Kenton [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ezold, Julie G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-12-01

    To successfully continue the 252Cf production and meet the needs of the customers, a comprehensive evaluation of the Building 7920 processing equipment was requested to identify equipment critical to the operational continuity of the program.

  3. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  4. Substitution of Tyr254 with Phe at the active site of flavocytochrome b2: consequences on catalysis of lactate dehydrogenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, J.; Chapman, S.K.; Mathews, F.S.; Reid, G.A.; Lederer, F.

    1990-01-01

    A role for Tyr254 in L-lactate dehydrogenation catalyzed by flavocytochrome b2 has recently been proposed on the basis of the known active-site structure and of studies that had suggested a mechanism involving the initial formation of a lactate carbanion. This role is now examined after replacement of Tyr254 with phenylalanine. The kcat is decreased about 40-fold, Km for lactate appears unchanged, and the mainly rate-limiting step is still alpha-hydrogen abstraction, as judged from the steady-state deuterium isotope effect. Modeling studies with lactate introduced into the active site indicate two possible substrate conformations with different hydrogen-bonding partners for the substrate hydroxyl. If the hydrogen bond is formed with Tyr254, as was initially postulated, the mechanism must involve removal by His373 of the C2 hydrogen, with carbanion formation. If, in the absence of the Tyr254 phenol group, the hydrogen bond is formed with His373 N3, the substrate is positioned in such a way that the reaction must proceed by hydride transfer. Therefore the mechanism of the Y254F enzyme was investigated so as to distinguish between the two mechanistic possibilities. 2-Hydroxy-3-butynoate behaves with the mutant as a suicide reagent, as with the wild-type enzyme. Similarly, the mutant protein also catalyzes the reduction and the dehydrohalogenation of bromopyruvate under transhydrogenation conditions

  5. Alimentation impact of treatments of 254 oropharyngeal cancers (1998-2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buiret, Guillaume; Daveau, Clémentine; Landry, Guillaume; Colin, Carole; Pignat, Jean-Christian; Poupart, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the functional impact of the various possible treatments of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas to find the main prognostic factors of dysphagia induced by these treatments. Patients. Clinical data from 254 patients treated for squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx between 1998 and 2003 were retrospectively analyzed. A multivariate model enabled us to evaluate the role of each potentially harmful factor on swallowing. Main Outcome Measures. The significant factors influencing the consumption of liquid, pasty, and normal food were the same: the initial T stage and the type of treatment. Conclusion. Whatever the possible and selected treatment was, the impact on the functional capacities, and thus, the quality of life of the patients was considerable. Even though we could not significantly demonstrate exclusive radiotherapy caused more long-term undesirable effects than surgery followed by radiotherapy, our daily practice has shown that we should favour the latter.

  6. Printed wax masks for 254 nm deep-UV pattering of PMMA-based microfluidics

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2012-01-13

    This paper reports a new technique for masking deep-UV exposure of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using a printed wax mask. This technique provides an inexpensive and bulk fabrication method for PMMA structures. The technique involves the direct printing of the mask onto a polymer sheet using a commercial wax printer. The wax layer was then transferred to a PMMA substrate using a thermal laminator, exposed using deep-UV (with a wavelength of 254 nm), developed in an IPA:water solution, and completed by bonding on a PMMA cap layer. A sample microfluidic device fabricated with this method is also presented, with the microchannel as narrow as 50 μm. The whole process is easy to perform without the requirement for any microfabrication facilities. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  7. Radiochemical search for neutron-rich isotopes of nielsbohrium in the (16)O + (254)Es reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaedel, M.; Jaeger, E.; Bruechle, W.; Suemmerer, K.; Hulet, E.K.; Wild, J.F.; Lougheed, R.W.; Dougan, R.J.; Moody, K.J.

    1994-09-01

    We have used on-line gas chromatography to search for new isotopes of element 107 near the deformed sub-shell at N = 162 and Z = 108. Enhanced nuclear stability is predicted for this region. 254g Es was irradiated with 16 O at barrier energies to minimize the fusion hindrance in the entrance channel and to reduce the excitation energy of the compound nucleus to a minimum value. For half-lives between roughly two seconds and two minutes no signal for a positive identification of a new isotope of element 107 was detected. Consequently, only an upper cross-section limit of a few nanobarns was obtained. While this cross-section limit was too high to probe the influence of the predicted enhanced nuclear ground-state stability on the survival probability in the fission/evaporation competition, a very large cross-section enhancement would have been detectable. (orig.)

  8. Printed wax masks for 254 nm deep-UV pattering of PMMA-based microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yiqiang; Liu, Yang; Li, Huawei; Foulds, Ian G

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a new technique for masking deep-UV exposure of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using a printed wax mask. This technique provides an inexpensive and bulk fabrication method for PMMA structures. The technique involves the direct printing of the mask onto a polymer sheet using a commercial wax printer. The wax layer was then transferred to a PMMA substrate using a thermal laminator, exposed using deep-UV (with a wavelength of 254 nm), developed in an IPA:water solution, and completed by bonding on a PMMA cap layer. A sample microfluidic device fabricated with this method is also presented, with the microchannel as narrow as 50 µm. The whole process is easy to perform without the requirement for any microfabrication facilities. (technical note)

  9. Identification of intermediates, acute toxicity removal, and kinetics investigation to the Ametryn treatment by direct photolysis (UV254), UV254/H2O2, Fenton, and photo-Fenton processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Dirce Martins; Cavalcante, Rodrigo Pereira; da Silva, Lucas de Melo; Sans, Carme; Esplugas, Santiago; de Oliveira, Silvio Cesar; Junior, Amilcar Machulek

    2018-02-09

    This paper reports the degradation of 10 mg L -1 Ametryn solution with different advanced oxidation processes and by ultraviolet (UV 254 ) irradiation alone with the main objective of reducing acute toxicity and increase biodegradability. The investigated factors included Fe 2+ and H 2 O 2 concentrations. The effectiveness of the UV 254 and UV 254 /H 2 O 2 processes were investigated using a low-pressure mercury UV lamp (254 nm). Photo-Fenton process was explored using a blacklight blue lamp (BLB, λ = 365 nm). The UV 254 irradiation process achieved complete degradation of Ametryn solution after 60 min. The degradation time of Ametryn was greatly improved by the addition of H 2 O 2 . It is worth pointing out that a high rate of Ametryn removal was attained even at low concentrations of H 2 O 2 . The kinetic constant of the reaction between Ametryn and HO ● for UV 254 /H 2 O 2 was 3.53 × 10 8  L mol -1  s -1 . The complete Ametryn degradation by the Fenton and photo-Fenton processes was observed following 10 min of reaction for various combinations of Fe 2+ and H 2 O 2 under investigation. Working with the highest concentration (150 mg L -1 H 2 O 2 and 10 mg L -1 Fe 2+ ), around 30 and 70% of TOC removal were reached within 120 min of treatment by Fenton and photo-Fenton processes, respectively. Although it did not obtain complete mineralization, the intermediates formed in the degradation processes were hydroxylated and did not promote acute toxicity of Vibrio fischeri. Furthermore, a substantial improvement of biodegradability was obtained for all studied processes.

  10. Kinetics and mechanism investigation on the destruction of oxytetracycline by UV-254 nm activation of persulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yiqing [Faculty of Geosciences and Environmental Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 611756 (China); Environmental Engineering and Science Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); He, Xuexiang [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); Fu, Yongsheng [Faculty of Geosciences and Environmental Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 611756 (China); Dionysiou, Dionysios D., E-mail: dionysios.d.dionysiou@uc.edu [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • The most effective destruction of OTC by UV/PS was achieved at near neutral pH. • Deprotonated HOTC{sup −} had the highest second-order rate constant with SO{sub 4}·{sup −}. • Presence of HCO{sub 3}{sup −} or Cu{sup 2+} enhanced the removal of OTC in UV/PS system. • Total organic carbon was degraded slowly during the mineralization of OTC. • Studies on the degradation mechanism revealed four different reaction pathways. - Abstract: Oxytetracycline (OTC), an important broad-spectrum antibiotic, has been detected extensively in various environmental systems, which may have a detrimental impact on ecosystem and human health through the development of drug resistant bacteria and pathogens. In this study, the degradation of OTC was evaluated by UV-254 nm activated persulfate (PS). The observed UV fluence based pseudo first-order rate constant (k{sub obs}) was found to be the highest at near neutral pH conditions (pH 5.5–8.5). Presence of various natural water constituents had different effects on OTC degradation, with a significant enhancement in the presence of bicarbonate or Cu{sup 2+}. Limited elimination of total organic carbon (TOC) and PS was observed during the mineralization of OTC. Transformation byproducts in the presence and absence of hydroxyl radical scavenging agent tert-butanol (t-BuOH) were identified using ultra-high definition accurate-mass quadrupole time-of-flight liquid chromatography/mass spectrometer (LC-QTOF/MS). Potential OTC degradation mechanism was subsequently proposed revealing four different reaction pathways by SO{sub 4}·{sup −} reaction including hydroxylation (+16 Da), demethylation (−14 Da), decarbonylation (−28 Da) and dehydration (−18 Da). This study suggests that UV-254 nm/PS is a promising treatment technology for the control of water pollution caused by emerging contaminants such as OTC.

  11. Kinetics and mechanism investigation on the destruction of oxytetracycline by UV-254 nm activation of persulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yiqing; He, Xuexiang; Fu, Yongsheng; Dionysiou, Dionysios D.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The most effective destruction of OTC by UV/PS was achieved at near neutral pH. • Deprotonated HOTC"− had the highest second-order rate constant with SO_4·"−. • Presence of HCO_3"− or Cu"2"+ enhanced the removal of OTC in UV/PS system. • Total organic carbon was degraded slowly during the mineralization of OTC. • Studies on the degradation mechanism revealed four different reaction pathways. - Abstract: Oxytetracycline (OTC), an important broad-spectrum antibiotic, has been detected extensively in various environmental systems, which may have a detrimental impact on ecosystem and human health through the development of drug resistant bacteria and pathogens. In this study, the degradation of OTC was evaluated by UV-254 nm activated persulfate (PS). The observed UV fluence based pseudo first-order rate constant (k_o_b_s) was found to be the highest at near neutral pH conditions (pH 5.5–8.5). Presence of various natural water constituents had different effects on OTC degradation, with a significant enhancement in the presence of bicarbonate or Cu"2"+. Limited elimination of total organic carbon (TOC) and PS was observed during the mineralization of OTC. Transformation byproducts in the presence and absence of hydroxyl radical scavenging agent tert-butanol (t-BuOH) were identified using ultra-high definition accurate-mass quadrupole time-of-flight liquid chromatography/mass spectrometer (LC-QTOF/MS). Potential OTC degradation mechanism was subsequently proposed revealing four different reaction pathways by SO_4·"− reaction including hydroxylation (+16 Da), demethylation (−14 Da), decarbonylation (−28 Da) and dehydration (−18 Da). This study suggests that UV-254 nm/PS is a promising treatment technology for the control of water pollution caused by emerging contaminants such as OTC.

  12. Estimation of organic carbon deposition into forest ecosystems by determination of the spectral absorption of rainwater in range of ultraviolet radiation (SAC254)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, U.

    1988-01-01

    Organic compounds are mostly neglected within deposition measurement programs because their determination is expensive and complicated. A very simple and rapid estimation of total organic carbon (TOC) is possible by determination of the spectral absorption coefficient in the range of ultraviolet radiation at 254 nm wave-length (SAC 254 ): TOC (mg/1) = 0,5 SAC 254 (m −1 ) - 0,15 (author) [de

  13. Clofibric acid degradation in UV254/H2O2 process: effect of temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenzhen; Lu, Shuguang; Qiu, Zhaofu; Lin, Kuangfei

    2010-04-15

    The degradation of clofibric acid (CA) in UV(254)/H(2)O(2) process under three temperature ranges, i.e. T1 (9.0-11.5 degrees C), T2 (19.0-21.0 degrees C) and T3 (29.0-30.0 degrees C) was investigated. The effects of solution constituents including NO(3)(-) and HCO(3)(-) anions, and humic acid (HA) on CA degradation were evaluated in Milli-Q waters. CA degradation behaviors were simulated with the pseudo-first-order kinetic model and the apparent rate constant (k(ap)) and half-life time (t(1/2)) were calculated. The results showed that higher temperature would favor CA degradation, and CA degradation was taken place mostly by indirect oxidation through the formation of OH radicals in UV(254)/H(2)O(2) process. In addition, the effects of both NO(3)(-) and HCO(3)(-) anions at two selected concentrations (1.0x10(-3) and 0.1 mol L(-1)) and HA (20 mg L(-1)) on CA degradation were investigated. The results showed that HA had negative effect on CA degradation, and this effect was much more apparent under low temperature condition. On the other hand, the inhibitive effect on CA degradation at both lower and higher concentrations of bicarbonate was observed, and this inhibitive effect was much more apparent at higher bicarbonate concentration and lower temperature condition. While, at higher nitrate concentration the inhibitive effect on CA degradation under three temperature ranges was observed, and with the temperature increase this negative effect was apparently weakened. However, at lower nitrate concentration a slightly positive effect on CA degradation was found under T2 and T3 conditions. Moreover, when using a real wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent spiked with CA over 99% of CA removal could be achieved under 30 degrees C within only 15 min compared with 40 and 80 min under 20 and 10 degrees C respectively, suggesting a significant promotion in CA degradation under higher temperature condition. Therefore, it can be concluded that temperature plays an

  14. 30 CFR 254.26 - What information must I include in the “Worst case discharge scenario” appendix?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and environmental importance, if any, specified in the appropriate Area Contingency Plan(s). (d) A... COAST LINE Oil-Spill Response Plans for Outer Continental Shelf Facilities § 254.26 What information... Control Systems for Use on Water, and ASTM F818-93, Standard Definitions Relating to Spill Response...

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptomyces albus SM254, a Potent Antagonist of Bat White-Nose Syndrome Pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalamenti, Jonathan P; Erickson, Joshua D; Salomon, Christine E

    2016-04-14

    We sequenced and annotated the complete 7,170,504-bp genome of a novel secondary metabolite-producingStreptomycesstrain,Streptomyces albusSM254, isolated from copper-rich subsurface fluids at ~220-m depth within the Soudan Iron Mine (Soudan, MN, USA). Copyright © 2016 Badalamenti et al.

  16. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obi, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    The Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Decontamination Facility is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254. CAU 254 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site and consists of a single Corrective Action Site CAS 25-23-06. CAU 254 will be closed, in accordance with the FFACO of 1996. CAU 254 was used primarily to perform radiological decontamination and consists of Building 3126, two outdoor decontamination pads, and surrounding soil within an existing perimeter fence. The site was used to decontaminate nuclear rocket test-car hardware and tooling from the early 1960s through the early 1970s, and to decontaminate a military tank in the early 1980s. The site characterization results indicate that, in places, the surficial soil and building materials exceed clean-up criteria for organic compounds, metals, and radionuclides. Closure activities are expected to generate waste streams consisting of nonhazardous construction waste. petroleum hydrocarbon waste, hazardous waste, low-level radioactive waste, and mixed waste. Some of the wastes exceed land disposal restriction limits and will require off-site treatment before disposal. The recommended corrective action was revised to Alternative 3- ''Unrestricted Release Decontamination, Verification Survey, and Dismantle Building 3126,'' in an addendum to the Correction Action Decision Document

  17. 40 CFR 60.254 - Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading systems, and open storage piles. 60.254... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Coal Preparation...

  18. Nuclear structure data from in beam and decay studies around 254No

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.

    2005-01-01

    The study of trans-fermium nuclei, the heaviest nuclei for which in-beam spectroscopy studies are possible has provided over recent years a rich tapestry of data. These have enhanced the mean field theories important for the prediction of nuclear properties at the limits of the nuclear chart. Developments in spectrometer and data-acquisition techniques at the Department of Physics, University of Jyvaskyla have further enhanced the studies. Utilising the RITU gas-filled spectrometer, the GREAT focal plane spectrometer, the identification recoils and their subsequent decay modes (alpha-, fission-, and gamma-ray decay) have been studied. The JUROGAM gamma-ray array of 43 Compton-suppressed HPGe detectors has been employed in the in-beam spectroscopy of the trans-fermium region. In-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy studies of trans-fermium nuclei 253 No, 254 No, 250 Fm, 251 Md, 253 No and 255 Lr have been performed, as well as detailed focal plane spectroscopy. Selected highlights of the work will be presented

  19. Cold valleys in the radioactive decay of 248-254Cf isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biju, R.K.; Sahadevan, Sabina; Santhosh, K.P.; Joseph, Antony

    2008-01-01

    Based on the concept of cold valley in cold fission and fusion, we have investigated the cluster decay process in 248-254 Cf isotopes. In addition to alpha particle minima, other deep minima occur for S, Ar and Ca clusters. It is found that inclusion of proximity potential does not change the position of minima but minima become deeper. Taking Coulomb and proximity potential as interacting barrier for post-scission region, we computed half-lives and other characteristics for various clusters from these parents. Our study reveals that these parents are stable against light clusters and unstable against heavy clusters. Computed half-lives for alpha decay agree with experimental values within two orders of magnitude. The most probable clusters from these parents are predicted to be 46 Ar, 48,50 Ca which indicate the role of doubly or near doubly magic clusters in cluster radioactivity. Odd A clusters are found to be favorable for emission from odd A parents. Cluster decay model is extended to symmetric region and it is found that symmetric fission is also probable which stresses the role of doubly or near doubly magic 132 Sn nuclei. Geiger-Nuttal plots were studied for various clusters and are found to be linear with varying slopes and intercepts. (author)

  20. A prospective study on time to recovery in 254 injured novice runners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Oestergaard Nielsen

    Full Text Available Describe the diagnoses and the time to recovery of running-related injuries in novice runners.Prospective cohort study on injured runners.This paper is a secondary data analysis of a 933-person cohort study (DANO-RUN aimed at characterizing risk factors for injury in novice runners. Among those sustaining running-related injuries, the types of injuries and time to recovery is described in the present paper. All injured runners were diagnosed after a thorough clinical examination and then followed prospectively during their recovery. If they recovered completely from injury, time to recovery of each injury was registered.A total of 254 runners were injured. The proportion of runners diagnosed with medial tibial stress syndrome was 15%, 10% for patellofemoral pain, 9% for medial meniscal injury, 7% for Achilles tendinopathy and 5% for plantar fasciitis. Among the 220 runners (87% recovering from their injury, the median time to recovery was 71 days (minimum  = 9 days, maximum  = 617 days.Medial tibial stress syndrome was the most common injury followed by patellofemoral pain, medial meniscal injury and Achilles tendinopathy. Half of the injured runners were unable to run 2×500 meters without pain after 10 weeks. Almost 5% of the injured runners received surgical treatment.

  1. Critical pitting temperature for Type 254 SMO stainless steel in chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Meguid, E.A.; Abd El Latif, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    The variation with time of the open circuit potential of high molybdenum containing stainless steel (Type 254 SMO) was measured in 4% sodium chloride solution in the temperatures range 30-100 deg. C. The plot of steady state potentials as function of temperature showed an inflection at 50 deg. C, attributed to the decrease of oxygen solubility in test solution above 50 deg. C. Potentiodynamic cycling anodic polarization technique was used to determine the critical pitting potential (E pit ) and the critical protection potential (E prot ) of the steel in 4-30% NaCl solutions at temperatures between 30 and 100 deg. C. By plotting the two values versus solution temperature, the corresponding critical pitting (CPT) and the critical protection (CPrT) temperatures were determined. Both parameters decreased with increasing chloride content. Above the CPT, E pit and E prot decreased linearly with log[Cl - ]. The addition of bromide ions to the solution shifted both E pit and E prot towards positive values. In 4% NaCl, E pit increased linearly with pH in the range 1-10. The combined effect of chloride ion concentration and pH on the morphology of the pits was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) following potentiodynamic cycling anodic polarization

  2. Manganese determination om minerals by activation analysis, using the californium-252 as a neutron source; Determinacao de manganes em minerios, por analise por ativacao, usando californio-252 como fonte de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Antonio

    1976-07-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis, using a Californium-252 neutron source, has been applied for the determination of manganese in ores such as pyrolusite, rodonite (manganese silicate)' and blending used in dry-batteries The favorable nuclear properties of manganese, such as high thermal neutron cross-section for the reaction {sup 55}Mn (n.gamma){sup 56} Mn, high concentration of manganese in the matrix and short half - life of {sup 56}Mn, are an ideal combination for non-destructive analysis of manganese in ores. Samples and standards of manganese dioxide were irradiated for about 20 minutes, followed by a 4 to 15 minutes decay and counted in a single channel pulse-height discrimination using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Counting time was equal to 10 minutes. The interference of nuclear reactions {sup 56}Fe(n,p){sup 56}Mn and {sup 59} Co (n, {alpha}){sup 56} were studied, as well as problems in connection with neutron shadowing during irradiation, gamma-rays attenuation during counting and influence of granulometry of samples. One sample,was also analysed by wet-chemical method (sodium bismuthate) in order to compare results. As a whole, i t was shown that the analytical method of neutron activation for manganese in ores and blending, is a method simple, rapid and with good precision and accuracy. (author)

  3. Design of a homogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor based on thorium with a source of californium 252; Diseno de un reactor nuclear subcritico homogeneo a base de Torio con una fuente de Californio 252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado H, C. E.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Sajo B, L., E-mail: ce_delgado89@hotmail.com [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Apdo. 89000, 1080A Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: One of the energy alternatives to fossil fuels which do not produce greenhouse gases is the nuclear energy. One of the drawbacks of this alternative is the generation of radioactive wastes of long half-life and its relation to the generation of nuclear materials to produce weapons of mass destruction. An option to these drawbacks of nuclear energy is to use Thorium as part of the nuclear fuel which it becomes in U{sup 233} when capturing neutrons, that is a fissile material. In this paper Monte Carlo methods were used to design a homogeneous subcritical reactor based on thorium. As neutron reflector graphite was used. The reactor core is homogeneous and is formed of 70% light water as moderator, 12% of enriched uranium UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} and 18% of thorium Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} as fuel. To start the nuclear fission chain reaction an isotopic source of californium 252 was used with an intensity of 4.6 x 10{sup 7} s{sup -1}. In the design the value of the effective multiplication factor, whose value turned out k{sub eff} <1 was calculated. Also, the neutron spectra at different distances from the source and the total fluence were calculated, as well as the values of the ambient dose equivalent in the periphery of the reactor. (Author)

  4. Manganese determination om minerals by activation analysis, using the californium-252 as a neutron source; Determinacao de manganes em minerios, por analise por ativacao, usando californio-252 como fonte de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Antonio

    1976-07-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis, using a Californium-252 neutron source, has been applied for the determination of manganese in ores such as pyrolusite, rodonite (manganese silicate)' and blending used in dry-batteries The favorable nuclear properties of manganese, such as high thermal neutron cross-section for the reaction {sup 55}Mn (n.gamma){sup 56} Mn, high concentration of manganese in the matrix and short half - life of {sup 56}Mn, are an ideal combination for non-destructive analysis of manganese in ores. Samples and standards of manganese dioxide were irradiated for about 20 minutes, followed by a 4 to 15 minutes decay and counted in a single channel pulse-height discrimination using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Counting time was equal to 10 minutes. The interference of nuclear reactions {sup 56}Fe(n,p){sup 56}Mn and {sup 59} Co (n, {alpha}){sup 56} were studied, as well as problems in connection with neutron shadowing during irradiation, gamma-rays attenuation during counting and influence of granulometry of samples. One sample,was also analysed by wet-chemical method (sodium bismuthate) in order to compare results. As a whole, i t was shown that the analytical method of neutron activation for manganese in ores and blending, is a method simple, rapid and with good precision and accuracy. (author)

  5. 25 CFR 900.254 - May the contractor be reimbursed for actual and reasonable “wind up costs” incurred after the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... up costs” incurred after the effective date of rescission? Yes. ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May the contractor be reimbursed for actual and reasonable âwind up costsâ incurred after the effective date of rescission? 900.254 Section 900.254 Indians...

  6. 47 CFR 25.254 - Special requirements for ancillary terrestrial components operating in the 1610-1626.5 MHz/2483.5...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special requirements for ancillary terrestrial components operating in the 1610-1626.5 MHz/2483.5-2500 MHz bands. 25.254 Section 25.254 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical...

  7. Comparative mutagenesis and interaction between near-ultraviolet (313- to 405-nm) and far-ultraviolet (254-nm) radiation in Escherichia coli strains with differing repair capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.A.; Webb, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    Comparative mutagenesis and possible synergistic interaction between broad-spectrum (313- to 405-nm) near-ultraviolet (black light bulb [BLB]) radiation and 254-nm radiation were studied in Escherichia coli strains WP2 (wild type), WP2s (uvrA), WP10 (recA), WP6 (polA), WP6s (polA uvrA), WP100 (uvrA recA), and WP5 (lexA). With BLB radiation, strains WP2s and WP6s demonstrated a high level of mutagenesis, whereas strains WP2, WP5, WP6, WP10, and WP100 did not demonstrate significant mutagenesis. In contrast, 254-nm radiation was mutagenic in strains WP2, WP2s, WP6, and WP6s, but strains WP5, WP10, and WP100 were not significantly mutated. The absence of mutagenesis by BLB radiation in lexA and recA strains WP10, WP5, and WP100 suggests that lex + rec + repair may play a major role in mutagenesis by both BLB and 254-nm radiation. The hypothesis that BLB radiation selectively inhibits rec + lex + repair was tested by sequential BLB-254 nm radiation. With strain WP2, a fluence of 30 J/m 2 at 254 nm induced trp + revertants at a frequency of 15 x 10 -6 . However, when 10 5 J/m 2 or more BLB radiation preceded the 254-nm exposure, no trp + revertants could be detected. A similar inhibition of 254-nm mutagenesis was observed with strain WP6 (polA). However, strains WP2s (uvrA) and WP6s (polA uvrA) showed enhanced 254-nm mutagenesis when a prior exposure to BLB radiation was given

  8. Induction of micronuclei by 2-hydroxypyridine in water and elimination of solution genotoxicity by UVC (254 nm) photolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoutelis, Charalambos G.; Vlastos, Dimitris; Kortsinidou, Marianna C.; Theodoridis, Ioannis T.; Papadaki, Maria I.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► 2-Hydroxypyridine (2-HPY) is the major metabolite of 2-halogenated pyridines photolysis. ► We examine the genotoxicity of 2-HPY in cultured human lymphocytes applying the micronucleus assay. ► 2-HPY was found to be genotoxic. ► Aqueous solutions of 2-HPY were irradiated by UV at 254 nm. ► Solution genotoxicity can be completely removed after prolonged phototreatment. - Abstract: 2-Hydroxypyridine (2-HPY) is a major first-stage product formed upon the photolytic destruction of 2-halogenated pyridines. Genotoxicity of 2-HPY in water was studied as a function of concentration. Aqueous solutions of 2-HPY were irradiated by ultraviolet (UV) at 254 nm. 2-HPY concentration, solution total organic carbon (TOC) concentration and solution genotoxicity were measured as a function of treatment time and their profile as a function of time is presented in this work. 2-HPY was found to be genotoxic at all concentrations in the range of 5–400 μg ml −1 . 2-HPY mineralises completely upon prolonged UV irradiation. All untreated and irradiated solution samples, taken at different photo-treatment times, were tested in cultured human lymphocytes applying the cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. The genotoxicity of the solution was reduced near to the control level after prolonged UV irradiation.

  9. Comparative ultraviolet action spectra (254-320 nm) of five wild-type eukaryotic microorganisms and Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calkins, J.; Wheeler, J.S.; Keller, C.I.; Colley, E.; Hazle, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    The action spectra of five eukaryotic organisms and the prokaryote, Escherichia coli, were examined over the wavelength range, 254-320 nm. Both the repair competent and three repair defective strains (E. coli, Caenorhabditis elegans, Saccharomyces) were examined. Tetrahymena pyriformis action spectra were performed with and without the excision repair inhibitor caffeine present. Others have observed that lethality, mutation, and the production of pyrimidine dimers show much the same wavelength dependence as DNA absorption. The results presented here demonstrate several action spectra which deviate from the DNA absorption spectra. Ultraviolet sensitization ratios (repair competent/repair defective) were also examined and were shown to change over the wavelength range. These findings suggest that DNA may not be the only important chromophore leading to cell death in the uv wavelength range studied. Since uv-B is of major importance in solar uv damage, these findings may also yield important implications for solar uv studies

  10. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. N. Doyle

    2002-02-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The site is located within the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (R-MAD) compound and consists of Building 3126, two outdoor decontamination pads, and surrounding areas within an existing fenced area measuring approximately 50 x 37 meters (160 x 120 feet). The site was used from the early 1960s to the early 1970s as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station program to decontaminate test-car hardware and tooling. The site was reactivated in the early 1980s to decontaminate a radiologically contaminated military tank. This Closure Report (CR) describes the closure activities performed to allow un-restricted release of the R-MAD Decontamination Facility.

  11. A clinico-radiological study on 254 cases of pontine high signals on magnetic resonance imaging in relation to brain stem semiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masaki; Takahashi, Akira (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Arahata, Yutaka; Motegi, Yoshimasa; Furuse, Masahiro

    1993-11-01

    A total of 254 patients who were proved to have pontine high intensity areas on T[sub 2]-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were analyzed in relation to brain stem semiology. A comparative study on MRI and MR angiography was made between 254 patients with pontine high signals and 276 control cases showing no abnormality either on T[sub 1] or T[sub 2]-weighted images. Of the 254 patients, 62 had transient subjective complaints such as vertigo-dizziness. Supratentorial high signals, basilar artery tortuousness and vertebral artery asymmetry on MR angiography were seen more frequently in patients with pontine high signals than in the controls. In conclusion, pontine high signals may result from diffuse arteriosclerosis and MR angiography is considered to be a useful screening method. (author).

  12. CERN: Fixed target targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-03-15

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become visible for the first

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 254 is comprised of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-06, Decontamination Facility. A corrective action investigation for this CAS as conducted in January 2000 as set forth in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Samples were collected from various media throughout the CAS and sent to an off-site laboratory for analysis. The laboratory results indicated the following: radiation dose rates inside the Decontamination Facility, Building 3126, and in the storage yard exceeded the average general dose rate; scanning and static total surface contamination surveys indicated that portions of the locker and shower room floor, decontamination bay floor, loft floor, east and west decon pads, north and south decontamination bay interior walls, exterior west and south walls, and loft walls were above preliminary action levels (PALs). The investigation-derived contaminants of concern (COCs) included: polychlorinated biphenyls, radionuclides (strontium-90, niobium-94, cesium-137, uranium-234 and -235), total volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Metals). During the investigation, two corrective action objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate human exposure to COCs. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the Nevada Test Site, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Unrestricted Release Decontamination and Verification Survey; and Alternative 3 - Unrestricted

  14. CERN: Fixed target targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become

  15. Preparation and study of elemental californium-249

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noe, M.; Peterson, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    Bulk samples of 249 Cf metal were prepared on the 10 μg scale via the Li metal vapor reduction of 249 CfF 3 . Above about 725 0 C elemental Cf exhibits a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure with an average, room-temperature lattice parameter of 5.75(1)A. Between about 600 0 C and 725 0 C, the stable form of Cf metal is another fcc structure with an average, room-temperature lattice parameter of 4.94(1)A. Below 600 0 C metallic Cf exhibits a double hexagonal closest packed (dhcp) structure with average, room temperature lattice parameters of a 0 = 3.39(1)A and c 0 = 11.01(5)A. By comparison of the metallic radii calculated for these three forms with those of the receding transuranium elements, it is suggested that the two, lower temperature modifications represent Cf with a metallic valence of three, while the highest temperature form represents a metallic valence of two. Although the data reported here are from the most complete study to date of elemental Cf, the limitations accompanying such microscale research are duly noted. (U.S.)

  16. Californium Cf-252 for pelvic radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Y; Feola, J M; Tai, D; Wilson, L C; Van Nagell, J R; Yoneda, J

    1978-01-01

    Clinical data about therapy concerning tumors of the female gynecological cancers of the cervix, vagina and uterus are reviewed. Dosimetric, laboratory and radiobiological research data form the basis for an approach to such tumors using Cf-252 as a form of boost brachytherapy. Extreme personnel hazards are a real and important consideration and indicate that maximal containment and isolation procedures should be exercised in its use.

  17. Target laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ephraim, D.C.; Pednekar, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    A target laboratory to make stripper foils for the accelerator and various targets for use in the experiments is set up in the pelletron accelerator facility. The facilities available in the laboratory are: (1) D.C. glow discharge setup, (2) carbon arc set up, and (3) vacuum evaporation set up (resistance heating), electron beam source, rolling mill - all for target preparation. They are described. Centrifugal deposition technique is used for target preparation. (author). 3 figs

  18. Ice targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, C.; Stark, C.; Tanaka, N.; Hodgkins, D.; Barnhart, J.; Kosty, J.

    1979-12-01

    This report presents a description of ice targets that were constructed for research work at the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) and at the Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer (EPICS). Reasons for using these ice targets and the instructions for their construction are given. Results of research using ice targets will be published at a later date

  19. International travel in the immunocompromised patient: a cross-sectional survey of travel advice in 254 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialy, C; Horne, K; Dendle, C; Kanellis, J; Littlejohn, G; Ratnam, I; Woolley, I

    2015-06-01

    Our primary aim was to determine the rate of overseas travel in immunocompromised individuals attending appropriate clinics at an Australian tertiary care hospital. We also aimed to characterise health-seeking behaviour prior to travel and investigated sources of pre-travel advice, compared travel patterns and activities between three specific immunosuppressed groups, and examined pre-immunosuppression patient serology. We implemented a cross-sectional survey of patients between February and August 2012. This survey was implemented among three outpatient populations at Monash Medical Centre, an Australian tertiary care hospital. We recruited 254 immunosuppressed adults from three patient populations: human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals, renal transplant patients and rheumatology patients requiring immunosuppressive therapy. No clinical intervention was performed. In the 10 years preceding the survey, 153 (60.2%) participants reported international travel. Of these, 105 (68.6%) were immunosuppressed at the time of travel. These patients were 47.6% male and 60% Australian born. Forty per cent were visiting friends and relatives as part of their travel. Fifty-four per cent of those immunocompromised at the time of travel were going to high-risk destinations. Pathology files indicated that serological screening was frequently not performed prior to immunosuppression in the renal transplant and rheumatology groups. Immunocompromised patients often travel to high-risk destinations with limited or inadequate pre-travel preparations. Doctors caring for the immunocompromised should be aware of travel risks, suitable vaccination protocols and when to refer to specialist travel clinics. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  20. Determination of the total mercury in contaminated soils by direct solid sampling atomic absorption spectrometry using an AMA-254 device and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sysalová, J.; Kučera, Jan; Fikrle, Marek; Drtinová, B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 110, SEP (2013), s. 691-694 ISSN 0026-265X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/12/0682; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Mercury * contaminated soils * AMA-254 * RNAA Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.583, year: 2013

  1. 48 CFR 15.403-4 - Requiring certified cost or pricing data (10 U.S.C. 2306a and 41 U.S.C. 254b).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or pricing data (10 U.S.C. 2306a and 41 U.S.C. 254b). 15.403-4 Section 15.403-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.403-4 Requiring certified cost or pricing data (10 U.S.C. 2306a and 41 U.S.C...

  2. Study of the average charge states of 188Pb and 252,254No ions at the gas-filled separator TASCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khuyagbaatar, J.; Ackermann, D.; Andersson, L.-L.; Ballof, J.; Brüchle, W.; Düllmann, Ch.E.; Dvorak, J.; Eberhardt, K.; Even, J.; Gorshkov, A.; Graeger, R.; Heßberger, F.-P.; Hild, D.; Hoischen, R.; Jäger, E.; Kindler, B.

    2012-01-01

    The average charge states of 188 Pb and 252,254 No ions in dilute helium gas were measured at the gas-filled recoil separator TASCA. Hydrogen gas was also used as a filling gas for measurements of the average charge state of 254 No. Helium and hydrogen gases at pressures from 0.2 mbar to 2.0 mbar were used. A strong dependence of the average charge state on the pressure of the filling gases was observed for both, helium and hydrogen. The influence of this dependence, classically attributed to the so-called “density effect”, on the performance of TASCA was investigated. The average charge states of 254 No ions were also measured in mixtures of helium and hydrogen gases at low gas pressures around 1.0 mbar. From the experimental results simple expressions for the prediction of average charge states of heavy ions moving in rarefied helium gas, hydrogen gas, and in their mixture were derived.

  3. Antiproton Target

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Antiproton target used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). The first type of antiproton production target used from 1980 to 1982 comprised a rod of copper 3mm diameter and 120mm long embedded in a graphite cylinder that was itself pressed into a finned aluminium container. This assembly was air-cooled and it was used in conjunction with the Van der Meer magnetic horn. In 1983 Fermilab provided us with lithium lenses to replace the horn with a view to increasing the antiproton yield by about 30%. These lenses needed a much shorter target made of heavy metal - iridium was chosen for this purpose. The 50 mm iridium rod was housed in an extension to the original finned target container so that it could be brought very close to the entrance to the lithium lens. Picture 1 shows this target assembly and Picture 2 shows it mounted together with the lithium lens. These target containers had a short lifetime due to a combination of beam heating and radiation damage. This led to the design of the water-cooled target in...

  4. Targeted Learning

    CERN Document Server

    van der Laan, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    The statistics profession is at a unique point in history. The need for valid statistical tools is greater than ever; data sets are massive, often measuring hundreds of thousands of measurements for a single subject. The field is ready to move towards clear objective benchmarks under which tools can be evaluated. Targeted learning allows (1) the full generalization and utilization of cross-validation as an estimator selection tool so that the subjective choices made by humans are now made by the machine, and (2) targeting the fitting of the probability distribution of the data toward the targe

  5. Target preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinn, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    A few of the more interesting of the 210 targets prepared in the Laboratory last year are listed. In addition the author continues to use powdered silver mixed with /sup 9,10/BeO to produce sources for accelerator radio dating of Alaskan and South Polar snow. Currently, he is trying to increase production by multiple sample processing. Also the author routinely makes 3 μg/cm 2 cracked slacked carbon stripper foils and is continuing research with some degree of success in making enriched 28 Si targets starting with the oxide

  6. Photochemical Degradation of the Anticancer Drug Bortezomib by V-UV/UV (185/254 nm) Investigated by (1)H NMR Fingerprinting: A Way to Follow Aromaticity Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martignac, Marion; Balayssac, Stéphane; Gilard, Véronique; Benoit-Marquié, Florence

    2015-06-18

    We have investigated the removal of bortezomib, an anticancer drug prescribed in multiple myeloma, using the photochemical advanced oxidation process of V-UV/UV (185/254 nm). We used two complementary analytical techniques to follow the removal rate of bortezomib. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a nonselective method requiring no prior knowledge of the structures of the byproducts and permits us to provide a spectral signature (fingerprinting approach). This untargeted method provides clues to the molecular structure changes and information on the degradation of the parent drug during the irradiation process. This holistic NMR approach could provide information for monitoring aromaticity evolution. We use liquid chromatography, coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-MS), to correlate results obtained by (1)H NMR and for accurate identification of the byproducts, in order to understand the mechanistic degradation pathways of bortezomib. The results show that primary byproducts come from photoassisted deboronation of bortezomib at 254 nm. A secondary byproduct of pyrazinecarboxamide was also identified. We obtained a reliable correlation between these two analytical techniques.

  7. SU-F-T-254: Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) Analysis of Breath Hold Vs Free Breathing Techniques for Esophageal Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badkul, R; Doke, K; Pokhrel, D; Aguilera, N; Lominska, C [University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Lung and heart doses and associated toxicity are of concern in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. This study evaluates the dosimetry of deep-inspiration-breath-hold (DIBH) technique as compared to freebreathing( FB) using 3D-conformal treatment(3D-CRT) of esophageal cancer. Methods: Eight patients were planned with FB and DIBH CT scans. DIBH scans were acquired using Varian RPM system. FB and DIBH CTs were contoured per RTOG-1010 to create the planning target volume(PTV) as well as organs at risk volumes(OAR). Two sets of gross target volumes(GTV) with 5cm length were contoured for each patient: proximal at the level of the carina and distal at the level of gastroesophageal junction and were enlarged with appropriate margin to generate Clinical Target Volume and PTV. 3D-CRT plans were created on Eclipse planning system for 45Gy to cover 95% of PTV in 25 fractions for both proximal and distal tumors on FB and DIBH scans. For distal tumors celiac nodes were covered electively. DVH parameters for lung and heart OARs were generated and analyzed. Results: All DIBH DVH parameters were normalized to FB plan values. Average of heart-mean and heart-V40 was 0.70 and 0.66 for proximal lesions. For distal lesions ratios were 1.21 and 2.22 respectively. For DIBH total lung volume increased by 2.43 times versus FB scan. Average of lung-mean, V30, V20, V10, V5 are 0.82, 0.92, 0.76, 0.77 and 0.79 for proximal lesions and 1.17,0.66,0.87,0.93 and 1.03 for distal lesions. Heart doses were lower for breath-hold proximal lesions but higher for distal lesions as compared to free-breathing plans. Lung doses were lower for both proximal and distal breath-hold lesions except mean lung dose and V5 for distal lesions. Conclusion: This study showed improvement of OAR doses for esophageal lesions at mid-thoracic level utilizing DIBH vs FB technique but did not show consistent OAR sparing with DIBH for distal lesions.

  8. SU-F-T-254: Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) Analysis of Breath Hold Vs Free Breathing Techniques for Esophageal Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badkul, R; Doke, K; Pokhrel, D; Aguilera, N; Lominska, C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Lung and heart doses and associated toxicity are of concern in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. This study evaluates the dosimetry of deep-inspiration-breath-hold (DIBH) technique as compared to freebreathing( FB) using 3D-conformal treatment(3D-CRT) of esophageal cancer. Methods: Eight patients were planned with FB and DIBH CT scans. DIBH scans were acquired using Varian RPM system. FB and DIBH CTs were contoured per RTOG-1010 to create the planning target volume(PTV) as well as organs at risk volumes(OAR). Two sets of gross target volumes(GTV) with 5cm length were contoured for each patient: proximal at the level of the carina and distal at the level of gastroesophageal junction and were enlarged with appropriate margin to generate Clinical Target Volume and PTV. 3D-CRT plans were created on Eclipse planning system for 45Gy to cover 95% of PTV in 25 fractions for both proximal and distal tumors on FB and DIBH scans. For distal tumors celiac nodes were covered electively. DVH parameters for lung and heart OARs were generated and analyzed. Results: All DIBH DVH parameters were normalized to FB plan values. Average of heart-mean and heart-V40 was 0.70 and 0.66 for proximal lesions. For distal lesions ratios were 1.21 and 2.22 respectively. For DIBH total lung volume increased by 2.43 times versus FB scan. Average of lung-mean, V30, V20, V10, V5 are 0.82, 0.92, 0.76, 0.77 and 0.79 for proximal lesions and 1.17,0.66,0.87,0.93 and 1.03 for distal lesions. Heart doses were lower for breath-hold proximal lesions but higher for distal lesions as compared to free-breathing plans. Lung doses were lower for both proximal and distal breath-hold lesions except mean lung dose and V5 for distal lesions. Conclusion: This study showed improvement of OAR doses for esophageal lesions at mid-thoracic level utilizing DIBH vs FB technique but did not show consistent OAR sparing with DIBH for distal lesions.

  9. Actinide targets for the synthesis of super-heavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberto, J.B.; Alexander, C.W.; Boll, R.A.; Burns, J.D.; Ezold, J.G.; Felker, L.K.; Hogle, S.L.; Rykaczewski, K.P.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2000, six new super-heavy elements with atomic numbers 113 through 118 have been synthesized in hot fusion reactions of "4"8Ca beams on actinide targets. These target materials, including "2"4"2Pu, "2"4"4Pu, "2"4"3Am, "2"4"5Cm, "2"4"8Cm, "2"4"9Cf, and "2"4"9Bk, are available in very limited quantities and require specialized production and processing facilities resident in only a few research centers worldwide. This report describes the production and chemical processing of heavy actinide materials for super-heavy element research, current availabilities of these materials, and related target fabrication techniques. The impact of actinide materials in super-heavy element discovery is reviewed, and strategies for enhancing the production of rare actinides including "2"4"9Bk, "2"5"1Cf, and "2"5"4Es are described.

  10. Atomic gas temperature in a nonequilibrium high-intensity discharge lamp determined from the red wing of the resonance mercury line 254 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drakakis, E.; Karabourniotis, D.

    2012-01-01

    For developing low-wattage high intensity discharge (HID) lamps, a better understanding of the relatively unexplored nonequilibrium phenomena is essential. This needs interpretation of diagnostic results by methods free from equilibrium assumptions. In this paper, the atomic temperature is determined from the simulation of a quasistatic broadened resonance line by distinguishing between atomic temperature and excitation temperature in the equation of radiative transfer. The proposed method is applied to the red wing of the resonance mercury line 254 nm emitted from a HID lamp working on ac. The experimental results show severe deviation from local thermodynamic equilibrium. More than one thousand degrees difference was obtained between atomic and electron temperatures at the maximum current phase.

  11. Atomic gas temperature in a nonequilibrium high-intensity discharge lamp determined from the red wing of the resonance mercury line 254 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drakakis, E. [Technological Educational Institute, Department of Electrical Engineering, 71004 Heraklion (Greece); Karabourniotis, D. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Department of Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece)

    2012-09-01

    For developing low-wattage high intensity discharge (HID) lamps, a better understanding of the relatively unexplored nonequilibrium phenomena is essential. This needs interpretation of diagnostic results by methods free from equilibrium assumptions. In this paper, the atomic temperature is determined from the simulation of a quasistatic broadened resonance line by distinguishing between atomic temperature and excitation temperature in the equation of radiative transfer. The proposed method is applied to the red wing of the resonance mercury line 254 nm emitted from a HID lamp working on ac. The experimental results show severe deviation from local thermodynamic equilibrium. More than one thousand degrees difference was obtained between atomic and electron temperatures at the maximum current phase.

  12. ONKALO pose experiment. Geophysical logging and imaging of drillholes ONK-PP223, ONK-PP226, ONK-PP254 and ONK-PP259...261

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, A.-M.

    2011-08-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical drillhole logging as well as optical and acoustic imaging of shallow drillholes ONK-PP223, ONK-PP226, ONK-PP254, ONKPP259, ONK-PP260 and ONK-PP261 at ONKALO in the investigation niche ONKTKU- 3 (POSE) between December 2009 and June 2010. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and data processing. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD, PDF and Excel format. (orig.)

  13. The Effects of Short Wave UV Irradiation (254-366nm on Color Values of Recycled and Bleached ONP/OMP Pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Peşman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT As it is known, mechanical pulp papers include significant amount of lignin and carbohydrates as well as cellulose. Thus, when these lignin reach papers irradiated with short wave UV light they could not protect their color. In this study, bleaching of ONP/OMG recycled pulps with hydrogen peroxide, sodium percarbonate, sodium dithyonite, sodium borohydride and formamidin sulfunic acid were performed. Then the test papers of these pulps were irradiated with 254-366nm UV light and changes in the ISO Brightness, CIE L*a*b*, yellowness (YI and whiteness (WI values were observed. At the result of study, all bleaching agents were determined as insufficient in the respect of color stability. But if they compared with each other, the two stages sodium percarbonate-sodium borohydride bleaching sequence was gave the best results against to color reversion. Keywords: Old news/old magazine papers (ONP/OMG, Bleaching, Color Stability, UV Irradiation

  14. Lethal effect of short-wave (254 nm) UV-radiation on cells of Chlamidomonas reinhardii strains with different carotenoid content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamchatova, I.E.; Chunaev, A.S.; Bronnikov, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    In experiments on related Chlamidomonas reinhardii strains of similar mating type a study was made of sensitivity of cells with different carotenoid content to UV-radiation of 254 nm. Mutants having a lower, as opposed to the wild type strain, content of carotenoids exhibited an increased radiosensitivity. A carotenoid-free mutant was found to possess a higher sensitivity to UV-radiation which was typical of the strain with the impaired excision repair system. The studied subclone of the UV-radiosensitive strain CC-888 was unable to photoreactivate the UV-induced damages which was typical of the wild-type strain. The content of carotenoids in cells of this subnuclone exceeded that in cells of mutants with the reduced pigmentation

  15. Projecto 254 - Produção de suínos ao ar livre : unidade de demonstração Programa AGRO

    OpenAIRE

    Marinho, M.C.; Dias, S.F.; Rodrigues, J.P.V.

    2006-01-01

    A produção de suínos ao ar livre pode contribuir para a preservação e valorização das raças autóctones e dos produtos delas derivados, evitando assim a sua extinção. O projecto, Produção de suínos ao ar livre – Unidade de demonstração, cujo período de execução vai de setembro de 2004 a dezembro de 2006, tem como principal objectivo demonstrar a tecnologia de produção de leitões ao ar livre. Programa AGRO - Projecto 254, Medida 8.1.

  16. Degradation and mineralization of organic UV absorber compound 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic acid (PBSA) using UV-254 nm/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelraheem, Wael H.M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Sohag 82524 (Egypt); Environmental Engineering and Science Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); He, Xuexiang; Duan, Xiaodi [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); NIREAS-International Water Research Center, University of Cyprus, Nicosia 1678 (Cyprus); Dionysiou, Dionysios D., E-mail: dionysios.d.dionysiou@uc.edu [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); NIREAS-International Water Research Center, University of Cyprus, Nicosia 1678 (Cyprus)

    2015-01-23

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • UV-254 nm/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} AOP was utilized for the degradation and mineralization of PBSA and BSA. • Promotion of k{sub obs} with [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}]{sub 0} ≤ 4 mM and inhibition at higher [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}]{sub 0} were observed. • The S and N were released and monitored as SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and NH{sub 4}{sup +}, respectively. • Br{sup −} inhibited both the degradation and mineralization much more significantly than Cl{sup −}. • There was an increase in [NH{sub 4}{sup +}] at higher [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}]{sub 0} and its further destruction at higher UV fluence. - Abstract: Various studies have revealed the non-biodegradable and endocrine disrupting properties of sulfonated organic UV absorbers, directing people's attention toward their risks on ecological and human health and hence their removal from water. In this study, UV-254 nm/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} advanced oxidation process (AOP) was investigated for degrading a model UV absorber compound 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic acid (PBSA) and a structurally similar compound 1H-benzimidazole-2-sulfonic acid (BSA), with a specific focus on their mineralization. At 4.0 mM [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}]{sub 0}, a complete removal of 40.0 μM parent PBSA and 25% decrease in TOC were achieved with 190 min of UV irradiation; SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} was formed and reached its maximum level while the release of nitrogen as NH{sub 4}{sup +} was much lower (around 50%) at 190 min. Sulfate removal was strongly enhanced by increasing [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}]{sub 0} in the range of 0–4.0 mM, with slight inhibition in 4.0–12.0 mM. Faster and earlier ammonia formation was observed at higher [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}]{sub 0}. The presence of Br{sup −} slowed down the degradation and mineralization of both compounds while a negligible effect on the degradation was observed in the presence of Cl{sup −}. Our study provides important technical and fundamental results on the HO{sup ·} based degradation and

  17. Removal of sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen and nitrobenzene by UV and UV/chlorine processes: A comparative evaluation of 275 nm LED-UV and 254 nm LP-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Minhwan; Yoon, Yeojoon; Kim, Seonbaek; Jung, Youmi; Hwang, Tae-Mun; Kang, Joon-Wun

    2018-05-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the micropollutant removal capacity of a 275 nm light-emitting diode (LED)-UV/chlorine system. The sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen, and nitrobenzene removal efficiencies of this system were compared with those of a conventional 254 nm low-pressure (LP)-UV system as a function of the UV dose. In a direct photolysis system, the photon reactivity of sulfamethoxazole is higher than that of nitrobenzene and ibuprofen at both wavelengths. The molar absorption coefficients and quantum yields of each micropollutant were as follows: sulfamethoxazole (ε SMX, 275 nm protonated  = 17,527 M -1  cm -1 , Φ SMX, 275 nm protonated  = 0.239, ε SMX, 275 nm deprotonated  = 8430 M -1  cm -1 , and Φ SMX, 275 nm deprotonated  = 0.026), nitrobenzene (ε NB, 275 nm  = 7176 M -1  cm -1 and Φ NB, 275 nm  = 0.057), and ibuprofen (ε NB, 275 nm  = 200 M -1  cm -1 and Φ IBF, 275 nm  = 0.067). The photon reactivity of chlorine species, i.e., HOCl and OCl-, were determined at 275 nm (ε HOCl, 275 nm  = 28 M -1  cm -1 , Φ HOCl, 275 nm  = 1.97, ε OCl-, 275 nm  = 245 M -1  cm -1 , and Φ OCl-, 275 nm  = 0.8), which indicate that the decomposition rate of OCl - is higher and that of HOCl is lower by 275 nm photolysis than that by 254 nm photolysis (ε HOCl, 254 nm  = 60 M -1  cm -1 , Φ HOCl, 254 nm  = 1.46, ε OCl-, 254 nm  = 58 M -1  cm -1 , and Φ OCl-, 254 nm  = 1.11). In the UV/chlorine system, the removal rates of ibuprofen and nitrobenzene were increased by the formation of OH and reactive chlorine species. The 275-nm LED-UV/chlorine system has higher radical yields at pH 7 and 8 than the 254 nm LP-UV/chlorine system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Damage to uracil- and adenine-containing bases, nucleosides, nucleotides and polynucleotides: quantum yields on irradiation at 193 and 254 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurzadyan, G.G.; Goerner, H.

    1994-01-01

    Photoreactions, such as base release and decomposition of the base moeity, induced by either 20 ns laser pulses at 193 nm or continuous 254 nm irradiation, were studied for a series of uracil and adenine derivatives in neutral aqueous solution. The quantum yield of chromophore loss (Φ cl ) depends significantly on the nature of the nucleic acid constituent and the saturating gas (Ar, N 2 O or O 2 ). In the case of polynucleotides the destruction of nucleotides was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography after hydrolysis; the quantum yields (Φ dn ) are comparable to those of chromophore loss or larger. The Φ cl and Φ dn of 0.04-0.1 for poly(U) and poly(dU), obtained for both wavelengths of irradiation, are due to processes originating from the lowest excited singlet state, i.e. formation of photohydrates and photodimers, and a second part from photoionization using λ irr = 193 nm. Irradiation at 193 nm effectively splits pyrimidine dimers and thus reverts them into monomers. (author)

  19. Photo-removal of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) by photolytic and photocatalytic processes in a batch reactor under UV-C radiation ({lambda}{sub max} = 254 nm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasuhoglu, Deniz; Yargeau, Viviane [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2B2 (Canada); Berk, Dimitrios, E-mail: dimitrios.berk@mcgill.ca [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2B2 (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    In this study, photolytic and photocatalytic removal of the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) under UVC radiation ({lambda} = 254 nm) was investigated. The light intensity distribution inside the batch photoreactor was characterized by azoxybenzene actinometry. The intensity of incident radiation was found to be a strong function of position inside the reactor. 12 mg L{sup -1} of SMX was completely removed within 10 min of irradiation under UVC photolysis, compared to 30 min under TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis. COD measurement was used as an indication of the mineralization efficiency of both processes and higher COD removal with photocatalysis was shown. After 6 h of reaction with photolysis and photocatalysis, 24% and 87% removal of COD was observed, respectively. Two of the intermediate photo-products were identified as sulfanilic acid and 3-amino-5-methylisoxazole by direct comparison of the HPLC chromatograms of standards to those of treated solutions. Ecotoxicity of treated and untreated solutions of SMX towards Daphnia magna was also investigated. It was found that a 3:1 ratio of sample to standard freshwater and a high initial concentration of 60 mg L{sup -1} of SMX were used to obtain reliable and reproducible results. The photo-products formed during photocatalytic and photolytic processes were shown to be generally more toxic than the parent compound.

  20. Low-energy fission systematics of the fermium isotopes: the transition from mass asymmetry at fermium-254 to symmetry at fermium-259

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    Recent measurements have shown that 259 Fm gives the highest total kinetic energy release and the most symmetric mass division so far observed for spontaneous fission. These results continue the trends observed previously in the fermium isotopes toward higher total kinetic energies and more symmetric mass division with increasing mass of the fermium isotopes. The transition from asymmetric mass division ( 254 Fm) to highly favored symmetric mass division ( 259 Fm) now appears to have been completed. These features are consistent with the simple postulate that the more neutron-rich fermium isotopes show an increase in the yield of symmetric fragments and in the total kinetic energy because symmetric mass division of fermium (Z = 100) nuclei results in two fragments which have the magic proton number of 50 and are close to the magic neutron number of 82. The proximity of the fragments to the doubly magic configuration seems to have a profound effect on the mass division and total kinetic energy release in fission

  1. Photo-removal of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) by photolytic and photocatalytic processes in a batch reactor under UV-C radiation (λmax = 254 nm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasuhoglu, Deniz; Yargeau, Viviane; Berk, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    In this study, photolytic and photocatalytic removal of the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) under UVC radiation (λ = 254 nm) was investigated. The light intensity distribution inside the batch photoreactor was characterized by azoxybenzene actinometry. The intensity of incident radiation was found to be a strong function of position inside the reactor. 12 mg L -1 of SMX was completely removed within 10 min of irradiation under UVC photolysis, compared to 30 min under TiO 2 photocatalysis. COD measurement was used as an indication of the mineralization efficiency of both processes and higher COD removal with photocatalysis was shown. After 6 h of reaction with photolysis and photocatalysis, 24% and 87% removal of COD was observed, respectively. Two of the intermediate photo-products were identified as sulfanilic acid and 3-amino-5-methylisoxazole by direct comparison of the HPLC chromatograms of standards to those of treated solutions. Ecotoxicity of treated and untreated solutions of SMX towards Daphnia magna was also investigated. It was found that a 3:1 ratio of sample to standard freshwater and a high initial concentration of 60 mg L -1 of SMX were used to obtain reliable and reproducible results. The photo-products formed during photocatalytic and photolytic processes were shown to be generally more toxic than the parent compound.

  2. Heavy-ion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adair, H.L.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter examines the characteristics of targets required in heavy-ion accelerator physics experiments. The effects of target parameters on heavy-ion experimental results are reviewed. The target fabrication and characterization techniques used to minimize experimental problems during heavy-ion bombardment are described. Topics considered include target thickness and uniformity, target lifetime, target purity, substrate materials, Doppler shift effects, metal preparations, and target preparation methods

  3. Effect of Key Parameters on the Photocatalytic Oxidation of Toluene at Low Concentrations in Air under 254 + 185 nm UV Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quici, Natalia; Vera, Maria L.; Choi, Hyeok; Puma, Gianluca Li; Dionysiou, Dionysios D.; Litter, Marta I.; Destaillats, Hugo

    2009-07-01

    The effect of key experimental parameters on the removal of toluene under 254 + 185 nm irradiation was investigated using a benchtop photocatalytic flow reactor. Toluenewas introduced at low concentrations between 10 and 500 ppbv, typical of indoorenvironments, and reacted on TiO2-coated Raschig rings. Two different TiO2-coated rings were prepared: in one case, by dip-coating using a P25 aqueous suspension and, on the other, using an organic/inorganic sol-gel method that produced thin films of mesoporous anatase. Flow rates in the photoreactor varied between 4 L min-1 and 125 mL min-1, leading to residence times in the range 100 ms< tau< 2 s. For these conditions, toluene removal efficiencies were between 30 and 90percent, indicating that the system did not achieve total conversion in any case. For each air flow rate, the conversion oftoluene was significantly higher when the reactor length was 10 cm, as compared with 5 cm; however, only marginal increases in conversions were achieved in the two reactor lengths at equal residence time and different concentration of toluene, suggesting that that the reactor is effectively behaving as an ideal reactor and that the reaction is first-order in the concentration of toluene. Experiments were carried out between 0 and 66percent relative humidity (RH), the fastest reaction rate being observed at moderately low humidity conditions (10percent RH), with respect to both dry air and higher humidity levels. Formaldehyde was formed as a partial oxidation byproduct at low and at high residence times (240 and 960 ms), although higher formaldehyde molar yields (up to 20percent) were observed at low tau (240 ms) and moderate humidity conditions (10 and 33percent), suggesting that both tau and RH can be optimized toreduce the formation of harmful intermediates. Toluene removal efficiency increased with the TiO2 thickness (i.e., mass) until a maximum value of 500 nm, beyond which the removal efficiency decreased. This should be

  4. Organelle targeting: third level of drug targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakhrani NM

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Niraj M Sakhrani, Harish PadhDepartment of Cell and Molecular Biology, BV Patel Pharmaceutical Education and Research Development (PERD Centre, Gujarat, IndiaAbstract: Drug discovery and drug delivery are two main aspects for treatment of a variety of disorders. However, the real bottleneck associated with systemic drug administration is the lack of target-specific affinity toward a pathological site, resulting in systemic toxicity and innumerable other side effects as well as higher dosage requirement for efficacy. An attractive strategy to increase the therapeutic index of a drug is to specifically deliver the therapeutic molecule in its active form, not only into target tissue, nor even to target cells, but more importantly, into the targeted organelle, ie, to its intracellular therapeutic active site. This would ensure improved efficacy and minimize toxicity. Cancer chemotherapy today faces the major challenge of delivering chemotherapeutic drugs exclusively to tumor cells, while sparing normal proliferating cells. Nanoparticles play a crucial role by acting as a vehicle for delivery of drugs to target sites inside tumor cells. In this review, we spotlight active and passive targeting, followed by discussion of the importance of targeting to specific cell organelles and the potential role of cell-penetrating peptides. Finally, the discussion will address the strategies for drug/DNA targeting to lysosomes, mitochondria, nuclei and Golgi/endoplasmic reticulum.Keywords: intracellular drug delivery, cancer chemotherapy, therapeutic index, cell penetrating peptides

  5. Savannah River Plant californium-252 Shuffler electronics manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourret, S.C.; Crane, T.W.; Eccleston, G.W.; Gallegos, E.A.; Garcia, D.L.

    1980-03-01

    Detailed information is presented in this report, an electronics manual for the Savannah River Plant Shuffler, about the electronics associated with the various control and data acquisition functions of the Shuffler subsystems. Circuit diagrams, interconnection information, and details about computer control and programming are included

  6. Survey of potential markets for devices using Californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permar, P.H.

    1975-01-01

    Potential applications for devices or systems containing 252 Cf in the years from 1975 to 1980 are estimated. The estimated number of devices and associated business value were derived from a survey of 46 industrial, educational and governmental organizations conducted from Jan. to May, 1975. Applications for devices and systems based on 252 Cf are expected to increase by a factor of 7 in the 6-y period from 1975 to 1980. The annual business value of 252 Cf devices should increase from 1.5 million dollars in 1975 to 10.8 million dollars in 1980. The potential European market should be several times as large as the US market, based on actual sales of 252 Cf, which have been two to four times greater in Europe than in the US

  7. The protective cell petrus for the production of californium 252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sontag, R.; Berger, R.

    1967-01-01

    The alpha, beta, gamma, neutron cell which is described in the present paper is devoted to the transplutonium element production and study. It is located at the CEN in Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). The 4 feet ordinary concrete shielding made of stacked blocs allows the manipulation of radioactive sources as high as 1000 curies of 1 MeV gamma rays and with a fast neutrons flux of 10 9 n.cm -2 .s -1 . The airtight alpha containment box is equipped with two transfer systems, one consists of a parallelepiped shaped airtight box located in a turntable, the other uses standard cylindrical containers made of polyethylene. The general equipment and the main setting up are also described. (authors) [fr

  8. Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMurdo, K.W.; Bowman, W.W.

    1978-09-01

    A 100-mg 252 Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from 17 O. Detection sensitivities of 239 Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level

  9. Savannah River Plant Californium-252 Shuffler software manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.S.; Crane, T.W.; Eccleston, G.W.

    1979-03-01

    A software manual for operating the Savannah River Plant Shuffler nondestructive assay instrument is presented. The procedures for starting up the instrument, making assays, calibrating, and checking the performance of the hardware units are described. A list of the error messages with an explanation of the circumstances prompting the message and possible corrective measures is given. A summary of the software package is included showing the names and contents of the files and subroutines. The procedure for modifying the software package is outlined

  10. Californium-252 interstitial implants in carcinoma of the tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vtyurin, B.M.; Ivanov, V.N.; Medvedev, V.S.; Galantseva, G.F.; Abdulkadyrov, S.A.; Ivanova, L.F.; Petrovskaya, G.A.; Plichko, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    A clinical study using 252 Cf sources in brachytherapy of tumors began in the Research Institute of Medical Radiology of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR in 1973. 252 Cf afterloading cells were utilized by the method of simple afterloading. Dosimetry and radiation protection of medical personnel were developed. To substantiate optimal therapeutic doses of 252 Cf neutrons, a correlation of dose, time, and treatment volume factors with clinical results of 252 Cf interstitial implants in carcinoma of the tongue for 47 patients with a minimum follow-up period of 1 year was studied. Forty-nine interstitial implants have been performed. Seventeen patients received 252 Cf implants alone (Group I), 17 other patients received 252 Cf implants in combination with external radiation (Group II), and 15 patients were treated with interstitial implants for recurrent or residual tumors (Groups III). Complete regression of carcinoma of the tongue was obtained in 48 patients (98%). Thirteen patients (27%) developed radiation necrosis. The therapeutic dose of neutron radiation from 252 Cf sources in interstitial radiotherapy of primary tongue carcinomas (Group I) was found to be 7 to 9 Gy. Optimal therapeutic neutron dose in combined interstitial and external radiotherapy of primary tumors (Group II) was 5 to 6 Gy with an external radiation dose of 40 Gy. For recurrent and residual tumors (Group III), favorable results were obtained with tumor doses of 6.5 to 7 Gy

  11. Undergraduate experiments using the neutron radiation from californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossel, J.; Golecki, I.

    1976-01-01

    Three experiments designed to demonstrate and measure several properties of the neutron radiation emitted by a 3μg 252 Cf source are described. The experiments constitute a special project carried out by a third-year undergraduate student at the Institute of Physics of the University of Neuchatel. The 252 Cf source is enclosed in a shield which allows a pencil of fast neutrons to pass through a central tube, while reducing the ambient radiation below the tolerance level. The shield consists of layers of borated paraffin wax, iron and cadmium. The first experiment uses an air-alcohol diffusion cloud chamber for the demonstration of tracks of recoil protons produced by the neutrons. Semi-quantitative measurements of track lengths give the correct order of magnitude of the proton energies. In the second experiment a liquid scintillator detector is used to scan the beam profile across the radiation shield enclosing the source. A pulse-shape-discrimination system discriminates between neutrons and gamma photons. The third experiment makes use of the nuclear emulsion technique to study the neutron energy distribution of 252 Cf. Preliminary results are compared with published values. (author)

  12. Deuterium pass through target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alger, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    A neutron emitting target is described for use in neutron generating apparatus including a deuteron source and an accelerator vacuum chamber. The target consists of a tritium-containing target layer, a deuteron accumulation layer, and a target support containing passages providing communication between the accumulation layer and portions of the surface of the support exposed to the accelerator vacuum chamber. With this arrangement, deuterons passing through the target layer and implanting in and diffusing through the accumulation layer, diffuse into the communicating passages and are returned to the accelerator vacuum chamber. The invention allows the continuous removal of deuterons from the target in conventional water cooled neutron generating apparatus. Preferably, the target is provided with thin barrier layers to prevent undesirable tritium diffusion out of the target layer, as well as deuteron diffusion into the target layer

  13. Molecular Targets for Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular targeted radionuclide cancer therapy is becoming of increasing importance, especially for disseminated diseases. Systemic chemotherapies often lack selectivity while targeted radionuclide therapy has important advantages as the radioactive cytotoxic unit of the targeting vector is specifically directed to the cancer, sparing normal tissues. The principle strategy to improve cancer selectivity is to couple therapeutic agents to tumour-targeting vectors. In targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT), the cytotoxic portion of the conjugates normally contains a therapeutic radiometal immobilised by a bifunctional chelator. The aim is therefore to use as ligand-targeted therapeutics vectors coupled to Auger-, alpha- and/or beta-emitting radionuclides. An advantage of using radiation instead of chemotherapeutics as the cytotoxic agent is the so called 'crossfire effect'. This allows sterilisation of tumour cells that are not directly targeted due to heterogeneity in target molecule expression or inhomogeneous vector delivery. However, before the targeting ligands can be selected, the target molecule on the tumour has to be selected. It should be uniquely expressed, or at least highly overexpressed, on or in the target cells relative to normal tissues. The target should be easily accessible for ligand delivery and should not be shed or down- regulated after ligand binding. An important property of a receptor (or antigen) is its potential to be internalized upon binding of the ligand. This provides an active uptake mechanism and allows the therapeutic agent to be trapped within the tumour cells. Molecular targets of current interest include: Receptors: G-protein coupled receptors are overexpressed on many major human tumours. The prototype of these receptors are somatostatin receptors which show very high density in neuroendocrine tumours, but there are many other most interesting receptors to be applied for TRT. The targeting ligands for these receptors are

  14. Monitoring production target thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oothoudt, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Pion and muon production targets at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility consist of rotating graphite wheels. The previous target thickness monitoring Procedure scanned the target across a reduced intensity beam to determine beam center. The fractional loss in current across the centered target gave a measure of target thickness. This procedure, however, required interruption of beam delivery to experiments and frequently indicated a different fractional loss than at normal beam currents. The new monitoring Procedure compares integrated ups and downs toroid current monitor readings. The current monitors are read once per minute and the integral of readings are logged once per eight-hour shift. Changes in the upstream to downstream fractional difference provide a nonintrusive continuous measurement of target thickness under nominal operational conditions. Target scans are now done only when new targets are installed or when unexplained changes in the current monitor data are observed

  15. Charged particle fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.; Meeker, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    The power, voltage, energy and other requirements of electron and ion beam fusion targets are reviewed. Single shell, multiple shell and magnetically insulated target designs are discussed. Questions of stability are also considered. In particular, it is shown that ion beam targets are stabilized by an energy spread in the ion beam

  16. Liquid helium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Y.; Kitami, T.; Torikoshi, M.

    1984-12-01

    A liquid helium target system has been built and used for the experiment on the reaction 4 He(γ, p). The target system has worked satisfactorily; the consumption rate of liquid helium is 360 ml/h and the cryogenic system retains liquid helium for about ten hours. The structure, operation and performance of the target system are reported. (author)

  17. Graphite targets at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.D.; Grisham, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Rotating polycrystalline and stationary pyrolytic graphite target designs for the LAMPF experimental area are described. Examples of finite element calculations of temperatures and stresses are presented. Some results of a metallographic investigation of irradiated pyrolytic graphite target plates are included, together with a brief description of high temperature bearings for the rotating targets

  18. Wake Shield Target Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valmianski, Emanuil I.; Petzoldt, Ronald W.; Alexander, Neil B.

    2003-01-01

    The heat flux from both gas convection and chamber radiation on a direct drive target must be limited to avoid target damage from excessive D-T temperature increase. One of the possibilities of protecting the target is a wake shield flying in front of the target. A shield will also reduce drag force on the target, thereby facilitating target tracking and position prediction. A Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code was used to calculate convection heat loads as boundary conditions input into ANSYS thermal calculations. These were used for studying the quality of target protection depending on various shapes of shields, target-shield distance, and protective properties of the shield moving relative to the target. The results show that the shield can reduce the convective heat flux by a factor of 2 to 5 depending on pressure, temperature, and velocity. The protective effect of a shield moving relative to the target is greater than the protective properties of a fixed shield. However, the protective effect of a shield moving under the drag force is not sufficient for bringing the heat load on the target down to the necessary limit. Some other ways of diminishing heat flux using a protective shield are discussed

  19. Development of distributed target

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Hai Jun; Li Qin; Zhou Fu Xin; Shi Jin Shui; Ma Bing; Chen Nan; Jing Xiao Bing

    2002-01-01

    Linear introduction accelerator is expected to generate small diameter X-ray spots with high intensity. The interaction of the electron beam with plasmas generated at the X-ray converter will make the spot on target increase with time and debase the X-ray dose and the imaging resolving power. A distributed target is developed which has about 24 pieces of thin 0.05 mm tantalum films distributed over 1 cm. due to the structure adoption, the distributed target material over a large volume decreases the energy deposition per unit volume and hence reduces the temperature of target surface, then reduces the initial plasma formalizing and its expansion velocity. The comparison and analysis with two kinds of target structures are presented using numerical calculation and experiments, the results show the X-ray dose and normalized angle distribution of the two is basically the same, while the surface of the distributed target is not destroyed like the previous block target

  20. Polarized targets and beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, W.

    1985-01-01

    First the experimental situation of the single-pion photoproduction and the photodisintegration of the deuteron is briefly discussed. Then a description of the Bonn polarization facilities is given. The point of main effort is put on the polarized target which plays a vital role in the program. A facility for photon induced double polarization experiments at ELSA will be presented in section 4. Properties of a tensor polarized deuteron target are discussed in section 5. The development in the field of polarized targets, especially on new target materials, enables a new generation of polarized target experiments with (polarized) electrons. Some comments on the use of a polarized target in combination with electron beams will be discussed in section 6. Electron deuteron scattering from a tensor polarized deuteron target is considered and compared with other experimental possibilities. (orig./HSI)

  1. Synthesis and antimicrobial screening of novel 2-(5-(4-(allyloxy-3-methoxyphenyl-1H-pyrazol-3-ylphenols analogues of 2-(4-(allyloxy-3-methoxyphenyl-4H-chromen-4-ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha V. Chate

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel 2-(5-(4-(allyloxy-3-methoxyphenyl-1H-pyrazol-3-ylphenols derivatives have been synthesized via the ring opening of 2-(4-(allyloxy-3-methoxyphenyl-4H-chromen-4-ones in ethanol and hydrazine hydrate under reflux condition. The synthesized compounds were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activity against bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA E710 and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and fungi Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigates respectively. Some of the tested compounds showed significant antimicrobial activity. 1H NMR, IR, Mass spectral data and elemental analysis elucidated the structures of the all newly synthesized compounds.

  2. Nova target experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, R.P.

    1985-11-01

    The Nova laser, at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, provides unique opportunities for target experiments. It has unprecedented energy on target and significant flexibility. The paper presented by John Hunt described the capabilities and the status of Nova. This paper discusses plans for future experiments using Nova, and the present status of target experiments. We plan to perform high-quality physics experiments that exploit the unique capabilities of Nova. Because this is our goal, we are fielding an extensive array of well-characterized target diagnostics to measure the emissions from the target. The first section of this paper discusses the basic target diagnostics. We are also taking care to quantify the performance of the laser

  3. Targeting and Persuasive Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Egli, Alain (Autor/in)

    2015-01-01

    Firms face a prisoner's dilemma when advertising in a competitive environment. In a Hotelling framework with persuasive advertisingfirms counteract this prisoner's dilemma with targeting. The firms even solve the prisoner's problem if targeted advertising is effective enough. Advertising turns from wasteful competition into profits. This is in contrast to wasteful competition as argument for regulations. A further result is maximum advertising differentiation: thefirms target their advertisin...

  4. The ISOLDE target robots

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilein Brice

    2002-01-01

    ISOLDE targets need to be changed frequently, around 80 times per year. The high radiation levels do not permit this to be done by human hands and the target changes are effected by 2 industrial robots (picture _01). On the left, in the distance, the front-end of the GPS (General Purpose Separator) is seen, while the HRS (High Resolution Separator) is at the right. Also seen are the doors to the irradiated-target storage.

  5. Deuterium high pressure target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perevozchikov, V.V.; Yukhimchuk, A.A.; Vinogradov, Yu.I.

    2001-01-01

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm 3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system

  6. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  7. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersahin, Devrim, E-mail: devrimersahin@yahoo.com; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Yale University, 333 Cedar St., New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2011-10-11

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  8. Target Assembly Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Target Assembly Facility integrates new armor concepts into actual armored vehicles. Featuring the capability ofmachining and cutting radioactive materials, it...

  9. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersahin, Devrim; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David

    2011-01-01

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose

  10. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  11. Target reactor development problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathrop, K.D.; Vigil, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Target-blanket design studies are discussed for an accelerator-breeder concept employing a linear accelerator in conjunction with a modified conventional power reactor to produce both fissile fuel and power. The following problems in target and blanket system design are discussed: radiation damage, heat removal, neutronic design, and economics

  12. The CNGS target

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) target ‘magazine’ of five target units. Each unit contains a series of 10-cm long graphite rods distributed over a length of 2 m. It is designed to maximize the number of secondary particles produced and hence the number of neutrinos. One unit is used at a time to prevent over heating.

  13. Targeted radionuclide therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    target for which a speci c treatment/drug is intended (Fig. 1). eranostics .... Using an anti-CD20 antibody as a delivery device to target the follicular ... systems combine diagnostic imaging (Ga-68-DOTATATE PET/CT) .... Intra-articular injected ...

  14. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    hill, amanda; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits Møller

    2014-01-01

    % for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...

  15. Strategic Targeted Advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Galeotti; J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe present a strategic game of pricing and targeted-advertising. Firms can simultaneously target price advertisements to different groups of customers, or to the entire market. Pure strategy equilibria do not exist and thus market segmentation cannot occur surely. Equilibria exhibit

  16. Seedling root targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane L. Haase

    2011-01-01

    Roots are critical to seedling performance after outplanting. Although root quality is not as quick and simple to measure as shoot quality, target root characteristics should be included in any seedling quality assessment program. This paper provides a brief review of root characteristics most commonly targeted for operational seedling production. These are: root mass...

  17. Internal targets for LEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilian, K.; Gspann, J.; Mohl, D.; Poth, H.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter considers the use of thin internal targets in conjunction with phase-space cooling at the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). Topics considered include the merits of internal target operation; the most efficient use of antiprotons and of proton synchrotron (PS) protons, highest center-of-mass (c.m.) energy resolution; highest angular resolution and access to extreme angles; the transparent environment for all reaction products; a windowless source and pure targets; highest luminosity and count rates; access to lowest energies with increasing resolution; internal target thickness and vacuum requirements; required cooling performance; and modes of operation. It is demonstrated that an internal target in conjunction with phase-space cooling has the potential of better performance in terms of the economic use of antiprotons and consequently of PS protons; energy resolution; angular resolution; maximum reaction rate capability (statistical precision); efficient parasitic operation; transparency of the target for reaction products; access to low energies; and the ease of polarized target experiments. It is concluded that all p - experiments which need high statistics and high p - flux, such as studies of rare channels or broad, weak resonance structures, would profit from internal targets

  18. Fusion target design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1978-01-01

    Most detailed fusion target design is done by numerical simulation using large computers. Although numerical simulation is briefly discussed, this lecture deals primarily with the way in which basic physical arguments, driver technology considerations and economical power production requirements are used to guide and augment the simulations. Physics topics discussed include target energetics, preheat, stability and symmetry. A specific design example is discussed

  19. Electron beam fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauser, M.J.; Sweeney, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    R The behavior of the DT filled gold shells when irradiated by a variety of pulse shapes was studied. In these pulses the power (and beam current) was varied, but the voltage was kept constant at 1 MeV. In general the performance of the target, for a given peak power, was not significantly affected by the pulse shape. Pulses with rise times of up to half the implosion time do not significantly degrade the target performance. The use of the ''optimal pulse'' of laser fusion with a fixed peak power does not appear to improve the performance of these targets. The main function of the ''optimal pulse'' is to produce a large rho r of the target during the thermonuclear burn. In e-beam targets a total rho r of 5--10 g/cm 2 can be obtained without pulse shaping; the problem here is one of achieving high enough temperatures to ignite the DT. (U.S.)

  20. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing of stainless steel. At the entrance to the target assembly was a scintillator screen, imprinted with circles every 5 mm in radius, which allowed to precisely aim the 26 GeV high-intensity proton beam from the PS onto the centre of the target rod. The scintillator screen was a 1 mm thick plate of Cr-doped alumina. See also 7903034 and 7905091.

  1. Shiva target irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manes, K.R.; Ahlstrom, H.G.; Coleman, L.W.; Storm, E.K.; Glaze, J.A.; Hurley, C.A.; Rienecker, F.; O'Neal, W.C.

    1977-01-01

    The first laser/plasma studies performed with the Shiva laser system will be two sided irradiations extending the data obtained by other LLL lasers to higher powers. The twenty approximately 1 TW laser pulses will reach the target simultaneously from above and below in nested pentagonal clusters. The upper and lower clusters of ten beams each are radially polarized so that they strike the target in p-polarization and maximize absorption. This geometry introduces laser system isolation problems which will be briefly discussed. The layout and types of target diagnostics will be described and a brief status report on the facility given

  2. STANFORD: Internal targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riordan, Michael

    1989-05-15

    Of burgeoning interest to many nuclear and particle physicists is a storage ring technique for fixed target experiments. It hinges on the use of gas-jet targets, shooting a narrow stream of atoms through a circulating beam of electrons or protons. Pioneered at CERN and the Soviet Novosibirsk Laboratory, more such 'internal targets' are being built or contemplated for storage rings in Europe, the Soviet Union, and the United States. From 9-12 January, physicists from around the world met at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to discuss prospects and problems in this expanding field.

  3. TARGET Research Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    TARGET researchers use various sequencing and array-based methods to examine the genomes, transcriptomes, and for some diseases epigenomes of select childhood cancers. This “multi-omic” approach generates a comprehensive profile of molecular alterations for each cancer type. Alterations are changes in DNA or RNA, such as rearrangements in chromosome structure or variations in gene expression, respectively. Through computational analyses and assays to validate biological function, TARGET researchers predict which alterations disrupt the function of a gene or pathway and promote cancer growth, progression, and/or survival. Researchers identify candidate therapeutic targets and/or prognostic markers from the cancer-associated alterations.

  4. Structured cylindrical targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of experimental concepts using high-energy heavy-ion beams in cylindrical targets have been studied through numerical simulation. With an accelerator planned for GSl, plasma temperatures of 100 eV can be reached by cylindrical compression, using inhomogeneous hollow-shell targets. Magnetic insulation, using external fields, has been explored as an aid in reaching high core temperatures. Experiments on collision-pumped x-ray laser physics are also discussed. (ii) Two-dimensional PlC code simulations of homogeneous solid targets show hydrodynamic effects not found in previous 1-D calculations. (iii) Preliminary ideas for an experiment on non-equilibrium heavy-ion charge-states using an existing accelerator and a pre-formed plasma target are outlined. (author)

  5. Structured cylindrical targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.; Lackner-Russo, D.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Hoffmann, I.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of experimental concepts using high-energy heavy-ion beams in cylindrical targets have been studied through numerical simulation. With an accelerator planned for GSl, plasma temperatures of 100 eV can be reached by cylindrical compression, using inhomogenous hollow-shell targets. Magnetic insulation, using external fields, has been explored as an aid in reaching high core temperatures. Experiments on collision-pumped x-ray laser physics are also discussed. (ii) Two-dimensional PlC code simulations of homogeneous solid targets show hydrodynamic effects not found in previous l-D calculations. (iii) Preliminary ideas for an experiment on non-equilibrium heavy-ion charge-states using an existing accelerator and a pre-formed plasma target are outlined. (author)

  6. Target Price Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio. However, target price accuracy is positively related to the level of detail of each report, company size and the reputation of the investment bank. The potential conflicts of interests between an analyst and a covered company do not bias forecast accuracy.

  7. Autonomous Target Ranging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz

    2003-01-01

    of this telescope, a fast determination of the range to and the motion of the detected targets are important. This is needed in order to prepare the future observation strategy for each target, i.e. when is the closest approach where imaging will be optimal. In order to quickly obtain such a determination two...... ranging strategies are presented. One is an improved laser ranger with an effective range with non-cooperative targets of at least 10,000 km, demonstrated in ground tests. The accuracy of the laser ranging will be approximately 1 m. The laser ranger may furthermore be used for trajectory determination...... of nano-gravity probes, which will perform direct mass measurements of selected targets. The other is triangulation from two spacecraft. For this method it is important to distinguish between detection and tracking range, which will be different for Bering since different instruments are used...

  8. Targeted Cancer Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are sometimes referred to as the product of "rational" drug design.) One approach to identify potential targets ... molecules that stimulate new blood vessel growth. Immunotherapies trigger the immune system to destroy cancer cells. Some ...

  9. Targeting radiation to tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheldon, T.E.; Greater Glasgow Health Board, Glasgow

    1994-01-01

    Biologically targeted radiotherapy entails the preferential delivery of radiation to solid tumours or individual tumour cells by means of tumour-seeking delivery vehicles to which radionuclides can be conjugated. Monoclonal antibodies have attracted attention for some years as potentially selective targeting agents, but advances in tumour and molecular biology are now providing a much wider choice of molecular species. General radiobiological principles may be derived which are applicable to most forms of targeted radiotherapy. These principles provide guidelines for the appropriate choice of radionuclide in specific treatment situations and its optimal combination with other treatment modalities. In future, the availability of gene targeting agents will focus attention on the use of Auger electron emitters whose high potency and short range selectivity makes them attractive choices for specific killing of cancer cells whose genetic peculiarities are known. (author)

  10. Strategic Targeted Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Galeotti; Jose Luis Moraga

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe present a strategic game of pricing and targeted-advertising. Firms can simultaneously target price advertisements to different groups of customers, or to the entire market. Pure strategy equilibria do not exist and thus market segmentation cannot occur surely. Equilibria exhibit random advertising --to induce an unequal distribution of information in the market-- and random pricing --to obtain profits from badly informed buyers--. We characterize a positive profits equilibrium...

  11. Targets and teamwork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, Timothy C.; Lange, Karin S.; Hoey, Hilary

    2017-01-01

    differences in mean HbA1c between centers ranging from 7.3±0.8% (53mmol/mol±8.7) to 8.9±1.1% (74mmol/mol±12.0). Centers with lower mean HbA1c had (1) parents who reported lower targets for their children, (2) health-care professionals that reported lower targets and more frequent testing, and (3) teams...

  12. Targets and special materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, R.; Bouriant, M.; Richaud, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The target preparation group supplied a large number of samples to nuclear physicists for experiments using SARA and also other accelerators throughout the world. Particular preparation and projects include: 208 Pb, 116 Cd, 6 LiF, 123 Sb, In and Ta targets, strippers for SARA and GANIL, optical silicone disks for POLDER and GRAAL experiments, active participations for the AMS project and finally filament preparation for the GENEPI project. (authors)

  13. The ISIS target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carne, A.; Broome, T.A.; Hogston, J.R.; Holding, M.

    1989-01-01

    This presentation discusses the two target failures that have occurred, gives the understanding of the causes and indicates the steps being taken to alleviate the problems. At the outset of the design it was understood that the target would have a finite lifetime, due to radiation damage effects, exacerbated by mechanical damage due to thermal cycling and fatigue. Estimates of target lifetime at full intensity are about 2 years for radiation damage swelling and about 10E4 gross thermal excursions. The latter number is the one which gives uncertainty in defining the life of the target, since it is dependent on the reliability of the accelerator and quality of the proton beam. The commissioning of an accelerator system and bringing it up to high beam intensities have their own special problems. There must be protection of components against uncontrolled beam loss, which produces thermal damage, prompt radiation and induced activity. Fast beam trips for beam loss protection, or equipment failures, result in quenches from high temperature in the target which get bigger with increasing beam intensity. But the target itself is a difficult device to make, taking about 12 months to manufacture. Further, changing one is a complex and time consuming task, not without its hazards. There is thus something of a balancing act to bring the accelerator towards specification before the target fails due to thermal cycling fatigue. In the early days of ISIS beam loss protection was the dominant consideration and the target was regarded somewhat as a sacrificial lamb to the goddess of machine reliability. 2 refs., 6 figs

  14. An ISOLDE target unit

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    A good dozen different targets are available for ISOLDE, made of different materials and equipped with different kinds of ion-sources, according to the needs of the experiments. Each separator (GPS: general purpose; HRS: high resolution) has its own target. Because of the high radiation levels, robots effect the target changes, about 80 times per year. In the standard unit shown in picture _01, the target is the cylindrical object in the front. It contains uranium-carbide kept at a temperature of 2200 deg C, necessary for the isotopes to be able to escape. At either end, one sees the heater current leads, carrying 700 A. The Booster beam, some 3E13 protons per pulse, enters the target from left. The evaporated isotope atoms enter a hot-plasma ion source (the black object behind the target). The whole unit sits at 60 kV potential (pulsed in synchronism with the arrival of the Booster beam) which accelerates the ions (away from the viewer) towards one of the 2 separators.

  15. Laser targets: introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The laser target design group was engaged in three main tasks in 1984: (1) analyzing Novette implosion and hohlraum-scaling data, (2) planning for the first experiments on Nova, and (3) designing laboratory x-ray laser targets and experiments. The Novette implosion and hohlraum scaling data are mostly classified and are therefore not discussed in detail here. The authors achieved average final/initial pusher pr ratios of about 50, some 3 times higher than the value achieved in the best Shiva shots. These pr values imply a fuel compression to 100 times liquid density, although this figure and other aspects of the experiments are subject to further interpretation because of detailed questions of target symmetry and stability. Their main long-term goal for Nova is to produce a so-called hydrodynamically equivalent target (HET) - that is, a target whose hydrodynamic behavior (implosion velocity, convergence ratio, symmetry and stability requirements, etc.) is very much like that of a high-gain target, but one that is scaled down in size to match the energy available from Nova and is too small to achieve enough hot-spot pr to ignite the cold, near-Fermi-degenerate fuel around it. Their goal for Nova's first year is to do experiments that will teach them how to achieve the symmetry and stability conditions required by an HET

  16. Argus target chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rienecker, F. Jr.; Glaros, S.S.; Kobierecki, M.

    1975-01-01

    A target chamber for application in the laser fusion program must satisfy some very basic requirements. (1) Provide a vacuum on the order of 10 -6 torr. (2) Support a microscopically small target in a fixed point in space and verify its location within 5 micrometers. (3) Contain an adjustable beam focusing system capable of delivering a number of laser beams onto the target simultaneously, both in time and space. (4) Provide access for diagnostics to evaluate the results of target irradiation. (5) Have flexibility to allow changes in targets, focusing optics and number of beams. The ARGUS laser which is now under construction at LLL will have a target chamber which meets these requirements in a simple economic manner. The chamber and auxiliary equipment are described, with reference to two double beam focusing systems; namely, lenses and ellipsoidal mirrors. Provision is made for future operation with four beams, using ellipsoidal mirrors for two-sided illumination and lens systems for tetragonal and tetrahedral irradiation

  17. Quantum mechanical and spectroscopic (FT-IR, 13C, 1H NMR and UV) investigations of 2-(5-(4-Chlorophenyl)-3-(pyridin-2-yl)-4,5-dihydropyrazol-1-yl)benzo[d]thiazole by DFT method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwaker

    2014-07-01

    The electronic, NMR, vibrational, structural properties of a new pyrazoline derivative: 2-(5-(4-Chlorophenyl)-3-(pyridine-2-yl)-4,5-dihydropyrazol-1-yl)benzo[d]thiazole has been studied using Gaussian 09 software package. Using VEDA 4 program we have reported the PED potential energy distribution of normal mode of vibrations of the title compound. We have also reported the 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of the title compound using B3LYP level of theory with 6-311++G(2d,2p) basis set. Using time dependent (TD-DFT) approach electronic properties such as HOMO and LUMO energies, electronic spectrum of the title compound has been studied and reported. NBO analysis and MEP surface mapping has also been calculated and reported using ab initio methods.

  18. Burglar Target Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsley, Michael; Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn; Johnson, Shane D.; White, Gentry; Baum, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study builds on research undertaken by Bernasco and Nieuwbeerta and explores the generalizability of a theoretically derived offender target selection model in three cross-national study regions. Methods: Taking a discrete spatial choice approach, we estimate the impact of both environment- and offender-level factors on residential burglary placement in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Combining cleared burglary data from all study regions in a single statistical model, we make statistical comparisons between environments. Results: In all three study regions, the likelihood an offender selects an area for burglary is positively influenced by proximity to their home, the proportion of easily accessible targets, and the total number of targets available. Furthermore, in two of the three study regions, juvenile offenders under the legal driving age are significantly more influenced by target proximity than adult offenders. Post hoc tests indicate the magnitudes of these impacts vary significantly between study regions. Conclusions: While burglary target selection strategies are consistent with opportunity-based explanations of offending, the impact of environmental context is significant. As such, the approach undertaken in combining observations from multiple study regions may aid criminology scholars in assessing the generalizability of observed findings across multiple environments. PMID:25866418

  19. LANSCE target system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, G.J.; Gilmore, J.S.; Robinson, H.; Legate, G.L.; Bridge, A.; Sanchez, R.J.; Brewton, R.J.; Woods, R.; Hughes, H.G. III

    1989-01-01

    We measured neutron beam fluxes at LANSCE using gold foil activation techniques. We did an extensive computer simulation of the as-built LANSCE Target/Moderator/Reflector/Shield geometry. We used this mockup in a Monte Carlo calculation to predict LANSCE neutronic performance for comparison with measured results. For neutron beam fluxes at 1 eV, the ratio of measured data to calculated varies from ∼0.6-0.9. The computed 1 eV neutron leakage at the moderator surface is 3.9 x 10 10 n/eV-sr-s-μA for LANSCE high-intensity water moderators. The corresponding values for the LANSCE high-resolution water moderator and the liquid hydrogen moderator are 3.3 and 2.9 x 10 10 , respectively. LANSCE predicted moderator intensities (per proton) for a tungsten target are essentially the same as ISIS predicted moderator intensities for a depleted uranium target. The calculated LANSCE steady state unperturbed thermal (E 13 n/cm 2 -s. The unique LANSCE split-target/flux-trap-moderator system is performing exceedingly well. The system has operated without a target or moderator change for over three years at nominal proton currents of ∼25 μA of 800-MeV protons. (author)

  20. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.

    2014-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22......% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...... the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish municipalities...

  1. Targeted Phototherapy (newer phototherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional phototherapy uses a whole body cabinet or body part machine such as hand, foot or scalp machines. They have many disadvantages due to which new phototherapy technique was then developed to overcome this situation. This new technique is called targeted phototherapy which includes excimer laser, intense pulse light system (IPL, photodynamic therapy and ultraviolet (UV light source with a sophisticated delivery system which is easy to be operated by hands. The mechanisms of action of targeted phototherapy systems are similar to those in conventional UVB/UVA therapy. They have many advantages like less chances of side effects, avoidance of exposure of unnecessary sites, faster response, shortening of the duration of treatments. But they have disadvantages like high costs and inability to use for extensive areas. This review article discusses targeted phototherapy in considerable to the mechanism of actions and advantages and disadvantages in comparison to the conventional phototherapy.

  2. Setting reference targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1997-04-01

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets

  3. Fine target of deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Diaz, J.; Granados Gonzalez, C. E.; Gutierrez Bernal, R.

    1959-01-01

    A fine target of deuterium on a tantalum plate by the absorption method is obtained. In order to obtain the de gasification temperature an induction generator of high frequency is used and the deuterium pass is regulated by means of a palladium valve. Two vacuum measures are available, one to measure the high vacuum in the de gasification process of the tantalum plate and the other, for low vacuum, to measure the deuterium inlet in the installation and the deuterium pressure change in the installation after the absorption in the tantalum plate. A target of 48 μ gr/cm 2 thick is obtained. (Author) 1 refs

  4. Targeting the right journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piterman, L; McCall, L

    1999-07-01

    While research is scientific, publication is a mixture of science and political pragmatism. Targeting the right journal is influenced by the following factors: the discipline that best represents the subject; the purpose of the message; the audience who are to be recipients of the message; the realities of geographic parochialism; the desire of authors to maximise personal and professional opportunities. If the originally targeted journal rejects the article, authors should have alternative publication strategies that give them professional recognition without requiring them to compromise the message or their ethics.

  5. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long (actually a row of 11 rods, each 1 cm long) and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing made of stainless steel. The casing had fins for forced-air cooling. In this picture, the 26 GeV high-intensity beam from the PS enters from the right, where a scintillator screen, with circles every 5 mm in radius, permits precise aim at the target centre. See also 7903034 and 7905094.

  6. Targets and tactics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woo, V; Shestakova, M V; Ørskov, C

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 2 diabetes is reaching pandemic proportions, impacting patients and healthcare systems across the globe. Evidence suggests that a majority of patients are not achieving recommended blood glucose targets resulting in an increased risk of micro- and macro-vascular ......BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 2 diabetes is reaching pandemic proportions, impacting patients and healthcare systems across the globe. Evidence suggests that a majority of patients are not achieving recommended blood glucose targets resulting in an increased risk of micro- and macro...... diabetes has never been more compelling; with a clear focus on strategies for glycaemic control, the impact of the diabetes pandemic can be limited....

  7. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available -of-evidence (WofE) method logistic regression canonical favorability analysis neural networks evidential belief functions Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study... for the following equation: n∑ i=r ( n i ) pi(1− p)n−i = 0.95 . (1) Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study Methodology Results METHODS (cont. . . ): FITNESS FUNCTION...

  8. ISOLDE back on target

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    Today, Friday 1 August, the ISOLDE installation, supplied by the beams of the PS Booster, restarted its physics programme. After a shutdown of almost a year and a half, there was a real buzz in the air as the first beam of protons hit the target of the first post-LS1 ISOLDE experiment.   One of the new target-handling robots installed by ISOLDE during LS1. Many improvements have been made to the ISOLDE installation during LS1. One of the main projects was the installation of new robots for handling the targets (see photo 1). “Our targets are bombarded by protons from the PS Booster’s beams and become very radioactive,” explains Maria Jose Garcia Borge, spokesperson for the ISOLDE collaboration. “They therefore need to be handled carefully, which is where the robots come in. The robots we had until now were already over 20 years old and were starting to suffer from the effects of radiation. So LS1 was a perfect opportunity to replace them with more moder...

  9. Targeted Therapy for Melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, Thomas; Moore, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    The research project, entitled ''Targeted Therapy for Melanoma,'' was focused on investigating the use of kidney protection measures to lower the non-specific kidney uptake of the radiolabeled Pb-DOTA-ReCCMSH peptide. Previous published work demonstrated that the kidney exhibited the highest non-target tissue uptake of the "2"1"2"P"b"/"2"0"3Pb radiolabeled melanoma targeting peptide DOTA-ReCCMSH. The radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptide analog DOTA-Re(Arg"1"1)CCMSH, which binds the melanocortin-1 receptor over-expressed on melanoma tumor cells, has shown promise as a PRRT agent in pre-clinical studies. High tumor uptake of "2"1"2Pb labeled DOTA-Re(Arg"1"1)CCMSH resulted in tumor reduction or eradication in melanoma therapy studies. Of particular note was the 20-50% cure rate observed when melanoma mice were treated with alpha particle emitter "2"1"2Pb. However, as with most PRRT agents, high radiation doses to the kidneys where observed. To optimize tumor treatment efficacy and reduce nephrotoxicity, the tumor to kidney uptake ratio must be improved. Strategies to reduce kidney retention of the radiolabeled peptide, while not effecting tumor uptake and retention, can be broken into several categories including modification of the targeting peptide sequence and reducing proximal tubule reabsorption.

  10. Targets of curcumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongyu; Beevers, Christopher S.; Huang, Shile

    2010-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), an orange-yellow component of turmeric or curry powder, is a polyphenol natural product isolated from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa. For centuries, curcumin has been used in some medicinal preparation or used as a food-coloring agent. In recent years, extensive in vitro and in vivo studies suggested curcumin has anticancer, antiviral, antiarthritic, anti-amyloid, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. The underlying mechanisms of these effects are diverse and appear to involve the regulation of various molecular targets, including transcription factors (such as nuclear factor-κB), growth factors (such as vascular endothelial cell growth factor), inflammatory cytokines (such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1 and interleukin 6), protein kinases (such as mammalian target of rapamycin, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and Akt) and other enzymes (such as cyclooxygenase 2 and 5 lipoxygenase). Thus, due to its efficacy and regulation of multiple targets, as well as its safety for human use, curcumin has received considerable interest as a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention and/or treatment of various malignant diseases, arthritis, allergies, Alzheimer’s disease, and other inflammatory illnesses. This review summarizes various in vitro and in vivo pharmacological aspects of curcumin as well as the underlying action mechanisms. The recently identified molecular targets and signaling pathways modulated by curcumin are also discussed here. PMID:20955148

  11. Target-Rich Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Mark C.

    2005-01-01

    Target marketing is defining school enrollment goals and then developing a strategic plan to accomplish those goals through the use of specific communication vehicles and community focus. It is critical to reach the right audience, with the right message, at the right time, for the right cost. In this brief article, the author describes several…

  12. Targeted enzyme prodrug therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellmann, N; Deckert, P M; Bachran, D; Fuchs, H; Bachran, C

    2010-09-01

    The cure of cancer is still a formidable challenge in medical science. Long-known modalities including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are successful in a number of cases; however, invasive, metastasized and inaccessible tumors still pose an unresolved and ongoing problem. Targeted therapies designed to locate, detect and specifically kill tumor cells have been developed in the past three decades as an alternative to treat troublesome cancers. Most of these therapies are either based on antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, targeted delivery of cytotoxic drugs or tumor site-specific activation of prodrugs. The latter is a two-step procedure. In the first step, a selected enzyme is accumulated in the tumor by guiding the enzyme or its gene to the neoplastic cells. In the second step, a harmless prodrug is applied and specifically converted by this enzyme into a cytotoxic drug only at the tumor site. A number of targeting systems, enzymes and prodrugs were investigated and improved since the concept was first envisioned in 1974. This review presents a concise overview on the history and latest developments in targeted therapies for cancer treatment. We cover the relevant technologies such as antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT), gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) as well as related therapies such as clostridial- (CDEPT) and polymer-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (PDEPT) with emphasis on prodrug-converting enzymes, prodrugs and drugs.

  13. Targeting trichothecene biosynthetic genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Songhong; Lee, van der Theo; Verstappen, Els; Gent, van Marga; Waalwijk, Cees

    2017-01-01

    Biosynthesis of trichothecenes requires the involvement of at least 15 genes, most of which have been targeted for PCR. Qualitative PCRs are used to assign chemotypes to individual isolates, e.g., the capacity to produce type A and/or type B trichothecenes. Many regions in the core cluster

  14. Targeted Therapy for Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Thomas [Alphamed, Jackson, TN (United States); Moore, Herbert [Alphamed, Jackson, TN (United States)

    2016-12-05

    The research project, entitled ”Targeted Therapy for Melanoma,” was focused on investigating the use of kidney protection measures to lower the non-specific kidney uptake of the radiolabeled Pb-DOTA-ReCCMSH peptide. Previous published work demonstrated that the kidney exhibited the highest non-target tissue uptake of the 212Pb/203Pb radiolabeled melanoma targeting peptide DOTA-ReCCMSH. The radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptide analog DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH, which binds the melanocortin-1 receptor over-expressed on melanoma tumor cells, has shown promise as a PRRT agent in pre-clinical studies. High tumor uptake of 212Pb labeled DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH resulted in tumor reduction or eradication in melanoma therapy studies. Of particular note was the 20-50% cure rate observed when melanoma mice were treated with alpha particle emitter 212Pb. However, as with most PRRT agents, high radiation doses to the kidneys where observed. To optimize tumor treatment efficacy and reduce nephrotoxicity, the tumor to kidney uptake ratio must be improved. Strategies to reduce kidney retention of the radiolabeled peptide, while not effecting tumor uptake and retention, can be broken into several categories including modification of the targeting peptide sequence and reducing proximal tubule reabsorption.

  15. The targets of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongyu; Beevers, Christopher S; Huang, Shile

    2011-03-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), an orange-yellow component of turmeric or curry powder, is a polyphenol natural product isolated from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa. For centuries, curcumin has been used in some medicinal preparation or used as a food-coloring agent. In recent years, extensive in vitro and in vivo studies suggested curcumin has anticancer, antiviral, antiarthritic, anti-amyloid, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. The underlying mechanisms of these effects are diverse and appear to involve the regulation of various molecular targets, including transcription factors (such as nuclear factor-kB), growth factors (such as vascular endothelial cell growth factor), inflammatory cytokines (such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1 and interleukin 6), protein kinases (such as mammalian target of rapamycin, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and Akt) and other enzymes (such as cyclooxygenase 2 and 5 lipoxygenase). Thus, due to its efficacy and regulation of multiple targets, as well as its safety for human use, curcumin has received considerable interest as a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention and/or treatment of various malignant diseases, arthritis, allergies, Alzheimer's disease, and other inflammatory illnesses. This review summarizes various in vitro and in vivo pharmacological aspects of curcumin as well as the underlying action mechanisms. The recently identified molecular targets and signaling pathways modulated by curcumin are also discussed here.

  16. Parameter measurement of target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Dangzhong

    2001-01-01

    The progress of parameter measurement of target (ICF-15) in 1999 are presented, including the design and contract of the microsphere equator profiler, the precise air bearing manufacturing, high-resolution X-ray image of multi-layer shells and the X-ray photos processed with special image and data software, some plastic shells measured in precision of 0.3 μm, the high-resolution observation and photograph system of 'dew-point method', special fixture of target and its temperature distribution measuring, the dew-point temperature and fuel gas pressure of shells measuring with internal pressure of 5 - 15 (x10 5 ) Pa D 2 and wall thickness of 1.5∼3 μm

  17. Guilty Feelings, Targeted Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryder, Cynthia E.; Springer, Stephen; Morewedge, Carey K.

    2014-01-01

    Early investigations of guilt cast it as an emotion that prompts broad reparative behaviors that help guilty individuals feel better about themselves or about their transgressions. The current investigation found support for a more recent representation of guilt as an emotion designed to identify and correct specific social offenses. Across five experiments, guilt influenced behavior in a targeted and strategic way. Guilt prompted participants to share resources more generously with others, but only did so when those others were persons whom the participant had wronged and only when those wronged individuals could notice the gesture. Rather than trigger broad reparative behaviors that remediate one’s general reputation or self-perception, guilt triggers targeted behaviors intended to remediate specific social transgressions. PMID:22337764

  18. Inertial confinement fusion target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdier, A.

    2001-12-01

    A simple, zero-dimensional model describing the temporal behaviour of an imploding-shell, magnetized fuel inertial confinement fusion target is formulated. The addition of a magnetic field to the fuel reduces thermal conduction losses. As a consequence, it might lead to high gains and reduce the driver requirements. This beneficial effect of the magnetic field on thermonuclear gains is confirmed qualitatively by the zero-dimensional model results. Still, the extent of the initial-condition space for which significant gains can occur is not, by far, as large as previously reported. One-dimensional CEA code simulations which confirm this results are also presented. Finally, we suggest to study the approach proposed by Hasegawa. In this scheme, the laser target is not imploded, and the life-time of the plasma can be very much increased. (author)

  19. Hohlraum targets for HIDIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramis, R.; Ramirez, J.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.

    2000-01-01

    An optimized high gain IFE indirect target design is presented. Beam parameters (5 MJ of 5 GeV Bi + ions in 10-20 ns and focal spot of 3 mm radius) are in agreement to the ones considered recently for the European Study Group on Heavy Ion Driven Inertial Fusion (HIDIF). The energy yield is close to 530 MJ, giving a large enough gain appropriate for industrial energy production. Numerical and analytical modeling are described and discussed. (authors)

  20. Target Glint Suppression Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Rayleigh for either horizontal or vertical polarization). 2.1.2 Spatial Characterization. Before the effects of diversity on target detection can be...ncs) dRCS T If the lower intergration limit is taken as zero for the Rayleigh targct model of interest, then this quantity is unbounded. In...port wing, inner section Trailing edge of starboard .:ing, inner section Leading edge of horizontal stabilizer, inner section, port side TLeal, -g

  1. Conditional targeting for communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Anselmo; Caldas, Ibere L.; Baptista, Murilo S.; Piqueira, Jose Roberto C.

    2004-01-01

    In this work we propose the use of a targeting method applied to chaotic systems in order to reach special trajectories that encode arbitrary sources of messages. One advantage of this procedure is to overcome dynamical constraints which impose limits in the amount of information that the chaotic trajectories can encode. Another advantage is the message decoding, practically instantaneous and independent of any special technique or algorithm. Furthermore, with this procedure, information can be transmitted with no errors due to bounded noise

  2. Heterogeneous chromatin target model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Makoto

    1996-01-01

    The higher order structure of the entangled chromatin fibers in a chromosome plays a key role in molecular control mechanism involved in chromosome mutation due to ionizing radiations or chemical mutagens. The condensed superstructure of chromatin is not so rigid and regular as has been postulated in general. We have proposed a rheological explanation for the flexible network system ('chromatin network') that consists of the fluctuating assembly of nucleosome clusters linked with supertwisting DNA in a chromatin fiber ('Supertwisting Particulate Model'). We have proposed a 'Heterosensitive Target Model' for cellular radiosensitivity that is a modification of 'Heterogeneous Target Model'. The heterogeneity of chromatin target is derived from the highly condensed organization of chromatin segments consist of unstable and fragile sites in the fluctuating assembly of nucleosome clusters, namely 'supranucleosomal particles' or 'superbeads'. The models have been principally supported by our electron microscopic experiments employing 'surface - spreading whole - mount technique' since 1967. However, some deformation and artifacts in the chromatin structure are inevitable with these electron microscopic procedures. On the contrary, the 'atomic force microscope (AFM)' can be operated in liquid as well as in the air. A living specimen can be examined without any preparative procedures. Micromanipulation of the isolated chromosome is also possible by the precise positional control of a cantilever on the nanometer scale. The living human chromosomes were submerged in a solution of culture medium and observed by AFM using a liquid immersion cell. The surface - spreading whole - mount technique was applicable for this observation. The particulate chromatin segments of nucleosome clusters were clearly observed within mitotic human chromosomes in a living hydrated condition. These findings support the heterogeneity of chromatin target in a living cell. (J.P.N.)

  3. Implementing Target Value Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Thais da C L; Lichtig, Will; Rybkowski, Zofia K

    2017-04-01

    An alternative to the traditional way of designing projects is the process of target value design (TVD), which takes different departure points to start the design process. The TVD process starts with the client defining an allowable cost that needs to be met by the design and construction teams. An expected cost in the TVD process is defined through multiple interactions between multiple stakeholders who define wishes and others who define ways of achieving these wishes. Finally, a target cost is defined based on the expected profit the design and construction teams are expecting to make. TVD follows a series of continuous improvement efforts aimed at reaching the desired goals for the project and its associated target value cost. The process takes advantage of rapid cycles of suggestions, analyses, and implementation that starts with the definition of value for the client. In the traditional design process, the goal is to identify user preferences and find solutions that meet the needs of the client's expressed preferences. In the lean design process, the goal is to educate users about their values and advocate for a better facility over the long run; this way owners can help contractors and designers to identify better solutions. This article aims to inform the healthcare community about tools and techniques commonly used during the TVD process and how they can be used to educate and support project participants in developing better solutions to meet their needs now as well as in the future.

  4. The Bochum Polarized Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reicherz, G.; Goertz, S.; Harmsen, J.; Heckmann, J.; Meier, A.; Meyer, W.; Radtke, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Bochum 'Polarized Target' group develops the target material 6 LiD for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. Several different materials like alcohols, alcanes and ammonia are under investigation. Solid State Targets are polarized in magnetic fields higher than B=2.5T and at temperatures below T=1K. For the Dynamic Nuclear Polarization process, paramagnetic centers are induced chemically or by irradiation with ionizing beams. The radical density is a critical factor for optimization of polarization and relaxation times at adequate magnetic fields and temperatures. In a high sensitive EPR--apparatus, an evaporator and a dilution cryostat with a continuous wave NMR--system, the materials are investigated and optimized. To improve the polarization measurement, the Liverpool NMR-box is modified by exchanging the fixed capacitor for a varicap diode which not only makes the tuning very easy but also provides a continuously tuned circuit. The dependence of the signal area upon the circuit current is measured and it is shown that it follows a linear function

  5. Lmx1b-targeted cis-regulatory modules involved in limb dorsalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Endika; Watson, Billy A; Feenstra, Jennifer M; Tegeler, Luke; Pira, Charmaine U; Mohan, Subburaman; Oberg, Kerby C

    2017-06-01

    Lmx1b is a homeodomain transcription factor responsible for limb dorsalization. Despite striking double-ventral (loss-of-function) and double-dorsal (gain-of-function) limb phenotypes, no direct gene targets in the limb have been confirmed. To determine direct targets, we performed a chromatin immunoprecipitation against Lmx1b in mouse limbs at embryonic day 12.5 followed by next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq). Nearly 84% ( n =617) of the Lmx1b-bound genomic intervals (LBIs) identified overlap with chromatin regulatory marks indicative of potential cis -regulatory modules (PCRMs). In addition, 73 LBIs mapped to CRMs that are known to be active during limb development. We compared Lmx1b-bound PCRMs with genes regulated by Lmx1b and found 292 PCRMs within 1 Mb of 254 Lmx1b-regulated genes. Gene ontological analysis suggests that Lmx1b targets extracellular matrix production, bone/joint formation, axonal guidance, vascular development, cell proliferation and cell movement. We validated the functional activity of a PCRM associated with joint-related Gdf5 that provides a mechanism for Lmx1b-mediated joint modification and a PCRM associated with Lmx1b that suggests a role in autoregulation. This is the first report to describe genome-wide Lmx1b binding during limb development, directly linking Lmx1b to targets that accomplish limb dorsalization. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Inflation targeting and core inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Smith

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the interaction of core inflation and inflation targeting as a monetary policy regime. Interest in core inflation has grown because of inflation targeting. Core inflation is defined in numerous ways giving rise to many potential measures; this paper defines core inflation as the best forecaster of inflation. A cross-country study finds before the start of inflation targeting, but not after, core inflation differs between non-inflation targeters and inflation targeters. Thr...

  7. Frequency of Tabagism and N34S and P55S Mutations of Serine Peptidase Inhibitor, Kazal Type 1 (SPINK1) and R254W Mutation of Chymotrypsin C (CTRC) in Patients With Chronic Pancreatitis and Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Marianges Zadrozny Gouvêa; Pires, Júlia Glória Lucatelli; Nasser, Paulo Dominguez; Ferreira, Camila da Silva; Teixeira, Ana Cristina de Sá; Paranaguá-Vezozzo, Denise Cerqueira; Guarita, Dulce Reis; Carrilho, Flair José; Ono, Suzane Kioko

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between chronic pancreatitis and smoking or genetic mutations. The study sample comprised 148 patients with chronic pancreatitis, 110 chronic alcoholic subjects without pancreatic disease, and 297 volunteer blood donors. Of the patients with chronic pancreatitis, 74% had alcoholic etiology and 26% had idiopathic pancreatitis. The frequency of smoking was 91.4% in patients with alcoholic pancreatitis, higher than 73.3% in alcoholic subjects without pancreatitis (P pancreatitis and blood donors. The N34S mutation of serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) was found in 2.7% of patients with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis, in 5.3% of patients with idiopathic pancreatitis, and in 0.4% of blood donors (P = 0.02). The P55S mutation of SPINK1 was found in 2.7% of patients with alcoholic pancreatitis and in 0.7% of blood donors (P = 0.12). The R254W mutation of chymotrypsin C was found in 0.9% of patients with alcoholic pancreatitis, in 0.9% of chronic alcoholic subjects without pancreatitis, and in 0.4% of blood donors (P = 0.75). In all cases, the mutations were heterozygous. Smoking and the N34S mutation of SPINK1 were positively correlated with chronic pancreatitis.

  8. Targeted therapy for sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forscher C

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Charles Forscher,1 Monica Mita,2 Robert Figlin3 1Sarcoma Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Experimental Therapeutics Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Academic Development Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, and Division of Hematology/Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Sarcomas are tumors of mesenchymal origin that make up approximately 1% of human cancers. They may arise as primary tumors in either bone or soft tissue, with approximately 11,280 soft tissue tumors and 2,650 bone tumors diagnosed each year in the United States. There are at least 50 different subtypes of soft tissue sarcoma, with new ones described with ever-increasing frequency. One way to look at sarcomas is to divide them into categories on the basis of their genetic make-up. One group of sarcomas has an identifiable, relatively simple genetic signature, such as the X:18 translocation seen in synovial sarcoma or the 11:22 translocation seen in Ewing's sarcoma. These specific abnormalities often lead to the presence of fusion proteins, such as EWS-FLI1 in Ewing's sarcoma, which are helpful as diagnostic tools and may become therapeutic targets in the future. Another group of sarcomas is characterized by complex genetic abnormalities as seen in leiomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and undifferentiated sarcoma. It is important to keep these distinctions in mind when contemplating the development of targeted agents for sarcomas. Different abnormalities in sarcoma could be divided by tumor subtype or by the molecular or pathway abnormality. However, some existing drugs or drugs in development may interfere with or alter more than one of the presented pathways. Keywords: sarcoma, targeted agents, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mTor inhibition

  9. Targeted mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osinalde, Nerea; Aloria, Kerman; Omaetxebarria, Miren J.

    2017-01-01

    Following the rapid expansion of the proteomics field, the investigation of post translational modifications (PTM) has become extremely popular changing our perspective of how proteins constantly fine tune cellular functions. Reversible protein phosphorylation plays a pivotal role in virtually all...... for becoming the method of choice to study with high precision and sensitivity already known site-specific phosphorylation events. This review summarizes the contribution of large-scale unbiased MS analyses and highlights the need of targeted MS-based approaches for follow-up investigation. Additionally...

  10. Fixed target beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V; Cettour-Cave, S; Cornelis, K; Fraser, M A; Gatignon, L; Goddard, B; Velotti, F

    2017-01-01

    The CERN SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) serves asLHC injector and provides beam for the North Area fixedtarget experiments. At low energy, the vertical acceptancebecomes critical with high intensity large emittance fixed tar-get beams. Optimizing the vertical available aperture is a keyingredient to optimize transmission and reduce activationaround the ring. During the 2016 run a tool was developed toprovide an automated local aperture scan around the entirering.The flux of particles slow extracted with the1/3inte-ger resonance from the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERNshould ideally be constant over the length of the extractionplateau, for optimum use of the beam by the fixed target ex-periments in the North Area. The extracted intensity is con-trolled in feed-forward correction of the horizontal tune viathe main SPS quadrupoles. The Mains power supply noiseat 50 Hz and harmonics is also corrected in feed-forwardby small amplitude tune modulation at the respective fre-quencies with a dedicated additional quad...

  11. 16 CFR 254.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... corporate charter to operate or license to do business as a school and should not be used unless the represented “approval” has been affirmatively required or authorized by State or Federal law. (c) Industry...

  12. 30 CFR 254.6 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dangerous or impossible to respond to a spill. Area Contingency Plan means an Area Contingency Plan prepared... Contingency Plan means the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan prepared and... Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (42 U.S.C. 9605). National Contingency Plan...

  13. Publications | Page 254 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Madagascar, the world's fourth largest island, is home to an astonishing range of life forms found nowhere else on the planet. Much of this biodiversity is highly vulnerable to climate change. So too are ... Blood on the Stone Ian Smillie in his own words. Below, Ian Smillie traces his involvement in the struggle to halt conflict ...

  14. Reference: 254 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available plant cell growth and identify a plant S-acyl transferase, an essential research tool if we are to unders...tand how this important, reversible lipid modification operates in plant cells. The

  15. 36 CFR 254.3 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of fish and wildlife habitats, cultural resources, watersheds, and wilderness and aesthetic values... use of the conveyed Federal land will not substantially conflict with established management... human health and the environment with respect to any such substances remaining on the property has been...

  16. 36 CFR 254.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., use, physical characteristics, and other amenities. Arbitration is a process to resolve a disagreement... public domain for national forest purposes and the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 (30 U.S.C. 1001 et seq.... Resource values means any of the various commodity values or non-commodity values, such as wildlife habitat...

  17. 36 CFR 254.9 - Appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP... contributory value of any interest in land such as water rights, minerals, or timber, to the extent they are... the physical characteristics of the land being appraised; a statement of all encumbrances; title...

  18. Publications | Page 254 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    restricted access). India''s trade policy has seen a marked shift towards regional trade agreements (RTAs). However, results of this survey show that a Generalized Scheme of Preferences (GSP) is a better preference-giving scheme than all of India''s ...

  19. 7 CFR 1944.254 - Program costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... supplies (including food) necessary to provide services; (iv) Operational costs of a transportation service... development of the application and plan of operations before the effective date of CHSP grant award; (vi...

  20. The Role of High Dose Interleukin-2 in the Era of Targeted Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gills, Jessie; Parker, William P; Pate, Scott; Niu, Sida; Van Veldhuizen, Peter; Mirza, Moben; Holzbeierlein, Jeffery M; Lee, Eugene K

    2017-09-01

    We assessed survival outcomes following high dose interleukin-2 in a contemporary cohort of patients during the era of targeted agents. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with high dose interleukin-2 between July 2007 and September 2014. Clinicopathological data were abstracted and patient response to therapy was based on RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors), version 1.1 criteria. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate progression-free and overall survival in the entire cohort, the response to high dose interleukin-2 in regard to previous targeted agent therapy and the response to the targeted agent in relation to the response to high dose interleukin-2. We identified 92 patients, of whom 87 had documentation of a response to high dose interleukin-2. Median overall survival was 34.4 months from the initiation of high dose interleukin-2 therapy in the entire cohort. Patients who received targeted therapy before high dose interleukin-2 had overall survival (median 34.4 and 30.0 months, p = 0.88) and progression-free survival (median 1.5 and 1.7 months, p = 0.8) similar to those in patients who received no prior therapy, respectively. Additionally, patients with a complete or partial response to high dose interleukin-2 had similar outcomes for subsequent targeted agents compared to patients whose best response was stable or progressive disease (median overall survival 30.1 vs 25.4 months, p = 0.4). Our data demonstrate that patient responses to high dose interleukin-2 and to targeted agents before and after receiving high dose interleukin-2 are independent. As such, carefully selected patients should be offered high dose interleukin-2 for the possibility of a complete and durable response without the fear of limiting the treatment benefit of targeted agents. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Aquaporin-2 membrane targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Emma T B; Fenton, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    The targeting of the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) to the apical plasma membrane of kidney collecting duct principal cells is regulated mainly by the antidiuretic peptide hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP). This process is of crucial importance for the maintenance of body water homeostasis...... of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) to the apical plasma membrane of collecting duct (CD) principal cells (10, 20). This process is mainly regulated by the actions of AVP on the type 2 AVP receptor (V2R), although the V1a receptor may also play a minor role (26). The V2R is classified within the group of 7-transmembrane....... For example, 1) stimulation with the nonspecific AC activator forskolin increases AQP2 membrane accumulation in a mouse cortical collecting duct cell line [e.g., Norregaard et al. (16)]; 2) cAMP increases CD water permeability (15); 3) the cAMP-activated protein kinase A (PKA) can phosphorylate AQP2 on its...

  2. ORION laser target diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K.

    2012-01-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  3. ORION laser target diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, C D; Edwards, R D; Andrew, J E; James, S F; Gardner, M D; Comley, A J; Vaughan, K; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Rothman, S D; Daykin, S; Masoero, S J; Palmer, J B; Meadowcroft, A L; Williams, B M; Gumbrell, E T; Fyrth, J D; Brown, C R D; Hill, M P; Oades, K; Wright, M J; Hood, B A; Kemshall, P

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  4. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available prospective map are the weights-of-evidence (WofE) method logistic regression canonical favorability analysis neural networks evidential belief functions Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote.... . . ): FITNESS FUNCTION φWMSD+V(Sn) = λ N(A) ∑ −→x ∈A P(−→x ) ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣−→x −QSn( −→x ) ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ +(1− λ)s2(OSn) , (2) where QSn( −→x ) is the location vector of an optimal exploration focal point in Sn nearest to −→x , and s2(OSn) is the variance...

  5. Bradycardia During Targeted Temperature Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Nielsen, Niklas; Hassager, Christian

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Bradycardia is common during targeted temperature management, likely being a physiologic response to lower body temperature, and has recently been associated with favorable outcome following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in smaller observational studies. The present study sought...... to confirm this finding in a large multicenter cohort of patients treated with targeted temperature management at 33°C and explore the response to targeted temperature management targeting 36°C. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of a prospective randomized study. SETTING: Thirty-six ICUs in 10 countries. PATIENTS......: We studied 447 (targeted temperature management = 33°C) and 430 (targeted temperature management = 36°C) comatose out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients with available heart rate data, randomly assigned in the targeted temperature management trial from 2010 to 2013. INTERVENTIONS: Targeted...

  6. Solid Polarized Targets and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabb, D. G.

    2008-01-01

    Examples are given of dynamically polarized targets in use today and how the subsystems have changed to meet the needs of todays experiments. Particular emphasis is placed on target materials such as ammonia and lithium deuteride. Recent polarization studies of irradiated materials such as butanol, deuterated butanol, polyethylene, and deuterated polyethylene are presented. The operation of two non-DNP target systems as well as applications of traditional DNP targets are briefly discussed

  7. Techniques for preparing isotopic targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guoji; Guan Shouren; Luo Xinghua; Sun Shuhua

    1987-12-01

    The techniques of making isotopic targets for nuclear physics experiments are introduced. Vacuum evaporation, electroplating, centrifugal precipitation, rolling and focused heavy-ion beam sputtering used to prepare various isotopic targets at IAE are described. Reduction-distillation with active metals and electrolytic reduction for converting isotope oxides to metals are mentioned. The stripping processes of producing self-supporting isotopic targets are summarized. The store methods of metallic targets are given

  8. Nova target diagnostics control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severyn, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    During the past year the Nova target diagnostics control system was finished and put in service. The diagnostics loft constructed to the north of the target room provides the environmental conditions required to collect reliable target diagnostic data. These improvements include equipment cooling and isolation of the power source with strict control of instrumentation grounds to eliminate data corruption due to electromagnetic pulses from the laser power-conditioning system or from target implosion effects

  9. Stanford polarized atomic beam target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavis, D.G.; Dunham, J.S.; Hugg, J.W.; Glavish, H.F.

    1976-01-01

    A polarized atomic beam source was used to produce an atomic hydrogen beam which was in turn used as a polarized proton target. A target density of 2 x 10'' atoms/cm 3 and a target polarization of 0.37 without the use of rf transitions were measured. These measurements indicate that a number of experiments are currently feasible with a variety of polarized target beams

  10. Targets for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauser, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes some of the basic principles of fusion target implosions, using some simple targets designed for irradiation by ion beams. Present estimates are that ion beams with 1-5 MJ, and 100-500 TW will be required to ignite high gain targets. (orig.) [de

  11. Beam heating of target foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corwin, W.C.

    1975-01-01

    A target rotator, built to reduce the effects of beam spot heating, is fully adjustable, holds three targets, is chamber independent, and takes up limited space. The expected temperature rise in the target is calculated from the Stefan--Boltzmann law

  12. Destruction of microcystins (cyanotoxins) by UV-254 nm-based direct photolysis and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs): influence of variable amino acids on the degradation kinetics and reaction mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuexiang; de la Cruz, Armah A; Hiskia, Anastasia; Kaloudis, Triantafyllos; O'Shea, Kevin; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2015-05-01

    Hepatotoxic microcystins (MCs) are the most frequently detected group of cyanobacterial toxins. This study investigated the degradation of common MC variants in water, MC-LR, MC-RR, MC-YR and MC-LA, by UV-254 nm-based processes, UV only, UV/H2O2, UV/S2O8(2-) and UV/HSO5(-). Limited direct photolysis of MCs was observed, while the addition of an oxidant significantly improved the degradation efficiency with an order of UV/S2O8(2-) > UV/HSO5(-) > UV/H2O2 at the same initial molar concentration of the oxidant. The removal of MC-LR by UV/H2O2 appeared to be faster than another cyanotoxin, cylindrospermopsin, at either the same initial molar concentration or the same initial organic carbon concentration of the toxin. It suggested a faster reaction of MC-LR with hydroxyl radical, which was further supported by the determined second-order rate constant of MCs with hydroxyl radical. Both isomerization and photohydration byproducts were observed in UV only process for all four MCs; while in UV/H2O2, hydroxylation and diene-Adda double bond cleavage byproducts were detected. The presence of a tyrosine in the structure of MC-YR significantly promoted the formation of monohydroxylation byproduct m/z 1061; while the presence of a second arginine in MC-RR led to the elimination of a guanidine group and the absence of double bond cleavage byproducts. It was therefore demonstrated in this study that the variable amino acids in the structure of MCs influenced not only the degradation kinetics but also the preferable reaction mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of Different CT Slice Thickness on Clinical Target Volume for 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, Ramachandran; Ganesh, Tharmar; Rath, Goura K.; Julka, Pramod K.; Sridhar, Pappiah S.; Joshi, Rakesh C.; Thulkar, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to present the variation of clinical target volume (CTV) with different computed tomography (CT) slice thicknesses and the impact of CT slice thickness on 3-dimensional (3D) conformal radiotherapy treatment planning. Fifty patients with brain tumors were selected and CT scans with 2.5-, 5-, and 10-mm slice thicknesses were performed with non-ionic contrast enhancement. The patients were selected with tumor volume ranging from 2.54 cc to 222 cc. Three-dimensional treatment planning was performed for all three CT datasets. The target coverage and the isocenter shift between the treatment plans for different slice thickness were correlated with the tumor volume. An important observation from our study revealed that for volume 25 cc, the target underdosage was less than 6.7% for 5-mm slice thickness and 8% for 10-mm slice thickness. For 3D conformal radiotherapy treatment planning (3DCRT), a CT slice thickness of 2.5 mm is optimum for tumor volume 25 cc

  14. Hypoxia targeting copper complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearling, J.L.

    1998-11-01

    The importance and incidence of tumour hypoxia, its measurement and current treatments available, including pharmacological and radiopharmacological methods of targeting hypoxia, are discussed. A variety of in vitro and in vivo methods for imposing hypoxia have been developed and are reviewed. Copper, its chemistry, biochemistry and radiochemistry, the potential for use of copper radionuclides and its use to date in this field is considered with particular reference to the thiosemicarbazones. Their biological activity, metal chelation, in vitro and in vivo studies of their radiocopper complexes and the potential for their use as hypoxia targeting radiopharmaceuticals is described. The reduction of the copper(II) complex to copper(l), its pivotal importance in their biological behaviour, and the potential for manipulation of this to effect hypoxia selectivity are described. An in vitro method for assessing the hypoxia selectivity of radiopharmaceuticals is reported. The rapid deoxygenation and high viability of a mammalian cell culture in this system is discussed and factors which may affect the cellular uptake of a radiopharmaceutical are described. The design, synthesis and complexation with copper and radiocopper of a range of bis(thiosemicarbazones) is reported. Synthesis of these compounds is simple giving high yields of pure products. The characteristics of the radiocopper complexes ( 64 Cu) including lipophilicity and redox activity are reported (reduction potentials in the range -0.314 - -0.590 V). High cellular uptakes of the radiocopper complexes of the ligands, in hypoxic and normoxic EMT6 and CHO320 cells, were observed. Extremes of selectivity are shown ranging from the hypoxia selective 64 Cu(II)ATSM to normoxic cell selective 64 Cu(II)GTS. The selectivities observed are compared with the physico chemical characteristics of the complexes. A good correlation exists between selectivity of the complex and its Cu(II)/Cu(I) reduction potential, with hypoxia

  15. Liquid hydrogen and deuterium targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougon, M.; Marquet, M.; Prugne, P.

    1961-01-01

    A description is given of 1) Atmospheric pressure target: liquid hydrogen, 400 mm thickness; thermal insulation: styrofoam; the hydrogen vapors are used to improve the target cooling; Mylar windows. 2) Vacuum target: 12 liter content: hydrogen or deuterium; liquid thickness 400 mm; thermal insulation is afforded by a vacuum vessel and a liquid nitrogen shield. Recovery and liquefaction of deuterium vapors are managed in the vacuum vessel which holds the target. The target emptying system is designed for operating in a few minutes. (author) [fr

  16. Oxide fuels and targets for transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudreau, F.; Bonnerot, J.M.; Warin, D.; Gaillard-Groleas, G.; Ferroud-Plattet, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Direction 1 of the French Act dated 30 December 1991 on the management of high-level, long-lived radioactive waste involves exploring solutions designed to separate long-lived radionuclides from the spent fuel and to transmute them under neutron flux into shorter half-lives or stable elements. In the French research programme conducted by CEA, these radionuclides are mainly minor actinides (americium, neptunium and curium) and fission products (particularly caesium, iodine and technetium). Within this context, this paper aims at illustrating the vast programme that CEA has performed in order to demonstrate the scientific and technical feasibility of minor actinide transmutation. An important part of the research was carried out in collaboration with French research (CNRS) and industrial (EDF, AREVA) organisations, and also in the framework of international co-operation programmes with the European Institute for Transuranium Elements in Karlsruhe (ITU), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute (now JAEA) and Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) and the Russian Ministry for Atomic Energy (ROSATOM). Such research made it possible to evaluate the capacity of MOX fuels to be used as a support for minor actinide transmutation (homogeneous method). Simulations of pressurised water reactor (PWR) fuels have revealed the limits of this transmutation method, which are mainly related to the pressurization of the fuel rods and the formation of high active californium. On the contrary, for sodium-cooled fast reactor fuels possibly designed with large expansion plenums a first experimental demonstration of the transmutation of americium and neptunium has been successful in the Phenix reactor. Various studies designed to demonstrate the theoretical and experimental feasibility of transmutation using an inert support (heterogeneous method) have been carried out in HFR (EFTTRA

  17. Isomeric Targets and Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganesyan, Yu.Ts.; Karamyan, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    One of the main topics of modern nuclear physics is the investigation of exotic nuclei including hyper-nuclei, trans fermium elements, proton and neutron rich isotopes near drip lines as well as high-spin excited states and states with anomalous deformation. The isomerism of nuclei is closely related with such phenomena as the alignment of single-particle orbitals, the coexistence of various deformations and the manifestation of intruder-levels from neighbouring shells. The investigation of electromagnetic and nuclear interactions of isomers could give important information on their shell structure and its role in the mechanism of nuclear reactions. For such experiments one can either make isomeric targets (sufficiently long-lived) or use the methods of acceleration of isomeric nuclei. Recently, an exotic 16 + four-quasiparticle isomer of 178 Hf m 2 was produced in a micro weight quantity and the first nuclear reactions on it were successfully observed. The talk describes these experiments as well as new ideas for the continuation of the studies and some advantageous ways for the isomeric beams production by the method of direct acceleration or by the secondary beam method. 35 refs., 15 figs., 8 tabs

  18. EURISOL High Power Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Kadi, Y; Lindroos, M; Ridikas, D; Stora, T; Tecchio, L; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    Modern Nuclear Physics requires access to higher yields of rare isotopes, that relies on further development of the In-flight and Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) production methods. The limits of the In-Flight method will be applied via the next generation facilities FAIR in Germany, RIKEN in Japan and RIBF in the USA. The ISOL method will be explored at facilities including ISAC-TRIUMF in Canada, SPIRAL-2 in France, SPES in Italy, ISOLDE at CERN and eventually at the very ambitious multi-MW EURISOL facility. ISOL and in-flight facilities are complementary entities. While in-flight facilities excel in the production of very short lived radioisotopes independently of their chemical nature, ISOL facilities provide high Radioisotope Beam (RIB) intensities and excellent beam quality for 70 elements. Both production schemes are opening vast and rich fields of nuclear physics research. In this article we will introduce the targets planned for the EURISOL facility and highlight some of the technical and safety cha...

  19. Molecularly targeted therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saw, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: It is generally agreed that current focus of nuclear medicine development should be on molecular imaging and therapy. Though, the widespread use of the terminology 'molecular imaging' is quite recent, nuclear medicine has used molecular imaging techniques for more than 20 years ago. A variety of radiopharmaceuticals have been introduced for the internal therapy of malignant and inflammatory lesions in nuclear medicine. In the field of bio/medical imaging, nuclear medicine is one of the disciplines which has the privilege of organized and well developed chemistry/ pharmacy section; radio-chemistry/radiopharmacy. Fundamental principles have been developed more than 40 years ago and advanced research is going well into postgenomic era. The genomic revolution and dramatically increased insight in the molecular mechanisms underlying pathology have led to paradigm shift in drug development. Likewise does in the nuclear medicine. Here, the author will present current clinical and pre-clinical therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals based on molecular targets such as membrane-bound receptors, enzymes, nucleic acids, sodium iodide symporter, etc, in correlation with fundamentals of radiopharmacy. (author)

  20. New type of metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukharov, A.V.; Ankudinov, V.B.; Ogorodnikov, V.P.; Marukhin, Y.A.

    2014-01-01

    Now the technologies based on interaction of high-intensity beams with substance of a target are being intensively developed. As a target it is possible to use the new type of monodisperse metal targets. The principal advantages of new targets type are: target cooling isn't required; there is no induced activity: the target can be used many times; small dispersion on the speed, the size and interaction points with a beam. The basis of a target is the jet of molten metal, following in the vacuum chamber .Under the influence of the special disturbance superimposed on the liquid jet, the jet disintegrated into identical drops. In the vacuum chamber the drops freeze and form into the solid granules. It is possible to receive monodisperse targets from different metals, alloys and salts (diameter of targets is from 30 .m to 1.5 mm). Dispersion by the sizes and speed is less than 1%. The technique allows to receive not only continuous targets, but also hollow targets with dispersion on thickness of wall within 1...2%.

  1. Using the Nova target chamber for high-yield targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The existing 2.2-m-radius Nova aluminum target chamber, coated and lined with boron-seeded carbon shields, is proposed for use with 1000-MJ-yield targets in the next laser facility. The laser beam and diagnostic holes in the target chamber are left open and the desired 10 -2 Torr vacuum is maintained both inside and outside the target chamber; a larger target chamber room is the vacuum barrier to the atmosphere. The hole area available is three times that necessary to maintain a maximum fluence below 12 J/cm 2 on optics placed at a radius of 10 m. Maximum stress in the target chamber wall is 73 MPa, which complies with the intent of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code. However, shock waves passing through the inner carbon shield could cause it to comminute. We propose tests and analyses to ensure that the inner carbon shield survives the environment. 13 refs

  2. The target effect: visual memory for unnamed search targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mark D; Williams, Carrick C

    2014-01-01

    Search targets are typically remembered much better than other objects even when they are viewed for less time. However, targets have two advantages that other objects in search displays do not have: They are identified categorically before the search, and finding them represents the goal of the search task. The current research investigated the contributions of both of these types of information to the long-term visual memory representations of search targets. Participants completed either a predefined search or a unique-object search in which targets were not defined with specific categorical labels before searching. Subsequent memory results indicated that search target memory was better than distractor memory even following ambiguously defined searches and when the distractors were viewed significantly longer. Superior target memory appears to result from a qualitatively different representation from those of distractor objects, indicating that decision processes influence visual memory.

  3. Immunotherapy Targets in Pediatric Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orentas, Rimas J.; Lee, Daniel W.; Mackall, Crystal, E-mail: rimas.orentas@nih.gov, E-mail: mackallc@mail.nih.gov [Pediatric Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2012-01-30

    Immunotherapy for cancer has shown increasing success and there is ample evidence to expect that progress gleaned in immune targeting of adult cancers can be translated to pediatric oncology. This manuscript reviews principles that guide selection of targets for immunotherapy of cancer, emphasizing the similarities and distinctions between oncogene-inhibition targets and immune targets. It follows with a detailed review of molecules expressed by pediatric tumors that are already under study as immune targets or are good candidates for future studies of immune targeting. Distinctions are made between cell surface antigens that can be targeted in an MHC independent manner using antibodies, antibody derivatives, or chimeric antigen receptors versus intracellular antigens which must be targeted with MHC restricted T cell therapies. Among the most advanced immune targets for childhood cancer are CD19 and CD22 on hematologic malignancies, GD2 on solid tumors, and NY-ESO-1 expressed by a majority of synovial sarcomas, but several other molecules reviewed here also have properties which suggest that they too could serve as effective targets for immunotherapy of childhood cancer.

  4. Immunotherapy Targets in Pediatric Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orentas, Rimas J.; Lee, Daniel W.; Mackall, Crystal

    2012-01-01

    Immunotherapy for cancer has shown increasing success and there is ample evidence to expect that progress gleaned in immune targeting of adult cancers can be translated to pediatric oncology. This manuscript reviews principles that guide selection of targets for immunotherapy of cancer, emphasizing the similarities and distinctions between oncogene-inhibition targets and immune targets. It follows with a detailed review of molecules expressed by pediatric tumors that are already under study as immune targets or are good candidates for future studies of immune targeting. Distinctions are made between cell surface antigens that can be targeted in an MHC independent manner using antibodies, antibody derivatives, or chimeric antigen receptors versus intracellular antigens which must be targeted with MHC restricted T cell therapies. Among the most advanced immune targets for childhood cancer are CD19 and CD22 on hematologic malignancies, GD2 on solid tumors, and NY-ESO-1 expressed by a majority of synovial sarcomas, but several other molecules reviewed here also have properties which suggest that they too could serve as effective targets for immunotherapy of childhood cancer.

  5. [Target volume margins for lung cancer: internal target volume/clinical target volume].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouin, A; Pourel, N

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a review of margins that should be used for the delineation of target volumes in lung cancer, with a focus on margins from gross tumour volume (GTV) to clinical target volume (CTV) and internal target volume (ITV) delineation. Our review was based on a PubMed literature search with, as a cornerstone, the 2010 European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) recommandations by De Ruysscher et al. The keywords used for the search were: radiotherapy, lung cancer, clinical target volume, internal target volume. The relevant information was categorized under the following headings: gross tumour volume definition (GTV), CTV-GTV margin (first tumoural CTV then nodal CTV definition), in field versus elective nodal irradiation, metabolic imaging role through the input of the PET scanner for tumour target volume and limitations of PET-CT imaging for nodal target volume definition, postoperative radiotherapy target volume definition, delineation of target volumes after induction chemotherapy; then the internal target volume is specified as well as tumoural mobility for lung cancer and respiratory gating techniques. Finally, a chapter is dedicated to planning target volume definition and another to small cell lung cancer. For each heading, the most relevant and recent clinical trials and publications are mentioned. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  6. Daniel Gallego Hernández (Ed.). Enfoques actuales en traducción económica e institucional. Actas del Congreso Internacional de Traducción Económica, Comercial, Financiera e Institucional. Suiça: Editorial Peter Lang, 2015. 254 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Tolosa Igualada

    2016-01-01

    Daniel Gallego-Hernández (ed.). Current Approaches to Business and Institutional Translation. Proceedings of the International Conference on Economic, Business, Financial and Institutional Translation / Enfoques actuales en traducción económica e institucional. Actas del Congreso Internacional de Traducción Económica, Comercial, Financiera e Institucional. Suíça: Peter Lang, 2015, 254 páginas. ISBN 978-3-0343-1656-9.

  7. Daniel Gallego Hernández (Ed.. Enfoques actuales en traducción económica e institucional. Actas del Congreso Internacional de Traducción Económica, Comercial, Financiera e Institucional. Suiça: Editorial Peter Lang, 2015. 254 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Tolosa Igualada

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2016v36n2p291 Daniel Gallego Hernández (Ed.. Enfoques actuales en traducción económica e institucional. Actas del Congreso Internacional de Traducción Económica, Comercial, Financiera e Institucional. Suiça: Editorial Peter Lang, 2015. 254 p.

  8. Facility target insert shielding assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-06

    Main objective of this report is to assess the basic shielding requirements for the vertical target insert and retrieval port. We used the baseline design for the vertical target insert in our calculations. The insert sits in the 12”-diameter cylindrical shaft extending from the service alley in the top floor of the facility all the way down to the target location. The target retrieval mechanism is a long rod with the target assembly attached and running the entire length of the vertical shaft. The insert also houses the helium cooling supply and return lines each with 2” diameter. In the present study we focused on calculating the neutron and photon dose rate fields on top of the target insert/retrieval mechanism in the service alley. Additionally, we studied a few prototypical configurations of the shielding layers in the vertical insert as well as on the top.

  9. Inertial-confinement-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are made as simple flat discs, as hollow shells or as complicated multilayer structures. Many techniques have been devised for producing the targets. Glass and metal shells are made by using drop and bubble techniques. Solid hydrogen shells are also produced by adapting old methods to the solution of modern problems. Some of these techniques, problems and solutions are discussed. In addition, the applications of many of the techniques to fabrication of ICF targets is presented

  10. Targeted Nanotechnology for Cancer Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, Randall; Bauer, Lisa; Hoimes, Christopher; Ghaghada, Ketan B.; Karathanasis, Efstathios

    2014-01-01

    Targeted nanoparticle imaging agents provide many benefits and new opportunities to facilitate accurate diagnosis of cancer and significantly impact patient outcome. Due to the highly engineerable nature of nanotechnology, targeted nanoparticles exhibit significant advantages including increased contrast sensitivity, binding avidity and targeting specificity. Considering the various nanoparticle designs and their adjustable ability to target a specific site and generate detectable signals, nanoparticles can be optimally designed in terms of biophysical interactions (i.e., intravascular and interstitial transport) and biochemical interactions (i.e., targeting avidity towards cancer-related biomarkers) for site-specific detection of very distinct microenvironments. This review seeks to illustrate that the design of a nanoparticle dictates its in vivo journey and targeting of hard-to-reach cancer sites, facilitating early and accurate diagnosis and interrogation of the most aggressive forms of cancer. We will report various targeted nanoparticles for cancer imaging using X-ray computed tomography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear imaging and optical imaging. Finally, to realize the full potential of targeted nanotechnology for cancer imaging, we will describe the challenges and opportunities for the clinical translation and widespread adaptation of targeted nanoparticles imaging agents. PMID:25116445

  11. Target imaging and backlighting diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaakobi, B.; Shvarts, D.; Marshall, F.J.; Epstein, R.; Su, Q.

    1995-01-01

    The expected backlighting and self-emission images of a particular CH target to be imploded on the Omega Upgrade are calculated for a variety of experimental parameters. It is shown that to overcome the problem of target self-emission, the image has to be monochromatized with a diffracting crystal. For the target studied, the two image components are then comparable in intensity and both provide useful information on target behavior. A particularly interesting feature is the appearance in the self-emission of a circular spike which closely delineates the fuel-shell interface, but requires high spatial resolution to be observed

  12. Literature evidence in open targets - a target validation platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafkas, Şenay; Dunham, Ian; McEntyre, Johanna

    2017-06-06

    We present the Europe PMC literature component of Open Targets - a target validation platform that integrates various evidence to aid drug target identification and validation. The component identifies target-disease associations in documents and ranks the documents based on their confidence from the Europe PMC literature database, by using rules utilising expert-provided heuristic information. The confidence score of a given document represents how valuable the document is in the scope of target validation for a given target-disease association by taking into account the credibility of the association based on the properties of the text. The component serves the platform regularly with the up-to-date data since December, 2015. Currently, there are a total number of 1168365 distinct target-disease associations text mined from >26 million PubMed abstracts and >1.2 million Open Access full text articles. Our comparative analyses on the current available evidence data in the platform revealed that 850179 of these associations are exclusively identified by literature mining. This component helps the platform's users by providing the most relevant literature hits for a given target and disease. The text mining evidence along with the other types of evidence can be explored visually through https://www.targetvalidation.org and all the evidence data is available for download in json format from https://www.targetvalidation.org/downloads/data .

  13. Degradation kinetics and mechanism of β-lactam antibiotics by the activation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8} under UV-254 nm irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Xuexiang [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Nireas-International Water Research Centre, School of Engineering, University of Cyprus, PO Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Mezyk, Stephen P. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, California State University Long Beach, 1250 Bellflower Blvd., Long Beach, CA 90840 (United States); Michael, Irene; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Nireas-International Water Research Centre, School of Engineering, University of Cyprus, PO Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Dionysiou, Dionysios D., E-mail: dionysios.d.dionysiou@uc.edu [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Nireas-International Water Research Centre, School of Engineering, University of Cyprus, PO Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Removal efficiency was comparable at different UV fluence rates but same fluence. • Reducing pH to 3 or 2 did not inhibit the removal of nitrobenzene by UV/S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−}. • 1.84 × 10{sup −14} M [HO{sup •} ]{sub ss} and 3.10 × 10{sup −13} M [SO{sub 4}{sup •} {sup −}]{sub ss} in UV/S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−} were estimated. • HO{sup •} reacted faster with the β-lactams than SO{sub 4}{sup •} {sup −} but sharing similar byproducts. • Transformation pathways included hydroxylation, hydrolysis and decarboxylation. - Abstract: The extensive production and usage of antibiotics have led to an increasing occurrence of antibiotic residuals in various aquatic compartments, presenting a significant threat to both ecosystem and human health. This study investigated the degradation of selected β-lactam antibiotics (penicillins: ampicillin, penicillin V, and piperacillin; cephalosporin: cephalothin) by UV-254 nm activated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−} photochemical processes. The UV irradiation alone resulted in various degrees of direct photolysis of the antibiotics; while the addition of the oxidants improved significantly the removal efficiency. The steady-state radical concentrations were estimated, revealing a non-negligible contribution of hydroxyl radicals in the UV/S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−} system. Mineralization of the β-lactams could be achieved at high UV fluence, with a slow formation of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and a much lower elimination of total organic carbon (TOC). The transformation mechanisms were also investigated showing the main reaction pathways of hydroxylation (+16 Da) at the aromatic ring and/or the sulfur atom, hydrolysis (+18 Da) at the β-lactam ring and decarboxylation (–44 Da) for the three penicillins. Oxidation of amine group was also observed for ampicillin. This study suggests that UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and UV/S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−} advanced

  14. Degradation kinetics and mechanism of β-lactam antibiotics by the activation of H2O2 and Na2S2O8 under UV-254 nm irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Xuexiang; Mezyk, Stephen P.; Michael, Irene; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Dionysiou, Dionysios D.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Removal efficiency was comparable at different UV fluence rates but same fluence. • Reducing pH to 3 or 2 did not inhibit the removal of nitrobenzene by UV/S 2 O 8 2− . • 1.84 × 10 −14 M [HO • ] ss and 3.10 × 10 −13 M [SO 4 • − ] ss in UV/S 2 O 8 2− were estimated. • HO • reacted faster with the β-lactams than SO 4 • − but sharing similar byproducts. • Transformation pathways included hydroxylation, hydrolysis and decarboxylation. - Abstract: The extensive production and usage of antibiotics have led to an increasing occurrence of antibiotic residuals in various aquatic compartments, presenting a significant threat to both ecosystem and human health. This study investigated the degradation of selected β-lactam antibiotics (penicillins: ampicillin, penicillin V, and piperacillin; cephalosporin: cephalothin) by UV-254 nm activated H 2 O 2 and S 2 O 8 2− photochemical processes. The UV irradiation alone resulted in various degrees of direct photolysis of the antibiotics; while the addition of the oxidants improved significantly the removal efficiency. The steady-state radical concentrations were estimated, revealing a non-negligible contribution of hydroxyl radicals in the UV/S 2 O 8 2− system. Mineralization of the β-lactams could be achieved at high UV fluence, with a slow formation of SO 4 2− and a much lower elimination of total organic carbon (TOC). The transformation mechanisms were also investigated showing the main reaction pathways of hydroxylation (+16 Da) at the aromatic ring and/or the sulfur atom, hydrolysis (+18 Da) at the β-lactam ring and decarboxylation (–44 Da) for the three penicillins. Oxidation of amine group was also observed for ampicillin. This study suggests that UV/H 2 O 2 and UV/S 2 O 8 2− advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are capable of degrading β-lactam antibiotics decreasing consequently the antibiotic activity of treated waters

  15. Internal Targeting and External Control: Phototriggered Targeting in Nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrue, Lily; Ratjen, Lars

    2017-12-07

    The photochemical control of structure and reactivity bears great potential for chemistry, biology, and life sciences. A key feature of photochemistry is the spatiotemporal control over secondary events. Well-established applications of photochemistry in medicine are photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photopharmacology (PP). However, although both are highly localizable through the application of light, they lack cell- and tissue-specificity. The combination of nanomaterial-based drug delivery and targeting has the potential to overcome limitations for many established therapy concepts. Even more privileged seems the merger of nanomedicine and cell-specific targeting (internal targeting) controlled by light (external control), as it can potentially be applied to many different areas of medicine and pharmaceutical research, including the aforementioned PDT and PP. In this review a survey of the interface of photochemistry, medicine and targeted drug delivery is given, especially focusing on phototriggered targeting in nanomedicine. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Radiopharmaceuticals targeting melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, T.Q.; Berghofer, P.; Liu, X.; Greguric, I.; Dikic, B.; Ballantyne, P.; Mattner, F.; Nguyen, V.; Loc' h, C.; Katsifis, A. [Radiopharmaceuticals Research Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, N.S.W., Sydney (Australia)

    2008-02-15

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers known with a high rate of mortality and increasing global incidence. So, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for either diagnostic or therapeutic purposes could make enormous contributions to melanoma patient health care. We have been studying melanoma tumours through several targeting mechanisms including melanin or specific receptor based radiopharmaceuticals Structure activity studies indicate that the substitution patterns on radioiodinated benzamides significantly influence the uptake mechanism from melanin to sigma-receptor binding. Furthermore, the position of the iodine as well as the presence of key functional groups and substituents has resulted in compounds with varying degrees of activity uptake and retention in tumours. From these results, a novel molecule 2-(2-(4-(4-iodo benzyl)piperazin-1-yl)-2-oxo-ethyl)isoindoline- 1,3-dione (M.E.L.037) was synthesized, labelled with iodine-123 and evaluated for application in melanoma tumour scintigraphy and radiotherapy. The tumour imaging potential of {sup 123}IM.E.L.037 was studied in vivo in C.57 B.L./ 6 J female mice bearing the B.16 F.0. murine melanoma tumour and in BALB/c nude mice bearing the A.375 human amelanotic melanoma tumour by biodistribution, competition studies and by SPECT imaging. {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037 exhibited high and rapid uptake in the B.16 F.0 melanoma tumour at 1 h (13 % I.D./g) increasing with time to reach 25 % I.D./g at 6 h. A significant uptake was also observed in the eyes (2% I.D., at 3-6 h p.i.) of black mice. No uptake was observed in the tumour or in the eyes of nude mice bearing the A.375 tumour. Due to high uptake and long retention in the tumour and rapid body clearance, standardized uptake values(S.U.V.) of {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037 were 30 and 60, at 24 and 48 h p.i.,respectively. SPECT imaging of mice bearing the B.16 melanoma indicated the radioactivity was predominately located in the tumour followed by the eyes, while no

  17. Target support for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.

    1995-08-01

    General Atomics (GA) plays an important industrial support role for the US Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program in the area of target technology. This includes three major activities: target fabrication support, target handling systems development, and target chamber design. The work includes target fabrication for existing ICF experiments, target and target system development for future experiments, and target research and target chamber design for experiments on future machines, such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

  18. Target recognition by wavelet transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhengdong; He Wuliang; Zheng Xiaodong; Cheng Jiayuan; Peng Wen; Pei Chunlan; Song Chen

    2002-01-01

    Wavelet transform has an important character of multi-resolution power, which presents pyramid structure, and this character coincides the way by which people distinguish object from coarse to fineness and from large to tiny. In addition to it, wavelet transform benefits to reducing image noise, simplifying calculation, and embodying target image characteristic point. A method of target recognition by wavelet transform is provided

  19. High performance inertial fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.; Bangerter, R.O.; Lindl, J.D.; Mead, W.C.; Pan, Y.L.

    1978-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target designs are considered which may have very high gains (approximately 1000) and low power requirements (< 100 TW) for input energies of approximately one megajoule. These include targets having very low density shells, ultra thin shells, central ignitors, magnetic insulation, and non-ablative acceleration

  20. Treating rheumatoid arthritis to target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolen, Josef S; Breedveld, Ferdinand C; Burmester, Gerd R

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reaching the therapeutic target of remission or low-disease activity has improved outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) significantly. The treat-to-target recommendations, formulated in 2010, have provided a basis for implementation of a strategic approach towards this t...

  1. Spinning targets for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, D.E.; Ryutov, D.D.

    1995-09-01

    Several techniques for spinning the ICF targets up prior to or in the course of their compression are suggested. Interference of the rotational shear flow with Rayleigh-Taylor instability is briefly discussed and possible consequences for the target performance are pointed out

  2. Multiple Target Laser Designator (MTLD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Optimized Liquid Crystal Scanning Element Optimize the Nonimaging Predictive Algorithm for Target Ranging, Tracking, and Position Estimation...commercial potential. 3.0 PROGRESS THIS QUARTER 3.1 Optimization of Nonimaging Holographic Antenna for Target Tracking and Position Estimation (Task 6) In

  3. Scheduling with target start times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, J.A.; Velde, van de S.L.; Klein Haneveld, W.K.; Vrieze, O.J.; Kallenberg, L.C.M.

    1997-01-01

    We address the single-machine problem of scheduling n independent jobs subject to target start times. Target start times are essentially release times that may be violated at a certain cost. The goal is to minimize an objective function that is composed of total completion time and maximum

  4. Optimum target thickness for polarimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnik, I.M.

    2003-01-01

    Polarimeters with thick targets are a tool to measure the proton polarization. But the question about the optimum target thickness is still the subject of discussion. An attempt to calculate the most common parameters concerning this problem, in a few GeV region, is made

  5. Target-Searching on Percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shijie

    2005-01-01

    We study target-searching processes on a percolation, on which a hunter tracks a target by smelling odors it emits. The odor intensity is supposed to be inversely proportional to the distance it propagates. The Monte Carlo simulation is performed on a 2-dimensional bond-percolation above the threshold. Having no idea of the location of the target, the hunter determines its moves only by random attempts in each direction. For lager percolation connectivity p ∼> 0.90, it reveals a scaling law for the searching time versus the distance to the position of the target. The scaling exponent is dependent on the sensitivity of the hunter. For smaller p, the scaling law is broken and the probability of finding out the target significantly reduces. The hunter seems trapped in the cluster of the percolation and can hardly reach the goal.

  6. Targeted marketing and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Sonya A; Kumanyika, Shiriki

    2010-01-01

    Targeted marketing techniques, which identify consumers who share common needs or characteristics and position products or services to appeal to and reach these consumers, are now the core of all marketing and facilitate its effectiveness. However, targeted marketing, particularly of products with proven or potential adverse effects (e.g., tobacco, alcohol, entertainment violence, or unhealthful foods) to consumer segments defined as vulnerable raises complex concerns for public health. It is critical that practitioners, academics, and policy makers in marketing, public health, and other fields recognize and understand targeted marketing as a specific contextual influence on the health of children and adolescents and, for different reasons, ethnic minority populations and other populations who may benefit from public health protections. For beneficial products, such understanding can foster more socially productive targeting. For potentially harmful products, understanding the nature and scope of targeted marketing influences will support identification and implementation of corrective policies.

  7. The Bering Target Tracking Instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz; Jørgensen, John Leif; Betto, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    The key science instrument on the Bering satellite mission is a relative small telescope with an entrance aperture of 300 mm and a focal length between 500 and 1000 mm. The detection of potential targets is performed by one of the target scanning advanced stellar compasses (ASCs). This procedure...... results in a simple prioritized list of right ascension, declination, proper motion and intensity of each prospective target. The telescope itself has a dedicated ASC Camera Head Unit (CHU) mounted on the secondary mirror, largely co-aligned with the telescope. This CHU accurately determines the telescope......'s pointing direction. To achieve fast tracking over a large solid angle, the telescope pointing is achieved by means of a folding mirror in the optical pathway. When a prospective target approaches the telescope FOV, the ASC on the secondary will guide the folding mirror into position such that the target...

  8. Legal Issues in Cyber Targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhlin, Jonas Alastair

    Imagine this scenario: Two states are in armed conflict with each other. In order to gain an advantage, one side launches a cyber-attack against the opponent’s computer network. The malicious malware paralyze the military computer network, as intended, but the malware spreads into the civilian...... system with physical damage to follow. This can happen and the natural question arises: What must be considered lawful targeting according to the international humanitarian law in cyber warfare? What steps must an attacker take to minimize the damage done to unlawful targets when conducting an offensive...... operation? How can the attacker separate military targets from civilian targets in cyber space? This paper addresses these questions and argues that a network (civilian or military) consist of several software components and that it is the individual components that is the target. If the components are used...

  9. Gas target neutron generator studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatoorgoon, V.

    1978-01-01

    The need for an intense neutron source for the study of radiation damage on materials has resulted in the proposal of various solid, liquid, and gas targets. Among the gas targets proposed have been the transonic gas target, two types of hypersonic gas target, and the subsonic gas target (SGT). It has been suggested that heat deposition in a subsonic channel might create a gas density step which would constitute an attractive gas target type. The first part of the present study examines this aspect of the SGT and shows that gas density gradients are indeed formed by heat deposition in subsonic flow. The variation of beam voltage, gas density, gas pressure, and gas temperature within the channel have been calculated as functions of the system parameters: beam voltage, beam current, channel diameter, stagnation tank temperature and pressure. The analysis is applicable to any beam particle and target gas. For the case of T + on D 2 , which is relevant to the fusion application, the 14 MeV neutron profiles are presented as a function of system parameters. It is found that the SGT is compatible with concentrated intense source operation. The possibility of instability was investigated in detail using a non-linear analysis which made it possible to follow the complete time development of the SGT. It was found that the SGT is stable against all small perturbations and certain types of large perturbations. It appears that the SGT is the most advantageous type of gas target, operating at a lower mass flow and less severe stagnation tank conditions than the other types. The second part of the thesis examines a problem associated with the straight hypersonic target, the deuterium spill into the tritium port. The regime of practical operation for this target is established. (auth)

  10. The protective cell petrus for the production of californium 252; Cellule blindee petrus pour la production et l'etude du californium 252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sontag, R; Berger, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The alpha, beta, gamma, neutron cell which is described in the present paper is devoted to the transplutonium element production and study. It is located at the CEN in Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). The 4 feet ordinary concrete shielding made of stacked blocs allows the manipulation of radioactive sources as high as 1000 curies of 1 MeV gamma rays and with a fast neutrons flux of 10{sup 9} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1}. The airtight alpha containment box is equipped with two transfer systems, one consists of a parallelepiped shaped airtight box located in a turntable, the other uses standard cylindrical containers made of polyethylene. The general equipment and the main setting up are also described. (authors) [French] La cellule alpha, beta, gamma, neutron, qui fait l'objet du present article, est destinee a la production et a l'etude des elements transplutoniens. Elle est construite au C.E.N. de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). La protection biologique, calculee pour une activite de 1000 curies de rayonnement gamma d'energie 1 MeV accompagnee d'un flux de neutrons rapides de 10{sup 9}/cm{sup 2}s, est constituee par des parois en beton de 1,20 m d'epaisseur. L'enceinte alpha est une boite etanche qui comporte devx systemes de transferts: l'un consiste en une boite parallelepipedique etanche logee dans un barillet, l'autre fait appel a des recipients cylindriques standard en polyethylene. L'equipement general et les installations les plus importantes sont ensuite decrits. (auteurs)

  11. Target Selection and Deselection at the Berkeley StructuralGenomics Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandonia, John-Marc; Kim, Sung-Hou; Brenner, Steven E.

    2005-03-22

    At the Berkeley Structural Genomics Center (BSGC), our goalis to obtain a near-complete structural complement of proteins in theminimal organisms Mycoplasma genitalium and M. pneumoniae, two closelyrelated pathogens. Current targets for structure determination have beenselected in six major stages, starting with those predicted to be mosttractable to high throughput study and likely to yield new structuralinformation. We report on the process used to select these proteins, aswell as our target deselection procedure. Target deselection reducesexperimental effort by eliminating targets similar to those recentlysolved by the structural biology community or other centers. We measurethe impact of the 69 structures solved at the BSGC as of July 2004 onstructure prediction coverage of the M. pneumoniae and M. genitaliumproteomes. The number of Mycoplasma proteins for which thefold couldfirst be reliably assigned based on structures solved at the BSGC (24 M.pneumoniae and 21 M. genitalium) is approximately 25 percent of the totalresulting from work at all structural genomics centers and the worldwidestructural biology community (94 M. pneumoniae and 86M. genitalium)during the same period. As the number of structures contributed by theBSGC during that period is less than 1 percent of the total worldwideoutput, the benefits of a focused target selection strategy are apparent.If the structures of all current targets were solved, the percentage ofM. pneumoniae proteins for which folds could be reliably assigned wouldincrease from approximately 57 percent (391 of 687) at present to around80 percent (550 of 687), and the percentage of the proteome that could beaccurately modeled would increase from around 37 percent (254 of 687) toabout 64 percent (438 of 687). In M. genitalium, the percentage of theproteome that could be structurally annotated based on structures of ourremaining targets would rise from 72 percent (348 of 486) to around 76percent (371 of 486), with the

  12. Preparation of thin nuclear targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggleton, A.H.F.

    1979-03-01

    Thin film backings, sources and targets are needed for many applications in low energy nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry experiments. A survey of techniques used in the preparation of nuclear targets is first briefly discussed. These are classified as chemical, mechanical and physical preparations. Vacuum evaporation, being the most generally used technique, is discussed in detail. It is highly desirable to monitor the film thickness and control the deposition rate during evaporation and to measure the final target thickness after deposition has concluded. The relative merits of various thickness measuring techniques are described. Stages in the fabrication and mounting of self-supporting foils are described in detail, with emphasis given to the preparation of thin self-supporting carbon foils used as target backings and stripper foils. Various target backings, and the merits of the more generally used release agents are described in detail. The preparations of more difficult elemental targets are discussed, and a comprehensive list of the common targets is presented

  13. Spallation source neutron target systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, G.; Brown, R.; Collier, M.; Donahue, J.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report for a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project sought to design a next-generation spallation source neutron target system for the Manuel Lujan, Jr., Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) at Los Alamos. It has been recognized for some time that new advanced neutron sources are needed in the US if the country is to maintain a competitive position in several important scientific and technological areas. A recent DOE panel concluded that the proposed Advanced Neutron Source (a nuclear reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and a high-power pulsed spallation source are both needed in the near future. One of the most technically challenging designs for a spallation source is the target station itself and, more specifically, the target-moderator-reflector arrangement. Los Alamos has demonstrated capabilities in designing, building, and operating high-power spallation-neutron-source target stations. Most of the new design ideas proposed worldwide for target system design for the next generation pulsed spallation source have either been conceived and implemented at LANSCE or proposed by LANSCE target system designers. These concepts include split targets, flux-trap moderators, back scattering and composite moderators, and composite reflectors

  14. Simulations of effusion from ISOL target/ion source systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustapha, B.; Nolen, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of the low- and high-conductivity Target/Ion Source systems used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for effusion measurements are performed. Comparisons with the corresponding experimental data for the different geometries are presented and discussed. Independent checks of the simulation using data for simple geometries and using the conductance approach well known in vacuum technology are performed. A simulation-based comparison between the low- and high-conductivity systems is also presented

  15. PENETAPAN TARGET TERHADAP STICKINESS COST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windyastuti Windyastuti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the influence of manager targeting to the stickiness cost. The research data was amanufacturing company’s financial statements during 1999-2011 published at BEI. The research data includedcost of sales, administration and general, net sales and Price Earnings Ratio (PER. This study used adynamic panel data regression analysis. The results showed that cost of sales, administration and general weresticky. Furthermore, manager targeting caused the stickiness degree of sales, administration and general costlower. Manager targeting changed the manager’s behavior. When the net sales declined, manager reduced theresource use drastically so the cost of sales, administration and general also decreased drastically.

  16. Development of targeted radiotherapy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, Guillermina; Villarreal, Jose E.; Garcia, Laura; Tendilla, Jose I.; Paredes, Lydia; Murphy, Consuelo A.; Pedraza, Martha

    2001-01-01

    Conventional or external beam radiotherapy, has been a viable alternative for cancer treatment. Although this technique is effective, its use is limited if the patient has multiple malignant lesions (metastases). An alternative approach is based on the design of radiopharmaceuticals that, to be administered in the patient, are directed specifically toward the target cell producing a selective radiation delivery. This treatment is known as targeted radiotherapy. We have summarized and discussed some results related to our investigations on the development of targeted radiotherapy systems, including aspects of internal dosimetry

  17. Treating rheumatoid arthritis to target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolen, Josef S; Aletaha, Daniel; Bijlsma, Johannes W J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aiming at therapeutic targets has reduced the risk of organ failure in many diseases such as diabetes or hypertension. Such targets have not been defined for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). OBJECTIVE: /st> To develop recommendations for achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes in RA. METHODS....... Levels of evidence, strength of recommendations and levels of agreement were derived. RESULTS: The treat-to-target activity resulted in 10 recommendations. The treatment aim was defined as remission with low disease activity being an alternative goal in patients with long-standing disease. Regular follow...

  18. A Cryogenic Infrared Calibration Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollack, E. J.; Kinzer, R. E., Jr.; Rinehart, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    A compact cryogenic calibration target is presented that has a peak diffuse reflectance, R target. The resulting target assembly is lightweight, has a low-geometric profile, and has survived repeated thermal cycling from room temperature to approx.4 K. Basic design considerations, governing equations, and test data for realizing the structure described are provided. The optical properties of selected absorptive materials-Acktar Fractal Black, Aeroglaze Z306, and Stycast 2850 FT epoxy loaded with stainless steel powder-are characterized and presented

  19. Obstacles to Effective Joint Targeting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patch, John

    2007-01-01

    .... Notwithstanding the most precise and capable weaponry ever, any targeting effort absent coherent strategy or executed outside the art and rules of war can spell campaign defeat even amidst tactical successes...

  20. Immunotherapy Targets Common Cancer Mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a study of an immune therapy for colorectal cancer that involved a single patient, researchers identified a method for targeting the cancer-causing protein produced by a mutant form of the KRAS gene.

  1. Tracking Target and Spiral Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Flemming G.; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads

    2002-01-01

    A new algorithm for analyzing the evolution of patterns of spiral and target waves in large aspect ratio chemical systems is introduced. The algorithm does not depend on finding the spiral tip but locates the center of the pattern by a new concept, called the spiral focus, which is defined...... by the evolutes of the actual spiral or target wave. With the use of Gaussian smoothing, a robust method is developed that permits the identification of targets and spirals foci independently of the wave profile. Examples of an analysis of long image sequences from experiments with the Belousov......–Zhabotinsky reaction catalyzed by ruthenium-tris-bipyridyl are presented. Moving target and spiral foci are found, and the speed and direction of movement of single as well as double spiral foci are investigated. For the experiments analyzed in this paper it is found that the movement of a focus correlates with foci...

  2. Obstacles to Effective Joint Targeting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patch, John

    2007-01-01

    No foe can beat the modern-day American military machine in combined arms warfare, yet this machine is subject to strategic targeting vulnerabilities that military and policy leaders would do well to appreciate...

  3. Vascular targeting with peptide libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, R. [La Jolla Cancer Research Center The Burnham Inst., La Jolla CA (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The authors have developed an 'in vivo' selection system in which phage capable of selective homing to different tissues are recovered from a phage display peptide library following intravenous administration. Using this strategy, they have isolate several organ and tumor-homing peptides. They have shown that each of those peptides binds of different receptors that are selectively expressed on the vasculature of the target tissue. The tumor-homing peptides bind to receptors that are up regulated in tumor angiogenic vasculature. Targeted delivery of doxorubicin to angiogenic vasculature using these peptides in animals models decrease toxicity and increased the therapeutic efficacy of the drug. Vascular targeting may facilitate the development of other treatment strategies that rely on inhibition of angio genesis and lead to advances to extend the potential for targeting of drugs, genes and radionuclides in the context of many diseases.

  4. Navy Advertising: Targeting Generation Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT NAVY ADVERTISING : TARGETING GENERATION Z December......study recommends improvements for Navy advertising efficiency by examining characteristics of recruits defined as Generation Z. Data gathered from five

  5. Physics of Automatic Target Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Sadjadi, Firooz

    2007-01-01

    Physics of Automatic Target Recognition addresses the fundamental physical bases of sensing, and information extraction in the state-of-the art automatic target recognition field. It explores both passive and active multispectral sensing, polarimetric diversity, complex signature exploitation, sensor and processing adaptation, transformation of electromagnetic and acoustic waves in their interactions with targets, background clutter, transmission media, and sensing elements. The general inverse scattering, and advanced signal processing techniques and scientific evaluation methodologies being used in this multi disciplinary field will be part of this exposition. The issues of modeling of target signatures in various spectral modalities, LADAR, IR, SAR, high resolution radar, acoustic, seismic, visible, hyperspectral, in diverse geometric aspects will be addressed. The methods for signal processing and classification will cover concepts such as sensor adaptive and artificial neural networks, time reversal filt...

  6. Inertial-confinement-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    Much of the research in laser fusion has been done using simple ball on-stalk targets filled with a deuterium-tritium mixture. The targets operated in the exploding pusher mode in which the laser energy was delivered in a very short time (approx. 100 ps or less) and was absorbed by the glass wall of the target. The high energy density in the glass literally exploded the shell with the inward moving glass compressing the DT fuel to high temperatures and moderate densities. Temperatures achieved were high enough to produce DT reactions and accompanying thermonuclear neutrons and alpha particles. The primary criteria imposed on the target builders were: (1) wall thickness, (2) sphere diameter, and (3) fuel in the sphere

  7. Targeted intraoperative radiotherapy in oncology

    CERN Document Server

    Keshtgar, Mohammed; Wenz, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    Targeted intraoperative radiotherapy is a major advance in the management of cancer patients. With an emphasis on practical aspects, this book offers an ideal introduction to this innovative  technology for clinicians.

  8. Special hydrogen target (Prop. 210)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, C.E.

    1979-11-01

    This guide contains a description of the electrical control and automatic vacuum systems for the Special Hydrogen Target (Prop. 210) together with the flow diagram and the mimic control panel layout for the system. (U.K.)

  9. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wavrik, R W; Cox, J R; Fleming, P J

    2000-01-01

    On June 11, 1999 the Department of Energy dedicated the single largest piece of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The ten (10) meter diameter aluminum target high vacuum chamber will serve as the working end of the largest laser in the world. The output of 192 laser beams will converge at the precise center of the chamber. The laser beams will enter the chamber in two by two arrays to illuminate 10 millimeter long gold cylinders called hohlraums enclosing 2 millimeter capsule containing deuterium, tritium and isotopes of hydrogen. The two isotopes will fuse, thereby creating temperatures and pressures resembling those found only inside stars and in detonated nuclear weapons, but on a minute scale. The NIF Project will serve as an essential facility to insure safety and reliability of our nation's nuclear arsenal as well as demonstrating inertial fusion's contribution to creating electrical power. The paper will discuss the requirements that had to be addressed during the design, fabrication and testing of the target chamber. A team from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and LLNL with input from industry performed the configuration and basic design of the target chamber. The method of fabrication and construction of the aluminum target chamber was devised by Pitt-Des Moines, Inc. (PDM). PDM also participated in the design of the chamber in areas such as the Target Chamber Realignment and Adjustment System, which would allow realignment of the sphere laser beams in the event of earth settlement or movement from a seismic event. During the fabrication of the target chamber the sphericity tolerances had to be addressed for the individual plates. Procedures were developed for forming, edge preparation and welding of individual plates. Construction plans were developed to allow the field construction of the target chamber to occur parallel to other NIF construction activities. This was

  10. Theoretical aspects of inflation targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflation targeting is one of the possible strategies used by central banks during conducting monetary policy. The basic characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of inflation targeting will be presented in this paper. The focus is on the the presentation and interpretation of the understanding of this strategy from the perspective of monetarist and Keynesian theory, the theory of rational expectations, and methodological analysis of the strategy in light of the game theory using payoff matrix.

  11. Targeting Splicing in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Effrosyni Antonopoulou; Michael Ladomery

    2018-01-01

    Over 95% of human genes are alternatively spliced, expressing splice isoforms that often exhibit antagonistic functions. We describe genes whose alternative splicing has been linked to prostate cancer; namely VEGFA, KLF6, BCL2L2, ERG, and AR. We discuss opportunities to develop novel therapies that target specific splice isoforms, or that target the machinery of splicing. Therapeutic approaches include the development of small molecule inhibitors of splice factor kinases, splice isoform speci...

  12. Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-16-1-0472 TITLE: Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Lawrence Fong CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0473 (Ashworth) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Eric Collisson, David Quigley...for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT We performed the screen of gastric cancer cell lines for their

  13. Targeting Quiescence in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0413 TITLE: Targeting Quiescence in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Laura Buttitta CONTRACTING...Quiescence in Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting uiescence in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0413 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT A major problem in prostate cancer is finding and eliminating the non-proliferating or “quiescent” cancer cells. This is because early

  14. Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-16-1-0470 TITLE: Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yelena Janjigian CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research New York, NY 10065 REPORT DATE: October 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical...Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0473 (Ashworth) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Eric Collisson, David

  15. Gas target with thin wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenchenko, A.S.; Korenchenko, S.M.; Kravchuk, N.P.; Filippov, A.I.; Fursov, A.P.

    1992-01-01

    The technology of targets manufacture with thin wall diameter 100 mm and lengthwise 700 mm from composition kevlar + epoxy resin is described. The test's results on pressure and vacuum are reported. The created targets are supposed to be used on the installation ARES for an investigation of muons and pions interactions with light nuclei and rare pions decay 'on flying'. 5 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  16. Targeted immunotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this issue of Blood, Rothe et al introduce a new principle of targeted Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) immunotherapy in their report from a phase 1 study of the bispecific anti-CD30/CD16A antibody construct AFM13.......In this issue of Blood, Rothe et al introduce a new principle of targeted Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) immunotherapy in their report from a phase 1 study of the bispecific anti-CD30/CD16A antibody construct AFM13....

  17. X-ray tube target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A target with an improved heat emissive surface for use in a rotating anode type x-ray tube is described. The target consists of a body having a first surface portion made of x-ray emissive material and a second surface portion made of a heat emissive material comprising at least one of hafnium boride, hafnium oxide, hafnium nitride, hafnium silicide, and hafnium aluminide. (U.K.)

  18. Polarized atomic beams for targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grueebler, W.

    1984-01-01

    The basic principle of the production of polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium beams are reviewed. The status of the present available polarization, density and intensity are presented. The improvement of atomic beam density by cooling the hydrogen atoms to low velocity is discussed. The possible use of polarized atomic beams as targets in storage rings is shown. It is proposed that polarized atomic beams can be used to produce polarized gas targets with high polarization and greatly improved density

  19. Market segmentation, targeting and positioning

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri, Mark Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Businesses may not be in a position to satisfy all of their customers, every time. It may prove difficult to meet the exact requirements of each individual customer. People do not have identical preferences, so rarely does one product completely satisfy everyone. Many companies may usually adopt a strategy that is known as target marketing. This strategy involves dividing the market into segments and developing products or services to these segments. A target marketing strategy is focused on ...

  20. Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Knapp DW. Targeting folate receptors to treat invasive urinary bladder cancer . Cancer Res 2013;73(2):875–884. 71. Holm J, Hansen SI, Hoier-Madsen M...purpose of this review, active targeting in cancer research encompasses strategies wherein a ligand for a cell surface receptor expressed on tumor...trafficking, thus impacting the efficacy of receptor -mediated drug delivery for cancer therapy. These factors include the following: (i) the rate of ligand

  1. Target-oriented chaos control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dattani, Justine; Blake, Jack C.H.; Hilker, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    Designing intervention methods to control chaotic behavior in dynamical systems remains a challenging problem, in particular for systems that are difficult to access or to measure. We propose a simple, intuitive technique that modifies the values of the state variables directly toward a certain target. The intervention takes into account the difference to the target value, and is a combination of traditional proportional feedback and constant feedback methods. It proves particularly useful when the target corresponds to the equilibrium of the uncontrolled system, and is available or can be estimated from expert knowledge (e.g. in biology and economy). -- Highlights: → We propose a chaos control method that forces the system to a certain target. → The intervention takes into account the difference to the target value. → It can be seen as a combination of proportional and constant feedback methods. → The method is very robust and highly efficient in the long-term. → It is particularly applicable when suitable target values are known or available.

  2. Target cells in internal dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goessner, W

    2003-07-01

    Data related to radium induced bone sarcomas in humans are used as a model for defining target cells on bone surfaces and in the bone marrow. The differential distribution of radiation induced bone sarcoma types with a high ratio of non-bone producing, mainly fibroblastic tumours, challenges the ICRP concept that the bone lining cells are target cells. Multipotential mesenchymal stem cells are located within the range of alpha particles, and are the most likely target cells for the fibroblastic type of bone sarcoma. The histogenesis of bone sarcomas after irradiation with alpha emitters shows that their final histopathology is not dependent on a single target cell. Each target cell has a microenvironment, which has to be regarded as a synergistic morpho-functional tissue unit. For this the concept of 'histion', a term used in general pathology, is proposed. Interactions between target cells that have been hit by alpha-particles, leading to lethal, mutational or transformation events with all components of a 'histion', will prove critical to understanding the pathogenesis of both deterministic and stochastic late effects. (author)

  3. Target cells in internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goessner, W.

    2003-01-01

    Data related to radium induced bone sarcomas in humans are used as a model for defining target cells on bone surfaces and in the bone marrow. The differential distribution of radiation induced bone sarcoma types with a high ratio of non-bone producing, mainly fibroblastic tumours, challenges the ICRP concept that the bone lining cells are target cells. Multipotential mesenchymal stem cells are located within the range of alpha particles, and are the most likely target cells for the fibroblastic type of bone sarcoma. The histogenesis of bone sarcomas after irradiation with alpha emitters shows that their final histopathology is not dependent on a single target cell. Each target cell has a microenvironment, which has to be regarded as a synergistic morpho-functional tissue unit. For this the concept of 'histion', a term used in general pathology, is proposed. Interactions between target cells that have been hit by alpha-particles, leading to lethal, mutational or transformation events with all components of a 'histion', will prove critical to understanding the pathogenesis of both deterministic and stochastic late effects. (author)

  4. Target assignment for security officers to K targets (TASK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, J.R.; Shelton, K.W.; Stunkel, C.B.

    1983-02-01

    A probabilistic algorithm is developed to provide an optimal Target Assignment for Security officers to K targets (TASK) using a maximin criterion. Under the assumption of only a limited number (N) of security officers, the TASK computer model determines deployment assignments which maximize the system protection against sabotage by an adversary who may select any link in the system, including the weakest, for the point of attack. Applying the TASK model to a hypothetical nuclear facility containing a nine-level building reveals that aggregate targets covering multiple vital areas should be utilized to reduce the number of possible target assignments to a value equal to or only slightly larger than N. The increased probability that a given aggregate target is covered by one or more security officers offsets the slight decrease in interruption probability due to its occurring earlier in the adversary's path. In brief, the TASK model determines the optimal maximin deployment strategy for limited numbers of security officers and calculates a quantitative measure of the resulting system protection

  5. Progress in ISOL target-ion source systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, U. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)], E-mail: koester@ill.fr; Arndt, O. [HGF VISTARS and Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Bouquerel, E.; Fedoseyev, V.N. [ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Franberg, H. [ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Laboratory for Radio- and Environmental Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Joinet, A. [ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Centre d' Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, 9 Av. du Colonel Roche, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Jost, C. [HGF VISTARS and Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Kerkines, I.S.K. [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Department of Chemistry, Zografou 157 71, GR (Greece); Cherry L. Emerson Center for Scientific Computation and Department of Chemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Kirchner, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    The heart of every ISOL (isotope separation on-line) facility is its target and ion source system. Its efficiency, selectivity and rapidity is decisive for the production of intense and pure ion beams of short-lived isotopes. Recent progress in ISOL target and ion source technology is discussed at the examples of radioactive ion beams of exotic zinc and tin isotopes that were purified by isothermal chromatography and molecular sideband separation respectively. An outlook is given to which other elements these purification methods are applicable.

  6. Progress in ISOL target-ion source systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, U.; Arndt, O.; Bouquerel, E.; Fedoseyev, V.N.; Franberg, H.; Joinet, A.; Jost, C.; Kerkines, I.S.K.; Kirchner, R.

    2008-01-01

    The heart of every ISOL (isotope separation on-line) facility is its target and ion source system. Its efficiency, selectivity and rapidity is decisive for the production of intense and pure ion beams of short-lived isotopes. Recent progress in ISOL target and ion source technology is discussed at the examples of radioactive ion beams of exotic zinc and tin isotopes that were purified by isothermal chromatography and molecular sideband separation respectively. An outlook is given to which other elements these purification methods are applicable.

  7. Effects of Epstein's TARGET on adolescents' intentions to be physically active and leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini, Jose A; Fernandez-Rio, Javier; Mendez-Gimenez, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Epstein's TARGET strategies on adolescents' intentions to be physically active and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) levels. A total of 447 secondary education students (193 females and 254 males), range age 12-17 years, were divided in two groups: control (N = 224) and experimental (N = 223). Epstein's TARGET strategies were applied by especially trained teachers only to the experimental group in their physical education (PE) classes during 12 consecutive weeks. Participants' intentions to be physically active and their LTPA levels were assessed prior to the intervention (pre), at the end of it (post-1) and 3 months after the intervention (post-2). Significant increases were observed only in the experimental group in post-1 and post-2 on both variables. PE interventions based on TARGET strategies seem to be effective increasing adolescents' intentions to be physically active, as well as time spent in LTPA. As most adolescents participate in PE, these interventions could lead to substantial public health benefits. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Review of polarized ammonium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Tatsuo

    1987-01-01

    Recently, ammonia (NH 3 ) and deutron ammonia (ND 3 ), instead of conventional alcohol substances, have been used more frequently as a polarized target substance for experiments of polarization at high energy regions. This article reviews major features of the polarized (deutron) ammonia targets. The dynamic nuclear polarization (DNT) method is widely used in high energy polarization experiments. While only a low polarization degree of hydrogen nucleus of 1.7 percent can be obtained by the Brute force method, DNP can produce polarization as high as ∼ 90 percent (2.5 T, ∼ 200 mK). In 1979, ammonia was irradiated with radiations to form NH 2 free radicals, resulting in the achievement of a high polarization degree of greater than 90 percent (hydrogen). Since then, ammonia and deutron ammonia have increasingly been replacing alcohols including butanol. Irradiation of a target substance with radiations destroys the structure of the substance, leading to a decrease in polarization degree. However, ammonia produces unpaired electrons as a result of irradiation, allowing it to be highly resistant to radiation. This report also present some study results, including observations on effects of radiation on the polarization degree of a target, effects of annealing, and polarization of 14 N. A process for producing an ammonia target is also described. (Nogami, K.)

  9. Polymeric micelles for drug targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Abdullah; Xiong, Xiao-Bing; Aliabadi, Hamidreza Montazeri; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh

    2007-11-01

    Polymeric micelles are nano-delivery systems formed through self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers in an aqueous environment. The nanoscopic dimension, stealth properties induced by the hydrophilic polymeric brush on the micellar surface, capacity for stabilized encapsulation of hydrophobic drugs offered by the hydrophobic and rigid micellar core, and finally a possibility for the chemical manipulation of the core/shell structure have made polymeric micelles one of the most promising carriers for drug targeting. To date, three generations of polymeric micellar delivery systems, i.e. polymeric micelles for passive, active and multifunctional drug targeting, have arisen from research efforts, with each subsequent generation displaying greater specificity for the diseased tissue and/or targeting efficiency. The present manuscript aims to review the research efforts made for the development of each generation and provide an assessment on the overall success of polymeric micellar delivery system in drug targeting. The emphasis is placed on the design and development of ligand modified, stimuli responsive and multifunctional polymeric micelles for drug targeting.

  10. China's energy efficiency target 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese government has set an ambitious target: reducing China's energy intensity by 20%, or 4.36% each year between 2006 and 2010 on the 2005 level. Real data showed that China missed its target in 2006, having reduced its energy intensity only by 1.3%. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and potential of the Chinese to achieve the target. This paper presents issues of macro-economy, population migration, energy savings, and energy efficiency policy measures to achieve the target. A top-down approach was used to analyse the relationship between the Chinese economic development and energy demand cycles and to identify the potentials of energy savings in sub-sectors of the Chinese economy. A number of factors that contribute to China's energy intensity are identified in a number of energy-intensive sectors. This paper concludes that China needs to develop its economy at its potential GDP growth rate; strengthen energy efficiency auditing, monitoring and verification; change its national economy from a heavy-industry-dominated mode to a light industry or a commerce-dominated mode; phase out inefficient equipment in industrial sectors; develop mass and fast railway transportation; and promote energy-efficient technologies at the end use. This paper transfers key messages to policy makers for designing their policy to achieve China's energy efficiency target

  11. A triple axes multiple target holder assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribedi, L.C.; Narvekar, S.D.; Pillay, R.G.; Tandon, P.N.

    1993-01-01

    We have designed and fabricated a rotatable target holder assembly capable of accommodating 27 targets. The target foils are mounted along two concentric circles on a ss wheel. On the outer circle 18 targets can be mounted each 20deg apart, and on the inner circle the remaining targets are positioned each 40deg apart. The self supporting or carbon backed targets are mounted on thin frames and are placed concentrically at the targets are mounted on thin frames and are placed concentrically at the target position on the wheel. Three degrees of freedom are provided to the target holder assembly. (author). 1 fig

  12. Target-Centric Network Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Dr. William L.; Clark, Dr. Robert M.

    In Target-Centric Network Modeling: Case Studies in Analyzing Complex Intelligence Issues, authors Robert Clark and William Mitchell take an entirely new approach to teaching intelligence analysis. Unlike any other book on the market, it offers case study scenarios using actual intelligence...... reporting formats, along with a tested process that facilitates the production of a wide range of analytical products for civilian, military, and hybrid intelligence environments. Readers will learn how to perform the specific actions of problem definition modeling, target network modeling......, and collaborative sharing in the process of creating a high-quality, actionable intelligence product. The case studies reflect the complexity of twenty-first century intelligence issues by dealing with multi-layered target networks that cut across political, economic, social, technological, and military issues...

  13. 3-Bromopyruvate: targets and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshan, Maria C

    2012-02-01

    The pyruvate mimetic 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) is generally presented as an inhibitor of glycolysis and has shown remarkable efficacy in not only preventing tumor growth, but even eradicating existant tumors in animal studies. We here review reported molecular targets of 3-BP and suggest that the very range of possible targets, which pertain to the altered energy metabolism of tumor cells, contributes both to the efficacy and the tumor specificity of the drug. Its in vivo efficacy is suggested to be due to a combination of glycolytic and mitochondrial targets, as well as to secondary effects affecting the tumor microenvironment. The cytotoxicity of 3-BP is less due to pyruvate mimicry than to alkylation of, e.g., key thiols. Alkylation of DNA/RNA has not been reported. More research is warranted to better understand the pharmacokinetics of 3-BP, and its potential toxic effects to normal cells, in particular those that are highly ATP-/mitochondrion-dependent.

  14. Pharmacogenomics of GPCR Drug Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Alexander Sebastian; Chavali, Sreenivas; Masuho, Ikuo

    2018-01-01

    Natural genetic variation in the human genome is a cause of individual differences in responses to medications and is an underappreciated burden on public health. Although 108 G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the targets of 475 (∼34%) Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs...... and account for a global sales volume of over 180 billion US dollars annually, the prevalence of genetic variation among GPCRs targeted by drugs is unknown. By analyzing data from 68,496 individuals, we find that GPCRs targeted by drugs show genetic variation within functional regions such as drug......- and effector-binding sites in the human population. We experimentally show that certain variants of μ-opioid and Cholecystokinin-A receptors could lead to altered or adverse drug response. By analyzing UK National Health Service drug prescription and sales data, we suggest that characterizing GPCR variants...

  15. Voyager 2 Neptune targeting strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, C. L.; Francis, K.; Matousek, S. E.; Cesarone, R. J.; Gray, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    The success of the Voyager 2 flybys of Neptune and Triton depends upon the ability to correct the spacecraft's trajectory. Accurate spacecraft delivery to the desired encounter conditions will promote the maximum science return. However, Neptune's great distance causes large a priori uncertainties in Neptune and Triton ephemerides and planetary system parameters. Consequently, the 'ideal' trajectory is unknown beforehand. The targeting challenge is to utilize the gradually improving knowledge as the spacecraft approaches Neptune to meet the science objectives, but with an overriding concern for spacecraft safety and a desire to limit propellant expenditure. A unique targeting strategy has been developed in response to this challenge. Through the use of a Monte Carlo simulation, candidate strategies are evaluated by the degree to which they meet these objectives and are compared against each other in determining the targeting strategy to be adopted.

  16. The Bering Autonomous Target Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz; Betto, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    An autonomous asteroid target detection and tracking method has been developed. The method features near omnidirectionality and focus on high speed operations and completeness of search of the near space rather than the traditional faint object search methods, employed presently at the larger...... telescopes. The method has proven robust in operation and is well suited for use onboard spacecraft. As development target for the method and the associated instrumentation the asteroid research mission Bering has been used. Onboard a spacecraft, the autonomous detection is centered around the fully...... autonomous star tracker the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC). One feature of this instrument is that potential targets are registered directly in terms of date, right ascension, declination, and intensity, which greatly facilitates both tracking search and registering. Results from ground and inflight tests...

  17. INFLATION TARGETING IN EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurian Lungu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the inflation targeting approach in three transition economies, namely Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic with the use of Taylor rules as benchmarks. The three economies considered have been successful at achieving disinflation, but deviations of inflation from its target have been persistent in all cases. Except for the Czech Republic, deviations from the Taylor rule are large and persistent, with Hungary displaying the largest fluctuations. Polish interest rates have consistently exceeded those suggested by the Taylor rule and given the prevalence of high unemployment, these undershootings do not augur well for the stability of monetary policy. Finally, the behaviour of Czech interest rates can be remarkably captured by the simple Taylor rule proposed in this paper, suggesting that the Czech National Bank has been the most successful at stabilising inflation and output around their target levels.

  18. High-efficiency target-ion sources for RIB generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    A brief review is given of high-efficiency ion sources which have been developed or are under development at ISOL facilities which show particular promise for use at existing, future, or radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities now under construction. Emphasis will be placed on those sources which have demonstrated high ionization efficiency, species versatility, and operational reliability and which have been carefully designed for safe handling in the high level radioactivity radiation fields incumbent at such facilities. Brief discussions will also be made of the fundamental processes which affect the realizable beam intensities in target-ion sources. Among the sources which will be reviewed will be selected examples of state-of-the-art electron-beam plasma-type ion sources, thermal-ionization, surface-ionization, ECR, and selectively chosen ion source concepts which show promise for radioactive ion beam generation. A few advanced, chemically selective target-ion sources will be described, such as sources based on the use of laser-resonance ionization, which, in principle, offer a more satisfactory solution to isobaric contamination problems than conventional electromagnetic techniques. Particular attention will be given to the sources which have been selected for initial or future use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  19. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H. B. Jr.; Iyer, N. C.; Louthan, M. R. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from, the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. The model assumed that tritium atoms, formed by the 6Li(n,a)3He reaction, were produced in solid solution in the Al-Li alloy. Because of the low solubility of hydrogen isotopes in aluminum alloys, the irradiated Al-Li rapidly became supersaturated in tritium. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes

  20. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H.B. Jr.; Iyer, N.C.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes the manufacturing technologies evaluated and presents the model for tritium retention in aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy tritium production targets

  1. Apparatus for producing laser targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarboe, T.R.; Baker, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    This patent relates to an apparatus and method for producing deuterium targets or pellets of 25u to 75u diameter. The pellets are sliced from a continuously spun solid deuterium thread at a rate of up to 10 pellets/second. The pellets after being sliced from the continuous thread of deuterium are collimated and directed to a point of use, such as a laser activated combustion or explosion chamber wherein the pellets are imploded by laser energy or laser produced target plasmas for neutral beam injection

  2. Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0390 TITLE: Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Zheng Li CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0390 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Zheng Li 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...14 Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast  Cancer   A. Introduction (1paragraph) The overall goal of this proposal is to prepare TrkC

  3. Targeting vaccines to dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Camilla; Sundblad, Anne; Hovgaard, Lars

    2002-01-01

    delivery systems (DDS) with adjuvant effect that target DC directly and induce optimal immune responses. This paper will review the current knowledge of DC physiology as well as the progress in the field of novel vaccination strategies that directly or indirectly aim at targeting DC....... to be far superior to that of B-cells and macrophages. DC are localized at strategic places in the body at sites used by pathogens to enter the organism, and are thereby in an optimal position to capture antigens. In general, vaccination strategies try to mimic the invasiveness of the pathogens. DC...

  4. Targeted therapies for bone sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudry, P.

    2011-01-01

    Therapy success in bone sarcoma is significantly better compared to history cohorts with 60 - 70 % overall survival to date. Unfortunately, there is yet no shift and movement in better survival of patients with relapsed and refractory bone sarcomas during last twenty years. This article reviews targeted therapeutics for bone sarcomas which are under investigation and which could give chance to patients suffering from relapsed and chemo resistant bone sarcomas. Majority of the targeted drugs are given as part of phase 1 or 2 studies. (author)

  5. The OPERA experiment Target Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, T; Borer, K.; Campagne, Jean-Eric; Con-Sen, N.; de La Taille, C.; Dick, N.; Dracos, M.; Gaudiot, G.; Goeltzenlichter, T.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grapton, J.-N.; Guyonnet, J.-L.; Hess, M.; Igersheim, R.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Jollet, C.; Juget, F.; Kocher, H.; Krasnoperov, A.; Krumstein, Z.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Moser, U.; Nozdrin, A.; Olchevski, A.; Porokhovoi, S.; Raux, L.; Sadovski, A.; Schuler, J.; Schutz, H.-U.; Schwab, C.; Smolnikov, A.; Van Beek, G.; Vilain, P.; Walchli, T.; Wilquet, G.; Wurtz, J.

    2007-01-01

    The main task of the Target Tracker detector of the long baseline neutrino oscillation OPERA experiment is to locate in which of the target elementary constituents, the lead/emulsion bricks, the neutrino interactions have occurred and also to give calorimetric information about each event. The technology used consists in walls of two planes of plastic scintillator strips, one per transverse direction. Wavelength shifting fibres collect the light signal emitted by the scintillator strips and guide it to both ends where it is read by multi-anode photomultiplier tubes. All the elements used in the construction of this detector and its main characteristics are described.

  6. X-ray tube targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    In rotary targets for X-ray tubes warping is a problem which causes X-ray deficiency. A rotary target is described in which warping is reduced by using alloys of molybdenum with 0.05 to 10% iron, silicon, cobalt, tantalum, niobium, hafnium, stable metal oxide or mixture thereof. Suitable mixtures are 0.5 to 10% of tantalum, niobium or hafnium with from 0.5 to 5% yttrium oxide, or 0.05 to 0.3% of cobalt or silicon. Optionally 0.1 to 5% by weight of additional material may be alloyed with the molybdenum, such as tantalum or hafnium carbides. (author)

  7. Nuclear Security: Target Analysis-rev

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Surinder Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gibbs, Philip W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bultz, Garl A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this presentation are to understand target identification, including roll-up and protracted theft; evaluate target identification in the SNRI; recognize the target characteristics and consequence levels; and understand graded safeguards.

  8. Uranium briquettes for irradiation target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliba-Silva, Adonis Marcelo; Garcia, Rafael Henrique Lazzari; Martins, Ilson Carlos; Carvalho, Elita Fontenele Urano de; Durazzo, Michelangelo, E-mail: saliba@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Direct irradiation on targets inside nuclear research or multiple purpose reactors is a common route to produce {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc radioisotopes. Nevertheless, since the imposed limits to use LEU uranium to prevent nuclear armament production, the amount of uranium loaded in target meats has physically increased and new processes have been proposed for production. Routes using metallic uranium thin film and UAl{sub x} dispersion have been used for this purpose. Both routes have their own issues, either by bringing difficulties to disassemble the aluminum case inside hot cells or by generating great amount of alkaline radioactive liquid rejects. A potential route might be the dispersion of powders of LEU metallic uranium and nickel, which are pressed as a blend inside a die and followed by pulse electroplating of nickel. The electroplating provides more strength to the briquettes and creates a barrier for gas evolution during neutronic disintegration of {sup 235}U. A target briquette platted with nickel encapsulated in an aluminum case to be irradiated may be an alternative possibility to replace other proposed targets. This work uses pulse Ni-electroplating over iron powder briquette to simulate the covering of uranium by nickel. The following parameters were applied 10 times for each sample: 900Hz, -0.84A/square centimeters with duty cycle of 0.1 in Watts Bath. It also presented the optical microscopy analysis of plated microstructure section. (author)

  9. Natural products to target inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allijn, Iris Eva

    2016-01-01

    Chapter 1 Most Western lifestyle diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cancer have a chronic inflammatory process at its base. Therefore, inflammation is an important therapeutic target. Due to their potency, steroidal drugs dominate the current treatment of

  10. Particle physics using nuclear targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferbel, T.

    1978-01-01

    The use of nuclear targets in particle physics is discussed and some recent results obtained in studies of hadronic interactions on nuclei summarized. In particular experimental findings on inclusive production and on coherent dissociation of mesons and baryons at high energies are presented. 41 references

  11. Targeted drugs in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favaudon, V.; Hennequin, C.; Hennequin, C.

    2004-01-01

    New drugs aiming at the development of targeted therapies have been assayed in combination with ionizing radiation over the past few years. The rationale of this concept comes from the fact that the cytotoxic potential of targeted drugs is limited, thus requiring concomitant association with a cytotoxic agent for the eradication of tumor cells. Conversely a low level of cumulative toxicity is expected from targeted drugs. Most targeted drugs act through inhibition of post-translational modifications of proteins, such as dimerization of growth factor receptors, prenylation reactions, or phosphorylation of tyrosine or serine-threonine residues. Many systems involving the proteasome, neo-angiogenesis promoters, TGF-β, cyclooxygenase or the transcription factor NF-κB, are currently under investigation in hopes they will allow a control of cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle progression, tumor angiogenesis and inflammation. A few drugs have demonstrated an antitumor potential in particular phenotypes. In most instances, however, radiation-drug interactions proved to be strictly additive in terms of cell growth inhibition or induced cell death. Strong potentiation of the response to radiotherapy is expected to require interaction with DNA repair mechanisms. (authors)

  12. Targeted nanoparticles for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cisterna, Bruno A.; Kamaly, Nazila; Choi, Won Il

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is highly prevalent worldwide, and despite notable progress in treatment still leads to significant morbidity and mortality. The use of nanoparticles as a drug delivery system has become one of the most promising strategies for cancer therapy. Targeted nanoparticles could...

  13. CERN neutrino project on target

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Scientists at CERN announced the completion of the target assembly for the CERN neutrinos to Gran Sasso project, CNGS. On schedule for start-up in May 2006, CNGS will send a beam of neutrinos through the Earth to the Gran Sasso laboratory 730 km away in Italy in a bid to unravel the mysteries of nature's most elusive particles (½ page)

  14. High performance inertial fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.; Bangerter, R.O.; Lindl, J.D.; Mead, W.C.; Pan, Y.L.

    1977-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) designs are considered which may have very high gains (approximately 1000) and low power requirements (<100 TW) for input energies of approximately one megajoule. These include targets having very low density shells, ultra thin shells, central ignitors, magnetic insulation, and non-ablative acceleration

  15. Ion backscattering from layered targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oen, O.S.; Robinson, M.T.

    1985-01-01

    The present work investigated the reflection of hydrogen atoms, whose incident energy ranged from 0.01 to 1 keV, from layered targets. The calculations used the binary collisions computer program MARLOWE modified to treat layered target structures. Briefly, the projectile ion strikes the surface normally and is followed collision-by-collision until it leaves the surface again or until its energy falls below a present value (1 eV). Each collision consists of an elastic and an inelastic part. The elastic part is treated by classical scattering mechanics using the Moliere approximation to the Thomas-Fermi interatomic potential with the screening lengths proposed by Firsov. The inelastic part is described by the (nonlocal) electronic stopping theory of Lindhard et al. The calculations were made using MARLOWE to simulate amorphous solids, and a typical run consisted of following the motions of 1000-2000 incident particles. The targets studied were chosen to have large differences between the atomic numbers of the overlayer and the substrate in order to emphasize possible reflection differences from that of monoatomic targets

  16. Distinguishing targets in armed conflict

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main object of international humanitarian law (IHL) is the amelioration of the effect of armed conflict on the populace. It seeks to accomplish this by establishing rules that ensure that objects the destruction of which will not give military advantage e are protected; thus, such objects are not to be targeted or destroyed.

  17. Pharmacogenomics of GPCR Drug Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Alexander Sebastian; Chavali, Sreenivas; Masuho, Ikuo

    2018-01-01

    Natural genetic variation in the human genome is a cause of individual differences in responses to medications and is an underappreciated burden on public health. Although 108 G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the targets of 475 (∼34%) Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs and a...

  18. Communicating to heterogeneous target groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    very often have to communicate to rather heterogeneous target groups that have little more in common than a certain geographical habitat. That goes against most schoolbook teaching in the field of communication, but is none the less the terms with which that kind of communication has to live...

  19. Uranium briquettes for irradiation target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saliba-Silva, Adonis Marcelo; Garcia, Rafael Henrique Lazzari; Martins, Ilson Carlos; Carvalho, Elita Fontenele Urano de; Durazzo, Michelangelo

    2011-01-01

    Direct irradiation on targets inside nuclear research or multiple purpose reactors is a common route to produce 99 Mo- 99m Tc radioisotopes. Nevertheless, since the imposed limits to use LEU uranium to prevent nuclear armament production, the amount of uranium loaded in target meats has physically increased and new processes have been proposed for production. Routes using metallic uranium thin film and UAl x dispersion have been used for this purpose. Both routes have their own issues, either by bringing difficulties to disassemble the aluminum case inside hot cells or by generating great amount of alkaline radioactive liquid rejects. A potential route might be the dispersion of powders of LEU metallic uranium and nickel, which are pressed as a blend inside a die and followed by pulse electroplating of nickel. The electroplating provides more strength to the briquettes and creates a barrier for gas evolution during neutronic disintegration of 235 U. A target briquette platted with nickel encapsulated in an aluminum case to be irradiated may be an alternative possibility to replace other proposed targets. This work uses pulse Ni-electroplating over iron powder briquette to simulate the covering of uranium by nickel. The following parameters were applied 10 times for each sample: 900Hz, -0.84A/square centimeters with duty cycle of 0.1 in Watts Bath. It also presented the optical microscopy analysis of plated microstructure section. (author)

  20. How are inflation targets set?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horváth, R.; Matějů, Jakub

    -, č. 426 (2010), s. 1-35 ISSN 1211-3298 Grant - others:MŠk(CZ) SVV-2010-261801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : inflation targeting * central bank * credibility Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp426.pdf

  1. Harnessing off-target effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saginc, Gaye; Voellmy, Franziska; Linding, Rune

    2017-01-01

    The 'off-targets' of a drug are often poorly characterized yet could be harnessed in the treatment of complex diseases. A recent study used a small-molecule screening in non-small-cell lung cancer to repurpose an FDA-approved ALK/IGF1R inhibitor and uncover its mechanism of action....

  2. The Automatic Measurement of Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhle, Joachim

    1997-01-01

    The automatic measurement of targets is demonstrated by means of a theoretical example and by an interactive measuring program for real imagery from a réseau camera. The used strategy is a combination of two methods: the maximum correlation coefficient and the correlation in the subpixel range...... interactive software is also part of a computer-assisted learning program on digital photogrammetry....

  3. Aptamers for Targeted Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Ray

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are a class of therapeutic oligonucleotides that form specific three-dimensional structures that are dictated by their sequences. They are typically generated by an iterative screening process of complex nucleic acid libraries employing a process termed Systemic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX. SELEX has traditionally been performed using purified proteins, and cell surface receptors may be challenging to purify in their properly folded and modified conformations. Therefore, relatively few aptamers have been generated that bind cell surface receptors. However, improvements in recombinant fusion protein technology have increased the availability of receptor extracellular domains as purified protein targets, and the development of cell-based selection techniques has allowed selection against surface proteins in their native configuration on the cell surface. With cell-based selection, a specific protein target is not always chosen, but selection is performed against a target cell type with the goal of letting the aptamer choose the target. Several studies have demonstrated that aptamers that bind cell surface receptors may have functions other than just blocking receptor-ligand interactions. All cell surface proteins cycle intracellularly to some extent, and many surface receptors are actively internalized in response to ligand binding. Therefore, aptamers that bind cell surface receptors have been exploited for the delivery of a variety of cargoes into cells. This review focuses on recent progress and current challenges in the field of aptamer-mediated delivery.

  4. Target selection for direct marketing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bult, Jan Roelf

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis we concentrated on the use ol direct mail for targeting potential buyers. The major characteristics that influences the success of a plomotional direct mail campaign are the of-fbr,the communication elements, the timing or sequence of these communication elements, and the list of

  5. Radioligand Recognition of Insecticide Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, John E

    2018-04-04

    Insecticide radioligands allow the direct recognition and analysis of the targets and mechanisms of toxic action critical to effective and safe pest control. These radioligands are either the insecticides themselves or analogs that bind at the same or coupled sites. Preferred radioligands and their targets, often in both insects and mammals, are trioxabicyclooctanes for the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor, avermectin for the glutamate receptor, imidacloprid for the nicotinic receptor, ryanodine and chlorantraniliprole for the ryanodine receptor, and rotenone or pyridaben for NADH + ubiquinone oxidoreductase. Pyrethroids and other Na + channel modulator insecticides are generally poor radioligands due to lipophilicity and high nonspecific binding. For target site validation, the structure-activity relationships competing with the radioligand in the binding assays should be the same as that for insecticidal activity or toxicity except for rapidly detoxified or proinsecticide analogs. Once the radioligand assay is validated for relevance, it will often help define target site modifications on selection of resistant pest strains, selectivity between insects and mammals, and interaction with antidotes and other chemicals at modulator sites. Binding assays also serve for receptor isolation and photoaffinity labeling to characterize the interactions involved.

  6. Novel GABA receptor pesticide targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, John E; Durkin, Kathleen A

    2015-06-01

    The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has four distinct but overlapping and coupled targets of pesticide action importantly associated with little or no cross-resistance. The target sites are differentiated by binding assays with specific radioligands, resistant strains, site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modeling. Three of the targets are for non-competitive antagonists (NCAs) or channel blockers of widely varied chemotypes. The target of the first generation (20th century) NCAs differs between the larger or elongated compounds (NCA-IA) including many important insecticides of the past (cyclodienes and polychlorocycloalkanes) or present (fiproles) and the smaller or compact compounds (NCA-IB) highly toxic to mammals and known as cage convulsants, rodenticides or chemical threat agents. The target of greatest current interest is designated NCA-II for the second generation (21st century) of NCAs consisting for now of isoxazolines and meta-diamides. This new and uniquely different NCA-II site apparently differs enough between insects and mammals to confer selective toxicity. The fourth target is the avermectin site (AVE) for allosteric modulators of the chloride channel. NCA pesticides vary in molecular surface area and solvent accessible volume relative to avermectin with NCA-IBs at 20-22%, NCA-IAs at 40-45% and NCA-IIs at 57-60%. The same type of relationship relative to ligand-docked length is 27-43% for NCA-IBs, 63-71% for NCA-IAs and 85-105% for NCA-IIs. The four targets are compared by molecular modeling for the Drosophila melanogaster GABA-R. The principal sites of interaction are proposed to be: pore V1' and A2' for NCA-IB compounds; pore A2', L6' and T9' for NCA-IA compounds; pore T9' to S15' in proximity to M1/M3 subunit interface (or alternatively an interstitial site) for NCA-II compounds; and M1/M3, M2 interfaces for AVE. Understanding the relationships of these four binding sites is important in resistance management and in the discovery and use

  7. Cellular Targets of Dietary Polyphenol Resveratrol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Joseph M

    2006-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that resveratrol, a grape derived polyphenol, exerts its chemopreventive properties against prostate cancer by interacting with specific cellular targets, denoted resveratrol targeting proteins (RTPs...

  8. Exploiting target amplitude information to improve multi-target tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrman, Lisa M.; Blair, W. Dale

    2006-05-01

    Closely-spaced (but resolved) targets pose a challenge for measurement-to-track data association algorithms. Since the Mahalanobis distances between measurements collected on closely-spaced targets and tracks are similar, several elements of the corresponding kinematic measurement-to-track cost matrix are also similar. Lacking any other information on which to base assignments, it is not surprising that data association algorithms make mistakes. One ad hoc approach for mitigating this problem is to multiply the kinematic measurement-to-track likelihoods by amplitude likelihoods. However, this can actually be detrimental to the measurement-to-track association process. With that in mind, this paper pursues a rigorous treatment of the hypothesis probabilities for kinematic measurements and features. Three simple scenarios are used to demonstrate the impact of basing data association decisions on these hypothesis probabilities for Rayleigh, fixed-amplitude, and Rician targets. The first scenario assumes that the tracker carries two tracks but only one measurement is collected. This provides insight into more complex scenarios in which there are fewer measurements than tracks. The second scenario includes two measurements and one track. This extends naturally to the case with more measurements than tracks. Two measurements and two tracks are present in the third scenario, which provides insight into the performance of this method when the number of measurements equals the number of tracks. In all cases, basing data association decisions on the hypothesis probabilities leads to good results.

  9. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors: Multi-targeted or single-targeted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekman, Fleur; Giovannetti, Elisa; Peters, Godefridus J

    2011-02-10

    Since in most tumors multiple signaling pathways are involved, many of the inhibitors in clinical development are designed to affect a wide range of targeted kinases. The most important tyrosine kinase families in the development of tyrosine kinase inhibitors are the ABL, SCR, platelet derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor families. Both multi-kinase inhibitors and single-kinase inhibitors have advantages and disadvantages, which are related to potential resistance mechanisms, pharmacokinetics, selectivity and tumor environment. In different malignancies various tyrosine kinases are mutated or overexpressed and several resistance mechanisms exist. Pharmacokinetics is influenced by interindividual differences and differs for two single targeted inhibitors or between patients treated by the same tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Different tyrosine kinase inhibitors have various mechanisms to achieve selectivity, while differences in gene expression exist between tumor and stromal cells. Considering these aspects, one type of inhibitor can generally not be preferred above the other, but will depend on the specific genetic constitution of the patient and the tumor, allowing personalized therapy. The most effective way of cancer treatment by using tyrosine kinase inhibitors is to consider each patient/tumor individually and to determine the strategy that specifically targets the consequences of altered (epi)genetics of the tumor. This strategy might result in treatment by a single multi kinase inhibitor for one patient, but in treatment by a couple of single kinase inhibitors for other patients.

  10. Targeting an efficient target-to-target interval for P300 speller brain–computer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Eric W.; Wang, Xingyu

    2013-01-01

    Longer target-to-target intervals (TTI) produce greater P300 event-related potential amplitude, which can increase brain–computer interface (BCI) classification accuracy and decrease the number of flashes needed for accurate character classification. However, longer TTIs requires more time for each trial, which will decrease the information transfer rate of BCI. In this paper, a P300 BCI using a 7 × 12 matrix explored new flash patterns (16-, 18- and 21-flash pattern) with different TTIs to assess the effects of TTI on P300 BCI performance. The new flash patterns were designed to minimize TTI, decrease repetition blindness, and examine the temporal relationship between each flash of a given stimulus by placing a minimum of one (16-flash pattern), two (18-flash pattern), or three (21-flash pattern) non-target flashes between each target flashes. Online results showed that the 16-flash pattern yielded the lowest classification accuracy among the three patterns. The results also showed that the 18-flash pattern provides a significantly higher information transfer rate (ITR) than the 21-flash pattern; both patterns provide high ITR and high accuracy for all subjects. PMID:22350331

  11. A blow-in windowless gas target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagara, K.; Motoshima, A.; Fujita, T.; Akiyoshi, H.; Nishimori, N.

    1996-01-01

    A new-type windowless gas target has been developed to realize a dense target with a low gas flow rate. The target is similar to the conventional differentially pumped windowless gas target except that the target gas is blown into the target region from both the side holes of the beam entrance and exit. Due to the gas-confining action caused by the blown-in gas, the target thickness is about twice increased and the target density sharply falls in the holes. Most of the target gas is at rest and the density is uniform. The gas flow rate is the same as that of the conventional target and is about an order of magnitude lower than that of the dense gas-jet target. (orig.)

  12. Tritium target manufacturing for use in accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, P.; Monnin, C.; Van Rompay, M.; Ballanger, A.

    2001-07-01

    As a neutron tube manufacturer, SODERN is now in charge of manufacturing tritium targets for accelerators, in cooperation with CEA/DAM/DTMN in Valduc. Specific deuterium and tritium targets are manufactured on request, according to the requirements of the users, starting from titanium target on copper substrate, and going to more sophisticated devices. A wide range of possible uses is covered, including thin targets for neutron calibration, thick targets with controlled loading of deuterium and tritium, rotating targets for higher lifetimes, or large size rotating targets for accelerators used in boron neutron therapy. Activity of targets lies in the 1 to 1000 Curie, diameter of targets being up to 30 cm. Special targets are also considered, including surface layer targets for lowering tritium desorption under irradiation, or those made from different kinds of occluders such as titanium, zirconium, erbium, scandium, with different substrates. It is then possible to optimize either neutron output, or lifetime and stability, or thermal behavior.

  13. Cryogenic polarized target facility: status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, C.; Nash, H.K.; Roberson, N.; Schneider, M.; Seagondollar, W.; Soderstrum, J.

    1985-01-01

    The TUNL cryogenically polarized target facility consists of a 3 He- 4 He dilution refrigerator and a superconducting magnet, together capable of maintaining samples at between 10 and 20 mK in magnetic fields up to 7 Tesla. At these temperatures and magnetic fields brute-force nuclear orientation occurs. Polarizations from 20 to 60% are attainable in about twenty nonzero spin nuclei. Most are metals, ranging in mass from 6 Li to 209 Bi, but the nuclei 1 H and 3 He are also polarizable via this method. The main effort is directed towards a better determination of the effective spin-spin force in nuclei. These experiments are briefly described and the beam stabilization system, cryostat and polarized 3 He targets are discussed

  14. Downstream targets of WRKY33

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Klaus; Fiil, Berthe Katrine; Mundy, John

    2008-01-01

    Innate immunity signaling pathways in both animals and plants are regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. In a recent publication we show that MPK4 and its substrate MKS1 interact with WRKY33 in vivo, and that WRKY33 is released from complexes with MPK4 upon infection....... Transcriptome analysis of a wrky33 loss-of-function mutant identified a subset of defense-related genes as putative targets of WRKY33. These genes include PAD3 and CYP71A13, which encode cytochrome P450 monoxygenases required for synthesis of the antimicrobial phytoalexin camalexin. Chromatin...... immunoprecipitation confirmed that WRKY33 bound the promoter of PAD3 when plants were inoculated with pathogens. Here we further discuss the involvement of two other targets of WRKY33, NUDT6 and ROF2 in defense responses against invading pathogens....

  15. Targeted Learning in Healthcare Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Susan

    2015-12-01

    The increasing availability of Big Data in healthcare encourages investigators to seek answers to big questions. However, nonparametric approaches to analyzing these data can suffer from the curse of dimensionality, and traditional parametric modeling does not necessarily scale. Targeted learning (TL) combines semiparametric methodology with advanced machine learning techniques to provide a sound foundation for extracting information from data. Predictive models, variable importance measures, and treatment benefits and risks can all be addressed within this framework. TL has been applied in a broad range of healthcare settings, including genomics, precision medicine, health policy, and drug safety. This article provides an introduction to the two main components of TL, targeted minimum loss-based estimation and super learning, and gives examples of applications in predictive modeling, variable importance ranking, and comparative effectiveness research.

  16. Targeting Wnt Pathways in Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Zachary F.; Moon, Randall T.

    2012-01-01

    Wnt-mediated signal transduction pathways have long been recognized for their roles in regulating embryonic development, and have more recently been linked to cancer, neurologic diseases, inflammatory diseases, and disorders of endocrine function and bone metabolism in adults. Although therapies targeting Wnt signaling are attractive in theory, in practice it has been difficult to obtain specific therapeutics because many components of Wnt signaling pathways are also involved in other cellular processes, thereby reducing the specificity of candidate therapeutics. New technologies, and advances in understanding the mechanisms of Wnt signaling, have improved our understanding of the nuances of Wnt signaling and are leading to promising new strategies to target Wnt signaling pathways. PMID:23001988

  17. Voyager 2 Uranus targeting strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, R. J.; Gray, D. L.; Potts, C. L.; Francis, K.

    1986-01-01

    One of the major challenges involved in the Voyager 2 Uranus flyby is to deliver the spacecraft to an appropriate aimpoint at the optimum time, so as to maximize the science return of the mission, while yet keeping propellant expenditure low. An unusual targeting strategy has been devised to satisfy these requirements. Its complexity arises from the great distance of the planet Uranus and the limited performance capabilities of Voyager. This selected strategy is developed in relation to a set of candidate strategies, mission requirements and shifting science objectives. The analysis of these candidates is conducted via a Monte Carlo simulation, the results of which yield data for the comparative evaluation and eventual and selection of the actual targeting strategy to be employed.

  18. Jet target intense neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, K.L.

    1977-01-01

    A jet target Intense Neutron Source (INS) is being built by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory with DOE/MFE funding in order to perform radiation damage experiments on materials to be used in fusion power reactors. The jet target can be either a supersonic or a subsonic jet. Each type has its particular advantages and disadvantages, and either of the jets can be placed inside the spherical blanket converter which will be used to simulate a fusion reactor neutron environment. Preliminary mock-up experiments with a 16-mA, 115 keV, H + ion beam on a nitrogen gas supersonic jet show no serious problems in the beam formation, transport, or jet interaction

  19. Recurring Utterances - Targeting a Breakthrough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Stark

    2014-05-01

    The most interesting phenomenon is KB’s production of words from former sessions indicating that they are still ‘active’ and the production of completely novel incorrect words. The observable features indicate that immediate auditory processing is possible in the form of repeating target words. However, as soon as KB must retrieve information from the (semantic lexicon, even after being able to correctly ‘repeat’ the target word several times, he responds with a RU, perseveration, or paraphasia. Several of his productions can be characterized as aphasic confabulations which stem from a memory gap. Thus, although KB’s language impairment is severe, his responses across time indicate that step-by-step a breakthrough is being made.

  20. Super liquid density target designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Y.L.; Bailey, D.S.

    1976-01-01

    The success of laser fusion depends on obtaining near isentropic compression of fuel to very high densities and igniting this fuel. To date, the results of laser fusion experiments have been based mainly on the exploding pusher implosion of fusion capsules consisting of thin glass microballoons (wall thickness of less than 1 micron) filled with low density DT gas (initial density of a few mg/cc). Maximum DT densities of a few tenths of g/cc and temperatures of a few keV have been achieved in these experiments. We will discuss the results of LASNEX target design calculations for targets which: (a) can compress fuel to much higher densities using the capabilities of existing Nd-glass systems at LLL; (b) allow experimental measurement of the peak fuel density achieved

  1. Swimbladder on Fish Target Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunardi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses of target strength (TS for the Selar boops (Oxeye scad and Megalaspis cordyla (Torpedo scad, the most commercially fish in Malaysia. TS can be determined from in situ measurements and acoustic calculation of fish model. TS value, depth, and position (x-y-z of targeted fish can be viewed from echogram using FQ-80 Analyzer by in situ measurement. X-ray imaged can be deployed to develop the acoustic fish model. The percentage of length and upper surface area for swimbladder to body fish of Selar boops more than Megalaspis cordyla can be measured after X-ray process. The percentage of width and volume of swimbladders to its each body are no significantly difference for both fish. These data of swimbladder physic support the result of in situ measurement which TS of Megalaspis cordyla stronger Selar boops.

  2. CATAMARAN targeted at innovative radiopharmacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impens, N.; Aerts, A.

    2010-01-01

    In cancer therapy there is a great need for specific treatments: therapies that kill cancer cells selectively without affecting the healthy cells. In the CATAMARAN project (Cancer Targeting Molecules Attached to Radionuclides) SCK-CEN develops, in a preclinical trial, products that deliver the right radiation doses at the right place in the human body. With the new multidisciplinary expertise that has been built up in the project, SCK-CEN is contributing to new medical applications of radiation.

  3. Targeted advertising in magazine markets

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Ambarish; Kaiser, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    We examine the scope and value of targeted advertising in the magazine industry. We use data on reader characteristics at individual media, in contrast to previous work that has needed to infer this information from aggregate data. Our results show a strong relationship between subscriber characteristics and advertising prices. Advertisers clearly value more homogenous groups of readers, measured according to income, gender and age. Our results explain recent trends of declining advertising e...

  4. Peptide-targeted polymer cancerostatics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Böhmová, Eliška; Pola, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, Suppl. 2 (2016), S153-S164 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : HPMA copolymers * tumor targeting * peptides Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016 http://www.biomed.cas.cz/physiolres/pdf/65%20Suppl%202/65_S153.pdf

  5. Target Advertising and Market Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Stühmeier, Torben

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of increased transparency over online news sources, e.g. due to news aggregators, on online news outlets and the advertising industry. The role of news aggregators is controversially discussed, where the discussion widely points on user side effect. The present paper widens the discussion on the advertising side and shows that aggregators can help to better target advertising messages to a more homogenous group of users and, in turn, may both benefit advertiser...

  6. Targeting phenotypically tolerant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ben; Nathan, Carl

    2016-01-01

    While the immune system is credited with averting tuberculosis in billions of individuals exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the immune system is also culpable for tempering the ability of antibiotics to deliver swift and durable cure of disease. In individuals afflicted with tuberculosis, host immunity produces diverse microenvironmental niches that support suboptimal growth, or complete growth arrest, of M. tuberculosis. The physiological state of nonreplication in bacteria is associated with phenotypic drug tolerance. Many of these host microenvironments, when modeled in vitro by carbon starvation, complete nutrient starvation, stationary phase, acidic pH, reactive nitrogen intermediates, hypoxia, biofilms, and withholding streptomycin from the streptomycin-addicted strain SS18b, render M. tuberculosis profoundly tolerant to many of the antibiotics that are given to tuberculosis patients in a clinical setting. Targeting nonreplicating persisters is anticipated to reduce the duration of antibiotic treatment and rate of post-treatment relapse. Some promising drugs to treat tuberculosis, such as rifampicin and bedaquiline, only kill nonreplicating M. tuberculosis in vitro at concentrations far greater than their minimal inhibitory concentrations against replicating bacilli. There is an urgent demand to identify which of the currently used antibiotics, and which of the molecules in academic and corporate screening collections, have potent bactericidal action on nonreplicating M. tuberculosis. With this goal, we review methods of high throughput screening to target nonreplicating M. tuberculosis and methods to progress candidate molecules. A classification based on structures and putative targets of molecules that have been reported to kill nonreplicating M. tuberculosis revealed a rich diversity in pharmacophores. However, few of these compounds were tested under conditions that would exclude the impact of adsorbed compound acting during the recovery phase of

  7. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venning, Freja A; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T

    2015-01-01

    , the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread...... is summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-)clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression....

  8. Fixed target flammable gas upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.; Squires, B.; Gasteyer, T.; Richardson, R.

    1996-12-01

    In the past, fixed target flammable gas systems were not supported in an organized fashion. The Research Division, Mechanical Support Department began to support these gas systems for the 1995 run. This technical memo describes the new approach being used to supply chamber gasses to fixed target experiments at Fermilab. It describes the engineering design features, system safety, system documentation and performance results. Gas mixtures provide the medium for electron detection in proportional and drift chambers. Usually a mixture of a noble gas and a polyatomic quenching gas is used. Sometimes a small amount of electronegative gas is added as well. The mixture required is a function of the specific chamber design, including working voltage, gain requirements, high rate capability, aging and others. For the 1995 fixed target run all the experiments requested once through gas systems. We obtained a summary of problems from the 1990 fixed target run and made a summary of the operations logbook entries from the 1991 run. These summaries primarily include problems involving flammable gas alarms, but also include incidents where Operations was involved or informed. Usually contamination issues were dealt with by the experimenters. The summaries are attached. We discussed past operational issues with the experimenters involved. There were numerous incidents of drift chamber failure where contaminated gas was suspect. However analyses of the gas at the time usually did not show any particular problems. This could have been because the analysis did not look for the troublesome component, the contaminant was concentrated in the gas over the liquid and vented before the sample was taken, or that contaminants were drawn into the chambers directly through leaks or sub-atmospheric pressures. After some study we were unable to determine specific causes of past contamination problems, although in argon-ethane systems the problems were due to the ethane only

  9. Therapeutic targets in liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallowfield, Jonathan A

    2011-05-01

    Detailed analysis of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate liver fibrosis has provided a framework for therapeutic approaches to prevent, slow down, or even reverse fibrosis and cirrhosis. A pivotal event in the development of liver fibrosis is the activation of quiescent hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to scar-forming myofibroblast-like cells. Consequently, HSCs and the factors that regulate HSC activation, proliferation, and function represent important antifibrotic targets. Drugs currently licensed in the US and Europe for other indications target HSC-related components of the fibrotic cascade. Their deployment in the near future looks likely. Ultimately, treatment strategies for liver fibrosis may vary on an individual basis according to etiology, risk of fibrosis progression, and the prevailing pathogenic milieu, meaning that a multiagent approach could be required. The field continues to develop rapidly and starts to identify exciting potential targets in proof-of-concept preclinical studies. Despite this, no antifibrotics are currently licensed for use in humans. With epidemiological predictions for the future prevalence of viral, obesity-related, and alcohol-related cirrhosis painting an increasingly gloomy picture, and a shortfall in donors for liver transplantation, the clinical urgency for new therapies is high. There is growing interest from stakeholders keen to exploit the market potential for antifibrotics. However, the design of future trials for agents in the developmental pipeline will depend on strategies that enable equal patient stratification, techniques to reliably monitor changes in fibrosis over time, and the definition of clinically meaningful end points.

  10. Fixed Target Collisions at STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, Kathryn C.

    2016-12-15

    The RHIC Beam Energy Scan (BES) program was proposed to look for the turn-off of signatures of the quark gluon plasma (QGP), search for a possible QCD critical point, and study the nature of the phase transition between hadronic and partonic matter. Previous results have been used to claim that the onset of deconfinement occurs at a center-of-mass energy of 7 GeV. Data from lower energies are needed to test if this onset occurs. The goal of the STAR Fixed-Target Program is to extend the collision energy range in BES II to energies that are likely below the onset of deconfinement. Currently, STAR has inserted a gold target into the beam pipe and conducted test runs at center-of-mass energies of 3.9 and 4.5 GeV. Tests have been done with both Au and Al beams. First physics results from a Coulomb potential analysis of Au + Au fixed-target collisions are presented and are found to be consistent with results from previous experiments. Furthermore, the Coulomb potential, which is sensitive to the Z of the projectile and degree of baryonic stopping, will be compared to published results from the AGS.

  11. Treat to target in gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Moreno-Lledó, Aitana; Urionagüena, Irati; Dickson, Alastair J

    2018-01-01

    The treat-to-target (T2T) approach has been successfully implemented in a number of diseases. T2T has been proposed for rheumatic diseases such as RA, spondyloarthritis, lupus, and recently for gout. The level of evidence for such approaches differs from one condition to the other (moderate to high for hyperlipidaemia, for example). Practice is based on the best available evidence at any time, and in absence of good evidence for T2T in gout, some suggest a conservative only-treat-symptoms approach. Evidence suggests that not treating gout to target in the long term is overall associated with worsening outcomes, such as flares, tophi and structural damage, which is associated to loss of quality of life and mortality. Different targets have been proposed for hyperuricaemia in gout; lower than 6 mg/dl (0.36 mmol/l) for all patients, at least gout. © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. A cryogenic infrared calibration target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollack, E. J.; Kinzer, R. E.; Rinehart, S. A.

    2014-04-01

    A compact cryogenic calibration target is presented that has a peak diffuse reflectance, R ⩽ 0.003, from 800 to 4800 cm-1 (12 - 2 μm). Upon expanding the spectral range under consideration to 400-10 000 cm-1 (25 - 1 μm) the observed performance gracefully degrades to R ⩽ 0.02 at the band edges. In the implementation described, a high-thermal-conductivity metallic substrate is textured with a pyramidal tiling and subsequently coated with a thin lossy dielectric coating that enables high absorption and thermal uniformity across the target. The resulting target assembly is lightweight, has a low-geometric profile, and has survived repeated thermal cycling from room temperature to ˜4 K. Basic design considerations, governing equations, and test data for realizing the structure described are provided. The optical properties of selected absorptive materials—Acktar Fractal Black, Aeroglaze Z306, and Stycast 2850 FT epoxy loaded with stainless steel powder—are characterized and presented.

  13. Targeting the Brain with Nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Felix; Cruz, Luis J

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we review innovative nanomedicine-based approaches for treating, preventing and diagnosing neurodegenerative diseases. We focus on nanoscale systems such as polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), liposomes, micelles and other vehicles (e.g. dendrimers, nanogels, nanoemulsions and nanosuspensions) for targeted delivery of bioactive molecules to the brain. To ensure maximum selectivity for optimal therapeutic or diagnostic results, researchers must employ delivery systems that are non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible. This entails: (i) use of "safe" materials, such as polymers or lipids; (ii) targeting to the brain and, specifically, to the desired active site within the brain; (iii) controlled release of the loaded agent; and (iv) use of agents that, once released into the brain, will exhibit the desired pharmacologic activity. Here, we explore the design and preclinical use of representative delivery systems that have been proposed to date. We then analyze the principal challenges that have delayed clinical application of these and other approaches. Lastly, we look at future developments in this area, addressing the needs for increased penetration of the blood brain barrier (BBB), enhanced targeting of specific brain sites, improved therapeutic efficacy and lower neurotoxicity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Fixed-Target Electron Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, William K.

    2001-01-01

    A tremendous amount of scientific insight has been garnered over the past half-century by using particle accelerators to study physical systems of sub-atomic dimensions. These giant instruments begin with particles at rest, then greatly increase their energy of motion, forming a narrow trajectory or beam of particles. In fixed-target accelerators, the particle beam impacts upon a stationary sample or target which contains or produces the sub-atomic system being studied. This is in distinction to colliders, where two beams are produced and are steered into each other so that their constituent particles can collide. The acceleration process always relies on the particle being accelerated having an electric charge; however, both the details of producing the beam and the classes of scientific investigations possible vary widely with the specific type of particle being accelerated. This article discusses fixed-target accelerators which produce beams of electrons, the lightest charged particle. As detailed in the report, the beam energy has a close connection with the size of the physical system studied. Here a useful unit of energy is a GeV, i.e., a giga electron-volt. (ne GeV, the energy an electron would have if accelerated through a billion volts, is equal to 1.6 x 10 -10 joules.) To study systems on a distance scale much smaller than an atomic nucleus requires beam energies ranging from a few GeV up to hundreds of GeV and more

  15. Internal magnetic target of proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gachurin, V.V.; Kats, M.M.; Kondrat'ev, L.N.; Rogal', A.D.; Rusinov, V.Yu.

    1988-01-01

    Proton extraction from a synchrotron by means of an internal target of magnetized iron is described. The particles that are aimed at the target pass directly through it and are deflected by the internal magnetic field of the target in the extraction direction. The general properties of magnetic targets are examined theoretically and a specific devices and results of its testing are described

  16. Ice targets for use at NTOF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercer, D.J.

    1992-12-01

    This report describes ice targets which were used during an experiment at the Neutron Time of Flight facility (NTOF) at LAMPF. Reasons for using the ice targets are given, and the construction, refrigeration system, and target preparation are detailed. Results of the research using these ice targets will be published at a later date

  17. Application of fission track detectors to californium-252 neutron dosimetry in tissue near the radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswald, R.A.; Lanzl, L.H.; Rozenfeld, M.

    1981-01-01

    Fission track detectors were applied to a unique problem in neutron dosimetry. Measurements of neutron doses were required at locations within a tumor of 1 cm diameter implanted on the back of a mouse and surrounded by a square array of four 252 Cf medical sources. Measurements made in a tissue-equivalent mouse phantom showed that the neutron dose rate to the center of the tumor was 2.18 rads mg -1 h -1 +- 8.4%. The spatial variation of neutron dose to the tumor ranged from 1.88 to 2.55 rads mg -1 h -1 . These measurements agree with calculated values of neutron dose to those locations in the phantom. Fission track detectors have been found to be a reliable tool for neutron dosimetry for geometries in which one wishes to know neutron dose values which may vary considerably over distances of 1 cm or less

  18. Application of fission track detectors to californium-252 neutron dosimetry in tissue near the radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswald, R.A.; Lanzl, L.H.; Rozenfeld, M.

    1981-01-01

    Fission track detectors were applied to a unique problem in neutron dosimetry. Measurements of neutron doses were required at locations within a tumor of 1 cm diameter implanted on the back of a mouse and surrounded by a square array of four 252 Cf medical sources. Measurements made in a tissue-equivalent mouse phantom showed that the neutron dose rate to the center of the tumor was 2.18 rads micrograms-1 h-1 +/- 8.4%. The spatial variation of neutron dose to the tumor ranged from 1.88 to 2.55 rads micrograms-1 h-1. These measurements agree with calculated values of neutron dose to those locations in the phantom. Fission track detectors have been found to be a reliable tool for neutron dosimetry for geometries in which one wishes to know neutron dose values which may vary considerably over distances of 1 cm or less

  19. Neutron Protection Factor Determination and Validation for a Vehicle Surrogate Using a Californium Fission Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    study the laws governing shock wave propagation, and evaluate the suitability of military operations after being subjected to their use. During...14]. MCNP6.1 then outputs a dose spectrum, instead of the standard fluence spectrum created from the “ f4 ” tally [14]. In order to produce the dose...manually, an unmodified fluence tally ( f4 ) was exported externally to a spreadsheet. The energy bins were summed and grouped to mimic the energy bin

  20. Californium-252 neutron activation analysis of high-level processed nuclear tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyer, G.L.; Purcell, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The basis for production assessment of the vitrification of Hanford nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes will be high-precision measurements of the elemental sodium content. However, the chemical analysis of both radioactive and nonradioactive components in nuclear waste can be challenged by high radiation dose rates. The dose rates compromise many analytical techniques as well as pose personnel dosimetry risks. In many cases, reduction of dose rates through dilution compromises the precision and sensitivity for certain key components. The use of neutron activation analysis (NAA) provides a method of analysis that avoids the need for dilutions or extensive sample preparation. These waste materials also contain trace quantities of fissionable isotopes, which, through neutron activation, can be estimated by delayed neutron counting of fissioned fragments

  1. Multiplicity and correlated energy of gamma rays emitted in the spontaneous fission of Californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunson, G.S. Jr.

    1982-06-01

    An array of eight high-speed plastic scintillation detectors has been used to infer a mathematical model for the emission multipliciy of prompt gammas in the spontaneous fission of 252 Cf. Exceptional time resolution and coincidence capability permitted the separation of gammas from fast neutrons over a flight path of approximately 10 cm. About 20 different distribution models were tested. The average energy of the prompt gammas is inversely related to the number emitted; however, this inverse relationship is not strong and the total gamma energy does increase with increasing gamma number. An extension of the experiment incorporated a lithium-drifted germanium gamma spectrometer that resolved nearly 100 discrete gammas associated with fission. Of these gammas, some were preferentially associated with fission in which few gammas were emitted. Certain others were more frequent when many gammas were emitted. Results are presented

  2. Use of californium-252 sources in Hungary for teaching and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csikai, J.

    1976-01-01

    An activation facility was designed to accommodate up to 50 mg of 252 Cf; it contains at present a 500 μg source. The absolute values of thermal, epithermal and fast neutron fluxes were determined by the foil activation method using In, Dy, Au, Al and Fe detectors. Cross-sections averaged for unmoderated 252 Cf neutrons were determined for 22 different reactions for elements with atomic weights lying between A=27 and 204. The sensitivity for determination of Al, Ti, Cu, As, Sr, Mo, In, Cd, Ba, Au, Hg and Pb was calculated for NaI(Tl) and Ge(Li) detectors. Average (n,2n) cross-sections for 252 Cf spectrum were calculated for 49 nuclei lying between A=14 and 204. Angular distributions and cross-sections for the fragments from 252 Cf neutron-induced fission of 232 Th and 238 U were measured. Titanium in bauxite and manganese in aluminium alloys were determined with a 252 Cf source. The applicability of solid-state track detectors for neutron dosimetry, radiography and for the determination of fuel burn-up were investigated using 252 Cf neutron and fragment sources. Characteristics of a jumping spark counter for counting fission fragments were studied with 252 Cf sources. (author)

  3. Chromatographic cation exchange separation of decigram quantities of californium and other transplutonium elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benker, D.E.; Chattin, F.R.; Collins, E.D.; Knauer, J.B.; Orr, P.B.; Ross, R.G.; Wiggins, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Decigram quantities of highly radioactive transplutonium elements are routinely partitioned at TRU by chromatographic elution from cation resin using AHIB eluent. By using two high-pressure ion exchange columns, a small one for the initial loading of the feed and a large one for the elution, batch runs containing up to 200 mg of /sup 252/Cf can be made in about 5 hours (2 hours to load the feed and 3 hours for the elution). The number of effluent product fractions and the amount of actinides that must be collected in intermediate fractions are minimized by monitoring response from a flow-through alpha-detector. This process has been reliable and relatively easy to operate, and will continue to be used for partitioning transplutonium elements at TRU.

  4. Determination of the average number of neutrons per fission event for californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, B.M.; Belov, L.M.; Drapchinskij, L.V.

    1982-01-01

    By means of a separate determination of neutron yields and fission event rates, the value of #betta#-bar( 252 Cf) has been measured for a series of new high-purity sources. The improved quality of the source active layers has reduced the error in determining the fission rate to 0.35%. The value obtained for #betta#-bar( 252 Cf) is 3.747+-0.036. A description is given of the design and the parameters of a spherical manganese bath in which the work on refining the value of #betta#-bar( 252 Cf) will be continued. (author)

  5. Remarkably High Stability of Late Actinide Dioxide Cations: Extending Chemistry to Pentavalent Berkelium and Californium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dau, Phuong D; Vasiliu, Monica; Peterson, Kirk A; Dixon, David A; Gibson, John K

    2017-12-06

    Actinyl chemistry is extended beyond Cm to BkO 2 + and CfO 2 + through transfer of an O atom from NO 2 to BkO + or CfO + , establishing a surprisingly high lower limit of 73 kcal mol -1 for the dissociation energies, D[O-(BkO + )] and D[O-(CfO + )]. CCSD(T) computations are in accord with the observed reactions, and characterize the newly observed dioxide ions as linear pentavalent actinyls; these being the first Bk and Cf species with oxidation states above IV. Computations of actinide dioxide cations AnO 2 + for An=Pa to Lr reveal an unexpected minimum for D[O-(CmO + )]. For CmO 2 + , and AnO 2 + beyond EsO 2 + , the most stable structure has side-on bonded η 2 -(O 2 ), as An III peroxides for An=Cm and Lr, and as An II superoxides for An=Fm, Md, and No. It is predicted that the most stable structure of EsO 2 + is linear [O=Es V =O] + , einsteinyl, and that FmO 2 + and MdO 2 + , like CmO 2 + , also have actinyl(V) structures as local energy minima. The results expand actinide oxidation state chemistry, the realm of the distinctive actinyl moiety, and the non-periodic character towards the end of the periodic table. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Californium-252: isotope for modern radiotherapy of cervix, uterine and vaginal carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, J.; Beach, J.L.; Nagell, J.R. van

    1984-01-01

    Cf-252 is an isotope that can easily be afterloaded into available gynecological applicators and used for bulky cervix, uterus or vaginal cancer therapy. It is economical, time and cost effective in use, and can be applied to the therapy of many patients throughout the world. It is more effective for neutron therapy than machine fast neutron therapy and is the only form of neutron therapy producing consistent complication-free 5-year cure of advanced cancers currently available. Cf-252 is an isotope for modern gynecological tumor therapy for the future. Isodose curves for Cf-252 implants revealed dose distributions conforming well to tumor. (orig.) [de

  7. Testing of ENDF/B cross section data in the Californium-252 neutron benchmark field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannhart, W.

    1979-01-01

    The fission neutron field of 252 Cf presently represents one of the most well-known neutron benchmark fields. For 13 neutron reactions which are of importance in reactor metrology, measurements of spectrum-averaged cross sections, [sigma], performed in this neutron field were compared with calculated average cross sections. This comparison allows one to draw conclusions as to the quality of different sigma(E) data taken from ENDF/B-IV, from ENDF/B-V, and from recent experiments and used in the calculation of average cross sections. The comparison includes an uncertainty analysis regarding the different uncertainty contributions of [sigma], of sigma(E), and of the spectral distribution of 252 Cf fission neutrons. Additionally, in a few examples, sensitivity studies were carried out. The sensitivity of the spectrum-averaged cross sections to individual characteristics of the sigma(E) data, such as normalization factors or shifts in the energy scale, was investigated. Similarly, the sensitivity of [sigma] to the spectral distribution of 252 Cf was determined. 4 figures, 2 tables

  8. Total neutron cross sections of berkelium-249 and californium-249 below 100 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, R.W.; Harvey, J.A.; Hill, N.W.; Pandey, M.S.; Carlton, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    The neutron total cross sections of 249 Bk and 249 Cf have been measured from 0.03 to 100 eV using the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) as a source of pulsed neutrons. The 1.6 mm dia. cylindrical transmission samples contained initially up to 5.3 mg of 98% 249 Bk and 2% 249 Cf: 4.5 years later, when the final measurements were made, the composition of the samples had become 2.5% 249 Bk, 96.9% 249 Cf, and 0.6% 245 Cm. Samples were cooled with liquid nitrogen to reduce Doppler broadening. Thirty-nine resonances were identified in 249 Bk and analyzed using a single-level Breit-Wigner formalism. Fifty-five resonances were identified in 249 Cf and analyzed using an R-matrix multilevel formalism. Fifty-five resonances were identified in 249 Cf and analyzed using an R-matrix multilevel formalism. The resonance parameters obtained have been used to determine the average level spacings and the s-wave neutron and fission strength functions. Where possible, bound-level parameters were derived to fit the thermal neutron total cross section data

  9. A rotating target wheel system for gammasphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    A description is given for a low-mass, rotating target wheel to be used within the Gammasphere target chamber. This system was developed for experiments employing high beam currents in order to extend lifetimes of targets using low-melting point target material. The design is based on a previously successful implementation of rotating target wheels for the Argonne Positron Experiment (APEX) as well as the Fragment Mass Analyser (FMA) at ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System). A brief history of these rotating target wheel systems is given as well as a discussion on target preparation and performance

  10. Target for production of X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenev, S.A. E-mail: sergey_korenev@steris.com

    2004-10-01

    The patented new type of X-ray target is considered in this report. The main concept of the target consists in developing a sandwich structure depositing a coating of materials with high Z on the substrate with low Z, high thermal conductivity and high thermal stability. The target presents multiple layers system. The thermal conditions for X-ray target are discussed. The experimental results for Ta target on the Al and Cu substrates are presented.

  11. Target for production of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    The patented new type of X-ray target is considered in this report. The main concept of the target consists in developing a sandwich structure depositing a coating of materials with high Z on the substrate with low Z, high thermal conductivity and high thermal stability. The target presents multiple layers system. The thermal conditions for X-ray target are discussed. The experimental results for Ta target on the Al and Cu substrates are presented

  12. Target for production of X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, S. A.

    2004-09-01

    The patented new type of X-ray target is considered in this report. The main concept of the target consists in developing a sandwich structure depositing a coating of materials with high Z on the substrate with low Z, high thermal conductivity and high thermal stability. The target presents multiple layers system. The thermal conditions for X-ray target are discussed. The experimental results for Ta target on the Al and Cu substrates are presented.

  13. Non-viral gene therapy that targets motor neurons in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Louise eRogers

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in neurological gene therapy is safe delivery of transgenes to sufficient cell numbers from the circulation or periphery. This is particularly difficult for diseases involving spinal cord motor neurons such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. We have examined the feasibility of non-viral gene delivery to spinal motor neurons from intraperitoneal injections of plasmids carried by ‘immunogene’ nanoparticles targeted for axonal retrograde transport using antibodies. PEGylated polyethylenimine (PEI-PEG12 as DNA carrier was conjugated to an antibody (MLR2 to the neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75NTR. We used a plasmid (pVIVO2 designed for in vivo gene delivery that produces minimal immune responses, has improved nuclear entry into post mitotic cells and also expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP. MLR2-PEI-PEG12 carried pVIVO2 and was specific for mouse motor neurons in mixed cultures containing astrocytes. While only 8% of motor neurons expressed GFP 72 h post transfection in vitro, when the immunogene was given intraperitonealy to neonatal C57BL/6J mice GFP specific motor neuron expression was observed in 25.4% of lumbar, 18.3% of thoracic and 17.0 % of cervical motor neurons, 72 h post transfection. PEI-PEG12 carrying pVIVO2 by itself did not transfect motor neurons in vivo, demonstrating the need for specificity via the p75NTR antibody MLR2. This is the first time that specific transfection of spinal motor neurons has been achieved from peripheral delivery of plasmid DNA as part of a non-viral gene delivery agent. These results stress the specificity and feasibility of immunogene delivery targeted for p75NTR expressing motor neurons, but suggests that further improvements are required to increase the transfection efficiency of motor neurons in vivo.

  14. HIV care in Central and Eastern Europe: How close are we to the target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokengin, Deniz; Oprea, Cristiana; Begovac, Josip; Horban, Andrzej; Zeka, Arzu Nazlı; Sedlacek, Dalibor; Allabergan, Bayjanov; Almamedova, Esmira A; Balayan, Tatevik; Banhegyi, Denes; Bukovinova, Pavlina; Chkhartishvili, Nikoloz; Damira, Alymbaeva; Deva, Edona; Elenkov, Ivaylo; Gashi, Luljeta; Gexha-Bunjaku, Dafina; Hadciosmanovic, Vesna; Harxhi, Arjan; Holban, Tiberiu; Jevtovic, Djorje; Jilich, David; Kowalska, Justyna; Kuvatova, Djhamal; Ladnaia, Natalya; Mamatkulov, Adkhamjon; Marjanovic, Aleksandra; Nikolova, Maria; Poljak, Mario; Rüütel, Kristi; Shunnar, Azzaden; Stevanovic, Milena; Trumova, Zhanna; Yurin, Oleg

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this survey was to describe the current status of HIV care in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and to investigate how close the region is to achieving the UNAIDS 2020 target of 90-90-90. In 2014, data were collected from 24 Central and Eastern European countries using a 38-item questionnaire. All countries reported mandatory screening of blood and organ donors for HIV. Other groups subjected to targeted screening included people who inject drugs (PWID) (15/24, 62.5%), men who have sex with men (MSM) (14/24, 58.3%), and sex workers (12/24, 50.0%). Only 14 of the 24 countries (58.3%) screened pregnant women. The percentages of late presentation and advanced disease were 40.3% (range 14-80%) and 25.4% (range 9-50%), respectively. There was no difference between countries categorized by income or by region in terms of the percentages of persons presenting late or with advanced disease. The availability of newer antiretroviral drugs (rilpivirine, etravirine, darunavir, maraviroc, raltegravir, dolutegravir) tended to be significantly better with a higher country income status. Ten countries reported initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) regardless of CD4+ T cell count (41.7%), five countries (20.8%) used the threshold of Eastern Europe. The exact needs should be defined and services scaled up in order to achieve a standard level of care and provide an adequate and sustainable response to the HIV epidemic in this region. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Hospitals: Soft Target for Terrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cauwer, Harald; Somville, Francis; Sabbe, Marc; Mortelmans, Luc J

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, the world has been rocked repeatedly by terrorist attacks. Arguably, the most remarkable were: the series of four coordinated suicide plane attacks on September 11, 2001 on buildings in New York, Virginia, and Pennsylvania, USA; and the recent series of two coordinated attacks in Brussels (Belgium), on March 22, 2016, involving two bombings at the departure hall of Brussels International Airport and a bombing at Maalbeek Metro Station located near the European Commission headquarters in the center of Brussels. This statement paper deals with different aspects of hospital policy and disaster response planning that interface with terrorism. Research shows that the availability of necessary equipment and facilities (eg, personal protective clothing, decontamination rooms, antidotes, and anti-viral drugs) in hospitals clearly is insufficient. Emergency teams are insufficiently prepared: adequate and repetitive training remain necessary. Unfortunately, there are many examples of health care workers and physicians or hospitals being targeted in both political or religious conflicts and wars. Many health workers were kidnapped and/or killed by insurgents of various ideology. Attacks on hospitals also could cause long-term effects: hospital units could be unavailable for a long time and replacing staff could take several months, further compounding hospital operations. Both physical and psychological (eg, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) after-effects of a terrorist attack can be detrimental to health care services. On the other hand, physicians and other hospital employees have shown to be involved in terrorism. As data show that some offenders had a previous history with the location of the terror incident, the possibility of hospitals or other health care services being targeted by insiders is discussed. The purpose of this report was to consider how past terrorist incidents can inform current hospital preparedness and disaster response planning

  16. Targeting the GPI biosynthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Usha; Khan, Mohd Ashraf

    2018-02-27

    The GPI (Glycosylphosphatidylinositol) biosynthetic pathway is a multistep conserved pathway in eukaryotes that culminates in the generation of GPI glycolipid which in turn anchors many proteins (GPI-APs) to the cell surface. In spite of the overall conservation of the pathway, there still exist subtle differences in the GPI pathway of mammals and other eukaryotes which holds a great promise so far as the development of drugs/inhibitors against specific targets in the GPI pathway of pathogens is concerned. Many of the GPI structures and their anchored proteins in pathogenic protozoans and fungi act as pathogenicity factors. Notable examples include GPI-anchored variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) in Trypanosoma brucei, GPI-anchored merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) and MSP2 in Plasmodium falciparum, protein-free GPI related molecules like lipophosphoglycans (LPGs) and glycoinositolphospholipids (GIPLs) in Leishmania spp., GPI-anchored Gal/GalNAc lectin and proteophosphoglycans in Entamoeba histolytica or the GPI-anchored mannoproteins in pathogenic fungi like Candida albicans. Research in this active area has already yielded encouraging results in Trypanosoma brucei by the development of parasite-specific inhibitors of GlcNCONH 2 -β-PI, GlcNCONH 2 -(2-O-octyl)-PI and salicylic hydroxamic acid (SHAM) targeting trypanosomal GlcNAc-PI de-N-acetylase as well as the development of antifungal inhibitors like BIQ/E1210/gepinacin/G365/G884 and YW3548/M743/M720 targeting the GPI specific fungal inositol acyltransferase (Gwt1) and the phosphoethanolamine transferase-I (Mcd4), respectively. These confirm the fact that the GPI pathway continues to be the focus of researchers, given its implications for the betterment of human life.

  17. Targeted Therapies for Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E

    Targeted therapies have become standard therapies for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A phase III trial of carboplatin and paclitaxel with and without bevacizumab in patients with advanced NSCLC with non-squamous histology demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in efficacy. In patients with NSCLC with an activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation (defined as exon 19 deletion and exon 21 L858R point mutation), phase III trials of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) compared to platinum-based chemotherapy have demonstrated superior efficacy in the first-line setting. In patients with NSCLC with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements, phase III trials of crizotinib have demonstrated superior efficacy compared to platinum-pemetrexed in the first-line setting and standard chemotherapy in the second-line setting. A second-generation ALK inhibitor, ceritinib, is available for patients who have progressed after or were intolerant of crizotinib. Crizotinib has also demonstrated activity on patients with ROS1 rearrangements, and BRAF inhibitors (dabrafenib, vemurafenib) have demonstrated activity in patients with NSCLC with BRAF V600E mutation. The oncogenic mutations that are susceptible to targeted therapy are mainly found in non-squamous NSCLC. The development of targeted therapy in patients with squamous NSCLC has been more challenging due to the genomic complexity observed in the squamous histology and the low prevalence of EGFR, ALK, and ROS1 molecular alterations. A phase III trial of cisplatin and gemcitabine with and without necitumumab in patients with advanced NSCLC with squamous histology demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in progression-free and overall survival.

  18. High-Frequency Jet Ventilation for Complete Target Immobilization and Reduction of Planning Target Volume in Stereotactic High Single-Dose Irradiation of Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Lung Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, Peter; Kraus, Hans-Joerg; Muehlnickel, Werner; Sassmann, Volker; Hering, Werner; Strauch, Konstantin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of complete target immobilization by means of high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV); and to show that the saving of planning target volume (PTV) on the stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) under HFJV, compared with SBRT with respiratory motion, can be predicted with reliable accuracy by computed tomography (CT) scans at peak inspiration phase. Methods and Materials: A comparison regarding different methods for defining the PTV was carried out in 22 patients with tumors that clearly moved with respiration. A movement span of the gross tumor volume (GTV) was defined by fusing respiration-correlated CT scans. The PTV enclosed the GTV positions with a safety margin throughout the breathing cycle. To create a PTV from CT scans acquired under HFJV, the same margins were drawn around the immobilized target. In addition, peak inspiration phase CT images (PIP-CTs) were used to approximate a target immobilized by HFJV. Results: The resulting HFJV-PTVs were between 11.6% and 45.4% smaller than the baseline values calculated as respiration-correlated CT-PTVs (median volume reduction, 25.4%). Tentative planning by means of PIP-CT PTVs predicted that in 19 of 22 patients, use of HFJV would lead to a reduction in volume of ≥20%. Using this threshold yielded a positive predictive value of 0.89, as well as a sensitivity of 0.94 and a specificity of 0.5. Conclusions: In all patients, SBRT under HFJV provided a reliable immobilization of the GTVs and achieved a reduction in PTVs, regardless of patient compliance. Tentative planning facilitated the selection of patients who could better undergo radiation in respiratory standstill, both with greater accuracy and lung protection.

  19. Introduction to radar target recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Tait, P

    2006-01-01

    This new text provides an overview of the radar target recognition process and covers the key techniques being developed for operational systems. It is based on the fundamental scientific principles of high resolution radar, and explains how the techniques can be used in real systems, taking into account the characteristics of practical radar system designs and component limitations. It also addresses operational aspects, such as how high resolution modes would fit in with other functions such as detection and tracking. Mathematics is kept to a minimum and the complex techniques and issues are

  20. HPV: Molecular pathways and targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shilpi; Kumar, Prabhat; Das, Bhudev C

    2018-04-05

    Infection of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is a prerequisite for the development of cervical carcinoma. HPV infections are also implicated in the development of other types of carcinomas. Chronic or persistent infection of HPV is essential but HPV alone is inadequate, additional endogenous or exogenous cues are needed along with HPV to induce cervical carcinogenesis. The strategies that high-risk HPVs have developed in differentiating epithelial cells to reach a DNA-synthesis competent state leading to tumorigenic transformation are basically due to overexpression of the E6 and E7 oncoproteins and the activation of diverse cellular regulatory or signaling pathways that are targeted by them. Moreover, the Wnt/β-catenin/Notch and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathways are deregulated in various cancers, and have also been implicated in HPV-induced cancers. These are basically related to the "cancer hallmarks," and include sustaining proliferative signals, the evasion of growth suppression and immune destruction, replicative immortality, inflammation, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis, as well as genome instability, resisting cell death, and deregulation of cellular energetics. These information could eventually aid in identifying or developing new diagnostic, prognostic biomarkers, and may contribute to design more effective targeted therapeutics and treatment strategies. Although surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy can cure more than 90% of women with early stage cervical cancer, the recurrent and metastatic disease remains a major cause of cancer mortality. Numerous efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop gene therapies to treat cervical cancer. In recent years, research on treatment strategies has proposed several options, including the role of HPV E5, E6, and E7 oncogenes, which are retained and overexpressed in most of the cervical cancers and whose respective oncoproteins are critical to the induction

  1. Voyager 1 Saturn targeting strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    A trajectory targeting strategy for the Voyager 1 Saturn encounter has been designed to accomodate predicted uncertainties in Titan's ephemeris while maximizing spacecraft safety and science return. The encounter is characterized by a close Titan flyby 18 hours prior to Saturn periapse. Retargeting of the nominal trajectory to account for late updates in Titan's estimated position can disperse the ascending node location, which is nominally situated at a radius of low expected particle density in Saturn's ring plane. The strategy utilizes a floating Titan impact vector magnitude to minimize this dispersion. Encounter trajectory characteristics and optimal tradeoffs are presented.

  2. Nova target chamber decontamination study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    An engineering study was performed to determine the most effective method for decontamination of the Nova target chamber. Manual and remote decontamination methods currently being used were surveyed. In addition, a concept that may not require in-situ decontamination was investigated. Based on the presently available information concerning material and system compatibility and particle penetration, it is recommended that a system of removable aluminum shields be considered. It is also recommended that a series of tests be performed to more precisely determine the vacuum compatibility and penetrability of other materials discussed in this report

  3. Biomimetic nanoparticles for inflammation targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Jin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been many recent exciting developments in biomimetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications. Inflammation, a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators directed against harmful stimuli, is closely associated with many human diseases. As a result, biomimetic nanoparticles mimicking immune cells can help achieve molecular imaging and precise drug delivery to these inflammatory sites. This review is focused on inflammation-targeting biomimetic nanoparticles and will provide an in-depth look at the design of these nanoparticles to maximize their benefits for disease diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Target raster system at CEBAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, C.; Adderley, P.; Carlini, R.; Cuevas, C.; Vulcan, W.; Wines, R.

    1995-01-01

    A fast raster (FR) system consisting of two Litz cable air-core magnets (x, y) has been installed and tested in the Hall C beam line tunnel, 21 m from the cryogenic target. The system provides a maximum deflection of 0.06 mrad at a frequency range of 15-45 kHz for a 6 GeV electron beam. The FR magnets are driven by a MOSFET bipolar switching power source with a triangle current waveform, the peak-to-peak current is 40 A. (orig.)

  5. The future of targeted peptidomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Targeted MS is becoming increasingly important for sensitive and specific quantitative detection of proteins and respective PTMs. In this article, Ceglarek et al. [Proteomics Clin. Appl. 2013, 7, 794-801] present an LC-MS-based method for simultaneous quantitation of seven apolipoproteins in serum specimens. The assay fulfills many necessities of routine diagnostic applications, namely, low cost, high throughput, and good reproducibility. We anticipate that validation of new biomarkers will speed up with this technology and the palette of laboratory-based diagnostic tools will hopefully be augmented significantly in the near future. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. LIFE Target Fabrication Research Plan Sept 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, R; Biener, J; Kucheyev, S; Montesanti, R; Satcher, J; Spadaccini, C; Rose, K; Wang, M; Hamza, A; Alexander, N; Brown, L; Hund, J; Petzoldt, R; Sweet, W; Goodin, D

    2008-11-10

    The target-system for the baseline LIFE fast-ignition target was analyzed to establish a preliminary estimate for the costs and complexities involved in demonstrating the technologies needed to build a prototype LIFE plant. The baseline fast-ignition target upon which this analysis was developed is shown in Figure 1.0-1 below. The LIFE target-system incorporates requirements for low-cost, high throughput manufacture, high-speed, high accuracy injection of the target into the chamber, production of sufficient energy from implosion and recovery and recycle of the imploded target material residue. None of these functions has been demonstrated to date. Existing target fabrication techniques which lead to current 'hot spot' target costs of {approx}$100,000 per target and at a production rate of 2/day are unacceptable for the LIFE program. Fabrication techniques normally used for low-cost, low accuracy consumer products such as toys must be adapted to the high-accuracy LIFE target. This will be challenge. A research program resulting is the demonstration of the target-cycle technologies needed for a prototype LIFE reactor is expected to cost {approx}$51M over the course of 5 years. The effort will result in targets which will cost an estimated $0.23/target at a rep-rate of 20 Hz or about 1.73M targets/day.

  7. Targeted therapy of multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolloff, Nathan G; Talamo, Giampaolo

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy and the second most common hematologic cancer. MM is characterized by the accumulation of malignant plasma cells within the bone marrow, and presents clinically with a broad range of symptoms, including hypercalcemia, renal insufficiency, anemia, and lytic bone lesions. MM is a heterogeneous disease associated with genomic instability, where patients may express multiple genetic abnormalities that affect several oncogenic pathways. Commonly detected genetic aberrations are translocations involving immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) switch regions (chromosome 14q32) and oncogenes such as c-maf [t(14:16)], cyclin D1 [t(11:14)], and FGFR3/MMSET [t(4:14)]. Advances in the basic understanding of MM and the development of novel agents, such as the immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) thalidomide and lenalidomide and the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, have increased therapeutic response rates and prolonged patient survival. Despite these advances MM remains incurable in the majority of patients, and it is therefore critical to identify additional therapeutic strategies and targets for its treatment. In this chapter, we review the underlying genetic components of MM and discuss the results of recent clinical trials that demonstrate the effectiveness of targeted agents in the management of MM. In addition, we discuss experimental therapies that are currently in clinical development along with their molecular rationale in the treatment of MM.

  8. Synthetic membrane-targeted antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vooturi, S K; Firestine, S M

    2010-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance continues to evolve and presents serious challenges in the therapy of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. The rise of resistant strains like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) suggests that antimicrobial resistance is an inevitable evolutionary response to antimicrobial use. This highlights the tremendous need for antibiotics against new bacterial targets. Agents that target the integrity of bacterial membrane are relatively novel in the clinical armamentarium. Daptomycin, a lipopeptide is a classical example of membrane-bound antibiotic. Nature has also utilized this tactic. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are found in all kingdoms, function primarily by permeabilizing the bacterial membrane. AMPs have several advantages over existing antibiotics including a broad spectrum of activity, rapid bactericidal activity, no cross-resistance with the existing antibiotics and a low probability for developing resistance. Currently, a small number of peptides have been developed for clinical use but therapeutic applications are limited because of poor bioavailability and high manufacturing cost. However, their broad specificity, potent activity and lower probability for resistance have spurred the search for synthetic mimetics of antimicrobial peptides as membrane-active antibiotics. In this review, we will discuss the different classes of synthetic membrane-bound antibiotics published since 2004.

  9. 'Treat to Target' - Lessons Learnt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurti, Zsuzsanna; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Golovics, Petra Anna; Lakatos, Peter Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic management in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) has significantly changed in the last decades with the advent of biological therapy resulting in new treatment targets other than clinical symptoms. Patient stratification in the early stage of the disease is an important step to identify patients with poor prognosis, who might benefit from early aggressive treatment to avoid complications in the later disease course. Recent randomized and hypothesis driven (e.g., Randomized Evaluation of an Algorithm for Crohn's Treatment, Post-Operative Crohn's Endoscopic Recurrence) clinical trials conducted in the biological era underscore the need of objective disease monitoring including assessment of biomarkers (e.g., C-reactive protein and calprotectin), mucosal healing and, for biologically treated patients, therapeutic drug monitoring beside clinical symptom assessment in both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Assessing the treatment efficacy objectively has become an important element of patient monitoring besides clinical symptom assessment. Further clinical studies are needed to assess whether implementation of new therapeutic algorithms based on these targets and tight monitoring in clinical practice have the potential to further improve long-term disease outcomes in IBD. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Properties of Protein Drug Target Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Simon C.; Doig, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate identification of drug targets is a crucial part of any drug development program. We mined the human proteome to discover properties of proteins that may be important in determining their suitability for pharmaceutical modulation. Data was gathered concerning each protein’s sequence, post-translational modifications, secondary structure, germline variants, expression profile and drug target status. The data was then analysed to determine features for which the target and non-target proteins had significantly different values. This analysis was repeated for subsets of the proteome consisting of all G-protein coupled receptors, ion channels, kinases and proteases, as well as proteins that are implicated in cancer. Machine learning was used to quantify the proteins in each dataset in terms of their potential to serve as a drug target. This was accomplished by first inducing a random forest that could distinguish between its targets and non-targets, and then using the random forest to quantify the drug target likeness of the non-targets. The properties that can best differentiate targets from non-targets were primarily those that are directly related to a protein’s sequence (e.g. secondary structure). Germline variants, expression levels and interactions between proteins had minimal discriminative power. Overall, the best indicators of drug target likeness were found to be the proteins’ hydrophobicities, in vivo half-lives, propensity for being membrane bound and the fraction of non-polar amino acids in their sequences. In terms of predicting potential targets, datasets of proteases, ion channels and cancer proteins were able to induce random forests that were highly capable of distinguishing between targets and non-targets. The non-target proteins predicted to be targets by these random forests comprise the set of the most suitable potential future drug targets, and should therefore be prioritised when building a drug development programme. PMID

  11. Tritium labelling of two highly selective agonists for CCK-B receptors : [[sup 3]H]propionyl-Tyr(SO[sub 3]Na)-gNle-mGly-Trp-(N-Me)Nle-Asp-Phe-NHsub (2) ([[sup 3]H]pBC 264) [[sup 3]H]propionyl-[gamma]D. Glu-Tyr(SO[sub 3]H)-Nle-D. Lys-Trp-Nle-Asp-Phe-NH[sub 2] ([[sup 3]H]pBC 254). [Cholecystokini-B receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corringer, P J; Durieux, C; Ruiz-Gayo, M; Roques, B P [UA498 CNRS, U266 INSERM, UFR des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 75 - Paris (France)

    1992-06-01

    Among the CCK-B receptor agonists reported to date, the two modified peptides BC 264 and BC 254 display a high affinity and selectivity for this binding site and are highly protected from enzymatic degradation. Recently, we reported the biological properties of a tritiated analog of this agonist, [[sup 3]H]pBC 264, which fullfils all the criteria required for in vitro as well as in vivo studies of the CCK-B receptor. On the other hand, BC 254 displays a high affinity for the CCK-B binding sites in the guinea-pig (K[sub i] = 0.56 nM) while its affinity in the rat is more than 60-fold lower, a difference which could be due to the occurrence of CCK-B receptor subtypes. In the present paper, we report the synthesis of [[sup 3]H]pBC 264 and of the new tritiated ligand [[sup 3]H]pBC 254 using [[sup 3]H] NPS (N-succinimidyl[2,3-[sup 3]H]propionate) as labelling agent. These two probes have high specific activity (70-100 Ci/mmol) and will enable extensive studies of the CCK-B receptors to be carried out. (author).

  12. Temperature simulations for the SPIRAL ISOL target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maunoury, L.; Bajeat, O.; Lichtenthaler, R.; Villari, A.C.C.

    2001-01-01

    Simulations of the power deposition and target temperature distributions in the SPIRAL ISOL target are presented. These simulations consider different heavy-ion beams with intensities corresponding to 2 and 6 kW on a carbon target. A new solutions, which corresponds to the splitting of the production target into two parts, where the first is cooled and the second is heated, allows keeping the overall size of the target ensemble relatively small. An extrapolation of the considered target geometry to primary beam intensities up to 1 MW is also presented. (authors)

  13. Bispecific antibodies targeting human CD73

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to a bispecific antibody targeting CD73. In particular, the present invention relates to a bispecific antibody targeting different epitopes on CD73 or a bispecific antibody targeting an epitope on CD73 and an epitope on a different antigen.......The present invention relates to a bispecific antibody targeting CD73. In particular, the present invention relates to a bispecific antibody targeting different epitopes on CD73 or a bispecific antibody targeting an epitope on CD73 and an epitope on a different antigen....

  14. High heat flux cooling for accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, I.; Nagler, A.

    2002-01-01

    Accelerator targets, both for radioisotope production and for high neutron flux sources generate very high thermal power in the target material which absorbs the particles beam. Generally, the geometric size of the targets is very small and the power density is high. The design of these targets requires dealing with very high heat fluxes and very efficient heat removal techniques in order to preserve the integrity of the target. Normal heat fluxes from these targets are in the order of 1 kw/cm 2 and may reach levels of an order of magnitude higher

  15. QUIKVIS- CELESTIAL TARGET AVAILABILITY INFORMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzo, C.

    1994-01-01

    QUIKVIS computes the times during an Earth orbit when geometric requirements are satisfied for observing celestial objects. The observed objects may be fixed (stars, etc.) or moving (sun, moon, planets). QUIKVIS is useful for preflight analysis by those needing information on the availability of celestial objects to be observed. Two types of analyses are performed by QUIKVIS. One is used when specific objects are known, the other when targets are unknown and potentially useful regions of the sky must be identified. The results are useful in selecting candidate targets, examining the effects of observation requirements, and doing gross assessments of the effects of the orbit's right ascension of the ascending node (RAAN). The results are not appropriate when high accuracy is needed (e.g. for scheduling actual mission operations). The observation duration is calculated as a function of date, orbit node, and geometric requirements. The orbit right ascension of the ascending node can be varied to account for the effects of an uncertain launch time of day. The orbit semimajor axis and inclination are constant throughout the run. A circular orbit is assumed, but a simple program modification will allow eccentric orbits. The geometric requirements that can be processed are: 1) minimum separation angle between the line of sight to the object and the earth's horizon; 2) minimum separation angle between the line of sight to the object and the spacecraft velocity vector; 3) maximum separation angle between the line of sight to the object and the zenith direction; and 4) presence of the spacecraft in the earth's shadow. The user must supply a date or date range, the spacecraft orbit and inclination, up to 700 observation targets, and any geometric requirements to be met. The primary output is the time per orbit that conditions are satisfied, with options for sky survey maps, time since a user-specified orbit event, and bar graphs illustrating overlapping requirements. The

  16. HIRFL–CSR internal cluster target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Caojie; Lu, Rongchun; Cai, Xiaohong; Yu, Deyang; Ruan, Fangfang; Xue, Yingli; Zhang, Jianming; Torpokov, D.K.; Nikolenko, D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An internal cluster target was built and installed at HIRFL–CSR. • The target thickness for H 2 amounts up to 6.6 × 10 12 atoms/cm 2 . • The feasibility and stability of the internal cluster target were verified by on-line experiments. -- Abstract: Since HIRFL–CSR internal cluster target was built, it has played a key role in in-ring experiments at HIRFL–CSR. So far it have been operated with five gas species as targets for scattering experiments, i.e. hydrogen, nitrogen, argon, neon, and krypton. The obtained highest thickness for hydrogen target amounts up to 10 12 atoms/cm 2 , and those of other targets are larger than 10 13 atoms/cm 2 with the background pressure of 10 −11 mbar in CSR. The target thickness can be varied by regulating the nozzle temperature and pressure of the inlet gas. The first online internal target experiment dedicated to investigate radioactive electron capture (REC) process with Xe 54+ ions colliding with the nitrogen target demonstrated the stability and reliability of the internal target system. In addition, hydrogen and krypton were also tested online in recent experiments, which indicate the target system can meet experimental requirements for the thickness of target, pressure in scattering chamber, and long-term stability

  17. Targeting α-synuclein oligomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Diggelen, Femke

    Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a complex disease, characterised by degeneration of neocortical, limbic and nigrostriatal neurons. It is unknown what initiates neurodegeneration, but soluble oligomers of the protein α-synuclein (αSn) seem to be particularly toxic, compared to insoluble fibrils...... unique characteristics, e.g. they were recognized by different conformational antibodies and DHA–αSOs also formed a second elongated species in addition to the dominant spherical species. Although further functional testing is needed, this suggests that each species has its own distinct toxic mechanism......+/K+ ATPase, V-type ATPase, VDAC, CaMKII and Rab-3A. The identification of these targets is a first step towards unravelling the toxic pathways which are activated upon synaptic binding of extracellularly added αSOs, and hopefully will contribute to the discovery of new disease modifying compounds, which can...

  18. Target design for shock ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schurtz, G; Ribeyre, X; Lafon, M

    2010-01-01

    The conventional approach of laser driven inertial fusion involves the implosion of cryogenic shells of deuterium-tritium ice. At sufficiently high implosion velocities, the fuel ignites by itself from a central hot spot. In order to reduce the risks of hydrodynamic instabilities inherent to large implosion velocities, it was proposed to compress the fuel at low velocity, and ignite the compressed fuel by means of a convergent shock wave driven by an intense spike at the end of the laser pulse. This scheme, known as shock ignition, reduces the risks of shell break-up during the acceleration phase, but it may be impeded by a low coupling efficiency of the laser pulse with plasma at high intensities. This work provides a relationship between the implosion velocity and the laser intensity required to ignite the target by a shock. The operating domain of shock ignition at different energies is described.

  19. Therapeutic target for protozoal diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Dharmendar [Blacksburg, VA; Jani, Dewal [Blacksburg, VA; Nagarkatti, Rana [Blacksburg, VA

    2008-10-21

    A novel Fasciclin Related Adhesive Protein (FRAP) from Plasmodium and related parasites is provided as a target for therapeutic intervention in diseases caused by the parasites. FRAP has been shown to play a critical role in adhesion to, or invasion into, host cells by the parasite. Furthermore, FRAP catalyzes the neutralization of heme by the parasite, by promoting its polymerization into hemozoin. This invention provides methods and compositions for therapies based on the administration of protein, DNA or cell-based vaccines and/or antibodies based on FRAP, or antigenic epitopes of FRAP, either alone or in combination with other parasite antigens. Methods for the development of compounds that inhibit the catalytic activity of FRAP, and diagnostic and laboratory methods utilizing FRAP are also provided.

  20. Performance Targets and External Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    Research on relative performance measures, transfer pricing, beyond budgeting initiatives, target costing, piece rates systems and value based management has for decades underlined the importance of external benchmarking in performance management. Research conceptualises external benchmarking...... as a market mechanism that can be brought inside the firm to provide incentives for continuous improvement and the development of competitive advances. However, whereas extant research primarily has focused on the importance and effects of using external benchmarks, less attention has been directed towards...... the conditions upon which the market mechanism is performing within organizations. This paper aims to contribute to research by providing more insight to the conditions for the use of external benchmarking as an element in performance management in organizations. Our study explores a particular type of external...

  1. Apoptosis: Targets in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalthoff Holger

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is characterized by poor prognosis, because of late diagnosis and lack of response to chemo- and/or radiation therapies. Resistance to apoptosis mainly causes this insensitivity to conventional therapies. Apoptosis or programmed cell death is a central regulator of tissue homeostasis. Certain genetic disturbances of apoptotic signaling pathways have been found in carcinomas leading to tumor development and progression. In the past few years, the knowledge about the complex pathways of apoptosis has strongly increased and new therapeutic approaches based on this knowledge are being developed. This review will focus on the role of apoptotic proteins contributing to pancreatic cancer development and progression and will demonstrate possible targets to influence this deadly disease.

  2. Gene Therapy Targeting HIV Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuka Didigu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the unquestionable success of antiretroviral therapy (ART in the treatment of HIV infection, the cost, need for daily adherence, and HIV-associated morbidities that persist despite ART all underscore the need to develop a cure for HIV. The cure achieved following an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT using HIV-resistant cells, and more recently, the report of short-term but sustained, ART-free control of HIV replication following allogeneic HSCT, using HIV susceptible cells, have served to both reignite interest in HIV cure research, and suggest potential mechanisms for a cure. In this review, we highlight some of the obstacles facing HIV cure research today, and explore the roles of gene therapy targeting HIV entry, and allogeneic stem cell transplantation in the development of strategies to cure HIV infection.

  3. TARGET 2 and Settlement Finality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan MANGATCHEV

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how TARGET 2 as system implements the idea of settlement finality regulated by Directive 98/26 EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 19 May 1998 on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems (Settlement Finality Directive and Directive 2009/44/EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 amending Directive 98/26/EC on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems and Directive 2002/47/EC on financial collateral arrangements as regards linked systems and credit claims (Directive 2009/44/EC. As the title of the arti and finality of the settlement in this system.

  4. Nuclear spin polarization of targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Happer, W.

    1990-01-01

    Lasers can be used to produce milligrams to grams of noble gas nuclei with spin polarizations in excess of 50%. These quantities are sufficient to be very useful targets in nuclear physics experiments. Alkali-metal atoms are used to capture the angular momentum of circularly polarized laser photons, and the alkali-metal atoms transfer their angular momentum to noble gas atoms in binary or three-body collisions. Non-radiative collisions between the excited alkali atoms and molecular quenching gases are essential to avoid radiation trapping. The spin exchange can involve gas-phase van der Waals molecules, consisting of a noble gas atom and an alkali metal atom. Surface chemistry is also of great importance in determining the wall-induced relaxation rates of the noble gases

  5. Electrostatic mask for active targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancin, J; Gangnant, P; Libin, J-F; Raabe, R; Roger, T; Roussel-Chomaz, P; Gibelin, J; Goth, M

    2012-01-01

    Active gas targets have been used in nuclear physics since 30 years. They are promising systems in view of the new exotic beams soon available at facilities like SPIRAL2 or FAIR, but the system can still be improved. One of the main limitation is the dynamic range in energy deposition. The energy deposited per unit length can be 3 decades higher for the beam than for the light reaction products and the risk to saturate the electronics or that the detector spark are not negligible. A simple solution using a wire plane to mask partially the beam is presented here. Some simulation has been realized and some experimental results are shown confirming the feasibility of this wire tunable mask. The mask can be used from full transparency to full opacity without degrading neither the drift electric field of the chamber nor the performances of detection of the beam or the light products.

  6. Moringa oleifera Lam: Targeting Chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Nurul Ashikin Abd; Ibrahim, Muhammad Din; Kntayya, Saie Brindha; Rukayadi, Yaya; Hamid, Hazrulizawati Abd; Razis, Ahmad Faizal Abdull

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam, family Moringaceae, is a perennial plant which is called various names, but is locally known in Malaysia as "murungai" or "kelor". Glucomoringin, a glucosinolate with from M. oleifera is a major secondary metabolite compound. The seeds and leaves of the plant are reported to have the highest amount of glucosinolates. M. oleifera is well known for its many uses health and benefits. It is claimed to have nutritional, medicinal and chemopreventive potentials. Chemopreventive effects of M. oleifera are expected due to the existence of glucosinolate which it is reported to have the ability to induce apoptosis in anticancer studies. Furthermore, chemopreventive value of M. oleifera has been demonstrated in studies utilizing its leaf extract to inhibit the growth of human cancer cell lines. This review highlights the advantages of M. oleifera targeting chemoprevention where glucosinolates could help to slow the process of carcinogenesis through several molecular targets. It is also includes inhibition of carcinogen activation and induction of carcinogen detoxification, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Finally, for synergistic effects of M. oleifera with other drugs and safety, essential for chemoprevention, it is important that it safe to be consumed by human body and works well. Although there is promising evidence about M. oleifera in chemoprevention, extensive research needs to be done due to the expected rise of cancer in coming years and to gain more information about the mechanisms involved in M. oleifera influence, which could be a good source to inhibit several major mechanisms involved in cancer development.

  7. Progress on the SNS target station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carne, A.

    1983-01-01

    This review gives progress and modifications covering the last eighteen months, under the five broad areas of target, target assembly, control system, bulk shield and remote handling. Finally a discussion of additional facilities to the SNS is presented

  8. Two target localization using passive monopulse radar

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah; Ahmed, Sajid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous lobing technique, also known as monopulse technique, has been widely used for fast target localization and tracking purposes. Many works focused on accurately localizing one or two targets laying within a narrow beam centered around

  9. Study Identifies New Lymphoma Treatment Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI researchers have identified new therapeutic targets for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Drugs that hit these targets are under clinical development and the researchers hope to begin testing them in clinical trials of patients with DLBCL.

  10. Targets and processes for fabricating same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jesse D; Malekos, Steven; Le Galloudec, Nathalie; Korgan, Grant; Cowan, Thomas; Sentoku, Yasuhiko

    2016-05-17

    In particular embodiments, the present disclosure provides targets including a metal layer and defining a hollow inner surface. The hollow inner surface has an internal apex. The distance between at least two opposing points of the internal apex is less than about 15 .mu.m. In particular examples, the distance is less than about 1 .mu.m. Particular implementations of the targets are free standing. The targets have a number of disclosed shaped, including cones, pyramids, hemispheres, and capped structures. The present disclosure also provides arrays of such targets. Also provided are methods of forming targets, such as the disclosed targets, using lithographic techniques, such as photolithographic techniques. In particular examples, a target mold is formed from a silicon wafer and then one or more sides of the mold are coated with a target material, such as one or more metals.

  11. Polarized few-nucleon targets: new developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeusser, O

    1992-09-01

    We discuss recent improvements in producing polarized few-nucleon targets for nuclear and particle physics experiments. The emphasis is on progress with polarized gas targets intended for experiments at electron and proton storage rings. (author) 54 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Polarized few-nucleon targets: new developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeusser, O.

    1992-09-01

    We discuss recent improvements in producing polarized few-nucleon targets for nuclear and particle physics experiments. The emphasis is on progress with polarized gas targets intended for experiments at electron and proton storage rings. (author) 54 refs., 1 tab

  13. Counter-Leadership Targeting and Conflict Termination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taylor, Bradly

    1999-01-01

    .... Can the leader be found? And, is it legal and ethical to attack the leader? Analysis rarely has been conducted to determine whether the targeted organization is vulnerable to Counter Leadership Targeting (CLT...

  14. Targets for the APEX experiment at ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, J.P.; Thomas, G.E.; Leonard, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    Targets of lead, tantalum, thorium and uranium have been produced for experiments with the APEX (Argonne Positron Experiment) apparatus at ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System). APEX is a device built at Argonne National Laboratory to investigate the anomalous positrons observed in collisions of very heavy ion beams on heavy targets. Both fixed and rotating targets have been used. The rotating target system involves a 4-quadrant wheel rotating at speeds up to 700 rpm with the position encoded into the data stream. In addition to the hundreds of targets produced for the heavy-ion reactions studied, a wide variety of targets were employed for beam diagnostics, detector calibration and target wheel development. The experiment used very heavy ion beams ( 238 U, 206 Pb and 208 Pb) from ATLAS and targets of 206 Pb, 208 Pb, 232 Th and 238 U produced in the laboratory

  15. Combinatorial microRNA target predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krek, Azra; Grün, Dominic; Poy, Matthew N.

    2005-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that recognize and bind to partially complementary sites in the 3' untranslated regions of target genes in animals and, by unknown mechanisms, regulate protein production of the target transcript1, 2, 3. Different combinations of microRNAs are expressed...... in different cell types and may coordinately regulate cell-specific target genes. Here, we present PicTar, a computational method for identifying common targets of microRNAs. Statistical tests using genome-wide alignments of eight vertebrate genomes, PicTar's ability to specifically recover published micro......RNA targets, and experimental validation of seven predicted targets suggest that PicTar has an excellent success rate in predicting targets for single microRNAs and for combinations of microRNAs. We find that vertebrate microRNAs target, on average, roughly 200 transcripts each. Furthermore, our results...

  16. On the large COMPASS polarized deuteron target

    CERN Document Server

    Finger, M; Baum, G; Doshita, N; Finger, M Jr; Gautheron, F; Goertz, St; Hasegawa, T; Heckmann, J; Hess, Ch; Horikawa, N; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kisselev, Y; Koivuniemi, J; Kondo, K; Le Goff, J-M; Magnon, A; Marchand, C; Matsuda, T; Meyer, W; Reicherz, G; Srnka, A

    2006-01-01

    The spin structure of the nucleons is investigated in deep inelastic scattering of a polarized muon beam and a polarized nucleon target in the COMPASS experiment at CERN since 2001. To achieve high luminosities a large solid polarized target is used. The COMPASS polarized target consists of a high cooling power $^{3}$He/$^{4}$He dilution refrigerator capable to maintain working temperature of the target material at about 50mK, a superconducting solenoid and dipole magnet system for longitudinal and transversal magnetic field on the target material, respectively, target cells containing polarizable material, microwave cavities and high power microwave radiation systems for dynamic nuclear polarization and the nuclear magnetic resonance system for nuclear spin polarization measurements. During 2001–2004 experiments superconducting magnet system with opening angle $\\pm$69 mrad, polarized target holder with two target cells and corresponding microwave and NMR systems have been used. For the data taking from 200...

  17. Bioinformatics for cancer immunotherapy target discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lars Rønn; Campos, Benito; Barnkob, Mike Stein

    2014-01-01

    therapy target discovery in a bioinformatics analysis pipeline. We describe specialized bioinformatics tools and databases for three main bottlenecks in immunotherapy target discovery: the cataloging of potentially antigenic proteins, the identification of potential HLA binders, and the selection epitopes...

  18. Preparation of targets by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santry, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    Various factors are described which are involved in target preparation by direct ion implantation and the limitations and pitfalls of the method are emphasized. Examples are given of experiments for which ion implanted targets are well suited. (author)

  19. Targets development at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.L.; Hebron, D.; Derzon, M.; Olson, R.; Alberts, T.

    1997-01-01

    For many years, Sandia National Laboratories under contract to the Department of Energy has produced targets designed to understand complex ion beam and z-pinch plasma physics. This poster focuses on the features of target designs that make them suitable for Z-pinch plasma physics applications. Precision diagnostic targets will prove critical in understanding the plasma physics model needed for future ion beam and z-pinch design. Targets are designed to meet specific physics needs; in this case the authors have fabricated targets to maximize information about the end-on versus side-on x-ray emission and z-pinch hohlraum development. In this poster, they describe the fabrication and characterization techniques. They include discussion of current targets under development as well as target fabrication capabilities. Advanced target designs are fabricated by Sandia National Laboratories in cooperation with General Atomics of San Diego, CA and W.J. Schafer Associates, Inc. of Livermore, CA

  20. Targets and processes for fabricating same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Thomas [Dresden, DE; Malekos, Steven [Reno, NV; Korgan, Grant [Reno, NV; Adams, Jesse [Reno, NV; Sentoku, Yasuhiko [Reno, NV; Le Galloudec, Nathalie [Reno, NV; Fuchs, Julien [Paris, FR

    2012-07-24

    In particular embodiments, the present disclosure provides targets including a metal layer and defining a hollow inner surface. The hollow inner surface has an internal apex. The distance between at least two opposing points of the internal apex is less than about 15 .mu.m. In particular examples, the distance is less than about 1 .mu.m. Particular implementations of the targets are free standing. The targets have a number of disclosed shaped, including cones, pyramids, hemispheres, and capped structures. The present disclosure also provides arrays of such targets. Also provided are methods of forming targets, such as the disclosed targets, using lithographic techniques, such as photolithographic techniques. In particular examples, a target mold is formed from a silicon wafer and then one or more sides of the mold are coated with a target material, such as one or more metals.